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National municipal review, October, 1916

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National municipal review, October, 1916
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National municipal review
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National Municipal League
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National Municipal League
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Volume 1, Issue 1

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Full Text
NATIONAL
MUNICIPAL REVIEW
1916
Editor
Clinton Rogers Woodruff
Associate Editors
John A. Fairlie Herman G. James
Adelaide R. Hasse Howard L. McBain
VOLUME V
PUBLISHED FOB THE
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE
BY
THE RUMF0RD PRESS CONCORD, N. H. 1916


NATIONAL
MUNICIPAL REVIEW
Vol. V, No. 4 October, 1916
Total No. 20
FRENCH CITIES IN WAR TIME
BY GEORGES BENOIT-LEVY1 Paris, France
IT IS in exceptional times one can recognize the full value of individuals and of collective bodies. This war has been a demonstration of the possibilities of French cities as well as of their vitality. The limitation of such an article is an obligation to take only a few instances. I have made my choice of Paris and Lyons, the two more largely populated communities of France, with Marseilles.
To deal first with Lyons, a city of more than a half million inhabitants, nobody would think that we were at war, as we go along its well kept, animated streets, with surface cars running a part of the night and the cinemas open till 11 p.m. Nothing in the sweet smile of the Lyonnaise nor in the activity of the workshops and factories would disclose the sorrows of many a family. They are all good fighters, indeed, not only at the front, but in the heart of the city; and the following words of the mayor are typical to show how in other circumstances than war time, a more complete political union for municipal activity would be desirable. Said Herriot, the great mayor:
I cannot express how grateful I am to you for the complete understanding with which we have treated, during such a difficult period, the affairs of the city. If these affairs have been well managed, co-operation stood for much in the result. If we have arrived at this feeling, at this model unity, it is because all of us here are men of responsibility one to another. The population, besides, shows admirable traits in its gravity and intelligence. Anyone is as no one. Our ideas are dear to us, we guard them, but we know how to subordinate them to our different duties. After twenty-two months of war, when possibly the others are weary, we have the feeling that we owe all to our city, which is one of the essential forces of the country, of France herself. It is the city and the country, at this moment, which ought to dominate all in our thoughts and acts.
'General secretary, French Town Planning and Garden City Association, 11 rue Malebranche, Paris.
M. Benoit-Levy’s manuscript was written by him partly in French and partly in English. The French portions were translated by Mrs. Walter Waring Hopkinson. The English portions of the manuscript have not been changed.
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546 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October
The budget of Lyons for 1916 was thus established:
ORDINARY EXPENSES
1. General expenses of the administration.......... Fr. 901,800
2. Expenses of exploitation and administration.......... 1,333,515
3. Justice, police and public hygiene................... 1,254,069
4. Fire service........................................... 236,500
5. Interments and cemeteries.............................. 391,800
6. Public buildings..................................... 1,420,280
7. Waterworks........................................... 2,177,375
8. City road commissioners.............................. 3,399,000
9. Parish road commissioners.............................. 408,272
10. Small farming and walks................................ 243,380
11. Public instruction................................... 3,297,240
12. Letters, sciences and arts............................. 395,880
13. Public assistance.................................... 2,865,595
14. Subsidies.............\......................... 523,181
15. Odd expenses........................................... 555,379
16. Endowments............................................. 207,001
Total........................................... Fr. 19,610,267
EXTRAORDINARY EXPENSES
1. Loans and debts of long terms.............. Fr. 4,280,613
2. Sundry expenses.................................. 2,029,770
Total........................................... Fr. 6,310,383
Fr. 25,920,640
ORDINARY INCOME
1. Grants on different taxes of the state, dog taxes .... Fr. 911,000
2. Taxes of the substitutes of the city toll........... 10,103,600
3. Slaughter houses, markets, warehouses................ 1,509,900
4. Water service........................................ 3,305,100
5. Interments and cemeteries.............................. 736,000
6. Product of properties of the commune, rents and in-
terest of landed property........................... 1,956,630
7. Rights of the road commissioners and rents for oc-
cupation of the public domain....................... 1,823,441
8. Property of concourse, subsidies and reimbursements 1,326,703
9. Different rights and products........................... 82,102
10. Endowments............................................. 207,001
Total........................................... Fr. 21,961,477
Extraordinary income............................... 3,961,593
Total........................................... Fr. 25,923,070
Excess of income................................... Fr. 2,430


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Three million, one hundred fifty-nine thousand, nine hundred and fifty-six francs have been expended from the outbreak of war until December, 1915, in social and municipal activities. Herewith are some of these remarkable undertakings:
On August 2, municipal soup was installed in all the quarters of the city and distributed to the poor at two meals a day. The number of meals served in the seven wards of Lyon exceeded 10,000,000 and the expenses increased on this day to 2,430,026 francs.
To supply the needs of the women, not benefited by allowances, the city of Lyons has opened charity workshops. They work there from two to half past five o’clock, and receive a recompense of one franc a day. The total expense to May 30 amounted to 1,214,508 francs.
The product of these workrooms was used especially for the municipal hospitals; the work of the consignments for the fighting soldiers, and the mail work for the prisoners of war.
MUNICIPAL HOSPITALS
In the month of September, 1914, the manager of the bureau of health asked the city of Lyons to please establish and manage a certain number of hospitals intended for the wounded soldiers. In a short time thirty representative hospitals, with places for 2,600 beds, were installed, some in places graciously offered by their proprietors: boarding houses, stores, private apartments, etc.; the others in places arranged specially for this usage: academic halls, assembly rooms, factories, etc. These municipal hospitals receive from the board of health an indemnity of 2 francs 50, by day and by the patient; this sum actually suffices for their maintenance, but all the expenses of installation, operating rooms, rooms for dressing, bath rooms, kitchens, heating, etc., have been supported by the work fund of the municipal hospitals.
One of the principal expenses has been the furnishing of the linen necessary for these hospitals: house linen, sheets, towels, aprons, dusters, etc., and body linen for the wounded: shirts, socks, flannels, handkerchiefs, slippers, pajamas, etc. The different things have been made in the workshops of the city and put in the hospitals which continue to provide themselves with the linen installed for this purpose in the big room of festivals in the city hall.
WORK OP CONSIGNMENTS FOR THE FIGHTING SOLDIERS
At the approach of the bad season, the mayor started to send clothes and garments parcels to soldiers at the front. The important workmanship furnished by the workshops of the city was not able to find a better occupation; along with the linen furnished the hospitals, the linen needed for the soldiers at the front was provided. An appeal made to the Lyonnaise population resulted in the gathering of many gifts of one kind.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October
or another. Thanks to them the workshops were able to dispatch every Saturday, through the co-operation of the management, warm clothes for the troops.
Here are some data concerning the quantity and the price of objects sent to the troops:
1.200 blankets...........
28,500 pairs of drawers
36.000 pairs of stockings. ..
34.000 shirts.............
1,100 belts..............
3.500 comforters.........
700 pairs of snow shoes.
5,000 sheets............
2,700 pairs of gloves....
12.000 knitted flannel vests
28.000 handkerchiefs......
2.200 pass-mountains.....
4.500 slippers..........
Fr. 8.00 Fr. 9,600
3.50 99,750
1.50 54,000
2.50 85,000
3.00 3,300
2.00 7,000
6.00 4,200
5.00 25,000
2.00 5,400
3.50 42,000
0.40 11,200
2.00 4,400
2.00 9,000
Fr. 359,850
and a large quantity of knives, pipes, matches, tobacco pouches, different kinds of odds and ends, etc.
PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS FOR THE WOUNDED
'“We have installed," says the Mayor of Lyons, “on the landed property of the city, two professional schools to give a trade to the wounded who are rendered incapable of practicing their regular profession. Our two schools are able to receive every one of a hundred pensioners and are in full working order. The results obtained are very encouraging and our dear wounded are able to learn one of the following trades or professions, according to their aptitudes: accounting, shoemaking, tailoring, carpentry (small carpentering and toys), bookbinding, nursery and seed work, and photography.
We give them thus the triple autonomy, moral, intellectual and professional, which they are able to acquire by work. A registry office for the wounded is connected with this work. Real estate and the installation of necessary workshops costs us close to 20,000 francs.
THE MAIL OF THE PRISONERS OF WAR
Since the beginning of December, 1914, Lyons has been sending to war prisoners parcels of clothing, linen, and, above all, provisions. Fifteen thousand parcels have already been sent and more will be dispatched to the needy prisoners of the two great camps of Friederichsfeld and Ohrdruf.


1916]
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These two camps contain above all the prisoners of the invaded regions, who are not able to give any help to their families. This service demands the daily consignment of 200 articles for these camps and of 70 parcels for the indigent prisoners of Lyons and of Rhone. The expense amounts to 1500 francs a day. Besides the linens, the quantities of provisions sent by the month are:
15,000 K. war biscuit
2.500 K. special bread
1.000 K. chocolate
1.500 boxes of jam
8.000 boxes of different kinds of preserves, sardines,
tunny, liver, meat, vegetables, etc.
4.000 pieces of soap
1.000 complete sewing bags
Care was taken of 250 children of those in active service who were either widowers or divorced.
To suppress the sweating system and allow the workmen a remuneration, the city herself watches the distribution of works for the military intendance.
Two existing works have already received a greater development in consequence of the war:
1. The restaurants of wet nurses receive all the mothers nursing their children, without their being held to make known their situation and their home. They have seen their clientele triple itself.
2. The infant’s home where children in their infancy are guarded and taken care of. They had distributed to them an average of 460 litres (1% pints) of milk a day. This figure is now raised to 1500.
PARIS
The social, municipal and economic life of Paris has been splendidly dealt with in the 600 pages of M. Louis Dausset, general reporter of the budget, creator of the town planning commission of Paris. You will find in an appendix table the comparative statement of the 1914, 1915 and 1916 budget and you will notice the clear classification in 42 articles, one page for the expenses, the other for the income.
The largest source of extraordinary income during the war has been the emission of short bonds (six or twelve months). Said M. Dausset:
At the time of the last issue, the total of bonds was able to be easily tripled; a large number of subscribers was not able to be served; although the bank of France may not have made on these securities the same advances as on the bonds for the national defense, they are readily negotiable at par, except at the Bourse. The city of Paris owns property which increases in value daily. Even during the war it does not cease


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
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to keep up its public streets, to better its paving, to pursue the great work of its public service department, of its tramways, of its underground (the Metropolitan). It meets its liabilities; it meets its obligations; it has paid its share in a troubled time when its citizens, even the most confident, did not hope they would be able to pay it. Its credit stands as always, one of the first in the world. One can then be assured regarding the future issues of its municipal bonds, of whatever character they may be.
Here are some of the doings of Paris during war times. Before any assistance given by the state, the city had already given 2,000,000 francs to families of soldiers in need. From August 14, 1914, the municipal council voted 1 F.25 for an adult and half franc for a child of families out of work. Forty million francs short term bonds have been issued for the purpose of securing 400,000 tons (hev.) of coal in case of need. A great part has been distributed to the indigents and the remaining sold at cost price to the people.
To prevent speculation in wheat and bread, flour has been delivered to the Parisian boulangers on the condition only that bread shall not be sold to the consumers at more than 0 F.90 (15 cents) the 4 pounds. In fact we have always had a whole meal and wholesome bread in France since the war. An ordinance of November 9, 1915, makes it compulsory for retailers to post in their shops both their price list and the cost price as established by the municipal bulletin of the week.
The corporation of Paris has bought from the ministry of war 600 tons (hev.) of frozen meat to be retailed through the Parisian cooperative stores. Meat of the best quality, from Australia or from Illinois, is sold 30 per cent cheaper than the other. Absinthe and all similar poisons have been prohibited and this helps to keep down the cost of living.
Social intercourse is still going on in Paris: In October 1915, there were 805,765 tickets delivered in theatres and 1,604,519 in cinemas. In the same month the special tax on theatres and cinemas netted the assistance publique 220,000 francs.
Workmen’s houses are still built by the city. Some curious statistics show that in Paris of 1,034,782 apartments, 752,900 are under 500 francs of rental value, and have to pay no tax at all.
Thanks to the joint action of all friendly and disinterested persons, to the vigorous assistance of M. le prefect of the Seine, of M. Cacaud, director of public works, all difficulties were overcome. The works of Paris are running at full capacity, and some figures will give an idea of the activity of municipal affairs. The repairs on stone ballasted roads, amounting to 73,200 square metres, have been made in 35 streets and boulevards; the project of paving in stone according to the plan laid out in 1914 has been almost entirely achieved; during the same time they


1916]
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carried out operations under the plan laid out in 1915. From January 1 to October 31, about 76,700 square metres of paving repairs were made in 50 streets and 4,600 square metres more were in course of construction at the same time; besides, improvements have been effected on 22,500 square metres which were previously stone ballasted, particularly in the neighborhood of Vincennes. The improvement of stone ballasting has been made likewise on wood-paved streets; without counting the Avenue du Bois de Boulogne, which has 26,000 square metres and which was almost entirely completed in 1914, the last 25,700 square metres being finished October 31, 1915. The total amount of wood paving was over 166,600 square metres, among others on the Avenue des Champs-Elysees, allowing for considerable repairing from the Place de la Concorde to the Place de l’Etoile of 59,200 square metres of paving.
They have asphalted 56 streets, representing 89,800 square metres. There were in course of construction on October 31, 6,700 square metres; the plan of improvement laid out in 1915 for 35,000 square metres has been completed in 37 streets out of 57.
Other works of less importance have been accomplished in great number: minor traffic operations, alterations of paving, remaking of roads following close upon the completion of tramways; building and repairing the sidewalks in bitumen: these works cover over 300 public streets. Besides which all the traffic companies have done the work in 99 streets.
From August 1,1914, up to October 1,1915, the Paris electric company installed 377 new lines for the motive power. The amount of current used, which was 2,060,002 K.W. in July, 1914, and had fallen in the month of September to 883,588 K.W. per hour, increased in September, 1915, to 2,856,183 K.W. per hour, an increase over the month of September 1914 of 223 per cent.
On construction in the underground (Metropolitan) in spite of the particularly unfavorable conditions for delivery of materials, they were able to maintain a satisfactory activity and to show good progress. Line No. 7 was completed between Rue des Petits-Champs and the Palais-Royal and the work was turned over to the company December 22, 1914; the extension of this line under Rue Saint-Honore, between the Palais-Royal and Rue de Marengo, is equally well advanced; also the extension of the line Troeadero-Porte de Saint Cloud, to 1’Opera, unfortunately held back by the sinking of the ground under Place de l’Alma and the extension of line No. 3 as far as Porte des Lilas. Finally, the junction between lines 1 and 8, at Place de la Concorde, has been finished and opened to the public January 31, 1915, and the company has undertaken the construction of numerous station entrances. The connection between Place de l’Opera and Place du Palais-Royal is now accomplished.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October
The service of walks, on its side, has followed the execution of a certain number of operations, decided by the municipal council and covered by general or special funds, notably: improvements made on the south slope of the hill of Montmartre; the doing over of the dock of La Place d’ltalie; the excavation and reconstruction of a new part of the Arena de Lutece; the fitting up of a garden at the entrance to the library Le Peletier Saint-Fargeau; and finally, they have pushed forward the work of clearing out the charnel-houses of St. Severin, which permits the making of a public square and a private garden.
Even in the most sombre days of 1914, the city has never ceased to be kept up as in times of peace. It will be to the honor of the prefectoral administration to have managed to assume the sweeping, the sprinkling, the clearing of streets and roads, the removal of dirt, in such a fashion that the former critics of the filthy condition of Paris have remained quiet. As for the trees and flowers and our public gardens and squares, which have been the objects of the most assiduous care, nothing is more reposeful, in these times of atrocities and sorrows, than the sight of these Parisian flower-beds, where the most fresh and varied colors mingle in a harmony that is truly French. As for private efforts, the Association Le Arnis de Paris have never ceased their civic work, their weekly lectures and conducted tours in Paris, and are still publishing their illustrated magazine.
All these items will be more representative than big considerations to show what our cities have done and what they are going to do.
Of the war itself, of course I should mention nothing, although writing these lines, underground, amidst the noise of torpedoes and big guns. Was he not an American who said “Never apologize. Your friends do not need it. Your enemies will not believe you.”
Brethren, are we your friends?


MUNICIPAL UNIVERSITIES OF THE UNITED STATES
PROF. JOHN L. PATTERSON 1 Louisville, Ky.
THE term “municipal university” is applied specifically to universities and colleges that are partly supported by taxation in the municipalities in which they are located. They are intended to complete the local public educational systems, and to give the opportunity of advanced education to the citizens in general and especially to the large class of young men and women who cannot go to college elsewhere on account of the expense of tuition and of living away from home.
Some of our modern municipal universities aim to bring about a similar result in college training, together with results broader and more important,2 by means of a system introduced a few years ago by Dean Herman Schneider, of the University of Cincinnati. This system is called “the co-operative method.” According to the co-operative method the students attend lectures and recitations in the university find during alternate fortnights, under the supervision of the staff, they work for pay in the city at the application of their special subjects. The students are divided into two sections and relieve one another in the class rooms and the shops, so that the work of the college and of the employers is uninterrupted. In this way practice is taught co-ordinately with theory. The co-operative method has been used especially in engineering, but it suggests wider applications and broader fields of usefulness. The system has proved successful in the University of Cincinnati, and is being gradually adopted by the Municipal University of Akron (and by others).
All municipal universities aim to meet the increasing need of citizens trained for civic usefulness. They study the special wants of the city in which they are located, and aim to fill them by offering appropriate courses. They aim to co-operate with the various municipal departments and institutions by rendering them expert service, and by receiving corresponding benefit. They endeavor also in many other ways to bring the students and the citizens face to face with the principles taught in college and the results produced by them. At the same time, the municipal university has not abandoned loftier ideals and still offers theoretical, cultural, and artistic instruction as the frame-work of a liberal education.
1 Dean, College of Arts and Sciences of the University of Louisville; president, Association of Colleges and Universities of Kentucky.
4 Consult “The University and the Municipality,” U. S. bureau of education, Bulletin 1915, No. 38.
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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
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After being invited by the National Municipal Review to write an article on the municipal universities and colleges of the United States, the writer decided that in the special accounts of these institutions it would be well to have them speak for themselves. Letters were accordingly sent to them with the invitation to contribute to this symposium. The contributions appear below, but in two cases where no statements were submitted by the colleges themselves a brief description of their history and work has been prepared in the University of Louisville.
President Parke R. Kolbe of the Akron municipal university, defines a municipal university as “an institution of higher learning supported in greater part by municipal taxation, requiring graduation from a first-grade high school for entrance, and maintaining a four-year course in arts and letters, around which a greater or less number of other schools or departments may be grouped. Its participation in technical, professional, and graduate work or in civic co-operation will naturally vary with city and institution. ”3 Under a strict application of this definition according to President Kolbe, there are seven municipal universities or colleges in the United States: the University of Cincinnati, the College of the City of New York, the Municipal University of Akron, Hunter College of the City of New York, Toledo University, the College of Charleston, and the University of Louisville. In the following individual accounts of the various municipal universities or colleges stress is placed on their work in its relation to the affairs and institutions of their respective municipalities. They offer in addition the usual curricula of most universities or colleges.
THE UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI4
Buildings, bonds, and endowments have their place in the history of the University of Cincinnati, but the dominating factor in its progress has been an idea. This idea, around which the institution has grown, is that a university should be an integral part of the community life; that the citizens should think of their university along with their railroad terminals, park systems, and commercial exchanges, as part and parcel of the life and work of the municipality. This thought, always present in the institution’s career, has been given conscious and energetic development during the past ten years under the present administration of the university. The aim has been to place the university in intimate relationship with the governmental, social, and industrial activities of the city, and thus, while testing and vitalizing the class-work of students and teachers, to aid in the various phases of urban life.
So, before considering the usual facts as to foundations, appropriations, and other biographical data, it may be well to instance the operation of
3 Article 2, the U. S. bureau of education, Bulletin 1915, No. 38.
4 Quoted from a member of the University of Cincinnati faculty.


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555
this central and co-ordinating idea which President Dabney of the university terms “co-operation in service.” For example, take the work of the teachers college: this college not only sets for itself the customary task of training teachers, but also that of acting as an advisory board to the superintendent of the city schools and the board of education. The faculty examines and recommends teachers for appointment and promotion, plans courses of study for the grades, and gives instruction in pedagogic methods to acting as well as to prospective teachers.
The co-operative course of the college of engineering is perhaps the most widely known phase of the university’s work. Under this plan the student’s time is divided between college theory and its application in various engineering establishments of the city. The students assigned to each shop are paired so that one boy works in the shop for two weeks while his companion is taking class work in the college; then, during the next two weeks, the boys exchange activities, and thus the alternation is ■continued throughout the session. In this way the student has training in the principles of engineering, the practical application of these principles in shop work, and an opportunity to earn in wages enough to pay a large part of his expenses. The manufacturers are emphatic in their praise of this co-operative plan, and each year there come from every ■section of the country twice as many applications for admission to the college as can at present be accepted.
The medical college has close connections with many departments of •the city’s work. It conducts a free dispensary in which over 21,000 cases are treated annually; the children’s clinic of the college maintains milk supply stations and sends nurses to the tenement districts to train mothers in the care of their infants. Members of the faculty do most of the medical surgical work in seven hospitals and care for the sick and infirm at several settlements and asylums.
Other phases of co-operation which may be mentioned in this brief survey are: the work of the departments of zoology and botany with the bird reserve, grammar-school gardens, and city zoological gardens; the ■activities of the psychological department in diagnosing the deficiencies of backward children in the primary schools; the conduct by the political science department of a municipal reference bureau in the city hall; the service of the bureau of city tests at the university in examining all materials submitted by the city engineer and by the purchasing agent. The college of commerce holds its sessions in the late afternoon and evening, so as to serve best the young business men of the city; and the evening classes of the college of liberal arts are open to non-professional students who are unable to leave their work during the day. In addition, various classes known as external courses are held in many sections of the city. If the University of Cincinnati were to choose a word to inscribe over its entrance portals, its word of all words would be “co-operation.”


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The university was established on a municipal basis in 1870; but the records of the institutions out of which the university grew go back to-the very early years of the nineteenth century. ' In 1858 Charles Mc-Micken gave to Cincinnati his estate of about a million dollars for founding two colleges for white boys and girls. Owing to a decision of the supreme court of Louisiana, a large part of this estate was lost to the city, and it was not until 1870 that the municipality incorporated the University of Cincinnati and issued bonds for the erection of a building. In 1893 the city began to tax itself to meet the current expenses1 of the school by levying a university tax of three tenths of a mill, which in 1906 was increased to five tenths of a mill. The citizens of Cincinnati, moreover, have supplemented the official support of the school by private endowments, which now total over a million dollars. In this connection, public spirited Cincinnatians have organized the endowment fund association, which administers many of the private gifts to the university and undertakes to make known the needs of the institution.6
THE COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK6
The College of the City of New York, originally called “The Free Academy,” was established in 1848 by the board of education of New York in pursuance of an act of the legislature of the state passed on May 7, 1847, and ratified by a vote of the people of the city on June 9, 1847. It is governed by a board of trustees composed of nine members appointed by the mayor. The president of the board of education is an additional, member ex-officio. The appointed members serve for nine years each.
The college is supported by the city. Tuition is absolutely free. The budget for 1916 was $696,119.07. During the past term from October 1915 to February 1916 there were 2,699 students in the college who were doing work credited for degrees. There were also 5,165 students taking, extension courses, making a total of 7,864 students who are meeting full college entrance requirements. One thousand seven hundred and twenty-one students were enrolled in the preparatory department; 338 students were enrolled in the “municipal evening session”; and 227 were enrolled for custom house courses. The grand total of students receiving organized instruction under the college was, during this term, 10,150.
The college has no graduate department, although many college graduates as special students avail themselves of its facilities for. higher work. The degrees of A.B. and S.B. are granted, and graduates of the college are admitted to all higher institutions requiring the A.B. or the S.B. degree for entrance.
• See article entitled “A Study of the Student Body of the University of Cincinnati.”’ A Municipal Institution by Pres. Charles W. Dalney, National Municipal Review, vol. iii, p. 68.
6 Frederick E. Breithut, College of the City of New York.


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The most recent development of work at the college has been along the line of correlation with the needs of the municipal service, both in preparing students for entrance to the service and in improving the efficiency -of those already in the city’s employ. Thus the department of education supplies many of the city’s teachers, and credit for work done or courses taken at the college is granted by the department of education. The •department of chemistry gives work in direct co-operation with the city’s laboratories. The principles embodied in such co-operation are now being extended to other city departments and other college departments. It is thus hoped that among its functions the college will become to some extent a training school for public service.
THE MUNICIPAL UNIVERSITY OF AKRON7
The nucleus for the Municipal University of Akron, which began its •official existence on January 1, 1914, was Buchtel College, an institution of higher learning founded under the joint auspices of an Akron citizen, John R. Buchtel, and of the Ohio Universalist convention in the year 1870.
Statistics given in the catalogues of earlier years show that Buchtel at first drew her students largely from denominational sources, but the rapid multiplication of educational institutions in all parts of the country gradually brought about at Buchtel, as well as elsewhere, a falling off in the number of non-resident students and a corresponding increase in local attendance.
While the character of the student body was thus gradually changing from a denominational to a local predominance the financial condition •of the institution was far from encouraging. Denominational support had almost entirely ceased during the last decade. At the same time the people of Akron had never come to look upon the college as entirely theirs; hence ample support from local sources was also denied. Meanwhile the constant and steady increase in the number of local students rendered the necessary financing of the college budget a more and more difficult problem for the trustees and the president to solve.
At a meeting of the Buchtel trustees, held on April 14, 1913, a proposition was laid before the board to turn over to the city of Akron the entire plant and endowment of the college, with the proviso that the purposes of all original bequests be carried out and the college be supported and administered by the city in accordance with the provisions of the state code. On August 25, 1913, the council of the city of Akron unanimously accepted by ordinance the offer of the trustees of Buchtel College and established a municipal university. The final transfer was executed on December 15, 1913.
In organization the university has very frankly copied the methods of the University of Cincinnati and accepted aid from it not only in methods,
7 Parke R. Kolbe, the Municipal University of Akron.


558 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October
but also in securing from it one or two competent men for carrying out certain parts of the work planned.
When the institution was turned over to the city it consisted simply of a liberal arts college. This has been kept intact and enlarged to a considerable extent. There are two new schools. One is the college of engineering, on the co-operative plan, as introduced by Dean Schneider, of Cincinnati. Professor Ayer, who had been at Cincinnati for eight years, was appointed dean of this college. The other school is the school of home economics, with the regular four-year course and the regular fifteen-unit entrance requirement in force. The first class contained twenty women.
The students come very largely from the city itself. Out of one hundred high school graduates in Akron who entered college for the first time in the fall of 1915, 75 went to the city university.
The university is trying to co-operate in various ways with the city departments. The city’s testing work is carried on entirely in the laboratories of the university under the direction of a department called the bureau of city tests. Here is done the chemical testing of supplies purchased by various departments, bacteriological testing for the Board of health and local physicians, and physical testing of paving brick, cement, and so forth.
The department of political science and sociology is co-operating with the board of health and the charity organization society in using students as workers and investigators in the city; also with the bureau of municipal research in the study of city departments. One of the fields now in prospect is that of training for public service. It is hoped eventually to establish a co-operative course for this purpose in connection with the department of political science, the engineering college, and the bureau of municipal research.
A step in advance has been taken by the establishment of a combination course, in co-operation with the board of education, between the university and the city normal school for the training of teachers. Graduates of this course will receive preference in appointment to positions in the city school system.
Akron, being the center of the rubber industry, offers opportunity for specialization in the chemistry of rubber at the municipal university, which possesses the only fully equipped college laboratory for this purpose in the country.
The college of engineering is co-operating with nearly a dozen factories of the city where its students work in- alternating two-week periods— also with various contracting firms and railroads. The college has also been active in the investigation of paving conditions in the city and has published a detailed report on the subject at the request of the city council.


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Extension work is being carried on by means of a course of six lectures offered by the university faculty to a number of clubs and organizations in the city. Late afternoon and evening classes recently organized offer the opportunity for college work to teachers, employed persons, and citizens in general.
HUNTER COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK8
Hunter College of the City of New York was established on February 1, 1870, and received its charter from the’State in 1888. It is a college for women and is supported by public funds. It receives as students all applicants who are residents of any of the boroughs of Greater New York, and who can meet the requirements for admission. Tuition, text-books, and other such supplies are furnished without cost to the students.
The college provides a four-year academic course which is based upon a four-year high school course and leads to the degree of A.B. One of the chief purposes of the institution is to encourage young women having a liberal college education to engage in the work of teaching in elementary and secondary schools. To this end there are provided optional courses and training in pedagogics covering the requirements for licenses to teach in the schools of both the city and the state. The degree of A.B. is conferred upon all graduates of the college. The state commissioner of education will issue to any holder of this degree who has pursued in college the prescribed course of study for the training of teachers the college graduate certificate, or temporary license to teach in the elementary or secondary schools of the state without further examination.
The history of Hunter College shows the development of free education for women in the city of New York. Beginning with a small group of elementary school graduates in one of the public schools, under the direction of Miss Lydia F. Wadleigh, the numbers increased until the Normal College of the City of New York was established in 1870 with Dr. Thomas Hunter as president. In April, 1914, eight years after the retirement of President Hunter, the name was changed from Normal to Hunter College.
At first the girls were admitted directly from elementary schools upon passing an entrance examination in algebra, arithmetic, geometry, geography, history, reading, and spelling, and the course occupied only three years. As time went on the length of the course was extended until it reached the present four-year college course based upon a four-year high school course.
Including the class of January 1916, the total number of graduates from Hunter College is 13,195. Statistics compiled from the records of several years show that 78 per cent of the graduates of Hunter College are teaching in the elementary schools of New York. Fifty per cent of the women principals in the boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx are
• Lillian M. Snow, Hunter College of the City of New York.


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Hunter College graduates, and the number teaching in the city high schools is increasing every year. The number of students in attendance at the college on February 18, 1916 was 1,627.
TOLEDO UNIVERSITY9
The University of Toledo was first established on a municipal basis in 1884. It embraces at present the following schools: the municipal college of arts and sciences, of commerce and business, the graduate college, the college of industrial science, the college of law, and the college of pharmacy.
The various colleges of the university co-operate with the city of Toledo through the bureau of public service, the purpose of which is twofold: first, to discover the opportunities of the university for most efficient service to the community; secondly, to aid the city in offering to the university the advantages or opportunities for performing its public service most effectively. Through this bureau information is secured which enables the university to use the funds at its disposal to the best advantage.
In several departments definite efforts have been made to make the work of the university fit the needs of the city. The college of arts and sciences in its courses in education is of material assistance to the teachers of the city in their endeavor to increase their teaching efficiency. The instruction in both economics and political science aims to deal with problems arising in civic affairs. “ The Government of Toledo, ” a course in political science, is concerned particularly with the local government. The work given in the industrial department is confined entirely to evening work and is given primarily to those men and boys who are employed during the day. The colleges of law and of pharmacy aid in securing outside employment for students who are partially dependent on their own efforts for support.
Arrangements have been made with the public library whereby the university library has been made the university branch of the public library. Students of the university have all the privileges of the main library, and the city public library maintains an excellent reference library in the university building. The library of the Lucas County court house is also open to the students of the college of law. Both the Y. M. C. A. and the Y. W. C. A. offer certain gymnasium privileges free to full time university students.
The college of arts and sciences is a vital part of the university. For the benefit of young people who are unable to complete a four-year course, the college is divided into two courses—a junior and a senior. The junior college work is almost entirely a required course, each subject of which is intended to contribute directly to increasing the social and civic
* Ruth Rose, University of Louisville.


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efficiency of the students. In the senior college the requirements are a junior college arts diploma and a major of eighteen hours and two minors of twelve hours each. The characteristic of the major is this; that the individual in addition to doing the eighteen hours of work shall also do a constructive piece of work for the municipality or shall complete a task which shall be of interest and value to the citizens of Toledo.
THE COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON10
The College of Charleston was founded in 1785 as an endowed institution, supported by donations from private citizens. The general assembly of South Carolina granted the college a charter and about nine acres of land in the central part of the city for its buildings. Throughout the early years of the history of the college there was a constant struggle for funds, which came in only through subscription and bequest. In 1837 the city of Charleston decided to assume responsibility for the necessary expenses of the college and has since that time made an annual appropriation for the college. On a board of trustees consisting of sixteen members the city has a representation of five, the alumni of the college have three representatives, and the other eight members are a part of the original self-perpetuating body which formerly governed the institution.
The College of Charleston offers annually four scholarships which carry free tuition to graduates of the high school (of Charleston) and one scholarship to some resident of each county in the state. In addition there are about fifteen paying scholarships, provided for by endowment, which are awarded on the merits of competitive examination.
THE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE11
The University of Louisville, Kentucky, was founded in 1837 by a decree of the city council, and was chartered in 1846 by an act of the legislature. Owing to local conditions, only the schools of medicine and of law were put immediately into operation. The medical department is the second oldest school of medicine now in existence west of the Alleghanies. By the coalition, under the name “University of Louisville,” of the schools of medicine of Louisville, embracing the medical department of the University, organized in 1837, the Kentucky School of Medicine, 1850, the Louisville Medical College, 1869, the Hospital College of Medicine, 1873, and the Medical Department of the Kentucky University (now Transylvania College), 1898, new property, greater prestige, and wider influence were added to the University of Louisville, thus making it a strong one of its class, and promising for the future the maintenance of increasingly higher standards to satisfy the increasing
10 Mary Campbell Kahn, University of Louisville.
11 In this description of the University of Louisville the writer has copied freely from articles which he has written on other occasions.
2


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requirements demanded by the state medical boards. Substantial additions have also been made recently to the laboratories and clinical facilities.
A new hospital was completed a few years ago by the City of Louisville at a cost of a million dollars. It has been made a teaching hospital under the advice of one of the best hospital experts in the country. The medical management of the hospital has been placed by the mayor in the hands of the board of trustees of the University of Louisville. They select the staff and recommend it to the mayor and board of public safety for appointment. The medical department has again (1916) been placed in Class A by the council on medical education of the American Medical. Association.
The law department of the university is, with one exception, the oldest, law school in the South. It has graduated about 1,400 students, many of whom are practicing their profession or filling offices of public trust in most of the states of the union. Recently the corps of instructors has been increased, and the mode of teaching has been supplemented by the best modern methods employed at Harvard, Columbia, and other universities of prominence.
The college of arts and sciences was added to the university in 1907 to carry out the founders’ original design of establishing “departments for the promotion of science, literature, and the liberal arts.” The attempt is being made to develop the university as a municipal institution which will co-operate in due time with the various departments and public institutions of Louisville, and offer the opportunity of advanced education to the sons and daughters of its citizens. The university has been influenced in this work by the example of the municipal universities in England and in this country, and especially by the brilliant one of the University of Cincinnati.
The college of arts and sciences co-operates with the board of education of Louisville, and offers the S.B. degree in education for a prescribed course of study pursued in the college, together with complementary technical work done in the public normal school. An arrangement was made in 1914 with the Board of Education by which graduates of the university (of Louisville), under the conditions mentioned, in regard to appointments are entitled to “ the same privileges accorded to a holder of a diploma from the Louisville normal school.” The college further co-operates with the board by giving this year a series of free lectures on educational psychology, mathematical pedagogy, the history of mathematics, and the history of the drama to large classes of public school teachers.
In the second place, the college co-operates with the Baptist and the Presbyterian theological seminaries, which are located in Louisville, by offering to their students free tuition in the undergraduate courses. The seminaries extend similar privileges to undergraduate students in the.


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college of arts and sciences. The college stands ready to co-operate in the same way with any local religious institution of collegiate grade. It co-operates also with the various religious orders of the city without discrimination of creed, and offers to their members free tuition toward the baccalaureate degree.
In the third place, the college co-operates with the Louisville chapter of the American Institute of Architects by offering courses in architectural design and the history of architecture to young men who are employed in the offices of the local architects, and so gives them the opportunity of becoming more than draughtsmen. In the fourth place, the university co-operates with the hospitals in Louisville by offering at a minimum tuition fee to the nurses from time to time night courses in physiology, hygiene, and bacteriology. In the fifth place, the college co-operates with the associated charities of Louisville, and offers also at a minimum tuition fee instruction in theoretical and practical sociology to those engaged in the work of charity and social service in the city. In the sixth place, with the co-operation of certain business houses, the college has secured this year employment for a part of their time for a few young men and women who are pursuing their regular studies in the university and who could not continue their work without financial aid. The administration expects to extend its plans of co-operation as rapidly as may be.
The college of arts and sciences has grown from a college of about 75 students to a college of 406 students at the present time—an increase of 440 per cent in eight years. The trustees, as soon as the accommodations are adequate and the funds sufficient, will offer free tuition in the college to all graduates of the local public high schools. The free tuition at present is limited to about forty scholarships. The university has a total enrollment this year of 614 students.
With the endorsement of the present mayor, John H. Buschemeyer, the public spirited administration, the representatives of Jefferson county, the board of trade, the board of education, the commercial club, the public library, members of the press, the clergy, and other clubs and organizations of Louisville, a bill has just been passed by the state legislature enabling the general council of the City of Louisville to levy a tax annually with a maximum rate of three cents for the support of its university. The bill was passed unanimously by both houses and became a law by the signature of Governor Stanley on Friday, March 24, 1916.
The ultimate authority of the university is vested in a body appointed by the city council on the recommmendation of the mayor. These men are among the most prominent citizens of Louisville, and under their direction it is reasonable to expect that the university will develop more and more successfully. At the same time the successive city administrations of Louisville, without regard to politics, have taken an increasing


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interest in the home institution, and with the influence and support of a great city behind it, the university has a promising outlook for the future.
From the above accounts of American municipal universities, it will be seen that they are proceeding on the principle that if education is a public utility, it is undemocratic for any part of it to exist in the nature of a monopoly. The modern movement in this country and abroad to develop municipal universities offering the full benefit of advanced education to all classes of citizens alike marks a new era of wider training, and therefore, of more efficient citizenship, sounder morality, and a more certain civilization.


INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT IN THE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES OF THE UNITED STATES
BY WILLIAM BENNETT MTTNRO, CHAIRMAN 1 Harvard, University
ON SIX occasions during the past sixteen years the National Municipal League’s committee on instruction in municipal government has undertaken an inquiry as to the progress of this subject in American educational institutions. Reports based on these inquiries have been published from time to time and have proved of much interest, particularly to teachers of political science.2 During the present year the field has been once more surveyed. Circular questionnaires were sent by the committee to all the more important universities and colleges in the country, and replies were received from one hundred and sixty-two of them in all. Information was particularly sought on the following points: (1) the number of courses devoted wholly to the subject of municipal government; (2) the number of courses devoted partly to that topic; (3) the student enrolment, including both undergraduates and graduates, in these courses; (4) the methods of instruction; and (5) the opportunities afforded for practical contact with municipal affairs.
1 The committee consists of Prof. W. B. Munro, chairman, Harvard University; Prof. W. B. Bailey, Yale University; Prof. C. A. Beard, Columbia University; Prof. R. C. Brooks, Swarthmore College; Prof. J. A. Fairlie, University of Illinois; Prof. H. J. Ford, Princeton University; President H. A. Garfield, Williams College; Prof. H. G. James, University of Texas; Prof. Isidor Loeb, University of Missouri; Prof. C. E. Merriam, University of Chicago; Prof. T. H. Reed, University of California; Prof. L. S. Rowe, University of Pennsylvania; Prof. W. A. Schaper, University of Minnesota; Prof. B. F. Shambaugh, University of Iowa; Clinton Rogers Woodruff, Philadelphia.
8 The active interest of the National Municipal League in promoting collegiate instruction began in 1900 when a special committee on this subject was appointed. Under the chairmanship of the late Thomas M. Drown, who was then president of Lehigh University, a study was made of the amount and quality of the instruction in municipal government then offered by the various American colleges and universities. Three reports on the subject were made and these may be found in the Proceedings of the National Municipal League for 1901, 1902, and 1905. They are of a rather general nature because the amount of instruction was at that time relatively small. In 1908 a more elaborate tabulation was prepared and published in the Proceedings of that year, followed by a shorter discussion in the volume for the year 1909. An entirely new survey was once again undertaken in 1912, and its results may be found, in condensed form, in the National Municipal Review for July, 1913 (vol. ii, pp. 427-438). The present investigation brings together the facts as they have been found at the present time.
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The detailed results of the investigation, so far as they can be reduced to exact figures, are summarized in the appended table; but there are certain outstanding features which the committee’s investigations have disclosed, certain things which seem to show general tendencies in the development of instruction, and these ought to be singled out for emphasis.
1. The steady increase in the quantity of instruction. Twenty years ago it is altogether probable that not more than three or four of the largest educational institutions in the United States provided any independent instruction in municipal government. In the great majority of American colleges and universities this subject was either not touched upon at all or was dealt with as a small part of some general course in political science. But this situation began to change about 1900 and during the next half-dozen years or more many colleges began to recognize municipal government as a subject worthy of separate recognition. In 1908 it was found that 46 institutions offered independent instruction in municipal government; in 1912 the number had risen to 64; and in the course of the present inquiry the committee finds a further increase to 95. In eight years, accordingly, the number of institutions offering one or more courses devoted wholly to the study of municipal government has more than doubled. That affords significant testimony to the development of popular interest in the subject. And this development is all the more worthy of remark when it is pointed out that nothing akin to it has taken place in any other country. The curricula of English and continental European universities do not indicate anything of the kind. Instruction in political science has.been greatly increased everywhere abroad, but the expansion has been along the lines of new courses in colonial government, world-politics, constitutional law and political theory. It is not improbable, therefore, that the course of development in this country has been influenced by the increased earnestness with which the popular mind throughout the land has directed itself to the solution of our own municipal problems.
Among the American institutions two, namely New York University and the University of Cincinnati, each provide five courses devoted wholly to various branches of municipal government; the University of Wisconsin maintains four courses, while Columbia, Harvard, Pennsylvania, and Texas have three each. These do not include courses in the law of municipal corporations, or in municipal engineering, or in the various branches of sociology which are closely related to municipal administration, such as housing, poor-relief, etc. Eighteen colleges and universities provide two independent courses, while more than seventy maintain one course only.
2. The improvement in methods of instruction. The few teachers of municipal government who began their work fifteen or twenty years ago


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had perforce to use the lecture method. There was nothing else to do. There were no text-books, at any rate none suitable for class-room use. College libraries had next to nothing relating to any phase of the subject. A haphazard collection of local histories, stray municipal reports, old charters, and reform pamphlets, was the usual equipment. To-day all this has changed. The teacher of municipal government now has his choice of several text-books, while the output of reference works in all branches of the subject has become so large in these latter years that the chief difficulty is now to find shelf-room for it. Other things have come within the last two decades to help the teacher. The census bureau’s annual Statistics of Cities has become indispensable to him. Bibliographical apparatus has improved. Publications like the National Municipal Review, the Municipal Journal, and The American City, nowadays simplify the task of keeping in touch with what is going on. A Municipal Encyclopaedia is now in preparation under the National Municipal League’s auspices. Bureaus of municipal research and allied institutions are providing much excellent data for study. And the official publications of the cities themselves have undergone notable improvement during these intervening years. Two decades ago it would have been sheer futility to send a college student to the usual city reports in quest of information. He would find much to bewilder and little to inform. That is not so to-day, although the official publications of many American cities even yet have large margins for improvement. At any rate the result of all this is that the teacher no longer expects his students to get a grasp of municipal problems by listening to a “ course of lectures.” Recitations, conferences, discussions, reports, and practical investigations of which more will be said presently, are now used as agencies for imparting instruction. Of the 95 institutions offering separate courses in municipal government only three now report the exclusive use of the lecture system. It has practically become obsolete. Not only lectures, moreover; but text-books appear to have been relegated to a subsidiary place. The text-book forms merely a syllabus as it were, affording a thread to guide the student along straight general lines. The details he must get for himself and get elsewhere. The trend is distinctly in the direction of making the student get his knowledge from many sources and particularly by working on assigned problems which will take him over a wide range of reading.
This is a significant and highly desirable trend. The subject of municipal government can gain a respected place in the college curriculum by demonstrating its value as a subject of study, and in no other way. Appeals in its behalf as a means of making “good citizens” or “developing a civic conscience” and so on, will avail little in the long run. If it develops merely into what undergraduate vernacular calls a “snap course,” the days of instruction in this subject are numbered. But if


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young men and young women obtain quite as good mental discipline from the study of municipal government as from the study of physics or mathematics or languages, then the subject will stand unaided upon its own feet. The study of municipal government can afford this discipline if rightly taught, and the committee’s inquiries show that the right methods are everywhere coming into use. This, even more than the increased quantity of instruction, is a hopeful sign.
3. The use of the research bureau as an agency of instruction. Although the first municipal research bureau was established in New York City only ten years ago and notwithstanding the fact that it had, at the outset, no special relation to the methods of college instruction, this experiment has had the most far-reaching results in the latter field. As evidence of this one need only mention that no fewer than 46 universities and colleges report that they maintain some sort of research bureau or workshop in connection with their courses in municipal government. In some cases the equipment is rather elementary, it is true, but substantial beginnings have been made, while in some others the collections of data are already of great value. Among the largest and best equipped of such bureaus are those used by the students at Wisconsin, Harvard, and the University of Cincinnati. Figures concerning the detailed equipment of all these various bureaus, their methods, personnel and available appropriations have been gathered for the committee and a summary will be published later. For the present it is sufficient to lay stress upon the fact that something in the way of a research bureau or workshop or laboratory is to-day regarded by most teachers of municipal government as a virtual necessity. It is essential to the best methods of instruction. Fortunately these laboratories are not expensive. To bring together a working collection of municipal data sufficient for general undergraduate instruction requires good judgment, some industry, and much patience, but not a large outlay in money. The collection of reports, pamphlets and charters will not of itself, however, provide instruction. The students must be taught how to use data of this sort and this instruction costs money. Yet instruction of this sort is the best of all and well worth what it costs.
4. The endeavor to bring students into contact with actual machinery of government. During the past half dozen years a good deal has been accomplished in the way of obtaining for students, especially for postgraduate students, some opportunities to get an understanding of municipal affairs through actual contact with them. In colleges and universities which are situated in small municipalities this is not an easy thing to arrange; but in the large cities the opportunities are numerous. To devise a plan whereby the student can do work which will be profitable to him intellectually, which will be worth counting towards the fulfilment of requirements for his degree, but which will not take too much time


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from his regular studies,—that is always difficult and sometimes impossible. To make any such arrangements for undergraduate students is practically out of the question except on a very small scale. The average undergraduate would be a nuisance at any city hall. But the young man who has obtained his bachelor’s degree, who has mastered the methods of studying a municipal problem, who can give his undivided attention to outside work for weeks or months at a time,—for him the university and the city administration may well be brought into contact. At any rate the reports which have come to the committee from many universities and colleges show marked progress in this direction. It is assumed that work which a postgraduate student does in any field of public service connected with his subject of special study should receive credit towards the degree of doctor of philosophy or other postgraduate degree; but as yet there seems to be no consensus as to the basis upon which this work should be rated for credit.
These are the most significant deductions to be drawn from the data which the committee has gathered in reply to its questionnaires. The amount of independent instruction in municipal government has greatly increased and to all appearances is likely to increase still further. The methods of instruction have greatly improved. The equipment for teaching the subject is far better than it has been, and the establishment of research bureaus, reference libraries and similar workshops of study has helped to make the teaching of municipal government more effective than ever before. Finally there is the effort, in spite of great and obvious difficulties, to bring the postgraduate students into actual touch with municipal affairs by having them serve for a time at least in some piece of constructive public work. Putting all these things together we have had notable progress during the last four or five years.


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Institution
Courses devoted wholly to Municipal Government
Where located Num- ber Amount of time given Hours Number of students Num- ber Amount of time given Hours Number of students
Under- grad- uates Grad- uates Under- grad- uates Grad- uates
Amherst, Mass. 2 90(a) 40 2

Meadville, P&. 1 BO 57
Berea. Ohio (b)
New York City 1 90 41
Lewiston, Me. 1 45 14
Boston 1 60
Brunswick, Me. 1 45 10 1 90 50
Providence, R. I. 1 45 48 3
Brya Mawr, Pa. 2 90 (W 2 75 75
each 27
Indianapolis. Ind. 1 45 19 1
Columbus, Ohio 2 75 each 33
Waukesha. Wis. 1 45 (b)
Worcester, Mass. 1 15 10
Hamilton, N. Y. 1 75 12
New York City 1 45 75 2 45 each 50
Wooster, Ohio 1 45 26
Colorado Springs. Colo. 1 45 15
New York City 3 60 (d) 22 2 90 268 (fi
(e) 60 (d) 14 each 35 ®
30 (e) 69 10
Fort Wayne, Ind. 1 160 100
Ithaca, N. Y. 2 45 each 11
Hanover, N. H. 1 90 20 1 90 140
Newark, Del. (n)
Granville, Ohio 4 45 60 3
Chicago 1 (w) 75 25
Greencastle, Ind. 1 60 75
Des Moines, la. 1 60 40 1 60 25
Carlisle, Pa. 1 60 (j) 4 90 each
Crete. Nebr. 0)
Iowa Falls, la. 1 45 5
Elmira, N. Y. (n)
Elon College, N. C. 1 90 87
Oxford, Ga. 1 45 30
Fargo, N. D. 1 45 21 4 60 9 1
45 40
45
45 20
Georgetown, Ky. 1 45 25 i 45 25
Washington, D. C. 1 (h) 15 18
Baltimore, Md. 0) (n)
Clinton, N. Y. (n)
Greenville, 111. 1 60
St. Peter, Minn. 2 45 26
each 15
Cambridge, Mass. 3 90 48 5 2 90 467
(u) 90 54 10 each 40
(y) 1 14
Tiffin, Ohio 3 105 51
Hiram, Ohio 2 60 each 18 1 45 12
New York City 1 45 15 1 90 75
Jacksonville, III. 1 45 2 45 each
University Halits.. Ind. 1 60 8 1 60 (h)
Bloomington, Ind. 1 45 0 1 1 45 12
Cedar Falls, la. 2 (i) 60 20 2 5) 60
Decatur, 111. fl!
Lexington, Ky. 2 30 6 1 (1)
Gambier, Ohio 1 45 (b) 1 45 (k) 18
Galesburg, III. 2 60 35 1 60 70
30
Courses devoted partly to Municipal Government
1. Amherst College.....
2. Allegheny College ....
3. Baldwin Wallace Colleg
4. Barnard College.....
5. Bates College.......
6. Boston University ....
7. Bowdoin College.....
8. Brown University....
9. Bryn Mawr College...
10. Butler College.....
11. Capitol University....
12. Carroll College....
13. Clark College......
14. Colgate University ...
15. College of the City c
New York...........
16. College of Wooster ...
17. Colorado College...
18. Columbia University..
19. Concordia College...
20. Cornell University..
21. Dartmouth College___
22. Delaware College....
23. Denison University__
24. DePaul University___
25. De Pauw University ...
28. Dee Moines College...
27. Dickinson College...
28. Doane College.......
29. Ellsworth College...
30. Elmira College......
31. Elon College........
32. Emory College.......
33. Fargo College.......
34. Georgetown College...
35. George Washington Uni-
versity...........
36. Johns Hopkins Univer-
sity .............
37. Hamilton College...
38. Greenville College.
39. Gustavus Adolphus Col-
lege .............
40. Harvard University....
41. Heidelberg University..
42. Hiram College.......
43. Hunter College......
44. Illinois College....
45. Indiana Central Univer-
sity...............
46. Indiana University
47. Iowa State Teachers'
College............
48. James Milliken Univer-
sity...............
49. Kentucky State Univer-
sity...............
50. Kenyon College......
51. Eaox College........


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Institution
Courses devoted wholly to Municipal Government
Where located Amount of time Number of students Amount of time Number of students
Num- Num-

ber given Hours Under- grad- uates Grad- uates ber given Hours Under- grad- uates Grad- uates
Easton, Pa. 1 45 (b) 1 45 30
Appleton, Wis. 1 90 16
Stanford University, 2 45 (m) 10 4
Cal. Galesburg, HI. 30 (y) 1 3 1 45 5
Baton Rouge, La. 2 30 14 2 30 each 42
45 8
Lebanon, 111. 1 90
Maryville, Tenn. 1 50 36
Boston 1 45 35 2 30 each 400 each
Middlebury, Vt. 1 48-50 11-16
Mills College, Cal. 1 (h) 30 9 2(h) 30 8
Alliance, Ohio 5 (1) 45 100
New Concord, Ohio 1 45 7
New York City 5 60 23 2 60 67
60 2 2 60 150
60 30-60 (y) 22
30 15
Evanston, 111. 1 90 4 2 1 90 50
Northfield. Vt. 1 45 10
Oberlin, Ohio 1 45 40 (n) 125
Columbus, Ohio 2 45 each 11 6 1 90 91
Delaware, Ohio 1 45 35
Westerville, Ohio Oskaloosa, Iowa 1 60 25 1 90
Gettysburg, Pa. (n) 18
State College, Pa. 1 45 21
Princeton, N. J. Lafayette, Ind. 1 90 110-150 a) 50
Cambridge, Mam. 2 90 15 1 90
(y) 4 1 (b)
Portland, Ore. 1 45 48 1 45
Richmond, Va. 1 90 30 (0) (p)
Canton, N. Y. (n)
Northfield, Minn. Boston 1 45 60 1 (n)
Northampton, Mass. 1 45 14 1
Pullman, Wash. W 95
Iowa City, la. 1 45 23 2 1 120
Hoboken, N. J. (g)
Selinsgrove, Pa. 25 (q)
Swarthmore, Pa. 2 32 (n)
each 30
Syracuse, N. Y. 1 45 42 3
Philadelphia Greenville, Pa. 2 30 each 9 m 25
Hartford, Conn. 1 15 12 1 1 30 3
Durham, N. (J. 1 45 12 2 1 90 44
Tufts College, Mass. 2 45 each 36 2
New Orleans, La. (n)
Schenectady, N. Y. i 45 50 W
West Point, N. Y. (n> 450
Berkeley, Cal. 2 60 (y) 45 60 2 65 10 8 8 4 1 90
Cincinnati, Ohio 5 3 90 54
60 35 (h) 60 6 7
45 40 2 90 (b)
46 44 1
60 (b) 70-110
Boulder, Colo. 2 45 55-60 3 2 45 1
30 30
Courses devoted partly to Municipal Government
52. Lafayette College..
53. Lawrence College...
54. Leland Stanford Junior
University........
55. Lombard College....
56. Louisiana State Univer-
sity .............
57. McKendree College__
58. Maryville College .....
59. Massachusetts Institute
of Technology.....
60. Middlebury College_
61. Mills College......
62. Mount Union College..
63. Muskingum College__
64. New York University..
65. NorthwesternUniversity
66. Norwich University...
67. Oberlin College.....
68. Ohio State University.
69. Ohio Wesleyan Univer-
sity................
70. Otterbein University...
71. Penn College........
72. Pennsylvania College ..
73. Pennsylvania State Col-
lege...............
74. Princeton University...
75. Purdue University...
76. Eaddiffe College....
77. Reed College........
. 78. Richmond College....
79. St. Lawrence University
80. St. Olaf College....
81. Simmons College.....
82. Smith College.......
83. State College of Wash-
ington ............
84. State University of Iowa
85. Stevens Institute of
Technology.....
86. Susquehanna University
87. Swarthmore College...
88. Syracuse University...
89. Temple University....
90. Thiel College.......
91. Trinity College.....
92. Trinity College.....
93. Tufts College.......
94. Tulane University....
95. Union College.......
96. United States Military
Academy............
97. University of California
98. University of Cincinnati
99. University of Colorado


572
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October
Courses devoted wholly Courses devoted partly
to Municipal Government • to Municipal Government
Institution Where located Num- Amount of time Number of studentB Num- Amount of time Number of students

ber given Under- ber given Under-
Hours grad- uates uates Hours grad- uates uates
100. University of Denver .. Denver, Colo. 1 30 14 l(q) 45 12
101. University of Florida .. Gainesville, Fla. 1 45 5 1 45 20
102. University of Idaho.... Moscow, Idaho 1 90 (t> 1 30 8
103. University of Illinois... Urbana, 111. 2 30 30-40 2-3 6 45 400
(j) (u) each 9 6 30 40
30 40
45 4 2
30 4
45 16
104. University of Kansas .. Lawrence, Kan. 1 45 30 4 2 75 130
75 100
105. University of Louisville Louisville, Ky. 1 80 9
106. University of Michigan. Ann Arbor, Mich. 2 90 30 5 1 30 10 2
30(y) 8
107. University of Maine ... Orono, Me. 1 30 50 2 30 45 40 50
308. University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minn. 2 90 53
45 (b)
109. University of Missouri. Columbia, Mo. 1 30 23 2
130. University of Montana. Missoula, Mont. 1 30 31
111. University of Nebraska. Lincoln, Nebr. 1 45 18 3 2 30 each 25 5
10-15
112. University of New
Mexico Albuquerque, N. M. 1 45 12 2 45 each 60
113. University of North Da-
kota University, N. D. Norman, Okla. 1 40 5 2 1 40 19 1
114. University of Oklahoma 1 30 11 1 (n)
115. University of Oregon .. 116. University of Pennsyl- Eugene, Ore. 1 45 8 0 vania Philadelphia 3 60 24 18
(V) 60 40
60 8
117. University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh 2(j) 60 each 50 1 1 90 2 5
118. University of Rochester Rochester, N. Y. 1 30 75-100
119. University of the South 120. University of South Da- Sewanee, Tenn. 1 90 8-15 12-15
kota Vermillion, S. D. Knoxville, Tenn. 1 45 12-15 1 45
121. University of Tennessee (n)
122. University of Texas.... Austin, Tex. 3 90 30 30 16 2 (n)
123. University of Utah .... Salt Lake City, Utah 1 17
124. University of Virginia.. 125. University of Washing* Charlottesville, Va. 1 90 14 1 90 132
ton Seattle, Wash. Madison, Wis. 1 (u)
126. University of Wisconsin 4 45 45 30 30 70 20 3 45 each 200
127. University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wy. 1 60 21
128. Ur8inu8 College Collegeville, Pa. 1 45 00
120 Vnroafir Cnllpxre . 3 45 (b) 2 90 90
130. Wabash College Crawfordsville, Ind, Topeka, Kan. 1 45 120 10 40
131. Washburn College 3 45 20 2 45 each 44 24
132. Washington and Lee
ITnivprmt.v Lexington, Va. Chestertown, Md. 1 90 25 2 90 110
133. Washington College — (n) each 35
134. Washington University. St. Louis 1 45 7 2 1 30 10
135. Wellesley College 136. Western Reserve Uni- WelleBley, Mass. 1 90 120
verait.v Cleveland, Ohio Norton, Mass. 2 90 each 40 4 (n)
137. Wheaton College («>
138. Whitman College Walla Walla, Wash. 1 90 14
139. Williams College Williamstown, Mass. 1 45 16 2
140. William Jewell College . Liberty, Mo. 1 50 25 45 100
141. Yale University New Haven, Conn. 1


1916] INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT
573
REFERENCES FOR TABLES
(a) The total amount of time given to municipal government in these two courses would be equivalent to one course, covering 52 hours.
(b) A new course to be offered.
(c) For 30 students in this course, the time given amounts to 45 hours.
(d) Hot open to undergraduates.
(e) Two additional semester courses in municipal government will be offered in 1916-17.
(f) Not open to graduate students.
(g) Incidental instruction in courses on economics of engineering.
(h) Given only in alternate years.
(i) Two full courses on municipal government are offered twice each year: a course on American government is offered four times each year; and there is a course on local government and problems offered once each year. Each of these courses covers 60 hours.
(j) A summer-school course is offered, in addition.
(k) Two thirds of this course is devoted to municipal government and one third to state government.
(l) Incidental instruction in courses on political economy and political science.
(m) In 1916-17 the number of hours will be increased to 90.
(n) Incidental instruction in courses on political science.
(o) The last three months of a general course on the principles of political science are devoted entirely to municipal government, making the equivalent of a semester course given over wholly to municipal government.
(p) Incidental instruction in courses on history and political science.
(q) Incidental instruction in courses on sociology and economics.
(r) A course in civics, covering about 45 hours.
(s) Incidental instruction in courses in chemistry and engineering departments relating to sanitation, sewage disposal, etc.
(t) A seminar course required for all students majoring in economics. During the year 1915-16 it did not touch upon municipal government; the subject for 1916-17, however, is municipal problems. t
(u) There are other courses on such subjects as the law of municipal corporations, city planning, education, municipal engineering and sanitation, etc., in the professional schools and in the summer school.
(v) These courses deal with the subject of the regulation of municipal utilities.
(w) A course given in the college of law.
(y) A research or seminar course.
(z) A course dealing specifically with city problems and giving some attention to municipal government.


PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE: A REVIEW OF RECENT REPORTS
BY F. W. COKEB Ohio State University, Columbus, 0.
IN ITS earliest phase the movement for civil service reform related exclusively to the manner of appointing and discharging public employes. Moreover, its purposes were restrictive, rather than constructive. It sought to reduce the abuses of political patronage by eliminating, as far as possible, political influences in appointments and removals. In its later phases the movement has become both more positive and more comprehensive. It seeks not only to prevent partisan appointments to administrative positions, but also to establish means for recruiting and selecting the most intelligent and best qualified eligibles for these positions, and for promoting those incumbents most deserving and fit to be promoted. Furthermore, its activity extends beyond the sphere of selecting, promoting and removing officials and employes. It is now concerned with the whole question of the effective organization of administrative positions, the institution of improvements and economies in administrative methods, and the development of the usefulness and loyalty of the holders of administrative positions.
Reports of civil service agencies during the past year and a half reveal generally progress in all the lines just indicated. Neither all the reports issued, nor all the important aspects of municipal civil service upon which they throw light can be reviewed in this article. Many municipal commissions do not issue annual printed reports; among the reports published, many merely record the civil service laws and regulations, with the addition in some cases of summary notes on judicial decisions or changes in the rules, or of uninterpretative records of the year’s activities. From among the more enlightening reports of municipal civil service commissions and other bodies, the limits of this article make necessary a narrow selection of questions upon which to place emphasis.1 Progress in
1 The annual reports to which more frequent reference is made in this article are the following: Thirty-second annual report of the municipal civil service commission of New York City for 1915; Report and review of civil service operation in the city of Oakland from organization of the civil service board on September 5, 1911, to June 30, 1915; Th'irty-second annual report of the civil service commission of Massachusetts, from October 1, 1914, to September 30, 1915; Second annual report of Los Angeles county civil service commission and bureau of efficiency, for the year ending June 30, 1915; Third annual report of the civil service commission of the city of Minneapolis for 1915; Second annual report of the bureau of civil service of the city of St. Paul for 1915. Other city reports worthy of consultation are those of Denver,
574


1916] PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE
575
broader lines has been perhaps most noteworthy in the following fields of civil service work: the scope and methods of examination; the recording of merit and competency of incumbents of positions in the classified service; programs for revision and standardization of administrative organization, activities, and awards.
EXAMINATIONS
The reports generally reveal the increasing breadth, flexibility, and practicality of the tests applied by the commissions. The examination is no longer necessarily and primarily a written test of memory and accumulated knowledge. It is a specially devised inquiry to find, through whatever means are particularly available for the position to be filled,, the applicant best fitted to perform the duties of that position. And its object is not solely, and in many cases not mainly, to discover whether the applicants possess designated points of information and training; it may rather be to find out, on the one hand, their actual practical skill, and, on the other hand, their basic personal, mental and moral dispositions. Under this flexible form the examination becomes increasingly adaptable for a wider and higher range of positions. Recent reports show specifically progress in the methods of preparing examinations generally, in the methods of testing practical skill, and in the methods of appraising past experience and general personal qualifications by means of the sworn experience sheet and the oral examination and interview.
Before preparing an examination, more thorough knowledge of the duties of the position to be filled is now obtained by the commissioners, in order that the examiners may concentrate their questions and tests upon those which are of direct value in ascertaining actual fitness for the position. This preliminary preparation appears to be carried out with particular thoroughness and care in New York City and Oakland. Advice is obtained from heads of departments and other supervisory officers concerned and from outside persons prominent in related vocations. In preparing examinations the examiners are supplied with the printed materials necessary; and the co-operation of experts is secured. The New York City commission has established a special library for exam-
Pittsburgh, Milwaukee, Houston, Tex., Portland, Ore., Los Angeles City, Philadelphia and Cincinnati, and the annual report of the civil service board and superintendent of employment of the West Chicago park comm:ssioners, for the year 1915. Publications of other civil service agencies containing discussions of problems of the city services are as follows: Proceedings of the eighth meeting of the national assembly of civil service commissions, Los Angeles, June, 1915; Proceedings of the annual meeting of the National Civil Service Reform League, Philadelphia, December, 1915; Report of the committee on co-operation among comm'ss'ons on examination standards, presented at the ninth annual meeting of the national assembly, Ottawa, Canada, June, 1916. Publications on standardization of public employments and other special reports are mentioned at appropriate places in the body of the article.


NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October
5 7b
iners, containing codes, bulletins, departmental reports and other such publications. Similar material from other cities collected by the Municipal Reference Library is also open to the examiners. The commission has likewise instituted, for use in making examinations, a system of exchange of questions, reports and suggestions with other commissions.
The co-operation of experts in the preparation of examinations presents several problems to the commissions. If resort is had to experts within the service, there is chance for suspicion of prejudice and favoritism, and some likelihood that the examination will be too narrowly technical or practical. If the aid of outsiders is sought, this aid is obtained sometimes only under difficulties. Outsiders who, in first instances, gratuitously or for low compensation, give their time and effort from motives of pride or public spirit, come, in connection with subsequent requests for help, to regard the task as irksome; and the commissions ordinarily do not have at their disposal funds with which to offer adequate compensation for such work. Furthermore, it is frequently difficult to find even among recognized experts in a certain field men who possess the peculiar ability to frame questions which are clear and correctly pointed for the purpose in hand. Despite these obstacles, several reports make special mention of the generosity with which outsiders— business and professional men—give their time for low or no remuneration, and of the satisfactory results thus obtained in the framing and conduct of examinations and the grading of papers.2
Practical tests are coming more and more to take the form of trying out the applicants in the actual work which they will be called upon to do if appointed. The New York City commission pursued this method successfully during the past year in examinations for inspector of weights and measures, inspector of blasting, inspector of fire-alarm boxes, swimming instructor, play-ground attendant, psychologist, electrician, stationary engineer, and engineer of steamer. The candidates for inspector of blasting were taken to the bottom of a fifty-foot excavation for the new subway and were there tested as to their familiarity with the character of rocks, use of tools, handling of explosives, firing of blasts, electrical wiring, etc. Candidates for swimming instructor were examined, under the supervision of two well-known swimming experts, in one of the public baths, and were there required to demonstrate their ability in swimming strokes, diving, life saving, and teaching others to swim. The commission makes frequent use of the various city plants and educational institutions in these practical tests.8 Among the recommendations of the Massachusetts commission in their latest reports is that “legislation be enacted which shall enable the commission to establish an experi-
2 See especially reports of the commissions of Minneapolis, New York City, Los Angeles county, Cincinnati and Massachusetts.
3 See also the reports of the Oakland and St. Paul commissions.


1916] PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE 577
mental yard or station in one or more cities of the commonwealth for the purpose of giving practical tests to applicants for the different positions in the classified service.”
The more progressive commissions are making extensive use of the sworn experience sheet in order to ascertain and evaluate the candidate’s actual experience in work of the kind to be performed in the position for which he has applied. Increasing relative weight is in many cases given to experience. In examination for a certain class of the police service by the Massachusetts commission, training and experience now counts 32 per cent, whereas it formerly counted but 20 per cent; the experience weight for Boston firemen has risen from 20 per cent to 40 per cent. The experience sheets are often mailed to applicants some days in advance of the examination in order that they may be filled out with due caution against incompleteness or exaggeration. In order that the experience statements may constitute reliable evidence of an applicant’s suitableness for a position, some means for verifying the statements is necessary. The New York City commission entrusts this work to its bureau of character investigation, which not only has the function of checking up statements as to past experience, but also conducts a detailed investigation into the past records and moral qualifications of persons applying for positions in all branches of the competitive service. The commission regards the work of this bureau as an indispensable protection against fraud and as an effective assurance that men of integrity and good calibre are being recruited for the service.
Oral tests for various positions are being used in two forms: the oral examination—“question and answer given orally, taken down steno-graphically and transcribed for filing with the candidate’s papers,” and the oral interview—a more informal exchange of questions and answers for the purpose of forming an opinion as to the candidate’s general personal qualifications, such as bearing and manners, tact, judgment, courage, ability to express ideas clearly and effectively. The oral examination appears to be especially fitted for tests for positions involving work of the skilled trades, where highly qualified candidates may be peculiarly inexpert in the means of written expression of their knowledge. The oral interview is coming to be regarded as an indispensible test for positions requiring the qualities mentioned above. On the other hand, it is regarded as being attended with the danger of favoritism, or the suspicion of such by outsiders, because of the fact that the identity of candidates cannot be concealed as in the written examination; this difficulty applies in less degree to the oral examination. Moreover, it is sometimes felt that the oral interview as ordinarily conducted can lead only to a very tentative and more or less impressionistic opinion of a candidate’s fitness. These objections can be almost completely avoided, however, as shown by the satisfactory experience of several commissions. To co-
3


578
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October
operate with the staff examiners, great care is taken to secure men of recognized professional standing and of general repute in the community; a stenographic record of the interview is taken; the report of the interview indicates the facts upon which the 'conclusion was reached; and outside persons having a recognized interest in the proceedings may be allowed to attend the interview.
The foregoing sketch of the scope and variety of examining methods illustrates the ever broadening adaptability of the competitive test as a scientific and practical method for recruiting applicants and selecting: from among them those most suitable for administrative positions, high and low. There are relatively few of such positions which do not admit of being filled by this method now since the tests may comprise some or all of the following means of discovering fitness: physical examination, practical trials in acts actually to be performed, written intellectual examination, statement of experience and training, special thesis, oral examination and interview. The New York City commission reports that during the year 1915 it succeeded “in establishing eligible lists for such important administrative positions as superintendent of the municipal lodging house, superintendent of the employment agency, director of the bureau of food inspections, department of health, director of the bureau of social investigations, department of public charities, secretary on recreation for the committee on social welfare, assistant director of the bureau of standards and superintendent of the New York City childrens’ hospitals and schools, Randall’s Island.”
The examination for the last mentioned position, a position demanding very high and specialized ability, training and character, appears to have been devised and executed with exceptional wisdom and success. The examination was developed with the co-operation of Dr. W. E. Fernald,. superintendent of the Massachusetts state institute for feeble minded, at Waverly, and was thrown open to the entire country. The experience requirement included the possession of a medical degree, experience in the management of child-caring institutions, and other features, which, had to be described in a detailed account; this test eliminated eighteen of the thirty-four original candidates. The remaining sixteen were required to prepare a thesis covering a discussion of all points of the pathology and treatment of feeble-mindedness in children and a formulation of detailed plans for the construction and administration of an institution for feeble-minded; this was a non-assembled test, the candidates being allowed ten days for preparing their theses. Six candidates being eliminated by this test, the remaining ten were separately given oral tests in the office of the commission; the object of this test was to check up the actual knowledge and experience of the candidates and to obtain judgment of their personal qualifications. The result of this test was the;


1916] PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE
579
establishment of a final eligible list of seven names.4 At the time of writing the commission is engaged in conducting competitive tests along similar lines for the position of director of central purchasing.
SERVICE RECORDS
Efficiency, or service, markings, are shown by the reports to have several objects. They are of definite value to civil service commissions in establishing promotion lists; they assist departmental heads in the administration of their departments; they supply concrete evidence in requests by departmental heads for increases in salaries or for additional employes; they provide data for the work of standardizing titles, duties and salaries; they stimulate employes to greater diligence and alertness; they facilitate the elimination of unworthy employes from the service. The New York City commission proposes to derive further benefit from such records by assigning some of its examiners to efficiency record work; they expect that this will supply the examiners with valuable information and suggestions to use in the preparation of examinations.
A difficult problem of efficiency marking is that of the proper selection and rating of the different factors to be considered. It is recognized that the relative values of given factors vary with different groups of employes; and certain factors applicable in one group may not be applicable at all in another group. In Oakland the general factors considered are ability, quantity of work, reliability, attendance, and discipline. The weights for the first three factors “vary with the duties and responsibility of the position. To illustrate, the weights for a batallion chief, fire department, are 6-1-3; for a senior clerk, 3-4-3; for a common laborer, 1-8-1.
. . . The basis of marking is 80 points for the satisfactory employe,
with due weight given to every point above or below. Markings below 70 are cause for discharge from the service, and the rules require the Board to file charges if the employe is not discharged. Attendance and discipline markings are mandatory and according to fixed rules, and are deducted from the positive markings in making the final markings. The departments file with the Board the net monthly markings, with explanation of cause for markings above 85 or below 75, and these are entered on the efficiency record of the employe after approval by the board. The executive is made careful in his marking and the employe is protected by the right of appeal to the board.” In fit. Paul efficiency is graded under the five factors of ability, industry, reliability, attendance, and discipline; the marking is done by letters, standing, respectively, for such qualifying
4 Appointment was made of Dr. W. B. Cornell, of Maryland, who stood third on the list. He is a man of broad scholarship and successful experience in clinical and administrative work in institutions for feeble-minded. It is a practice in New York City to select the highest name on a list of eligibles. In this instance the persons standing higher declined final appointment.


580 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October
adjectives as “excellent,” “good,” “fair,” etc.; the letters are then translated by the civil service bureau to a percentage basis.
The New York City commission, in December, 1915, issued a bulletin setting forth a proposed new system of service records for municipal employes. The proposals are the outcome of conferences between the New York bureau of municipal research and the civil service commission, the bulletin being based on a comprehensive report submitted by the bureau to the commission. It outlines a “standard code of regulations to govern preparation of service records.” These regulations define the factors and sub-factors to be used in preparation of ratings, the classification of employments and percentages to be given to the various factors in each class, the method for preparing ratings by the employes and by heads of bureaus and divisions and for review of ratings by departmental personnel boards and by the commission, and the relative weights to be given to written examination, service record and seniority record in establishing promotion lists. These weights are .5, .35, and .15, respectively. The plan of service records outlined in the bulletin is being applied as an experiment in the health department, law department, department of^bridges, park department (Bronx), and civil service commission; and it has been submitted to heads of departments generally and employes for criticism and suggestion.
During the year 1915 the New York City commission has secured the adoption of an improved system for rewarding meritorious service in the uniformed force of the police and fire departments. Formerly service awards were based largely upon chance acts of bravery, and the demerits based almost exclusively upon infractions of departmental regulations. This unfairly limited and misleading method has now been superceded by a system of awards which comprises a recognition of less spectacular acts involving conscientious and efficient performance of daily duties.
ADMINISTRATIVE REORGANIZATION AND STANDARDIZATION
Some commissions have interested themselves actively in the work of reconstructing administrative organization and methods, with such objects as the following: simplification and centralization in the organization of administrative departments; elimination of unnecessary positions; installation of means of greater economy and expertness in operation; remedying of particular deficiencies in equipment and methods; extension or limitation of municipal activities. The accomplishments in this line by the Oakland civil service board, since its establishment in 1911, will sufficiently illustrate this phase of the work of the commissions. Through its efficiency division which was organized in November, 1913, it has secured many changes, including the following: a combination of the positions of superintendent of streets and city engineer and a thorough reorganization of the street department with a net elimination of


1916] PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE
581
nine positions carrying each a salary of $100 or more per month, and the installation of cost account records in the department; a reorganization of the health, harbor, building construction, park, and electrical departments; the establishment of a central municipal garage supplanting the former separate and unchecked departmental care of the various city machines; the establishment of a central purchasing department; a survey of the fire department, with many recommendations as to improvements in equipment, methods, and organization, some of which recommendations have been adopted by the department; the installation of the efficiency marking system; and the establishment of a comprehensive system of uniform accounting and control of budget appropriations.
The movement for reclassifying the municipal civil service arises from the growing recognition of the waste and injustice inherent in the following conditions prevailing in the service: the wide' variance in compensation received by different employes performing the same or similar duties in the same or different offices, with excessive overpayment or underpayment in many positions, resulting from the irregular ways in which salaries are fixed—often by political influences; the confusion, friction and injustice resulting from the multiplicity and misleading character of titles of positions, with widely varying titles often attached to positions carrying the same or similar duties; the inequitable method of promotion and salary advancement. Programs for standardization have sought, through comprehensive surveys of the local service and studies of salary and service data from private establishments and the governments of other cities, to work out new and detailed classifications and definitions in such way as to introduce system, clarity and equity into the civil service, particularly in such matters as the following: the specification of qualifications, titles and duties; the advertising and conduct of examinations; the adjustment of compensation to service values; the fixing of lines of promotion and salary-increases.
Revision and standardization have been accomplished, extensively or narrowly, in Chicago (beginning in 1910), Portland, Ore., Houston, Tex., Oakland, Los Angeles County and City, and St. Paul. Studies of standardization are under way in New York City, Pittsburgh, Milwaukee, Philadelphia, and Minneapolis, as well as in the state services of New York, Ohio, Wisconsin and Massachusetts. In most of the cities emphasis has been upon standardization of salaries; but this in all cases has required some revision of titles and redefinition of duties and qualifications. The work in cities has generally been undertaken by, or under the direction of, the local civil service commission; this, for example, has been true in Chicago, Oakland, Los Angeles County, St. Paul and Minneapolis.
The exhaustive investigations of standardization in New York City, Pittsburgh and New York State have been in charge of agencies independent of the civil service commissions. In New York City the work has


582
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October
been in the hands of the bureau of standards, which is the working staff of the committee on salaries and grades of the board of estimate and apportionment. The investigations and reports of the bureau of standards have been made largely by the staff of the bureau of municipal research. In Pittsburgh the work has been done by a specially created committee on standardization working under the supervision of the mayor and the city finance department; for this investigation the city council employed the New York bureau of municipal research. For the New York State service the investigation has been made by the committee on civil service of the state senate. This committee was first created at the opening of the 1915 session of the legislature for the purpose of studying employment conditions with special reference to reclassification and standardization. As a result of the preliminary report of this committee, in April, 1915, describing existing conditions of the state service, the senate provided for the continuance and extension of the investigation with the view to securing constructive and comprehensive recommendations. For this latter inquiry the committee employed an examining staff of accountants, engineers, and other men working under the immediate supervision of A. W. Proctor of the New York bureau of municipal research, and received general assistance from the bureau in all phases of the work.
The most valuable recent reports on the subject of standardization are the following: “Standardization of Public Employments”—the November, 1915, issue of Municipal Research, the monthly publication of the New York bureau of municipal research; “Comparative Salary Data,” a pamphlet issued by the Philadelphia bureau in March, 1916; “Report of the [N. Y.] Senate committee on civil Service in relation to the standardization of the public employments of the state,” printed in a bound volume of over a thousand pages; “Standard Specifications for Public Service”— the report prepared by the bureau of standards for the board of estimate and apportionment of New York City and embodying the proposed reclassification of the city service, issued in June of this year in a printed volume of nearly a thousand pages.
The four publications just mentioned contain materials indispensable for any study of the essential points of the nature and progress of the standardization movement. In this connection reference should also be made to the article by W. C. Beyer of the Philadelphia bureau of municipal research, on “Standardization of Salaries in American Cities,” appearing in the April number of the National Municipal Review, vol. v, pp. 266-72, and to the recommendations on classification in the “Report of Committee on co-operation among commissions on examination standards.”
Though the study of standardization in New York City was made by the bureau of standards, independently of the civil service commission,


1916] PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE
583
the latter body has given close attention to the subject during the past year and, after a critical examination of the proposals of the bureau, has approved its main conclusions, recommending changes only in minor details. Agreement between the bureau and commission has been reached in the matter of these minor differences; and the commission has promoted the adoption of the proposed classification by the board of estimate and apportionment for the budget of 1917. The commission advocates the transfer to itself of many of the functions of the bureau of standards. As the body through which appointing officers receive most of their employes, and which is consequently required to conduct tests of varying types according to the varying needs of the service, the commission regards itself as the body primarily concerned in having exact information as to the duties of employes and departments, and primarily interested in the proper classification of the service and the proper specification of duties and titles. It recommends that the city charter be so amended as to provide “that when the board of estimate and apportionment recommends the establishment of positions to the board of aldermen it shall accompany such recommendations with a certificate that the titles proposed have been approved by the civil service commission, and that the board of aldermen shall be prohibited from changing the title of any position unless the civil service commission shall have previously consented thereto.”
MISCELLANEOUS POINTS
The limits of this article preclude any satisfactory indication of the many other points of progress revealed in recent reports of civil service bodies. There seems to be a marked improvement in the handling of provisional appointments, methods having been devised to reduce greatly abuses by appointing authorities in this matter.5 More intelligent and economical methods for advertising examinations, for recruiting and eliminating applicants, and for distributing information concerning the scope and methods of examination have been adopted in some places.6 The New York City commission has formulated and published new physical standards in groupings which they regard as adapted to the various classes of positions in such way as to afford more practical guidance to medical examiners and to save time and expense to the govern-
6 See especially reports of the commissions of New York City, pp. 24-5, Los Angeles county, pp. 9-10, and the annual report of the civil service board and superintendent of employment of the West Chicago park commissioners. Cf. report of committee on co-operation, p. 23.
6 See reports of the commissions of New York City, pp. 5-7, 23-4, St. Paul, p. 8, and Massachusetts, pp. 10-12. See also the “Manual of Information to Applicants concerning Examinations and Eligible Lists,” issued by the Massachusetts commission, and the illustrated pamphlet of the Philadelphia commission, issued October, 1915, under the title “Practical Examinations of the Civil Service Commission.”


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ment and to the prospective applicants by excluding at the outset those physically unfit to perform the duties of the places they might seek, and also those who by reason of some physical defect would' be likely to become subsequently, through lowered efficiency, a handicap to the service. Useful suggestions on the registration and examination of laborers appear in the reports of the Minneapolis and St. Paul commissions and in the recommendations of the committee on co-operation. The question of the value and means of co-operation among civil service commissions is discussed by F. E. Doty, chief examiner of the Los Angeles County commission, in the proceedings of the eighth meeting of the national assembly.
Several reports show gratifying extensions of the merit principle through transfers of positions from the exempt to the competitive class. Accounts of progress and retrogression in civil service reform appear in the report of the council of the National Civil Service Reform League published in the proceedings of the annual meeting of the league, Philadelphia, December, 1915, and appear also in the monthly issues of Good Government, the official journal of the League. A review of the adverse phase of civil service development would require particular and extended consideration of the upheavals in Chicago, Cleveland and Philadelphia, resulting from the disrupting interferences by Mayors Thompson, Davis and Smith,7 and also of the controversy in 1914 and 1915 between the New York State and New York City commissions.8 A possible point of progress may be achieved in the proposed new charter for Los Angeles, which contains a provision setting aside annually for the expenses of the civil service commission a definite share of the city’s revenue. Civil service reformers in that city hope that with this additional and independent revenue the commission will be enabled particularly to do two things which the uncertainty and insufficiency of funds have hitherto prevented it from doing: the keeping of efficiency ratings of all employes, and the conduct of examinations on more thoroughly practical lines.
In conclusion emphasis should again be placed upon the manner in which the records of recent civil service achievements afford refutation of fallacious notions, growing out of ignorance or prejudice, that the purposes of civil service workers are impracticable or that their methods are academic. At the same time, the review of the records prompts a question of caution concerning the extent to which civil service commissions may wisely constitute themselves bureaus of general administrative efficiency, concerning themselves in detail with such matters as the scope of municipal functions, the methods of administrative organization and
7 See National Municipal Review, vol. v, pp. 316-9.
8 See the article in the January issue of the National Municipal Review, vol. v pp. 47-55, by Nelson S. Spencer, on “New York City’s Civil Service,” and also the Thirty-third Report of the State Civil Service Commission of New York, 1916.


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action and the size of administrative personnel. There is no place in this article to suggest the limits to which the necessary advances into this field by civil service agencies properly go. Criticism has been made that certain commissions, advanced and thorough in the work of standardization or reconstruction, for example, have allowed the character of their examining work to depreciate. We can here make only the obvious comment that no broadening of activities by the commissions should be allowed to produce the slightest neglect of their primary and fundamental function—namely, the administration of regulations promoting efficiency and honesty in administration through the intelligent and non-partisan selection, advancement and retirement of appointive public employes.


LOCAL OPTION IN THE UNITED STATES
PHILIP A. BOYER,1 Philadelphia
MORE and more as society progresses and becomes more completely organized and integrated does the welfare of the whole depend upon' the steadiness and efficiency of each individual. The dominating note of the time is efficiency, efficient democracy, efficient national and local government, efficiency in manufacturing, in agriculture, in all industrial work. Good health and active, alert minds are prime requisites for efficiency and to secure this desired condition we make laws for pure food, fresh air, parks, playgrounds, sanitary housing, healthful working conditions and the like. This all means that individuals are gradually learning to live sanely and temperately. Under the stress of modern competition, a man must be master of his faculties or he cannot keep his place. Just in proportion then, as this connection between the
Editorial Note: Considerable unrelated data relating to the application of the principle of local option having come into the hands of the Editor, he consulted with Prof. J. P. Lichtenberger, of the University of Pennsylvania, as to an available man among his graduate students to complete and correlate it. Mr. Boyer was the man recommended. He entered upon the study of the problem involved without any predisposition or bias. The conclusions are his own, and the Editor did not know what they were until the manuscript was handed to him. It may seem somewhat out of the ordinary to make such an explanation, but it is due to the readers of the National Municipal Review and to the members of the National Municipal League to know the facts, inasmuch as there are those who are disposed to criticize the National Municipal League and the National Municipal Review unless articles dealing with the liquor problem support a certain propaganda. The League maintains the National Municipal Review for a fair and free discussion of the various problems of the city. The quarterly is as apt to publish an article at variance with the views of its active men, as one in harmony with them, and that because it believes all sides, when fairly put, are entitled to a hearing. As a highly controversial and most important question, its pages should be particularly open to a full and free discussion of all phases of the liquor problem. For this reason we welcomed George C. Sikes’s proffered article on “The Liquor Question and Municipal Reform”—(See vol. v, p. 411), and for the same reason we have invited an article on the influence of prohibition on municipal affairs in Tennessee, which we expect to publish in an early issue, and we hope we may do so without running the risk of having some reader wondering, as one did after the appearance of the Sikes article, if it were not possible that there was “a nigger in the woodpile.” Robert S. Keebler who is to prepare the article for us is a member of the Memphis bar, who is deeply interested in constitutional reform. He has been highly commended to us by those whom we hold in high esteem, as a fair minded, sincere student of public questions.—C. R. W.
*B. S., Temple University, 1912; A.M., University of Pennsylvania, 1915, in sociology, economics and education. Principal of the Richardson L. Wright Public School, Philadelphia. Mr. Boyer has prepared the following statistical studies: “Class Size and School Progress” in Psychological Clinic, May 1914; Retardation; Variability of Composition Grades; Effective Definition (A Study in Method).
586


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general welfare and individual efficiency becomes more intimate, society surrounds the individual with more careful provision for his well-being.
One of the most pressing of our social problems is that of the use of intoxicating liquors, and it is only because the use of this class of beverages lends itself so readily to abuse that it is a social problem at all. The growing dissatisfaction with the drink habit cannot be accounted for on moral or religious grounds. Men are to-day no more religious, no more moral than ever before. Their actions are, however, more closely and intimately interwoven into the socio-economic fabric and, therefore, it is a social and economic problem which liquor presents. Moral, religious and economic ideals have done much to hedge about the use of intoxicating liquors, but society, through the machinery of organized government, has chosen to attack the problem by way of the traffic, for trade is pre-eminently a social act.
Society, then, deals with the liquor problem principally through legislation directed at the traffic. In regard to the status of this liquor legislation, John Koren, expert investigator for the committee of fifty, has this to say:
“The bald truth is that, viewed as a whole, the liquor legislation of the United States invites bewilderment and despair rather than admiration and confidence. The sum total of our efforts to legislate concerning an exceedingly difficult social problem is unintelligent and thereby largely ineffective. How can it be otherwise so long as the laws aiming to regulate ‘an inherently dangerous traffic’ proceed largely from unthinking agitation, careless or indirected experimentation, hasty piling of inconsequential statutes upon statutes and endlessly amending them in unessential details?”
Perhaps most people are not aware of the true state of affairs. Others regard it complacently except when the legal machinery created for us shows too obvious signs of breaking down, and then are content to have more tinkering done by incompetent hands. Whether we blame ignorance or indifference, the fact remains that what we are pleased to call systems of liquor legislation are, for the greater part, crude make-shifts that fail of their purpose and often prove a stumbling block in the way of good government. In proof of this, it almost suffices to state that there are nearly as many systems of dealing with the liquor traffic as there are license states, notwithstanding many points of similarity. Yet, given the same problem, which everywhere produces an abundant crop of the same perplexities, it is unthinkable that it can be met with equal success through regulative systems that differ in fundamental principles. It is begging the question to say that our restrictive legislation has been a total failure, for it has not been rational nor progressive. True, it is exceedingly prolific, but it evidences a search for varieties rather than for central principles. The invention of legal irritants has been mistaken


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for the discovery of elements that make for stable control. The whole fabric of liquor laws is of the haphazard order, from the pivotal question of the authorities who should grant privileges to sell and their power bf control, down to the most trivial detail. The experiments may appear numerous, but are for the greater part revivals of time-worn expedients.
This backward condition of our liquor legislation is easily accounted for. Its key-note has always been repression and penalties, regardless of whether they could be enforced. Progressive measures have been blocked not solely by the trade, but by persons most inimical to it, whose theory is that the worse the status of the trade becomes the sooner it will be abolished. Therefore, they look askance at such practical means of promoting sobriety as that of taxing intoxicants according to their alcoholic strength and of favoring the substitution of the least intoxicating beverages in every way.
The acceptance of the doctrine of force as the means of making men sober spells the despair of the temperance cause; its hope lies in efforts for gradual betterment through ethical forces and general enlightenment plus progressive restriction. But this plea for scientific investigation and for intelligent and effective modification, restriction and regulation of the traffic is unheeded by a great body of people who, in utter despair of any good coming from such treatment of the problem, and with somewhat of emotional intoxication born of this despair, cry out for the complete eradication of the multitudinous evils of the traffic by means of its total prohibition.
In this effort to wipe out the liquor evil by abolishing the traffic, the prime movers are the Prohibition party and the Anti-saloon league.. The Prohibition party points to "the failure of all non-political efforts to adequately cope with the problem, and the defeat of all attempts to solve the problem through the license parties and their candidates.” The mission of the party is not to fight the liquor traffic, but to oppose those political forces that foster and protect the traffic.
The Anti-saloon league, on the other hand, while working toward the same end of national prohibition, is willing to accept small gains in the hope that the final total of these may sometime be so great as to secure the desired result. However, strong in their insistance that the liquor evil is national and must be dealt with nationally to be handled effectively, these reformers, finding national prohibition impossible at present and realizing that even state-wide prohibition is unattainable without having first secured within the state a more or less completely organized sentiment against the liquor traffic, have set about to create such sentiment, and to back it up by actual test of and experience with prohibition of a local nature. This procedure is clearly outlined in bold type in a recent leaflet of the Michigan anti-saloon league as follows: “No state has recently adopted state-wide prohibition until half its territory was ‘dry’'


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by ‘local option.’ . . . When enough counties in Michigan go ‘dry’
Michigan will have state-wide prohibition. . . . When nineteen
more states go ‘dry’ we will have national prohibition. . . . Your
votes, your money, your influence, count for a ‘dry’ county, a ‘dry’ state, a ‘dry’ nation.”
In other words, those who would solve the problems of the liquor traffic by its total national prohibition, have chosen to approach the problem piece-meal through the principle of local option. Here the path of the reformer is easier and the gains are tangible. Moreover the underlying principle of democracy is apparently more fully conserved thereby, for democracy means self-government. While the term ‘ ‘local option ” might be construed to refer to any one of the many matters of strictly local concern, its use has come to be limited to the question of the liquor traffic. Further, while, even in this field, local option may be and is exercised on such matters as the kinds of license, methods of dispensing liquor, regulation and limitation of the number of licensed houses, hours of closing, etc., the term is commonly held to apply solely to local decisions on the question of full prohibition. A local option election determines whether the unit concerned shall prohibit or license the sale of liquor, whether it shall be "wet” or "dry.”
The purpose then, of the local option principle is to permit the local community an unhindered expression of its will in the matter of legalizing or prohibiting the sale of liquor. For the germ of local option legislation one has to go back to the year 1829, when the selectmen of each town in Maine were authorized to decide whether or not liquor selling should be permitted. This indirect method of deciding the issue soon ceased to have a legal warrant. The real beginnings of local option legislation date back to the eighties when the experiments with state-wide prohibition had become discredited. Experience had shown that, although general prohibition had everywhere been disregarded or evaded in the large urban centers, and that this had led to a condition of things that was fraught with serious menace to true progress, the law was nevertheless capable of enforcement in the rural districts and small towns. Hence local option laws. It is worthy of note, however, that even while lacking any warrant in law, not a few strictly rural communities had undertaken to exclude the liquor traffic and did it successfully.
Massachusetts led the way in 1881 with the first full-fledged local option law, which ever since has been in force. By the year 1900 there were seventeen states in which local option could legally be exercised by direct popular vote applicable to all localities; six had local option by direct popular vote applicable to special localities or rural districts only; nine states had direct local option through discretionary power vested in city councils and other local governing bodies; and in five states there


“WET" AND "DRY” TERRITORIAL MAP OF* THE UNITED STATES, APRIL 1, 1916
Note.—Virginia’s Prohibition law goes into effect November 1, 1916.
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existed the right of vote by remonstrance and by provisions requiring the consent of legal voters or property holders.
At present there are nineteen prohibition states:—
Alabama 1915 North Carolina 1909
Arizona 1915 North Dakota 1889
Arkansas 1916 Oklahoma 1907
Colorado 1916 Oregon 1916
Georgia 1908 South Carolina 1916
Idaho 1916 Tennessee 1909
Iowa .' 1916 Virginia5 1916
Kansas 1880 Washington 1916
Maine 1858 West Virginia 1914
Mississippi 1909
Only three license states, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Nevada, lack any provision for local option by popular vote, and even here, means have been found to make certain limited sections dry. In Pennsylvania the supreme court has decided that the Brooks high license law gives the judges of the license court absolute discretion in the licensing of saloons. Consequently the judicial-mindedness of a candidate is frequently determined by his stand on the liquor question. By this very doubtful procedure sufficient prohibition judges have been elected to make eleven counties dry by refusing to grant licenses. In New Jersey, special charter provisions have enabled certain cities, townships and boroughs to exclude the saloon. Nevada is a strong license state, but even here 10 per cent of the taxpayers in any rural school-district can exclude the saloon if they can prove it to be detrimental to the public health and morals of the community. The remaining twenty-six states have local option laws which apply to a variety of territorial districts ranging from residence districts of municipalities to entire counties. Among the territorial districts which have been adopted as units for local option election are the following:—county; city; town; township; village; supervisorial district; county outside of city, town, village; supervisorial district outside towns or cities; parish; precinct; election district; school district; residence district; ward; block.
The principle of local option must be conceded. But what does “local” mean? State governments are local as compared with the nation of which they are a part, but the term local option does not apply here. Local means a sub-division of a state. The largest sub-division of a state is the county. This is the unit for local government and at first blush it would seem to be the desired unit for option on the liquor traffic. If the people of the county live under identical social, environmental and
^Prohibition effective Nov. 1, 1916.


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■economic conditions, if the county government exercises the necessary executive and judicial as well as legislative functions throughout the extent of the territory in question, then the county is the proper unit for local option. But where the county contains a town with its own local officers and government and where, as is often the case, the sentiment on the liquor traffic in the town is at variance with that of the surrounding rural portions of the county, anomalous situations are bound to arise. For example, Muskingum county, Ohio, held an election under the Rose county option law in which 14,973 votes were cast. Zanesville, the county seat, gave a majority of 1414 in favor of the sale of liquor, but the county as a whole gave a dry majority of 1011. Again, the city of Springfield voted wet by 2,000, but Clark county, of which it is the county-seat, went dry by 139 votes. The county had no machinery for the enforcement of the law in the city. It was therefore left to the civic authorities of Springfield to enforce the suppression of the sale of liquor against the wishes of its people. It is plain that this situation is not conducive to law enforcement. Because of a provision in the county option law these towns had no way of making effective their wet choice even though the Beal law provides option for towns and villages. Therefore these towns had county option but no local option, and they found a means of securing this local option by the passage in 1914 of a home rule amendment to the state constitution as follows: “No law shall be passed or be in effect prohibiting the sale, or giving away of intoxicating liquor operating to a sub-division of the state upon a vote of the electors thereof, or upon any other contingency, which has force within a territory larger than a municipal corporation or a township outside of a municipal corporation therein.” A similar situation was presented in Indiana when in 1908 a county-unit local option law was passed under which the state voted itself almost completely dry by counties. However, the reaction was rapid, for in 1911 a city and township option law was substituted and more than 600 saloons were reopened. Florida, Maryland, Michigan and Montana maintain the strict county unit; Kentucky, Texas and Minnesota have county option, but permit resubmission of the question to smaller units after the county of which they are a part has voted “wet.” However, if the county votes “dry,” no such smaller-unit resubmission of the question is permitted. The anti-saloon league is constantly agitating for county-unit local option because this unit is most effective in securing large additions to dry territory. However, the fact that only four states use this county-unit unqualifiedly, indicates rather clearly that people generally recognize the inexpediency of county local option.
Twenty-two of the twenty-six local option states have laws which apply to units smaller than the county. There seems to be an endeavor to confine the term “local” to the smallest self-governing community. Hence we have city, township, town, village option with the privilege


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also accorded to the outlying sections of counties not included in any of the above. It will be seen that this arrangement does not prevent a whole county from becoming dry. The incorporated towns and villages and the unincorporated outlying sections may vote dry separately. However, this scheme does prevent the rural vote of a county from forcing prohibition on an unwilling town within its borders. In so far as local option has for its purpose to register the will of a local self-governing community on the question of the liquor traffic, these units for that decision seem ideal. The traffic is prohibited or permitted by popular vote of just that group of people who must live under the condition so determined. If a town votes wet it may have saloons; if dry, then it will have none. This would appear to be perfectly just and to work well except for the fact that the purpose of local option, at least for the reformer, is prohibition. The town that votes dry rids itself of the saloon and its attendant evils, but it does not rid itself of drinking and the effect of nearby saloons. “Burlington, Vermont, votes for license and South Burlington for prohibition. The relations between the two communities are so close that many residents of South Burlington are nearer the licensed places in Burlington than people living in the extreme north part of the city. Moreover, the bottle license practically extends license from every town voting for it to every other town in the region tributary to that community. St. Albans, for example, is the shire town of Franklin county, Vermont, and the inhabitants of every town in the county go to St. Albans to trade, to attend to legal matters and to transact various kinds of business. Residents of those towns in Franklin county that have voted against license at home have no difficulty in securing all the liquor they want at St. Albans and taking it home with them. It makes no difference where the liquor happens to be sold. The supreme issue is where are the effects of the liquor felt. ” For years the towns around Boston have voted dry, but they are in such intimate connection with Boston that they may really be said to be wet. Local option becomes in these cases a restrictive rather than a prohibitory measure. By voting dry a community outlaws the saloon, not in general, not everywhere, but only within its own limits, knowing well that liquor may be easily secured when desired.
Still smaller local units show the tendency of restriction through local option. Wards, residence districts and even city blocks exercise option in eleven states. These divisions are units to be sure, but they are not centers of local self-government. They have no machinery for carrying their decisions into effect. They are entirely dependent upon the larger unit of which they are a part, and the only purpose of voting dry is to exclude the saloon from their own immediate neighborhood. It can hardly be said that a dry vote in so small a section indicates a desire for prohibition. It seems rather to show a policy of restriction, of segregation. Indeed this same purpose is achieved through city ordinances or


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even state laws prohibiting saloons in residence districts, creating a dry area of two miles around cities of certain sizes, limiting saloons to one for every 500 of population, restricting them to the “ effectively policed parts of cities” and excluding them from the vicinity of churches, schools, homes and manufacturing plants. All these provisions are regulatory; not prohibitory. They do not indicate a no-license policy and cannot therefore be counted as gains toward the goal of state or national prohibition except in so far as the segregation of the saloon drives the saloon into a corner where it may finally be killed.
Thus we see that when the principle of local option is confined to very small sections, its effect amounts solely to restriction. There is little if any effect on the consumption of intoxicating liquors. The sentiment of the people is so uniform, the composition of the people is so homogeneous that dissenters are few and their influence is feeble. Combine with this the fact of easy access to neighboring license sections and it is clear that there is here no inherent difficulty in law enforcement. In general, these same observations hold true when the unit is extended to embrace the town, township, village or city. Students of municipal government are strenuously advocating a larger measure of home rule. This should certainly include control of the liquor traffic. If the people of such a local self-governing community have the choice to become wet as well as to become dry, then the principle of local option is conserved. However, as the term “local” is construed to refer to larger and larger units, difficulties multiply. When the unit is extended to embrace the county, which usually contains distinct groups of people with characteristically different views on the liquor traffic, then the wisdom of the principle becomes questionable. When the rural prohibition vote so preponderates over the urban vote for license as to cause the whole county to become dry, then the town has no option. Hence the extension of local option beyond a very small local government destroys the very essence of its purpose. It destroys all option in the towns and cities whose inhabitants repudiate prohibition by their votes. County local option becomes in these cases county coercion.
Methods of registering the option are as diverse as are the sizes of the units concerned. For this reason the accompanying table has been prepared to show the salient features of the local option laws of each state. It will be noted that in most cases, local option elections occur as the result of petitions signed by a given number or per cent of the electorate. The percentage required varies from 10 per cent in Connecticut to 40 per cent in Ohio (Beale Law), the modal per cent being 25 per cent, required in eight states. Occasionally a 50 per cent petition is required, as in Ohio residence-districts, but in this case no election is necessary. The basis of the percentage is usually the whole number of qualified electors, registered or legal voters, though in some few cases the per cent is based


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on the vote cast at the last preceding election (Illinois). Still further refinement enters when the basis of the per cent is made the vote cast for some designated officer, e.g., governor in California and Minnesota, in counties; secretary of state in Indiana townships and mayor in cities. This will be recognized purely as a device of temperance forces to decrease the number of signatures required to make a petition valid.
Usually the form of the petition is definitely prescribed and a verification of signatures required, e.g.
FORM OF PETITION.
“We, the undersigned, registered voters of --------- county, state of
Florida, hereby make application to, and petition this honorable board of county commissioners in and for said county to call an election to decide whether the sale of intoxicating liquors, wines or beer shall be prohibited in said county. Said election to be called and conducted according to the constitution of this state, and the statutes thereof, heretofore made and provided. No such election has been held in said county for more than two years prior hereto.
“Hereto attached, and in support hereof are one-fourth or more of the registered voters of said county as provided by law. ”
The petition is filed with the licensing authorities who then order au election. In some cases this election is a special election held from twenty to sixty days after filing the petition, unless this conflicts with a regular election, in which case the local election is deferred. In other cases (fourteen states) the time of the local option election is that of the next local or general election. In all cases a majority vote decides the question. If a majority votes against license, then prohibition is the rule in the entire unit concerned, but if the majority votes for license, subdivisions of the unit may, in some cases, resubmit the question and vote themselves dry (California, Florida, Kentucky, Texas). Accordingly prohibition is often forced upon a recalcitrant community, but license never.
A local option decision holds good until another election is petitioned for in the legal manner, except that the question may not be resubmitted for periods ranging from one year (in Louisiana, Massachusetts, Nebraska, South Dakota, Vermont, Wisconsin and parts of Connecticut and Minnesota) to four years (in Missouri, New Mexico and parts of New Hampshire) . The usual limit on resubmission is two years. This term is used in ten states and in parts of New Hampshire. The submission of the license question annually does not give time for a fair trial of either the license or no-license policy and results in much vacillation and wavering. The problem is kept constantly before the people by continuous agitation. This state of affairs is considered eminently desirable by local prohibitionists who feel that through this means of continuous agitation, the liquor question may be kept prominently in the minds of the people and so result in the gradual, but sure development of a determination to have


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done with the whole problem by the complete eradication of its cause, the saloon. This singleness of purpose, characteristic of the reformer who, like a balky horse, always wears blinders, so that he cannot, even if he will, see either to right or left, is not without its advantages to society. But a broader more unbiased view of the problem points very definitely to the conclusion that a period of one year is much too brief for the consummation of the very complex social adjustments necessary to the satisfactory operation of either plan. Two years would be a better term and even three years would not be too long for a thorough trial of and an intelligent, unified judgment on the policy determined.
Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Vermont vote by towns on the question of license or no license, without petition, at the regular annual town election. Maryland and Delaware may vote on the question by counties only when permission is granted by a special act of the State legislature. South Dakota is peculiar in that it is considered dry till voted wet. Saloons must be petitioned for and voted in or the territory remains dry, and a wet local unit becomes dry automatically at the end of the license year unless revoted wet. New Mexico and Wyoming have rural prohibition, and Wyoming has municipal council option.
As will be seen in the table, all states have laws prohibiting the liquor traffic in specially designated areas. In general these areas surround schools, churches, homes, camp meetings, construction camps, etc. The saloon is undesirable in the neighborhood of school, church or home; it is dangerous in the vicinity of a camp meeting or a construction camp, hence it is ostracised. Besides these general restrictions there are numerous local limitations on the location of saloons as well as on the proportion of saloons to the population. These local restrictions are in their nature essentially local option provisions though not usually so considered.
The success of the no-license agitation is indicated by the fact that at the present time, by state constitutional and statutory provision and by local decisions, 80 per cent of the land area of the United States is under prohibition. In this dry area live 54 per cent of the population of the country. More than one-half of the population of the United States, spread over four-fifths of its area, is under no-license. The proportion of population living in dry territory, the proportion of population which is rural and the proportion of population which is native white of native parentage, are identical (54 per cent). This is more than mere coincidence for, while we know of dry cities and wet country-districts, prohibition is largely rural except where state laws have imposed it upon urban centers, and prohibition sections generally show a high per cent of native white of native parentage.
An analysis of the statistics of urban population for the nineteen prohibition states shows a range from 11 per cent in North Dakota to 53 per cent in Washington, but the median per cent is low (20.6 per cent in


1916] LOCAL OPTION IN THE UNITED STATES 597
Georgia), showing that most prohibition states are distinctly rural. The following summary of these figures will make this clear:
Per cent of population which is urban States
Above 46............................................... 3
Between 30 and 46...................................... 3
Between 20 and 30...................................... 5
Less than 20........................................... 8
It will be observed here that only three states (Colorado, Maine and Washington) have an urban population exceeding 46.3 per cent which is the proportion for the United States as a whole. Thirteen, or more than two-thirds of the prohibition states have less than 30 per cent of population urban. On the other hand, these prohibition states show a high proportion of native whites of native parentage in the composition of their population. The percentages range from 26.4 per cent in North Dakota to 85.3 per cent in West Virginia with 62 asthe median per cent. Thirteen of these states show a higher percentage of this class of population than that of the UnitedStatesasawhole(53.8per cent). Ten of these nineteen states adopted prohibition within the pastyear, yet the median per cent of population urban rose only 1.3 points from 19.3 per cent in 1915 to 20.6 per cent in 1916, and the per cent of native white of native parentage fell only 5.3 points from 67.3 per cent in 1915 to 62.0 per cent in 1916. Thus we see that more than doubling the number of prohibition states has made no appreciable change in the character of population affected. State prohibition, then, appeals to states whose populations are largely rural and native white of native parentage.
In the twenty-six local option states, the per centage of area made dry by local legislation ranges from 18.0 per cent in Rhode Island to 98.3 per cent in Wyoming with the median per cent at 78.5. Only three of these states have less than half their area under no-license, seven are between one-half and three-fourths dry and sixteen states are more than three-fourths dry. Of these sixteen states, five are more than 90 per cent dry. Hence with nineteen states wholly dry, sixteen states more than three-fourths dry, and seven states more than half dry it would appear from the map that national prohibition, requiring the consent of thirty-six states, is not far off. However the urban communities have always proved an effective check on such a procedure and indeed many voters who welcome local prohibition are unalterably opposed to a national prohibitory measure.
In the proportion of the population living in no-license sections of local option states there is wide variation. The range is from 3 per cent in Rhode Island to 91 per cent in Florida with the median per cent at 42. We saw in the figures for the United States as a whole that there was a marked similarity in the per cents of population dry, rural and native


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white. In the distribution of these per cents for the twenty-six local option states there is a general and fairly regular fall in the per cent of population rural and native white as the per cent of population dry decreases. The prohibition and license states are added to the following summary of the full table in order to make it complete:—
Per cent of Per cent of Per cent of
Slates. •population population population
dry. rural. n.w. of n.p.
Prohibition 19 100 74 60
Local option.... 5 75-100 73 61
7 50-75 59 54
9 25-50 45 49
5 0-25 37 44
License 3 license 40 46
Thus it would seem that urban and foreign populations were opposed to no-license legislation, probably, in the first case because of better facilities for regulation in cities together with the stronger organization of the liquor traffic, and in the second case because of early training and national custom.
Notwithstanding the rapid and wide-spread gains made by no-license legislation, and in spite of the fact that the map is strikingly white, there has been a continuous increase in the per capita consumption of intoxicants. The statistical abstract of the United States census gives 4.17 gallons as the per capita consumption of all liquors in 1840. This figure rises to 16.72 gallons in 1891,17.76 in 1900, and from 1906 to the present it hovers between 21 and 23 gallons per capita. It is interesting to note that while there was an increase of approximately six gallons per capita in the decade from 1880 to 1890, in the past twenty-six years there has been no more than a six gallon increase. This is some slight sign of a gain, but it would seem that with constantly extending no-license area and population there should be an absolute decrease in consumption. However, this is not the case, for while the population of the United States increased 350 per cent since 1850, the per capita liquor consumption increased 456 per cent. Further, while the population of the United States increased from 76 millions in 1900 to 92 millions in 1910, or 21 per cent, the total liquor consumption increased from 1| billions to over two billions of gallons, or 50 per cent. In this decade, then, consumption increased more than twice as fast as population.
Consequently, with the peculiar situation that the consumption of intoxicating liquors is constantly increasing concomitant with a rapidly growing area and population living under no-license laws, we are driven to one of the following conclusions:
1. The ever decreasing population remaining under license shows an astounding propensity to increase its liquor consumption. It is not our experience that wet sections are becoming wetter.


1916] LOCAL OPTION IN THE UNITED STATES
599
2. Internal revenue collectors are continuing to show a slow and regular increase in efficiency in the detection of the manufacture and sale of liquor. This circumstance has probably accounted for some of the increase shown in government tables in the past, but its effect at present would seem to be a minimum.
3. The drier we become, the more liquor we consume.
It is clear, therefore, that the liquor question is far from being settled. Indeed from the facts here presented it would appear that we are not even on the right road to final solution of the problem. According to the Prohibition Year Book for 1915, page 13.
"The 1915 statistics show a total consumption of liquor practically equal to that of any previous year of our history. The latest available government reports show greater investments of money, and more men employed in the liquor business, and allied industries, than any statistics heretofore published. Current political history shows the traffic to be as strongly entrenched in our politics and our national government as it has ever been, and probably stronger than ever before. These facts obtain in spite of the tremendous anti-liquor agitation and the widespread movement against the saloon.”
Indeed,
“There have been concomitant evils of prohibitory legislation. The efforts to enforce it during forty years past have had some unlooked-for effects upon public respect for courts, judicial procedure, oaths, and law in general, and for officers of the law, legislators, and public servants. The public have seen law defied, a whole generation of habitual lawbreakers schooled in evasion and shamelessness, courts ineffective through fluctuation of policy, delays, perjuries, negligences, and other miscarriages of justice, officers of the law double-faced and mercenary, legislators timid and insincere, candidates for office hypocritical and truckling, and office holders unfaithful to pledges and to reasonable public expectation. Through an agitation which has always had a moral end, these immoralities have been developed and made conspicuous. ” 3
Furthermore, prohibition encourages the consumption of the heavier liquors which can be more easily transported. The constant agitation of the question tends to discourage reputable men from entering the business. But worst of all prohibition is wholly negative. It considers neither the necessity of substitutes for the saloon nor the problem of the gradual development of improved standards of living. It looks askance at all propositions to encourage the use of lighter beverages by progressive taxation. In fine, what social development shows can only come safely and surely by a gradual process of evolution, prohibition would achieve by revolution.
“What the future may hold in store we can only forecast from the present, and, so far, unfortunately, the promises of prohibition have far outstripped performance. Some day, no doubt, society will be ready for measurement by new standards; but until then progress is not made by adding new evils to those that now burden us. ” 4
• President Elliot in Introduction to Studies of Committee of Fifty.
4 John Koren, Atlantic Monthly, April, 1916.


STATUTORY PROVISION FOR LOCAL OPTION
States Unit Subdivisions Petition Time of Election Limitation on Resubmission Vote by Order of Local Officials Laws Prohibiting the Liquor Traffic in Special Areas1 Legal References
Qualifications of Signers Number or Per Cent Required Basis of Per Cent Filing
1. California9 1. City (incorporated) 2. Town (inc’rpYted) 3. Supervisorial districts outside of towns and cities Block (in wet town or city) Qualified electors 25% Vote at last election for governor 1. City Council 2. Bd. of Trustees 3. Legislative body or Bd. of Supervisors ol the Countv. General election il petitioned 6 mos. to 40 days before, otherwise 30 to 60 days after filing petition 2 yrs. Legisla- tive body 3 mi. dry area around Soldiers'Hoine, and University (1,000 students). State Hospital, construction camps S. L. 1911, ch. 351, P. 599-601, 452 Hemig’s Gen. Laws, 1914, P. 794, Sec. 2223-4
2. Connecticut Town Registered voters 10% Registered voters Town clerk 20 days before annual town meeting Regular election (annual or biennial) 1 or 2 yrs. (according to election custom) Selectmen License in cities restricted to “efficiently policed parts. * Residential sections. Manufacturing sections 1909, Chaps. 65,224 1915, Chap. 282, Sec. 2647
3. Delaware 4 districts specified in State Const. State assemblymen of both houses from district in question Majority Number of assembly-men elected by each district General assembly Genera] election State Assembly State Constitution, Art. 13
4. Florida County Election district if majority voted dry at election by which Co. went wet Registered voters 25% Registered voters Board of Co. Commissioners Within 60 days of filing petition unless conflicting with state or nat’l elec. Then 60 days after such election 2 yrs. County Commis- sioner 4 mi. of church or Bchool except in towns. In vicinity of mill, mfg. plant, phosphate plant, turpentine still State Constitution, Art. 19 1914, Sec. 1209-1217 Sec. 3809
5. Illinois 1. City 2. Town 3. Village 4. Precinct Legal voters 25% Yoters at laBt election Clerk, 60 days before election General election 18 mos. Local authorities 4 mi. of State University, Soldiers’ Home Districts in Chicago 1907, P. 297 1912, P. 959 1913, P. 306
6. Indiana a b 1. City (incorporated) 2. Township not containing incorporated city 3. Part of township outside inc. city 1. Township 2. City ward Legal voters Legal voters 20% 50% Vote for 1. Mayor 2. Sec. of State 3. Sec. of State Legal voters County auditor County auditor 20 to 30 days after next meeting of Co. Commission-ers (Remonstrance; no election necessary) 2 yrs. 2 yrs. County Commis- sioners 1 mi. of Soldiers’ Home, church, fair 400 ft. of school outside city or town 1911,S.327 (Reaction from Co. L. O. of 1908), Ch. 148, P. 363 Barnes' A. S. 1908, Sec. 8332


7. Kentucky a b 1. County 2. City 3. Town L District i. Precinct Precinct !f larger unit votes wet, previously dry, smaller units remain dry Legal voters [jegal voters 25% 50% Vote at last 1. General election !. 1 Town 3. f election 4. \ General >./ election Legal voters County Judge License Board At least 60 days after filing petition. Not at regular elections except 2, 3, 4th class cities Remonstrance: no elec, necessary 3 yrs. County Judge 400 ft. of Normal School or University 1912, Ch.3 1914, Ch. 13, Secs. 2554-9 1915, Carroll’s Statutes Vol. 1, Ch. 81, P. 1309
8. Louisiana 1. City 2. Parish 3. Ward of parish 4. Town 5. Village Whenever deemed necessary by council or jury lyr. 1. City Council 2. Police Jury 3. Police Jury 4. Municipal authorities 5. Police Jury 300 ft. of church or school, 3 to 5 mi. of various high schools R. L., Vol. 1,P. 602 Vol. 3, P. 879
9. Maryland County When State Legislature decides by special act State Legisla- ture 1 or 2 mi. of certain schools, reformatories and mfg. plants. Talbot Co. Sections of Baltimore S.L. 1912, P. 775, 1168, 1256, 235, 733 1914, P. 840, 944, 1011
10. Massachusetts 1. City 2. Town Regular annual election lyr. 1,2,3d. licenses prohibited 400 ft. of school R. L., Ch. 100, Sec. 10 Supplement, P. 81, 767
11. Michigan2 County Qualified electors i Qualified electors County clerk Next annual election 2 yrs. County Commis- sioners 1 mi. of Soldiers’ Home, 1 mi. of cemetery, 400 ft. of church, school or residence district S. L. 1899, P. 275 1909,P. 685 Sec. 8409 Howell’s Stats., V. 2, Ch. 84, Sec. 5017-94
12. Minnesota 1. County 2. Town 3. Village (inc.) 4. Fourth class city Ward by actioi of city counci Qualified voters Legal voters Legal voters 25% 10 10% (at least 25) Vote at preceding elec, for governor Vote at last city election County auditor Town clerk 20 days before annual town meeting Town clerk 20 days before annual town meeting Monday, 40 to 50 days after filing petition, or 30 to 40 days after reg. or prim, election Annual town meeting Regular city election 3 yrs. lyr. lyr- County Auditor Town Clerk Town Clerk 1,000 ft. of state institutions 1,500 ft. of schools outside cities 6 counties by Indian Treaty of 1855 | mi. of dry town 1. S. L. 1915, Ch. 23, S. F. 77 2. \R.S. 1913, Ch. 16, Sec. 3. / 3128 1 R. S. 1913, Sec. 3131-5
13. Missouri 1. County (outside city) 2. City (2,500 or more Block must pe tition for dramshop Voters for legislators 10% Voters for legislators 1. Co. Court 2. Legislative body 40 days after peti tion, not witbii 60 days of gen eral election 4 yrs. County Court 1 mi. of camp meeting Fair Grounds R. S. 1909, Ch. 63, Art. Ill 1998, Sec. 2997 R. S., Sec. 4717 681


STATUTORY PROVISION FOR LOCAL OPTION—Continued-
Petition Limita- Vote by Laws Prohibiting
State Unit Subdivisions Qualifications Number or Basis of Per Cent Time of Election tion on Resub- Order of Local the Liquor Traffic in Special Legal References
of Signers Per Cent Required Filing mission Officials Areas1
14. Montana* County Qualified 33i% Qualified County Commissioners 40 days after filing 2 yrs. County Indian reservations, Rev. Codes, 1007, Sec.
voters voters petition but not Commis- 5 mi. of camp, mine. 2041-9
during month of sionere quarry, 1 mi. of Laws 1907, Ch. 65, Sec.
general electon camp meeting, 4 mi. of park, 1,000 717
ft. of cemetery
15. Nebraska* 1. City \ 10,000 or Freeholders 30 Excise boards or coun- Regular municipal 1 yr. Corporate 2. mi. of incorpor- Comp. Stat., Sec. 4245
2. Village / or less and voters cils 30 days before election authori- a ted city or village 4&55a
election ties (except in Douglas State Const., Initiative and
3. Larger cities (by Voters 15% Voters Co.) Referendum
Initiative and Refer- 5 mi. of construction S. L. 1913, Initiative and
endum) camp 24 mi. of U. S. Military Post Referendum
16. New Hampshire 1. City Regular 1. 4 yrB. 200 ft. of church or 1903, Ch. 95, Sec. 31
2. Town election 2. 2 yrs. school
17. New Mexico 1. Municipality (inc.) Qualified 25% Highest no. Local authorities Bet. 1 and 2 mos. 4 yrs. By procla- In villages of less 1913, Ch. 75
voters of votes after filing peti- mation than 100 inhabi- 1913, S. B. 212
reed, by any tion; not within 2 tants Codification 1915, Secs.
candidate at mos. of any other Within 2 mi. of dry 2927-48, 2876, 2889
last election election city
2. County (outside District of Co. Qualified 25% Qualified Co. Commissioners Bet. 1 and 2 men. 4 yrs. County
municipality) designated by voters voters after filing petition; not within 2 Commis-
Co. Commis- sioners
sioners mos. of any other election
18. New York1 Town Qualified 10% Votes at last With town clerk 20 Biennial town 2 yra. Town 200 yds. of fair ex- 1910, Ch. 485
voters preceding days before reg. town meeting clerk cept in city of 150,-
election meeting 000 or more
19. Ohio 1. Township (outside Qualified 25% Qualified Township Trustees Special election 2 yrs. Township 4 mi. of township Gen. Code, Sec. 6119-26
municipalities) electors electors Trustees park
2. Municipalities Qualified 40% Qualified City Council 20 to 30 days after 2 yrs. 14 mi. of Soldiers’ 6127-40
electors electors filing City Home
3. Residence Qualified 50% Votes at last Mayor or Judge None 2 yrs. Council
Districts electors election None 6140-68
20. Rhode Island 1. City 2. Town Regular biennial 2 yrs. 200 ft. of school 1914, Ch. 1042, P. 59


21. South Dakota1 2 * 4 1. City Legal free- 25 Clerk or auditor, 30 Annual municipal 1 yr. Local au- 300 ft. of school, 200 1915, Sec. 2856, Ch. 227
2. Town holder days before election election thorities ft. of church,5 mi.of 1905, Ch. 122
3. Township voters construction camp, 1907, Ch. 177
4 mi. of college or academy, 2\ mi. of 1909, Ch. 203

dry city or town
22. Texas 1. County Small divisions Voters 250 County Commissioners 15 to 30 days after Commissioners’ 2 yrs. County 300 ft. of church or Sayles’ Civil Statutes, Art
may vote im- C’m’rs Ct. Bchool 5715-30, P. 3862
2. Commissioner's or mediately after Voters 50 County Commissioners order 2 yrs. County
Justice’s Precinct larger has C’m’rs Ct.
3. School district voted wet Voters 50 County Commissioners 2 yrs. County C’m’rBCt.
4. Two or more dis- Voters 50 1 vote for County Commissioners 2 yrs. County C’m’reCt.
trict8 of Co. 1 governor at
5* City Voters 10% J last elect’n County Commissioners 2 yrs. County
C’m’rs Ct.
6. Town Voters 10% County Commissioners 2yrB. County
C’m’rs Ct.
23. Utah* 1. City (1, 2, 3d class) Registered Registered City recorder Last Tuesday in 2 yrs. City Coun- 5 mi. of construction 1913, Ch. 79 and 81
voters voters June cil camp or dry town 1911, P. 152-176, Ch. 106
2. Town (inc.) Registered 25% Registered Town clerk Last Tuesday in 2 yrs. Board of
voters voters June Trustees
3. County (outside of Registered 25% Registered County clerk 60 to 120 Last Tuesday in 2 yrs. Bd. of Co.
city or town) voters voters days before election June C’m’rs
24. Vermont 1. Town Annual town 1 yr. 200 ft. of church or 1913, Secs. 5104-10
meeting school 5122
2. Wet town (to deter- Voters 6 10 days after town Special election 20 2 mi. of state line,
mine kind of license) meeting days after petit’n 1 yr. Selectmen unless in chief village of border township
2 mi. of camp meet’g
25. Wisconsin 1. City Qualified 10% Votes for gov- Clerk, 10 days before 1st Tuesday in lyr. Clerk 24 mi. of Veterans’ 1913, Sec. 1565 a-d
2. Town electors ernor at last 1st Tuesday in April April Home
3. Village election 3200 ft. of State Uni-
4. Dry Resid- Qualified 50% On or before May 1 None versity 1565 g-h
dence District electors lyr.
(100 to 750 electors)
26. Wyoming 1. City Municipal 1000 ft. of militia en- 1910, Sec. 1578 (11)
2. Town (inc.) None council campment 1910, See. 2833
option All rural districts
1 Traffic prohibited in all Indian Reservations.
* California, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, South Dakota to vote on State prohibition in November, 1916.
1 Four questions submitted to determine kind of license, if any.
4 First election mandatory in cities and towns. County dry till voted wet.


MUNICIPAL BONDS OVER THE COUNTER AND IN SMALL DENOMINATIONS
BY ARTHUR B. CHAPIN1
Boston
A MOST peculiar juice is human blood,” says Satan in Goethe’s Faust. This continually appears in the various eccentricities of human nature in all matters of life, but it especially appears in the peculiarity displayed in the care and investment of money.
The man or woman who works early and late, denying himself or herself all but the very necessities of life, when a little hard earned money has been laid aside, will so often put it into some butterfly investment that looks attractive and lives for a short time and then is gone.
When the “Provident Institution for Savings in the Town of Boston” was chartered just 100 years ago,—the first institution for savings granted the right to do business by any legislative body in the world,—its object was “To aid and assist the poorer and middling classes of society in employing their money to advantage, without running the risk of losing it, as they are too frequently exposed to do by lending it to individuals, who either fail or defraud them.” In other words, the people who deposited their money with this institution could have the benefit of the expert advice of men who had become trained in the care and investment of money without any charge or expense arising for the service performed.
Experience has shown that certain classes of investments are safer than others and actual results are more conclusive than any theories.
The actual losses sustained by 189 representative financial institutions of New England over a period of 15 years as compiled from their official reports, showed on an investment of $503,000,000 as follows:
SAFETY OF MUNICIPAL BONDS
Losses on government, state and municipal bonds....... $2,693
Losses on railroad and public service corporation bonds.. 24,571
Losses on real estate and real estate loans......... 2,185,925
Losses on loans to individuals, firms and corporations. ... 3,061,144
Losses on bank stocks............................... 1,845,123
Losses on miscellaneous items........................ 118,448
Total losses in fifteen years........................... $7,237,904
Total loss per annum................................. 482,527
These figures look large and show the great risk of investing money. The average annual loss was $482,527, or about 96 cents on each $1,000.
1 Mr. Chapin writes out of an abundant experience. From 1899 to 1904 he was mayor of Holyoke, Mass.; from 1905 to 1909 he was treasurer of Massachusetts; from 1910 to 1912, bank commissioner of Massachusetts and since that date he has been vice-president of the American Trust Company, Boston.—Editor.
604


1916
MUNICIPAL BONDS OVER THE COUNTER
605
In other words, the investment of institutional funds in New England, under the restrictions of conservative and well-framed laws, shows an average loss of less than one-tenth of one per cent per annum.
The average amounts in round numbers in each class of investment were as follows:
Government, state and municipal bonds................... $77,000,000
Railroad and public service corporation bonds........... 71,000,000
Real estate and real estate loans........'.............. 220,000,000
Loans to individuals, firms and corporations.............. 103,000,000
Bank stocks............................................... 23,000,000
Miscellaneous items......................................... 9,000,000
The losses per annum for each $1,000 invested in the various classes were as follows:
Losses on government, state and municipal bonds....... $0.0023
Losses on railroad and public service corporation bonds. . 0.0230
Losses on real estate and real estate loans............. 0.6624
Losses on loans to individuals, firms, and corporations... 1.8480
Losses on bank stocks................................... 5.3480
Losses on miscellaneous items. . .,..................... 0.8774
In the opinion of the writer these figures are impressive and important in that they tend to show:
1. That losses during this period resulting from investments in government, state and municipal bonds were infinitesimal, amounting to but a small fraction of one cent a year on $1,000.
2. That losses resulting from investments in railroad and public service corporation bonds were also so small as to be entirely negligible, amounting, in fact, to about the price of a postage stamp each year on one thousand dollars. As this was before the attack on the credit of railroads the per cent figures in this class of investments would not show so well now.
3. That losses on real estate and real estate loans amounted to about three hundred times the losses on government, state and municipal bonds and about thirty times the losses on railroad and public service corporation bonds.
4. That losses on loans to individuals, firms and corporations amounted to about one-fifth of one per cent per annum, or about eight hundred times the losses on government, state and municipal bonds and about eighty times the losses on railroad and public service corporation bonds.
5. That losses on bank stock amounted to about one-half of one per cent per annum.
Several facts should be considered in connection with these figures. Included in the fifteen-year period is the depression of 1893, when many losses were incurred through business failures, bank failures, and shrinkage in the value of foreclosed real estate. It is also fair to point out that the appreciation in value of bank stocks since that period has offset the losses that were incurred through failures. Depreciation in bond values has not been taken into consideration on the assumption that the bonds have been or will be paid at par at maturity. Moreover, it must be borne


606
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
.[October
in mind that the income return on municipal bonds is lower on the average than that of the other classes of securities. Consequently, relatively smaller losses were to be expected than in securities returning a higher yield.
The return from municipal bonds is lower because experience has shown that the principal is safer and it might be well for municipalities to impress that fact on all its citizens and print at the head of its advertisements and on the face of its bonds “safety first.”
SALES OF SMALL DENOMINATIONS
The tendency of the present time is to put this class of investments within the reach of people of small savings. Formerly it was necessary to lay aside $1,000 before it was possible to become the owner of a municipal bond, but it is now being appreciated more and more that the benefits of the $100 bond are twofold,—it enables the citizen of small means to loan money to the city or town for the use of its schools, streets and parks, thus giving him an investment that is absolutely safe, and' gives him a greater interest in the affairs of the local government, because he has a greater interest in seeing that the money he loans is not wasted, but is expended to the best advantage. The more interest people take in the affairs of their own city or town, the better government they will have.
It will therefore prove an advantage to the city or town to issue its bonds in small denominations and thus making a broader market for their sale will be able to sell them more advantageously. They can go-much farther than they have in the past in impressing upon the citizens the advantages of loaning money to the city or town,—safety to the citizen, broader market for the holder. The extra expense of issuing bonds in small amounts is not great enough to offset the advantages that will accrue.
SALES OVER THE COUNTER
The issuing of bonds in small denominations does not mean however that the state or city or town should go into the business of selling bonds at retail or “over the counter.” When money is borrowed by a state or city or town, it is to be used for some immediate public purpose, and is wanted substantially at one time and in considerable amounts.
In order to obtain this money at one time, it has been customary to sell the bonds at wholesale and let private bankers or a syndicate of bankers take the expense and annoyance and risk of changing money conditions by selling them at retail. This requires a good distributing organization to bring the bonds to the notice of those who have money to invest and sufficient time to distribute them. It frequently happens that it is necessary to carry some of the bonds a considerable time and then on account of changing money conditions sell them at a loss.


1916] MUNICIPAL BONDS OVER THE COUNTER
607
RESULTS OF EXPERIENCE
The results of experience of those who have tried selling bonds at retail by the state or city or town has not been sufficiently successful to be adopted as a permanent plan. Massachusetts in 1914 asked for bids for $6,325,000 of serial bonds and received bids therefor. Then the treasurer and receiver general rejected all the bids. Re-advertisements at a heavy expense were made all over the state and a so-called “over the counter” sale proceeded, which lasted during a period of three months with the extra time and expense involved, and when the matter was closed no incidental benefit to the state in the way of increased price resulted.
The sale was not a popular success in any way as the small purchasers did not come forward and the issue was left on the treasurer’s hands and he had to be helped out by large purchases of brokers and banks to complete the proposition. This will be shown by the figures below. Out of the $6,325,000 there were issued:
179 $100 bonds, amounting to......................... $17,900
18 200 bonds, amounting to........................... 3,600
11 300 bonds, amounting to........................... 3,300
8 400 bonds, amounting to........................... 3,200
86 500 bonds, amounting to.......................... 43,000
2 600 bonds, amounting to........................... 1,200
1 700 bond, amounting to.............................. 700
1 800 bond, amounting to.............................. 800
4 900 bonds, amounting to........................... 3,600
377 1,000 bonds, amounting to......................... 377,000
A total of...................... $454,300
The balance of the loan was in large blocks.
The contention of the state treasurer at that time was that the purchasers had been saved $50,000 in commissions to brokers, which was true; but these commissions were not saved to small purchasers as the beneficiaries were principally banks, large individual trustees, and brokers, who afterwards turned the bonds in the same way the original syndicate would have turned them. Therefore, the contention that this was a popular sale is not borne out, and, if all items of expense were included, it would be found that, in view of the incidental expenses connected with conducting this method, it resulted in a decrease in the price that the state received in the long run.
There were many incidents in connection with the sale that were of interest. In particular, many people applied to the state treasurer’s office in the expectation that the bonds would be issued at par, and when they found that they would have to withdraw their money from savings banks at 4 per cent, or investments at 5 per cent or more, and receive a bond which would only net them 3.58§, there was much dissatisfaction and in many cases no interest taken further in such an investment,


608
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October
although it was entirely safe; and while an attempt was made to have the public approve of the sale at the next state election, the treasurer who conducted it was defeated for re-election, so even as a political factor it failed to attract public approval.
Boston held a sale of its municipal bonds over the counter in 1907, having failed to receive offers for any large amount of bonds in response to advertisements asking for bids. One million dollar 4 per cent twenty-and thirty-year registered bonds, in denominations of 11,000, and multiples thereof were thus offered at par, no limit being placed on the amount one might purchase. The sale could hardly be called successful, the demand for the bonds was at no time brisk, and more than three months had elapsed before all the bonds offered had been disposed of. Chicago, on the other hand, since July 1, 1915, has sold $2,750,000 Chicago twenty-year 4 per cent serial gold bonds, and the comptroller considers the sale a decided success.
Topeka, Kansas, appears to have gone into this question more systematically than any other municipality. The American City says in its July issue:
Kansas municipal bonds have proved to be an attractive investment for shopmen, clerks, professional men, merchants and business men generally. This is due partly to the fact that municipal bonds in Kansas are non-taxable; but it is due even more to the plan introduced by W. H. Wasson, commissioner of finance and revenue, by which the bonds are sold.
Under the previous system Topeka’s bonds were offered in large blocks to Eastern buyers. Now the bonds are issued in installments. They bear 4j per cent interest and are sold at par. The distribution of the bonds to the buyers is done through co-operation of the city with some bank or trust company, which has charge of handling them. The city draws 2 per cent per annum on the daily bank balances. By issuing the bonds in installments the money is secured as needed by the city in carrying on its various phases of municipal endeavor.
The aim is to distribute bonds among people in and about Topeka first, care being taken to see that the small investors are supplied before those who wish to subscribe for large amounts.
Persons who purchase Topeka’s bonds naturally take a keener interest than they otherwise would in the city’s affairs. This makes them better citizens. Commissioner Wasson also points out the fact that by selling the city bonds to the home folks the money is kept in Topeka. When a coupon is paid or a bond is redeemed, a resident gets the money, and in the latter case he will usually be ready to buy another bond with it.
While the possibility of a sale over the counter may act as a safeguard against a combination of bankers or brokers being formed to make a bid that will be to the disadvantage of the municipality, as such a possibility may be taken advantage of at any time, still as a matter of policy I believe it is for the best interests of all concerned to have state and municipal bonds sold at public sale to the highest bidder at one time


1916] MUNICIPAL BONDS OYER THE COUNTER
609
rather than to attempt to retail the bonds over the counter. The selling price of municipal bonds will be determined by the money rate at the time each series of bonds is issued.
If Topeka issues 4| per cent bonds at the present time, and they have twenty years before maturity, they should sell in the open market at a premium of about $65 on each $1,000 bond. A citizen of Topeka or a banking house could buy these bonds at par and sell them at a premium and the taxpayers would lose $65,000 on a bond sale of $1,000,000. In other words, the city would sometimes sell its bonds at a loss or lower than the prevailing rate for money, as human nature is the same in Topeka as elsewhere, and if the citizens can buy the bonds and sell them outside the city at a profit, they will do so, as sentiment will amount to very little in a business transaction of this nature. Any city will get a better price for its bonds in the long run where it is able to have them distributed over a larger market than is possible in any single municipality. If bonds are sold in a block to the highest bidder rather than at retail, the purchaser will be more careful as to the legality of the issue than individual purchasers would be. The mere fact that a municipality offers bonds for sale after being voted by the legislative body, does not make them legal obligations of the city or town, and one criticism of bonds issued by certain Canadian cities is that they have issued bonds to pay for moving manufacturing plants within their own borders and for other reasons that might not be considered strictly a public purpose, which is the real test of the legality of a municipal bond.
After bonds are legally issued they should be made as attractive to the purchaser as possible. While appearance does not add to the strength of the bond it makes it more attractive. Many people have purchased bonds on account of their looks, only to find their only value was the paper they were printed on. Municipal bonds should be well made to look at in order to attract by their beauty as well as by their strength. They should also be as convenient as possible. Some investors desire registered bonds on account of their safety, as a registered bond if lost or stolen, can be replaced, while a coupon bond lacks that element of safety.
On the other hand, coupon bonds can be sold and transferred more easily without delay, annoyance or red tape often required of registered bonds, so many investors prefer coupon bonds. It is well, therefore, for a municipality to issue both registered or coupon bonds and give the purchaser the choice. The fact that municipal bonds are not subject to the national income tax, and in most states are not subject to state taxation, is quite an inducement to investors who wish to be free of the annoyance caused by making returns in connection with taxation. It is well also to issue bonds in serial form in order that the purchaser may have •the benefit of short or long maturities, as he may wish. There was for-
5


610
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
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merly a prejudice against serial bonds, but now it is well established that in addition to the risk of investing a sinking fund which the long term bonds entail, the serial bonds also require the municipality to follow the “pay as you go” policy, a decided advantage to municipalities as well as to individuals.
In connection with the security of municipal bonds, it is well to bear in mind that in most states they are a first lien on the property of the citizens. In Massachusetts, if they are not paid when due, the houses or other private property of the citizens can be sold to pay the debt.
It often happens that a treasurer who is inexperienced in financial affairs does not appreciate the importance of having the principal and interest on municipal bonds paid at some financial center as well as locally. If the payment is only made locally it interferes with their sales to large savings banks and investors who wish to collect their interest without paying exchange charges and without the delay incident to a local collection. This prevents a municipality from getting the highest price for the bonds.
In conclusion, it is well for the investor to remember that municipal bonds are a safe investment, and from the point of view of the municipality, they should be made as attractive as possible so that the citizens will loan their money to the city more readily and thus take a greater interest in its affairs.


ELECTION REFORMS
BY CLINTON ROGERS WOODRUFF Philadelphia
TWO articles dealing with election reforms, and Charles Seymour’s monumental work on “Election Reform in England and Wales”1 came to my desk just at the time I had been giving careful consideration to the election laws of Pennsylvania, incident to a further effort to improve them, and to put a stop to such remaining practices as were jeopardizing fair elections, and therefore an honest expression of public opinion. There has been a great, yes, a very great improvement in our election laws within the memory of the present generation. Many of the practices which went far to justify Lord Bryce’s criticism of American democracy and which were accepted quite as a matter of fact, have been eliminated, or so largely abated as to be negligible quantities.
While direct primaries have their own peculiar troubles and difficulties, it must not be forgotten that they have done away with the corruptly controlled and juggled conventions which were a stench in the nostrils of decent, and even semi-decent people; and while much remains to be done to free them of serious objection, there is no serious proposal to go back to the much worse evils of the systems they supplanted.
Many students of the problem believe that the remedy lies in shortening the ballot, so that the voter will not be overburdened, not to say overwhelmed when he comes to discharge his annual or semi-annual duty in the selection of public officers. I think it may be said with a large measure of confidence that public opinion is pretty generally agreed on the short ballot: Those who are working for improvement and progress are agreed upon its importance and necessity. Those who are in favor of maintaining the status quo, and that includes all the practical politicians, are agreed that many special privileges would disappear if the ballot were shortened to the requirements of the situation. This very agreement will make the battle a long and bitter one, but of the result there should be no doubt among those who have studied the past.
In many communities the personal registration of electors has become an accomplished fact, bringing about a great improvement in that direction. In many cities where such laws have been enforced there has been a practical cleaning up of the lists of voters and the frauds incident to old conditions have disappeared.
The Australian ballot has been a great gain in that it makes the printing and publishing of the ballot, official acts, and in that it gives a good arrangement; but so long as we insist upon thrusting on the elector the duty of choosing long lists of candidates and officials, just so long are we
i Published by the Yale University Press. $2.50 net.
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likely to have with us the twin evils of the party circle or square (by means of which straight party voting is made easy, and almost inevitable) and the assistance clause (by means of which the ignorant or indifferent voter is controlled).
Dr. Millspaugh’s article which follows shows the evils and extent of a partisan control in Detroit, and what exists there it may be assumed to exist in many other places. “Government by Controlled Precincts” is the title of a leaflet issued by the Detroit citizens’ league,2 giving names and places where the control is exercised, and how it is exercised. It should be read in conjunction with Dr. Millspaugh’s article, not only because it complements it; but because it shows in concrete form some of the other electoral needs of that city, which in so many ways has done so much that is worth while, but which in the important matters of charter and electoral reforms is lagging far behind.
The Detroit Program
A very excellent program has been proposed by the citizens’ league, which is devoting a large part of its time, means and energy to a solution of this phase of Detroit’s problems. It appears in full in a recent issue of the Civic Searchlight (March, 1916), the league’s monthly publication. In view of its experience “with the common council in an eSort to persuade that body to investigate charges of the most flagrant character against 'Batty’ McGraw’s election board, it has been decided not to trust them to submit the proposed amendment voluntarily, but immediately to begin the circulation of petitions to force a vote upon this at the time of the primary election on August 29. The main features of the proposed amendment are as follows:
1. A city election commission is created, consisting of the city clerk, corporation counsel, president of the civil service commission, record and senior police justice. (It would have been preferable to have a commission appointed by the circuit judges as is done in Chicago, but our state constitution forbids the making of appointments of this nature by the circuit judges, and the foregoing is considered the best plan that can be devised which will be legal.)
2. This commission is authorized to appoint three registrars for ceah voting district, to have charge of the registration of voters and to act as inspectors of election on election day. They are required to be persons of good moral character, to be physically capable of performing the work required of them, and must pass an examination as to their mental qualifications. No person holding any other political position is eligible to appointment.
3. The commission is also authorized to appoint three inspectors of election with similar qualifications. These names are drawn from the city at large, placed in a box and drawn in the same manner as the drawing of jurors. The first three drawn are assigned to the first precinct of
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the first ward, the second three to the second precinct of the first ward, and so on consecutively throughout the various wards and voting'dis-tricts of the city.
4. The commission has general supervision of all elections with full power to prevent fraud and corruption, to purge the registration books of any names of persons who are not qualified voters, to remove any inspector or registrar for cause, and to cause the prosecution of any person who violates the law.
5. The commission is also given general supervision of registration of voters and will provide effective means for eliminating the ‘cemetery vote’ from the registration books, an easier means of registering and transferring in case of removals and other similar conditions.
6. The commission is required to reduce the size of the voting precincts so that there will not be more than 500 voters in any district, thereby avoiding the long line-up of voters just before the closing of the polls and other similar evils.
7. The members of the city election commission, all being officials of the city, are not permitted to draw any salary for services rendered by them in this connection. The registrars and inspectors will receive the same salary as at present.1
Incidentally, it is interesting to note the larger program of the league for which it is working. While some of its features deal with questions of charter reform, in a large way all may be considered as questions of electoral reform, for the latter has to do with the second basis of good city government as defined by the citizens’ league. Under the head of “Ten city charter essentials” the league declares in the Civic Searchlight (March, 1916, issue) that
“Good city government is based on two things: Centering of power permitting business to be done, or efficiency and control by the voters, insuring that business be done for the public interest, or democracy.
(A) Power centered
(1) in a single council of five, executive as well as legislative,
(2) in each member as head of a department;
(B) Control by the voters secured through (prior to election)
(3) a short ballot, permitting intelligent voting,
(4) preferential voting, selection as well as election by the voters,
(5) election at large, control by all the voters,
(After election)
(6) the referendum, voters’ veto for misrepresentative acts,
(7) the initiative, voters’ power to compel desired acts,
(8) the recall, voters’ earlier replacement of a bad official,
(9) publicity, of meetings, etc., involving simple rules of procedure;
(10) appointments subject to the merit system.
1 By a recent vote the amendments abolishing the old-time precinct elections and providing for a new city election commission were adopted.


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Selection by the voters involves:
(1) voters' freedom of choice of candidates, secured through,
(a) the candidate’s of getting on the final election ballot, independent of boss or party,
(b) the candidate’s freedom from large election expense and from abuse by rival candidates;
(2) election of the candidate actually supported by the largest number of voters, secured through,
(a) the voter’s second and other choices where no candidate secures a majority of first choices,
(b) the voter’s ease of choice due to a single election.”
This program shows how important in city government is the need for clean, decent elections, a short ballot, and simplified election machinery, just as does the “election reform” platform of the St. Louis civic league:
The St. Louis Program
Proposals for reform in the present method of nominating and electing:
1. A new method of nominating and electing the St. Louis school board.
2. Provisions for electing municipal officers in St. Louis on a nonpartisan ticket, with nomination by petition instead of by primary.
3. Provisions for electing officers by preferential voting.
4. Provisions for electing the new St. Louis board of aldermen through the method of proportional representation.
5. Submission of a constitutional amendment removing the present disability in the method of organizing the legislative body of St. Louis.
6. Changes in the machinery of registration and election to promote efficiency and economy.
7. Granting increased power to the board of election. Commissioners in the conduct of elections and in the appointment of election officials.
8. A stronger corrupt practices act regulating the expenditure of money in campaigns and prohibiting certain forms of electioneering.
9. Appointment of a commission by the governor to bring order out of the present patch-work of Missouri election laws.
Mr. Warner’s article on “A New System of Election for St. Louis” which follows Dr. Millspaugh’s, describes what it is proposed to do in that city at the election in November (1916). An election commission was appointed to revise the election laws of the state. It reported to the last legislature, but the laws were not passed. They seldom are when first suggested, because of the inertia of the status quo, and the opposition of political organizations, who do not like change. They contain elements of danger that politicians would just as leave not face; certainly not until they are compelled by public opinion to do so. The successful election reformer as a rule is the one who can most effectively bring public opinion to bear upon the law makers. There are notable and honorable exceptions to this rule. For instance, several years ago it was possible to persuade the influential political powers of the state of Pennsylvania that


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it would be a desirable change to have annual elections, and to separate local elections from state and national elections, and a series of constitutional amendments to effect this end were passed by two successive legislatures and approved by the voters.
Elected Election Officers
Joined with these amendments was another which made it possible to substitute appointive for elective election officers, for Philadelphia has the great boon of a constitutional requirement that the judges and inspector of elections shall be elected by the sovereign people! This change which was dictated alike by the demands of a short ballot and of efficiency was defeated, however, by a group of reformers who maintained that the fundamental principles of democracy were being violated by abolishing the provision of an elective election board! and by a faction of the dominant political organization who maintained that much more satisfactory results (to it) could be obtained by elections, than through appointments by reliable and responsible officials. A further effort in this behalf is to be made at the next session of the legislature. At the same time a renewed effort will be made to repeal that clause of the ballot law which makes it possible for a voter to seek outside assistance in the marking of his ballot. Under the present law nothing further is needed than a formal request for help and in many districts—the controlled districts, to borrow the apt designation of Detroit—a refusal to ask for assistance is regarded as a mark of independence which sooner or later results in reprisals and publishment. I am informed that in South Philadelphia the dominant political factors show their -interest by the amount of assistance they demand shall be given. If they “go the limit” for a ticket that means that assistance is thrust upon every possible voter, whether desired or not; whereas if their interest is only formal, they only give such assistance as may be normally asked for without pressure. According to the committee of seventy in Philadelphia:
Assistance of Voters
The existence of this evil had not been thoroughly understood by the public at large until the investigation of the election of 1909, which was made by the committee. At this election, the evidence collected by the committee showed that in Philadelphia not less than 38,000 ballots had been marked by some person other than the voter, and as we contended, and still maintain, in violation of the law. The law, however, as it stands to-day is very unsatisfactory, and partly on account of its vagueness, although not entirely so, the commi tee was unable to secure convictions although the clearest possible evidence had been collected and presented. Votes deposited by persons who allow others to mark their ballots in the voting compartment are in most cases purchased votes; in others they are the votes of persons who are too indifferent to give the slightest attention to the form of the ballot or how to mark it. In


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other cases, and this is quite a large number, they are the votes of office holders or other persons subject to intimidation by a corrupt political machine, who are afraid to refuse to allow a representative of the voting compartment to see that they vote in its interest.
Since the enactment of the personal registration law, and its enforcement with the assistance of the committee, certain forms of ballot fraud previously common have been substantially eliminated. The last resource of political machines in recent years has been the so-called “assistance to voters.” By means of this pretence they have been able to secure large numbers of bribed and intimidated votes which are in no proper sense votes at all. The amendment forbids any person to accompany a voter into a voting compartment on any pretext whatever, unless the voter is physically unable to mark his ballot and has made a written affidavit to that effect. Severe penalties are provided against the judge of election who permits any illegal assistance, against the voter who permits it, and against any person who gives it.
The Party Square
This same committee has urged a further reform originally urged by the Pennsylvania ballot reform association (which was also the original sponsor of the plan to eliminate the objectionable assistance clause), namely,, to abolish the party square. Concerning this pressing issue the committee says:
This proposed revision of the ballot law eliminates from the ballot the party squares and requires a voter to make a mark in the square opposite the name of each candidate for whom he wishes to vote, except that he may vote by one cross mark for an entire group of Presidential electors. It also shortens and simplifies the ballot by having but one square at the right of the name of each candidate instead of a series of squares, one corresponding to each party which has nominated that candidate. This would make our ballot substantially in the form commonly known as the “Massachusetts ballot” which is based upon a principle fundamentally sound, that is, each voter should not only be given an opportunity, but should be compelled to exercise his individual judgment in the selection of each candidate.
Those who favor the retention of the party square on the ballot urge that a voter who is a member of a political party should be permitted in a convenient manner to vote for all the candidates of that party. This is on the theory that the candidates of his party have been carefully selected by persons competent to judge, and that owing to the number of candidates, he would probably not be able to exercise an intelligent judgment in any event, except that which he exercises in choosing the party which he will support.
Put briefly, this argument is that a voter should be allowed to shift the responsibility for the selection of candidates whom he will support from himself to the political party of which he is a member. The argument is clearly made for the benefit of the indifferent or incompetent voter, and tends to increase both indifference and incompetence.
But a voter should not be permitted thus to escape his responsibility. If he is required to mark the name of each candidate for whom he votes, he must at least give the matter that amount of attention, and if in


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advance he is aware that he must do this he will be compelled at least to learn who the candidates are, or be entirely at sea when he endeavors to vote. The change, therefore, is in the interest of demanding the-attention of the voter.
The arguments on the other side clearly outweigh any merit, if any be admitted, in the argument above referred to. A voter who is indifferent and who has not given thought to the candidates or studied the form of the ballot is very apt to mark the straight tickets not only because he prefers to rely upon the judgment of the party leaders who have engineered the. nominations, but also because he is afraid of spoiling his ballot by an inaccurate mark. This danger will be substantially lessened by eliminating the party square and simplifying the ballot as above stated. Moreover, under the proposed change there is no difference between the act of the voter in marking a straight ticket and marking a split ticket. His act is the same in either case; consequently, if he really wishes to vote a split ticket he may do it just as readily as he may a straight ticket. Thus absolute quality of voting is secured, and, what is of benefit to any community, particularly large cities, independence in voting is promoted.
There is another argument which is of great importance. It is a matter of common knowledge that droves of ignorant voters are taken to the polling places by corrupt political leaders in many parts of large cities, and induced to cast their votes by improper means. This vote will not be entirely eliminated by the change in the form of the ballot, but the dangers of it will be greatly lessened. Even under a proper law securing secrecy in voting an ignorant voter can be shown how to mark a straight ticket, but he cannot be shown how to mark each candidate so easily or so successfully. In other words, if the voter has not enough discrimination to determine for himself the names of those whom he desires to support, his vote is likely to be lost. This is as it should be.
The companion bill is intended to meet the contingency provided by the simplification of the official ballot. Under the ballot as it stands at present, there is a place for a separate cross-mark opposite the name of each party, although several may have nominated the same candidate; thus, if there is only one candidate for judge and he is nominated by seven different parties, there is a separate square for each party, with the result that seven lines on the ballot are taken up, making the ballot very long and cumbersome. The object of this is that it may be known how many votes were cast for this candidate under the name of each party. It is proposed to place the names of all the parties following the name of the candidate, so that it may be known by which parties he is nominated, but to have only one square for a cross-mark; it therefore cannot be known how many votes have been cast for the candidate under each party name. The present test of the right of a party to have its name upon the official ballot is the vote cast at the last election. Some other method will now" have to be devised. A bill has therefore been drawn which proposes t6 make the test the vote cast by the party at the preceding primary. This seems a fair and reasonable test, because if a party has any real per-


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manency it will have candidates in the field at a primary, and no parties will be eliminated which have any substantial following. It will also have the effect of promoting the vote at the primary, which is to be desired.
The committee on election laws of the commonwealth club of California has been considering for months the problems presented by the municipal elections in California. Since 1908 the cities of that state have generally adopted the plan of securing majority elections through the system of primary and general elections. Unless some candidate receives an absolute majority at the primary election the race is confined to the two standing highest in the primary for each position to be filled. The system has accomplished the purpose sought, to prevent the election of a minority candidate through the division of the majority between two or more candidates. It has, however, according to the club’s committee, brought in its train very considerable burdens to the candidates and to the taxpayers. “It has doubled the length of the campaign, increased the cost of the campaign to candidates, has placed on the public treasury the cost of two campaigns, and has burdened the voters so that large numbers omit to vote at one or the other election.” The committee therefore has devised a system which consolidates primary and general elections into one. Instead of permitting a voter to express a first choice at a primary election, and a second choice at the general election, in case his candidate is eliminated at the primary election, the committee recommends a ballot which will permit the voter to express his first, second and third choice at the same election. The system preserves the principle of majority elections, and eliminates the expense of the double election and the long campaign.
Then the committee recommends the nomination system used in the San Francisco charter, except that it calls for more data with regard to the candidate than is demanded under the existing law. The candidate is required to give with his declaration of candidacy, his name, address, occupation, previous occupation, date and place of birth, years of continued residence in San Francisco, whether married or single, and what public office, if any, held.
The San Francisco requirement of not less than ten or more than twenty sponsors who shall certify to the mental, moral and physical qualifications of the candidate is accepted in lieu of the longer petitions required by most charters. It has been found that the system of sponsors does not bring out a larger number of candidates than the petition system, and saves a great deal of labor and expense. This certainly is the case in Great Britain where elections are never overburdened, although access to the ballot is of the simplest character.
A system of official pamphlets such as is now in use in San Francisco is recommended to be compulsory on all candidates. Each candidate is to be required to pay to the registrar $20.00 on filing his declaration of


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candidacy and will have printed in the official pamphlet all the data contained in his declaration of candidacy. He may file any additional statement he desires, one hundred words without extra charge, and further statement not exceeding three hundred words in all, at an additional fee of $10 for each additional hundred words. *
A reduction in the number of election officers to four in each precinct is also recommended by the committee. These are to receive the ballots, seal the ballot box on the closing of the polls, and transmit the sealed ballots immediately to the registrar of voters. The opening of the ballot boxes and the counting of the ballots is to be done by the registrar in a public place in the presence of bystanders.
Candidates receiving a majority of first choice votes for any office shall be elected. If no one receives a majority of first choice votes, the second choice are added. If any candidate then has a majority by adding second or third choice votes, the one receiving the highest vote shall be elected. A system is also recommended for conducting a recall election, in order that a majority candidate may be elected at a single election instead of conducting two elections.
The committee further recommends amendment of the “purity of elections” act to limit election expenditures to a sum not exceeding one year’s salary, to provide for a strict accounting for expenditures, and to protect candidates against solicitation for contributions.
In November this new plan will be submitted to the voters of San Francisco (on initiative petitions), and is to be incorporated in the new charter of Alameda and will no doubt be utilized as the basis of a law for all California cities at the next session of the California legislature.
Reference has been made to Seymour’s “Electoral Reform in England and Wales” in which the constant advance toward democracy in elections in those communities is described in great and encouraging detail. In Mr. Seymour’s words “the continual transfer, bit by bit, of electoral power from the land-owning class and the commercial plutocracy to the masses, becomes inevitably the leit motif of the whole movement.” The book is suggestive and encouraging because it shows what can be accomplished under circumstances of the greatest difficulty and in the face of opposition most stubborn. There is nothing in our American conditions more difficult than those which English reformers faced, and therefore there is no reason why we should be doubtful of the results. Time is of the essence of the reform and we must address ourselves to the problems with hope and confidence. If England could rid herself of her “rotten boroughs” there is no substantial reason to doubt America’s ability to rid herself of controlled districts and monopolies of nomination.


BI-PARTISANSHIP AND VOTE MANIPULATION IN DETROIT
BY ARTHUR C.' MILLSPAUGH, PH.D.1 Augusta, Mich.
RECENT legislation and public opinion, especially in the field of state and local government, have shown an unmistakable tendency toward the elimination of centralized, strategic, and efficient party management, substituting for it either individual and factionalizing initiative within the party or spontaneous, temporary, and fluctuating movements outside of the party. This tendency appears, moreover, at a time when city populations are becoming in many respects more heterogeneous and more in need of organization, tutelage, and guidance. The purpose of this paper, however, is not to attempt an abstract consideration of ultimate results, a consideration which would demand an examination not only of the party but also of the many-sided problem of the city, but merely to set forth some of the concrete political conditions in Detroit which seem significant in the light of present tendencies.
Under Michigan direct primary laws there has always been considerable voting by members of one party in the primaries of another; and, since the Republican party has a large normal majority in the state and is the only party which has numerous and important primary contests, this party has been the chief sufferer. Party enrollment as a qualification for voting in the primary was in effect from 1905 to 1913 but it made Democratic participation in Republican primaries more difficult without entirely preventing it. The primary of 1914, however, was absolutely “open.” In that year the Republican primary vote for governor in Wayne County, which contains the city of Detroit, was 47,334 while the vote for the Republican candidate in the election was only 21,483. This discrepancy is explained by a combination of circumstances. Two of the unsuccessful candidates for the Republican nomination were residents of Detroit, there was no contest for the Democratic nomination, and a large number of Democrats voted in the Republican primary; while the successful candidate, Mr. Osborn, had made himself persona non grata with the party leaders by supporting Roosevelt in 1912 and after Osborn’s nomination these leaders “swung” as much of the vote as they could control to the Democratic candidate. The figures from two of Detroit’s con-
1 From a dissertation prepared for Johns Hopkins University on “Party Organization and Machinery in Michigan since 1890.” Dr. Millspaugh has been a resident of Michigan but is now acting professor of political science in Whitman College, Washington. He took his A.B. degree at Albion College, Michigan, his A.M. degree at the University of Illinois, and his Ph.D. degree at the John Hopkins University.
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trolled precincts are of interest. In “Billy” Boushaw’s precinct, the first of the first ward, the primary vote for governor was: Republican, two hundred and sixty-five; Democratic, twelve; while the vote in the election for governor was: Republican, one; Democratic, two hundred and fifty-nine. In Frank Hibbler’s precinct, the first of the second, the primary vote for governor was: Republican, one hundred and sixty-six; Democratic, two; while the vote in the election for governor was: Republican, thirty-eight; Democratic, one hundred and forty-seven. Both of these precincts gave heavy majorities to the Republican county candidates. In Boushaw’s precinct, practically all of the two hundred and sixty odd voters not only split their tickets in the election, but voted differently in the election than in the primary. In the presidential primary of April, 1916, the contest in the Democratic party for national committeeman, involving the control of the organization, greatly overshadowed from the manipulators’ point of view the futile vote in the Republican party on presidential preferences. While the entire city of Detroit cast a total vote in this primary of only about ten thousand, the controlled precincts cast their usual vote. . Out of two hundred and sixty-six who voted in Boushaw’s precinct, all but three voted as Democrats, and all but three of the “Democrats” voted for the “organization” candidate for national committeeman. In the second precinct of the same ward there were only twenty-eight “Republicans” and all but three of the “Democrats” voted with the “organization.” What might appear, superficially viewed, as the kind of “independence” which we associate with the “splitting” of tickets, is, as a matter of fact, the complete antithesis of independence. The voting is non-partisan in the sense that it is bi-partisan or omni-partisan; and it is controlled by men who aie indifferent to party names and principles and who serve first one party, then another, and in this case both parties at the same time.
The object of vote-manipulation in the primary is, of course, to nominate a particular candidate, but he is often one who can be easily defeated rather than one who can be elected. Naturally, the chance of success is greater when candidates are numerous. Thus, in 1914, in the congressional primary in the first district which is coextensive with the southern half of the city of Detroit, there were six Republican candidates, and out of a total vote of 20,036 a vote of 4,958 sufficed to nominate. Doremus, the Democratic congressman, had no opposition for the nomination and the Democrats, it is believed, practically nominated the man to run against Doremus, who was later elected. On the other hand, in the thirteenth congressional district, which is the northern half of the city, there were fewer Republican candidates in the primary and the Republican nominee won in the election.
The whole primary and electoral situation, combined with the character of appointments after the election, indicates the existence of a bi-partisan


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machine, called familiarly in Detroit the “Vote-Swappers’ League.” The extent, ramifications, power, and personnel of the machine are obscure and it is impossible to attribute its development to any one cause. There were rumors of bi-partisan understandings as early as 1901; but the direct primary has clearly provided the machine with a most useful instrument of manipulation.
The successful working of the combine involves the co-operation of the precinct boss, who must “deliver” the vote both in the primary and in the election. “Delivering” the vote is an old practice; and campaign money and the promise of spoils have always attracted many “strikers” and “heelers,” petty precinct “workers,” saloon hangers-on, and loafers who have claimed the ability to influence a more or less definite number of voters and have asked payment for exerting their influence. They have usually been willing to sell their retainers to either side or to both sides. In Detroit and to a less extent in Grand Rapids and in the upper peninsula there are many “strikes” on the part of men who have no power to influence votes but there are also many voters actually controlled by corporations, saloon-keepers, and others. A recent writer in the News* estimates that one hundred of the two hundred and three precincts in Detroit are controlled more or less completely and that twenty or thirty of them are “crooked” precincts, that is, “delivered” for money. Mr. Pliny W. Marsh, secretary of the Detroit civic league, states more conservatively that “there are supposed to be forty such controlled precincts.”3 The chief controlling influences are the saloons, of which there are in Detroit between thirteen and fourteen hundred, and it is the general opinion of politicians that each saloon will “swing” on the average ten votes, making a total controlled vote of more than thirteen thousand. Accepting the above estimate of the controlled vote as a fair one, it will be seen that it is large enough to hold the balance of power in most city, county, and district elections and in some state elections. From the fact that control is exercised through the saloon may be inferred the social character of the controlled districts. They include the river precincts, dominated by the saloon and cheap lodginghouse and populated by itinerant dock and ship laborers and others, who are “floaters” in a double sense. The most notorious of the river precincts is Boushaw’s, in which, as I have already shown, practically every vote was controlled in the primary and election of 1914. Boushaw runs a saloon and lodging-house which together form a quasi-charitable institution for “floaters,” who after partaking of their host’s friendship and hospitality are frankly willing to vote as be wants them to. The third, fifth, seventh, ninth, and eleventh wards, which have the largest controlled vote, are likewise the wards which have most foreign-born and illiterate voters. The ninth
* Jan. 3, 1916.
* The Free Press believes that there are less than 20. Free Press, July 26, 1916.


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ward, for example, which the secretary of the Civic League classes with the wards which are “pretty nearly hopeless,” had in 1910, out of 6,639 males of voting age, 2,016 illiterates and only 883 native whites of native parentage. It is worth remembering, also, that a little over one half of the males of voting age in Detroit are foreign-born and of these one eighth are illiterate.
While it is true that at times the controlled precincts vote for different candidates and thus to some extent neutralize one another they are in most cases pretty thoroughly unified and throw their entire strength to one side. Probably the chief unifying factor is the Royal Ark, an organization of retail liquor-dealers, which appoints ward captains and endorses candidates.
In the price paid for the precinct the saloon license is usually an item, while in addition there may be a money payment or a petty job.' The chief Democratic politician and reputed leader of the bi-partisan combine is a judge of the recorder’s court, a man eminently respectable in private life and in some respects a man of ideals in public life;4 his chief henchman, the chairman of the Democratic county committee, is a young lawyer who handles an exceptionally large number of criminal cases; and, according to an ex-prosecutor of Wayne County, 88 per cent of the criminals are connected in some way with the saloons. Of course, there is nothing formal with respect to the arrangements for the controlling and “delivering” of the precinct vote. The candidate may frequent the saloons, not necessarily to drink but to make friends and to “set ’em up”; there may be a tacit understanding that favors on election day will be compensated later, and word may be passed along that he is “right” and a “good fellow.”
On election day there are four principal methods of “delivering” the vote; friendly persuasion, bribery, assistance in marking ballots, and fraud on the part of the election board.
The direct bribery of voters diminished greatly with the adoption of the secret ballot, and has since steadily decreased, but still persists among the foreign-born, the negroes, the illiterate, and the morally submerged.
Wherever there are many illiterates the assisting of voters in the booth permits the precinct boss to see that the ballots are marked as he wants them marked. In some of the controlled precincts as many as 75 per cent of the voters are assisted in marking their ballots, and assisting is now one of the most serious evils *in Detroit elections. Prior to 1915 the law provided that any man professing to be illiterate or physically disabled might ask for and receive assistance in marking his ballot by some member of the election board. An improved law passed in 1915 places
4 Judge Connolly is now (Aug. 14) a candidate for the Democratic nomination for mayor, and the present mayor, a Republican, is a candidate for renomination. This may signify a sham battle or a break in the bi-partisan combine.


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restrictions on assistance, prescribing that the assisted voter shall swear either that he cannot read English or that he is physically disabled, that the election officers shall keep a list of the persons assisted with the reasons for the assistance, and that all ballots cast by assisted voters shall be marked for identification as in the case of a challenged vote.
The evil of assisted voting can be minimized by restricting the circumstances under which assistance may be given, for example, by prohibiting the assisting of any voter not physically disabled, as was proposed by a member of the constitutional convention in 1907, or by insuring the supervision of the marking of the ballot by a hostile partisan or non-partisan witness. The law has aimed at oversight of assistance, providing that the marking of the ballot should be observed by a challenger of a party different from that of the one giving assistance. To guard the party’s interests at the polls, accordingly, each party and at times other organizations have selected challengers, ordinarily one or two for each precinct, the chairman of the party committee providing them with credentials and in some cases assembling them before the election for careful instruction. Bi-partisanship, however, practically made the legal provision for oversight of assistance by challengers a dead letter and the further provision that civic organizations might put challengers in the booths was usually nullified by the refusal of the election board to accept credentials issued by these organizations and the lack of support on the part of the police. The law of 1915 provides that challengers appointed by civic organizations shall present their credentials to the city clerk who shall send certified copies of the credentials to the election boards. If the police commissioner co-operates in enforcing the new provision it will do much to minimize the evils arising from assistance, as well as other election frauds; if police support is not accorded, civic organization representatives will be excluded from the booths as they have been in the past.
A fourth method of “delivering” the vote is by means of fraud on the part of the election board, for in the controlled precincts the election board consists very often of the precinct boss and his henchmen. The election board of six members is named at the primary, three from each party; and since they count the ballots at the primary as well as at the election they are able by fraud to continue themselves in office almost indefinitely, and the bi-partisan character of the board is of no practical importance, especially under existing circumstances. In the general election of 1914 the board in “Batty” McGraw’s precinct, the fourth of the ninth, consisted of McGraw himself, who is a saloonkeeper with his two bartenders, another saloonkeeper with his bartender, and a machinist. At the election of 1914 this board practiced apparently every known kind of election day fraud, including re-marking ballots and the voting •of absentees. It is impossible to say definitely to what degree the elec-


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tion boards have carried their fraudulent practices, but what happened in McGraw’s precinct was typical of what happened in thirty or forty other precincts. Congressman Crampton believes that the defeat of woman suffrage in 1912 by the narrow majority of seven hundred and sixty in a total vote of about half a million was due to manipulation by Detroit election boards. A change in the method of selecting these boards is clearly desirable, and is embodied in a charter amendment which will be submitted to Detroit voters at the August primary. This amendment, which was initiated by the citizens’ league and prepared by a citizens’ charter committee appointed by the mayor, creates a city election commission composed of the city clerk, the corporation counsel, the senior police j ustice, the recorder, and the president of the civil service commission. This commission will appoint for each election district three registrars and three inspectors of elections, who must be resident electors “who hold no other public office or employment, and who are of good moral character, able to read fluently and write legibly the English language, who are familiar with the four fundamental rules of arithmetic and who are mentally and physically fit to discharge the duties of their office.”6 The inspectors are to be chosen by lot from a list of fifteen hundred drawn up by the commission. The commission will have power to reassign, remove and prosecute registrars and inspectors, to purge the registration rolls, to change the boundaries of election districts, and to act as a board of city canvassers. The charter amendment “interferes with the activities of the precinct gang by making it impossible for them to know with whom they are to work on election day ... It abolishes the controlled precinct ... It aims to prevent frauds being committed instead of permitting them and then attempting to prosecute the guilty parties afterwards”.6
The problem of election manipulation in a city of Detroit’s size can not be divorced from the general problems of state, county and municipal governmental organization. Corrupt practice acts and other laws safeguarding primary and general elections are helpful but, above all, there must be fewer elective officials, there must be a concentration of responsibility, and the machinery of elections must be adapted to conditions and not to fictions, a condition of bi-partisanship signifying one of non-partisanship. The adaptation of election machinery to non-partisanship must involve the absolute elimination of party names, of party columns on the ballot, and of the party primary or of other party nominations, and necessitates apparently the adoption of some simple form of preferential vote. It must be remembered, however, that in an electorate such as that of the river precincts and other districts in Detroit the fundamental source of control and manipulation is still found in that
6 Charter amendment, Sec. 3.
6 Civic Searchlight, July 1916.
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feudal element, that sense of personal loyalty and obligation, which has always been at the root of machine politics. The direct primary embodied a disintegrating tendency which sought to shift the center of gravity from the centralized organization of the party to spontaneous movements gathering around self-assertive persons within the party; and non-partisan elections, with the accompanying reforms which have just been suggested, represent a further drift from the partisan to the personal. Theoretically, therefore, non-partisanship does not necessarily imply the destruction of the feudal element which lies at the basis of the control and manipulation of votes and in practice it may even accentuate the influence of that element. Nevertheless, the adoption of the machinery of non-partisanship presumes a frank and intelligent facing of facts, a recognition and employment of the forces which actually determine elections, and a state of mind on the part of the public which in its essence is hostile to all kinds of blind and unreasoning allegiance, personal as well as partisan.


A NEW SYSTEM OF ELECTIONS FOR
ST. LOUIS
BY PERCY WERNER 1 St. Louis
FROM present indications the voters of the city of St. Louis will have the opportunity next fall to vote on propositions involving an entire change in its system of city elections. The people of the city adopted a new charter on June 30, 1914. This was the work of a board of freeholders, aided by many of the best experts in municipal government in the country. The short ballot principle prevailed, with the result that, while under the old charter there were 12 elective city offices, in addition to 13 members of the city council and 28 members of the house of delegates to be elected, under the new charter there were but three elective offices, that of mayor, comptroller and president of the board of aldermen, together with 28 members of a board of aldermen to be elected, 14 of the latter every two years. The city is divided into 28 wards, and the old system of ward representation in the board of aldermen was retained, with the result that at the first election held under the new charter the Republicans, the dominant party in St. Louis, elected the entire twenty-eight.
The board of freeholders had evidently been much and favorably impressed with arguments in favor of preferential voting and proportional representation, as is evident from their having inserted in Article II of the new charter governing elections, the following section, viz:
Section 9. Whenever it may be done in harmony with the state constitution and laws, the board of aldermen shall by ordinance provide for and regulate municipal elections and registration of voters, and may provide by ordinance for non-partisan nominations, preferential voting, or proportional representation.
At the time the new charter was framed, the state law governing elections made it impossible to provide for a system of city elections by preferential voting, or for proportional representation. But at the 1915 session of the legislature an act was passed, conferring full power and authority on every city of the state having 400,000 inhabitants, or more, to provide for and regulate all elections for offices and for the nomination of candidates for such offices, by charter provisions or ordinances which, when adopted, should be deemed to supersede and render inapplicable as to such cities the provisions of the statutes of the state relating to municipal elections and nominations therefor.2 This statute has opened the way for St. Louis to change its system of municipal elections.
• Chairman, Short Ballot Committee, St. Louis Civic League.
2 See Session Laws Missouri, 1915, p. 284.
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As an indication of how the people of Missouri are gradually awakening to the necessity of reforming their electoral methods, the statute governing cities of the second class adopted by the 1913 legislature may be pointed to. That statute, while retaining the system of primary elections which obtains in the state, made provision for a ballot which should “be printed upon plain, substantial white paper and shall have no party designation or mark whatever.” 3 Thus was the principle of non-partisan elections for municipal corporations recognized by the laws of the state. It is now hoped that, with the open door for reform in our election machinery, and with the advance steps already taken, the people of St. Louis may be prepared to take another step forward towards genuine as distinguished from make-believe self-government and away from government by machine politicians.
A committee of the St. Louis civic league after careful study of, and correspondence with experts in, the subject of municipal election methods, has drafted two amendments to the city charter, providing for a new system of city elections. The one proposes to abolish nominations by party primary and to substitute nominations by petition for all elective offices. The provision drafted contemplates nomination petitions to be signed by registered voters of the city to the number of at least one per cent of the total number of registered voters who voted at the last preceding regular election. It is further proposed that the municipal ballot shall be non-partisan, not bearing thereon any party or political designation or mark, nor having appended to the name of any candidate anything showing how he was nominated or indicating his views or opinions. Provision is made that the ballots shall be so arranged that the voter shall be given an opportunity to express at least three choices among the candidates for mayor, comptroller and president of the board of aldermen (and members for the board of aldermen at elections where no more than three members of such board are to be elected), and that in the counting of the ballots, if no candidate for the office to be filled shall have a majority of first choices expressed, second and other choices may be added to the first choices to obtain as near majority support for a candidate as the ballots cast will permit. The names of the candidates for each of the offices to be filled are to be arranged on the ballot under a heading which shall consist only of the name of the office for which the candidate is running. Opposite the name of each candidate shall appear his residence address.
For the election of the board of aldermen it is proposed that the old system of ward representation shall be abandoned, and while the old number of members is retained, it is proposed that it shall be constituted in] accordance with the principles of proportional representation, fourteen members being elected every two years.
3 Session Laws 1913, pp. 428, 448, 450.


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Members of the board of aldermen are to be elected upon lists, each list to be shown separately upon the ballot and to be designated only by a number, each list appearing upon the ballot to be entitled to have declared elected as many aldermen as the total number of votes cast for that list is contained in the total of all votes cast at the election for all lists, the persons to be declared elected from each list to be those persons nominated on that list who receive individually the highest number of votes. It is provided that, in voting for members of the board of aider-men, the voter shall vote on one list only, and may insert the names of any other qualified candidates, but may not vote for more than the total number of aldermen to be elected. Provision is made for the recall of a member of the board of aldermen by a petition for such recall, to be signed by at least ten per cent of the registered voters of the city; provided, however, that such petition shall not be valid unless it contains the signatures of at least sixty per cent of the voters who signed the nominating petition of the alderman whose recall is demanded.
The plan outlined above is embodied in two proposed ordinances, one of them submitting a charter amendment to be voted on at the regular election, embodying the features described and providing for proportional representation; the other an ordinance which may be adopted by the board of aldermen, providing for nominations by petitions, the nonpartisan ballot and preferential voting. The reason for embodying these provisions in two separate ordinances is that proportional representation necessitated amending the charter, while the other features may, under the present law, be adopted by ordinance. Should the board of aldermen decline to pass either ordinance, resort will be had to initiative petitions.
Whilst it is too early to predict what will be the fate of the proposed measures, an active campaign will be conducted in the endeavor to arouse our voters to a sense of the importance of improving our electoral methods along the lines proposed. It is believed that the public mind is already predisposed towards the non-partisan ballot in municipal elections. Our people are convinced that city government is primarily a business or administrative organization, with which national parties have no function. It is believed that nomination by petition and preferential voting on one ticket will be favored, chiefly because it does away with primaries and thus conserves as well the money of the city as the time and energy of the voter and candidate. Whether it will be as easy to convince our voters of the importance of substituting proportional representation for the old system of ward representation, it is more difficult to predict. People are learning to distinguish between the non-representative or administrative office and the representative office, just as they are learning to differentiate the two functions of city government,—the legislative, or the determination of policies, and the administrative, or the carrying out of these policies. It would seem that a system which


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would allow a minority representation in the legislative branch of the government and the putting behind each representative a unanimous, instead of a divided, constituency, should appeal strongly to the intelligent voter.4
4 The system of nominating and electing city officials outlined in this article will be voted on by the voters of St. Louis at the general election, November 7. The proposals are in the form of a charter amendment submitted to the people by the board of aldermen. A favorable vote of three-fifths of those voting on the proposition is necessary to carry. The amendment was submitted because initiative petitions sufficient to call a special election were secured by the municipal ballot conference, in charge of the movement, and the board of aldermen wanted to avoid the expense of a special election. The petitions were, therefore, not filed.


RECENT PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL BUDGETS AND ACCOUNTS
Concluded
BY C. E. RIGHTOR
Dayton, Ohio
OHIO CITIES SHOW MARKED PROGRESS Cleveland, Ohio, adopted a revised form of budget procedure in November, 1914, to become effective with the new charter on the first day of 1915. This form provides the usual procedure, giving in detail the estimates of the expense of conducting the affairs of the several departments, and there are placed in parallel columns the mayor’s estimate and the amounts finally allowed by the council. The classification of expenditures is one formally adopted by the department of finance and is standardized for use in all departments. The annual general ledger report of the Cleveland director of finance is an excellent piece of detail work, each department and each office being shown separately as to income and expense and the assets and liabilities. These are all carried finally to one consolidated statement of income and expense and a consolidated balance sheet. Such a report cannot be expected from most communities because of the amount of clerical work required for its compilation.
Cincinnati, though operating under a modern budget procedure, prepared for six months’ periods, ended the year 1915 with a large deficit. This is no reflection, however, upon the system of accounting, as Cincinnati enjoys a complete set of records. It is a result of the impossible financial situation facing all of the largest cities of Ohio, due to antiquated and unjust tax laws of the state. It is conceded by the administration and by citizen agencies who have studied conditions that it will be necessary to issue $1,250,000 short-term notes to cover the entire deficit of the city, and this course is approved universally. Every effort is being made to find new sources of revenue—as a city portion of automobile taxes, which now go to the state, and liquor taxes, etc.
During the past two years the Cincinnati bureau of municipal research has devised and co-operated in the installation of systems of accounting and administrative methods in several offices. A uniform expense classification applicable to all departments was outlined, and stores ledgers for the city storehouses were prepared. A double entry system was devised and installed for the entire city, with the co-operation of the city auditor, and Cincinnati is one of the too few cities now enjoying a complete control over all the city’s assets and liabilities, and having expense and reve-
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632 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October
nue accounts which enable reports to be prepared monthly of financial facts of public business in a complete and accurate style.
Through the co-operation of the city officials the form of five semiannual appropriation ordinances along entirely new lines were made, and through the detailed budget now existing control over expenditure is the result.1 There is, however, no budget control over improvement programs proposed by the council. As with bureaus elsewhere, studies in other municipal departments have been made, such as an over-age report in the schools; a study of public works, the municipal court, etc.
EXCELLENT RESULTS'IN AKRON
In Akron, Ohio, a bureau of municipal research was established in January, 1915, and from its reports are obtained interesting accounts of rapid progress in financial methods of the city.2 The first point of attack of the bureau on the old order of things was the preparation of the annual budget. The budget for 1915 was prepared upon lines indicated from a study of 1914 expenditures, and departmental requests were made in accordance with titles which were adopted in the new accounting system. Standard forms were devised for making the departmental estimates, and character and object of expenditure classifications were introduced. Requests are given in detail now, rather than in lump sums. Further progress in budget making is contemplated in subsequent budgets.
A general scheme of accounting for the city was outlined by this bureau, to afford entire financial control and make possible the preparation of a balance sheet and income and expense statement. Akron has prepared the accounting procedure to conform to the requirements of the state board for inspection of public offices, though it is conceded that these requirements laid down several years ago are now out of date and incomplete. The system contemplates the introduction of a general ledger, expense ledgers in departments, cost records, etc.
A comprehensive report to the public of the financial condition of the city was prepared—the first of its kind—and the reasons for the annual deficit stated.8 A study of the inequitable tax laws of Ohio is being made by bureau, and given publicity through a series of bulletins. Similar studies have been made recently in both Toledo and Dayton, to expose the inequalities and injustice of existing tax laws.4 Surveys of the several city departments are under way in Akron; and the Municipal University is co-operating with the bureau in the general study of municipal administration.
1 Biennial report of the Cincinnati bureau, 1915.
5 Annual report of the bureau of municipal research, January, 1916.
8 Report on financial condition of Akron, bureau of municipal research, 1915. Bulletins on finance, and the tax rate, 1915-1916.
4 Some facts about the tax rate, Dayton, bureau of municipal research, 1915. City finances, Toledo, Toledo commercial club, 1916.


1916] RECENT PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL BUDGETS 633
Among the tasks undertaken by the Ohio institute for public efficiency, Columbus, was a study of the accounting methods of Cuyahoga County,, with recommendations for an improved system which are now under consideration.6 The formulation of new municipal accounting systems for Toledo and Columbus, similar to that already noted for Akron, were presented to the officials of these cities, and are being reviewed by them for acceptance. In co-operation with the state bureau of accounting a new classification of expenditures for the state, counties, municipalities and townships was prepared, to take effect January 1, 1916. Some of the cities in the state, having provided themselves with a home-rule charter, are not affected by this classification.
A MANUAL OF ACCOUNTING PREPARED
During the past year, Denver, Colorado, has made substantial progress,, based first upon a thorough trial and subsequently by the passage of an ordinance providing for the adoption of an uniform system of accounts8 for the city and county of Denver. Contrary to the commonly prevailing records based upon a cash basis, the system here provides for recording upon an income and expense basis.
The budget of the city was reformed during the year from the “lump sum” to the itemized, and the budget of 1916 is as complete as it was possible to prepare it at the time it went to the press. Worthy of comment in connection with the several reports which have emanated from the office of the Colorado taxpayers’ association are the explanatory notes accompanying them, and which make the reports of more immediate interest to the average citizen. T. R. Lill, who was the representative of the association in the adoption of the entire accounting improvements, prepared for use of Denver a manual of accounting procedure in maintaining the necessary record forms—receipts, disbursements, purchasing, payrolls, ledgers, journals, etc. It is indeed such manual as should be prepared by any city to explain and govern its finance department in the recording of transactions. New York and Philadelphia have such manuals. While there are extant very valuable texts of municipal accounting as Metz and Eggleston, they cannot treat with particularity the entire subject as it works out in actual practice in a city, and a local handbook is a great help to those who work on the records.
PLANS OF THE CITY MANAGER
In the city manager cities action to afford an interpretation of results through the medium of the accounting records has been realized by these responsible officers, and we observe a wide-spread movement looking toward the adoption of modern methods.
6 Annual report of institute, 1915.
6 Ordinance 123, establishing an uniform system of accounts, adopted by council, December 30, 1915.


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At the last annual meeting of the City Managers’ Association, there was considerable discussion as to what could be done to simplify and standardize city accounting, and it was agreed that at the next meeting each city manager should bring with him systems in effect and various forms used, that an exhibit be made of them, and a committee appointed to go over them to try to standardize the general system of accounting, yet it be applicable to the needs of various sized cities.7
Dayton, Ohio, the largest of the manager cities, has accepted and well advanced the installation of a complete accounting procedure, extending through all departments including purchasing, and affording a centralized control finally in the general ledger of the city in the finance department. This city also enjoys one of the most complete budgets, though covering only its current operating activities, to be found in any city.8 Somewhat arbitrary classifications of accounts have, been adopted, however, upon entirely sound premises, of nature of objects rather than the customary usage classification. Adequate details of requests for appropriations are required from every organization unit, which are listed in such detail that every activity is recognized in the functional classification. Yet this city, after only two years under the most scientific form of government, has not been able to achieve the ultimate in accounting and budget making methods, and it is planned to extend the improvements in both during the •coming years.
Jackson, Michigan, has also made substantial and permanent strides toward achieving the necessary ends of accounting. A budget was promulgated for the year 1916 for the first time, in which were listed detailed appropriations for every department and office of the government, and in accordance with a uniform classification established in Dayton. Receipts as estimated, to justify the proposed expenditures, are also published. The public was heard at an open hearing on the new method of presenting a program of city activities, and gave entire support to the budget. The accounting system is also being revised, to supplement the budget.
In another city, St. Augustine, Fla., also having a manager formerly connected with the Dayton government, there was adopted for the first time this year an itemized budget procedure, also based upon the Dayton practice. The annual report of the city manager states that the required revision of the accounting records is being made to afford the proper control over appropriations, and to permit the extraction of statements of what the city owns and owes, and the costs of operation, when and as often as desired. Cost records, a system of centralized purchasing and other controls over expenditures were introduced.
Springfield, Ohio, another prominent city manager city, adopted during 1914 and 1915 an entirety new system of keeping accounts. The system
7 Proceedings of the City Managers’ Association Convention, November, 1915.
8 Budget for 1916, published by the bureau of municipal research.


1916] RECENT PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL BUDGETS 635
was outlined by Carl Nau of Cleveland, and consists of a double entry system by which are shown the proprietary and the fund accounts. A complete balance sheet, operation statement, and appropriation balances are available a few days after the end of each month, together with cumulative totals to that date. Separate statements are also prepared for special improvement accounts, for the water works utility, and the sinking fund.
Sherman, Texas, has provided a new accounting system. It is, however, based upon commercial procedure rather than the needs of a municipality—and as the two are fundamentally different, the results which may be obtained are not satisfactory. A detail of the balance to each fund and account, and a statement of the surplus or deficit, are necessary for a corporation conducted for profit; but in a municipality accounting is necessary to prevent over-drafts of funds. The terminology is uncertain, assets are not all entered into the books of account, and uniform classifications of accounts are not followed. A peculiar situation exists in Sherman, the charter placing with the city clerk the drawing and countersigning of warrants. This makes difficult the position of the manager.
EEPOETS FBOM THE PACIFIC COAST
The Pacific coast is not too far to find an active interest in effecting improved financial record keeping. Oakland adopted a new system on July 1, 19159 based upon the sound plan of presenting a story of the financial transactions of the city in such detailed form as will be readily understood by the lay-citizen. Expenditures are classified as to character, and an uniform expense accounting, with comparisons, is provided. Labor and expense of divisions keeping accounts have been reduced by centralizing this work. Cost accounting for operation and maintenance of departments is provided; and a control over appropriations, revenues and accruals, established. A plain statement of the assets and liabilities of the city is available, and an inventory of all city property was taken when the system was installed.
A scientific budget is now prepared, based upon the itemized estimate of all requirements from departments, and the council can therefore fix the tax rate to the needs of the city, rather than the budget to the tax rate. This procedure is a fortunate one, and one, incidentally, not enjoyed by cities in some states. Uniformity of accounts and classifications is adopted throughout all offices, affording valuable statistical records for comparative purposes.
Los Angeles has also considered fundamental principles in the preparation of its budget, and while well in advance of most cities of the country in methods, it is looking toward the adoption of even more exactness in the procedure. Facts rather than opinions are to be the basis of estimating
8 Various reports of the tax association of Alameda county.


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items of needs, and the entire municipal program is to be presented, including debt service, public improvements and special assessments. In addition to showing what the city is to buy, i.e., the objects of expenditure-and their character, the functions to be performed, or the purposes of expenditure in each department, are to be given; and finally, this complete financial program is to be given the widest publicity possible. The excellent work done in the preparation of the budget is indicated by the report upon the methods applied in reducing the total of requests to a figure-within the estimated revenues, which cut amounted to $3,263,000, and was effected by the budget committee.10
The efficiency commission of the city co-operates closely with the several departments in securing most effective results. In their work they have engaged in the compilation of the budget, and in cutting requests; submitted a plan of salary standardization; a plan for a central bureau of standards; centralizing the issuance of licenses, etc.; and also co-operated in efficiency studies in public works; provided an uniform classification of accounts for expenses, now used in all departments; secured uniformity in accounting methods and control; and a basis for accurate cost accounting; pay-roll procedure; purchasing ordinance proposed; and now have a proposed charter before the electorate.11
Portland, Oregon, has a budget somewhat detailed so far as salaries are concerned, but as to other expenses an uniform classification is not followed. At present writing there is being advocated for Portland a bureau of economy and efficiency, which will no doubt include, among its primary duties, the introduction of a scientific and complete budget for the city, together with an adequate accounting control.
Dallas, Texas, is making rapid civic studies under the leadership of Mayor Lindsley. Among the improvements are a modern system of accounting and budget procedure and control. It is anticipated that by May, 1916, there will be a complete set of financial records for the entire city. Reports are thenceforth to be rendered by the fifth day of each month showing the revenues and expenses, receipts and disbursements, contingent liabilities, and total assets and liabilities for all accounts. A society of municipal research has been formed composed of department heads and other city employes. It is an unique bureau in this respect. Its purpose is to promote progressive measures and effect co-operation between departments, though it has advisory powers only.
CANADIAN CITIES MAKING RECORDS
Many Canadian cities are finding possibilities for bettering their financial systems. Chief among the cities whose reports have been seen is Toronto. The first year’s report of the bureau of municipal research
10 Budget for the fiscal year 1915-1916. Report of the Budget Committee, 1915— 1916.
11 Municipal Bulletin, various issues.


1916] RECENT PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL BUDGETS 637
shows much material progress in the city government, including the adoption of a scientific form of budget by the adoption of comparative figures for previous years, separation of items not directly affecting taxation, etc. A modern accounting system recommended for adoption was the major work of the bureau, in co-operation with city officials. Extensive publicity through pamphlets was directed to this work.12
Brandon recently introduced the revenue and expense basis for keeping of accounts, and is now able to extract from its books a complete statement of its financial condition. Edmonton and Saskatoon are among the cities making improvements in accounting procedure.
The foregoing pages indicate in a general way the onward trend of our city governments in their endeavors to give to the citizens and taxpayers an accounting for the money entrusted to them. The subject at greater length would require an enquiry into over 200 of our cities of over 30,000 population, as also of a much greater number of smaller communities.
As a supplement to the review, is appended a list of the known citizen agencies working with the city officials—through criticisms and constructive recommendations—in achieving better methods in expenditure, and wider publicity about results produced.13
12 First annual report of the Toronto bureau of municipal research, 1915. Citizen Control of Citizens’ Business, B. M. R., 1915.
13 Cities Having Citizen Agencies.
Washington, D. C., New York City,
New York City,
Chicago,
Philadelphia,
Cincinnati,
Milwaukee,
Dayton,
Denver,
Minneapolis,
Rochester,
Toronto,
Springfield (Mass.), Akron (O.),
Columbus (O.), Baltimore,
Oakland (Cal.),
San Francisco, Detroit,
Cleveland,
White Plains (N. Y.), St. Joseph (Mo.), Wilmington (Del.), Newark (N. J.), Madison (Wis.),
Institute for government research.
Institute for public service.
Bureau of municipal research.
Bureau of public efficiency.
Bureau of municipal research.
Bureau of municipal research.
Citizens bureau of municipal efficiency.
Bureau of municipal research.
Colorado tax payers protective association.
Bureau of municipal research of the civic and commerce association.
Bureau of municipal research.
Bureau of municipal research.
Bureau of municipal research.
Bureau of municipal research.
Ohio institute for public efficiency.
Bureau of state and municipal research.
Tax association of Alameda county.
California state tax association.
Bureau of governmental research.
Civic league.
Westchester county research bureau.
Civic commissioner of the commerce club.
General service board of Delaware.
Public welfare committee of Essex county.
Wisconsin efficiency bureau.


RECENT CITY PLAN REPORTS
Concluded,1
BY CHARLES MULFORD ROBINSON Rochester, N. Y.
In St. Louis city planning has been a more or less seething subject during recent months. In June of 1915 the project of a central traffic-parkway was defeated, not from a lack of interest in city planning, but because some of those most interested in a city plan questioned the wisdom of adopting so ambitious a scheme until, by the development of a complete plan, its relation to the whole could be determined. The secret of the defeat of the project was not, therefore, that the citizens of St. Louis did not care, but that they cared so much. But lest the defeat might reduce the influence of the city plan commission, there was organized a voluntary, citizens’ city plan committee, of which the purpose is to co-operate with and give public backing to the official city plan commission. Both of these organizations are active and both are issuing reports.
The city plan commission’s elaborate report on the parkway2 has not been robbed of value by the parkway’s defeat. It offers an interesting discussion of an interesting scheme, which may possibly be some day revived, while the principles enunciated are not limited by time and place.
The parkway, however, was only one of many projects of the commission, and a month later it brought out a report on the St. Louis river front.3 Published with this report—the two bound together in stiff covers, in a style uniform with the parkway report—is a discussion which the commission had issued in April, 1913, on the possible municipal ownership of a river front railway. The later report has to do with proposed terminals for both boats and railroads. It includes the report of the consulting engineer, a report of two Mississippi Valley conferences, a report on the conditions in St. Louis, New Orleans, Davenport, Kansas City and other ports, and expert conclusions, the whole making an important addition to the somewhat scanty American literature on the commercial development of river ports.
5 The first part of this article was published in the July number of the National Municipal Review. It contained reviews of the longer and more elaborate city planning reports which had been published during the twelve months period covered. In the second part of the article, printed herewith, there are reviews of a large number of smaller reports, on special phases of the city planning movement.—Editor.
1 Report of city plan commission. February 9, 1915.
* Reports of city plan commission, 1913-1915.
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Two bulletins by the citizens’ city plan committee have been published. The second 4 5 tells something of Harland Bartholomew, whom the committee has brought to St. Louis from Newark, and has retained as permanent city planning engineer, to assist the city plan commission. It contains also an address by Mr. Bartholomew, and an account of a public hearing on traffic needs, which was conducted by the official commission. The street problem growing out of those needs is particularly interesting in St. Louis since existing traffic arteries require only a comparatively small amount of connecting-up and extending to make a good radial system.
Another interesting publication from St. Louis, standing in a class quite by itself, is entitled a “Discussion of the interurban loop and downtown traction terminals.” 6 The articles, sixteen in number, appeared during December, 1915, and made it clear that the solution of even this comparatively small problem was inextricably tied up with the working out of the city plan. The conclusion was in favor of looping local street cars on existing downtown streets as against constructing a loop of new tracks; and it was proposed that the terminals of the interurban roads be kept upon the border of, but in contact with, the loop.
From Chicago there has come, in its always imposing form, the annual report of the board of supervising engineers, Chicago Traction.6 Making, like each of its five predecessors, a volume of more than 500 pages, and with Bion J. Arnold as chairman of the board, there is much in the book that is of general city planning pertinence. This is especially true of chapter II, “relation of suburbs to the city” and of chapter V on “passenger subways.”
In fact, for some years Chicago has been contributing more than any other American city to the discussion of the relations of the city and its railroads. The long list of Chicago reports on that subject has been further increased by the recent publication of the preliminary report of the Chicago railway terminal commission.7 Of this John F. Wallace is chairman, the other non-official members being Walter L. Fisher, Bion J. Arnold, and E. H. Bennett. This report contains many interesting maps and charts, and has discussions under such headings as “fundamental principles,” “effect of competitive theory,” “co-operative terminals;” “through routeing,” and “railroads in the city plan.” There is also an account of the European trip which, having been undertaken by the commission, was so seriously interfered with by the outbreak of the war.
4 February 11, 1916.
5 Written for “Greater St. Louis,” by Charles H. Huff, and reprinted from the St. Louis Star.
6 Covering the fiscal year ended January 31,1913. Published by the Board. Chicago, 1915.
? March 29, 1915.


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This specialization which has been so marked a feature of the recent city plan reports is further emphasized in the last few months by a group of small pamphlets, so many and gathered from so far, that samples only must here suffice. On housing, for instance, there is the report of a survey of housing conditions in Burlington, Vt.8 Miss Udetta D. Brown, an expert from the National Housing Association, did most of the actual work, doubtless surprising Burlington with her revelation that that openly built and beautifully situated city, of only 20,000 population, “has a housing problem of unusual significance.” Of like purport is a report on housing conditions in the Oranges, by Edith Rockwell Hall, field secretary of the civic committee of the Orange woman’s club.9 She closes with the recommendation that there be “ a permanent housing committee for all the Oranges,” which “would do well first of all to arouse interest in securing an expert city planning.” Both of these reports are illustrated with photographs of the kind typical in housing studies.
Of somewhat wider appeal is the little pamphlet containing a report by the recreational inquiry committee of the State of California.10 This is a committee of seven, nearly every one of whom is prominent in public welfare work, appointed under authorization of the legislature in 1913. They divide their report into three parts: Part one, written by Professor James Edward Rogers, is on “why we need recreation”; part two, on “the existing conditions of recreation in the State,” commercial, industrial, institutional, rural, etc. Part three contains recommendations, under the heading, “what we need further in recreational facilities.” This is written by Bessie D. Stoddart, who has been so long and efficiently identified with the playgrounds of Los Angeles. She considers both cities and rural communities, and various phases of activity.
There are reports by several municipal art commissions, and these have closer connection with city planning than might be at first supposed. In some cases, art commissions are given city planning powers; in several instances, city plan commissions are given art commission powers. Perhaps a fair example of these reports is that of the art jury of Philadelphia.11 Street lighting fixtures and street and railroad bridges were the forms of construction which had come most often before the jury in the period covered by the fourth annual report. But the largest and most elaborate of the art commission reports is, appropriately, that of the federal commission of fine arts.12 An interesting feature of the report for
8 A Survey of the City of Burlington: Its Housing Conditions. Made under the Direction of the Committee on Social Survey. 1915.
9 September, 1915.
10 September 28, 1914.
11 Fourth annual report. Philadelphia, 1914.
12 For the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1915.


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1914 is a careful explanation of the commission’s attitude with reference to government competitions and its statement of its reasons for believing that “the direct selection of artists” is “normally a better method than a competition.” As always, the photographs illustrating this report are admirable and interesting.
Already a considerable number of annual reports have been cited in this review. Several still await mention, for in the twelve months covered, the “annuals” constitute, for the first time, a considerable percentage of the year’s output of “fugitive” city planning literature.
One of the most important of the annual reports now appearing is that of the Massachusetts homestead commission.13 This commission was created by the state legislature of 1911 and instructed to work out a plan “whereby, with the assistance of the commonwealth, homesteads or small houses and plots of ground may be acquired by mechanics, factory employees, laborers and others in the suburbs of cities and towns.” In pursuance of these instructions the commission has made a most careful study of city planning, and later has been charged by the legislature with the responsibility of securing obedience to the state law which requires every town of ten thousand or more inhabitants to have a town planning board. Its first annual report was of such value that the entire edition was exhausted within a few weeks of publication. A synopsis of some of its data is printed as appendix III in the current (second) report. The other appendices contain reports from the many local planning boards of Massachusetts and an account of a state conference on the subject. As to the body of the report, an idea of its city planning interest and value may be gleaned from the titles of selected sections: “Local planning boards and their work,” “illustrations of the need for city planning,” “betterment assessments,” “building lines,” “improved-housing companies,” “larger powers for planning boards,” “the bills proposed,” etc.
As to the annual reports of local planning boards, the only one that has come to the reviewer from Massachusetts, except that from Lawrence, which was spoken of in part one of this review, comes from the Quincy board.14 * This is well printed and illustrated. Though making a pamphlet of only sixteen pages, it provides convincing evidence of how much a planning board may mean in the wise development of a town.
The third report of the commission on beautifying the city of Norfolk, Virginia,16 covers a two-year period. As in the previous reports, much of the space is devoted to a discussion of the street tree problem, for the handling of which the commission is made responsible. There is note, however, of some waterfront work, some filling-in, some acquisition of public open spaces, and the statement that the commission hopes ulti-
13 Public Document No. 103. 1914. State Printers, Boston, 1915.
14 Annual report of the Planning Board. For the year ending December 31, 1915.
13 July, 1913-July, 1915.


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mately to take up real planning work, in the correct platting of outlying areas. In the future, that work, if adequately done, will mean much to the growing city of Norfolk.
Finally, for the annual park reports—of which the number is legion— are not here included, there is a group of publications that are very directly concerned with city planning but that are commercial in purpose and not of public origin. These have to do with real estate subdivision projects and are illustrative of such a practical phase of city planning, and in some cases so illustrate its best development, that it is impossible to ignore them. The small pamphlet entitled, “Richmond, the industrial center of the Pacific coast,” 16 gives the results of the “city planning competition” on what is called the canal subdivision of Richmond, a section as essential to that city “as the neck is to the human system,” to quote the words of the booklet, and of like relative situation. Illustrations include the winning and the honorable mention plans, and the composite—or final—plan, which has been worked out from the foregoing. The prize essays on the “logical business center of Richmond” and “Richmond ten years hence” are also included.
A large and very elaborate publication is that descriptive of Borden Park, Ottawa, which has been laid out by Thomas H. Mawson and Sons, of England.17 There are colored plates illustrating the plans in toto and in parte, many beautiful photographs, a number of interesting designs and a good deal of text. Of this not the least interesting portion is an appendix containing a very long list of proposed restrictions.
In this group of publications there are also a number of less costly but attractive brochures, of which a fair type is that which advertises, with picture, plan, and text, the country club district of Columbus, Ohio, laid out by William Pitkin, Jr., of Rochester, for the King Thompson Company; or the brochure advertising Ottawa Hills, Toledo, a development of the E. H. Close Realty Company, on which Frederick Law Olmsted has been in consultation. Most significant is the appearance of such books from various parts of the country. They indicate how practical and effective an ally city planning is now making of the real estate man. Once the movement’s greatest obstacle, there are indications that he may rightfully become its most effective ally.
“ H. C. Cutting, Monadnock Building, San Francisco, Cal.
17 Borden Park, Ottawa. Report on the Development of the Estate for the Great Eastern Realty Co. Thomas H. Mawson and Sons, London, Lancaster, Vancouver, New York. Printed by W. Holmes, Ltd., Ulverston, Lancs., Eng.


SHORT ARTICLES
COMMUNITY ART
BY WILLIAM DUDLEY FOULKE Richmond, Ind.
IF ANY ONE were to ask what is the most permanent thing produced by man—what lasts longer than anything else upon this planet— I think the answer ought to be, its monuments of art. Nearly all that we know of the past life of humanity we have learned from its architecture, its sculpture, its painting and its literature.
And the great bulk of the art which has thus endured has not been that which was created by one private individual for another but it has been community art. Often indeed it was the sovereign whom it celebrated but that was because he represented the state. Often it was the temple or the church in which it was embodied but that was because the god to whom these were built was the god of the community that built them.
We have less community art in America than in the old world. The great paintings we possess are largely in private collections. Now the possession of the most priceless treasures where they are not open to the public is of very little value to our people. We have indeed a number of excellent galleries but these exist principally in our metropolitan centers. A beginning has also been made in some of the smaller places— witness the fine art gallery and museum established by Mr. Parrish in Southhampton, Long Island. Such things if widely distributed will be of great value. But to get the very best results they should come, not from the outside as a benefaction, but from within out of the desire of the community itself. When the people feel that a gallery is theirs, established by themselves to fill a need which they have personally realized, they will inevitably take a warmer interest in it than if it came from some outside source. Let the paintings and the statues be received from every quarter, but those that are purchased by the community itself will awaken a livelier concern than those bestowed by others. The competition aroused when they are chosen and the discussion as to their merits, has a distinct value of its own. The people are thinking about art and are considering the canons by which art is judged.
Sometimes the selections may be bad, but that need not often happen if competent experts be called in to award prizes or to pass in other ways upon the merits of prospective purchases, and it is an evil which will
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& VATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW 1916 Editor CLIXTON ROGERS WOODRUFF Associate Editors JOHN A. FAIRLIE ADELAIDE R. HASSE HERMAN G. JAMES HOWARD L. MCBAIN VOLUME V PUBLISHED FOB TEEI XATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE THE RUMFORD PRESS CONCORD, N. H. 1916 BY

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW VOL. V, NQ. 4 OCTOBER, 1916 TOTAL No. 20 FRENCH CITIES IN WAR TIME BY CEORGES BENOIT-LEVY' Paris, France T IS in exceptional times one can recognize the full value of individuals and of collective bodies. This war has been a demonstration of the possibilities of French cities as well as of their vitality. The limitation of such an article is an obligation to take only a few instances. I have made my choice of Paris and Lyons, the two more largely populated communities of France, with Marseilles. To deal first with Lyons, a city of more than a half million inhabitants, nobody would think that we were at war, as we go along its well kept, animated streets, with surface cars running a part of the night and the cinemas open till 11 p.m. Nothing in the sweet smile of the Lyonnaise nor in the activity of the workshops and factories would disclose the sorrows of many a family. They are all good fighters, indeed, not only at the front, but in the heart of the city; and the following words of the mayor are typical to show how in other circumstances than war time, a more complete political union for municipal activity would be desirable. Said Herriot, the great mayor: I cannot express how grateful I am to you for the complete understanding with which we have treated, during such a difficult period, the affairs of the city. If these affairs have been well managed, co-operation stood for much in the result. If we have arrived at this feeling, at this model unity, it is because all of us here are men of responsibility one to another. The population, besides, shows admirable traits in its gravity and intelligence. Our ideas are dear to us, we guard them, but we know how to subordinate them to our different duties. After twenty-two months of war, when possibly the others are weary, we have the feeling that we owe all to our city, which is one of the essential forces of the country, of France herself. It is the city and the country, at this moment, which ought to dominate all in our thoughts and acts. * General secretary, French Town Planning and Garden City Association, 11 rue Malebranche, Paris. M. Benoit-Levy's manuscript was written by him partly in French and partly in English. The French portions were translated by Mrs. Walter Waring Hopbinson. The English portions of the manuscript have not been changed. I Anyone is as no one. 545

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546 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October The budget of Lyons for 1916 was thus established: ORDINARY EXPENSES 1. General expenses of the administration, ........... Fr. 901,800 2. Expenses of exploitation and administration. ...... 1,333,515 3. Justice, police and public hygiene. ............... 1,254,069 4. Fire service.. .................................. 236,500 5. Interments and cemeteries. ..................... 391,800 6. Public buildings. ............................... 1,420,280 7. Water works, ................................. 2,177,375 8. City road commissioners. ....................... 3,399,000 9. Parish road commissioners. ..................... 408,272 10. 8mall farming and walks. ....................... 243,380 11. Public instruction .............................. 3,297,240 12. Letters, sciences and arts. ....................... 395,880 13. Public assistance ............................... 2,865,595 14. Subsidies.. ..................................... 523,181 16. Endowments .................................. 207,001 15. Odd expenses. ................................. 555,379 Total. ....................................... Fr. 19,610,267 EXTRAORDINARY EXPENSES 1. Loans and debts of long terms. .................. Fr. 4,280,613 Total. ....................................... Fr. 6,310,383 ............................... 2. Sundry expenses 2,029,770 Fr. 25,920,640 1. Grants on different taxes of the state, dog taxes.. .. Fr. 911,000 2. Taxes of the substitutes of the city toll. .......... 10,103,600 3. Slaughter houses, markets, warehouses ............ 1,509,900 5. Interments and cemeteries. ..................... 736,000 6. Product of properties of the commune, rents and interest of landed property 1,956,630 7. Rights of the road commissioners and rents for occupatiop of the public domain. 1,823,441 8. Property of concourse, subsidies and reimbursements 1,326,703 9. Different rights and products. ................... 82,102 10. Endowments. ................................. 207,001 Extraordinary income. ............................ 3,961,593 Excess of income. ............................... Fr. 2,430 ORDINARY INCOME 4. Water service.. ................................ 3,305,100 ...................... ................ Total. ....................................... Fr. 21,961,477 Total ........................................ Fr. 25,923,070

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19161 FRENCH CITIES IN WAR TIME 547 Three million, one hundred fifty-nine thousand, nine hundred and fiftysix francs have been expended from the outbreak of war until December, 1915, in social and municipal activities. Herewith are some of these remarkable undertakings: On August 2, municipal soup was installed in all the quarters of the city and distributed to the poor at two meals a day. The number of meals served in the seven wards of Lyon exceeded 10,000,000 and the expenses increased on this day to 2,430,026 francs. To supply the needs of the women, not benefited by allowances, the city of Lyons has opened charity workshops. They work there from two to half past five o’clock, and receive a recompense of one franc a day. The total expense to May 30 amounted to 1,214,508 francs. The product of these workrooms was used especially for the municipal hospitals; the work of the consignments for the fighting soldiers, and the mail work for the prisoners of war. MUNICIPAL HOSPITALS In the month of September, 1914, the manager of the bureau of health asked the city of Lyons to please establish and manage a certain number of hospitals intended for the wounded soldiers. In a short time thirty representative hospitals, with places for 2,600 beds, were installed, some in places graciously offered by their proprietors : boarding houses, stores, private apartments, etc. ; the others in places arranged specially for this usage : academic haHs, assembly rooms, factories, etc. These municipal hospitals receive from the board of health an indemnity of 2 francs 50, by day and by the patient; this sum actually suffices for their maintenance, but all the expenses of installation, operating rooms, rooms for dressing, bath rooms, kitchens, heating, etc., have been supported by the work fund of the municipal hospitals. One of the principal expenses has been the furnishing of the linen necessary for these hospitals : house linen, sheets, towels, aprons, dusters, etc., and body linen for the wounded: shirts, socks, flannels, handkerchiefs, slippers, pajamas, etc. The different things have been made in the workshops of the city and put in the hospitals which continue to provide themselves with the linen installed for this purpose in the big room of festivals in the city hall. WORK OF CONSIGNMENTS FOR THE FIGHTING SOLDIERS At the approach of the bad season, the mayor started to send clothes and garments parcels to soldiers at the front. The important workmanship furnished by the workshops of the city was not able to find a better occupation; along with the linen furnished the hospitals, the linen needed for the soldiers at the front was provided. An appeal made to the Lyonnaise population resulted in the gathering of many gifts of one kind

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October 548 or another. Thanks to them the workshops were able to dispatch every Saturday, through the co-operation of the management, warm clothes for the troops. Here are some data concerning the quantity and the price of objects sent to the troops: 28,500 pairs of drawers. .................... 3.50 99,750 36,000 pairs of stockings. ................... 1.50 54,000 1,200 blankets.. .......................... Fr. 8.00 Fr. 9,600 34,000 shirts. ............................. 2.50 85,000 1,100 belts .............................. 3.00 3,300 3,500 comforters. ......................... 2.00 7,000 700 pairs of snow shoes.. ................ 6.00 4,200 5,000 sheets. ............................. 5.00 25,000 2,700 pairs of gloves, ..................... 2.00 5,400 12,000 knitted flannel vests. ................ 3.50 42,000 2,200 pass-mountains ...................... 2.00 4,400 Fr. 359,850 and a large quantity of knives, pipes, matches, tobacco pouches, different kinds of odds and ends, etc. 28,000 handkerchiefs ....................... 0.40 11,200 4,500 slippers ............................ 2.00 9,000 PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS FOR THE WOUNDED “‘We have installed,” says the Mayor of Lyons, “on the landed property of the city, two professional schools to give a trade to the wounded who are rendered incapable of practicing their regular profession. Our two schools are able to receive every one of a hundred pensioners and are in full working order. The results obtained are very encouraging and our dear wounded are able to learn one of the following trades or professions, according to their aptitudes : accounting, shoemaking, tailoring, carpentry (small carpentering and toys), bookbinding, nursery and seed work, and photography. We give them thus the triple autonomy, moral, intellectual and professional, which they are able to acquire by work. A registry office for the wounded is connected with this work. Real estate and the installation of necessary workshops costs us close to 20,000 francs. THE MAIL OF THE PRISONERS OF WAR Since the beginning of December, 1914, Lyons has been sending to war prisoners parcels of clothing, linen, and, above all, provisions. Fifteen thousand parcels have already been sent and more will be dispatched to the needy prisoners of the two great camps of Friederichsfeld and Ohrdruf.

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19161 FRENCH CITIES IN WAR TIME 549 These two camps contain above all the prisoners of the invaded regions, who a.re not able to give any help to their families. This service demands the daily consignment of 200 articles for these camps and of 70 parcels for the indigent prisoners of Lyons and of Rhone. The expense amounts to 1500 francs a day. Besides the linens, the quantities of provisions sent by the month are: 15,000 K. war biscuit 2,500 K. special bread 1,000 K. chocolate 1,500 boxes of jam 8,000 boxes of different kinds of preserves, sardines, 4,000 pieces of soap 1,000 complete sewing bags tunny, liver, meat, vegetables, etc. Care was taken of 250 children of those in active service who were either widowers or divorced. To suppress the sweating system and allow the workmen a remuneration, the city herself watches the distribution of works for the military intendance. Two existing works have already received a greater development in consequence of the war; 1. The restaurants of wet nurses receive all the mothers nursing their children, without their being held to make known their situation and their home. 2. The infant’s home where children in their infancy are guarded and taken care of. They had distributed to them an average of 460 litres (1% pints) of milk a day. They have seen their clientele triple itself. This figure is now raised to 1500. PARIS The social, municipal and economic life of Paris has been splendidly dealt with in the 600 pages of M. Louis Dausset, general reporter of the budget, creator of the town planning commission of Paris. YOU will find in an appendix table the comparative statement of the 1914, 1915 and 1916 budget and you will notice the clear classification in 42 articles, one page for the expenses, the other for the income. The largest source of extraordinary income during the war has been the emission of short bonds (six or twelve months). At the time of the last issue, the total of bonds was able to be easily tripled; a large number of subscribers was not able to be served; although the bank of France may not have made on these securities the same advances as on the bonds for the national defense, they are readily negotiable at par, except at the Bourse. The city of Paris owns property which increases in value daily. Even during the war it does not cease Said M. Dausset:

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550 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October to keep up its public streets, to better its paving, to pursue the great work of its public service department, of its tramways, of its underground (the Metropolitan). It meets its liabilities; it meets its obligations; it has paid its share in a troubled time when its citizens, even the most confident, did not hope they would be able to pay it. Its credit stands as always, one of the first in the world. One can then be assured regarding the future issues of its municipal bonds, of whatever character they may be. Sere are some of the doings of Paris during war times. Before any assistance given by the state, the city had already given 2,000,000 francs to families of soldiers in need. From August 14, 1914, the municipal council voted 1 F.25 for an adult and half franc for a child of families out of work. Forty million francs short term bonds have been issued for the purpose oF securing 400,000 tons (hev.) of coal in case of need. A great part has been distributed to the indigents and the remaining sold at cost price to the people. To prevent speculation in wheat and bread, flour has been delivered to the Parisian boutangers on the condition only that bread shall not be sold to the consumers at more than 0 F.90 (15 cents) the 4 pounds. In fact we have always had a whole meal and wholesome bread in France since the war. An ordinance of November 9, 1915, makes it compulsory for retailers to post in their shops both their price list and the cost price as established by the municipal bulletin of the week. The corporation of Paris has bought from the ministry of war 600 tons (hev.) of frozen meat to be retailed through the Parisian cooperative stores. Meat of the best quality, from Australia or from Illinois, is sold 30 per cent cheaper than the other. Absinthe and all similar poisons have been prohibited and this helps to keep down the cost of living. Social intercourse is still going on in Paris: In October 1915, there were 805,765 tickets delivered in theatres and 1,604,519 in cinemas. In the game month the special tax on theatres and cinemas netted the assistance publique 220,000 francs. Workmen’s houses are still built by the city. Some curious statistics show that in Paris of 1,034,782 apartments, 752,900 are under 500 francs of rental value, and have to pay no tax at all, Thanks to the joint action of all friendly and disinterested persons, to the vigorous assistance of M. le prefect of the Seine, of M. Cacaud, director of public works, all difficulties were overcome. The works of Paris are running at full capacity, and gome figures will give an idea of the activity of municipal affairs. The repairs on stone ballasted roads, amounting to 73,200 square metres, have been made in 35 streets and boulevards; the project of paving in stone according to the plan laid out in 1914 has been almost entirely achieved; during the same time they

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19161 FRENCH CITIES IN WAR TIME 55 1 carried out operations under the plan laid out in 1915. From January 1 to October 31, about 76,700 square metres of paving repairs were made in 50 streets and 4,600 square metres more were in course of construction at the same time; besides, improvements have been effected on 22,500 square metres which were previously stone ballasted, particularly in the neighborhood of Vincennes. The improvement of stone ballasting has been made likewise on wood-paved streets; without counting the Avenue du Bois de Boulogne, which has 26,000 square metres and which was almost entirely completed in 1914, the last 25,700 square metres being finished October 31, 1915. The total amount of wood paving was over 166,600 square metres, among others on the Avenue des ChampsElysees, allowing for considerable repairing from the Place de la Concorde to the Place de 1’Etoile of 59,200 square metres of paving. They have asphalted 56 streets, representing 89,800 square metres. There were in course of construction on October 31, 6,700 square metres; the plan of improvement laid out in 1915 for 35,000 square metres has been completed in 37 streets out of 57. Other works of less importance have been accomplished in great number : minor traffic operations, alterations of paving, remaking of roads following close upon the completion of tramways; building and repairing the sidewalks in bitumen: these works cover over 300 public streets. Besides which all the traffic companies have done the work in 99 streets. From August 1,1914, up to October 1,1915, the Paris electric company installed 377 new lines for the motive power. The amount of current used, which was 2,060,002 K.W. in July, 1914, and had fallen in the month of September to 883,588 K.W. per hour, increased in September, 1915, to 2,856,183 K.W. per hour, an increase over the month of September 1914 of 223 per cent. On construction in the underground (Metropolitan) in spite of the particularly unfavorable conditions for delivery of materials, they were able to maintain a satisfactory activity and to show good progress. Line No. 7 was completed between Rue des Petits-Champs and the Palais-Royal and the work was turned over to the company December 22, 1914; the extension of this line under Rue Saint-Honore, between the Palais-Royal and Rue de Marengo, is equally well advanced; also the extension of the line Trocadero-Porte de Saint Cloud, to l’Opera, unfortunately held back by the sinking of the ground under Place de 1’Alma and the extension of line No. 3 as far as Porte des Lilas. Finally, the junction between lines 1 and 8, at Place de la Concorde, has been finished and opened to the public January 31, 1915, and the company has undertaken the construction of numerous station entrances. The connection between Place de 1’Opera and Place du Palais-Royal is now accomplished.

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552 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October The service of walks, on its side, has followed the execution of a certain number of operations, decided by the municipal council and covered by general or special funds, notably: improvements made on the south slope of the hill of Montmartre; the doing over of the dock of La Place d’Italie; the excavation and reconstruction of a new part of the Arena de Lutece; the fitting up of a garden at the entrance to the library Le Peletier Saint-Fargeau; and finally, they have pushed forward the work of clearing out the charnel-houses of St. Severin, which permits the making of a public square and a private garden. Even in the most sombre days of 1914, the city has never ceased to be kept up as in times of peace. It will be to the honor of the prefectoral administration to have managed to assume the sweeping, the sprinkling, the clearing of streets and roads, the removal of dirt, in such a fashion that the former critics of the filthy condition of Paris have remained quiet. As for the trees and flowers and our public gardens and squares, which have been the objects of the most assiduous care, nothing is more reposeful, in these times of atrocities and sorrows, than t.he sight of these Parisian flower-beds, where the most fresh and varied colors mingle in a harmony that is truly French. As for private efforts, the Association Le Arnis de Paris have never ceased their civic work, their weekly lectures and conducted tours in Paris, and are still publishing their illustrated magazine. All these items will be more representative than big considerations to show what our cities have done and what they are going to do. Of the war itself, of course I should mention -nothing, although writing these lines, underground, amidst the noise of torpedoes and big guns. Was he not an American who said “Never apologize. Your friends do not need it. Your enemies will not believe you.” Brethren, are we your friends?

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MUNICIPAL UNIVERSITIES OF THE UNITED STATES PROF. JOHN L. PATTERSON1 Louisville, Ky. HE term “municipal university” is applied specifically to universities and colleges that are partly supported by taxation in T the municipalities in which they are located. They are intended to complete the local public educational systems, and to give the opportunity of advanced education to the citizens in general and especially to the large class of young men and women who cannot go to college elsewhere on account of the expense of tuition and of living away from home. Some of our modern municipal universities aim to bring about a similar result in college training, together with results broader and more important,2 by means of a system introduced a few years ago by Dean Herman Schneider, of the University of Cincinnati. This system is called (I the co-operative method. ” According to the co-operative method the students attend lectures and recitations in the university and during alternate fortnights, under the supervision of the staff, they work for pay in the city at the application of their special subjects. The students are divided into two sections and relieve one another in the class rooms and the shops, so that the work of the college and of the employers is uninterrupted. In this way practice is taught co-ordinately with theory. The co-operative method has been used especially in engineering, but it suggests wider applications and broader fields of usefulness. The system has proved successful in the University of Cincinnati, and is being gradually adopted by the Municipal University of Akron (and by others). All municipal universities aim to meet the increasing need of citizens trained for civic usefulness. They study the special wants of the city in which they are located, and aim to fill them by offering appropriate courses. They aim to co-operate with the various municipal departments and institutions by rendering them expert service, and by receiving corresponding benefit. They endeavor also in many other ways to bring the students and the citizens face to face with the principles taught in college and the results produced by them. At the same time, the municipal university has not abandoned loftier ideals and still offers theoretical, cultural, and artistic instruction as the frame-work of a liberal education. 1 Dean, College of Arts and Sciences of the University of Louisville; president,, Asso* Consult “The University and the Municipalit.y,” U. S. bureau of education, Bulletin ciation of Colleges and Universities of Kentucky. 1915, No. 38. 553

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554 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October After being invited by the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW to write an article on the municipal universities and colleges of the United States, the writer decided that in the special accounts of these institutions it would be well to have them speak for themselves. Letters were accordingly sent to them with the invitation to contribute to this symposium. The contributions appear below, but in two cases where no statements were submitted by the colleges themselves a brief description of their history and work has been prepared in the University of Louisville. President Parke R. Kolbe of the Akron municipal university, defines a municipal university as “an institution of higher learning supported in greater part by municipal taxation, requiring graduation from a firstgrade high school for entrance, and maintaining a four-year course in arts and letters, around which a greater or less number of other schools or departments may be grouped. Its participation in technical, professional, and graduate work or in civic co-operation will naturally vary with city and institution. Under a strict application of this definition according to President Kolbe, there are seven municipal universities or colleges in the United States: the University of Cincinnati, the College of the City of New York, the Municipal University of Akron, Hunter College of the City of New York, Toledo University, the College of Charleston, and the University of Louisville. In the following individual accounts of the various municipal universities or colleges stress is placed on their work in its relation to the affairs and institutions of their respective municipalities. They offer in addition the usual curricula of most universities or colleges. THE UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI4 Buildings, bonds, and endowments have their place in the history of the University of Cincinnati, but the dominating factor in its progress has been an idea. This idea, around which the institution has grown, is that a university should be an integral part of the community life; that the citizens should think of their university along with their railroad terminals, park systems, and commercial exchanges, as part and parcel of the life and work of the municipality. This thought, always present in the institution’s career, has been given conscious and energetic development during the past ten years under the present administration of the university. The aim has been to place the university in intimate relationship with the governmental, social, and industrial activities of the city, and thus, while testing and vitalizing the class-work of students and teachers, to aid in the various phases of urban life. So, before considering the usual facts as to foundations, appropriations, and other biographical data, it may be well to instance the operation of * Article 2. the U. S. bureau of education, Bulletin 1915, No. 38. 4 Quoted from a memher of the University of Cincinnati faculty.

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19161 MUNICIPAL UNIVERSITIES 555 this central and co-ordinating idea which President Dabney of the university terms co-operation in service. ” For example, take the work of the teachers college: this college not only sets for itself the customary task of training teachers, but also that of acting as an advisory board to the superintendent of the city schools and the board of education. The faculty examines and recommends teachers for appointment and promotion, plans courses of study for the grades, and gives instruction in pedagogic methods to acting as well as to prospective teachers. The co-operative course of the college of engineering is perhaps the most widely known phase of the university’s work. Under this plan the student’s time is divided between college theory and its application in various engineering establishments of the city. The students assigned to each shop are paired so that one boy works in the shop for two weeks while his companion is taking class work in the college; then, during the next two weeks, the boys exchange activities, and thus the alternation is continued throughout the session. In this way the student has training in the principles of engineering, the practical application of these principles in shop work, and an opportunity to earn in wages enough to pay a large part of his expenses. The manufacturers are emphatic in their praise of this co-operative plan, and each year there come from every ,section of the country twice as many applications for admission to the college as can at present be accepted. The medical college has close connections with inany departments of the city’s work. It conducts tt free dispensary in which over 21,000 cases are treated annually; the children’s clinic of the college maintains milk supply stations and sends nurses to the tenement districts to train mothers in the care of their infants. Members of the faculty do most of the medical surgical work in seven hospitals and care for the sick and infirm at several settlements and asylums. Other phases of co-operation which may be mentioned in this brief survey are: the work of the departments of zoology and botany with the bird reserve, grammar-school gardens, and city zoological gardens; the activities of the psychological department in diagnosing the deficiencies of backward children in the primary schools; the conduct by the political science department of a municipal reference bureau in the city hall; the service of the bureau of city tests at the university in examining all materials submitted by the city engineer and by the purchasing agent. The college of commerce holds its sessions in the late afternoon and evening, so as to serve best the young business men of the city; and the evening classes of the college of liberal arts are open to non-professional students who are unabIe to leave their work during the day. In addition, various classes known as external courses are held in many sections of the city. If the University of Cincinnati were to choose a word to inscribe over its entrance portals, its word of all words would be “co-operation. ”

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556 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October The university was established on a municipal basis in 1870; but the records of the institutions out of which the university grew go back to. the very early years of the nineteenth century. In 1858 Charles McMicken gave to Cincinnati his estate of about a million dollars for founding two colleges for white boys and girls. Owing to a decision of the supreme court of Louisiana, a large part of this estate was lost to the city, and it was not until 1870 that the municipality incorporated the University of Cincinnati and issued bonds for the erection of a building. In 1893 the city began to tax itself to meet the current expenses. of theschool by levying a university tax of three tenths of a mill, which in 1906 was increased to five tenths of a mill. The citizens of Cincinnati, moreover, have supplemented the official support of the school by private endowments, which now total over a million dollars. In this connection, public spirited Cincinnatians have organized the endowment fund association, which administers many of the private gifts to the university and undertakes to make known the needs of the instituti~n.~ THE COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORR~ The College of the City of New York, originally called “The Free Academy,” was established in 1848 by the board of education of New York in pursuance of an act of the legislature of the state passed on May 7, 1847, and ratified by a vote of the people of the city on June 9, 1847. It is governed by a board of trustees composed of nine members appointed by the mayor. The president of the board of education is an additional member ex-oficio. The budget for 1916 was $696,119.07. During the past term from October 1915 to February 1916 there were 2,699 students in the college who were doing work credited for degrees. There were also 5,165 students taking extension courses, making a total of 7,864 students who are meeting full college entrance requirements. One thousand seven hundred and twentyone students were enrolled in the preparatory department ; 338 students were enrolled in the “municipal evening session”; and 227 were enrolled for custom house courses. The grand total of students receiving organized instruction under the college was, during this term, 10,150. The college has no graduate department, although many college graduates as special students avail themselves of its facilities for higher work. The degrees of A.B. and S.B. are granted, and graduates of the college are admitted to all higher institutions requiring the A.B. or the S.B. degree for entrance. 6 See article entitled “A Study of the Student Body of the University of Cincinnati.” A Municipal Institution by F’res. Charles W. Ddney, NATIONAL MVNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. G, p. 68. The appointed members serve for nine years each. The college is supported by the city. Tuition is absolutely free. 6 Frederick E. Breithut, College of the City of New York.

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19161 MUNICIPAL UNIVERSITIES 557 The most recent development of work at the college has been along the line of correlation with the needs of the municipal service, both in preparing students for entrance to the service and in improving the efficiency .of those already in the city’s employ. Thus the department of education supplies many of the city’s teachers, and credit for work done or courses taken at the college is granted by the department of education. The ,department of chemistry gives work in direct co-operation with the city’s laboratories. The principles embodied in such co-operation are now being extended to other city departments and other college departments. It is thus hoped that among its functions the college will become to some extent a training school for public service. THE MUNICIPAL UNIVERSITY OF AKRON’ The nucleus for the Municipal University of Akron, which began its .official existence on January 1, 1914, was Buchtel College, an institution of higher learning founded under the joint auspices of an Akron citizen, John R. Buchtel, and of the Ohio Universalist convention in the year 1870. Statistics given in the catalogues of earlier years show that Buchtel at first drew her students largely from denominational sources, but the raQid multiplication of educational institutions in all parts of the country gradually brought about at Buchtel, as well as elsewhere, a falling off in .the number of non-resident students and a corresponding increase in local attendance. While the character of the student body was thus gradually changing from a denominational to a local predominance the financial condition -of the institution was far from encouraging. Denominational support had almost entirely ceased during the last decade. At the same time the people of Akron had never come to look upon the college as entirely theirs; hence ample support from local sources was also denied. Meanwhile the constant and steady increase in the number of local students rendered the necessary financing of the college budget a more and more difficult problem for the trustees and the president to solve. At a meeting of the Buchtel trustees, held on April 14, 1913, a proposition was laid before the board to turn over to the city of Akron the entire plant and endowment of the college, with the proviso that the purposes of all original bequests be carried out and the college be supported and administered by the city in accordance with the provisions of the state code. On August 25, 1913, the council of the city of Akron unanimously accepted by ordinance the offer of the trustees of Buchtel College and established a municipal university. The final transfer was executed on December 15, 1913. In organization the university has very frankly copied the methods of the University of Cincinnati and accepted aid from it not only in methods, 7 Parke R. Kolbe, the Municipal University of Akron.

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558 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [ 0 ctober but also in securing from it one or two competent men for carrying out certain parts of the work planned. When the institution was turned over to the city it consisted simply of a liberal arts college. This has been kept intact and enlarged to a considerable extent. One is the college of engineering, on the co-operative plan, as introduced by Dean Schneider, of Cincinnati. Professor Ayer, who had been at Cincinnati for eight years, was appointed dean of this college. The other school is the school of home economics, with the regular four-year course and the regular fifteen-unit entrance requirement in force. The first class contained twenty women. The students come very largely from the city itself. Out of one hundred high school graduates in Akron who entered college for the first time in the fall of 1915, 75 went to the city university. The university is trying to co-operate in various ways with the city departments. The city’s testing work is carried on entirely in the laboratories of the university under the direction of a department called the bureau of city tests. Here is done the chemical testing of supplies purchased by various departments, bacteriological testing for the Board of health and local physicians, and physical testing of paving brick, cement, and so forth. The department of political science and sociology is co-operating with the board of health and the charity organization society in using students as workers and investigators in the city; also with the bureau of municipal research in the study of city departments. One of the fields now in prospect is that of training for public service. It is hoped eventually to establish a co-operative course for this purpose in connection with the department of political science, the engineering college, and the bureau of municipal research. A step in advance has been taken by the establishment of a combination course, in co-operation with the board of education, between the university and the city normal school for the training of teachers. Graduates of this course will receive preference in appointment to positions in the city school system. Akron, being the center of the rubber industry, offers opportunity for specialization in the chemistry of rubber at the municipal university, which possesses the only fully equipped college laboratory for this purpose in the country. The college of engineering is co-operating with nearly a dozen factories of the city where its students work in. alternating two-week periodsalso with various contracting firms and railroads. The college has alss been active in the investigation of paving conditions in the city and has published a detailed report on the subject at the request of the city council. There are two new schools,

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19161 MUNICIPAL UNIVERSITIES 559 Extension work is being carried on by means of a course of six lectures offered by the university faculty to a number of clubs and organizations in the city. Late afternoon and evening classes recently organized offer the opportunity for college work to teachers, employed persons, and citizens in general. HUNTER COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK' Hunter College of the City of New York was established on February 1, 1870, and received its charter from the'State in 1888. It is a college for women and is supported by public funds. It receives as students a11 applicants who are residents of any of the boroughs of Greater New York, and who can meet the requirements for admission. Tuition, text-books, and other such supplies are furnished without cost to the students. The college provides a four-year academic course which is based upon a four-year high school course and leads to the degree of A.B. One of the chief purposes of the institution is to encourage young women having a liberal college education to engage in the work of teaching in elementary and secondary schools. To this end there are provided optional courses and training in pedagogics covering the requirements for licenses to teach in the schools of both the city and the state. The degree of A.B. is conferred upon all graduates of the college. The state commissioner of education will issue to any holder of this degree who has pursued in college the prescribed course of study for the training of teachers the college graduate certificate, or temporary license to teach in the elementary or secondary schools of the state without further examination. The history of Hunter College shows the development of free education for women in the city of New York. Beginning with a small group of elementary school graduates in one of the public schools, under the direction of Miss Lydia F. Wadleigh, the numbers increased until the Normal College of the City of New York was established in 1870 with Dr. Thomas Hunter as president. In April, 1914, eight years after the retirement of President Hunter, the name was changed from Normal to Hunter College. At first the girls were admitted directly from elementary schools upon passing an entrance examination in algebra, arithmetic, geometry, geography, history, reading, and spelling, and the course occupied only three years. As time went on the length of the course was extended until it reached the present four-year college course based upon a four-year high school course. Including the class of January 1916, the total number of graduates from Hunter College is 13,195. Statistics compiled from the records of several years show that 78 per cent of the graduates of Hunter College are teaching in the elementary schools of New York. Fifty per cent of the women principals in the boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx are 8 Lillian M. Snow, Hunter College of the City of New York.

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560 NATIONAL RIUNICIPAL REVIEW [October Hunter College graduates, and the number teaching in the city high schools is increasing every year. The number of students in attendance at the college on February 18, 1916 was 1,627. TOLEDO UNIVERSITY’ The University of Toledo was first established on a municipal basis in 1884. It embraces at present the following schools: the municipal college of arts and sciences, of commerce and business, the graduate college, the college of industrial science, the college of law, and the college of pharmacy. The various colleges of the university co-operate with the city of Toledo through the bureau of public service, the purpose of which is twofold: first, to discover the opportunities of the university for most efficient service to the community; secondly, to aid the city in offering to the university the advantages or opportunities for performing its public service most effectively. Through this bureau information is secured which enables the university to use the funds at its disposal to the best advantage. In several departments definite efforts have been made to make the work of the university fit the needs of the city. The college of arts and sciences in its courses in education is of material assistance to the teachers of the city in their endeavor to increase their teaching efficiency. The instruction in both economics and political science aims to deal with problems arising in civic affairs. “The Government of Toledo, ” a course in political science, is concerned particularly with the local government. The work given in the industrial department is confined entirely to evening work and is given primarily to those men and boys who are employed during the day. The colleges of law and of pharmacy aid in securing outside employment for students who are partially dependent on their own efforts for support. Arrangements have been made with the public library whereby the university library has been made the university branch of the public library. Students of the university have all the privileges of the main library, and the city public library maintains an excellent reference library in the university building. The library of the Lucas County court house is also open to the students of the college of law. Both the Y. M. C. A. and the Y. W. C. A. offer certain gymnasium privileges free to full time university students. The college of arts and sciences is a vital part of the university. For the benefit of young people who are unable to complete a four-year course, the college is divided into two courses-a junior and a senior. The junior college work is almost entirely a required course, each subject of which is intended to contribute directly to increasing the social and civic Ruth Rose, University of Louisville.

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19161 MUNICIPAL UNIVERSITIES 561 efficiency of the students. In the senior college the requirements are a junior college arts diploma and a major of eighteen hours and two minors of twelve hours each. The characteristic of the major is this; that the individual in addition to doing the eighteen hours of work shall also do a constructive piece of work for the municipality or shall complete a task which shall be of interest and value to the citizens of Toledo. THE COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON'^ The College of Charleston was founded in 1785 as an endowed institution, supported by donations from private citizens. The general assembly of South Carolina granted the college a charter and about nine acres of land in the central part of the city for its buildings. Throughout the early years of the history of the college there was a constant struggle for funds, which came in only through subscription and bequest. In 1837 the city of Charleston decided to assume responsibility for the necessary expenses of the college and has since that time made an annual appropriation for the college. On a board of trustees consisting of sixteen members the city has a representation of five, the alumni of the college have three representatives, and the other eight members are a part of the original self-perpetuating body which formerly governed the institution. The College of Charleston offers annually four scholarships which carry free tuition to graduates of the high school (of Charleston) and one scholarship to some resident of each county in the state. In addition there are about fifteen paying scholarships, provided for by endowment, which are awarded on the merits of competitive examination. THE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE” The University of Louisville, Kentucky, was founded in 1837 by adecree of the city council, and was chartered in 1846 by an act of the legislature. Owing to local conditions, only the schools of medicine and of law were put immediately into operation. The medical department is the second oldest school of medicine now in existence west of the Alleghanies. By the coalition, under the name “University of Louisville,” of the schools of medicine of Louisville, embracing the medical department of the University, organized in 1837, the Kentucky School of Medicine, 1850, the Louisville Medical College, 1869, the Hospital College of Medicine, 1873, and the Medical Department of the Kentucky University (now Transylvania College), 1898, new property, greater prestige, and wider influence were added to the University of Louisville, thus making it a strong one of its class, and promising for the future the maintenance of increasingly higher standards to satisfy the increasing 10 Mary Campbell Kahn, University of Louisdle. 11 In this description of the University of Louisville the writer has copied freely from articles which he has written on other occasions. 2

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562 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October requirements demanded by the state medical boards. Substantial additions have also been made recently to the laboratories and clinical facilities. A new hospital was completed a few years ago by the City of Louisville at a cost of a million dollars. It has been made a teaching hospital under the advice of one of the best hospital experts in the country. The medical management of the hospital has been placed by the mayor in the hands of the board of trustees of the University of Louisville. They select the staff and recommend it to the mayor and board of public safety for appointment. The medical department has again (1916) been placed in Class A by the council on medical education of the American Medical Association. The law department of the university is, with one exception, the oldest law school in the South. It has graduated about 1,400 students, many of whom are practicing their profession or filling offices of public trust in most of the states of the union. Recently the corps of instructors has been increased, and the mode of teaching has been supplemented by the best modern methods employed at Harvard, Columbia, and other universities of prominence. The college of arts and sciences was added to the university in 1907 to carry out the founders’ original design of establishing “departments for the promotion of science, literature, and the liberal arts. ” The attempt is being made to develop the university as a municipal institution which will co-operate in due time with the various departments and public institutions of Louisville, and offer the opportunity of advanced education to the sons and daughters of its citizens. The university has been influenced in this work by the example of the municipal universities in England and in this country, and especially by the brilliant one of the University of Cincinnati. The college of arts and sciences co-operates with the board of education of Louisville, and offers the S.B. degree in education for a prescribed course of study pursued in the college, together with complementary technical work done in the public normal school. An arrangement was made in 1914 with the Board of Education by which graduates of the university (of Louisville), under the conditions mentioned, in regard to appointments are entitled to “ the same privileges accorded to a holder of a diploma from the Louisville normal school. ” The college further co-operates with the board by giving this year a series of free lectures on educational psychology, mathematical pedagogy, the history of mathematics, and the history of the drama to large classes of public school teachers. In the second place, the college co-operates with the Baptist and the Presbyterian theological seminaries, which are located in Louisville, by offering to their students free tuition in the undergraduate courses. The seminaries extend similar privileges to undergraduate students in the

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19161 MUNICIPAL UNIVERSITIES 563 college of arts and sciences. The college stands ready to co-operate in the same way with any local religious institution of collegiate grade. It co-operates also with the various religious orders of the city without discrimination of creed, and offers to their members free tuition toward the baccalaureate degree. In the third place, the college co-operates with the Louisville chapter of the American Institute of Architects by offering courses in architectural design and the history of architecture to young men who are employed in the offices of the local architects, and so gives them the opportunity of becoming more than draughtsmen. In the fourth place, the university co-operates with the hospitals in Louisville by offering at a minimum tuition fee to the nurses from time to time night courses in physiology, hygiene, and bacteriology. In the fifth place, the college co-operates with the associated charities of Louisville, and offers also at a minimum tuition fee instruction in theoretical and practical sociology to those engaged in the work of charity and social service in the city. In the sixth place, with the co-operation of certain business houses, the college has secured this year employment for a part of their time for a few young men and women who are pursuing their regular studies in the university and who could not continue their work without financial aid. The administration expects to extend its plans of co-operation as rapidly as may be. The college of arts and sciences has grown from a college of about 75 students to a college of 406 students at the present time-an increase of 440 per cent in eight years. The trustees, as soon as the accommodations are adequate and the funds sufficient, will offer free tuition in the college to all graduates of the local public high schools. The free tuition at present is limited to about forty scholarships. The university has a' total enrollment this year of 614 students. With the endorsement of the present mayor, John H. Buschemeyer, the public spirited administration, the representatives of Jefferson county, the board of trade, the board of education, the commercial club, the public library, members of the press, the clergy, and other clubs and organizations of Louisville, a bill has just been passed by the state legislature enabling the general council of the City of Louisville to levy a tax annually with a maximum rate of three cents for the support of its university. The bill was passed unanimously by both houses and became a law by the signature of Governor Stanley on Friday, March 24, 1916. The ultimate authority of the university is vested in a body appointed by the city council on the recommmendation of the mayor. These men are among the most prominent citizens of Louisville, and under their direction it is reasonable to expect that the university will develop more and more successfully. At the same time the successive city administrations of Louisville, without regard to politics, have taken an increasing

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564 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October interest in the home institution, and with the influence and support of a great city behind it, the university has a promising outlook for the future. From the above accounts of American municipal universities, it will be seen that they are proceeding on the principle that if education is a public utility, it is undemocratic for any part of it to exist in the nature of a monopoly. The modern movement in this country and abroad to develop municipal universities offering the full benefit of advanced education to all classes of citizens alike marks a new era of wider training, and therefore, of more efficient citizenship, sounder morality, and a more certain civilization.

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INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT IN THE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES OF THE UNITED STATES BY WILLIAM BENNETT MUNRO, CHAIRMAN Haward University N PIX occasions during the past sixteen years the National Municipal League's committee on instruction in municipal 0 government has undertaken an inquiry as to the progress of this subject in American educational institut?ions. Reports based on these inquiries have been published from time to time and have proved of much interest, particularly to teachers of political science.2 During the present year the field has been once more surveyed. Circular questionnaires were sent by the committee to all the more important universities and colleges in the country, and replies were received from one hundred and sixty-two of them in all. Information was particularly sought on the following points: (1) the number of courses devoted wholly to the subject of municipal government; (2) the number of courses devoted partly to that topic; (3) the student enrolment, including both undergraduates and graduates, in these courses; (4) the methods of instruction; and (5) the opportunit'ies afforded for practical contact with municipal affairs. 1 The committee consists of Prof. W. B. Munro, chairGan, Harvard University; Prof. W. B. Bailey, Yale University; Prof. C. A. Beard, Columbia University; Prof. R. C. Brooks, Swasthmore College; Prof. J. A. Fairlie, University of Illinois; Prof. H. J. Ford, Princeton University; President H. A. Garfield, Williams College; Prof. H. G. James, University of Texats; Prof. Isidor Loeb, University of Missouri; Prof. C, E. Mtrriam, University of Chicago; Prof. T. H. Reed, University of California; Prof. L. S. Rowe, University of Pennsylvania; Prof. W. A. Schaper, University of Minnesota; Prof. B. F. Shambaugh, University of Iowa; Clinton Rogers Woodruff, Philadelphia. 2 The active interest of the National Municipal League in promoting collegiate instruction began in 1900 when a special committee on this subject was appointed. Under the chairmanship of the late Thomas M. Drown, who was then president of Lehigh University, a study was made of the amount and quality of the instruction in municipal government then offered by the various American colleges and universities. Three reports on the subject were made and these may be found in the Proceedings of the National Municipal League for 1901, 1902, and 1905. They are of a rather general nature because the amount of instruction was at that time relatively small. In 1908 a more elaborate tabulation was prepared and published in the Proceedings of that year, followed by a shorter discussion in the volume for the year 1909. An entirely new survey was once again undertaken in 1912, and its results may be found, in condensed form, in the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW for July, 1913 (vol. ii, pp. 427-438). The present investigation brings together the fact,s as they have been found at the present time. 565

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566 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October The detailed results of the investigation, so far as they can be reduced to exact figures, are summarized in the appended table; but there are certain outstanding features which the committee’s investigations have disclosed, certain things which seem to show general tendencies in the development of instruction, and these ought to be singled out for emphasis. 1. The steady increase in the quantity of instruction. Twenty years ago it is altogether probable that not more than three or four of the largest educational institutions in the United States provided any independent instruction in municipal government. In the great majority of American colleges and universities this subject was either not touched upon at all or was dealt with as a small part of some general course in political science. But this situation began to change about 1900 and during the next half-dozen years or more many colleges began to recognize municipal government as a subject worthy of separate recognition. In 1908 it was found that 46 institutions offered independent instruction in municipal government; in 1912 the number had risen to 64; and in the course of the present inquiry the committee finds a further increase to 95. In eight years, accordingly, the number of institutions offering one or more courses devoted wholly to the study of municipal government has more than doubled. That affords significant testimony to the development of popular interest in the subject. And this development is all the more worthy of remark when it is pointed out that nothing akin to it has taken place in any other country. The curricula of English and continental European universities do not indicate anything of the kind. Instruction in political science has-been greatly increased everywhere abroad, but the expansion has been along the lines of new courses in colonial government, world-politics, constitutional law and political theory. It is not improbable, therefore, that the course of development in this country has been influenced by the increased earnestness with which the popular mind throughout the land has directed itself to the solution of our own municipal problems. Among the American institutions two, namely New York University and the University of Cincinnati, each provide five courses devoted wholly to various branches of municipal government; the University of Wisconsin maintains four courses, while Columbia, Harvard, Pennsylvania, and Texas have three each. These do not include courses in the law of municipal corporations, or in municipal engineering, or in the various branches of sociology which are closely related to municipal administration, such as housing, poor-relief, etc. Eighteen colleges and universities provide two independent courses, while more than seventy maintain one course only. The few teachers of municipal government who began their work fifteen or twenty years ago 2. The improvement in methods of instruction.

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19161 INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 567 had perforce to use the lecture method. There was nothing else to do. There were no text-books, at any rate none suitable for class-room use. College libraries had next to nothing relating to any phase of the subject. A haphazard collection of local histories, stray municipal reports, old charters, and reform pamphlets, was the usual equipment. To-day all this has changed. The teacher of municipal government now has his choice of several text-books, while the output of reference works in all branches of the subject has become so large in these latter years that the chief difficulty is now to find shelf-room for it. Other things have come within the last two decades to help the teacher. The census bureau’s annual Statistics of Cities has become indispensable to him. Bibliographical apparatus has improved. Publications like the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, the Municipal Journal, and The American City, nowadays simplify the task of keeping in touch with what is going on. A Municipal EncyclopaFdia is now in preparation under the National Municipal League’s auspices. Bureaus of municipal research and allied institutions are providing much excellent data for study. And the official publications of the cities themselves have undergone notable improvement during these intervening years. Two decades ago it would have been sheer futility to send a college student to the usual city reports in quest of information. He would find much to bewilder and little to inform. That is not so to-day, although the official publications of many American cities even yet have large margins for improvement. At any rate the result of all this is that the teacher no longer expects his students to get a grasp of municipal problems by listening to a “course of lectures.” Recitations, conferences, discussions, reports, and practical investigations of which more will be said presently, are now used as agencies for imparting instruction. Of the 95 institutions offering separate courses in municipal government only three now report the exclusive use of the lecture system. It has practically become obsolete. Not only lectures, moreover; but text-books appear to have been relegated to a subsidiary place. The text-book forms merely a syllabus as it were, affording a thread to guide the student along straight general lines. The details he must get for himself and get elsewhere. The trend is distinctly in the direction of making the student get his knowledge from many sources and particularly by working on assigned problems which will take him over a wide range of reading. This is a significant and highly desirable trend. The subject of municipal government can gain a respected place in the college curriculum by demonstrating its value as a subject of study, and in no other way. Appeals in its behalf as a means of making “good citizens” or “develop ing a civic conscience’’ and so on, will avail little in the long run. If it develops merely into what undergraduate vernacular calls a “snap course,” the days of instruction in this subject are numbered. But if

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568 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October young men and young women obtain quite as good mental discipline from the study of municipal government as from the study of physics or mathematics or languages, then the subject will stand unaided upon its own feet. The study of municipal government can afford this discipline if rightly taught, and the committee’s inquiries show that the right methods are everywhere coming into use. This, even more than the increased quantity of instruction, is a hopeful sign. 3. The use of the research bureau as an agency of instruction. Although the first municipal research bureau was established in New York City only ten years ago and notwithstanding the fact that it had, at the outset, no special relation to the methods of college instruction, this experiment has had the most far-reaching results in the latter field. As evidence of this one need only mention that no fewer than 46 universities and colleges report that they maintain some sort of research bureau or workshop in connection with their courses in municipal government. In some cases the equipment is rather elementary, it is true, but substantial beginnings have been made, while in some others the collections of data are already of great value. Among the largest and best equipped of such bureaus are those used by the students at Wisconsin, Harvard, and the University of Cincinnati. Figures concerning the detailed equipment of all these various bureaus, their methods, personnel and available appropriations have been gathered for the committee and a summary will be published later. For the present it is sufficient to lay stress upon the fact that something in the way of a research bureau or workshop orlaboratory is to-day regarded by most teachers of municipal government as a virtual necessity. It is essential to the best methods of instruction. Fortunately these laboratories are not expensive. To bring together a working collection of municipal data sufficient for general undergraduate instruction requires good judgment, some industry, and much patience, but not a large outlay in money. The collection of reports, pamphlets and charters will not of itself, however, provide instruction. The students must be taught how to use data of this sort and this instruction costs money. Yet instruction of this sort is the best of all and well worth what it costs. 4. The endeavor to bring students into contact with.actua1 machinery of government. During the past half dozen years a good deal has been accomplished in the way of obtaining for students, especially for postgraduate students, some opportunities to get an understanding of municipal affairs through actual contact with them. In colleges and universities which are situated in small municipalities this is not an easy thing to arrange; but in the large cities the opportunities are numerous. To devise a plan whereby the student can do work which will be profitable to him intellectually, which will be worth counting towards the fulfilment of requirements for his degree, but which will not take too much time

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19161 INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 569 from his regular studies,-that is always difficult and sometimes impossible. To make any such arrangements for undergraduate students is practically out of the question except on a very small scale. The average undergraduate would be a nuisance at any city hall. But the young man who has obtained his bachelor’s degree, who has mastered the methods of studying a municipal problem, who can give his undivided attention to outside work for weeks or months at a time,-for him the university and the city administration may well be brought into contact. At any rate the reports which have come to the committee from many universities and colleges show marked progress in this direction. It is assumed that work which a postgraduate student does in any field of public service connected with his subject of special study should receive credit towards the degree of doctor of philosophy or other postgraduate degree; but as yet there seems to be no consensus as to the basis upon which this work should be rated for credit. These are the most significant deductions to be drawn from the data which the committee has gathered in reply to its questionnaires. The amount of independent instruction in municipal government has greatly increased and to all appearances is likely to increase still further. The methods of instruction have greatly improved. The equipment for teaching the subject is far better than it has been, and the establishment of research bureaus, reference libraries and similar workshops of study has helped to make the teaching of municipal government more effective than ever before. Finally there is the effort, in spite of great and obvious difficulties, to bring the postgraduate students into actual touch with municipal affairs by having them serve for a time at least in some piece of constructive public work. Putting all these things together we have had notable progress during the last four or five years.

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570 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October Insritution Where located 1. Amberst College.. ..... 2. All en College, .... 3. Ba&nkaIlace College 4. Barnard College.. ..... 5. Bates College.. ........ 6. Boston University ..... 7. Bowdoin College.. ..... 8. BrownUniversity.. .... 8. Bm Marm College. ... 10. Butler College. ....... 11. Capitol University. .... 12. Carroll College. ....... 13. Clark College.. ....... 14. Colgate University .... 15. College of the City of New York.. ......... 16. College of Wowter .... 17. Colorado College. ..... 18. Columbia University. .. ID. Concordia Collqe.. 20. Cornell University. . 21. Dartmouth College . 22. Delaware College.. . 23. Denison University. 24. DePaul University., 25. De Pagw University 26. Des Moinea College. 27. Dickinson College . . 28. Donne College. .... 29. Ellsworth College.. . 30. Elmira College. .... 31. Elon College. ...... 92. Emory College.. ... 33. Fargo College. ..... Amherst, Mam. Meadville, Pa. Berea. Ohio New York City Lewiston, Me. Boston Rrunawick Me. Providend R. I. Bryn Mad, Pa. Indianapolis Ind. Columbus dhio Waukesha' Wis. Worcester 'Maw. Hamilton,'N. Y. New York City Wooster Ohio ColorsddSp+$g,Col( New York Clty ... ... ... .... ... Fort Wayne Ind. Banover N. H. Newark,'Del. Granville. Ohio Ithara, N. +. ... ... ... ... ... ... . . ... . ... Chicago Greencastle, Ind. Des Moi'nes Ia. ~arlis~e, pa.' Ctete, Nebr. Iowa Falls Ia. Elmira.N.'Y. Elon College, N. C. Oxford, Ga. Fargo, N.D. sity ................ Decatur, Ill. 49. Kentuckv State Univer-1 34. Georgetown College. . 35. George Washington Uni....... 36. J~?8opl&M' Univer. sity. ............... 37. Hamilton College.. .... 38. Greenville Colle e. .... 39. Gustam Adolp%us College. ............... 40. Harvnrd University. , . . sity.. y., ........... kington Ky. 60. Kenyon College.. ..... Gambier, bhio 51. Knox College. ........ Galeaburg, Ill. Georgetown, Xy. Washington, D. C. Baltimore Md. Clinton hi. Y. GreenviIle, Ill. 8t. Peter, Minn. Cambridge, MW. Courses devoted wholly to Municipal Government 41. Heidelberg University. . 42. Hiram College. ....... 43. Hunter College. ...... 44. Illinois College. ....... -umber 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 (e) 2 1 4 (W 1 1 1 1 1 [(a (j) 3 (u) 2 1 1 1 1 2 (i 2 I 2 Tifin Ohio Hird Ohio New gork City Jacksonville, 111. mount of t,he !Iven Number of students UnderIours :$; i DO Ei ' 45 45 ' I 45 45 15 45 60 00 30 (0) 15 each 90 45 75 60 60 (a) 45 45 45 15 90 90 (Y) 80 each 45 45 60 45 60 ao 45 60 30 57 14 10 48 (b) 18 (3 75 (d) \? I1 20 60 25 40 5 21 26 18 48 54 1 18 15 8 9 20 6 (b) 35 I ,ad, .ta 3 1 22 14 10 3 5 10 14 1 1 Courses. devoted partly to Muniupal Government noun1 of 6me iven ours 0 (a) :ach 90 90 75 2seh each 75 6 eac 45 45 90 each 90 60 00 10 eac 90 45 60 45 45 45 45 60 45 each 90 esch 105 45 90 5 eac 60 45 60 45 [k 00 Number of Btudenb I_ hderFad1ata 40 41 50 75 27 33 12 50 20 15 268 35 160 140 75 25 87 30 9 40 20 25 26 15 467 40 51 12 75 'p: 18 70 _c

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INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 571 Institution Where located 52. Lafayette College. ..... Easton, Pa. 54. Leland Stanford Junior Stanford 53. Lawrence College. ..... Appleton, Wis. University University .......... 55. Lombard College. ..... sity.. .............. 56. Louieiana State UniverCal. Galeaburg, 111. Baton Rougc, La. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. McKendree College. ... Maryville College ..... Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ...... Middlebury College.. .. Mills College.. ........ Mount Union College. . Muakingum College., . . New York University.. 85. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. Lebanon, Ill. Maryville, Tenn. Boston Middlebury, Vt. Mills College. Ca1. Alliance, Ohio New Concord, Ohio New York Clty SS. State colleb;e of Wash84. State University of Iowa 85. Stevens Institute of ington. ........... 81. Simmons Colhge. ..... 82. Smith Colleee.. ....... Pullman, Wash. Iowa City, Ia. ~ .... 88. Syracuse University.. .. 89. Temple University.. ... 90. Thiel College.. ....... 91. Trinity College.. , . , , . , 92. Trinity College. , . , . , . . 93. Tufts College. ........ .. Pa. Svacuse N. Y. Greenville, Pa. Hartford, Conn. Durham N. C. Tufts Chege, Mass. Philadel!ha 94. Tulane University. .... 95. Union College.. ........ 96. United States Military Academy. ........... 97. Univermty of Cahfornia New Orleans. La. Schenertsdy, N. Y. West Point, N. Y. Berkeley, Cal. 98. University of Cincinnati 99. Univelsity of Colorado Courses devoted wholly to Municipal Government Cincinnati, Ohio Boulder, Colo. lumber 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 (h) 1 5 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 5 2 mount of t,be Oven Hours 45 90 45 (m) 30 (Y) 30 45 90 50 45 48-50 30 45 60 60 60 D-~O(Y: 30 90 45 45 k5 each 45 60 45 90 90 (Y) 45 90 45 45 45 32 each 45 30 each 15 45 45 60 (Y) 45 60 60 45 45 60 45 30 Number of students Jndergraduates E 10 1 14 8 36 35 11-16 9 7 23 2 22 15 4 10 40 11 35 25 21 110-15 15 4 48 30 60 14 23 25 30 42 Q 12 12 50 2 65 10 35 40 44 (b) 55-6( radate8 4 3 2 2 6 1 1 1 2 3 1 2 8 8 4 1 3 @i Coursp,devoted partly to Murucipal Government mount of t,he given 3OurS 45 45 0 each 0 each 30 45 60 60 80 125 90 90 18 90 45 (P) 120 30 90 45 each 90 90 60 90 (b) 45 30 Number of students Jnder graduates 30 5 42 00 eai 8 100 67 150 50 91 50 (b) 95 25 44 36 450 54 6 70-11 kadiates _. 3 2 7 1

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572 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [0 etober 100. University of Denver , . 101. Universlty of Florida , . 102. University of Idaho. ... 103. University of Illinois. .. 104. University of Kansas . . I Denver, Coin. GainEsville Fla. Urhana, 111. Moscow, Idaho Lawrence, Kan. Institution Where located 109. University of Missouri . 110. University of Montana. 111. University of Nebraska. I Columbia, Mn. Miasoula, Mont. Lincoln, Nebr. 112. University of Nev Mexico.. ........... 113. University of North Dakota.. ............. 114. Unjversity of Oklahoma 115. Uqversity of Oregon . . 116. Univefsity of Pennsylvania. ............. 105. University of Louisville 106. University of Michigan. Albuquerque, N. M. University, N. D. Norman, Okla. Eugene, Ore. Philadelphia 107. University of Maine .... Orono, Me. 108. University of Minnesota Minneapolis. Minn. 127. University of Wyoming. 128. Urninus College. ...... 120. Vassar College. ..... Laramie, Wy. Cnllegeville, Pa. 130. Wabash College. ...... 131. Washburn College. .... 132. Washington and Lee University. ......... 133. Washington College.. .. 134. Washiwton University. 135. Wellesley College. ..... 136. Western Reserve University. ............ 137. Wheaton College. ..... 138. Whitman College. . , . . , 139. Williams College ...... 140. William Jewel1 College . 141. Yale University. ..... kota .: ......... Vermil!ion, S. D. 121. Uruversity of Tennessee Knoxville. Tenn. 122. University of Texas. ... Aiistin. Tex. Crawfordsville, Ind. Topeka, Kan. Lexington. Va. Chestertown, Md. St. Louis Wellesley, Mass. Cleveland, Ohio Norton, Mass. Walla Walla. Wash. Williamstown, Mass. Lihert , Mo. New gave,, Conn. Courses devoted wholly to Municipal Government . umber 1 1 1 2 1 (u 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 (V) 2 (1) 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 (v) 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 .mount of tjme given Hours 30 45 90 30 each 45 90 ~O(Y) 30 90 45 30 45 45 40 30 45 60 60 60 50 each 30 45 90 30 30 90 45 45 30 30 45 45 90 46 90 each 90 45 50 Number of students kder graduates 14 5 (0 30-40 9 30 30 50 53 " 18 12 5 11 8 24 40 50 75-100 12-15 16 17 14 70 (b) 20 25 7 40 14 16 25 radate8 2-3 6 4 5 8 2 3 2 1 0 18 8 1 2 20 2 4 2 Courses, devoted partlv to Municipal Government moun of t,be given tIourn 45 45 30 45 30 30 45 30 45 75 76 SO 30 30 45 30 0 eacl 5 eacl 40 00 90 45 90 5 eacl 60 45 90 45 120 15 eac 90 each 30 90 45 ~ Number of students Jnder graduates 12 20 8 400 40 40 4 16 130 100 9 10 40 50 31 25 60 19 2 8-15 12-15 132 200 21 10 40 44 24 110 35 10 120 " 100 lhdlate6 -. 2 4 2 5 10-15 1 5

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19161 INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 573 REFERENCES FOR TABLES (a) The total amount of tie given to municipal government in these two courses would be equivalent to one course, cover(b) A new course to be offered. (c) For 30 students in this course, the time given amounts to 45 hours. (d) Not open to undergraduates. (e) Two additional semester courses in municipal government will be offered in 1916-17. (f) Not open to graduate students. (9) Incidental instruction in courses on economics of engineering. (h) Given only in alternate years. (i) Two full courses on municipal government are offered twice each year: a course on American government is offered four times each year; and there is a course on local government and problem offered once each year. Each of these course8 covers 60 hours. (1) A summer-achool course is offered, in addition. (k) Two thirds of this course is devoted to municipal government and one third to state government. (1) Incidental instruction in courses on political economy and political science. (m) In 1916-17 the number of hours will be increased to 90. (n) Incidental instruction in cow on political science. (0) The last three months of a general course on the principles of political science are devoted entirely to municipal gov(p) Incidentaf instruction in courses on history and politlcal science. (9) Incidental instruction in courses on sociology and economics. (r) A course in civics, covering about 45 hours. (8) Incidental instruction in course6 in chemistry apdeng&eering departmenks relating to sanitation, sewage diiposal, etc. (t) A seminar come required for all students majonng,m economcs. During the year 1915-16 it did not touch upon municipal government: the sublect for 1916-17, however, 1s municipal problems. (u) There are other course6 on such subjects as the law of municipal corporations, city planning, duration, municipal engineering and sanitation, etc., in the professional scho?ls and in the summer school. (v) These courses deal with the subject of the regulation of municipal utilities. (w) A course even in the college of law. (y) A research or seminar course. (2) A course dealing specifically with city problems and giving some attention to municipal government. ing 52 hours. ernment, makin the equivalent of a semester course given orer wholly to municipal government.

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PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE: A REVIEW OF RECENT REPORTS BY F. W. COKER Ohio State University, Columbus, 0. N ITS earliest phase the movement for civil service reform related exclusively to the manner of appointing and discharging public I employes. Moreover, its purposes were restrictive, rather than constructive. It sought to reduce the abuses of political patronage by eliminating, as far as possible, political influences in appointments and removals. In its later phases the movement has become both more positive and more comprehensive. It seeks not only to prevent partisan appointments to administrative positions, but also to establish means for recruiting and selecting the most intelligent and best qualified eligibles for these positions, and for promoting those incumbents most deserving and fit to be promoted. Furthermore, its activity extends beyond the sphere of selecting, promoting and removing officials and employes. It is now concerned with the whole question of the effective organization of administrative positions, the institution of improvements and economies in administrative methods, and the development of the usefulness and loyalty of the holders of administrative positions. Reports of civil service agencies during the past year and a half reveal generally progress in all the lines just indicated. Neither all the reports issued, nor all the important aspects of municipal civil service upon which they throw light can be reviewed in this article. Many municipal commissions do not issue annual printed reports; among the reports published, many merely record the civil service laws and regulations, with the addition in some cases of summary notes on judicial decisions or changes in the rules, or of uninterpretative records of the year”s activities. From among the more enlightening reports of municipal civil service commissions and other bodies, the limits of this article make necessary a narrow selection of questions upon which to place emphasis.’ Progress in 1 The annual reports to which more frequent reference is made in this article are the following: Thirty-second annual report of the municipal civil service commission of New York City for 1915; Report and review of civil service operation in the city of Oakland from organization of the civil service board on Septen-ber 5, 1911, to June 30, 1915; TKirty-second annual report of the civil service commiss:on of Massachusetts, from October 1, 1914, to September 30, 1915; Second annual report of Los Angela county civil service commission and bureau of efficiency, for the year ending June 30, 1915; Third annual report of the civil service commission of the city of Minneapolis for 1915; Second annual report of the bureau of civil service of the city of St. Paul for 1915. Other city reports worthy of consultation are those of Denver, 574

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19161 PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE 575 broader lines has been perhaps moat noteworthy in the following fields of civil service work: the scope and methods of examination; the recording of merit and competency of incumbents of positions in the classified service; programs for revision and standardization of administrative organization, activities, and awards. EXAMINATIONS The reports generally reveal the increasing breadth, flexibility, and practicality of the tests applied by the commissions. The examination is no longer necessarily and primarily a written test of memory and accumulated knowledge. It is a specially devised inquiry to find, through whatever means are particularly available for the position to be filled, the applicant best fitted to perform the duties of that position. And its object is not solely, and in many cases not mainly, to discover whether the applicants possess designated points of information and training; it may rather be to find out, on the one hand, their actual practical skill, and, on the other hand, their basic personal, mental and moral dispositions. Under this flexible form the examination becomes increasingly adaptable for a wider and higher range of positions. Recent reports show specifically progress in the methods of preparing examinations generally, in the methods of testing practical skill, and in the methods of appraising past experience and general personal qualifications by means of the sworn experience sheet and the oral examination and interview. Before preparing an examination, more thorough knowledge of the duties of the position to be filled is now obtained by the commissioners, in order that the examiners may concentrate their questions and tests upon those which are of direct value in ascertaining actual fitness for the position. This preliminary preparation appears to be carried out with particular thoroughness and care in New York City and Oakland. Advice is obtained from heads of departments and other supervisory officers concerned and from outside persons prominent in related vocations. In preparing examinations the examiners are supplied with the printed materials necessary; and the co-operation of experts is secured. The New York City commission has established a special library for examPittsburgh, Milwaukee, Houston, Tex., Portland, Ore., Los Angeles City, Philadelphia and Cincinnati, and the annual report of the civil service board and superintendent of employment of the West Chicago park comm'ssioners, for the year 1915. Publications of other civil service agencies containing discussions of problems of the city services are as follows: Proceedings of the eighth meeting of the national assembly of civil service commissions, Los Ange!es, June, 1915; Proceedings of the annual meeting of the National Cvil Service Reform League, Philadelphia, December, 1915; Report of the committee on co-operation among comm'ss'ons on examination standards, presented at the ninth annual meeting of the national assembly, Ottawa, Canada, June, 1916. Publications on standardization of public employments and other special reports me mentioned at appropriate places in the body of the article.

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5 78 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL R.EVIEW [October iners, containing codes, bulletins, departmental reports and other such publications. Similar material from other cities collected by the Municipal Reference Library is also open to the examiners. The commission has likewise instituted, for use in making examinations, a system of exchange of questions, reports and suggestions with other commissions. The co-operation of experts in the preparation of examinations presents several problems to the commissions. If resort is had to experts within the service, there is chance for suspicion of prejudice and favoritism, and some likelihood that the examination will be too narrowly technical or practical. If the aid of outsiders is sought, this aid is obtained sometimes only under difficulties. Outsiders who, in first instances, gratuitously or for low compensation, give their time and effort from motives of pride or public spirit, come, in connection with subsequent requests for help, to regard the task as irksome; and the commissions ordinarily do not have at their disposal funds with which to offer adequate compensation for such work. Furthermore, it is frequently difficult to find even among recognized experts in a certain field men who possess the peculiar ability to frame questions which are clear and correctly pointed for the purpose in hand. Despite these obstacles, several reports make special mention of the generosity with which outsidersbusiness and professional men-give their time for low or no remuneration, and of the satisfactory results thus obtained in the framing and conduct of examinations and the grading of papers.2 Practical tests are coming more and more to take the form of trying out the applicants in the actual work which they will be called upon to do if appointed. The New York City commission pursued this method successfully during the past year in examinations for inspector of weights and measures, inspector of blasting, inspector of fire-alarm boxes, swimming instructor, play-ground attendant, psychologist, electrician, stationary engineer, and engineer of steamer. The candidates for inspector of blasting were taken to the bottom of a fifty-foot excavation for the new subway and were there tested as to their familiarity with the character of rocks, use of tools, handling of explosives, firing of blasts, electrical wiring, etc. Candidates for swimming instructor were examined, under the supervision of two well-known swimming experts, in one of the public baths, and were there required to demonstrate their ability in swimming strokes, diving, life saving, and teaching others to swim. The commission makes frequent use of the various city plants and educational institutions in these practical tests.* Among the recommendations of the Massachusetts commission in their latest reports is that “legislation be enacted which shall enable the commission to establish an experizSee especially reports of the commissions of Minneapolis, New York City, Los Angeles county, Cincinnati and Massachusetts. 3 See also the reports of the Oakland and St. Paul commissions.

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19161 PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE 577 mental yard or station in one or more cities of the commonwealth for the purpose of giving practical tests to applicants for the different positions in the classified service.” The more progressive commissions are making extensive use of the sworn experience sheet in order to ascertain and evaluate the candidate’s actual experience in work of the kind to be performed in the position for which he has applied. Increasing relative weight is in many cases given to experience. In examination for a certain class of the police service by the Massachusetts commission, training and experience now counts 32 per cent, whereas it formerly counted but 20 per cent; the experience weight for Boston firemen has risen from 20 per cent to 40 per cent. The experience sheets are often mailed to applicants some days in advance of the examination in order that they may be filled out with due caution against incompleteness or exaggeration. In order that the experience statements may constitute reliable evidence of an applicant’s suitableness for a position, some means for verifying the statements is necessary. The New York City commission entrusts this work to its bureau of character investigation, which not only has the function of checking up statements as to past experience, but also conducts a detailed investigation into the past records and moral qualifications of persons applying for positions in all branches of the competitive service. The commission regards the work of this bureau as an indispensable protection against fraud and as an effective assurance that men of integrity and good calibre are being recruited for the service. Oral tests for various positions are being used in two forms: the oral examination--“ question and answer given orally, taken down stenogiaphically and transcribed for filing with the candidate’s papers,” and the oral interview-a more informal exchange of questions and answers for the purpose of forming an opinion as to the candidate’s general personal qualifications, such as bearing and manners, tact, judgment, courage, ability to express ideas clearly and effectively. The oral examination appears to be especially fitted for tests for positions involving work of the skilled trades, where highly qualified candidates may be peculiarly inexpert in the means of written expression of their knowledge. The oral interview is coming to be regarded as an indispensible test for positions requiring the qualities mentioned above. On the other hand, it is regarded as being attended with the danger of favoritism, or the SUSpicion of such by outsiders, because of the fact that the identity of candidates cannot be concealed as in the written examination; this difficulty applies in less degree to the oral examination. Moreover, it is sometimes felt that the oral interview as ordinarily conducted can lead only to a very tentative and more or less impressionistic opinion of a candidate’s fitness. These objections can be almost completely avoided, however, as shown by the satisfactory experience of several commissions. To co3

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578 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October operate with the staff examiners, great care is taken to secure men of recognized professional standing and of general repute in the community; a stenographic record of the interview is taken; the report of the interview indicates the facts upon which the ‘conclusion was reached; and outside persons having a recognized interest in the proceedings may be allowed to attend the interview. The foregoing sketch of the scope and variety of examining methods illustrates the ever broadening adaptability of the competitive test as a scientific and practical method for recruiting applicants and selecting from among them those most suitable for administrative positions, high and low. There are relatively few of such positions which do not admit of being filled by this method now since the tests may comprise some or all of the following means of discovering fitness: physical examination, practical trials in acts actually to be performed, written intellectual examination, statement of experience and training, special thesis, oral examination and interview. The New York City commission reports that during the year 1915 it succeeded “in establishing eligible lists for such important administrative positions as superintendent of the municipal lodging house, superintendent of the employment agency, director of the bureau of food inspections, department of health, director of the bureau of social investigations, department of public charities, secretary on recreation for the committee on social welfare, assistant director of the bureau of standards and superintendent of the New York City childrens’ hospitals and schools, Randall’s Island. ’ ’ The examination for the last mentioned position, a position demanding very high and specialized ability, training and character, appears to have been devised and executed with exceptional wisdom and success. The examination was developed with the co-operation of Dr. W. E. Fernald, superintendent of the Massachusetts state institute for feeble minded, at Waverly, and was thrown open to the entire country. The experience requirement included the possession of a medical degree, experience in the management of child-caring institutions, and other features, which had to be described in a detailed account; this test eliminated eighteen of the thirty-four original candidates. The remaining sixteen were required to prepare a thesis covering a discussion of all points of the pathology and treatment of feeble-mindedness in children and a formulation of detailed plans for the construction and administration of an institution for feeble-minded; this was a non-assembled test, the candidates being allowed ten days for preparing their theses. Six candidates being eliminated by this test, the remaining ten were separately given oral tests in the office of the commission; the object of this test was to check up the actual knowledge and experience of the candidates and to obtain judgment of their personal qualifications. The result of this test was the:

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19161 PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE 579 establishment of a final eligible list of seven names.4 At the time of writing the commission is engaged in conducting competitive tests along similar lines for the position of director of central purchasing. SERVICE RECORDS Efficiency, or service, markings, are shown by the reports to have several objects. They are of definite value to civil service commissions in establishing promotion lists; they assist departmental heads in the administration of their departments; they supply concrete evidence in requests by departmental heads for increases in salaries or for additional employes; they provide data for the work of standardizing titles, duties and salaries; they stimulate employes to greater diligence and alertness; they facilitate the elimination of unworthy employes from the service. The New York City commission proposes to derive further benefit from such records by assigning some of its examiners to efficiency record work; they expect that this will supply the examiners with valuable information and suggestions to use in the preparation of examinations. A difficult problem of efficiency marking is that of the proper selection and rating of the different factors to be considered. It is recognized that the relative values of given factors vary with different groups of employes; and certain factors applicable in one group may not be applicable at all in another group. In Oakland the general factors considered are ability, quantity of work, reliability, attendance, and discipline. The weights for the first three factors “vary with the duties and responsibility of the position. To illustrate, the weights for a batallion chief, fire department, are 6-1-3; for a senior clerk, 3-4-3; for a common laborer, 1-8-1. . . . The basis of marking is 80 points for the satisfactory employe, with due weight given to every point above or below. Markings below 70 are cause for discharge from the service, and the rules require the Board to file charges if the employe is not discharged. Attendance and discipline markings are mandatory and according to fixed rules, and are deducted from the positive markings in making the final markings. The departments file with the Board the net monthly markings, with explanation of cause for markings above 85 or below 75, and these are entered on the efficiency record of the employe after approval by the board. The executive is made careful in his marking and the employe is protected by the right of appeal to the board.’’ In Et. Paul efficiency is graded under the five factors of ability, industry, reliability, attendance, and discipline; the marking is done by letters, standing, respectively, for such qualifying 4 Appointment was made of Dr. W. B. Cornell, of Maryland, who stood third on the list. He is a man of broad scholarship and successful experience in clinical and administrative work in institutions for feeble-minded. It is a practice in New York City to select the highest name on a list of eligibles. In this instance the persons standing higher declined final appointment.

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580 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October adjectives as “excellent,” “good,” “fair,” etc.; the letters are then translated by the civil service bureau to a percentage basis. The New York City commission, in December, 1915, issued a bulletin setting forth a proposed new system of service records for municipal employes. The proposals are the outcome of conferences between the New York bureau of municipal research and the civil service commission, the bulletin being based on a comprehensive report submitted by the bureau to the commission. It outlines a “standard code of regulations to govern preparation of service records.” These regulations define the factors and sub-factors to be used in preparation of ratings, the classification of employments and percentages to be given to the various factors in each class, the method for preparing ratings by the employes and by heads of bureaus and divisions and for review of ratings by departmental personnel boards and by the commission, and the relative weights to be given to written examination, service record and seniority record in establishing promotion lists. These weights are .5, .35, and .15, respectively. The plan of service records outlined in the bulletin is being applied as an experiment in the health department, law department, department of-bridges, park department (Bronx) , and civil service commission ; and it has been submitted to heads of departments generally and employes for criticism and suggestion. During the year 1915 the New York City commission has secured the adoption of an improved system for rewarding meritorious service in the uniformed force of the police and fire departments. Formerly service awards were based largely upon chance acts of bravery, and the demerits based almost exclusively upon infractions of departmental regulations. This unfairly limited and misleading method has now been superceded by a system of awards which comprises a recognition of less spectacular acts involving conscientious and efficient performance of daily duties. ADMINISTRATIVE REORGANIZATION AND STANDARDIZATION Some commissions have interested themselves actively in the work of reconstructing administrative organization and methods, with such objects as the following: simplification and centralization in the organization of administrative departments; elimination of unnecessary positions; installation of means of greater economy and expertness in operation; remedying of particular deficiencies in equipment and methods; extension or limitation of municipal activities. The accomplishments in this line by the Oakland civil service board, since its establishment in 1911, will sufficiently illustrate this phase of the work of the commissions. Through its efficiency division which was organized in November, 1913, it has secured many changes, including the following: a combination of the positions of superintendent of streets and city engineer and a thorough reorganization of the street department with a net elimination of

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19161 PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE 581 nine positions carrying each a salary of $100 or more per month, and the installation of cost account records in the department; a reorganization of the health, harbor, building construction, park, and electrical departments; the establishment of a central municipal garage supplanting the former separate and unchecked departmental care of thevarious city machines; the establishment of a central purchasing department; a survey of the fire department, with many recommendations as to improvements in equipment, methods, and organization, some of which recommendations have been adopted by the department; the installation of the efficiency marking system; and the establishment of a comprehensive system of uniform accounting and control of budget appropriations. The movement for reclassifying the municipal civil service arises from the growing recognition of the waste and injustice inherent in the following conditions prevailing in the service: the wide’ variance in compensation received by different employes performing the same or similar duties in the same or different offices, with excessive overpayment or underpayment in many positions, resuIting from the irregular ways in which salaries are fixed-often by political influences; the confusion, friction and injustice resulting from the multiplicity and misleading character of titles of positions, with widely varying titles often attached to positions carrying the same or similar duties; the inequitable method of promotion and salary advancement. Programs for standardization have sought, through comprehensive surveys of the local service and studies of salary and service data from private establishments and the governments of other cities, to work out new and detailed classifications and definitions in such way as to introduce system, clarity and equity into the civil service, particularly in such matters as the following: the specification of qualifications, titles and duties; the advertising and conduct of examinations; the adjustment of compensation to service values; the fixing of lines of promotion and salary-increases. Revision and standardization have been accomplished, extensively or narrowly, in Chicago (beginning in 1910), Portland, Ore., Houston, Tex., Oakland, Los Angeles County and City, and St. Paul. Studies of standardization are under way in New York City, Pittsburgh, Milwaukee, Philadelphia, and Minneapolis, as well as in the state services of New York, Ohio, Wisconsin and Massachusetts. In most of the cities emphasis has been upon standardization of salaries; but this in all cases has required some revision of titles and redefinition of duties and qualifications. The work in cities has generally been undertaken by, or under the direction of, the local civil service commission; this, for example, has been true in Chicago, Oakland, Los Angeles County, Et. Paul and Minneapolis. The exhaustive investigations of standardization in New York City, Pittsburgh and New York State have been in charge of agencies independent of the civil service commissions. In New York City the work has

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582 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [ 0 ct ober been in the hands of the bureau of standards, which is the working staff of the committee on salaries and grades of the board of estimate and apportionment. The investigations and reports of the bureau of standards have been made largely by the staff of the bureau of municipal research. In Pittsburgh the work has been done by a specially created committee on standardization working under the supervision of the mayor and the city finance department; for this investigation the city council employed the New York bureau of municipal research. For the New York State service the investigation has been made by the committee on civil service of the state senate. This committee was first created at the opening of the 1915 session of the legislature for the purpose of studying employment conditions with special reference to reclassification and standardization. As a result of the preliminary report of this committee, in April, 1915, describing existing conditions of the state service, the senate provided for the continuance and extension of the investigation with the view to securing constructive and comprehensive recommendations. For this latter inquiry the committee employed an examining staff of accountants, engineers, and other men working under the immediate supervision of A. W. Proctor of the New York bureau of municipal research, and received general assistance from the bureau in all phases of the work. The most valuable recent reports on the subject of standardization are the following : ‘[Standardization of Public Employments ”-the November, 1915, issue of Municipal Research, the monthly publication of the New York bureau of municipal research; ‘‘ Comparative Salary Data,” a pamphlet issued by the Philadelphia bureau in March, 1916; “Report of the [N. Y.] Senate committee on civil Service in relation to the standardizationof the public employments of the state,” printed in a bound volume of over a thousand pages; Standard Specifications for Public Service”the report prepared by the bureau of standards for the board of estimate and apportionment of New York City and embodying the proposed reclassification of the city service, issued in June of this year in a printed volume of nearly a thousand pages. The four publications just mentioned contain materials indispensable for any study of the essential points of the nature and progress of the standardization movement. In this connection reference should also be made to the article by W. C. Beyer of the Philadelphia bureau of municipal research, on “Standardization of Salaries in American Cities,” appearing in the April number of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. v, pp. 266-72, and to the recommendations on classification in the “Report of Committee on co-operation among commissions on examination standards. ” Though the study of standardization in New York City was made by the bureau of standards, independently of the civil service commission,

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19161 PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE 583 the latter body has given close attention to the subject during the past year and, after a critical examination of the proposals of the bureau, has approved its main conclusions, recommending changes only in minor details. Agreement between the bureau and commission has been reached in the matter of these minor differences; and the commission has promoted the adoption of the proposed classification by the board of estimate and apportionment for the budget of 1917. The commission advocates the transfer to itself of many of the functions of the bureau of standards. As the body through which appointing officers receive most of their employes, and which is consequently required to conduct tests of varying types according to the varying needs of the service, the commission regards itself as the body primarily concerned in having exact information as to the duties of employes and departments, and primarily interested in the proper classification of the service and the proper specification of duties and titles. It recommends that the city charter be so amended as to provide “that when the board of estimate and apportionment recommends the establishment of positions to the board of aldermen it shall accompany such recommendations with a certificate that the titles proposed have been approved by the civil service commission, and that the board of aldermen shall be prohibited from changing the title of any position unless the civil service commission shall have previously consented thereto.” MISCELLANEOUS POINTS The limits of this article preclude any satisfactory indication of the many other points of progress revealed in recent reports of civil service bodies. There seems to be a marked improvement in the handling of provisional appointments, methods having been devised to reduce greatly abuses by appointing authorities in this matter.s More intelligent and economical methods for advertising examinations, for recruiting and eliminating applicants, and for distributing information concerning the scope and methods of examination have been adopted in some places.6 The New York City commission has formulated and published new physical standards in groupings which they regard as adapted to the various classes of positions in such way as to afford more practical guidance to medical examiners and to save time and expense to the govern6 See especially reports of the commissions of New York City, pp. 24-5, Los Angeles county, pp. 9-10, and the annual report of the civil service board and superintendent of employment of the West Chicago park commissioners. Cf. report of committee on co-operation, p. 23. 6 See reports of the commissions of New York City, pp. 5-7, 23-4, St. Paul, p. 8, and Massachusetts, pp. 10-12. See also the “Manual of Information to Applicants concerning Examinations and Eligible Lists,” issued by the Massachusetts commission, and the illustrated pamphlet of the Philadelphia commission, issued October, 1915, under the title “Practical Examinations of the Civil Service Commission.”

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584 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October ment and to the prospective applicants by excluding at the outset those physically unfit to perform the duties of the places they might seek, and also those who by reason of some physical defect would‘ be likely to become subsequently, through lowered efficiency, a handicap to the service. Useful suggestions on the registration and examination of laborers appear in the reports of the Minneapolis and St. Paul commissions and in the recommendations of the committee on co-operation. The question of the value and means of co-operation among civil service commissions is discussed by F. E. Doty, chief examiner of the Los Angeles County commission, in the proceedings of the eighth meeting of the national assembly. Several reports show gratifying extensions of the merit principle through transfers of positions from the exempt to the competitive class. Accounts of progress and retrogression in civil service reform appear in the report of the council of the National Civil Service Reform League published in the proceedings of the annual meeting of the league, Philadelphia, December, 1915, and appear also in the monthly issues of Good Government, the official journal of the League. A review of the adverse phase of civil service development would require particular and extended consideration of the upheavals in Chicago, Cleveland and Philadelphia, resulting from the disrupting interferences by Mayors Thompson, Davis and Smith,’ and also of the controversy in 1914 and 1915 between the New York State and New York City commissions.* A possible point of progress may be achieved in the proposed new charter for Los Angeles, which contains a provision setting aside annually for the expenses of the civil service commission a definite share of the city’s revenue. Civil service reformers in that city hope that with this additional and independent revenue the commission will be enabled particularly to do two things which the uncertainty and insufficiency of funds have hitherto prevented it from doing: the keeping of efficiency ratings of all employes, and the conduct of examinations on more thoroughly practical lines. In conclusion emphasis should again be placed upon the manner in which the records of recent civil service achievements afford refutation of fallacious notiom, growing out of ignorance or prejudice, that the purposes of civil service workers are impracticable or that their methods are academic. At the same time, the review of the records prompts a question of caution concerning the extent to which civil service commissions may wisely constitute themselves bureaus of general administrative efficiency, concerning themselves in detail with such matters as the scope of municipal functions, t’he methods of administrative organization and 7 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. v, pp. 316-9. * See the article in the January issue of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. v pp. 47-55, by Nelson S. Spencer, on “New York City’s Civil Service,” and also the Thirty-third Report of the State Civil Service Commission of New York, 1916.

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19161 PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE 585 action and the size of administrative personnel. There is no place in this article to suggest the limits to which the necessary advances into this field by civil service agencies properly go. Criticism has been made that certain commissions, advanced and thorough in the work of standardization or reconstruction, for example, have allowed the character of their examining work to depreciate. We can here make only the obvious comment that no broadening of activities by the commissions should be allowed to produce the slightest neglect of their primary and fundamental function-namely, the administration of regulations promoting efficiency and honesty in administration through the intelligent and non-partisan selection, advancement and retirement of appointive public employes.

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LOCAL OPTION IN THE UNITED STATES PHILIP A. BOYER, Philadelphia ORE and more as society progresses and becomes more completely organized and integrated does the welfare of the whole depend M upon the steadiness and efficiency of each individual. The dominating note of the time is efficiency, efficient democracy, efficient national and local government, efficiency in manufacturing, in agriculture, in all industrial work. Good health and active, alert minds are prime requisites for efficiency and to secure this desired condition we make laws for pure food, fresh air, parks, playgrounds, sanitary housing, healthful working conditions and the like. This all means that individuals are gradually learning to live sanely and temperately. Under the stress of modern competition, a man must be master of his faculties or he cannot keep his place. Just in proportion then, as this connection between the EDITORIAL NOTE: Considerable unrelated data relating to the application of the principle of local option having come into the hands of the Editor, he consulted with Prof. J. P. Lichtenberger, of the University of Pennsylvania, as to an available man among his graduate students to complete and correlate it. Mr. Boyer was the man recommended. He entered upon the study of the problem involved without any predisposition or bias. The conclusions are his own, and the Editor did not know what they were until the manuscript was handed to him. It may seem somewhat out of the ordinary to make such an explanation, but it is due to the readers of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW and to the members of the National Municipal League to know the facts, inasmuch as there are those who are disposed to criticize the National Municipal League and the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW unless articles dealing with the liquor problem support a certain propaganda. The League maintains the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW for a fair and free discussion of the various problems of the city. The quarterly is as apt to publish an article at variance with the views of its active men, as one in harmony with them, and that because it believes all sides, when fairly put, are entitled to a hearing. As a highly controversial and most important question, its pages should be particularly open to a full and free discussion of all phases of the liquor problem. For this reason we welcomed George C. Sikes’s proffered article on “The Liquor Question and Municipal Reform”-(See vol. v, p. 411), and for the same reason we have invited an article on the influence of prohibition on,municipal affairs in Tennessee, which we expect to publish in an early issue, and we hope we may do so without running the risk of having some reader wondering, as one did after the appearance of the Sikes article, if it were not possible that there was “a nigger in the woodpile.” Robert S. Keebler who is to prepare the article for us is a member of the Memphis bar, who is deeply interested in constitutional reform. He has been highly commended to us by those whom we hold in high esteem, as a fair minded, sincere student of public questions.-C. R. W. ‘B. S., Temple University, 1912; A.M., University of Pennsylvania, 1915, in sociology, economics and education. Principal of the Richardson L. Wright Public School, Philadelphia. Mr. Boyer has prepared the following statistical studies: “Class Size and School Progress” in Psychological Chic, May 1914; Retardation; Variability of Composition Grades; Effective Definition (A Study in Method). 586

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19161 LOCAL OPTION IN THE UNITED STATES 587 general welfare and individual efficiency becomes more intimate, society surrounds the individual with more careful provision for his well-being. One of the most pressing of our social problems is that of the use of intoxicating liquors, and it is only because the use of this class of beverages lends itself so readily to abuse that it is a social problem at all. The growing dissatisfaction with the drink habit cannot be accounted for on moral or religious grounds. Men are to-day no more religious, no more moral than ever before. Their actions are, however, more closely and intimately interwoven into the socio-economic fabric and, therefore, it is a social and economic problem which liquor presents. Moral, religious and economic ideals have done much to hedge about the use of intoxicating liquors, but society, through the machinery of organized government, has chosen to attack the problem by way of the traffic, for trade is pre-eminently a social act. Society, then, deals with the liquor problem principally through legislation directed at the traffic. In regard to the status of this liquor legislation, John Koren, expert investigator for the committee of fifty, has this to say: “The bald truth is that, viewed as a whole, the liquor legislation of the United States invites bewilderment and despair rather than admiration and confidence. The sum total of our efforts to legislate concerning an exceedingly difficult social problem is unintelligent and thereby largely ineffective. How can it be otherwise so long as the laws aiming to regulate ‘ an inherently dangerous traffic’ proceed largely from unthinking agitation, careless or indirected experimentation, hasty piling of inconsequential statutes upon statutes and endlessly amending them in unessential details? ” Perhaps most people are not aware of the true state of affairs. Others regard it complacently except when the legal machinery created for us shows too obvious signs of breaking down, and then are content to have more tinkering done by incompetent hands. Whether we blame ignorance or indifference, the fact remains that what we are pleased to call systems of liquor legislation are, for the greater part, crude make-shifts that fail of their purpose and often prove a stumbling block in the way of good government. In proof of this, it almost suffices to state that there are nearly as many systems of dealing with the liquor traffic as there are license states, notwithstanding many points of similarity. Yet, given the same problem, which everywhere produces an abundant crop of the same perplexities, it is unthinkable that it can be met with equal success through regulative systems that differ in fundamental principles. It is begging the question to say that our restrictive legislation has been a total failure, for it has not been rational nor progressive. True, it is exceedingly prolific, but it evidences a search for varieties rather than for central principles. The invention of legal irritants has been mistaken

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588 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October for the discovery of elements that make for stable control. The whole fabric of liquor laws is of the haphazard order, from the pivotal question of the authorities who should grant privileges to sell and their power of control, down to the most trivial detail. The experiments may appear numerous, but are for the greater part revivals of time-worn expedients. This backward condition of our liquor legislation is easily accounted for. Its key-note has always been repression and penalties, regardless of whether they could be enforced. Progressive measures have been blocked not solely by the trade, but by persons most inimical to it, whose theory is that the worse the status of the trade becomes the sooner it will be abolished. Therefore, they look askance at such practical means of promoting sobriety as that of taxing intoxicants according to their alcoholic strength and of favoring thesubstitution of theleast intoxicating beverages in every way. The acceptance of the doctrine of force as the means of making men sober spells the despair of the temperance cause; its hope lies in efforts for gradual betterment through ethical forces and general enlightenment plus progressive restriction. But this plea for scientific investigation and for intelligent and effective modification, restriction and regulation of the traffic is unheeded by a great body of people who, in utter despair of any good coming from such treatment of the problem, and with somewhat of emotional intoxication born of this despair, cry out for the complete eradication of the multitudinous evils of the traffic by means of its total prohibition. In this effort to wipe out the liquor evil by abolishing the traffic, the prime movers are the Prohibition party and the Anti-saloon league. The Prohibition party points to “the failure of all non-political efforts to adequately cope with the problem, and the defeat of all attempts to solve the problem through the license parties and their candidates.” The mission of the party is not to fight the liquor traffic, but to oppose those political forces that foster and protect the traffic. The Anti-saloon league, on the other hand, while working toward the same end of national prohibition, is willing to accept small gains in the hope that the final total of these may sometime be so great as to secure the desired result. However, strong in their insistance that the liquor evil is national and must be dealt with nationally to be handled effectively, these reformers, finding national prohibition impossible at present and realizing that even state-wide prohibition is unattainable without having first secured within the state a more or less completely organized sentiment against the liquor traffic, have set about to create such sentiment, and to back it up by actual test of and experience with prohibition of a local nature. This procedure is clearly outlined in bold type in a recent leaflet of the Michigan anti-saloon league as follows: “NO state has recently adopted state-wide prohibition until half its territory was ‘dry’

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19161 LOCAL OPTION IN THE UNITED STATES 5 89 by ‘local option.’ , . . When enough counties in Michigan go ‘dry’ Michigan will have state-wide prohibition. . . . When nineteen more states go ‘dry’ we will have national prohibition. . . . Your votes, your money, your influence, count for a ‘dry’ county, a ‘dry’ state, a ‘dry’ nation. ” In other words, those who would solve the problems of the liquor traffic by its total national prohibition, have chosen to approach the problem piece-meal through the principle of local option. Here the path of the reformer is easier and the gains are tangible. Moreover the underlying principle of democracy is apparently more fully conserved thereby, for democracy means self-government. While the term “local option ” might be construed to refer to any one of the many matters of strictly local concern, its use has come to be limited to the question of the liquor traffic. Further, while, even in this field, local option may be and is exercised on such matters as the kinds of license, methods of dispensing liquor, regulation and limitation of the number of licensed houses, hours of closing, etc., the term is commonly held to apply solely to local decisions on the question of full prohibition. A local option election determines whether the unit concerned shall prohibit or license the sale of liquor, whether it shall be ‘‘wet” or “dry.” The purpose then, of the local option principle is to permit the local community an unhindered expression of its will in the matter of legalizing or prohibiting the sale of liquor. For the germ of local option legislation one has to go back to the year 1829, when the selectmen of each town in Maine were authorized to decide whether or not liquor selling should be permitted. This indirect method of deciding the issue soon ceased to have a legal warrant. The real beginnings of local option legislation date back to the eighties when the experiments with state-wide prohibition had become discredited. Experience had shown that, although general prohibition had everywhere been disregarded or evaded in the large urban centers, and that this had led to a condition of things that was fraught with serious menace to true progress, the law was nevertheless capable of enforcement in the rural districts and small towns. Hence local option laws. It is worthy of note, however, that even while lacking any warrant in la’w, not a few strictly rural communities had undertaken to exclude the liquor traffic and did it successfully. Massachusetts led the way in 1881 with the first full-fledged local option law, which ever since has been in force. By the year 1900 there were seventeen states in which local option could legally be exercised by direct popular vote applicable to all localities; six had local option by direct popular vote applicable to special localities or rural districts only; nine states had direct local option through discretionary power vested in city councils and other local governing bodies; and in five states there

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“WET” AND “DRY” TERRITORIAL MAP OF THE UNITED STATES, APRIL 1, 1916 z P Note.-Virginia’s Prohibition Iaw ~ots into tRtct November 1. 1916.

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19161 LOCAL OPTION IN THE UNITED STATES 59 f existed the right of vote by remonstrance and by provisions requiring the consent of legal voters or property holders. At present there are ninet,een prohibition states:Alabama. ................. ,1915 Arizona .................... 1915 Arkansas .................. 1916 Colorado ................. .19 16 Georgia. ................. .1908 Idaho ........... : ......... 1916 Iowa. ..................... ,1916 Kansas .................... 1880 Maine ..................... 1858 Mississippi. ............... .1909 North Carolina ............ ,1909 North Dakota ............. .1889 Oklahoma. ................ .1907 Oregon .................... 1916 South Carolina. ........... .1916 Tennessee. ................ .1909 Virginia? .................. .1916 Washington. .............. ,19 16 West Virginia, ............ .1914 Only three license states, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Nevada, lack any provision for local option by popular vote, and even here, means have been found to make certain limited sections dry. In Pennsylvania the supreme court has decided that the Brooks high license law gives the judges of the license court absolute discretion in the licensing of saloons. Consequently the judicial-mindedness of a candidate is frequently determined by his stand on the liquor question. By this very doubtful procedure sufficient prohibition judges have been elected to make eleven counties dry by refusing to grant licenses. In New Jersey, special charter provisions have enabled certain cities, townships and boroughs to exclude the saloon. Nevada is a strong license state, but even here 10 per cent of the taxpayers in any rural school-district can exclude the saloon if they can prove it to be detrimental to the public health and morals of the community. The remaining twenty-six states have local option laws which apply to a variety of territorial districts ranging from residence districts of municipalities to entire counties. Among the territorial districts which have been adopted as units for local option election are the following:-county; city; town; township; village; supervisorial district; county outside of city, town, village; supervisorial district outside towns or cities; parish; precinct; election district; school district; residence district; ward; block. But what does “local” mean? State governments are local as compared with the nation of which they are a part, but the term local option does not apply here. Local means a sub-division of a state. The largest sub-division of a state is the county. This is the unit for local government and at first blush it would seem to be the desired unit for option on the liquor traffic. If the people of the county live under identical social, environmental and The principle of local option must be conceded. .‘Prohibition effective Nov. 1, 1916.

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592 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October .economic conditions, if the county government exercises the necessary executive and judicial as well as legislative functions throughout the extent of the territory in question, then the county is the proper unit for local option. But where the county contains a town with its own local officers and government and where, as is often the case, the sentiment on the liquor traffic in the town is at variance with that of the surrounding rural portions of the county, anomalous situations are bound to arise. For example, Muskingum county, Ohio, held an election under the Rose county option law in which 14,973 votes were cast. Zanesville, the county seat, gave a majority of 1414 in favor of the saleof liquor, but the county as a whole gave a dry majority of 1011. Again, the city of Springfield voted wet by 2,000, but Clark county, of which it is the countyseat, went dry by 139 votes. The county had no machinery for the enforcement of the law in the city. It was therefore left to the civic authorities of Springfield to enforce the suppression of the sale of liquor against the wishes of its people. It is plain that this situation is not conducive to law enforcement. Because of a provision in the county option law these towns had no way of making effective their wet choice even though the Beal law provides option for towns and villages. Therefore these towns had county option but no local option, and they found a means of securing this local option by the passage in 1914 of a home rule amendment to the state constitution as follows: “NO law shall be passed or be in effect prohibiting the sale, or giving away of intoxicating liquor operating to a sub-division of the state upon a vote of the electors thereof, or upon any other contingency, which has force within a territory larger than a municipal corporation or a township outside of a municipal corporation therein.” A similar situation was presented in Indiana when in 1908 a county-unit local option law was passed under which the state voted itself almost completely dry by counties. However, the reaction was rapid,for in 1911 a city and township option law was substituted and more than 600 saloons were reopened. Florida, Maryland, Michigan and Montana maintain the strict county unit; Kentucky, Texas and Minnesota have county option, but permit resubmission of the question to smaller units after the county of which they are a part has voted “wet.” However, if the county votes “dry, ” no such smaller-unit resubmission of the question is permitted. The anti-saloon league is constantly agitating for county-unit local option because this unit is most effective in securing large additions to dry territory. However, the fact that only four states use this county-unit unqualifiedly, indicates rather clearly that people generally recognize the inexpediency of county local option. Twenty-two of the twenty-six local option states have laws which apply to units smaller than the county. There seems to be an endeavor to confine the term “local” to the smallest self-governing community. Hence we have city, township, town, village option with the privilege

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19161 LOCAL OPTION IN THE UNITED STATES 593 also accorded to the outlying sections of counties not included in any of the above. It will be seen that this arrangement does not prevent a whole county from becoming dry. The incorporated towns and villages and the unincorporated outlying sections may vote dry separately. However, this scheme does prevent the rural vote of a county from forcing prohibition on an unwilling town within its borders. In so far as local option has for its purpose to register the will of a local self-governing community on the question of the liquor traffic, these units for that decision seem ideal. The traffic is prohibited or permitted by popular vote of just that group of people who must live under the condition so determined. If a town votes wet it may have saloons; if dry, then it will have none. This would appear to be perfectly just and to work well except for the fact that the purpose of local option, at least for the reformer, is prohibition. The town that votes dry rids itself of the saloon and its attendant evils, but it does not rid itself of drinking and the effect of nearby saloons. “Burlington, Vermont, votes for license and South Burlington for prohibition. The relations between the two communities are so close that many residents of South Burlington are nearer the licensed places in Burlington than people living in the extreme north part of the city. Moreover, the bottle license practically extends license from every town voting for it to every other town in the region tributary to that community. St. Albans, for example, is the shire town of Franklin county, Vermont, and the inhabitants of every town in the county go to St. Albans to trade, to attend to legal matters and to transact various kinds of business. Residents of those towns in Franklin county that have voted against license at home have no difficulty in securing all the liquor they want at St. Albana and taking it home with them. It makes no difference where the liquor happens to be sold. The supreme issue is where are the effects of the liquor felt.” For years the towns around Boston’have voted dry, but they are in such intimate connection with Boston that they may really be said to be wet. Local option becomes in these cases a restrictive rather than a prohibitory measure. By voting dry a community outlaws the saloon, not in general, not everywhere, but only within its own limits, knowing we11 that liquor may be easily secured when desired. Still smaller local units show the tendency of restriction through local option. Wards, residence districts and even city blocks exercise option in eleven states. These divisions are units to be sure, but they are not centers of local self-government. They have no machinery for carrying their decisions into effect. They are entirely dependent upon the larger unit of which they are a part, and the only purpose of voting dry is to ‘exclude the saloon from their own immediate neighborhood. It can hardly be said that a dry vote in so small a section indicates a desire for prohibition. It seems rather to show a policy of restriction, of segregation. Indeed this same purpose is achieved through city ordinances or 4

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5 94 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October even state laws prohibiting saloons in residence districts, creating a dry area of two miles around cities of certain sizes, limiting saloons to one for every 500 of population, restricting them to the ‘I effectively policed parts of cities” and excluding them from the vicinity of churches, schools, homes and manufacturing plants. All these provisions are regulatory; not prohibitory. They do not indicate a no-license policy and cannot therefore be counted as gains toward the goal of state or national prohibition except in so far as the segregation of the saloon drives the saloon into a corner where it may finally be killed. Thus we see that when the principle of local option is confined to very small sections, its effect amounts solely to restriction. There is little if any effect on the consumption of intoxicating liquors. The sentiment of the people is so uniform, the composition of the people is so homogeneous that dissenters are few and their influence is feeble. Combine with this the fact of easy access to neighboring license sections and it is clear that there is here no inherent difficulty in law enforcement. In general, these same observations hold true when the unit is extended to embrace the town, township, village or city. Students of municipal government are strenuously advocating a larger measure of home rule. This should certainly include control of the liquor traffic. If the people of such a local self-governing community have the choice to become wet as well as to become dry, then the principle of local option is conserved. However, as the term “local” is construed to refer to larger and larger units, difficulties multiply. When the unit is extended to embrace the county, which usually contains distinct groups of people with characteristically different views on the liquor traffic, then the wisdom of the principle becomes questionable. When the rural prohibition vote so preponderates over the urban vote for license as to cause the whole county to become dry, then the town has no option. Hence the extension of local option beyond a very small local government destroys the very essence of its purpose. It destroys all option in the towns and cities whose inhabitants repudiate prohibition by their votes. County local option becomes in these cases county coercion. Methods of registering the option are as diverse as are the sizes of the units concerned. For this reason the accompanying table has been prepared to show the salient features of the local option laws of each state. It will be noted that in most cases, local option elections occur as the result of petitions signed by a given number or per cent of the electorate. The percentage required varies from 10 per cent in Connecticut to 40 per cent in Ohio (Beale Law), the modal per cent being 25 per cent, required in eight states. Occasionally a 50 per cent petition is required, as in Ohio residence-districts, but in this case no election is necessary. The basis of the percentage is usually the whole number of qualified electors, registered or legal voters, though in some few cases the per cent is based

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19161 LOCAL OPTION IN THE UNITED STATES 595 on the vote cast at the last preceding election (Illinois). Still further refinement enters when the basis of the per cent is made the vote cast for some designated officer, e.g. , governor in California and Minnesota, in counties; secretary of state in Indiana townships and mayor in cities. This will be recognized purely as a device of temperance forces to decrease the number of signatures required to make a petition valid. Usually the form of the petition is definitely prescribed and a verification of signatures required, e.g. FORM OF PETITION. We, the undersigned, registered voters of county, state of Florida, hereby make application to, and petition this honorable board of county commissioners in and for said county to call an election to decide whether the sale of intoxicating liquors, wines or beer shall be prohibited in said county. Said election to be called and conducted according to the constitution of this state, and the statutes thereof, heretofore made and provided. No such election has been held in said county for more than two years prior hereto. “Hereto attached, and in support hereof are one-fourth or more of the registered voters of said county as provided by law. ” The petition is filed with the licensing authorities who then order an election. In some cases this election is a special election held from twenty to sixty days after filing the petition, unless this conflicts with a regular election, in which case the local election is deferred. In other cases (fourteen states) the time of the local option election is that of the next local or general election. In all cases a majority vote decides the question. If a majority votes against license, then prohibition is the rule in the entire unit concerned, but if the majority votes for license, subdivisions of the unit may, in some cases, resubmit the question and vote themselves dry (California, Florida, Kentucky, Texas). Accordingly prohibition is oft en forced upon a recalcitrant community, but license never. A local option decision holds good until another election is petitioned for in the legal manner, except that the question may not be resubmitted for periods ranging from one year (in Louisiana, Massachusetts, Nebraska , South Dakota, Vermont, Wisconsin and parts of Connecticut and Minnesota) to four years (in Missouri, New Mexico and parts of New Hampshire). This term is used in ten states and in parts of New Hampshire. The submission of the license question annually does not give time for a fair trial of either the license or no-license policy and results in much vacillation and wavering. The problem is kept constantly before the people by continuous agitation. This state of affairs is considered eminently desirable by local prohibitionists who feel that through this means of continuous agitation, the liquor question may be kept prominently in the minds of the people and so result in the gradual, but sure development of a determination to have The usual limit on resubmission is two years.

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596 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October done with the whole problem by the complete eradication of its cause, the saloon. This singleness of purpose, characteristic of the reformer who, like a balky horse, always wears blinders, so that he cannot, even if he will, see either to right or left, is not without its advantages to society. But a broader more unbiased view of the problem points very definitely to the conclusion that a period of one year is much too brief for the consummation of the very complex social adjustments necessary to the satisfactory operation of either plan. Two years would be a better term and even three years would not be too long for a thorough trial of and an intelligent, unified judgment on the policy determined. Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Vermont vote by towns on the question of license or no license, without petition, at the regular annual town election. Maryland and Delaware may vote on the question by counties only when permission is granted by a special act of the State legislature. South Dakota is peculiar in that it is considered dry till voted wet. Saloons must be petitioned for and voted in or the territory remains dry, and a wet local unit becomes dry automatically at the end of the license year unless revoted wet. New Mexico and Wyoming have rural prohibition, and Wyoming has municipal council option. As will be seen in the table, all states have laws prohibiting the liquor traffic in specially designated areas. In general these areas surround schools, churches, homes, camp meetings, construction camps, etc. The saloon is undesirable in the neighborhood of school, church or home; it is dangerous in the vicinity of a camp meeting or a construction camp, hence it is ostracised. Besides these general restrictions there are numerous local limitations on the location of saloons as well as on the proportion of saloons to the population. These local restrictions are in their nature essentially local option provisions though not usually so considered. The success of the no-license agitation is indicated by the fact that at the present time, by state constitutional and statutory provision and by local decisions, 80 per cent of the land area of the United States is under prohibition. In this dry area live 54 per cent of the population of the country. More than one-half of the population of the United States, spread over four-fifths of its area, is under no-license. The proportion of population living in dry territory, the proportion of population which is rural and the proportion of population which is native white of native parentage, are identical (54 per cent). This is more than mere coincidence for, while we know of dry cities and wet country-districts, prohibition is largely rural except where state laws have imposed it upon urban centers, and prohibition sections generally show a high per cent of native white of native parentage. An analysis of the statistics of urban population for the nineteen prohibition states shows a range from 11 per cent in North Dakota to 53 per cent in Washington, but the median per cent is low (20.6 per cent in

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19161 LOCAL OPTION IN THE UNITED STATES 597 Georgi.a), showing that most prohibition stat.es are distinctly rural. following summary of these figures will make this clear: P~T cent of popu!ation which is urban The States Above46 ............................................ 3 Between 30 and 46.. .................................. 3 Between 20 and 30.. .................................. 5 Less than 20 ......................................... 8 It will be observed here that only three states (Colorado, Maine and Washington) have an urban population exceeding 46.3 per cent which is the proportion for the United States as a whole. Thirteen, or more than two-thirds of the prohibition states have less than 30 per cent of population urban. On the other hand, these prohibition states show a high proportion of native whites of native parentage in the composition of their populabion. The percentages range from 26.4 per cent in North Dakota to 85.3 per cent in WestVirginia with62 asthe median per ce.nt. Thirteen of these states show a higher pexentage of this cla,ss of populat,ion than that of the UnitedStatesasawhole(53.8per cent,). Ten of these nineteen states adopted prohibition within the past year, yet the median per cent of population urban rose only 1.3 points from 19.3 per cent in 1915 to 20.6 per cent in 1916, and the per cent of native white of native parentage fell only 5.3 points from 67.3 per cent in 1915 to 62.0 per cent in 1916. Thus we see that more than doubling the number of prohibition states has made no nppreciahle change in the charact,er of population affected. State prohibition, then, appeals to states whose populations are largely rural and native white of native parentage. In the twenty-six local option states, the per centage of area ma.de dry by local legislation ranges from 18.0 per cent in Rhode Island to 98.3 per cent in Wyoming with the median per cent at 78.5. Only three of these states have less than half their area under no-license, seven are between one-half and three-fourths dry and sixteen states are more than threefourths dry. Of these sixteen states, five are more than 90 per cent dry. Hence with nineteen states wholly dry, sixteen states more than threefourths dry, and seven states more than half dry it would appear from the map that national prohibition, requiring the consent of thirty-six states, is not far off. However the urban communities have always proved an effective check on such a procedure and indeed many voters who wglcome local prohibition are unalterably opposed to a national prohibitory measure. In the proportion of the population living in no-license sections of local option states there is wide variation. The range is from 3 per cent in Rhode Island to 91 per cent in Florida with the median per cent at 42. We saw in the figures for the United States as a whole that there was a marked similarity in the per cents of population dry, rural and native

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598 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October white. In the distribution of these per cents for the twenty-six local option states there is a general and fairly regular fall in the per cent of population rural and native white as the per cent of population dry decreases. The prohibition and license states are added to the following summary of the full table in order to make it complete:Per cent of States. population dry. Prohibition .......... .19 100 Local option. ......... 5 75-100 7 50-75 9 25-50 5 0-25 License. .............. 3 license Per cent of population 74 73 59 45 37 40 TUd. Per cent of population 12.10. oj n.p. 60 61 54 49 44 46 Thus it would seem that urban and foreign populations were opposed to no-license legislation, probably, in the first case because of better facilities for regulation in cities together with the stronger organization of the liquor traffic, and in the second case because of early training and national custom. Notwithstanding the rapid and wide-spread gains made by no-license legislation, and in spite of the fact that the map is strikingly white, there has been a continuous increase in the per capita consumption of intoxicants. The statistical abstract of the United States census gives 4.17 gallons as the per capita consumption of all liquors in 1840. This figure rises to 16.72 gallons in 1891, 17.76 in 1900, and from 1906 to the present it hovers between 21 and 23 gallons per capita. It is interesting to note that while there was an increase of approximately six gallons per capita in the decade from 1880 to 1890, in the past twenty-six years there has been no more than a six gallon increase. This is some slight sign of a gain, but it would seem that with constantly extending no-license area and population there should be an absolute decrease in consumption. However, this is not the case, for while the population of the United States increased 350 per cent since 1850, the per capita liquor consumption increased 456 per cent. Further, while the population of the United States increased froin 76 millions in 1900 to 92 millions in 1910, or 21 per cent, the total liquor consumption increased from 1Q billions to over two billions of gallons, or 50 per cent. In this decade, then, consumption increased inore than twice as fast as population. Consequently, with the peculiar situation that the consumption of intoxicating liquors is constantly increasing concomitant with a rapidly growing area and population living under no-license lawP, we are driven to one of the following conclusions: 1. The ever decreasing'population remaining under license shows an astounding propensity to increase its liquor consumption. It is not our experience that wet sections are becoming wetter.

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19161 LOCAL OPTION IN THE UNITED STATES 599 2. Internal revenue collectors are continuing to show a slow and regular increase in eficiency in the detection of the manufacture and sale of liquor. This circumstance has probably accounted for some of the increase shown in government tables in the past, but its effect at present would seem to be a minimum. 3. The drier we become, the more liquor we consume. It is clear, therefore, that the liquor question is far from being settled. Indeed from the facts here presented it would appear that we are not even on the right road to final solution of the problem. According to the Prohibition Year Book for 1915, page 13. “The 1915 statistics show a total consumption of liquor practically equal to that of any previous year of our history. The latest available government reports show greater investments of money, and more men employed in the liquor business, and allied industries, than any statistics heretofore published. Current political history shows the traffic to be as strongly entrenched in our politics and our national government as it has ever been, and probably stronger than ever before. These facts obtain in spite of the tremendous anti-liquor agitation and the widespread movement against the saloon. ” The efforts to enforce it during forty years past have had some unlooked-for effects upon public respect for courts, judicial procedure, oaths, and law in general, and for officers of the law, legislators, and public servants. The public have seen law defied, a whole generation of habitual lawbreakers schooled in evasion and shamelessness, courts ineffective through fluctuation of policy, delays, perjuries, negligences, and other miscarriages of justice, officers of the law double-faced and mercenary, legislators timid and insincere, candidates for office hypocritical and truckling, and ofice holders unfaithful to pledges and to reasonable public expectation. Through an agitation which has always had a moral end, these immoralities have been developed and made conspicuous. ” a Furthermore, prohibition encourages the consumption of the heavier liquors which can be more easily transported. The constant agitation of the question tends to discourage reputable men from entering the business. It considers neither the necessity of substitutes for the saloon nor the problem of the gradual development of improved standards of living. It Ioolts askance at all propositions to encourage the use of lighter beverages by progressive taxation. In fine, what social development shows can only come safely and surely by a gradual process of evolution, prohibition would achieve by revolution. “What thefuturemay hold in storewe can onlyforecast from the present, and, so far, unfortunately, the promises of prohibition have far outstripped performance. Some day, no doubt, society will be ready for measurement by new standards; but until then progress is not made by adding new evils to those that now burden us. ” 4 ”resident Elliot in Introduction to Studies of Committee of Fifty. 4 John Koren, Atlantic Monthly, April, 1916. Indeed, “There have been concomitant evils of prohibitory legislation. But worst of all prohibition is wholly negative.

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STATUTORY PROVISION FOR LOCAL OPTION Time of Election I Limita. tion on mlsaon R+a+ I Unit States Block (in town or city) I wetQuaIiied electors 1. California2 2. Connecticut 3. Delaware 4. Florida 5. Illinois 1. City (icorporak 2. Town (inc'rp'r'ta 3. Supervisorial dietrictsoutaide of tom and cities Town 4 districts specified i State Const. County 6. Indiana General election if. petitioned 6 mos. to 40 days before, otherwise 30 to 60 days after filing petition Regular election (annual or biennial) :enera1 election Within 60 days of filing petition unless conflicting with state or nat'l elec. Then 60 days ahr such election kneralelection t0 to 30 days after next meeting of Co. Commiseioners Remonstrance; 10 election neww) 1. City 2. Town 3. Village 4. Precinct 2 yrs. 1 or 2 yrs. (ac cording to eke tion custom 2 yrs. 18 mas. 2 ym. 2 ym. 25% Vote at last 1. City Council election for 2. Bd. of Trustees governor 3. Legislative body o Bd. of Supervisors a the Conntv. Registered voters State assen blymen of both houa from distric in question Legislatwe body 3 mi. dryareaarouni &ldim'Home.anc University (1.000 students). State Petition klectmen state Assembly :ounty Commis. SIOIEI I I Haspital, ComtNC tion camps License in citi:! re stricted tr, effi ciently pohced psrta ' Reaidenti8 sections. Manufac turing sections 4 mi. of cburch 01 school except ir of mill, mfg. plant phasphate plant, turpentine atill t0WllS. InviChitl 10% Majority 25% 25% Rdtered Town clerk 20 days be voters fore annual town meeting Number of Generalaesembly assemblymen elected by each diatrict voters moners Registered Board of Co. Cod Vote? at last Clerk, 60 days befor, election election Slection district if majority voted dry at election by which Go. went wet .Township . City ward ~~ Registered voters Legal voters Legal voters Legal voters I 1. City (incorporated 2. Township not cot taining incorporate city 3. Part of townshi outside inc. city 20% 50% Votefor County auditor 1. Mayor 2. Sec. of State 3. sec.of Etak Leg& Countyanditor 1 sioners iegal References 400 ft. of school out side city or town . L. 1811. ch. 351, P. 599501.452 Lemig's Gen. Laws. 1914, P. 794, Sec. 2223-4 Bos, Chaps. 65,224 915. Chap. 282. Sec. 2647 tate Constitution. Art. 13 ~~ tate Constitution, Art. 19 314. Sec. 1209-1217 See. 3809 307, P. 297 312, P. 958 813. P. 306 511,5.327 (Reaction from 30. L. 0. of 1908). Ch. 148, P. 363 arnes' A. 5. 1908. 6ec. j332

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1. county a 2. City ll 3. Town 7. Kentucky ounty Judge At least 60 day after filing peti tion. Not at regular election clam except cities 2, 3, 4tl 8. Louisiana 10. Msssachusetts 1. City 2. Town 4. District 5. Precinct Precinct 1. City 2. Parish 3. Ward of parish 4. Town 5. Village icense Board 2. Town 3. Village (inc.) 4. Fourth class city Remonstrance: no elm. necessay Whenever deema newsaw by council or jury 1. County (outside 2. City (2,500 ormor city) 13. Missouri 9. Maryland larger unit ?tea wet, pref%ers l0WlY dry, mailer units I main dry county . I= voters -~ State Legislature ns. voters Ika1 -County commissioners Tard by action of city council 25% Qualied electors Qualified voters Legal voters f 25% 10 0% (at least 251 11. Michigan' 12. Minnesota 10% County 1. county ote at last &nerd :ounty auditor 'own clerk 20 days before annual town . ~. . :lection }3Zon -Monday, 40 to 6 days, after filin petition, or 30 1 40 days after re1 or prim. electic meetine Annual town General } election egal Voters meeting rown clerk 20 days before annual town meeting lualified electors rote at pre ceding elec for govern0 rote at lat city electio Regular city ele tion Voters for legislators 4 R. S. 1913, See. 3131-5 llock must petition for dramshop Voter8 for legislators When State Lep islature decidt by special act 1. co. Court 1. Legislativebody Regular annual election 40 days after pel tion. not mth 60 days of ge era1 election :ounty clerk lNext annual elm tion 1 yrs. County I Judge I -Iyr. 1. City Council 2. Police Jury 3. Police yr' I yr. Town Clerk I -1Court 00 ft. of Noms School or Univex sity 00 ft. of church c school, 3 to 5 mi. c various schools high I or 2 mi. of certai schools, reformatories and mfg. plants. Talbot Co. Sections of Baltimore I. 2,3d. licenses pr( hibited 400 ft. I school I mi. of Soldiers' Home, t mi.of cen etery. 400 ft. of church, school , residence district outside cities 5 counties hy Indii Treaty of 1855 $ mi. of dry town 1,mi. of camp met 912, Ch. 3 914. Ch. 13, Secs. 2554-9 915, Vol. 1, Carroll's Ch. 81, P. Statutes 1309 t. L., Vol. 1, P. 602 Vol. 3, P. 879 3. L. 1912. P. 775, 1168, 1256,235,733 1914, P. 840. 944, 1011 R. L.. Ch. 100, Sec. 10 Supplement, P. 81, 767 3. L. 1899. P. 275 1909, P. 685 Aowell's Stats.. V. 2, Ch. 84. See. 5017-94 Seo. 8409 1. S. L. 1915, Ch. 23, S. F. 77 R. S. 1909. Ch. 63, Art. 111 1998, Sec. 2997 R. S., See. 4717 681

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STATUTORY PROVISION FOR LOCAL OPTION-Cmtinued I I I State Unit Subdivisions Qualifieationl of Signers Laws Prohibiting Tr:k 3$iCiaI Areaax Legal References 14. Montana' 15. Nebraska' County Qualified voters 1. City 10,000 or Freeholders 2. Village }or leas and voters I I 20. mode Island 30 15% Petition Fg2izr1 Basisof 1 Filing Required per Cent Excise boar& or counRegularmunicipal 1 yr. Corporate cils 30 days before election authorielection ties Voters -___ Regular 1.4 pa. election 2. 2 Yrs. petition but not Commis. mi. of incorporated city or village (except in Douglas co.) mi. of construction camp 4 mi. of U. S. Military Post Comp. Stat., See. 4245 StakConat., lnitia ive and S. L. 1913, Initiative and p5a Referendum Referendum Highest no. Localauthorities Bet. 1 and 2 mw. 4 yrs. of votes after Miug petireed. by any tion; not within 2 candidate at mcm. of any other last election election voters after filing tion; not witE% mcm. of any other election preceding days before reg. town meeting election meeting Qualified Co. Commissioners Bet. 1 and 2 mcm. 4 ym. -Votes at last With town clerk 20 Biennial town 2 yrs. Qualified Township Trustees Special election 2 yrs. 18. New Hampahire 17. New Mexico I electors 2 ym. election 3. Larger cities (by Voters Initiative and Referendum) 1. City 2. Town 1. Municipality (inc.) Qualified By proclamation County Commis moners -___ Town clerk -___ Township Trustees City Council None n Villages of less than 100 inhabitank CTithin 2 mi. of dry city I I 1913, Ch. 75 1913. S. B. 212 Codification 1915, %CS. 292748. 2876, 2889 2. Co,Fty ,(outaide mmcipahty) ndian reservations, Rev. Codes, 1907. Sec. 5mi.ofcamp,mine. 2041-9 ouarrv. 1 mi. of Laws 1907. Ch. 65. &x. voters District of Co. Qualified designated by voters Go. CommieSlOUerS o'amp-'meeting, 4 717 ' mi. of park, 1,OOO ft. of cemetery I 00 cept yds. in city of fair of 150,ex000 or more 1910, Ch. 485 school 18. New York' 19. Ohio Town Qualified voters 1. Tomhip (outride Qualified municipalities) electors 2. Municipalities Qnalified electors 3. Regidence Qualied , Districts electors mi. of todip park 4 mi. of Soldiers' Home 00 ft. of school Gen. Code, 6ee. 6119-26 612740 614&G8 1914. Ch. 1042, P. 58

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21. Sonth Dakota* 22. Texss 1. City 2. Town 3. Township 1. County 2. Co,mmiesioner'a or Justice's Precinct 3. School district 4. Two or more dis 5, City 6. Town tricts of co. County Commissioners County Commissioners County Commissioners -______ 15 to 30.days after 2 ym. County order 2yrs. county Zyrs. County 300 ft. of church c Commimoners' C'm'rs Ct. srhool C'm'mCt. C'm'rsCt. Legal freeholder voters Small divisions may vote immediately after larger has voted wet Voters Voters Voters Voters Voters Voters Registered Registered Registered voters voters voters vote for governor at last elect'n Voters County Commissioners ~yrs. COunty County Commissioners 2yrs. County County Commissioners C'm'rsCt. C'm'rs Ct. C'm'ra Ct. ZVS. County IEgistered voters kgistered voters legistered voters -___ City recorder Tom clerk Last Tuesday in 2 yrs. Board of County clerk 60 to 120 Last Tuesday in 2 yrs. Last Tuesday in 2 m. City Coun5 mi. of constructic June cil camp or dry town June Trustees Bd. of Co. C'm'rs -___ days before election June Annualtom lur. 200 ft. of church ( 25 23. Utah' 250 50 50 50 10% 10% 1. City (1.2.3d clam 2. Town (inc.) 3. County (outside c city or town) 10% 507" 24. Vermont 25. Wisoonsin Clerk or auditor, 30 Annual municipal 1 yr. days before election election I ii 1. Town 2. Wet town (to detei mine kind of license: 1. City 2. Town 3. Village construction cam1 4 mi. of college c academy, 2t mi. c drv citv or town 'otesforgovernor at last election _____ Clerk, 10 days before let Tuesday in 1 yr. Clerk 2 mi of Veteran 3200ft. of StateUn On or before May 1 None versity 1st Tuesday in April April k0,k 1 yr. -___ Municipal 1OOOft. of militiael council campment option All rural districts None 4. Dry hiddence District (100 to 750 electors) Qualified electors 2 mi. of state lin t,nmnahin 28. Wyoming 1. City 2. Town (inc.) 915, Sec. 2856, Ch. 227 905, Ch. 122 907, Ch. 177 909. Ch. 203 hyles' Civil Statutes, Art 5715-30, P. 3862 1913, Ch. 79 and 81 1911, P. 152-176. Ch. 106 (913, Sees. 5104-10 5122 1913, Sec. 1565 a-d 1565 g-h 1910,Sec. 1578 (11) 1910. Sec. 2833 1 Tra5c prohibited in all Indian Fkervations. 2 Califoma. Michipan, Montana, Nebraska, South Dakota to vote on State prohibition in November, 1916. :Four questions nubmitted to determine kind of license. if any. *First election mandatory in citiea and towns. County dry till voted wet.

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MUNICIPAL BONDS OVER THE COUNTER AND IN SMALL DENOMINATIONS BY ARTHUR P. CHAPIN’ Boston MOST peculiar juice is human blood,” says Satan in Goethe’s Faust. This continually appears in the various eccentricities of A human nature in all matters of life, but it especially appears in the peculiarity displayed in the care and investment of money. The man or woman who works early and late, denying himself or herself all but the very necessities of life, when a little hard earned money has been laid aside, will so often put it into some butterfly investment that looks attractive and lives for a short time and then is gone. When the “Provident Institution for Savings in the Town of Boston” was chartered just 100 years ago,-t-he first institution for savings granted the right to do business by any legislative body in the world,-its object was “TO aid and assist the poorer and middling classes of society in employing their money to advantage, without running the risk of losing it, as they are too frequently exposed to do by lending it to individuals, who either fail or defraud them.” In other words, the people who deposited their money with this institution could have the benefit of the expert advice of men who had become trained in the care and investment of money without any charge or expense arising for the service performed. Experience has shown that certain classes of investments are safer than others and actual results are more conclusive than any theories. The actual losses sustained by 189 representative financial institutions of New England over a period of 15 years as compiled from their official reports, showed on a.n investment of $503,000,000 as follows: SAFETY OF MUNICIPAL BONDS Losses on government, state and municipal bonds ....... Losses on railroad and public service corporation bonds. . Losses on real estate and real estate loans. .............. Losses on loans to individuals, firms and corporations. ... Losses on bank stocks. ............................... Losses on miscellaneous items. ........................ Total losses in fifteen years. .......................... Total loss per annum.. ............................... $2,693 24,571 2,185,925 3,06 1,144 1,845,123 118,448 57,237,904 482,527 These figures look large and show the great risk of investing money. The average annual loss was $482,527, or about 96 cents on each $1,000. ’Mr. Chapin writes out of an abundant experience. From 1899 to 1904 he was mayor of Holyoke, Mass.; from 1905 to 1909 he was treasurer of Massachusetts; from 1910 to 1912, bank commissioner of Massachusetts and since that date he has been vice-president of the American Trmt Company, Boston.-EDrTOR 604

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1916 MUNICIPAL BONDS OVER THE COUNTER 605 In other words, the investment of institutional funds in New England, under the restrictions of conservative and well-framed laws, shows an average loss of less than one-tenth of one per cent per annum. The average amounts in round numbers in each class of investment were as follows: Government, state and municipal bonds ................ $77,000,000 Railroad and public service corporation bonds ........... 71,000,000 Real estate and real estate loans. ....................... 220,000,000 Loans to individuals, firms and corporations ............ 103,000,000 Bank stocks ......................................... 23,000,000 Miscellaneous items .................................. 9,000,000 The losses per annum for each $1,000 invested in the various classes were as follows: Losses on government, state and municipal bonds. ...... $0.0023 Losses on railroad and public service corporation bonds. . 0.0230 Losses on reai.estate and real estate loans. 0.6624 Losses on loans to individuals, firms, and corporations. .. 1.8480 Losses on bank stocks. ............................... 5.3480 Losses on miscellaneous items. ........................ 0.8774 In the opinion of the writer these figures are impressive and important in that they tend to show: 1. That losses during this period resulting from investments in government, state and municipal bonds were infinitesimal, amounting to but a small fraction of one cent a year on $1,000. 2. That losses resulting from investments in railroad and public service corporation bonds were also so small as to be entirely negligible, amounting, in fact, to about the price of a postage stamp each year on one thousand dollars. As this was before the attack on the credit of railroads the per cent figures in this class of investments would not show so well now. 3. That losses on real estate and real estate loans amounted to about three hundred times the losses on government, state and municipal bonds and about thirty times the losses on railroad and public service corporation bonds. 4. That losses on loans to individuals, firms and corporations amounted to about one-fifth of one per cent per annum, or about eight hundred times the losses on government, state and municipal bonds and about eighty times the losses on railroad and public service corporation bonds. 5. That losses on bank stock amount5d to about one-half of one per cent per annum. .............. Several facts should be considered in connection with these figures. Included in the fifteen-year period is the depression of 1893, when many losses were incurred through business failures, bank failures, and shrinkage in the value of foreclosed real estate. It is also fair to point out that the appreciation in value of bank stocks since that period has offset the losses that were incurred through failures. Depreciation in bond values has not been taken into consideration on the assumption that the bonds have been or will be paid at par at maturity. Moreover, it must be borne

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606 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October in mind that the income return on municipal bonds is lower on the average than that of the other classes of securities. Consequently, relatively smaller losses were to be expected than in securities returning a higher yield. The return from municipal bonds is lower because experience has shown that the principal is safer and it might be well for municipalities to impress that fact on all its citizens and print at the head of its advertisements and on the face of its bonds “safety first.” SALES OF SMALL DENOMINATIONS The tendency of the present time is to put this class of investments within the reach of people of small savings. Formerly it was necessary to lay aside $1,000 before it was possible to become the owner of a municipal bond, but it is now being appreciated more and more that the benefits of the $100 bond are twofold,-it enables the citizen of small means to loan money to the city or town for the use of its schools, streets and parks, thus giving him an investment that is absolutely safe, and gives him a greater interest in the affairs of the local government, because he has a greater interest in seeing that the money he loans is not wasted, but is expended to the best advantage. The inore interest people take in the affairs of their own city or town, the better government they will have. It will therefore prove an advantage to the city or town to issue its bonds in small denominations and thus making a broader market for their sale will be able to sell them more advantageously. They can go much farther than they have in the past in impressing upon the citizens the advantages of loaning money to the city or town,-safety to the citizen, broader market for the holder. The extra expense of issuing bonds in small amounts is not great enough to offset the advantages that will accrue. SALES OVER THE COUNTER The issuing of bonds in small denominations does not mean however that the state or city or town should go into the business of selling bonds at retail or “over the counter.” When money is borrowed by a state or city or town, it is to be used for some immediate public purpose! and is wanted substantially at one time and in considerable amounts. In order to obtain this money at one time, it has been customary to sell the bonds at wholesale and let private bankers or a syndicate of bankers take the expense and annoyance and risk of changing money conditions by selling them at retail. This requires a good distributing organization to bring the bonds to the notice of those who have money to invest and sufficient time to distribute them. It frequently happens that it is necessary to carry some of the bonds a considerable time and then on account of changing money conditions sell them at a loss.

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19161 MUNICIPAL BONDS OVER THE COUNTER 607 RESULTS OF EXPERIENCE The results of experience of those who have tried selling bonds at retail by the state or city or town has not been sufficiently successful to be adopted as a permanent plan. Massachusetts in 1914 asked for bids for $6,325,000 of serial bonds and received bids therefor. Then the treasurer and receiver general rejected a11 the bids. Re-advertisements at a heavy expense were made all over the state and a so-called “over the counter ” sale proceeded, which lasted during a period of three months with the extra time and expense involved, and when the matter was closed no incidental benefit to the state in the way of increased price resulted. The sale was not a popular success in any way as the small purchasers did not come forward and the issue was left on the treasurer’s hands and he had to be helped out by large purchases of brokers and banks to complete the proposition. This will be shown by the figures below. Out of the $6,325,000 there were issued: 179 $100 bonds, amounting to. ......................... $17,900 18 200 bonds, amounting to. ......................... 3,600 11 300 bonds, amounting to,. ........................ 3,300 8 400 bonds, amounting to.. ........................ 3,200 86 500 bonds, amounting to.. ........................ 43,000 2 600 bonds, amounting to.. ........................ 1 , 200 1 700 bond, amounting to. ......................... 700 1 800 bond, amounting to. ......................... 800 4 900 bonds, amounting to. ......................... 3,600 377,000 377 1,000 bonds, amounting to .......................... Atotalof ......................... $454,300 The contention of the state treasurer at that time was that the purchasers had been saved $50,000 in commissions to brokers, which was true; but these commissions were not saved to small purchasers as the beneficiaries were principally banks, large individual trustees, and brokers, who afterwards turned the bonds in the same way the originaI syndicate would have turned them. Therefore, the contention that this was a popular sale is not borne out, and, if all items of expense were included, it would be found that, in view of the incidental expenses connected with conducting this method, it resulted in a decrease in the price that the state received in the long run. There were many incidents in connection with the sale that were of interest. In particular, many people applied to the state treasurer’s office in the expectation that the bonds would be issued at par, and when they found that they would have to withdraw their money from savings banks at 4 per cent, or investments at 5 per cent or more, and receive a bond which would only net them 3.583, there was much dissatisfaction and in many cases no interest taken further in such an investment, The balance of the loan was in large blocks.

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608 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October although it was entirely safe; and while an attempt was made to have the public approve of the sale at the next state election, the treasurer who conducted it was defeated for re-election, so even as a political factor it failed to attract public approval. Boston held a sale of its municipal bonds over the counter in 1907, having failed to receive offers for any large amount of bonds in response to advertisements asking for bids. One million dollar 4 per cent twentyand thirty-year registered bonds, in denominations of $1,000, and multiples thereof were thus offered at par, no limit being placed on the amount one might purchase. The sale could hardly be called successful, the demand for the bonds was at no time brisk, and more than three months had elapsed before all the bonds offered had been disposed of. Chicago, on the other hand, since July I, 1915, has sold $2,750,000 Chicago twenty-year 4 per cent serial gold bonds, and the comptroller considers the sale a decided success. Topeka, Kansas, appears to have gone into this question more systematically than any other municipality. The American City says in its July issue : Kansas municipal bonds have proved to be an attractive investment for shopmen, clerks, professional men, merchants and business men generally. This is due partly to the fact that municipal bonds in Kansas are non-taxable; but it is due even more to the plan introduced by W. H. Wasson, commissioner of finance and revenue, by which the bonds are sold. Under the previous system Topeka’s bonds were offered in large blocks to Eastern buyers. They bear 44 per cent interest and are sold at par. The distribution of the bonds to the buyers is done through co-operation of the city with some bank or trust company, which has charge of handling them. The city draws 2 per cent per annum on the daily bank balances. By issuing the bonds in installments the money is secured as needed by the city in carrying on its various phases of municipal endeavor. The aim is to distribute bonds among people in and about Topeka first, care being taken to see that the small investors are supplied before those who wish to subscribe for large amounts. Persons who purchase Topeka’s bonds naturally take a keener interest than they otherwise would in the city’s affairs. This makes them better citizens. Commissioner Wasson also points out the fact that by selling the city bonds to the home folks the money is kept in Topeka. When a coupon is paid or a bond is redeemed, a resident gets the money, and in the latter case he will usually be ready to buy another bond with it. While the possibility of a sale over the counter may act as n safeguard against a combination of bankers or brokers being formed to make a bid that will be to the disadvantage of the municipality, as such a possibility may be taken advantage of at any time, still as a matter of policy I believe it is for the best interests of all concerned to have state and municipal bonds sold at public sale to the highest bidder at one time Now the bonds are issued in installments.

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19161 MUNICIPAL BONDS OVER THE COUNTER GO9 rather than to attempt to retail the bonds over the counter. The selling price of municipal bonds will be determined by the money rate at the time each series of bonds is issued. If Topeka issues 4$ per cent bonds at the present time, and they have twenty years before maturity, they should sell in the open market at a premium of about $G5 on each $1,000 bond. A citizen of Topeka or a banking house could buy these bonds at par and sell them at a premium and the taxpayers would lose $65,000 on a bond sale of $1,000,000. In other words, the city would sometimes sell its bonds at a loss or lower than the prevailing rate for money, as human nature is the same in Topeka as elsewhere, and if the citizens can buy the bonds and sell them outside the city at a profit, they will do so, as sentiment will amount to very little in a business transaction of this nature. Any city will get a better price for its bonds in the long run where it is able to have them distributed over a larger market than is possible in any single municipality. If bonds are sold in a block to the highest bidder rather than at retail, the purchaser will be more careful as to the legality of the issue than individual purchasers would be. The mere fact that a municipality offers bonds for sale after being voted by the legislative body, does not make them legal obligations of the city or town, and one criticism of bonds issued by certain Canadian cities is that they have issued bonds to pay for moving manufacturing plants within their own borders and for other reasons that might not be considered strictly a public purpose, which is the real test of the legality of a municipal bond. After bonds are legally issued they should be made as attractive to the purchaser as possible. While appearance does not add to the strength of the bond it makes it more attractive. Many people have purchased bonds on account of their looks, only to find their only value was the paper they were printed on. Municipal bonds should be well made to look at in order to attract by their beauty as well as by their strength. They should also be as convenient as possible. Some investors desire registered bonds on account of their safety, as a registered bond if lost or stolen, can be replaced, while a coupon bond lacks that element of safety. On the other hand, coupon bonds can be sold and transferred more easily without delay, annoyance or red tape often required of registered bonds, so many investors prefer coupon bonds. It is well, therefore, for a municipality to issue both registered or coupon bonds and give the purchaser the choice. The fact that municipal bonds are not subject to the national income tax, and in most states are not subject to state taxation, is quite an inducement to investors who wish to be free of the annoyance caused by making returns in connection with taxation. It is well also to issue bonds in serial form in order that the purchaser may have the benefit of short or long maturities, as he may wish. There was for5

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610 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October merly a prejudice against serial bonds, but now it is well established that in addition to the risk of investing a sinking fund which the long term bonds entail, the serial bonds also require the municipality to follow the “pay as you go” policy, a decided advantage to municipalities as well as to individuals. In connection with the security of municipal bonds, it is well to bear in mind that in most states they are a first lien on the property of the citizens. In Massachusetts, if they are not paid when due, the houses or other private property of the citizens can be sold to pay the debt. It often happens that a treasurer who is inexperienced in financial affairs does not appreciate the importance of having the principal and interest on municipal bonds paid at some financial center as well as locally. If the payment is only made locally it interferes with their sales to large savings banks and investors who wish to collect their interest without paying exchange charges and without the delay incident to a local collection. This prevents a municipality from getting the highest price for the bonds. In conclusion, it is well for the investor to remember that municipal bonds are a safe investment, and from the point of view of the municipality, they should be made as attractive as possible so that the citizens will loan their money to the city more readily and thus take a greater interest in its affairs.

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ELECTION REFORMS BY CLINTON ROGERS WOODRUFF Philadelphia WO articles dealing with election reforms, and Charles Seymour’s monumental work on “Election Reform in England and Wales”’ came to my desk just at the time I had been giving careful consideration to the election laws of Pennsylvania, incident to a further effort to improve them, and to put a stop to such remaining practices as were jeopardizing fair elections, and therefore an honest expression of public opinion. There has been a great, yes, a very great improvement in our election laws within the memory of the present generation. Many of the practices which went far to justify Lord Bryce’s criticism of American democracy and which were accepted quite as a matter of fact, have been eliminated, or so largely abated as to be negligible quantities. While direct primaries have their own peculiar troubles and difficulties, it must not be forgotten that they have done away with the corruptly controlled and juggled conventions which were a stench in the nostrils of decent, and even semi-decent people; and while much remains to be done to free them of serious objection, there is no serious proposal to go back to the much worse evils of the systems they supplanted. Many students of the problem believe that the remedy lies in shortening the ballot, so that the voter will not be overburdened, not to say overwhelmed when he comes to discharge his annual or semi-annual duty in the selection of public officers. I think it may be said with a large measure of confidence that public opinion is pretty generally agreed on the short ballot: Those who are working for improvement and progress are agreed upon its importance and necessity. Those who are in favor of maintaining the status quo, and that includes all the practical politicians, are agreed that many special privileges would disappear if the ballot were shortened to the requirements of the situation. This very agreement will make the battle a long and bitter one, but of the result there should be no doubt among those who have studied the past. In many communities the personal registration of electors has become an accomplished fact, bringing about a great improvement in that direction. In many cities where such laws have been enforced there has been a practical cleaning up of the lists of voters and the frauds incident to old conditions have disappeared. The Australian ballot has been a great gain in that it makes the printing and publishing of the ballot, official acts, and in that it gives a good arrangement; but so long as we insist upon thrusting on the elector the duty of choosing long lists of candidates and officials, just so long are we 611 T 1 Published by the Yale University Press. $2.50 net.

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612 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October likely to have with us the twin evils of the party circle or square (by means of which straight party voting is made easy, and almost inevitable) and the assistance clause (by means of which the ignorant or indifferent voter is controlled). Dr. Millspaugh’s article which follows shows the evils and extent of a partisan control in Detroit, and what exists there it may be assumed to exist in many other places. “Government by Controlled Precincts” is the title of a leaflet issued by the Detroit citisens’ league,2 giving names and places where the control is exercised, and how it is exercised. It should be read in conjunction with Dr. Millspaugh’s article, not only because it complements it; but because it shows in concrete form some of the other electoral needs of that city, which in so many ways has done so much that is worth while, but which in the important matters of charter and electoral reforms is lagging far behind. THE DETROIT PROGRAM A very excellent program has been proposed by the citizens’ league, which is devoting a large part of its time, means and energy to a solution of this phase of Detroit’s problems. It appears in full in a recent issue of the Civic Searchlight (March, 191 6), the league’s monthly publication. In view of its experience (I with the common council in an effort to persuade that body to investigate charges of the most flagrant character against ‘Batty’ McGraw’s election board, it has been decided not to trust them to submit the proposed amendment voluntarily, but immediately to begin the circulation of petitions to force a vote upon this at the time of the primary election on August 29. The main features of the proposed amendment are as follows: 1. A city election commission is created, consisting of the city clerk, corporation counsel, president of the civil service commission, record and senior police justice. (It would have been preferable to have a commission appointed by the circuit judges as is done in Chicago, but our state constitution forbids the making of appointments of this nature by the circuit judges, and the foregoing is considered the best plan that can be devised which will be legal.) 2. This commission is authorized to appoint three registrars for ceah voting district, to have charge of the registration of voters and to act as inspectors of election on election day. They are required to be persons of good moral character, to be physically capable of performing the work required of them, and must pass an examination as to their mental qualifications. No person holding any other political position is eligible to appointment. 3. The commission is also authorized to appoint three inspectors of election with similar qualifications. These names are drawn from the city at large, placed in a box and drawn in the same manner as the drawing of jurors. The first three drawn are assigned to the first precinct of * Free Press Building, Detroit

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19161 ELECTION REFORMS 613 the first ward, the second three to the second precinct of the first ward, and so on consecutively throughout the various wards and votingzdistricts of the city. 4. The commission has general supervision of all elections with full power to prevent fraud and corruption, to purge the registration books of any names of persons who are not qualified voters, to remove any inspector or registrar for cause, and to cause the prosecution of any person who violates the law. 5. The commission is also given general supervision of registration of voters and will provide effective means for eliminating the ‘cemetery vote’ from the registration books, an easier means of registering and transferring in case of removals and other similar conditions. 6. The commission is required to reduce the size of the voting precincts so that there will not be more than 500 voters in any district, thereby avoiding the long line-up of voters just before the closing of the polls and other similar evils. 7. The members of the city election commission, all being officials of the city, are not permitted to draw any salary for services rendered by them in this connection. The registrars and inspectors will receive the same salary as at present.’ Incidentally, it is interesting to note the larger program of the league for which it is working. While some of its features deal with questions of charter reform, in a large way all may be considered as questions of electoral reform, for the latter has to do with the second basis of good city government as defined by the citizens’ league. Under the head of “Ten city charter essentials” the league declares in the Civic Searchlight (March, 1916, issue) that “Good city government is based on two things: Centering of power permitting business to be done, or effciency and control by the voters, insuring that business be done for the pubIic interest, or democracy. (A) Power centered (1) in a single council of five, executive as well as legislative, (2) in each member as head of a department; (B) Control by the voters secured through (prior to election) (3) a short ballot, permitting intelligent voting, (4) preferential voting, selection as well as election by the voters, (5) election at large, control by all the voters, (After election) (6) the referendum, voters’ veto for misrepresentative acts, (7) the initiative, voters’ power to compel desired acts, (8) the recaZl, voters’ earlier replacement of a bad official, (9) publicity, of meetings, etc., involving simple rules of procedure; (10) appointments subject to the merit system. 1 By a recent vote the amendments abolishing the old-time precinct elections and providing for a new city election commission were adopted.

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614 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October Selection by the voters involves: (1) voters’ freedom of choice of candidates, secured through, (a) the candidate’s of getting on the final election ballot, independent (b) the candidate’s freedom from large election expense and from (2) election of the candidate actually supported by the Eargest number of (a) the voter’s second and other choices where no candidate secures a (b) the voter’s ease of ‘choice due to a single election.” This program shows how important in city government is the need for clean, decent elections, a short ballot, and simplified election machinery, just as does the “election reform” plat.form of the St. Louis civic league: of boss or party, abuse by rival candidates; voters, secured through, ma,jority of first choices, THE ST. LOUIS PROGRAM Proposals for reform in the present method of nominating and electing: 1. A new method of nominating and electing the St. Louis school board. 2. Provisions for electing municipal officers in St. Louis on a nonpartisan ticket, with nomination by petition instead of by primary. 3. Provisions for electing officers by preferential voting. 4. Provisions for electing the new St. Louis board of aldermen through the method of proportional representation. 5. Submission of a constitutional amendment removing the present disability in the method of organizing the legislative body of St. Louis. 6. Changes in the machinery of registration and election to promote efficiency and economy. 7. Granting increased power to the board of election. Commissioners in the conduct of elections and in the appointment of election officials. 8. A stronger corrupt practices act regulating the expenditure of money in campaigns and prohibiting certain forms of electioneering. 9. Appointment of a commission by the governor to bring order out of the present patch-work of Missouri election laws. Mr, Warner’s article on “A New Systeni of Election for St. Louis” which follows Dr. Millspaugh’s, describes what it is proposed to do in that city at the election in November (1916). An election commission was appointed to revise the election laws of the state. It reported to the last legislature, but the laws were not passed. They seldom are when first suggested, because of the inertia of the status quo, and the opposition of political organizations, who do not like change. They contain elements of danger that politicians would just as leave not face; certainly not until they are compelled by public opinion to do so. The successful election reformer as a rule is the one who can most effectively bring public opinion to bear upon the law makers. There are notable and honorable exceptions to this rule. For instance, several years ago it was possible to persuade the influential political powers of the state of Pennsylvania that

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19161 ELECTION REFORMS 615 it would be a desirable change to have annual elections, and to separate local elections from state and national elections, and a series of constitutional amendments to effect this end were passed by two successive legislatures and approved by the voters. ELECTED ELECTION OFFICERS Joined with these amendments was another which made it possible to substitute appointive for elective election officers, for Philadelphia has the great boon of a constitutional requirement that the judges and inspector of elections shall be elected by the sovereign people! This change which was dictated alike by the demands of a short ballot and of efficiency was defeated, however, by a group of reformers who maintained that the fundamental principles of democracy were being violated by abolishing the provision of an elective election board! and by a faction of the dominant political organization who maintained that much more satisfactory results (to it) could be obtained by elections, than through appointments by reliable and responsible officials. A further effort in this behalf is to be made at the next session of the legislature. At the same time a renewed effort will be made to repeal that clause of the ballot law which makes it possible for a voter to seek outside assistance in the marking of his ballot. Under the present law nothing further is needed than a formal request for help and in many districts-the controlled districts, to borrow the apt designation of Detroit-a refusal to ask for assistance is regarded as a mark of independence which sooner or later results in reprisals and publishment. I am informed that in South Philadelphia the dominant political factors show their -interest by the amount of assistance they demand shall be given. If they “go the limit” for a ticket that means that assistance is thrust upon every possible voter, whether desired or not; whereas if their interest is only formal, they only give such assistance as may be normally asked for without pressure. According to the committee of seventy in Philadelphia: ASSISTANCE OF VOTERS The existence of this evil had not been thoroughly understood by the public at large until the investigation of the election of 1909, which was made by the committee. At this election, the evidence collected by the committee showed that in Philadelphia not less than 38,000 ballots had been marked by some person other than the voter, and as we contended, and still maintain, in violation of the law. The law, however, as it stands to-day is very unsatisfactory, and partly on account of its vagueness, although not entirely so, the. commi tee was unable to secure convictions although the clearest possible evidence had been collected and presented. Votes deposited by persons who allow others to mark their ballots in the voting compartment are in most cases purchased votes; in others they are the votes of persons who are too indifferent to give the slightest attention to the form of the ballot or how to mark it. In

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616 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October other cases, and this is quite a large number, they are the votes of pffice holders or other persons subject to intimidation by a corrupt political machine, who are afraid to refuse to allow a representative of the voting compartment to see that they vote in its interest. Since the enactment of the personal registration law, and its enforcement with the assistance of the committee, certain forms of ballot fraud previously common have been substantially eliminated. The last resource of political machines in recent years has been the so-called “ assistance to voters.” By means of this pretence they have been able to secure large numbers of bribed and intimidated votes which are in no proper sense votes at all. The amendment forbids any person to accompany a voter into a voting compartment on any pretext whatever, unless the voter is physically unable to mark his ballot and has made a written affidavit to that effect. Severe penalties are provided against the judge of election who permits any illegal assistance, against the voter who permits it, and against any person who gives it. THE PARTY SQUARE This same committee has urged a further reform originally urged by the Pennsylvania ballot reform association (which was also the original sponsor of the plan to eliminate the objectionable assistance clause), namely,. to abolish the party square. Concerning this pressing issue the committee says : This proposed revision of the ballot law eliminates from the ballot the party squares and requires a voter to make a mark in the square opposite the name of each candidate for whom he wishes to vote, except that he may vote by one cross mark for an entire group of Presidential electors. It also shortens and simplifies the ballot by having but one square at the right of the name of each candidate instead of a series of squares, one corresponding to each party which has nominated that candidate. This would make our ballot substantially in the form commonly known as the “Massachusetts ballot” which is based upon a principle fundamentally sound, that is, each voter should not only be given an opportunity, but should be compelled to exercise his individual judgment in the selection of each candidate. Those who favor the retention of the party square on the ballot urge that a voter who is a member of a political party should be permitted in a convenient manner to vote for all the candidates of that party. This is on the theory that the candidates of his party have been carefully selected by persons competent to judge, and that owing to the number of candidates, he would probably not be able to exercise an intelligent judgment in any event, except that which he exercises in choosing the party which he will support. Put briefly, this argument is that a voter should be allowed to shift the responsibility for the selection of candidates whom he will support from himself to the political party of which he is a member. The argument is clearly made for the benefit of the indifferent or incompetent voter, and tends to increase both indifference and incompetence. But a voter should not be permitted thus to escape his responsibility. If he is required to mark the name of each candidate for whom he votes, he must at least give the matter that amount of attention, and if in

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19161 ELECTION REFORMS 617 advance he is aware that he must do this he will be compelled at least to learn who the candidates are, or be entirely at sea when he endeavors to vote. The change, therefore, is in the interest of demanding the attention of the voter. The arguments on the other side clearly outweigh any merit, if any be admitted, in the argument above referred to. A voter who is indifferent and who has not given thought to the candidates or studied the form of the ballot is very apt to mark the straight tickets not only because he prefers to rely upon the judgment of the party leaders who have engineered the. nominations, but also because he is afraid of spoiling his ballot by an inaccurate mark. This danger will be substantially lessened by eliminating the party square and simplifying the ballot as above stated. Moreover, under the proposed change there is no difference between the act of the voter in marking a straight ticket and marking a split ticket. His act is the same in either case; consequently, if he really wishes to vote a split ticket he may do it just as readily as he may a straight ticket. Thus absolute quality of voting is secured, and, what is of benefit to any community, particularly large cities, independence in voting is promoted. There is another argument which is of great importance. It is a matter of common knowledge that droves of ignorant voters are taken to the polling places by corrupt political leaders in many parts of large cities, and induced to cast their votes by improper means. This vote will not be entirely eliminated by the change in the form of the ballot, but the dangers of it will be greatly lessened. Even under a proper law securing secrecy in voting an ignorant voter can be shown how to mark a straight ticket, but he cannot be shown how to mark each candidate so easily or so successfully. In other words, if the voter has not enough discrimination to determine for himself the names of those whom he desires to support, his vote is likely to be lost. This is as it should be. The companion bill is intended to meet the contingency provided by the simplification of the official ballot. Under the ballot as it stands at present, there is a place for a separate cross-mark opposite the name of each party, although several may have nominated the same candidate; thus, if there is only one candidate for judge and he is nominated by seven different parties, there is a separate square for each party, with the result that seven lines on the ballot are taken up, making the ballot very long and cumbersome. The object of this is that it may be known how many votes were cast for this candidate under the name of each party. It is proposed to place the names of all the parties following the name of the candidate, so that it may be known by which parties he is nominated, but to have only one squafe for a cross-mark; it therefore cannot be known how many votes have been cast for the candidate under each party name. The present test of the right of a party to have its name upon the official ballot is the vote cast at the last election. Some other method will now have to be devised. A bill has therefore been drawn which proposes td make the test the vote cast by the party at the preceding primary. This seems a fair and reasonable test, because if a party has any real per

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618 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October manency it will have candidates in the field at a primary, and no parties will be eliminated which have any substantial following. It will also have the effect of promoting the vote at the primary, which is to be desired. The committee on election laws of the commonwealth club of California has been considering for months the problems presented by the municipal elections in California. Since 1908 the cities of that state have generally adopted the plan of securing majority elections through the system of primary and general elections. Unless some candidate receives an absolute majority at the primary election the race is confined to the two standing highest in the primary for each position to be filled. The system has accomplished the purpose sought, to prevent the election of a minority candidate through the division of the majority between two or more candidates. It has, however, according to the club’s committee, brought in its train very considerable burdens to the candidates and to the taxpayers. “It has doubled the length of the campaign, increased the cost of the campaign to candidates, has placed on the public treasury the cost of two campaigns, and has burdened the voters so that large numbers omit to vote at one or the other election.” The committee therefore has devised a system which consolidates primary and general elections into one. Instead of permitting a voter to express a first choice at a primary election, and a second choice at the general election, in case his candidate is eliminated at the primary election, the committee rerommends a ballot which will permit the voter to express his first, second and third choice at the same election. The system preserves the principle of majority elections, and eliminates the expense of the double election and the long campaign. Then the committee recommends the nomination system used in the San Francisco charter, except that it calls for inore data with regard to the candidate than is demanded under the existing law. The candidate is required to give with his declaration of candidacy, his name, address, occupation, previom occupation, date and place of birth, years of continued residence in San Francisco, whether married or single, and what public office, if any, held. The San Francisco requirement of not less than ten or more than twenty sponsors who shall certify to the mental, moral and physical qualifications of the candidate is accepted in lieu of the longer petitions required by most charters. It has been found that the system of sponsors does not bring out a larger number of candidates than the petition system, and saves a great deal of labor and expense. This certainly is the case in Great Britain where elections are never overburdened, although access to the ballot is of the simplest character. A system of ofi.cia1 pamphlets such as is now in use in San Francisco is recommended to be compulsory on all candidates. Each candidate is to be required to pay to the registrar $20.00 on filing his declaration of

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19161 ELECTION REFORMS candidacy and will have printed in the official pamphlet all the data contained in his declaration of candidacy. He may file any additional statement he desires, one hundred words without extra charge, and further statement not exceeding three hundred words in all, at an additional fee of $10 for each additional hundred words. A reduction in the number of election officers to four in each precinct is also recommended by the committee. These are to receive the ballots, seal the ballot box on the closing of the polls, and transmit the sealed ballots immediately to the registrar of voters. The opening of the ballot boxes and the counting of the ballots is to be done by the registrar in a public place in the presence of bystanders. Candidates receiving a majority of first choice votes for any o%.ce shall be elected. If no one receives a majority of first choice votes, the second choice are added. If any candidate then has a majority by adding second or third choice votes, the one receiving the highest vote shall be elected. A system is also recommended for conducting a recall election, in order that a majority candidate may be elected at a single election instead of conducting two elections. The committee further recommends amendment of the “purity of elections” act to limit election expenditures to a sum not exceeding one year’s salary, to provide for a strict accounting for expenditures, and to protect candidates against solicitation for contributions. In November this new plan will be submitted to the voters of San Francisco (on initiative petitions), and is to be incorporated in the new charter of Alameda and will no doubt be utilized as the basis of a law for all California cities at the next session of the California legislature. Electoral Reform in England and Wales” in which the constant advance toward democracy in elections in those coininunities is described in great and encouraging detail. In Mr. Seymour’s words “the continual transfer, bit by bit, of electoral power from the land-owning class and the commercial plutocracy to the masses, becomes inevitably the Zeit motif of the whole movement.” The book is suggestive and encouraging because it shows what can be accomplished under circumstances of the greatest diEculty and in the face of opposition most stubborn. There is nothing in our American conditions more diEcult than those which English reformers faced, and therefore there is no reason why we should be doubtful of the results. Time is of the essence of the reform and we must address ourselves to the problems with hope and confidence. If England could rid herself of her (‘rotten boroughs’’ there is no substantial reason to doubt America’s ability to rid herself of controlled districts and monopolies of nomination. 4 Reference has been made to Seymour’s

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BI-PARTISANSHIP AND VOTE MANIPULATION IN DETROIT BY ARTHUR c. MILLSPAUGH, PH.D.‘ Augusta, Mich. ECENT legislation and public opinion, especially in the field of state and local government, have shown an unmistakable tenR dency toward the elimination of centralized, strategic, and efficient party management, substituting for it either individual and factionalizing initiative within the party or spontaneous, temporary, and fluctuating movements outside of the party. This tendency appears, moreover, at a time when city populations are becoming in many respects more heterogeneous and more in need of organization, tutelage, and guidance. The purpose of this paper, however, is not to attempt an abstract consideration of ultimate results, a consideration which would demand an examination not only of the party but also of the manysided problem of the city, but merely to set forth some of the concrete political conditions in Detroit which seem significant in the light of present tendencies. Under Michigan direct primary laws there has always been considerable voting by members of one party in the primaries of another; and, since the Republican party has a large normal majority in the state and is the only party which has numerous and important primary contests, this party has been the chief sufferer. Party enrollment as a qualification for voting in the primary was in effect from 1905 to 1913 but it made Democratic participation in Republican primaries more diE.cult without entirely preventing it. The primary of 1914, however, was absolutely “open.” In that year the Republican primary vote for governor in Wayne County, which contains the city of Detroit, was 47,334 while the vote for the Republican candidate in the election was only 21,483. This discrepancy is explained by a combination of circumstances. Two of the unsuccessful candidates for the Republican nomination were residents of Detroit, there was no contest for the Democratic nomination, and a large number of Democrats voted in the Republican primary; while the successful candidate, Mr. Osborn, had made himself persona non grata with the party leaders by supporting Roosevelt in 1912 and after Osborn’s nomination these leaders “swung” as much of the vote as they could control to the Democratic candidate. The figures from two of Detroit’s conI From a dissertation prepared for Johns Hopkins University on “Party Organieation and Machinery in Michigan since 1890.” Dr. Millspaugh has been a resident of Michigan but is now acting professor of political science in Whitman College, Washington. He took his A.B. degree at Albion College, Michigan, his A.M. degree at the University of Illinois, and his Ph.D. degree at the John Hopkins University. 620

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19161 BI-PARTISANSHIP 621 trolled precincts are of interest. In “Billy” Boushaw’s precinct, the first of the first ward, the primary vote for governor was: Republican, two hundred and sixty-five; Democratic, twelve; while the vote in the election for governor was : Republican, one; Democratic, two hundred and fifty-nine. In Frank Hibbler’s precinct, the first of the second, the primary vote for governor was: Republican, one hundred and sixty-six; Democratic, two; while the vote in the election forgovernor was: Republican, thirty-eight ; Democratic, one hundred and fortmy-seven. Both of these precincts gave heavy majorities to the Republican county candidates. In Boushaw’s precinct, practically all of the two hundred and sixty odd voters not only split their tickets in the election, but voted differently in the election than in the primary. In the presidential primary of April, 1916, the contest in the Democratic party for national committeeman, involving the control of the organization, greatly overshadowed from the manipulators’ point of view the futile vote in the Republican party on presidential preferences, While the entire city of Detroit cast a total vote in this primary of only about ten thousand, the controlled precincts cast their usual vote. Out of two hundred and sixtysix who voted in Boushaw’s precinct, all but three voted as Democrats, and all but three of the “Democrats” voted for the “organization” candidate for national committeeman. In the second precinct of the same ward there were only twenty-eight “Republicans” and all but three of the “Democrats” voted with the “organization.” What might appear, superficially viewed, as the kind of ‘(independence ” which we associate with the “splitting” of tickets, is, as a matter of fact, the complete antithesis of independence. The voting is non-partisan in the sense that it is bi-partisan or omni-partisan; and it is controlled by men who ale indifferent to party names and principles and who serve first one party, then another, and in this case both parties at the same time. The object of vote-manipulation in the primary is, of course, to nominate a particular candidate, but he is often one who can be easily defeated rather than one who can be elected. Naturally, the chance of success is greater when candidates are numerous. Thus, in 1914, in the congressional primary in the first district which ia coextensive with the southern half of the city of Detroit, there were six Republican candidates, and out of a total vote of 20,036 a vote of 4,958 suE.ced to nominate. Doremus, the Democratic congressman, had no opposition for the nomination and the Democrats, it is believed, practically nominated the man to run against Doremus, who was later elected. On the other hand, in the thirteenth congressional district, which is the northern half of the city, there were fewer Republican candidates in the primary and the Republican nominee won in the election. The whole primary and electoral situation, combined with the character of appointments after the election, indicates the existence of a bi-partisan

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622 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [ 0 ctober machine, called familiarly in Detroit the (‘ Vote-Swappers’ League.” The extent, ramifications, power, and personnel of the machine are obscure and it is impossible to attribute its development to any one cause. There were rumors of bi-partisan understandings as early as 1901; but the direct primary has clearly provided the machine with a most useful instrument of manipulation. The successful working of the combine involves the co-operation of the precinct boss, who must “deliver” the vote both in the primary and in the election. (‘Delivering” the vote is an old practice; and campaign money and the promise of spoils have always attracted many “strikers” and (‘heelers,” petty precinct ((workers,” saloon hangers-on, and loafers who have claimed the ability to influence a more or less definite number of voters and have asked payment for exerting their influence. They have usually been willing to sell their retainers to either side or to both sides. In Detroit and to a less extent in Grand Rapids and in the upper peninsula there are many ‘(strikes” on the part of men who have no power to influence votes but there are also many voters actually controlled by corporations, saloon-keepers, and others. A recent writer in the News2 estimates that one hundred of the two hundred and three precincts in Detroit are controlled more or less completely and that twenty or thirty of them are “crooked” precincts, that is, “delivered” for money. Mr. Pliny W. Marsh, secretary of the Detroit civic league, states more conservatively that ‘(there are supposed to be forty such controlled precinct~.”~ The chief controlling influences are the saloons, of which there are in Detroit between thirteen and fourteen hundred, and it is the general opinion of politicians that each saloon will “swing” on the average ten votes, making a total controlled vote of more than thirteen thousand. Accepting the above estimate of the controlled vote as a fair one, it will be seen that it is large enough to hold the balance of power in most city, county, and district elections and in some state elections. From the fact that control is exercised through the saloon may be inferred the social character of the controlled districts. They include the river precincts, dominated by the saloon and cheap lodginghouse and populated by itinerant dock and ship laborers and others, who are “floaters” in a double sense. The most notorious of the river precincts is Boushaw’s, in which, as I have already shown, practically every vote was controlled in the primary and election of 1914. Boushaw runs a saloon and lodginghouse which together form a quasi-charitable institution for (‘ floaters,” who after partaking of their host’s friendship and hospitality are frankly willing to vote as he wants them to. The third, fifth, seventh, ninth, and eleventh wards, which have the largest controlled vote, are likewise the wards which have most foreign-born and illiterate voters. The ninth Jan. 3, 1916. *The Free Press believes that there are less than 20. Free Press, July 25, 1916.

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19161 BI-PARTISANSHIP 623 ward, for example, which the secretary of the Civic League classes with the wards which are “pretty nearly hopeless,” had in 1910, out of 6,639 males of voting age, 2,016 illiterates and only 883 native whites of native parentage. It is worth remembering, also, that a little over one half of the males of voting age in Detroit are foreign-born and of these one eighth are illiterate. While it is true that at times the controlled precincts vote for different candidates and thus to some extent neutralize one another they are in most cases pretty thoroughly unified and throw their entire strength to one side. Probably the chief unifying factor is the Royal Ark, an organization of retail liquor-dealers, which appoints ward captains and endorses candidates. In the price paid for the precinct the saloon license is usually an item, while in addition there may be a money payment or a petty job.’ The chief Democratic politician and reputed leader of the bi-partisan combine is a judge of the recorder’s court, a man eminently respectable in private life and in some respects a man of ideals in public life;* his chief henchman, the chairman of the Democratic county committee, is a young lawyer who handles an exceptionally large number of criminal cases; and, according to an ex-prosecutor of Wayne County, 88 per cent of the criminals are connected in some way with the saloons. Of course, there is nothing formal with respect to the arrangements for the controlling and “delivering” of the precinct vote. The candidate may frequent the saloons, not necessarily to drink but, to make friends and to “set ’emup”; there may be a tacit understanding that favors on election day will be compensated later, and word may be passed along that he is “right” and a “good fellow.” On election day there are four principal methods of “delivering” the vote; friendly persuasion, bribery, assistance in marking ballots, and fraud on the part of the election board. The direct bribery of voters diminished greatly with the adoption of the secret ballot, and has since steadily decreased, but still persists among the foreign-born, the negroes, the illiterate, and the morally submerged. Wherever there are many illiterates the assisting of voters in the booth permits the precinct boss to see that the ballots are marked as he wants them marked. In some of the controlled precincts as many as 75 per cent of the voters are assisted in marking their ballots, and assisting is now one of the most serious evils5n Detroit elections. Prior to 1915 the law provided that any man professing to be illiterate or physically disabled might ask for and receive assistance in marking his ballot by some member of the election board. An improved law passed in 1915 places 4 Judge Connolly is now (Aug. 14) a candidate for the Democratic nomination for mayor, and the present mayor, a Republican, ie a candidate for renomination. This may signify a sham battle or a break in the bi-partisan combine.

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624 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October restrictions on assistance, prescribing that the assisted voter shall swear either that he cannot read English or that he is physically disabled, that the election officers shall keep a list of the persons assisted with the reasons for the assistance, and that all ballots cast by assisted voters shall be marked for identification as in the case of a challenged vote. The evil of assisted voting can be minimized by restricting the circumstances under which assistance may be given, for example, by prohibiting the assisting of any voter not physically disabled, as was proposed by a member of the constitutional convention in 1907, or by insuring the supervision of the marking of the ballot by a hostile partisan or non-partisan witness. The law has aimed at, oversight of assistance, providing that the marking of the ballot should be observed by a challenger of a party different from that of the one giving assistance. To guard the party’s interests at the polls, accordingly, each party and at times other organizations have selected challengers, ordinarily one or two for each precinct, the chairman of the party committee providing them with credentials and in some cases assembling them before the election for careful instruction. Bi-partisanship, however, practically made the legal provision for oversight of assistance by challengers a dead letter and the further provision that civic organizations might put challengers in the booths was usually nullified by the refusal of the election board to accept credentials issued by these organizations and the lack of support on the part of the police. The law of 1915 provides that challengers appointed by civic organizations shall present their credentials to the city clerk who shall send certified copies of the credentials to the election boards. If the police commissioner co-operates in enforcing the new provision it will do much to minimize the evils arising from assistance, as well as other election frauds; if police support is not accorded, civic organization representatives will be excluded from the booths as they have been in the past. A fourth method of “delivering” the vote is by means of fraud on the part of the election board, for in the controlled precincts the election board consists very often of the precinct boss and his henchmen. The election board of six members is named at the primary, three from each party; and since they count the ballots at the primary as well as at the election they are able by fraud to continue themselves in oEce almost indefinitely, and the bi-partisan character of the board is of no practical importance, especially under existing circumstances. In the general election of 1914 the board in “Batty” McGraw’s precinct, the fourth of the ninth, consisted of McGraw himself, who is a saloonkeeper with his two bartenders, another saloonkeeper with his bartender, and a machinist. At the election of 1914 this board practiced apparently every known kind of election day fraud, including re-marking ballots and the voting +of absentees. It is impossible to say definitely to what degree the elec

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19161 BI-PARTISANSHIP 625 tion boards have carried their fraudulent practices, but what happened in McGraw’s precinct was typical of what happened in thirty or forty other precincts. Congressman Crampton believes that the defeat of woman suffrage in 1912 by the narrow majority of seven hundred and sixty in a total vote of about half a million was due to manipulation by Detroit election boards. A change in the method of selecting these boards is clearly desirable, and is embodied in a charter amendment which will be submitted to Detroit voters at the August primary. This amendment, which was initiated by the citizens’ league and prepared by a citizens’ charter committee appointed by the mayor, creates a city election commission composed of the city clerk, the corporation counsel, the senior police justice, the recorder, and the president of the civil service commission. This commission will appoint for each election district three registrars and three inspectors of elections, who must be resident electors “who hold no other pubIic ofice or employment, and who are of good moral character, able to read fluently and write legibly the English language, who are familiar with the four fundamental rules of arithmetic and who are mentally and physically fit to discharge the duties of their ofTce.”s The inspectors are to be chosen by lot from a list of fifteen hundred drawn up by the commission. The commission will have power to reassign, remove and prosecute registrars and inspectors, to purge the registration rolls, to change the boundaries of election districts, and to act as a board of city canvassers. The charter amendment “interferes with the activities of the precinct gang by making it impossible for them to know with whom they are to work on eIection day . . . It abolishes the controlled precinct . . . It aims to prevent frauds being committed instead of permitting them and then attempting to prosecute the guilty parties afterwards”.6 The problem of election manipulation in a city of Detroit’s size can not be divorced from the general problems of state, county and municipal governmental organization. Corrupt practice acts and other laws safeguarding primary and general elections are helpful but, above all, there must be fewer elective officials, there must be a concentration of responsibility, and the machinery of elections must be adapted to conditions and not to fictions, a condition of bi-partisanship signifying one of nonpartisanship. The adaptation of election machinery to non-partisanship must involve the absolute elimination of party names, of party columns on the ballot, and of the party primary or of other party nominations, and necessitates apparently the adoption of some simple form of preferential vote. It must be remembered, however, that in an electorate such as that of the river precincts and other districts in Detroit the fundamental source of control and manipulation is still found in that 6 Charter amendment, See. 3. 6 Civic Searchlight, July 1916. 6

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626 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [ 0 ct ober feudal element, that sense of personal loyalty and obligation, which has always been at the root of machine politics. The direct primary embodied a disintegrating tendency which sought to shift the center of gravity from the centralized organization of the party to spontaneous movements gathering around self-assertive persons within the party; and non-partisan elections, with the accompanying reforms which have just been suggested, represent a further drift from the partisan to the personal. Theoretically, therefore, non-partisanship does not necessarily imply the destruction of the feudal element which lies at the basis of the control and manipulation of votes and in practice it may even accentuate the influence of that element. Nevertheless, the adoption of the machinery of non-partisanship presumes a frank and intelligent facing of facts, a recognition and employment of the forces which actually determine .elections, and a state of mind on the part of the public which in its essence is hostile to all kinds of blind and unreasoning allegiance, personal as well as part.isan.

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A NEW SYSTEM OF ELECTIONS FOR ST. LOUIS BY PERCY WERNER' St. Louis ROM present indications the voters of the city of St. Louis will have the opportunity next fall to vote on propositions involving F an entire change in its system of city elections. The people of the city adopted a new charter on June 30, 1914. This was the work of a board of freeholders, aided by many of the best expFrts in municipal government in the country. The short ballot principle prevailed, with the result that, while under the old charter there were 12 elective city offices, in addition to 13 members of the city council and 28 members of the house of delegates to be elected, under the new charter there were but three elective offices, that of mayor, comptroller and president of the board of aldermen, together with 28 members of a board of aldermen to be elected, 14 of the latter every two years. The city is divided into 28 wards, and the old system of ward representation in the board of aldermen was retained, with the result that at the first election held under the new charter the Republicans, the dominant party in St. Louis, elected the entire twenty-eight. The board of freeholders had evidently been much and favorably impressed with arguments in favor of preferential voting and proportional representation, as is evident from their having inserted in Article I1 of the new charter governing elections, the following section, viz: Whenever it may be done in harmony with the state constitution and laws, the board of aldermen shall by ordinance provide for and regulate municipal elections and registration of voters, and may provide by ordinance for non-partisan nominations, preferential voting, or proportional representation. Section 9. At the time the new charter was framed, the state law governing elections made it impossible to provide for a system of city elections by preferential voting, or for proportional representation. But at the 1915 session of the legislature an act was passed, conferring full power and authority on every city of the state having 400,000 inhabitants, or more, to provide for and regulate all elections for offices and for the nomination of candidates for such offices, by charter provisions or ordinances which, when adopted, should be deemed to supersede and render inapplicable as to such cities the provisions of the statutes of tthe state relating to municipal elections and nominations therefor.2 This statute has opened the way for St. Louis to change its system of municipal elections. 1 Chairman, Short Ballot Committee, St. Louis Civic League. * See Session Laws Missouri, 1915, p. 284. 627

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October ,4s an indication of how the people of Missouri are gradually awakening to the necessity of reforming their electoral methods, the statute governing cities of the second class adopted by the 1913 legislature may be pointed to. That statute, while retaining the system of primary elections which obtains in the state, made provision for a ballot which should “be printed upon plain, substantial white paper and shall have no party designation or mark whatever.” Thus was the principle of non-partisan elections for municipal corporations recognized by the laws of the state. It is now hoped that, with the open door for reform in our election machinery, and with the advance steps already taken, the people of St. Louis may be prepared to take another step forward towards genuine as distinguished from make-believe self-government and away from government by machine politicians. A committee of the St. Louis civic league after careful study of, and correspondence with experts in, the subject of municipal election methods, has drafted two amendments to the city charter, providing for a new system of city elections. The one proposes to abolish nominations by party primary and to substitute nominatlions by petition for all elective offices. The provision drafted contemplates nomination petitions to be signed by registered voters of the city to the number of at least one per cent of the total number of registered voters who voted at the last preceding regular election. It is further proposed that the municipal ballot shall be non-partisan, not bearing thereon any party or political designation or mark, nor having appended to the name of any candidate anything showing how he was nominated or indicating his views or opinions. Provision is made that the ballots shall be so arranged that the voter shall be given an opportunity to express at least three choices among the candidates for mayor, comptroller and president of the board of aldermen (and members for the board of aldermen at elections where no more than three members of such board are to be elected), and that in t,he counting of the ballots, if no candidate for the office to be filled shall have a majority of first choices expressed, second and other choices may be added to the first choices to obtain as near majority support for a candidate as the ballots cast will permit. The names of the candidates for each of the offices to be filled are to be arranged on the ballot under a heading which shall consist only of the name of the office for which the candidate is running. Opposite the name of each candidate shall appear his residence address. For the election of the board of aldermen it is proposed that the old system of ward representation shall be abandoned, and while the old number of members is retained, it is proposed that it shall be constituted in: accordance with the principles of proportional representation, fourteen members being elected every two years. 3 Session Laws 1913, pp. 428, 448, 450.

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19161 SYSTEM OF ELECTIONS FOR ST. LOUIS 629 Members of the board of aldermen are to be elected upon lists, each list to be shown separately upon the ballot and to be designated only by a number, each list appearing upon the ballot to be entitled to have declared elected as many aldermen as the total number of votes cast for that list is contained in the total of all votes cast at the election for all lists, the persons to be declared elected from each list to be those persons nominated on that list who receive individually the highest number of votes. It is provided that, in voting for members of the board of aldermen, the voter shall vote on one list only, and may insert the names of any other qualified candidates, but may not vote for more than the total number of aldermen to be elected. Provision is Aade for the recall of a member of the board of aldermen by a petition for such recall, to be signed by at least ten per cent of the registered voters of the city; provided, however, that such petition shall not be valid unless it contains the signatures of at least sixty per cent of the voters who signed the nominating petition of the alderman whose recall is demanded. The plan outlined above is embodied in two proposed ordinances, one of them submitting a charter amendment to be voted on at the regular election, embodying the features described and providing for proportional representation; the other an ordinance which may be adopted by the board of aldermen, providing for nominations by petitions, the nonpartisan ballot and preferentiaI voting. The reason-for embodying these provisions in two separate ordinances is that proportional representation necessitated amending the charter, while the other features may, under the present law, be adopted by ordinance. Should the board of aldermen decline to pass either ordinance, resort will be had to initiative petitions. Whilst it is too early to predict what will be the fate of the proposed measures, an active campaign will be conducted in the endeavor to arouse our voters to a sense of the importance of improving our electoral methods along the lines proposed. It is believed that the public mind is already predisposed towards the non-partisan ballot in municipal elections. Our people are convinced that city government is primarily a business or administrative organization, with which national parties have no function. It is believed that nomination by petition and preferential voting on one ticket will be favored, chiefly because it does away with primaries and thus conserves as well the money of the city as the time and energy of the voter and candidate. Whether it will be as easy to convince our voters of the importance of substituting proportional representation for the old system of ward representation, it is more difficult to predict. People are learning to distinguish between the non-representative or administrative office and the representative office, just as they are learning to differentiate the two functions of city government,-the legislative, or the determination of policies, and the administrative, or the carrying out of these policies. It would seem that a system which

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630 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October would allow a minority representation in the legislative branch of the government and the putting behind each representative a unanimous, instead of a divided, constituency, should appeal strongly to the intelligent voter.' 4 The system of nominating and electing city officials outlined in this article will be voted on by the voters of St. Louis at the general election, November 7. The proposals are in the form of a charter amendment submitted to the people by the board of aldermen. A favorable vote of three-aths of those voting on the proposition is necessary to carry. The amendment was submitted because initiative petitions sufficient to call a special election were secured by the municipal ballot conference, in charge of the movement, and the board of 8;ldermen wanted to avoid the expense of a special election. The petitions were, therefore, not filed.

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RECENT PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL BUDGETS AND ACCOUNTS Concluded BY C. 1. RIGHTOR Dayton, Ohio OHIO CITIES SHOW MARKED PROGREfiS Cleveland, Ohio, adopted a revised form of budget procedure in November, 1914, to become effective with the new charter on the first day of 1915. This form provides the usual procedure, giving in detail the estimates of the expense of conducting the affairs of the several departments, and there are placed in parallel columns the mayor’s estimate and the amounts finally allowed by the council. The classification of expenditures is one formally adopted by the department of finance and is standardized for use in all departments. The annual general ledger report of the Cleveland director of finance is an excellent piece of detail work, each department and each ofice being shown separately as to income and expense and the assets and liabilities. These are all carried finally to one consolidated statement of income and expense and a consolidated balance sheet. Such a report cannot be expected from most communities because of the amount of clerical work required for its compilation. Cincinnati, though operating under a modern budget procedure, prepared for six months’ periods, ended the year 1915 with a large deficit. This is no reflection, however, upon the system of accounting, as Cinchnati enjoys a complete set of records. It is a result of the impossible financial situation facing all of the largest cities of Ohio, due to antiquated and unjust tax laws of the state. It is conceded by the administration and by citizen agencies who have studied conditions that it will be necessary to issue $1,250,000 short-term notes to cover the entire deficit of the city, and this course is approved universally. Every effort is being made to find new sources of revenueas a city portion of automobile taxes, which now go to the state, and liquor taxes, etc. During the past two years the Cincinnati bureau of municipal research has devised and co-operated in the installation of systems of accounting and administrative methods in several oEces. A uniform expense classification applicable to all departments was outlined, and stores ledgers for the city storehouses were prepared. A double entry system was devised and installed for the entire city, with the co-operation of the city auditor, and Cincinnati is one of the too few cities now enjoying a complete control over all the city’s assets and liabilities, and having expense and reve631

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632 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October nue accounts which enable reports to be prepared monthly of financia1 facts of public business in a complete and accurate style. Through the co-operation of the city officials the form of five semiannual appropriation ordinances along entirely new lines were made, and through the detailed budget now existing control over expenditure is the result.' There is, however, no budget control over improvement programs proposed by the council. As with bureaus elsewhere, studies in other municipal departments have been made, such as an over-age report in the schools; a study of public works, the municipal court, etc. EXCELLENT RESULTS. IN AKRON In Akron, Ohio, a bureau of municipal research was established in January, 1915, and from its reports are obtained interesting accounts of rapid progress in financial methods of the city.2 The first point of attack of the bureau on the old order of things was the preparation of the annual budget. The budget for 1915 was prepared upon lines indicated from a study of 1914 expenditures, and departmental requests were made in accordance with titles which were adopted in the new accounting system. Standard forms were devised for making the departmental estimates, and character and object of expenditure classifications were introduced. Requests are given in detail now, rather than in lump sums. Further progress in budget making is contemplated in subsequent budgets. A general scheme of accounting for the city was outlined by this bureau, to afford entire financial control and make possible the preparation of a balance sheet and income and expense statement. Akron has prepared the accounting procedure to conform to the requirements of the state board for inspection of public offices, though it is conceded that these requirements laid down several years ago are now out of date and incomplete. The system contemplates the introduction of a general ledger, expense ledgers in departments, cost records, etc. A comprehensive report to the public of the financial condition of the city was prepared-the first of its kind-and the reasons for the annual deficit stated.8 A study of the inequitable tax laws of Ohio is being made by bureau, and given publicity through a series of bulletins. Similar studies have been made recently in both Toledo and Dayton, to expose the inequalities and injustice of existing tax laws.4 Surveys of the several city departments are under way in Akron; and the Municipal University is co-operating with the bureau in the general study of municipal administration. 1 Biennial report of the Cincinnati bureau, 1915. * Report on hancial condition of Akron, bureau of municipal research, 1915. BulleCity Annual report of the bureau of municipal research, January, 1916. tins on finance, and the tax rate, 1915-1916. finances, Toledo, Toledo commercial club, 1916. Some facts about the tax rate, Dayton, bureau of municipal research, 1915.

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19161 RECENT PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL BUDGETS 633 Among the tasks undertaken by the Ohio institute for pubfic efficiency, Columbus, was a study of the accounting methods of Cuyahoga County, with recommendations for an improved system which are now under consideration.6 The formulation of new municipal accounting systems for Toledo and Columbus, similar to that already noted for Akron, were presented to the officials of these cities, and are being reviewed by them for acceptance. In co-operation with the state bureau of accounting a new classification of expenditures for the state, counties, municipalities and townships was prepared, to take effect January 1, 1916. Some of the cities in the state, having provided themselves with a home-rule charter, are not affected by this classification. A MANUAL OF ACCOUNTING PREPARED During the past year, Denver, Colorado, has made substantial progress, based first upon a thorough trial and subsequently by the passage of an ordinance providing for the adoption of an uniform system of accountsB for the city and county of Denver. Contrary to the commonly prevailing records based upon a cash basis, the system here provides for recording upon an income and expense basis. The budget of the city was reformed during the year from the “lump sum” to the itemized, and the budget of 1916 is as complete as it was possible to prepare it at the time it went to the press. Worthy of comment in connection with the several reports which have emanated from the office of the Colorado taxpayers’ association are the explanatory notes accompanying them, and which malie the reports of more immediate interest to the average citizen. T. R. Lill, who was the representative of the association in the adoption of the entire accounting improvements, prepared for use of Denver a manual of accounting procedure in maintaining the necessary record forms-receipts, disbursements, purchasing, payrolls, ledgers, journals, etc. It is indeed such manual as should be prepared by any city to explain and govern its finance department in the recording of transactions. New Yorli and Philadelphia have such manuals. While there are extant very valuable texts of municipal accounting as Metz and Eggleston, they cannot treat with particularity the entire subject as it works out in actual practice in a city, and a local handbook is a great help to those who work on the records. PLANS OF THE CITY MANAGER In the city manager cities action to afford an interpretation of results through the medium of the accounting records has been realized by these responsible officers, and we observe a wide-spread movement looking toward the adoption of modern methods. 6 Annual report of institute, 1915. 8 Ordinance 123, establishing an uniform system of accounts, adopted by council, December 30, 1915.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October At the last annual meeting of the City Managers’ Association, there was considerable discussion as to what could be done to simplify and standardize city accounting, and it was agreed that at the next meeting each city manager should bring with him systems in effect and various forms used, that an exhibit be made of them, and a committee appointed to go over them to try to standardize the general system of accounting, yet it be applicable to the needs of various sized cities.’ Dayton, Ohio, the largest of the manager cities, has accepted and well advanced the installation of a complete accounting procedure, extending through all departments including purchasing, and affording a centralized control finally in the general ledger of the city in the finance department. This city also enjoys one of the most complete budgets, though covering only its current operating activities, to be found in any city.8 Somewhat arbitrary classifications of accounts have been adopted, however, upon entirely sound premises, of nature of objects rather than the customary usage classification. Adequate details of requests for appropriations are required from every organization unit, which are listed in such detail that every activity is recognized in the functional classification. Yet this city, after only two years under the most scientific form of government, has not been able to achieve the ultimate in accounting and budget making methods, and it is planned to extend the improvements in both during the -coming years. Jackson, Michigan, has also made substantial and permanent strides toward achieving the necessary ends of accounting. A budget was promulgated for the year 1916 for the first time, in which were listed detailed appropriations for every department and office of the government, and in accordance with a uniform classification established in Dayton. Receipts as estimated, to justify the proposed expenditures, are also published. The public was heard at an open hearing on the new method of presenting a program of city activities, and gave entire support to the budget. The accounting system is also being revised, to supplement the budget. In another city, St. Augustine, Fla., also having a manager formerly connected with the Dayton government, there was adopted for the first time this year an itemized budget procedure, also based upon the Dayton practice. The annual report of the city manager states that the required revision of the accounting records is being made to afford the proper control over appropriations, and to permit the extraction of statements of what the city owns and owes, and the costs of operation, when and as often as desired. Cost records, a system of centralized purchasing and other controls over expenditures were introduced. Springfield, Ohio, another prominent city manager city, adopted during 1914 and 1915 an entirely new system of keeping accounts. The system 8 Budget for 1916, published by the bureau of municipal research. Proceedings of the City Managers’ Association Convention, November, 1915.

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19161 RECENT PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL BUDGETS 635 was outlined by Carl Nau of Cleveland, and consists of a double entry system by which are shown the proprietary and the fund accounts. A complete balance sheet, operation statement, and appropriation balances are available a few days after the end of each month, together with cumulative totals to that date. Separate statements are also prepared for special improvement accounts, for the water works utility, and the sinking fund. It is, however, based upon commercial procedure rather than the needs of a municipality-and as the two are fundamentally different, the results which may be obtained are not satisfactory. A detail of the balance to each fund and account, and a statement of the surplus or deficit, are necessary for a corporation conducted for profit; but in a municipality accounting is necessary to prevent over-drafts of funds. The terminology is uncertain, assets are not all entered into the books of account, and uniform classifications of accounts are not followed. A peculiar situation exists in Sherman, the charter placing with the city clerk the drawing and countersigning of warrants. This makes difficult the position of the manager. Sherman, Texas, has provided a new accounting system. REPORTS FROM THE PACIFIC COAST The Pacific coast is not too far to find an active interest in effecting improved financial record keeping. Oakland adopted a new system on July 1, 19159 based upon the sound plan of presenting a story of the financial transactions of the city in such detailed form as will be readily understood by the lay-citizen. Expenditures are classified as to character, and an uniform expense accounting, with comparisons, is provided. Labor and expense of divisions keeping accounts have been reduced by centralizing this work. Cost accounting for operation and maintenance of departments is provided; and a control over appropriations, revenues and accruals, established. A plain statement of the assets and liabilities of the city is available, and an inventory of all city property was taken when the system was installed. A scientific budget is now prepared, based upon the itemized estimate of all requirements from departments, and the council can therefore fix the tax rate to the needs of the city, rather than the budget to the tax rate. This procedure is a fortunate one, and one, incidentally, not enjoyed by cities in some states. Uniformity of accounts and classifications is adopted throughout all offices, affording valuable statistical records for comparative purposes. Los Angeles has also considered fundamental principles in the preparation of its budget, and while well in advance of most cities of the country in methods, it is looking toward the adoption of even more exactness in the procedure. Facts rather than opinions are to be the basis of estimating 9 Various reports of the tax association of Alameda county.

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636 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October items of needs, and the entire municipal program is to be presented, including debt service, public improvements and special assessments. In addition to showing what the city is to buy, ie., the objects of expenditure and their character, the functions to be performed, or the purposes of expenditure in each department, are to be given; and finally, this complete financial program is to be given the widest publicity possible. The excellent work done in the preparation of the budget is indicated by the report upon the methods applied in reducing the total of requests to a figure within the estimated revenues, which cut amounted to $3,263,000, and was effected by the budget committee.1 The efficiency commission of the city co-operates closely with the several departments in securing most effective results. In their work they have engaged in the compilation of the budget, and in cutting requests; submitted a plan of salary standardization; a plan for a central bureau of standards; centralizing the issuance of licenses, etc. ; and also co-operated in efficiency studies in public works; provided an uniform classification of accounts for expenses, now used in all departments; secured uniformity in accounting methods and control; and a basis for accurate cost accounting; pay-roll procedure; purchasing ordinance proposed; and now have a proposed charter before the electorate." Portland, Oregon, has a budget somewhat detailed so far as salaries are concerned, but as to other expenses an uniform classification is not followed. At present writing there is being advocated for Portland a bureau of economy and efficiency, which will no doubt include, among its primary duties, the introduction of a scientific and complete budget for the city, together with an adequate accounting control. Dallas, Texas, is making rapid civic studies under the leadership of Mayor Lindsley. Among the improvements are a modern system of accounting and budget procedure and control. It is anticipated that by May, 1916, there will be a complete set of financial records for the entire city. Reports are thenceforth to be rendered by the fifth day of each month showing the revenues and expenses, receipts and disbursements, contingent liabilities, and total assets and liabilities for all accounts. A society of municipal research has been formed composed of department heads and other city employes. It is an unique bureau in this respect. Its purpose is to promote progressive measures and effect co-operation between departments, though it has advisory powers only. CANADIAN CITIES MAKING RECORDS Many Canadian cities are finding possibilities for bettering their finanChief among the cities whose reports have been seen is The first year's report of the bureau of municipal research 10Budget for the fiscal year 1915-1916. Report of the Budget Committee, 191511 Municipal Bu!lstin, various issues. cial systems. Toronto. 1916.

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19161 RECENT PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL BUDGETS 637 shows much material progress in the city government, including the adoption of a scientific form of budget by the adoption of comparative figures for previous years, separation of items not directly affecting taxation, etc. A modern accounting system recommended for adoption was the major work of the bureau, in co-operation with city officials. Extensive publicity through pamphlets was directed to this work.12 Brandon recently introduced the revenue and expense basis for keeping of accounts, and is now able to extract from its books a complete statement of its financial condition. Edmonton and Saskatoon are among the cities malung improvements in accounting procedure. The foregoing pages indicate in a general way the onward trend of our city governments in their endeavors to give to the citizens and taxpayers an accounting for the money entrusted to them. The subject at greater length would require an enquiry into over 200 of our cities of over 30,000 population, as also of a much greater number of smaller communities. As a supplement to the review, is appended a list of the known citizen agencies working with the city officials-through criticisms and constructive recommendations-in achieving better methods in expenditure, and wider publicity about results pr0d~ced.l~ 12 First annual report of the Toronto bureau of municipal research, 1915. Citizen Control of Citizens’ Business, B. M. R., 1915. Washington, D. C., New York City, New York City, Chicago, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, Dayton, Denver, Minneapolis, Rochester, Toronto, Springfield (Mass.), Akron (O.), Columbus (O.), Baltimore, Oakland (Cal.), San Francisco, Detroit, Cleveland, l3 CITIES HAVING CITIZEN AGENCIES. Institute for government research. Institute for public service. Bureau of municipal research. Bureau of public efficiency. Bureau of municipal research. Bureau of municipal research. Citizens bureau of municipal efficiency. Colorado tax payers protective association. Bureau of municipal research of the civic and commerce associaBureau of municipal research. Bureau of municipal research. Bureau of municipal research. Bureau of municipal research. Ohio institute for public efficiency. Bureau of state and municipal research. Tax association of Alameda county. California state tax association. Bureau of governmental research. Civic league. Bureau of municipal research. .tion. White Plains (N. Y.), Westchester county research bureau. St. Joseph (Mo.), Wilmington (Del.), Newark (N. J.), Madison (Wis.), Wisconsin efficiency bureau. Civic commissioner of the commerce club. General service board of Delaware. Public welfare committee of Essex county.

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RECENT CITY PLAN REPORTS Concluded 1 BY CHARLES MULFORD ROBINSON Rochester, N. Y. In St. Louis city planning has been a more or less seething subject during recent months. In June of 1915 the project of a central trafficparkway was defeated, not from a lack of interest in city planning, but because some of those most interested in a city plan questioned the wisdom of adopting so ambitious a scheme until, by the development of a complete plan, its relation to the whole could be determined. The secret of the defeat of the project was not, therefore, that the citizens of St. Louis did not care, but that they cared so much. But lest the defeat might reduce the influence of the city plan cornmission,‘there was organized a voluntary, citizens’ city plan committee, of which the purpose is to co-operate with and give public backing to the official city plan commission. Both of these organizations are active and both are issuing reports. The city plan commission’s elaborate report on the parkway * has not been robbed of value by the parkway’s defeat. It offers an interesting discussion of an interesting scheme, which may possibly be some day revived, while the principles enunciated are not limited by time and place. The parkway, however, wasonly one of many projects of the commission, and a month later it brought out a report on the St. Louis river front.3 Published with this report-the two bound together in stiff covers, in a style uniform with the parkway report-is a discussion which the commission had issued in April, 1913, on the possible municipal ownership of a river front railway. The later report has to do with proposed terminals for both boats and railroads. It includes the report of the consulting engineer, a report of two Mississippi Valley conferences, a report on the conditions in St. Louis, New Orleans, Davenport, Kansas City and other ports, and expert conclusions, the whole making an important addition to the somewhat scanty American literature on the commercial development of river ports. 1 The first part of this article was published in the July number of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW. It contained reviews of the longer and more elaborate city planning reports which had been published during the twelve months period covered. In the second part of the article, printed herewith, there are reviews of a large number of smaller reports, on special phases of the city planning movement.-Editor. 2 Report of city plan commission. Februa-ry 9, 1915. J Reports of city plan commission, 1913-1915. 638

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19161 RECENT CITY PLAN REPORTS 639 Two bulletins by the citizens’ city plan committee have been published. The second tells something of Harland Bartholomew, whom the committee has brought to St. Louis from Newark, and has retained as permanent city planning engineer, to assist the city plan commission. It contains also an address by Mr. Bartholomew, and an account of a public hearing on traffic needs, which was conducted by the official commission. The street problem growing out of those needs is particularly interesting in St. Louis since existing traffic arteries require only a comparatively small amount of connecting-up and extending to make a good radial system. Another interesting publication from St. Louis, standing in a class quite by itself, is entitled a “Discussion of the interurban loop and downtown traction terminals.” The articles, sixteen in number, appeared during December, 1915, and made it clear that the solution of even this comparatively small problem was inextricably tied up with the working out of the city plan. The conclusion was in favor of looping local street cars on existing downtown streets as against constructing a loop of new tracks; and it was proposed that the terminals of the interurban roads be kept upon the border of, but in contact with, the loop. From Chicago there has come, in its always imposing form, the annual report of the board of supervising engineers, Chicago Traction.6 Making, like each of its five predecessors, a volume of more than 500 pages, and with Bion J. Arnold as chairman of the board, there is much in the book that is of general city planning pertinence. This is especially true of chapter 11, “relation of suburbs to the city” and of chapter V on “passenger subways.” In fact, for some years Chicago has been contributing more than any other American city to the discussion of the relations of the city and its railroads. The long list of Chicago reports on that subject has been further increased by the recent publication of the preliminary report of the Chicago railway terminal commission.’ Of this John F. Wallace is chairman, the other non-official members being Walter L. Fisher, Bion J. Arnold, and E. H. Bennett. This report contains many interesting maps and charts, and has discussions under such headings as “fundamental principles,” “effect of competitive theory,” co-operative terminals;” ‘I through routeing,” and “railroads in the city plan.’’ There is also an account of the European trip which, having been undertaken by the commission, was so seriously interfered with by the outbreak of the war. 4 February 11, 1916. 6 Written for “Greater St. Louis,” by Charles H. Huff, and reprinted from the Sl. 6 Covering the fiscal year ended January 31,1913. Published by the Board. Chicago, 7 March 29, 1915. Louis Star. 1915.

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(640 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October This specialization which has been so marked a feature of the recent city plan reports is further emphasized in the last few months by a group of small pamphlets, so many and gathered from so far, that samples only must here suffice. On housing, for instance, there is the report of a survey of housing conditions in Burlington, Vt.8 Miss Udetta D. Brown, an expert from the National Housing Association, did most of the actual work, doubtless surprising Burlington with her revelation that that openly built and beautifully situated city, of only 20,000 population, “has a housing problem of unusual significance.” Of like purport is a report on housing conditions in the Oranges, by Edith Rockwell Hall, field secretary of the civic Committee of the Orange woman’s club.g She closes with the recommendation that there be “ a permanent housing committee for all the Oranges,” which “would do well first of all to arouse interest in securing an expert city planning.” Both of these reports are illustrated with photographs of the kind typical in housing studies. Of somewhat wider appeal is the little pamphlet containing a report by the recreational inquiry committee of the State of California.Io This is a committee of seven, nearly every one of whom is prominent in public welfare work, appointed under authorization of the legislature in 1913. They divide their report into three parts: Part one, written by Professor Janies Edward Rogers, is on “why we need recreation”; part two, on (‘the existing conditions of recreation in the State,” commercial, industrial, institutional, rural, etc. Part three contains recommendations, under the heading, ‘(what we need further in recreational facilities.” This is written by Bessie D. Stoddart, who has been so long and efficiently identified with the playgrounds of Los Angeles. She considers both cities and rural communities, and various phases of activity. There are reports by several municipal art commissions, and these have closer connection with city planning than might be at first supposed. In some cases, art commissions are given city planning powers; in several instances, city plan commissions are given art commission powers. Perhaps a fair example of these reports is that of the art jury of Philadelphia.“ Street lighting fixtures and street and railroad bridges were the forms of construction which had come most often before the jury in the period covered by the fourth annual report. But the largest and most elaborate of the art commission reports is, appropriately, that of the federal commission of fine arts.12 An interesting feature of the report for Made under the Direction of the Committee on Social Survey, 8A Survey of the City of Burliigton: Its Housing Conditions. 9 September, 1915. 10 September 28, 1914. 11 Fourth annual report. 1915. Philadelphia, 1914. l2 For the fiscal year ended June 30,1914. Government, Printing Office, Washington, 1915.

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19161 RECENT CITY PLAN REPORTS 64 1 1914 is a careful explanation of the commission’s attitude with reference to government competitions and its statement of its reasons for believing that “the direct selection of artists” is “normally a better method than a competition.” As always, the photographs illustrating this report are admirable and interesting. Already a considerable number of annual reports have been cited in this review. Several still await mention, for in the twelve months covered, the “annuals” constitute, for the first time, a considerable percentage of the year’s output of “fugitive” city planning literature. One of the most important of the annual reports now appearing is that of the Massachusetts homestead cornmis~ion.~~ This commission was created by the state legislature of 1911 and instructed to work out a plan ‘I whereby, with the assistance of the commonwealth, homesteads or small houses and plots of ground may be acquired by mechanics, factory employees, laborers and others in the suburbs of cities and towns.’’ In pursuance of these instructions the commission has made a most careful study of city planning, and later has been charged by the legislature with the responsibility of securing obedience to the state law which requires every town of ten thousand or more inhabitants to have a town planning board. Its first annual report was of such value that the entire edition was exhausted within a few weeks of publication. A synopsis of some of its data is printed as appendix 111 in the current (second) report. The other appendices contain reports from the many local planning boards of Massachusetts and an account of a state conference on the subject. As to the body of the report, an idea of its city planning interest and value may be gleaned from the titles of selected sections: “Local planning boards and their work,” “illustrations of the need for city planning,” (‘ betterment assessments,” building lines,’’ “improved-housing companies,” “larger powers for planning boards,” the bills proposed,” etc. As to the annual reports of local planning boards, the only one that has come to the reviewer from Massachusetts, except that from Lawrence, which was spoken of in part one of this review, comes from the Quincy b0ard.1~ This is well printed and illustrated. Though making a pamphlet of only sixteen pages, it provides convincing evidence of how much a planning board may mean in the wise development of a town. The third report of the commission on beautifying the city of Norfolk, Virginia,15 covers a two-year period. As in the previous reports, much of the space is devoted to a discussion of the street tree problem, for the handling of which the commission is made responsible. There is note, however, of some waterfront work, some filling-in, some acquisition of public open spaces, and the statement that the commission hopes ulti18 Public Document No. 103. 1914. State Printers, Boston, 1915. 14 Annual .report of the Planning Board. For the year ending December 31, 191 5. July, 1913-J~ly, 1915.

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642 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October mately to take up real planning work, in the correct platting of outlying areas. In the future, that work, if adequately done, will mean much to the growing city of Norfolk. Finally, for the annuat park reports-of which the number is legionare not here included, there is a group of publications that are very directly concerned with city planning but that are commercial in purpose and not of public origin. These have to do with real estate subdivision projects and are illustrative of such a practical phase of city planning, and in some cases so illustrate its best development, that it is impossible to ignore them. The small pamphlet entitled, “Richmond, the industrial center of the Pacific coast,” gives the results of the “city planning competition” on what is called the canal subdivision of Richmond, a section as essential to that city “as the neck is to the human system,” to quote the words of the booklet, and of like relative situation. Illustrations include the winning and the honorable mention plans, and the composite-or final-plan, which has been worked out from the foregoing. The prize essays on the “logical business center of Richmond” and “Richmond ten years hence” are also included. A large and very elaborate publication is that descriptive of Borden Park, Ottawa, which has been laid out by Thomas H. Mawson and Sons, of England.” There are colored plates illustrating the plans in loto and in parle, many beautiful photographs, a number of interesting designs and a good deal of text. Of this not the least interesting portion is an appendix containing a very long list of proposed restrictions. In this group of publications there are also a number of less costly but attractive brochures, of which a fair type is that which advertises, with picture, plan, and text, the country club district of Columbus, Ohio, laid out by William Pitkin, Jr., of Rochester, for the King Thompson Company; or the brochure advertising Ottawa Hilts, Toledo, a development of the E. H. Close Realty Company, on which Frederick Law Olmsted has been in consultation. Most significant is the appearance of such books from various parts of the country. They indicate how practical and effective an ally city planning is now making of the real estate man. Once the movement’s greatest obstacle, there are indications that he may rightfully become its most effective dly. H. C. Cutting, Monadnock Building, San Francisco, Cal. l7 Borden Park, Ottawa. Report on the Development of the Estate for the Great Eastern Realty Co. Thomas H. Mawson and Sons, London, Lancaster, Vancouver, New York. Printed by W. Holmes, Ltd., Ulverston, Lsncs., Eng.

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SHORT ARTICLES COMMUNITY ART BY WILLIAM DUDLEY FOULEE Richmond, Ind. F ANY ONE were to ask what is the most permanent thing produced by man-what lasts longer than anything else upon this planetI think the answer ought to be, its monuments of art. Nearly all that we know of the past life of humanity we have learned from its architecture, its sculpture, its painting and its literature. And the great bulk of the art which has thus endured has not been that which was created by one private individual for another but it has been community art. Often indeed it was the sovereign whom it celebrated but that was because he represented the state. Often it was the temple or the church in which it was embodied but that was because the god to whom these were built was the god of the community that built them. We have less community art in America than in the old world. The great paintings we possess are largely in private collections. Now the possession of the most priceless treasures where they are not open to the public is of very little value to our people. We have indeed a number of excellent galleries but these exist principally in our metropolitan centers. A beginning has also been made in some of the smaller placeswitness the fine art gallery and museum established by Mr. Parrish in Southhampton, Long Island. Such things if widely distributed will be of great value. But to get the very best results they should come, not from the outside as a benefaction, but from within out of the desire of the community itself. When the people feel that a gallery is theirs, established by themselves to fill a need which they have personally realized, they will inevitably take a warmer interest in it than if it came from some outside source. Let the paintings and the statues be received from every quarter, but those that are purchased by the community itself will awaken a livelier concern than those bestowed by others. The competition aroused when they are chosen and the discussion as to their merits, has a distinct value of its own. The people are thinking about. art and are considering the canons by which art is judged. Sometimes the selections may be bad, but that need not often happen if competent experts be called in to award prizes or to pass in other ways upon the merits of prospective purchases, and it is an evil which will 643

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644 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October constantly diminish as better taste and judgment in such matters are acquired by the community. These are not dreams, the thing has been tried in the little city of some twenty-four thousand inhabitants in which I reside-in Richmond, Indiana. Nearly twenty years ago some of our citizens who were interested in painting and sculpture and who had a number of good pictures in their homes, determined to hold a public exhibition for the benefit of the town and they organiaed an art association for the purpose. The exhibition was held in one of the public school buildings, it was free to all, and it consisted almost entirely of paintings and other objects which were loaned by individuals. It attracted widespread interest, the display was a creditable one and it was determined to repeat the experiment every year and to make the association permanent. We were fortunate in choosing for our president, Mrs. M. F. Johnston, who had taken an absorbing interest in the enterprise from the first and who devoted a great part of her time and her most unflagging energy toward making the movement a success. The expense was very little, only a few hundred dollars a year. She enlisted the superintendent of schools in the movement; she also awakened the interest of artists in all parts of the country and they willingly sent their productions for exhibition. Then some bronzes and busts were sent, one or more tapestries were found in the collection and a good deal of bric-a-brac of considerable artistic merit. Then, R wealthy man, who had formerly lived in Richmond, gave $500 a year for a number of years to purchase a picture to be selected by the association. One of the members gave a prize of $50 for the best work exhibited by an Indiana artist and another prize for the best work exhibited by a local artist. It was astonishing what an amount of competition these prizes elicited, not for their money value, but for the reputation acquired in winning them. We have had a number of local artists and the quality of their work, sometimes crude at the beginning, has gone on improving unt,il some of them are known to-day over the country. There was usually a reception on the opening night and artists from other cities-Cincinnati, St. Louis, Indianapolis and Chicago, who had been brought in as members of a committee to pass upon the various paintings, often gave us addresses upon subjects connected with their work. When our new High School building was erected, three large and beautiful rooms upon the upper floor, lighted from the ceiling by day and by electricity at night, rooms as well designed and equipped as those of the best art galleries anywhere, were devoted to the association and a part of the expense of the exhibitions was assumed by the board. One of these rooms is now occupied by the permanent collection of the association. For during all these years we have gone on buying pictures, and a great deal Then the school board began to take a more direct interest.

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19161 COMMUNITY ART 645 of care and very good taste were shown by our various committees in their selection. A number of paintings have been given to us and though we have not by any means accepted all that have been offered we have now by purchase and gift some thirty pictures of excellent quality in a room which is always open to the public. Then it was found that one exhibition a year was not enough-we could not accommodate all the paintings and other objects in the space we had, so we had two and then three exhibitions during the year, one for the artists of the whole country, one for Indiana artists alone and then one for local artists and designers, and I must say that the one of last spring, which we called “Made in Richmond,” was not at all to be despised, when compared even with those in which the whole state and the whole country were represented. Our temporary exhibitions have now increased from two or three a year to eight or nine so that it is rather an unusual thing if there is not some temporary collection as well as our permanent gallery to be seen in these rooms at the high school. Sometimes it is a collection of water colors, or of etchings or specimens of decorative or household art. Just at the entrance is a fountain, one of the best bronzes of Janet Scudder-a boy with a tortoise. Our latest acquisition is an admirable portrait of the artist Wm. M. Chase by himself, contributed in part by a gentleman who formerly resided in our city and in part out of a fund raised by the association. And the association has done all this out of an amount of money collected from its members not exceeding on an average $1,000 a year. The success of Richmond in this experiment was so great that other cities of Indiana and elsewhere in the middle west sought to follow our example and invoked the aid of Mrs. Johnston for the purpose until now the pictures which she selects after visiting the studios of artists in different parts of the country are sent around upon a circuit from one city to another, remaining two or three weeks in each, and we secure the benefit of this collection for much less cost than when the work was done for Richmond alone. In addition to this there are twelve of the cities of Indiana which are now beginning to make permanent collections of their own. The students in our schools visit our collections as part of their regular work, some of them use the paintings to copy from, or as themes from which to develop their own drawings or paintings, or for the purpose of describing and criticizing them in written compositions; and at the end of each school year, exhibitions of their own work are given. The rooms at the high school are also used as the meeting places of the art study club, the music study club and for other similar purposes. They are indeed a social center for all kinds of cultural and for many kinds of social service work and their usefulness to our city is thus very considerable, even outside their primary purpose as an art gallery. The thing kept expanding.

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646 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October And this has been largely the work of our women. The present president of our association like her predecessor is a woman. The women have done far more than the men in advancing this cause of education in art. Now who shall foresee the end of such a movement? If every town in America should devote a like proportion of its energy and effort to the development of community art, our people in another generation would be entering upon a period of leadership in.this great element of human culture. WOMEN AND FIRE PREVENTION ARVARD has created a valuable precedent in establishing a chair of preventive medicine; and'the Bryn Mawr alumns H have created an equally valuable one in the realm of fire prevention. A brief history of the achievement is worthy of a place in the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, not only as a lesson in fire prevention, but as one in effective civic agitation. So here it is, partly in the form of quotations from the documents and partly in the form of narrative by those who were actively concerned. The suit around which the story clusters was started about two years ago by the city fire marshal in the Blankenburg Administration, against the firm of Gimbel Brothers, to compel them to do away with certain conditions in their great department-store building in Philadelphia, alleged to constitute an extraordinary fire hazard, endangering not only their own property and the persons who work in and patronize their establishment, but buildings and the occupants of them in a large territory surrounding the store. Striking practical support of the city's allegation lies in the fact that the owners of surrounding property have to pay approximately $100,000 a year in extra fire-insurance premiums because of the belief of the fire insurance underwriters in the reality of the hazard. On the other hand, it is only fair to say that Gimbel Brothers have taken extraordinary measures to forestall the starting of any fire, by the installation of modern fire-extinguishing precautions and apparatus. The agitation of the subject on the part of architects, insurance underwriters, business men, and public-spirited citizens generally, and the effort to induce the Gimbels to rectify the structural conditions complained of, have been more or less continuous, though without success, ever since the firm started putting together its conglomerate of buildings, about fifteen years ago. The Bryn Mawr Alumna Committees, on the threshold of an inquiry into fire conditions where women and girls are employed, discovered this case and issued a formal printed statement:

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19161 WOMEN AND FIRE PREVENTION FIRE PREVENTION STUDY GIVEN BY ALUMN~ FROM CLASSES 1889-1892, BRYN MAWR COLLEGE 647 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Chairman, MRS. GEORQE HAVEN PUTNAM, . 335 West 86th Street New York City. Treaaurer, MIss MARY MILES BLANCHARD, , Bellefonte, Penna. MIss EDITH CHILD, . MR~. ARTHUR H. SCRIRNER, . MRs. Edwa~a CAMERON KIRX, . PUBLICITY COMMITTEE CAairman. M18s LOUISE R. ELDER, , 1629 Spruce Street Philadelphia. Miss EMILY GREENE BALCH, . MIss HELENA STUART DUDLEY, . MRS. ROBERT MILLE BENCH . DR. MARY TAYLOR MUON. . ADVISORY COMMITTEE Chairman, LEW RusSELL PALMER, Chief of Bureau of Inspection, Department of Labor and Industry, Pennsylvsnis. LEwrs T. BRYANT Commissioner of Labor New Jersey. J. 0. HAMMEW. Chief of‘Bureau of Fire Prevention New York City. POWELL EVANB, Chsirman of the Fire Prevention Commission of Phidefphia, under Mayor Blankenburg’s Administration. H. W. FORBTER, Chief Engineer of the Independence Ins ection Bureau and Chairman of the Committee on Safety to Life of the National &re Protection Association. D. KNICKERRACKER BOYD, F. A. I. A., Former Secretary and Vice-president of the American Institute of H. J. F. PORTER, M. E., New York Cit Architects. CHbsLm A. HE~~MER. Secretary of the Philadelphia Fire’Underwriters’ Aesociation. DR. FRANCIS D. PAnrRsoN, Division of Hygiene, Department of Labor and Industry, Pennsylvania. DR. 6. 6. HUERNER Professor of Insurance Wharton School University of Pennsylvania. The facts here set forth came to the attention of the Bryn Mawr alumnse committees through agencies independent of our investigation under the state department of labor and industry. We referred the findings to our advisory committee of experts, and at a joint meeting of all committees, on April 7, 1916, resolutions were adopted reciting the facts and asking Gimbel Brothers “to take such action as will correct existing super fire hazards, thus reducing city conflagration risks, removing insurance BUT charge and protecting the lives of their employes and customers.” A reply within two weeks was requested. No reply having been received, we now ask all persons to spread knowledge of this condition and so help to avert the sacrifice of perhaps thousands of lives in our city. (Signed) LOUISE R. ELDER, for the committees. “In the heart of the city stands the establishment of Gimbel Brothers, employing approximately 5,000 persons-women, girls, children and men. It is crowded at certain hours by at least as many more of the purchasing public. “Described by architects it is ‘a stack of cards,’ which, if fire started under certain conditions, might prove so enkindling a pile that Philadelphia would soon be flame-swept from river to river. “Ten stories high, occupying almost a block, all supports above the first floor of exposed metal, the walls an aggregation of ancient buildings, the stairways and elevator shafts quite open, no fire walls to check a blaze, massed with inflammable materials, an upper floor a factory, with a11 the well-known fire pre-disposing conditions of such industries, this structure by day and by night imperils the very existence of the city. “Such a danger passes beyond a problem of working-girls and women and challenges the Bryn Mawr committees to speak for the immediate welfare of an entire city. “The act alleged to have been disregarded by the occupants of this building entails a specific penalty of $25.00. “The authorities charged with enforcing this act are local. . . .

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648 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October (‘For more than two years the Fire Marshal of the City of Philadelphia has placed the proprietors of the store on notice as to the super fire danger of their property and the requirement for its reasonable correction. “The Philadelphia chamber of commerce, the board of trade and the bureau of municipal research have adopted resolutions supporting the City of Philadelphia in its position in this matter. (‘ All authorities concerned agree in the conclusion that this building is super-dangerous in fire hazard, not only in regard to property, but especially so with regard to the lives of its thousands of employes and customers. “What defeats their efforts? “Looking for the deeper causes of this amazing situation, the committees discover the following additional facts: “More than half of the land, with the adapted buildings, belongs to. the estates of old Philadelphia families, whose heirs, so far as traced by the committees, have not in other respects departed from good civic tradition. “Surrounding this vast fire-hazard are thousands of property owners, taxpayers and business men who pay excessive insurance on their own safer buildings because of its menace. It is admitted variously that from $50,000 to $125,000 super charges are collected by the insurance companies per annum. . . . “The Committees report the obvious causes of the potential crime to be: The conflict in men’s minds between personal and public interests, and an appraisement of property as of greater value than human life.” Rather a revolutionary statement! but one which was subsequently backed up and reiterated. Although without the support of the press the alumna: bent their efforts to bring about a change in the situation. The findings were read widely before women’s clubs and other meetings in Philadelphia and the suburbs. A circular letter to Bryn Mawr alumnse resident in Pennsylvania enlisted their cooperation in carrying the facts to the purchasing public of the state. Protests began to reach the firm. Early in June just before the case came up for argument in court, the pressure had become both widespread and insistent. When the case was reached the defendants in court declared their intention of complying with the requirements of the bill. At a conference on the morning of June 5 at which representatives of the City of Philadelphia, of the underwriters’ association, of the chamber of commerce and of the Bryn Mawr committees were present, the firm agreed to erect two fire walls running longitudinally through their building. It was also agreed that there should be two openings through the walls in the sub-basement, three in the basement, five on the first floor, four on the second and third floors

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19161 THE PORTLAND SURVEY 649 and three on the remaining floors. These openings are to be between twelve and sixteen feet wide and are to be protected by standard automatic fire doors. In addition the steel supports in the line of the fire walls are to be bricked in. The windows in the rear of the building are also to be equipped with standard fire shutters so as to remove the exposure hazard to buildings closely adjoining the Gimbel store. The walls to be erected under the agreement between Gimbels and the city are not what is technically known as “standard fire walls,” and in view of this fact the city bureau of building inspection cannot issue a permit for the erection of the walls until the court issues its decree authorizing the work to be done as specified in the agreement. As soon as the court acts, work will be commenced. The insurance underwriters have not yet consented to remove the burdensome insurance sur-charges on surrounding property upon the completion of the walls; but in view of the fact that the property hazard will be reduced below the hazard of other large buildings in the same locality, the extra charges should unquestionably be eliminated. In any event, the Iife-hazard will undoubtedly be tremendously reduced by the erection of the walls. Surely an enlightening experience which needs no further comment at our hands ! THE PORTLAND SURVEY’ BY J. CARLETON BELL University of Texas OR those who believe in the development of greater efficiency in city government it is gratifying to note the critical interest taken F by intelligent members of the community in the work of the schools. It is probably true that the American people spend more money for schools than for any other type of municipal activity; and in view of the fact that education is the most valuable form of investment that a community can make, it is well that such expenditures should be maintained and increased. The people are willing to spend their money in this way, if they are convinced that they are getting commensurate returns, but of this they desire to have some evidence, and hence in the past five years we hear of educational surveys in all parts of the country. The school survey of Portland, Oregon, on which the present volume is based, was conducted by Professor Cubberley of Stanford University, with the assistance of Professor Fletcher B. Dresslar, of Peabody College for TeachA textbook on City School Administration Based on a Concrete Study. School Efficiency Series. Yonkers: World Book Company, 1915. Pp. xiv, 441. $1.50. ‘The Portland Survey. By Ellwood P. Cubberley.

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650 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October ers, Professor Edward C. Elliott, University of Wisconsin, now Chancellor of the University of Montana, Superintendent J. H. Francis, Los Angeles, Superintendent Frank E. Spalding, Newton, and Professor Lewis M. Terman, Stanford University. The report, therefore, presents the views of some of our best educational specialists on questions that are of importance to the schools of every municipality, and the book may serve as an epitome of advanced educational thought on city schools. An introductory chapter on the legal organization of the Portland school district leads to the discussion of its administrative organization. We find a city of 250,000 population with a small school board of five members, one elected each year, and with the work of the schools organized into two departments, the business department, including the school clerk, secretary, truant officer, office force, purchasing agent, superintendent of properties and his assistants, and janitors; and the educational department, including the superintendent and his assistants, special supervisors, principals, and teachers. In general, this is commended as a good type of school organization, but closer examination showed that the school board was taking its work entirely too seriously, that its meetings were so frequent and so prolonged as to be a burden to its members, that the time and attention of members was taken up by petty details that should have been disposed of by subordinates, and that there was much waste of energy and effort. This over-officiousness on the part of school boards and unwillingness to put the detailed management of the schools in the hands of the regularly appointed excutives and hold these responsible for results is a familiar phenomenon in American cities, and calls for a clearer definition of the functions of the school board in relation to the officers of instruction. The book contains a discussion of these functions and a diagram of the proper relationships in school organization which are worthy of careful attention. Another important matter agitating American cities is the tenure of teachers. Until the present year, every teacher in the Portland system was required to make an annual application for retention in his position, and the formal annual election, with the constant fear of being dropped, proved very irritating to many conscientious teachers. In a reaction against this state of uncertainty the teachers secured from the last Oregon legislature the passage of a law which provides practically permanent tenure for all teachers, except in cases of open immorality or rank insubordination. Since specific charges must be filed and the technicalities of a legal trial complied with to remove teachers, the result is that it is practically impossible to eliminate incompetents or sluggards from the system. The author points out that the schools should not exist for the benefit of a particular group of teachers, but that the teachers should always subserve the interests of the schools, and to adequately safeguard the schools proposes a middle course. According to this the teacher

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19161 THE PORTLAND SURVEY 651 should be re-elected annually for a probation period of three years, after which the appointment should be made permanent. If a permanent keacher’s work becomes unsatisfactory, warning should be given and sufficient time should be allowed for an opportunity to improve. If after a reasonable length of time the desired improvement is still lacking, notification may be given, and the teacher’s services dispensed with at the close of the school year. The author lays down the principle that the organization of an educational program depends primarily upon the needs of the community which the school system is to serve, and the body of the report (Part ‘Two, Instructional Needs) is devoted to a detailed examination of the present elementary and secondary schemes of instruction and a criticism of the prevailing methods in the light of Portland’s educational needs. Everywhere the examiners found evidence of the strangling grip of tradi;tion upon the course of study and the methods of instruction. No provision whatever is made for the five thousand children of kindergarten age, and the author urgently recommends the establishment of public school kindergartens for the ages from four to six. For the elementary schools the chief need is for teachers who can free themselves from the shackles of the traditional course of study and textbooks, and adjust their work in language, arithmetic, geography, and nature study to the specific needs of their pupils. The author argues for an intermediate school, embracing grades seven to nine inclusive, and differentiated into literary and pre-vocational courses. The secondary school should include grades ten to twelve, and should be differentiated into preparatory and vocational courses. The promotion of the pupil should be based, not on what he has learned, but on what he needs to learn. Among the types of additional schools called for are ungraded rooms for children who need special attention, truant schools, vacation schools, night schools, extension of the school day, special art schools, nieghborhood schools, and a school for janitors. One of the most serious problems confronting any rapidly growing city is the selection of school sites. There are so many influences set to work by owners of real estate and other agencies that it is difficult to make the selection of school sites depend wholly upon the needs of the schools, and even when this disturbance is reduced to a minimum it is rare to find school boards with sufficient insight to leave the selection of school sites to those who have made a special study of the distribution of the school population, Even when this is done the problem is not solved, for the conditions on which the movements of population depend are so complicated that even the specialist is unable to predict where the need for school accomodations will be greatest twenty-five years hence. At the same time schools must be built and the present children cared for, and fortunate is the city whose school board procures expert advice and follows such advice consistently in the selection of locations for schools.

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652 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October The book contains a helpful chapter on the school plant and an up-todate discussion of health supervision. The author urges that the department of health supervision be under the control of the school authorities rather than of the board of health. The health work of the schools should be educational and preventive rather than inspectional and curative. There is need for an extension of the present dental clinic, an adequately organized medical clinic, a liberal supply of school nurses, open-air schools, special attention to school feeding, and special classes for deaf, blind, and crippled children, and for stammerers and backward children. The final chapter deals with the costs of a system of education, presenting the relative position of Portland as compared with thirty-seven other cities with a population of 100,000 to 350,000. In expenditures for school per capita of the total population, Portland ranks nineteenth, while in the cost for each adult male she ranks thirty-first. In the amount of real wealth behind each dollar spent for school maintenance Portland ranks fifth, but in the comparative rates of tax required for school maintenance she ranks thirty-third. In other words it is clearly shown that Portland has abundant wealth to provide a school system of the highest type, but at present she is far behind other cities of her class in the amount of taxes levied for the support of the schools. It will be seen that the report will prove useful to other communities whose citizens are desirous of securing the maximum of efficiency in the conduct of their schools. WHAT IS CIVIC EDUCATION? BY DR. FREDERJC A. CLEVELAND' New York City N YOUR April number2 you published under the above title a contribution signed by Dr. Edward A. Fitapatrick, in which a statement is made relative to the municipal research movement with the evident purpose of reflecting on the work of the New York bureau of municipal research. The statement to which I refer is this: Now that movement is shipwrecked, and has become largely a private agreement between the board of trustees of the bureau and the city officials in whose office the work was carried on without even letting the publlc know what was being done. The above statement raises two interesting questions: First, is the observation of Dr. Fitapatrick an accurate statement and second, is the I 1 Director, Bureau of Municipal Research. 2See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. v, p. 278.

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19161 WHAT IS CIVIC EDUCATION? 653 change in publicity policy of the bureau, whatever it may be, to be regretted? The first point-that of accuracy-is a matter of fact and of conclusion which wouId be drawn from the characterization and description of the bureau methods and results. It is a fact that the policy of regular rapid fire, punch and pepper ” publicity has been deliberately abandoned. This was not done, however, because the bureau no longer wished to interest the citizen, but because the trustees and the director were convinced that the kind of publicity which had been employed under a past management was, in many cases, superficial, misleading and without positive concrete results in the improvement of city government. The trustees and the present management were convinced that an overdose of publicity, based on superficial investigation and alleged facts, did not contribute to the success of our enterprise. In order that the effects of yellow journalistic publicity might die out, the bureau did deliberately refrain from pushing “red” and “yellow)’ cards under the noses of citizens in every morning’s mail. However, anyone who has followed the publicity of the bureau during the last two years in the form of regular issues of Municipal Research and of occasional issues of circular material aimed to call attention to issues at stake in matters of state and city finance, knows that the bureau is still concerned with what in truth may be called the civic education of adults.” It believes, however, that such education should be based on genuine information ascertained by long, painstaking and expert studies such as certain municipal reformers cannot endure. The movement has not gone on the rocks; the ship still sails on-in fact, is carrying more sail than ever before. To follow Dr. Fitzpatrick’s figure it may be said that the crew have merely jettisoned their spoiled cargo and discharged into the sea a large quantity of bilge water taken in by an adventurous pilot while trying to negotiate a series of spectacular “jibes.” This undesirable cargo and bilge was dispensed with in the belief that the short, hot, up-to-date, right-off-the-bat sort of half-truth publicity which Dr. Fitzpatrick and others have chosen to call “civic education for adults” has been or should be discredited by a very large majority of all persons who are interested in the municipal research movement. Whatever might have been the justification of a flamboyant announcement of results of inquiry ten years ago when the public was less well informed, there seems to be little need for it to-day. We have made progress. The ordinary city official as well as citizen has come to have a more intimate knowledge of public affairs. No callow youth equipped with a little “research lingo” can educate the government or help the citizen. Both the literal and the implied meaning conveyed .by Dr. Fitzpatrick in his The phrase “shipwrecked” is unfortunate. Such lingo can only bring the user into disrepute.

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654 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October reflections, therefore, is erroneous. The municipal research movement is now justifying itself on a fact basis, and recognizing the adage that “truth is mighty and will prevail.” Leaders in it prefer real results to newspaper headlines. As to the second question-whether the change in publicity policy of the bureau, whatever it may be, is to be regretted-this is left to the reader, decision having been made by those who are responsible for the management that it is the better course. A REJOINDER! EDWARD A. FITZPATRICK’ Madison, W‘is. R. FREDERICK A.. CLEVELAND’S hot indictment of the former publicity policy of the New York bureau of municipal D research raises an issue I did not even mention in my brief article, that is, the question of the methods of publicity of the New York bureau of municipal research. Note here that the reference was to the movement and not to the New York bureau, and important as the New York bureau is, I do not identify it with the municipal research movement. I was interested in the idea of general publicity, not its methodsand that,, too, as it relates to the movement generally. On that issue the only relevant part of Dr. Cleveland’s article is his last paragraph, and with the position he takes in it I agree. That the reader may himself judge the issue, I am repeating the full reference to the relation of bureaus of municipal research to civic education-and rest the case with that: Ten years ago to-morrow there was established in New York City the bureau of municipal research, and that movement has extended, as you know, all over the country. It was premised on the proposition that it was an agency for the civic education of adults. Publicity was of its essence, and the reiterated publicity of facts about government was to be the primary means of awakening citizens to a demand for improved public administration. Now that movement is ship-wrecked, and has become largely a private agreement between the board of trustees of the bureau and the city officials in whose office the work was carried on without even letting the public know what was being done; and sometimes a bureau is practically supported by a single individual. Two things will help the municipal research movement: a wider basis of citizen support and a frank taking of the citizenship into its confidence. But let me say a word about these olive and lavender and pea green cards. They were evidence of a spirit to inform the citizenship generally. Whether the “efficient citizenship” cards of the New York bureau did it, I do not here and now attempt to answer. But I do say that similar 1 Director, Society for the Promotion of Training for Public Service.

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19161 A REJOINDER 655 cards issued by the Philadelphia bureau of municipal research under the title of citizen’s business” are of such a character as to produce a leavening influence on the character of citizen information. The cards of the Akron bureau under the title of “public information” may not fairly be described by any of the adjectives used by Dr. Cleveland. While I was aware of these exceptions when I wrote, I was then interested in a general view of the subject. I thought then and think now that any improvement of business methods-or administrative machinery or operation is of infinitely less importance than the working out of a technique of public information. It seems to me that the change of front of bureaus of municipal research generally makes it less likely that such a technique of public information will be worked out-and this for me was the most important result that could come from the municipal research movement. There is another point that deserves comment at this time. It is contained in Dr. Cleveland’s first sentence that my statement was made “for the evident purpose of reflecting on the work of the New York bureau of municipal research.” I presume, for example, that if I should say, as I believe, that the propaganda of the New York bureau of municipal research for an executive budget as proposed is subversive of our representative system of government and would result in the undermining of public administration in this country, I would then be attacking somebody’s motives or reflecting on the work of the New York bureau. If I should say, as I believe, that the budget provisions of the “late” New York revised constitution, which the New York bureau should have opposed with all its might and main-(but didn’t)-because it had taken the very heart out of its own original proposal-and which in the name of responsibility and responsiveness could have produced only irresponsibility and irresponsiveness and autocracy, I would be attacking somebody’s motives or reflecting on the work of the New York bureau. I am not particularly concerned with men’s motives. I leave motives to the conscience of individuals. But I am interested in the fact that the bureaus of municipal research have somewhat changed front and that they are now no longer agencies of citizen inquiry, but co-operative agencies with public officials. I state the fact and regret it because the larger service was in the original conception. This change is an important social fact and a very significant one in its relation to civic education, and it was the importance and the significance of the fact that I wished to drive horne-not any reflection on anybody’s work. I think that the New York bureau is, so far as I know, doing its present work with great ability. But its present work is not the work it started out to do. The issues raised by Dr. Cleveland’s daring (to put it most mildly) nautical figures of speech are no concern of mine, and I leave them to. more seasoned ability in this not too gentle act of controversy. So much for the main issue.

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656 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October JEOPARDIZING REFORM IN NEW YORK CITY BY DR. WM. H. ALLEN New York City N the July issue of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, Robert S. Binkerd, secretary of the New York city club’ challenged the fairness and accuracy of statements made m an article by me entitled “Tuberose Obstacles to Reform in New York City.” * By confronting Mr. Binkerd’s statements with official records students of municipal affairs will be helped to see in what jeopardy municipal reform in New York City is being placed by the attitude of recognized -even self-admitted-leaders of municipal reform. The first instance of alleged unfairness and inaccuracy relates to a five year lease of private property by the public service commission which was cited by me as unnecessary, because “at the time when the mayor and the chamberlain might have been looking at submitted evidence to show how and where the public service commission could be satisfactorily housed in vacant city-owned property, they were listening to the commission’s reasons for wanting to lease private property.” The city authorities had not the slightest control over the lease made by the public service commission. . . . Theyattempted tosecureapostponement . . . in an endeavor to find cheaper quarters. The responsibility and blame for this lease, if there be any, is surely upon the commission and not upon tJhe city government.” In comparing these statements with the official facts that follow will readers bear in mind that Mr. Binkerd is secretary of the city club of New York, which organization says of itself in the charities directory for 1916 that its purpose is “securing permanent good government for the the City of New York . . . a non-partisan civic organization watching the various branches of the municipal government.” Is it unnatural that the general home public or out of town students of public affairs take it for granted, first, that Mr. Binkerd will not speak unless he knows, and secondly that what he thinks he knows is correct? Can anyone doubt that public officials will come to believe that it is safe to go as far awayfrom or stay as near self-extenuation as the city club will publicly approve? I To discredit this statement Mr. Binkerd wrote: Now for the official record. January 21, 1916, the chairman of the public service commission wrote to the bridge commissioner-representative of the sinking fund commis1 Sse vol. v, p. 427. *See vol. v, p. 419.

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19161 JEOPARDIZING REFORM IN NEW YORK CITY 657 sion of which the mayor, chamberlain and comptroller are membersasking for space in the municipal building. Later the chairman and other officers of the public service commission went through the municipal building and other city-owned buildings to see where space might be found. On this tour President Straus was heard to remark: “If this were a private building we would find space without spending city money on a private lease.” Later President Straus wrote to the institute for public service: “The commission has sent a letter to the bridge commissioner making such request ”-i.e., “suggesting the possibility of the readjustment of space in the municipal building so as to afford space for the public service commission. ” On February 16, 1916, the institute submitted to Chamberlain Bruhre evidence showing how vastly more space could be obtained in the building than the public service commission needed. We kept an appointment at his office made by him, but which he failed to keep. We could not reach him or the mayor by telephone because they were closeted with one of the public service commissioners. Postponement of the signing of the lease was secured by city officers, and the lease was not completed until Mayor Mitchel telephoned that he would not ask the commission to wait longer. He did release the commission from its pledge before either he or the chamberlain looked at evidence submitted at their request showing that the lease was unnecessary. All these facts had been published in the newspapers before Mr. Binkerd wrote his letter to the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, as they were later testified to before the Thompson investigating committee and again published in the newspapers. There is only one other point regarding which Mr. Binkerd challenged my fairness and accuracy. He wrote: “Dr. Allen states that the fire prevention work had been going for years under Mayor Gaynor. The bureau was established in 1911 but constituted one of the glaring weak spots of Mayor Gaynor’s administration. The appointments of fire prevention inspectors were practically parceled out to the leaders of Tammany hall. . . . ” The implication is that my statement was untrue and that fire prevention work had not been going on for years under Mayor Gaynor. In the published report of the fire department for 1912 appear these facts: arrests for arson 64; convictions for arson 40; pending arson cases 22; total inspections 132,601; orders served 18,684, of which 128 called for installation of sprinkler systems, 603 for fire escapes, and the remainder for additional stairways, adequate exits, fireproofing of stairways, removal of rubbish, prevention of smoking where such smoking constituted a menace to life and property; summonses in criminal proceedings 316; conviction for violation of the fire prevention law 154; original inspections 8

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658 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October of theatres, moving picture shows, dance halls, boxing clubs, etc. 3,402; reinspections 14,083 ; dangerous conditions remedied in 1,503 instances, etc. On review of this year’s work the budget was voted by a fusion majority of the board of estimate and apportionment, including Comptroller Prendergast, Borough President McAneny, and now Mayor Mitchel, giving the fire prevention bureau $255,000 for 1913. Would you have judged t.his from the facts stated by Mr. Binkerd? It is true that appointments were “practically parceled out to the leaders of Tammany hall.” It is also true that infinitely more headway would have been made by those who lamented that parceling out if they had shown how the work of fire prevention was suffering, instead of confining their attention to the political motive of the appointing power. MR. BINKERD’S COMMENT Without discussing the practicability of Dr. Allen’s plans for economizing space in the Municipal Building, the fact that the city authorities conceivably could have offered space to the Public Service Commission does not alter the fact that the commission is responsible for the lease which it entered into. In one breath Dr. Allen criticizes the mayor and the chamberlain for “listening to the commission’s reasons for wanting to lease private property.” In the next breath he criticizes me for stating that the commission is responsible for what it had full legal power to do, and what he admits it wanted to do! As to the bureau of fire prevention, the fact that it was established in 1911, received public money, and engaged in some activity, does not for one moment disprove that the present city administration inherited in that bureau a welter of inefficiency, the removal of which put fire prevention work soundly on its feet for the first time. As for those delightful personalities which enliven Dr. Allen’s argument, ending in the conclusion that I constitute a jeopardy to reform, I can only say that a jeopard cannot change his spots. ROBERT S. BINKERD.

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NOTES AND EVENTS 1. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION Charter Revisions.+and Rapids to have CommissionTManager Fmm. On August 29, by a vote of 7,693 to 6,021, Grand Rapids adopted a special charter providing for the commission manager form of government. The charter will go into effect May 1, 1917. The city in 1910 had a population of 112,571 (about 4,000 less than Dayton), so that it is the second largest city thus far to adopt this system. Under the new charter Grand Rapids will be governed by a commission of seven men, two members elected from each of the three wards and one from the city at large. From their own number the commission will choose a mayor and a president. The term of office of the commissioners will be two years and their salaries $1,200 a year with an additional $300 for the commissioner who is chosen mayor. In addition to the city commission the comptroller is to be elected, together with the following officers who are not an integral part of the city government: four county supervisors and one constable in each ward and five library commissioners and two justices of the peace in the city at large. It is fortunate that the duties of these minor officers are as comparatively unimportant as their positions on the ballot are likely to be inconspicuous. The city manager will have the appointment of the administrative officers not above mentioned except of the city attorney, city clerk, city treasurer and three assessors. He will have also budget and other powers similar to those of the city managers in Dayton, Springfield, etc. To insure full publicity and popular scrutiny of the budget, a copy of the same @ required to be mailed to every voter at least twenty days before it is passed by the commission. The city commission is ex-oficio the civil service board-an arrangement which is at least theoretically unsatisfactory, according to prevailing civil service standards. However, the classified service is fairly large, including as it does all officers except (1) those elected by the people, (2) the city manager, (3) the heads of departments and members of appointive boards, (4) the deputy and secretary of the city manager and the deputy of each department and of the city clerk. The competitive classification includes all offices and employments for which it is practicable to determine the merits and fitness of applicants by competitive examination. The charter provides for the initiative and referendum on the basis of a 12 per cent petition. Recall proceedings may be instituted by 25 per cent of the voters. The basis of computation in all cases is the total number of registered voters rather than the number voting at a previous election. Montelair, N. J., on June 6, adopted the commission plan under the Walsh act by a vote of 1,151 to 889. A subsequent recount reduced the majority to five votes more than the necessary 30 per cent of the number of’votes cast at the last preceding election for the general assembly. It has been the hope of many of the original supporters of the movement that a majority, if not all, of the first commission elected would be in favor of creating the office of town manager. Of the 35 candidates which stood for election, 13 favored the idea. Only one of this number waE elected. Middletoum, unlike most of the Ohio cities which took advantage of their constitutional home rule opportunities, adopted the “straight” commission plans 659

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660 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October The experiences of this city as recorded in the Middletown Signal constitute an interesting commentary on what a number of the theoretical students of the plan regard as some of its inherent weaknesses. To quote: The necessity for a city manager is seen in all the public affairs of the municipality. Each department is going along in its own peculiar way, without any recognized head and without co-operation, or consideration each for the other. At the present time, this city is considering the purchasing of city parks, the buying of school-house grounds and the elimination of the old Middletown cemeter from the heart of the city. $he only trouble in accomplishing all this work systematically and advantageously and at the least expense to the city lies in the fact that there is no directing hand, no executive head in which these elements may be centered, but each acting in its individual capacity running hither and thither; the whole city organization is a rope of sand without any system, any tenacity or energy as a whole. If there was a city manager he might readily see the necessity of providing a way for removing the old cemetery from the centre of a progressive city. He would also consider the purchase of public grounds in co-operation with the school board and park commission. He would consult the cemetery trustees, and bring them into co-operation with the civic bodies, and a mode of procedure could be devised by which the cemetery association could be satisfied and its dead properly cared for, the city be relieved of an incubus, because of its location, which might be transformed into a beautiful and convenient school park for the living and prove a blessing to the present generation and to generations yet to come. All that is required is a little energy, and a central authority, to bring about the desired results. A city manager would bring together the presidents of the cemetery association, the president of the city commission and the school board and park commission, and lay some definite plan and mode of procedure before them, which would receive due consideration. But not only this measure so universally desired in this city, but other matters of daily consideration, show the necessity for a city manager. As it is the various departments of the city are run haphazard. Not 80 bad as they were under the old federal plan, but bad enough because the city commission is not complete without a head. What a combination of error and waste, a rolling mill, a paper mill, or factory would be, with each department running independent of the other, and each jealous of any suggestions or interference from any other department. Those are the conditions in city affairs that should be overcome, but we have our doubts if the members of the city commission, each jealous of his own department, would be willing to better conditions, and vote for the appointment of a city manager to do the city's business a great deal better than it is done to-day. This is not criticising the present city form of government as it is superior beyond comparison to the old form. But it is a suggestion for the betterment of the commission form. It needs improving in the appointment of a city manager and in the mayoralty provision of the charter that permits only an attorney to act in the capacity of chief executive of the city. Clinton, Ill., by a vote of 1,043 to 341 voted on September 11 to retain the commission form of government. H. S. GIL~ERTSON. * Shemll, N. Y., City Manager.-Chester A. Brown was appointed city manager of Sherrill, N. Y., on June 6, 1916. The government of Sherrill is vested in a commission of five persons elected at large, who appoint the city manager, city clerk, deputy clerk, assessors and health officers. The commission is not permitted to contract with the manager for a longer period than two years. The city manager has control over all the departments created by the charter and is empowered to appoint or remove the directors as well as subordinate officers or employes in those departments. * Ashtabula's Experiences.-Early in 1915 Ashtabula, Ohio, adopted a charter embodying the city manager plan. An account of how this charter was amended so as to provide for choosing the council by the Hare system of proportional representation and of the first election under the amended charter was given in the previous issue of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW.'' Since that article was written a manager and other administrative officers have been chosen by the council 'VOl. v, p. 58.

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19161 NOTES AND EVENTS 661 and the new plan of government has gone into operation. Difficulties that arose in selecting a manager have been given such wide publicity that an account of what actually took place and a statement of the present situation may be of some interest. What is here written is based on a knowledge of conditions in Ashtabula extending over several years, and on a recent investigation made on the ground. The council of seven elected in November, 1915, took office January 1, 1916. Their first and most important duty was to choose a city manager. In the performance of this duty four councilmen at once showed a disposition to play very personal, very cheap and very undesirable politics. Three of this group of four had been members of the council under the old city government, and the fourth was the one socialist elected under the new charter. The other three members of the council acquitted themselves with credit, sometimes voting to select a manager from outside the city and sometimes voting for a distinctly capable Ashtabula man with a good record of public service. The Ashtabula charter does not specifically forbid the council to choose one of its own members as manager though such a choice would be entirely at variance with the spirit and fundamental principles of the manager plan. After a good deal of jockeying and fruitless balloting councilmen Briggs, Corrado, Earlywine and Hogan united in voting for Briggs. The city was outraged. While not undesirable as a councilman, Briggs has no qualifications for the managership except that just at that time he was badly in need of a job whereby to support himself and family. A storm of public disapproval broke over the council and centered itself on Briggs. Here the advantage of the concentrated responsibility and authority provided by the charter manifested themselves. After twelve days of hesitation, Briggs yielded to the pressure of public opinion and declined the managership. The council returned to its balloting. Finally on January 25, and after one hundred ballots had been taken, Corrado, ’Briggs, Earlywine and Hogan voted for J. Warren Prine, a well known citizen of Ashtabula, and he accepted the managership at a mlary of $2,500 per year. Probably no one alive to the spirit of the manager plan and appreciating its possibilities would regard the choice of Mr. Prine as better than mediocre. Material of superior quality could have been found in Ashtabula. He is fifty years old, has been active in politics as a Republican, was postmaster of Ashtabula for twelve yearsprior to January, 1915, has conducted a coal and builders’ supply business for a short time and, on the whole, can be said to have had no training that specially qualifies him for the position of manager. On the other hand it should he said, in fairness. that the citizens of Ashtabula seem to see nothing inappropriate in Mr. Prine’s appointment. He has a reputation for honesty and is undeniably popular with all classes. He appears to have more than the ordinary equipment of common sense and has turned to his new duties with an earnestness that may go far in compensating for his initial deficiencies. In order to acquaint himself with his work he visited Dayton and Springfield, the two most prominent commission manager cities in the country. The people of Ashtabula seem to regard him with considerable confidence. He has stated that political considerations will play no part in his appointments, but that subordinates will be selected upon the basis of fitness alone. The few changes that he has made seem to meet with general public approval and are undeniably in the interest of efficient and economical government. Under the Ashtabula charter the council chooses not only the manager but also the city attorney, auditor and health officer. Strangely enough the council, which gyrated so wildly in its effort to select a manager, acted promptly and effectively in the choice of these other officers. ln each case an excellent selection was made. Moreover, the council seems now to have settled itself to the serious performance of its regular *duties. Favorable comments are being made upon

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662 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October the businesslike and expeditious manner in which the council is dispatching its work. This is the story of Ashtabula's experience to date, and after all, it is neither very remarkable nor very exciting. If what has been recounted had taken place in any other city of similar size in the course of putting the commission manager plan into operation it would have attracted little more than passing notice. It is only because Ashtabula has been in the public eye through having introduced proportional representation into its system of election that its temporary unpleasantness has been deemed worthy of unusual attention. There are sincere people in Ashtabula who will tell you that the lapse of the council was due to the system of election. A careful investigation shows that there is very slight basis for such a conclusion. The same persons who feel so sure concerning this alleged result of proportional representation will tell you that the council rhosen is about as good as could have been secured from the fourteen candidates who offered themselves. The more thoughtful citizens, among them some who were opposed to the adoption of the proportional representation amendment, are not so ready to attribute the difficulty to the system of election. The impression that one gets is that, when the new government did not begin operation smoothly, some people sought a reason in the plan itself and turned naturally to the part which'was most unlike that to which they were accustomed. Sincere people who reached. this hasty conclusion at once found themselves supported by all those who for political or other reasons were opposed to the new charter as a whole. Even so, it is doubtful whether the dissatisfaction was greater in degree than that which manifested itself in Dayton and Springfield in the early days of their commission manager charters. Just as in those cities the people, after the first flare of opposition, decided to await the results of the new system, so the people of Ashtabula now seem inclined to give their plan every opportunity to prove itself. A. R. HATTON. Huntsville, Alabama, Abandons Commission Government.-In 1915 the Alabama Legislature enacted a drastic state wide prohibition law. At the time Huntsville was operating a dispensary jointly with the state for the sale of liquor, which dispensary produced a revenue for the city of some $25,000. The adoption of the prohibition bill put an end to this dispensary effective in June 1915 and took away from the city this revenue. The tax rate in Huntsville is one half of 1 per cent for general purposes and one half of 1 per cent for special purposes which includes a sinking fund. This tax rate is wholy inadequate but is limited by the state constitution. I became mayor of Huntsville in October 1915, and realizing the fact that the revenues of the town were inadequate for its operation, after the putting away of the dispensary, with the co-operation of my associate commissioners we adopted certain ordinances for increased privilege taxes and establishing a system of water meters throughout the town and raising the water rates (the city owning its own water works). This measure was unpopular, as are all measures for the increase of taxation and immediately the political opponents of the commissioners instituted proceedings to change the form of government. They brought about an election for the submission to the people the proposition of the return to the aldermanic form of government and promised promiscuously, if successful, to reduce the taxes. This promise, in the opinion of the writer, can never be made good in view of the financial condition of the town, but it was a sufficient temptation to the voters to get them to vote out the commission form of government as an expensive form of government by a majority vote of fifty in number. MILTON H. LANIER. * The Philadelphia Electric Rate Case.The notable results achieved in the Philadelphia electric rate case, which was brought to conclusion on April 19, 1916, places it among the most important utility cases of recent record. Reductions by the

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19161 NOTES AND EVENTS PhiIadelphia Electric Light Company, which monopolizes the electric light business of the city, of $150,000 a year in public lighting charges and of 8900,000 in aggregate commercial electric rates and a rebate (by stipulation in the contract for 1915, executed during the progress of the case) of $195,000 to the city for public lighting tell the concrete story in its ultimate essence. Chief credit for this large accomplishment must go to Morris L. Cooke, who was director of public works under Mayor Blankenburg. It was he who instigated and in the face of many discouraging difficulties successfully prosecuted the caEe before the public service commission of the state. Among others who contributed to the success of the issue should be mentioned Clayton W. Pike and Judson C. Dickerman, chiefs respectively of the electrical and gas bureaus under the Blankenburg administration; George H. Morse of the Mutual electric and machine company of Detroit; Fredrick W. Ballard, consulting electrical engineer of Cleveland and his associate, Roy Husselman; Dr. Ernest M. Patterson, assistant professor of economics in the University of Pennsylvania; Dr. William Draper Lewis, professor of law in the University of Pennsylvania, who was chief counsel for the complainant; and Dr. Milo R. Maltbie, formerly public service commissioner and now city chamberlain of the city of New York, who was retained as special investigator by the Pennsylvania public service commission. To recount the invaluable services of each of these would lead into a detailed history of the proceedings covering the period from the filing of the complaint in July 1914 to the settlement reached in April 1916. This seem unnecessary. SufEce it to say that each of these collaborators merits unstinted praise for the quality, fairness, and public-spiritedness of his contribution. A few points in connection with this case are of especial interest. Manifestly it is physical valuation of properties and cost of operation that are the two most important factors to be considered in the fixing of rates. Appraisals therefore are indispensable. But appraisals are costly. Upon whom should the burden of making appraisals in such cases lie-the complainant, the public service commission, or the company? Without the authority of a public order a complainant is almost strait-jacketed by lack of access to the company’s books and properties. In such situation was Mr Cooke. A public service commission cannot itself make appraisals in the absence of adequate funds. In such situation was the Pennsyalvania commission. A utility company will not ordinarily make an appraisal except under compulsion, and in the nature of things it can scarcely be expected to push with expedition the kind of appraisal that would be most valuable to those who are working in the interest of the general public. The Pennsylvania law lays the onus of making appraisals upon the utility companies, acting under mandate of a public service commission furnished with utterly insufficient funds. Before this commission, therefore, Mr. Cooke was, in order to secure an order for appraisal, under the nesessity of making out a prima facie case; and in this, in spite of manifest obstacles, he doubtless succeeded. It is admitted, however, that the commission, as constituted in the autumn of 1914, would probably not have ordered the company to make an inventory and appraisal and would probably not have gone at all into the matter of commercial rates. Whatever may have been the company’s motive it must be put down to its credit that the prosecution of this particular complaint would doubtless have terminated at the end of the preliminary hearing had not the company voluntarily offered to submit to the commission, when completed, an inventory and appraisal which, under the direction of Professor Dugald C. Jackson, head of the electrical department of Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was already in the making. This inventory was submitted in August 1915 and the appraisal in the following November. From the viewpoint of the

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664 1YTA4TIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October public interest this work may no doubt be criticised on the following grounds: (1) that the inventory, covering 110 volumes, was unnecessarily elaborate, while the appraisal, which as originally submitted covered only two typewritten sheets, was ridiculously inadequate for purposes of cross-examination (this latter defect was by order of the commission remedied within two weeks); (2) that the making of the appraisal had consumed too much time, the delay being obviously to the advantage of the company, which had agreed to make a rebate to the city on the 1915 contract. but not to the private consumers of current; (3) that Professor Jackson’s appraisal of the value of the company’s property (including nearly $14,000,000 for intangibles such as allowances for corporate organization, patents and patent rights, going concern valuation, etc.) at $51,583,000 was enormous considering the complainants’ appraisal (excluding a11 intangible allowances and an item of over $5,000,000 for construction under may) of $23,583,000. (The actual difference between the two, apart from intangibles and construction under way was about $10,000,000.) It is a debatable question whether Professor Jackson is deserving of severe censure on any of these grounds, no matter how much of truth may lie in each of the accusations. An expert appraiser, employed as he was, is in much the same position as an attorney. He is employed to defend his client’s interests; and valuation fuch are, as everybody knows, not greatly more malleable than the law. Realizing the necessity of ultimate compromise an appraisal made exclusively by a complainant representing the public would perhaps have erred quite as far in the opposite direction. The truth of the matter is that appraisals of this kind should be made by neither the one nor the other but by a group representing all the interests involvedor by a disinterested public authority, raised as far above political considerations ~LB human nature permits and armed with ability, fair purpose, and money. So far as intangiblevalues are concerned, it should be recorded that the Pennsylvania law explicitly requires that they be considered. Chief counsel Lewis sums up the lesson of this case as follows: The great lesson of this case has, I believe, taught the commission and certainly the lesson which it has taught the litigants is that every effort should be made to avoid any trial [before the courts] at all. Where reproduction cost, book cost. financial history, etc., have to be investigated, what ought to be done is to give each question to a committee of three experts on the subject to be investigated, one appointed by the commission, one appointed by the complainant and one by the company; the experts to have any assistance which they may require. The result of their findings should be reported to the commission, the commission to take testimony only if there is conflict between the experts or if the commissioners themselves are for any reason dissatisfied with the report. Be it recorded to the credit of all concerned that in this highly important case, trial was avoided; that a committee of three (appointed as advocated by Professor Lewis) made a quick and unanimous report covering the difficult question of book costs; and that final settlement was reached by agreement between chief complainant Cooke and the company, which agreement was approved by the commission. It is roughly estimated that the settlement permits a 7 per cent. yield on a valuation of about $30,000,000. 9 Illinois Utility Rates.-Half a million dollars a year, it is estimated, will be saved to patrons of public utilities in Illinois a8 a result of rate reductions ordered or approved by the state public utilities commission during the two years of its existence, and the public is receiving better service and the companies are conducting their operations upon sounder business principles. This saving, however, as a report to Governor Dunne points out, is at present confined to comparatively few localities, though in many other districts cases involving rates of service are pending. In Belleville, 21,000 residents are saving approximately $30,000 a year which they formerly paid to the St. Clair County gas and electric com

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19161 NOTES AND EVENTS 665 pany, as a result of reductions ordered by the commission. The residential electric lighting rate was reduced from 11.4 cents net to 10 cents net and the gas rates were reduced from $1.15 net per thousand feet to $1. Important cases involving rates for electric, gas or telephone service are pending in Springfield, Quincy, Peoria, Jacksonville and other places. Many rate reductions have resulted from the moral force of the commission rather than from its legal power. In some instances the utilities companies have voluntarily filed new schedules carrying lower rates for service. In others, the necessity under the law of eliminating all discrimination has brought about rate reductions in the readjustment of schedules. No change of rates is permissible under the law except with the approval of the state commission. In case a proposed new schedule results in a reduction in rates, the schedule may become effective thirty days after being filed with the commission. But if an increase in rates is sought the company must file a petition with the commission, must advertise in one or more newspapers in the community affected that such petition has been filed and must show cause at a hearing before the commission why such proposed increases are reasonable and just. The most far-reaching case yet completed was the application of the public service company of Northern Illinois for a reduction in electric lighting rates from 141 cents per kilowatt hour to 12 cents per kilowatt hour. This company serves, and the 17 per cent reduction became effective in 125 cities, towns and villages in northern Illinois, including Joliet, Kankakee, Streator and other places. The Central Illinois public service commission has reduced its electric rate from 134 cents to 13 cents, affecting a number of cities. In Galesburg the residence light rate was cut from 133 to 11 cents per kilowatt hour, a reduction of 18 per cent. In Springfield residence and commercial lighting was reduced 17 per cent, affecting about 4,800 consumers. In Carthage a reduction of about 17per centwasmade. Lower electric rates also are in effect in 37 other places. Lighting Costs in Chicago.-Therelative cash cost of lighting Chicago has decreased from$497.50per 1,000 c. p. to $46.05 during the seventeen-year period from 1898 to 1914. During this period the approximate total candle-power has increased from 1,880,000 to 24,664,000; the total expenditures for public lighting has increased from $934, 917.44 to $1,136,099.16; the amount expended for gas lights has decreased from $643,586.29 to 3257,680.47, while the lighting connected with the municipd station has increased in value from $106,914.46 to $614,941.94. The amounts paid for rented electric lights have practically doubled ($55,948.23 in 1C98 and $113,6S2.95in 1914), whiletheamountpaid for gasoline ~~ remained constant ($128,468.46 in 1898 and $149,793.80 in 1914). Chicago’s experience with the new type “C” gas-filled incandescent tungsten lamp has resulted in splendid improvements in illumination at lowered costs. The actual cash cost for 1914 for 1,000 hours for each of these lamps was $22.54 for each lamp year. The fixed charges on each lamp are lower than the old arc lamp and the cost of labor is liken-ise considerably less. These are but a few of the splendid facts brought out by the succinct and valuable eighteenth annual report (1914) made by Mr. Ray Palmer, commissioner of gas and electricity, city of Chicago. . * Electric Rates in Ho1yoke.-Holyolce, Massachusetts, has secured a one-cent rate on electricity for power purposes sold by the municipal gas and electric department, according to announcement by its manager, John J. Kirkpatrick. At the request of the Massachusetts gas and electric commission the department readjusted its schedule and established a new one for 24-hour power. The former schedule had been in force since the city began selling electric power. It called for a percentage discount upon the gross amount of bill, the amount of the discount increasing as the gross amount of the bill increased. This method was vigorously objected to as it made it possible for consumers to have to pay a larger bill one month, although they might have used

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666 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October less power. Under the new schedule the discount given will be based upon the amount of electricity and no irregularities will be possible. * Building Districts and Restrictions in New York.--Chapter 470 of the New Yorli law of April 20, 1914, authorized the New York City board of estimate and apportionment to divide the city into districts; to regulate the heights of buildings; the area of courts and open spaces; the location of trades and industries and the erection of buildings designed for specified uses. As a preliminary to the exercise of this authority in June, 1914, a commission on building restrictions and districts was appointed with Edward M. Bassett, chairman; Lawson Purdy, vicechairman; Robert H. Whitten, secretary; and George B. Ford, consultant. The commission with unusual thoroughness undertook the exceedingly complicated studies necessary for an intelligent report and wisely secured the co-operation of the various departments of the city as well as of the commercial and civic organizations, and froin financial, real estate and other interests. Two reports (a tentative one dated March 10, 1916, and a final one dated June 2, 1916) were issued setting forth in detail the conclusions reached and the action recommended. On July 25, 1916, the board of estimate and apportionment passed what is technically called the “building zone resolution,” regulating and limiting the height and bulk of buildings hereafter to be erected in New York. In addition to restricting skyscrapers, there are many important features affecting living and business conditions in every part of the city. The law is designed to check the invasion of retail districts by factories and residence districts by factories and business; to prevent an increase of the congestion of streets and of subway and street car traffic in sections where the business population is already too great for the sidewalk and transit facilities; to prevent the overcrowding by manufacturing concerns of sections where the streets are insufficient for the vehicular traffic, and at the same time to concentrate manufacturing in locations where its products can be handled most efficiently and where its presence will not destroy real estate for residential and retail business purposes; to prevent congestion of street and transit facilities caused by housing a large population on a small area in a skyscraper. Restricting the size of buildings is a necessity from the standpoint of light and air which are impaired by buildings of excess height, so the fundamental principle of providing air and light is followed out in building restrictions in all parts of the city. This ordinance is described by one student of city planning as the “greatest and most far-reaching thing New York has ever, done.”’ * Berkeley’s Zoning Ordinance.-Berkeley, California, has also adopted a zoning ordinance which is regarded as an important contribution This ordinance, an enabling one, defines eight classes of districts or zones which may be formed by the passage of later ordinances, each locating a ‘definite geographical district in which all property would be specifically limited to the use of the class designated. The only improvements permitted in these districts will be as follows: In class I, single family residences; class 11, single or two-family dwellings; class 111, single or two-family or group dwellings with separate ground floor entrances and not more than two stories in height; class IV, single, two-family or group dwellings and boarding houses and clubs (of which there are a great number surrounding the University of California, located in Berkeley); class V, all buildings permitted in classes I, 11, 111 and IV, and apartment houses, hotels and restaurants without display windows; class VI, public buildings, such as churches, schools, parks, etc. ; class VII, ordinary industries, that are not obnoxious; class VIII, industries of the heaviest type, which might prove obnoxious because of odors, smoke or noise. According to Charles H. Cheney who was the consultant of the Berkeley com- ‘An article from Dr. Robert H. Whitten, secretary of the commission, will appear in the January issue.

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19161 NOTES AND EVENTS 667 mission drafting the ordinance, it has started neighborhood discussion in all parts of the town in regard to individual versus community rights. “In this way it is arousing more thoroughly than ever before new civic consciousness and forethought. As a basis for sound future city planning, as well as for the splendid protection and stabilityit offers to property values, it is a constructive step in the right direction.” Sacramenlo is another city which had adopted a zone ordinance drafted by Dr. John Nolen. * The Smoke Nuisance.-New York. In 1907 an order was adopted by the public service commission for the first district and issued to the N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. company that the company desist from further permitting in any manner the emission of black smoke from the stacks of the engines in use on its lines, while they shall be standing in or passing through the Harlem River terminal yard, and that the company cover all soft coal fires in the yard, whether st,anding still or passing through, with coke and to feed continually and replenish same with coke during the. time the engines shall remain in the yard; and further that the company discontinue the use of the round house in the yard and of the tracks in and adjacent to it for the storage of engines under same. In February, 1908, another order was served on the N. Y. C. R. R. company to desist from the use of soft coal on any engines used by it on its New York & Putman division, while within the corporate limits of the city. In March, 1908, a further order was served on the company that every engine operated in a northerly direction on the line lying west of Riverside Drive and west of the Boulevard Lafayette be started on its run with a clean anthracite coal fire or fire produced by other smokeless fuel, or with devices preventing the emission of black smoke, if such be discovered, and that every such engine should in addition carry an available supply of hard coal, etc., sufficient to carry the engines through the city, this amount of hard coal or other smokeless fuel to be never less than one ton for each engine or in case of liquid fuel, of such an amount as will be sufficient to carry the engine beyond the northerly limits of the city, in addition to the amount in the fire box at the beginning of the trip. In July, 1916, an order was issued to the Long Island R. R. company to the effect that it shall operate no steam locomotive through the tunnels on its Atlantic Avenue division, except between the hours of 12 midnight and 6.30 a. m. This order is possibly subject to further amendment after further hearings. These orders have largely eliminated the complaints due to these causes. In the case of the N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. company, the Harlem River yard has since been electrified and all passenger business of this company and over 60 per cent of the freight business in now handled by the electric service. Minneapolis. During 1913, the Minne apolis civic and commerce association employed a smoke inspector, paying his salary. During his activity, the reduction in the smoke nuisance was marked. In the spring of 1913, however, the committee requested the city council to assume the responsibility of the employment of this inspector. After considerable agitation, the council decided not only not to employ the inspector, but also to abolish altogether the office of smoke inspector. The association’s committee on smoke prevention has nevertheless continued its activities and has been collecting information regarding this subject preparatory to an educational campaign against the smoke evil. Meetings have been held with the smoke inspectors of the railroads entering the city in an endeavor to secure their co-operation .in eliminating the emission of smoke from railroad engines. Upon the recommendations of the,committee, a course for the instruction of firemen in the proper care and operation of heating apparatus has been inaugurated at the Dunwoody industrial institute, and during the spring of 1916 the association employed a checker to investigate industrial plants and railroad yards which were emitting dense smoke.

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668 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [ 0 c tober Each year for three successive years, the committee has recommended to and urged upon the city council the creation of a department of smoke inspection, but was unsuccessful until this year, when an examination for smoke inspector was held and James L. White was appointed. He assumed the duties of his office on May 1. f Cincinnati’s Traffic Survey.-Everybody is helping to make the traffic survey now being carried on in Cincinnati where a new rapid transit system is soon to be installed. Every passenger on the street cars is being asked to co-operate and to do his share in making this survey. One hundred men have been employed by the city to board cars at various points and solicit this information. These inspectors are experienced street car conductors, “borrowed” from the traction company for the time that they are needed. Such men are being hired for two reasons: first, they know how to handle crowds and are acquainted with streets and stops, and, second, they have uniforms. One of these uniformed men with a conspicuous badge is stationed on each car and hands each passenger a blank to be filled out by him. These slips contain spaces to be filled in with: 1. The street corner number at which the passenger got on. 2. The section number. 3. The kind of fare collected from the passenger,-whether cash, half-fare (child under 10 years of age), a transfer, or if a dead-head. 4. Whether a transfer was issued; if so, to what line. 5. The destination of the passenger, and 6. The destination section number. When filled out, these blanks are collected by the Rapid Transit Employes. Several days before the sumey a placard was placed in all cars of the particular line to be investigated, reading: “TO the Public.-Traffic survey for the purpose of determining the traffic to be expected on the proposed rapid transit line. The rapid transit commission of the city of Cincinnati will make a traffic survey on this car line within the next few days. To facilitate securing accurate and complete information, your co-operation in answering the questions asked by the inspectors on the cars is requested.By the rapid transit commission of Cincinnati, Per E. W. EDWARDS, President.” On the day the survey was commenced this placard was replaced by another stating that the commission is making a traffic survey on the car that day These inspectors take a given number of lines at a time and spend one or two days on each line. It is expected that 230,000 passengers will help in this manner in carrying on the survey. When all of the questionnaire slips have been collected, 20 clerks will complete the statistics gleaned from these. This information will form the basis of the terms of the proposed lease of the rapid transit system and also will determine the location of stations and routes of trains. HERBERT F. I~OCH. II? New Jersey City Finances.-Two finance bills of great importance to cities passed the 1916 session of the New Jersey legislature. The more important is a comprehensive act regulating and restricting the borrowing power ef all counties, cities, boroughs, villages, toTns, and townshipswithin the state.1 By its terms no municipality can issue bonds which shall cause its net debt to exceed 7 per cent of the average assessed valuations for the past three years of the taxable real property (including improvements) within its borders. Moreover, no bonds can be issued by any New Jersey niunicipality hereafter for longer terms than 50 years, and a series of specific term limitations are placed by the act on bond issues for certain enumerated purposes. The maturity of issues for sewer systems is limited to 40 years; gas systems to 30; water supply, 40; electric systems, 20; incinerating plants, 10; playgrounds, 30; land 40; buildings, 20 to 40, varying with type of construction; additions to buildings, varying likewise, 15 to 30; bridges, 30; roads and streets varying from 5 in the 1 Chap. 252, Laws of N. J., 1910.

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19161 NOTES AND EVENTS 669 case of sand or gravel construction to 20 in that of concrete; sidewalks and curbing, 10; cemeteries, 30; and for house connections with sewer, gas and water pipes, 5 years. Bonds to cover temporary indebtedness are limited to a life equal to that of the permanent bonds on which it is incurred. Before any such bond issues may be authorized the financial officer of every municipality is required to file with the clerk a statement, under oath, of its financial condition. This must show: (1) the municipality’s gross debt, including the proposed issue, (2) certain specified deductions, (3) the resulting net debt, (4) the assessed valuation of the taxable real property for the past three years, and (5) the percentage of the net debt to the average of these valuations. If the latter computation is 7 per cent or less, the proposed issue is permissible under the act. The proposal must be submitted to a referendum of the electorate if within ten days of the publication of the authorizing ordinance a petition demanding it is signed either by one third of the “governing body” of the municipality or by tax payers representing 10 per cent of its assessed valuation, and must then be approved at the polls within two months before it can become effective. Provisions for the sale of the bonds allow either for public auction or sealed proposals; and, if these fail to produce a bid, by private negotiation. The act also allows municipalities to issue temporary notes to cover either improvements or in;tbility to pay the interest on the permanent obligations. The maturity of the former is limited to one and renewals to six years; that of the latter to 20 years payable in not exceeding 20 annual installments commencing the first year after their date. The issuance of bonds for school purposes is expressly exempted from the provisions of this act. The other bill may prove in the future of great interest and importance to cities.’ This authorizes any city in the state to issue bonds for the construction, operation ’Chap. 120, Laws of N. J , 1916. or lease of street railways within its borders. Cities may now issue bonds up to $500,000 a year for such publiclyowned utilities-the aggregate not to exceed $2,000,000 Moreover, if any private company will guarantee a rent sufficient to cover the additional interest and sinking fund charges, cities are enabled by the statute to issue bonds up to a total of $10,000,000. They may also issue temporary bonds to these ends to run with all renewals for a term not cxceeding five years and to be retired from the proceeds of the permanent bonds “or by the use of other funds of the city available for the purpose.’’ The interest is limited to five per cent, payable semi-annually, and the maturity to 50 years. The act provides in detail for the administration of these possible railroads. They may either be operated by the city or leased to a private operating concern. If they are publicly run the net operating revenues must be devoted to the payment of interest on the bonded indebtedness and to the sinking fund for its amortization. The excess revenues over and ahove such deductions may be appropriated to any lawful purpose the city government may desire. Deficits, it is provided, can be made up out of the tax levy. If they are privately run, on the other hand, the rent may be a fixed annual sum, a share in the gross, or in the net, receipts. Every such lease, however, must carry a clause giving the city power at any time after ten years to terminate the contract and purchase the lessee’s equipment at a price to be agreed upon by the parties or, failing that, by the state board of public utility commissioners. All the necessary powers-of eminent domain, use of other city property, purchase of privately-owned lines, contract with mch lines for the use of their property, with telephone and telegraph companies to facilitate construction, or with private companies for the use of conduits, wires and poles-and power to build all necessary sidings, connections and street grade changes, are granted to cities by the act. They are even empowered to establish and maintain docks, piers, ware

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670 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October houses, ferriq ferry terminals, and carfloRts in connection with the railways. But over the exercise of these powers the utility commissioners are given a wide and detailed supervision. The legislature also passed acts empowering cities to accept land in lieu of unassessed taxes;’ to issue bonds to cover the extra financial burdens of the two-platoon systems in fire departments: to build bulkheads, jetties, etc.,* and to build and erect city halls! A resolution was also passed (Joint Resolution No. 7) continuing the existence of the commission for the survey of municipal financing appointed by the preceding House of Assembly. EVANS CLARK. Princeton University. 1: Bureaus of Complaint in Illinois.-In Illinois the “bureau of public complaints” is a popular, but not a legal designation, applied to the efficiency division or staff of civil service commissions. It exists in the state, county and city services. It is the product of three causes: The legal right of citizens to file charges with the commission for the removal or discipline of classified employes; the legal duty of the commission to ascertain by efficiency operations whether the merit and fitness of classified employes certified to upon examination is continued thereafter in daily work; and the public wish to have complaints concerning service inefficiency dealt with promptly and effectively quite apart from the atmosphere of influence and politics which surrounds the chief executive and the department heads. It must be borne in mind that our department heads are responsible to the people for management or administration of the departments under them; but not for the application of the merit system to appointments and tenure for which the public holds the commission responsible in all departments. The lawful directions, orders or rules of the several department heads together with the vocational re%hap. 238, Laws N. J., 1916. rldem, Chap. 92. tram, Chap. 117. dldern, Chap. 261. quiremeiits of each grade of service constitute a standard of merit which the commission is bound to apply in all its operations and the mere fact that, in any given instance, there has been a departure or failure to comply with this standard, regardless of how that fact is brought to the attention of the commission, is sufficient to make it the duty of the commission to act. Citizen complaints become, naturally, therefore, the chief feeder or mainspring to efficiency operations. It is just as important in public service to encourage and investigate citizen complaints aa it is in private service to encourage and check up systematically the complaints of customers. If these Complaints show defects of management or administration, they are referred to the proper department head or heads or to the chief executive; but if they show inefficiency of a classified employe or failure of merit in him, the commission applies the correctives (removal, suspension, fine, training or transfer). There are large classes of people in every community who will not present to the chief executive or to the departments serious and legitimate complaints which it is very much to the interests of the government to know, but many persons will present such complaints, impersonally if possible, for investigation by the civil service commission. Many persons feel, in respect to managing officials, that influence or political standing is necessary to back a perfectly just complaint, and that, without it, retaliation, or unfavorable or disagreeable publicity, is to be feared. The inconvenience and waiting about necessary to interview the chief executive or a busy department head deters others. These feelings are entirely reasonable, because criticizing the department to the department, going to a busy man who may be hostile, skeptical or evasive and who has no special facilities for impartial inquiry, or gaining the ill-will of a subordinate official without assurance of protection is imprudent. Honest men will therefore keep silent when the community is robbed and say nothing about patent

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19161 NOTES AND EVENTS 671 inefficiency or oppression. There are, of course, cases which find their way into the press, or to the managers themselves, but thebulk oftherealcasesdo not. It isprobable, however, that the complaints which are most helpful in efficiency work are those which the managers entirely overlook. There are, of course, many cases on record to illustrate my points. Among employes, the commission which protects them from unjust removal and which by law must deal with the service across all departmental lines as a series of professions and vocations (grades), in each of which it must promote the best professional and vocational standards by which to measure individual merit, cnn command a confidence and sympathy which busy and transient department heads, however competent as managers, cannot utilize in efficiency operations. Efficiency is not merely a departmental question, nor is it a matter to be alternately promoted and discouraged, but it is one for the whole service, apart from management, which the people must put on a permanent basis, if they are to get results. Moreover, I feel firmly convinced that the best discipline can never be founded on fear of a superior, but that it must be founded on confidence in justice. The right of citizens to remove classified employes for proven cause (and in my view the civil service commissioners themselves should be classified employes) seems to me essential to popular control. We can safely trust our elective officers to establish policies and make standards of service to carry out these policies, wise or unwise, but we ought never to vest them with power to retain inefficient subordinates or to block the equal opportunity of citizens to public office if they can appoint themselves by showing their vocational merit. The bureau of public complaints is the forerunner of better popular control over the classified service as well as of greater efficiency in that service. It is a most important aspect or use of the merit system, the system which has in view the creation of efficient democracy. ROBERT CATHERWOOD. Chicago. Relief of Poor in Walla WaUa.Walla Walla, Washington, has a society for the relief of the poor which administers from one central office poor funds of the county and of what is practically the associated charities. This organization is known as the United relief society, and is incorporated under the state laws as a result of a meeting of representatives of churches, lodges, iabor organizations, benevolent societies, and of the city and county, held in January, 1912. Fifteen directors, men and women, among whom were the mayor and one of the county commissioners, were elected, The Rev. Charles E. Tuke, rector of St. Paul’s Episcopal Church, who was instrumental in bringing about the organization, was made president. He has been the administrator of relief, acting in co-operation with the other directors, until this year, when parochial problems made it necessary for him to ask for assistance, and the probation officer of the county was hired to do the work of investigating and supplying the needs of the worthy. The county commissioners send applicants for aid to the office of the society for investigation and relief, and each month reimburse it for assistance given. After the first year of the society’s existence, the commissioners reported that their expenditures for the relief of the poor as administered by this society were less than usual, and that, the poor farm excepted, they would administer their relief in the future through the agency of the organization. The mayor has set aside a room in the city hall for the downtown office and a generous citizen loaned a runabout for the use of the president in investigating cases of need. The directors report that since the unifying of the charitable agencies, house to house begging and professional mendicancy have decreased, that it has been made increasingly difficult for the unworthy to impose upon the charitable, and that the worthy poor have been wisely assisted with the necessities and with opportunities for self help in the way of employment. Walla Walla has a population of 20,000 generally dependent upon the wheat

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672 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October crops. After the harvesting of the crops the workers with their families move to other fields, but there are always some for whom a removal is impossible because of improvidence, or sickness, or the desertion of the wage-earner. For these either assistance or work must be provided. The relief society therefore decided to act as an employment agency, and by an arrangement with the fuel companies of the city, was able to provide work at wood sawing by hand instead of by machine. Odd jobs were also obtained about thecity, wood splitting, yard cleaning, etc. * Special Commissions and Investiiations Authorized in 1916 in Illinois, Kentucky, Maryland, New Jersey and South Carolina.-The Iltinois special session, 1916, authorized a centennial commission to arrange for a centennial celebration and to issue a commemorative history of the state. In Kentucky a commission to investigate conditions as to feeble-mindednew, with, however, no appropriation from the state, waa authorized. Maryland continued the educational survey commission created in 1914 so as to allow time for a survey of the higher educational institutions which it was found impossible to cover in the period originally allotted the commission and also continued the joint commission with Virginia on fisheries industries legislation. The session laws of New Jersey for 1916 include authorizations or continuations of twelve special commissions and investigations. The commission on care of mental defectives, the commission to investigate the desirability of establishing a system of pensions for state and munidipal officers and employes, and the commission for the survey of municipal financing, were all continued. Newly created commissions are: a commission to investigate whether toll roads and bridges can be acquired by the state; a commission to investigate the problem of conserving fish; a commission to inquire into the observance, enforcement application, operation and effect of the civil service law in the state, county and municipal governments and the advisability of amendments; a commission to investigate conditions in this country, experiences of states and foreign nations, character, expense, etc., with a view to establishing military instruction in high schools. The commission to ameliorate the condition of the blind was instructed to inquire into the causes of blindness, so that with the co-operation of the state board of health preventive measures might be adopted and enforced. Four commissions cover codifications or rearrangement of various parts of the statutes, i.e.: a commission to contract for a supplement to the compiled statutes of New Jersey to include laws of 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915; a commission to revise and codify state laws relating to cities and other municipalities; a commission to revise and codify the fish and game laws; a commission to revise, simplify, arrange and consolidate the primary and election laws of the state. In South Carolina, a state system of rural credits will be the subject for investigation by a special commission. Also a commission to provide for additional quarters for state officers was authorized. ETHEL CLELAND. Indianapolis. * The Honolulu Civic Center.-While one department of the federal government is seemingly permitting towns to be projected on the public land without any consideration whatever for modern progress, another department emphasizes the value of that same progress. In the federal commerce report the correspondent from Honolulu interestingly describes the development there o the idea of centralizing public buildings. In this case this civic center has not resulted, it is regrettable to have to say, because the Government authorities have themselves proposed it, but because the Outdoor Circle, an organization of some five hundred women, has “worked incessantly for several years with this object iu view.” The Honolulu civic center will cover several blocks, and will include, with the executive building as a nucleus, a judiciary building and a federal building.

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19161 NOTES AND EVENTS 673 Apparently these buildings are to fit with what is known as the archives building, and the fourth side of the space thus being harmoniously developed is said to be already “well taken care of by the handsome public-library structure.” Perhaps some time the interests, the lives and the welfare of that increasingly large section of the population of the United States dwelling in cities will be considered as worth the same grade of expert attention as is now beneficently effective in connection with agricultural pursuits. We may have a federal municipal department as well as a federal agricultural department. J. HORACE MCFAF~LAND. Oakland Municipal Reference Library. -Some idea of the hold which municipal reference libraries have on the public may be gathered from the experience of Oakland, California. In December, 1915, Mayor John L. Davis of that city sent a letter to the council declaring that the library was a useless municipal activity and that no good could come from the study of municipal activities in other parts of the country. The board of library directors followed this advice and passed a resolution abolishing the library on January 1, 1916. The council and directors, however, were immediately deluged with protests from all parts of the city with the result that the council in its first appropriation thereafter voted to continue the library. 11. POLITICS 1 Harrisburg’s Unique Mayoralty Situation.-Harrisburg has a public character whom from time to time they elect as mayor. He seems to be lacking in most of the public and private virtues, if one is to judge from the comments of correspondents, but evidently the people of Harrisburg like him, as he makes no concealment of his intention, purposes, or his personal practices. He is, however, a pretty good politician and that perhaps is the source of his strength. A well known member of the National Municipal League writes that this mayor “has announced that he proposes to overturn the city government entirely, and that he will take the management himself of the fie department in addition to the police department. The reason for this is, of course, in view of his machine-building quality, to increase his strength, for we have a volunteer fire department which now has far too much to do with the affairs of the town.” The new mayor, however, has announced that he would appoint a former mayor who made a very excellent record in charge of the park department. This is an im1 Wdem otherwise indicated the items in this department are prepared by Clinton Rogera Woodruff. 9 portant announcement because under the administration just closed that department had been in the hands of a man who had very little if any interest in the aspirations of those who have made the Harrisburg plan famous, and which is referred to at length in Mr. McFarland’s article on the subject.2 It is rather interesting that, notwithstanding Harrisburg’s political shortcomings, the Harrisburg plan has been steadily developed and has been a striking contribution to municipal development. -5 Nashville.-For two years past Nashville has been a municipal storm center. One of the results of the development has been a careful examination of its accounts. James Cameron, a municipal expert of New York, was retained in the summer of 1915 to investigat#e the city’s affairs. Almost immediately there were sensations. To start with, the accountants on Mr. Cameron’s staff could not locate the financial records. The records of the receipt of the city’s revenue for the prior six years had to be established by verbal testimony. One of the deputy treasurers stated that the records had been burned SSee NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. v, p. 71.

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6 74 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October for the period 1909-1914. After a year’s work by the accountants they reported a defalcation of $70,000. In the meantime a general survey of the city’s government was made by Mr. Cameron. In 1913 Nashville adopted a commission form of government.’ The act under which this was accomplished put the administration of affairs in the hands of five commissioners, a plan which Mr. Cameron severely condemned, declaring that Nashville had really been divided into five independent governments, each isolated from the other. The work of the commissioners clearly showed that the framers of the new act had the political situation in mind and had little or no thought of embodying the favorable features of the commission form of government. During the investigation and survey, an attempt was made by a number of taxpayers to have the city thrown into the hands of a receiver. In point of fact, a receiver was nominally appointed, but a decision of the appellate court stopped the proceedings, though not before it was flashed to all the financial centers that the city was in the hands of a receiver. This whole proceeding is condemned as scandalous in the Cameron report. He reported that there was merely a lack of available cash, the city not having attempted to make a temporary loan in anticipation of its revenues, laboring under the impression that in the absence of affirmative statutes, it had no such rights. However its obligations have been met and in the report it is shown that Nashville is financially sound and is really in a much better financial condition than most other cities of the same size. While the case is still in chancery and evidence is being taken before a master in chancery it is generally understood that a receiver will not be appointed. According to Mr. Cameron the case hangs on because surety companies and city commissions are defendants and because of allegations of fraud and misfeasance. The city has filed suits against certain commissioners and bondsmen to enforce their liability. 1 Eee article on “ Municipal Affairs in Nashville.” by St. George L. Seonssat, vol. iv. p. 646. Mr. Cameron was assisted in his investigation and survey by Barclay, Parsons and Clapp, consulting engineers of New York. The report has been published in full in the Nashville daily papers of July 13. 8 St. Louis Municipal Voters League Sued.-Two suits have been filed against the municipal voters league of St. Louis, one by Eugene Hale who was candidate for circuit attorney and about whom the League said nothing other than what appeared in the blank furnished by him over his own signature and the words “not recommended.” Mr. Hale was a member of the house of delegates just before the adoption of the new charter and upon the expiration of his term as such, he was a candidate for city council, at which time the St. Louis Post Dispatch vigorously attacked him. According to the secretary of the league, his suit is without foundation or merit and it is generally thought it was instituted for advertising purposes. The. other suit was filed by a candidate for state legislature. The league’s report stated that he was a bar tender some years ago in the segregated district. Wliile there ma.y have been some doubt about his actually having been a bar tender, the league has been supplied with abundant evidence from voluntary sources as to his connection with the segregated district. The league is paying no attention to these suits, but is ready for them if they come to trial. * The 0aklandRecalI.-The recall against Commissioner F. F. Jackson of Oakland, Cal.,l was defeated by 889 votes, and the official was returned to office by a majority of 3,186 over his nearest opponent, Dr. R. M. Higgins. He beat Edwin Meese, former city treasurer, by 5,453 votes. The final count showed the following result : 1See NATIONAL MUNIC~PAL RRVIEW, vol. v, p. 385.

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19161 NOTES AND EVENTS 675 For the recall. .................. 13,220 Against the recall. .............. 13,669 Dr. F. F. Jackson. .............. 10,663 R. M. Higgins.. ................ 7,447 Edwin Meese.. ................. 5,199 W. F. Drury.. ................. 1,257 E. D. Lewis.. .................. 139 J. H. Grande.. ................. 122 Alfred Withof. ................. 93 Total vote. ............... .25,892 The election was quiet, fewer t,han half of the registered voters going to the polls. One of the features of the pre-election campaign was the fight made by Oakland business men who took a stand in favor of Jackson on the ground that the recall was an unnecessary expense to the taxpayers. * Los Ange1es.-Charles E. Sebastian, the mayor, has resigned on account of ill health, and Frederick T. Woodman, president of the board of harbor commissioners, has been elected his successor. 111. JUDICIAL DECISIONS Thomas H. Reed, who since January, 1916, has been responsible for the department of Judicial Decisions, has recently assumed the position of city manager of San Jose, California. He had fully expected to be able to continue his work for the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, but the burdens of administration have prevented. We are planning to resume the department with the January issue. IV. MISCELLANEOUS The Meeting of the National Assembly of Civil Service Commissions' at Ottawa, Canada, June 14-16, 1916, was of international character. It was attended by 57 delegates from distant portions of the United States and Canada representing 23 commissions. Several of the delegates were members of the council of the National Civil Service Reform League, and others represented the larger associations of civil service employes. A large degree of real progress was secured in agreeing upon important principles. The delegates were guests of the Canadian civil service commission and the cordiality of the reception and generous hospitality given the American delegates made a deep impression and cemented the ties of sympathy and good-will in this time of suEering overseas. discussions of the reports of these committees, which had been circulated in advance of the meeting. There was agreement that the civil service commissions should be taken out of politics; that, in order to establish satisfactory efficiency records and secure promotions on merit, the heads of bureaus or departments, except those which are in their nature policy-determining, should be in the classsed service; that the service ought to be made attractive by suitable old-age pensions, which should be at least in part contributive; and that removals, reductions in salaries, etc., should be made only for good cause well established. The report on efficiency record systems wai~ presented by Thomas C. Murray, chairman. The report said, in pa.rt: Printed reports were considered from The committee decided to committees which had been at work since the 1915 meeting upon efficiency records, a standard law and examination stmdmds. various administrators of efficiency record systems now in operation both in the civil service and in the service of private busithousand employes and to ascertain the The proceedings consisted chiefly of ness having upwards Of ten 'See article by F. w. Coker, vol v, p. 574. objections, if any, and recommendations of employes working under such systems. -EDITOR.

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676 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October It determined to direct special attention to the means for insuring the integrity, honesty and impartiality of records, their uniform and accurate operation in each vocation or grade, and to standardization, the selection of units or factors and their relative importance or weight. The committee makes no recommendations at this time. It is impressed with the fact that efficiency record systems are in the formative period of development and that dogmatic statements concerning them and any attempt to make final conclusions would be harmful. While the experience of rivate concerns throws much light on tfe subject, it illustrates in many ways the differences between public and private service. On the whole, the committee believes that the methods used in public service are more developed, accurate in operation and superior in results, so far as fairness incentive and economy are concerned than those used in private service. The profound modifications in system which different provisions of law and different conditions of employment throughout the country make necessary should not be overlooked. No efficiency system worthy of the name can be operated successfully without money or without adequate legal powers. For the present the committee confines itself to submitting in the form of questions and answers the statements of certain witnesses who are operating efficiency systems or serving under them, in the hope that this first-hand testimony may prove useful to the members of the national assembly. The consensus of opinion upon the report was that efficiency records should be kept in the simplest way and that the subject requires continued study. The report of the committee on co-operation among commissions on examination standards was presented by its chairman, F. E. Doty. Recommendations were made for co-operative studies and experiments or investigations, the appointment of a standing committee on classification, with the hope of extending and listing, under some simple and acceptable classification, services that are common to a majority of civil service commissions, and also the consideration of minimum prerequisite qualifications for entrance to examhatiom. The assembly approved the standard civil service law as reported from its committee, with several alternative sections on remora1 of classified employes and appointment of civil service commissioners, and displayed a commendable intention to follow the leadership of the National Civil Service Reform League in legislative matters, and relegated the whole subject of the standard law to the national league. H. R. H. the Duke of Connaught, governor-general of Canada, in receiving the delegates laid emphasis upon the value of the merit principle in the civil service to a nation at war and referred to the part it has played in building up the British Empire. He strongly commented upon efficient civil service as a basis for national defense. Richard H. Dana responded on behalf of the delegates. William Foran, the secretary of the Canadian civil service commission, wm made president of the assembly. JOHN T. DOYLE.* $ The Union of Canadian Municipalities. -The activities of the executive of the Union during the year 1915 were somewhat strenuous, and chiefly devoted to devising and advising ways and means for the cities to cope with the unusual disturbed conditions, arising out of the war. The two principal problems were: (a) The disturbance of municipal finances (in many cases a contraction of income), the curtailment, and difEculty of borrowing (which means the stopping of municipal works). This was most serious. Large construction works and large industrial establishments found themselves compelled without ceremony to dismiss thousands of trained clerks, mechanics and laborers, as well as women workers. The union was scheduled to hold its annual convention for 1915 in Victoris, B. C., but early in the year the mayors and aldermen of the larger cities urged the postponement of the convention until this year, a3 they found that they could not leave their duties for even a day. It was, and is still, a time of unrest. The mayors know it and are ready for emergencies. To the credit of these capable (b) The unemployed. *Secretary of the National As~embly, and of the Unitsd States civil service commission.

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19161 NOTES AND EVENTS 677 public spirited municipal men they have pulled through two years of unparalleled anxiety. To their credit cities have been free from riot or lawlessness; the unemployed have had everything done for them within the powers of the municipality. So it has come to pass that the executives have held several conferences among themselves, and with the federal government, always with the two main objects in view, financing, and the unemployed. Early in the year the union tabulated a form for the municipalities to fill in the requisite information when they issue and sell a series of debentures. This definite information has helped wonderfully in selling to the bond brokers and to the investor. The Union organized and arranged a conference of representatives of the federal and provincial governments, the larger cities, the manufacturers association, transporta.tion companies, the trades and labor council, the boards of trade, the bankers association, and charity organizations, for the purpose of discussing and solving the unemployed problem, and co-operating in some just, and generous, and practical way. This group of interests was certainly unique, and represented interests that appeared to be absolutely opposed, but the times are extraordinary, but there wa8 a feeling of coordination and co-operstion in the air which gttve every promise of a satisfactory solution of the unemployment problem. The 1916 meeting of the union was held in Montreal August 21-23, and was, on the whole, well attended. The papers dealt largely with questions arising from the war time condition and reflected a serious, but not necessarily dangerous condition, and showed a fine spirit of determination and public interest. H-ere are some of the questions considered: Returned soldiers, the patriotic fund, immigration, public employment offices. Finance came in for a commendable degree of careful attentiou as did the form of government. The various types of Canadian and American municipal government were discussed including the National Municipal League’s model city charter. Some idea of the spirit of the union may be gathered from the following taken from the program: “When this war is over Cauada will be face to face with the greatest opportunity of her national life, now made possible by the extreme sacrifice of so many of her sons and daughters, and which she has not only the right to, but must grasp if those great sacrifices have not been made in vain. How she will be able to take advaritage of the opportune momerit depends absolutely on the preparations being made now by the citizens through their public bodies, nhether they be federal, provincial or municipd; but especially municipal for the principal reason that owing to the exigencies of their office civic representatives are in daily touch with the peoplehence their gretlter responsibility in rising to that standard cf preparedness so magdcently set by our men and women who are to-day representing us on the fields of Flanders.” Alderman Leslie H. Boyd of Montreal WAS elected president and W. D. Lighthall, the efFicient honorary secretary was reelected. rp Vacant Lots Association.-For eighteen years the vacant lots cultivation association of Philadelphia hm carried on its work, achieving practical results and serving as an inspiration for similar movements in France, England and Germany. Land is loaned to the association (subject to dispossession by the owner). The association prepares the land for cultivation by plowing and division into gardens of about one-sixth of &n acre. Fertilizers and rich seed are supplied to the gardeners, at an expense to the associ% tion of about $5 a garden. The charge to the gardener is $1 for the first year, $2 for the second, and so on until the amount spent by the association is returned to it. The work on the garden is done by the various gardening families, and the supply therefrom, after supplying family needs, can be disposed of by the gardeners.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October During the summer of 1914, 603 gardeners were allotted plots, covering 813 acres. The cost of cultivation was $7,693; the food produced was valued at $32,000, and all the profits went to the workers. The possibilities of vacant lot cultivation are ‘very large. In Manhattan island, in 1914, t,he vacant parcels of land numbered 193,000; in Brooklyn they numbered 50,391. If returns similar to those in Philadelphia-$400 per acre-could be secured from the land, it would mean $100,000,000 and a net profit of $75,000. * CLYDE LYNDON KINQ. Civic Co-operation and Amalgamation. -Appleton, Wis., adopted commission government about three years ago, doing away with a city council and leaving a big council chamber empty in the city hall. The civic league, a privately financed organization, began its work under a paid worker on Dec. 1, 1914, having desk room granted by courtesy of a local physician in his office. The city commission, though uot contributing to the league, was not unfriendly to it and when one of the directors asked for desk room for the league’s secretary in a corner of the council chamber in March, 1915, the request WBS readily granted. The relations between the league and the city poor commissioner are friendly and there is a fair degree of co-operation; being in the same building helps in both respects. The visiting nurses association had the start here. Through the generosity of the leading dry-goods house, a visiting nurse was engaged for a year and her salary paid by this firm with the expectation that the city, or private benevolence, would take over the work and also provide an assistant nurse to work in public schools at the end of that time (March, 1913). This hope was not realized, however, and after contributing for two and one-half years to the support of the nurse, the company withdrew its support. The city commission declined to take over the work and in June, 1915, the financial support from the public being insufficient, the nurse resigned and the work lapsed. Overtures were made in the spring to the aesociation directors by the league looking toward a combination of the two. These were renewed in October, and after much discussion the visiting nurses association voted to go out of existence as a separate organization and become a department of the civic league. This was done and the first meeting of the combined organizations WBS held in December. A nurse was immediately engaged and began work on December 15. The work is privately financed as a department of the civic league. Nevertheless, a movement has been started to present to the city commissioners the need of making this a public work financed by the city; and a committee of seven representative men has been appointed to devise the most effective way of bringing this to their attention.’ * Made in the U. S. A.-What is believed to be a new use of the industrial design “Made in U. S. A.” has been made at the suggestion of the Hoboken (N. J.) board of trade. As a member of the mayor’s safe and sane fourth committee the secretary of the board proposed that a civic use of that now well-known design be made by incorporating it into a citizen badge reading “Citizen Made in Hoboken, 0. S. A. Class of 1916, July 4th-Honor Guest City of Hoboken.” The worrls “Citizen” and “Hoboken” were printed in red and the design and other wording in blue, all on white ribbon. Mayor Griffin and the city commissioners sent special invitations to all naturalized citizens made so subsequent to July 4,1915, to be present at the Independence Day celebration and with each invitation, more than 200 in all, went the badge described. The ready response on the part of the “citizens made in Hoboken” and the appreciation shown by them for the attention they were given at the flag-raising exercises, suggests the adaptability of the idea to other occasions such as will be part of Americankation campaigns now being , conducted throughout the United States. Perhaps in this way can these “Americans by choice” 1 Mary Sands is general secretary of the league.

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19161 NOTES AND EVENTS 679 be paid the necessary attention so long delayed; and perhaps in this way can Americans by birth show their Americanism and aid Americanization. Rosco~ D. WYATT.~ * Dayton’s Propaganda.-The citizens and officials of Dayton, Ohio, are so enthusiastic over the success of their city government that they are endeavoring to spread throughout the country the gospel of efficient service through the commission manager plan. Dayton has felt since the terrible flood which devastated the city in March, 1913, that she owes the country at large a big debt of gratitude for the generous responses for succor from the outside world. She is endeavoring to repay this in a measure by giving her sister cities a wider knowledge of what excellent service and returns she is receiving in the expenditure of her taxes. The activities of every department of the city are graphically set forth in the annual report of the city commission for 1915, which is being distributed free of charge by the Dayton bureau of research, because the city cannot afford the printing expense. Many commendations are being received by city officials upon the substantial results shown, as portrayed in the well arranged, concise, attractive, illustrated annual report. This is not the only form of publicity, however. Another interesting phase is to be found in the illustrated lectures being given by J. N. Switzer, one of the city commissioners. Dayton has learned that good government comes from the demands of an interested and informed citizen body, and with this in mind the commissioner has prepared a highly instructive and entertaining lecture accompanied by stereopticon views. These “before and after” pictures outline the progress made. The original suggestion for these lectures came from John H. Patterson, president of the National cash register company, who believes thoroughly that more permanent impressions are obtained through seeing than through hearing. Accordingly, he arranged for the stereopticon as ‘Managing-Secretary. a happy medium of reporting to the people upon what their public officials are doing to serve them. Mr. Switzer already has lectured in Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Norfolk, Toledo, Aberdeen, S. D., and many other cities, appearing before chambers of commerce, commercial clubs, and similar civic organinations, and his lectures invariably lead to profitable discussions afterward. A charge sufficient only to cover Mr. Switzer’s traveling and hotel expenses is made, and from the requests which already have been received to give these addresses this fall, indications are that the opportunity to become informed of the progress in our largest city manager city is being appreciated in all sections of the country. * National Municipal League Prizes for sgs6.-The William H. Baldwin prise for 1916 for the best essay on e5cient billboard regulation was awarded to Miss Bernice V. Brown, of Radcliffe College, Cambridge, with honorable mention of Phillips Bradley, Harvard University. The judges were Albert S. Bard, Esq., New York, Prof. James Sturgis Pray, Harvard University and Frank B. Williams, New York City. Miss Brown also won the Baldwin prize in 1915. The High School prizes for the best essays on keeping the highways clean were awarded as follows: first prize, Carroll, Stansbury, Washington, D. C., secondprize Miss Virginia Crutcher, Pine Bluff, Ark., and honorable mention, Wellington G. Nicola, Attleboro, Mass. The judges were Charles Mulford Robinson, University of Illinois school of landscape design, and Richard B. Watrous, secretary of the American Civic Association. The following states were represented in the competition: District of Columbia, Arkansas, Massachusetts, Colorado, Illinois, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Rhode Island, New York, Wisconsin, Ohio. Minnesota, West Virginia, Michigan, South Dakota, Kentucky, Maryland, Nebraska, Iowa. The Portland Prize on the’unearned increment tax as a source of revenue for Portland, Oregon, was awarded to Miss CHESTER E. RIQHTOR.

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680 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October Clara Eliot, of Reed College. The judges were Dr. Ralph E. George, Whitman College, and H. H. Parker, Esq., Portland. There were no awards of the Hull and Cincinnati prizes. d, Municipal Courts.1-We had fully expected to publish in this issue an extended account of the work of the committee on municipal courta of which Hon. Harry Olsen of Chicago is chairman, and Herbert Harley, secretary. The report which Mr. Harley prepared, however, will be used in the volume “A New Municipal Program” to be devoted to the elucidation of the model city charter of the League. Mr. Harley as secretary has also prepared a report for presentation at the annual meeting in Springfield, November 23-25, which will appear in full in the January issue. Those desiring an advance reprint can secure one by addressing the League at its office in the North American Building, Philadelphia. * The League of American Municipalities held its annual meeting in Newark, September 7-9. The only new officer elected was vice-president Leslie H. Boyd, of Montreal. All the other officers were re-elected, including Martin Behrman, of New Orleans, president, and Robert E. Lee, of Baltimore, ES secretary. * A Mistake as to Stover.-The July number of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW contains on page 527 a review by Dr. Leonhard Felix Fuld of “The legal rights of civil servants in the City of New York,” who in error ascribed the work to George 1 See vol. v, p. 329. H. Stover, “assistant corporation counsel of the city of New York.” Mr. Stover is not an assistant corporation counsel, but a member of the legal staff of the bureau of municipal research. There is a Josiah A. Stover, an assistant corporation counsel, and Dr. Fuld’s mistake is a natural one. However, George H. Stover should receive full credit for the work.-EDImR. * Professor Thomas H. Reed, who has been associate professor of government in the ‘University of California, has accepted the position of city manager of San Jod, California, at a salary of $6,000. Professor Reed took office July 1 and has dready demonstrated the wisdom of the selection. By abolishing the office of city treasurer and constituting one of the banks the city treasury he has already saved his year’s salary to the city. He has been granted a leave of absence from the university for one year, but will remain permanently in his new position if he is able to demonstrate the practicability of the theories he has been advancing as a professor. Professor Reed drafted the San Jose charter. J. R. Douglas has been appointed instructor in political science in Professor Reed’s place to give municipal government. He witl give it as a year course for the first time, the second semester being devoted to functions. He will continue to be secretary of the Berkeley city club. Last year he was at Harvard doing graduate work under Professor Munro. * William B. Hale, of Chicago, has been chosen chairman of the council of the National Civil Service Reform League to succeed Robert D. Jenks, of Philadelphia, who resigned last autumn.

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I. BOOK AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION. By Henry B. Hemenway. Indianapolis: Published by the BobbsMerrill Company. So much sickness is preventable that it is a community problem to organize forces, which can take the necessary steps to meet the condition. Not only will an efficiently organized public health service vitally touch the life of every citizen; but it will help to decrease the amount of poverty and crime. These facts prompt Dr. Hemenway to write a short history of the development of the science and profession of public health in America, giving also a present day picture of health work and pointing out how it may be made much more efficient. Beginning with the earliest public health legislation in America, the Massachusetts quarantine law of 1647, the book covers all of the important measures for the protection of the public up until the present day. One of the greatest failures has been the lack of executive power given to health departments. Health work is essentially executive and administrative. Past failures have resulted from various causes. Owing to the indefiniteness of the science, so-called “practical men” have been chosen, political office seekers, often a law unto themselves. Moreover, public opinion has held a practising physician to be the proper individual for the carrying out of health regulations, while as a matter of fact his training, his professional work and his methods of thought are usually such as to make him entirely incompetent to carry out the duties of health official. The author feels that both the politician and the practising physician are equally unqualified for the task. Public health work has developed a new profession, requiring specially trained men. REVIEWS One reason for the slow advance along the lines of public health has been the failure on the part of the public at large to appreciate that there is a vast difference between medical and sanitary education. Much of the training given to our physicians is not only unnecessary for the sanitarian, but tends to take the latter’s attention away from the field of public health. Moreover the sanitarian must have definite knowledge along other lines, quite foreign to, and unnecessary for the physician. The practise has usually been to apprentice the young physician as health official until he has built up enough of a practise to be financially independent of the health work. This has proved to be wholly unfair to the public, to the physician and to the profession of public health. The young physician has been made to serve two masters, prevention and cure. As it is necessary for him to live, he has usually neglected the former and served the latter, There have been some public spirited physicians, who have been most faithful to the’preventive work to the neglect of their own practises, but the public has made no return to them, and as a result they have suffered serious financialloss. Sanitary education should begin in the secondary schools and should extend through normal school and college courses, with graduate courses offered in our higher institutions. Moreover the advanced courses should lead to some definite degree, which should receive due recognition. In this way sanitary inspectors and other workers in health departments, * as well as those in charge of the work, would be able to get the preliminary training necessary to enable them to take up the work with intelligence. The question is often asked as to why this work is necessary today while in past DEPARTMENT OF PUBLICATIONS 681

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682 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October generations there has been little or none of it. This the author explains by showing that there have been marked social and economic changes, which necessitate measures of prevention, quite uncalled for in the past. Formerly isolation, terminal fumigation and the abatement of nuisances constituted the main duties of the old board8 of health. There were few diseases isolated, because it was not appreciated that other diseases than those designated were infectious. With our present day knowledge of the modes of spread of communicable disease, the list of quarantinable diseases has been greatly increased. The little isolated farm community offered but a small problem in health administration. However, as the transition took place from the small community to the city, wells were supplanted by a common water supply, privies gave way to cesspools, which in turn were supplanted by a common system of sewerage and sewage disposal. The sewage matter could no longer be emptied into the river, owing to the fact that a town nearby was beginning to get its drinking water from the river. Thus new rights had to be established. The water supply had to be watched and the proper disposal of sewage must needs be maintained, so that here alone were two large problems, calling for the best sanitary care. In addition to all of thi's the growth of population and the change from rural to urban life brought about a change in the milk supply. Instead of receiving milk from a near neighbor, whose family health and history might readily be known, large collecting plants became numerous and the milk was gathered from near and far. These demanded careful supervision as to the sources and methods of handling, for modern science has shown us that milk is a very good carrier of many infections. Pasteurizationof the milk seemed the only safe means of protecting the public against milkborne disease, but this againneeded careful, expert supervision. These and many other conditions have arisen, which require men of expert and special training in things sanitary in order that the health and comfort of our people be properly providedfor. Little by little the public is coming to appreciate the fact that educating children to a certain point, and then having them either die from preventable disease, or else having them become a burden to the community because of simple physical defects, which might have been easily remedied in earlier years, is poor economy and poor humanity. Boston was the first to institute a system of medical inspection of school children, and its lead has been followed all through the world. Medical inspection deals not only with t,he matter of communicable disease, but also with every phase of the child's physical well-being, It should prevent the occurrence of gross physical defects by discovering them in their incipiency. It should also eliminate those minor ailments, n hich sap the vitality of the child, and so prevent the child from making the progress which it should make in its school work. In this way the properly conducted system of medical inspection of school children pays many times over for the money invested. It not only shortens the time necessary for the child to cover the required curriculum, but also accomplishes a greater thing in enabiing the child to live a more healthy life. The author feels that it is extremely important that the medical inspection in schools' should be entirely under the board of education instead of being under the health department, except for prompt reporting to the latter of cases of communicable disease. The two boards should co-operate in this matter. The choice of well-qualified, full-time medical inspectors is at the bask of a successful system of medicdinspection. After discussing the work of the health department, the next question to which Dr. Hemenway turns his attention is concerned with the best kind of organization for carrying out the work. He points out in a very convincing manner that centralizing the authority in a single head, the health commissioner or health officer, is the only successful method of carrying on the work. The very nature of the work requires specialized training and technical knowledge. Moreover it is most difficult to obtain men of

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19161 BOOK REVIEWS 683 the proper qualifications. With a number of men acting as an executive board the responsibility is divided, and the work is not carried on with proper despatch and decision. The single head of the health organization should be chosen without regard to politics, residence or other unimportant considerations. He should be chosen because of his knowledge of public health matters and because he knows how to administer the work. He should devote his entire time to the work. Where communities are too small to carry on the work by themselves they should combine with nearby towns and share the expense. This has been done with success in certain parts of the country. Such a man as described can be obtained only when the public has come to the point where it is willing to pay the price, so that young and. able men will see enough of a future in the work to warrant their taking tlie training necessary to qualify in the service. The preparation of men for the work is extremely important. The rudiments of public health should be taught in colleges and normal schools. Our graduate schools should be endowed, so that they can give courses in public health work and then grant appropriate degrees upon the completion of the same. The trained health worker will thus be recognized as be!onging to an important profession. Short courses of study may be given in the winter time for those who may be in active service during the rest of the year, and who desire to keep in touch with the latest advances in public health work. The author’s ideas are for the most part very clear and very logical. One cannot read the book without feeling the growing need for more efficient health work, and the responsibility of the individual for making this possible. Not only is one impressed by the fact that the work demands able men, who are free from political and other bias, but one sees what a noble and useful profession has been born, and what wonderful opportunities it offers to men with a desire to serve a useful purpose. WILLIAM E. BROWN. Harvard University. THE OPERATION OF THE INITIATIVE, REFERENDUM AND RECALL IN OREGON. By James D. Barnett, Professor of Political Science in the University of Oregon. New York: The Macmillan Company. $2. I have often regretted what seem to me the ultra tendencies of the times towards centralization in political literature. The extraordinary development of facilities for communication has thrown hundreds of cities and scores of commonwealths into the melting pot together. The obvious limitations upon the daily work of the average human mind have made it inevitable that the time spent in reading about world wars and national politics and in discussing them will curtail the amount of attention which can be given to state and local affairs. Of course, even from the standpoint of intelligence and efficiency, as a citizen of state or city, this consideration of the wide affairs of the world is not a dead loss; but, nevertheless, the natural passion of hardworked and curious humanity to give its leisure to remote things which do not demand immediate action on the part of those who contemplate them, will, unless pretty closely restrained, impoverish the intelligence and the emotion rightly due to the community in which we live. I hope that there may be a partial reaction against the too great centralization in the organization of political intelligence. I hope that the time may come when these wonderful cities and states of ours may have individual distinctions great enough and vital enough to stimulate local literature and develop latent genius for description and analysis of local life by offering it the priceless reward of attention. It is a great mistake in political administration to try to suppress and conceal the individualities of the men who do the real work for the public, and to concentrate attention and rewards upon the one man who happens to hold the position of highest responsibility. The more recognized strong men we have in politics, the more stable and steadily progressive will democracy be. In like manner, a great nation such as ODE is strengthened

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684 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October by the development of potent individuality in states and cities, baaed upon their natural characteristics and upon their particular achievements. Among American commonwealths Oregon enjoys great distinction, aa a glance at the bibliography of Dr. Barnett’s book proves. The “Oregon system” has become a recognized theme of political literature. But more important for Ore gon than the fact that the entire country has been interested in it and discussing it for a number of years, is the fact that Oregon itself in its newspapers, in its legislative halls, in its leagues and msociatiom and in the conversation of its peoplecitizen to citizen-has had something of its own to talk about. It has been crqrrying on a great debate on the most fundamental principles of government, and I hazard the opinion that as a result there are one thousand citizens of Oregon better qualified for such a discussion than the average editor of a great metropolitan daily. It cannot well be disputed that the one thing most needful in a democracy is what Oregon has been getting through the combination of widespread discussion and manifold decision by the electorate which have characterized the operation of the initiative, the referendum and the recall there. R. W. Montague’s article in the April, 1914, iesue of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW~ betrayed some emotion. He tried to state the case impartiaEy. but he could not conceal the fact that it gave him joy to preeent an attractive picture. Professor Barnett shows no emotion. In his examination of the Oregon system he does not flinch from the use of the X-ray and the scalpel. His contribution to the literature of political science in action is up to the best standards of academic impartiality and thoroughness. It is an Oregon study of the Oregon system and the state is to be congratulated upon having not only the system to be studied, but also the scientist to study and report upon it. Four years ago when Theodore Roosevelt made his address to the Ohio con~VJI. ii , pPge 256. stitutional convention and incorporated the “rule of the people” in his political program, and when Woodrow Wilson frankly announced his conversion to the initiative and referendum, the great issue was thrust forward into a prominence that thrilled those of us who believe the initiative to be the fundamental next step in the unfolding of democracy. Since then the times have changed, and the movement for the direct control of government by the electors seems to have been checked for the time being. No doubt this phenomenon has been due in part to the world war and the absorption of public interest in international relations. Doubtless, also, it has been partly due to the abuses that arose in the use of direct legislation and the recall in some of the Western states, which led to many lugubrious editorials in the conservative east. These abuses, their importance and extent, and the possible remedies, are discussed in detail by Dr. Barnett. Perhaps, it is fortunate that the “impetuom knight” of Oyster Bay was not able to give immediate effect to our program of popular government. In the next advance along these lines, we should be able to profit by the experience of Oregon and other direct legislation states, much more fully than we could have done in 1912. DELOS F. WILCOX. f SOCIALIZED GERMANY. By Frederic C. Howe. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 1915. $1.50. The strikingly good features of the book are the incontrovertible assertion that “Germany is more intelligently organized than is the rest of the world, ” the equally true statement that the average “German receives more from society” than do other peoples, the more difficultly understood fact that German legislation has actually wrought not only intensive production but also equitable distribution of wealth, and the present-day propriety of or necessity for more “human salvage,”forbridled “privileged wealth,’’ for extensive “social amelioration,’’ for improved “expert New YOT~ City.

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19 161 BOOK REVIEWS 685 schooling,” for greater “expediency” and less “dogmatism” in American “theories of politics. ” In those matters, the author shows keen insight into our needs. Unfortunately, however, little practical aid may be expected from studying the book, for the author draws such an unprepossessing, “undemocratic” picture of Germany that few average Americans could find any “model” therein for them or their country. Moreover, though the book sets as its task the explanation of a “mystery,” it will be a wonder if the reader is not even more befuddled by the constantly recurring inconsistencies in the book itself. To illustrate what is conceived to be the error in both propositions: (1) The gravamen of the author’s complaint is against the large estate owning “ Junker.’’ In point of fact, few if any countries have a more satisfactory division or distribution of land ownership than Germany; nearly 80 per cent of the whole area is in holdings of under 250 acres. Furthermore, the Prussian state not the king is the owner of large domains. Also it is news to read that Stein and Hardenberg were South German, not Prussian, reformers. Moreover, Prussia’s undemocratic checks on constitutional amendments did not prevent the democratic change of May 21, 1906, granting a salary of 3000 marks a year to each of the Reichstag members. Again, the assumption that Prussia’s 235 members will or do vote as a unit suggests a “paper study” rather than actual knowledge of German parliamentary conditions. In fact, the Reichstag is composed of 397 members, elected by a one-man, universal, secret, and direct ballot. The federal right to vote is held by every male over 25 years of age, and is subject to no property or educational test. At the war’s beginning, the “Junkers” had only 55 votes in the Reichstag, whereas the “ Liberals ” and “Social Democrats ” had 210, an absolute majority. And, though no minister is responsible to parliament, no one can remain minister who can not persuade the body to support his bills. (2) The statements that Germany is an “oligarchy” and yet is “democratically minded”; that the Junker “controls,” is opposed to “progress” and “education” and yet that Germany is 25 years “ahead of the world” in both; that the universities and public opinion are spineless and that the Reichstag is a debating club only and yet that all those forces have put Germmy in the lead; that the Junker is the militarist and jingo and yet that his spirit ’ “ characterizes the whole nation”; that lack of popular control explains the wrongs of the country landowner and also the good deeds of the city house-owner; that a universal military duty to serve makes a ‘I conscripted ” army but that the lure of pay makes a “volunteer” army; that the present status was forced by rulers upon unwilling people and yet that German statesmanship is “not the opinion of the ruling class alone but of all classes”; that the state is so strong “as to devitalize the individual” and yet “this paternalism does not mean less freedom to the individual . . . (and) instead of stagnation there are initiation and aggression”; that education and educators are under “caste” domination and therefore harmful and inefficient and yet that both outrank the educational equipment of any other large states,-are seemingly inconsistent and self-contradictory. They do not satisfy as a solution of the “ mystery. ’’ It is particdarly to be regretted that the author pays no attention to the geographical location of Germany, so little regard to the pressure of population upon space, and so wholly ignores German history from 1620 to 1648, from 1756 to 1763, from 1806 to 1814 as important “explanations” of the German tendency to centralization of power. The. author is, however, truly to be thanked for acquainting us with many of the details of Gemmy’s organized efficiency; and he is sincerely to be congratulated for trying so courageously, even in these bitter times, to make us understand that there can be no true political lihertg without economic freedom of the masses. W. S. MCNEILL. Richmond, Vu.

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686 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW IOctober THE SINGLE TAX MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES. By Arthur Nichols Young, Ph.D. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press. $1.50. In writing “The Single Tax Movement in the United States,” Professor Young haa done pioneer work in a strangely neglected field. The cause of this neglect is indicated in the book. The single tax idea persists and propagates itself rather in spite of, than because of, organization. Judged by ordinary standards of obvious organization it is negligible. Yet it is ubiquitous, breaking out in unexpected quarters and moving masses of people, For instance, Spain and South America are now being agitated by the discussion of the question, in a manner unprecedented in the caae of any previous economic question. While the book is in no sense a plea for the single tax idea, single taxers will concede its clearness as an exposition and its fairness as a chronicle. It pays full and generous tribute to the genius of Henry George, and while presentingthe arguments of his critics gives equal space to his rejoinders. If the book has a weakness it is one which is almost inseparable from an attempt of the kind when made by a man who was not a participant in the movement which he describes. Professor Young’s sense of values in attempting to estimate the contributions made by individuals and organizations to the growth of the idea is not unerring. In discussing the McGlynn imbroglio he gives the impression that the religious body which he refers to somewhat unhappily as the ‘‘Roman Church” was opposed to the single tax, when as a matter of fact, the whole controversy was precipitated by Tammany Hall (through the agency of W. Bourke Cockran, who glories in his achievement) , inducing the late Archibishop Corrigan to try and silence a pastor who was merely exercising his right aa a citizen to criticize public policies. Dr. McGlynn was restored to his sacerdotal functions without apology or recantation. The Roman curia formally declared that the single tax as propounded by Dr. McGlynn and his able counsel, Monsignor Burtsell, contained nothing contrary to faith and morals. The controversy therefore was wholly over a matter of local politics. Professor Young sum up very effectively the contribution of the single tax movement to public opinion. He points out that it has led to most of the movements for tax reform; to the extension of the idea of excess condemnation and special assessment; to a very general spread of interest in economics among workingmen; to a changed public attitude on franchises; to the policy of conserving our national resources. “Finally,” he says, “the American single tax movement has been a powerful force insistently directing attention to the vexed problem of poverty. Men have pondered this problem more seriously ever since “Progress and Poverty” was written. Through the propaganda of Henry George and his followers hundreds of thousands have been led to consider how the condition of mankind may be ameliorated. Never before has the pressing importance of social reform been felt as in the last generation. The most vital message of Henry George’s life and work was the urgency of social reform. Whatever be the fate of the remedy for which he so earnestly contended, one thing is sure. Henry George made it plain that no true civilization can avoid the duty of finding a means to “extirpate poverty” and “to lighten the burdens of those compelled to toil.” JOHN J. MURPHY. New York City. * PERSONNEL AND EMPLOYMENT PROBLEMS, edited by Meyer Bloomfield. Philadelphia: American Academy of Political and Social Science. Pp. 326. As the efficiency of the human body is dependent more largely upon the quality of the food eaten and its proper digestion and assimilation, than upon any other factor, so the efficiency of any business organization, governmental or non-governmental, is dependent most largely upon the ability of the executives charged with

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19161 BOOK REVIEWS 687 the duty of selecting the help, and the training, promoting, aiding and disciplining of the employes. Although it is likely that private employers in America may learn much by studying and adapting the carefully devised selective methods of our municipal civil service commissions, our municipal executives may learn even more by carefully studying the methods by means of which our large private employers train and advance their workers and increase their business efficiency by promoting their personal welfare and stimulating their interest in their work. Meyer Bloomfield, who is considered by many the ablest employment expert in America, has in this volume, which he has edited for the Academy, collected papers by the employment managers of America’s foremost industrial establishments, which are full of practical helpful suggestions to municipal officials. The volume gives the results of the experience of these private corporations in the functionalizing of the employmeh department, in the use of the unscieiitific hiring and firing policy, in the selection of employes by scientific methods, in the assignment of employes to duty after careful testing and in increasing the employes’ efficiency by improving his personal welfare and stimulating his interest. This is a volume which should be read and re-read by every municipal official who seeks success in his administrative efforts. Students of American municipal government have frequently commented upon the fact that although municipal employes are usually abler and more intelligent than those in private employ, the latter are usually more efficient. If there is foundation for this critical commeat, the papers in thisvolume will quickly show the municipal official how to correct this condition. LEONHARD FELIX FIJLD. * STANDARDIZATION OF SALARIES AND GRADES IN CIVIL SERVICE. By Robert Moses. Baltimore, 1916. Pp. 19. All students of municipal science realize in a general way that the standardization of salaries and grades is a procedure fraught with many difficulties and perplexities. They also realize that the difficulties inherent in such an administrative procedure are accentuated in a municipality which has the great size and the complicated governmental machinery of the city of New York. Under these circumstances a pamphlet by the man who was the guiding expert in New York’s recent salary standardization program, who planned the work and pushed it to completion should find a place on the library shelves of every municipal official. Dr. Moses outlines the work accomplished, the manner in which these activities were carried on, the difficulties which were overcome, the history of the movement in New York and the plans for the future. The most concretely valuable part of this pamphlet is the formulation of seven specific items of advice to other standardizers, which Dr. Moses has evolved and deduced from his own experience. Throughout the pamphlet the author has happily blended the scientific accuracy of the student with the wisdom of the successful practical official. L. F. F. * BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS. By F. J. Allen. Boston: Ginn & Company. $1. This book is intended to enable young men to choose intelligently between business and other pursuits, to help make business employes more efficient, and so to render some service to those who are interested in the problems of career building. The first two needs have always been felt and any book that tends to fill those nee& would be valuable. The last named purpose, that of aiding persons interested in the problems of career building, has a particular timeliness now that vocational guidance is coming to be recognized as an important function of our elementary and secondary educational systems. The author presents an intensive study of three definite business lines which he believes include and typify the general activities of the business world, manufacture, trade, and finance. The business side

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688 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October of manufacture is treated with shoe manufacture as a concrete example. One chapter is devoted to the executive offices, one to the general offices, one to the factory offices, and one to statistics in the manufacturing industries. Modern trade is illustrated by the department store, the subject being treated in separate chapters on merchandising or buying; superintending and selling; the office department; the advertising department; conditions of service; social service work; the employe, pay, and promotion. Finance is illustrated by a chapter on banking. HERMAN G. JAMES. University of Texas. * TEE FINANCIAL HISTORY OF BOSTON. By Charles Phillips Huse. Harvard Economic Studies, vol. xv. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. . Professor Huse has made a careful and creditable study of the financial history of Boston, from the beginning of city government May 1, 1822, to January 31, 1909. After a short introductory chapter on the winning of the charter, there are five chapters each dealing with a chronological period, and a conclusion. An appendix of 36 pages gives detailed tables of statistics; and there are also a bibliography and an index. The more important changes in the organization of the municipal government are briefly described; and it is of interest to note that the relations of the town to the county of Suffolk were a factor in the change from town to city government. As to financial affairs, the most general fact is the steady and rapid increase in the amounts involved, from $135,000 in 1818 to $30,424,000 in 1908. Per capita expenditures have risen from $3.69 in 181821 to $49.01 in 1903-06. Expenditures for fire protection and for public grounds show the ' largest rate of increase; while expenditures for schoob and for county purposes are in recent years a smaller proportion of the total than in the earlier periods. On the revenue side, the percentage of receipts from taxes and rents has declined; while there have been marked additions to the revenue from water rates and liquor licenses. The concluding chapter is short, and is somewhat disappointing in the failure to discuss the principles and lessons to be drawn from the study. Explanations are not always adequate: No attention is called to the general rise of prices as a factor in the inorease of municipal expenditures; nor is the inflation of the currency during and after the civil war emphasized as an element in the extraordinary increase during the period from 1860 to 1873. There are no comparisons with other cities; and in suggesting causes for the high per capita cost of municipal government in Boston (p. 344), there is no mention of one of the principal factors-that the city of Boston includes less than half the population of the urban district. JOHN A. FAIRLIE. * MARKETING PERISHABLE FARM PRODUCTS. By Arthur B. Adams. New York: Columbia University, 1916. 180 pp. Professor Adams has availed himself of the various source studies that have been made in the last few years as to the costs and prices in marketing perishable products and has evideiitly read much of the great volume of literature that has recently appeared in this field. He ap parently has not done any, or but very little, investigating work himself. He describes the present system of marketing perishable products. He finds the weaknesses of the present system to lie in the varying supply and in the changing demand together with the losses from deterioration, and the want of care with the commodities before and after they enter the market, the inaccuracy of market information and the fact that the complicated marketing machinery aeems to be too expensively run. He does not believe that the middleman system will be eliminated; he points out the limitations of direct marketing and of co-operative sales, because of the di5culty of finding consumers and transferring goods to consumers. He believes that the cost of University of Illinois.

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19161 BOOK REVIEWS performing the marketing process may be reduced through government market bureaus, through the standardization of grades and packages, through the elimination of unfair business practices, through the organizing of market information, through the regulation of transportation, refrigeration, and terminal facilities, through educational and investigating work, through more efficient market departments, through co-operative associations and through reducing costs through competition between wholesalers, shippers and retailers, all of which means and agencies have been set forth elsewhere. * THL NEW PWLIC HEALTH. By Hibbert Winslow Hill. New York: The Macmillan Co. Cloth; 6 x 9 in., pp. 206. $1.25. A readable, strongly put, non-technical presentation of the underlying principles of public health, with an exposition of how those principles may be most effectively applied for the protection of the individual and the community. The keynote is that the way to prevent the spread of communicable diseases is to control the infection itself, at the source, which is the person suffering with the disease or very often carrying disease germs without sickness or knowledge of the fact. I The book first appeared as a series of articles written for the JournaLLancel of Minneapolis and supplied by it to 1,150 newspapers in the United States and Canada. These articles were prepared under the auspices of the Minnesota state board of health, which Dr. Hill was then serving as epidemiologist. They were published as a book in 1912 and are now reprinted in an enlarged revised form, embodying the author’s increased experience in several capacities, including his present position of medical officer of health, of London, Ontario. The volume deserves wide reading. * THE CITIZENS’ BOOK. By Charles R. Hebble and Frank P. Goodwin. The Cincinnati chamber of commerce has hit upon a happy idea for interesting her school children in their city and in the 10 problem of municipal government. It has asked the director of its civic departme-it, Mr. Hebble, to co-operate with the director of vocational and civic service, Nlr. Goodwin, in the Cincinnati public schools to write a text-book, for the use of the teachers of the Cincinnati schools as a basis for instruction in. civics. It is divided into 22 chapters, contains 66 illustrations, and is admirably printed, in itself a good lesson to the children. The editors, as they call themselves, state that: “This book is a book for the citizen; for the citizen who would know what his city was, what it is and how it became so, for the citizen who wants hb city to grow better, who has ideals for its improvement, or who is seeking for such ideals; for the citizen who is willing, working with others, to help make Cincinnati a community which contributes the greatest possible good to each of its members.” It is claimed that this book, and so far EM we know with good ground, is the first publication of its kind prepared by a commercial organization, is an analysis of Cincinnati and her institutions. Messrs. Hebble and Goodwin proceed on the assumption that the citizen should know all about his city as a portion of the ground work of his education. It describes the geography of Cincinnati with reference to the surrounding region, site and influence of environment; the first settlement at Columbia, and the founding of Losantiville (Cincinnati) It deals with the first settlers, their food, utensil2 and clothing, primitive exchange, early schools, the first newspaper, the first church, the first pastor, and the first government, and with similar questions all through the city’s interesting history. Naturally history and commerce come in for a good share of attention. The chamber is entitled to great credit for its pioneer work and its public spirit and the editors for the skill with which they have executed their task. * THE: GARY SCHOOLS. By Randolph S. Bourne. Boston: Houghton M& Co, 1916 No other experiment in school administration has been so much written about

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690 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October and talked about during the past two years as the Gary system. Out of the peculiar conditions that existed in Gary, and in accordance with the principle that the school program should take account of Liwork, study and play,” Superintendent Wirt has developed a plan for utilizing the resources of the school plant that challenges the attention of thinking people everywhere. The present book gives a clear and intelligible picture of the community setting in which the system developed, the use of playgrounds, gymnasiums, museums, libraries, auditoriums, art and music studios, laboratories, and workshops as extensions of the class-room, the articulation of school activities with home life, and the details of school organization by which these manifold activities are unified and co-ordinated. The author’s aim is to describe and explain the conditions of which he speaks, and to present as sympathetic and favorable an account as possible. Nowhere is a critical attitude taken, and even where criticisms are mentioned they are refuted with vigorous counter arguments. To those who desire a readable, appreciative and enthusiastic description of the essential features of the Gary schools the book is to be cordially commended. J. C. BELL. Brooklyn Training School for Teachers. * ADJUSTMENT OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATION TO VARIOUS POPULATION GROUPS. By Robert Alexander Fyfe McDonald. Columbia University Contributions to Education, No. 75. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1915. The object of this monograph is to give a somewhat detailed, but coherent account of the provisions that have been made for the education of special groups of children by various communities in this country. The groups considered are the exceptionally bright or gifted children on the one hand, and those who, on account of some physical or mental infirmity, are unable to profit by the ordinary school procedure on the other. In the latter class are found the deaf, the blind, the delinquent, the dependent and neglected, the feeble-minded, the crippled, the non-English-speaking immigrant, the tubercular, and the speech defective. Each chapter presents a good historica1 survey of the establishment of schools for the particular group considered, and gives an excellent idea of what is now done for each type of variant in the more progressive school systems. A good working bibliography accompanies each section. J. C. B. * How THE PEOPLE RULE. By Charles D. Forest Hoxie, Pd.M.; New York: Silver, Burdett & Co. As a text-book in civics prepared for the grammar grades this volume treats in a brief and suggestive way matters relatiiig to government which may be of interest to beginners. The style is clear and elementary enough, as a rule, to be read with understsrlding and with profit by pupils in the grammar grades. The author, however, fails to appreciate and understand the recent progress made in the teaching of community civics to children in the elementary grades. As a consequence, too much emphasis is given to the formal side of government, to laws, to taxation, to the formal organization of government in nation, state, city and county. Moreover, the functions performed by governmental departments with respect to public health, protection of property, and civic improvement are either very scantily treated or omitted entirely. Not enough emphasis is given to the observation of government, to the study of government problems and to the practical devices to render civics both interesting and useful. C. G. H. * COMMUNITY CIVICS. By Jessie Field and Scott Nearing. New York: The Macmillan Company. This little volume is prepared primarily for the elementary grades of rural schools. A few of the chapters which give an idea,

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19161 BOOK REVIEWS 691 of the scope of the volume deal with the institutions and ideals of country life, the country home, the country school and the community, citizenship and country life, the country community and its officials, the country in its relation to the state and to the nation. The volume may be commended not only because of the modern viewpoint and the suggestive method of approach to community problems, but also because it encourages a new method of instruction in community affairs. C. G. H. * Report by J. C. Morrell, A.R.J.B.A., to the Minister of Public Works of Victoria. This report does not pretend to be an original contribution to town planning literature since the author practically confines himself to presenting in his own words the information he has gathered on a tour through Britain and the United States. It is interesting, however, to note how this Australian observer has been influenced by what he saw and heard on his tour. He correctly describes the distinctive characteristics of town planning, garden cities and garden suburbs in Great Britain and the difference between these and city planning in the states. He began his researches in Britain and therefore came first under the influence of the kind of town planning in which the fundamental principle is “care of the citizens’ health and the proper housing of the people, ” rather than the attainment of aesthetic results in the disposition of streets and buildings as a sole or even primary object. The British idea of town planning seems to have remained with him and in his conclusions he refers to the need of town planning legislation to enable housing conditions in Victoria to be improved. He properly regards the passing of such legislation as a necessary preliminary to the preparation of town planning schemes. TOWN PLANNING THOMAS ADAMS. Ottawa. THE AMERICAN CITY. AN OUTLINE OF ITS DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTIONS. By Henry C. Wright. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Company. In this little volume Dr. Wright has brought together various short chapters on the history, organization, and general functions of cities. Particular stress has been laid upon the social aspects of municipal administration. The author’s experience as First Deputy Commissioner of the Department of Public Charities in New York City has given him some interesting viewpoints which find expression throughout the book but more particularly in the last chapter. The book is not a systematic study of all the city’s activities and does not profess to be so; but it contains some scattering data relating to nearly all of them. Unhappily these things are not always stated accurately. The changes in the Boston charter (p. 29) were made in 1909, not in 1901; the figures of approximate cost of street-lighting per thousand inhabitants in various cities (p. 68) lead to an absurd conclusion; and there are forty-eight wards in Philadelphia (p. 26). In condensing his discussion into such brief compass the author has been under the necessity of omitting many important things with the result that other matters of less significance stand out in undue prominence. To cover so wide a range in a really informing way is not possible within the limits of the space which Dr. Wright found allotted to him. W. B. M. f SANITATION IN PANAMA. By William Crawford Gorgas. New York: D. Appleton & Company. Those who wish to read an interesting history of the conquest of yellow fever through the elimination of the stegomyia mosquito at both Havana and Panma, as well as a review of the devoted work of various experimenters who made those conquests possible, will welcome this volume. Only the last half of the book deals with Panama, and that half is devoted to yellow fever, malaria, general port quar

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692 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW . [October antine, hospitals and like work conducted under the direction of the brilliant and successful author. Other kinds of sanitary work at Panama, like water-supply and sewerage, are practically if not absolutely ignored. Many historical and other incidents add to the readableness of an unusually interesting volume. M. N. B. Montclair, N. J. * AMEBICAN YEAR BOOK. A RECORD OF Edited by Francis G. Wickware. New York and London: D. Appleton & Company. $3. This annual volume has been thoroughly etablished. As in previous years the contributions on the subject of municipal government are by the editor of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW. A comparison of this year's volume with previous onea would seem to indicate either a diminishing appreciation of the value of municipal government on the part of the general editor and his committee, or an increasing pressure on the space, for in the course of two years the amount of space devoted to municipal government EVENTS AND PROQRESS FOR 1915. has been diminished ten per cent. This is unfortunate at a time when municipal government is increasing in importance and public consideration at a ratio that is attracting the attention even of the indifferent. ' * GREAT CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES. By Gertrude Van Duyn Southworth and Stephen Elliot Kramer. Syracuse, N. Y.: Iroquois Publishing Company. .A good geographical reader designed to teach children something about the growth of their country through thegrowth of their cities. A recognition of the importance of cities in our national life hitherto unrecognized by tachem. The following are the cities considered: New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, St. Lou&, Boston, Cleveland, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Detroit, Buffalo, San Francisco, New Orleans and Washington. The story of the growth of these cities, the things which interest the sightseer, the commerce, the industries, the great things these cities are seeking to accomplish, and their relation to environment are recited in an interest,ing way. 11. BOOKS RECEIVED fbMINISTRATIVE CODE OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. Published by Authority of Law. Manila: Bureau of Printing. 1916. ALCOHOL AND SOCIETY. By John Koren. New York: Henry Holt & Company. $1.25. By Arland D. Weeks. New York: D. C. Heath & Company. THE BALTIMORE BOOK. Fifth Edition. Published by The Municipality. 1916. MENTS. By T. R. Agg, C.E. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. $3. COUNTER-CURRENTS, By Agnes Repplier. Boston: Houghton, Miflin Company. $1.25. THE AVOIDANCE OF FIRES. THE CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND PAVEA DIGEST OF CASES DECIDED IN FRANCE RELATING TO PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW. By Pierre Pellerin. London: Stevens & Sons, Ltd., 119 Chancery Lane. THE EDUCATION OF THE NE'ER-DO-WELL. By William H. Dooley. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 60 cents. EVERYMAN MILITANT: A MODERN MoRALITY. By Ewing Rafferty. $oston: Sherman, French & Company. $1. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FOR SUNDRY CLASSES: SENIOR GRADE CLERICAL, MIDDLE GRADE CLERICAL, MINOR CLERICAL, POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, FEDERAL FIRST GRADD CLERICAL. New York: Civil Service Chronicle. 6 volumes. EXAMINATION INSTRUCTION INCLUDINQ

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19161 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 69 3 HANDBOOK FOR HIGHWAY ENGINEERS. By Wilson G. Harger and Edmund A. Bonney. Second Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. $3. HIGH SPOTS IN NEW YORK SCHOOLS. By William H. Allen and L. P. Beneaet, Helen E. Purcell, Claude N. Hitchcock. New York: Institute for Publifc Service. 1916. OFFICIAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE NEW JERSEY STATE LEAGUE OF MUNICIPALITIES. 1916. Published by the League, Trenton, N. J. ON THE ENFORCEMENT OF LAW IN CITIES. By Brand Whitlock. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company. 75 cents. THE PLANNINQ OF THE MODERN CITY. By Nelson P. Lewis. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. $3.50. REPORT OF THE COMMISSION TO LOCATE THE SITE OF FRONTIER FORTS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Vols. I and 11. Edited by Thomas Lynch Montgomery, Litt.D. Second Edition. Harrisburg, Pa. : Wm. Stanley Ray, State Printer. 1916. THE SOCIAL SURVEY. By Carol Aronovici, Ph.D. Philadelphia: The Harper Press. STATE CONSTITUTION-MAKINQ, WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE To TENNESSEE. By Wallace McClure. Nashvillt.: Marshall & Bruce Company. 1916. WATERWORKS HANDBOOK. By Alfred Douglas Flinn, Robert Spurr Weston and Clinton Lathrop Bogert. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. $0. 111. REVIEWS OF REPORTS Recent Progress in Civic Education.' -The criticisms of educational methods which have been prevalent for more than a decade are bearing fruit in a reconstructive process which is affecting profoundly all phases of education both public and private. Evidences of such a reconstruction of educational methods are not only to be found in the remarkable experiments now being conducted at Fairhope, Alabama, Columbia, Missouri, and Gary, Indiana, but also in the changes in content and method which many schools have introduced in the teaching of geography, history, and elementary science. Similarly some noteworthy progre88 has been made in recent years in revising the content and improving the methods of instruction in civic education. In the first place the devoting of a few weeks to the study of government in connection with American history in the high school and the giving of some perfunctory instruction in the seventh or 1 Those interested in the improvement of civic education, are referred to the report of the committee on instruction of the American Political Science Association, published by the Macmillan company. eighth grade of the elementary school, or the neglect of civic instruction entirely as was often the case, are being superseded by a definite plan of instruction which includes the introduction' of civic lessons in the grades, usually in connection with history, geography or ethics, of a full year of community civics in grade seven, eight or nine-junior high school-and of a half year or frequently an entire year to advanced civics in the senior high school. Few there are who do not recall the formal study of civil government with its memorization of the constitution and of long lists of o5cers with names and salaries attached-a forbidding kind of study which often appeared to have not even the remotest relation to citizenship and which Enpressed its recipients with a hearty dislike of the study of government. Naturally the subject received but little recognition in the school curriculum and deserved even leas sympathy on the part of public-minded citizens. It has been a diflicult matter to get rid of the traditional type of civil government. Unfortunately many schools even to-day continue to offer this kind of course

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694 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October with apparent indifference to the progress that has been made in civic education and to the fact that an educational system in a country professing to rest its government on democratic principles must function in more than a perfunctory way in teaching civic affairs. The signs of improvement here and there give promise that the day of formal civil government is doomed. Not only is there a great increase in time and attention to civics, but an even more striking change is to be found in the methods of teaching and in the study of public affairs. The plan of instruction in the grades which has been adopted in New York City, Philadelphia, Berkeley, Indianapolis, Superior and Milwaukee as well as other cities includes a study of such matters as the home as a social institution, the family, the school and the relations of the citizen to these social groups; a study of the protection of the citizen along the lines of health and property, social improvement, recreation and civic beauty. The new course involves a definite purpose on the part of the public schools to create an interest in the functions performed by government, and the relations of citizens to the community with respect to civic affairs. Community civics, as the newer viewpoint and method of study, particularly with respect to elementary instruction, has come to be designated, has been definitely outlined, both as to content and method of approach in the bulletin of the bureau of education entitled “The teaching of community civics” prepared by a committee of the National Education Association of which Dr. J. Lynn Barnard of Philadelphia was chairman. This bulletin not only gives a suggeative and interesting discussion of the aims and methods in the teaching of community civics but also outlines a list of appropriate topics under the divisions health, protection of life and property, recreation, education, civic beauty, wealth, communication, transportation, migration, charities and corrections, and how governmental agencies are conducted and financed. For each of these topics advice is given to teachers as to the approach to the topic and suggestions on the responsibility of the citizen as a member of the community. The bulletin marks a new step in the teaching of civics and its use in a large number of schools indicates the development within recent years away from the formal type of civic instruction. Considerable progress has also been made in revising the advanced course in civics in the senior high school. The improvement along this line, not to speak of employing better trained teachers and granting more time to the subject, is comprehended mainly under six headings: 1. The collection of a library on civic affairs; 2. Field investigation; 3. The problem method of instruction; 4. Graphic method of presenting government facts; 5. Co-operation of civic departments of high schools with chambers of commerce and civic clubs; 6. The practice of selfgovernment in connection with the various organizations and activities of the school as well as in certain phases of control and discipline. Teachers of civics have only begun to appreciate the great storehouse of useful material to be found in government reports, in pamphlet literature, and in the publications of various societies interested in civic affairs. A civics library and reference department in addition to many reference works on all phases of government and social problems may well contain maps, reports of officers, ballots, legal notices and blanks, party literature and. the publications of the United States bureau of education and other departments of the federal government as well as the reports and bulletins of charity organization societies, the Child Labor Committee, National Municipal League, National Civil Service Reform League, National Short Ballot Organization, National Housing Association, National Civic Federation, American Civic Association, Russell Sage Foundation, Playground and Recreation Association, National Committee on Prisons and Prison Labor, American Public Health Association as well as numerous 1. Library on civic affairs.

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19161 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 695 other civic and improvement societieslocal and state and national. It is not possible to teach government effectively from a text-book without recourse to supplementary material contained in reports and documents and the collection of a civics library and reference department ought to be the first aim and should receive the most careful attention of every teacher of civics in the public schools. 2. Field investigation. Instead of regarding government as merely a matter to be read about and to be considered in a purely abstract fashion, teachers of civics have begun to discover that a veritable government laboratory is at hand, particularly if the school is located in a small town or city and to a certain extent when the school is located in a rural district. Some of the most profitable work which is now undertaken by the teachers of civics in many schools is the result of personal field investigation of local government, by requiring a visit to the departments and a study of the functions performed by them and the preparation of a report as to the work accomplished by the various departments. Such investigations are followed by a general discussion in the class. Professor Dewey stated some years ago the educational principle involved in the method of field investigation when he insisted that “training for citizenship is formal and nominal unless it develops the power of observation, analysis and inference with reference to what makes up a social situation and the agencies through which it is modified. ” Nothing adds so much to the vital interest in civics as reports based on personal field investigation by pupils and wherever this method can be pursued it is one which is to be commended to teachers of civics. 3. The problem method of instruction. There are indications that the former method of teaching and studying government from books is being supplemented by the problem method of instruction by which the subject is approached from the standpoint of issues to be determined and problems to be settled through government and civic action. The consideration of officers, their duties and functions centers around a series of government problems which require careful thought relative to the duties of public officials, the responsibility of citizens, the advisability of improvement in public administration and in general the exercise of thinking on civic affairs of the present day. The thorough discussion as to why a spitting ordinance is not enforced or why some sanitary rules and regulations are not obeyed or why the roads and bridges in the community are neglected or the disregarding of quamntine regulations is the most direct and interesting approach to study of government. To the more mature children such problems as the death rate from typhoid fever and tuberculosis with the possibility of lowering the mortality from these diseases; the conditions of dairies, slaughter-houses, welb, springs, and other sources of the water supply; the labor conditions on the farm, in laundries, stores, shops, mills and factories with the prospect of improvement through laws, rules and regulations may be made the basis of a very profitable study, Above all emphasis in such a problem study can be given to the matter of lack of efficient inspection and supervision which so often renders laws and rules a mere farce. While the problem method is only beginning to be used and is the least definitely developed of the newer devices in civic instruction, it is one of the lines along which the greatest progress is likely to be made within the next decade. Such a course has been worked out quite effectively under the title civic problems, by the social science department of the Pasadena high school as well as in other cities, and although the method can perhaps be used only to supplement and render concrete the ordinary material of a government course, nevertheless the use of this device gives promise to aid in the development of initiative, resourcefulness and independent thinking, all of which are regarded as essentials in the revision of educational processes.

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696 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October 4. The graphic method of presenting gouemmentfacts. In the effort to introduce field investigation and the problem method of instruction there is a growing appreciation of the advantage of organization charts, graphic presentation of facts according to definite outlines or schedules so as to present vividly the conditions and relations which would otherwise be readily neglected and forgotten. The graphic method, which has been used so effectively in exhibits and in the work of extension departments, is coming to be appreciated as a definite aid in civic instruction. Surveys have been made by classes of civics and exhibits have been held which are of great value to the citizens of the community. Work of this character has been done very effectively under the direction of E. L. Burchard in connection with the civics extension committee of Chicago. It is ctn interesting story how thousands of schooI children participated in digesting city:ordinances and the laws of Illinois on the functions of government. Exhibits were prepared which brought interest and insight into governmental processes to Chicago citizens who worked with the children and came to Eee the results of their work. The idea of a survey of a neighborhood for exhibit purposes has spread rapidly. According to Mr. Burchard the steps involved in such an exhibit are: 1. Instruction in the class room; 2. investigation and field work; 3. construction of graphic material; 4. Interpretation andpublicity. The children under the leadership of their teachers become the educators of the people. Many of the activities of city government were rendered intelligible to the fathers and mothers, the citizens of Chicago.' Along a somewhat different line the civics department of the high schools of Newark, New Jersey, participated in the collection of information on the industries and government of Newark; and bulletins were issued as to the milk supply and 1 For an excellent aummary of the methods followed in Chicago schools see "The laboratory methods in civics" by E. L. Burchard, Educational Bi-Monthb, October, 1815. health department, keeping the streets clean and other functional activities of the city. The public library facilitated the work by rendering aid in the collection and classification of data. And above all the civics department became the dispensing agency of social and civic information. It is sometimes overlooked by the advocates of the use of school-houses as social centers that elections held in the' schools a few times each year, and an occasional social gathering will accomplish relatively little in transforming the school into a real civic center. These are steps in the right direction, but the establishment of a civics department and the introduction of newer methods and devices in connection therewith can do far more to make the school an effective social and civic center. Field investigation, graphic methods and exhibits are only a beginning, but a beginning which has lead to some notable consequences. Among theEie is the co-operation of women's clubs, of civic organizations, and of chambers of commerce with the civics department of the high school. 5. Co-operation of departments of && with chambers of commerce, and cities clubs. One of the interesting and perhaps most fruitful developments along the line of civic instruction is the increased tendency for the department of civics in the high school to work in conjunction with local chambers of commerce and local civic clubs. Such plans aa the junior civio league of Winston-Salem which involves: 1. Co-operation between the public schools and local board of trade, and 2. The formation of a boys' department or juvenile club under the direction of the board of trade, have been instituted in a considerable number of cities usually with great success. A junior civic league unrelated to the schools and receiving no support from the local chamber of commerce or civic clubs can hope for little in the way of permanence. The plan of Two Rivers, Wisconsin, in particular has resulted in developing a spirit of cooperation which is of interest to other communities. Various civic and industrial clubs use

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19161 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 697 the school building as the center for many of their meetings. The parent-teachers’ association, women’s clubs, civic leagues, commercial club and city government are all encouraged to work through the civics department of the public schools. A considerable amount of effective work has been done in cities through such co-operation and a great deal of interest has been aroused in civic affairs by uniting the junior citizens with chambers of commerce aa well as the local civic clubs. Illustrations of an organized movement along the above line is that of the civic industrial committee of the Chicago wociation of commerce. An effort is made to co-operate with the high school through civic industrial clubs. The purpose of these clubs which has been promoted through the association is: 1. To know Chicago better; (a) By studying the civic problems of our city; (b)By studying Chicago’s industrial resources, activities and op portunities. 2. To work for our school, our neighborhood, our city-to do something to make Chicago a better place in which to live, to work and to play. Another interesting plan is that of the New Haven civic federation in which an effort was made to develop the community school. One of the objects which the committee in charge of the work for the federation have outlined is to render the school in a real sense a community center. A comprehensive program was prepared to include lectures, special courses, and outlines and directions for groups in the study of civic and industrial conditions. Special emphasis throughout is given to civic affairs. 6. The introduction of the practice of democratic organization and management in the government and discipline of the school. The practice of placing a considerable responsibility upon the students in the public schools not only in the management of their own affairs but also in a limited extent in the government and discipline of the school, is growing in favor among principals and superintendents. A number of schools have organized and conducted with a fair degree of succesa such junior organizations as the George Junior Republic and the School City. While some good practice and preparation for civic duties can be gained from the formal organization of the school as B civic community, it is questionable, judging by experience, whether such elaborate systems are desirable and may be made really effective. Some schools re port the very successful operation of junior republics, whereas many others have either found the experiment an outright failure or have had onlyindifferent success. It seems rather that an organization for the purpose of managing athletics, debate and oratory, and musical organizations as well as the control of other student affairs may be enlarged and given at least partial recognition in the government and discipline of the school. There seems to be little doubt but that junior citizens may be given a larger share of responsibility in the management of school &airs and that this management may become the means of very definite practice in the principles and policies of self-government. Among the recent developments along the line of civic instruction should be mentioned the organized effort to instruct adult immigrants in civic affairs. The national bureau of education has begun work along this line and the New York state department of education has re cently issued a book entitled “the citizenship syllabus” which is intended “to train our foreign population for good, efficient American citizenship.” The syllabus is designed for a text-book in night schools and is recommended to teachers who wish to explain the principles of citizenship to immigrant children. A revision of courses of study so as to render available more time for civics, and the preparation of definite outlines and courses of study with suggestions aa to methods, topics and bibliography combined with the introduction of more concrete and practical methods have begun to make a place for civic instruction in our educational scheme such as our democratic principles and practices would seem to require. Our schools were established, says G. Stanley Hall, “to give an intelli

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698 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October gent basis to government of, by, and for the people and in civics we are restoring the school to this prime original function, the need of which has greatly increased by reason of the growing complexity of governmental machinery.” In the effort to render government more democratic and more efficient it is certain that civic education will become one of the prime objects of the public schools. It is becoming imperative that the public schools not only function better and more effectively in the field of civic instruction but also that colleges do far more than is now done to prepare for intelligent citizenship as well as to train for the various technical branches of the public eervice.1 CHAFLLES GROVE HAINES. University of Texas. * The Social Evil.-Vice Reports and Investigations.* The following reports were made in 1915: Springfield, Ill,, Shreveport, La., Rockland County, N. Y., Lancaster, Pa., Lexington and Louisville, Ky., Toronto, Canada, and Maryland State and Richmond, VR. (These two not printed.) The following reports have been made in 1916: Illinois State, New York City, bureau of social hygiene, Bridgeport, Conn., and Paducah, Ky. A complete list of reports made to March, 1916, was printed in the bulletin of the American social hygiene association. As a result of the work of the society for the suppression of vice and of the vice commission, the. former reports the following points gained: 1. All houses of public prostitution in Baltimore are now closed. 2. The inmates have been offered an opportunity to enter an honest life, and some have accepted. 3. Several hundred young girls are saved from lives of shame every year. 4. The closing of assignation houses, visited night and day by hundreds of men and women. 5. Lessened amount of Baltimore. lSee discussion of instruction in municipal government in educational institutions by Prof. W. B. Munro, in this issue: p. 565. 9 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, 1701. v, p. 686. street-walking. 6. Improved conditions in hotels. 7. Diminished number of assaults on women. 8. The practical elimination of the white slave traffic in Baltimore and vicinity. 9. A diminution of social diseases and consequent lessening of suffering among innocent women and children which must follow. 10. Improvement in the morals of the police force. 11. Elimination of the exploitation of vicious women as a matter of commerce. 12. A step toward the creation of a healthy public sentiment against the toleration of segr2gation of social vice. 13. Encouragement given to officials in the performance of their sworn duty. 14. The removal of the public disgrace of vice districts previously tolerated and supervised by the authorities. 15. Baltimore, from a moral standpoint, made one of the cleanest cities in the United Stat?s. The report of the Vice Comission has not been published although some of its findings and conclusions have been summarized by W. D. Lane in The Survey. Lezington, Ky. The report of the vice commission (Very Rev. R. K. Massie, D.D., chairman) has been published in pamphlet form (62 pp.) and as a result the “red light district” has been closed. The bureau of social hygiene, in May, 191.3, published 9 volume entitled “ Commercislized Prostitution in New York City,” by George J. Kneeland.* After two gears a survey was again mnde, the results of which have been published in a new report, according to which “the evil has been both reduced in amount and made less conspicuous in form. Though the situation is still far from being wholly satisfactory, tremendous gains have been made-gains, the credit for which belongs partly to civic organizations concerned with different aspects of the problem, partly-perhaps it would be fair to say largely-to the city administration. No police commissioner has ever before grappled with the difficulty as energetically, as intelligently and as persistently as Police Commissioner Woods; and the police 8 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. iii, p 182.) New York City.

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19161 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 699 force has responded to his leadership. A new standard has now been set and public opinion is being educated to demand and sustain it.” The bureau has also published (through the Century company) a volume containing the “Laws Relating to Sexual Immorality in New York City,”l edited by Arthur B. Springborn. To determine the result of the closing of the “red light” district by Mayor Baker on March 31, 1915, the Cleveland Medical Journal published a study by Dr. A. R. Warner of the Lakeside Dispensary, showing the number of infections acquired in Cleveland during the period of eight months before the closing of the district and during eight months immediately after that time. The Journal declared that it is the custom of the Lakeside dispensary to secure from each person having syphilis a statement of the date of his infection, the type of person from whom the disease was contracted, and whether the patient was drunk or sober when he contracted the disease. Not all patients are willing to answer these questions in detail, but the figures in the following tabulation are taken from the records of those who gave full data. They include, moreover, only the infections acquired in Cleveland and by men only. Women, old infections, and infections acquired outside of Cleveland are not included. Before Closing Cleveland. Sources No. PerCases centage Segregated district. ...... 45 40.2 Street walkers. .......... 29 25.9 Clandestine prostitution . . 10 8.9 Accidental.. ............ 14 12.4 [‘Friends’’. ............. 11 9.8 Marital.. ............... 3 2.6 112 99.8 -In comparison with this table the record should be noted of cases reaching the dispensary between April 1, 1915, and January 1, 1916. The records of men infected in Cleveland, who answer in full the questions above referred to, and such records only, were used. 1 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, Val. v. p. 518 ) After Closing Sources No. PerStreet walker. ........... 6 33.3 Cases centage ~ ~ ~ .~.~ Friend.. ................ 4 22.2 Unknown or accidental ... 6 33.3 Clandest,ine prostitution . . 2 11.1 -18 99.9 The fact that 112 cases, plus an unrecorded number who would not answer questions in full, were treated before the closing of the segregated district and that only 53 cases in all (including the 35 not reporting in full) were reported after the close of the district, is regarded striking evidence of the pIace in Cleveland’s public health occupied by the red light region. Chicago. After the vice commission had concluded its labors, it wm left to certain civic organizations to continue the work of investigation and to proceed against the vice traffic. For the last three years the most aggressive destructive work in this line has been done by the committee of fifteen, the purpose of which, as officially stated, is “TO aid the public authorities in the enforcement of laws against pandering and to take measures calculated to prevent traffic in women.” Its present policy is to direct its efforts towards the destruction of market places for women. Other issues, it declares, are collateral. At the annual meeting of the committee, Samuel P. Thrasher, the superintendent, told in his report of some of the results obtained by keeping to the committee’s programme. Prior to July 1, 1915, when the Injunction and abatement law went into effect, the method of publishing the record of property used for immoral purposes was the fixed policy of the committee. “Hundreds of houses of prostitution were closed as a result of that policy, but when the injunction law became operative it was decided by unanimous vote that before a legal attack upon any particular property the owner should have fair notice.” The results have justified the wisdom of this policy. Largely through the efforts of the superintendent, who was supported

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700 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October by members of other organizations, by the real estate men, and by a united press, the injunction and abatement bill became a law, and has been operative since July 1, 1915. “Our method of operation under that law is extremely simple. When evidence is secured that is deemed sufficient to prove a case if it goes to court-no action is taken without such evidence-an informal notice is sent to the owner of record that reports are in possession of the committee showing that the property in question is being used in violation of law, and that if the allegations are proved to the satisfaction of the court, the court may issue an order closing the house, apartment, or place against its uEe for any purpose whatsoever for a period of one year, Unl~ the owner gives a bond conditioned that he will, of his own motion, abate the nuisance.,‘ During the ten months of the existence of the abatement law, the committee has served 205 informal notices, involving 202 separate properties. In 191 cwes, the owners have acted or have promised to act, making the sending of a formal notice unnecessary. As a net result only four cases have been brought under the ban of the law by injunction. The superintendent advises the changing of the present law so as to make the offense of keeping a house of prostitution one of pandering, with corresponding penalties. A severe indictment of the police de partment is made in the report. The committee says it believes that a large majority of the force are honest and wish to do the right, and would do it if restrictions were removed and proper diacipline and efficiency were insisted upon by those in authority. The police, the report says, neglect their duty: “We have yet to hear of the first effort by the department to invoke the aid of thenew law.” Except for the efforts of the committee of fifteen, so far aa Chicago is concerned, this law would be a dead letter. The Chicago telephone company expressed its willingness to help the committee by removing telephones from known houses of prostitution upon notice from the police department that the inmates had been convicted and upon a demand for the removal of the telephone. But though the present chief of police has been in office more than a year, “there has not been a single telephone removed at his request.” It is charged that policemen calmly watch the vicious orgies at dance halls and cabarets without interfering. “They have lamentably failed to drive crooks out of Chicago.” The report suggests that the police first drive the crooks out of their own department and then they will be better able to drive the crooks out of the city. It also says that a vigorous effort to clean up the police department would bring the chief the support of all the moral forces of the city. “Without collusion with the police commerciahed vice could notflourishinChicago. . . . Wehave found policemen going personally and collecting tribute from women, and giving evidence of their willingness to protect vicious resorts by taking the keepers to the morals court to point out certain officers of the court against whom the womenwereto beonguard. . . . We have dictagraph records of conversatiom and records of telephonic communications which reveal facts indicating that the system of graft exists in all sections of the city where vice is prevalent. The committee intends to try to secure evidence and expose policemen who are engaged in what may be called official pandering.” The proximity of houses of prostitution to school buildings is another problem in which the committee has taken active interest. The report declares that segregation is a delusion. The Kate Adams Law, approved by Governor Dunne June 22, 1915, provides that “whoever is an inmate of a house of ill-fame or assignation, or place for the practice of fornication or prostitution or lewdness, or who shall solicit to prostitutioninany street, alley,park, or other place in any city, village or incorporated town in this state, shall be fined not exceeding two hundred dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail or house of correction for B period of not more than one (1) year, or

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19161 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 701 both.” This law has been a disappointtion had come into power. Under strong ment, according to the committee of pressure, especially from the churches, fifteen, and in the opinion of some judges Mayor Armstrong appointed a morals is believed to be unconstitutional. This began work in June, 1914. The Chicago Law and Order Society By September 1 it had closed every house (Arthur Burrage Farwell, president) is of open prostitution in the city without another organization devoted to an enmateriallvincreasing the clandestine traffic. bureau. forcement of the laws relating to the social evil and the liquor laws. Bufalo. According to the printed testimony of Edward C. Fellowes, of the Buffalo federation of churches, which in a little over a year has brought 105 actions and obtained 77 permanent injunctions, of which 6 were denied and the rest are pending: “A tour of the tenderloin to-day reveals a situation which by comparison with that of a year ago is well nigh incredible. . . . Thirty of the old houses are actually standing vacant. Many houses are offered for sale, and a dozen have been converted into stores. Police reports show that 35 proprietors and probably 500 women have left Buffalo. It is estimated by those who have made a study of conditions in Buffalo that this business had been reduced fully 80 per cent during the year. . . . Violation of the permanent injunction constitutes contempt of court, punishable by penitentiary sentence, a thing of which offenders stand in wholesome dread; and denizens of the underworld in Buffalo frankly confess that the lid is on.” Pittsburgh. Six years ago the morals efficiency commission began the fight for gradual elimination of commercialized vice in Pittsburgh. This commission, appointed by Mayor Magee, had no police power, but enjoyed the co-operation of the administration. In the course of two years, according to The Survey, it reduced the number of open houses from 247 to 65 and the number of inmates from 1,000 to 342. It also succeeded in eliminating all drinks, shows, music and other side attractions. Investigation showed that this resulted in a reduction of 80 per cent in the patronage of the houses. Legislation was secured providing for a morals bureau, composed of leading citizens and possessed of police power. In the meantime a new city administraI During the following six months an extensive campaign was conducted against the various clandestine forms of the traffic, with the result that at the end of that time the city was unquestionably cleaner morally than ever before in its history. In the meantime, however, the constitutionality of the act under which the bureau acted had been attacked in the courts and about the end of February, 1916, the bureau was put out of action by a decision declaring it to be unconstitutional. This decision was lately confirmed by the state supreme court. The mayor then announced that the policies of the bureau would be continued by the regular police authorities. Within a few months it became evident, according to The Survey, that this was not being done. The houses of the old segregated district were not permitted to reopen, but others opened elsewhere, and with various officials shifting the responsibility on each other it has been impossible to localize responsibility, as could be done under the morals bureau. Conditions steadily became worse despite frequent exposes and strong protests by the churches through the Christian Social Service Union. In the meantime, licensed houses, taking advantage of a certain immunity from raids enjoyed by virtue of their being public houses, proceeded to take over much of the traffic, undoubtedly with the knowledge and tacit permission of the police authorities; but these have been punished by having their licenses refused, 76 thus being practically put out of business. A Conference of Anti-Vice Workers was held at Indianapolis in May in connection with the Conference of Charities and Correction. A summary of the points made by the speakers included the folloying: Segregated vice districts can and should be abolished.

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702 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October Segregated districts do not segregate, for along with segregation there are always numerous vice points scattered all over the city. Where segregation has been abolished, former advocates of segregation have been converted to the truth that conditions are better without segregation. The abolishment of segregated vice always has brought a diminution of venereal disease. With segregation there never is proper police regulation or medical inspection. The fact that there is medical inspection and registration brings false security. Without the collusion of the police commercialized vice could not exist. The public conscience must be aroused before desired reforms can be completely brought about. It is possible through the pressure of public conscience and the forced or voluntary assistance of the police to close all the illegal resorts. The wineroom and immoral rooming house problems are other problems which have to be dealt with after the illegal resorts are abolished. Vice cannot be suppressed completely, The reformers admit this, but maintain that commercialized vice can be very largely wiped out. A study of the treatment of prostitutes by the police department and courts of St. Louis, has been published by the committee of one hundred for the suppression of commercialized vice. With the abolition of the segregated district in St. Louis, street solicitation and private houses have largely increased. The volume of professional prostitutes is by no means represented in the 1,533 cases handled in the city courts in 1915, and studied by the committee through J. G. Fertig, special agent. The report touches upon the cases of venereal diaemes treated by public hospitals and dispensaries. The committee recommends that fines be abolished in dealing with prostitutes and probation and commitment be substituted; that a medical and physical examination be given all women convicted of prostitution; St. Louis Prostitution. that venereal diseases be made reportable; that a state women’s reformatory be established; that an abatement and injunction act be pushed again before the legislature. s Unemployment.’-The New York report primarily seeks to summarize the experience and work of the unemployment committee appointed by Mayor Mitchel to deal with unemployment conditions in New York during the winter of 1915-16. The chief part of the report is given over to a detailed description of the emergency measures adopted by the committee io relieve suffering. If, as seems probable, we will not stir ourselves to any measures that will prove sufficicntly effective to prevent similar catastrophes in the future, the compiling of thk experience will be of value in future contingencies. Parts I1 and I11 contain the committee’s suggestions for a permanent prevenLive program for dealing with unemployment. In this, most of the conventional means of attack are urged. The most significant thing is the provision for a permanent committee to work at this problem. Appenciices are included devoted to recommendations on the development of public employment bureaus; on methods and means of training the unemployed; child labor and unemployment and unemployed working girls. The Ontario report2 represents one of the most, if not the most, comprehensive and specific programs for dealing with unemployment ever produced outside of Europe. It is a very worth while contribution to thought on unemployment even though the reader may question some of the conclusions. A large amount of data regarding Ontario unemployment and with regard to certain industries and occupations in particular is included, but the real constructive suggestions of the report &re found in the seventy-page section devoted 1 Report of the Mayor‘s Committee on Unemployment, New York City, January, 1916. 108 pages. * Report of the Ontario Commission on Unemployment. Toronto: A. T. Wilgreas, 1916. 334 pages.

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191 61 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 703 to conclusions and recommendations. Under this heading, the most significant contribution is the study of disproportionate national development as a factor in pmducing unemployment. The conclusion is reached that Canada has overinvested capital in railroads and manufacturing industries considering themarket that is available. It is recommended, therefore, that the government systematically undertake to vary home markets and create foreign ones. Very specific suggestions and plans are made for the better distribution of public spending, the steadying of employment by employers and the establishment of provincial farms and “community settlements” which will assist in the settlement of the unused country sections. To facilitate the mobility of labor, the details of a system of public employment bureaus are suggested. The improvement of suburban transportation, if necessary, by government aid, coupled with measures which will make the unused land available to workingmen, are recommended as means of mRking it possible for wcirlrrrs to live on plots of land, in which position, unemployment would not so seriously affect them. Restriction of immigration, vocational guidance, unemployment insurance through subsidies to unions and other measures for preventing or dealing with unemployment are recommended. A permanent commission is urged to carry out this program. No serious student of unemployment can afford to miss this Ontario report. The American Academy of Political and Social Science has performed a real service to the cause of better industrial management by devoting the May, 1916, issue of The Annals to the subject of personnel and employment problems in industrial management.’ Conditions affecting the interests of the personnel are more and more being accorded their proper place in industrial man1 Personnel and Employment Problems in Industrial Management. The Annals of the American Academg of Political and Social Science, May, 1916. 318 pages. agement. The correctness of this policy is accepted by the more progressive and thoughtful employing concerns, not only because social opinion requires that employers should squarely face the human probIems in industry, but also because scientific study and attention to the selection and development of, and co-operation with, employes furnish one of the most fruitful present sources of increasing business efficiency, In order properly to study their own personnel problems, employing concerns are increasingly establishing functionalized departments, similar to other functionalized departments such as that of mechanical engineering in a factory. To do its work properly this division of human engineering should be on a par in importance with the financial, sales or mechanical departments, and its head should be of equal calibre with other executives. The employment office is usually selected to become this personnel department because its work necessitates such close relationship with the working force. Cases where the duties of the employment office are interpreted thus broadly are rare. The May Annals is an attempt to deecribe the development of this movement and to assist the many employers who are developing this work, and is devoted to a description of some of the more significant and practical efforts that are now being carried on in this field. It consists of 32 articles by authorities. Most of them are by practical men who have done outstanding work in this phaze of industrial management and herein describe the aim8 and methods which they have employed. Many forward-looking employers have already expressed their appreciation of it and have recommended its reading to their executives. University of Pennsylvania. * New Orleans Survey-A Reply.’ Early in 1915 the commission council of New Orleans asked the New York bureau JOSEPH H. WILLITS. 1 To Miss Ethel Hutson’s Review of the Survey Report, NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIBIW, vol. v, p. 522.

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704 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October of municipal research (1) “to devise a plan for the readjustment of the public debt,” and (2) “to suggest legislation in regard to assessments and taxation.” Such a study was made, and after a report had been prepared it was submitted to the New Orleans officials as a tentative draft for correction or approval of the fact statements contained. This was in accord with the bureau’s uniform policy of submitting a fact statement of every one of its reports to the responsible officials for approval before it is finally completed. The report was returned to the New York bureau with comments (marginal notations) on only three points. Two of these related to the poll tax and involved questions not of fact, but of opinion. The other related to the period during which the current deficit had been accruing; the tentative report stated it was the result of three years accumulation and the marginal note appearing on the draft when it waa returned from New Orleans said “five or six.” In addition to thus insuring the correctness of the fact statements, the bureau before rendering the report submitted it to a tax specialist who for many years has been recognized and honored throughout the United States as being one of the leaders in that field. He examined and approved it as to the principles set forth. The report was then formally submitted to the New Orleans government. Miss Hutson in reviewing the report enumerates many of its recommendations, which she says the commission council should have adopted ere this, but proceeds nevertheless to sprinkle her review with deprecatory adjectives and to cite in justification of her attack four points of criticism: (1) that the statement of the amount of the city’s overdraft wm incorrect, (2) that the subject of market revenue was not studied, (3) that the suggestion for apportioning the state levy would be no improvement over the present practice, and (4) that changing the personal property classification would be reactionary. Owing to the attention which any study of municipal revenues and indebtedness receives in these days of inadequate revenue and large debt, the bureau haa requested space for replying to Miss Hutson’s criticisms. First-The survey waa not concerned with the amount of the debt, current or funded, or with the period within which it had been incurred. No audit was desired by the city officials, nor was any made. It waa necessary, therefore, to rely upon data in official reports, although in some cases it waa necessary to examine the books of account to obtain particular figures unavailable elsewhere. No statements were taken from any independent audit report. To do 80 would be as improper at? to use figures derived from EL newspaper editorial, however correct they might be presumed to be. Furthermore, any information upon such points which appears in the report is gratuitous. It was compiled merely as a basis for the report, and it wm submitted as an appendix thereof. The statement as quoted from Commissioner Lafaye that “the correct figures were sent on,” referred to the marginal notation “five or six years,” and not to the amounts involved as the reviewer erroneously supposed; for no other figures were received. The relations existing between the bureau’s men and Commissioner Lafaye were’and are frank and cordial, and the inference to the contrary is unwarranted. At the outset, the bureau was asked to consider whether the excessive accumulations pledged to secure the sewer and water debt might not be diverted in some proper way to the relief of the general funds, but a little investigation was all that was necessary to determine that this could not be done. The scope of the study wm, therefore, narrowed to the second question-that of revenues. Second-Market collections were not studied intensively, because they are SO obviously concerned not with revenues but with the public service. Third-The bureau’s suggestion relative to apportioning the state levy which our critic so vigorously assailed, is aa follows: It is proposed, therefore, that the several parishes be given exclusive authority to levy direct taxes upon real estate and to

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19161 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 705 impose license taxes upon the conduct of private business, and that the state shall apportion among the several parishes so much of its revenue needs as shall be required in excess of the amounts derived from special taxes, on corporations, etc. The basis of the apportionment should be the revenue raised for all local purposes by and within each parish. This suggestion was proposed in the report with the remark that “the scheme is not original or even novel,” and extensive quotations were made from Lawson Purdy and Allen ftipley Foote to describe it. The denunciation so generously given to this suggestion is particularly interesting whenit is considered that the chief sponsor of the scheme is the honored president of the National Municipal League. Fourth-A scientific classification of objects of taxation is proposed in the report, and the reviewer condemns this as ‘Lreactionary,” upon the ground that it would “increase personal property taxes.” To criticize classification as a first principle in taxation is to expose such a lack of familiarity with the tax reform movement of the last ten years as to disqualify one from assuming to review a report having to do with public finance. . HERBERT R. SANDS.’ * Miss Rutson’s Rejoinder.-I do not object to the printing of the final paragraph; though my criticism as “reactionary” was intended, not for the idea of classi$cution, which I heartily approve, but for that of an increase in personal property taxation. The trend of tax reform seems to be away from personal property taxation, and toward placing the burden on site value, privileges, and income. Here in Louisiana our 1914 legislature relieved money on deposit from all taxation. However, I have never posed as an expert on taxation reform-my study of the matter has been purely local, and confined to the last four years. But it was from a local standpoint that I criticised the bureau’s report, and I still maintain 1 Assistant director, N. Y. bureau of municipal research, in supenision of field work. 11 that it was “superficial and inadequate,” and that no matter who approves its main recommendation-in regard to apportioning the state levy-that recommendation did not meet the local situation satisfactorily. And liere’s the crux of the whole situation: upon this main recommendation, all other reforms practically hang. For our local political leaders, financiers, and good citizens generally, have made up their minds that they will not make any attempt to increase local taxation nor equalize assessments, so long as these steps would only increase the unfair discrepancy between the portion of the state taxes paid by Orleans parish in comparison with other parishes. Thus, the failure of the bureau to solve this central problem to the satisfaction of the local people, accounts for the fact that the report has been ignored, and that even those recommendations which were practicable in themselves have not been carried out. It still lies pigeon-holed in the department of finance, and so far no result has come of a series of articles I have been writing in The Item urging the adoption of such of its suggestions as are really feasible. I did not intend any one to infer that the relations between Commissioner Lafaye and the bureau experts were not “frank and cordial.” He did admit to me, however, that he was disappointed in the survey, as he had hoped to get from it a practical plan for re-financing the city. I understood him to say that the error in regard to the city’s indebtedness had been corrected in detail, by figures sent on by Commissioner A. G. Ricksbut that may have been my mistake, or his. Of course, if the bureau feels that it would have been “improper” to check the accuracy of the published official figures by reference to audits made (as both the Wermuth audits were) by professional auditors employed by the city itself, there is no more to be said. It is plain from this that the object of the survey was not to arrive at the facts, but only to make a superficial appearance of an

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706 WATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October investigation. Thus, a detail like the omission from the comptroller’s reports of balances from the annual reserve fund amounting to $133,000, is unimportant I Again, market collections in New Orleans form a substantial item in the city’s revenues-amounting to $171,000. In past years, when the population was smaller, they reached a larger figure still. Most investigators would have looked into that. Mr. Sands may be interested to know that a scheme for “re-financing” the city was devised and embodied in an amendment to the constitution passed by the 1916 legislature and will be voted on this November. It is, in brief, to make use of that half of the surplus of the “one per cent debt tax” which goes now to the public schools, as a basis for issuing $9,000,000 worth of bonds, with which to pay off the city’s floating indebtedness (including the public improvement certificates, now payable out of the reserve fund). The schools are given, in lieu of all city contributions, a portion of the alimony tax, 3+ mills, while the city is relieved of all responsibility for schools or school buildings. This leaves the schools in bad shape unless the taxpayers vote a special school tax for buildings and other needs, which can legally be done, but is unlikeIy. Both city and schools are forbidden to go in debt any more, but no provision is made for increasing the alimony, so the whole scheme seems to me a mere makeshift. I favor the division of school and city finances, but I think it poor economy to issue fifty-year serial bonds to cover indebtedness of this temporary nature. However, there is no organized opposition to it, so it will probably go through. Then the city will be up against the need of doing something to get more revenue, and maybe we can get the minor recommendations in Mr. Sands’ report considered. By the way, the last legislature also made it possible to assess on a different basis for state and local taxation, and created a “state board of affairs” with fairly wide powers. Something may come of this, though the government is in distinctly reactionary hands just now. ETHEL HUTSON. New Orleans. * The Rockefeller Foundation First Annual Report.-The annual report of the Rockefeller Foundation for 1913-14 covers a period from May 14, 1913, the date of its charter by the state of New York, to December 31, 1914. The text of the charter is set forth and in the appendix is printed the act of congress which finally passed the house, but was not reached by the senate. All of the acts of the lo-undation, therefore, have been carried out under the terms of the New York charter. In spite of the fears of many who saw in the foundation a menace to democratic institutions, the record of the first year and a half of service is a remarkable document. The form in which the report is presented is clear, comprehensive and well arranged. The substance is of absorbing interest. In parts one might imagine that the work of Pasteur was being recorded. The m&in features of the report contain inter alia: (1) A rBsum6 of the methods and accomplishments of the international health commission and of the world round fight against what is popularly known as the hookworm disease, which was found to prevail in a belt encircling the earth for thirty degrees on each side of the equator. (2) A statement of the proposed investigation of industrial relations. (3) A discussion of the mental hygiene movement in co-operation with the national committee, of which Doctor Salmon of the public health service was scientific secretary. The financial statement and treasurer’e report contains the receipts, disbursements and principal fund ($100,000,000) showing the ~ourcea from which derived and the investments and expenditures in detail. Approximately $1,250,000 unappropriated income remained at the end of 1914. It is impossible to give an adequate review of the report in the apace available,

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19 161 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 707 but a few generalizations may indicate the spirit, methods and scope of the foundation’s activities. Judged by its acts, and not by any imagined possibilities, the spirit and its methods have been impartially scientific, analytic and investigative. It has sought the facts (the truth), has attempted to make those facts known and has co-operated with governmental and private agencies in practically every field of its efforts. In the health work governmental officials have been aided in their efforts to eradicate disease, in war relief the Red Cross and Belgium Relief Committee have been supported by money and supplies. The foundation’s efforts have been international in scope, constructive and statesmanlike in method and only the greater problems of human life and welfare have been attacked, and those from the broader point of view that prevention is more important than cure. In no instance has the Foundation undertaken the task of carrying out a formulated policy where governmental or private agencies could be induced or helped to do the necessary work. Perhaps the most striking example of the attitude of the trustees is shown by their course in the industrial field. The announcement of the investigation of industrial relations said: “In facing the problem of Industrial Relations, the foundation is deliberately attempting to grapple with what it believes to be the most complicated, and, at the same time, the most urgent question of modern times, and it is precisely for this reason that the investigation has been instituted. The foundation is not baffled at the outset by the knowledge that the task hitherto has seemed well nigh hopeless, and that the literature on the subject, and the tried experience of the world, is SO vast as to be overwhelming. These may be reasons for a gradual approach, and for counselling patience in the matter of results, but they afford no excuse for inaction. It is hoped that an investigation instituted on the scale and unpartially and persistently pursued in the spirit and with the facilities which the foundation affords, will gradually win for itself the co-operation, not alone of employers and workingmen, of industrial organmations of individuals, and institutions interested in social reform, but also of universities and governments throughout the world.” J . LJONBERGER DAVIS. 4! Housing Problems in America, volume iv, contains the proceedings of the fourth national conference on housing held at Minneapolis, October, 1915. In physical appearance it is much more attractive than many other books of its kind. The arrangement is good, the type very readable, and the cutting out, of all discussions and reports except by assigned leaders ia an example worthy of imitation. One of the most important of the ten or twelve papers is on “housing and the police power,” by Professor Arnold B. Hall of the University of Wisconsin. Police power he defines as “the power of the state to regulate private rights in the interests of the public welfare.” This, of course, is one of the legitimate functions of government, but the application of the principles involved has always been a matter of difficulty and uncertainty. Professor Hall concludes that reasonableness is the only criterion in any given case. A law, for instance, providing that a tenement house should cover only 10 per cent of its lot would not be sustained by the courts because obviously unreasonable. On the other hand, a law permitting it to cover 90. per cent of the lot might be thrown out on the same ground. Betmeen the extremes lies a reasonable mean which the courts will sustain. Housing reformers are advised to determine as closely as possible the standards of lighting, ventilation, heights of buildings, etc., and if it can be demonstrated that they safeguard public welfare, laws establishing them will be upheld. Housing legislation must rest on the facts of social, mechanical, and medical science, and so far as it has this foundation there is reasonable expectation that it will be sustained under the police power of the state against any and all private interests. The proceedings are fortunate in including such a paper as that by Walter H. Kilham of Boston on “planning of the low cost house.” We have heard much to the

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708 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [Octoker effect that the tenement house is destructive of the health and morals of the unfortunate victims obliged to live in it, but when reformers have been asked to present plans of single houses which would be within the reach of people of small incomes the responses have been few and unsatisfactory. Mi-. Kilham discusses the “fundamentals” of a laborer’s house, defining them as sunlight and fresh air, hot and cold water, facilities for a bath, refrigerator space, and as many bedrooms as possible. Rightly he does not so class furnaces, piazzas, fireplaces, a parlor separate from the kitchen, nor set wash bowls. The fundamentals, it is stated, have been supplied in Salem, Mass., in attractive brick houses which are renting at $15.00 per month. In some other places the rental figure is less than this for frame houses. It is only recently that architects have been addressing themselves to the problem of the low cost house, but if they are really beginning to give it serious attention in a few years the tenement house will be fighting for its life. Nothing will drive it out so fast as the possibility of providing something better and more attractive at the same cost. Questions of housing and health are considered in papers by Dr. George B. Young of the U. S. public health service, Charles B. Ball, chief sanitary inspector of Chicago, and Emily Dinwiddie, supervisor of Trinity dwellings, New York Cit,y. Real estate problems are discussed in two carefully written articles on land subdivision, one on its effect upon housing, by Dr. John Nolen of Cambridge, and the other from the viewpoint of a development company, by Frederick Law Olmsted. “Taxation and housing” received rather unsatisfactory treatment from both C. B. Fillebrown of Boston, and Prof. E. R. A. Seligman of Columbia University. They are supposed to be writting pro and con from ,the single tax viewpoint, but seem curiously to slip by each other in their arguments. “Causes and effects of bad housing” are handled in a popular way by Elmer S. Forbes of Boston and Commissioner John J. Murphy of the tenement house department of New York. Altogether this is a fresh and valuable collection of articles on different aspects of the housing question, and interesting as indicating a growing appreciation of the close connection between housing and other social and economic problems. ELMER S. FORBES. Boston. 9 Public Safety Notes.-New York Fire DepaTtment Report. The annual report of Fire Commissioner Robert Adamson for 1915 has been so skilfully prepared that it constitutes an unusually interesting pamphlet of 170 pages for the general citizen, a valuable public document for those professionally interested in fire administration and an excellent supplementary text-book for use in secondary schools and colleges. In his report the Fire commissioner enumerates the records established by his department during the year, the statistics upon which these records are based, the administrative policies and practices which have resulted in the establishment of these records and a most interesting and instructive recital of the important improvements in administration established under his direction. Attention is called to the decrease in the fire loss, the decrease in the departmental budget, the motorization of the department, the installation of a new fire alarm system, the abolition of unnecessary companies and of unnecessary positions, the establishment of an effective system of enforcing fire prevention orders, the employment of the uniformed ’force for routine fire prevention inspections, the co-operation of the police in fire prevention work, the codification of fire prevention regulations, the installation of interior fire alarm systems and fire drills, the improved practices of the department with reference to the purchase and distribution of supplies and the care of apparatus, buildings and horses, the organization and methods of operation of the Rescue Company, the establishment of efficiency records for the members of the uniformed force, the introduction of daily physical drills in every company, the giving of awards for practical suggestions submitted by members of the force, a critical analysis

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19161 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 709 of the causes and the lessons taught by the most important fires, the development of fire prevention activities in the public and parochial schools, the dangerous conditions leading to fatal tenement and lodging house fires, the protection of the public in the rapid transit subways and in thcatres from fire hazards, the educational activities of the department in the public schools, and on fire prevention day and the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the department. When it is borne in mind that each of these topics is treated in this report by means of a lucid exposition, by means of copious illustrations and by an adequate presentation of supporting statistics it will be realized that it is not an exaggeration to refer to this annual report as an instructive text-book of fire administration. The first semiannual report of Police Commissioner Arthur Woods for the current .year is of interest not only to police officials throughout the country but also to all citizens who are interested in efficient municipal government. When Mayor Mitchell appointed Commissioner Woods to the head of the New York police force he was the first civilian police expert to be entrusted with the important functions of this position. The present semi-annual report shows clearly the wisdom of the mayor’s selection and the extraordinary efficiency of his appointee. Police experts generally consider the arrest-conviction index as the best index of the efficiency of the police. Before Commissioner Woods’ appointment thie index was as low as 17.52 in New York. In 1914 it rose to 74.56, in 1915 to 78.02 and in 1916 to 81.57. Similarly the number of crimes of all kinds and the number of street accidents have shown a steady decline which is clearly attributable to the commissioner’s many excellent constructive improvements in administration, such as the establishment of a special traffic court, the reservation of play streets for children, the establishment of car stop safety zones, and the careful statistical study of accidents and crimes which the commissioner has undertaken. For the New York Police Report. lay reader the details of the police plans for the protection of the city in case of unusual emergency or foreign invasion furnish reading of absorbing interest. The record of Commissioner Woods constitutes ample evidence of the mayor’s wisdom in appointing a police expert to the head of this important municipal department. LEONHARD FELIX FULD. * The Bell Telephone System in 1915.The annual report of the directors of the American telephone and telegraph company for the year ending December 31, 1915, shows that there are within the Bell telephone system, 9,151,221 stations, an increase of 502,228 over the preceding year. Of these 2,995,321 were operated by local, co-operative and rural independent companies or associations called connecting companies. There are 18,505,544 miles of wire in use for exchange phone service, of which 1,029,951 were added during the year. Of this total wire mileage, 93 per cent is copper wire. In underground conduits and cables there is a total investment of $205,700,000. The total daily average connections for 1915 were 26,003,000, or at the rate of about 8,652,400,000 per year. The net amount added to plant and real estate by all the companies, excluding connecting companies, during the year 1915 was $32,863,717. This makes a total for the preceding sixteen years of $729,824,200, A provision for depreciation of plant during the year was $44,888,700, an average of 5.2 per cent of the cost of plant and an increase over 1914 of $3,392,500. The gross revenue in 1915, not including the connecting, independent companies, was $239,900000, an increase of $13,900,000 over 1914. Of this gross revenue, $84,500,000 went to operating costs, $13,100,000, or 1.64 per cent on the outstanding capital obligations, went for taxes; $31,200,000 for current maintenance; and $44,900,000 for depreciation, $18,100,000 was paid in interest, and $32,900,000 was paid in dividends. The total capitalization is now $1,367,537,840, of which $571,185,256 is owned and in the treasuries of the companies of

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710 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October the Bell system. The annual report discusses public control and regulation quite at length. It says that “control and regulation have done much to clear away the dangers of arbitrary action and unreasonable demand both on the side of the public and of public services.” There are certain dangers, however, that menace its success. Among these dangers is the possibility of control and regulation usurping the functions of management and that the multitudinous questions of detail for the most will crowd out and make it impossible to give full consideration to the important questions, deliberate consideration being impossible in an over-worked body. Other menaces are the division of jurisdiction, that is, too many independent boards having jurisdiction over the same questions and the reassumption of delegated jurisdiction by legislative bodies. These multitudinous questions and multiplied bodies, the report urged, are the causes not only of “great expense to the companies which sooner or later the public pays, but they occupy the time of the operating officials to the detriment of the real rork of management.” CLYDE LYNDON ICINQ. 9 Garbage Collection and Disposal.The New York state bureau of municipal information issued a report, dated January 1, 1916, dealing with the methods and cost of garbage collection and disposal. This study is valuable because of its comprehensive and impartial treatment of the problems involved. The report outlines no brief for any one method of garbage disposal, but gives a summary of the systems in vogue in the sfty largest cities of the United States, and the various municipalities of New York State, as well as a digest of expert opinion on the subject. In addition, the aim seems to have been to present some of the factors governing the cost of these systems, and the methods of financing such cost. The data included in the report were obtained from the various cities themselves in response to a questionnaire sent out by the bureau. The advantages and disadvantages of both the combined and separate collection of garbage, ashes, and refuse, in the five combinations of collections adopted by the different cities, are pointed out, and stress is laid on the statement that no one method can be demonstrated as solving the varying problems of all cities, of whatsoever size. The combined cost of the collection and ha1 disposal of garbage is made the basis of comparison of results obtained by the different cities, from a financial and economic standpoint. The cost factor is one that will be studied with perhaps the greatest interest by cities which are adopting a new system, or adapting an existing system of garbage removal and disposal, because, after all, that factor determines the utility and practicability of the system. The actual statistics regarding the sale of by-products are of value in this connection, as few cities are sufficiently courageous to start a system of garbage reduction, without some definite assurance regarding the financial results to be secured therefrom. Moreover, as the report points out, what is economy and a source of revenue for one city, is found to be the very opposite for other cities not similarly situated. As the report is founded upon reliable data summarizing actual facts, and is not a study dealing merely with theories, cities of like size confronted with like problems can readily select and utilize the methods most applicable to their own needs. To the end of the report are appended in tabulated form the answers given by each city to the questions propounded by the bureau. Incidentally, the value of state or other centralized bureaus of municipal information is emphasized by this pertinent and suggestive compilation of data. Another useful pamphlet on this subject is bulletin 15 of the engineering extension department of Iowa state college on the collection and disposal of city refuse, datedNovember 1,1915. KATHARINE W. FIELD. The Free Library of Philadelphia. 9 Maryland Tax Reports.-A situation at once distressing and amusing has developed in Maryland tax circles. Last Jan

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19161 REVIEWS OF R.EPORTS 71 1 uary, when the new permanent tax commission submitted its first biennial report,’ the name of Judge Oscar Leser did not appear with those of his two colleagues and a note was printed stating that he found himself unable to agree with them. A month later he hued a separate report* stating the grounds of his disagreement. These reports once more bring sharply to the attention the remarkably backward situation which still persists in Maryland and raise interesting questions in the mind of the reader as to why Judge Leser’s is a minority report. The state tax in Maryland is separately administered. A state rate is determined and is applied to the property of individuals without equalization. At present about 350,000 individuals are assessed for state purposes and fifty-five local collectors are required to receive the money. Collections are very slow and incomplete and assessment conditions extremely bad. The last general assessment was made in 1910 and was very unequal. “It is an astonishing fact,” says Judge Leser,’ “that there is not in a single county any machinery for the systematic reassessment of property.” The tax commission found itself powerless when it attempted recently to secure the co-operation of the counties in a new assessment. More than half the counties failed to provide the necessary funds when formally requested to do so by the commission! Judge Leser suggests as a remedy for this complication of fiscal diseases the very simple and sensible plan of equalization of assessments between the counties and the apportionment of state taxes upon the basis of this equalization, His report is a clear and forcible exposition of his recommendation. It was enthusiastically received by the Baltimore press, but curiously enough was not accepted by the legislature which adjourned in April. The explanation can doubtless be supplied by some one who understands the political 1 First Biennial Report of the State Tax Commission of Maryland, January 15, 1916. Baltimore, 1916. 9 State Tax Commission of Maryland, Separate Report of Oscar Leser, Baltimore, February, 1916. Ibid., p. 5. situation in Maryland. One wonders whether the same person might not explain why Judge Leser’s report has not three signatures. ROBERT MURRAY HAIQ. Columbia University. f Problems of Civil Service.-The literature of the practical problems of civil service administration is very meagre, and most of the existing literature relates to the prohibitive features of this phase of governmental regulation. It is on this account that publication No. 990 of the American Academy of Political and Social Science which outlines clearly the present day problems of constructive civil service administration, is a most valuable contribution to the literature of municipal administration and worthy of careful study. The following problems are clearly stated and the trend of developing ie indicated: Promotions, efficiency records, pensions, standardization of salaries, classification of employes, removals, lay-offs, and the tenure of commissions. The author of this pamphlet is‘ Dr. Henry Moskowitz, president of the New York municipal civil service commission. f Local Government Board.-The annual reports of the Local government board for England and Wales are now published in three parts. Part I deals with the administration of the poor law, the unemployed workmen act and the old age pension acts. Part I1 deals with housing and town planning. Part 111 includes public health administration, county council administration, and local taxation and valuation. Each part contains an appendix of circulars and orders issued by the board. As a mean8 of occurring data for the financial statistics published, each borough and other local authority is required to make a return in a prescribed form and the local authorities whose accounts are subject to audit by the district auditors of the 1,. G. B. are required to render a more detailed financial statement. Twentyfive boroughs now have their accounts audited in this way; and the form of

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712 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October financial statement for such boroughs is a pamphlet of 87 pages, calling for information under 21 headings relating to assessable value and rates, borough fund accounts, other accounts, loans and sinking, reserve, depreciation and insurance funds. The form for the larger number of boroughs whose accounts are not audited is a pamphlet of 40 pages in ten parts. These statements and reports tend towards uniformity in the municipal accounts; but as yet there is no positive requirement that accounts be kept in a prescribed form. * London County Council.-A general report on the work of the London county council from its formation in 1889 to March 31,1913, has been prepared by the clerk of the council. This begins with an introductory chapter on the organization of local government in London, followed by fifteen chapters on the constitution and functions of the county council and nine appendices. Not only are the powers and duties indicated, but also the circumstances in which they were obtained; and in many cases the historical treatment begins in early times. A comprehensive index is provided. This work forms a useful survey of the organization and activities of what is perhaps the most important municipal authority in the world. Attention may also be called to some of the regular publications of the council. These include the proceedings of the council, an annual report, a comprehensive volume of London statistics and a statistical abstractall published each yearbesides a large number of special reports and publications on particular phases of its work. * Local Self-Government for Scotland.The convention of the royal burghs of Scotland-the oldest organization of municipalities in the world-has published a report on local self-government for Scotland, which was approved at the convention held in April, 1914. This includes a historical sketch of previous action by this convention, on the subject of union with England from 1603 to 1707, and a number of suggestions in reference to any plan of devolution of the powers of the present British parliament. An appendix includes resolutions passed at general meetings of the convention of burghs for the amendment of procedure on private bill legislation. IV. BIBLIOGRAPI-W Abattoirs BROWN (H. A,). Public abattoirs. 2000 words. illus. (The Surveyor, Jly. 14, 1916.) Comparison of British and continental practice, Accounting FRITZ (ANDREW E.), public examiner. Examination of the City of Minneapolis for the fiscal year ending Dec. 31, 1915. Dated May 10, 1916. 160 folios. Typewritten. Bahia, Brazil [ELLIOTT] (L. [E.?] E.). Impressions of Bahia, Brazil. (Pan-her. Mag., May, 1916: 11-19. illus.) .[L?] The story of Bahia, one of the great historic centers of the U. S. of Brazil. (Pan-her. Mag., May, 1916: 35-46. illus.) Budgets SHAFER (CHESTER W.). Grand Rapids budget system. 2300 words. (Mundp. Jol., Jly. 20, 1916.) 'Edited by Miss Adelaide R. Hasse. Building Construction WISCONSIN. Industrial Commission. Building code for the state. 1915. 104 pp. California Cities QUIRE (J. H.). California cities in the new census report. 1800 words. (Pacific Municipalities, Jly., 1916.) Statistios on number and pay of policemen, on water supply, systems and on forms of govt. Charters Citv of Grand RaDids. DETROIT, MICH. Proposed charter for Submitted to a vo& of the electors-Aug. 29, 1916. 76 pp. The charter, which gives Detroit 8 commissionmanager form of government was oarried by a majority of 1,672. The total Gote cast was 7.693. The charter goes into effect on May 1,1917. GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. Charter. Proposed charter for City of Grand Rapids to be submitted to a vote of the electors Aug. 29, 1916. 76 pp. Charities SALVATION ARMY. Decision of the Supreme Court of California with regard to

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19161 BIBLIOGRAPHY 713 the municipal charities commission of Los Angeles and the Salvation Army. 1916. 31 PP. The case uuon which this decision rests orieinated in the Lo8 A&&es%dinance of May 6, 191%. regulating charities and creating a Municipal Charities a later Commission. It developed that this and ordinance, paseed on Sept. 13 of the same year, placed in the hands of the newly created commission a power susceptible of being employed to the suppression of charities at the will of the commission. Address: Salvation Army Prtg. Dept., 120 W. 14th St.. N. Y. City. Central Heating Systems PRUETT (G. C.). heating by Miles City, Mont. Engmg., Jly., 1916: 2-4.) Mr. Pruett is city engr. of Miles City, Mont. City Planning FORD (GEORGE B.). Planning the city for community life. 1916. 2 folios. Read at Natl. Conference on Community Centers, Apr. 21, 1916. MASSACHUSETTS FEDERATION OF PLANNING BOARDS. Bulletin 1-2. May-Je., 191 6. Central station steam (Municip. No. 1. Functions of Mass. planning boarda. The No. 2. Town planning and present legislation in official plan. 2 leaves. Mass. 12 pp. TEXAS MUNICIPALITIES. v. 3, no. 3, Jly., 1916. 1 p. l., p. 67-104. A .citv Dlanninz number. Contents: u. 67-70 Saving kdney to Texas towns. By 0. C-, Ahlers. 71-79 The well-planned city. By G. B. Eealey. 80-83 Solving the vacant lot problem. BY Mrs. f L: Young. I). 84-86 Methods of conducting city beautification campaigns. Grant. B,y A. W. n. 87-90 Led obstacle8 t.0 effective town and city-planning. By W. M. Holland. p. 91-94 Attractive public buildings. By Mrs. Florence Foore. p. 95-97 Eliminating billboards. By Ed. H. McCuistion. p. 98-108 Carrying out the Kessler city plan in Dallas. By E. N. Noyes. IROQUOIS FALLS, ONT. MELTON (A. P.). Planning the industrial town of Iroauois Falls. Ont. (Engrng. and Contracting, Je. 7,’ 1916: 524-526. illus.) OPORTO, PORTUQAL ANON. City improvement scheme in Oporto, Portugal. (The Builder (London), Je. 9, 1916: 419.) Text ia slight; valuable chiefly for two good full page illustrations. Civics Civic and vocational service 1915-16. CINCINNATI, 0. Board of Education. An outline for the stud of civic and vocational service for fiftt, sixth, seventh and eighth grades. 8 leaves. UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK. Bulletin 622. Division of Agricultural and Industrial Education. Citizenship syllabus. A course of study and syllabus in civic training and naturalization for adult immigrants in evening schools. 1916. 45 pp. courts the auspices of Che Associated Charities of San Francisco May 10, 1916. Reprinted from “The Recorder” of San Francisco, with additional matter, for the use of the California Bar Association and the Commonwealth Club of California. Criminals CHICAGO, ILL. City Council Crime Commission, What should be done for Chicago’s women offenders? Recommendations and report. 1916. 12 pp. Elections Board of Election Commimoners. Annual report, 1st. 1915. CHICAGO, ILL. 1914; Chicago, 19!5] and Statement of election cost since 1906 in the city of Chicago and town of Cicero. CIVIC LEAGUE OF ST. LOUIS. A new system of city elections for St. Louis. Proposed by the Short Ballot Committee of the Civic League. May, 1916. 11 pp. Excess Condemnation MOHLER (CHARLES K.). Excess condemnation and city planning. 1900 words. illus. n ng. News, Jly. 6, 1916.) ArguLzt !?r taking more land than is needed for a public improvement for purpose of reventin remnants and for giving city benefit o?enhancei value of the excess taking. Finance CLEVELAND CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. Committee on City Finances and the Municipal Committee. Let’s pave the streets! Je. 30, 1916. 14 pp. Comparative financial statistics of cities under council and commission government 1913 and 1915. 1916. 15 pp. UhTTED STATES. CENSUS BUREAU. Fire Departments BAKER (T. F.). Address on the relation between the state fire insurance commission and the city fire marshal, and the duties of that relation. 1916. 11 pp. Delivered before 4th annual convention of City fire marshal’s assoc. held at New Braunfels, May 10-11, 1916. Mr. Baker is chief inspector of the State Fire Marshal’s Dept. of Texas. NEW YORK CITY ANON. New York City firemen compete with ideas to improve the uniformed force. (Fire and Water Engrng., Je. 28, 1916: 433.) WASHINQTON, D. C. NATIONAL BOARD OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS. Washington’s fire department. 2000 words. (Fireman’s Herald, Jly. 29, 1916.) Fire Prevention FORESTER (H. W.). Fire prevention: a Dersonal remonsibilitv. 1700 words. OLSON, HARRY. The municipal court of Chicago. A tribunal of procedural (s~~~~~~g’~~~~.~g~~~re waste and reform and social service. 1916. 15 pp. An extemporaneous address by the Chief Justxce city planning. loo’ words* (Fireman’s of the Murucipal Court of Chicago delivered unde r Herald, Jly. 29, 1916.)

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714 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October Effect of stringent building laws, ample water supply, removal of overhead wires and thorough building inspection. NATIONAL BOARD OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS. Fire service of Somerville, Mass. 1400 words. (Fire and Water Engrng., Jly. 12, 1916.) NEW YORK CITY. Fire Prevention Bureau. Regulations for refrigerating plants. (Refrigerating World, Je., 1916: Flood Protection WEATHERFORD, (J. H.). Levee system is expected to rotect Memphis agst. future floods. (ingrng. Record, Je. 10, 1916: 775-777. illus.) Grade Crossings ANON. Grade crossing elimination at Cleveland. (Rwy. -Age Gazette, Je. 16, N. Y., Chic. and St. L. track depression by a 28-33.) 1916: 1335-1337. Illus.) novel method. Housing the war. LAVAT-FRASER, (J. A.). Housing after (Garden Cities and Town Planning, Apr.,’ 1916: 41-43.) WARD (A. W.). Shrewsbury [Engl.] housing schemes. (Surveyor and Municip. and Co. Engr., Je. 23, 1916: 628-629. illus.) WOMEN’S MUNICIPAL LEAGUE OF BosTON. Bulletin, Feb., 1916. Dept. of Housing number. 79 pp. Housing conditions of today in Boston. Boston’s future in housing. Jitneys 4500 words. (Aera, Jly., 1916.) ANON. Jitneys in British Columbia. Licenses ANON. The licensing of electrical contractors. 3500 words. illus. (Electr. Review, Jly. 15, 1916.) Review of movement for raising standards of electrical construction by eliminating incompetent and unscrupulous contractors. Municipal Bonds U. S. MORTGAGE AND TRUST Co. Municipal and corporation bonds. Their preparation and certification. 1916. 22 PP. Muncipal Government UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. University Extension Division Bulletin. n. s. v. 1, no. 18. Bureau of Municipal Reference, no. 1. City manager plan of municipal government. Prepared by Joseph H. Ouire. Je., 1916. 22 pp. Muncipal Ownership municipal ownership. 1916. 56 pp. Address: 55 Cedar St., N. Y. City. With “A suggestive list of references,” p. 13-22. GORDON (F. G. R.). The case against Price 25 cents. Published by the Record PuhHAY (T. R.) Municipal ownership (Electr. Review and lishing Co., Haverhiil, Maes. [of public utilities]. Western Electrician, Je. 17, 1916: 1117.) Opposed to such ownership. Difficulty of finding competent men, etc. MELLING (H. T.). Operating costs for municipal gas-engine plant. 1500 words. illus. (Power, Jly. 4, 1916.) ANON. Operating costs for municipal gas engine plants. 1200 words. illus. (Canadian Engr., Jly. 20, 1916.) GOLF LINKS BENDELOW (TOM). Municipal golf. (Amer. City, Jly., 1916: 1-8. illus.) PORTLAND, ORE, Municipal Reference Library. Municipal Golf. 1916. Chart in three sections, showing, for 18 American cities, the operating expense, no. of holes. fees for links or lockers. no. of layers in season and revenues of municipal olf L. Pm PLANTS GAS PLN~TS ANON. Municipal ice plant in La Fayette, Ala. 400 words. (Municipal Jol., Jly. 13, 1916.) SHOPS SANER (C. C.), Chicago has new shop plant for all public words. (Engmg. News, Je. 1, 1916: 1018-1019. illus.) Municipal Research CAPES, WILLIAM. The success of an unique experiment by New York state cities. 3000 words. (Pacific Municipalities. Jlv. 1916.) Organi%.ion and work of the N. Y. State .Conforence of Mayors and the Bureau of Mumcipal Information. Mr. Ca~es is director of the Bureau. ECKERT (F. W.J. Municipal research in San Francisco. 1800 words. (Pacific Municipalities, Jly., 1916.) Municipal Service NEW YORK CITY. Bureau of Standards. Standard specifications for gersonal service. Je., 1916. 931 pp. 4 . The final edition of these spemficationa, which constitutes a revision of the separate pamphlets published in 1915 and supersedes them. Thls edition consists of only 600 copies. The Bureau announces that it cannot at present supply copies for general distribution. Ordinances INDUSTRIAL CLUB OF CHICAGO. Abstract and summary of ordinances relatin to sanitation, maintenance of streets an! alleys, fire prevention and weights and measures, enacted by the Common Council of Chicago and to be enforced by departments of police, health and public service. 64 pp. obl. 12’ Printed by the Cluh for the use of civic co-operaters. Address: 1105 Bell Telephone Bldg., Cbicago, Ill. Pageants books on pageants. 1916. 8 pp. Parks MANCHESTER, ENGL. Parks and Cemeteries committee. Illustrated hand book of the Manchester city parks and recreation grounds. 130 pp. illus. I foldg. INDIANA. STATE LIBRARY. List of Its Reference circular no. 4.

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19161 BIBLIOGRAPHY 715 plan of parks, 1 foldg. plan of tramway routes. Price 3d. Pavements AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING MATERIALS. Report of Committee on Road materials. 4500 words. (Better Roads and Streets, Jly, 1916.) ANON. Changes in specifications for paving in St: Louis. 1300 words. (Engrng. News, Jly. 13, 1916.) -. Financing street paving. 3000 words. (Pacific Municipalities, Jly., 1916.) Review of several methods of assessment results in favoring Ian of local assessments. -. Eimitations of tests which define the essential properties of stone block, paving brick, wood block, and cement concrete when used in pavement. 9000 words. (Better Roads and Streets, Jly., 1916.) McCoy (D. J.). Reducing slippery pavements in San Francisco. (Municip. Engrng., Je., 1916: 238-239. illus.) STERN (E. W.). Comparative cost of various types of pavements. 2500 words. (Engmg. and Contracting, Jly. 5, 1916.) of Manhattan, New YorrCit . TALBOTT, (H. M.). grorating paving cost among property owners. 1200 words. illus. (Engrng. News, Jly. 6, 1916.) Port Development Mr. Stern is chief en of highways. Borough Describes practice developed in Owensboro, Ky. Gives typical assessment sheets. HOUSTON SHELDON (PAUL H.). Houston’s municipally owned port facilities. (hlanufac. Record. Je. 15. 1916: 52. illus.) NEW ORLEANS v. PHUL (WILLIAM). Mechanical equipment used in the port of New Orliaris. (Jol. her. Socy. Mech. Engrs., Jly., 1916: 515-528. illus.) . Same, separate. Presented at s ring meeting of the Amer. Socy. of Mechanical gngrs., New Orleans, Apr. 11-14 1916. Separates sold by Amer. Socy. Mechanicai Engrs.. 29 W. 30 St., N. Y. C., at 80 cents a copy. RANQOON BUCHANAN (SIR GEORGE). The port of Rangoon. (Indian Industries and Power, Apr., 1916: 313-318. illus.) Power Plants MEADE (NORMAN G.). Power system of the Syracuse Lighting Co. 2000 words. illus. (Power, Jly. 25, 1916.) Public Baths LAWLER (FRANK R.). Modern municipal bathing establishment. (Merchant Plumber and Fitter, Je. 10, 1916: 366-368. illus.) Public Comfort Stations COSGROVE (J. J.). The urgent need of public comfort stations. (Domest. Engmg., Je. 17, 1916: 368-369.) NATIONAL COMMITTEE OF CONFEDERATED SUPPLY ASSOCIATIONS. The American lan for public comfort stations approved %y the public comfort station bureau of the Associations. [1916.] 2 leaves. . Standards for public cokort stations approved by the bureau. [1916.] 4 leaves. . Suggestions for organizing lotally in the national campaign for public comfort stations conducted by the bureau. [1916.] 2 leaves. Sent on request. Addreas: 261 Broadway, N. Y. City. Public Health HARMON (G. E.). Comparison of relative healthfulness of certain cities in the U. S. based upon a study of their vital statistics. (Quar. Pubns. her. Statis. ASSOC., Je., 1916: 157-174.). HEDRICH (A. W.). Pubhc Health in East Chicago, Ind. A study of life wastage from preventable disease and a plea for an adequate department of public health. Je., 1916. 42 pp.; diagrs. PHILADELPHIA, PA. De artment of Public Health. Monthly gulletin, vol. 1, no. 1. Jan., 1916. 4leaves. TUTTLE (DR. THOMAS). The value of whole-time health officers. 2400 words. (Washington Municipalities, Jly., 1916.) Statistics concerning salary and wofk done by city health o5cers in the state of Washngton. Public Work FOLWELL fA. PRESCOTT). Standard units for comparing municipal improvements. (Engrng. and Contracting, Je. 7. GRIEVES (W. HEDLEY). Municipal works of interest in Sutton [Engl.]. 3500 words. JULIAN ( JULIAN) . Recent municipal work in Cambridge [Engl.] (Surveyor and Municip. and County Engr., Je. 9, 1916: 581-58.5. illus.) RIDER (HARRY A.) Direct labor versus contract system in municipal work-a bibliography. (Special Libraries, Je., 1916: 100-104.) SIMPSON (JOHN). ?,at constitute municipal “public works. 1700 words. (Municipal Jol., Jly. 27, 1916.) How courts have defined the term in its ap lication to streets, sewers, waterworks, street ligrting and other utilities. 1916: 578-520.) (The Surveyor, Je. 16, 1916.) Architecture, housing, engmg., etc. Public Utilities ANON. Raising standards of electrical construction. 5000 words. (Electr. Review, Jly. 22, 1916.) Special features connected with practical operation of new municipal electric inspection department of Milwaukee, Wise.. particularly the co-operation of contractors with inspectors. Department of Public Utilities. Rules and regulations for the installation of wire and apparatus for light, heat and power. 224 pp. 24”. ST. LOUIS, Mo.

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716 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October WILSON (CHESTER P.) Financing utilities operating under state control. 7000 words. BRADENKOPF (GEORGE). One hundred years of the Amer. gas business. (Gas Age, Jly. 1, 1916: 9-15. illus.) Includes the full text of the first gas ordinance. It W~E passed b the Lity of Baltimore. EARLE (~LLIAM H.). Air supply adjustments in Rochester gas works effect saving of 64 pounds of fuel per ton of coal carbonised. 2000 words. illus. (Amer. Gas Light Jol., Jly. 31, 1916.) UNION GAS AND ELECTRIC Co., CINCINNATI. Gas rates. Communication to the City Council of Cincinnati, 0. May 1, 1916. 24pp. (Gas Age, Jly. 15, 1916.) LIGHT A reply to a “Re art on gas rates of,the Union Gas and Electric 80. Cincinnati, 0. made to the Director of Pubdc Service of Ci&mnati, by Arthur C. King. enaneer of Chicago. in Feb., 1918. The question of valuation of gas pro crties fi re8 largely both in the King report an8in the bmpany’s reply. TRACTION MCGRATH (D. J.). Investment revenue passenger and density of tra% 1500 words. 5 charts. (Electr. Rwy. Jol., Jly. 8, 1916.) Publicity A municipal commercial club. (Municip. Engrng., Jly., 1916: 11-12. illus.) Author analyses rolation brtween electric rwy. investments and traffic density. HORNODAY (W. D.). Refera to the Board’of City Development of Amarilla. Tex. Purchasing Systems BULKLEY (W. V. C.). Storehouse methods that reduce labor. 2500 words. illus. (Electr. Rwy. Jol., Jly. 15, 1916.) FOSTER (HUGH M.) The municipal supply dept. 111, the purchasing agent. (Municip. Engmg., Jly., 1916; 9-10.) Recreation Piers ANON. Chicago’s new municipal pier. (Electr. Traction, Je. 1916: 442-443. illus.) DnhfoND (L. A.). Chicago’s municipal pier. (Municip. Engrng, Je., 1916: 243244. illus.). Refuse Disposal ANON. Five thousand hogs eat Denver’s garbage. 1800 words. illus. (Engrng. Record, Jly. 29, 1916.) PULLEY (F. G.). Garbage collection in St. Louis. 1650 words. illus. (Municipal Jol., Jly. 13, 1916.) Nature and extent of municipal service. Sewage Disposal ANON. Bridgeburg sewage disinfecting . 1100 words. illus. (Canadian ngr., Jly. 6, 1916.) , Final report on Elmhurst [L. I.] disposal plant. 1300 words. (Engrng. News, Jly. 13, 1916.) A recreation pier. Elant Operation of Landreth electrolytic sewage dis. Sarnia, Ont., sewage disposal plant. 1000 words. (Canadian Engr., Jly. 20, 1916.) Sheffield [Engl.] sewage disposal worlrs. 4000 words. (The Surveyor, Jly. 14, 1916.) BARWISE (DR. SIDNEY). The sewage problems. 3200 words. (The Surveyor, Jly. 14, 1916.) Latest development,n and future possibilities. BOARD OF ENGINEERS. Report on sewage disposal to the Commissioners of the city of Pasadena and Alhambra and the Board of Trustees of South P+sadena. Submitted Mch. 27, 1916. 54 pp., 7 plans, 3 maps. EDDY (HARRISON P.). Artificial means of sewage treatment. 9000 words. illus. (Engmg. and Contracting, Je. 28, 1916.) comparison of results, cost. Sewerage ANON. Some plant and methods for large size brick sewer construction in Chicago. 1400 words. illus. (Engrng. and contracting, Jly. 12, 1916.) posal plant. . Dcsrription of the plant. Various means of treatment, their efficiency, Social Service LEVER (REV. JOHN HOWARD). Social service in a great city. 1916. -8 leaves. Paper read hefore the Synod of the Province of the Southweat of the Protestant Episcopal Church, in Kansafi City, Mo. Smoke Abatement MOORE (CHARLES (2.). Smoke abatement at a Dayton power plant. 1500 words. illus. (Power, Jly. 25, 1916.) Snow Removal ANON. Snow removal in Montreal. 2000 words. (Canadian Engr., Jly. 27, 1916.) Chief engr. of the city desanha8 dept. organirstion and methode adopted. CONNELL (WILLIAM H.). Prompt snow removal in Philadelphia, Pa. (Municip. Engrng., Je., 1916: 220-223. illus.) St. Louis, Mo. BOSTWICK (ANDREW LINN). Municipal statistics of St. Louis. Jly., 1916. 1 p, l., 261-302. 14, no. 7. St. Louis Public Library. Mo. Bull. n. 8. I. Street Cleaning Cleveland pays my. to flush streets. 1200 .words. illus. EBELING (H. C.). (Electr. Rwy. Jol., Jly. 8, 1916.) . Cleveland Street Rwy. flushes city streets. 800 words. illus. (Engmg. Record, Jly. 8, 1916.) Car with tank holding 4,480 gal. cleaned 4,850 ft. on one side of street with one fihngin 12 mi nu+^. LEQGETT (W. S.). The gas-electric suction street sweeper. 1500 words. illus. (General Electr. Rev., Aug., 1916.)

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19161 BIBLIOGRAPHY 717 NEW YORX CITY. Department of Report on trade waste. Street Cleaning. Apr. 25, 1916. 39 pp. Street Lighting ANON. $3,750,000 for Chicago street lighting. (Electr. World, Je. 17, 1916: . Vancouver’s new street lighting. (Electr. News, Je. 15, 1916: 22.) BAILEY, (JOHN L.) Past and present [lighting] conditions in Baltimore. (Gas Age, Jly. 1, 1916: 16-18.) FERRY (MONTAGUE, and E. M. TOMPKINS) Economics of group system of street lighting. 1500 words. illus. (Electr. World, Jly. 22, 1916.) Glare in street lighting. Rept. of committee on Glare. (Trans. Illum. Engrng. Socy., Je. 10, 1916: 518-524.) MENDENHALL (B. W.). Ornamental lighting in Salt Lake City under the new lighting-improvement distnct law. (Electr. World, Je. 3, 1916: 1313. illus.) TINSON, (H..A. and, D!GGS, D. M.) Street Lightin6 installation in Port Jervis, N. Y. (Municip. Engrng., Jly., 1916: 5-8. illus.) Street Planting Cox, (LAURIE D.). A street tree system for New York City, Borough of Manhattan. 1916. 89 pp. illus. map. Bull. ,N. Y. State College of Forestry at Syracuse NEW YORK CITY. Borough of the Bronx. Dept. of Parks. A plea for street trees in the Borough of the Bronx. 1916. 24pp. Street Railways words. During the year a s ecial series of tnlks was given to the train men of &. Paul and Minneapolis on duties to passengers. PARIS 1436-1467.) ILLUMINATING ENGRNG. SOCIETY. University, vol. 16, no. 8. ANON. How to treat the public. 4000 (Electr. Rwy. Jol., Jly. 22, 1916.) . Paris municinsl tramwavs electrificstion. (Tramways and Rwy: World, May 11, 1916: 337-346. illus.) TO be cont’d. . Rkents travaux du Mbtropolitain. (La Nature, May 13, 1916: 311-316. illus.) SEATTLE VALENTINE (A. L.). Prospects poor for Seattle municipal lines. (Electr. Rwy. Jol., Je. 24, 1916: 1185-1186.) Mr. Valentine is supt. of public utilities in Seattle. This article is a synopsis of a rept. made by the supt. to the city council. Street Signs ANON. Miscellaneous street signs. 800 words. illus. (Engineering News, Jly. 6. 1916.) Size and style of letters. color, location and number of signs and beight above street, construction, durability, cost, etc. WALLIS (R. .S.). Simple post for street name signs. 800 words:. illus. (Municipal Jol., Jly. 6, 1916.) Describes simple pipe sign in u8e in Portland, Ore. Streets ANON. 500 words. . Fees for use of public streets. (Municipal Jol., Jly. 13, 1916. Planning boards for Philadelphia Highway Bureau. 750 words. (Municipal Jol., Jly. 13, 1916.) Ma s mounted on boards give gra hic presentation of status of work of Bureau of dghways from day to day. Liat of charges made in Baltimore for permits, privileges, rents and licenaes. Subways GREEN (C. N.). Subsurface congestion has become an active problem in New York. 2500 words. illus. (Amer. Gas Light Jol., Jly. 24,1916.) . Temporary pipes along curb and on trestles over street carry good pwt of New York City’s gas supply during subway construction. 3000 words. illus. (Amer. Gas. Light Jol., Jly. 17, 1916.) WORSLEY (J. E.). Restoration of gas mains over rapid transit tunnels. 5000 words. illus. (Gas. A e, Jly. 15, 1916. 2500 words. illus. iame. Aug. 1, -. 1916.) Describes di5cult problems and their solutions in replacing gas maining in N. Y. City. Surveying HARDESTY (W. P.) Precise level survey of the city of Portland, Ore. 3200 words. illus. (Engrng. News, Jly. 13, 1916.) swimming Pools ATLAS PORTLAND CEMENT CO. Swimming illus. pools of concrete. 1916. 4 leaves. Address: A. P. C. Co. 30 Broadway, N. Y. City. Taxation CLINE (JAMES R.). Co-operation between executive and ass&ors in city taxation matters. 1916. Local Assessors. etc., 1916, p. 143-159. is Mayor of Amsterdam, N. Y. Terminal Facilities CLEVELAND ANON. Cleveland completes two more rwy. terminals. 1200 words. illus. (Electr. Rwy. Jol., Jly. 22, 1916.) __ . Large passenger station at New Orleans. (Rwy. Age Gazette, Je. 2, 1916: 1176-1179. illus. Addreesea and proc. First State Conference of Mr. Cline NEW ORLEANS ’Describe8 8ome interesting signs found in various StaFion and freight terminah of Trans-Mississippi cities. Terminal Co. . Selection and placing of street, New r. r. terminal at New name signs. 3700 words. illus. (MuOrleans is open. (Engrng. Record, Je. nicipal Jol., Jly. 27, 1916.) 10, 1916: 765. illus.)

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718 NATIONAL MTTNICIPAL REVIEW [October Trafiic ANON. San Francisco municipal rwy. system without exposition traffic. 2000 words.;? (Electr. Rwy. Jol., Jly. 22, 1916.) Valuation KURN (G. W.). How to appraise public utility property. 4500 words. (Electr. Rwy. Jol., Jly. 15, 1916.) Water Front Improvement CITIZENS’ UNION OF THE CITY OF NEW YORE. Memorandum concerning the proposed relocation of the New York Central R. R. tracks upon the west side of Manhattan is submitted to the Board of Estimate and Apportionment by the Citizens Union. Je. 26, 1916. 16 pp. Water Meters water supply at Miles City, Mont. nicip. Engrng., Je., 1916: 227.) Water Rates METCALR AND EDDY, consulting engrs. Special report on Waltham [Mass.] water rates. 1916. Ann. rept. of the city engineer, etc., of Waltham for 1915-16, p. 84-45. Water Sup ly ANON. hater purification plants in large American cities. 1 p. (Municipal Jol., Jly. 13, 1916.) Data on purification processes used by municipal MORSE (R. B. and H..R. HALL). Progress of water disinfection in Maryland. 2500 words. (Fire and Water Enerne.. PRUEIT (G. C.). Full meterage of (Muplants in cities of more than 30,000. .,. Jly. 26,1916.) Outline of work under ,control of state bd. of There are 83 Dubhc water suDp1ies in Md. health. ABERDEEN, SCOT. -ANON. The water supply of Aberdeen [Scot.]. (The Engr. (London), Je. 23, 1916: 515-517. illus.) SPEAR (WALTER E.). Building the city tunnel of the Catskill aqueduct. (Contractor, Je. 15, 1916: 26-30. illus.) Mr. S ear is dept. engr. of the Board of Water supply, Rr. Y. city. Water Works words. NEW YORH Cm ANON. Waterworks of Canada. 800 (Canadian Engr., Jly. 20, 1916.) Data concerning oapital and operating costs. __ . Waterworks in the larger cities. (Municipal Jol., Jly. 6, 1916. BLACK, (E. B.). Difficulties in the designing and operation of medium-sized water-work plants. 2000 words. (Canadian Engr., Jly. 13, 1916.) MAURY (DABNEY H.). Waterworks reservovs. 2000 words. (Fire and Water Engrng., Jly. 12, 1916.) Classes, field of usefulnew, value of proper lo’cation, design, etc. BEAR LAKE, UTAE ANON. Water power storage reservoir with pumping station. Plant at Bear Lake, Utah. 1800 words. illus. (Engrng. News, Jly. 15, 1916.) 1200 words. Various items of information in relation to municipally owned plants in cities of over 30,WO; FREDONIA, I(w. HORNER (0. H.) Cost of operating a Kansas pumping plant. Facilities provided by Fredonia, Kan. 1000 words. illus. (Electr. World, Jly. 1, 1916.) L~EDS HENBELL (C. G.). Leeds waterworks. (Water and Water Engrng., SEATTLE, WASH. 1500 words. Je. 15, 1916.) -~NON. Seattle waterworks improvements. 4000 words. illus. (Municipal Jol., Jly. 20, 1916.) YONXER8, N. Y. Construction of Hill View Reservoir, Yonkers, N. Y. 2500 words. illus. (Contracting, Jly., 1916.) Weights and Measures CHAMBERLAIN (JOHN D.) Power of the municipality to re date weights and measures. (Case ant Comment, Je., Welfare DALLAS, TEXAS. Department of Public Welfare. First annual report, 1915-16. 88 PP. Zoning MULVIHILL (FRANK J.). Districting by ordinance in Sacramento. (Amer. City, Jly., 1916: 24-26. illus.) 1916: 11-15.) A remarkably comprehensive and vital record.