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National municipal review, March, 1919

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National municipal review, March, 1919
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National municipal review
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National Municipal League
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National Municipal League
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Volume 1, Issue 1

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Full Text
NATIONAL
MUNICIPAL REVIEW
Vol. VIII, No. 2
March, 1919
Total No. 34
Ordinarily the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW should fee in the hands of members and subscribers
and November. The extraordinary conditions of the last six months, however, have resulted in numerous delays. If the maoazine is not received by the 15th of the month of issue, the Editor will fee greatly obliged if a postal to that effect is sent to his office, 70S North American Building, Philadelphia.
TOWN PLANNING IN RELATION TO LAND TAXATION
THE town planning schemes being prepared by the cities of Edmonton, Calgary, Lethbridge and Medicine Hat2 are of particular interest because the main purpose which these cities have in view is to solve some of the financial difficulties created by past speculation in real estate. Town planning in western Canada is being used to help the cities to save money; whereas, to many people, the very name of town planning is synonymous with increased municipal expenditure.
Calgary, Edmonton, Lethbridge and Medicine Hat have decided to prepare comprehensive town planning schemes for the whole of their areas. The immediate cause of their decision to do so is that they were threatened with the reduction of their areas under the pressure of owners of suburban lands who have applied to the public utility commissioners of Alberta to have their lands taken out of the cities under new legislation
1 Town planning adviser to commission, of conservation, Canada.
2 These are the four principal cities of Alberta province with populations and areas, according to latest statistics, as follows:
CITIES SHOULD HAVE AGRICULTURAL ZONES EXAMPLES OF CANADIAN CITIES
BY THOMAS ADAMS Ottawa, Canada1
Population
Area in Acres 24,720 27,040 6,944 11,280
Calgary.....
Edmonton. . . Lethbridge... Medicine Hat
56,514
53,794
9,437
9,264
109


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[March
giving powers to the commissioners in this regard. The application is being made in order that relief may be obtained from both high assessment and high taxation. Faced with this problem the cities have come to realize that they must plan their areas with proper regard to their use for different purposes (including agricultural purposes in the suburbs) and that they should fix their assessments in accordance with these uses.
separation op agricultural from business and residential lands
They propose to plan and separate all agricultural lands within the city from business and residential lands. The underlying principle of the division will be that the former will not be required for building within a reasonable time. Land in the agricultural division will be assessed at only agricultural value—wild or vacant lands in such division having a minimum value to be fixed under the law. It is proposed to cancel all sub-divisions in the agricultural area and to permit no new sub-divisions unless in accordance with the scheme. When land in the agricultural area is permitted by the council to be transferred to the building area and thereby to get the full benefit of the public utilities it will be subject to an increment tax—suggested at 50 per cent of the difference between the assessed agricultural value and the assessed building value. No utilities, such as sewers, water mains, pavements, etc., will be extended to the agricultural area except at the cost of the owners, and only then by agreement with the city. So long as the land remains in the agricultural area no utilities will be extended except for agricultural purposes. Maps and schemes are now being prepared to carry out these objects.
One of the things that has never been quite realized by the western cities is that agricultural land may be within the city boundaries. It has been assumed that any land included in the city ipso facto became building land, no matter what the ratio was between the growth of the populatior and the area of the city. Since the passing of the boom, western cities have begun to realize, happily, that it is unwise to tax land at a highei rate than it can bear, having regard to its revenue-producing capacity anc subject to the community getting the increment of value due to its owi expenditures. A great deal of land at the present time does not product revenue because, while it is really useful for agriculture it is being held fo building purposes for which it may not be required for perhaps 40 or 5< years.
calgary’s scheme
In the scheme suggested at Calgary, about half the city area will b included as building land and the other half, amounting to no less tha: 20 sections, or about 12,800 acres, will be defined as an agricultural zone
By stopping sub-division in the agricultural zone until the inner builc ing zone is built up to at least a density of two-thirds of its area, the owner


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of suburban land will realize that their best way to derive profit from the land will be in farming it and improving its fertility. At present vast tracts of such land are lying idle because the owners are living on the illusion that their farms will be required for building purposes.
The present population of Calgary is about 60,000. Its total area is 25,920 acres, about equal to that of Toronto. This area would accommodate a population of 777,600 on the wholesome basis of 30 people to the acre. It is felt, however, that it is not unreasonable to limit the present expectations as to future growth to less than half of that number (say 350,000), so far as the planning of the city is concerned, and that even then ample concession is being made to the hopefulness of those who own real estate.
There is room for this population of 350,000 within a radius of half a mile of the street railways of Calgary. Within this radius there are sewers and water mains provided in or ready for extension to most of the streets; but it is unreasonable to ask the present generation to bear the burden of local improvements for a population, even of this number. At present, however, they are responsible for local improvements for a sub-divided area which would provide for a population 13 times the present size. How can high taxes be avoided under such circumstances?
If one were starting de novo it would be enough to have local improvements actually constructed for a population of 20 to 25 per cent greater than the existing population; but this construction should follow the lines of a plan prepared for an area of five or six times the present area of the city.
Having arrived at the decision that half of the area of a city is enough to provide for reasonable growth for many years, the remainder of the land should be treated as agricultural land for the time being, or taken out of the city. Otherwise it will be taxed at a rate which the average owner cannot pay and the city will get no benefit from this taxation because it is responsible for extending local improvements, which cost more than the taxes are worth, even when the latter can be collected. Growing arrears of taxes and continued improvement extensions beyond needs have bad effects on the finances of any city.
The treatment of the agricultural zone is the most novel proposal to be included in the scheme, and it ought to be of general interest to cities that have similar problems to deal with. A large portion of land in the suburbs of many United States and Canadian cities is sterile and idle because it is being held for building purposes long before it is wanted for these purposes. The only hope of getting this land into cultivation and simultaneously preventing extravagant and unhealthy expansion is to bring it under a proper town planning scheme. The following are among the suggested provisions for the schemes proposed for the western cities.


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SOME OF THE GENERAL PROVISIONS
No streets, sewers or water mains shall be constructed in such area except at the expense of the owners of the land and subject to the approval of all plans, sections and particulars by the city.
No land shall be sub-divided or used for building purposes for any purpose not connected with the use of the land for agriculture or horticulture in such area unless with the consent in writing of the city authority, where the authority is satisfied that the land is needed for building and not less than two-thirds of the sub-divisions in the parts of the area adjacent to the proposed new sub-division are already used for building purposes.
Land already sub-divided in the said area shall be reverted to acreage.
When the consent of the city authority is obtained to the future subdivision of any land within the agricultural zone the said land shall forthwith come under the provisions of this scheme as if it were building land and it shall be assessed as such.
The city shall collect an increment tax on the occasion of sale or of conversion of the land from agricultural to building land (suggested as 50 per cent of the increased value) realized or assessed.
TORONTO
Some of the eastern cities in Canada used the same kind of remedy for their taxation and planning problems. Toronto, for instance, has a population of 463,705 occupying an area of 25,330 acres. At a density of 30 to the acre there is room within the present city boundaries for a population of 759,900. Although little more than half built up it is overflowing its boundaries in many directions and it should have a larger area, so long as it has a part of such area set aside for agricultural purposes until it is needed for building purposes. Evidence of the need of Toronto for a larger area is shown by the extent to which undesirable and uncontrolled development is taking place outside its suburbs in every direction. Some day Toronto will have to meet the cost of rectifying this haphazard development.
To divide the city into zones, in which regard is paid to the economic use of the land, health and convenience of the people, instead of to the speculative interests of owners, is, in practice, one of the most effective means of avoiding injurious speculation. The use of the land becomes the determining factor in its value, and whatever increment may accrue to it from change of that use, say from agriculture to building, should become the subject of a heavy tax. The fact that certain lands are earmarked under a scheme for agriculture increases the value of the central areas for building purposes and this justifies the placing of higher taxes on the land in central areas.
The whole problem of housing is mixed up with this question of the development of land, and the latter is so dependent upon town planning of the right kind that housing and town planning schemes must proceed side by side if economical results are to be obtained. If governments will give us the right kind of legislation to control land development it will be


1919] UNEARNED INCREMENT IN LACKAWANNA
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a great aid towards the solution of the housing problem. Given this legislation and a proper organization to begin with, financial aid can produce better results.
In those Canadian provinces where ample town planning powers have been given by the legislatures there is a chance for treatment of these problems in a comprehensive and satisfactory way.
THE UNEARNED INCREMENT IN LACKAWANNA
BY HERBERT S. SWAN New York
BEFORE the Lackawanna Steel Company brought its great plant and its thousands of employes to Lackwanna in 1899, the business establishments of the locality consisted of four groceries, one butcher shop, three saloons and two make-believe hotels. There were no factories. The population in the main followed the pursuit of farming and truck gardening for a livelihood.
Conditions were thoroughly rural. The town form of government satisfied all the requirements of the people. One constable safe-guarded the public peace and he found ample time, it is said, to engage in market gardening as well as in the real estate business when there was any real estate to be sold.
In 1890 the area within the present city contained a population estimated at 627. In 1900 it is estimated that this had increased to 1,833. In 1915 the state census showed that these farms, swamps and woodlands bad become a busy city of 15,737.1
Increased population means increased land values. Country roads ire usually not converted into city streets, nor plowed fields into building lots without an accompanying unearned increment. The purpose of this paper will be to appraise as nearly as possible the amount of unearned ncrement accruing to land values from the coming of the steel plant to Lackawanna.
THE AGRICULTURAL VALUE OF THE LAND
Before the establishment of the steel plant there had been very little ictivity in the real estate market. As a general rule property was in-lerited and not sold. The best land used for truck gardening purposes seems, however, to have possessed a value varying between $400 and $500 jer acre; the best land used for ordinary agricultural purposes, a value between $150 and $300 per acre; and swamp land, a value not exceeding
1 This investigation was made at the request and with the support of Mr. Richard S, Ihilds on behalf of the Committee on New Industrial Towns in August, 1916.


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$100 per acre. The value of some of the swamp and wood land did no1 exceed $50 per acre. Although little property appears to have beer exchanged at these figures, they may be considered as representing th< price at which land was held previous to its value being influenced by the construction of the breakwater, the railroad yards or the steel plant that is to say, about the year 1895. At that time the average acreage value of . all the land in the city probably did not exceed $200 per acre. On this latter basis the land within the present city limits was wortl only $770,000. But this figure by no means represents what it cost th< steel company to acquire the plant land in the absence of any power ti condemn.
ACQUISITION OP THE PLANT LAND
The task of acquiring the property for the steel company was entrusted to the Stony Point Land Company, of which Mr. J. J. Albright, a Buff at capitalist, was the head. This happened in the latter part of March 1899. Within a period of six weeks, this company had acquired titl not only to the greater part of the land required by the steel company bu to 500 or 600 acres in addition. Altogether about. 1,700 acres of Ian were purchased at prices varying from $300 to $4,000 per acre. Th average was $980 per acre.
The price obtained by each owner depended naturally to a large exten upon his native shrewdness in bargaining and the strategic position of hi property in relation to the other parcels in the scheme contemplated b; the company.
The first sellers, not suspecting that a big project was on foot, wer glad to dispose of their farms and swamps at a comparatively low figure These were the men who got $300 per acre for their land. The las vendors, appreciating the vital importance of their land to the compan in rounding out and filling in its holdings, of course, made extortionat demands, and probably much to their own surprise, they got their price These were the men who got from $2,000 to $4,000 per acre for their lane
With the exception of two parcels, which were purchased by the stee company for housing purposes, the Stony Point Land Company retaine title to 650 acres not used for the plant. About 350 acres of this lan have been disposed of to different railways for yard purposes and to indui trial establishments. The remaining 300 acres are still retained by tl land company in large tracts and the general impression seems to l that it doesn’t care to sell this land.
The land bought in Lackawanna was 1,436 acres and the price paid wi approximately $1,407,000.
The land bought by the company was the most valuable for factoi
2 This figure represents the opinion of Messrs. C. H. McCullough, Jr., Robert A. Ree J. J. Redmond, N. C. Milks and Mansfield Lohr.


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purposes in the city. The remaining area of 2,414 acres could have been bought more cheaply, especially if it had been bought over a longer period of time. A tract of 150 acres needed to round out the company holdings would probably have cost $980 an acre, the same price as that sold for the land acquired, or a total of $147,000. The other area of 2,264 acres, if all bought, could probably have been purchased for two and a half times its agricultural value or at $500 an acre. The price of this tract at $500 per acre would have been $1,132,000.
The aggregate amount that would have been required for the purchase of all the land within the city limits may therefore be estimated at $2,686,000.
PEESENT VALUE OP THE LAND
The total assessed value of taxable real estate in Lackawanna, exclusive of special franchises, is $10,390,480. This is the assessment on which the 1917 tax levy was made. Land is assessed at $4,678,360; or $297 per capita.
The city administration, including the mayor and the three assessors, steadfastly maintained that the assessment for 1917 was on the basis of 80 per cent of true value. The fear that the writer was engaged by the State Board of Tax Commissioners made the city administration very circumspect in discussing the relation of assessed and true value.
Mr. C. W. Ellis, Editor of the Journal, the leading city newspaper, stated that the assessments represented about 35 per cent of actual value. Mr. Mansfield Lohr, a real estate man, stated that they represented about 30 per cent; Mr. N. M. O’Mara, another real estate man, stated that the assessments varied from 25 per cent of true value in the case of vacant property to 40 per cent in the case of improved property. Mr. N. C. Milks said the assessments varied between 30 and 50 per cent of true value.
The county supervisors rated Lackawanna assessments at 30 per cent in 1916. The 1917 assessment is, however, about 50 per cent larger than that of 1916.
There are many instances where vacant as well as improved property is assessed at only a fifth or a sixth of its fair value.
Considering the fact that there are enormous areas of vacant land, the assessed value of the land, exclusive of improvements, does not on the average perhaps exceed one-third of its true value. The writer considers this ratio a very fair one. It errs rather on the side of conservatism than liberality.
Applying this ratio the present true value of the land within the city limits of Lackawanna is $14,035,000; of the non-plant land $9,016,000.
The gross increment in the non-plant land is the difference between its presentvalue, $9,016,000,and its value of $1,983,OOOin 1899,or $7,033,000.


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COST OF LOCAL IMPROVEMENTS
Benefits have been assessed quite generally in the case of local improvements.
Including the filling of swamp land, roads and sidewalks and the cost of local improvements assessed against benefited property, the property owners in Lackawanna have been put to a total expense of $500,000 in preparing their property for urban use. But of this amount, they have, as yet, only paid some $245,000.
The net increment in the non-plant land is therefore the difference between its gross increment of $7,033,000 and the $245,000 collected for local improvements or $6,788,000.
MUNICIPAL FINANCE AND TAXATION
An analysis of the unearned increment in any particular city would not be complete without a word describing the conditions affecting municipal finance and taxation. Land and buildings were not assessed separately in Lackawanna until 1917. It is therefore impossible to show the annual tax burden to which land has been subject during the period in which this unearned increment developed.
The total cost of the government for the year 1915, considering the expense of both the municipal and the school corporations, was $290,-846.43.
The tax rate for city and school purposes was $26.33 per $1,000 assessed value.
The city of Lackawanna has an outstanding debt for municipal and school purposes of $561,425. All the bonds outstanding on account of sewers and one-half on account of pavements will be collected from owners of benefited property. Deducting these amounts, the net debt is $286,925.
It is plain, therefore, that carrying charges on the land have not been a serious offset to the increment.
SOCIAL CONDITIONS
Had the unearned increment in land values been conserved for community purposes instead of dissipated among the land owners, Lackawanna would not be the drab place to live in it is to-day. The city possesses none of the amenities which make town life pleasant. It has no public library. It owns no parks, no playgrounds.3 The social conditions are such that most of the plant employes refuse to live in the city. About 60 per cent of the shop force and about 75 per cent of the office force, according to the president of the company, live in Buffalo. The difficulty the steel plant experiences in manning the works describes the desolate character of the community better than any words,—in a force
* The only park in the city, one of 155 acres, belongs to the city of Buffalo.


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of about 7,000 men it had, when the writer was there, a labor turnover of 1,500 men a week!
The great common indulgence is drink, and drink in abundance. As nearly as the writer could ascertain there were about 140 saloons in Lackawanna. Nearly all of these were in the foreign quarter of the city west of the railroad yards. The population of this section, exclusive of that found in the company houses, is about 5,500.
The saloon keeper seems to have been one of the first to realize the need for adequate housing facilities in the new town. He erected a number of two- and three-story barracks 30 to 35 feet in width and often more than 100 feet in length, the first floor being used as a saloon and the upper floors as lodgings. There are probably forty of these saloon lodging houses. The clientele of each bar is largely recruited, if not exclusively so, from its own lodgers. The ideal cherished by each saloon is apparently to shelter all its customers. Some of these saloons are said to accommodate as many as a hundred men, the same beds being used by both night and day men.
SOCIALIZATION OF THE UNEARNED INCREMENT
Various methods have been suggested and tried for the socialization of the unearned increment,—the more prominent among these being a heavy annual tax on land values, a tax on future increases in land values,4 Co-Partnership Housing6 and Municipal Land Ownership. That there is a right on the part of the community to enjoy and to benefit by the values which it itself creates does not at this late date seem susceptible of successful contradiction. But which of the above propositions is best designed to attain this end it is not the purpose of this paper to determine. Various social forces at work, however, make it increasingly plain that it is futile to expect even an approximately fair distribution of the economic rent through promoting individual home ownership In the first place, a majority of workingmen will never acquire a home,6 and on account of industrial conditions, it is a big question whether or not it is desirable to encourage them to own a home. In the second place, very little increment accrues, as a rule, to land used for housing the working classes after its original subdivision and sale. If not the bulk, at least a very large portion of the increment is in such instances reaped by the developer. And in the third place, individual home ownership, even if it were to become the universal rule in a community and thus secure a
4 See Herbert S. Swan. The Unearned Increment Tax, National Municipal Review, April, 1914.
6 See Richard S. Childs, How Shall the Government Dispose of Its Industrial Housing, New Republic, March 30, 1918; also Herbert S. Swan, Co-Partnership Housing in England, Journal American Institute of Architects, May, 1918.
8 See Herbert S. Swan, Home Ownership in New York City, Journal of American Institute of Architects, January, 1918.


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more or less haphazard distribution of the benefits resulting from the unearned increment in residential land values, would still not solve the problems resulting from the growth of land values in the business sections of the city.
To preserve the individual’s mobility without at the same time obliging him to forego his right to share in the unearned increment he helps to create, that is the biggest part of the problem affecting the economic rent of land. Industrial towns, like Lackawanna, would probably find that such a solution to the land problem would do more to stabilize labor than any other policy they might adopt.
RECONSTRUCTION IN GREAT BRITAIN
BY THOMAS ADAMS Ottawa, Canada
IN that part of the British Empire from which I come, which has its boundaries common with yours for over 3,000 miles, we have very similar problems of reconstruction to those you have in the United States. Our problems more resemble yours than those of the Mother Country. In our different dominions our problems naturally vary with our conditions; only one thing never varies, namely, the freedom and independence of each national unit of the Empire. You will remember how Kipling described the spirit of combined independence and loyalty of Canada:—
A nation spoke to a nation,
A throne sent word to a throne:
"Daughter am I in my mother’s house,
But mistress in my own.
The gates are mine to open,
As the gates are mine to close,
And I abide in my mother’s house,”
Said our lady of the snows.
Canada has her own gates to open and to close and her own problems to work out in the light of her own experience. And it is only as nations and states, and lesser entities, “do the duty that is nearest to them”, as Carlyle has put it, that national strength will be built up in such aggregations of territories and states as you and we have in our respective countries.
The war is past history. The boys have gone over, and they have done their duty. They have met the test. They have kept the faith. Many of them will not come back to reap the fruits of their sacrifice. We have been helping them in the struggle, but while they have had the


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test applied to them, ours is yet to come. And the question we have to answer is: Are we to be found wanting? They had the opportunity to sacrifice themselves for our countries and our liberties and for social justice. We have now the chance to take up the battle for the victory and prize which they have won for us.
LIBEBTY OF LIFE AND PROPERTY
We have to get a new perspective of some of these questions. I think that it is very important that we should hold fast to our individual liberties, but I sometimes venture to remind American audiences that they will find in the first article of their constitution—at any rate in the constitution of Massachusetts—that liberty of life comes before the liberty of property. In Canada and the United States there is a tendency to reverse this order. We have often failed to regard the sacredness of life as worthy of protection, when it interfered with the sacredness of property.
The liberty that is fundamental, which lies at the foundation on which we have built since the time when constitutional freedom was fought for and secured at great sacrifice, for you and us, is the liberty to enjoy the fullest opportunities for human development. When the rights of private property encroach upon the health of the people, or destroy that which helps to build up character, or make impossible a wholesome environment for our children, they interfere with real liberty.
We have learned in this war how national strength comes from building up the character of our people, and how important it is that we should lay the right social foundation rather than build up a seeming wealth in the form of an industrial organization which depends for its strength on an underpaid and badly-housed population.
We have to get down to these fundamental considerations in connection with this question of reconstruction in all our countries. In Great Britain, if I may say so, they have had some advantage over both Canada and the United States in this respect. Ever since 1915 they have had at work a ministry of reconstruction formed when emotions were stirred by the great events of the war and their minds were alive to the danger that when peace returned they would drift back into the old ways.
THE WIDE SCOPE OF EECONSTRTJCTION IN ENGLAND
They started out to work with the idea that reconstruction meant the demobilization of troops, the reinstatement of the men in employment, plus a certain amount of readjustment of industry and of economic conditions. But as they studied the problem, they found it went deeper and wider than that. They found they had been building in error in the past and that what they wanted was not the readjustment of old conditions but the building up of new conditions. They realized that


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in order to show proper reverence for those who had made such great sacrifices they had a duty not only to get rid of established evils—some of which had been endured by sheer force of custom—but to take such action as was necessary to prevent the recurrence of similar evils in the future.
They started out with that humble acknowledgment of past failure which is essential as a preliminary in any successful policy of reconstruction.
Now we are all saying that we are entering upon a new era. Forward movements and reconstruction policies are in the air, and if good intentions are all we require, we may look forward to the future with hope, and with the inspiration of the sentiment that God is in his Heaven and all is right with the world. But as the roar of the guns ceases, as the pain and disasters of the past few years begin to be forgotten, it has yet to be proved that we shall not drift back into the old neglect of social injustices which in accumulation bring misery to men and endanger the stability of the social organism. This is no fancy picture of what may happen. It happened in France a hundred years ago. It has happened in Britain and in your country in the past when the stimulating periods following great emergencies have passed away and left things to muddle along in their customary groove.
On this occasion however, Britain started to think out her policy of reconstruction while yet the wounded boys were walking through the streets, returning from the battlefields of France, and the nobilities of war time had not settled into languorous indifference.
Britain, while at war, worked out a social program as well as a solution for the problems of demobilization, and for readjustment of her industries. She considered the question of restoration of her shipping; the rebuilding of her mercantile marine; the adjustment of her labor difficulties and differences between capital and labor by means of industrial councils composed of employers and employees; the replacement of the soldiers either in the work they had left or in new work created for them; the increased production of food by improved rural organization—a matter of supreme importance in this country and Canada—;the question of building up and restoring the economic and financial conditions of the country, due to the disturbance of the war; and many other industrial, military and financial questions.
HEALTH, HOUSING AND EDUCATION
But she also considered the problems of health, housing and education; and it is to that aspect of the problem that I want to make particular reference, and particularly to the question of housing, since that comes within the sphere of my own duties and studies.
Unless we try to get more light and air into the homes of our industrial


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classes; unless we get rid of those bad sanitary conditions which surround the dwellings of the poor; unless we make the environment of the bulk of our homes sweeter and better, we shall continue to find that all the science we apply to remedy disease, to reduce sickness, to counteract feeble-mindedness and crime; and that all we do to reconstruct and improve our industrial conditions, will be offset-by the physical and moral deterioration produced by bad housing conditions.
On the question of education, any of you who are members of municipal councils know that the chief expense of municipal administration is in regard to education, and it should be so. In Ottawa we collect on an average about $30 per family in taxes from our working class population. Our education bill alone for each child in that family is about $50. If there are four in a family the cost is about $200. Thus it costs about $200 to educate the children of a man who is paying $30 in taxes.
You see therefore the importance of making that expenditure of $200 as productive as possible. If children come to the school from a bad home; if they are subject to environment which promotes disease and degeneracy, much of our expense for education is wasted. We can never successfully attain our object of establishing a system of education which will carry out your expectations effectively and justify the high expenditures involved, unless we frankly face this question of improving the housing conditions.
BLAMING THE POOR FOR BAD HOUSING CONDITIONS
There may be a tendency in this country, as I know there is with us, to place the blame on the other fellow, and say that it is all very well to build good houses and to enforce more stringent regulations in order to see that everybody is well housed, but that will not solve the problem because the people who live in the houses themselves are to blame because of their defective morals and low standards; their bad habits and indifference to their condition will thwart all your efforts.
Is that not another form of our old, much-despised English snobbishness towards the poor, which on this continent receives a new veneer and is called something else. I remember about twenty years ago, when I built some small cottages for the working population of the municipality, a medical man of some considerable prominence and reputation, a member of the city council, visited the cottages and said: “These people are not worthy of these model homes and pleasant surroundings. They will bring them down to their own level. These people belong to a lower class than ourselves and are not happy unless they live in slums.” I think the war has killed a good deal of that kind of thing in England and made people feel that some of those who have been the most despised of citizens in the past have not only done their duty in this war as well as the best housed and best educated of the citizens of the old country,


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but only need a better environment and freer opportunities to enable them to prove that they are capable of rising to higher standards of parentage and citizenship.
I do not wish to underestimate the power of hereditary influences. We have to fight against the bad influences in human nature, but one of the best ways to fight them is by improving the home conditions. One of your most distinguished men—Oliver Wendell Holmes—has said that you should educate your citizens a hundred years before they are born. To educate your citizens before they are born can only be done by improving the homes of their parents and grandparents. As you house the citizens of to-day so will you educate the future citizens of your country.
Are we going to refuse to alter existing conditions for the children who are to be the citizens of the future because we feel it is difficult to overcome the inertia and indifference of their parents?
I have had experience of trying to improve the conditions of the people living in the slums of London. I have seen them moved out into the “garden city”; I have seen the changes in their lives; I have seen them growing up to be better citizens, in spite of their natural weakness, because of better environment. But I need not cite my experience to show that medical gentleman’s distortion of the truth. You will find it in the lives of some of the most able citizens of this continent who have built up the political history of America and yet have come from the peasant homes and poverty stricken hamlets of Europe. We must try to improve the denisons of the slums by practical efforts and by recognizing our social responsibilities and not by preaching to them and blaming their natural weaknesses.
THE BRITISH HOUSING PROGRAM
Lloyd George announced the other day that the policy of his government consisted of a great program of rehousing, of land reform and of improved transportation.
These questions concern not only the building of houses, but the planning of land so that the houses shall have light, air and pleasantness; and so that sanitary conditions and economy will be considered in connection with the development of the land as well as in connection with the construction of the dwelling.
We have in Ontario, on the other side of the Lake from Rochester, a law which says that all streets shall be not less than 66 feet wide nor more than 100 feet. The result is that two thirds of our streets are too wide and one third too narrow. Consequently people are paying for unnecessarily wide streets; and one result is that owing to the excessive cost of local improvements, they have to live in insanitary homes.
In building houses we have three things to consider. They are;— (1) The dwelling. (2) The site. (3) The means of access to and from


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the site and the place of employment (transit). All these are dealt with in the Lloyd George program of rehousing.
Lord Shaftesbury was one of the first men to promote a housing policy in England, in 1851, and the English Parliament has been wrestling with the problem ever since. Progress has been slow and it was not till 1909 that they got an effective housing and town planning act. Town planning in England means the laying out and development of all land likely to be used for building purposes with the object of securing proper sanitary conditions, amenity and convenience. The replanning of existing cities, the making of new diagonal streets through areas already built upon, or the creation of civic centers as a main object are not features of the English town plan.
Its basis is a thorough knowledge of the existing topographical, industrial and social conditions, as related to possible future development. The town plan has to be preceded by the regional plan or map which gives the knowledge of all the existing data and conditions. With the latter as a foundation on which to prepare the plan of future development, and with health, amenity and convenience as the main objects, town planning becomes an important instrument in social reconstruction.
DECENTRALIZATION OF INDUSTRIES AND TOWN PLANNING
One significant feature of modern social life is the process of decentralization of industries. Great cities are becoming disintegrated; manufacturers are leaving the large centers, driven out by high taxes and by dear land.
The United States steel corporation came across to Ontario the other day to search for a site for a new plant. Any city of our province would probably have pledged their last dollar to get that corporation to settle in their area. But the corporation did not seek a site in an existing city. It selected a bare piece of land at an agricultural price. It had plans of the land made, of the whole site, of the houses, streets, sewers, sewage disposal plant, water supply, etc.; and it will in time complete the building of its own town. It is not doing this for philanthropy, but because, by introducing an entirely new system of town planning and public works, it can assure healthful conditions to its work-people. The workers can secure pleasanter surroundings, purer water supply, and will be more efficient as a consequence. The corporation is engaged in business, and their only object is to make that business successful.
The process of decentralization, of which this is an example, is going on all over this continent. This tendency to establish industrial plants in territory outside the boundaries of cities needs to be taken hold of and organized. It is one of the things that need to be dealt with in reconstruction schemes.
The planning of these new developments in the outer suburbs of our


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cities is one of our biggest problems. In dealing with them we have to link up housing and local transit, and also control land development so as to prevent injurious speculation.
Town planning, in the judgment of the United States steel corporation, was the first necessity of its housing scheme. Similarly, in Great Britain too they have come to recognize that in order to deal properly with housing conditions they must start with the control of land development by town planning schemes.
EXTENT OF PROBLEM
They propose to expend from six hundred million to a billion dollars after the war to build three to five hundred thousand houses. The sites on which these houses will be erected will all be town-planned. In six or seven years it is estimated they will have to face from 180 to 300 million dollars of loss, according to the number of dwellings that will be erected. Great Britain is prepared to pay this as the subsidy in working out its after-the-war policy in regard to housing.
I do not think there is any definite after-the-war housing policy in this country. But, in view of the much larger increase of population in your country as compared with Britain, it would seem that you would need five times as large an appropriation per annum for this purpose as Great Britain, if you are going to deal with the problem on the same drastic lines.
In Canada we need about 30,000 houses to meet the needs of our increase in population. Sixty-seven thousand are needed in Great Britain, and in this country 350,000 to build a house for every five persons to meet the natural increase of population.
But aside from this increase in population, we all have an acute housing problem to deal with here in connection with the improvement of existing dwellings.
CANADIAN HOUSING POLICY
Our Canadian housing policy has not been finally settled, but briefly, it comprises a co-operative scheme of housing reform in which the federal, the provincial and the municipal governments will all be interested. We recognize housing as a national problem. It is part of the question of industrial development in our cities and of rural organization in our rural districts. The federal government will probably lend money and may create some kind of advisory bureau. There will be in each province a provincial board or official to administer and direct the lending of money to the municipalities. Working down from the federal government at the apex, you come to the provincial government, with its executive officers, and from that to the municipality, and from the municipality to the housing association and the manufacturer, and the individual. The actual building operations will be carried out by the


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three latter under regulations prepared by the federal and provincial experts.
The Ontario government has appropriated ..$2,000,000 to inaugurate schemes in that province.1 The experience gained in one province will be used to help in the solution of the problem in other provinces.
MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION OF HOUSING SCHEMES
Whatever difficulties may be encountered in getting the municipalities to do the work, whatever lack of confidence we may have as to their capacity to undertake it, it is desirable to use and confide in them and take the risks. Increased responsibility will gradually bring increased capacity and vision. The English statesman was not far wrong who said that good government was not a substitute for self-government.
We need to hold fast to the democratic spirit we have fought for in this war and if we do so we must entrust our municipal administrations with greater and not lesser responsibilities. If our system of local government is defective and we consider it unworthy of our confidence, it is our duty to improve it and not to supersede it by autocratic machinery in order to attain a questionable efficiency.
So in our reconstructive policies we must enlist the co-operation of all forms of government and we must place the chief burden of executive responsibility on the government which is closest to the people, leaving to the higher governments the duty of guiding and supervising, of rendering financial aid and expert advice, and of co-ordinating local activities.
That, at any rate, will be our policy in Canada, and, although we shall have mistakes made and shall have to take the chances of having to suffer from inefficiency, due to lack of continuity in municipal administration, I think in the end we shall have more enduring and solid results than if we tried some more bureaucratic method.
In conclusion, may I express the hope that you and we shall meet the boys when they return with the same kind of spirit, in our attack on social evils, that they have shown in their attack on the enemies of our freedom. To achieve that we must be prepared to convert some of our idealism into practical policies in our reconstruction schemes, to show that we really believe not only in liberty for ourselves, but in “equality of opportunity” for all. That must cease to be merely a pious phrase with us. When the boys return we must not only receive them with bands playing and with flags waving; wc must not only say to them, "We will give you work and money”; we must show them that we are prepared to live for some of those ideals and principles of justice for which they have been prepared to die. In that respect all our countries have a common task and a common privilege.
1 Since this address was delivered the federal government of Canada has appproriated $25,000,000 to be lent to tie provinces for housing purposes, December, 1918.


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THE NEW RELATION OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO STATE AND LOCAL COMMUNITIES
BY ARTHUR W. MAC MAHON
Columbia University, New York1
I COULD discuss the paper with more success but less satisfaction, if I could find something fundamental in it to disagree with. Professor McBain in summing up his paper said that there was nothing strikingly new in the relations between nation and state brought about by the war, aside from the development of the co-operative relationship between national and state administrative agencies, which, he pointed out, was already under way before the war.
There are, after all, two reasons why the war has not brought anything strikingly new in the national-state relationship. In the first place, we were not in the war long enough to permit drastic permanent changes in our political institutions. The war has raised the metal of the nation— and I refer to our national fabric and not to war sentiment—to the red heat at which metal is easily malleable within limits, but not to the white heat at which metal flows of itself. Furthermore, this red heat is a condition which is quickly lost, and I think we are surprised to-day at the rapidity with which the readjustments, toward which we have looked with bated breath, are taking place even now, while we who thought the war was going to continue a year are speculating upon the direction these adjustments should take. It may be that the condition which promotes malleability will be prolonged by the heat communicated to us from the social unrest abroad in the world, together with the pressure developed here by the resistance of labor to a radical readjustment of wage standard. But the war in itself has not lasted long enough nor heated the metal of the nation hot enough to bring about permanent and drastic changes.
POLITICAL EXPEBIENCY DURING THE WAR
In the second place, political expediency during the war has affected the relation of states and nation along the lines of tendencies already under way. When we look first at the developments during the war we are struck by the extent of its exercise of national power. If we look a second time, we are struck by the extent to which the national government has actually utilized state and local machinery in the performance of its war functions. Of course the most striking example along this line
'Dr. MacMahon although attached to the staff of the Council of National Defense spoke in his individual capacity in discussing Professor McBain’s paper read at the Rochester Conference of the National Municipal League on Reconstruction.


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has been the administration of the selective service law, in which the machinery was built up by the action of state and local government. The authorities administering that law-pointed very clearly in their first annual report to the fact that by this use of state and local machinery they were able to improvise a vast civilian machine quickly, inexpensively and democratically.
There are many other examples which may be given and which, although less striking than the administration of the Selective Service Law, are perhaps more to the point. We now have the United States employment service as an essentially national agency. As a matter of fact, in the actual building up of that service state and local employment facilities have in many instances been utilized and by various informal memoranda made part of the practical operating system. Professor McBain has referred to the so-called Smith-Sears’ act for vocational rehabilitation. I think I state what is true when I say that the federal board for vocational education, although operating under a congressional appropriation, will welcome assistance from state or other agencies, which would make it possible to render further service to disabled men than are allowed under the strict regulations of the congressional enactment. Again, Congress by emergency appropriation to the department of agriculture has extended aid to the farmers during the war. Such aid, as in the buying of seed and the like, was supplemented through understandings with state agencies engaged in the relief of farmers, the national and state agencies thus becoming a working unit.
UTILIZATION OF STATE AND LOCAL AGENCIES
The war, then, despite all its developments of federal power, has afforded a strikingly interesting utilization of state and local agencies, in the form of co-operative understandings with the national government. Such development has been along the lines of what was taking place before the war, and it will undoubtedly continue now with added stimulus. My only regret in connection with Professor McBain’s paper is that he did not have time to develop in more detail the possibilities which exist for the creation of these informal administrative understandings between national and state agents. He pointed out, first of all, that it is possible for the national government, even when not having the power of outright control, to extend conditional financial assistance in carrying on education, rural sanitation and other services of that kind. Furthermore, even when the national government has not been able to create what is practically a minimum standard, it can nevertheless maintain a service which will galvanize state and local agencies into added activity. Professor McBain has referred to the effect of the food and drug act upon state food and drug control. For practical purposes the national officers who have administered that act are part of a larger system of which state food


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and drug officials are likewise a part; and each' group of officers assists the other informally in the execution of the law under which it operates. When the federal child labor law was passed and the children’s bureau faced the practical task of administering the law throughout the United States, the first thing which it did was to go to the bureau of animal industry and ask the food and drug officials there how they had worked out these relations with state officials. If the federal child labor law had remained upon the statute books it would have been carried out in large part by state officers without the creation of new federal machinery. In this case the national government would always have retained the right to throw its own officers into the state for the complete execution of that law. Such action on the part of the national government would have involved duplication which would have been disadvantageous in the long run to manufacturers and would have resulted in the raising of the state administration to the required standard.
administrative relations between states and cities
I wish to emphasize, before closing, another point that Professor Mc-Bain has touched upon, and which I regret he did not develop further. It is that it is just as important to develop co-operative administrative relations between state and municipal officers as between national officers and state officers. Unless all administrative agencies working in the same general field are linked together by these informal understandings, in cases where formal understandings are not constitutionally feasible, your system does not work. Take as an example the labor problem, which is after all the biggest readjustment problem that war has given us. We face above all the task of finding jobs for labor. The United States employment service will undoubtedly continue. Its task through the war, however, has been to find men for jobs; now the reverse is true, and the employment service does not yet have adequate local facilities to find jobs for men. In the creation of more adequate local machinery it will undoubtedly have to link up with state and municipal employment facilities. Or take, as another example, the use of public improvements as a buffer element in handling the labor situation. A growing number of people recognize the possibility of a permanent system by which the national government, through the state governments, can communicate to municipalities its needs with reference to improvement as a buffer in handling the labor surplus. Such an understanding between the national government and some state authority like the emergency public works commission established in Pennsylvania by a law of 1917, for the purpose of assisting city governments to solve their public works problem, would be very advantageous at the present time.


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COMMUNITY HOUSES AS WAR MEMORIALS
ALBERT S. BARD New York City1
WHAT shall we give our boys now they are coming back? Nothing is too good for them. For that reason intelligence must go into the gift. America should give with her head as well as her heart. Nothing will do which does not typify the idealism which carried the American soldier to France, but better yet if the gift may express the effort of America to carry that idealism into practical effect.
And what of those who never come back? Can anything fit them better than some memorial which shall be stamped all over with a devotion to the common weal?
And those who come back, but not as they went—who have left their youth and health on the other side, and have returned to take up lifelong burdens and disabilities? Perhaps, after all, these are the heroes calling for the deepest consideration. Their country has not indeed taken their all, but while taking much has imposed such liabilities on the other side of the account as often to leave a balance of less than nothing. Surely they deserve that what America says in her memorials shall speak of reconstruction, wholesome and fruitful activities, and the progress of that civilization they have spent themselves for.
And so this suggestion of the community house as a war memorial, first put forward by Harold S. Buttenheim, editor of The American City, in September, 1918, awakened an instant response all over the country.2 He urged that the memorial of the sacrifices of the war take the form of a living testimonial erected and dedicated to the ideal for which those sacrifices were made and that nothing could be better than Liberty Houses where the democratic and social aspirations of our communities might find opportunity for expression and growth. “Let our memorials of this conflict,” he said, “be structures which shall help the living while commemorating the dead.”
Surely this is a happy thought for many communities. It is recognized is such even by those who most clearly apprehend community art and
1 President, Municipal Art Society of New York and Chairman, Local Draft Board Mo. 154, New York City.
2 The national committee on memorial buildings (a nation-wide committee of one lundred representative men and women), 261 Broadway, New York city, reports that iome four hundred cities and towns in the United States have either made definite plans or the erection of community houses as war memorials or are seriously considering the proposal. This movement has received the endorsement of Hon. Franklin K. Lane, md other federal, state and municipal officials. Full information can be obtained by iommunicating with Harrison G. Otis, secretary of the committee.


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beauty as a social service rather than a luxury or the precious possession of a few. One may find persuasive reasons for selecting for any giver community the symbolic tribute of a thing of mere beauty, rather that a house in which the spirit of beauty and the spirit of social service shal find a home. One may choose for his own town the fruit of these spirits rather than the creation of conditions in which they may grow. But on< must be. blind indeed not to see that the same purpose animates botl forms, gives them significance and makes each in its own way a fitting type of memorial to soldiers and sailors who have ventured all tha1 brotherhood may live.
Of course there is no single type of ‘‘liberty house” possible, no one plai to which all should conform. American communities differ in character and individuality as much as they do in size. Eastport, Maine, and Sai Diego, California, have different problems to work out. The local needi of Helena, Montana, are not those of Augusta, Georgia. The form, size plan and purpose of such a building will accordingly vary widely, if it i; to meet real, not fanciful needs. We shall consider in a moment some o the needs such a building may well attempt to meet if not already takei care of in the community. But there are several common factors whicl must enter into every such structure and mark it indisputably as a memo rial. Let us first emphasize them.
Most obviously of all, opportunity must be afforded for appropriat inscription of names, military units and the like, as the case may be The building is somehow, whatever the form it takes, a record of ou love and reverence for certain men or women or groups and celebrate their deeds. It is a neighborhood memorial or celebration of them, am their individual or collective names should somewhere appear. It ma; be upon tablets in the vestibule, or by inscriptions upon the walls, bu in one way or another, whether by paint, mosaic, carving, bronze o stained glass, this particularization and historical evidence should find ; dignified place.
beauty: the enduring memorial
Almost equally obviously the building should be made precious in som way, not only to the present generation that has a personal and immediat interest in the individuals and events celebrated, but to those that are t come. Only so can it be a true memorial. The One thing that can d this is beauty. Expense without beauty is as sounding brass and tinkling cymbal; it is nothing and will profit the community nothing indeed, it is worse than mere futility; ridicule or contempt will be if portion; men will laugh or groan over it, depending upon their moo and disposition; and worst of all, it will fail of its primary purpose as real memorial. Here at least beauty and use are interchangeable term!
Consider the crop of war memorials that sprang up all over the countr


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following the Civil War. This country was then singularly unprepared for an eruption of “artistic” impulses. It was the era of cast-iron lions on the door-step with a facial expression that no lamb would hesitate to He down with. The result was a tidal wave of cemetery monuments, somewhat enlarged and furnished with artillery and ammunition. Granite soldiers at “parade-rest” sprang to pedestals all over the country, usually with careless forearms across the muzzles of their rifles. It was the golden age of the monument man and the local stonecutter, but the glacial period of American sculpture. It dropped upon the lawns and greens of the country chunks of stone and carven detritus, where they still persist irrelevant and ugly, testifying chiefly to the misguided impulse that put them there.
But our forebears got what they went after and paid fox. They got good artisan work; the stone was of the grade specified, set with close joints and without flaws or spalled corners; the monuments stood up straight, and still stand. Unhappily Hamlet was left out. The essential element of fine art they did not seriously seek, or did not seek in the right way, and its absence from the completed product is not surprising.
THE NEED FOR SPECIALISTS
However, that era has passed. We know better to-day, and we know how to get beauty of design if we truly desire it. We are aware that between the selling of manufactured goods and the skilled performance of the artist a great gulf is fixed, to be bridged over only by long years of professional study and devotion to a difficult art; and that this principle holds good in every detail of a buildmg and its furnishings and decorations. Any committee entrusted with the duty of planning a war memorial of whatever nature that does not seek the expert advice of specialists as to every detail of their work is in effect hazarding a misappropriation of the funds at their disposal. No trustee of an estate would attempt to decide a difficult legal point without seeking the advice of a lawyer; nor do wise parents neglect to call in the doctor when their children are ill. If the project is a complicated one a professional adviser at the outset, to tell the committee how to proceed, is well worth the small additional cost. If there is to be a competition, he is essential. In choosing an architect, go to the best. He is likely to be the cheapest in the end. Nor should available expert judgment in the neighborhood be overlooked. Artists, like other professional men, have their weak spots, their dense moments. They should be checked up; sometimes stimulated. Here, too, is where the adviser comes in; also the art commission of a neighboring city or town, who are usually more than willing to advise.3
3 A fuller discussion of how to obtain a memorial that shall be successful artistically, not limited to buildings, but including all forms, is contained in a War Memorial Bulletin recently published by the municipal art society, 119 East 19th street, New York. The


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The professional adviser usually saves more than he costs. Expense does not necessarily mean beauty; often the contrary. It is an illuminating fact that the art commission of New York city has saved the city hundreds of thousands of dollars by vetoing ornate designs where simple ones were much more beautiful and suitable.
Now, assuming that whatever building is built is to be beautiful and that such a course of procedure is determined upon as will eventually lead to a beautiful design, what should the building undertake to provide? Unless already adequately equipped with facilities for the following community interests, the officials or committee in charge should seriously consider the community needs in these particulars:
A MEETING PLACE AND SOCIAL CENTER
1. It should provide a meeting place and social center for the returned soldiers and sailors of the community. They have a prior claim. In this connection it should provide for the preservation of relics and records of the war, especially those having local significance. We have already emphasized as a primary necessity the tribute to those who have fallen. Trophies, flags and souvenirs must be exhibited and kept safe. Documents, manuscripts, maps, books, illustrations and other memorabilia and historical records should be properly housed in every community not provided with a fireproof library. Some communities will be able to afford a war museum and war library.
2. Btit as the war was not waged or won exclusively by the men at the front; as behind them strove the diverse classes of a highly complex society, all for the same end, and as that end was the winning of a democratic freedom, so the social body, in its various voluntary associations, should be accorded opportunity in the building to exercise its democratic aspirations. Meeting places of various sizes will undoubtedly be needed more and more. The local board of trade or chamber of commerce, the grange, the Red Cross, patriotic, historical and defense societies, local charities, rotarians, boy scouts, the improvement society, literary and musical societies, civic organizations, women’s clubs, boys’ and girls’ clubs, may all claim consideration, with any other volunteer groups who need for success not only walls, roof and benches, but also an atmosphere of culture, a touch of human grace as well as the physical presence of neighbors.
Dr. Eugene Rodman Shippen of war camp community service, in a recent address at Northampton, Mass.,4 emphasized the essential point in these words:
The memorial must serve social or community interests. Party, class or sectarian aims must never intrude. Employer and employed, Republi-
Beaux Art Institute, 126 East 75th street, New York, included among its recent competitions for students a projet for a community house as a war memorial, devoting thereto the prizes annually given by the municipal art society.
1 Printed in part in The American City, January, 1919


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can and Democrat, Catholic and Protestant, Jew and Gentile, man and woman, must stand on an equal footing. Common needs not otherwise met shall here find their laboratory, field and market, so to speak.
Among other things he includes “community social functions in which the hostess or matron and her aids shall be the symbol of the hospitality of the place—a light on the altar that shall never go out.”
A PLACE FOR EXHIBITIONS
3. Closely related to the last mentioned purposes is the exhibition of works of art. It might have been there included, but has been reserved for special mention. Few communities have opportunity to see, still fewer to enjoy, anything of the myriad forms of beauty which man has made, is making, and will make more and more. To a large number of people “art” means paintings, mostly in oils. But were there places to show them, there would undoubtedly be hundreds of travelling exhibitions of architecture, sculpture and the graphic arts, of textiles, ceramics, wood carving, metal work, jewelry, bookbinding and other industrial arts, in addition to the many exhibitions of paintings that can be had at the art centers almost for the asking. America has been very blind to her need and opportunity to wed art to industry and make both joy and money out of the union. Fortunately she is waking up. The community-house can hardly find a more essential basis to get people together on than the art basis.
There should then be a place where all the things just mentioned may be shown, under proper conditions of lighting and safety. If they can be shown in a living-room, they will add to the pleasure of being in the room, but the room should be carefully designed for this double function. This method of exhibition has an advantage over the museum method in that it relates art to daily life, and demonstrates how beauty is simply a better way to live.
PROVISION FOR MUSIC, DANCING AND DRAMA
4. Let me also lay special emphasis upon the need of provision for music, dancing and drama as healthy stimuli of community activity and enjoyment. The flat floor of the gallery—or combined gallery and living-room—may take care of the dancing. But if the community is large or can afford it, a special theatre for music, plays and lectures will be found desirable. With suitable provision, many a local amateur dramatic or musical society will be stimulated into new life. As with the travelling art exhibitions, professional actors and musicians, playing the principal characters and carrying the solo parts, would circulate from town to town, co-operating with the local talent and creating opportunities for amateurs in the minor roles.
The stage must be carefully planned for its various functions, whether


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it be a part of a specially designed theatre, or an adjunct of an assembly room. Space fails for a discussion of what is here essential. But those in charge of the planning of any stage, however modest its dimensions or character, should consult those who have made a business of producing artistic stage-effects. It is a matter calling for the most expert and specialized advice if mistakes are to be avoided.6 The local stage-manager or proprietor will not do, any more than the local monument man sufficed for the Civil War memorial. Nor is it safe to leave this matter to an architect who is without special experience in this line.
REFRESHMENTS
5. Provision should be made for serving refreshments. If the circumstances admit of permanent catering in the building, so much the better, provided only that it is well done. The assembly rooms may then be used for receptions, teas and banquets. It will permit an emphasis upon the social side of the building’s functions.
6. If not already supplied through other local agencies, the question of a gymnasium or swinmimg tank (or separate ones for boys and girls) and other recreational facilities should be considered.
7. Such a house gives almost limitless opportunity to generous donors disposed to make special gifts. Rooms, doors, windows, sculptural accessories indoors and out, special endowments for special needs, and many other things come to mind.
8. Finally, though perhaps it should have been placed first, a word of caution should be added as to site. Obviously such a building must be where it is readily accessible to the greatest number, and without more expense than is involved in ordinary car-fare. Also a word of encouragement. Good sites abound if they are sought for. They are right under our noses if we will only look—to put it somewhat Hibernically. From the viewpoint of beauty the site is usually more important even than the building, provided the latter is not aggressively bad. But the number of good sites is surprisingly large, if only the committee will adapt the structure and its surroundings to the site.
If the building, through the facilities embodied therein, meets the genuine needs of the community in which it stands, and if it meets those needs so attractively that it is a pleasure to go there, and particularly if its management is alert, broad-minded and sensitive to the currents of local interest and to local opportunities, “Liberty House” will in most cases be able to support itself. But, like any other business or human enterprise, its success, financial or as a living institution, will depend
6 The reader will find some excellent suggestions on this point in an article by Christine Wetherill Stevenson, entitled Provision for Art, Music and Drama in Ldberty Buildings, in The American City for January, 1919. It includes recommendations as to size, arrangement and many other details.


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directly upon its management. Provision for maintenance or endowment of administration, as well as of the fabric, should be considered according to the circumstances of each particular case. The building is but a shell for an institution—a beautiful shell for a living and wholesome and needed institution that will not thrive, or not so well, in an ugly one— but still a shell. Such places will not run themselves. Their maintenance, management and cleanliness must be planned for.
Our war camp community service, in organizing more adequately the social life of a special community, at the same time demonstrated our need for like organization in our wider communities, and also the prospect of success in the more ambitious project. Now that peace has come, that and other organizations are likely to broaden into a less specialized “community service.” With a “liberty house” in thousands of towns, to take care of the little practical and concrete social needs of its particular community—“little” when taken singly, but tremendous in the aggregate—the giant task of constructive nation-building that such agencies are engaged in would be greatly lightened.
WAR MEMORIALS
THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF ARTS1
Office of the Secretary,
1741 New York Avenue, Washington, D. C.
THE American Federation of Arts, on January 2, issued a circular letter containing suggestions for the treatment of war memorials. That letter contained the statement that an advisory committee would be appointed, whose services and advice can be placed at the call of those throughout the United States who are considering the erection of war memorials. This committee has now been appointed. The purpose of this committee is to deal with the entire subject of war memorials in such a way as to afford assistance to officials, commissions and committees who are earnestly endeavoring to make the memorials of the Great War express in a permanently satisfactory manner feelings of honor, sacrifice and patriotism.
The federation is strongly of the opinion that the American artist should be called on to design and to execute any structural memorials of this war, and that in every community the memorial should be an individual, artistic creation. Too often it has happened that war monuments in the past have taken the form of stone or metal soldiers, with little or no variation in design and utterly devoid of artistic feeling and expression— the products of the shop, not the studio.
The federation expects members of the general committee to confer with any organization which is about to erect a war memorial, in order to influence the decision in favor of a work having artistic merit, and to acquaint the members of such an organization with the proper methods to be taken in order to secure that result.
Members of the committee may be consulted on the choice among various forms of memorials, and also as to methods of selecting a designer and bringing the work to a satisfactory conclusion. Any person interested in obtaining fitting memorials may 1 This letter is reproduced as a practical guide to those who are considering this subject.


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write to the secretary of the general committee for information touching any phase of the matter. The aim is not to dictate but to be helpful. The federation is convinced' that thoughtful attention at the beginning of the project will bring good results.
PRINCIPLES AND METHODS
For the guidance of its members, as well as of advisers and persons charged with the duty of erecting war memorials, the committee has adopted the following principles, which are substantially the same as the ones laid down by the National Commission of Fine Arts and approved by the National Academy of Arts and Letters'.
Memorials may take many forms, varying with the nature of the site, the amount of money available, the desires and needs of the community. Among many types these may be mentioned:
A Flag Staff With Memorial Base. The expense may be little or much, according to the simplicity or elaborateness of the base and the extent of the architectural setting. There is one type of staff to be used in connection with buildings, and quite another suited to an isolated situation. There is variety in flags, also. The great, undulating, sumptuous silken folds of the Venetian flags on the piazza of St. Marks are the extreme of art in flags. Something of this kind and quality we may aspire to in decorative flags.
A Fountain, which may be designed so as to afford places for inscriptions. A fountain may be simple in extreme or most elaborate. It may cost one thousand dollars or tens of thousands. Well placed, it is one of the most permanent of monuments. In European cities fountains are enduring, attractive, useful and distinguished features. Americans are just beginning to realize the possibilities of fountains as memorials.
A Bridge, which shall get its chief beauty from its graceful proportions and the worthiness of the material used. The bridge should be built to last a thousand years and to be a continuing delight during that period. The memorial features may be furnished either by tablets or sculpture or monuments at the bridge approaches.
A Building, devoted to high purposes, educational or' humanitarian, that whether large or small, costly or inexpensive, would through excellence of design be an example and inspiration to present and future generations, expressive of the refinement and culture which mark the highest order of civilization. It should, however, be understood that a building entirely utilitarian can not altogether satisfy the desire for a commemorative work of art. The transept of Memorial Hall at Harvard University is an example of the triumph of memorial feeling over utility and even architecture.
Tablets, whether for out-of-doors, or for the walls of church, city hall, lodge room or other building, offer a wide field for the designer. These tablets get value from the beauty of form and especially from the design of the lettering. The inscription should be designed even to the names of individuals, and should not be made from type kept in stock by the tabletmaker.
Gateways to parks or other public places afford a fitting and expressive method of commemoration. Here, too, the architect and sculptor may find full play for their fancy.
Symbolic Groups, either in connection with architecture or isolated, depend for their interest on the universality of the ideas or sentiments depicted and the genius of the sculptor. Success is not impossible; but talent of a high order alone can achieve it.
Portrait Statues of individuals are a favorite form of commemoration. A portrait statue which is also a work of art is not an impossibility, but it is such a rarity that committees should exhaust other possibilities before settling on this one.
Medals. To make a good medal is one of the most exacting things an artist can be called upon to do. Properly to execute a medal takes much time and study, even from the most skillful and experienced. It is not the work of the die-maker, or for the artist who works simply on paper, or for a combination of the two. The designing of a medal! should be entrusted only to those who have a fine sense of composition, skill in draughts-


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manship, and a knowledge of the subtleties of relief. Not only is the space limited, but the range of ideas and motives adapted to relief is limited. People are inclined to ask too much to be told on a medal. While a sketch on paper or a water color may be valuable as a preliminary step, an order to strike the medal should never be given until the design has been developed in relief, as even a very careful drawing may give a false idea of the relief itself.
Stained Glass Windows offer a field commonly resorted to, and with varying success. The subject is one requiring special study and consideration, and should only be taken up with competent advice.
The Village Green, which exists in almost every small town or may easily be created. Usually this common is ill-kept and without symmetry of form. It might readily be laid out for playground and park purposes, and so improved and maintained. A fountain with a seat carrying an inscription, or a tablet well designed, would form the center of memorial interest.
Other kinds of memorials (such as bell towers, band stands, memorial doorways and memorial rooms) will suggest themselves. Any form that can be made to express feelings of honor, respect, love of country, devotion to freedom and the glory of the triumph of democracy will be appropriate. If the utilitarian structure shall be used, it is of first importance that it shall impress the beholder by beauty of design, the permanent nature of the material used and the fitness of the setting. What shall be done is less important then the manner in which it is done.
THE PROFESSIONAL ADVISER
In any case where it is decided to erect a memorial, the first step for the individual â– or committee having the matter in charge is to seek the advice of some one trained in the arts to act as an adviser, and to confer with him in regard to
The location,, whether out-of-doors or indoors. If out-of-doors, the site is of prime importance. Crowded thoroughfares are to be avoided. Works of art should not be obstructions to travel, either at the time of erection or prospectively. It should be borne in mind that a work of art is not noticed when placed where crowds continually pass it. People will go a distance to enjoy a masterpiece and, unless a memorial has such distinction as to command attention and admiration, it fails of its purpose.
The type of memorial is the second subject for consultation with the professional adviser. He should know how to spend the money available in the manner best suited to carry out the purpose intended.
The selection of the artist should be made with the assistance of the professional adviser. The site and type of memorial having been determined, the adviser should be able to furnish a list of the artists, whether architects, sculptors or painters, who have established reputations for executing the particular kind of work in view. One of these artists should be selected, after an examination of his completed work, and the commission should be given to him. The adviser should be retained, in order to make sure that the completed work in all particulars (including, of course, the inscriptions) conforms to the best standards. No lay committee is competent to pass judgment on these essential elements. Then, too, the adviser should see to it that the landscape or other setting is in harmony with the design, and is calculated to enhance the memorial.
Competitions are sometimes imperative. In such cases, the professional adviser should draw up the program and conduct the competition. Artists of high standing often enter competitions limited to selected artists of established reputation; they rarely enter unlimited competitions. In any competition the essential elements are, first, a good program; and, secondly, competent and impartial judges.


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Methods of conducting competitions have been formulated by the American Institute of Architects, the National Sculpture Society, and the National Society of Mural Painters. These methods should be followed by the adviser.
THE CHARACTER OP THE MEMORIAL
The most impressive monument is one which appeals to the imagination alone, which rests not upon its material use but upon its idealism. From such a monument flows the impulse for great and heroic action, for devotion to duty and for love of country. The Arch of Triumph in Paris, the Washington Monument and the Lincoln Memorial are examples of such monuments. They are devoid of practical utility, but they minister to a much higher use; they compel contemplation of the great men and ideals which they commemorate; they elevate the thoughts of all beholders; they arouse and make effective the finest impulses of humanity. They are the visible symbols of the aspirations of the race.. The spirit may be the same whether the monument is large or small; a little roadside shrine or cross, a village fountain or a memorial tablet, speaks the same message as the majestic arch or shaft or temple, and both messages will be pure and fine and perhaps equally far-reaching, if the form of that message is appealing and beautiful. Display of wealth, ostentation and over-elaborateness are unbecoming and vulgar. Elegant simplicity, strength with refinement, and a grace of handling that imparts charm are the ends to be sought. These ends require, on the part of everybody connected with the enterprise—committee, adviser and artist—familiarity with the standards of art, and above all, good taste. Only by a combination of all these elements can a really satisfactory result be obtained.
February 24, 1919.
MOBILIZING THE CITIES
DUDLEY CATES1 Washington, D. C.
THROUGH the voluntary co-operation of state and local officials with the capital issues committee at Washington, new municipal financing in 1918 was cut in half, thereby releasing approximately a quarter of a billion dollars in labor, materials and credit for the use, directly or indirectly, of the national government. There are no service stars to commemorate this war sacrifice of the cities, but such emblems would not be amiss. The cities, like their citizens, “came through.”
The mobilization of the cities came about in this way: Early in the war Secretary McAdoo foresaw that the tremendous financial and industrial requirements of the government would necessarily interfere with the normal development and improvement plans of public and private corporations, or, stated the other way, that if municipalities and private businesses continued as in the past to draw upon the limited supply of investment capital, the government would be unable to meet its needs. These needs being paramount, it became necessary to establish the gov-
1 Secretary, Capital Issues Committee.


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ernmental policy of “war business first,” and the capital issues committee was created to give effect to this policy through the rationing of credit virtually on a priorities basis.
Supervision of security issues was first undertaken in January, 1918, by an informal committee of the federal reserve board acting at the request of Secretary McAdoo, followed a few months later by the capital issues committee created by the War Finance Corporation Act of April 5, 1918.
To make its work effective, the committee required the co-operation of the cities on a volunteer basis. They could not be drafted, nor was there need. The cities and states throughout the whole country co-operated in a spirit of broad patriotism, recognizing that war made it necessary to subordinate local interests to the national welfare. In return for the willingness of the cites to postpone unnecessary improvements, the capital issues committee undertook to give prompt approval to every project that was found to be essential to the public health and welfare.
The principles underlying the committee’s rulings were the same as those on which the government’s whole campaign of war thrift was based: cities and states, like individuals, were asked to do without everything that was not vitally necessary in order that the investment market might absorb more readily the successive issues of liberty bonds and in order that the labor and materials required in new construction might be released for the use of the government. The committee acted in an advisory capacity in passing upon all new projects that required capital,, determining which were compatible with the national interest in war time.
SCHOOLS AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS
The chief advantage of having a central agency at this time to advise the cities lay in the fact that the committee had the means of viewing all local improvements from the standpoint of the national perspective. Fifty cities might urge the need of new schools, but the relative need would vary greatly. The committee was able to formulate, with the help of the bureau of education, fixed standards amounting to a general rule applicable to all cities. The facts in every case were investigated and the necessity measured in terms of the country as a whole.
The same policies were followed in passing upon proposed bond issues for sewer construction, hospitals, streets and bridges, public buildings, municipal facilities, etc. The committee sought the advice of Surgeon-General Rupert Blue, head of the U. S. public health service, respecting all questions of public health and sanitation. The office of the surgeon-general of the army advised the committee on the need of new hospitals in any locality. Bonds for streets and bridges were authorized by the committee only when the projects involved the elements of military or paramount local economic necessity. As a general rule, the committee


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disapproved expenditures during the war for monumental buildings and parks, without investigation. In many instances plans for school buildings and other construction were modified so as to reduce the cost, as well as the amount of labor and materials.
PROCEDURE
Through a campaign of education addressed to public officials and investment dealers throughout the country, the committee gave publicity to its policies and called upon every public and private corporation to file an application with the committee before offering securities for sale. An informal procedure was established, involving an application to the committee, investigation by the committee’s district representatives scattered throughout the country and by the appropriate boards and departments at Washington, after which the committee would issue its opinion, stating that the proposed issue had been found to be compatible or incompatible with the national interest. Numerous projects were voluntarily abandoned without application to the committee and many others were withdrawn by the applicants when the determining factors in the situation were laid before them. An open letter addressed to municipal officials asking them to submit their construction budgets in advance of making contracts, said:2
The committee respectfully directs your attention to the imperative necessity for the postponement of bond projects that serve no immediate war purpose. The physical facts to bear in mind are the shortage of money, men and materials. The committee is convinced that municipal officials need have no fear that their constituents, the public, will complain if they adopt the policy of waiting until after the war. Willingness to postpone street and bridge improvements, new parks, sewers, schools and other public buildings is as much a badge of honor for an American city to-day as an emblem of success in the liberty loan.
The committee’s appeals met with a prompt and conscientious response. No statistics could be assembled to show the direct value to the government of this co-operation, because there is no record of the many bond projects which were postponed until after the war, but the total amount involved in the applications disapproved by the committee and in projects which would otherwise have gone forward may be fairly estimated at $250,000,000.
The states and cities were called upon to render still another great service to the government in addition to the postponement of unnecessary improvements financed by their own bond issues. As the war progressed, the necessity of more radical economies along many lines became apparent and in August the committee addressed an open letter to public utility commissions and municipal officials throughout the country asking their
2 See National Municipal Review, vol. vii, p. 642.


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co-operation in helping the public service corporations to retrench. This letter called attention to the fact that under war conditions, “existing facilities must be made to serve in place of new ones, regardless of temporary inconvenience and discomfort,” and continued with the following appeal:
May we suggest to you that these considerations apply with marked force to the public utility situation. The extensions and betterments which public service corporations are accustomed to make in normal times, either on the initiative of their own enterprise or by direction of the regulating commissions under which they operate, should, in our opinion, be postponed until after the war, unless an immediate war purpose is served, and may we ask of you consideration of the propriety of deferring even the performance of contractual obligations arising from franchise or other local requirements, when no military or local economic necessity is served by such expenditures.
The capital issues committee feels certain that your commission will recognize the paramount need of the government when passing upon proposed additions and extensions by public utility companies, and asks that you co-operate in giving effect to the purposes of the government by restricting every unnecessary use of capital, labor and materials for extensions, betterments, street paving, or other purpose, even waiving, if in your power, the legal requirements that obtain in times of peace, until the present emergency has passed.
Practically all the states and many of the cities responded by assuring the committee that their officials were already acting in recognition of the needs of the government or that they would thereafter bear in mind the paramount interests of the country in the matter of expenditures by public service corporations for new facilities.
Subsequently, the committee circulated copies of a letter received from the chairman of the war industries board stating that “in view of the demands for materials for war purposes, the board would not and could not permit the use of materials unless the need for war purposes can be clearly demonstrated,” adding that although the demand for public utility extensions and connections would be “insistent and persistent, only absolute necessity must be considered and not convenience.”
Fortunately the signing of the armistice soon brought an end to the unusual conditions which prompted the committee and the board to make these appeals and few customers of public utility companies were put to any inconvenience, although had the war continued this policy would have entailed many sacrifices on the part of the public.
3


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PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE
A REVIEW OF REPORTS OF THE PAST YEAR
BT CHARLES KETTLEBOROUGH1
Indianapolis
THE work of the various civil service commissions has been seriously disturbed during the past year by abnormal conditions produced by the war. In spite of many and insuperable circumstances calculated to obstruct and retard a wholesome development of the merit system, the various commissions were able, at the conclusion of the year’s work, to report satisfactory progress and to enumerate substantial and noteworthy achievements. A recapitulation of the important results achieved would include a recodification and simplification of the rules and regulations of several of the well-known municipal commissions; the standardization of salaries, titles and positions; the creation of personal advisory committees to assist in the selection of a high grade and worthy personnel in the various branches of the public service; remedial measures calculated to deal more justly with discharged or suspended employes; the introduction of efficiency methods in the work of the commission itself; studies and critical analyses of the causes of resignation and the adoption of more scientific medical standards.
EFFECT OF THE WAR
The war has affected the civil service in various ways. In the firsl place many persons holding positions in the civil service left their employment' to take up military work; more frequent calls, therefore, were made on the commissions for eligibles from which to supply vacancies But the commissions were not able to supply the demand because th< persons from among whom they recruit their eligible lists have also joinec the colors. Accordingly, the number of applicants for positions was fewer there were more resignations; and the demands on the commissions fo: candidates were more frequent.
In its twenty-second annual report to the mayor, submitted on January 15. 1917, the Chicago2 civil service commission said that during the pre ceding six months they had experienced an appreciable scarcity of quali fied applicants for positions in the classified service and in the labor serv ice, both skilled and unskilled. Indeed, it was frequently impossible ti get either applicants for examinations or persons to fill temporary emer
1 Director, Bureau of Legislative Information, Indiana
2 Twenty-second annual report, civil service commission, city of Chicago, year 191f submitted to the mayor on January 15, 1917. Contains brief report of the work of th commission and of the secretary, the statistics of work done, the Illinois -civil servic law and the rules of the commission.


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gency appointments. The Portland, Oregon,3 civil service board asserts that the work of the board was greatly increased during the year 1917 on account of the difficulty in providing suitable eligible lists for the various classifications. This condition was due primarily to the fact that private firms offered higher wages and salaries than the city and to war conditions which caused a scarcity of labor on account of enlistments in many departments of the federal service. In Massachusetts the condition became so serious that the commission recommended a temporary' arrangement to supply the department with a working force to tide over the exigencies of the war, such as the readjustment of age limitations and physical requirements.
TEMPORARY APPOINTEES
One of the perplexing problems with which civil service commissions are constantly confronted is that of temporary appointments. Unforeseen conditions arise from time to time which demand the recruiting of a large number of persons, competent to qualify for the service demanded, who are retained only until the emergency work is completed. The selection of such lists is somewhat baffling and commissions are constantly striving to avoid so far as possible the retention of a large number of short term employes.
The Chicago commission has worked consistently to reduce the number of temporary appointees in the civil service, and there were fewer temporary appointees on the city pay rolls at the beginning of the year 1917 than at any time since the passage of the civil service law, based upon the aggregate strength of the classified service. This condition resulted from a consistent effort on the part of the commission to certify from eligible registers whenever possible and by promptly announcing examinations from vacant and temporarily filled positions. In April, 1915, there were 2,721 temporary appointees in the official and skilled labor services and 1,545 in the common labor service, making a total of 4,266. At the beginning of 1917 there were but 789 temporary appointees in the official and skilled labor services and 281 in the common labor service, making a total of 1,070, or a reduction of 75 per cent. It is generally supposed that temporary appointments are made for periods of 60 days, whereas they are made for but 1, 2, 3, 5,10, 15 and 30 days. These appointments involve positions in the skilled trades, such as carpenters, bricklayers, steamfitters and structural ironworkers, where unforeseen circumstances require emergency employments for brief periods.
RULES
The Chicago commission has been working on a revision of its rules, which were cumbersome, complicated and in many instances inconsistent
3 Annual report of the municipal civil service board of the city of Portland (Oregon) for the fiscal year ending November 30, 1917.


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with the law. The work is still in progress, as a nation-wide investiga tion of civil service rules has been carried on, and efficiency methods an( standards generally have been studied with a view to obtaining the bes' in classifications, grades and examination standards that experienc( affords.
The new rules adopted by the Milwaukee commission became effectivi on January 1, 1918, and provide greater economy in the administratioi of the civil service system, enable the commission to fill vacancies mor< rapidly than in the past and eliminate many superfluous and ambiguoui sections.4
STANDARDIZATION
Standardization in the civil service has justly received considerabli emphasis during the past year. In Milwaukee there has been a notabli advance and improvement in the standardization of salaries, titles anc positions. This reform was made possible by the adoption by the commoi council of the report on the standardization of the city service made b] J. L. Jacobs & Company of Chicago and the adoption of the annual salary ordinances in conformity therewith. According to the provisions of thii plan, standard specifications have been set up by which ’ to measun applicants for city employment, and uniform salaries have been provide! so that persons doing like work in the various departments wall be paic like salaries, contingent upon equal seniority. Moreover, positions in volving substantially the same duties in different departments will bi called by the same title irrespective of location, and new appointeei selected to fill vacancies will enter the service at the minimum salary rati and do not reach the maximum compensation until after three or mori years of service. Los Angeles reports satisfaction with the standardize! salary schedule which has been adopted, since it has materially reduce! the general feeling of dissatisfaction.5
PERSONNEL COMMITTEES
The standardization ordinance adopted by the common council o: Milwaukee provides for the creation of personnel committees, represent' ing the various lines of work, such as engineering, nursing, medical clerical, etc., in the city departments under its control. These personne committees will meet with representatives of the commission for the pur pose of perfecting examinations, maintaining the standardization of thi service and working out a system of efficiency records which can b< utilized in connection with salary advancement and promotion bj examination.
4 Twenty-second annual report, covering the calendar year 1916 and the twenty-thin annual report, covering the calendar year 1917, of the board of city service commis sioners of the city of Milwaukee.
6 Fourth annual report of the Los Angeles county civil service commission for the yeai 1917.


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DISCHARGE
By an amendment to the Wisconsin civil service law in 1917, city employes are given the right to a hearing after discharge, reduction or suspension for more than thirty days. Employes in departments under the control of the common council are entitled to a hearing before the city civil service commission and employes of independent boards will have their grievances heard by the board by which they are employed. In the new rules adopted by the Milwaukee commission and effective on January 1, 1918, causes of discharge are clearly defined and include failure of an employe to pay or make provision for the payment of his just debts and political activity of a pernicious sort.
ADVERTISEMENT OF OPPORTUNITIES
The Milwaukee commission has devised a system of advertising among the citizens of the municipality the opportunities for employment in the city service under the merit system. An arrangement was made with the superintendent of the city water department to attach a slip to each water bill enumerating the opportunities for employment in the city civil service. The bulletin boards of the various schools were also used for advertising civil service examinations and the results in both cases were Host gratifying.
EFFICIENCY METHODS
The Milwaukee commission is undertaking a thorough reconstruction if the work in its own office in the interests of efficiency and economy. The record system is being completely revised so that the entire history if each employe may be kept on a single card instead of on many cards is formerly; the method of checking pay rolls by the book system will be supplanted by the card system; and common labor application blanks lave been reduced from a four-page form of legal size to a 4 by 6 card.
RESIGNATIONS
During the year 1917, the St. Paul6 bureau of civil service undertook m investigation of the causes of resignations from the city service, by ending a letter to every employe who resigned, asking his reasons for esignation. Out of 267 replies received, 39 persons stated that they had esigned because of insufficient salary; 19 because of unsatisfactory work-ng conditions or lack of opportunity for advancement; 3 to accept pen-ions; and the others because of marriage, requested resignation, sus-lension or unknown or miscellaneous causes. A study of these statistics onvinced the commissioners that the city is in urgent need of a proper tandardization of salaries and duties, better working conditions and
G Fourth annual report of the civil service bureau of the City of St. Paul for the year 917.


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better supervision. Some advance has already been made in this respect In 1916 the bureau standardized the clerical service of the city and th results showed fewer resignations and more general content among thi class of employes than among any other in the service. In standardizin salaries in any branch of service, enough elasticity should prevail so as t afford a higher wage to efficient persons and those longest in the servic and most familiar with the work.
INDIVIDUAL EFFICIENCY RECORD SYSTEM
The system of recording periodic individual efficiency records, formerl in operation in St. Paul, was abolished. Experience proved that an ir dividual efficiency record, determined by mathematical formulas tha contemplate the measuring of the employe’s ability, industry, reliability attendance and conduct, produced no material improvement in the publi employment, except in isolated cases, where it proved a worth-whil stimulus. On the part of many employes, the system caused indifferent discontent and a suspicion that favoritism dictated the markings. Ser iority and meritorious service will be continued as in promotion examine tions, and credit for past service will be based on specific, written, renev able facts rather than the mechanical system of recording efficiency b marks that were for the most part based on judgment only.
MEDICAL STANDARDS
The St. Paul commission undertook and carried out a systemat: revision of the medical standards used in ascertaining the physical fitnei of applicants for positions. A specific questionnaire and a copy of tl former standard were sent to about 75 of the leading surgeons of the cit; The returns received were tabulated and a revised system of medic: standards and medical tests was evolved.
PENMANSHIP STANDARDS
Measuring scales for rating the quality of handwriting have been use for some time in St. Paul with rather unsatisfactory results. For tl purpose of rating penmanship on a more equitable basis about 80 spec mens of distinctive handwriting were collected and submitted to sever expert penmen for rating. After preliminary ratings had been mad the specimens were sent to A. N. Palmer of New York who made a critic analysis of the specimens and evolved certain definite standards, whi< are being used as criteria.
RECOMMENDATIONS
The recommendations made by the various civil service eommissio: relative to the needed amendment of the laws includes the modificath of the so-called trial clause, conferring upon heads of departments tl power of discharge with the right of appeal to the commission vested


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the employe affected; the elimination of the probationary period; and the elimination of the rule of three in promotions and the right of the commission to determine whether or not the public interest will be best subserved by holding an original entrance or promotion examination to fill any given position.
The secretary of the Chicago commission recommends the establishment of a bureau of character investigation and of experience verification as a means of searching for all facts as to the record of applicants and eligibles and the accuracy of statements and reports made in the examinations.
The St. Paul bureau advances two recommendations. One to include in the classified service all positions except those of a policy-determining nature. The second is that the city should at least investigate the desirability of establishing the. pension or retirement system for city employes.
The remainder of the available reports for the year yield little information as to the progress or work of the various commissions. For the most part they contain the rules under which the commissions operate, charter provisions, laws, the statistical results of examinations and questions for principal examinations.7
St. Louis, during the year 1918, has published two elaborate pamphlets dealing with the classification and standardization of positions in the classified service of the city. The report is a well-arranged digest and compend of schedules, groups, grades and titles. A brief succinct description of the duties of each position is given, the compensation, vacation, etc., being indicated.
EMPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT
In a very thoughtful article in The Public for September 14, 1918, William A. Bird points out some of the manifest weaknesses in the present civil service system and insists that the science of employment management must be more fully developed. The merit system is not exclusively or predominately a means of keeping government administration out of
7 Fifteenth annual report of the board of civil service commissioners of Los Angeles, California, July 1, 1916-June 30, 1917.
Questions of principal examinations: Municipal civil service commission of the city of New York. Five pamphlets, issued quarterly and covering the period from April, 1917 to June, 1918.
Annual report of the board of civil service commissioners for the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, for the year 1917.
Rules of the efficiency board, governing the classified service, city of St. Louis, Mo., 1917.
Classification and standardization and description of duties of positions in the classified service of the city of St. Louis, 1918.
Description of the duties and classification of positions in classified service of the city of St. Louis, 1918.


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politics, although the baneful effects of the spoils system accelerated the movement for civil service reform. But this is primarily a negative result. The positive achievement is that the merit system is a force for public service; it assures the rendering of the most effective public service at the least public cost. Neither are competitive examinations merely a means of doing justice to the candidates; the important thing is how may the public be best served in the selection. The question of reform is purely an employment problem and is too frequently entrusted to men wholly ignorant of large-scale employment methods. A civil service commission to function adequately should have all the powers of an employment department. Its power is restricted to keeping out improper persons. It should have the additional power to insist on efficient work, to remove the unfit and to prevent the removal of fit persons who are politically obnoxious to the party in power.
TRADE UNIONS
The attitude of the trade unions to the civil service is a question of first importance and in an article in The Public for August 24, 1918, Ordway Tead expounds the doctrine with considerable pungency. He quotes a recent statement of William Dudley Foulke that persons in the employ of private industry are not in the same position as employes of the state. The latter are “servants of the state; they have not the right to resist the government; they have no right to strike or to combine for the purpose of striking or to exert pressure of any kind upon their employers by means of their organizations.” Mr. Tead takes issue with this statement on the theory that the state is thereby exalted at the expense of the personality of individuals and that the trade union among employes should be frankly recognized and that it should be a directive force in shaping the policies of departments and guaranteeing democratic management.
PUBLICATIONS
During the past year two interesting and informing publications dealing with the civil service have appeared. Dr. Leonhard Felix Fuld, assistant chief examiner of the New York City commission has compiled a small book entitled Opportunities of the Civil Service which gives an excellent technical resume of the whole question of the opportunities in the civil service to which is appended a list of states and cities having civil service commissions. The second of the two publications is devoted to a more restricted field and deals with the opportunities for women in the municipal civil service of New York city, and is a study of the number of women employed, their duties, qualifications, compensation and length of service and is based upon an investigation made for the Intercollegiate bureau of occupations and the Women’s auxiliary of the New York civil service reform association.


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A PERMISSIVE CITY MANAGER LAW
SOME of the people in New Hamsphire asked Professor A. R. Hatton to draft an act which would permit cities to frame their own charters. It is probable that under the constitution of New Hampshire the legislature could not give to cities the final power to frame and adopt their own charters and it is still less probable that the legislature would do so even if it could. In states like New Hampshire where special city charters are popular (and even the rule), it seems desirable that there be some recognized method by which cities can indicate to the legislature the type of charter desired. With that idea in mind Professor Hatton has drafted the following bill which is an adaptation of a portion of the constitutional provisions of the new municipal program of the National Municipal League.
It represents a very interesting application of the principles involved where home rule does not exist and probably will not for many years. It has been drafted with the thought in mind that the legislature might find it difficult to approve a charter which came to them with the backing of a popular vote in the city concerned. In California where the legislature must approve, home rule charter approval has never yet been withheld.
DRAFT OF BILL FOR NEW HAMPSHIRE AUTHORIZING CITIES TO FRAME CHARTERS AND SUBMIT THEM TO THE LEGISLATURE FOR APPROVAL
Section 1. Any city may frame and adopt a charter for its own government in the following manner: The legislative authority of the city may by a two-thirds vote of its members, and upon the petition of 10 per cent of the qualified electors shall forthwith, provide by ordinance for the submission to the electors of the question: “Shall a commission be chosen to frame a charter? ” The ordinance shall require that the question be submitted to the electors at the next regular municipal election, if one shall occur not less than sixty nor more than one hundred and twenty days after its passage, otherwise, at a special election to be called and held within the time aforesaid; the ballot containing such question shall also contain the names of candidates for members of the proposed commission, but without party designation.
Sec. 2. Candidates for election to a charter commission shall be nominated by petition which shall be signed by not less than 2 per cent of the qualified electors, and be filed with the election authorities at least 30 days before such election; provided, that in no case shall the signatures of more than five hundred (500) qualified electors be required for the nomination of any candidate. If a majority of the electors voting on the question of choosing a commission shall vote in the affirmative, then the nine candidates receiving the highest number of votes shall constitute the charter commission and shall proceed to frame a charter.
Sec. 3. Any charter framed as provided in this act shall be submitted to the qualified electors of the city at an election to be held at a time to be determined by the charter commission, which shall be at least 30 days subsequent to the completion of the charter and its distribution among the


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electors and not more than one year from the date of the election of the charter commission. Alternative provisions may be submitted to be voted upon separately. The commission shall make provision for the distribution of copies of the proposed charter and of any alternative provisions among the qualified electors of the city not less than 30 days before the election at which it is voted upon. Such proposed charter and such alternative provisions as are approved by a majority of the electors voting thereon shall be submitted to the legislature of the state at its next regular session and be subject to the approval or disapproval thereof as in the case of other proposed laws.
Sec. 4. Amendments to any city charter may be framed and submitted to the electors by a charter commission in the manner provided by this act for framing and submitting a charter. Amendments may also be proposed by a two-thirds vote of the legislative authority of the city, or by petition of 10 per cent of the electors addressed to the clerk of the legislative authority, setting forth the amendment proposed; and any such proposed amendment shall be submitted to the electors at a regular or special election as provided in this act for submitting the question of choosing a charter commission. Provision shall be made by the legislative authority of the city for distributing copies of any proposed amendment among the electors at least 30 days prior to the election at which such amendment is to be submitted. Any proposed amendment approved by a majority of the electors voting thereon shall be submitted to the legislature of the state as provided in this act for a proposed city charter.
THE GOVERNORSHIP: SOME OPINIONS OF THE GOVERNORS
BY PROFESSOR WILLIAM A. ROBINSON,1 St. Louis, Mo.
THE governors’ messages of 1919 contain some interesting comments on the present status of the office. The governorship is one of the places in our political system which offers increasing opportunities for leadership and executive talent, but it is badly in need of greater power and freedom from constitutional and statutory restrictions.
Two governors, Davis of Idaho and Bartlett of New Hampshire, devote a considerable portion of their biennial messages to a discussion of the office, both agreeing on the essential defects of the present system. The former points out that there is a general misconception as to the position of the governor, first, because many people believe that the president and governor have similar powers in their respective spheres; and secondly, because the same people have an intimate knowledge of modern business organization with its centralized and responsible executive. While the constitution of Idaho declares, “the supreme executive power of the state is vested in the governor,” other provisions of that document and various
1 Member of the Department of Political Science, Washington University.


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statutes have nullified this declaration. “Without himself possessing the responsibility, he is charged with all the mistakes and delinquencies of the various departments of the state government, over a majority of which he exercises no control.” “The governor and council” states Governor Bartlett, “have been so stripped of their powers by a gradual process of ‘farming out’ their powers to others that now, they are not only not the ‘chief’.executives of the state, but in nearly all of the very important matters of finance where judgment and discretion are involved they are no executives at all.” Like Governor Davis, he states his belief that the people actually do not know “how completely the hands of their elective executives have been tied while at the same time they are held responsible.” Both illustrate this lack of power by specific examples. Governor Bartlett’s discussion of his relations to two great executive agencies, the highway commission and the trustees of the state institutions, is of interest to all students of government. These officers spend a large part of the annual revenue and yet the governor has no power of direction or veto over their doings. “His hands are absolutely tied, yet he is responsible to the people for the welfare of these institutions. . . .
The law and the system created are wholly wrong, have dangerous tendencies and possibilities, are subversive of good government, unnecessary, expensive, undemocratic and in violation of the constitutional intention that the governor and council should be the chief executive officers of the state.” Governor Davis’s views are similar. “To-day, the governor is the direct representative of the people and should be the direct executor of their public affairs. He should be given the power not only to formulate plans for the better welfare of the people, but he should be given the power, when these plans have received general approval to carry them into execution. ... As applied to the science of government, the greatest lessons that we have learned from this war are the value of cooperation and the need of wise and effective leadership. The war has exposed the fallacy and weakness and inefficiency of much of our governmental machinery. ... I appeal to you, to revive the office of chief executive, to recreate the governorship.” Both governors, in effect, ask for the same reforms, the creation of a cabinet system modeled on that of the national government.
A similar spirit appears in the statements of Governor Bickett of North Carolina. Discussing the popularity of the present system of electing executive officials, he declares that “there never was a more tragic delusion than that the people select these officials. . . . There
is no more reason for electing the governor’s council than there is for electing the president’s cabinet. . . . Presidents of railroads and
other corporations are selected by small boards of directors. Railroad commissioners and corporation commissioners are elected by all the people. Who are most efficiently served by their chosen officials?” He


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goes on to state his belief that only the governor and lieutenant-governor should be elected and as “a start in the right direction” urges the enactment of a law that all state administrative officers whose election is not required by the constitution shall hereafter be appointed by the governor.
CLOSER CONNECTION BETWEEN GOVERNOR AND DEPARTMENTS
In Iowa, Governor Harding urges a closer connection between the chief executive and all administrative departments, so that proper coordination and control of policies may be secured. In Nevada, Governor Boyle points out that in 1915 and again in 1917 he had recommended the reconstruction of the state government along the lines of the national government. “The state governments, alone among the governments of the world, retain the principles of electing the heads of co-ordinated branches, a process which while supplying ample checks and balances, departs absolutely from managerial processes employed in all of the efficient enterprises in the world, be they public or private.” While admitting that public opinion may not yet be ready for drastic changes, he asks that the governor be given the appointment of the attorney-general. Governor Goodrich of Indiana makes the same request, stating that it would hardly constitute “a dangerous centralization of power” to give the chief executive the right to choose his own legal advisor. Governor Carey of Wyoming asks for authority to suspend officials failing to enforce the laws, and for a fund with which to carry on investigations.
While the unusual pressure of reconstruction business has led the governors to give less attention to this subject than in 1917, the importance of the matter is steadily growing. No one can examine the growing business of the states without realizing the imperative need of a better administrative organization, with power and responsibility centralized in the governorship. Governor Davis meets the usual charge that such changes would be undemocratic, by pointing out that the difference between autocracy and democracy does not lie in the extent of executive power, but in the manner and conditions of exercising that power. Under the system proposed “any failure on his part to function as an efficient manager will, under a system of centralized responsibility, be quickly apparent to the public and the consequence of such failure visited upon the delinquent. ”


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COUNTY GOVERNMENT IN MONTANA
BY WADE B. PARKS Thompson Falls, Montana
IN Montana there are forty counties; and the area of most of the counties is greater than that of some eastern state. Counties in Montana are largely governed by a board of county commissioners, who are given broad powers of a legislative and executive nature, and also some judicial functions. In Montana we have very little in the way of township organizations; and this is to be regretted. The only township officers we have are justices of the peace and constables; and usually these do not exist or do not function. In Sanders county we have townships as follows: Camas Prairie, Lonepine, Jocko,Thompson and Smeads. The jurisdiction of the justice of the peace in each township is as wide as the county. Very few persons have any conception as to just where the boundary lines of the townships are. They know that certain villages and towns are in certain townships. The law provides that there shall be two justices and two constables in each township. In only three of the townships do we have the two justices and in none of them have we the two constables. Some of the townships comprise as much as 350 square miles. The township government is not very active or efficient. One of the leading justices in a county, and located at the county seat acts in various capacities to wit: town clerk, U. S. commissioner, truant officer,—and being unable to control himself in re intoxicants has been “siwashed,”—that is notices have been posted in the saloons to desist from selling or giving him any liquor. Yet from time to time he obtains such quantities of liquor as to incapacitate him (occasionally being placed in the county jail to sober up) in performing any official function. Trials before such a justice to enforce the penal laws are frequently a farce,— especially before a jury selected by the constable who is a “good umbria” with the gang. And this township is not the only one in the county which is so unfortunate in the matter of such township government as survives. And the local justice of whom I speak has held his position for years. Sometimes they “railroad” one of an independent mind who really has committed no great offense or perhaps none at all while on the other hand a real offender against the law is liberated amidst great applause and ovation. And that county is not the only place in Montana where such things happen. The more serious the crime the more friends the accused seems to have and his most active defenders are usually found amongst the sworn officers of the law; this is the case in many instances in the higher court in many counties.
To sum it up there seems to be a drift towards making a hero of those guilty of crime and every effort is made to have them declared “not


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guilty.” I have prosecuted men for crime and absolutely proven every point and had the defendant admit the doing every thing that he was accused of and yet there were acquittals time after time. Probably the chief factor in the acquittals is the local antagonisms resultant from having the county seats in very small towns absolutely in the control of powerful corporations. At least this is one factor.
Therefore I can say as to township government that it is of a vanishing nature and verging to borderline of lawlessness. There could be an improvement if there was a wiser way of selecting a jury.
AS TO ROADS
The county commissioners have general supervision of the highways. They create road districts and appoint a supervisor who serves at the will of the board. In this county we have twenty road districts,—and this last spring the board appointed in two instances one supervisor for three districts so that we have but sixteen supervisors in the county. The tendency of the boards is to desire to have closer supervision of road work.
The practice of the commissioners is to authorize road work for the payment of which the county does not have funds to pay. This is a very usual practice in Montana. The commissioners order the payment of the claims for which there are no funds,—the warrants are marked “not paid for lack of funds” and draw 6 per cent interest, and after accumulating $50,000 to $100,000 are refunded into bonds of the country. This method of financing gives the commissioners a method by which they bond the county without referring the matter to the vote of the people; the constitutionality of this system of bonding is in question and is unsettled in Montana. It works to the disadvantage of communities who desire large improvements which require large expenditures,—such as building of bridges across rivers. Commissioners are limited to the expenditure of $10,000 for any one purpose. Therefore a bridge requiring more than $10,000 cannot be built without a vote of the people and the people cannot authorize the necessary bonds if the commissioners have already outstanding deficiency warrants which corner the limit of bonded indebtedness which must not be more than 5 per cent of the assessed value of the property in the county.
In short: the county financial system is in a most unsatisfactory condition and seems to be'drifting away from constitutional constraints.
FINANCES
Another financial problem is in the assessments. Large portions of the wealth of this county as well as in many other portions of Montana is corporation wealth. Most of the timber resources are held by one corporation. The three corporations controlling timber, power sites and power


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houses and the railroad interests pay 75 per cent of the taxes of the county. Many individual holders of timber or other lands pay taxes on their holdings at a higher assessed valuation than do the corporations on similar lands of equal, in many cases of far more, value or wealth. Much of the land of the county was once railway land grant land and is still held by corporation interests.
In the matter of drawing juries for district court as well as for the justice’s courts there could be some improvement to the general welfare and would inspire confidence in the courts. I believe that all jurors’ names should be placed in a uniform capsule and all capsules placed in a glass box and all names drawn in the open from said box.
There are many ways in which county government could be improved. I believe that the county government should be placed closer to the people. A county council with frequent meetings at the county seat, the council to be elected by the people from subdivisions in the county with a provision for a few to be elected at large with proportional representation to be provided for would be beneficial. Give the county council legislative powers in the expenditure of certain funds, etc., and in the organizing of the defunct township organizations, etc.
The school system is in better condition than any other department, but could be improved in the matter of services to the public. School houses should be utilized as community centers instead of being closed in the interest of those who own private halls “for rent.” And schools are weak in many places for lack of the necessary revenue which should be forthcoming. The state legislature has attempted to remedy this condition by provisions for a county levy and also state funds. Districts located in localities where low assessment of wealth is the rule have few dollars to expend, while other school districts with less children to educate, but with a higher assessment roll, are not troubled for want of funds.
CONSTRUCTIVE SUGGESTIONS
Supplementing what I have already stated and in accord with your request to state what could be done along constructive lines will add:
1st. That improvements in the matter of taxation could be greatly improved, removing burdens from activities yielding no profits, but tending toward developing the natural resources; also taxing the natural wealth that is held in large blocks by corporations, such as timber, etc.
2d. In the matter of the care of public property much could be done Every year the county buys large quantities of road supplies such as scrappers (slips), spades, plows, etc., and later tractors and other machinery for road purposes; little care is taken of this property. In Montana where the road overseer is appointed by the county commissioners he should be required to account for all materials and a public building should be maintained for its keep.


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3d. In Montana many counties employ a county agent who is supposed to be skilled in advising the farmers in the conduct of agricultural activities. In this county the agent resides in the county seat town, which is twenty-five miles away from the more central part of the county as measured by population or territorial extent. Mr. Agent should reside near the center of agricultural activity and should also reside on and conduct a model farm.
4th. They have county elections every two years,—it should be changed to every four years.
5th. County officials should have some qualifications aside from being able to peddle the “bull” and drink booze. In short saloons should be closed during the entire campaign for public office and no officer or candidate for office should be permitted to treat any one.
6th. Thousands of dollars are being wasted in this county on the unwise location of permanent roads. Highways are being located on such a steep grade as to require cars to ascend for a distance of two to five miles on “low gear” under difficulty. More competent engineers should be available where a permanent highway of consequence is to be located along main traveled routes that a feasible grade might be secured and the money spent be of permanent use.
7th. In the matter of handling of county prisoners and the jails things could be bettered. Prisoners are thrown into jail here and kept at the expense of the county for months; no work provided; no incentive for improvement.
8th. Saloons should be more restricted. No saloon should be permitted in an unincorporated town or village.
9th. Township governments should be established and made to play a vital part in the government of the county . . . and the township
government should be a counterpart of the county government,—the county government should have a judicial branch of more authority than the justice of the peace and should be required to have educational qualifications and some knowledge of the law.
10th. Some counties have very few public parks; the county seat town does not usually have the court house square around which the town is usually built in the east and middle west. I suggest that public parks and play and recreation grounds should be provided and maintained at public expense. They could be of use for camping grounds for transcontinental tourists in autos, etc. And now such future utilities could be established at small expense.
11th. Increase the length of the tenure of public office and provide that no one may succeed to a second term. This will eliminate “trimming” and some corruption that goes with the temptation of a second term.
As to what is being done to remedy any of these evils will state that we have a legislative committee on taxation and tax reform which will report to the coming session of the legislature.


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As a rule the legislative measures passed at the biennial session.do more harm than good. Confusion holds greater prominence than reason in the legislative halls and hundreds of ill-digested bills are introduced and scores of them are made into laws in the closing horns of the session which lasts but sixty days. It seems to me that counties might be given legislative authority via the referendum in matters of local jurisdiction. Sanders county is a small community as counties go in Montana, having less than 8,000 population and about 1,700,000 acres of land mostly mountains.
We have vast stretches of mountains and waste lands; the mountains have in the past been heavily timbered which has been removed by timber exploiters and fires. Tracts of timber are being removed by lumber companies and nothing left but a waste land of stumps often covered with tree tops and smaller trees which have been destroyed in the haste to remove the cream of the forests. Nothing is being done to stop this waste either by the local, state or national government. The national government maintains a forestry service which devotes its activities in building trails, fighting forest fires and work of reforestation.
SOME NEEDED REFORMS IN PUBLIC HEALTH WORK IN NEW JERSEY
BY M. N. BAKEK1 Montclair, N. J.
EMERGING as we are from an unprecedented epidemic of influenza, facing a rise in the general death rate due to the epidemic and the world war, confronted also with reconstruction problems which reach to the very foundations of both health and democracy, the times demand that attention be centered on constructive public health work based on sound principles of government, efficiency, and economy.
At such a juncture we look to our state department of health for inspiration, example, leadership. What do we find? Only a few days ago a close observer deplored'the unprogressiveness of the department. “It is not even drifting,” he said, “it is stagnant.” My own conviction, based partly upon personal experience as a member of the reorganized board, is that the efficiency of the department would be greatly increased if the board were swept out of existence or restricted to advisory duties,
1 Lately member of the New Jersey state board of health and of the Montclair board of health; associate editor of Engineering News-Record. A paper read before the New Jersey Sanitary Association, December 6, 1918.
Although delivered to a New Jersey audience, Mr. Baker’s remarks have a general application. The interest in the address lies in (1) the fact that most of our states still have boards with mixed functions and many of those boards are needlessly inefficient outside of statutory handicaps; (2) plain speaking by one who had been a former member of the board. The association adopted a resolution endorsing the main points in the


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and all executive functions of the department were centered in a single commissioner, as is the practice now in New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Maine, Connecticut, Ohio, West Virginia and Oklahoma.
The statute reorganizing the department is sound in most of its fundamentals. It goes far in separating the legislative and executive functions of the department and in making the director the chief executive officer. But it established a considerable division of responsibility. The director has surrendered and the board has assumed powers plainly vested in the director, but the board, like such boards in general, is not properly constituted for quick and efficient executive work. The result is circumlocution, delays, postponements, the killing of initiative and general discouragement of the bureau chiefs and assistant director, who are the real life and working force of the department as it stands to-day.
The department lacks a living, growing plan of health-protective work, coupled with a real budget. It has lacked the courage, the initiative, the vision to determine what’s what in public health work, to establish relative values in terms of costs. Granted full powers to frame and enforce a state-wide health code and to see that local boards enforce the code and the state health laws generally, the department has been slow in drafting the code and slower yet in seeing that local boards do their full duty to their communities and the state.
Latterly the department has been hampered by the war, but the war has spurred thousands of other agencies to overcome all obstacles and achieve marvelous results. Moreover, the great weaknesses of the department were manifest before we entered the conflict. Always more money has been needed, but the funds available have not been used altogether to the best advantage—through lack of plan and budget. Shortage of funds, war handicaps, influenza epidemic should all combine to stimulate the department to more careful planning, the elimination of non-health-protective work, the throwing out of dead wood and all around increased economy and efficiency. Let us hope that more has been done in all these respects than has yet been revealed.
I believe that the greater part of the executive staff of the department is as devoted and as efficient as could be expected under its handicaps.
paper and instructing its legislative committee to co-operate with the New Jersey Medical Association in an effort to make the New Jersey state board of health purely advisory.
The Montclair board of health was abolished by resolution of the town commission on January 2. It had never been formally established under the Walsh commission-government act, but had been held over for two and one-half years. On several occasions the commission or the ma3ror took action as though there were no board, at least once contradictory to the decision previously reached by the board. There were two vacancies on a board of seven and later there had been difficulties at times in getting a quorum. We are advised that the mayor’s decision to abolish the board was made after the reading of Mr. Baker’s address.—Editor.


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The responsibility rests with the board, the legislature and the governor. As a creature of the legislature and of a vicious system designed in the interest of political parties rather than the public good, the board is of the so-called bipartisan type. The statute also provides that certain professions must be represented on the board. Consequently, if the veterinary member goes off the state must be searched for a successor who shall be not only a veterinarian, but also a Republican or a Democrat, as the case may be. A greater potential evil lies in the fact that in the exercise of its most important function, the choice of a director, the so-called bipartisan feature may become null, since in case of a tie the governor of the state casts the deciding vote. This makes for divided responsibility, political favoritism, and general inefficiency. Either the board or the governor alone should appoint the director. Were the board eliminated or restricted to advisory functions, appointment would lie with the governor and responsibility be undivided. For the personnel of the board the successive governors are responsible.
To save time for a discussion of these and related pressing questions, I shall bring my remarks to a close. I trust I have said enough to arouse the earnest thought and fruitful discussion which the subject deserves, without going into details which would divert attention from the main point, which is that our state department of health needs to be reformed, to the end that it may be a leader in these critical times, doing not alone such direct work as belongs to it, but serving also to point the way in local health administration—which, after all, is the vital thing,—leading where local departments need leadership, compelling where without compulsion the public health will not be protected.
MUNICIPAL SCHOOL FEEDING
BY JOHN C. GEBHART1 New York City
THE approval of an item of $50,000 by the board of estimate and apportionment of New York city for school lunches marks the successful culmination of a year’s agitation for municipal school feeding. The appropriation of this sum indicates that the city of New York now recognizes its responsibility toward the underfed school child. While the board of education has not yet indicated exactly how this money is to be spent, it undoubtedly intends to use it as an initial step in a broad program of municipal school feeding. The money was available January 1, 1919, and it is likely that the first move of the board of education will be to take over the school lunches now being operated under private auspices and to extend the service to other schools where it is needed, as long as the funds are available.
1 Executive Secretary of the New York School Lunch Committee.


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The action of New York city will undoubtedly draw attention to the school feeding movement and to the effect which it is likely to have on the functions of municipal government. In spite of the fact that school feeding has been carried on successfully and extensively for a generation in various European countries and is now being done in 85 per cent of the progressive cities of this country, the American public is still largely ignorant both of the extent of the movement and of the social philosophy underlying it.
HISTORY OP MOVEMENT
School feeding had its earliest beginnings in Germany, for as early as 1790 municipal soup kitchens were established in Munich, to which underfed school children were sent for an adequate meal. The movement gradually spread throughout Germany until in 1909, the work was being carried on in 189 cities. In 78 of these cities the meals were provided entirely by volunteer societies; in 68 cities, by volunteer societies assisted by government subsidies, while in the remaining 43 cities, the meals were conducted entirely by the municipality.
The development in England and France, however, is of more interesl to us, since the social ideals and institutions of these countries are more in accord with our own. The English education act of 1870 which enforced school attendance was largely responsible for the initiation of the movement in England. The corralling of the childhood of the nation ir the public school brought to notice thousands of sickly, emaciated children who otherwise would have remained hidden in the slums of greal cities. A large number of volunteer societies sprang into existence tc meet this need and in 1905 it was stated on good authority that there were 355 separate organizations for school feeding in 146 towns and cities in England.
ENGLISH EXPERIENCE
The work, however, was far from satisfactory and the investigation] into the causes of the physical impairment of children which followed the public clamor at the time of the wholesale rejection of military recruit! for the Boer War, resulted in a strong popular demand for the transfe: of this work from private to public control. The result was that in 1906 Parliament passed the provision of meals act. This act permits Ioca authorities to provide meals for school children at cost for those who cai afford to pay and gratis for necessitous children. The authorities ar permitted to draw on the public funds for this work, but are limited ii the amount they may spend to what would be produced by a tax rate of i halfpenny to the pound.
The offer of public subsidy naturally led many authorities to undertak the work. While in 1907, the first year after the adoption of the act only 2,751,326 school meals were served by local authorities, in 191.'


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29,568,316 meals were served. Since 1915, however, the number of meals served has fallen off considerably, due to the “war prosperity” which has reduced the number of children applying for free meals.
The act is administered by canteen or care committees composed either entirely or chiefly of members of the local education authority. The canteen committee usually makes all arrangements for the feeding centers such as the hiring of the help, purchase of the food, serving of the meals and selecting of necessitous children.
In spite of the fact that the provision of meals act was adopted as an educational measure for the purpose of making school children physically fit to receive the education which is offered them, the system so far has been little more than an instrument of charitable relief. More than 90 per cent of the children are served free. Although the act provides that undernourished children whose parents can afford to pay for the meals must be charged for them, the parents usually retaliate by withdrawing the children from the meals thus defeating the very purpose of the provision.
FBENCH EXPEBIENCE
School lunches in France were an outgrowth of Caisses des Ecole or school funds established by the residents of various districts to encourage indigent children to attend school by providing them with clothing, food, medical aid, etc. Although the school funds were started by voluntary effort they were gradually assisted by public subsidies and in 1882 their establishment in each arrondissement was made compulsory. School meals in France are thus an outgrowth of community life and to that fortunate circumstance must be attributed their remarkable success. The patronizing, “poor law” atmosphere is entirely lacking in spite of the fact that ordinarily two-thirds of the meals are served free. There is a growing demand to make the meals universally free, i. e., maintained by the municipality out of the public treasury as an educational measure. By 1909 the work had grown until meals were being provided in 1,400 ar-rondissements for 187,000 children and in the same year, nearly eight million meals were served in Paris.
THE AMEBICAN MOVEMENT
The movement in America is of a much more recent origin and is greatly in need of development and extension. The first school lunch was established in Philadelphia in 1898. The beginning was made in New York in 1908, when the New York school lunch committee was permitted to install a service in two public schools. Under private auspices the work was gradually developed, until last year 57 elementary school lunches were being maintained in the various boroughs by the New York and Brooklyn school lunch committees.


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Under the present arrangement, the committees assume all responsi bility for the conduct of the various lunch rooms. The board of educa tion, however, provides the necessary space for the kitchen and luncl rooms and usually equips them.
The American public has always been opposed to free feeding. Th ideal has been to make a self-supporting school lunch available for al children who for various reasons are unable to secure an adequate luncl at home. Such children, it is pointed out, are now given pennies witl which to purchase buns, pickles and other unnutritious and harmfu foods from pushcarts and candy stores. With the pennies they no-* spend for such trash, they could purchase from a properly equipped schoc luncheon an adequate and nutritious lunch. Such a lunch would, there fore, be nearly, if not quite self-supporting, and would have the advantag of giving the child a practical and much needed lesson in food economy.
No adequate census has ever been taken of the extent of school feedin in America, but a recent survey of the bureau of municipal research give us a fair idea of the growth of the movement. The bureau sent a ques tionnaire to 131 cities of 50,000 population or over; replies were receive* from 86 of them. Of these 86 cities, 72 were operating school lunches In 46 of them, however, the service was available in both high and ek mentary schools, while in two cities, it was restricted to elementary schools In five cities, the service was provided, only for special classes. Th growth of the work in various cities during the past four or five years i clearly shown in the following table.
GROWTH OF SCHOOL LUNCH SERVICE IN CERTAIN CITIES WITH 300,000 POPULATION AND OVER (Prepared by the Bureau of Municipal Research)
City New York City, Manhattan New York City, Brooklyn Period 1911- 1916 1912- 1916
Chicago 1912-1916
Philadelphia St. Louis Boston Pittsburg 1913-1917 1913- 1916 1911-1917 1914- 1917
Los Angeles 1914^-1917
San Francisco 1912-1916
New Orleans 1911-1916
Minneapolis 1911-1916
Growth
Elementary— 9 schools to 49 schoo Elementary— 4 schools to 16 schoo f Elementary—10 schools to 28 schoo \ High — 0 schools to 31 schoo Elementary— 0 schools to 16 schoo Elementary— 1 school to 5 schoo High —18 schools to 18 schoo
High — 3 schools to 7 schoo
{Elementary— 7 schools to 10 schoc High —13 schools to 16 schoc
High — 1 school to 3 schoc
Elementary—■ 2 schools to 10 schoc High — 3 schools to 3 schoc Elementary— 2 schools to 7 schoc High —■ 5 schools to 6 schoc
New York city is by no means a pioneer in municipal school feedin; for in 68 of the 72 cities, the work, is entirely in the hands of the local cii government. Chicago, Philadelphia and Cleveland are among the largi


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cities which have led New York in this important step. The task confronting New York city, however, in organizing this work is, of course, larger than in other communities, for if the board of education is to take over the existing services in both the high and elementary schools, it will operate over one hundred luncheon centers.
There seems to be fair unanimity of opinion among the workers in this field that the receipts from the luncheons in elementary schools ought to cover at least the cost of the food. While in a few instances, notably in Brooklyn, the elementary school lunches have been made entirely self-supporting, most cities have been able to do little more than meet the cost of the food and about half of the labor cost. Philadelphia has made its elementary school system pay by adopting the expedient of applying the profits of the high school lunches to the deficit of the elementary schools.
The problem of the administration of school lunches under municipal control is greatly simplified if the two aspects of the work, the administrative and the educational, are kept separate. The business of operating one hundred lunch centers throughout the school year effectively and economically is a task calling for executive and administrative ability of the highest order. It would be a mistake, therefore, for New York city to follow the example of some of the smaller cities in placing, the school lunch work under the domestic science department. The experience of all large cities seems to indicate that a separate bureau of school feeding should be established for this work with an executive manager a’t its head who is responsible directly to the city superintendent of schools. The co-operation of the domestic science staff, however, should be secured in such matters as the selection of the menus, the preparation of certain dishes in the cooking classes to be sold at the lunch counter and in stimulating an interest among those who attend the lunch in food economy.


DEPARTMENT OF PUBLICATIONS
I. BOOK REVIEWS
Welfare and Housing, a Practical Record of War-Time Management. By J. E. Hutton. London and New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1918. Pp. 190. Illustrated. $1.50 net. England’s longer participation in the war cost her more than did our shorter participation, but it also gave her time to learn many things thoroughly that we had just begun to study when, on November 11, we joyously threw our lessons on the junk heap. Among the things the war taught or rather re-taught England—and failed to teach us, was the value of good, not merely decent or merely sanitary, but good housing and good management. Before November 11 the lesson had been so well learned in England that it was possible to write a book about it. In America there are not even the materials for such a book, for not only are our war-time housing developments still uncompleted, but Congress seems determined to scrap them before there is any opportunity for them to prove of value.
In these days of violently antagonistic propaganda it is well to know who is attempting to guide our thoughts and what his affiliations are. Mr. Hutton had been for three years engaged in attempting to solve the “problems which are attached to the housing of many thousands of work people of both sexes, and catering to their manifold needs.” He was employed by Vickers, Ltd., the great shipbuilding company whose hundred thousand employes were distributed among several plants in different parts of the kingdom. His task was not only to secure these workers, but also to ensure provision of adequate arrangements for their accommodation and general welfare.
So much he tells us in the introduction. But even more important is what he tells indirectly in the final chapter on industrial unrest. He is keenly conscious of this unrest; he foresaw what has occurred in
Great Britain since the signing of the armistice, and being a believer in a system which provides for capital and labor, “master” and “man,” is tremendously concerned over the “new” doctrines that would do away with such distinctions. “Our whole future existence,” he says, “depends upon a clear understanding between capital and labour.” “Remove or break down the barrier of suspicion and distrust and the rest will follow.” “It will take time and time is precious.” “Let the ‘masters’ get together with the ‘men,’ and let both sides forget the past and be prepared to meet in a spirit of compromise, with the single purpose in view of the interest of the empire and the welfare of our great nation.”
The inadequacy of these “lets” in a time that calls for imperatives is eloquent of Mr. Hutton’s position as a representative of the “masters” who knows the problem, sees clearly some ways of dealing with it, but cannot speak in a tone of command. If he and those like him were granted time, as perhaps Americans will be, they might allay the unrest to such an extent as to make orderly evolution- possible. But as the unrest in England is to-day greater, the crisis nearer, than in America, so too are the English employment managers farther advanced than those of America, most of whom are still concerned only with problems inside the shop. The eleven chapters that come between the introduction and industrial unrest cover all those factors in the worker’s life that make for content or discontent; beside housing they discuss canteens that provide good, hot food without waste of time or cash; motor transit which saves time for the firm and prevents irritation to the worker; hospitals and medical services; amusements; works police; the woman’s point of view—a chapter written by a woman which shows clearly that within the works at least woman’s point of view is not very different from


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man’s. Mr. Hutton realizes that conditions of living have quite as much to do with unrest as have conditions of work. This he emphasizes by putting the two chapters dealing exclusively with housing near the beginning of his book.
The most refreshing thing in Mr. Hutton’s book is its utter absence of any pretense what “welfare,” a term he uses with reluctance for want of a better, is, from his standpoint, no more than intelligence applied to a business problem. There is no cant about benefits conferred, but through the whole book there is evidence of good will and an attempt at understanding to the end of securing better cooperation and greater efficiency. The importance of this cannot be over-emphasized, for were the attitude different the value of much that is suggested would be lessened. Even as it is, and remembering that the book deals with war times, one questions occasionally whether there should not be clearer distinction between war-time necessities and good peace-time policies. The canteen which furnishes a good dinner and saves for recreation time that otherwise would be spent hastening to and from home, undoubtedly makes for greater efficiency in the factory. Should it, therefore, be considered part of the plant and run at cost, or, much more questionable, run at a loss “for girls working short shift and not earning high wages.”
The “temporary housing” problems have ceased, we hope, to be of immediate importance, though in discussing them Mr. Hutton injects some observations of continuing concern—as on his difficulties in making members of sixteen nationalities live peacefully together—the English may perhaps learn from Americans here—and some observations of contemporary interest, as his discovery that Belgians require special treatment because their habits and standards of living are so different from those of the English. “Candidly,” he says, “it must be stated that their ideas are most primitive. They decline to make use of baths if provided for them, and lavatory accommodation is employed for the reception of waste vegetables, etc.,
constant trouble arising from this cause.” These are troubles American housing workers constantly meet.
It is when he comes to permanent housing that he is most instructive. Vickers, Ltd., built a “marine garden city” commensurate with its probable normal needs, near the plant at Barrow-in-Furness. Before the war the company owned 1,000 houses, about one-fourteenth of the whole town of Barrow. By the fall of 1916 it had built or financed 610 more cottages at a cost of $750,000. It also secured the co-operation of the rural housing organization society, through which it was able to borrow two-thirds of the required capital from the national government (public works loan commissioners), and erected 589 cottages on an estate of sixty acres at Crayford and 400 cottages at Erith. Parks, playgrounds, allotment gardens, theaters, institutes, a public house, at which the “sale of intoxicants is in no way forced,” were included in these developments. Clubs and recreational activities were financed by the workers themselves. The cottages are widely spaced, only ten or twelve to the acre; they are equipped with modern conveniences; running water, bath, electric lights, gas for cooking, and contain in addition to a living room, parlor and scullery, three bed rooms. England seems to have accepted the three-bedroom minimum while we in America still argue the advantages of one and two bed rooms.
On the financial side there is again a question. The rentals apparently bring in a little over 7 per cent gross on the cost of developing the estate. While two-thirds of the cost was borrowed from the government at presumably around 4 per cent—the rate is not given—this does not leave much for taxes, repairs, depreciation and management. The cost, however, was abnormally high because of the war, and it may be that part of this will be written off, as we propose to do with our government war villages. But again this is not stated. Again the advantage of an arrangement which brings another than the employer into the ownership and management of the houses is not definitely


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stated, though it is indicated, as in the chapter on amusements, “And, above all things, the desire to ‘leave the works out of it’ is positive. Out of Blob’s pickle factory into Blob’s recreation hall is ‘not good enough’; it is too much like work with the chill off.”
Lacking an American book, or even the material for one based on such definite experience, it is to be hoped that Welfare and Housing may find its way into the hands of the many American employers who to-day are seriously concerned over industrial unrest and are pitifully seeking to sooth it without looking beyond their factory gates. To be sure, it does not contain the whole answer; it does not even hint at their responsibilities as citizens for conditions in large industrial communities. But at least it does show that something more than wages, hours and working conditions must be considered.
John Ihlder. if
Budget Making in a Democracy: A New View of the Budget. By E. A. Fitzpatrick. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1918. $1.50.
Dr. Fitzpatrick’s reason for calling his volume “a new view of the budget” is far from clear. In the main it is an unconvincing argument against what he calls the “executive budget,” but which he nevertheless apparently approves with certain slight modifications. Unfortunately, the book gives the impression of being inspired by some personal dislike of Dr. Frederick A. Cleveland. A great deal of space is devoted to an effort to demolish the particular type of executive budget which Dr. Cleveland has very vigorously advocated. Dr. Cleveland’s idea of budget reform has been attacked before, however, notably in New York state when the proposed constitution was under discussion in 1915. There is nothing new, therefore, in that feature of Dr. Fitzpatrick’s volume. For his advocacy of continuing appropriations and his condemnation of pork-barrel legislation he would scarcely claim originality.
Possibly the “new idea” is that budget estimates for the so-called administrative
commissions, such as tax commissions and public service commissions, should not be reviewed by the executive, but should gc to the legislature without review. Dr. Fitzpatrick’s reasons for this proposal are that these commissions, having certain judicial functions, should be treated af are the courts, and since these bodies have a quasi-legislative function “ their natural relationship is with the legislature rathei than with the executive.” This will hardly convince those who consider tas commissions and similar bodies to b( primarily administrative in character Nor will it give much comfort to thosi who look forward to some co-ordination ol independent commissions. Governmenl by commissions is none too popular witt taxpayers now. The wisdom of multiplying commissions and exempting them as to their financial demands from th< scrutiny of the chief executive may wel be questioned.
Apparently the author’s chief claim t( “a new view” of the budget is that “th< determination of the amount of publii expenditure is not a financial problem a all, but a political and social one.” Whih this may or may not be considered a nove idea, there is no doubt that it needs empha sis at the present juncture. There is toe much tendency to assume that “budge reform” will reduce the tax rate. As i matter of fact, the best system that cai be devised for preparing budget proposals the most ideal legislative procedure and £ perfect system of budget control and accounting will not greatly reduce expenditures. If the budgetary problem is oni of expanding governmental functions, ii is indeed a political and social question.
In the opinion of the reviewer, however nothing is to be gained by confusing thi: idea of the budget as the “essence o: government” with the budget as a problen of honesty and efficiency in financinj public activities, quite apart from socia and political theories as to what actlvitiei a democratic state should undertake Much more can be accomplished in riddinj democratic institutions of their greates weakness—inefficiency—by looking upoi budget reform as a problem, to use Dr


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Fitzpatrick’s own words, of getting “a hundred cents in service for each dollar of public funds expended, whatever the amount expended” (italics not the author’s). After allowing for waste due to inefficiency and dishonesty, the amount expended is mainly a question of policy to be decided by the people through the proper legisla-tive machinery. To confuse this fundamental problem of the extent of governmental functions with the problem of eliminating graft and waste is most unfortunate.
On the whole, it seems fair to say that Dr. Fitzpatrick’s volume is too contentious to be of much help to the practical legislator confronted with the task of putting order and efficiency into the public housekeeping. On the other hand, it is too dogmatic and one-sided to be a safe guide to the student and general reader. In the hands of a skilful teacher or budget expert, however, it might be very useful in provoking discussion of the fundamental features of budget-making.
C. C. Williamson.
*
The -Little Democracy: A Text-Book on Community Organization. By Ida Clyde Clarke, with introduction by P. P. Claxton, U. S. Commissioner of Education. New York: D..Appleton and Company, 1918. Pp. XV, 253. Mrs. Clarke has brought together much of the best opinion and many fine prescriptions for community organization. Her book deals primarily with the school community center, but contains excellent chapters on the community garden, the community market, and the community kitchen. The chapters on various types of clubs are helpful.
Mrs. Clarke has drawn freely on the documents of various departments and bureaus at Washington and her volume is especially indebted to Dr. Henry E. Jackson of the bureau of education and Professor Hugh Findlay of the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
The volume cannot be pronounced an adequate treatise on community organization because it fails to raise or even
suggest most of the difficulties of the subject, and there is lacking either a descriptive or analytical treatment of such decisive experiments as are being conducted in Cincinnati, in Framingham, in New York, under the leadership of Community councils, in New Haven, under the war bureau, in Kirksville, Mo., under the leadership of Mrs. Harvey. There is no reference to the growing contact between organized labor and the community movement, and the subjects of immigration and Americanization are left out.
But as far as its contents go, the book is interesting and practical.
John Collier.
*
Our Neighborhood: Good Citizenship in Rural Communities. By John F. Smith, Professor of Social Science, Berea College Academy. Philadelphia and Chicago: The John C. Winston Company, 1918. Pp. XI, 262. Professor Smith has written a text-book for country boys and girls, which approaches the ideal. It gives enough information for the boy or girl to know how to go about answering the questions at the end of each chapter, and these questions lead out into the entire problem of rural life. As an example of method, the book would have value for any urban teacher as well, and for any teacher of social science, even to graduate groups.
This text-book does more than give facts or arouse and direct intellectual interest. It is full of specific techniques, having to do with games, household arts, the protection of wild life, the reduction of waste on the farm. There are about seventy-five illustrations, all of which are well chosen and clearly printed.
This book can be unreservedly recommended. John Collier.
*
Crime Prevention. By Lieutenant-Colonel Arthur Woods. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press. Pp. 124. $1 net.
Although the title promises somewhat more than the contents warrant, the book


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carries out the aim of the author, namely to tell what a modern police department has done and can do to prevent crime. Colonel Woods is well qualified to speak on this subject after four years of progressive work as police commissioner of New York City.
The book of nine chapters is a very brief sketch on the police department’s relation to crime. It begins with a much needed explanation of the limitations of conventional police methods; a chapter, which, coupled with the one following on educating the public, if read generally, would do much toward helping communities judge intelligently of the effectiveness of their police departments.
Among the causes of crime discussed are poverty, mental defectives and drink and drugs, under each of which a series of typical cases, drawn from the experiences of the author, are presented. The chapters on convicts and juvenile delinquency relate also by specific instances what the New York police department has tried to do in the matter of preventing the convict from going back to his old life and in guiding aright youngsters in danger of becoming launched upon a career of crime.
While the subject matter is discussed with an absence of technical terms, statistical data and other evidences of profundity, the book has a distinct value as an introduction to a more thorough study of causes of crime and crime prevention. Its easy, colloquial style is an asset because the book is quickly and easily read and if read arouses interest.
Arch Mandel.
Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research, January 4, 1919.
*
The Results of Municipal Electric Lighting in Massachusetts. By Edmond Earle Lincoln. (Hart, Schaffner and Marx Prize Essays. XXVII.) Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1918. Pp. XX+484. S3.00.
It is interesting to contrast this carefully prepared study with the frankly polemical book by A. M. Todd,1 reviewed i See Vol. VIII, p. 77.
in the January issue. Mr. Lincoln, who served as expert in charge of the 1917 census of central electric light and power stations in the United States, is decidedly conservative while Mr. Todd makes his appeal frankly on partisan grounds and endeavors to win over the reader. Mr. Lincoln aims to “command the full confidence of the public” and claims that he is “wholly impartial, holding no brief for either side.”
The book compares some thirty odd municipal electric lighting plants with the “most nearly comparable” private plants and endeavors to furnish an accurate and impartial study of the technical, financial, historical and developmental aspects of their operation. As to impartiality, however, the author does not hesitate to leave loopholes of escape for the hardened opponent of public ownership, for he says: “It must also be recalled. . . that . . . public
business has been compared with private business at its worst in the state, from which fact the reader is at liberty to draw what inferences he may choose. ”
There is a number of chapters of painstaking analysis of financial and statistical matters which apparently leave no stone unturned. Conclusions are given in chapter XIV, and it is here that we advise the reader to “proceed with caution.” After the statement quoted in the preceding paragraph we come upon others of a similar nature: “In the first place, it appears that the conditions under which the municipal generating plants are operating, both natural and artificial, are more favorable to success,” but their history does not “indicate that they have in general been instrumental in promoting the higher industrial development here found. ”
Further: “When the pragmatic test is applied, it becomes evident that, from the physical, financial, and developmental point of view, when due allowances have been made, this group of public plants (Holyoke excepted) have, in the more important respects, usually lagged somewhat behind the private plants studied.” Also: “ They seem not to be serving their


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more favorable territory so adequately as are the latter.” Even though the public plants “have recently, for the most part, been doing reasonably well,” this condition is attributed to “over-conservatism rather than to superior efficiency. ”
The tale goes on in similar vein with references to “politics” and “graft” which, “in at least one case,” were “disgusting beyond belief, ” while as to private plants it is the writer’s opinion that although “there may have been some mismanagement and even exploitation in the past in one or two cases, there seems to be little real ground for complaint at present.” That the public plants are reasonably successful would seem to be shown by the author’s statement that “a good share of their success is due to the fact that they are dependent upon private enterprise for that portion of the business which is most difficult to be handled by public officials,” and he assures us that “all credit is due them . . . inas-
much as they have been rendering, at a comparatively low cost, service which would in many cases have been difficult if not impossible to secure from private concerns.” But notwithstanding this record it is the author’s opinion that in Massachusetts at present “there is no reason whatever why a municipality should invest in an electric plant. ”
Dorset W. Hyde, Jr.
The A B C of Exhibit Planning. By Evart G. Routzahn and Mary Swain Routzahn. (Survey and Exhibit Series, edited by Shelby M. Harrison. XIV). Pp. 234. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1918. $1.50.
The value of story-telling by pictures is generally recognized to-day by members of the publishing and advertising professions and the movement for graphic presentation of fact information has long since extended to the field of civic and social endeavor. Particularly within the past decade there have been interesting attempts to present community problems of health, sanitation, housing, and moral welfare by means of exhibits, lantern
slides and motion pictures. In this book, for the first time, there is presented an authoritative exposition of present-day means and methods for driving home community problems—-and the remedy— by means of exhibits. Well qualified by personal experience in exhibit work, Mr. and Mrs. Routzahn have compiled a valuable record of their own experience together with the general conclusions which they have derived therefrom.
The general scope of the book is outlined in the second chapter, which emphasizes the necessity of “having a plan,” a single, definite purpose, and that in working out the graphic expression thereof, full and painstaking consideration must be given to the type of audience it is desired to reach and impress. The general method to be adopted is next considered; then the content of the exhibit; and finally the exhibit forms to be employed and their arrangement in the exhibit headquarters. Special attention is given to the need for interpreting the exhibit after it is installed, including printed directions, pamphlet literature, lecturers, “explainers” and the like. Further preparation and interpretation should be obtained through a well-planned campaign of newspaper publicity. The preliminary work of organizing the forces responsible for the exhibit and directing the actual construction is also given special emphasis. The cost feature and the distribution of the expenses is a problem demanding careful consideration if the exhibit is to be successfully conducted. After the exhibit has been shown, and the public awakened to some sense of the importance of the subject involved, it is important that an effort be made to clinch this favorable impression and bring about a desire for remedial action.
The principles and rules of action laid down along the lines above indicated are clearly expressed and reinforced with a goodly number of illustrative photographs, diagrams and charts. Of particular interest are the photographic examples of good and bad exhibit panels. Towards the end of the book there are presented an instructive plan for a state campaign centering around a traveling exhibit, and


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an exhibit for continuous educational work. The four appendices contain sections on the exhibit budget; committee work; the Stanford baby week exhibit, and an example of an explainer’s talk. There is a suggestive three-page bibliography which should prove helpful, although it might have been made more inclusive. The following references were not included: The “Anti-alcohol movement in Europe,” Ernest Gordon (chapter on travehng anti-alcohol exhibits); How to Use an Exhibit, New Jersey state board of health; “The Value of a Municipal Exhibit,” Lent D. Upson in the National Municipal Review (January, 1915); The Chicago Tuberculosis Exhibit, Bulletin of Chicago Tuberculosis Institute (October 1, 1914); “Essentials of a Home Products Exposition,” John M. Guild. Three articles pubhshed in The American City were hsted and general reference was made to that pubhcation, but it might have been well to indicate specifically the following: How a Suburban Town Held a “Know-Your-Toum” Exhibit (September, 1914); “Playing Up” a City’s Most Valuable Asset (January, 1915); An Effective Exhibition of a Community Survey (February, 1915), and Spokane’s Municipal Exhibit (November, 1915).
In his preface to the volume Shelby M. Harrison refers to the definition of the survey as “the application of scientific method to the study of community problems, plus such a distribution of the resulting facts ahd recommendations as to make them, as far as possible, the common knowledge of the community,” and he points out the important part played by the exhibit in this connection. Surveys and exhibits in the past have not always been made as effective as they could and should have been, and there is great need for the building up of a standardized technique. As a first step in this direction, The A B C of Exhibit Planning will II.
be found invaluable to civic and social workers generally, and it should prove of great aid in helping them to a larger conception of their opportunities and the methods best fitted for their expression.
Dorsey W. Hyde Jr.
*
Home and Community Hygiene: A Text-Book of Personal and Public Health. By Jean Broadhurst, Ph.D. Philadelphia and London: J. B. Lippin-cott Co. Pp. 428; illustrated.
The broad scope of this book is indicated by its title and sub-title and by the following outline of its contents. Communicable diseases and their control, homes, camps, schools and other community units are each given a chapter, as are child welfare and middle age. Next come chapters on tuberculosis, industrial, mental and military hygiene, social and urban conditions, vital statistics, health education and administration. A glossary, notes supplementary to some of the chapters, a brief bibliography and a detailed index complete the volume.
The range of the book is perhaps too broad for full personal understanding by one person of the many subjects treated. This has sometimes led the author to cite specific authorities for matters of common knowledge while in other cases errors or misleading statements appear where the author has wandered away from or misunderstood the authorities consulted. The chapter on sewage disposal affords, an illustration of both kinds of weakness. Under public health administration too much space is given to federal as compared with state and local activities, and in general the chapter is inadequate. But in the main the volume is sound. It contains much valuable information and many stimulating suggestions. A widespread study of its contents would contribute materially to more healthful home and community conditions. M. N. B.
II. BOOKS RECEIVED
A Course in Citizenship and Patriotism. New York: Houghton Mifflin Com-
By Ella Lyman Cabot, Fannie Fern pany. Pp. 386.
Andrews, Fanny E. Coe, Mabel Hill A History of Suffrage in the United and Mary MeSkimmon, with an in- States. By Kirk Porter. Chicago:
troduction by William Howard Taft. The University Press. Pp. 260. $1.25


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American Charities. By Amos G. Warner, Ph.D. Third Edition Revised by Mary Roberts Coolidge, Ph.D., with a biographical preface by George Elliott Howard, Ph.D. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company. Pp. 541. $2.50 net.
Autocracy vs. Democracy. By William James Heaps. New York: The Neale Publishing Co. 1918. Pp. 121. Citizenship in Philadelphia. By J. Lynn Barnard, Ph.D., and Jessie C. Evans, A.M. Philadelphia: The John C. Winston Company. Pp. 376.
City Ways and Company Streets. By Private Charles Divine. New York: Moffat, Yard and Company. 1918. Pp. 64. $1.
Civics for New York State. By Charles DeForest Hoxie. Revised and enlarged. New York: The American Book Company. Pp. 409.
Echoes of Democracy. By Edward Gruse. Boston: The Gorham Press. Pp. 60.
Foreign Financial Control in China. By T. W. Overlach. New York: The Macmillan Co. 1919. Pp. 295. $2.
Location, Construction and Maintenance of Roads. By John M. Goodell. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company. Pp. 226. $1.
Municipal Electric Light and Power Plants in the United States and Canada. By Carl D. Thompson. Chicago, 111.: Public Ownership League of America. 1917. Pp. 149. Double Number—Price 50 cents.
Preparing Women for Citizenship. By Helen Ring Robinson. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 130, $1.
III. REVIEWS
Plan of Minneapolis.1—In the foreword of this elaborate presentation of a most elaborate plan, these significant words are quoted from the resolutions of January 7, 1910, preliminary to the formation of the Civic Commission: “Therefore,- be it resolved that this Citizens Committee elect a Civic Commission to investigate and report as to the advisability of any public
iPlan of Minneapolis, prepared under the direction of the Civic Commission by Edward H. Bennett, Architect. Edited and written by Andrew Wright Crawford. Published by the Civic Commission, Minneapolis, 1917. Quarto, 227 pages, with many tinted and colored illustrations and maps.
National Governments and the World War. By Frederic A. Ogg and Charles A. Beard. New York: The Macmillan Co. 1919. Pp. 603. $2.50.
Storing—Its Economic Aspects and Proper Methods. By II. B. Twy-ford. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 25 Park Place. 1918. Pp. 200.
The New American Citizen. By Charles F. Dole. New York: D. C. Heath and Company. Illustrated. Pp. 376.
The American Municipal Executive. By Russell McCulloch Story, Ph.D. Urbana, 111.: The University of Illinois. Pp. 231. $1.25.
The English Village. A Literary Study, 1750-1850. By Julia Patton. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1918. Pp. 236. $1.50.
The Future Belongs to the People. By Karl Liebknecht. Edited and translated by S. Zimand. With an introduction by Walter E.Weyl. NewYork: The Macmillan Co. Pp. 114. $1.25.
The New America. By Frank Dilnot. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 145. $1.25.
The Results of Municipal Electric Lighting in Massachusetts. By Edmond Earle Lincoln. New York: Houghton, Mifflin Co. Pp. 484. $3.
The War Program of Social Work. Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work. 1918. Kansas City. 1918. Pp. 722. $2.50.
The Woman Citizen. By Mary Summer Boyd. NewYork: Frederick A. Stokes Company. Pp. 260. $1.50.
OF REPORTS
works in the city of Minneapolis which, in its opinion, will tend to the convenience and well-being of the people, the development of business facilities, the beautifying of the city, or the improvement of the same as a place of residence.”
The importance of planning is emphasized by the editor who says: “In the growth of cities it is difficult to bring the mind to realize with adequate conviction the fact that the future is just as sure as the past, that the time of doubled, trebled and quadrupled growth will come just as surely as tomorrow’s sun will shine.” It is on this basis that a plan is proposed “for


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a city of one and two million population while yet Minneapolis is under a half million,” and with the general idea that Minneapolis is to become a "city useful” as well as a "city beautiful.” Mr. E. H. Bennett of Chicago, long the associate of the late Daniel H. Burnham (who gave impetus to all city planning by his White City of the Chicago Exposition in 1893), was selected “to make a study of Minneapolis with outside eyes.”
Some twenty chapters cover every point of the plan, including a careful presentation of approaches, arteries of traffic, the public centers, the water fronts, transportation, housing, parks and playgrounds, railroad lines and all other features of a great community, the smoke menace and the skyscraper. Concluding chapters, deal with “The Economic Value of Beauty to a City,” and the financial and legal phases of the whole scheme.
Particularly interesting is the daring plan for “a series of low-level and high-level drives on each side of the Mississippi River.” The “low-level roadways will give access to the water. The high-level roadways will link all the bridges into a completely coordinated traffic arrangement,” while “the railroads will be undisturbed.”
This great and comprehensive plan, in which beauty is the consistent by-product of utility, is a worthy addition to the series of dreams of fair cities which are to be realized in America, now that the world is at peace and that the high patriotic spirit of our people is being turned into channels of construction instead of destruction. The Bennett plan is a great scheme greatly set forth, in harmony throughout with the noble paragraph quoted from Daniel H. Burnham at the beginning of the book: “Make'no little plans; they have no magic to stir men’s blood and probably themselves will not be realized. Make big plans; aim high in hope and work, remembering that a noble, logical diagram once recorded will never die, but long after we are gone will be a living thing, asserting itself with evergrowing insistency. Remember that our sons and grandsons are going to do things
that would stagger us. Let your watchword be order and your beacon beauty.” J. Horace McFarland.
Self-Owning Towns of Tomorrow.—
A unique series of articles, entitled “Self-Owning Towns of Tomorrow,” has recently been running in the press throughout the country. The primary purpose of the articles is to interest the public in the program of the Committee on New Industrial Towns, which was organized in 1916 for the purpose of studying methods whereby the unearned increment created in various localities by the influx of new population following the establishment of new industries may be anticipated, conserved and converted into extra annual revenue for the community. One might suppose that an exposition of such a subject would prove an excellent tonic for even the most inveterate case of insomnia. Quite the contrary, however, is the truth for the writer of the series, Richard S. Childs, has the rare knack of making even the driest subject not only readable but interesting.
The series includes ten articles on such subjects as “Land Booms and Their Sinister Meaning”; “Gary—A City by Decree”; “The New Kind of Mill Villages”; “How to Create a Taxless Town”; “Letchworth, the English Garden City”; “How the British Workers Beat the Land Speculators”; “The New Government-Owned Villages of Britain”; “The New Government Towns”; and “The Government’s Plans.”
The article which will command the most attention is probably that on “How to Create a Taxless Town.” This presents in a rough way the constructive program of the committee for the establishment of new industrial towns. The method outlined may be best stated in Mr. Childs’ own words;
Select a tract apart from any existing town and buy enough land to give your projected village a broad protective belt of your own land. Then your action in bringing an influx of population to that area will not confer a windfall of rising land value upon the downtown business frontages of a neighboring town, nor enrich a lot


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of undeserving nearby land owners on your borders. The increment will be all your own.
Plan your town so as to discourage the movement of the people into outside uncontrolled ai'eas for purposes of buying supplies, so that the man who wants your people’s trade must establish his store on your land and come with his family^ and clerks to live in your town. Make it, in other words, a self-contained and self-sufficient town, by every legitimate device! If possible, make shopping attractive by the provision of a good store center, lights, arcades, etc., so as to draw trade |from the neighboring villages and farms. Your commercial values will be your “velvet” and you can make your Main Street frontages worth $500 a front foot.
Encourage and facilitate the coming of otjier industries.
Don’t sell a foot of land except to churches and, if necessary, to factories. Lease the land with or without buildings and make the leases as short as possible so that as the town grows and land becomes still more valuable, you can readjust the rentals. Residential streets will not alter much in value even if the town grows large, and land leases of fifteen or twenty years are permissible. But your business frontages must be on short leases or with frequent impartial reappraisals, or on some sliding-scale basis that changes with, the growth of population or the local payroll. Men who build on leased land will need special co-operation in getting mortgage money. Sell houses, if you like, but not the land beneath them.
Limit the dividends of your land company to 5 per cent annually and retire the invested capital by a sinking fund or amortization process.
Use the excess income to increase still further the attractiveness of your town, thus strengthening your land values. There will be an excess and a big one, consisting of the annual value of that $250 per capita of unearned increment, or say $12.50 a year per person on top of ordinary taxation of about $10 a year.
Roughly, the money available for community purposes will thus be double ordinary town revenues!
When the town gets well under way, let the people elect the directors of your Land Company, subject to_ a deed of trust so that the principle of group ownership will never be impaired, you exchanging your stock investment for serial mortgage bonds.
A town with double normal revenue, a town that owns all its underlying land, a town that turns the full annual value of the land into the common treasury,
won’t need any taxes. But remove taxes and land values would jump, so you will press them down again by correspondingly enlarging the rental you claim for tax-free land, so it comes to the same thing in the end—a doubled public revenue.
What makes the appearance of these articles especially opportune at this time is the disposition which must soon be made of the towns and suburbs built by the government during the war. As Mr. Childs states: “Nothing but some form of group ownership or local municipal ownership or private single ownership under a limitation of profits will convey to all the people of these towns the full value of their novel heritage.”
Herbert S. Swan, Executive Secretary, Zoning Committee,
New York City.
*
Survey of the City of Springfield, Illinois.—The Russell Sage Foundation’s survey of the city of Springfield, Illinois, was completed in the autumn of 1914 after several months of field study. The findings and recommendations were first made public in Springfield through a survey exhibit held in the state armory and through the local newspapers, and these efforts were reinforced by a series of pamphlet reports which have been very widely circulated. These pamphlets are now. assembled in two portly volumes, which are soon to be followed by a third as a summary.
The introductory note makes it clear that the appearance of these volumes at the present time has very little to do with the Springfield survey. Adequate publicity for survey purposes was achieved by the pamphlet reports as originally published, and the principal apology for reissuing them in book form is the suggestion that they have a mission as a general treatise on the subject of urban social and political institutions.
As merely a survey report on the city of Springfield, these volumes would be entitled to much praise in spite of some obvious shortcomings. The fact-gathering is shown to have been exceptionally thorough and apposite, and certainly the methods of presenting the facts are far
5


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superior to those employed in the great majority of survey reports. Probably it is also accurate to say that the analyses of the facts and the recommendations based thereon will not suffer by comparison with what has been done in other survey reports.
But when we are required to evaluate these volumes as a reference work on the civic problems of American cities, we are assailed by persistent doubts. Really it can not be said that they contribute much that is new to the literature on American cities except the facts about Springfield. Nor is there any manifest advantage in approaching every problem via Springfield, and in many instances it is obviously a disadvantage because the conditions in Springfield either forbid extensive discussion of subjects that a general treatise should exhaust or conversely demand much space for matters that are not of great moment in most cities. To illustrate: The well and privy menace is elaborately treated in this report, while the question of sewage engineering is dismissed with four very superficial pages; yet it is a fact that the latter problem is the more important in most cities.
This calls attention to what, from the standpoint of a general treatise, is perhaps the most salient defect of these volumes; namely, the assumption that the problems of Springfield are representative because Springfield is what has been termed a “typical” American city. Persons experienced in municipal surveys well know the danger of generalizing on the basis of conditions found in a single city. There comes to mind, for instance, a city quite as typical as Springfield which sets standards for the country in the scientific assessment and collection of taxes but is veritably a plague spot in the matter of garbage disposal. Why the co-existence of the extremes of progress and retardation? Investigation revealed that the progress in scientific taxation was chiefly attributable to the efforts of a few influential and aggressive officials who had become cranks on that subject, while the problem of garbage disposal had simply been neglected by every one. Certainly this incalculable
personal factor would render this particular city a very dubious basis for generalization. And a survey report on this city, typical though it be, would stress the garbage problem far in excess of its relative importance in the majority of American cities and would probably slight the tax problem, and consequently it would be defective as a treatise on the social and political institutions of American cities.
In sum it must be said that a survey report has one purpose and a general reference work another, and the volumes here under review are limited by that fact. Like all survey reports they contain discussions which will be of interest and value beyond the boundaries of Springfield; but they do not and can not constitute a well-balanced and adequate text-book on American cities and their problems.
Chester Collins Maxey,
New York Bureau of Municipal Research.
*
Excess Condemnation.—If any additional proof were required as to the need of excess condemnation in street widenings and extensions it is supplied in the excellent report recently published by the Chicago Bureau of Public Efficiency.1 One diagram after another is presented in this brief showing the narrow, elongated gores left on the widened sides of the Michigan Avenue and 12th Street improvements. The triangular strips which will be left on either side of the proposed Ogden Avenue Extension, unless it is carried out by excess condemnation, are also shown.
It is upon these illustrations exhibiting in the most graphic and striking manner the evils incident to the re-planning of streets where only the minimum land necessary for the street itself is taken by the city that the bureau builds its case for a constitutional amendment giving the cities of Illinois the power of excess condemnation. And the illustrations used
1 Excess Condemnation. Why the City cf Chicago should have the power, in making public improvements, to take property in excess of actual requirements. Report prepared by the Chicago Bureau of Public Efficiency. September, 1918. 5S PP.


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are the best possible argument for excess condemnation. Indeed, if streets could be widened or extended in sections already subdivided without destroying the usefulness of adjoining land, there would be little if any justification for the taking of more land than is actually required for the improvement.
Every time a new street is projected or an old one widened in the platted parts of our cities the lots through which the street is cut are necessarily destroyed, the extent of the destruction being conditioned partly by the size of the lots and partly by the orientation of the lots with reference to the improvement. Few dream how much of the new frontage is rendered useless until it is consolidated with rear land. Approximately one-fifth of the three thousand linear feet of property fronting on the widened portion of Michigan Avenue will have a depth varying between seven and fourteen feet! The extension to Ogden Avenue, if carried out as proposed, would leave ninety-three remnants, with a total frontage of thirty-three hundred feet, too small or too irregular in shape to be available for building. It is figures like these which convince one that such excess takings of land as are necessary to obtain an economic re-plotting of the new frontage constitute good business practice even though they may sometimes have to be executed at a financial loss to the municipality.
The primary object of a street improvement is not to make it absolutely impossible to use the adjoining property—as one might mistakenly suppose upon viewing the extension of Seventh Avenue, New York, Fairmount Parkway, Philadelphia or TweFth Street, Chicago,—but to facilitate the movement of city traffic by providing new or wider thoroughfares. Were we of a cynical disposition we might ask whether it were not better that the erstwhile village streets should choke with metropolitan traffic than that the appearance of the city should be forever marred and ruined as a result of improvements executed without regard to the replottage of contiguous and neighboring land.
This pamphlet is the bureau’s first essay on city planning. As such it is most welcome and may we have more of them, Herbert S. Swan, Secretary, Zoning Committee.
New York City.
*
A Review on the Report of the New York Police Department (First half 1918).
—Brevity in a departmental report is a virtue only when the value of the report is not destroyed by too summary a document. The brevity of the semi-annual report of the New York Police Department for the first half of 1918 is not a virtue.
The report under discussion gives a sketch of six, or to be more exact, of practically five busy months occupied with reorganizing the department on the basis of a curtailed force due to the government draft. Throughout the report, however, there is evidence of a tendency almost verging on eagerness to point out the greater efficiency and economy of the department during the first half of 1918 over the same period of 1917. In view of the fact that there was a change in administration, a full recital of facts, with the conclusions self-evident, would have made the report more valuable as a public document.
The one outstanding feature impressing itself upon the reader of the report is the economies of $777,158.23 effected during the period of six months. This covers among other items a reduction of 926 men, 683 of whom were drafted by the government and whose plaees were not filled by the Police Commissioner although he had authority to do so. The questions naturally arise as to whether the commission and detection of crime had increased or decreased because of this shortage of men; how the additional police problems facing New York City because of the war were met.
If we turn to the crime statistics we find them too meager to offer any answer one way or another. A comparison of arrests by the detective bureau for felonies for the first six months of 1918 and for the same period in 1917 shows a de-


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crease for the former period except in 'three classes of felonies; but there are no figures showing whether the commission of crime had increased or decreased. Furthermore a two-year comparison in crime furnished insufficient data for a conclusion. Footnotes on page 13 of the report do show the number of cases of loft and store burglary, assaults and robbery, larcenies and attempted and miscellaneous felonies reported in January and in June of 1918, showing a reduction in the latter month, but it is not shown over a period of years whether or not a reduction of those crimes in the early summer is normal. Neither is the question raised as to the effects of drafting into the army of thousands of young men.
As to the manner of carrying additional burdens with a reduced force, we find no data showing the organization and distribution of the force. Nor is it clear that the administration desires a reduced force or would voluntarily maintain it at its curtailed strength.
In comparing the sick days of the force for the two half years of 1917 and 1918 the report shows 9,844 less sick days for 1918 or a saving of 16 per cent in sick days. But no consideration is taken of the 926 fewer men on the force in the first half of 1918. In other words the sick days per man should be used if a real basis for comparison is desired.
These instances are extracted from among many not to question the efficiency of the New York Police Department, but merely to emphasize the fact that if the public is to take an intelligent part in government it must have complete and comprehensive statements from governmental departments. Possibly because it is only a mid-year report much information that would ordinarily be included in a departmental report was omitted. Even though brief the report does not leave a particularly clear conception, because of its poor organization and sequence of topics.
■ In short, the report does not ’give the public all the information it ought to have nor is the information given presented in such a manner as to help the public decide how efficient its police department is.
This report does portray, clearly, the manner in which our public affairs are administered, the “on again, off again, gone again, Finnegan,” methods of ever changing departmental administrations, with existing policies and methods being discarded before given a reasonable chance of proving themselves.
Arch M. Mandep.
*
Rainbow Promises in Education.—
Some months ago I came across a pamphlet entitled “Rainbow Promises in Education,” published by the Institute for Public Service (51 Chambers Street, New Yorli City) of which Dr. William H. Allen is director. Its purpose is to attack the assumption of the General Education Boarc that public schools are bad and can be reformed through an experimental schoo. which it was about to set up in New Yorl in connection with Columbia University I had become somewhat accustomed tt such assumptions on the part of founda tions, and viewed them as evidence o: naive conceit and more or less consciou: bravado which please the foundations anc do little harm. Recently I have agaii gone through the- pages of “Rainbov Promises of Education” and have medi tated on the wisdom exhibited therein The war has diverted us from problemi which were at the fore when it was writtei and has stimulated us to solve new anc greater ones.
It is interesting to note how little ha; been accomplished by the experiments school referred to in aid of reconstruction As pointed out by Dr. Allen, the publi-schools have not waited and will not wai for this or that foundation to shape thei courses of instruction or to direct thei methods. The pamphlet referred to give abundant evidence that alert minds ii every corner of our country are overhauling public school systems and rejecting out worn material and methods. More thai this, the pamphlet is a call for schoolmei to appreciate the importance and dignit; of their work. It is a genuine pedagogics treatise. There is no need for the publi to wait until some privately endowe-“experimental school” shows the waj


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The path to progress is being opened up by the workers in the public school themselves. In fact any alleged demonstration made in the type of school established by the General Education Board is open to suspicion. Only in institutions in which a normal clientele is found and in which a publicly selected force controls can we hope for progress. One of the essential elements in experimentation is reasonable normality of conditions.
Albert W. Rankin,
University of Minnesota.
*
Street Cleaning in the City of Rochester.—An excellent example of the manner in which a Bureau of Municipal Research can justify its existence is the Report on the Problem of Street Cleaning in the City of Rochester, N. Y., recently published by the Bureau of Municipal Research of that city. This little volume of 135 pages is the second of three reports on the sanitary services of the Department of Public Works, the result of more than a year of study. The Rochester bureau is strongly manned as regards engineering, so that any technical study produced by it is sure to be of merit.
The street-cleaning problem is approached as almost entirely one of methods and equipment. The increasing use of hard-surfaced pavements in recent years has revolutionized the problem of street cleaning, by rendering street dirt more objectionable and by rendering easy its removal by mechanical equipment. With the tendency of many city officials to let well-enough alone, it is a fortunate city which can have the whole field of modern street-cleaning experience surveyed for it, and the conclusions applied in detail to its own peculiar problems. Rochester is such a fortunate city.
The report is based on field observations, performance tests of equipment, and study of the records of the Department of Public Works. It is divided into two parts, one dealing with the organization and control of force, covering the sub-topics of finance, organization and distribution of force, distribution of the work, proposed bureau of sanitation, and records; the other, deal-
ing with methods and equipment, contains the sub-topics of hand sweeping, street flushing, machine flushing, wagon flushing, hose flushing, street sprinkling, machine sweeping, squeegees and vacuum cleaners, and special street problems.
The report is attractive and readable, and is amply supplied with maps, charts, tables and photographs. It makes a real contribution to the literature in this field.
Sedley H. Phinney.
Philadelphia.
*
Financial Standing of Portland, Oregon.
—For many years the federal census bureau has published a volume of financial statistics of cities, giving detailed information in regard to revenues and expenses of cities of over 30,000 population. Although these data have been analyzed and tabulated in such a way as to make it possible to compare the achievements of one city with another, very little use has been made of the data by the municipalities reported upon. It is of interest, therefore, to note a study of Portland, Oregon, based on these census figures, which was published in the Oregon Voter of November 16, 1918. The writer has compiled from the census report for 1917 and illustrated graphically the figures for the principal sources of revenue and expenditure and the indebtedness of thirty of the largest cities, calling special attention to Portland’s rank in each table. With few slight exceptions the figures have been reproduced without error. In their interpretation, however, it is apparent that certain important considerations have been overlooked. Special attention is called, for instance, to the fact that Portland’s $15.69 per capita revenue from the property tax was the third lowest among the thirty largest cities. Nothing is said, however, about its revenue from special assessments which was $7.55 per capita, or next to the highest in the fist and more than three times the average. Portland gets 24.5 per cent of its revenue from special assessments and special charges for outlays which is the largest per cent for any city in the United States above 30,000 population, except Wichita, Kansas. Port-


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land has also been borrowing heavily so that she stands near the top in per capita interest payments. These financial statistics of cities are published with commendable promptness and should be used more generally by the municipalities to learn how they stand in comparison with others of their class. Great care must be exercised, however, to insure that the items compared are in actual fact strictly comparable. c. C. Williamson.
$
State Boards of Control.—-Texas is in need of a central authority for the supervision of charitable and correctional institutions. A citizen’s commission on charities and corrective legislation appointed by Governor Hobby, with Elmer Scott of Dallas as secretary, presents in this report1 a summary of legislation in various states affecting charitable and correctional institutions. The study is confined mainly to twenty-six states possessing some form of centralized authority, though some attention is given to states with two or more boards whose functions are both administrative and supervisory. Eight states have no general board. Some thirteen other states are not considered because they add nothing new, or for other reasons. The states are separated into three classes: (1) states whose boards are purely supervisory, with stipulated powers of investigation and advice; (2) states whose boards are administrative; and (3) states with two or more boards whose functions are both administrative and supervisory. The body of the study takes up such questions as appointment of state board, members, maintenance cost, authority and powers, institutions, etc.
The method of presentation though perhaps a bit overtechnical is nevertheless accurate and convenient for reference purposes. Social and civic workers generally will find the study valuable as a handbook of information regarding the social legislation of the different states.
i Summaries of state laws relating largely to centralized state authority or supervision over public and private benevolent, penal and correctional institutions. Compiled by the Civic Federation of Dallas, Texas. 1918. 75 pp.
The report also contains a summary oi a questionnaire to prominent men and women which furnishes an interesting appraisal of the value of various forms of centralized control of supervision.
Dorsey W. Hyde, Jr.
*
Causes of Dependency.—The New Yorl State Board of Charities, through its Divi sion of Mental Defect and Delinquency, ii publishing a series of Eugenics and Socia Welfare bulletins. Number 15, reeentl; issued, is a report of 46 pages on an inves tigation of “The causes of dependency,’ based on a Survey of Oneida County which was selected as a representativi community. The field work was con fined to families of patients in various stat institutions coming under the jurisdictioi of the'State Board of Charities. Out o the voluminous data and painstakin; analysis, one practical conclusion arrivei at is that “all attempts by philanthropi persons or agencies for the rehabilitate of such social defectives must first discern with scientific exactness their positiv defects and then really meet the needs c the specific defects of the sick, defective dependent, or anti-social citizen either i the mental or physical sphere, or both.”
A Corporation Budget System.—In th
management of public business it has be come customary to look to private coi porations for examples of efficient organ zation and administration. Little infoi mation has been available, however, i regard to the budget practices of larg corporations. For this reason an articl on the Guaranty Trust Company’s budge system, which appears in the Decembe: 1918, issue of the Guaranty News (14 Broadway, New York), may interes students of budget reform.
*
Municipal Junk Yards and Collection e Waste Paper is the subject of an interes ing report prepared by Frederick Rex, 1 brarianof the Chicago Municipal Ref erene Library for Alderman Kennedy. It ou fines the situation in Chicago and shov what has been done in Cleveland, Roche


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ter and British cities. The report contains much valuable information and many useful suggestions.
*
Governors’ Message.—A comprehensive summary of the subjects treated in the messages of the governors to their respective legislatures convened in January (with the exception of Arizona, Delaware, Nebraska and Oklahoma) is published in the February 15 Bulletin of the Public Affairs Information Service. The work is well done and constitutes a most valuable guide to the subjects and suggestions which our American executives are considering.
if
The Probable Rate of Demobilization
was discussed at the Rochester Conference by Professor H. G. Moulton (of the University of Chicago), who has been connected with the War Labor Policies Board. He gave a brief but comprehensive summary of the factors in the situation, basing his remarks on a striking diagram which has since been reproduced by the War Labor Policies Board. Copies of this reproduction can be had by writing to the offices of the Board in Washington.
in
Dayton Municipal Review is the title of a monthly publication the 1,000 and more employes of the city of Dayton propose issuing to promote efficiency and good-fellowship and to improve their work and obtain better results for their employers— the taxpayers. The first issue, January, 1919, contains only four pages, but they are interesting ones. The city bears the expense of the initial number, though hereafter the publication is expected to be self-supporting. The Dayton Municipal Review represents a departure from the ordinary type of municipal publication. Most of them are designed to carry nothing but official news and advertisements and are consequently municipal publications only in the narrow sense of the word. The Dayton Municipal Review is the natural outcome of an enthusiasm that prevails among the men and women working for the city and furnishes evidence of
an unusual relation between city employes and the community which they serve. if
A World Center of Administration.—
Under this title Hendrik Christian Andersen has published an illuminating plan for working out a project of an international city or an administrative center for the league of nations. “The architectural plans as well as the legal and economic aspects in detail of this administrative center have been most carefully carried out and as you are familiar with its humanitarian benefits and international scope toward facilitating more fraternal and economic relations, and as this appears to be the psychological moment for presenting the project at the peace conference to the governments and people, explaining the utility of this work upon which seventeen years of concentrated labor have been spent, I earnestly beg you to aid me in asking the sincere support of your government as well as any of your friends who may be connected with the press, who can give a wide and appealing reason for the establishment of the administrative center planned for the league of nations.”
Mr. Andersen’s plans are being put forth by the World Conscience Society, 3, Piazza del Popolo, Rome, in a large volume de grand luxe and sent to the rulers and parliaments of all nations and will be followed by the economic and legal arguments.
The whole effort represents a very interesting idealistic movement which will appeal to those who are urging a better organization of the world. Should it be possible to establish such a world center it would unquestionably make for greater solidarity for the nations of the world.
*
Kalamazoo Municipal Bulletin will be published occasionally for free distribution to the citizens of Kalamazoo. It is an attempt to inform the public of how the commission manager form of government is operating in that city, what it has accomplished and what it has under way and what it contains for the future. The first number bears the date of February, 1919.


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Encyclopedie Des Villes et de L’Art Civique.—The preliminary pages of this encyclopedia have been issued by the organizing director, Louis Van der Swael-men, from his offices in Amsterdam, Holland. They represent a very important and interesting contribution to city planning and development which American students will study with profit.
Civic Comment is the title of a striking clipping sheet, now being put out by the American civic association. It deals with sundry important topics including a number that are of urgent importance like Municipal Work for the Unemployed, Comprehensive Plans for Federal and Municipal, Don’t Let the War Gardens Become Peace Deserts, Danger in War Memorials.
IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY1
Accounting
Morey (Lloyd). Miscellaneous income of public institutions. (Jour, of Accountancy, Nov., 1918: 357-360.)
Porter (C. A.) and Carter, (H. K.). Hospital accounting. Accounts with pay patients—superintendent’s ledger and account with the treasurer—the general cash book. (Modern Hospital, Nov., 1918: 371-375.)
Stover (James). Uniformity in school accounting. (Nat. Educ. Assoc. Jour., Nov., 1918: 157-162.)
Americanization
Blackwell (Nancy G.). Making Americans in Washington Irving High School. (Jour, of Educ., Nov. 21, 1918: 516-517.)
Cody (Frank). Americanization courses in the public schools. (Eng. Jour., Dec., 1918: 615-622.)
Delaware. State Council of Defence. Americanization in Delaware. A state policy initiated by the Delaware State Council of Defense. Prepared by Esther E. Lope. [1918.] 48 pp.
Copies may be obtained from the Council’s Americanization Committee, Library Bldg., Wilmington, Del.
Fulcher (G. M.). Americanization of the immigrant in Chicago. [Pts. 1-4.] (Soc. Service Rev., Oct., Nov., Dec., 1918, Jan., 1919: 17, 8-10, 9, 9.)
Mahoney (J. J.) and Herlihy (C. M.). First steps in Americanization; a handbook for teachers. [1918.] 143 pp.
United States. Bureau of Natural-ization. Naturalization laws and regulations. May 15, 1918. 39 pp.
----. Library of Congress. List of
references on American immigration, including Americanization, effect of Euro-peanWar, etc. Sept., 1918. 28pp.,typewritten.
Baths
Anon. The swimming pool. Pts. 1-2. (Amer. Arch., Sept 18, Oct. 2, 1918: 351-355, 410-414.)
_ Whittaker (H. A.). Sanitary suggestions regarding the location, construc-
1B(litf:d by Miss Alice M. Holden, Wellesley College.
tion, and management of public bathing-beaches. (Minn. Municipalities, Dec., 1918: 182-183.)
Building and Construction
Anon. The elimination of waste due to building codes. (Amer. Arch., Jan. 22, 1919: 128-129.)
-----. Building construction in the
United States. The present needs of the country. (Amer. Arch., Jan. 1, 1919: 41-53. tables.)
Contains information obtained from a ques-tionaire sent out by the American Architect to architects, bankers, real estate men and contractors in all parts of the country.
Bodovitz (F. A.). Peace program of municipal construction. (Amer. Municipalities, Jan., 1919: 114-115.)
-----. Public and private construction
undertakings can now proceed. (Engrng. and Contracting, Nov. 20, 1918: 493-494.) Child Welfare
See also Juvenile Delinquency.
Alden (Percy). The state and the child. (Contemporary Rev., Sept., 1918: 237-253.)
Anon. Laying the foundation for the rising generation. A state wide campaign for the Missouri children’s code. (Pub. Welfare, Nov., 1918: 116.)
Barth (George P.) Why have health supervision of the working child? (Child Labor Bui., Nov., 1918: 215-217. charts.)
Eaves (Lucile). War-time child labor in Boston. (Child Labor Bui., Nov., 1918: 185-197. tables.)
Fuller (Raymond G.). A national children’s policy. (Child Labor Bui., Nov., 1918: 198-206.)
-----. A quest of constitutionality.
(Child Labor Bui., Nov., 1918: 207-214.)
National Child Labor Committee. Child welfare in Alabama. 1918. 249 pp.
An inquiry undertaken by the National Child Labor Committee under the auspices and with the co-operation of the University of Alabama.
Citizenship
See also Americanization, Community Service.
Barnard (J. Lynn). A program of civics teaching for war times and after. (Historical Outlook, Dec., 1918: 492-500.)
Hoben (Allan) . The church school of citizenship. 1918. 177 pp.


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Ringdahl (M. Robert). High school course in citizenship. (School Educ., Oct. 1918: 3-6.)
Smith (Edwin B.). A study in citizenship. (Historical Outlook, Dec., 1918: 503-507.)
An outline for a study in citizenship.
Stickle (W. A.). History and civics as a training for citizenship. (School (Toronto), Nov., 1918: 168-173.)
City Manager Plan
Akron. Charter Commission. Proposed charter of the City of Akron. 1918. 32 pp.
This charter, which provides for an elected mayor and city council of eight members, and for an appointed “chief administrator,” was adopted on Nov. 5, 1918.
Anon. Boulder O. K.’s its plan of a city manager. (Rocky Mountain News (Denver), Jan. 12, 1919:5.)
Carr (O. E.). Progress, prospects and pitfalls of the new profession of city manager. (Canadian Engr., Dec. 12, 1918: 513-514, 519.)
Childs (R. S.). A reconstruction program for city managers. (Amer. City, Dec., 1918: 463-464.)
From a paper read at the convention of the City Managers’ Association, held in Roanoke, VaM Nov. 7, 1918.
Taylor (H. W. B.). Advantages of the city-manager form of government for small cities. (Pacific Municipalities, Nov., 1918: 449-450.)
City Planning
See also Housing, Zoning.
Boyd (John T., Jr.). The work of Olmsted Brothers. Pts. 1-2. (Arch. Record, Nov., Dec., 1918: 457-464, 503-521. illus.)
Campbell (A. H.). Problems arising in town planning. (Canadian Engr., Nov. 21, 1918: 447-449.)
Davenport. City Engineer. City planning for Davenport, 1918. 81 pp.
maps, charts, plans.
Fork (Albert) . A plea for better business centers in our surburban towns. (Arch, and Engr. of Calif., Dec., 1918: 81-85. illus.)
Kimball (Fiske). The origin of the plan of Washington, D. C. (Arch. Rev., Sept., 1918: 41-45.)
Locke (W. J.). The power to establish set back lines, from a legal standpoint. (Pacific Municipalities, Nov., 1918: 471-474.)
New Townsman. New towns after the war. An argument for garden cities. 1918. 84 pp.
Prepared by the English National Garden Cities Committee.
Routh (J. W.) and Cartwright (F. P.). City plan commissions. Their organization and effectiveness—opinions from ten cities analyzed and compared—organiza-
tion adopted by Rochester, N. Y. (Mun. Jour., Dec. 7, 1918: 447-448.)
St. Louis. City Plan Commission. St. Louis after the war. 1918. 31 pp.
Introduction by Winston Churchill.
Thompson (F. L.) and Allen (E. G.). The town plan and the house, an opportunity for national economy. [1918.] 41 pp. diagrs.
Waller (A. G.). Town-planning in New Zealand. (Amer. Inst, of Arehs., Jour., Dec., 1918: 567-577.)
Civil Service
Anon. Public employes and civil service. (Modern City, Dec., 1918: 23-27.)
Dana (Richard H.). The merit system in war. (Outlook, Jan. 8, 1919: 57-58.)
New York State. Civil Service Commission. Civil service law, rules and regulations for the classified service as amended to July 20, 1918. 1918. 104 pp.
Scarlett (William). The civil servant as citizen. No wish to strike, but insists on full enjoyment of political rights. (Good Govt., Oct., 1918: 151-154.)
Author "writes as acting chairman of the Publicity Committee, Federal Employes’ Union no. 4.
Wisconsin Civil Service League. Vital issues in civil service reform and efficient government. 1918. [6 pp.]
Headquarters in the Mack Block, Milwaukee, ‘Wis.
----. The merits of the merit system
of political appointments. The federal service and the Wisconsin law. Aims of the Wisconsin Civil Service League. 1918.
10 pp.
Community Service
See also Recreation.
Anon. Rural- community organization in Massachusetts. (Soc. Service Rev., Dec., 1918: 5-7.)
Massachusetts Agricultural College. Extension Service. Mobilizing the rural community. Rural community organization. What it is. How it is done. The benefits to be derived. By E. L. Morgan. Sept., 1918. 54 pp.
Simkhovitch (M. K.). Toward a
neighborhood program. (Survey, Dec. 28, 1918 : 394-395.)
Smith (John F.). Our neighborhood; good citizenship in rural communities. [1918.] 262 pp. illus.
United States. Department of Agriculture. Women’s rural organizations and their activities. Aug. 29, 1918. 15 pp. (Bull. no. 719.)
-------. Library of Congress. References on community centers. 1918. 8
pp. typewritten.
Weller (Charles F.). Community-organization versus institutionalism. (Playground, Nov., 1918: 362-372.)
Wilson (Samuel). The community


182
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[March
house—an element in reconstruction. (Amer. City, Dec., 1918: 467-470.)
Has reference to the opportunities of chambers of commerce.
Correction
See also Juvenile Delinquency, Prison Labor.
Anon. The county jails of Illinois. The disgrace of the state—factors in the promotion of crime and degeneracy, and failures in the protection of society—new laws eliminating worst features of old system. (Modern Hospital, Nov., 1918: 358-363. illus.)
Burleigh (Edith N.). Some principles of parole laws for girls. (Jour, of Crim. Law and Criminology, Nov., 1918: 395-403.)
New York State. Probation Commission. Methods of supervising persons on probation. Report of a committee. 1918. 94 pp.
Whitman (John HProposed State of Illinois co-operation plan for prison management. (Jour, of Crim. Law and Criminology, Nov., 1918:378-384. diagr.)
-----. Operation of the new parole
law in Illinois. (Jour, of Crim. Law and Criminology, Nov., 1918: 385-394. Education
See also Citizenship, Negroes, Schools, Vocational Guidance.
Anon. The small board of education. (School, Oct. 10, 17, 1918: 62, 77.)
Carroll (Charles). Public education in Rhode Island. 1918. 500 pp. (R. I. Educ. Circular.)
^ Published jointly by the State Board of Education, the Commissioner of Public Schools, and the Trustees of the R. I. Normal School.
Corson (David B.). The chief problem in the education of defective children. (Educ., Jan., 1919: 292-298.)
Engleman (J. O.). Moral education in school and home. 1918. 314 pp.
Maltby (S. E.). Manchester and the movement for national elementary education, 1800-1870. 1918. 185 pp. (Pubns. of the Univ. of Manchester, Educ. Series, 8.)
Miller (E. A.). The history of educational legislation in Ohio from 1803 to 1850. 1918. 286 pp. illus., diagrs.
Orr (William) . Business methods and standards in education. (Amer. School Bd. Jour., Dec., 1918: 29-31, 75.)
Proctor (William M.). The use of intelligence tests in the educational guidance of high school pupils. (School and Soc., Oct. 19, 26, 1918: 473-478, 502-509.)
Sandiford (Peter), ed. Comparative education: studies of the educational systems of six modern nations. 1918. 510 pp.
Snedden (David). The practical arts in general education. (Teachers Coll. Record, Jan., 1919: 15-33.)
United States. Bureau of Education. Educational survey of Elyria, Ohio. 1918. 300 pp. (BuL, 1918, no. 15.)
Industrial Education
Anon. How federal, state and local governments are co-operating to promote trade and industrial education. (Amer. City, Dec., 1918: 456-460.)
Mitchell (John). Vocational rehabilitation of crippled industrial workers. 1918. 16 pp.
Reprinted from report of fifth biennial conference of Catholic Charities, Sept. 15-18, 1918.
Morgan (D. S.). State administration of vocational education. (Amer. Pol. Sci. Rev., Nov., 1918: 674-676.)
United States. Federal Board foe Vocational Education. Buildings and equipment for schools and classes in trade and industrial subjects. Nov., 1918. 77 pp., plate, illus. (Bui. no. 20.)
Welfare Federation of Cleveland Education and occupations of cripples juvenile and adult. A survey of all the cripples of Cleveland, Ohio, in 1916. Reported by Lucy .Wright and Amy M Hamburger. Oct., 1918. 227 pp., plates (Pubs, of the Red Cross Inst, for Crippled and Disabled Men, series 2, no. 3.) Fire Prevention
Anon. A fire prevention law. A Cana dian act for suppression of fires, which wa: one of the first to be passed. (Fireman’s Herald, Nov. 2, 1918: 350-352.)
----. The Bureau of Fire Preventioi
in Chicago. (Nat. Fire Protec. Assoc Quart., Oct., 1918: 149-154.)
Devereux (Washington). What cai the municipal electrician do to aid in firs prevention? (Fire and Water Engrng. Dec. 18, 1918: 442-443.)
Gasser (C. A.). Peace outlook fo: fire prevention. (Fire Protec., Jan., 1919 12-13.)
Hilton (F. L.). Individual liability for fires due to carelessness or neglect (Fire and Water Engrng., Jan. 1,1919: 30.'
Paper read before the annual convention of th Pacific Coast Fire Chiefs Association.
Fire Protection
Anon. Protection of life against fire Pt. 1—exits, fire alarms, and fire drills (Safe Practices, 1918. 16 pp. illus.)
Fleming (T. A.). Problems fire mar shals must confront. (Fire Protec., Jan. 1919: 10-11.)
Rigby (C. E.). Fire protection ii manufacturing plants. (Amer. Soc. o Mech. Engrs. Jour., Oct., 1918: 842-847. Health Insurance
Commonwealth Club of California Health insurance. (Trans., Oct., 1918 265-335.)
Howell (Thomas). Workmen’s com pensation, health insurance and hospitals A far-sighted discussion of the future rela tion of charitable hospitals to industrj indicating vast changes which the futur may have in store. (Modern Hospita Nov., 1918: 414-416.)


1919]
BIBLIOGRAPHY
183
Howell (Thomas). Health insurance and its relation to hospitals. Favorable conclusions with regard to health insurance —opportunity for hospitals to become hub of system—advantages to be received. (Modern Hospital, Dec., 1918: 466-468.)
Tctcker (George E.). Compulsory health insurance. I. (Amer. Industries, Jan., 1919: 19-20.)
Address delivered at the Eighth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Casualty and Surety Underwriters, New York City, Dec. 4, 1918.
Highways
See also Motor Vehicles, Roads, Street Cleaning.
Dilbree (R. E.). Construction methods employed in building Lincoln Highway Cut-off across the desert at Gold Hill, Utah. (Mun. and Cy. Engrng., Dec., 1918: 195-197.)
Ellingson (0. J. S.). The State Highway Law and its relation to the cities. (Texas Municipalities, Jy., 1918: 99-103.)
Hirst (A. R.). Principles controlling the layout, marking and maintenance of trunk highway systems. Detailed account of methods followed by Wisconsin recently in inaugurating a 5,000-mile system of state-maintained highways—■ patrol system, paid for by state, is administered by counties. (Engrng. News-Record, Dec. 12, 19, 1918: 1065-1068, 1128-1134. illus.)
Paper read before the Joint Highway Congress, Chicago, Dec. 12, 1918.
Mehren (E. J.). A suggested national highway policy and plan. Phenomenal growth of interstate motor traffic, favorable attitude of government and people, and magnitude of problem make suggestion timely. (Engrng. News-Record, Dec. 19, 1918: 1112-1117.)
New Jersey. State Highway Commission. Report of state engineer on state highway system [by Gen. Geo. W. Goethals]. 1918. 12 pp.
Stilgoe_(H. E.). The city of Birmingham arterial roads improvement. [Pts. 1-2.] (Surveyor and Mun. and Cy. Engr., Oct. 25, Nov. 1, 1918: 200, 211.)
United States. Bureau of Public Roads. State highway management, control and procedure; by M. O. Eldridge, and others. Pts. 1-2. (Pub. Roads, Aug., Sept., 1918: 24-48, 36-52. charts.)
Results of investigations in the several states conducted by the Bureau of Public Roads. A separate section is devoted to each state, as follows: (I) Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Georgia, Illinois (August); (2) Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana (September).
Housing
See also City Planning.
Anon. , Housing in the British Isles. (Amer. Inst, of Archs., Jour., Nov., 1918: 528-531.)
----. Industrial housing at Perryville,
Md. (Amer. Arch., Oct. 30, 1918: 503-510. illus, plans.)
----. Local authorities and housing.
Scottish Local Government Board memorandum: five type plans. (Surveyor and Mun. and Cy. Engr., Sept. 13, 1918: 123-126. diagrs.)
——. The provision of working-class dwellings. Local Government Boards’ Committee’s report and recommendations . (Surveyor and Mun. and Cy. Engr., Nov. 22, 1918: 243-244.)
Baines (Frank). Roe Green village scheme, Kingsbury, England. (U. S. Bur. of Labor Stat., Monthly Rev., Oct., 1918: 251-257.)
Baxter (Sylvester). The government’s housing activities. (Arch. Record, Dec., 1918: 561-565.)
Cram (Ralph A.). Scrapping the slums. (Amer. Arch., Dec. 25, 1918:761-763.)
Crawford (Andrew W.). Standards set by the new federal war suburbs and war cities. 1918. 24 pp. (Amer. Civic Assoc., ser. 11, no. 12.)
Great Britain. Royal Commission on Housing in Scotland. Report . .
. . . on the housing of the industrial
population of Scotland, rural and urban.
1917. 460 pp.
Hall (Bolton). The one-piece house. How the cycle of production is applied to the concrete cottage. (Scien. Amer., Dec. 14, 1918: 474r-475. illus.).
Hutchinson (Woods). Building for health. A house should fit its owner like his skin. (Amer. Arch., Jan. 22, 1919: 121-123.)
Ihlder (John). Housing. Studies in reconstruction, I. (Survey, Jan. 4,1919:474.)
Contains a brief bibliography on the subject.
Nolen (John). The industrial village. Sept., 1918. 22 pp. illus. (Nat. Housing Assoc. Pubns., no. 50.)
----. Housing standards of the federal
government. (Amer. Arch., Dec. 25, 1918 : 763-765.)
Province of Ontario. Circular re housing proposition. Dec., 1918. [2 pp.]
Information may be had from J. A. Ellis, Esq., Parliament Bldgs., Toronto, Ont.
Swan (H. S.). Co-partnership housing in England. 1918, 7 pp.
Reprinted from Journal of the American Institute of Architects for April, 1918. A copy may be had on application to the Author or to the Committee on New Industrial Towns, 381 Fourth Ave., New York City.
—— and Tuttle (G. W.). Sunlight engineering in city planning and housing.
1918. [8 pp.] diagrs., tables.
----. Planning buildings for daylight.
1918. [8 pp.] diagrs., tables.
The above two articles are reprinted from The Architectural Forum for June and November, 1918, respectively. Copies may be secured by addressing Mr, Swan, at 277 Broadway, New York City.
Taylor (C. S.). The future and influence of American war housing developments. (Amer. Arch., Dec. 18, 1918: 721-725.)


184 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March
United States. Department op Labor. Some instructions issued by the Bureau of Industrial Housing and Transportation. (Landscape Arch., Oct., 1918: 9-23.)
Industry and Public Welfare
See also Child Welfare, Labor Legislation, Public Safety.
Emery (James Q.). Industrial readjustment. (Amer. Industries, Jan., 1919: 12-15.)
Massachusetts. Minimum Wage Commission. Wages of women employed as office and other building cleaners in Massachusetts. May, 1918. 36 pp. (Bui. no.
National Industrial Conference Board. The eight hour day defined. Nov., 1918. 9pp. (Researchrept.no.il.)
United States. War Labor Board. Memorandum on the eight-hour working day. July, 1918. 104 pp.
Juvenile Delinquency
See also Correction.
Massachusetts. Commission of Probation. The relationship of mental defect and disorder to delinquency, by V. V. Anderson. Je., 1918. [11 pp.]
New York State. Board of Charities. The problem of the mental defective and the delinquent. 1918. 58 pp. (Eugenics and Soc. Welfare Bui. no. 13.)
Nicholson (A. F.). The present-day problem of juvenile delinquency. (Child [London], Oct., 1918: 1-16.)
Labor Legislation
American Association of Labor Legislation. Review of labor legislation of 1918. Sept., 1918: pp. 235-277. (Amer. Labor Leg. Rev.)
Canada. Department of Labor. Labor legislation in Canada, 1917. 1918.
740 pp.
United States. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Labor legislation of 1917. Aug., 1918. 430 pp. (Bui. no. 244.) Motor Vehicles
See also Highways.
Breed (H. E.). License fees for motor vehicles and drivers.. Those benefited should pay for highways—theory of marginal utility indicates that public should pay first cost, while user should pay maintenance. (Engrng. News-Record, Dec. 19, 1918: 1117-1120.)
Graham (G. M.). Regulation of speed, weight, width and height of motor trucks discussed. They are essential transportation agencies, and while regulation is necessary, it should not restrict their expansion—table of proposed dimensions, speeds, weights and fees presented. (Engrng. News-Record, Dec. 19, 1918: 1109-1112.)
Municipal Government and Administration
See also City Manager Plan.
City Club of Chicago. A plan of reconstruction for Chicago’s local government—I—III (Bui., Jan. 13, 20, 27, 1919: 9-10, 15-16, 21-22, 29-30.)
Dalzell (A. G.). .The problem of city development; an economic survey. (Engrng. Inst, of Canada, Jour., Nov., 1918: 319, 321-330. charts.)
Guild (Frederick H.). Special municipal corporations. (Amer. Pol. Sci. Rev., Nov., 1918: 678-684.)
Municipal Journal (New York). Index to current municipal literature. [1918.] 113 pp.
Contains references to articles published during
1917 in more than sixty periodicals.
Story (Russell M.). The American municipal executive. 1918. 231 pp.
(Univ. of 111. Studies in the Soc. Sciences, no. 3, Sept., 1918.)
University of Oklahoma. The University Extension. Municipal Reference Bureau. Oklahoma municipalities. Nov., 1918. 37 pp. (Bui. no. 42.)
Whyte (W- E.). Civic reconstruction. The place of the local authority after the war—coming big schemes. (Mun. Jour. [London], Oct. 18, 1918:1041.)
Municipal Ownership
Anon. War-time lighting finances. How the municipal plant of South Norwalk, Conn., met the difficult conditions of the past year. (Mun. Jour., Nov. 23,
1918 : 404-406.)
----. Municipal repair shops. Shops
and yards of Los Angeles and San Francisco—apparatus of various departments stored and kept in repair—equipment of machine, blacksmith and paint shops—■ supply department. (Mun. Jour., Nov. 2, 1918: 339-342. illus.)
Laidler (H. W.). Public ownership throughout the world; a survey of the extent of government control and operation. 1918. 48 pp.
Public Ownership League of America. Public ownership press service.
Typewritten sheets issued from time to time by the League (1439 Unity Bldg., Chicago) containing news and notes of various municipal- and public-ownership undertakings.
San Francisco. Board of Supervisors. Financial report of the Municipal Railway of San Francisco [for the] fiscal years ended June 30, 1916 [and] 1917. [1918.] 23 pp.
Schultz (Frank T.). The reconstruction of a municipal water and light department. The experience of Columbia City, Indiana. (Amer. City, Dec., 1918: 490-494. illus.)


1919]
BIBLIOGRAPHY
185
Negroes
Davis (Jackson). County training schools. (Southern Workman, Oct., 1918: 481-489.)
----. Negro training and racial good
will. (Amer. Rev. of Revs., Nov., 1918: 521-528.)
Louisiana. Department op Education. Aims and needs in negro public education in Louisiana. Sept., 1918. 26 pp. (Bui. no. 2.)
Noble (S. G.). Forty years of the public schools in Mississippi, with special reference to the education of the negro. 1918. 142 pp. (Teachers’ Coll., Con-
tribs. to Educ., no. 24.)
Parks
Ferriss (H. R.). Methods and cost of maintenance of a 27J acre park system. (Engrng. and Contracting, Dec. 4, 1918: 525-526.)
Small (J. H., Jr.). Some small parks in Washington, D. C. Evolution in path systems. .(Landscape Arch., Oct., 1918: 24-25, plates.)
Pavements
See also Roads.
Anon. Street paving in San Francisco. Basalt blocks for heavy traffic, brick for steep grades and asphalt and bituminous concrete for easy grades—methods of constructing base and wearing surface—■ grading streets—cost. (Mun. Jour., Jan. 4, 1919: 1-3.)
Davis (D. B.) System controls openings in city pavements [in Richmond, Ind.]. City engineer does backfilling and repair work with the city forces— blank forms used with plan are reproduced. (Engrng. News-Record, Oct. 17, 1918: 707-708.)
Pensions
See also Health Insurance.
New Jersey. Pension and Retirement Fund Commission. Report . . . on the organization of the New Jersey teachers’ pension and retirement systems. (State Research, Consecutive no. 13, Nov., 1918: 5-26.)
Issued also as separate report (Jan., 1919. 24pp.)
New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce. Bureau of State Research. Teachers’ retirement systems in New Jersey: their fallacies and evolution. Dec., 1918. 87 pp.
Previously printed in New Jersey State Research, Consecutive no. 10 (Feb., 1918).
Sttjdensxy (Paul). A sound municipal pension act and central supervision of all pension funds in New Jersey. Plan proposed by the New Jersey Pension and Retirement Fund Commission. 1918. 8 pp. (New.Jersey, Oct., 1918.)
Published by the New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce, Newark, N. J.
Police
Anon. The question of the policewoman. (Policeman’s News, Dec., 1918: 11.)
-------•. New York police reserve a permanent institution. . (Policeman’s News, Jan., 1919: 24-25. illus.)
----. The Utica military police.
(Policeman’s News, Dec., 1918: 22-24. illus.)
Crane (T. J.). How Woonsocket, Rhode Island, is policed. (Policeman’s News, Jan., 1919. 12-15, 30. illus.)
Eschenberg (C. J.). What a police band can accomplish. (Policeman’s News, Dec., 1918: 30-32.)
Gault, (R. H.). A progressive police system in Berkeley, California. (Amer. Inst, of Crim. Law and Criminology, Jour., Nov., 1918 : 319-322.)
Greenslitt (F. E.). Pawtucket and its police. (Policeman’s News, Jan., 1919: 1-5, 29.)
McPhee (J. F.). Chief Quilty’s department. A story of the Springfield, Mass., police. (Policeman’s News, Dec., 1918: 1-5, 28 illus.)
Prison Labor
Gemmill (W. N.). Employment and compensation of prisoners. (Policeman’s News, Jan., 1919: 16-17, 28-29.) Proportional Representation
Anon. The progress of proportional representation. (Survey, Dec. 14, 1918: 349-350.)
Hoag (C. G.). The progress of proportional representation. (Public, Dec. 21, 1918: 1526-1528.)
Hopper (J. J.). Plea for proportional voting plan. How it would change the party representation in the State Senate— present method declared unjust to minority parties entitled to a voice in legislation. (State Service, Dec., 1918: 29-33.)
Public Health
See also Schools, Vital Statistics.
American Journal of Public Heatlh. Jan., 1919.
This issue contains the Influenza Bulletin, the working program issued by the Special Committee in Chicago and many other papers on influenza delivered at the Chicago Meeting of the American Public Health Association.
Davis (Katharine Bement). Social hygiene and the war. Women’s part in the campaign. 1918. 36 pp. (Amer. Soc. Hygiene Assoc. Pubn. no. 159.)
The Association’s offices are at 105 W. 40th St., New York City.
Goqdale (Walter S.). Municipal hospitals and dispensaries, as organized and conducted in Buffalo, N. Y. (N. Y. State Dept, of Health, Health News, Dec., 1918:338-344.)


186
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[March
Lewis (D. M.). Municipal control of diphtheria. (Boston Med. and Surgical Jour., Dec. 19, 1918: 755-761, tables, illus.)
McLaughlin (Alan J.). The organization of federal, state and local health forces. (Amer. Jour, of Pub. Health, Jan., 1919: 38-40.)
New York City. Department of Health. Monthly Bulletin. Dec., 1918. pp. 265-300.
This issue is devoted to the subject of the recent influenza epidemic, with special reference to New York City.
United States. Public Health Service. City health officers, 1918. Directory of those in cities of 10,000 or more population in 1910. (Pub. Health Repts., Nov. 29, 1918: 2095-2109.)
Vincent (George E.). Team play in public health. (Amer. Jour, of Pub. Health, Jan., 1919: 14-20.)
Zinsser (William H.). Social hygiene and the war. Fighting venereal diseases a public trust. 1918. 29 pp. (Amer. Soc. Hygiene Assoc. Pubn. no. 160.) Public Safety
Anon. Rochester’s notable public safety campaign. (Amer. City, Nov., 1918: 363-366. illus.)
------. Summary of state laws for elimination of railroad grade crossings. (Engrng. and Contracting, Jan. 1, 1919: 17-19.)
New York State. Industrial Commission. Bureau of Statistics and Information. Shop safety organization. Suggested plan. (Bull., Dec., 1918: 48-52, 57.)
Simpson (R. E.). The relation between light curtailment and accident [with discussion]. (Illuminating Engrng. Soc., Trans., Nov. 20, 1918: 429-438.)
United States. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The safety movement in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1917. By
L. W. Chaney and H. S. Hanna. Je., 1918. 299 pp. (Bui. whole no. 234.) Public Utilities
See also Municipal Ownership.
Alvord (John W.). â–  Influence of recent events on utility valuation procedure. (Mun. and Cy. Engrng., Dec., 1918: 210-212.)
Anon. The basis of rate-making. (Minn. Municipalities, Oct., 1918: 136-139.)
——. Decision of Judge Westenhaver in the Columbus Street railway fare case. (Minn. Municipalities, Dec., 1918: 192-197.)
Reprinted from The City Bulletin, Columbus, Ohio.
Brossman (Charles). Practical measures for securing greatest economy In public utility plant operation. V. Prop-
er use of recording and indicating instruments. (Mun. and Cy. Engrng., Dec., 1918: 266-208.)
Claffy (Thomas J.). Investigations of pipe corrosion in Chicago buildings, with special reference to durability of pipe materials. (Mun. andCy. Engrng., Dec., 1918 : 208-210.)
Ford (J. F.). Rates for gas service. (Amer. Municipalities, Sept., 1918: 145-149.)
French (R. D.). Collective public service operation. As proposed for the four towns on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, opposite Montreal. (Canadian Engr., Dec. 19, 1918: 528.)
Hale (R, L.). Valuation and ratemaking. The conflicting theories of the Wisconsin Railroad Commission, 1905-1917, with a chapter on the uncertainty of the U. S. Supreme Court decisions, and a concluding chapter on the need of a revised principle of utility valuation. 1918. 156
pp. (Columbia Univ. Studies in History, Economics and Public Law.)
Metcalf (Leonard). Commission control does not remove hazard of utility investment. Ruling in Indianapolis water-rate case makes company share war risk and modifies former commission’s position. (Engrng. News-Record, Dec. 19, 1918: 1134-1136.)
Miller (D. D.). Industrial applies tions of electricity—1. It is predicted that the electric heating load will eventually surpass the motor load—convenience of control of electrically generated heat results in improved product and increased production. (Elec. Rev., Oct. 12, 1918: 693-695. illus.)
Nash (L. R.). Recent developments in service-aUcost franchises for utilities. The principal provisions of the various service-at-cost franchises of electric railway companies are described with great care and compared as to results—the author then draws conclusions as to the most desirable forms of a service-at-cost franchise. (Elec. Ry. Jour., Jan. 4, 1919: 15-33.)
Recreation
See also Parks.
Calkins (Raymond). Substitutes for the saloon. The opportunity for a great program of recreation when both army and saloons demobilize. (Survey, Jan. 11 1919: 493-495.)
Cocks (O. G.). The regulation of commercial amusements, (N. J. Municipalities, Oct., 1918: 236-237.)
An address delivered before the third annual, convention of the New Jersey State League of Municipalities, Trenton, Jan. 4, 1918.
Cunliff (Nelson). Municipal open-air theatre, Forest Park, St. Louis. (Parks and Recreation, Oct., 1918: 8-10. illus.)


1919]
BIBLIOGRAPHY
187
Cttrtis (H. S.). An educational campaign for playgrounds. (Parks and Recreation, Oct., 1918: 16-17.)
Douglas (O. W.). Community recreation an essential. (Parks and Recreation, Oct., 1918: 24-29. illus.)
Fisk (A. A.). Public recreation. How furnished and how supported. (Parks and Recreation, Oct., 1918:11-13. illus.)
Ross (Edward A.). Adult recreation as a social problem. (Playground, Dec., 1918: 379-385.)
Storey (T. A.). State legislation for physical training. (Playground, Nov., 1918: 346-361.)
Refuse and Garbage Disposal
Anon. Garbage disposal by feeding to hogs. (Engrng. and Contracting, Dec. 11, 1918: 550.)
----. Methods of garbage and rubbish
collection and disposal in larger American cities. (Engrng. and Contracting, Dec. 11,1918:544-546.)
-------. Utilization of garbage; interesting facts from America. (Surveyor and Mun. and Cy. Engr., Nov. 1,1918:208.)
Bammar (F. C.). Garbage utilization work of the United States Food Administration. (Mun. and Cy. Engrng., Oct., 1918: 146-147.)
Knowlton (W. T.). Waste products of cities and the war. (Pacific Municipalities, Nov., 1918: 454—461.)
Phelps (Earle B.). Treatment and disposal of creamery wastes (Mun. Jour., Jan. 25, 1919: 68-70. tables.) Roads
See also Highways, Pavements.
Anon. Does road oiling pay? Some data from Iowa. (Minn. Municipalities, Dec., 1918: 191-192.)
Reprinted from Iowa State Highway Commission Service Bulletin.
----. Road maintenance methods and
devices effect saving of material, labor and fuel. Bureau of Maintenance and Repair, New York State Highway Department, working through nine division engineers, endeavors to keep the war-traffic roads open and still conserve material. (Engrng. News-Record, Nov. 28, 1918: 981-984. illus.)
MacDonald (Rt. Hon. Sir J. H. A.). The road: its paramount importance as viewed by a Briton. (Mun. and Cy. Engrng., Dec., 1918: 218-220.)
From an article originally printed in Chamber's Journal, London.
Wiley (Rodman). The aims of engineers engaged in road work. (Mun. and Cy. Engrng., Dec., 1918: 200-201.)
Wood (Francis). Investigations in the structure of road surfaces. (Surveyor and Mun. and Cy. Engr., Dec. 6, 1918: 266.)
Schools
See also Accounting, Citizenship, Community Service, Education, Negroes, Pensions, Public Health.
Alexander (Carter). Translating school statistics for the public. (Teachers’ Coll. Record, Jan., 1919: 34—42.)
Corson (O. T.). Our public schools, their teachers, pupils, and patrons. 1918. 302 pp.
Dean (Arthur D.). Our schools in war time—and after. (Teachers’ Coll. Record, Jan., 1919: 1-14.)
Fairchild (R. W.). The measure of the administrator. (Amer. School Bd. Jour., Dec., 1918: 23-24.)
Finney (R. L.). Records, accounts, reports, etc., for the village school. (Amer. School Bd. Jour., Dec., 1918:25-27, 35.)
Flexner (Abraham) and Bachman (Frank P.). The Gary schools; a general account. 1918. 265 pp. plates,
plan, tables, diagrs.
Issued by the General Education Board.
Kelly (F. J.). The general or composite industrial school in the city of less than twenty-five thousand population. (School and Soc., Dec. 21, 1918: 721-726.)
Mirick (George A.). Administration and supervision. (Elementary School Jour., Dec., 1918: 285-290.)
Reavis (W. C.). The duties of the supervising principal. (Elementary School Jour., Dec., 1918 : 279-284.)
Sumner (Charles) . Concerning school bonds. (School Bd. Jour., Jan., 1919: 23-24.)
White (Robert J.). Cost of high school instruction in [state of] Washington. (School Bd. Jour., Jan., 1919:25-26, 78.)
Wilcox (George M.), Cost of high school instruction. (Educ. Admin, and Supervision, Nov., 1918: 445-466. tables.)
Bibliography on cost in relation to education, pp. 464—466.
By Localities
California. State Board of Education. Committee of Twenty-one on Reorganization of Public School System. Reports of sub-committee on school administration. (Sierra Educ. News, Oct., 1918: 455-460.)
Jones (A. J.). Early schools in Worcester, Massachusetts. (Educ. Admin, and Supervision, Oct., 1918: 417—424.)
Maddox (W. A.). The free school idea in Virginia before the Civil War; a phase of political and social evolution. 1918. 225 pp. (Teachers’ Coil., Contribs. to Educ., no. 93.)
Bibliography, pp. 199-217.
Mead (A. R.). The development of free schools in the United States as illustrated by Connecticut and Michigan. 1918. 236 pp. tables. (Teachers’ Coll., Contribs. to Educ., no. 91.)
Bibliography, pp. 200-202, 219-220.


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Oklahoma. Department op Education. Rural centralized, graded and model schools. Prepared by E. A. Drake. 1918. 89 pp. illus., diagrs.
------. School survey suggestion; Alfalfa County, Grady County, Wagoner County, 1918. Prepared by E. A. Drake. 1918.--130 pp. illus., maps.
United States. Bureau op Education. The public schools of Columbia, South Carolina. 1918. 192 pp. (Bui.
1918, no. 28.)
School Hygiene
Ayres (May), Williams (Jesse F.), and Wood (Thomas D.). Healthful schools; how to build, equip, and maintain them. 1918. 292 pp. plates, plans.
Heizer (W. L.) and Gilbert (Mrs. V. D.). Health and sanitation through the public schools of Kentucky. [1918.] 183 pp. illus., diagrs.
Holt (Emmett). Safeguarding the health of our school children. (N. C. Health Bui., Jan., 1919: 11-13.)
Reprinted from, the New York Times and Bulletin of the Child Heaith Organization.
Rapeer (L. W.). Rural school health work. (Jour, of the N. Y. State Teachers’ Assoc., Oct., 1918: 225-231.)
Teachers
Curtis (Henry S.). . Continuation schools for teachers. (Educ. Rev., Sept., 1918: 108-116.)
Martin (A. S.). Teachers’ salary— increase in Pennsylvania paramount to the welfare of the children and the state. (School Bd. Jour., Jan., 1919: 22, 78.)
Withers (John W.). Training of teachers in service. II. (Elementary School Jour., Dec., 1918: 268-278.)
Part I appeared in the October.
Sewerage and Sewage Disposal
Anon. Instructions for the operation of sewage plants. (Engrng. and Contracting, Dec. 11, 1918: 548-549.)
----. Promising results with Miles
acid process of sewage treatment in New Haven tests. Good removal of suspended and settleable solids and bacteria—effluent and sludge stable—grease utilization problems—local conditions favor process at New Haven. (Engrng. News-Record, Dec. 5, 1918: 1034-1036.)
Durrant (W. K. F.). Sewage disposal from an operator’s standpoint. (Canadian Engr., Dec. 12, 1918: 512-513.)
Abstract from Western Municipal News.
Knowles (Morris) and Rice (John
M.). Relation of main drainage to river and harbor front improvement in various American cities. (Mun. and Cy. Engrng., Dec., 1918: 204-205.)
Moore (S. D.). Estimating sewer system costs. Analysis of elements entering into calculation, with figures from
five years’ experience in a large contracting business. (Mun. Jour., Nov. 2, 1918: 342-344.)
Phelps (E. B.). Control of stream pollution. (Canadian Engr., Dec. 12, 1918: 515-518.)
Potts (Clyde). Design and operation of automatic sewage pumping station at West Haven, Conn. (Mun. and Cy. Engrng., Dec., 1918: 199-200.)
Winslow (C. E. A.), and Mohlman (F. W.). Four methods of sewage treatment studied at New Haven testing station. Miles acid process advised for first of four permanent works rather than fine screens, Imhoff tanks (each with chlorination) or activated sludge—results of analysis, and cost estimates. (Engrng. News-Record, Jan. 2, 1919: 32-36.)
Smoke Abatement
Newark. Department of Parks and Public Property. [Smoke regulation and coal conservation.] Issued for local distribution. . . . Compiled by Dan-
iel Maloney, Smoke Inspector. 1918. 78 pp. illus.
Street Cleaning and Snow Removal
Anon. Snow removal from trunk line highways. (Engrng. and Contracting, Dec. 4, 1918: 520-521.)
------. Snow removed by various methods at Milwaukee. Street railway loads snow by electrical shovels into dump-car trains and motor trucks, dumping through a bridge. (Engrng. News-Records, Nov. 7, 1918: 857-858.)
Bennett (Charles J.) Snow removal on trunk line highways. (Mun. and Cy. Engrng., Dec., 1918: 214-215.)
Biles (George H.). Organization, methods and equipment employed in removing snow from main roads in Pennsylvania. (Mun. and Cy. Engrng., Dec., 1918:216-218. illus.)
Rochester Bureau of Municipal Research. Report on the problem of street cleaning. Oct., 1918. 133 pp.,
maps, tables, diagrs.
Social Problems
Anon. The new social order in America. Oct., 1918.
A study syllabus which is the “Co-operation product of a number of liberal thinkers.” The pamphlet may be secured (15 cents) from Mr. Hornell Hart, 807 Neave Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Neighborhood Workers’ Associations (Toronto). Social service directory of Toronto. [1918.] 60 pp.
Puffer (J. A.). Studies of present-day social problems for social, civic and religious organizations. (Pub. Welfare, Nov., 1918:121-125.)
University of Oklahoma. Social problems. J. W. Scroggs, editor. Nov. 15, 1918. 156 pp. (Univ. Extension
series no. 44.)


BIBLIOGRAPHY
189
1919]
Waldman (Louis). Food and the people. The problem of the high cost of living in the New York Legislature. 1918. 45 pp.
State Government
Smith (C. Lysle). The committee system in state legislatures. (Amer. Pol. Sci. Rev., Nov., 1918 : 607-640. tables.)
Taxation and Finance
See also Municipal Ownership, Schools.
Anon. Receipts of the state government. An analysis of the sources of state revenue and a comparison of their relative importance. (Calif. Taxpayers’ Jour., Dec., 1918: 2-10. tables.)
â– ----. A suggested model tax system.
Recommendations and findings of a special committee of the National Tax Association. (Calif. Taxpayers’ Jour., Dec., 1918:16-20.)
----. Taxation for county purposes.
Showing the tendencies toward increases, with rates, valuations and amounts produced. (Calif. Taxpayers’ Jour., Dec., 1918:11-15. tables.)
----â– . Taxation of street railways in
Rhode Island. ' With comparative data from other states. (Bui., Nat. Tax Assoc., Nov., 1918: 56-57.)
Boulder. City Manager. 1919 budget ... as tentatively adopted by the City Council . . . November,
1918. 22 pp.
Bureau of Municipal Research, New York. The New York State Legislature budget and financial measures for 1918. 1918. 125 pp. (Mun. Research,
no. 93.)
Bureau of Municipal Research, Toronto. An analysis of Toronto’s budget for 1918, based upon the official estimates, rearranged by the Bureau of Municipal Research so as to show costs of services rendered and of things purchased. 1918. 24 pp. diagrs.
Gary (J. Vaughan). A brief history of tax reform in Virginia. (Bui., Nat. Tax Assoc., Nov., 1918: 49-52.)
Hunter ((M. H-). Taxation of public service corporations in the state of New York. I and II. (Bui., Nat. Tax Assoc., Nov., Dec., 1918: 34-39, 75-80.)
Manierre (C. E.). Value in real estate assessment. (Bui., Nat. Tax Assoc., Nov. 1918:47-49.)
Meech (H. Wm.). Municipal assessments and taxation in Alberta. (Western Mun. News, Dec., 1918: 331-334.)
National Tax Association. Preliminary report of the committee appointed . . . to prepare a plan of a model sys-
tem of state and local taxation. Sept., 1918. 45 pp.
PrERSON (Arthur N.). Analysis of the laws affecting municipal and county finances and taxation. 1918. 124 pp.
Published by the New Jersey Commission for the Survey of Municipal Financing, Trenton, N. J.
Spaulding (R. II.). New Hampshire needs a state budget. (Granite Monthly Jan., 1919: 1-8.)
The writer was governor of New Hampshire in 1915 and 1936.
Wood (E. M.). Assessment and taxation of property in Manitoba municipalities. (Western Mun. News, Nov., 1918: 297-300.)
Terminal Facilities
American Railway Engineering Association. Preliminary report on yards and terminals: unit operation of railroad terminals in large cities. Catechism on unit operation of railroad terminals. 1918. 43 pp. (Bui. no. 208, Aug., 1918.)
The following papers are appended: Unified operation of terminals, by J. F. Wallace; Unit operation, of large terminals, by.H. J. Pfeifer; Improvement in operating methods of intermediate transfer railroads, by E. H. Lee.
Galveston Commercial Association. The port of Galveston. Oct., 1918. 61 pp., maps, illus.
Seattle Chamber of Commerce and Commercial Club. Report of Seattle Terminal Survey Committee on Seattle rail and water terminals and harbor improvements. [April 2, 1918.] 90 pp. plans.
Transit
See also Municipal Ownership, Public Utilities, Taxation.
Bethlehem Chamber of Commerce. Committee on Improved Trolley Facilities. Transit problems for Bethlehem, Pa., and vicinity. Prepared by Delos F. Wilcox, 1918. 225 pp. maps, tables, diagrs.
Glaser (Julius). The design of subways. (N. Y. State Pub. Service Record, Oct., Nov., 1918: 1-10. plans.)
Wilcox (D. F.). Problems of reconstruction with respect to urban transportation. (Amer. City, Dec., 1918: 440-444.)
Chicago
Anti-Traction Ordinance Commitee. Another “deal” in traction. [1918.] [4 pp.]
Chicago. City Council. The new traction ordinance. Sept., 1918. 92 pp.
------•. Committee on Local Transportation. The new traction ordinance. 1918. 44 pp., map.
——. Mayor. “The new traction ordinance.” Veto message of Mayor Wm. Hale Thompson to the City Council. Aug. 22, 1918. 16 pp.
Chicago Association of Commerce. Rapid transit for Chicago. [1918.] [4
PP-]
6


190
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[March
Chicago Municipal Ownership League. The traction ordinance exposed. [1918.] [4 pp.]
--------. Municipal ownership of the Chicago street car lines without further delay. [1918.]-[4 pp.]
Chicago Political Equality League. Civics Department. Transportation Committee. Review of Chicago’s traction problem. [1918.] 12 pp.
. Citizens Committee for Unification Traction Ordinance. Why? [1918.] [4 pp ]
-------. The unification traction ordinance. What is it—Why it should receive your vote. [1918.] 15 pp.
Hooker (George E.). Vote “no” on the traction ordinance. Oct. 30, 1918. [4 pp.]
Sikes (George^ C.). An argument against the traction ordinance. 1918.
16 pp.
An address delivered before the City Club of Chicago on Sept. 20, 1918.
Vital Statistics
Guilfoy (William H.). Statistics of the epidemic of influenza in New York City. (N. Y. City, Monthly Bui. of the Health Dept., Dec., 1918: 265-277. 9 charts.)
Monger (John Emerson). Co-operation of state and federal governments in registration of births and deaths. (Amer. Jour, of Pub. Health, Jan., 1919: 75-78.)
Petrie (William F.). Relation of vital statistics to public health administration. (Amer. Jour, of Pub. Health, Jan., 1919: 71-74. )
Vocational Guidance
FoNTiiGNE (Julien). Comment se pose la question d’orientation professionelle. (Education, Je.-Sept., 1918: 163- 177.)
Principles and methods of vocational guidance from a French point of view.
King (Charles A.). Vocational guidance. Pts. I, II, III. (Educ. Admin-and Supervision, Sept., Oct., Nov., 1918: 343-350, 413-416, 479-482.)
Water Supply
See also Publio Utilities.
Anon. St. Louis water purification plant. Amounts and prices of chemicals used—methods and results of operation— cleaning filter sand—the strainer system— entrained air—effects of chemicals on apparatus—itemized cost of operating plant. (Mun. Jour., Dec. 28, 1918: 503-505.)
Edwards (W. R.). Sizes of service meters. Practices and experience of the Passaic Water Company in the use of meters, especially as to the sizes most desirable. (Mun. Jour., Jan. 4,1919:4-5.)
Paper before New York section of American Water Works Association.
Metcalf (Leonard). Trend of wages paid by American water works. (Mun. and Cy. Engrng., Dec., 1918: 197-198.)
Tribus (L. L.). Water treatment at Council Grove., Kansas. (Canadian Engr., Dec. 19, 1918:536-538. charts.)
Read at the St. Louis Convention of the American Waterworks Association.
Zoning
Bassett (E. M.). Zoning restrictions protect private property. (Record and Guide, Nov. 2, 1918: 512. Section 1.)
Swan (H. S.). Zoning law and billboards. (Record and Guide, Nov. 2, 1918: 511. Section 1.)
----. Zoning and reconstruction.
(Amer. Arch., Dec. 25. 1918. 781-782.
----. The non-conforming building in
zoning. 1918. pp. 592-594.
Reprinted from The American Architect, Nov. 13, 1918.


NOTES AND EVENTS
I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
Ohio Constitutional Amendment Declared Invalid.—On January 28 the Ohio supreme court declared that the amendment to the state constitution providing for the classification of property adopted at the November, 1918, election1 was invalid. In reaching this decision the court denied the application of former lieutenant governor, William A. Greenlund, of Cleveland, and others, for a writ of mandamus to compel the secretary of state to publish the classification amendment as having been adopted. This decision halts the attempt of Ohio to abolish the uniform tax clause of its constitution. At the election of November, 1918, two tax amendments were submitted, one the classification amendment and the other an amendment exempting mortgages from taxation. By som.e curious prank of the electorate the amendment exempting mortgages received a larger vote than the classification amendment. It is upon this technicality that the court made its decision. Since there appeared a certain conflict as between the two amendments, the court felt it safe to declare the one receiving the smaller majority invalid.
Three of the seven members of the court dissented from the prevailing opinion. Judge Donahue, in writing the dissenting opinion, declared that there was no conflict between the mortgage exemption and the classification amendment. “The people write our constitutions. The electorate evidently saw no conflict, but, with full knowledge of the purpose and intent of each amendment, approved both by a majority vote, and the will of the people, as expressed through'the ballot box, is indubitably the best authority known in a republican form of government, an authority to which governors, legislatures and courts must inevitably yield.
At the present time the associations that
1 See National Municipal Review, vol. vii, p. 94.
have for years backed the classification amendment are endeavoring to obtain a re-hearing by the court. Failing this, the legislature will probably propose that the classification amendment be re-submitted at the fall election of 1919.
Another correspondent writes that the Ohio taxpayers’ league with headquarters in Columbus is collecting information as to the financial needs of the various taxing districts in the state and have been compiling certain data as to the taxable intangible personal property in the state. This information is for the use of the general assembly. Arguments are also being presented now by various civic organizations and representatives showing the necessity for increasing the tax revenue, but the only definite suggestion which has come as to how these revenues could be increased has been the suggested inheritance tax law and a lifting of the limitation of the tax rate.1
*
Amendments to the New York Constitution.—The voters at the election on November 5, 1918, approved three constitutional amendments. The first relates to the contracting of state debts and restricts the period to the probable life of the work. It also authorizes the issuance of bonds to be paid in annual installments by direct tax or legislative appropriation. The second permits the construction of a state highway in the Adirondacks. The third is of local interest to the residents of Utica, and pertains to a section of the Erie Canal in that city. A bond proposition for the construction of state and county highways, etc., was carried by a vote of 766,823 to 266,822.
*
City Manager Notes.—The first issue of the City Manager Bulletin, dated January 1919, was issued during the month of
1 See Dr. Sowers article in National. Municipal Review, vol. vii, p. 371.


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February under the editorship of Harrison Gray Otis, the secretary of the city managers’ association and now in charge of the city managers’ service bureau, Tribune Building, New York. It consists of seven mimeographed pages giving the latest news concerning the new bureau, legislation relating to the city manager plan, the fifth year book of the association, memorial and liberty buildings, associate membership and a series of personal items. “A question box” is an interesting feature. Under the head of “news” are noted various important campaigns and undertakings by city managers or cities under the city manager form of government. Four resignations are reported: G. A. Abbott, Birmingham, Mich.; E. P. Law, Browns-wood, Texas; Harrison Gray Otis, Auburn, Me.; H. J. McKee, Owosso, Mich.
The city management form of go eminent is under consideration in the following named cities: Brunswick, Ga., New Haven and West Hartford, Conn.; Daytona, Fla.; Chicago, Moline, East Moline and Rock Island (last three combined), 111.; Shreveport, La.; Ames, Burlington, Davenport, Newton and Sioux City, Iowa; Portland and Waterville, Me.; Lawrence, Marblehead, Mansfield, Mid-dleboro, Wellesley and Whitman, Mass.; Boyne City and Flint, Mich.; St. Paul, Minn.; Manchester, N. H.; Englewood,
N. J.; Batavia, Corning, East Aurora, Glen Falls, Gloversville, Lockport (again), Suffern, Tarrytown and North Tarry-town (combined), Tonawanda and North Tonawanda (combined) and Troy, N. Y.; Greensboro, N. G.; Painesville, Ohio; Ardmore, Bristow, Enid, Jenks, Muskogee, Norman, Oklahoma City, Okmulgee, Pawnee, Shawnee, Snyder, Tulsa and Waurika, Okla.; Conway, S. C.; Memphis, Tenn.; Austin, Beaumont and Whiteright, Texas; Alexandria, Bristol and Suffolk, Va.; Oshkosh, Wis.; Aberdeen and Wenatchee, Washington.
Measures permitting the adoption of the city manager plan are under consideration in Indiana, Maine, Wisconsin and Tennessee legislatures.
Arthur M. Field, formerly city manager at Winchester, having returned from mili-
tary service, is now serving as secretary of the Winchester chamber of commerce.
Grove City Borough, Pa., has discontinued its experiments with “near-manager” plans. An ordinance creating the position of “managing engineer” was passed May 1, 1914, and John K. Ekey served two years, being succeeded by H. B. McCune. About a year ago advice came that the position of “city superintendent” had superseded that of “managing engineer” and Edward Thomas had been appointed. Now Mr. Thomas has resigned and the borough has returned to the old-fashioned plan. Fredericksburg, Va., has appointed Levin J, Houston, Jr., of Baltimore, Md., as city manager at $3,600, to succeed R. Stuart Royer, now in the army. Some salary increases have been reported. H. H. Sherer of Glencoe, 111., started at $2,400, was raised to $2,500, and now receives $4,000. C. M. Osborn, East Cleveland, Ohio, receives an increase of $1,000 this year, making his salary $4,600. Harry H. Freeman was chosen manager of Kalamazoo, Mich., last summer, by a vote of 4 to 3, salary $4,200; by a vote of 6 to 1 his salary has been made $5,000 for the coming year.
*
A Joint City Manager.—-Rock Island, Moline and East Moline are closely contiguous and really constitute a single industrial community that should have been merged into a single political unit many years ago, but Rock Island and Moline are unwilling to give up their names and East Moline is unwilling to merge under a commission or aldermanic form of government. Two bills have been drafted —one providing for a merger on a borough plan so that the cities will be known as boroughs instead of cities—the other providing for the managerial form of government. The legislature enacted the former bill into a law, but for two sessions has refused to pass the managerial bill which provides for a commission of four men from each borough to be voted on at large, this commission to have only legislative functions, except that it will select the attorney the auditor and the manager. It provides that the auditor shall keep up a continuous audit reporting


1919]
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from the departments daily to the manager, the latter to have entire administrative control of the city employes—the heads of the departments, who in turn will employ all operatives within their department.
*
The city managers of Michigan have arranged to come together from time to time for a discussion of their coming needs. No formal organization has been established, merely a series of conferences, so the managers may get better acquainted and be of help to each other in raising the standards of administration in their respective communities. Among the subjects discussed at a recent conference were "fire apparatus, street cleaning methods, proposed constitutional amendment for more home rule relative to municipal control of public utilities, milk distribution, gas rates, street car fares.”
Promoting of the City Manager Plan.—
The constantly growing interest in the city manager plan of government has created a demand for professional aid in charter drafting, publicity methods and the conduct of nonpartisan campaigns. To solve the problem Harrison Gray Otis, recently re-elected secretary of the city managers’ association, has resigned his position as city manager of Atiburn, Me., and has been retained by the American city bureau of New York, which is already in the field of organization service. Lucius E. Wilson, who conducted the campaign for the introduction of the city manager plan into Dayton, Ohio, is at the head of the bureau’s field staff. Prof. A. R. Hatton, of Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, the field secretary of the short ballot organization and a member of the council of the National Municipal League have likewise been retained (for part time) by the bureau. These three men will constitute a working nucleus to assist, together with a large staff of the bureau’s men, as occasion requires. The furnishing of public speakers, of charter drafters and publicity men in the actual conduct of campaigns are among the first steps. A clearing house for city managers will be
undertaken in an effort to help cities obtain executives. The city managers’ association will remain unchanged as to purpose and organization.! It will continue to publish its year book and association bulletin. Mr. Otis expects to serve the remainder of his term as executive secretary and has moved the offices of the city managers’ association to the Tribune Building, New York.
*
London Police Strike.—The members of the metropolitan police force, variously estimated at 11,000 to 12,000 men, on August 29, 1918, left duty, and on the following day the other branches of the national union of police and prison officers joined them. They were supported in this action by organized labor.
The men demanded: (a) That the war bonus of 12s. ($2.92) weekly be immediately increased to £1 ($4.87) per week to all ranks of the London force, and to be forthwith converted into permanent wages. Further, that a war bonus, calculated on a basis of 12| per cent on all wages and allowances, be granted in addition (b) That ex-police constable Thiel, provincial organizer of the national union, and delegate to the London trades council, who was dismissed from the London force for “grave breach of discipline in taking part in the management and being a member of an unauthorized association, be immediately reinstated without loss of pay or service; (c) Complete “official” recognition of the national union.
Negotiations were at once opened between the men, the prime minister, and the home office which, on August 31, 1918, resulted in the following concessions:
Wages increase of 13s. ($3.16) per week, pensionable war bonus 12s. ($2.92) per week, and allowances for each child of 2s. 6d. (61 cents) per week to remain; noncontributory pension of 10s. ($2.43) per week for policemen’s widows, widow’s pension payable in case of service men at the front. The result is minimum wages pensionable £2 3s. ($10.46) per week, war bonus 12s. ($2.92), making a total minimum of £2 15s. ($13.38) with children’s allowance in addition.


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The prime minister refused to recognize a police union in war time, citing as his reason the conditions which had arisen in Russia from the existence of a union or a committee among the soldiers. As the police are a semimilitary force, he felt that the same conditions applied to them as to the soldiers. He favored, however, some organization by which members of the police force could bring their grievances before the proper authorities, and promised that means for presenting communications of this kind would be discussed with the men at an early date. Thiel, was reinstated.
Dorset W. Htde, Jr.
*
An Enlarged Council for Columbus Ohio has been suggested by the labor element in that city. The organized labor is much dissatisfied with the way the council has handled the street car situation and as a remedy suggested a return to the old ward system of sixteen members. Those who favored the present small council elected at large have suggested a system of proportional representation, which the labor people seem now to favor. Local correspondents advise us that the plan for a larger council will not succeed and may not even be the basis for a petition as the reasons for the change are now being removed. For the same reason the suggestion with regard to proportional representation may not be inaugurated. ip
The Enlargement of Boston’s Boundaries.—Mayor Andrew J. Peters of Boston wants to see a bigger Boston and accordingly he has had introduced into the Massachusetts state legislature a bill providing for the annexation of Winthrop, Revere, Chelsey, Everett, Sommerville, Cambridge, Watertown, Newton, Brookline and Milton “and such others as may be deemed advisable.” In public statements he declares he was not entirely committed to all of the provisions of his measure, as he was not certain that it might not be wiser to provide for some sort of federation. The bill does not contain a provision for a referendum of the questions of the voters of the city and town affected.
Municipalizing Seattle’s Street Railways.—The present status of the street railway situation is this. The ordinances providing for the purchase of the system for $15,000,000 in public utility bonds have been passed. A friendly suit to test the validity of the arrangement has been instituted and has already been heard in the superior court, where the bonds have been declared legal and valid. The matter is now on appeal to the supreme court. The traction company has guaranteed to turn over the property within forty-five days after the decision of the supreme court is handed down sustaining the bonds.
There are several points made against the validity of the bonds, but the main one is based upon the provision that they are first lien upon the earnings of the lines. This provision, it is contended, is very likely to impose a burden upon the general fund, and this, it is asserted, cannot be done legally. It seems to me that the contention that the provision is likely to impose a burden upon the general fund which must be met by taxation is unquestionably correct, but I do not believe there is any serious legal objection to any burden upon the general fund, if the city council sees fit to impose it. Of course, the road might find itself in difficulty if the council at any time refused to take care of the deficits, b The service now given by the traction company is extremely poor, and there is, of course, no chance of any improvement prior to the acquisition of the lines by the city. The company is quite pleased with the sale. Its franchises expire in 1934 and the continued hostility of the council for the past ten years has shown clearly that the franchises are unlikely to be renewed upon their expiration on any terms satisfactory to the company. The early expiration of the franchises also made it impossible for the company to raise'any money by way of loan, and it was, therefore, impossible for it to make the demanded extensions and betterments, nor was the company able to secure permission to raise its rates. There was a legal difficulty to any such raise, which was insurmountable, except by absolute disregard of law, for a state statute prohibited any fare in


1919]
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excess of five cents. It is said that this prohibition does not apply to municipalities and that the city may raise the rates.1
We have just learned that the Washington Supreme Court has upheld the legality of Seattle’s proposal to buy out the street railway system of Puget sound traction company for $15,000,000 in utility bonds. In anticipation of this favorable decision of the case both the city and county have gone ahead with the details and it is expected the property will be delivered to the city about April 1.
Feed W. Catlett.
•i:
The Movement for Co-operative Delivery of Milk.—There are some 500 cities in America which have adopted a co-operative plan for the delivery of such necessary commodities as groceries, meats, and the like. The experience of these cities show undoubted economies in service and expense. A survey conducted recently revealed reductions in the number of wagons used from 76 to 18; from 30 to 10; from 15 to 4, etc. Delivery cost reductions reported vary from 50 to 10 per cent.
The success and widespread adoption of the above plan for groceries and meats has aroused general interest in the cooperative plan as a possible solution of the milk problem. In New York city, for example, it has been increasingly apparent for several years past that the solution of the milk problem depends to a large extent upon the adoption of a more efficient method of distribution. This fact was understood by the mayor’s milk committee of 1917, which reported that “if the total volume of retail milk, amounting to 704,318 quarts, were carried on wagons handling only full loads, the bottled milk of New York city could be handled by only 2,243 wagons instead of the 4,978 actually in use at the present time. This would mean a saving of 54.7 per cent of the total.” More recently Chief Magistrate McAdoo, at the “John Doe” milk inquiry, suggested the building of four or five municipal pasteurization plants as substitutes for the 400 or 500 smaller ones
• See National Municipal Review, vol. xiv, p. 642.
now scattered throughout the district from which New York obtains its supply.
Many other cities both in this country and abroad have studied the problem of milk deliveries and have advocated measures along this line. Perhaps the most extensive survey was that made in Rochester, N. Y., a number of years ago, when it was reported that under a model system numerous reductions could be effected, as follows: from 356 men to 90 men; from 380 horses to 80 horses; from 305 wagons to 25 wagons; daily distribution cost from $2,000 to $600; yearly distribution cost from $720,000 to $220,000.
From an interesting report issued a few years ago in Chicago we learn that by the merging of two milk concerns on private initiative, 18 wagons and their drivers were found to be no longer necessary. The same report estimated that a saving of $20,000 a day could be effected to the consumer if the various milk delivery systems could be consolidated and unified.
A recent issue of Commerce Reports informs us that “owing to the difficulty experienced in procuring sufficient quantities of pure milk at Wellington (New Zealand) at what was considered a reasonable price, measures have been taken by the council of that city with a view to handling the milk question as a municipal undertaking.” In Turin, Italy, before the war, there was an agreement among the dairymen immediately surrounding the city by which the city was divided into sections and each group of dairymen assigned to a section. The milk was collected by motor trucks and carried to distribution stations where it was bottled and then delivered to consumers by women and boys at a price of four cents per quart. A co-operative pasteurizing plant was organized by seven dairymen at Riverside, Cal., and the milk was delivered to the consumer in three wagons as compared with about twelve wagons previously required. A considerable reduction in the retail price of milk was effected. A similar company is reported to have been formed at Utica, N. Y.
Several Canadian cities have given considerable attention to the milk problem among which are Toronto, Regina and


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[March
Winnipeg. Conditions in the last-mentioned city were recently reported as having become so acute that the mayor-elect and a majority of the new council has expressed its determination to establish, early in the new year, a municipal plant to provide milk for Winnipeg and the adjacent suburbs.
Perhaps the most extensive plan yet devised in this country was that drawn up for San Francisco, under which each delivery wagon would serve a certain district, thus avoiding long trips and the covering of ground served by other distributors. It was hoped that the price of milk could be kept down to 12 cents a quart. Milk companies distributing 25,000 gallons per day—out of a total of 30,000 distributed by milk companies—were said to have agreed to the plan, which had been worked out by a milk commission appointed by the federal food commissioner.
The San Francisco plan for milk delivery, however, was never put into effect “because it developed that the cost of making the change would be too great a burden to be charged against any single year’s operations,” and for this reason it was felt that the plan “could not be considered strictly a war measure.” S. H. Greene, chairman of the division of dairy products of the United States Food Administration for California, furnishes the following additional details: “The plan provided for the closing of some pasteurizing plants and the establishment of some others in favorable locations in the city. The city was to be districted in zones, and each zone was to be served by two distributors and no more. One result of the many conferences that were held during the consideration of the plan has been a voluntary movement on the part of the distributors to exchange certain routes with each other, therefore shortening hauls and sending out full loads, with the consequent reduction in the cost of delivery.” Dorset W. Hyde, Jr.
*
School Board Situation in Chicago.—
For sixteen months (June 18, 1917, to October 26,1918) two groups of citizens, each asserting their right to be the board of
education of Chicago, endeavored to determine the issue between them in the courts. Under the school law of 1909, 21 trustees constituted the membership of the Chicago board of education. By the amended school law, approved and in effect on April 20, 1917, the membership of the board was reduced to eleven trustees. For convenience hereafter the first will be spoken of as the “old,” and the second as the “new” board of education.
On April 23, 1917, Mayor Thompson appointed two of the required eleven members. These were confirmed by the council and were duly qualified as school trustees. On June 18, the mayor submitted the remaining nine nominations to the council. These also were promptly confirmed by that body. And as usual in such matters, a motion to reconsider the vote of confirmation was made; but in this instance the motion to reconsider was tabled.
During the interim, to June 18, 1917, the old board continued in office, and exercised the powers, duties and prerogatives conferred upon the board of education by its terms. In so doing the old board (1) adopted revised rules and regulations, (2) elected a president and a vice-president, (3) elected a secretary of the board, (4) elected for a term of four years a superintendent of schools, a business-manager, and an attorney, and (5) appointed standing committees.
Then on the morning of June 19, 1917, several members of the new board (representing the majority who were city hall partisans) appeared at board headquarters with a large force of police. Acting under their direction the police cleared the office of the president, the offices of the business-manager and the attorney, the room in which the board conducts its meetings, and held them against the elected officers and executives of the old board. Later in the day the new board held its first meeting, organized on its own account, and elected an entirely new set of board officers and executives.
Three days later, June 22, the city council met again. A motion to take from the table the motion to reconsider the vote


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of confirmation was made by the opposition. There followed a noisy controversy between the administration forces and the opposition. At length, however, necessary parliamentary steps were taken which led up to a reconsideration of the vote to confirm. On the question being put, the council in overwhelming numbers voted not to confirm the mayor’s nine nominations. Notwithstanding this action of the council the new board continued to act as the board of education for the following sixteen months.
Four questions were promptly carried to the courts by the old board and its officers for adjudication. These were: (1) Whether the new board should reinstate the attorney, and (2) the business-manager, and (3) the secretary of the board, all of whom had been duly elected by the old board; (4) had the city council the legal right to reconsider on June 22 its vote to June 18 confirming the nine nominations to board membership?
The recent decision of the supreme court on the fourth question was not only conclusive on the immediate point at issue, but rendered futile any further consideration of the other three questions. In effect this decision determined that:
1. The city council had the legal power to reconsider its vote of June 18, 1917, confirming the mayor’s nine nominations.
2. By its action of June 22, 1917, the city council rescinded its vote of confirmation. Therefor the roster of the new board was never completed, and so the action of the group of citizens who on June 18 assumed the functions of the board of education was illegal.
3. Until eleven members are all appointed, confirmed, and duly qualified, the old board is to resume its office, and it is its duty to exercise all the powers, duties, and prerogatives conferred by the amended act upon the board of education.
Before the decision of the supreme court could be put into effect through an order from the lower courts, the business-manager, the attorney, and the secretary of the new board resigned their offices; and on October 26, 1918, the new board itself vacated the premises of the board of edu-
cation and the old board, with its officers and executives, returned to take up their duties where they had been compelled to drop them sixteen months earlier. The old board will continue to exercise those duties until a mayor and a city council can agree upon nine trustees to complete the new roster of the board of education.
Glen Edwards.
*
The Federal Government and Housing.
—A well-attended informal conference was held in the Philadelphia city club, January 3, to discuss the possible creation of a federal agency to deal, in whole or in part, with industrial housing, town planning, municipal affairs. The call was signed by Lawson Purdy, Esq., president of the National Municipal League, J. Horace McFarland, president of the American Civic Association, Frederick Law Olmsted, president of the City Planning Institute, Robert W. DeForest, president of the National Housing Association and Samuel Gompers, president of the American Federation of Labor. There were 50 persons present and three sessions were held in which the debate was open, animated and instructive. The sense of the majority of those present was expressed by the secretary, Andrew Wright Crawford, as follows:
A. Some kind of a federal agency to deal with housing, town planning or community planning should be established.
B. Such a federal agency should deal with housing and community planning, in the broad sense of dealing with the entire physical environment of the inhabitants.
C. The proposed federal agency be limited to the function of research, experimentation and dissemination of information, acting as a central agency for the service of state authorities and local committees.
D. It is more expedient that the proposed new agency, without consolidation, should act as a means of making more available, from the point of view of the community as a social unit, such technical resources as can be supplied by existing independent federal agencies (in which other points of view may be dominant).


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and should undertake within its own organization direct technical investigation only in such parts of its field as are beyond the scope of existing governmental agencies.
It was also the sense of the majority of those present that federal action should be taken toward creating a comprehensive and systematic mechanism to facilitate the financing of housing.
*
Recent Regulation of Outdoor Advertising in New York City.—New York city has found a new solution of the outdoor advertising problem. The objections to the billboard and similar advertising signs are many; often they are flimsily built and likely to fall; inflammable, and a fire menace; so designed as to serve as a screen for lawlessness and filth. These and similar defects may be prevented by proper regulations, which our courts will sustain; and such regulations New York city, like other cities, has at various times enacted and enforced. Often, however, billboards and similar advertising devices are also ugly, and so placed as to be especially offensive for that reason. Residential neighborhoods, parks, boulevards, and scenic avenues in New York and all American cities suffer in this way. This constitutes the real billboard and advertising sign problem; for under our constitutions regulations to prevent the erection and maintenance on privately owned land of ugly structures visible from public places are invalid. The great European countries,—England, France, Italy,—all, to a greater or less extent, curb this evil; and Massachusetts, in a constitutional amendment passed last fall, authorizes a like procedure; but so far none of the other states in this country has done so.
New York city, unable to suppress the billboard because it is ugly, has begun to do so, in certain localities, because it is out of place. For this purpose it makes use of the building zone regulation, which went into effect July 25, 1916. That regulation divides the city into residence, business and unrestricted building districts, and provides that “in a residence district,” no building shall be erected other
than a building, with its usual accessories, arranged, intended or designed exclusively for “a dwelling or such public purposes as clubs, churches, etc.” “Thetermaccessory use shall not include a business nor shall it include any building or use not located on the same lot with the building or use to which it is accessory.” In a previous section the word “building” is stated to include the word “structure.”
Evidently a billboard is not a residential structure or accessory to such a structure. There is in the city a committee of citizens called the “zoning committee,” formed to protect the zoning resolution. Last fall that committee began to call the attention of the authorities to this infringement of the resolution. Already thirteen billboards erected on our beautiful Riverside Drive have lost their permits, and apparently the same fate is in store for many more such structures in residential districts in all parts of the city.
All novelty is relative. New York was the first city to employ its building zone regulation for the removal of billboards in residential neighborhoods; but other cities have restricted billboards so located by other means.
In 1910 Chicago passed an ordinance making it unlawful “to erect or construct any billboard or sign board in any block on any public street in which one-half of the buildings on both sides of the street are used exclusively for residential purposes, without first obtaining the consent in writing of the owners or duly authorized agents of such owners owning a majority of the frontage of the property on both sides of the street in the block in which such billboard or sign board is to be erected, constructed or located.” This ordinance was sustained in 1915 by the Illinois supreme court, and in 1917 by the United States supreme court.1
In June, 1917, Los Angeles passed an ordinance? dividing the city into business,
1Thomas Cusack Co. v. The City of Chicago, 267 111. 344; affirmed 242 U. S. 526.
* Since amended in detail. Ordinance No. 38,315, passed June 25, 1918, incorporating these amendments to that date is here referred to.


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semi-business, suburban and residential advertising districts. In a semi-business district such structures shall not be nearer the sidewalk than the house in that block is that is nearest the walk; in a residence district no billboard or similar structure shall have an area of over twelve square feet, or be within, fifteen feet of another billboard; in a suburban district no billboard over twelve feet in area shall be located within fifty feet of a residence. Many of the provisions of this ordinance, unlike those of the Chicago and New York regulations, are retroactive. The Los Angeles billboard ordinance is entirely independent and distinct from its building zone ordinances.
In cities with building zone regulations, the New York city method of attacking the billboard nuisance in residential neighborhoods seems simpler and therefore better than that of Los Angeles or Chicago. The sum total of building regulations in modern cities is most voluminous and complex and there seems to be no reasbn to add needlessly to this complexity by creating separate districts with separate rules and regulations for any one class of structure, like billboards.
Frank Backus Williams.1 *
City Planning in St. Louis.—-During the war a question was raised in St. Louis as to the practicability of continuing the city plan commission. This sentiment found expression in the board of aldermen, which, however, seems to have seen a new light and has passed the following resolutions. We do not often quote resolutions in these pages, but these are reprinted because they indicate how the logic of a situation will penetrate even a board of aldermen:
Resolved, by this board, That we highly commend the spirit of the city plan commission and recommend that every citizen â– of St. Louis read the recent issue from the commission office of the book entitled St. Louis After the War, and that this board extend its thanks to Winston Churchill for retaining such enduring interest in the city of St. Louis.
1 Treasurer of the municipal art society of New Y ork city and chairman of its committee on outdoor advertising.
The reference to Mr. Churchill brings to mind the splendid foreword he prepared for the pamphlet St. Louis After the War, which has strong arguments for a preparation of plans for the guidance of the city at the present time.
*
Women in Municipal Research.—From its inception, ten years ago, the Philadelphia bureau of municipal research has always afforded opportunities to women for work on its professional staff. A number of these women have filled important positions not only within the bureau organization, but have made careers in public service outside as well.
The other governmental research agencies have had varying policies in this respect. Some have given women equal opportunities with men, while others have felt that women are still sufficiently discriminated against in our public services, so as to handicap them in this field. For that reason, a number of the bureaus employ women only in clerical capacities.
The Philadelphia bureau has probably had one of the most interesting groups of women staff-members and was peculiarly fortunate in the individuals it secured. Dr. Neva R. Deardorff, an alumna of Michigan, for three years assistant director not only participated in a number of important studies and led many others, but also handled a large part of the publicity and educational work. Her record as chief of the division of vital statistics in the bureau of health set a new standard in Philadelphia, and won for Dr. Deardorff a national reputation. At this writing she is on leave, serving as an assistant to the director-general of civilian relief of the American Red Cross.
Miss Olive R. Haldeman joined the bureau staff in 1913 upon her graduation from the University of Pennsylvania, and for five years was busy mainly on budget work and health studies. In the latter activity she was the author of several careful reports, notably one on the food inspection services and another on the division of housing and sanitation in Philadelphia. As Mrs. Ralph E. Young, this


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young woman has moved away from Philadelphia, but she continues a live interest in civic matters and will doubtless be a force for social progress in her new home.
Another woman whose work deserves special mention is Miss Maude E. Stearns, a Wellesley graduate, who left the bureau staff after a period of training to become statistician of the municipal court of Philadelphia. Later Miss Stearns went to Washington to do statistical work in the war department.
The general information service and the library of the bureau—two of its very important activities—have for several years been in charge of Miss Ethel Vernon, a Cornell alumna, who has put these functions on a plane not excelled in any similar agency in this country.
A number of other young women have served as investigators, accountants and statisticians on the staff of the bureau, and all have either continued on the staff or have entered other fields of service.
The board of trustees of the Philadelphia bureau have recognized the growing activity of women in public affairs, and recently filled vacancies in the board, by the election of four representative Philadelphians: Dr. Martha Tracy, Miss Florence Sibley, Mrs. George McFadden and Miss Mary H. Ingham. Other bureaus have perhaps had a rare woman trustee, but it is believed that this is the first time that the election of women trustees was a definitely adopted policy.
W. C. B.
if
The Buffalo Street Car strike was treated in a comprehensive way by Frederic Almy in The Nation of December 21. It describes especially Mayor Buck’s resistance to various suggestions of compromise. Mayor Buck’s attitude is summed up in his statement, “I am satisfied that public opinion demands that those who control the street railway situation in this city must get out and stay out.” The results seem to have justified his attitude.
*
Civil Service Requirements for High School Principals.-—-Dr. William H. Maxwell, who for many years was the success-
ful superintendent of schools in New York, and who is now superintendent emeritus, has proposed to the civil service reform association that an amendment should be sought to compel the framing of an eligible list for high school principals.
if
Psychological Tests for Clerical Applicants.—Dr. L. L. Thurstone of the division of applied psychology of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, has prepared an examination pamphlet for the testing of clerical applicants consisting of eight tests. These tests involve the correction of errors in the solution of simple problems in addition and subtraction; the detection of errors in spelling, and of specified letters of the alphabet; the substitution of specified numerals for specified letters; the selection and grouping of names; the selection of more complex, data; the solution of simple problems and the association of Arabian proverbs with their English equivalents. Both speed and accuracy are rated.
The examination pamphlet contains sample clerical jobs by means of which the interviewer is better able to measure the caliber of a clerical applicant than by means of the usual casual conversation. That these sample clerical jobs or psychological tests constitute a better measure of potential fitness than the academic-tests usually employed by civil service-examiners is also not to be disputed. During the war, one of the services which was exempted by executive order from civil service regulation recruited to clerical service by means of psychological tests-and found the method entirely satisfactory and efficient. L. F. F.
if
Municipal Laundries for Uruguay.—
European travellers remember the little groups of peasants washing clothes in the brook near their villages. This custom exists very generally in the older countries and apparently also in South America. The Uruguayan government, in virtue of a law of June 27, 1918, takes official cognizance of the practice by providing for the construction of municipal laundries or


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washing places (lavaderos) in all cities of the Republic. These buildings, according to Commerce Reports, are to be erected in series of four, the first four to be built in Salto, Paysandu, Mercedes, and San Jose. The government is authorized to expend not to exceed 22,000 pesos ($22,750) per year for the purpose. Where municipalities have the necessary funds they may themselves construct the washing places, but in accordance with the government requirements. The buildings erected by the government will be turned over to the municipalities after completion.
*
The Making of Municipal Bricks is the
latest undertaking of an English municipality. The Redditch urban district council was unable to obtain the necessary bricks to carry out its scheme of building two hundred more houses, so not to be balked it established its own brick malting kiln and the problem was solved.
*
A National Health Ministry has been created in Great Britain and its organization entrusted to Dr. Christopher Addison, president of the local government board and who for two years and a half was at the head of the ministry of reconstruction. In describing the work which it was expected the new ministry would supervise, Dr. Addison said:
“It will be a few months before the ministry of health can be established. For many purposes affecting the service the administrative unit must be a large one. A small area cannot possibly be self-contained, in a medical sense. It cannot have resources sufficient to meet all its emergencies. What we seek to establish is really a medical intelligence department. It will have its laboratories with everything necessary for research, and will have access to all information gathered by public medical officers. It is frequently possible to see an epidemic in the distance. We shall soon look to our intelligence department to give us due warning of the approach of anything of the kind, and to advise us as to our counter-offensive.” '
Home Market for Municipal Bonds.—
The Liberty bonds were floated at home, subscribed for by the American people. Over-the-counter sales of small denomination bonds by cities would not only encourage the habits of thrift and saving, but would tend to stimulate civic interest. Cities could thus finance their reconstruction improvements. The government of France before the war issued securities her citizens could buy, denominations being as low as sixty cents. Such very small amounts might not be practicable here, but the principle of issuing bonds of such sizes that the average citizen, not only the citizen with $500 or $1,000 or larger sums, can afford to purchase them, deserves serious consideration by every American municipality. Noel Sargent.
*
Tearing up the Streets.—-It is generally agreed that one of the most aggravating circumstances in the paving of the city streets is that after the streets have been adequately paved and the residents and owners of the property have begun to take personal pride in their new improvement, the pavement is apt to be cut up to allow for the placing of pipe lines or service connection to some new residence or store building. The Portland cement association, which has for its motto “concrete for permanence,” has turned the attention of its publicity on this subject and is doing some splendid work in the direction of educating municipalities and citizens generally as to the necessity of doing the necessary underground work before the pavement is put down. In a recent letter sent out by the editorial bureau of this association, it calls attention to the fact that Cleveland, Ohio, has placed restrictions upon the undiscriminating cutting up of new pavements and requires prospective builders to lay their plans far enough in advance of pavement improvement to permit of it being done before the pavement is placed. Some time previous to the commencement of a pavement improvement signs are placed conspicuously along the streets giving notice of this work and requiring all underground connection to


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be placed before the paving is done. Thereafter the pavement must not be cut for this purpose for a period of five years.
*
Municipal and State Income Taxes.— Mayor Kiel of St. Louis has recently proposed that a state income tax be levied to raise funds for the program of social development planned and to replace the money that will be lost on liquor licenses; about $2,000,000. There has been some talk of levying such a tax also in New York city. Mayor Kiel urges the incorporation of suburbs to prevent wealthy individuals who do business in St. Louis escaping taxation. The objection has been made that capital will be driven from the city and that new capital will be repulsed if such a tax is adopted.
An issue of Public Business (issued by the Detroit bureau of governmental research) notes the fact that Wisconsin taxes all incomes and that Massachusetts in 1916 adopted a law applying to so-called incomes and incomes from certain classes of intangible property. The proceeds of these income taxes, though collected by the state, usually revert to the local subdivisions. In line with this development comes the recommendation of the Michigan state tax commission for a constitutional amendment permitting an additional income tax for the state in lieu of all intangible personal property taxes. The commission enumerates six points on which it believes that such a law should be based:
1. The net income should be the measure of the individual’s taxable ability.
2. The income tax should be levied on the entire income from all sources except income from United States bonds, and salaries of federal officials (specially exempted by law).
3. The rate of income tax should be the same for all kinds of income and not differentiated according to the source from which it is derived.
4. The rates of income tax should be progressive, depending upon the amount of the taxpayer’s net income, with exemptions for net incomes under a certain sum.
5. Income taxes should be collected directly from the taxpayer on a basis of strictly enforced reports of the taxpayer and no part of the tax should be collected at the source.
6. Administration of the income tax should be in the hands of state officials and not in the hands of local officials.
*
Street Development.—One of the encouraging and interesting factors of modern street development has been the organization of men and women interested in a particular street for its further improvement and the extension of its influence. Perhaps the best known association of this kind is the Fifth Avenue Association of New York, of which Robert Grier Cooke is the president. In a recent article appearing in The Evening Post, Mr. Cooke told of the war-time activities of this association and of the truly remarkable work which it had accomplished. This association takes an interest in such things as the traffic, the height of buildings, zoning generally, and the development of realty. The work of the association has attracted attention outside of the country and the business men of King street, Toronto,'have organized along similar lines calling their movement “Greater King Street.”
*
Compulsory Voting in Massachusetts.—
Among the constitutional amendments adopted at the November, 1918 election, was one which read as follows: “The general court shall have authority to provide for compulsory voting at election, but the right of secret voting shall be conserved.” The committee to compile state constitutional amendments reported that the .compulsory voting does not exist anywhere else in the United States. It is mentioned in one constitution in the 48 states, North Dakota. It provides that the legislature may prescribe penalties “for failing, neglecting or refusing to vote in any general election.” Thus far the legislature has not taken any action to carry out the power thus granted. The same committee prepared a memorandum


1919]
NOTES AND EVENTS
concerning the subject, of compelling voters to exercise their franchise as worked out in Austria, Belgium, Spain, New Zealand and Tasmania. In the latter country after each general election the name of every person who has a right to vote and has failed to do so is stricken from the list. New Zealand has a somewhat similar provision. In the former legislation was enacted in 1901; in the latter in 1893. Compulsory voting is obligatory in cantonal matters in certain of the cantons of Switzerland, but the measure is not vigorously enforced. Belgium fines those who fail to vote without proper excuse. In submitting its memorandum the committee reported that in no other country do. the elections come so frequently as in the United States, nor is the burden on the voters so great as here. In Roman Catholic countries of Europe elections are held on Sunday, making it possible to secure a large vote without interfering with the voters’ employment. *
Proportional Representation in Ireland.
—Sligo has the distinction of being the first city in the United Kingdom to hold a post-war municipal election and to hold it under the proportional representation system. The city is divided into three wards each represented by eight members. There were sixteen candidates in each ward. The single transferable vote was used and 2,251 votes were cast, only 43 of which were declared invalid. The total register was 3,066 including of course, the absentee voters. The rate payers’ association elected eight representatives; the Sein Fein, seven; labor, five; independents, four. The local press, both Sein Fein and Unionist expressed their appreciation and satisfaction with the new system. The Sligo Champion, a Sein Fein organ said: “The system has justified its adoption. We saw it work. We saw its simplicity. We saw its unerring honesty to the voter all through, and we saw its vote to the final count and we join the expression of those who follow it with intelligent interest. It is as easy as the old way. It is a big improvement and it is absolutely fair.”
203
Regulation of Aerial Traffic.—The-publication of the report of the British civil aerial transport committee and the signs of an early and considerable development in the use of aeroplanes renders it necessary, the London Municipal Journal points out, to consider in what directions it will be essential for municipalities and other governing bodies to exercise control over the use of aircraft. So far as internal services in England are concerned the great point is, of course, to make use of the speed capabilities of the aeroplane. This can only be done by reducing terminal delays to a minimum. If much time has to be wasted in conveying mails or passengers to the aerodrome before the aerial journey can be started, and subsequently in conveyance to the ultimate destination after the landing ground has been reached, then it is quite conceivable that an inherently slower method of transit may hold its own as regards speed from terminal point to point. The real utility of the aeroplane will, therefore, be largely dependent on the possibility of placing aerodromes and landing grounds in something approaching central positions. There are obvious difficulties in the way of so doing. If we select, the x-eport says, for an aerodrome, a park in the center of a great city, all the machines employed must be continually flying over the town and must descend to low altitudes when so doing. The lower the altitudes, the greater the risk of injury to individual or municipal property in the event of any accident to the aeroplane or any failure of its engine. Clearly the public must be protected as far as possible against such risks. The owner of property, in English law, is also supposed to be the owner of the air above that property. Aerial transport is, however, impossible if this sort of right be insisted upon literally. Thus, a compromise which naturally suggests itself is that, when an aeroplane flies at anything below some defined altitude, civil liability falls upon the owner of the aircraft in the event of accident. Any such regulation would, however, be most difficult to impose,


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because it would involve setting apart very large areas for landing grounds. Thus, it appears that the landowner can only be protected by giving him a specific right of action for damages on the grounds -of any nuisance resulting from breach of the regulations that may be imposed.
All this leads to the conclusion that municipalities must interest themselves in all those regulations that may be suggested to apply to ascents and landings. If the municipality is not satisfied that such regulations provide the necessary measure of safety and the elimination of nuisance, then the only alternative is to place the aerodromes and landing grounds well outside the centers of population, which, as already pointed out, would greatly decrease the utility of aeroplane services, except over very long â– distances.
The point may perhaps be brought home more clearly by talcing one or two imaginary examples. Suppose an aerial service to be in operation between two places a hundred miles apart. The actual journey by air may take about one hour. If the aerodromes are distant from the II.
terminal centers the total journey from center to center may take three hours, and may well be slower than the journey by railway between stations centrally placed. In the case of two cities, say, five hundred miles apart, the aerial journey may take five hours, and the addition of the same terminal delays, namely, one hour at each end, would give a total of seven hours, which would certainly compare very favorably with the time taken by the fastest express railway service. Thus, the minimum distance over which an aerial service would be really useful is largely dependent on the positions chosen for landing grounds. Municipalities will thus be faced with a rather delicate question as to the degree to which the safety and comfort of the property owner and of the general public can be jeopardized in order to encourage air services which may well increase the business done in the locality by increasing the efficiency of the business methods and expediting the delivery of mails and the carriage of passengers engaged upon affairs of urgency.
II. POLITICS.
387 Engineers Laid Off.—Nearly four hundred engineers of the public service ■commission of New York city were dropped on the first of the year as a result of the action of the board of estimate, which resolved upon this move at a meeting held December 30, 1918, as the matter involved was the administrative appropriation for the first quarter of 1919. Three months earlier, the public service commission had submitted its September estimate of the budget to the board of estimate and apportionment, to become effective January 1, 1919. On November 30, the board of estimate and apportionment emasculated this budget so as to require the laying off of, it was then estimated by the public service commission, 167 men. This was, however, an underestimate, because on December 31 the public service commission was forced by the failure of the board of estimate and
apportionment to provide adequate funds, to lay off 387 men.
The employment of these men was within the power of the public service commission, but under a law passed in 1918 final authority as to all appropriations and other administrative matters involving departments of the city was lodged in the board of estimate. Two hundred and ninety of the suspended employes were restored to service January 31, and a few more were restored in February; approximately 85 of them remain on a suspended list.
This wholesale dismissal of a trained force is naturally regarded with consternation not only by the men directly involved, but by all interested in building up an effective civil service in the city. If men who have given of their best to the city are to be dismissed on such short notice and without adequate cause, it will be


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more difficult than ever to secure men in of municipal ownership and operation as
the public service whose abilities and a serious blow to their aspirations, if
capacities are above the ordinary. Such skilled men are to be treated as so many
actions, like that of the board of estimate, laborers taken on and laid off by the arbi-
by undermining the confidence in the trary action of another body than the one
tenure of public service, increase the diffi- responsible for their work. Under these
culty of administrators of securing men circumstances no assurance can be given
equal to the great tasks modern municipal that any farsighted constructive policy
life imposes upon them. Moreover, such of operation can be successfully carried
actions are justly regarded by advocates out.
III. JUDICIAL DECISIONS
Budgets.—The Massachusetts supreme court has decided recently in Flood vs. Hodges that when a budget has been submitted by the mayor of a city, adopted by the municipal council and approved by him, the council cannot make appropriations under the municipal indebtedness act contrary to the wishes of the mayor, covering subjects provided for in the budget. The case arose in an effort to restrain the auditor and treasurer from paying certain increases in compensation to policemen and firemen which the council was trying to accomplish by ordinance without the mayor’s approval. The court said “This unequivocal limitation placed by the statute upon the power of initiative by the council in making appropriations cannot be circumvented by the agency either of a vote requesting action by the mayor, or of an amendment to ordinances establishing such expenditures, or by the enactment of an ordinance attempting to deprive the mayor of one of the essential prerogatives of the chief executive. . . . of approving drafts or warrants before money can be withdrawn from the city treasury.”
*
Annexation.1—A number of provisions of the Rochester city charter were recently held to be unconstitutional by the New York court of appeals. The case arose from the application by the city to acquire for municipal purposes lands in the town of Canadice, Ontario county, belonging to certain citizens. The owners objected to the appointment of commissioners for the appraisal of damages, and
iJn re City vs. Rochester, 121 N. E. 102.
7
these objections were sustained by the highest court in the state. The court said that the charter did not provide for an impartial tribunal, because one of the three commissioners must be a resident and freeholder of Rochester and because the city council having judicial power in such cases would not be impartial as between the city and the landowner, and finally because when the valuation is made, the city can appeal and the land-owner cannot.
*
Recall.—In Ackerman vs. Moody1 it was decided that under the state constitution and city charter, the members of the board of education of San Diego are subject to recall, though the school district comprises certain territory outside of the corporate limits of the city and the board members are paid by warrants drawn upon the county treasurer.
*
Public Utility Regulation.—The. supreme court of Colorado has recently decided, in the suit brought by the city of Denver to prevent the Mountain States telephone and telegraph company from putting into effect increased rates granted by the public utilities commission, that the charter amendment to the state constitution giving charter cities the right to regulate public utilities was valid. The commission claimed the power not only to change rates but also franchise provisions. Rates made by Colorado Springs, Denver, and other home rule cities will henceforth prevail. The telephone company has asked for a rehearing.
J176 Pao. 696.


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[March
Occupation Taxes.—The Ohio supreme court has just decided that home rule cities have a right to levy an occupation tax provided the state does not do so, and declared the occupation tax ordinances passed by the Cincinnati city council to be valid.
Ohio Classification Amendment.—The Ohio classification amendment passed last November has just been knocked out by the supreme court on the ground that it conflicts with the mortgage exemption amendment passed at the same time and also because it conflicts with the provisions exempting from taxation property used for charitable purposes. Three judges dissented contending that the mortgage exemption amendment only, and not the remainder of the section, was voted on by the people and that the provisions of the amendment are not in conflict with classification; that the two amendments might stand without conflict.
*
Torts by Policemen.—-Police officers, though employed by a municipal corporation, exercise a governmental and not a corporate function and in the absence of a IV.
positive statute to the contrary cannot by their tortious acts render the employing municipality liable in damages ex delicto. This was held recently by the Louisiana supreme court in Joliff vs. Shreveport1 where in'a liquor raid considerable damage was done by the police and the city was sued as a consequence.
*
Fares.—-The supreme court of Louisiana in the case of the City of Lake Charles v. Charles Railway Light & Water Company2 decided that a temporary injunction would be granted against the street car company, which although permitted by its franchise to charge only a five cent fare, was actually charging seven cents. The contention of the street car company was that the municipality was without legislative authority to fix or limit the fare that might be charged in the exercise of the franchise. The only question decided by the court was that the act prohibited by the injunction, if permitted to be done until final judgment was rendered, might cause an irreparable injury.
Robert E. Tracy.
IV. MISCELLANEOUS
Landscape Architects and Reconstruction.—A special meeting of the Amercian Society of Landscape Architects was held in Washington said Professor J. S. Pray of Harvard, president of the society, “to consider how we may best be of service here and overseas during the reconstruction period. The country is faced, for instance, by a large building program. Better and more economical results will be secured by the co-operation of the landscape architect. He is likely to be called in more and more upon these and city planning problems.” A medallion was presented to F. L. Olmsted by the society at their convention dinner in appreciation of his part in the winning of the war. It was pointed out that as his father, the great artist and landscape architect, had employed his powers of organization and his sturdy good sense most effectively, as head of the sanitary commission during the
civil war, so the son had made a similar contribution during the present war to the housing of both troops and munition workers. The medallion represents the goddess Vesta, whose charge it is to “keep the home fires burning,” hand in hanc with Mercury, the Roman god of industry
“Of the 84 members of the society conducting their own offices, 43 have beer called in one way or another into government service, either by the housin; bureau, the construction division of thi army or the shipping board,” said Mr Olmsted, who is now serving as chief of tb town planning division of the housini bureau. “This is a remarkable record especially since landscape architecture i considered by the man in the street as ai occupation only for settled conditions, am even something of a luxury. The fact i
â–  180 So. 200.
* 80 So. 260.


1919]
NOTES AND EVENTS
207
that in this emergency, the landscape architect was found pre-eminently qualified to serve in one field of town planning required by the government in laying out cantonments for troops and industrial housing developments for war workers. Consequently he was drafted to this service.”
“If our experience in the housing bureau has proved anything,” continued Mr. Olmsted, “it is the possibility and value of a thoroughgoing co-operation between the architectural, town planning, and engineering professions. In our office, each has been represented by a division, all working together at adjacent desks and all assisting in the solution of every problem. It offers a fine promise of the future for building and land subdivision in all its branches.
The convention was held in Washington on account of the many landscape architects who are working in the housing bureau and the construction division of the army. Its chief work was to consider how the society can be of further service and how the work in town planning and industrial housing which the housing bureau has so admirably started may not be lost.
*
The Proposed League of Ohio Cities.—
Just at present the movement for a league of Ohio cities seems to be lagging. A letter from Mr. Carr, of Springfield, a member of the committee on permanent organization, states there is now little chance of a league. However he does not intend to quit, but is waiting for an opportune time to present a measure to the Legislature that will provide for a league. The first provision we need is a law authorizing cities to appropriate money for the support of such an organization, then we can get a live secretary on the job. There is very little interest shown by some of the largest cities and this seems to be easily accounted for. They are strong enough to stand for themselves, but the smaller places cannot accomplish a thing individually. I have already noticed how the large cities hob-knob with the state officials, and the smaller cities have only the support of some rural legislator who
can see no further than to labor for the rural population and its representatives —the county commissioners. In a state where cities are supposed to have the priviliege of Home Rule, such as this one, it is a joke to see what little local and self-government they really have. We are not only creatures of the state, but also of the county, through a budget commission composed of county officials, as well as creatures of a civil service commission and an interest and sinking fund board. Some one to tell us just how much money we can have; some one to come in and grab most of it to pay off short-life bonds on long-life improvements and some one to tell us just who we must employ.
I would rather see a league of cities than anything else just now. This would be the starting of better laws and better conditions for cities in this state. Mayor Galvin, of Cincinnati, is chairman of the committee on permanent organization and he said at one of our meetings that he did not believe cities should organize and employ a walking-delegate (secretary). That just such sort of thing was what we were condemning in labor and the farmer. I asked him if the whole scheme of life was not a case of survival of the fittest and if labor and the farmer were not making progress by their methods, and if it were not up to the cities to pursue the same methods, even if it were only for defense. Carr is a fighter and I believe we can get along. The smaller cities, with Dayton and Springfield are anxious about joining.
Kenyon Riddle.
*
Professor Howard Lee McBain, who became an associate editor of the National Municipal Review in April, 1914, succeeding Professor Charles A. Beard, has been compelled bypressure of his academic and personal obligations to retire from that position. The editor takes this opportunity of expi-essing his appreciation of the very large service which Professor McBain did in that capacity. He was helpful, wise and stimulating in advice—-this combined with his wide knowledge of municipal affairs, especially in their legal aspects, made him a coadjutor of real value. He


208
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[March
has been succeeded by William J. Donald, the secretary of the chamber of commerce of Niagara Falls, who brings to the National Municipal Review the point of view of one who has been trained in economics and political science and who has had extended opportunity in organizing commercial bodies along the modern lines represented by the American city bureau.
*
Colonel William Gorham Rice has been reappointed by Governor Albert Smith of New York a member of the state civil service commission. Mr. Rice’s term expired February 1. His work on the commission has been of a high grade and his reappointment is generally regarded as a triumph for the merit system. He was appointed by Governor Roosevelt and four years ago was reappointed by Governor Whitman. Colonel Rice is chairman of the joint committee on civil service and efficiency of the National Municipal League and the National Civil Service Reform league.
*
Charles H. Wacker has been the first and only chairman of the Chicago plan commission. Recently that board passed a resolution recognizing the services which he had rendered without remuneration saying that “it is not a little thing for a man to sacrifice his time, his energies, his business and personal financial interests to an ideal, and the ideals of the old commercial club through Daniel H. Burnham and his staff, which have been handed to the city of Chicago by the generosity of the commercial club, would have been unavailable had the duty of carrying them forward fallen upon the shoulders of a man whose ideals had not been commensurate with the great task. This untiring, unselfish and devoted work of Mr. Wacker will be a lasting benefit to every citizen of Chicago no matter in what connection he may live or what his position in life may be. The plans and ideals are so broad that they reach every corner of Chicago and assist in the development of the whole city.”
Henry Read, after fourteen years of useful and effective service on the Denver art commission, has resigned as a result of the failure of the present administration to co-operate as directed by the law. Mr. Read is the father of the section of the charter creating a volunteer body of artists, architects and public spirited citizens as an art commission. He served faithfully as the commission’s chairman, in which capacity he saw conceived and achieved virtually all of Denver’s triumphs in beautification. Among these might be mentioned the various park projects, the reclamation of Cherry Creek bottom, the erection of the Welcome Arch, the establishment of the Civic Center, the location of statues and the creation of an ornamental lighting system.
*
Charles E. Merriman, who has had a
useful and interesting career as college professor, Chicago alderman and a captain in the army, announced his candidacy of mayor of Chicago on a reconstruction platform. In the course of his opening address he said, “My principles would be to select strong men and women capable of working together without regard to party, class or creed, on exactly the same principle that united action was obtained during the war.” Certainly a fine principle which we hope the voters of Chicago will endorse.
*
Harrison Gray Otis, after a year of service as city manager of Auburn, Me., has resigned. In his letter of resignation he said to the commissioners: “You will recall that upon my accepting the position as manager last February I stated that my resignation was placed upon the table with my acceptance. May I ask that you accept this resignation to take effect January 1, 1919.” In accepting the resignation the mayor and the commission expressed their appreciation of his work and assured him of their good will and friendship.
*
Howard Strong, who has been the successful and resourceful secretary of the


Full Text

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW VOL. VIII, No. 2 MARCH, 1919 TOTAL No. 34 Ordinarily the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW rhould be in the hand8 of members and rubacribers within a week of the first day of the month8 of publication, to wit, January, March, May, Julu. Saptembcr, and November. The extraordinary conditions of the last siz montha, hotoeoer, hane resulted in nvmerw delaya. If the magazine is not received bu the 16th of the month of issue, the Editor will be mcdy obliged if a pontal to that effsct is sent lo hi8 ofice. 703 North American Building, Philadelphia. TOWN PLANNING IN RELATION TO LAND TAXATION CITIES SHOULD HAVE AGRICULTURAL ZONES EXAMPLES OF CANADIAN CITIES BY THOMAS ADAMS Ottawa, Canada' HE town planning schemes being prepared by the cities of Edmonton, Calgary, Lethbridge and Medicine Hat2 are of particular T interest because the main purpose which these cities have in view is to solve some of the financial difficulties created by past speculation in real estate. Town planning in western Canada is being used to help the cities to save money; whereas, to many people, the very name of town planning is synonymous with increased municipal expenditure. Calgary, Edmonton, Lethbridge and Medicine Hat have decided to prepare comprehensive town planning schemes for the whole of their areas. The immediate cause of their decision to do so is that they were threatened with the reduction of their areas under the pressure of owners of suburban lands who have applied to the public utility commissioners of Alberta to have their lands taken out of the cities under new legislation 1 Town planning adviser to commission of conservation, Canada. 2 These are the four principal cities of Alberta province with populations and areas, according to latest statistics, as follows: Population Area in Acres Calgary. ....................... 56,514 24,720 Edmonton.. ................... 53,794 27,040 Lethbridge ..................... 9,437 6,944 Medicine Hat. ................. 9,264 11,280 109

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110 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March giving powers to the commissioners in this regard. The application is being made in order that relief may be obtained from both high assessment and high taxation. Faced with this problem the cities have come to realize that they must plan their areas with proper regard to their use for different purposes (including agricultural purposes in the suburbs) and that they should fix their assessments in accordance with these uses. SEPARATION OF AGRICULTURAL FROM BUSINESS AND RESIDENTIAL LANDS They propose to plan and separate all agricultural lands within the city from business and residential lands. The underlying principle of the division will be that the former will not be required for building within a reasonable time. Land in the agricultural division will be assessed at only agricultural value-wild or vacant lands in such division having a minimum value to be fixed under the law. It is proposed to cancel all sub-divisions in the agricultural area and to permit no new sub-divisions unless in accordance with the scheme. When land in the agricultural area is permitted by the council to be transferred to the building area an$ thereby to get the full benefit of the public utilities it will be subject to an increment tax-suggested at 50 per cent of the difference between the assessed agricultural value and the assessed building value. No utilities, such as sewers, water mains, pavements, etc., will be extended to the agricultural area except at the cost of the owners, and only then by agreement with the city. So long as the land remains in the agricultural area no utilities will be extended except for agricultural purposes. Maps and schemes are now being prepared to carry out these objects. One of the things that has never been quite realized by the western cities is that agricultural land may be within the city boundaries. It haE been assumed that any land included in the city ips0 facto became building land, no matter what the ratio was between the growth of the populatior and the area of the city. Since the passing of the boom, western citier have begun to realize, happily, that it is unwise to tax land at a highei rate than it can bear, having regard to its revenue-producing capacity an( subject to the community getting the increment of value due to its owl expenditures. A great deal of land at the present time does not producc revenue because, while it is really useful for agriculture it is being held fo building purposes for which it may not be required for perhaps 40 or 51 years. CALGARY’S SCHEME In the scheme suggested at Calgary, about half the city area will b included as building land and the other half, amounting to no less tha. 20 sections, or about 12,800 acres, will be defined as an agricultural zone By stopping sub-division in the agricultural zone until the inner builc ing zone is built up to at least a density of two-thirds of its area, the owner

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19191 TOWN PLANNING AND LAND TAXATION 111 of suburban land will realize that their best way to derive profit from the land will be in farming it and improving its fertility. At present vast tracts of such land are lying idle because the owners are living on the illusion that their farms will be required for building purposes. Its total area is 25,920 acres, about equal to that of Toronto. This area would accommodate a population of 777,600 on the wholesome basis of 30 people to the acre. It is felt, however, that it is not unreasonable to limit the present expectations as to future growth to less than half of that number (say 350,000), so far as the planning of the city is concerned, and that even then ample concession is being made to the hopefulness of those who own real estate. There is room for this population of 350,000 within a radius of half a mile of the street railways of Calgary. Within this radius there are sewers and water mains provided in or ready for extension to most of the streets; but it is unreasonable to ask the present generation to bear the burden of local improvements for a population, even of this number. At present, however, they are responsible for local improvements for a sub-divided area which would provide for a population 13 times the present size. If one were starhg de novo it would be enough to have local improvements actually constructed for a population of 20 to 25 per cent greater than the existing population ; but this construction should follow the lines of a plan prepared for an area of five or six times the present area of the city. Having arrived at the decision that half of the area of a city B enough to provide for reasonable growth for many years, the remainder of the land should be treated as agricultural land for the time being, or taken out of the city. Otherwise it will be taxed at a rate which the average owner cannot pay and the city will get no benefit from this taxation because it is responsible for extending local improvements, which cost more than the taxes are worth, even when the latter can be collected. Growing arrears of taxes and continued improvement extensions beyond needs have bad effects on the finances of any city. The treatment of the agricultural zone is the most novel proposal to be included in the scheme, and it ought to be of general interest to cities that have similar problems to deal with. A large portion of land in the suburbs of many United States and Canadian cities is sterile and idle because it is being held for building purposes long before it is wanted for these purposes. The only hope of getting this land into cultivation and simultaneously preventing extravagant and unhealthy expansion is to bring it under a proper town planning scheme. The following are among the suggested provisions for the schemes proposed for the western cities. The present population of Calgary is about 60,000. How can high taxes be avoided under such circumstances?

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112 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March SOME OF THE GENERAL PROVISIONS No streets, sewers or water mains shall be constructed in such area except at the expense of the owners of the land and subject to the approval of all plans, sections and particulars by the city. No land shall be sub-divided or used for building purposes for any purpose not connected with the use of the land for agriculture or horticulture in such area unless with the consent in writing of the city authority, where the authority is satisfied that the land is needed for building and not less than two-thirds of the sub-divisions in the parts of the area adjacent to the proposed new sub-division are already used for building purposes. Land already sub-divided in the said area shall be reverted to acreage. When the consent of the city authority is obtained to the future subdivision of any land within the agricultural zone the said land shall forthwith come under the provisions of this scheme as if it were building land and it shall be assessed as such. The city shall collect an increment tax on the occasion of sale or of conversion of the land from agricuItura1 to building land (suggested as 50 per cent of the increased value) realized or assessed. TORONTO Some of the eastern cities in Canada used the same kind of remedy for their taxation and planning problems. Toronto, for instance, has a population of 463,705 occupying an area of 25,330 acre$. At a density of 30 to the acre there is room within the present city boundaries for a population of 759,900. Although little more than half built up it is overflowing its boundaries in many directions and it should have a larger area, so long as it has a part of such area set aside for agricultural purposes until it is needed for building purposes. Evidence of the need of Toronto for a larger area is shown by the extent to which undesirable and uncontrolled development is taking place outside its suburbs in every direction. Some day Toronto will have to meet the cost of rectifying this haphazard development. To divide the city into zones, in which regard is paid to the economic use of the land, health and convenience of the people, instead of to the speculative interests of owners, is, in practice, one of the most effective means of avoiding injurious speculation. The use of the land becomes the determining factor in its value, and whatever increment may accrue to it from change of that use, say from agriculture to building, should become the subject of a heavy tax. The fact that certain lands are earmarked under a scheme for agriculture increases the value of the central areas for building purposes and this justifies the placing of higher taxes on the land in central areas. The whole problem of housing is mixed up with this question of the development of land, and the latter is so dependent upon town planning of the right kind that housing and town planning schemes must proceed side by side if economical results are to be obtained. If governments will give us the right kind of legislation to control land development it will be

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19191 UNEARNED INCREMENT IN LACKAWANNA 113 a great aid towards the solution of the housing problem. Given this legislation and a proper organization to begin with, financial aid can produce better results. In those Canadian provinces where ample town planning powers have been given by the legislatures there is a chance for treatment of these problems in a comprehensive and satisfactory way. THE UNEARNED INCREMENT IN LACKAWANNA BY HERBERT S. SWAN New Ymk EFORE the Lackawanna Steel Company brought its great plant and its thousands of employes to Lackwanna in 1899, the busiB ness establishments of the locality consisted of four groceries, one butcher shop, three saloons and two make-believe hotels. There were no factories. The pop.ulation in the main followed the pursuit of farming and truck gardening for a livelihood. The town form of government satisfied all the requirements of the people. One constable safe-guarded the public peace and he found ample time, it is said, to engage in market gardening as well as in the real estate business when there was any real estate to be sold. In 1890 the area within the present city contained a population estimated at 627. In 1900 it is estimated that this had increased to 1,833. In 1915 the state census showed that these farms, swamps and woodlands had become a busy city of 15,737.' Country roads ere usually not converted into city streets, nor plowed fields into building lots without an accompanying unearned increment. The purpose of this paper will be to appraise as nearly as possible the amount of unearned ncrement accruing to land values from the coming of the steel plant to Lackawanna. Conditions were thoroughly rural. Increased population means increased land values. THE AGRICULTURAL VALUE OF THE LAND Before the establishment of the steel plant there had been very little ictivity in the real estate market. As a general rule property was inierited and not sold. The best land used for truck gardening purposes reems, however, to have possessed a value varying between $400 and $500 ser acre; the best land used for ordinary agricultural purposes, a value ietween $150 and $300 per acre; and swamp land, a value not exceeding 1 This investigation was made at the request and with the support of Mr. Richard S, :hilds on behalf of the Committee on New Industrial Toms in August, 1916.

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114 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [Marc1 $100 per acre. The value of some of the swamp and wood land did no1 exceed $50 per acre. Although little property appears to have beer exchanged at these figures, they may be considered as representing tht price at which land was held previous to its value being influenced by thc construction of the breakwater, the railroad yards or the steel plant that is to say, about the year 1895. At that time the average acreagr value of, all the land in the city probably did not exceed $200 per acre. On this latter basis the land within the present city limits was wort1 only $770,000. But this figure by no means represents what it cost thi steel company to acquire the plant land in the absence of any power ti condemn. ACQUISITION OF THE PLANT LAND The task of acquiring the property for the steel company was entruster to the Stony Point Land Company, of which Mr. J. J. Albright, a Buffall capitalist, was the head. This happened in the latter part of March 1899. Within a period of six weeks, this company had acquired tit1 not only to the greater part of the land required by the steel company bu to 500 or 600 acres in addition. Altogether about. 1,700 acres of Ian, were purchased at prices varying from $300 to $4,000 per acre. Th average was $980 per acre. The price obtained by each owner depended naturally to a large exten upon his native shrewdness in bargaining and the strategic position of hi property in relation to the other parcels in the scheme contemplated b, the company. The first sellers, not suspecting that a big project was on foot, wer glad to dispose of their farms and swamps at a comparatively low figun These were the men who got $300 per acre for their land. The las vendors, appreciating the vital importance of their land to the compan in rounding out and filling in its holdings, of course, made extortionat demands, and probably much to their own surprise, they got their prim These were the men who got from $2,000 to $4,000 per acre for their Ian( With the exception of two parcels, which were purchased by the stei company for housing purposes, the Stony Point Land Company retaine title to 650 acres not used for the plant. About 350 acres of this lan have been disposed of to different railways for yard purposes and to indui trial establishments. The remaining 300 acres are still retained by tlr land company in large tracts and the general impression seems to 1 that it doesn’t care to sell this land. The land bought in Lackawanna was 1,436 acres and the price paid w: approximately $1,407,000. The land bought by the company was the most valuable for factor 2 This figure represents the opinion of Messrs. C. H. McCullough, Jr., Robert A. Ree J. J. Redmond, N. C. Milks and Mansfield Lohr.

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19191 UNEARNED INCREMENT IN LACKAWANNA 115 purposes in the city. The remaining area of 2,414 acres could have been bought more cheaply, especially if it had been bought over a longer period of time. A tract of 150 acres needed to round out the company holdings would probably have cost $980 an acre, the same price as that sold for the land acquired, or a total of $147,000. The other area of 2,264 acres, if all bought, could probably have been purchased for two and a half times its agricultural value or at $500 an acre. The price of this tract at $500 per acre would have been $1,132,000. The aggregate amount that would have been required for the purchase of all the land within the city limits may therefore be estimated at $2,686,000. PRESENT VALUE OF THE LAND The total assessed value of taxable real estate in Lackawanna, exclusive of special franchises, is $10,390,480. This is the assessment on which the 1917 tax levy was made. Land is assessed at $4,678,360; or $297 per capita. The city administration, including the mayor and the three assessors, steadfastly maintained that the assessment for 1917 was on the basis of 80 per cent of true value. The fear that the writer was engaged by the State Board of Tax Commissioners made the city administration very circumspect in discussing the relation of assessed and true value. Mr. C. W. Ellis, Editor of the Journal, the leading city newspaper, stated that the assessments represented about 35 per cent of actuaI value. Mr. Mansfield Lohr, a real estate man, stated that they represented about 30 per cent; Mr. N. M. O’Mara, another real estate man, stated that the assessments varied from 25 per cent of true value in the case of vacant property to 40 per cent in the case of improved property. Mr. N. C. Milks said the assessments varied between 30 and 50 per cent of true value. The county supervisors rated Lackawanna assessments at 30 per cent in 1916. The 1917 assessment is, however, about 50 per cent larger than that of 1916. There are many instances where vacant as well as improved property is assessed at only a fifth or a sixth of its fair value. Considering the fact that there are enormous areas of vacant land, the assessed value of the land, exclusive of improvements, does not on the average perhaps exceed one-third of its true value. The writer considers this ratio a very fair one. It errs rather on the side of conservatism than liberality. Applying this ratio the present true value of the land within the city limits of Lackawanna is $14,035,000; of the non-plant land $9,016,000. The gross increment in the non-plant land is the difference between its present value, $9,016,000, and its value of $1,983,000in 1899, or $7,033,000.

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116 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March COST OF LOCAL IMPROVEMENTS Benefits have been assessed quite generally in the case of localimprovements. Including the filling of swamp land, roads and sidewalks and the cost of local improvements assessed against benefited property, the property owners in Lackawanna have been put to a total expense of $500,000 in preparing their property for urban use. But of this amount, they have, as yet, only paid some $245,000. The net increment in the non-plant land is therefore the difference between its gross increment of $7,033,000 and the $245,000 collected for local improvements or $6,788,000. MUNICIPAL FINANCE AND TAXATION An analysis of the unearned increment in any particular city would not be complete without a word describing the conditions affecting municipal finance and taxation. Land and buildings were not assessed separately in Lackawanna until 1917. It is therefore impossible to show the annual tax burden to which land has been subject during the period in which this unearned increment developed. The total cost of the government for the year 1915, considering the expense of both the municipal and the school corporations, was $290,846.43. The tax rate for city and school purposes was $26.33 per $1,000 assessed value. The city of Lackawanna has an outstanding debt for municipal and school purposes of $561,425. All the bonds outstanding on account of sewers and one-half on account of pavements will be collected from owners of benefited property. Deducting these amounts, the net debt is $286,925. It is plain, therefore, that carrying charges on the land have not been a serious offset to the increment. SOCIAL CONDITIONS Had the unearned increment in land values been conserved for community purposes instead of dissipated among the land owners, Lackawanna would not be the drab place to live in it is to-day. The city possesses none of the amenities which make town life pleasant. It has no public library. It owns no parks, no playground^.^ The social conditions are such that most of the plant employes refuse to live in the city. About 60 per cent of the shop force and about 75 per cent of the office force, according to the president of the company, live in Buffalo. The difficulty the steel plant experiences in manning the works describes the desolate character of the community better than any words,-in a force a The only park in the city, one of 155 acres, belongs to the city of Buffalo.

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19191 UNEARNED INCREMENT IN LACKAWANNA 117 of about 7,000 men it had, when the writer was there, a labor turnover of 1,500 men a week! As nearly as the writer could ascertain there were about 140 saloons in Lackawanna. Nearly all of these were in the foreign quarter of the city west of the railroad yards. The population of this section, exclusive of that found in the company houses, is about 5,500. The saloon keeper seems to have been one of the first to realize the need for adequate housing facilities in the new town. He erected a number of twoand three-story barracks 30 to 35 feet in width and often more than 100 feet in length, the first floor being used as a saloon and the upper floors as lodgings. There are probably forty of these saloon lodging houses. The clientele of each bar is largely recruited, if not exclusively so, from its own lodgers. The ideal cherished by each saloon is apparently to shelter all its customers. Some of these saloons are said to accommodate as many as a hundred men, the same beds being used by both night and day men. The great common indulgence is drink, and drink in abundance. SOCIALIZATION OF THE UNEARNED INCREMENT Various methods have been suggested and tried for the socialization of the unearned increment,-the more prominent among these being a heavy annual tax on land values, a tax on future increases in land values,4 Co-Partnership Housing5 and Municipal Land Ownership. That there is a right on the part of the community to enjoy and to benefit by the values which it itself creates does not at this late date seem susceptible of successful contradiction. But which of the above propositions is best designed to attain this end it is not the purpose of this paper to determine. Various social forces at work, however, make it increasingly plain that it is futile to expect even an approximately fair distribution of the economic rent through promoting individual home ownership In the first place, a majority of workingmen will never acquire a home,6 and on account of industrial conditions, it is a big question whether or not it is desirable to encourage them to own a home. In the second place, very little increment accrues, as a rule, to land used for housing the working classes after its original subdivision and sale. If not the bulk, at least a very large portion of the increment is in such instances reaped by the developer. And in the third place, individual home ownership, even if it were to become the universal rule in a community and thus secure a 4 See Herbert S. Swan. The Unearned Increment Tax, NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, April, 1914. 6 See Richard S. childs, How Shall the Government Dispose of Its Industrial Housing, New Republic, March 30, 1918; also Herbert S. Swan, Co-Partnership Housing in England, Journal American Institute of Architects, May, 1918. *See Herbert S. Swan, Home Ownership in New York City, Journal of American Institute of Architects, January, 1918.

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118 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March more or less haphazard distribution of the benefits resulting from the unearned increment in residential land values, would still not solve the problems resulting from the growth of land values in the business sections of the city. To preserve the individual’s mobility without at the same time obliging him to forego his right to share in the unearned increment he helps to create, that is the biggest part of the problem affecting the economic rent of land. Industrial towns, like Lackawanna, would probably find that such a solution to the land problem would do more to stabilize labor than any other policy they might adopt. RECONSTRUCTION IN GREAT BRITAIN BY THOMAS ADAMS Ottawa, Canada N that part of the British Empire froin which I come, which has its boundaries common with yours for over 3,000 miles, we have very similar problems of reconstruction to those you have in the United States. Our problems more resemble yours than those of the Mother Country. In our different dominions our problems naturally vary with our conditions; only one thing never varies, namely, the freedom and independence of each national unit of the Empire. You will remember how Kipling described the spirit of combined independence and loyalty of Canada:A nation spoke to a nation, A throne sent word to a throne: “Daughter am I in my mother’s house, But mistress in my own. The gates are mine to open, As the gates are mine to close, And I abide in my mother’s house,” Said our lady of the snows. Canada has her own gates to open and to close and her own problems to work out in the light of her own experience. And it is only as nations and states, and lesser entities, “do the duty that is nearest to thein”, as Carlyle has put it, that national strength will be built up in such aggregations of territories and states as you and we have in our respective countries. The war is past history. The boys have gone over, and they have done their duty. They have met the test. They have kept the faith. Many of them will not come back to reap the fruits of their sacrifice. We have been helping them in the struggle, but while they have had the

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19191 RECONSTRUCTION IN GREAT BRITAIN 119 test applied to them, ours is yet to come. And the question we have to answer is: Are we to be found wanting? They had the opportunity to sacrifice themselves for our countries and our liberties and for social justice. We have now the chance to take up the battle for the victory and prize which they have won for us. LIBERTY OF LIFE AND PROPERTY We have to get a new perspective of some of these questions. I think that it is very important that we should hold fast to our individual liberties, but I sometimes venture to remind American audiences that they will find in the first article of their constitution-at any rate in the constitution of Massachusetts-that liberty of life comes before the liberty of property. In Canada and the United States there is a tendency to reverse this order. We have often failed to regard the sacredness of life as worthy of protection, when it interfered with the sacredness of property. The liberty that is fundamental, which lies at the foundation on which we have built since the time when constitutional freedom was fought for and secured at great sacrifice, for you and us, is the liberty to enjoy the fullest opportunities for human development. When the rights of private property encroach upon the health of the people, or destroy that which helps to build up character, or make impossible a wholesome environment for our children, they interfere with real liberty. We have learned in this war how national strength comes from building up the character of our people, and how important it is that we should lay the right social foundation rather than build up a seeming wealth in the form of an industrial organization which depends for its strength on an underpaid and badly-housed population. We have to get down to these fundamental considerations in connection with this question of reconstruction in all our countries. In Great Britain, if I may say so, they have had some advantage over both Canada and the United States in this respect. Ever since 1915 they have had at work a ministry of reconstruction formed when emotions were stirred by the great events of the war and their minds were alive to the danger that when peace returned they would drift back into the old ways. THE WIDE SCOPE OF RECONSTRUCTION IN ENGLAND They started out to work with the idea that reconstruction meant the demobilization of troops, the reinstatement of the men in employment, plus a certain amount of 'readjustment of industry and of economic conditions. But as they studied the problem, they found it went deeper and wider than that. They found they had been building in error in the past and that what they wanted was not the readjustment of old conditions but the building up of new conditions. They realized that

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120 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March in order to show proper reverence for those who had made such great sacrifices they had a duty not only to get rid of established evils-some of which had been endured by sheer force of custom-but to take such action as was necessary to prevent the recurrence of similar evils in the future. They started out with that humble acknowledgment of past failure which is essential as a preliminary in any successful policy of reconstruction. Forward movements and reconstruction policies are in the air, and if good intentions are all we require, we may look forward to the future with hope, and with the inspiration of the sentiment that God is in his Heaven and all is right with the world. But as the roar of the guns ceases, as the pain and disasters of the past few years begin to be forgotten, it has yet to be proved that we shall not drift back into the old neglect of social injustices which in accumulation bring misery to men and endanger the stability of the social organism. This is no fancy picture of what may happen. It has happened in Britain and in your country in the past when the stimulating periods following great emergencies have passed away and left things to muddle along in their customary groove. On this occasion however, Britain started to think out her policy of reconstruction while yet the wounded boys were walking through the streets, returning from the battlefields of France, and the nobilities of war time had not settled into languorous indifference. Britain, while at war, worked out a social program as well as a solution for the problems of demobilization, and for readjustment of her industries. She considered the question of restoration of her shipping; the rebuilding of her mercantile marine; the adjustment of her labor difficulties and differences between capital and labor by means of industrial councils composed of employers and employees; the replacement of the soldiers either in the work they had left or in new work created for them; the increased production of food by improved rural organization-a matter of supreme importance in this country and Canada-; the question of building up and restoring the economic and financial conditions of the country, due to the disturbance of the war; and many other industrial, military and financial questions. Now we are all saying that we are entering upon a new era. It happened in France a hundred years ago. HEALTH, HOUSING AND EDUCATION But she also considered the problems of health, housing and education; and it is to that aspect of the problem that I want to make particular reference, and particularly to the question of housing, since that comes within the sphere of my own duties and studies. Unless we try to get more light and air into the homes of our industrial

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19191 RECONSTRUCTION IN GREAT BRITAIN 121 classes; unless we get rid of those bad sanitary conditions which surround the dwellings of the poor; unless we make the environment of the bulk of our homes sweeter and better, we shall continue to find that all the science we apply to remedy disease, to reduce sickness, to counteract feeble-mindedness and crime; and that all we do to reconstruct and improve our industrial conditions, will be offset by the physical and moral deterioration produced by bad housing conditions. On the question of education, any of you who are members of municipal councils know that the chief expense of municipal administration is in regard to education, and it should be so. In Ottawa we collect on an average about $30 per family in taxes from our working class population. Our education bill alone for each child in that family is about $50. If there are four in a family the cost is about $200. Thus it costs about $200 to educate the children of a man who is paying $30 in taxes. You see therefore the importance of making that expenditure of $200 as productive as possible. If children come to the school from a bad home; if they are subject to environment which promotes disease and degeneracy, much of our expense for education is wasted. We can never successfully attain our object of establishing a system of education which will carry out your expectations effectively and justify the high expenditures involved, unless we frankly face this question of improving the housing conditions. BLAMING THE POOR FOR BAD HOUSING CONDITIONS There may be a tendency in this country, as I know there is with us, to place the blame on the other fellow, and say that it is all very well to build good houses and to enforce more stringent regulations in order to see that everybody is well housed, but that will not solve the probIem because the people who live in the houses themselves are to blame because of their defective morals and low standards; their bad habits and indifference to their condition will thwart all your efforts. Is that not another form of our old, much-despised English snobbishness towards the poor, which on this continent receives a new veneer and is called something else. I remember about twenty years ago, when I buiIt some small cottages for the working population of the municipality, a medical man of some considerable prominence and reputation, a member of the city council, visited the cottages and said: “These people are not worthy of these model homes and pleasant surroundings. They will bring them down to their own level. These people belong to a lower class than ourselves and are not happy unless they live in slums.” I think the war has killed a good deal of that kind of thing in England and made people feel that some of those who have been the most despised of citizens in the past have not only done their duty in this war as well as the best housed and best educated of the citizens of the old country,

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122 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March but only need a better environment and freer opportunities to enable them to prove that they are capable of rising to higher standards of parentage and citizenship. We have to fight against the bad influences in human nature, but one of the best ways to fight them is by improving the home conditions. One of your most distinguished men-Oliver Wendell Holmes-has said that you should educate your citizens a hundred years before they are born. To educate your citizens before they are born can only be done by improving the homes of their parents and grandparents. As you house the citizens of to-day so will you educate the future citizens of your country. Are we going to refuse to alter existing conditions for the children who are to be the citizens of the future because we feel it is difficult to overcome the inertia and indifference of their parents? I have had experience of trying to improve the conditions of the people living in the slums of London. I have seen them moved out into the “garden city”; I have seen the changes in their lives; I have seen them growing up to be better citizens,inspite of their natural weakness, because of better environment. But I need not cite my experience to show that medical gentleman’s distortion of the truth. You will find it in the lives of some of the most able citizens of this continent who have built up the political history of America and yet have come from the peasant homes and poverty stricken hamlets of Europe. We must try to improve the denisons of the slums by practical efforts and by recognizing our social responsibilities and not by preaching to them and blaming their natural weaknesses. I do not wish to underestimate the power of hereditary influences. THE BRITISH HOUSING PROGRAM Lloyd George announced the other day that the policy of his government consisted of a great program of rehousing, of land reform and of improved transportation. These questions concern not only the building of houses, but the planning of land so that the houses shall have light, air and pleasantness; and so that sanitary conditions and economy will be considered in connection with the development of the land as well as in connection with the construction of the dwelling. We have in Ontario, on the other side of the Lake from Rochester, a law which says that all streets shall be not less than 66 feet wide nor more than 100 feet. The result is that two thirds of our streets are too wide and one third too narrow. Consequently people are paying for unnecessarily wide streets; and one result is that owing to the excessive cost of local improvements, they have to live in insanitary homes. They are:(1) The dwelling. (3) The means of access to and from In building houses we have three things to consider. (2) The site.

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19191 RECONSTRUCTION IN GREAT BRITAIN 123 the site and the place of employment (transit). All these are dealt with in the Lloyd George program of rehousing. Lord Shaftesbury was one of the first men to promote a housing policy in England, in 1851. and the English Parliament has been wrestling with the problem ever since. Progress has been slow and it was not till 1909 that they got an effective housing and town planning act. Town planning in England means the laying out and development of all land likely to be used for building purposes with the object of securing proper sanitary conditions, amenity and convenience. The replanning of existing cities, the making of new diagonal streets through areas already built upon, or the creation of civic centers as a main object are not features of the English town plan. Its basis is a thorough knowledge of the existing topographical, industrial and social conditions, as related to possible future development. The town plan has to be preceded by the regional plan or map which gives the knowledge of all the existing data and conditions. With the latter as a foundation on which to prepare the plan of future development, and with health, amenity and convenience as the main objects, town planning becomes an important instrument in social reconstruction. DECENTRALIZATION OF INDUSTRIES AND TOWN PLANNING One significant feature of modern social life is the process of decentralization of industries. Great cities are becoming disintegrated; manufacturers are leaving the large centers, driven out by high taxes and by dear land. The United States steel corporation came across to Ontario the other day to search for a site for a new plant. Any city of our province would probably have pledged their last dollar to get that corporation to settle in their area. But the corporation did not seek a site in an existing city. It selected a bare piece of land at an agricultural price. It had plans of the land made, of the whole site, of the houses, streets, sewers, sewage disposal plant, water supply, etc.; and it will in time complete the building of its own town. It is not doing this for philanthropy, but because, by introducing an entirely new system of town planning and public works, it can assure healthful conditions to its work-people. The workers can secure pleasanter surroundings, purer water supply, and will be more efficient as a consequence. The corporation is engaged in business, and their only object is to make that business successful. The process of decentralization, of which this is an example, is going on all over this continent. This tendency to establish industrial plants in territory outside the boundaries of cities needs to be taken hold of and organized. It is one of the things that need to be dealt with in reconstruction schemes. The planning of these new developments in the outer suburbs of our

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124 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March cities is one of our biggest problems. In dealing with them we have to link up housing and local transit, and also control land development 80 as to prevent injurious speculation. Town planning, in the judgment of the United States steel corporation, was the first necessity of its housing scheme. Similarly, in Great Britain too they have come to recognize that in order to deal properly with housing conditions they must start with the control of land development by town planning schemes. EXTENT OF PROBLEM They propose to expend from six hundred million to a billion dollars after the war to build three to five hundred thousand houses. The sites on which these houses will be erected will all be town-planned. In six or seven years it is estimated they will have to face from 180 to 300 million dollars of loss, according to the number of dwellings that will be erected. Great Britain is prepared to pay this as the subsidy in working out its after-the-war policy in regard to housing. I do not think there is any definite after-the-war housing policy in this country. But, in view of the much larger increase of population in your country as compared with Britain, it would seem that you would need five\ times as large an appropriation per annum for this purpose as Great Britain, if you are going to deal with the problem on the same drastic lines. In Canada we need about 30,000 houses to meet the needs of our increase in population. Eixty-seven thousand are needed in Great Britain, and in this country 350,000 to build a house for every five persons to meet the natural increase of population. But aside from this increase in population, we all have an acute housing problem to deal with here in connection with the improvement of existing dwellings. CANADIAN HOUSING POLICY Our Canadian housing policy has not been finally settled, but briefly, it comprises a co-operative scheme of housing reform in which the federal, the provincial and the municipal governments will all be interested. We recognize housing as a national problem. It is part of the question of industrial development in our cities and of rural organization in our rural districts. The federal government will probably lend money and may create some kind of advisory bureau. There will be in each province a provincial board or official to administer and direct the lending of money to the municipalities. Working down from the federal government at the apex, you come to the provincial government, with its executive officers, and from that to the municipality, and from the municipality to the housing association and the manufacturer, and the individual. The actual building operations will be carried out by the

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19191 RECONSTRUCTION IN GREAT BRITAIN 125 three latter under regulations prepared by the federal and provincial experts. The Ontario government has appropriated ,$2,000,000 to inaugurate schemes in that pr0vince.l The experience gained in one province will be used to help in the solution of the problem in other provinces. MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION OF HOUSING SCHEMES Whatever difficulties may be encountered in getting the municipalities to do the work, whatever lack of confidence we may have as to their capacity to undertake it, it is desirable to use and confide in them and take the risks. Increased responsibility will gradually bring increased capacity and vision. The English statesman was not far wrong who said that good government was not a substitute for self-government. We need to hold fast to the democratic spirit we have fought for in this war and if we do so we must entrust our municipal administrations with greater and not lesser responsibilities. If our system of local government is defective and we consider it unworthy of our confidence, it is our duty to improve it and not to supersede it by autocratic machinery in order to attain a questionable efficiency. So in our reconstructive policies we must enlist the co-operation of all forms of government and we must place the chief burden of executive responsibility on the government which is closest to the people, leaving to the higher governments the duty of guiding and supervising, of rendering financial aid and expert advice, and of co-ordinating local activities. That, at any rate, will be our policy in Canada, and, although we shall have mistakes made and shall have to take the chances of having to suffer from inefficiency, due to lack of continuity in municipal administration, I think in the end we shall have more enduring and solid results than if we tried some more bureaucratic method. In conclusion, may I express the hope that you and we shall meet the boys when they return with the same kind of spirit, in our attack on social evils, that they have shown in their attack on the enemies of our freedom. To achieve that we must be prepared to convert some of our idealism into practical policies in our reconstruction schemes, to show that we really believe not only in liberty for ourselves, but in If equality of opportunity” for all. That must cease to be merely a pious phrase with us. When the boys return we must not only receive them with bands playing and with flags waving; wc must not only say to them, “We will give you work and money”; we must show them that we are prepared to live for some of those ideals and principles of justice for which they have been prepared to die. In that respect all our countries have B common task and a common privilege. 1 Since this address wm delivered the federal government of Canada has appproriated $25,000,000 to be lent to tie provinces for housing purposes, December, 1918. 2

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[March 126 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW THE NEW RELATION OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO STATE AND LOCAL COMMUNITIES BYARTHUR W. MACMAHON Columbiu University, New York' COULD discuss the paper with more success but less satisfaction, if I could find something fundamental in it to disagree with. Professor McBain in summing up his paper said that there was nothing strikingly new in the relations between nation and state brought about by the war, aside from the development of the co-operative relationship between national and state administrative agencies, which, he pointed out, was already under way before the war. There are, after all, two reasons why the war has not brought anything strikingly new in the national-state relationship. In the first place, we were not in the war long enough to permit drastic permanent changes in our political institutions. The war has raised the metal of the nationand I refer to our national fabric and not to war sentiment-to the red heat at which metal is easily malleable within limits, but not to the white heat at which metal flows of itself. Furthermore, this red heat is a condition which is quickly lost, and I think we are surprised to-day at the rapidity with which the readjustments, toward which we have looked with bated breath, are taking place even now, while we who thought the war was going to continue a year are speculating upon the direction these adjustments should take. It may be that the condition which promotes malleability will be prolonged by the heat communicated to us from the social unrest abroad in the world, together with the pressure developed here by the resistance of labor to a radical readjustment of wage standard. But the war in itself has not lasted long enough nor heated the metal of the nation hot enough to bring about permanent and drastic changes. I POLITICAL EXPEDIENCY DURING THE WAR In the second place, political expediency during the war has affected the relation of states and nation along the lines of tendencies already under way. When we look first at the developments during the war we are struck by the extent of its exercise of national power. If we look a second time, we are struck by the extent to which the national government has actually utilized state and local machinery in the performance of its war functions. Of course the most striking example along this line 'Dr. MacMahon although attached to the staff of the Council of National Defense spoke in his individual capacity in discussing Professor McBain's paper read at the Rochester Conference of the National Municipal League on Reconstruction.

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19191 FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 127 has been the administration of the selective service law, in which the machinery was built up by the action of state and local government. The authorities administering that law .pointed very clearly in their first annual report to the fact that by this use of state and local machinery they were able to improvise a vast civilian machine quickly, inexpensively and democratically. There are many other examples which may be given and which, although less striking than the administration of the Selective Service Law, are perhaps more to the point. We now have the United States employment service as an essentially national agency. As a matter of fact, in the actual building up of that service state and local employment facilities have in many instances been utilized and by various informal memoranda made part of the practical operating system. Professor McBain has referred to the so-called Smith-Pears’ act for vocational rehabilitation. I think I state what is true when I say that the federal board for vocational education, although operating under a congressional appropriation, will welcome assistance from state or other agencies, which would make it possible to render further service to disabled men than are allowed under the strict regulations of the congressional enactment. Again, Congress by emergency appropriation to the department of agriculture has extended aid to the farmers during the war. Such aid, as in the buying of seed and the like, was supplemented through understandings with state agencies engaged in the relief of farmers, the national and state agencies thus becoming a working unit. UTILIZATION OF STATE AND LOCAL AGENCIES The war, then, despite all its developments of federal power, has afforded a strikingly interesting utilization of state and local agencies, in the form of co-operative understandings with the national government. Such development has been along the lines of what was taking place before the war, and it will undoubtedly continue now with added stimulus. My only regret in connection with Professor McBain’s paper is that he did not have time to develop in more detail the possibilities which exist for the creation of these informal administrative understandings between national and state agents. He pointed out, first of all, that it is possible for the national government, even when not having the power of outright control, to extend conditional financial assistance in carrying on education, rural sanitation and other services of that kind. Furthermore, even when the national government has not been able to create what is practically a minimum standard, it can nevertheless maintain a service which will galvanize state and local agencies into added activity. Professor McBain has referred to the effect of the food and drug act upon state food and drug control. For practical purposes the national officers who have administered that act are part of a larger system of which state food

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128 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March and drug officials are likewise a part; and eachgroup of officers assists the other informally in the execution of the law under which it operates. When the federal child labor law was passed and the children’s bureau faced the practical task of administering the law throughout the United States, the first thing which it did was to go to the bureau of animal industry and ask the food and drug officials there how they had worked out these relations with state officials. If the federal child labor law had remained upon the statute books it would have been carried out in large part by state officers without the creation of new federal machinery. In this’ case the national government would always have retained the right to throw its own, officers into the state for the complete execution of that law. Such action on the part of the nationa1,government would have involved duplication which would have been disadvantageous in the long run to manufacturers and would have resulted in the raising of the state administration to the required standard. ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS BETWEEN STATES AND CITIES I wish to emphasize, before closing, another point that Professor McBain has touched upon, and which I regret he did not develop further. It is that it is just as important to develop co-operative administrative relations between state and municipal officers as between national officers and state officers. Unless all administrative agencies working in the same general field are linked together by these informal understandings, in cases where formal understandings are not constitutionally feasible, your system does not work. Take as an example the labor problem, which is after all the biggest readjustment problem that war has given us. The United States employment service will undoubtedly continue. Its task through the war, however, has been to find men for jobs; now the reverse is true, and the employment service does not yet have adequate local facilities to find jobs for men. In the creation of more adequate local machinery it will undoubtedly have to link up with state and municipal employment facilities. Or take, as another example, the use of public improvements as a buffer element in handling the labor situation. A growing number of people recognize the possibility of a permanent system by which the national government, through the state governments, can communicate to municipalities its needs with reference to improvement as a buffer in handling the labor surplus. Such an understanding between the national government and some state authority like the emergency public works commission established in Pennsylvania by a law of 1917, for the purpose of assisting city governments to solve their public works problem, would be very advantageous at the present time. We face above all the task of finding jobs for labor.

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19191 COMMUNITY HOUSES AS WAR MEMORIALS 129 COMMUNITY HOUSES AS WAR MEMORIALS ALBERT S. BARD New York City1 w ‘HAT shall we give our boys now they are coming back? Nothing For that reason intelligence must go America should give with her head as well as her heart. Nothing will do which does not typify the idealism which carried the American soldier to France, but better yet if the gift may express the effort of America to carry that idealism into practical effect. Can anything fit them better than some memorial which shall be stamped all over with a devotion to the common weal? And those who come back, but not as they went-who have left their youth and health on the other side, and have returned to take up lifelong burdens and disabilities? Perhaps, after all, these are the heroes calling for the deepest consideration. Their country has not indeed taken their all, but while taking much has imposed such liabilities on the other side of the account as often to leave a balance of less than nothing. Surely they deserve that what America says in her memorials shall speak of reconstruction, wholesome and fruitful activities, and the progress of that civilization’ they have spent themselves for. And so this suggestion of the community house as a war memorial, first put forward by Harold S. Buttenheim, editor of The American City, in September, 1918, awakened an instant response all over the country.* He urged that the memorial of the sacrifices of the war take the form of a living testimonial erected and dedicated to the ideal for which those sacrifices were made and that nothing could be better than Liberty Houses where the democratic and social aspirations of our communities might Find opportunity for expression and growth. “Let our memorials of this conflict,” he said, “be structures which shall help the living while commemorating the dead.” It is recognized is such even by those who most clearly apprehend community art and is too good for them. into the gift. And what of those who never come back? Surely this is a happy thought for many communities. 1 President, Municipal Art Society of New York and Chairman, Local Draft Board Yo. 154, New York City. ~ 2 The national committee on memorial buildings (a nation-wide committee of one iundred representative men and women), 261 Broadway, New York city, reports that iome four hundred cities and towns in the United States have either made definite plans or the erection of community houses as war memorials or are seriously considering the )roposal. This movement has received the endorsement of Won. Franklin K. Lane, tnd other federal, state and municipal officials. Full information can be obtained by :ommunicating with Harrison G. Otis, secretary of the committee.

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130 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March beauty as a social service rather than a luxury or the precious possession of a few. One may find persuasive reasons for selecting for any giver community the symbolic tribute of a thing of mere beauty, rather thaz a house in which the spirit of beauty and the spirit of social service shal‘ find a home. One may choose for his own town the fruit of these spirit2 rather than the creation of conditions in which they may grow. But ont must be blind indeed not to see that the same purpose animates botlr forms, gives them significance and makes each in its own way a fitting type of memorial to soldiers and sailors who have ventured all thai brotherhood may live. Of course there is no single type of “liberty house” possible, no one plar to which all should conform. American communities differ in charactei and individuality as much as they do in size. Eastpmt, Maine, and Sar Diego, California, have different problems to work out. The local needi of Helena, Montana, are not those of Augusta, Georgia. The form, size plan and purpose of such a building will accordingly vary widely, if it i, to meet real, not fanciful needs. We shall consider in a moment some o the needs such a building may well, attempt to meet if not already taker care of in the community. But there are several common factors whic1 must enter into every such structure and mark it indisputably as a memo rial. Most obviously of all, opportunity must be afforded for appropriatl inscription of names, military units and the like, as the case may be The building is somehow, whatever the form it takes, a record of ou love and reverence for certain men or women or groups and celebrate their deeds. It is a neighborhood memorial or celebration of them, anc their individual or collective names should somewhere appear. It ma: be upon tablets in the vestibule, or by inscriptions upon the walls, bu in one way or another, whether hy paint, mosaic, carving, bronze o stained glass, this particularization and historical evidence should find , dignified place. Let us first emphasize them. BEAUTY: THE ENDURING MEMORIAL Almost equally obviously the building should be made precious in som way, not only to the present generation that has a personal and immediat interest in the individuals and events celebrated, but to those that are t come. The dne thing that can d this is beauty. tinkling cymbal; it is nothing and will profit the community nothing indeed, it is worse than mere futility; ridicule or contempt will be it portion; men will laugh or groan over it, depending upon their moo and disposition; and worst of all, it will fail of its primary purpose as real memorial. Here at least beauty and use are interchangeable termi Consider the crop of war memorials that sprang up all over the countr Only so can it be a true memorial. Expense without beauty is as sounding brass and

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19191 COMMUNITY HOUSES AS WAR MEMORIALS 131 following the Civil War. This country was then singularly unprepared for an eruption of “artistic” impulses. It was the era of cast-iron lions on the door-step with a facial expression that no lamb would hesitate to lie down with. The result was a tidal wave of cemetery monuments, somewhat enlarged and furnished with artillery and ammunition. Granite soldiers at “ parade-rest ” sprang to pedestals all over the country, usually with careless forearms across the muzzles of their rifles. It was the golden age of the monument man and the local stonecutter, but the glacial period of American sculpture. It dropped upon the lawns and greens of the country chunks of stone and carven detritus, where they still persist irrelevant and ugly, testifying chiefly to the misguided impulse that put them there. They got good artisan work; the stone was of the grade specified, set with close joints and without flaws or spalled corners; the monuments stood up straight, and still stand. The essential element of fine art they did not seriously seek, or did not seek in the right way, and its absence from the completed product is not surprising. But our forebears got what they went after and paid for. Unhappily Hamlet was left out. TRE NEED FOR SPECIALISTS However, that era has passed. We know better to-day, and we know how to get beauty of design if we truly desire it. We are aware that between the sellivg of manufactured goods and the skilled performance of the artist a great gulf is fixed, to be bridged over only by long years of professional study and devotion to a difficult art; and that this principle holds good in every detail of a building and its furnishings and decorations. Any committee entrusted with the duty of planning a war memorial of whatever nature that does not seek the expert advice of specialists as to every detail of their work is in effect hazarding a misappropriation of the funds at their disposal. No trustee of an estate would attempt to decide a difficult legal point without seeking the advice of a lawyer; nor do wise parents neglect to call in the doctor when their children are ill. If the project is a complicated one a professional adviser at the outset, to tell the committee how to proceed, is well worth the small additional cost. If there is to be a competition, he is essential. In choosing an architect, go to the best. He is likely to be the cheapest in the end. Nor should available expert judgment in the neighborhood be overlooked. Artists, like other professional men, have their weak spots, their dense moments. They should be checked up; sometimes stimulated. Here, too, is where the adviser comes in; also the art commission of a neighboring city or town, who are usually more than willing to advise? A fuller discussion of how to obtain a memorial that shall be successful artistically, not limited to buildings, but including all forms, is contained in a WUT Memoriat Bulletin recently published by the municipal art society, 119 East 19th street, New York. The

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132 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March The professional adviser usually saves more than he costs. Expense does not necessarily mean beauty; often the contrary. It is an illuminating fact that the art commission of New York city has saved the city hundreds of thousands of dollars by vetoing ornate designs where simple ones were much more beautiful and suitable. Now, assuming that whatever building is built is to be beautiful and that such a course of procedure is determined upon as will eventually lead to a beautiful design, what should the building undertake to provide? Unless already adequately equipped with facilities for the following community interests, the officials or committee in charge should seriously consider the community needs in these particulars: A MEETING PLACE AND SOCIAL CENTER 1. It should provide a meeting place and social center for the returned soldiers and sailors of the community. In this connection it should provide for the preservation of relics and records of the war, especially those having local significance. We have already emphasized as a primary necessity the tribute to those who have fallen. Trophies, flags and souvenirs must be exhibited and kept safe. Documents, manuscripts, maps, books, illustrations and other memorablia and historical records should be properly housed in every communit#y not provided with a fireproof library. Some conimunities will be able to afford a war museum and war library. 2. Bht as the war was not waged or won exclusively by the men at the front; as behind them strove the diverse classes of a highly complex society, all for the same end, and as that end was the winning of a democratic freedom, so the social body, in its various voluntary associations, shouId be accorded opportunity in ,the building to exercise its democratic adpirations. Meeting places of various sizes will undoubtedly be needed more and more. The local board of trade or chamber of commerce, the grange, the Red Cross, patriotic, historical and defense societies, local charities, rotarians, boy scouts, the improvement society, literary and musical societies, civic organizations, women’s clubs, boys’ and girls’ clubs, may all claim consideration, with any other volunteer groups who need for success not only walls, roof and benches, but also an atmosphere of culture, a touch of human grace as well as the physical presence of neighbors. Dr. Eugene Rodman Shippen of war camp community service, in a recent address at Northampton, Mass.,Q emphasized the essential point in these words: Party, class or sectarian aims must never intrude. Employer and employed, RepubliBeaux Art Institute, 126 East 75th street, New York, included among its recent competitions for students a projet for a community house as a war memorial, devoting thereto the prizes annually given by the municipal art society. They have a prior claim. The memorial must serve social or community interests. 4 Printed in part in The American City, January, 1919

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19191 COMMUNITY HOUSES AS WAR MEMORIALS 133 can and Democrat, Catholic and Protestant, Jew and Gentile, man and woman, must stand on an equal footing. Common needs not otherwise met.shall here find their laboratory, field and market, so to speak. Among other things he includes (‘community social functions in which the hostess or matron and her aids shall be the symbol of the hospitality of the place-a light on the altar that shall never go out.” A PLACE FOR EXHIBITIONS 3. Closely related to the last mentioned purposes is the exhibition of works of art. It might have been there included, but has been reserved for special mention. Few cominunities have opportunity to see, still fewer to enjoy, anything of the myriad forms of beauty which man has made, is making, and will make more and more. To a large number of people “art” means paintings, mostly in oils. But were there places to show them, there would undoubtedly be hundreds of travelling exhibitions of architecture, sculpture and the graphic arts, of textiles, ceramics, wood carving, metal work, jewelry, bookbinding and other industrial arts, in addition to the many exhibitions of paintings that can be had at the art centers almost for the asking. America has been very blind to her need and opportunity to wed art to industry and make both joy and money out of the union. Fortunately she is waking up. The communityhouse can hardly find a more essential basis to get people together on than the art basis. There should then be a place where all the things just mentioned may be shown, under proper conditions of lighting and safety. If they can be shown in a living-room, they will add to the pIeasure of being in the room, but the room should be carefully designed for this double function. This method of exhibition has an advantage over the museum method in that it relates art to daily life, and demonstrates how beauty is simply a better way to live. PROVISION FOR MUSIC, DANCING AND DRAMA 4. Let me also lay special emphasis upon the need of provision for music, dancing and drama as healthy stimuli of community activity and enjoyment. The flat floor of the gallery-or combined gallery and livingroom-may take care of the dancing. But if the community is large or can afford it, a special theatre for music, plays and lectures will be found desirable. With suitable provision, many a local amateur dramatic or inusieal society will be stimulated into new life. As with the travelling art exhibitions, professional actors and musicians, playing the principal characters and carrying the solo parts, would circulate from town to town, co-operating with the local talent and creating opportunities for amateurs in the minor rclles. The stage must be carefully planned for its various functions, whether

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134 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March it be a part of a specially designed theatre, or an adjunct of an assembly room. But those in charge of the planning of any stage, however modest its dimensions or character, should consult those who have made a business of producing artistic stage-effects. It is a matter calling for the most expert and specialized advice if mistakes are to be avoided.6 The local stage-manager or proprietor will not do, any more than the local monument man sufficed for the Civil War memorial. Nor is it safe to leave this matter to an architect who is without special experience in this line. Space fails for a discussion of what is here essential. REFRESHMENTS 6. Provision should be made for serving refreshments. If the circumstances admit of permanent catering in the building, so much the better, provided only that it is well done. The assembly rooms may then be used for receptions, teas and banquets. It will permit an emphasis upon the social side of the building’s functions. 6. If not already supplied through other local agencies, the question of a gymnasium or swinmimg tank (or separate ones for boys and girls) and other recreational facilities should be considered. 7. Such a house gives almost limitless opportunity to generous donors disposed to make special gifts. Rooms, doors, windows, sculptural accessories indoors and out, special endowments for special needs, and many other things come to mind. 8. Finally, though perhaps it should have been placed first, a word of caution should be added as to site. Obviously such a building must be where it is readily accessible to the greatest number, and without more expense than is involved in ordinary car-fare. Also a word of encouragement. Good sites abound if they are sought for. They are right under our noses if we will only look-to put it somewhat Hibernically. From the viewpoint of beauty the site is usually more important even than the building, provided the latter is not aggressively bad. But the number of good sites is surprisingly large, if only the committee will adapt the structure and its surroundings to the site. If the building, through the facilities embodied therein, meets the genuine needs of the community in which it stands, and if it meets those needs so attractively that it is a pleasure to go there, and particularly if its management is alert, broad-minded and sensitive to the currents of local interest and to local opportunities, “Liberty House” will in most cases be able to support itself. But, like any other business or human enterprise, its success, financial or as a living institution, will depend 5 The reader will find some excellent suggestions on this point in an article by Christine Wetherill Stevenson, entitled Provision for Art, Music and Drama in Liberty Buildings, in The American Czty for January, 1919. It includes recommendations as to size, arrangement and many other details.

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19191 WAR MEMORIALS 135 directly upon ’its management. Provision for maintenance or endowment of administration, as well as of the fabric, should be considered according to the circumstances of each particular case. The building is but a shell for an institution-a beautiful shell for a living and wholesome and needed institution that will not thrive, or not so well, in an ugly onebut still a shell. Such places will not run themselves. Their maintenance, management and cleanliness must be planned for. Our war camp community service, in organizing more adequately the social life of a special community, at the same time demonstrated our need for like organization in our wider communities, and also the prospect of success in the more ambitious project. Now that peace has come, that and other organizations are likely to broaden into a less specialized 41 community service.” With a “liberty house” in thousands of towns, to take care of the little practical and concrete social needs of its particular community--“little ” when taken singly, but tremendous in the aggregate-the giant task of constructive nation-building that such agencies are engaged in would be greatly lightened. WAR MEMORIALS THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF ARTS’ OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, 1741 New York Avenue, Washington, D. C. HE American Federation of Arts, on January 2, issued a circular letter containing suggestions for the treatment of war memorials. That letter contained the statement that an advisory committee would be appointed, whose services and advice can be placed at the call of those throughout the United States who are considering the erection of war memorials. This committee has now bee; appointed. The purpose of this committee is to deal with the entire subject of war memorials in such a way as to afford assistance to officials, commissions and committees who are earnestly endeavoring to make the memorials of the Great War express in a permanently satisfactory manner feelings of honor, sacrifice and patriotism. The federation is strongly of the opinion that the American artist should he called on to design and to execute any structural memorials of this war, and that in every community the memorial should be an individual, artistic creation. Too often it has happened that war monuments in the past have taken the form of stone or metal soldiers, with little or no variation in design and utterly devoid of artistic feeling and expressionthe products of the shop, not the studio. The federation expects members of the general committee to confer with any organization which is about to erect a war memorial, in order to influence the decision in favor of a work having artistic merit, and to acquaint the’members of such an organization with the proper methods to be taken in order to secure that result. Members of the committee may be consulted on the choice among various forms of memorials, and also as to methods of selecting a designer and bringing the work to a satisfactory conclusion. Any person interested in obtaining fitting memorials may T 1 This letter is reproduced as a practical guide to those who are considering this subject.

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136 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March write to the secretary of the general committee for information touching any phase of the matter. The aim is not to dictate but to be helpful. The federation is convinced that thoughtful attention at the beginning of the project will bring good r&ults. PRINCIPLES AND METHODS For the guidance of its members, as well as of advisers and persons charged with the duty of erecting war memorials, the committee has adopted the following principles, which are substantially the same as the ones laid down by the National Commission of Fine Arts and approved by the National Academy of Arts and Letters: Memorials may take many forms, varying with the nature of the site, the amount of money available, the desires and needs of the community. Among many types these may be mentioned : The expense may be little or much, according to the simplicity or elaborateness of the base and the extent of the architectural setting. There is one type of staff to be used in connection with buildings, and quite another suited to an isolated situation. The great, undulating, sumptuous silken folds of the Venetian flags on the piazza of St. Marks are the extreme of art in flags. Something of this kind and quality we may aspire to in decorative flags. A fountain may be simple in extreme or most elaborate. It may cost one thousand dollars or tens of thousands. Well placed, it is one of the most permanent of monuments. In European cities fountains are enduring, attractive, useful and distinguished features. Americans are just beginning to realize the possibilities of fountains as memorials. A Bridge, which shall get its chief beauty from its graceful proportions and the worthiness of the material used. The bridge should be built to last a thousand years and to be a continuing delight during that period. The memorial features may be furnished either by tablets or sculpture or monuments at the bridge approaches. A Building, devoted to high purposes, educational or humanitarian, that whether large or small, costly or inexpensive, would through excellence of design be an example and inspiration to present and future generations, expressive of the refinement and culture which mark the highest order of civilbation. It should, however, be understood that a building entirely utilitarian can not altogether satisfy the desire for a commemorative work of art. The transept of Memorial Hall at Harvard University is an example of the triumph of memorial feeling over utility and even architecture. Tablets, whether for outof-doors, or for the walls of church, city hall, lodge room or other building, offer a wide field for the designer. These tablets get value from the beauty of form and especially from the design of the lettering. The inscription should be designed even to the names of individuals, and should not be made from type kept in stock by the tabletmaker. Gateways to parks or other public places afford a fitting and expressive method of commemoration. Here, too, the architect and sculptor may find full play for their fancy. Symbolic GToups, either in connection with architecture or isolated, depend for their interest on the universality of the ideas or sentiments depicted and the genius of the sculptor. A portrait statue which is also a work of art is not an impossibility, but it is such a rarity that committees should exhaust other possibilities before settling on this one. To make a good medal is one of the most exacting things an artist can be called upon to do. Properly to execute a medal takes much time and study, even from the most skillful and experienced. It is not the work of the die-maker, or for the artist who works simply on paper, or for a combination of the two. The designing of a medal; should be entrusted only to those who have a fine sense of composition, skill in draughtsA Flag Stag With Memorial Base. There is variety in flags, also. A Fountain, which may be designed so as to afford places for inscriptions. Success is not impossible; but talent of, a high order alone can achieve it. Portrait Statues of individuals are a favorite form of commemoration. Medals.

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19191 WAR MEMORIALS 137 manship, and a knowledge of the subtleties of relief. Not only is the space limited, but the range of ideas and motives adapted to relief is limited. People are inclined to ask too much to be told on a medal. While a sketch on paper or a water color may be valuable as a preliminary step, an order to strike the medal should never be given until the design has been developed in relief, as even a very careful drawing may give a false idea of the relief itself. Stained Glass Windows offer a field commonly resorted to, and with varying success. The subject is one requiring special study and consideration, and should only be taken up with competent advice. The Village Green, which exists in almost every small town or may easily be created. Usually this common is ill-kept and without symmetry of form. It might readily be laid out for playground and park purposes, and so improved and maintained. A fountain with a seat carrying an inscription, or a tablet well designed, would form the center of memorial interest. Other kinds of memorials (such as bell towers, band stands, memorial doorways and memorial rooms) will suggest themselves. Any form that can be made to express feelings of honor, respect, love of country, devotion to freedom and the glory of the triumph of democracy will be appropriate. If the utilitarian structure shall be used, it is of first importance that it shall impress the beholder by beauty of design, the permanent nature of the material used and the fitness of the setting. What shall be done is less important ,then the manner in which it is done. THE PROFESSIONAL ADVISER In any case where it is decided to erect a memorial, the first step for the individual ofcommittee having the matter in charge is to seek the advice of some one trained in fhe arts to act as an adviser, and to confer with him in regard to If out-of-doors, the site is of prime importance. Crowded thoroughfares are to be avoided. Works of art should not be obstructions to travel, either at the time of erection or prospectively. It should be borne in mind that a work of art is not noticed when placed where crowds continually pass it. People will go a distance to enjoy a masterpiece and, unless a memorial has such distinction as to command attention and admiration, it fails of its purpose. The type of memorid is the second subject for consultation with the professional adviser. He should know how to spend the money available in the manner best suited to carry out the purpose intended. The selection of the artist should be made with the assistance of the professional adviser. The site and type of memorial having been determined, the adviser should be able to furnish a list of the artists, whether architects, sculptors or painters, who have established reputations for executing the particular kind of work in view. One of these artists should be selected, after an examination of his completed work, and the commission should be given to him. The adviser should be retained, in order to make sure that the completed work in all particulars (including, of course, the inscriptions) conforms to the best standards. No lay committee is competent to pass judgment on these essential elements. Then, too, the adviser should see to it that the landscape or other setting is in harmony with the design, and is calculated to enhance the memorial. In such cases, the professional adviser should draw up the program and conduct the competition. Artists of high standing often enter competitibns limited to selected artists of established reputation; they rarely enter unlimited competitions. In any competition the essential elements are, first, a good program; and, secondly, competent and impartial judges. The location, whether out-of-doors or indoors. Competitions are sometimes imperative.

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138 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March Methods-of conducting competitions have been formulated by the American Institute of Architects, the National Sculpture Society, and the National Society of Mural Painters. These methods should be followed by the adviser. THE CHARACTER OF TEE MEMORIAL The most impressive monument is one which appeals to the imagination alone, which rests not upon its material use but upon its idealism. From such a monument flows the impulse for great and heroic action, for devotion to duty and for love of country. The Arch of Triumph in Paris, the Washington Monument and the Lincoln Memorial are examples of such monuments. They are devoid of practical utility, but they minister to a much higher use; they compel contemplation of the great men and ideals which they commemorate; they elevate the thoughts of all beholders; they arouse and make effective the hest impulses of humanity. They are the visible symbols of the aspirations of the race.. The spirit may be the same whether the monument is large or small; a little roadside shrine or cross, a village fountain or a memorial tablet, speaks the same message as the majestic arch or shaft or temple, and both messages will be pure and fine and perhaps equally far-reaching, if t,he form of that message is appealing and beautiful. Display of wealth, ostentation and over-elaborateness are unbecoming and vulgar. Elegant simplicity, strength with refinement, and a grace of handling that imparts charm are the ends to be sought. These ends require, on the part of everybody connected with the enterprise-committee, adviser and artist-familiarity with the standards of art, and above all, good taste. Only by a combination of all these elements CaD a really satisfactory result be obtained. February 24, 1919. MOBILIZING THE CITIES DUDLEY CATES Washington, D. C. HROUGH the voluntary co-operation of state and local officials with the capital issues committee at Washington, new municipal T financing in 1918 was cut in half, thereby releasing approximately a quarter of a billion dollars in labor, materials and credit for the use, directly or indirectly, of the national government. There are no service stars to commemorate this war sacrifice of the cities, but such emblems would not be amiss. The cities, like their citizens, “came through.” Early in the war Secretary McAdoo foresaw that the tremendous financial and industrial requirements of the government would necessarily interfere with the normal development and improvement plans of public and private corporations, or, stated the other way, that if municipalities and private businesses continued as in the past to draw upon the limited supply of investment capital, the government would be unable to meet its needs. These needs being paramount, it became necessary to establish the govThe mobilization of the cities came about in this way: 1 Secretary, Capital Issues Committee.

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19191 MOBILIZING THE CITIES 139 ernmental policy of “war business first,” and the capital issues committee was created to give effect to this policy through the rationing of credit virtually on a priorities basis. Supervision of security issues was first undertaken in January, 1918, by an informal committee of the federal reserve board acting at the request of Secretary McAdoo, followed a few months later by the capital issues committee created by the War Finance Corporation Act of April 5, 1918. To make its work effective, the committee required the co-operation of the cities on a volunteer basis. They could not be drafted, nor was there need. The cities and states throughout the whole country co-operated in a spirit of broad patriotism, recognizing that war made it necessary to subordinate local interests to the national welfare. In return for the willingness of the cites to postpone unnecessary improvements, the capital issues committee undertook to give prompt approval to every project that was found to be essential to the public health and welfare. The principles underlying the committee’s rulings were the same as those on which the government’s whole campaign of war thrift was based: cities and states, like individuals, were asked to do without everything that was not vitally necessary in order that the investment market might absorb more readily the successive issues of liberty bonds and in orderthat the labor and materials required in new construction might be released for the use of the government. The committee acted in an advisory capacity in passing upon all new projects that required capital, determining which were compatible with the national interest in war time. SCHOOLS AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS The chief advantage of having a central agency at this time to advise the cities lay in the fact that the committee had the means of viewing all local improvements from the standpoint of the national perspective. Fifty cities might urge the need of new schools, but the relative need would vary greatly. The committee was able to formulate, with the help of the bureau of education, fixed standards amounting to a general rule applicable to all cities. The facts in every case were investigated and the necessity measured in terms of the country as a whole. The same policies were followed in passing upon proposed bond issues for sewer construction, hospitals, streets and bridges, public buildings, municipal facilities, etc. The committee sought the advice of SurgeonGeneral Rupert Blue, head of the U. S. public health service, respecting all questions of public health and sanitation. The office of the surgeongeneral of the army advised the committee on the need of new hospitals in any locality. Bonds for streets and bridges were authorized by the committee only when the projects involved the elements of military or paramount local economic necessity. As a general rule, the committee

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140 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March disapproved expenditures during the war for monumental buildings and parks, without investigation. In many instances plans for school buildings and other construction were’modified so as to reduce the cost, as well as the amount of labor and materials. PROCEDURE Through a campaign of education addressed to public officials and investment dealers throughout the country, the committee gave publicity to its policies and called upon every public and private corporation to file an application with the committee before offering securities for sale. An informal procedure was established, involving an application to the committee, investigation by the committee’s district representatives scattered throughout the country and by the appropriate boards and departments at Washington, after which the committee would issue its opinion, stating that the proposed issue had been found to be compatible or incompatible with the national interest. Numerous projects were voluntarily abandoned without application to the committee and many others were withdrawn by the applicants when the determining factors in the situation were laid before them. An open letter addressed to municipal officials asking them to submit their construction budgets in advance of making contracts, said :2 The committee respectfully directs your attention to the imperative necessity for the postponement of bond projects that serve no immediate war purpose. The physical facts to bear in mind are the shortage of money, men and materials. The committee is convinced that municipal officials need have no fear that their constituents, the public, will complain if they adopt the policy of waiting until after the war. Willingness to postpone street and bridge improvements, new parks, sewers, schools and other public buildings is as much a badge of honor for an American city to-day as an emblem of success in the liberty loan. The committee’s appeals met with a prompt and conscientious response. No statistics could be assembled to show the direct value to the government of this co-operation, because there is no record of the many bond projects which were postponed until after the war, but the total amount involved in the applications disapproved by the committee and in projects which would otherwise have gone forward may be fairly estimated at $250,000,000. The states and cities were called upon to render still another great service to the government in addition to the postponement of unnecessary improvements financed by their own bond issues. As the war progressed, the necessity of more radical economies along many lines became apparent and in August the committee addressed an open letter to public utility commissions and municipal officials throughout the country asking their 2 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. Vii, p. 642.

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19191 MOBILIZING THE CITIES 141 co-operation in helping the public service corporations to retrench. This letter called attention to the fact that under war conditions, existing facilities must be made to serve in place of new ones, regardless of temporary inconvenience and discomfort,” and continued with the following appeal: May we suggest to you that these considerations apply with marked force to the public utility situation. The extensions and betterments which public service corporations are accustomed to make in normal times, either on the initiative of their own enterprise or by direction of the regulating commissions under which they operate, should, in our opinion, be postponed until after the war, unless an immediate war purpose is served, and may we ask of you consideration of the propriety of deferring even the performance of contractual obligations arising from franchise or other local requirements, when no military or local economic necessity is served by such expenditures. The capital issues committee feels certain that your commission will recognize the paramount need of the government when passing upon proposed additions and extensions by public utility companies, and asks that you co-operate in giving effect to the purposes of the government by restricting every unnecessary use of capital, labor and materials for extensions, betterments, street paving, or other purpose, even waiving, if in your power, the legal requirements that obtain in times of peace, until the present emergency has passed. Practically all the states and many of the cities responded by assuring the committee that their officials were already acting in recognition of the needs of the government or that they would thereafter bear in mind the paramount interests of the country in the matter of expenditures by public service corporations for new facilities. Subsequently, the committee circulated copies of a letter received from the chairman of the war industries board stating that “in view of the demands for materials for war purposesj the board would not and could not permit the use of materials unless the need for war purposes can be clearly demonstrated,” adding that although the demand for public utility extensions and connections would be “insistent and persistent, only absolute necessity must be considered and not convenience.” Fortunately the signing of the armistice soon brought an end to the unusual conditions which prompted the committee and the board to make these appeals and few customers of public utility companies were put to any inconvenience, although had the war continued this policy would have entailed many sacrifices on the part of the public. 3

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142 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE A REVIEW OF REPORTS OF THE PAST YEAR BY CHARLES KETTLEBOROUGH' Indianapolis T HE work of the various civil service commissions has been seriously disturbed during the past year by abnormal conditions produced by the war. In spite of many and insuperable circumstances calculated to obstruct and retard a wholesome development of the merit system, the various commissions were able, at the conclusion of the year's work, to report satisfactory progress and to enumerate substantial and noteworthy achievements. A recapitulation of the important results achieved would include a recodification and simplification of the rule? and regulations of several of the well-known municipal commissions; thc standardization of salaries, titles and positions; the creation of personal advisory committees to assist in the selection of a high grade and worthy personnel in the various branches of the public service; remedial measures calculated to deal more justly with discharged or suspended employes; the introduction of efficiency methods in the work of the com. mission itself; studies and critical analyses of the causes of resignation and the adoption of more scientific medical standards. EFFECT OF THE WAR The war has affected the civil service in various ways. In the firs! place many persons holding positions in the civil service left their em. ployment' to take up military work; more frequent calls, therefore, wen made on the commissions for eligibles from which to supply vacancies But the commissions were not able to supply the demand because thc persons from among whom they recruit their eligible lists have also joinec the colors. Accordingly, the number of applicants for positions was fewer there were more resignations; and the demands on the commissions fo: candidates were more frequent. In its twenty-second annual report to the mayor, submitted on Januar: 15. 1917. the Chicago2 civil service commission said that during the pre ceding six months they had experienced an appreciable scarcity of quali fied applicants for positions in the classified service and in the labor serv ice, both skilled and unskilled. Indeed, it was frequently impossible tl get either applicants for examinations or persons to fill temporary emer 1 Director, Bureau of Legislative Information, Indiana 2 Twenty-second annual report, civil service commission, city of Chicago, year 191f submitted to the mayor on January 15, 1917. Contains brief report of the work of th commisEion and of the secretary, the statistics of work done, the Illinois civil servk law and the rules of the commission.

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19191 PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE 143 gency appointments. The Portland, Oreg~n,~ civil service board asserts that the work of the board was greatly increased during the year 1917 on account of the difficulty in providing suitable eligible lists for the various classifications. This condition was due primarily to the fact that private firms offered higher wages and salaries than the city and to war conditions which caused a scarcity of labor on account of enlistments in many departments of the federal service. In Massachusetts the condition became so serious that the commission recommended a temporary 1 arrangement to supply the department with SL working force to tide over the exigencies of the war, such as the readjustment of age limitations and physical requirements. TEMPORARY APPOINTEES One of the perplexing problems with which civil service commissions are constantly confronted is that of temporary appointments. Unforeseen conditions arise from time to time which demand the recruiting of a large number of persons, competent to qualify for the service demanded, who are retained only until the emergency work is completed. The selection of such lists is somewhat baffling and commissions are constantly striving to avoid so far as possible the retention of a large number of short term employes. The Chicago commission has worked consistently to reduce the number of temporary appointees in the civil service, and there were fewer temporary appointees on the city pay rolls at the beginning of the year 1917 than at any time since the passage of the civil service law, based upon the aggregate strength of the classified service. This condition resulted from a consistent effort on the part of the commission to certify from eligible registers whenever possible and by promptly announcing examinations from vacant and temporarily filled positions. In April, 1915, there were 2,721 temporary appointees in the official and skilled labor services and 1,545 in the common Iabor service, making a totaI of 4,266. At the beginning of 1917 there were but 789 temporary appointees in the official and skilled labor services and 281 in the common labor service, making a total of 1,070, or a reduction of 75 per cent. It is generally supposed that temporary appointments are made for periods of 60 days, whereas they are made for but 1,2,3,5,10,15 and 30 days. These appointments involve positions in the skilled trades, such as carpenters, bricklayers, steamfitters and structural ironworkers, where unforeseen circumstances require emergency employments for brief periods. RULES The Chicago commission has been working on a revision of its rules, which were cumbersome, complicated and in many instances inconsistent 3 Annual report of the municibal chi1 service board of the city of Portland (Oregon) for the fiscal year ending November 30, 1917.

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144 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [Marc1 with the law. The work is still in progress, as a nation-wide investiga tion of civil service rules has been carried on, and efficiency methods an( standards generally have been studied with a view ta obtaining the besi in classifications, grades and examination standards that experience affords. The new rules adopted by the Milwaukee commission became effectivr on January 1, 1918, and provide greater economy in the administratio1 of the civil service system, enable the commission to fill vacancies morr rapidly than in the past and eliminate many superfluous and ambiguoul sectionse4 STANDARDIZATION Standardization in the civil service has justly received considerabh emphasis during the past year. In Milwaukee there has been a notablc advance and improvement in the standardization of salaries, titles an( positions. This reform was made possible by the adoption by the commoI council of the report on the standardization of the city service made bj J. L. Jacobs & Company of Chicago and the adoption of the annual salarj ordinances in conformity therewith. According to the provisions of thii plan, standard specifications have been set up by which' to measurc applicants for city employment, and uniform salaries have been provide( so that persons doing like work in the various departments will be paic like salaries, contingent upon equal seniority. Moreover, positions in volving substantially the same duties in different departments will bc called by the same title irrespective of location, and new appointeel selected to fill vacancies will enter the service at the minimum salary rat( and do not reach the maximum compensation until after three or morc years of service. Los Angeles reports satisfaction with the standardize( salary schedule which has been adopted, since it has materially reduce( the general feeling of dissati~faction.~ PERSONNEL COMMITTEES The standardization ordinance adopted by the common council o Milwaukee provides for the creation of personneI committees, represent ing the various lines of work, such as engineering, nursing, medical clerical, etc., in the city departments under its control. These personne committees will meet with representatives of the commission for the pur pose of perfecting examinations, maintaining the standardization of thr service and working out a system of efficiency records which can bi utilized in connection with salary advancement and promotion bj examination. 4 Twenty-second annual report, covering the calendar year 1916 and the twenty-thin annual report, covering the calendar year 1917, of the board of city service commis sioners of the city of Milwaukee. 6 Fourth annual report of the Los Angeles county civil service commission for the yea1 1917.

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19191 PROGRESS IN .MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE 145 DISCHARGE By an amendment to the Wisconsin civil service law in 1917, city employes are given the right to a hearing after discharge, reduction or suspension for more than thirty days. Employes in departments under the control of the common council are entitled to a hearing before the city civil service commission and employes of independent boards will have their grievances heard by the board by which they are employed. In the new rules adopted by the Milwaukee commission and effective on January 1, 1918, causes of discharge are clearly defined and include failure of an employe to pay or make provision for the payment of his just debts and political activity of a pernicious sort. ADVERTISEMENT OF OPPORTUNITIES The Milwaukee commission has devised a system of advertising among the citizens of the municipality the opportunities for employment in the city service under the merit system. An arrangement was made with the superintendent of the city water department to attach a slip to each water bill enumerating the opportunities for employment in the city civiI service. The bulletin boards of the various schools were also used for rtdvertising civil service examinations and the results in both cases were nost gratifying. EFFICIENCY METHODS The Milwaukee commission is undertaking a thorough reconstruction )f the work in its own office in the interests of efficiency and economy. I'he record system is being completely revised so that the entire history )f each employe may be kept on a single card instead of on many cards is formerly,; the method of checking pay rolls by the book system will be upplanted by the card system; and common labor application blanks lave been reduced from a four-page form of legal size to a 4 by 6 card. RESIGNATIONS During the year 1917, the St. Paul6 bureau of civil service undertook in investigation of the causes of resignations from the city service, by ending a letter to every employe who resigned, asking his reasons for esignation. Out of 267 replies received, 39 persons stated that they had esigned because of insufficient salary; 19 because of unsatisfactory workng conditions or Iack of opportunity for advancement; 3 to accept penions; and the others because of marriage, requested resignation, susiension or unknown or miscellaneous causes. A study of these statistics ,onvinced the commissioners that the city is in urgent need of a proper tandardization of salaries and duties, better working conditions and 6 Fourth annual report of the civil service bureau of the City of St. Paul for the year 917.

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146 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [Marc] better supervision. Some advance has already been made in this respect In 1916 the bureau standardized the clerical service of the city and th, results showed fewer resignations and more general content among thi class of employes than among any other in the service. In standardizin salaries in any branch of service, enough elasticity should prevail so as t, afford a higher wage to efficient persons and those longest in the servic and most familiar with the work. INDIVIDUAL EFFICIENCY RECORD SYSTEM The system of recording periodic individual efficiency records, former1 in operation in St. Paul, was abolished. Experience proved that an ir dividual efficiency record, determined by mathematical formulas tha contemplate the measuring of the employe's ability, industry, reliabilitj attendance and conduct, produced no material improvement in the publj employment, except in isolated cases, where it proved a worth-whil stimulus. On the part of many employes, the system caused indifferencc discontent and a suspicion that favoritism dictated the markings. Ser iority and meritorious service will be continued as in promotion examinr tions, and credit for past service will be based on specific, written, renw able facts rather than the mechanical system of recording efficiency b marks that were for the most part based on judgment only. MEDICAL STANDARDS The St. Paul commission undertook and carried out a systemat revision of the medical standards used in ascertaining the physical fitne: of applicants for positions. A specific questionnaire and a copy of tk former standard were sent to about 75 of the leading surgeons of the cit: The returns received were tabulated and a revised system of medic: standards and medical tests was evolved. PENMANSHIP STANDARDS Measuring scales for rating the quality of handwriting have been USF for some time in St. Paul with rather unsatisfactory results. For tl purpose of rating penmanship on a more equitable basis about 80 spec mens of distinctive handwriting were collected and submitted to sever expert penmen for rating. After preliminary ratings had been mad the specimens were sent to A. N. Palmer of New York who made a critic analysis of the specimens and evolved certain definite standards, whic are being used as criteria. RECOMMENDATIONS The recommendations made by the various civil service commissio relative to the needed amendment of the laws includes the modificatic of the so-called trial clause, conferring upon heads of departments tl power of discharge with the right of appeal to the commission vested

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19191 PROGRESS IN MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE 147 the employe affected; the elimination of the probationary period; and the elimination of the rule of three in promotions and the right of the commission to determine whether or not the public interest will be best subserved by holding an original entrance or promotion examination to fill any given position. The secretary of the Chicago commission recommends the establishment of a bureau of character investigation and of experience verification as a means of searching for all facts as to the record of applicants and eligibles and the accuracy of statements and reports made in the examinations. One to include in the classified service all positions except those of a policy-determining nature. The second is that the city should at least investigate the desirability of establishing the pension or retirement system for city employes. The remainder of the available reports for the year yield little information as to the progress or work of the various commissions. For the most part they contain the rules under which the commissions operate, charter provisions, laws, the statistical results of examinations and questions for principal examinations. 'I St. Louis, during the year 1918, has published two elaborate pamphlets dealing with the classification and standardization of positions in the classified service of the city. The report is a well-arranged digest and compend of schedules, groups, grades and titles. A brief succinct description of the duties of each position is given, the compensation, vacation, etc., being indicated. The St. Paul bureau advances two recommendations. EMPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT In a very thoughtful article in The Public for September 14, 1918, William A. Bird points out some of the manifest weaknesses in the present civil service system and insists that the science of employment management must be more fully developed. The merit system is not exclusively or predominately a means of keeping government administration out of Fifteenth annual report of the board of civil service commissioners of Los Angeles, California, July 1, 1916-June 30, 1917. Questions of principal examinations: Municipal civil service commission of the city of New York. Five pamphlets, issued quarterly and covering the period from April, 1917 to June, 1918. Annual report of the board of civil service commissioners for the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, for the year 1917. Rules of the efficiency board, governing the classified service, city of St. Louis, Mo., 1917. Classification and standardization and description of duties of positions in the classified service of the city of St. Louis, 1918. Description of the duties and classification of positions in classified service of the city of St. Louis, 1918.

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148 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March politics, although the baneful effects of the spoils system accelerated the movement for civil service reform. But this is primarily a negative result. The positive achievement is that the merit system is a force for public service; it assures the rendering of the most effective public service at the least public cost. Neither are competitive examinations merely a means of doing justice to the candidates; the important thing is how may the public be best served in the selection. The question of reform is purely an employment problem and is too frequently entrusted to men wholly ignorant of large-scale employment methods. A civil service commission to function adequately should have all the powers of an employment department. Its power is restricted to keeping out improper persons. It should have the additional power to insist on efficient work, to remove the unfit and to prevent the removal of fit persons who are politically obnoxious to the party in power. TRADE UNIONS The attitude of the trade unions to the civil service is a question of first importance and in an article in The Public for August 24, 1918, Ordway Tead expounds the doctrine with considerable pungency. He quotes a recent statement of William Dudley Foullie that persons in the employ of private industry are not in the same position as employes of the state. The latter are “servants of the state; they have not the right to resist the government; they have no right to strike or to combine for the purpose of striking or to exert pressure of any kind upon their employers by means of their organizations.” Mr. Tead takes issue with this statement on the theory that the state is thereby exalted at the expense of the personality of individuals and that the trade union among employes should be frankly recognized and that it should be a directive force in shaping the policies of departments and guaranteeing democratic management. PUBLICATIONS During the past year two interesting and informing publications dealing with the civil service have appeared. Dr. Leonhard Felix Fuld, assistant chief examiner of the New York City commission has compiled a small book entitled Opportunities of the Cicil Service which gives an excellent technical resum6 of the whole question of the opportunities in the civil service to which is appended a list of states and cities having civil service commissions. The second of the two publications is devoted to a more restricted field and deals with the opportunities for women in the municipal civil service of New York city, and is a study of the number of women employed, their duties, qualifications, compensation and length of service and is based upon an investigation made for the Intercollegiate bureau of occupations and the Women’s auxiliary of the New York civil service reform association.

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A PERMISSIVE CITY MANAGER LAW 149 19191 A PERMISSIVE CITY MANAGER LAW OME of the people in New Hamsphire asked Professor A. R. Hatton to draft an act which would permit cities to frame their own S charters. It is probable that under the constitution of New Hampshire the legislature could not give to cities the final power to frame and adopt their own charters and it is still less probable that the legislature would do so even if it could. In states like New Hampshire where special city charters are popular (and even the rule), it seems desirable that there be some recognized method by which cities can indicate to the legislature the type of charter desired. With that idea in mind Professor Hatton has drafted the following bill which is an adaptation of a portion of the constitutional provisions of the new municipal program of the National Municipal League. It represents a very interesting application of the principles involved where home rule does not exist and probably will not for many years. It has been drafted with the thought in mind that the legislature might find it difficult to approve a charter which came to them with the backing of a popular vote in the city concerned. In Californiawhere the legislature must approve, home rule charter approval has never yet been withheld. DRAFT OF BILL FOR NEW HAMPSHIRE AUTHORIZING CITIES TO FRAME CHARTERS AND SUBMIT THEM TO THE LEGISLATURE FOR APPROVAL SECTION 1. Any city may frame and adopt a charter for its own government in the following manner: The legislative authority of the city may by a two-thirds vote of its members, and upon the petition of 10 per cent of the qualified electors shall forthwith, provide by ordinance for the submission to the electors of the question: “Shall a commission be chosen to frame a charter? ” The ordinance shall require that the question be submitted to the electors at the next regular municipal election, if one shall occur not less than sixty nor more than one hundred and twenty days after its passage, otherwise, at a special election to be called and held within the time aforesaid; the ballot containing such question shall also contain the names of candidates for members of the proposed commission, but without party designation. SEC. 2. Candidates for election to a charter commission shall be nominated by petition which shall be signed by not less than 2 per cent of the qualified electors, and be filed with the election authorities at least 30 days before such election; provided, that in no case shall the signatures of more than five hundred (500) qualified electors be required for the nomination of any candidate. If a majority of the electors voting on the question of choosing a commission shall vote in the affirmative, then the nine candidates receiving the highest number of votes shall constitute the charter commission and shall proceed to frame a charter. Any charter framed as provided in this act shall be submitted to the qualified electors of the city at an election to be held at a time to be determined by the charter commission, which shall be at least 30 days subsequent to the completion of the charter and its distribution among the SEC. 3.

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150 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March electors and not more than one year from the date of the election of the charter commission. Alternative provisions may be submitted to be voted upon separately. The commission shall make provision for the distribution of copies of the proposed charter and of any alternative provisions among the qualified electors of the city not less than 30 days before the election at which it is voted upon. Such proposed charter and such alternative provisions as are approved by a majority of the electors voting thereon shall be submitted to the legislature of the state at its next regular session and be subject to the approval or disapproval thereof as in the case of other proposed laws. Amendments to any city charter may be framed and submitted to the electors by a charter commission in the manner provided by this act for framing and submitting a charter. Amendments may also be proposed by a two-thirds vote of the legislative authority of the city, or by petition of 10 per cent of the electors addressed to the clerk of the legislative authority, setting forth the amendment proposed; and any such proposed amendment shall be submitted to the electors at a regular or special election as provided in this act for submitting the question of choosing a charter commission. Provision shall be made by the legislative authority of the city for distributing copies of any proposed amendment among the electors at least 30 days prior to the election at which such amendment is to be submitted. Any proposed amendment approved by a majority of the electors voting thereon shall be submitted to the legislature of the state as provided in this act for a proposed city charter. SEC. 4. THE GOVERNORSHIP: SOME OPINIONS OF THE GOVERNOR BY PROFESSOR WILLIAM A. ROBINSON,’ St. Louis, Mo. HE governors’ messages of 1919 contain some interesting comThe governorship is T one of the places in our political system which offers increasing opportunities for leadership and executive talent, but it is badly in need of greater power and freedom from constitutionaland statutory restrictions. Two governors, Davis of Idaho and Bartlett of New Hampshire, devote a considerable portion of their biennial messages to a discussion of the office, both agreeing on the essential defects of the present system. The former points out that there is a general misconception as to the position of the governor, fiist, because many people believe that the president and governor have similar powers in their respective spheres ; and secondly, because the same people have an intimate knowledge of modern business organization with its centralized and responsible executive. While the constitution of Idaho declares, “the supreme executive power of the state is vested in the governor,” other provisions of that document and variout ments on the present status of the office. 1 Member of the Department of Political Science, Washington University.

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19191 THE GOVERNORSHIP 151 statutes have nullified this declaration. Without himself possessing the responsibility, he is charged with all the mistakes and delinquencies of the various departments of the state government, over a majority of which he exercises no control.” “The governor and council” states Governor Bartlett, have been so stripped of their powers by a gradual process of ‘farming out’ their powers to others that now, they are not only not the ‘chief’ executives of the state, but in nearly all of the very important matters of finance where judgment and discretion are involved they are no executives at all.” Like Governor Davis, he states his belief that the people actually do not know “how completely the hands of their elective executives have been tied while at the same time they are held responsible.” Both illustrate this lack of power by specific examples. Governor Bartlett’s discussion of his relations to two great executive agencies, the highway coininission and the trustees of the state institutions, is of interest to all students of government. These officers spend a large part of the annual revenue and yet the governor has no power of direction or veto over their doings. “His hands are absolutely tied, yet he is responsible to the people for the welfare of these institutions. . . . The law and the system created are wholly wrong,have dangerous tendencies and possibilities, are subversive of good government, unnecessary, expensive, undemocratic and in violation of the constitutional intention that the governor and council should be the chief executive officers of the state.”. Governor Davis’s views are similar. “To-day, the governor is the direct representative of the people and should be the direct executor of their public affairs. He should be given the power not only to formulate plans for the better welfare of the people, but he should be given the power, when these plans have received general approval to carry them into execution. . . . As applied to the science of government, the greatest lessons that we have learned from this war are the value of cooperation and the need of wise and effective leadership. The war has exposed the fallacy and weakness and inefficiency of much of our governmental machinery. . . . I appeal to you, to revive the office of chief executive, to recreate the governorship.” Both governors, in effect, ask for the same reforms, the creation of a cabinet system modeled on that of the national government. A similar spirit appears in the statements of Governor Bickett of North Carolina. Discussing the popularity of the present system of electing e);ecutive officials, he declares that “there never was a more tragic delusion than that the people select these officials. . . . There is no inore reason for electing the governor’s council than there is for electing the president’s cabinet. . . . Presidents of railroads and other corporations are selected by small boards of directors. Railroad commissioners and corporation commissioners are elected by all the people. He Who are most efficiently served by their chosen officials?”

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152 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March goes on to state his belief that only the governor and lieutenant-governor should be elected and as “a start in the right direction” urges the enactment of a law that all state administrative officers whose election is not required by the constitution shall hereafter be appointed by the governor. CLOSER CONNECTION BETWEEN GOVERNOR AND DEPARTMENTS In Iowa, Governor Harding urgcs a closer connection between the chief executive and all administrative departments, so that proper coordination and control of policies may be secured. In Nevada, Governor Boyle points out that in 1915 and again in 1917 he had recommended the reconstruction of the state government along the lines of the national government. The state governments, alone among the governments of the world, retain the principles of electing the heads of co-ordinated branches, a process which while supplying ample checks and balances, departs absolutely from managerial processes employed in all of the efficient enterprises in the world, be they public or private.” While admitting that public opinion may not yet be ready for drastic changes, he asks that the governor be given the appointment of the attorneygeneral. Governor Goodrich of Indiana makes the same request, stating that it would hardly constitute “a dangerous centralization of power” to give the chief executive the right to choose his own legal advisor. Governor Carey of Wyoming asks for authority to suspend officials failing to enforce the laws, and for a fund with which to carry on investigations. While the unusual pressure of reconstruction business has led the governors to give less attention to this subject than in 1917, the importance of the matter is steadily growing. No one can examine the growing business of the states without realizing the imperative need of a better administrative organization, with power and responsibility centralized in the governorship. Governor Davis meets the usual charge that such changes would be undemocratic, by pointing out that the difference between autocracy and democracy does not lie in the extent of executive power, but in the manner and conditions of exercising that power. Under the system proposed “any failure on his part to function as an efficient manager will, under a system of centralized responsibility, be quickly apparent to the public and the consequence of such failure visited upon thc delinquent. ”

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19191 COUNTY GOVERNMENT IN MONTANA 153 COUNTYGOVERNMENTINMONTANA BY WADE R. PARKS Thompson Falls, Montana I N Montana there are forty counties; and the area of most of the counties is greater than that of some eastern state. Counties in Montana are largely governed by a board of county commissioners, who are given broad powers of a legislative and executive nature, and also some judicial functions. In Montana we have very little in the way of township organizations; and this is to be regretted. The only township officers we have are justices of the peace and constables; and usually these do not exist or do not function. In Sanders county we have townships as follows: Camas Prairie, Lonepine, Jocko, Thompson and Smeads. The jurisdiction of the justice of the peace in each township is as wide as the county. Very few persons have any conception as to just where the boundary lines of the townships are. They know that certain villages and towns are in certain townships. The law provides that there shall be two justices and two constables in each township. In only three of the townships do we have the two justices and in none of them have we the two constables. Some of the townships comprise as much as 350 square miles. The township government is not very active or eficient, One of the leading justices in a county, and located at the county seat acts in various capacities to wit: town clerk, U. S. commissioner, truant oficer,-and being unable to control himself in re intoxicants has been “siwashed,”-that is notices have been posted in the saloons to desist from selling or giving him any liquor. Yet from time to time he obtains such quantities of liquor as to incapacitate him (occasionally being placed in the county jail to sober up) in performing any official function. Trials before such a justice to enforce the penal laws are frequently a farce,especially before a jury selected by the constable who is a “good umbria” with the gang. And this township is not the only one in the county which is so unfortunate in the matter of such township government as survives. And the local justice of whom I speak has held his position for years. Sometimes they “railroad” one of an independent mind who really has committed no great offense or perhaps none at all while on the other hand a real offender against the law is liberated amidst great applause and ovation. And that county is not the only place in Montana where such things happen. The more serious the crime the more friends the accused seems to have and his most active defenders are usually found amongst the sworn officers of the law; this is the case in many instances in the higher court in many counties. To sum it up there seems to be a drift towards making a hero of those guilty of crime and every effort is made to have them declared “not

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154 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March guilty.” I have prosecuted men for crime and absolutely proven every point and had the defendant admit the doing every thing that he was accused of and yet there were acquittals time after time. Probably the chief factor in the acquittals is the local antagonisms resultant from having the county seats in very small towns absolutely in the control of powerful corporations. Therefore I can say as to township government that it is of a vanishing nature and verging to borderline of lawlessness. There could be an improvement if there was a wiser way of selecting a jury. At least this is one factor. AS TO ROADS The county commissioners have general supervision of the highways. They create road districts and appoint a supervisor who serves at the will of the board. In this county we have twenty road districts,-and this last spring the board appointed in two instances one supervisor for three districts so that we have but sixteen supervisors in the county. The tendency of the boards is to desire to have closer supervision of road work. The practice of the commissioners is to authorize road work for the payment of which the county does not have funds to pay. This is a very usual practice in Montana. The commissioners order the payment of the claims for which there are no funds,-the warrants are marked “not paid for lack of funds” and draw 6 per cent interest, and after accumulating $50,000 to $100,000 are refunded into bonds of the country. This method of financing gives the commissioners a method by which they bond the county without referring the matter to the vote of the people; the constitutionality of this system of bonding is in question and is unsettled in Montana. It works to the disadvantage of communities who desire large improvements which require large expenditures,-such as building of bridges across rivers. Commissioners are limited to the expenditure of $10,000 for any one purpose. Therefore a bridge requiring more than $10,000 cannot be built without a vote of the people and the people cannot authorize the necessary bonds if the commissioners have already outstanding deficiency warrants which corner the limit of bonded indebtedness which must not be more than 5 per cent of the assessed value of the property in the county. In short: the county financial system is in a most unsatisfactory condition and seems to be drifting away from constitutional constraints. FINANCES Another financial problem is in the assessments. Large portions of the wealth of this county as well as in many other portions of Montana is corporation wealth. Most of the timber resources are held by one corporation. The three corporations controlling timber, power sites and power

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19191 COUNTY GOVERNMENT IN MONTANA 155 houses and the railroad interests pay 75 per cent of the taxes of the county. Many individual holders of timber or other lands pay taxes on their holdings at a higher assessed valuation than do the corporations on similar lands of equal, in many cases of far more, value or wealth. Much of the land of the county was once railway land grant land and is still held by corporation interests. In the matter of drawing juries for district court as well as for the justice’s courts there could be some improvement to the general welfare and would inspire confidence in the courts. I believe that all jurors’ names should be placed in a uniform capsule and all capsules placed in a glass box and all names drawn in the open from said box. There are many ways in which county government could be improved. I believe that the county government should be placed closer to the people. A county council with frequent meetings at the county seat, the council to be elected by the people from subdivisions in the county with a provision for a few to be elected at large with proportional representation to be provided for would be beneficial. Give the county council legislative powers in the expenditure of certain funds, etc., and in the organizing of the defunct township organizations, etc. The school system is in better condition than any other department, but could be improved in the matter of services to the public. School houses should be utilized as community centers instead of being closed in the interest of those who own private halls “for rent.” And schools are weak in many places for lack of the necessary revenue which should be forthcoming. The state legislature has attempted to remedy this condition by provisions for a county levy and also state funds. Districts located in localities where low assessment of wealth is the rule have few dollars to expend, while other school districts with less children to educate, but with a higher assessment roll, are not troubled for want of funds. CONSTRUCTIVE SUGGESTIONS Supplementing what I have already stated and in accord with your request to state what could be done along constructive lines will add: 1st. That improvements in the matter of taxation could be greatly improved, removing burdens from activities yielding no profits, but tending toward developing the natural resources; also taxing the natural wealth that is held in large blocks by corporations, such as timber, etc. 2d. In the matter of the care of public property much could be done Every year the county buys large quantities of road supplies such as scrappers (slips), spades, plows, etc., and later tractors and other machinery for road purposes; little care is taken of this property. In Montana where the road overseer is appointed by the county commissioners he should be required to account for all materials and a public building should be maintained for its keep.

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156 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March 3d. In Montana many counties employ a county agent who is supposed to be skilled in advising the farmers in the conduct of agriculturalactivities. In this county the agent resides in the county seat town, which is twentyfive miles away from the more central part of the county as measured by population or territorial extent. Mr. Agent should reside near the center of agricultural activity and should also reside on and conduct a model farm. 4th. They have county elections every two years,-it should be changed to every four years. 5th. County officials should have some qualifications aside from being able to peddle the “bull” and drink booze. In short saloons should be closed during the entire campaign for public o5ce and no officer or candidate for office should be permitted to treat any one. 6th. Thousands of dollars are being wasted in this county on the unwise location of permanent roads. Highways are being located on such a steep grade as to require cars to ascend for a distance of two to five miles on “low gear” under difficulty. More competent engineers should be available where a permanent highway of consequence is to be located along main traveled routes that a feasible grade might be secured and the money spent be of permanent use. 7th. In the matter of handhg of county prisoners and the jails things could be bettered. Prisoners are thrown into jail here and kept at the expense of the county for months; no work provided; no incentive for improvement. 8th. Saloons should be more restricted. No saloon should be permitted in an unincorporated town or village. 9th. Township governments should be established and made to play a vital part in the government of the county . . . and the township government should be a counterpart of the county government,-the county government should have a judicial branch of inore authority than the justice of the peace and should be required to have educational qualifications and some knowledge of the law. 10th. Some counties have very few public parks; the county seat town does not usually have the court house square around which the town is usually built in the east and middle west. I suggest that public parks and play and recreation grounds should be provided and maintained at public expense. They could be of use for camping grounds for transcontinental tourists in autos, etc. And now such future utilities could be established at small expense. 11th. Increase the length of the tenure of public office and provide that no one may succeed to a second term. This will eliminate “trimming” and some corruption that goes with the temptation of a second term. As to what is being done to remedy any of these evils will state that we have a legislative committee on taxation and tax reform which will report to the coming session of the legislature.

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19191 COUNTY GOVERNMENT IN MONTANA 157 As a rule the legislative measures passed at the biennial session.do more harm than good. Confusion holds greater prominence than reason in the legislative halls and hundreds of ill-digested bills are introduced and scores of them are made into laws in the closing hours of the session which lasts but sixty days. It seems to me that counties might be given legislative authority via the referendum in matters of local jurisdiction. Sanders county is a small community as counties go in Montana, having less than 8,000 population and about 1,700,000 acres of land mostly mountains. We have vast stretches of mountains and waste lands; the mountains have in the past been heavily timbered which has been removed by timber exploiters and fires. Tracts of timber are being removed by lumber companies and nothing left but a waste land of stumps often covered with tree tops and smaller trees which have been destroyed in the haste to remove the cream of the forests. Nothing is being done to stop this waste either by the local, state or national government. The national government maintains a forestry service which devotes its activities in building trails, fighting forest fires and work of reforestation. SOME NEEDED REFORMS IN PUBLIC HEALTH WORK IN NEW JERSEY BY M. N. BAKER‘ Monfclair, N. J. MERGING as we are from an unprecedented epidemic of influenza, facing a rise in the general death rate due to the epidemic E and the world war, confronted also with reconstruction problems which reach to the very foundations of both health and democracy, the times demand that attention be centered on constructive public health work based on sound principles of government, efficiency, and economy. At such a juncture we look to our state department of health for inspiration, example, leadership. What do we find? Only a few days ago a close observer deplored‘the unprogressiveness of the department. “It is not even drifting,” he said, “it is stagnant.” My own conviction, based partly upon personal experience as a member of thereorganized board, is that the efficiency of the department would be greatly increased if the board were swept out of existence or restricted to advisory duties, ‘Lately member of the New Jersey state board of health and of the Montclair board of health; associate editor of Engineering News-Record. A paper read before the New Jersey Sanitary Association, December 6, 1918. Although delivered to a New Jersey audience, Mr. Baker’s remarks have a general application. The interest in the address lies in (1) the fact that most of our states still have boards with mixed functions and many of those boards are needlessly inefficient outside of statutory handicaps; (2) plain speaking by one who had been a former member of the board. The association adopted a resolution endorsing the main points in the 4

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158 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March and all executive functions of the department were centered in a single commissioner, as is the practice now in New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Maine, Connecticut, Ohio, West Virginia and Oklahoma. The statute reorganizing the department is sound in most of its fundamentals. It goes far in separating the legislative and executive functions of the department and in making the director the chief executive officer. But it established a considerable division of responsibility. The director has surrendered and the board has assumed powers plainly vested in the director, but the board, like such boards in general, is not properly constituted for quick and efficient executive work. The result is circumlocution, delays, postponements, the killing of initiative and general discouragement of the bureau chiefs and assistant director, who are the real life and working force of the department as it stands to-day. The department lacks a living, growing plan of health-protective work, coupled with a real budget. It has lacked the courage, the initiative, the vision to determine what’s what in public health work, to establish relative values in terms of costs. Granted full powers to frame and enforce a state-wide health code and to see that local boards enforce the code and the state health laws generally, the department has been slow in drafting the code and slower yet in seeing that local boards do their full duty to their communities and the state. Latterly the department has been hampered by the war, but the war has spurred thousands of other agencies to overcome all obstacles and zchieve marvelous results. Moreover, the great weaknesses of the department were manifest before we entered the conflict. Always more money has been needed, but the funds available have not been used altogether to the best advantage-through lack of plan and budget. Shortage of funds, war handicaps, influenza epidemic should all combine to stimulate the department to more careful planning, the elimination of non-health-protective work, the throwing out of dead wood and all around increased economy and efficiency. Let us hope that more has been done in all these respects than has yet been revealed. I believe that the greater part of the executive staff of the department is as devoted and as efficient as could be expected under its handicaps. paper and instructing its legislative committee to co-operate with the New Jersey Medical Association in an effort to make the New Jersey state board of health purely advisory. The Montclair board of health was abolished by resolution of the town commission on January 2. It had never been formally established under the Walsh commissiongovernment act, but had been held over for two and one-half years. On several OCCBsions the commission or the mayor took action as though there were no board, at least Once contradictory to the decision previously reached by the board. There were two vacancies on a board of seven and later there had been difficulties at times in getting a quorum. We are advised that the mayor’s decision to abolish the board was made after the reading of Mr. Baker’s address.-EDIToR.

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19191 MUNICIPAL SCHOOL FEEDING 159 The responsibility rests with the board, the legislature and the governor. As a creature of the legislature and of a vicious system designed in the interest of political parties rather than the public good, the board is of the so-called bipartisan type. The statute also provides that certain professions must be represented on the board. Consequently, if the veterinary member goes off the state must be searched for a successor who shall be not only a veterinarian, but also a Republican or a Democrat, as the case may be. A greater potential evil lies in the fact that in the exercise of its most important function, the choice of a director, the so-called bipartisan feature may become null, since in case of a tie the governor of the state casts the deciding vote. This makes for divided responsibility, politicaI favoritism, and general inefficiency. Either the board or the governor alone should appoint the director. Were the board eliminated or restricted to advisory functions, appointment would lie with the governor and responsibility be undivided. For the personnel of the board the successive governors are responsible. To save time for a discussion of these and related pressing questions, I shall bring my remarks to a close. I trust I have said enough to arouse the earnest thought and fruitful discussion which the subject deserves, without going into details which would divert attention from the main point, which is that our state department of health needs to be reformed, to the end that it may be a leader in these critical times, doing not alone such direct work as belongs to it, but serving also to point the way in local health administration-which, after all, is the vital thing,-leading where local departments need leadership, compelling where without compulsion the public health will not be protected. MUNICIPAL SCHOOL FEEDING BY JOHN c. GEBHART~ New York City HE approval of an item of $50,000 by the board of estimate and apportionment of New York city for school lunches marks the T successful culmination of a year's agitation for municipal school feeding. The appropriation of this sum indicates that the city of New York now recognizes its responsibility toward the underfed school child.' While the board of education has not yet indicated exactly how this money is to be spent, it undoubtedly intends to use it as an initial step in a broad program of municipal school feeding. The money was available January 1, 1919, and it is likely that the first move of the board of education will be to take over the school lunches now being operated under private auspices and to extend the service to other schools where it is needed, as long as the funds are available. 'Executive Secretary of the New York School Lunch Committee.

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160 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March The action of New York city will undoubtedly draw attention to the school feeding movement and to the effect which it is likely to have on the unctions of municipal government. In spite of the fact that school feeding has been carried on successfully and extensively for a generation in various European countries and is now being done in 85 per cent of the progressive cities of this country, the American public is still largely ignorad both of the extent of the movement and of the social philosophy underlying it. HISTORY OF MOVEMENT School feeding had its earliest beginnings in Germany, for as early as 1790 municipal soup kitchens were establishe$ in Munich, to which underfed school children were sent for an adequate meal. The movement gradually spread throughout Germany until in 1909, the work was being carried on in 189 cities. In 78 of these cities the meals were provided entirely by volunteer societies; in 68 cities, by volunteer societies assisted by government subsidies, while in the remaining 43 cities, the meak were conducted entirely by the municipality. The development in England and France, however, is of more interesl to us, since the social ideals and institutions of these countries are morc in accord with our own. The English edu'cation act of 1870 which enforced school attendance was largely responsible for the initiation of thc movement in England. The corralling of the childhood of the nation ir the public school brought to notice thousands of sickly, emaciatec children who otherwise would have remained hidden in the slums of greai cities. A large number of volunteer societies sprang into existence tc meet this need and in 1905 it was stated on good authority that then were 355 separate organizations for school feeding in 146 towns and citier in England. ENGLISH EXPERIENCE The work, however, was far from satisfactory and the investigatioh: into the causes of the physical impairment of children which followed tht public clamor at the time of the wholesale rejection of military recruit for the Boer War, resulted in a strong popular demand for the transfe of this work from private to public control. The result was that in 1906 Parliament passed the provision of meals act. This act permits loca authorities to provide meals for school children at cost for those who car afford to pay and gratis for necessitous children. The authorities arl permitted to draw on the public funds for this work, but are limited ii the amount they may spend to what would be produced by a tax rate of : halfpenny to the pound. The offer of public subsidy naturally led many authorities to undertak the work, While in 1907, the first year after the adoption of the act only 2,751,326 school meals were served by lorn1 authorities, in 191;

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19191 MUNICIPAL SCHOOL FEEDING 161 29,568,316 meals were served. Since 1915, however, the number of meals served has fallen off considerably, due to the “war prosperity” which has reduced the number of children applying for free meals. The act is administered by canteen or care committees composed either entirely or chiefly of members of the local education authority. Thz canteen committee usually makes all arrangements for the feeding centers such as the hiring of the help, purchase of the food, serving of the meals and selecting of necessitous children. In spite of the fact that the provision of meals act was adopted as an educational measure for the purpose of making school children physically fit to receive the education which is offered them, the system so far has been little more than an instrument of charitable relief. More than 90 per cent of the children are served free. Although the act provides that undernourished children whose parents can afford to pay for the meals must be charged for them, the parents usually retaliate by withdrawing the children from the meals thus defeating the very purpose of the provision. FRENCH EXPERIENCE School lunches in France were an outgrowth of Caisses des Ecole or school funds established by the residents of various districts to encourage indigent children to attend school by providing them with clothing, food, medical aid, etc. Although the school funds were started by voluntary effort they were gradually assisted by public subsidies and in 1882 their establishment in each arrondissement was made compulsory. School rneals in France are thus an outgrowth of community life and to that fortunate circunistance must be attributed their remarkable success. The patronizing, “poor law” atmosphere is entirely lacking in spite of the fact that ordinarily two-thirds of the meals are served free. There is a growing demand to make the meals universally free, i. e., maintained by the municipality out of the public treasury as an educational measure. By 1909 the work had grown until meals were being provided in 1,400 arrondissements for 187,000 children and in the same year, nearly eight million meals were served in Paris. THE AMERICAN MOVEMENT The movement in America is of a much more recent origin and is greatly in need of development and extension. The first school lunch was established in Philadelphia in 1898. The beginning was made in New York in 1908, when the New York school lunch committee was permitted to install a service in two public schools. Under private auspices the work was gradually developed, until last year 57 elementary school lunches were being maintained in the various boroughs by the New York and Brooklyn school lunch committees.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [Marc1 Under the present arrangement, the committees assume all responsi bility for the conduct of the various lunch rooms. The board of educa tion, however, provides the necessary space for the kitchen and luncl rooms and usually equips them. Thl ideal has been to make a self-supporting school lunch available for a1 children who for various reasons are unable to secure an adequate luncl at home. Such children, it is pointed out, are now given pennies wit1 which to purchase buns, pickles and other unnutritious and harmfu foods from pushcarts and candy stores. With the pennies they no1 spend for such trash, they could purchase from a properly equipped schoc luncheon an adequate and nutritious lunch. Such a lunch would, there fore, be nearly, if not quite self-supporting, and would have the advantag of giving the child a practical and much needed lesson in food economy. No adequate census has ever been taken of the extent of school feedin in America, but a recent survey of the bureau of municipal research give us a fair idea of the growth of the movement. The bureau sent a queE tionnaire to 131 cities of 50,000 population or over; replies were receive1 from 86 of them. Of these 86 cities, 72 were operating school lunches In 46 of them, however, the service was available in both high and el6 mentary schools, while in two cities, it was restricted to elementary schoolr In five cities, the service was provided only for special classes. Th growth of the work in various cities during the past four or five years i clearly shown in the following table. The American public has always been opposed to free feeding. GROWTH OF SCHOOL LUNCH SERVICE IN CERTAIN CITIES WITH 300,000 POPULATION AND OVER (Prepared by the Bureau of Municipal Research) City New York City, Manhattan New York City, Brooklyn Chicago Philadelphia St. Louis Boston Pittsburg LOB Angelw San Francisco New Orleans Minneapolis Period 1911-1916 1912-1916 1912-1916 1913-1917 1913-1916 1911-1917 1914-1917 1914-1917 1912-1916 1911-1916 1911-1916 Growth Elementary9 schools to 49 schoo Elementary4 schools to 16 schoo Elementary-10 schools to 28 schoo High 0 schools to 31 schoo Elementary0 schools to 16 schoo Elementary1 school to 5 schoo High -18 schools to 18 schoo High 3 schools to 7 schoo Elementary7 schools to 10 schoc High -13 schools to 16 schoc High 1 school to 3 schoc Elementary2 schools to 10 schoc High 3 schools to 3 schoc Elementary2 schools to 7 schoc High 5 schools to 6 schoc { New York city is by no means a pioneer in municipal school feedint for in 68 of the 72 cities, the work.is entirely in the hands of the local cit government. Chicago, Philadelphia and Cleveland are among the largc

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19191 MUNICIPAL SCHOOL FEEDING 163 cities which have led New York in this important step. The task confronting New York city, however, in organizing this work is, of course, larger than in other communities, for if the board of education is to take over the existing services in both the high and elementary schools, it will operate over one hundred luncheon centers. There seems to be fair unanimity of opinion among the workers in this field that the receipts froin the luncheons in elementary schools ought to cover at least the cost of the food. While in a few instances, notably in Brooklyn, the elementary school lunches have been made entirely selfsupporting, most cities have been able to do little more than meet the cost of the food and about half of the labor cost. Philadelphia has made its elementary school system pay by adopting the expedient of applying the profits of the high school lunches to the deficit of the elementary schools. The problem of the administration of school lunches under municipal control is greatly simplified if the two aspects of the work, the administrative and the educational, are kept separate. The business of operating one hundred lunch centers throughout the school year effectively and economically is a task calling for executive and administrative ability of the highest order. It would be a mistake, therefore, for New York city to follow the example of some of the smaller cities in placing the school lunch work under the domestic science department. The experience of all large cities seems to indicate that a separate bureau of school feeding should be established for this work with an executive manager a't its head who is responsible directly to the city superintendent of schools. The co-operation of the domestic science staff, however, should be secured in such matters as the selection of the menus, the preparation of certain dishes in the cooking classes to be sold at the lunch counter and in stimulating an interest among those who attend the lunch in food economy.

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DEPARTMENT OF PUBLICATIONS I. BOOK REVIEWS WELFARE AND HOUSING, A PRACTICAL RECORD OF WAR-TIME MANAGEMENT. By J. E. Hutton. London and New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 19;s. Pp. 190. Illustrated. $1.50 net. England’s longer participation in the war cost her more than did our shorter participation, but it also gave her time to learn many things thoroughly that we had just begun to study when, on November 11, we joyously threw our lessons on the junk heap. Among the things the war taught or rather re-taught England-and failed to teach us, was the value of good, not merely decent or merely sanitary, but good housing and good management. Before November 11 the lesson had been so well learned in England that it was possible to write a book about it. In America there are not even the materials for such a book, for not only are our war-time housing developments still uncompleted, but Congress seems determined to scrap them before there is any opportunity for them to prove of value. In these days of violently antagonistic propaganda it is well to know who is attempting to guide our thoughts and what his affiliations are. Mr. Hutton had been for three years engaged in attempting to solve the “problems which are attached to the housing of many thousands of work people of both sexes, and catering to their manifold needs.” He was employed by Vickers, Ltd., the great shipbuilding company whose hundred thousand employes were distributed among several plants in different parts of the kingdom. His task was not only to secure these workers, but also to ensure provision of adequate arrangements for their accommodation and general welfare. So much he tells us in the introduction. But even more important is what hc tells indirectly in the final chapter on industrial unrest. He is keenly conscious of this unrest: he foresaw what has occurred in Great Britain since the signing of the armistice, and being a believer in a system which provides for capital and labor, “master” and “man,” is tremendously concerned over the “new” doctrines that would do away with such distinctions. “Our whole future existence,” he says, “depends upon a clear understanding between capital and labour.” “Remove or break down the barrier of suspicion and distrust and the rest will follow.” “It will take time and time is precious.” “Let the ‘masters’ get together with the ‘men,’ and let both sides forget the past and be prepared to meet in a spirit of compromise, with the single purpose in view of the interest of the empire and the welfare of our great nation.” The inadequacy of these “lets” in a time that calls for imperatives is eloquent of Mr. Hutton’s position as a representative of the “masters” who knows the problem, sees clearly some ways of dealing with it, but cannot speak in a tone of command. If he and those like him were granted time, as perhaps Americans will be, they might allay the unrest to such an extent as to make orderly evolution. possible. But as the unrest in England is to-day greater, the crisis nearer, than in America, so too are the English employment managers farther advanced than those of America, most of whom are still concerned only with problems inside the shop. The eleven chapters that come between the introduction and industrial unrest cover all those factors in the worker’s life that make for content or discontent; beside housing they discuss canteens that provide good, hot food without waste of time or cash; motor transit which saves time for the firm and prevents irritation to the worker; hospitals and medical services; amusements; work6 police; the woman’s point of view-a chapter written by a woman which shows clearly that within the works at least woman’s point of view is not very different from 164

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19191 BOOK REVIEWS 165 man’s. Mr. Hutton realizes that conditions of living have quite as much to do with unrest as have conditions of work. This he emphasizes by putting the two chapters dealing exclusively with housing near the beginning of his book. The most refreshing thing in Mr. Hutton’s book is its utter absence of any pretense what “welfare,” a term he uses with reluctance for want of a better, is, from his standpoint, no more than intelligence applied to a business problem. There is no cant about benefits conferred, but through the whole book there is evidence of good will and an attempt at understanding to the end of securing better cooperation and greater efficiency. The importance of this cannot be over-emphasized, for were the attitude different the value of much that is suggested would be lessened. Even as it is, and remembering that the book deals with war times, one questions occasionally whether there should not be clearer distinction between war-time necessities and good peacetime policies. The canteen which furnishes a good dinner and saves for recreation time that otherwise would be spent hastening to and from home, undoubtedly makes for greater efficiency in the factory. Should it, therefore, be considered part of the plant and run at cost, or, much more questionable, run at a loss “for girls working short shift and not earning high wages.” The “temporary housing” problems have ceased, we hope, to be of immediate importance, though in discussing them Mr. Hutton injects some observations of continuing concern-as on his difficulties in making members of sixteen nationalities live peacefully together-the English may perhaps learn from Americans here-and some observations of contemporary interest, as his discovery that Belgians require special treatment because their habits and standards of living are so different from those of the English. “Candidly,” he says, , must be stated that their ideas are most primitive. They decline to make use of baths if provided for them, and lavatory accommodation is employed for the reception of waste vegetables, etc., constant trouble arising from this cause.’’ These are troubles American housing workers constantly meet. It is when he come8 to permanent housing that he is most instructive. Vickers, Ltd., built a “marine garden city” commensurate with its probable normal needs, near the plant at Barrow-in-Furness. Before the war the company owned 1,000 houses, about one-fourteenth of the whole town of Barrow. By the fall of 1916 it had built or financed 610 more cottages at a cost of $750,000. It also secured the co-operation of the rural housing organization society, through which it was able to borrow two-thirds of the required capital from the national government (public works loan commissioners), and erected 589 cottages on an estate of sixty acres at Crayford and 400 cottages at Erith. Parks, playgrounds, allotment gardens, theaters, institutes, a public house, at which the “sale of intoxicants is in no way forced,” were included in these developments. Clubs and recreational activities were financed by the workers themselves. The cottages are widely spaced, only ten or twelve to the acre; they are equipped with modern conveniences; running water, bath, electric lights, gas for cooking, and contain in addition to a living room, parlor and scullery, three bed rooms. England seems to have accepted the three-bedroom minimum while we in America still argue the advantages of one and two bed rooms. On the financial side there is again a question. The rentals apparently bring in a little over 7 per cent gross on the cost of developing the estate. M‘hile twothirds of the cost was borrowed from the government at presumably around 4 per cent-the rate is not given-this does not leave much for taxes, repairs, depreciation and management. The cost, however, was abnormally high because of the war, and it may be that part of this will be written off, as we propose to do with our government war villages. But again this is not stzted. Again the advantage of an arrangement which brings anothcr than the employer into the ownership and management of the houses is not definitely

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166 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March stated, though it is indicated, as in the chapter on amusements, “And, above all things, the desire to ‘leave the works out of it’ is positive. Out of Blob’s pickle factory into Blob’s recreation hall is ‘not good enough’; it is too much like work with the chill off .” Lacking an American book, or even the material for one based on such definite experience, it is to be hopcd that We&w and Housing may find its way into the hands of the many American employers who to-day are seriously concerned over industrial unrest and are pitifully seeking to sooth it without looking beyond their factory gates. To be sure, it does not contain the whole answer; it does not even hint at their responsibilities as citizens for conditions in large industrial communities. But at least it does show that something more than wages, hours and working conditions must be considered. JOHN IHLDER. * BUDGET MAKING IN A DEMOCRACY: A E. A. Fitzpatrick. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1918. $1.50. Dr. Fitzpatrick’s reason for calling his volume “a new view of the budget” is far from clear. In the main it is an unconNEW VIEW OF THE BUDGET. By vincing argument against what he calls the “executive budget,” but which he nevertheless apparently approves with certain slight modifications. Unfortunately, the book gives the impression of being inspired by some personal dislike of Dr. Frederick A. Cleveland. A great deal of space is devoted to an effort to demolish the particular type of executive budget which Dr. Cleveland has very vigorously advocated. Dr. Cleveland’s idea of budget reform has been attacked before, however, notably in New York state when the proposed constitution was under discussion in 1915. There is nothing new, therefore, in that feature of Dr. Fitzpatriclr’s volume. For his advocacy of continuing appropriations and his condemnation of pork-barrel legislation he would scarcely claim originality. Possibly the “new idea” is that budget estimates for the so-called administrative commissions, such as tax commissions and public service commissions, should not be reviewed by the executive, but should go to the legislature without review. Dr. Fitzpatrick’s reasons for this proposal arc that these commissions, having certaifi judicial functions, should be treated af are the courts, and since these bodies have a quasi-legislative function ‘‘ their natural relationship is with the legislature rathei than with the executive.” This will hardly convince those who consider tar commissions and similar bodies to bc primarily administrative in charxter Nor will it give much comfort to thosc who look foiward to some co-ordination oj independent commissions. Governmenf by commissions is none too popular witltaxpayers now. The wisdom of multiply ing commissions and exempting them at to their financial demands from tht scrutiny of the chief executive may we1 be questioned. Apparently the author’s chief claim tc “a new view” of the budget is that “thc determination of the amount of publii expenditure is not a financial problem a all, but a political and social one.” Whili this may or may not be considered a nove idea, there is no doubt that it needs empha sk at,the present juncture. There is to( much tendency to assume that “budge reform” will reduce the tax rate. As 1 matter of fact, the best cystem that caI be devised for preparing budget proposals, the most ideal legislative procedure and L perfect system of budget control and ac. counting will not greatly reduce expendi. tures. If the budgetary problem is on1 of expanding governmental functions, ii is indeed a political and social question. In the opinion of the reviewer, however nothing is to be gained by confusing this idea of the budget as the “essence o government” with the budget as a prohlen of honesty and efficiency in financing public activities, quite apart from socia and political theories as to what activitiei a democratic state should undertake Much more can be accomplished in riddinl democrat,ic institutions of their pates weakness-inefficiency-by looking up01 budget reform as a problem, to use Dr

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19191 BOOK REVIEWS 167 Fitzpatrick’s own words, of getting “a hundred cents in service for each dollar of public funds expended, whatever the amount expended” (italics not the author’s). After allowing for waste due to inefficiency and dishonesty, the amount expended is mainly a question of policy to be decided by the people through the proper legislative machinery. To confuse this fundamental problem of the extent of governmental functions with the problem of eliminating graft and waste is most unfortunate. On the whole, it seems fair to say that Dr. Fitzpatrick’s volume is too contentious to be of much help to the practical legislator confronted with the task of putting order and efficiency into the public housekeeping. On the other hand, it is too dogmatic and one-sided to be a safe guide to the student and general reader. In the hands of a skilful teacher or budget expert, however, it might he very useful in provoking discussion of the fundamental features of budget-making. C. C. WILLIAMSON * THE LITTLE DEMOCRACY: A Text-Book on Community Organization. By Ida Clyde Clarke, with introduction by P. P. Claxton, U. S. Commissioner of Education. New York: D., Appleton and Company, 1918. Mrs. Clarke has brought together much of the best opinion and many fine prescriptions for community organization. Her book deals primarily with the school community center, but contains excellent chapters on the community garden, the community market, and the community kitchen. The chapters on various types of clubs are helpful. Mrs. Clarke has drawn freely on the documents of various departments and bureaus at Washington and her volume is especially indebted to Dr. Henry E. Jaclrson of the bureau of education and Professor Hugh Findlay of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The volume cannot he pronounced an adequate treatise on community organization because it fails to raise or even Pp. XV, 253. suggest most of the difficulties of the subject, and there is lacking either a descriptive or analytical treatment of such decisive experiments as are being conducted in Cincinnati, in Framingham, in New York, under the leadership of Community councils, in New Haven, under the war bureau, in Kirlrsville, Mo., under the leadership of Mrs. Harvey. There is no reference to the growing contact between organized labor and the community movement, and the subjects of immigration and Americanization are left out. But as far as its contents go, the book is interesting and practical. JOHN COLLIER. * OUR NEIGHBORHOOD: Good Citizenship in Rural Communities. By John F. Smith, Professor of Social Science, Berea College Academy. Philadelphia and Chicago: The John C. Winston Company, 1918. Pp. XI, 282. Professor Smith has written a text-book for country boys and girls, which approaches the ideal. It gives enough informatloon for the boy or girl to know how to go about answering the questions at the end of each chapter, and these questions lead out into the entire problem of rural life. As an example of method, the book would have value or any urban teacher as well, and for any teacher of social science, even to graduate groups. This test-book does more than give facts or arouse and direct intellectual interest. It is full of specific techniques, having to do with games, household arts, the protection of wild life, the reduction of waste on the farm. There are about seventy-five illustrations, all of which are well chosen and clearly printed. This book can be unreservedly recommended. JOHN COLLIER. * Cmrm PREVENTION. By LieutenantColonel Arthur Woods. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press. Pp. 124. $1 net. Although the title promises somewhat more than the contents warrant, the book

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168 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March carries out the aim of the author, namely to tell what a modern police department has done and can do to prevent crime. Colonel Woo&, is well qualified to speak on this subject after four years of progressive work as police commissioner of New York City. The book of nine chapters is a very brief sketch on the police department’s relation to crime. It begins with a much needed explanation of the limitations of conventional police methods; a chapter, which, coupled with the one following on educating the public, if read generally, would do much toward helping communities judge intelligently of the effectiveness of their police departments. Among the causes of crime discussed are poverty, mental defectives and drink and drugs, under each of which a series of typical cases, drawn from the experiences of the author, are presented. The chapters on convicts and juvenile delinquency relate also by specific instances what the New York police department has tried to do in the matter of preventing the convict from going back to his old life and in guiding aright youngsters in danger of becoming launched upon a career of crime. While the subject matter is discussed with an absence of technical terms, statistical data and other evidences of profundity, the book has a distinct value as an introduction to a more thorough study of causes of crime and crime prevention. Its easy, colloquial style is an asset because the book is quickly and easily read and if read arouses interest. Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research, 6 THE RESULTS OF MUNICIPAL ELECTRIC LIGHTING IN MASSACHUSETTS. By Edmond Earle Lincoln. (Hart, Schaffner and Marx Prize Essays. XXVII.) Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1918. Pp. XX+484. $3.00. It is interesting to contrast this carefully prepared study with the frankly polemical book by A. M. Todd,l reviewed ARCH MANDEL. January 4, 1919. 1 See Vol. VIII, p. 77. in the January issue. Mr. Lincoln, who served as expert in charge of the 1917 census of central electric light and power stations in the United States, is decidedly conservative while Mr. Todd makes his appeal frankly on partisan grounds and endeavors to win over the reader. Mr. Lincoln aims to “command the full confidence of the public” and claims that he is “wholly impartial, holding no brief for either side. ” The book compares some thirty odd municipal electric lighting plants with the “most nearly comparable” private plants and endeavors to furnish an accurate and impartial study of the technical, financial, historical and developmental aspects of their operation. As to impartiality, however, the author does not hesitate to leave loopholes of escape for the hardened opponent of public ownership, for he says: “It must also be recalled. . . that . . . public business has been compared with private business at its worst in the state, from which fact the reader is at liberty to draw what inferences he may choose. ” There is a number of chapters of painstaking analysis of financial and statistical matters which apparently leave no stone unturned. Conclusions are given in chapter XIV, and it is here that we advise the reader to “proceed with caution.” After the statement quoted in the preceding paragraph we come upon others of a similar nature: “In the first place, it appears that the conditions under which the municipal generating plants are operating, both natural and artificial, are more favorable to success,” but their history does not “indicate that they have in general been instrumental in promoting the higher industrial development here found. ” Further: “When the pragmatic test is applied, it becomes evident that, from the physical, financial, and developmental point of view, when due allowances have been made, this group of public plants (Holyoke excepted) have, in the more important respects, usually lagged somewhat behind the private plants studied.” Also: “They seem not to be serving their

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19191 BOOK REVIEWS 169 more favorable territory so adequately as are the latter.” Even though the public plants “have recently, for the most part, been doing reasonably well, ” this condition is attributed to L‘over-conservatism rather than to superior efficiency. ” The tale goes on in similar vein with references to “politics” and “graft” which, “in at least one case,” were “disgusting beyond belief,” while as to private plants it is the writer’s opinion that although “there may have been some mismanagement and even exploitation in the past in one or two cases, there seems to be little real ground for complaint at present.” That the public plants are reasonably successful would seem to be shown by the author’s statement that “a good share of their success is due to the fact that they are dependent upon private enterprise for that portion of the business which is most difficult to be handled by public officials,” and he assures us that “all credit is due them . . . inasmuch as they have been rendering, at a comparatively low cost, service which would in many cases have been difficult if not impossible to secure from private concerns.” But notwithstanding this record it is the author’s opinion that in Massachusetts at present “there is no reason whatever why a municipality should invest in an electric plant.” DORSEY mi. HYDE, JR. lk THE A B C OF EXHIBIT PLANNING. By Evart G. Routzahn and Mary Swain Routzahn. (Survey and Exhibit Series, edited by Shelby M. Harrison. XIV). Pp. 234. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1918. $1.50. The value of story-telling by pictures is generally recognized to-day by members of the publishing and advertising professions and the movement for graphic presentation of fact information has long since extended to the field of civic and social endeavor. Particularly within the past decade there have been interesting attempts to present community problems of health, sanitation, housing, and moral welfare by means of exhibits, lantern slides and motion pictures. In this book, for the first time, there is presented an authoritative exposition of present-day means and methods for driving home community problems-and the remedyby means of exhibits. Well qualified by personal experience in exhibit work, Mr. and Mrs. Routzahn have compiled a valuable record of their own experience together with the general conclusions which they have derived therefrom. The general scope of the book is 0111;lined in the second chapter, which emphasizes the necessity of “having a plan,” a single, definite purpose, and that in working out the graphic expression thereof, full and painstaking consideration must be given to the type of audience it is desired to reach and impress. The general method to be adopted is next considered; then the content of theexhibit; and finally theexhibit forms to be employed and their arrangement in the exhibit headquarters. Special attention is given to the need for interpreting the exhibit after it is installed, including printed directions, pamphlet literature, lecturers, “explainers” and the like. Further preparation and interpretation should be obtained through a well-planned campaign of newspaper publicity. The preliminary work of organizing the forces responsible for the exhibit and directing the actual construction is also given special emphasis. The cost feature and the distribution of the expenses is a problem demanding careful consideration if the exhibit is to be successfully conducted. After the exhibit has been shown, and the public awakened to some sense of the importance of the subject involved, it is important that an effort be made to clinch this favorable impression and bring about a desire for remedial action. The principles and rules of action laid down along the lines above indicated are clearly expressed and reinforced with a goodly number of illustrative photographs, diagrams and charts. Of particular interest are the photographic examples of good and bad exhibit panels. Towards the end of the book there are presented an instructive plan for a state campaign centering around a traveling exhibit, and

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170 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March an exhibit for continuous educational work. The four appendices contain sections on the exhibit budget; committee work; the Stanford baby week exhibit, and an example of an explainer’s talk. There is a suggestive three-page bibliography which should prove helpful, a11 though it might have been made more inclusive. The following references were not included: The “Anti-alcohol movement in Europe,” Ernest Gordon (chapter on traveling anti-alcohol exhibits) ; How to Use an Exhibit, New Jersey state board of health; “The Value of a Municipal Exhibit,” Lent D. Upson in the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW (January, 1915); The Chicago Tuberculosis Exhibit, Bulletin of Chicago Tuberculosis Institute (October 1, 1914); “Essentials of a Home Products Exposition,” John M. Guild. Three articles published in The American City were listed and general reference was made to that publication, but it might have been well to indicate specifically the following: How a Suburban Town Held a “Know-Your-Town” Exhibit (September, 1914); “Playing Up” Q City’s Most Valw able Asset (January, 1915); An Efective Exhibition of a Community Survey (February, 1915), and Spokane’s Municipal Exhibit (November, 1915). In his preface to the volume Shelby M. Harrison refers to the definition of the survey as “the application of scientific method to the study of community problems, plus such a distribution of the resulting facts ahd recommendations as to make them, as far as possible, the common knowledge of the community,” and he points out the important part played by the exhibit in this connection. Surveys and exhibits in the past have not always been made as effective as they could and should have been, and there is great need for the building up of a standardized technique. As a first step in this direction, The A B C of Exhibit Planning will bc found invaluable to civic and social workers generally, and it should prove of great aid in helping them to a larger conception of their opportunities and the methods best fitted for their expression. * HOME AND COMMUNITY HYGIENE: -4 Text-Book of Personal and Public Health. By Jean Broadhurst, Ph.D. Philadelphia and London: J. B. Lippincott Go. Pp. 428; illustrated. The broad scope of this book is indicated by its title and sub-title and by the following outline of its contents. Communicable diseases and their control, homes, camps, schools and other community units are each given a chapter, as are child welfare and middle age. Next come chapters on tuberculosis, industrial, mental and military hygiene, social and urban conditions, vital statistics, health education and administration. A glossary, notes supplementary to some of the chapters, a brief bibliography and a detailed index complete the volume. The range of the book is perhaps too broad for full personal understanding by one person of the many subjects treated. This has sometimes led the author to cite specific authorities for matters of common knowledge while in other cases errors or misleading statements appear where the author has wandered away from or misunderstood the authorities consulted. The chapter on sewage disposal affords an illustration of both kinds of weakness. Under public health administration too much space is given to federal as compared with state and local activities, and in general the chapter is inadequate. But in the main the volume is sound. It contains much valuable information and many stimulating suggestions. A widespread study of its contents would contribute materially to more healthful home and community conditions. M. N. B. DORSEY W. HYDE JR. 11. BOOKS RECEIVED A COURSE IN CITIZENSHIP AND PATRIOTISM. New Yorlr: Houghton Mifflin ComBy Ella Lyman Cabot, Fannie Fern pany. Pp. 386. Andrews, Fanny E. Coe, Mabel Hill A HISTORY OF SUFFRAGE IN THE UNITED and Mary McSkimmon, with an inSTATES. By Kirk Porter. Chicago: troduction by William Howard Taft. The University Press. Pp. 260. $1.25

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19191 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 171 I 111. REVIEWS OF REPORTS AMERICAN CHARITIES. By Amos G. Warner, Ph.D. Third Edition Revisedby Mary Roberts Coolidge, Ph.D., with a biographical preface by George Elliott Howard, Ph.D. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company. Pp. 541. $2.50 net. AUTOCRACY vs. DEMOCRACY. By William James Heaps. New York: The Neale Publishing Co. 1918. Pp. 121. CITIZENSHIP IN PHILADELPHIA. By J. Lynn Barnard, Ph.D., and Jessie C. Evans, A.M. Philadelphia: The John C. Winston Company Pp. 376. CITY WAYS AND COMPANY STREETS. By Private Charles Divine. New York: Moffat, Yard and Company. 1918. Pp. 64. $1. C~vrcs FOR NEW YORK STATE. By Charles DeForest Hoxie. Revised and enlarged. New York: The American Book Company. Pp. 409. ECHOES OF DEMOCRACY. By Edward Gruse. Boston: The Gorham Press. Pp. 60. FOREIGN FINANCIAL CONTROL IN CHINA. By T. W. Overlach. New York: The Macmillan Co. 1919. Pp. 295. $2. LOCATION, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENnNcE OF ROADS. By John M. Goodell. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company. Pp. 226. $1. MUNICIPAL ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA. By Carl D. Thompson. Chicago, Ill. : Public Ownership League of America. 1917. Pp. 149. Double Number-Price 50 cents. PREPARING WOMEN FOR CITIZENSHIP. By Helen Ring Robinson. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 130. $1. NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS AND THE WORLD WAR. By Frederic A. Ogg and Charles A. Beard. New York: The Macmillan Co. 1919. Pp. 603. $2.50. STORING-ITS ECONOMIC ASPECTS AND PROPER METHODS. By 13. B. Twyford. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 25 Park Place. 1918. Pp. 200. THE NEW AMERICAN CITIZEN. By Charles F. Dole. New York: D. C. Heath and Company. Illustrated. Pp. 376. THE AMERICAN MUNICIPAL EXECUTIVE. By Russell McCulloch Story, PbD. Urbana, 111.: The University of Illinois. Pp. 231. $1.25. Study, 1750-1850. By Julia Patton. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1918. Pp. 236. $1.50. THE ENGLISH VILLAGE. A Literary THE FUTURE BELONGS TO THE PEOPLE. Bv Karl Liebknecht. Edited and translAed by S. Zimand. With an introduction by Walter E. Weyl. New York: The Macmillan Co. Pp. 144. $1.25. THE NEW AMERICA. By Frank Dilnot. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 145. $1.25. THE RESULTS OF MUXICIPAL ELECTRIC LIGHTING IN MASSACHUSETTS. By Edmond Earle Lincoln. New York: Houghton, Mifflin Co. Pp. 484. $3. THE WAR PROGRAM OF SOCIAL WORK. Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work. 1918. Kansas City. 1918. Pp. 722. $2.50. THE WOMAN CITIZEN. By Mary Summer New York: Frederick A. Stokes Boyd. Company. Pp. 260. $1.50. Plan of Minneapolis.’-In the foreword of this elaborate presentation of a most elaborate plan, these significant words are quoted from the resolutions of January 7, 1910, preliminary to the formation of the Civic Commission: “Therefore,. be it resolved that this Citizens Committee elect a Civic Commission to investigate and report as to the advisability of any public ]Plan of Minneapolis, prepared under the direction of the Civic Commission by Edward H. Bennett, Architect. Edited and written by Andrew Wright Crawford. Published by the Civic Commission, Minneapolis, 1917. Quarto. 227 pages, with many tinted and colored illustrations and maps. works in the city of Minneapolis which, in its opinion, will tend to the convenience and well-being of the people, the development of business facilities, the beautifying of the city, or the improvement of the same as a place of residence.” The importance of planning is emphasized by the editor who says: the growth of cities it is difficult to bring the mind to realize with adequate conviction the fact that the future is just as sure as the past, that the time of doubled, trebled and quadrupled growth will come just as surely as tomorrow’s sun will shine.” It is on this basis that a plan is proposed “for

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172 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March a city of one and two million population while yet Minneapolis is under a half million,” and with the general idea that Minneapolis is to become a “city useful” as well as a %ity beautiful.” Mr. E. H. Bennett of Chicago, long the associate of the late Daniel H. Burnham (who gave impetus to all city planning by his White City of the Chicago Exposition in 1893), was selected “to make a study of Minneapolis with outside eyes.” Some twenty chapters cover every point of the plan, including a careful presentation of approaches, arteries of traffic, the public centers, the water fronts, transportation, housing, parks and playgrounds, railroad lines and all other features of a great community, the smoke menace and the skyscraper. Concluding chapters, deal with “The Economic Value of Beauty to a City,” and the financial and legal phases of the whole scheme. Particularly interesting is the daring plan for “a series of low-level and highlevel drives on each side of the Mississippi River.” The “low-level roadways will give access to the water. The high-level roadways will link all the bridges into a completely coordinated traffic arrangement,” while “the railroads wilI be undisturbed.” This great and comprehensive plan, in which beauty is the consistent by-product of utility, is a worthy addition to the series of dreams of fair cities which are to be realized in America, now that the world is at peace and that the high patriotic spirit of our people is being turned into channels of construction instead of destruction. The Bennett plan is a great scheme greatly set forth, in harmony throughout with the noble paragraph quoted from Daniel H. Burnham at the beginning of the book: “Make.no little plans; they have no magic to stir men’s blood and probably themselves will not be realized. Make big plans; aim high in hope and work, remembering that a noble, logical diagram once recorded will never die, but long after we are gone will be a living thing, asserting itself with evergrowing insistency. Remember that our sons and grandsons are going to do things that would stagger us. Let your watchword be order and your beacon beauty.” * Self Owning Towns of Tomorrow.A unique series of articles, entitled “SelfOwning Towns of Tomorrow,’’ has recently been running in the press throughout the country. The primary purpose of the articles is to interest the public in the program of the Committee on New Industrial Towns, which was organized in 1916 for the purpose of studying methods whereby the unearned increment created in various localities by the influx of new population following the establishment of new industries may be anticipated, conserved and converted into extra annual revenue for the community. One might suppose that an exposition of such a subject would prove an excellent tonic for even the most inveterate case of insomnia. Quite the contrary, however, is the truth for the writer of the series, Richard S. Childs, has the rare knack of making even the driest subject not only readable but interesting. The series includes ten articles on such subjects as “Land Booms and Their Sinister Meaning”; “Gary-A City by Decree”; “The New Kind of Mill Villages”; “How to Create a Taxless Town”; “Letchworth, the English Garden City”; “HOW the British Workers Beat the Land Speculators”; “The New Government-Owned Villages of Britain”; “The New Government Towns”; and “The Government’s Plans.” The article which will command the most attention is probably that on “How to Create a Taxless Town.” This presents in a rough way the constructive program of the committee for the establishment of new industrial towns. The method outlined may be best stated in Mr. Childs’ own words: Select a tract apart from any existing town and buy enough land to give your projected village a broad protective belt of your own land. Then your action in bringing an influx of population to that area will not confer a windfall of rising Iand value upon the downtown business frontages of a neighboring town, nor enrich a lot J. HORACE MCFARLAND.

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19191 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 173 of undeserving nearby land owners on your borders. The increment will be all your Plan your town so as to discourage the movement of the people into outside uncontrolled areas for purposes of buying supplies, so that the man who wants your people’s trade must establish his store on your land and come with his family and clerks to live in your town. Make it, in other words, a self-conta.ined and selfsufficient town, by every legitimate device! If possible, make shopping attractive by the provision of a good store center, lights, arcades, et.c., so as to draw trade ffrom the neighboring villages and farms. Your commercial values will be your “velvet” and you can make your Main Street frontages worth $500 a front, foot. Encourage and facilitate the coming of ot&r industries. Don’t sell a foot of land except to churches and, if necessary, to factories. Lease the land with or without buildings and make the leascs a5 short as possible so that as the town grows and land becomes still more valuable, you can readjust the rentals. Resident.ia1 st,reets will not alter much in value even if the town grows large, and land leases of fifteen or twenty years are permissible. But your business frontages must be on short leases or with frequent impartial reappraisals, or on some sliding-scale basis that changes with, the growth of population or the local payroll. Men who build on leased land will need special co-operation in getting mortgage money. Sell houses, if you like, but not the land beneath them. Limit the dividends of your land company to 5 per cent annually and retire the invested capital by a sinking fund or amortization process. Use the excess income to increase still further the attractiveness of your town, thus strengthening your land values. There will be an excess and a big one, consisting of the annual value of that $250 per capita of unearned increment, or say $12.50 a year per person on top of ordinary taxation of about $10 a year. Roughly, the money available for community purposes will thus be double ordinary town revenues! When the town gets well under way, let the people elect the directors of your Land Company, subject to a deed of trust so that the principle of group ownership will never be impaired, you exchanging your stock investment for serial mortgage bonds. A town with double normal revenue, a town that owns all its underlying land, a town that turns the full annual value of the land into the common treasury, Own. 5 won’t need any taxes. But remove taxes and land values would jump, so you will press them down again by correspondingly enlarging the rental you claim for taxfree land, so it comes to the same thing in the end-a doubled public revenue. What makes the appearance of these articles especially opportune at this time is the disposition which must soon be made of the towns and suburbs built by the government during the war. As Mr. Childs states: “Nothing but some form of group ownership or local municipal ownership or private single ownership under a limitation of profits will convey to all the people of these towns the full value of their novel heritage .” HERBERT S. Swm, Executive Secretary, Zoning Committee. New York City. f Survey of the City of Springfield, Illinois.-The Russell Sage Foundation’s survey of the city of Springfield, Illinois, was completed in the autumn of 1914 after several months of field study. The findings and recommendations were first made public in Springfield through a survey exhibit held in the state armory and through the local newspapers, and these efforts were reinforced by a series of pamphlet reports which have been very widely circulated. These pamphlets are now assembled in two portly volumes, which are soon to be followed by a third as a summary. The introductory note makes it clear that the appearance of these volumes at the present time has very little to do with the Springfield survey. Adequate publicity for survey purposes was achieved by the pamphlet reports as originally published, and the principal apology for reissuing them in book form is the suggestion that they have a mission as a general treatise on the subject of urban social and political institutions. As merely a survey report on the city of Springfield, these volumes would be entitled to much praise in spite of some obvious shortcomings. The fact-gathering is shown to have been exceptionally thorough and apposite, and certainly the methods of presenting the facts are far

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174 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March superior to those employed in the great majority of survey reports. Probably it is also accurate to say that the analyses of the facts and the recommendations based thereon will not suffer by comparison with what has been done in other survey reports. Bht when we are required to evaluate these volumes as a reference work on the civic problems of American cities, we are assailed by persistent doubts. Really it can not be said that they contribute much that is new to the literature on American cities except the facts about Springfield. Nor is there any manifest advantage in approaching every problem via Springfield, and in many instances it is obviously a disadvantage because the conditions in Springfield either forbid extensive discussion of subjects that a general treatise should exhaust or conversely demand much space for matters that are not of great moment in most cities. To illustrate: The well and privy menace is elaborately treated in this report, while the question of sewage engineering is dismissed with four very superficial pages; yet it is a fact that the latter problem is the more important in most cities. This calls attention to what, from the standpoint of a general treatise, is perhaps the most salient defect of these volumes; namely, the assumption that the problems of Springfield are representative because Springfield is what has been termed a “typical” American city. Persons experienced in municipal surveys well know the danger of generalizing on the basis of conditions found in a single city. There comes to mind, for instance, a city quite as typical as Springfield which sets standards for the country in the scientific assessment and collection of taxes but is veritably a plague spot in the matter of garbage disposal. Why the co-existence of the extremes of progress and retardation? Investigation revealed that the progress in scientific taxation was chiefly attributable to the efforts of a few influential and aggressive officials who had become cranks on that subject, while the problem of garbage disposal had simply been neglected by every one. Certainly this incalculable personal factor would render this particular city a very dubious basis for generalization. And a survey report on this city, typical though it be, would stress the garbage problem far in excess of its relative importance in the majority of American cities and would probably slight the tax problem, and consequently it would be defective as a treatise on the social and political institutions of American cities. In sum it must be said that a survey report has one purpose and a general reference work another, and the voIumes here under review are limited by that fact. Like all survey reports they contain discussions which will be of interest and value beyond the boundaries of Springfield; but they do not and can not constitute a wellbalanced and adequate text-book on American cities and their problems. New York Bureau of Municipal Research. CHESTER COLLINS MAXEY, 9 Excess Condemnation.-If any additional proof were required as to the need of excess condemnation in street widenings and extensions it is supplied in the excellent report recently published by the Chicago Bureau of Public Efficiency.1 One diagram after another is presented in this brief showing the narrow, elongated gores left on the widened sides of the Michigan Avenue and 12th Street improvements. The triangular strips which will be left on either side of the proposed Ogden Avenue Extension, unless it is carried out by excess condemnation, are aIso shown. It is upon these illustrations exhibitirig in the most graphic and striking manner the evils incident to the re-planning of streets where only the minimum land necessary for the street itself is taken by the city that the bureau builds its case for a constitutional amendment giving the cities of Illinois the power of excess condemnation. And the illustrations used 1Exeess Condemnation. Why the City cf Chiczgo shoiild have the power, in making public improvements, to take property in exct:m of actual requirrments. Report prepared by the Chicago Bureau of Public Efieienry. September, 1918. 55 PP.

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19191 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 175 are the best possible argument for excess condemnation. Indeed, if streets could be widened or extended in sections already subdivided without destroying the usefulness of adjoining land, there would be little if any justification for the taking of more land than is actually required for the improvement. Every time a new street is projected or an old one widened in the platted parts of our cities the lots through which the street is cut are necessarily destroyed, the extent of the destruction being conditioned partly by the size of the lots and partly by the orientation of the lots with reference to the improvement. Few dream how much of the new frontage is rendered useless until it is consolidated with rear land. Approximately one-fifth of the three thousand linear feet of property fronting on the widened portion of Michigan Avenue will have a depth varying between seven and fourteen feet! The extension to Ogden Avenue, if carried out as proposed, would leave ninety-three remnants, with a total frontage of thirty-three hundred feet, too small or too irregular in shape to be available for building. It is figures like these which convince one that such excess takings of land as are necessary to obtain an economic re-plotting of the new fxontage constitute good business practice even though they may sometimes have to be executed at a financial loss to the municipality. The primary object of a street improvement is not to make it absolutely impossible to use the adjoining property-as one might mistakenly suppose upon viewing the extension of Seventh Avenue, New York, Fairmount Parkway, Philadelphia or Twelfth Street, Chicago,-but to facilitate the movement of city traffic by providing new or wider thoroughfares. Were we of a cynical disposition we might ask whether it were not better that the erstwhile village streets should choke with metropolitan traffic than that the appearance of the city should be forever marred and ruined as a result of improvements executed without regard to the replottage of contiguous and neighboring hnd. This pamphlet is the bureau’s first essay on city planning. As such it is most welcome and may we have more of them. HERBERT S. SWAN, Secretary, Zoning Committee. New YOT~ City. * A Review on the Report of the New York Police Department (First half 1918). -Brevity in a departmental report is a virtue only when the value of the report is not destroyed by too summary a document. The brevity of the semi-annual report of the New York Police Department for the first half of 1918 is not a virtue. The report under discussion gives a sketch of six, or to be more exact, of practically five busy months occupied with reorganizing the department on the basis of a curtaiIed force due to the government draft. Throughout the report, however, there is evidence of a tendency almost verging on eagerness to point out the greater efficiency and economy of the department during the first half of 1918 over the same period of 1917. In view of the fact that there was a change in admiistration, a full recital of facts, with the conclusions self-evident, would have made the report more valuable as a public document. The one outstanding feature impressing itself upon the reader of the report is the economies of $777,158.23 effected during the period of six months. This covers among other items a reduction of 926 men, 683 of whom were drafted by the government and whose places were not filled by the Police Commissioner although he had authority to do so. The questions naturally arise as to whether the commission and detection of crime had increased or decreased because of this shortage of men; how the additional police problems facing New York City because of the war were met. If we turn to the crime statistics we find them too meager to offer any answer one way or another. A comparison of arrests by the detective bureau for felonies for the first six months of 1918 and for the same period in 1917 shows a de

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176 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March crease for the former period except in three classes of felonies; but there are no figures showing whether the commission of crime had increased or decreased. Furthermore a two-year comparison in crime furnished insufficient data for a conclusion. Footnotes on page 13 of the report do show the number of cases of loft and store burglary, assaults and robbery, larcenies and attempted and miscellaneous felonies reported in January and in June of 1918, showing a reduction in the latter month, but it is not shown over a period of years whether or not a reduction of those crimes in the early summer is normal. Neither is the question raised as to the effects of drafting into the army of thousands of young men. As to the manner of carrying additional burdens with a reduced force, we find no data showing the organization and distribution of the force. Nor is it clear that the administration desires a reduced force or would voluntarily maintain it at its curtailed strength. In comparing the sick days of the force for the two half years of 1917 and 1918 the report shows 9,844 less sick days for 1918 or a saving of 16 per cent in sick days. But no consideration is taken of the 926 fewer men on the force in the first half of 1918. In other words the sick days per man should be used if a real basis for comparison is desired. These instances are extracted from among many not to question the efficiency of the New York Police Department, but merely to emphasize the fact that if the public is to take an intelligent part in government it must have complete and comprehensive statements from governmental departments. Possibly because it is only a mid-year report much information that would ordinarily be included in a departmental report was omitted. Even though brief the report does not leave a particularly clear conception, because of its poor organization and sequence of topics. ‘ In short, the report does not’give the public all the information it ought to have nor is the information given presented in such a manner as to help the public decide how efficient its police department is, This report does portray, clearly, the manner in which our public affairs are administered, the “on again, off again, gone again, Finnegan,” methods of ever changing departmental administrations, with existing policies and methods being discarded before given a reasonable chance of proving themselves. ARCH M. MANDEL. Q Rainbow Promises in Education.Some months ago I came across a pamphlet entitled “Rainbow Promises in Education,” published by the Institute for Public Service (51 Chambers Street, New York City) of which Dr. William H. Allen ir director. Its purpose is to attack the as. sumption of the General Education Boarc that public schools are bad and can be re. formed through an experimental schoo which it was about to set up in New YorE in connection with Columbia University I had become somewhat accustomed tc such assumptions on the part of founda tions, and viewed them as evidence o nahe conceit and more or less conscioui bravado which please the foundations an( do little harm. Recently I have agair gone through the. pages of “Rainbov Promises of Education” and have niedi tated on the wisdom exhibited therein The war has diverted us from problem1 which were at the fore when it was writtei and has stimulated us to solve new an( greater ones. It is interesting to note how little ha been accomplished by the experimenta school referred to in aid of reconstruction As pointed out by Dr. Allen, the publit schools have not waited and will not wai for this or that foundation to shape thei courses of instruction or to direct thei methods. The pamphlet referred to give abundant evidence that alert minds ii every corner of our country are overhaulin public school systems and rejecting out worn material and methods. More thai this, the pamphlet is a call for schoolmei to appreciate the importance and dignit, of their work. It is a genuine pedagogica treatise. There is no need for the publi to wait until some privately endowe “experimental school” shows the waj

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19191 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 177 The path to progress is being opened up by the workers in the public school themselves. In fact any alleged demonstration made in the type of school established by the General Education Board is open to suspicion. Only in institutions in which a normal clientele is found and in which a publicly selected force controls can we hope for progress. One of the essential elements in experimentation is reasonabIe normality of conditions. ALBERT W. RANKIN, University of Minnesota. * Street Cleaning in the City of Rochester.-An excellent example of the manner in which a Bureau of Municipal Research can justify its existence is the Report on the Problem of Street Cleaning in the City of Rochester, N. Y., recently published by the Bureau of Municipal Research of that city. This little volume of 135 pages is the second of three reports on the sanitary services of the Department of Public Works, the result of more than a year of study. The Rochester bureau is strongly manned as regards engineering, so that any technical study produced by it is sure to be of merit. The street-cleaning problem is approached as almost entirely one of methods and equipment. The increasing use of hard-surfaced pavements in recent years has revolutionized the problem of street cleaning, by rendering street dirt more objectionable and by rendering easy its removal by mechanical equipment. With the tendency of many city officials to let well-enough alone, it is a fortunate city which can have the whole field of modern street-cleaning experience surveyed for it, and t.he conclusions applied in detail to its own peculiar problems. Rochester is such a fortunatre city. The report. is based on field observations, performance tests of equipment, and study of the records of the Department of Public Works. It is divided into two parts, one dealing with the organization and control of force, covering the sub-topics of finance, organixatioq and distribution of force, distribution of the work, proposed bureau of sanitation, and records; the other, dealing with methods and equipment, contains the sub-topics of hand sweeping, street flushing, machine flushing, wagon flushing, hose flushing, street sprinkling, machine sweeping, squeegees and vacuum cleaners, and special street problems. The report is attractive and readable, and is amply supplied with maps, charts, tables and photographs. It makes a real contribution to the literature in this field. SEDLEY H. PHINNEY. Philadelphia. * Financial Standing of Portland, Oregon. -For many years the federal census bureau has published a volume of financial statistics of cities, giving detailed information in regard to revenues and expenses of cities of over 30,000 population. Although these data have been analyzed and tabulated in such a way as to make it possible to compare the achievements of one city with another, very little use has been made of the data by the municipalities reported upon. It is of interest, therefore, to note a study of Portland, Oregon, based on these census figures, which was published in the Oregon Voter of November 16, 1918. The writer has compiled from the census report for 1917 and illustrated graphically the figures for the principal sources of revenue and expenditure and the indebtedness of thirty of the largest cities, calling special attention to Portland's rank in each table. With few slight exceptions the figures have been reproduced without error. In their interpretation, however, it is apparent that certain important considerations have been overlooked. Special attention is called, for instance, to the fact that Portland's $15.69 per capita revenue from the property tax was the third lowest among the thirty largest cities. Nothing is said, however, about its revenue from special assessments which was $7.55 per capita, or next to the highest in the list and more than three times the average. Portland gets 24.5 per cent of its revenue from special assessments and special charges for outlays which is the largest per cent for any city in the United Statcs above 30,000 population, except Wichita, Kansas. Port

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178 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [Marck land has also been borrowing heavily so that she stands near the top in per capita interest payments. These bcial statistics of cities are published with commendable promptness and should be used more generally by the municipalities to learn how they stand in comparison with others of their class. Great care must be exercised, however, to insure that the items compared are in actual fact strictly comparable. C. C. WILLIAMSON. * State Boards of Control.-Texas is in need of a central authority for the supervision of charitable and correctional institutions. A citizen’s commission on charities and corrective legislation appointed by Governor Hobby, with Elmer Scott of Dallas as secretary, presents in this report’ a summary of legislation in various states affecting charitable and correctional institutions. The study is confined mainly to twenty-six states possessing some form of centralized authority, though some attention is given to states with two or more boards whose functions are both administrative and supervisory. Eight states have no general board. Some thirteen other states are not considered because they add nothing new, or for other reasons. The states are separated into three classes: (1) states whose boards are purely supervisory, with stipulated powers of investigation and advice; (2) states whose boards are administrative; and (3) states with two or more boards whose functions are both administrative and supervisory. The body of the study takes up such questions as appointment of state board, members, maintenance cost, authority and powers, institutions, etc. The method of presentation though perhaps a bit overtechnical is nevertheless accurate and convenient for reference purposes. Social and civic workers generally will find the study valuable as a handbook of information regarding the social legislation of the different states. 1Summariea of state laws relating largely to centralized state authority or supervision over public and private benevolent, penal and corrertional institutions. Compiled by the Civic Federation of Dallas, Texas. 1918. 75 pp. The report also contains a summary oi a questionnaire to prominent men and women which furnishes an interesting ap praisal of the value of various forms of centralized control of supervision. DORSEY W. HYDE, JR. * Causes of Dependency.-The NewYorE State Board of Charities, through its Divi sion of Mental Defect and Delinquency, i publishing a series of Eugenics and Socia Welfare bulletins. Number 15, recentl: issued, is a report of 46 pages on an inves tigation of “The causes of dependency,’ based on a Survey of Oneida County which was selected as a representativt community. The field work was con fined to families of patients in various stat institutions coming under the jurisdictioi of theState Board of Charities. Out o the voluminous data and painstakin; analysis, one practical conclusion arrive1 at is that “all attempts by philanthropi persons or agencies for the rehabilitatioi of such social defectives must first disceri with scientific exactness their positiv defects and then really meet the needs c the specific defects of the sick, defectivc dependent, or anti-social citizen either i the mental or physical sphere, or both.” * A Corporation Budget System.-In th management of public business it has bc come customary to look to private COI porations for examples of efficient organ eation and administration. Little info] mation has been available, however, i regard to the budget practices of larg corporations. For this reason an articl on the Guaranty Trust Company’s budgc system, which appears in the Decembe 1918, issue of the Guaranty News (14 Broadway, New York), may interet students of budget reform. f Municipal Junk Yards and Collection c Waste Paper is the subject of an interes ing report prepared by Frederick Rex, 1 brarian of the Chicago Municipal Referenc Library for Alderman Kennedy. It ou lines the situation in Chicago and shov what has been done in Cleveland, Roche

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19191 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 179 ter and British cities. The report contains much valuable information and many useful suggestions. IP Governors’ Message.-A comprehensive summary of the subjects treated in the messages of the governors to their respective legislatures convened in January (with the exception of Arizona, Delaware, Nebraska and Oklahoma) is published in the February 15 Bulletin of the Public Affairs Information Service. The work is well done and constitutes a most valuable guide to the subjects and suggestions which our American executives are ronsidering. * The Probable Rate of Demobilization was discussed at the Rochester Conference by Professor H. G. Moulton (of the University of Chicago), who has been connected with the War Labor Policies Board. He gave a brief but comprehensive summary of the factors in the situation, basing his remarks on a striking diagram which has since bee? reproduced by the War Labor Policies Board. Copies of this reproduction can be had by writing to the offices of the Board in Washington. $? Dayton Municipal Review is the title of a monthly publication the 1,000 and more employes of the city of Dayton propose issuing to promote efficiency and goodfellowship and to improve their work and obtain better results for their employersthe taxpayers. The first issue, January, 1919, contains only four pages, but they are interesting ones. The city bears the expense of the initiaI number, though hereafter the publication is expected to be self-supporting. The Dayton Municipal Review represents a departure from the ordinary type of municipal publication, Most of them are designed to carry nothing but official news and advertisements and are consequently municipal publications only in the narrow sense of the word. The Dayton Municipal Review is the naturxl outcome of an enthusiasm that prevails among the men and women working for the city and furnishes evidence of an unusual relation between city employes and the community which they serve. II, A World Center of Administration.Under this title Hendrik Christian Andersen has published an illuminating plan for working out a project of an international city or an administrative center for the league of nations. “The architectural plans as well as the legal and economic aspects in detail of this administrative center have been most carefully carried out and as you are familiar with its humanitarian benefits and international scope toward facilitating more fraternaI and economic relations, and as this appears to be the psychological moment for presenting the project at the peace conference to the governments and people, explaining the utility of this work upon which seventeen years of concentrated labor have been spent, I earnestly beg you to aid me in asking the sincere support of your government as well as any of your friends who may be connected with the press, who can give a wide and appealing reason for the establishment of the administrative center planned for the league of nations.” Mr. Andersen’s plans are being put forth by the World Conscience Society, 3, Piazza del Popolo, Rome, in a large volume de grand luxe and sent to the rulers and parliaments of all nations and will be followed by the economic and legal arguments. The whole effort represents a very interesting idealistic movement which will appeal to those who are urging a better organization of the world. Should it be possible to establish such a world center it would unquestionably make for greater solidarity for the nations of the world. 9 Kalamazoo Municipal Bulletin will be published occasionally for free distribution to the citizens of Kalamazoo. It is an attempt to inform the public of how the commission manager form of government is operating in that city, what it has accomplished and what it has under way and what it contains for the future. The first number bears the date of February, 1919.

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180 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March Encyclopedie Des Villes et de L’Art Civique.-The prcliminary pages of this encyclopedia have been issued by the organizing director, Louis Van der Swaelmen, from his offices in Amsterdam, Holland. They represent a very important and interesting contribution to city planning and development which American students will study with profit. Civic Comment is the title of a striking clipping sheet, now being put out by the American civic association. It deals with sundry important topics including a number that are of urgent importance like Municipal Work for the Unemployed, Comprehensive Plans for Federal and Municipal, Don’t Let the War Gardens Become Peace Deserts, Danger in War Memorials. IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY Accounting MOREY (LLOYD). Miscellaneous income of public institutions. (Jour. of Accountancy, Nov., 1918: 357-360.) PORTER (C. A,) and CARTER, (H. K.). Hospital accounting. Accounts with pay patients-superintendent’s ledger and account with the treasurer-the general cash book. (Modern Hospital, Nov., 1918: STOVER (JAMES). Uniformity in school accounting. (Nat. Educ. Assoc. Jour., Americanization BLACKWELL (NANCY G.). Making Americans in Washington Irving High School. (Jour. of Educ., Nov. 21, 1918: 371-375.) Nov., 1918: 157-162.) 516-517.) CODY (FRANK). Americanization courses (Eng. Jour., Dec., DELAWARE. STATE COUNCIL OF DEin the public schools. 1918: 615-622.) FENCE. Americanization in Delaware. A state policy initiated by the Delaware State Council of Defense. Prepared by Esther E. Lo e. f1918.1 48 p. Copies may ge obtained from t!e Council’s Americanization Committee, Library Bldg., Wilmington, Del. FULCHER (G. 11.). Americanization of the immigrant in Chicago. [Pts. 1-4.1 (Soc. ServiceRev., Oct., Nov., Dec., 1918, Jan., 1919: 17, 8-10, 9, 9.) MAHONEY.(J. J.) and HERLIHY (C. M.). First steps in Americanization; a handbook for teachers. [1918.] 143 pp. UNITED STATES. BUREAU OF NATURAL IZATION. Naturalization laws and regulations. May 15, 1918. 39 pp. . LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. List of references on American immigration, including Americanization, effect of Europeanwar, etc. Sept., 1918. 28pp., typewritten. Baths ANON. The swimming pool. Pts. 1-2. (Amer. Arch., Sept 18, Oct. 2, 1918: 351355, 4101414.) WHITTAKER (H. A.). Sanitary suggestions regarding the location, construc- ‘Edited by Miss Alice M. Holden,Wellesley College. tion, and management of public bathing-beaches. (Minn. Municipalities, Dec., Building and Construction to building codes. 1919: 128-129.) United States. country. 53. tables.) 1918: 182-183.) ANON. The elimination of waste due (Amer. Arch., Jan. 22, -. Building construction in the The present needs of the (Amer. Arch., Jan. 1, 1919: 41Contains information obtained from a questionaire sent out by the Ammican Aychitect to architects, bankers, real estate men and contractors in all parts of the country. BODOVITZ (F. A,). Peace program of municipal construction. (Amer. Municipalities, Jan., 1919: 114-115.) -. Public and private construction undertakings can now proceed. (Engrng. and Contracting, Nov. 20,1918: 493-494.) Child Welfare ALDEN (PERCY). The state and the child. (Contemporary Rev., Sept., 1918: ANON. Laying the foundation for the rising generation. A state wide campaign for the Missouri children’s code. (Pub. Welfare, Nov., 1918: 116.) BARTH (GEORGE P.) . Why have health supervision of the working child? (Child Labor Bul., Nov., 1918: 215-217. charts.) EAVES (LUCILE). War-tune child labor in Boston. (Child Labor Bul., Nov., 19 18 : 185-197. tables .) FULLER (RAYMOND G.). A national children’s policy. (Child Labor Bul., Nov., __ A quest of constitutionality. (Child Labor Bul., Nov., 1918: 207-214.) NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE. Child welfare in Alabama. 1918. 249 pp. An inquiry undertaken by the National. Child Labor Committee under the auspices and wlth the co-operation of the University of Alabama. See also Juvenile Delinquency. 237-253.) 1918: 198-206.) Citizenship BARNARD (J. LYNN). A program of civics teaching for war times and after. (Historical Outlook, Dee., 1918: 492-500.) HOBEN (ALLAN). The church school of citizenship. 1918. 177 pp. See also Americanization, Community Service.

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19191 BIBLIOGRAPHY 181 RXNGDAHL (M. ROBERT). High school (School Educ.. Oct. course in citizenshiu. &. 1918: 3-6.) SMITH (EDWIN B.). A study in citizenship. (Historical Outlook, Dec., 1918: STICKLE IW. A.). History and civics 503-507.) An outline for a study in citizenship. as a tFa.ining fo; citizenship. (School (Toronto), Nov., 1918: 168-173.) City Manager Pian posed charter of the City of Akron. AERON. CHARTER COMMISSION. Pro1918. 321’!%’charter which provides for an elected mayor and city punk1 of eight members, and for an appointed chief administrator,” was adopted on Nov. 5, 1918. ANON. Boulder 0. 1C.k its plan of a city manager. (Rocky Mountam News (Denver), Jan. 12, 1919: 5.) CARR (0. E.). Progress, prospects and pitfalls of the new profession of city manager. (Canadian Engr., Dec. 12, 1918: CHILDS (R. S.). A reconstruction program for city managers. (Amer. City, Dec., 1918: 463-464.) 513-514, 519.) From a paper read at the convention of the City Managers’ Association, held in Roanoke, Vs., Nov. 7, 1918. TAYLOR (H. W. B.). Advantages of the city-manager form of government for small cities. (Pacific Municipalities, Nov., 1918: 449-450.) City Planning BOYD (JOHN T., JR.). The work of Olmsted Brothers. Pts. 1-2. (Arch. Record, Nov., Dec., 1918: 457-464, 503521. illus.) CAMPBELL (A. H.). Problems arising in town planning. (Canadian Engr., DAVENPORT. CITY ENGINEER. City planning for Davenport, 1918. 81 pp. maps, charts, plans. FORR (ALBERT). A plea for better business centers in our surburban towns. (Arch. and Engr. of Calif., Dec., 1918: 81-85. illus.) KIMBALL (FISKE). The origin of the plan of Washington, D. C. (Arch. Rev., Sept., 1918: 41-45.) LOCRE (W. J.). The power to establish set back lines, from a legal standpoint. (Pacific Municipalities, Nov., 1918: 471474 1 See also Housing, Zoning. NOV. 21, 1918: 447-449.) -. NEW TOWNSMAN. New towns after the war. An argument for garden cities. 1918. 84pp. Prepared by the English National Garden Cities Committee. ROUTH (J. W.) ~~~CARTWRIGHT (F. P.). City plan commissions. Their organization and effectiveness-opinions from ten cities analyzed and compared-organization adopted by Rochester, N. Y. Jour., Dec. 7, 1918: 447-448.) St. Louis after the war. 1918. 31 pp. THOMPSON (F. L.) and ALLEN (E. G,). The town plan and the house, an opportunity for national economy. t1918.1 41 pp. diagrs. WALLER (A. G.). Town-planning in New Zealand. (Amer. Inst. of Archs., Jour., Dec., 1918: 567-577.) Civil Service ANON. Public employes and civil service. (Modern City, Dec., 1918: 23-27.) DANA (RICEARD H.). The merit system in war. (Outlook, Jan. 8, 1919: NEW YORK STATE. CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION. Civil service law, rules and regulations for the classified service as amended to July 20,1918. 1918. 104 pp. SCARLETT (WILLIAM). The civil servant as citizen. No wish to strike, but insists on full enjoyment of political rights. (Mun. ST. LOUIS. CITY PLAN COMMISSION.. Introduction by Winston Churchill. 57-58.) (Good Govt., Oct., 1918: 151-154.) licity Committee, Federal Employes’ Union no. 4. Author writes as acting chairman of the PubWISCONSIN CIVIL SERVICE LEAGUE. Vital issues in civil service reform and efficient government. 1918. [6 pp.] Headquarters in the Mack Block, Milwaukee, LWis. . The merits of the merit system of political appointments. The federal service and the Wisconsin law. Aims of the Wisconsin Civil Service League. 1918. 10 PP. Community Service ANON. Rural. community organization in Massachusetts. (Soe. Service Rev., Dec., 1918: 5-7.) MASSACHUSETTS AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. EXTENSION SERVICE. Mobilizing the rural community. Rural community organization. What it is. How it is done. The benefits to be derived. By E. L. Morgan. Sept., 1918. 54 pp. SIMKHOVITCH (M. I<.’). Toward a See also Recreation. neighborhood program. {Survey, Dec. 28, 1918: 394-395.) SMITH (JOHN F.). Our neighborhood; good citizenshiu in rural communities, r1918.1 262 pp: illus. UNITED STATES. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. Women’s rural organizations and their activities. Aug. 29, 1918. 15 pp. (Bull. no. 719.) __ . LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. References on community centers. 1918. 8 pp. typewritten. organization versus institut,ionalism. (Playground, Nov., 1918: 362-372.) WILSON (SAMUEL). The community N7E.LLER (CHARLES F.) . Community,

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182 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March house-an element in reconstruction. (Amer. City, Dee., 1918: 467-470.) Has reference to the opportunities of chambers of Correction ANON. The county jails of Illinois. The disgrace of the state-factors in the promotion of crime and degeneracy, and failures in the protection of society-new laws eliminating worst features of old system. (Modern Hospital, Nov., 1918: 358-363. illus.) BURLEIGH (EDITH N.). Some principles of parole laws for girls. (Jour. of Crim. Law and Criminology, Nov., 1918: 395-403.) NEW YORK STATE. PROBATION COMMISSION. Methods of supervising persons on probation. Report of a commit,tee. 1918. 94pp WHITMAN (JOHN H.J. Proposed State of Illinois co-operation plan for prison management. (Jour. of Crim. Law and Criminology, Kov., 1918: 378-384. diagr.) __ . Ooeration of the new oarole commerce. See also Juvenile Delinquency, Prison Labor. law in Illindis. Criminology, Nov., 1918: 385-394. (Jour. of Crim. LaG-and Education ‘ ANON. The small board of education. (School, Oct. 10, 17, 1918: 62, 7.7.) CARROLL (CHARLES). Public education in Rhode Island. 1918. 500 pp. (R. I. Educ. Circular.) See also Citizenship, Negroes, Schools, Vocational Guidance. Published jointly by the State Board of Education, the Commissioner of Public Schools, and the Trustees of the R. I. Normal School. CORSON (DAVID B.). The chief problem in the education of defective children. (Educ., Jan., 1919: 292-298.) ENGLEMAN (J. 0.). Moral education in school and home. 1918. 314 pp. MALTBY (S. E.). Manchester and the movement for national elementary education, 1800-1870. 1918. 185 pp. (Pubns. of the Univ. of Manchester, Educ. Series, 8.) MILLER (E. A.). The history of educational legislation in Ohio from 1803 to 1850. 1918. 286 pp. illus., diagrs. ORR (WILLIAM). Business methods and standards in education. (Amer. School Bd. Jour., Dec., 1918: 29-31, 75.) PROCTOR (WILLIAM M.). The use of intelligence tests in the educational guidance of high school pupils. (School and SANDIFORD (PETER), ed. Comparative education: studies of the educational systems of six modern nations. 1918. 510 pp. SNEDDEN (DAVID). The practical arts in general education. (Teachers Coll. Record, Jan., 1919: 15-33.) UNITED STATES. BUREAU OF EDUCATION. Educational survey of Elyria, Ohio. 1918. 300 pp. (Bul., 1918, no. 15.) SOC., Oct. 19, 26,1918: 473-478, 502-509.) INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION ANON. How federal, state and local governments are co-operating to promote trade and industrial education. (Amer. City, Dec., 1918: 456460.) MITCHELL (JOHN). Vocational rehabilitation of crippled industrial workers. 1918.. 16 pp. Reprinted from report of fifth biennial conferMORGAN (D. S.). State administration of vocational education. (Amer. Pol. Sci. Rev., Nov., 1918: 67M76.) UNITED STATES. FEDERAL BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. Buildings and equipment for schools and classes in tradc and industrial subjects. Nov., 1918. 77 pp., plate. illus. (Bul. no. 20.) WELFARE FEDERATION OF CLEVELAND Education and occupations of cripples juvenile and adult. A survey of all the cripples of Cleveland, Ohio, in 1916. Re. ported by Lucy Wright and Amy M Hamburger. Oct., 1918. 227 pp., plates (Pubs. of the Red Cross Inst. for Crip pled and Disabled Men, series 2, no. 3.) Fire Prevention ANON. A fire prevention law. A Cana, dian act for suppression of fires, which was one of the first to be passed. (Fireman’s Herald, Nov. 2, 1918: 350-352.) --. The Bureau of Fire PreventioI in Chicago. (Nat. Fire Protec. Assoc Quart., Oct., 1918: 149-154.) DEVEREUX (WASHINGTON). wat car the municipal electrician do to aid in firc rtion? (Fire and Water Engrng. ec. 18, 1918: 442-443.) GASSER (C. A.). Peace outlook foi fire prevention. (Fire Protec., Jan., 1919 12-13.) HILTON (F. L.). Individual liabilit: for fires due to carelessness or neglect (Fire and Water Engrng., Jan. 1,1919: 30. Fire Protection Protection of life against fire Pt. 1-exits, fire alarms, and fire drills (Safe Practices, 1918. 16 pp. illus.) FLEMING (T. A,). Problems fire mar shals must ccnfront. (Fire Protec., Jan 1919: 10-11.) RIGBY (C. E.). Fire protection ii manufacturing plants. (Amer. SOC. o Mech. Engrs. Jour., Oct., 1918: 842-847. Health Insurance COMMONWEALTH CLUB OF CALIFORNIA Health insurance. (Trans., Oct., 1918 26~5335.) HOWELL (THOMAS). Workmen’s corn pensation, health insurance and hospitalr A far-sighted discussion of the future rels tion of charitable hospitals to industrj indicating vast changes which the futur may have in store. (Modern Hospita ence of Catholic Charities, Sept. 15-18, 1918. Paper read before the annual convention of th Pacific Coast Fire Chiefs Association. ANON. Nov., 1918: 414-416.)

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19191 BIBLIOGRAPHY 183 HOWELL (THOMAS). Health insurance and its relation to hospitals. Favorable conclusions with regard to health insurance -opportunity for hospitals to become hub of system-advantages to be received. (Modern Hospital, Dec., 1918: 466-468.) TUCKER (GEORGE E.). Compulsory health insurance. I. (Amer. Industries, Jan., 1919: .19-20.) Address delivered at the Eighth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Casualty and Surety Underwriters, New York City, Dec. 4, 1918. See also Motor Vehicles, Roads, Street Cleaning. Highways DILBREE (R. E.). Construction methods employed in building Lincoln Highway Cut-off across the desert at Gold Hill, Utah. (Mun. and Cy. Engrng., Dec., ELLINGSON (0. J. S.). TheStateHighway Law and its relation to the cities. (Texas Municipalities, Jy., 1918: 99-103.) HIRST (A. R.) . PrincipIes controlling the layout, marking and maintenance of trunk highway systems. Detailed account of methods followed by Wisconsin recently in inaugurating a 5,000-mile system of statemaintained highwayspatrol system, paid for by state, 1s administered by counties. (Engrng. NewsRecord, Dec. 12, 19, 1918: 1065-1068, 1128-1134. illus.) MEHREN (E. J.). 1918: 195-197.) Paper read before the Joint Highway Congress, Chicago, Dec. 12, 1918. A suggested national highway policy and plan. Phenomenal growth of interstate motor traffic, favorable attitude of government and people, and magnitude of problem make suggestion timely. (Engmg. News-Record, Dec. 19, 1918: 1112-1117.) NEW JERSEY. STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION. Report of state engineer on state highway system [by Gen. Geo. W. Goethals]. 1918. 12 pp. The city of Binningham arterial roads improvement. [Pts. 1-2.1 (Surveyor and Mun. and Cy. Engr., Oct. 25, Nov. 1, 1918: 200, 211.) UNITED STATES. BUREAU OF PUBLIC ROADS. State highway management, control and procedure; by 111.0. Eldridge, and others. Pts. 172. (Pub. Roads, Aug., Se t., 1918: 24-48 36-52. charts.) STILGOE (H. E.). jesults of investigktions in the several states conducted by the Bureau of Public Roads. A separate section is devoted to each state as follows: (!) Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Caliiornia, Georgia, Illinois (August); (2) Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas. Kentucky, Louisiana (September). Housing ANON. ,Housing in the British Isles. (Amer. Inst. of Archs., Jour., Nov., 1918: Industrial housing at Perryville, Md. (Amcr. Arch., Oct. 30, 1918: 503510. illus, plans.) See also City Planning. 528-531 .) . Local authorities and housing. Scottish Local Government Board memorandum: five type plans. (Surveyor and Mun. and Cy. Engr., Sept. 13, 1918: 123-126. diagrs.) -. The provision of working-class dwellings. Local Government Boards' Committee's report and recommendations. (Surveyor and Mun. and Cy. Engr., BAINES (FRANK). Roe Green village scheme, Kingsbury, England. (U. S. Bur. of Labor Stat., Monthly Rev., Oct., BAXTER (SYLVESTER). The government's housing activities. (Arch. Record, Dec., 1918: 561-565.) CRAM (RALPH A.). Scrapping the slums. (Amer. Arch., Dec. 25, 1918: 761-763.) CRAWFORD (ANDREW W.). Standards set by the new federal war suburbs and war cities. 1918. 24 pp. (Amer. Civic Assoc., ser. 11, no. 12.) GREAT BRITAIN. ROYAL COMMISSION ON HOUSING IN SCOTLAND. Report . . . . . on the housing of the industrial population of Scotland, rural and urban. 1917. 460 pp. HALL (BOLTON). The one-piece house. How the cycle of production is applied to the concrete cottage. (Scien. Amer., Dec. 14, 1918: 474-475. illus.) HUTCHINSON (WOODS). Building for health. A house should fit its owner like his skin. (Amer. Arch., Jan. 22, 1919: IHLDER (JOHN). Housing. Studies in reconstruction 1. (Survey, Jan. 4,1919: 474.) NOLEN (JOHN). The industrial village. Sept., 1918. 22 pp. illus. (Nat. Housing Assoc. Pubns., no. 50.) Housing standards of the federal government. (Amer. Arch., Dec. 25, PROVINCE OF ONTARIO. Circular Te NOV. 22, 1918: 243-244.) 1918: 251-257.) 121-123 .) Contains a drief bibliography on the subject. . 1918: 763-765.) housing proposition. Dec., 1918. [2 pp.] SWAN (H. S.). Co-partnership housing Information may be had from J. A. Ellis, Esq.. Parliament Bldgs., Toronto, Ont. in England. 1918, 7 pp. Renrinted from Journal of the American Institute ojArclcilrrf,< for April. 1!41R.' A copy inay ba had on api)lirution to thv Author or to rhe Committee on Ncw Iirdus-rrial Town*. 381 Fourth Aye.. Sew York ritr, __", . __ and TUTTLE (G. W.). Sunlight engineering in city planning and housing. 1918. [S pp.] dia s, tables. . Planning fuildings for daylight. 1918. [8 pp.] diaurs. tables. The above two arti8es ;re reprinted from The Architectural Forum for June and November, 1918. respectively. Copies may be secured by addressing Mr. Swan, at 277 Broadway, New Yorlc City. TAYLOR IC. S.). The future and influence of American war housing develop ments. (Amer. Arch., Dee. 18, 1918: 721-725.)

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184 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March UNITED STATES. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. Some instructions issued by the Bureau of Industrial Housing and Transportation. (Landscape Arch., Oct., 1918: Industry and Public Welfare 9-23.) See also Child Welfare, Labor Legislation, Public Safety. EMERY (JAMES Q.). Industrial readjustment. (Amer. Industries, Jan., 1919: 12-15.) MASSACHUSETTS. MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. Wages of women employed as office and other building cleaners in Massachusetts. May, 1918. 36 pp. (Bul. no. 16.) NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL CONFERENCE BOARD. The eight hour day defined. Nov., 1918. 9pp. (Researchrept.no. 11.) UNITED STATES. WAR LABOR BOARD. Memorandum on the eight-hour working day. July, 1918. 104 pp. Ju,venile Delinquency See also Correction. MASSACHUSETTS. COMMISSION OF PROBATION. The relationship of mental defect and disorder to delinquency, by V. V. Anderson. Je., 1918. [11 pp.] NEW YORK STATE. BOARD OF CHARITIES. The problem of the mental defective and the delinquent. 1918. 58 pp. (Eugenics and SOC. Welfare Bul. no. 13.) NICHOLSON (A. F.). . The present-day problem of juvenile dehquency. (Child [London], Oct., 1918: 1-16.) Labor Legislation AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF LABOR LEGISLATION. Review of labor legislation of 1918. Sept., 1918: pp. 235-277. (Amer. Labor Leg. Rev.) CANADA. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. Labor legislation in Canada, 1917. 1918. 740 pp. UNITED STATES. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. Labor legislation of 1917. Aug., 1918. 430 pp. (Bul. no. 244.) Motor Vehicles License fees for motor vehicles and drivers. Those benefited should pay for highways-theory of marginal utility indicates that public should pay first cost, while user should pay maintenance. (Engrng. News-Record, Dec. Regulation of speed, weight, width and height of motor trucks discussed. They are essential transportation agencies, and while regulation is necessary, it should not rest,rict their expansion-table of proposed dimensions, speeds, weights and fees presented. (Engmg. News-Record, Dec. 19, 1918: See also Highways. BREED (H. E.). 19, 1918: 1117-1120.) GRAHAM (G. M.). 1109-11 12.) Municipal Government and AdministraSee also City Manager Plan. CITY CLUB OF CHICAGO. A plan of reconstruction for Chicago’s local government-1-111 (Bul., Jan. 13, 20, 27, DALZELL (A. G.). .The problem of city development; an economic survey. (Engrng. Inst. of Canada, Jour., Nov., 1918: 319, 321-330. charts.) GUILD (FREDERICK H.). Special municipdcorporations. (Amer. Pol. Sci. Rev., Nov., 1918: 678-684.) MUNICIPAL JOURNAL (New York). Index to current municioal literature. tion 1919: 9-10, 15-16, 21-22, 29-30.) [1918.] 113 pp. Coiitains references to articles published during 1917 in more than sixty periodicals. STORY (RUSSELL M.). The American inunicipal executive. 1918. 231 pp. (Univ. of Ill. Studies in the SOC. Sciences, no. 3, Sept., 1918.) UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA. THE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION. MUNICIPAL REFERENCE BUREAU. Oklahoma municipalities. Nov., 1918. 37 pp. (Bul. no. 42.) WHYTE (W. E.). Civic reconstruction. The place of the local authority after the war-coming big schemes. (Mun. Jour. [London], Oct. 18, 1918: 1041.) Municipal Ownership ANON. War-time lighting finances. How the municipal plant of South Norwalk, Conn., met the difficult conditions of the past year. (Mun. Jour., Nov. 23, 1918: 404-406.) . Municipal repair shops. Shops and yards of Los Angeles and San Francisco-apparatus of various departments stored and kept in repair-equipment of machine, blacksmith and pamt shopssupply department. (Mun. Jour., Nov. 2, 1918: 339-342. illus.) LAIDLER (H. W.). Public ownership throughout the world; a survey of the extent of government control and operation. 1918. 48 pp. PUBLIC OWNERSHIP LEAGUE OF AMERICA. Public ownership press service. Typewritten sheets issued from time to time by the League (1439 Unity Bldg., Chicago) containing news and notes of various municipaland publicownership undertakings. SAN FRANCISCO. BOARD OF SUPERVISORS. Financial report of the Municipal Railway of San Francisco [for the] fiscal years ended June 30, 1916 [and] 1917. [1918.] 23 pp. SCHULTZ (FRANK T.). The reconstruction of a municipal water and light department. The experience of Columbia City, Indiana. (Amer. City, Dec., 1918: 490-494. illus.)

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19191 BIBLIOGRAPHY 185 Negroes DAVIS (JACKSON). County training schools. (Southern Workman, Oct., 1918: Negro training and racial good will. (Amer. Rev. of Revs., Nov., 1918: LOUISIANA. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. Aims ahd needs in negro public education in Louisiana. Sept., 1918. 26 pp. (Bul. no. 2.) NOBLE (S. G.). Forty years of the public schools in Mississippi, with special reference to the education of the negro. 1918. 142 pp. (Teachers’ Coll., Contribs. to Educ., no. 24.) 481-489.) __ 521-528.) Parks FERRISS (H. R.). Methods and cost of maintenance of a.273 acre park system. (Engrng. and Contracting, Dec. 4, 1918: SMALL (J. H., JR.). Some small parks in Washington, D. C. Evolution in path systems. .(Landscape Arch., Oct., 1918: 24-25, plates.) Pavements ANON. Street paving in San Francisco. Basalt blocks for heavy traffic, brick for steep grades and asphalt and bitumrnous concrete for easy grades-methods of constructing base and wearing surface grading streets-cost. (Mun. Jour., Jan. DAYIS (D. B.) System controls openings in city pavements [in Richmond, Ind.]. City engineer does backfilling and repair work with the city forcesblank forms used with plan are reproduced. (Engrng. News-Record, Oct. 17, 1918: Pensions NEW JERSEY. PENSION AND RETIREMENT FUND COMMISSION. Report . . . on the organization of the New Jersey teachers’ pension and retirement systems. (State Research, Consecutive no. 13, Nov., Issuedalsoasseparatereport (Jan.. 1919. 24 pp.) NEW JERSEY STATE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. BUREAU OF STATE RESEARCH. Teachers’ retirement svstems in New Jer525-526.) See also Roads. 4, 1919: 1-3.) 707-708.) See also Health Insurance. 1918: 5-26.) sey: their fallacies ana evolution. 1918.. 87 pp. Dec., Previously printed in New Jersey State Research. Consecutive no. 10 (Feb.. 1918). STUDENSKY (PAUL). A sound municipal pension act and central supervision of all pension funds in New Jersey. Plan proposed by the New Jersey Pension and Retirement Fund Commission. 1918. 8 pp. (New Jersey, Oct., 1918.) Published by the New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce, Newark, N. J. Police ANON. The question of the policewoman. (Policeman’s News, Dec., 1918: 11.1 L_ New York police reserve a permanent institution. . (Policeman’s News, Jan., 1919: 24-25. illus.) . The Utica military police. (Policeman’s News, Dec., 1918: 22-24. illus.) CRANE (T. J.). How ‘Wooilsocket, Rhode Island, is policed. (Policeman’s News, Jan., 1919. 12-15, 30. illus.) ESCHENBERG (C. J.). What a police band can accomplish. (Policeman’s News, Dee., 1918: 30-32.) GAULT, (R. H.). A progressive police system in Berkeley, California. (Amer. Inst. of Crim. Law and Criminology, Jour., Nov., 1918: 319-322.) GREENSLITT (F. E.). Pawtuclcet and its police. (Policeman’s News, Jan., 1919: MCPHEE (J. F.). Chief Quilty’s department. A story of the Springfield, Mass., police. (Policeman’s News, Dec., 1918: 1-5, 28 illus.) Prison Labor GEMMILL (W. N.). Employment and compensation of prisoners. (Policeman’s News, Jan., 1919: 16-17, 28-29.) .Proportional Representation ANON. The progress of proportional representation. (Survey, Dec. 14, 1918: HOAG (C. G.). The progress of proportional representation. (Public, Dec. HOPPER (J. J.). Plea for proportional voting plan. How it would change the party representation in the State Senatepresent method declared unjust to minority parties entitled to a voice in legislation. (State Service, Dec., 1918: 29-33.) Public Health 1-5, 29.) 349-350.) 21, 1918: 1526-1528.) See also Schools, Vital Statistics. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEATLH. Jan. 1919. TI& issue contains the Influenza Bulletin, the working program issued by the Special Committee in Chicago and many other papers on influenza delivered at the Chicago Meeting of the American Public Health Association. DAVIS (KATHARINE BEMENT). Social hygiene and the war. Women’s part in the campaign. 1918. 36 pp. (Amer. SOC. Hygiene Assoc. Pubn. no. 159.) The Association’s offices are at 105 W. 40th St., New York City. GOODALE (WALTER s.). MuniciDal hospitals ’and dispensaries,’ as organiied and conducted in Buffalo, N. Y. (N. Y. State Deut. of Health, Health News, Dee.. 1918: 338-344.)

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186 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March LEWIS (D. M.). Municipal control of diphtheria. (Boston Med. and Surgical Jour., Dec. 19, 1918: 755-761, tables. MCLAUGHLIN (ALAN J.). The organization of federal, state and local health foroes. (Amer. Jour. of Pub. Health. illus.) ~ ~. .__ Jan., 1919: 38-40.) NEW YORK CITY. Department of Health, Monthly Bulletin. Dec., 1918. pp. 265-300. This issue is devoted to the subject of the recent influenza epidemic, with special reference to New Y ork City. UNITED STATES. PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE. City health officers, 1918. Directory of those in cities of 10,000 or more population in 1910. (Pub. HeaIth Repts., Nov. 29, 1918: 2095-2109.) VINCENT (GEORGE E.). Team play in public health. (Amer. Jour. of Pub. Health, Jan., 1919: 14-20.) ZINSSER (WILLIAM.H.). Social hygiene and the war. Fightmg venereal diseases a public trust. ?lQlS: 29 pp. SOC. Hygiene Assoc. Pubn. no. 160.) (Amer. Public Safety ANON. Rochester’s notable public safety campaign. (Amer. City, Nov., 1918: 363-366. illus.) Summary of state laws for elimination of railroad grade crossings. (Engrng. and Contracting, Jan. 1, 1919: . 17-19.) NEW YORK STATE. INDUSTRIAL COMMISSION. BUREAU OF STATISTICS rn INFORMATION. Shop safety organization. Suggested plan. (Bull., Dec., 1918: 4852, 57.) SIMPSON (R. E.). The relation between light curtailment and accident [with discussion]. (Illuminating Engmg. SOC., Trans., Nov. 20, 1918: 429438.) UNITED STATES. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. The safety movement in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1917. By L. W. Chaney and H. S. Hanna. Je., 1918. 299 pp. (Bul. whole no. 234.) Public Utilities See also Municipal Ownership. ALVORD (JOHN W.). .Influence of recent events on utility valuation procedure. (Mun. and Cy. Engmg., Dec., 1918: 210ANON. The basis of rate-making. (Minn. Municipalities, Oct., 1918: 136139.) Decision of Judge Westenhaver in the Columbus Street railway fare case. (Minn. Municipalities, Dec., 1918: 192197.) 212.) Reprinted from The Cita, Bulletin, Columbus, Ohio. BROSSMAN (CHARLES). Practical measures for securing greatest economy in public utility plant operation. V. Proper use of recording and indicating instruments. (Mun. and Cy. Engmg., Dec., CLAFFY (THOMAS J.). Investigations of pipe corrosion in Chicago buildings, with special reference to durability of pipe materials. (Mun. and Cy. Engrng., Dec., FORD (J. F.). Rates for gas service. (Amer. Municipalities, Sept., 1918: 145149.) FRENCH (R. D.). Collective public service operation. As proposed for the four towns on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, opposite Montreal. (Canadian Engr., Dec. 19,1918: 528.) HALE (R. L.). Valuation and ratemaking. Ths conflicting theories of the Wisconsin Railroad Commission, 19051917, with a chapter on the uncertainty of the U. 9. Supreme Court decisions, and a concluding chapter on the need of a revised principle of utility valuation. 1918. 156 pp. (Columbia Univ. Studies in History, Economics and Public Law.) METCALF (LEONARD). Commission control does not remove.hazard of utility investment. Ruling in Indianapolis water-rate case makes company share war risk and modifies former commission’s position. (Engmg. News-Record, Dec. 19, 1918: 1134-1136.) MILLER (D. D.). Industrial applications of electricity-1. It is predicted that the electric heating load will eventually surpass the motor load-convenience of control of electrically generated heat results in improved product and increased production. (Elec. Rev., Oct. 12, 1918: 693-695. illus.) NASH (L. R.). Recent developments in service-at-cost franchises for utilities. The principal provisions of the various service-at-cost franchises of electric railway companies are described with great care and compared as to results-the author then draws conclusions as to the most desirable forms of a service-at-cost franchise. (Elec. Ry. Jour., Jan. 4, 1919: Recreation CALKINS (RAYMOND). Substitutes for the saloon. The opportunity for a great DroeTam of recreation when both armv and 1918: 266-208.) 1918: 208-210.) 15-33.) See also Parka. ial&ns demobilize. (Survey, Jan: 11, 1919: 493-495.) The regulation of commercial amusements, (N. J. Municipalities. Oct.. 1918: 236-237.) Cocm (0. G.). An addre& delivered before’ the third annual convention of the New Jersey State League of Municipalities, Trenton, Jan. 4, 1918. CUNLJFF (NELSON). Municipal openair theatre, Forest Park, St. Louis. (Parks and Recreation, Oct., 1918: 8-10. illus.)

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19191 BIBLIOGRAPHY 187 CURTIS (H. S.). An educational campaign for playgrounds. (Parks and Recreation, Oct., 1918: 16-17.) DOUGLAS (0. W.). Community recreation an essential. (Parks and Recreation, Oct., 1918: 24-29. illus.) FISK (A. A.). Publlc recreation. HOW furnished and how supported. (Parks and Recreation, Oct., 1918: 11-13. illus.) Ross (EDWARD A.). Adult recreation as a social problem. (Playground, Dec., STOREY (T. A.). State legislation for physical training. (Playground, Nov., Refuse and Garbage Disposal Garbage disposal by feeding to hogs. (Engrng. and Contracting, Dec. 11, 1918: 550.) Methods of garbage and rubbish collection and disposal in larger American cities. (Engrng. and Contracting, Dec. 11, 1918: 544-546:) -. Utilization of garbage; interesting facts from America. .(Surveyor and Mun. and Cy. Engr., Nov. 1,1918: 208.) BAMMAR (F. C.). Garbage utilization work of the United States Food Administration. (Mun. and Cy. Engrng., Oct., KNOWLTON (W. T.). Waste products of cities and the war. (Pacific Municipalities, Nov., 1918: 454-461.) PHELPS (EARLE B.). Treatment and disposal of creamery wastes (Mun. Jour., Jan. 25, 1919: 68-70. Roads ANON. Does road oiling pay? Some data from Iowa. (Minn. Municipalities, Dec., 1918: 191-192.) 1918: 379-385.) 1918: 346-361.) ANON. -. 1918: 146-147.) tables.) See also Highways. Pavements. Reprinted from Iowa State Highway Commission Service Bulletin. . Road maintenance methods and devices effect saving of material, labor and fuel. Bureau of Maintenance and Repair, New York State Highway Department, working through nine division engineers, endeavors to keep the war-traffic roads open and still conserve material. (Engrng. News-Record, Nov. 28, 1918: 981-984. illus.) MACDONAD (RT. HON. SIR J. H. A.). The road: its paramount importance as viewed by a Briton. (Mun. and Cy. Engmg., Dec., 1918: 218-220.) From an article originally printed in Chamber’s Journal, London. WILEY (RODMAN). The aims of engineers engaged in road work. (Mun. and Cy. Engmg., Dec., 1918: 200-201.) WOOD (FRANCIS). Investigations in the structure of road surfaces. (Surveyor and Mun. and Cy. Engr., Dec. 6, 1918: 266.) Schools See also Accounting, Citizenship. Community Sernce, Education, Negroes, Pensions, Public Health. ALEXANDER (CARTER). Translating school statistics for the public. (Teachers’ Coll. Record, Jan. 1919: 34-42.) CORSON (0. T.). Our public schools, their teaehers, pupils, and patrons. 1918. 302 pp. DEAN (ARTHUR D.). Our schools in war time-and after. (Teachers’ Coll. Record, Jan., 1919: 1-14.) FAIRCHILD (R. W.). The measure of the administrator. (Amer. School Bd. Jour., Dec., 1918: 23-24.) FINNEY (R. L.). Records, accounts, reports, etc., for the village school. (Amer. School Bd. Jour., Dec., 1918: 25-27,35.) FLEXNER (ABRAHAM) and BACHMAN (FRANK P.). The Gary schools; a general account. 1918. 265 pp. plates, plan, tables diagrs. KELLY (F. J,). The general or composite industrial school in the city of less than twenty-five thousand population. (School and SOC., Dec. 21, 1918: 721-726.) MIRICK (GEORGE A.). Administration and supervision. (Elementary School Jour., Dec., 1918: 285-290.) REA~!S (W. C.). The duties of the supervlsing principal. (Elementary School Jour., Dec., 1918: 279-284.) SUMNER (CHARLES). Concerningschool bonds. (School Bd. Jour., Jan., 1919: WHITE (ROBERT J.). Cost of high school instruction in [state of] Washington. (School Bd. Jour., Jan., 1919: 25-26, 78.) Cost of high school instruction. (Educ. Admin. and Supervision, Nov., 1918: 445-466. tables.) Issued by tbe General Education Board. 23-24.) WILCOX (GEORGE M.). Bibliography on cost in relation to education, BY LOCALITIES CALIFORNIA. STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. COMMITTEE OF TWENTY-ONE ON REORGANIZATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM. Reports of sub-committee on school administration. (Sierra Educ. News, Oct., 1918: 455460.) JONES (A. J.). Early schools in Worcester, Massachusetts. (Educ. Admin. and Supervision, Oct., 1918: 417-424.) MADDOX (W. A.). The free school idea in Virginia before the Civil War; a phase of political and social evolution. 1918. 225 pp. (Teachers’ Coll., Contribs. to Educ., no. 93.) MEAD (A. R.). The development of free schools in the United States as illustrated by Connecticut and Michigan, 1918. 236pp. tables. (Teachers’ Coll., Contribs. to Educ., no. 91.) pp. 464466. Bibliography, pp. 199-217. Bibliography, pp. 200-202, 219-220.

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188 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March OKLAHOMA. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. Rural centralized, graded and model schools. Prepared by E. A. Drake. 1918. 89 pp. illus., diagrs. School survey suggestion; Alfalfa County, Grady County, Wagoner County, 1918. Prepared by E. A. Drake. 1918. 130 pp. illus., maps. UNITED STATES. BUREAU OF EDUCATION. The public schools of Columbia, South Carolina. 1918. 192 pp. (Bul. 1918, no. 28.) . SCHOOL HYQIENE AYRES (MAY), WILLIAMS (JESSE F.), and WOOD (THOMAS D.). Healthful schools; how to build, equip, and maintain them. 1918. 292 pp. plates, plans. HEIZER (W. L.) and GILBERT (MRS. V. D.). Health and sanitation through the public schools of Kentucky. [1918.] 183 pp. illus., diagrs. HOLT (EMMETT). Safeguarding the health of our school children. (N. C. Health Bul., Jan., 1919: 11-13.) of the Child Heaith Organtzatzon. Reprinted from the New, York Times and Bdletin RAPEER (L. W.). Rural school health (Jour. of the N. Y. State Teachwork. ers’ Assoc., Oct., 1918: 225-231.) TEACHERS CURTIS (HENRY S.). . Continuation schools for teachers. (Educ. Rev., Sept., MARTIN (A. S.). Teachers’ salaryincrease in Pennsylvania paramount to the welfare of the children and the state. (School Bd. Jour., Jan., 1919: 22,78.) WITHERS (JOHN W.). Training of teachers in service. 11. (Elementary School Jour., Dec., 1918: 268-278.) Sewerage and Sewage Disposal ANON. Instructions for the operation of sewage plants. (Engrng. and Contracting, Dec. 11, 1918: 548-549.) ~ . Promising results with Miles acid process of sewage treatment in New Haven tests. Good removal of suspended and settleable solids and bacteria-effluent and sludge stablegrease utilization problems-local conditions favor process at New Haven. (Engmg. News-Record, Dec. 5, 1918: 1034-1036.) DURRANT (W. K. F.). Sewage disposal from an operator’s standpoint. (Canadian Engr., Dec. 12, 1918: 512-513.) Abstract from Western Municipal News. KNOWLES (MORRIS) and RICE (JOHN M.). Relation of main drainage to river and harbor front improvement in various American cities. (Mun. and Cy. Engrng., Dec., 1918: 204-205.) MOORE (S. D.). Estimating sewer system costs. Analysis of elements entering into calculation, with figures from 1918: 108-116.) Part I appeared in the October. five years’ experience in a large contracting business. (Mun. Jour., Nov. 2, 1918: 342-344.) PHELPS (E. B.). Control of stream pollution. (Canadian Engr., Dec. 12, Pons (CLYDE). Design and omration 1918: 515-518.) of automatic sewage pumping station at West Haven, Conn. (Mun. and Cy. Engmg., Dec., 1918: 199-200.) WINSLOW (C. E. A.). and MOHLMAN (F. W.). Four methods of sewage treatment studied at New Haven testing station. Miles acid process advised for first of four permanent works rather than fine screens, Imhoff tanks (each with chlorination) or activated sludge-results of analysis, and cost estimates. (Engrng. NewsRecord, Jan. 2, 1919: 32-36.) Smoke Abatement NEWARK. DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND PUBLIC PROPERTY. [Smoke regulation and coal conservation.] Issued for local distribution. . . . CompiIed by Daniel Maloney, Smoke Inspector. 1918. 78 pp. illus. Street Cleaning and Snow Removal ANON. Snow removal from trunk line highways. (Engmg. and Contracting, Dec. 4, 1918: 520-521.) Snow removed by various methods at Milwaukee. Street railway loads snow by electrical shovels into dump-car trains and motor trucks, dumping through a bridge. (Engrng. News-Records, Nov. BENNETT (CHARLES J.) Snow removal on trunk line highways. (Mun. and Cy. Engrng., Dec., 1918: 214-215.) BILES (GEORGE H.). Organization, methods and equipment employed in removing snow from main roads in Pennsylvania. (Mun. and Cy. Engmg., Dec., 1918: 216-218. illus.) ROCHESTER BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH. Report on the problem of street cleaning. Oct., 1918. 133 pp., maps, tables, diagrs. Social Problems . 7, 1918: 857-858.) ANON. The new social order in AmerNEIGHBORHOOD WOREERS’ ASSOCIATIONS (TORONTO). Social service directory of Toronto. [1918.] 60 pp. PUFFER (J. A.). Studies of presentday social problems for social, civic and religious organizations. (Pub. Welfare, UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA. Social problems. J. W. Scroggs,.editor. Nov. 15, 1918. 156 pp. (Umv. Extension series no. 44.) Nov., 1918: 121-125.)

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19191 BIBLIOGRAPHY 189 WALDMAN (LOUIS). Food and the The problem of the high cost of 1918. people. living in the New York Legislature. 45 PP. State Government system in state legislatures. Sci. Rev., Nov., 1918: 607-640. Taxation and Finance SMITH (C. LYSLE). The committee (Amer. Pol. tables.) See also Municipal Ownership, Schools. ANON. Receipts of the state government. An analysis of the sources of state revenue and a comparison of their relative importance. (Calif. Taxpayers’ Jow., Dec., 1918: 2-10. tables.) A suggested model tax system. Recommendations and findings of a special committee of the National Tax Association. (Calif. Taxpayers’ Jour., Dec., Taxation for county purposes. Showing the tendencies toward increases, with rates, valuations and amounts produced. (Calif. Taxpayers’ Jour., Dec., 1918: 11-15. tables.) Taxation of street railways in Rhode Island. With comparative data from other states. (Bul., Nat. Tax Assoc., BOULDER. CITY MANAGER. 1919 budget . . . as tentatively adopted by the City Council . . . November, 1918. 22pp. BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH, NEW YORR. The New York State Legislature budget and financial measures for 1918. 1918. 125 pp. (Mun. Research, no. 93.) BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH, TORONTO. An analysis of Toronto’s budget for 1918, based upon the official estimates, rearranged by the Bureau of Municipal Research so as to show costs of services rendered and of things purchased. 1918. 24 pp. diagrs. A brief history of tax reform in Virginia. (Bul., Nat. Tax Assoc., Nov., 1918: 49-52.) HUNTER ((M. H.). . Taxation of public service corporations in the state of New York. I and 11. (Bul., Nat. Tax Assoc., Value in real estate (Bul., Nat. Tax Assoc., Nov. . 1918: 16-20.) . -. Nov., 1918: 56-57.) GARY (J. VAUGHAN). Nov., Dcc., 1918: 34-39, 75-80.) MANIERRE (C. E.). asessment. .. 1918: 47-49.) MEECH (H. WM.). Municipal assess(Western ments and taxation in Alberta. Mun. News, Dec., 1918: 331-334.) NATIONAL TAX ASSOCIATION. Preliminary report of the committee appointed . to prepare a plan of a model system df state and local taxation. Sept., 1918. 45 pp. 6 PTERSON (ARTHUR N.). Analysis of the laws affecting municipal and county finances and taxation. 1918. .124 pp. Published by the New Jersey Commssion for the Survey of Municipal Financing, Trenton, N. J. SPAULDING (R. 11.). New Hanipshire (Granite Monthly, needs a state budget. Jan., 1919: 1-8.) The writer was governor of New Hampshire in 1915 and 1916. WOOD (E. M.). Assessment and taxation of property in Manitoba municipalities. (Western Mun. News, Nov., Terminal Facilities AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING AsSOCIATION. Preliminary report on yards and terminals: unit operation of railroad terminals in large cities. Catechism on unit operation of railroad terminals. 1918. 43 pp. (Bul. no. 208, Aug., 1918.) 1918: 297-300.) The follolvlng papers are appended: Unified operation of terminals, by J. F. Wallace; Unit operation of large terminals, by H. J. Pfeifer; Improvement in operating methods of intermediate transfer railroads, by E. H. Lee. GALVESTON COMMERCIAL ASSOCIATION. The port of Galveston. Oct., 1918. 61 pp., maps. illus. SEATTLE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND COMMERCIAL CLUB. Report of Seattle Terminal Survey Committee on Seattle rail and water terminals and harbor improvements. [April 2, 1918.1 90 pp. plans. Transit See also Municipal Ownership, Public Utilities, T%xat,ion. BETELEHEM CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. COMMITTEE ON IMPROVED TROLLEY FACILITIES. Transit problems for Bethlehem, Pa., and vicinity. Prepared by Delos F.. Wilcox, 1918. 225 pp. maps, tables, diagrs. GLASER (JULIUS). The design of subways. (N. Y. State Pub. Service Record, Oct., Nov., 1918: 1-10. plans.) WILCOX (D. F.). Problems of reconstruction with respect to urban transportation. (Amer. City, Dec., 1918: 440-444.) Another “deal” in traction. [1918.] 14 PP.1 CHICAGO. CITY COUNCIL. The new traction ordinance. Sept., 1918. 92 pp. . COMMITTEE ON LOCAL TRANSPORTATION. The new traction ordinance. 1918. 44 pp., map.(‘ . MAYOR. The new traction ordinance.” Veto message of Mayor Wm. Hale Thompson to the City Council. Aug. 22, 1918. 16 pp. CHICAGO ASSOCIATION OF COMMERCE. Rapid transit for Chicago. [1918.] [4 CHICAGO ANTI-TRACTION ORDINANCE COMMITEE. PP.1

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190 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March CHICAGO MUNICIPAL OWNERSHIP LEAQUE. The traction ordinance exposed. W18.1 14 PP.! . Municipal ownership of the Chicage street car lines without further delay. 11918.1 14 pp.1 CHICAQO POLITICAL EQUALITY LEAGUE. CIVICS DEPARTMENT. TRANSPORTATION COMMITTEE. Review of Chicago’s traction problem. [1918.] 12 pp. CITIZENS COMMITTEE FOR UNIFICATION TRACTION ORDINANCE. Why? [1918.] . The unification traction ordinance. What is it-Why it shouldreceive your vote. [1918.] 15 pp. HOOKER (GEORGE E.). Vote “no” on the traction ordinance. Oct. 30, 1918. IKES (GEORGE C.). An argument against the traction ordinance, 1918. ’%:%dress delivered before the City Club of Chicago on Sept. 20, 1918. Vital Statistics GUILFOY (WILLIAM H.). Statistics of the epidemic of influenza in New York City. (N. Y. City, Monthly Bul. of the Health Dept., Dec., 1918: 265-277. 9 charts.) MONGER (JOHN EMERSON). Co-operation of state and federal governments in registration of births and deaths. (Amer. Jour. of Pub. Health, Jan., 1919: 75-78.) PETRIE (WILLIAM F.). Relation of vital statistics to public health administration. (Amer. Jour. of Pub. Health, Jan., 1919: 71-74. ) Vocational Guidance FONTI~GNE (JULIEN). Comment se pose la question d’orientation professionelle. (gducation, Je.-Sept., 1918: 163177.) [4 PP.1 8P.I Principles and methods of vocational guidance from a French point of view. KING (CHARLES A.). Vocational guidance. Pts. I, I1 111. (Educ. Admin. and Supervision, Aept., Oct., Nov., 1918: 343-350, 413-416, 479-482.) Water Supply See also Publlo Utilities. ANON. St. Louis water purification plant. Amounts and prices of chemicals used-methods and results of operationcleaning filter sand-the strainer systementrained air-effecta of chemicals on apparatus-itemized cost of operating plant. (Mun. Jour., Dec. 28, 1918: 503505.) EDWARDS (W. R.). Sizes of service meters. Practices and experience of the Passaic Water Company in the use of meters, especially as to the sizes most desirabIe. (Mun. Jour., Jan. 4,1919:4-5.) METCALF (LEONARD). Trend of wages (Mun. TRIBUS (L. L,). Water treatment at Paper before New York section of American Water Works Association. paid by American water works. and Cy. Engrng., Dec., 1918: 197-198.) Council Grove., Kansas. (Canadian Engr., Dec. 19, 1918: 536-538. charts.) Read at the St. Louis Convention of the American Waterworks Association. Zoning BASSETT (E. M.). Zoning restrictions protect private property. (Record and Guide, Nov. 2, 1918: 512. Zoning law and billboards. (Record and Guide, Nov. 2, 1918: 511. Section 1.) -. Zoning and reconstruction. (Amer. Arch., Dec. 25. 1918. 781-782. . The non-conforming building in zoning. 1918. pp. 592-594. Section 1.) SWAN (H. S.). Reprinted from The American Architect, Nov. 13, 1918.

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NOTES AND EVENTS I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION Ohio Constitutional Amendment Dedared InvaLid.--On January 28 the Ohio supreme court declared that the amendment to the state constitution providing for the classification of property adopted at the November, 1918, election’ was invalid. In reaching this decision the court denied the application of former lieutenant governor, William A. Greenlund, of Cleveland, and others, for a writ of mandamus to compel the secretary of state to publish the classification amendment as having been adopted. This decision halts the attempt of Ohio to abolish the uniform tax clause of its constitution. At the election of November, 1918, two tax amendments were submitted, one the classification amendment and the other an amendment exempting mortgages from taxation. By somg curious prank of the electorate the amendment exempting mortgages received a larger vote than the classification amendment. It is upon this technicality that the court made its decision. Since there appeared a certain conflict as between the two amendments, the court felt it safe to declare the one receiving the smaller majority invalid. Three of the seven members of the court dissented from the prevailing opinion. Judge Donahue, in writing the dissenting opinion, declared that there was no conflict between the mortgage exemption and the classification amendment. “The people write our constitutions. Tlie electorate evidently saw no conflict, but, with full knowledge of the purpose and intent of each amendmen$, approved both by a majority vote, and the will of the people, as expressed through the ballot box, is indubitably the best authority known in a republican form of government, an authority to which governors, legislatures and courts must inevitably yield. At the present time the associations that ISee NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. vii, p. 94. have for years backed the classification amendment are endeavoring to obtain a re-hearing by the court. Failing this, the legislature will probably propose that the classification amendment be re-submitted at the fall election of 1919. Another correspondent writes that the Ohio taxpayers’ league with headquarters in Columbus is collecting information as to the financial needs of the various taxing districts in the state and have been compiling certain data as to the taxable intangible personal property in the state. This information is for the use of the general assembly. Arguments are also being presented now by various civic organizations and representatives showing the necessity for increasing the tax revenue, but the only definite suggestion which has come as to how these revenues could be increased has been the suggested inheritance tax law and a lifting of the limitation of the tax rate.’ * Amendments to the New York Constitution.-The voters at the election on November 5, 1918, approved three constitutional amendments. The first relates to the contracting of state debts and restricts the period to the probable life of the work. It also authorizes the issuance of bonds to be paid in annual installments by direct tax or legislative appropriation. The second permits the construction of a state highway in the Adirondacks. The third is of local interest to the residents of Utica and pertains to a section of the Erie Canal in that city. A bond proposition for the construction of state and: county highways, etc., was carried by a vote of 766,823 to 266,822. Q City Manager Notes.-The first issue of the City Manager Bulletin, dated January 1919, was issued during the month of f See Dr. Sowers article in NATIONAL MUNICKPAL REVIEW, vol. vii, p. 371. 191

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192 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March February under the editorship of Harrison Gray Otis, the secretary of the city managers’ association and now in charge of the city managers’ service bureau, Tribune Building, New York. It consists of seven mimeographed pages giving the latest news concerning the new bureau, legislation reIating to the city manager plan, the fifth year book of the association, memorial and liberty buildings, associate membership and a series of personal items. ((A question box” is an interesting feature. Under the head of “news” are noted variQUS important campaigns and undertakings by city managers or cities under the city manager form of government. Four resignations are reported: G. A. Abbott, Birmingham, Mich.; E. P. Law, Brownswood, Texas; Harrison Gray Otis, Auburn, Me.; H. J. McKee, Owosso, Mich. The city management form of go ernment is under consideration in the following named cities: Brunswick, Ga., New Haven and West Hartford, Conn.; Daytona, FIa.; Chicago, Moline, East Moline and Rock Island (last three combined), Ill.; Shreveport, La.; Ames, Burlington, Davenport, Newton and Sioux City, Iowa; Portland and Waterville, Me.; Lawrence, Marblehead, Mansfield, Middleboro, Wellesley and Whitman, Mass.; Boyne City and Flint, Mich.; St. Paul, Minn.; Manchester, N. H.; Englewood, N. J.; Batavia, Corning, East Aurora, Glen Falls, Gloversville, Lockport (again), Suffern, Tarrytown and North Tarrytown (combined), Tonawanda and North Tonawanda (combined) and Troy, N. Y.; Greensboro, N. C.; Painesville, Ohio; Ardmore, Bristow, Enid, Jenks, Muskogee, Norman, Oklahoma City, Okmulgee, Pawnee, Shawnee, Snyder, Tulsa and Waurika, Okla.; Conway, S. C.; Memphis, Tenn.; Austin, Beaumont and Whiteright, Texas; Alexandria, Bristol and Suffolk, Va.; Oshkosh, Wis.; Aberdeen and Wenatchee, Washington. Measures permitting the adoption of the city manager plan are under consideration in Indiana, Maine, Wisconsin and Tennessee legislatures. Arthur M. Field, formerly city manager at Winchester, having returned from military service, is now serving as secretary of the Winchester chamber of commerce. Groue City Borough, Pa., has discontinued its experiments with ‘(near-manager” plans. An ordinance creating the position of “managing engineer” was passed May 1, 1914, and John K. Ekey served two years, being succeeded by H. B. McCune. About a year ago advice came that the position of “city superintendent” had superseded that of “managing engineer” and Edward Thomas had been appointed. Now Mr. Thomas has resigned and the borough has returned to the old-fashioned plan. Frederkkshurg, Va., has appointed Levin J. Houston, Jr., of Baltimore, Md., as city manager at $3,600, to succeed R. Stuart Royer, now in the army. Some salary increases have been reported. H. 1%. Sherer of Glencoe, Ill., started at $2,400, was raised to $2,500, and now receives 94,000. C. M. Osborn, East Cleveland, Ohio, receives an increase of $1,000 this year, making his salary $4,600. Harry H. Freeman was chosen manager of Kalamazoo, Mich., last summer, by a vote of 4 to 3, salary $4,200; by a vote of 6 to 1 his salary has been made $5,000 for the coming year. * A Joint City Manager.-Rock Island, Moline and East Moline are closely contiguous and really constitute a single industrial community that should have been merged into a single political unit many years ago, but Rock Island and Moline are unwilling to give up their names and East Moline is unwilling to merge under a commission or aldermanic form of government. Two bills have been drafted -one providing for a merger on a borough plan so that the cities will be known as boroughs instead of cities-the other providing for the managerial form of government. The legislature enacted the former bill into a law, but for two sessions has refused to pass the managerial bill which provides for a commission of four men from each borough to be voted op at large, this commission to have only legislative functions, except that it will select the attorney the auditor and the manager. It provides that the auditor shall keep up a continuous audit reporting

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19191 NOTES AND EVENTS 193 from the departments daily to the manager, the latter to have entire administrative control of the city employes-the heads of the departments, who in turn will employ all operatives within their department. * The city managers of Michigan have arranged to come together from time to time for a discussion of their coming needs. No formal organization has been established, merely a series of conferences, so the managers may get better acquainted and be of help to each other in raising the standards of administration in their respective communities. Among the subjects discussed at a recent conference were “fire apparatus, street cleaning methods, proposed constitutional amendment for more home rule relative to municipal control of public utilities, milk distribution, gas rates, street car fares.” * Promoting of the City Manager Plan.The constantly growing interest in the city manager plan of government has created a demand for professional aid in charter drafting, publicity methods and the conduct of nonpartisan campaigns. To solve the problem Harrison Gray Otis, recently re-elected secretary of the city managers’ association, has resigned his position as city manager of Ahburn, Me., and has been retained by the American city bureau of New York, which is already in the field of organization service. Lucius E. Wilson, who conducted the campaign for the introduction of the city manager plan into Dayton, Ohio, is at the head of the bureau’s field staff. Prof. A. R. Hatton, of Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, the field secretary of the short ballot organization and a member of the council of the National Municipal League have likewise been retained (for part time) by the bureau. These three men will constitute a working nucleus to assist, together with a large staff of the bureau’s men, as occasion requires. The furnishing of public speakers, of charter drafters and publicity men in the actual conduct of campaigns are among the first steps. A clearing house for city managers will be undertaken in an effort to help cities obtain executiGes. The city managers’ association will remain unchanged as to purpose and organization.! It will continue to publish its year book and association bulletin. Mr. Otis expects to serve the remainder of his term as executive secretary and has moved the offices of the city managers’ association to theTribune Building, New York. * London Police Strike.--The members of the metropolitan police force, variously estimated at 11,000 to 12,000 men, on August 29, 1918, left duty, and on the following day the other branches of the national union of police and prison officers joined them. They were supported in this action by organized labor. The men demanded: (a) That the war bonus of 12s. ($2.92) weekly be immediately increased to El ($4.87) per week to all ranks of the London force, and to be forthwith converted into permanent wages. Further, that a war bonus, calculated on a basis of 12; per cent on all wages and allowances, be granted in addition (b) That ex-police constable Thiel, provincial organizer of the national union, and delegate to the London trades council, who was dismissed from the London force for “grave breach of discipline in taking part in the management and being a member of an unauthorized association, be immediately reinstated without loss of pay or service: (c) Complete “official” recognition of the national union. Negotiations were at once opened between the men, the prime minister, and the home office which, on August 31,1918, resulted in the following concessions: Wages increase of 13s. ($3.16) per week, pensionable war bonus 12s. ($2.92) per week, and allowances for each child of 2s. 6d. (61 cents) per week to remain; noncontributory pension of 10s. ($2.43) per week for policemen’s widows, widow’s pension payable in case of service men at the front. The result is minimum wages pensionable E2 3s. ($10.46) per week, war bonus 12s. ($2.92), making a total minimum of S2 15s. ($13.38) with children’s allowance in addition.

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194 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March The prime minister refused to recognize a police union in war time, citing as his reason the conditions which had arisen in Russia from the existence of a union or a committee among the soldiers. As the police are a semimilitary force, he felt that the same conditions applied to them as to the soldiers. He favored, however, some organization by which members of the police force could bring their grievances before the proper authorities, and promised that means for presenting communicatio’ns of this kind would be discussed With the men at an early date. Thiel, was reinstated. DORSEY W. HYDE, JR. c An Enlarged Council for Columbus Ohio has been suggested by the labor element in that city. The organized labor is much dissatisfied with the way the council has handled the street car situation and as a remedy suggested a return to the old ward system of sixteen members. Those who favored the present small council elected at large have suggested a system of proportional representation, which the labor people seem now to favor. Local correspondents advise us that the plan for a larger council will not succeed and may not even be the basis for a petition as the reasons for the change are now being removed. For the same reason the suggestion with regard to proportional representation may not be inaugurated. * The Enlargement of Boston’s Boundaries.-Mayor Andrew J. Peters of Boston wants to see a bigger Boston and accordingly he has hadintroduced into the Massachusetts state legislature a bill providing for the annexation of Winthrop, Revere, Chelsey, Everett, Sommerville, Cambridge, Watertown, Newton, Brookline and Milton “and such others as may be deemed advisable.” In public statemcnts he declayes he was not entirely committed to all of the provisions of his measure, as he was not certain that it might not be wiser to provide for some sort of federation. The bill does not contain a provision for a referendum of the questions of the voters of the city and town affected. Municipalizing Seattle’s Street Railways.-The present status of the street railway situation is this. The ordinances providing for the purchase of the system for $15,000,000 in public utility bonds have been passed. A friendly suit to test the validity of the arrangement has been instituted and has already been heard in the superior court, where the bonds have been declared legal and valid. The matter is now on appeal to the supreme court. The traction company has guaranteed to turn over the property within forty-five days after the decision of the supreme court is handed down sustaining the bonds. There are several points made against the validity of the bonds, but the main one is based upon the provision that they are first lien upon the earnings of the lines. ‘This provision, it is contended, is very likely to impose a burden upon the general fund, and this, it is asserted, cannot be done legally. It seems to me that the contention that the provision is likely to impose a burden upon the general fund which must be met by taxation is unquestionably correct, but I do not believe there is any serious legal objection to any burden upon the general fund, if the city council sees fit to impose it. Of course, the road might find itself in difficulty if the council at any time refused to take care of the deficits. k The service now given by the traction company is extremely poor, and there is, of course, no chance of any improvement prior to the acquisition of the lines by the city. The company is quite pleased with the sale. Its franchises expire in 1934 and the continued hostility of the council for the past ten years has shown clearly that the franchises are unlikely to be renewed upon their expiration on any terms satisfactory to the company. The early expiration of the franchises also made it impossible for the company to raise‘any money by way of loan, and it was, therefore, impossible for it to make the demanded extensions and betterments, nor was the company able to secure permission to raise its rates. There was a legal difficulty to any such raise, which was insurmounb able, except by absolute disregard of law, for a state statute prohibited any fare in

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29191 NOTES AND EVENTS 195 excess of five cents. It is said that this prohibition does not apply to municipalities and that the city may raise the rates.’ We have just learned that the Washmgton Supreme Court has upheld the legality of Seattle’s proposal to buy out the street railway system of Puget sound traction company for $15,000,000 in utility bonds. In anticipation of this favorable decision of the case both the city and county have gone ahead with the details and it is expected the property will be delivered to the city about April 1. FRED w. CATLETT. Ilc The Movement for Co-operative Delivery of Milk.-There are some 500 cities in America which have adopted a co-operative plan for the delivery of such necessary commodities as groceries, meats, and the like. The experience of these cities show undoubted economies in service and expense. A survey conducted recently revealed reductions in the number of wagone used from 76 to 18; from 30 to 10; from 15 to 4, etc. Delivery cost reductions reported vary from 50 to 10 per cent. The success and widespread adoption of the above plan for groceries and meats haa aroused general interest in the cooperative plan as a possible solution of the milk problem. In New York city, for example, it has been increasingly apparent for several years past that the solution of the milk problem depends to a large extent upon the adoption of a more efficient method of distribution. This fact waa understood by the mayor’s milk committee of 1917, which reported that “if the total volume of retail milk, amounting to 704,318 quarts, were carried on wagons handling only full loads, the bottled milk of New York city could be handled by only 2,243 wagons instead of the 4,978 actually in use at the present time. This would mean a saving of 54.7 per cent of the total.” More recently Chief Magistrate MeAdoo, at the “John Doe” milk inquiry, suggested the building of four or five municipal pasteurization plants as substitutes for the 400 or 500 smaller ones *See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REIVIEW, vo!. xiv, p. 642. now scattered throughout the district from which New York obtains its supply. Many other cities both in this country and abroad have studied the problem of milk deliveries and have advocated measures along this line. Perhaps the most extensive survey was that made in Rochester, N. Y., a number of years ago, when it was reported that under a model system numerous reductions could be effected, as follows: from 356 men to 90 men; from 380 horses to 80 horses; from 305 wagons to 25 wagons; daily distribution cost from $2,000 $600; yearly distribution cost from $720,000 to $220,000. From an interesting report issued a few years ago in Chicago we learn that by the merging of two milk concerns on private initiative, 18 wagons and their drivers were found to be no longer necessary. The same report estimated that a saving of $20,000 a day could be effected to the consumer if the various milk delivery systems could be consolidated and unified. A recent issue of Commerce Reports informs us that “owing to the difficulty experienced in procuring sufficient quantities of pure milk at Wellington (New Zealand) at what was considered a reasonable price, measures have been taken by the council of that city with a view to handling the milk question as a municipal undertaking.” In Turin, Italy, before the war, there was an agreement among the dairymen immediately surrounding the city by which the city was divided into sections and each group of dairymen assigned to a section. The milk was collected by motor trucks and carried to distribution stations where it was bottled and then delivered to consumers by women and boys at a price of four cents per quart. A co-operative pasteurizing plant was organized by seven dairymen at Riverside, Cal., and the milk waa delivered to the consumer in three wagons as compared with about twelve wagons previously required. A considerable reduction in the retail price of milk waa effected. A similar company is reported to have been formed at Utica, N. Y. Several Canadian cities have given considerable attention to the milk problem among which are Toronto, Regina and

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March Winnipeg. Conditions in the last-mentioned city were recently reported as having become so acute that the mayor-elect and a majority of the new council has expressed its determination to establish, early in the new year, a municipal plant to provide milk for Winnipeg and the adjacent suburbs. Perhaps the most extensive plan yet devised in this country was that drawn up for San Francisco, under which each delivery wagon would serve a certain district, thus avoiding long trips and the covering of ground served by other distributors. It was hoped that the price of milk could be kept down to 12 cents a quart. Milk companies distributing 25,000 gallons per day-out of a total of 30,000 distributed by milk companies-were said to have agreed to the plan, which had been worked out by a milk commission appointed by the federal food commissioner. The San Francisco plan for milk delivery, however, was never put into effect “because it developed that the cost of making the change would be too great a burden to be charged against any single year’s operations,” and for this reason it was felt that the plan “could not be considered strictly a war measure.” s. H. Greene, chairman of the division of dairy products of the United States Food Administration for California, furnishes the following additional details: “The plan provided for the closing of some pasteurizing plants and the establishment of some others in favorable locations in the city. The city was to be districted in zones, and each zone was to be served by two distributors and no more. One result of the many conferences that were held during the consideration of the plan has been a voluntary movement on the part of the distributors to exchange certain routes with each other, therefore shortening hauls and sending out full loads, with the consequent reduction in the cost of de* School Board Situation in Chicago.For sixteen months (June 18, 1917, to October 26,1918) two groups of citizens, each asserting their right to be the board of livery.” DORSEY w. HYDE, JR. education of Chicago, endeavored to determine the issue between them in the courts. Under the school law of 1909,21 trustees constituted the membership of the Chicago board of education. By the amended school law, approved and in effect on April 20, 1917, the membership of the board was reduced to eleven trustees. For convenience hereafter the fist will be spoken of as the “old,” and the second as the “new” board of education. On April 23, 1917, Mayor Thompson appointed two of the required eleven members. These were confirmed by the council and were duly qualified as school trustees. On June 18, the mayor submitted the remaining nine nominations to the council. These also were promptly confirmed by that body. And as usual in such matters, a motion to reconsider the vote of confirmation was made; but in this instance the motion to reconsider was tabled. During the interim, to June 18, 1917, the old board continued in office, and exercised the powers, duties and prerogatives conferred upon the board of education by its terms. In so doing the old board (1) adopted revised rules and regulations, (2) elected a president and a vice-president, (3) elected a secretary of the board, (4) elected for a term of four years a superintendent of schools, a business-manager, and an attorney, and (5) appointed standing committees. Then on the morning of June 19, 1917, several members of the new board (representing the majority who were city hall partisans) appeared at board headquarters with a large force of police. Acting under their direction the police cleared the office of the president, the offices of the business-manager and the attorney, the room in which the board cond’ucts its meetings, and held them against the elected officers and executives of the old board. Later in the day the new board held its fist meeting, organized on its own account, and elected an entirely new set of board officers and executives. Three days later, June 22, the city council met again. A motion to take from the table the motion to reconsider the vote

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19191 NOTES AND EVENTS 197 of confirmation was made by the opposition. There followed a noisy controversy between the administration forces and the opposition. At length, however, necessary parliamentary steps were taken which led up to a reconsideration of the vote to confirm. On the question being put, the council in overwhelming numbers voted not to confirm the mayor’s nine nombations. Notwithstanding this action of the council the new board continued to act aa the board of education for the following sixteen months. Four questions were promptly carried to the courts by the old board and its officers for adjudication. These were: (1) Whether the new board should reinstate the attorney, and (2) the business-manager, and (3) the secretary of the board, all of whom had been duly elected by the old board; (4) had the city council the legal right to reconsider on June 22 its vote to June 18 confirming the nine nominations to board membership? The recent decision of the supreme court on the fourth question was not only conclusive on the immediate point at issue, but rendered futile any further consideration of the other three questions. In effect this decision determined that: 1. The city council had the legal power to reconsider its vote of June 18, 1917, confirming the mayor’s nine nominations. 2. By its action of June 22, 1917, the city council rescinded its vote of confirmation. Therefor the roster of the new board was never completed, and SO the action of the group of citizens who on June 18 assumed the functions of the board of education was illegal. 3. Until eleven members are all appointed, confirmed, and duly qualified, the old board is to resume its office, and it is its duty to exercise all the powers, duties, and prerogatives conferred by the amended act upon the board of education. Before the decision of the supreme court could be put into effect through an order from the lower courts, the business-manager, the attorney, and the secretary of the new board resigned their offices; and on October 26, 1918, the new board itself vacated the premises of the board of education and the old board, with its officers and executives, returned to take up their duties where they had been compelled to drop them sixteen months earlier. The old board will continue to exercise those duties until a mayor and a city council can agree upon nine trustees to complete the new roster of the board of education. .J? The Federal Government and Housing. -A well-attended informal conference was held in the Philadelphia city club, January 3, to discuss the possible creation of a federal agency to deal, in whole or in part, with industrial housing, town planning, municipal affairs. The call was signed by Lawson Purdy, Esq., president of the National Municipal League, J. Horace McFarland, president of the American Civic Association, Frederick Law Olmsted, president of the City Planning Institute, Robert W. DeForest, president of the National Housing Association and Samuel Gompers, president of the American Federation of Labor. There were 50 persons present and three sessions were held in which the debate was open, animated and instructive. The sense of the majority of those present was expressed by the secretary, Andrew Wright Crawford, as follows: A. Some kind of a federal agency to deal with housing, town planning or community planning should be established. B. Such a federal agency should deal with housing and community planning, in the broad sense of dealing with the entire physical environment of the inhabitants. C. The proposed federal agency be limited to the function of research, experimentation and dissemination of information, acting as a central agency for the service of atate aathorities and local committees. D. It is more expedient that the proposed new agency, without consolidation, should act as a means of making more available, from the point of view of the community as a social unit, such technical resources as can be supplied by existing independent federal agencies (in which other points of view may be dominant). GLEN EDWARDS.

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198 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March and should undertake within its own organization direct technical investigation only in such parts of its field as are beyond the scope of existing governmental agencies. It was also the sense of the majority of those present that federal action Bhould be taken toward creating a comprehensive and systematic mechanism to facilitate the financing of housing. 9 Recent Regulation of Outdoor Advertising in New York City.-New York city has found a new solution of the outdoor advertising problem. The objections to the billboard and similar advertising signs are many; often they are flimsily built and likely to fall; inflammable, and a fire menace; so designed as to serve as a screen for lawlessness and filth. These and similar defects may be prevented by proper regulations, which our courts will sustain; and such regulations New York city, like other cities, has at various times enacted and enforced. Often, however, billboards and similar advertising devices are also ugly, and so placed as to be especially offensive for that reason. Residential neighborhoods, parks, boulevards, and scenic avenues in New York and all American cities suffer in this way. This constitutes the real billboard and advertising sign problem; for under our constitutions regulations to prevent the erection and maintenance on privately owned land of ugly structures visible from public places are invalid. The great European countries,-England, France, Italy,-all, to a greater or less extent, curb this evil; and Massachusetts, in a constitutional amendment passed last fall, authorizes a like procedure; but so far none of the other states in this country has done so. New York city, unable to suppress the billboard because it is ugly, has begun to do so, in certain localities, because it is out of place. For this purpose it makes use of the building zone regulation, which went into effect July 25, 1916. That regulation divides the city into residence, business and unrestricted building districts, and provides that “in a residence district,” no building shall be erected other than a building, with its usual accessories, arranged, intended or designed exclusively for “a dwelling or such public purposes as clubs, churches, etc.” “The termaccessory use shall not incIude a business nor shall it include any building or use not located on the same lot with the building or use to which it is accessory.” In a previous section the word “building” is stated to include the word “structure.” Evidently a billboard is not a residential structure or accessory to such a structure. There is in the city a committee of citizens called the “zoning committee,” formed to protect the zoning resolution. Last fall that committee began to call the attention of the authorities to this infringement of the resolution. Already thirteen billboards erected on our beautiful Riverside Drive have lost their permits, and apparently the same fate is in store for many more such structures in residential districts in all parts of the city. All novelty is relative. New York was the first city to employ its building zone regulation for the removal of billboards in residential neighborhoods; but other cities have restricted billboards so located by other means. In 1910 Chicago passed an ordinance making it unlawful “to erect or construct any billboard or sign board in any block on any public street in which onehalf of the buildings on both sides of the street are used exclusively for residential purposes, without first obtaining the consent in writing of the owners or duly authorized agents of such owners owning a majority of the frontage of the property on both sides of the street in the block in which such billboard or sign board is to be erected, constructed or located.” This ordinance w&s sustained in 1915 by the Illinois siipreme court, and in 1917 by the United States supreme court.’ In June, 1917, Los Angeles passed an ordinand dividing the city into business, IThmas Cusack Co. v. The City of Chicago, 267 111. 344: a5rmed 242 U. S. 526. :Since amended in detail. Ordinance No. 38,315, passed June 25, 1918, incorporating these amendments to that date is here referred to.

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19191 NOTES AND EVENTS 199 semi-business, suburban and residential advertising districts. In a semi-business district such structures shall not be nearer the sidewalk than the house in that block is that is nearest the walk; in a residence district no billboard or similar structure shall have an area of over twelve square feet, or be within fifteen feet of another billboard; in a suburban district no billboard over twelve feet in area shall be located within fifty feet of a residence. Many of the provisions of this ordinance] unlike those of the Chicago and New York regulations, are retroactive. The Los Angles billboard ordinance is entirely independent and distinct from its building zone ordinances. In cities with building zone regulations, the New Yorlc city method of attacking the billboard nuisance in residential neighborhoods seems simpler and therefore better than that of Los Angeles or Chicago. The sum total of building regulations in modern cities is most voluminous and complex and there seems to be no reasbn to add needlessly to this complexity by creating separate districts with separate rules and regulations for any one class of structure, like billboards. FRANK BACKUS WILLIAMS.^ * City Planning in St. Louis.-During the war a question was raised in St. Louis as to the practicability of continuing the city plan commission. This sentiment found expression in the board of aldermen] which, however, seems to have seen a new light and has passed the following resolutions. We do not often quote resolutions in these pages, but these are reprinted because they indicate how the logic of a situation will penetrate even a board of aldermen: Resolved, by this board, That we highly commend the spirit of the city plan commission and recommend that every citizen of St. Louis read the recent issue from the commission office of the book ent-itled St. Louis After the War, and that thls board extend its thanks to Winston Churchill for retaining such enduring interest in the city of St. Louis. 1 Treasurer of the municipal art society of New York city and chairman of its committee on outdoor advertising. The reference to Mr. Churchill brings to mind the splendid foreword he prepared for the pamphlet St. Louis Alter the War, which haa strong arguments for a preparation of plans for the guidance of the city at the present time. * Women in Municipal Research.-From its inception] ten years ago, the Philadelphia bureau of municipal research has always afforded opportunities to women for work on its professional staff. A number of these women have filled important positions not only within the bureau organization, but have made careers in public service outside as well. The other governmental research agencies have had varying policies in this respect. Some have given women equal opportunities with men, while others have felt that women are still sufficiently discriminated against in our public services, 80 as to handicap them in this field. For that reason, a number of the bureaus employ women only in clerical capacities. The Philadelphia bureau has probably had one of the most interesting groups of women staff-members and was peculiarly fortunate in the individuals it secured. Dr. Neva R. Deardorff, an alumna of Michigan, for three years assistant director not only participated in a number of important studies and led many others, but also handled a large part of the publicity and educational work. Her record as chief of the division of vital statistics in the bureau of health set a new standard in Philadelphia, and won for Dr. Deardorff 8 national reputation. At this writing she is on leave, serving as an assistant to the director-general of civilian relief of the American Red Cross. Miss Olive R. Haldeman joined the bureau staff in 1913 upon her graduation from the University of Pennsylvania, and for five years was busy mainly on budget work and health studies. In the latter activity she was the author of several careful reports, notably one on the food inspection services and another on the division of housing and sanitation in Philadelphia. As Mn. Ralph E. Young] this

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200 NATIONAL M’fTNICIPAL REVIEW [March young woman has moved away from Philadelphia, but she continues a live interest in civic matters and will doubtless be a force for socia1 progress in her new home. Another woman whose work deserves special mention is Miss Maude E. Stearns, a Wellesley graduate, who left the bureau staff after a period of training to become statistician of the municipal court of Philadelphia. Later Miss Stearns went to Washington to do statistical work in the war department. The general information service and the library of the bureau-two of its very important activities-have for several years been in charge of Miss Ethel Vernon, a Cornell alumna, who has put these functions on a plane not excelled in any similar agency in this country. A number of other young women have served as investigators, accountants and statisticians on the staff of the bureau, and all have either continued on the staff or have entered other fields of service. The board of trustees of the Philadelphia bureau have recognized the growing activity of women in public affairs, and recently filled vacancies in the board, by the election of four representative Philadelphians: Dr. Martha Tracy, Miss Florence Sibley, Mrs. George McFaddeu and Miss Mary H. Ingham. Other bureaus have perhaps had a rare woman trustee, but it is believed that this is the first time that the election of women trustees was a definitely adopted policy. W. C. B. .& The Buffalo Street Car strike was treated in a comprehensive way by Frederic Ahy in The Nation of December 21. It describes especially Mayor Buck’s resistance to various suggestions of compromise. Mayor Buck’s attitude is summed up in his statement, “I am satisfied that public opinion demands that those who control the street railway situation in this city must get out and stay out.” The results seem to have justified his attitude. 1? Civil Service Requirements for High School Principals.-Dr. William H. Maxwell, who for many years was the successful superintendent of schools in New York, and who is now superintendent emeritus, has proposed to the civil service reform association that an amendment should be sought to compel the framing of an eligible list for high school principals. ?k Psychological Tests for Clerical Applicants.-Dr. L. L. Thurstone of the division of applied psychology of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, has prepared an examination pamphlet for the testing of clerical applicants consisting of eight tests. These tests involve the correction of errors in the solution of simple problems in addition and subtraction; the detection of errors in spelling, and of specified letters of the alphabet; the substitution of specificd numerals for specified letters; the selection and grouping of names: the selection of more complex data; the solution of simple problems and the association of Arabian proverbs with their English equivalents. Both speed and accuracy are rated. The examination pamphlet contains sample clerical jobs by means of which the interviewer is better able to measure the caliber of a clerical applicant than by means of the usual casual conversation. That these sample clerical jobs or psychological tests constitute a better measure of potential fitness than the academic tests usually employed by civil service examiners is also not to be disputed. During the war, one of the services which was exempted by executive order from civil service regulation recruited to clerical service by means of psychological tests and found the method entirely satisfactory and efficient. L. F. F. * Municipal Laundries for Uruguay.European travellers remember the little groups of peasants washing clothes in the brook near their villages. This custom exists very generally in the older countries and apparently also in South America. The Uruguayan government, in virtue of a law of June 27, 1918, takes official cognizance of the practice by providing for the construction of municipal laundries or

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19191 NOTE8 AND EVENTS 201 washing places (lavaderos) in all cities of the Republic. These buildings, according to Commerce Reports, are to be erected in series of four, the first four to be built in Salto, Paysandu, Mercedes, and San Jose. The government is authorized to expend not to exceed 22,000 pesos ($22,750) per year for the purpose. Where municipalities have the necessary funds they may themselves construct the washing places, but in accordance with the government requirements. The buildings erected by the government will be turned over to the municipalities after completion. $2 The Making of Municipal Bricks is the Iatest undertaking of an English municipality. The Redditch urban district council was unable to obtain the necessary bricks to carry out its scheme of building two hundred more houses, so not to be balked it established its own brick malcing kiln and the problem was solved. * A National Health Ministry has been created in Great Britain and its organization entrusted to Dr. Christopher Addison, president of the local government board and who for two years and a half was at the head of the ministry of reconstruction. In describing the work which it was expected the new ministry would supervise, Dr. Addison said: “It will be a few months before the ministry of health can be established. For many purposes affecting the service the administrative unit must be a large one. A small area cannot possibly be selfcontained, in a medical sense. It cannot have resources sufficient to meet all its emergencies. What we seek to establish is really a medical intelligence department. It will have its laboratories with everything necessary for research, and will have access to all information gathered by public medical officers. It is frequently possible to see an epidemic in the distance. We shall soon look to our intelligence department to give us due warning of the approach of anything of the kind, and to advise us as to our counter-offensive.” ‘ Home Market for Municipal Bonds.The Liberty bonds were floated at home, subscribed for by the American people. Over-the-counter sales of small denomination bonds by cities would not only encourage the habits of thrift and saving, but would tend to stimulate civic interest. Cities could thus finance their reconstruction improvements. The government of France before the war issued securities her citizens could buy, denominations being as low as sixty cents. Such very small amounts might not be practicable here, but the principle of issuing bonds of such sizes that the average citizen, not only the citizen with $500 or $1,000 or larger sums, can afford to purchase them, deserves serious consideration by every American municipality . NOEL SARGENT. * Tearing up the Streets.-It is generally agreed that one of the most aggravating circumstances in the paving of the city streets is that after the streets have been adequately paved and the residents and owners of the property have begun to take personal pride in their new improvement, the pavement is apt to be cut up to allow for the placing of pipe lines or service connection to some new residence or store building. The Portland cement association, which has for its motto “concrete for permanence,” has turned the attention of its publicity on this subject and is doing some splendid work in the direction of educating municipalities and citizens generally as to the necessity of doing the necessary underground work before the pavement is put down. In a recent letter sent out by the editorial bureau of this association, it calls attention to the fact that Cleveland, Ohio, has placed restrictions upon the undiscriminating cutting up of new pavements and requires prospective builders to lay their plans far enough in advance of pavement improvement to permit of it being done before the pavement is placed. Some time previous to the commencement of a pavement improvement signs are placed conspicuously along the streets giving notice of this work and requiring all underground connection to

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202 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March be placed before the paving is done. Thereafter the pavement must not be cut for this purpose for a period of five years. Q Municipal and State Income Taxes.Mayor Kiel of St. Louis has recently proposed that a state income tax be levied to raise funds for the program of social development planned and to replace the money that will be lost on liquor licenses; about $2,000,000. There has been some talk of levying such a tax also in New York city. Mayor Kiel urges the incorporation of suburbs to prevent wealthy individuals who do business in St. Louis escaping taxation. The objection has been made that capital will be driven from the city and that new capital will be repulsed if such a tax is adopted, An issue of Public Business (issued by the Detroit bureau of governmental research) notes the fact that Wisconsin taxes all incomes and that Massachusetts in 1916 adopted a law applying to socalled incomes and incomes from certain classes of intangible property. The proceeds of these income taxes, though collected by the state, usually revert to the local subdivisions. In line with this development comes the recommendation of the Michigan state tax commission for a constitutional amendment permitting an additional income tax for the state in lieu of all intangible personal property taxes. The commission enumerates six points on which it believes that such a law should be based: 1. The net income should be the measure of the individual’s taxable ability. 2. The income tax should be levied on the entire income from all sources except income from United States bonds, and salaries of federal officials (specially exempted by law). 3. The rate of income tax should be the same for all kinds of income and not differentiated according to the source from which it is derived. 4. The rates of income tax should be progressive, depending upon the amount of the taxpayer’s net income, with exemptions for net incomes under a certain sum. 5. Income taxes should be collected directly from the taxpayer on a basis of strictly enforced reports of the taxpayer and no part of the tax should be collected at the source. 6. Administration o$ the income tax should be in the hands of state officials and not in the hands of local officials. 9 Street Development.4ne of the encouraging and interesting factors of modern street development has been the organization of men and women interested in a particular street for its further improvement and the extension of its influence. Perhaps the best known association of this kind is the Fifth Avenue Association of New York, of which ,Robert Grier Coolce is the president. In a recent article appearing in The Evening Post, Mr. Cooke told of the war-time activities of this association and of the truly remarkable work which it had accomplished. This association takes an interest in such things as the traffic, the height of buildings, zoning generally, and the development of realty. The work of the association has attracted attention outside of the country and the business men of King street, Toronto, %have organized along similar lines calling their movement “Greater Icing Street.” * Compulsory Voting in Massachusetts.Among the constitri tional amendments adopted at the November, 1918 election, was one which read as follows: “Thc general court shall have authority to provide for compulsory voting at election, but the right of secret voting shall be conserved.” The committee to compile state constitutional amendments reported that the .compulsory voting does not exist anywhere else in the United States. It is mentioned in one constitution in the 48 states, North Dakota. It provides that the legislature may prescribe penalties “for failing, neglecting or refusing to vote in any general election.” Thus far the legislature has not taken any action to carry out the power thus granted. The same committee prepared a memorandum

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19191 NOTES AND EVENTS 203 concerning the subject. of compelling voters to exercise their franchise as worked out in Austria, Belgium, Spain, New Zealand and Tasmania. In the latter country after each general election the name of every person who has a right to vote and has failed to do so is stricken from the list. New Zealand has a somewhat similar provision. In the former legislation was enacted in 1901; in the latter in 1893. Compulsory voting is obligatory in cantonal matters in certain of the cantons of Switzerland, but themeasure is not vigorously enforced. Belgium fines those who fail to vote without proper excuse. In submitting its memorandum the committee reported that in no other country do. the elections come so frequently as in the United States, nor is the burden on the voters so great as here. In Roman Catholic countries of Europe elections are held on Sunday, making it possible to secure a large vote without interfering with the voters’ employment. * Proportional Representation in Ireland. -Sligo has the distinction of being the first city in the United Kingdom to hold a post-war municipal election and to hold it under the proportional representation system. The city is divided into three wards each represented by eight members. There were sixteen candidates in each ward. The single transferable vote was used and 2,251 votes were cast, only 43 of which were declared invalid. The total register was 3,066 including of course, the absentee voters. The rate payers’ association elected eight representatives; the Sein Fein, seven; labor, five; independents, four. The local press, both Sein Fein and Unionist expressed their appreciation and satisfaction with the new system. The Sligo Champion, a Sein Fein organ said: “The system has justified its adoption. ,We saw it work. We saw its simplicity. We saw its unerring honesty to the voter all through, and we saw its vote to the final count and we join the expression of those who follow it with intelligent interest. It is as easy as the old way. It is a big improvement and it is absolutely fair.” Regulation of Aerial Tra5c.-Thepublication of the report of the British civil aerial transport committee and th0 signs of an early and considerable development in the use of aeroplanes renders it necessary, the London Municipal Journal points out, to consider in what directions it will be essential for municipalities and other governing bodies to exercise control over the use of aircraft. So far as internal services in England are concerned the great point is, of course, to make use of the speed capabilities of the aeroplane. This can only be done by reducing terminal delays to a minimum. If much time has to be wasted in conveying mails or passengers to the aerodrome before the aerial journey can be started, and subsequently in conveyance to the ultimate destination after the landing ground has been reached, then it is quite conceivable that an inherently slower method of transit may hold its own as regards speed from terminal point to point. The real utility of the aeroplane will, therefore, be largely dependent on the possibility of placing aerodromes and landing grounds in something approaching central positions. There are obvious difficulties in the way of so doing. If we select, the report says, for an aerodrome, a park in the center of a great city, all the machines employed must be continually flying over the town and must descend to low altitude& when so doing. The lower the altitudes, the greater the risk of injury to individual or municipal propertmy in. the event of any accident to the aeroplane or any failure of its engine. Clearly the public must be protected as far as possible against such risks. The owner of property, in English law, is also supposed to be the owner of the air above that property. Aerial transport is, however, impossible if this sort of right be insisted upon literally. Thus, a compromise which naturally suggests itself is that, when an aeroplane flies at anythiag below some defined altitude, civil liability falls upon the owner of the aircraft in the event of accident. Any such regulation would, however, be most dificult to impose?

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204 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March because it would invoive setting apart very large areas for landing grounds. Thus, it appears that the landowner can only be protected by giving him a specific right of action for damages on the grounds -of any nuisance resulting from breach of the regulations that may be imposed. All this leads to the conclusion that municipalities must interest themselves in all those regulations that may be suggested to apply to ascents and landings. If the municipality is not satisfied that such regulations provide the necessary measure of safety and the elimination of nuisance, then the only alternative is to place the aerodromes and landing grounds well outside the centers of population, which, as already pointed out, would greatly decrease the utility of aeroplane services, except over very long distances. The point may perhaps be brought home more clearly by taking one or two imaginary examples. Suppose an aerial service to be in operation between two places a hundred miles apart. The actual journey by air may take about one hour. If the aerodromes are distant from' the terminal centers the total journey from center to center may take three hours, and may well be slower than the journey by railway between stations centrally placed. In the case of two cities, say, five hundred miles apart, the aerial journey may take five hours, and the addition of the same terminal delays, namely, one hour at each end, would give a total of seven hours, which would certainly compare very favorably with the time taken by the fastest express railway service. Thus, the minimum distance over which an aerial service would be really useful is largely dependent on the positions chosen for landing grounds. Municipalities will thus be faced with a rather delicate question as to the degree to which the safet,y and comfort of the property owner and of the general public can be jeopardized in order to encourage air services which may well increase the business done in the locality by increasing the efficiency of the business methods and expediting the delivery of mails and the carriage of passengers engaged upon affairs of urgency. 11. POLITICS. 387 Engineers Laid Off.-Nearly four hundred engineers of the public service ,commission of New York city were dropped on the &st of the year as a result of the action of the board of estimate, which resolved upon this move at a meeting held December 30, 1918, as the matter involved was the administrative appropriation for the first quarter of 1919. Three months earlier, the public service commission had submitted its September estimate of the budget to the board of estimate and apportionment, to become effective January 1, 1919. On November 30, the board of estimate and apportionment emasculated this budget so as to Tequire the laying off of, it was then estimated by the public service commission, 167 men. This was, however, an underestimate, because on December 31 the public service commission was forced by the failure of the board of estimate and apportionment to provide adequate funds, to lay off 387 men. The employment of these men was within the power of the public service cornmission, but under a law passed in 1918 final authority as to all appropriations and other administrative matters involving departments of the city was lodged in the board of estimate. Two hundred and ninety of the suspended employes were restored to service January 31, and a few more were restored in February; approximately 85 of them remain on a suspended list. This wholesale dismissal of a trained force is naturally regarded with consternation not only by the men directly involved, but by all interested in building up an effective civil service in the city. If men who have given of their best to the city are to be dismissed on such short notice and without adequate cause, it will be

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19191 NOTES AND EVENTS 205 more difficult than ever to secure men in the ,public service whose abilities and capacities are above the ordinary. Such actions, like that of the board of estimate, by undermining the confidence in the tenure of public service, increase the difficulty of administrators of securing men equal to the great tasks modern municipal life imposes upon them. Moreover, such actions are justly regarded by advocates of municipal ownership and operation as a serious blow to their aspirations, if skilled men are to be treated as so many laborers taken on and laid off by the arbitrary action of another body than the one responsible for their work. Under these circumstances no assurance can be given that any farsighted constructive policy of operation can be successfully carried out. 111. JUDICIAL DECISIONS Budgets.-The Massachusetts supreme court has decided recently in Flood vs. Hodges that when a budget has been submitted by the mayor of a city, adopted by the municipal council and approved by him, the council cannot make appropriations under the municipal indebtedness act contrary to the wishes of the mayor, covering subjects provided for in the budget. The case arose in an effort to restrain the auditor and treasurer from paying certain increases in compensation to policemen and firemen which the council was trying to accomplish by ordinance without the mayor’s approval. The court said “This unequivocal limitation placed by the statute upon the power of initiative by the council in making appropriations cannot be circumvented by the agency either of a vote requesting action by the mayor, or of an amendment to ordinances establishing such expenditures, or by the enactment of an ordinance attempting to deprive the mayor of one of the essential prerogatives of the chief executive. . . . of approving drafts or warrants before money can be withdrawn from the city t,reasury.” rlc Annexation.’-A number of provisions of the Rochester city charter were recently held to be unconstitutional by the New York court of appeals. The case arose from the application by the city to acquire for municipal purposes lands in the town of Canadice, Ontario county, belonging to certain citizens. The owners objected to the appointment of commissioners for the appraisal of damages, and ‘In TC Citv YE. Rochester, 121 N. E. 102. 7 these objections were sustained by the highest court in the state. The court said that the charter did not provide for an impartial tribunal, because one of the three commissioners must be a resident and freeholder of Rochester and because the city council having judicial power in such cases would not be impartial as between the city and the landowner, and finally because when the valuation is made, the city can appeal and the landowner cannot. * Recall.-In Ackerman vs. Moody1 it was decided that under the state constitution and city charter, the members of the board of education of San Diego are subject to recall, though the school district comprises certain territory outside of the corporate limits of the city and the board members are paid by warrants drawn upon the county treasurer. * Public Utility Regulation.-The. supreme court of Colorado has recently decided, in the suit brought by the city of Denver to prevent the Mountain States telephone and telegraph company from putting into effect increased rates granted by the public utilities commission, that the charter amendment to the state constitution giving charter cities the right to regulate public utilities was valid. The commission claimed the power not only to change rates but also franchise provisions. Rates made by Colorado Springs, Denver, and other home rule cities will henceforth prevail. The telephone company has asked for a rehearing. 1176 Pac. 696.

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206 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March Occupation Taxes.-The Ohio supreme court has just decided that home rule cities have a right to levy an occupation tax provided the state does not do so, and declared the occupation tax ordinances passed by the Cincinnati city council to be valid. Ohio Classification Amendment.-The Ohio classification amendment passed last November has just been lcnoclred out by the supreme court on the ground that it conflicts with the mortgage exemption amendment passed at the same time and also because it conflicts with the provisions exempting from taxation property used for charitable purposes. Three judges dissented Contending that the mortgage exemption amendment only, and not the remainder of the section, was voted on by the people and that the provisions of the amendment are not in conflict with classification; that the two amendments might stand without conflict. Pb Torts by Policemen.-Police officers, though employed by a municipal corporation, exercise a governmental and not a corporate function and in the absence of a positive statute to the contrary cannot by their tortious acts render the employing municipality liable in damages ez delido. This was held recently by the Louisiana supreme court in J01i.f vs. Shreueport’ where in a liquor raid considerable damage was done by the police and the city was sued as a consequence. Ilc Fares.-The supreme court of Louisiana in the case of the City of Lake Charles v. Charles Railway Light & Water Company2 decided that a temporary injunction would be granted against the street car company, which although permitted by its franchise to charge only a five cent fare, was actually charging seven cents. The contention of the street car company was that the municipality was without legislative authority to fix or limit the fare that might be charged in the exercise of the franchise. The only question decided by the court was that the act prohibited by the injunction, if permitted to be done until final judgment was rendered, might cause an irreparable injury. ROBERT E. TRACY. IV. MISCELLANEOUS Landscape Architects and Reconstruction.-A special meeting of the Amereian Society of Landscape Architects was held in Washington said Professor J. S. Pray of Harvard, president of the society, “to consider how we may best be of service here and overseas during the reconstruction period. The country is faced, for instance, by a, large building program. Better and more economical results will be secured by the co-operation of the landscape architect. He is likely to be called in more and more upon these and city planning problems.” A medallion was presented to F. L. Ohiskd by the society at their convention dinner in appreciation of his part in the winning of the war. It was pointed out that as his father, the great artist and landscape architect, had employed his powers of organization and his sturdy good sense most effectively, as head of the sanitary commission during the civil war, so the son had made a similar contribution during the present war ta the housing of both troops and munition workers. The medallion represents thc goddess Vesta, whose charge it is to “keer the home fires burning,” hand in hand with Mercury, the Roman god of industry “Of the 84 members of thc society con. ducting their own offices, 43 have beer called in one way or another into govern. ment service, either by the housinh bureau, the construction division of thc army or the shipping board,” said Mr Olmsted, who is now serving as chief of thl town planning division of the housini bureau. “This is a remarkable record especially since landscape architecture i considered by the man in the street as a1 occupation only for settled conditions, an1 even something of a luxury. The fact i 1180 so. 200. 8 80 So. 260.

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19191 NOTES AND EVENTS that in this emergency, the landscape architect was found pre-eminently qualified to serve in one field of town planning required by the government in laying out cantonments for troops and industrial housing developments for war workers. Consequently he was drafted to this service.” “If our experience in the housing bureau has proved anything,” continued Mr. Olmsted, “it is the possibility and value of a thoroughgoing co-operation between the architectural, town planning, and engineering professions. In our office, each has been represented by a division, all working together at adjacent desks and all assisting in the solution of every problem. It offers a fine promise of the future for building and land subdivision in all its branches. The convention was held in Washington on account of the many landscape architects who are working in the housing bureau and the construction division of the army. Its chief work was to consider how the society can be of further service and how the work in town planning and industrial housing which the housing bureau has so admirably started may not be lost. * The Proposed League of Ohio Cities.Just at present the movement for a league of Ohio cities seems to be lagging. A letter from Mr. Carr, of Springfield, a member of the committee on permanent organization, states there is now little chance of a league, However he does not intend to quit, but is waiting for an opportune time to present a measure to the Legislature that will provide for a league. The first provision we need is a law authorizing cities to appropriate money for the support of such an organization, then we can get a live secretary on the job. There is very little interest shown by some of the largest cities and this seems to be easily accounted for. They are strong enough to stand for themselves, but the smaller places cannot accomplish a thing individually. 1 have already noticed how the large cities hob-knob with the state officials, and the smaller cities have only the support of some rural legislator who can see no further than to labor for the rural population and its representatives -the county commissioners. In a state where cities are supposed to have the privilicge of Home Rule, such as this one, it is a joke to see what little local and selfgovernment they really have. We are not only creatures of the state, but also of the county, through a budget commission composed of county officials, as well as creatures of a civil service commission and an interest and sinking fund board. Some one to tell us just how much money we can have; some one to come in and grab most of it to pay off short-life bonds on long-life improvements and some one to tell us just who we must employ. I would rather see a league of cities than anything else just now. This would be the starting of better laws and better conditions for cities in this state. Mayor Galvin, of Cincinnati, is chairman of the committee on permanent organization and he said at one of our meetings that he did not believe cities should organize and employ a walking-delegate (secretary). That just such sort of thing was what we were condemning in labor and the farmer. I asked him if the whole scheme of life was not a case of survival of the fittest and if labor and the farmer were not making progress by their methods, and if it were not up to the cities to pursue the same methods, even if it were only for defense. Carr is a fighter and I believe we can get along. The smaller cities, with Dayton and Springfield are anxious about joining. Q Professor Howard Lee McBain, who became an associate editor of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW in April, 1914, succeeding Professor Charles A. Beard, has been compelled by,pressure of his academic and personal obligations to retire from that position. The editor takes this opportunity of expressing his appreciation of the very large service which Professor McBain did in that capacity. He was helpful, wise and stimulating in advice-this combined with his wide knowledge of municipal affairs, especially in their legal aspects, made him a coadjutor of real value. He KENYON RIDDLJL

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208 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March has been succeeded by William J. Donald, the secretary of the chamber of commerce of Niagara Falls, who brings to the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW the point of view of one who has been trained in economics and political science and who has had extended opportunity in organizing commercial bodies along the modern lines represented by the American city bureau. Ilr Colonel William Gorham Rice has been reappointed by Governor Albert Smith of New York a member of the state civil service commission. Mr. Rice’s term expired February 1. His worlc on the commission has been of a high grade and his reappointment is generally regarded as a triumph for the merit system. He was appointed by Governor Roosevelt and four years ago was reappointed by Governor Whitman. Colonel Rice is chairman of the joint committee on civil service and efficiency of the National Municipal League and the National Civil Service Reform league. * Charles H. Wacker has been the first and only chairman of the Chicago plan commission. Recently that board passed a resolution recognizing the services which he had rendered without remuneration saying that “it is not a little thing for a man to sacrifice his time, his energies, his business and personal financial interests to an ideal, and the ideals of the old commercial club through Daniel H. Burnham and his staff, which have been handed to the city of Chicago by the generosity of the commercial club, would have been unavailable had the duty of carrying them forward fallen upon the shoulders of a man whose ideals had not been commensurate with the great task. This untiring, unselfish and devoted work of Mr. Wacker will be a lasting benefit to every citizen of Chicago no matter in what connection he may live or what his position in life may be. The plans and ideals are so broad that they reach every corner of Chicago nnd assist in the development of the whole city.” Henry Read, after fourteen years of useful and effective service on the Denver art commission, has resigned as a result of the failure of the present administration to co-operate as directed by the law. Mr. Read is the father of the section of the charter creating a volunteer body of artists, architects and public spirited citizens as an art commission. He served faithfully as the commission’s chairman, in which capacity he saw conceived and achieved virtually all of Denver’s triumphs in beautification. Among these might be mentioned the various park projects, the reclamation of Cherry Creek bottom, the erection of the Welcome Arch, the establishment of the Civic Center, the location of statues and the creation of an ornamental lighting system. * Charles E. Merrhan, who has had a useful and interesting career as college professor, Chicago alderman and a captain in the army, announced his candidacy of mayor of Chicago on a reconstruction platform. In the course of his opening address he said, “My principles would be to select strong men and women capable of working together without regard to party, class or creed, on exactly the same principle that united action was obtained during the war.” Certainly a fine principle which we hope the voters of Chicago will endorse. 5 Harrison Gray Otis, after a year of service as city manager of Auburn, Me., has resigned. In his letter of resignation he said to the commissioners: “You will recall that upon my accepting the position as manager last February I stated that my resignation was placed upon the table with my acceptance. May I ask that you accept this resignation to take effect January I, 1919.” In accepting the resignation the mayor and the commission expressed their appreciation of his work and assured him of their good will and friendship. * Howard Strong, who has been the successful and resourceful secretary of the

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19191 NOTES AND EVENTS 209 Minneapolis civic and commerce association, has resigned to become secretary of the Rochester chamber of commerce, of which R. B. Woodward was for so many years the efficient executive. He entered upon his duties on February 1. rie Holmer Talbot, after a useful term as secretary of the League of Kansas Municipalities, has resigned to accept the position as secretary of the New Jersey State League of Municipalities in succession to Claude H. Anderson.’ Edward T. Paxton has been serving as secretary pro tem. Mr. Talbot has been succeeded in the Kansas league by A. 0. Long, secretary of the Texas league. * Frederick C. Butler, who during the war had charge of the community problems of the war department with relation to the production of munitions and who was responsible for the working out of the East St. Louis plan,2 has been appointed director of Americanization in the bureau of education. Regional directors will be named to proceed immediately with the organization of the states and through them of the communities. rie Samuel H. Ranck, librarian of the Grand Rapids public library, one of the aggressive institutions of its kind in the country, is engaged in library war service abroad. Mr. Ranck has been identified with the committee work of the National Municipal League for many years. * George Burnham, Jr., bas resigned the presidency of the city club of Philadelphia and has been succeeded by William R. Nicholson, the president of the Land Title Trust Company of Philadelphia. rie John A. Lapp, formerly legislative reference librarian in Indiana and recently director of the social insurance commisp. 107. p. 52. 1 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. viii, %See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. viii, sion in Ohio, is in charge of the Americanization work of the National Catholic War Council. * Dr. C. C. Williamson, associate editor of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, has been elected a member of the board of editors of the American Political Science Review. rie William J. Locke, the assistant secretary of the California League of Municipalities, is a member of the present session of the California legislature. * J. L. Jacobs has retired from the Emergency Fleet Corporation in Philadelphia, having returned to his professional practice in Chicago. * Morris L. Cooke has finished his war work and has opened an office as a consulting engineer in management in Philadelphia. * R. Stuart Royer, formerly city manager of Fredericksburg, Va., is now manager of the Alexandria chamber of commerce. rie Twenty Years a Mayor.-Charles S. Ashley has the unique record of having been elected for twenty consecutive terms as mayor of New Bedford, Mass. It is true the term is only for a single year, but it is an extraordinary record that he should have been reelected twenty times. An interesting feature of his entrance upon his twentieth term was the presentation by eighty manufacturers and merchants of the city of a purse of $12,000. * The Civic Club of Philadelphia has been celebrating the twenty-fifth anniversary of its Organization with a series of meetings and a special number of The Civic Club Bulletin. Organized “to promote by education and active co-operation a higher public spirit and a better social order,” this active organization of Philadelphia women has continuously for a generation

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210 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [March been advancing these highly desirable ends. Now at the end of twenty-five years it is stronger, more vigorous and more effective than ever. The club has always been closely associated with the National Municipal League, with which it has co-operated on many occasions-in fact it was one of the hosts at the Philadelphia conference held in January, 1894, out of -which the National Municipal League grew. In her review of “Civics Twenty-five Years Ago,” Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson, the first president of theclub, said: “To besure I had been interested in reform, having usually served on committees, when the municipal league or civil service reform conventions brought to this city men like Charles Bonaparte, Carl Schurz, Theodore Roosevelt, Mrs. Josephine Shaw Lowell, and other leading reformers at whose feet I sat in all humility.” Mrs. Edward W. Biddle is now president-her predecessors, in addition to Mrs. Stevenson, being Mrs. Owen Wister and Mrs. Matthew Baird. * A woman’s civic building, to be known as the Ella Flagg Young Memorial Hall, is to be erected under the auspices of the building committee of the Chicago women’s club, to cost $225,000, the first $50,000 of which has been contributed by Julius Rosenwald.