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National municipal review, June, 1920

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National municipal review, June, 1920
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National municipal review
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National Municipal League
Harley, Herbert
Ingersoll, Raymond V.
Cheney, Charles H.
Gulick, Luther H.
Shaffer, George J.
Beyer, William C.
Otis, Harrison Gray
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Philadelphia, PA
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National Municipal League
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English

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Full Text
NATIONAL
MUNICIPAL REVIEW
Vol. IX, No. 6 JUNE, 1920 Total No. 48
VIEWS AND REVIEWS
i
If the McCormick budget bill passes, the treasury department will have to be dismantled by the transfer of its non-financial functions to other departments. If the project for a new department of public works, now being vigorously advanced by certain of the engineering profession, makes progress, another shakeup impends. A reorganization of the state department is reported as being already scheduled by congressional leaders. The budget process itself will bring to light conflicts of jurisdiction that do not emerge when each department appeals for funds to a different committee of congress. Congress believes that an unexplainable number of war-time employes linger needlessly in Washington.
It is a fine chance for a commission of inquiry to produce a great report.
An ideally bad way to go about it is to have a committee of congress engage untrained counsel, who is confident that common sense is a sufficient equipment, summon busy bureau chiefs and departmental employes before the inattentive committee for long, aimless dreary hearings, ask for data in impracticable classifications, get it in vast tables and reports, which only the proofreader ever reads, and end with a list of mediocre proposals to be
promptly frozen into law, beyond the possibility of executive alteration. After which comes^moving day, chaos, demoralization, resignations, slow restoration, and, finally, some solid improvements and a few unforeseen and now irremediable difficulties. And then stagnation for fifty years.
The right way is the reviving of the Taft efficiency and economy commission, plus a continuation of the President’s wax-time powers to rearrange departmental functions. Then can follow, week after week, presidential orders, based in many cases on interdepartmental compromises and agreements, a seriatim process extending over several years, subject to frequent amendment and adjustment, and never entirely ceasing. Such would be an evolutionary process instead of a revolutionary; an intimate, intelligent development, instead of long-distance, ignorant interference.
ii
Was there ever so complete a simultaneous contrast in the working of a political device as was seen this spring in the way the presidential primary operated in the two great parties? On the Democratic side we saw almost no use of the primary. The candidates were not afield before the people; they


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ignored this opportunity and method of gathering up delegates, and although the greater part of the population now may vote officially for delegates to the convention, few Democrats in this country had the opportunity to do more than ratify an uncontested, uninstructed machine-picked delegation to San Francisco. The device did not work well or ill; it simply did not work at all.
On the Republican side we saw the most satisfactory committee-of-the-whole that has yet been known in a presidential year at this stage. Never have the rank and file of a party enjoyed such a chance to stand up and be counted for their favorites.
By the Democratic experience the still-novel presidential preference primary could be proved a farce; by the Republican experience it could be proved an institution of great promise.
To be sure the primary, even among the Republicans, was a fragmentary, intermittent and inconclusive affair, not binding upon Chicago, and the nominee may yet be some one not in sight before June. Money counted heavily, for to canvass the greater part of the United States, even in the simplest homespun fashion, is an expensive job, and the mere task of getting one’s name on the ballots in all states takes such a staggering amount of organization that none of the candidates achieved it. Myriad voters went to the polls only to find that no delegates favoring their candidate were running in the precinct. In some states the primary came too early; perhaps it was too early in all the states, asking for opinion before opinion had taken form. The holding of the primary on different dates in the respective states, however, must have greatly facilitated the work of the campaign managers.
All told, the Republican primary performed important service in putting candidates through their paces, and
[June
inducing an earlier crystallization of public opinion.
The Democratic politicians, great or small, can work their own unencumbered will at San Francisco; the Republicans start with conflict, and the politicians who deplore the embarrassing presence of opinion in a political convention will be sorely vexed, though not controlled, by those big straw votes of March and April.
It may be safely predicted that future years will see a progressive reduction in the discretion allowed the conventions, but the presidential preference primary will need a lot of technical improvement first.
hi
In practically all the city-manager cities a feature of the record is the relative permanence of tenure of the municipal administrative officers below the manager, and the frequency with which occasional vacancies are filled by promotion. In Dayton, for example, when the city manager resigned, the place was filled by promotion of the head of the department of public works, the latter place being likewise filled by promotion. Recently, the post of director of finance became vacant and was filled by the promotion of the city manager’s secretary, and the secretaryship thus vacated was filled by promotion of a departmental secretary.
These changes seemed to have been accomplished on both occasions without the participation of the whole political fraternity of the city. District political clubs were not “recognized” or affronted. The manager’s office was not jammed with influential friends of candidates. There are certain city-manager towns in which this would not be true, but, on the whole, the Dayton experience is reasonably typical.
Richard S. Childs.
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW


DETROIT REFORMS ITS CRIMINAL COURTS
BY HERBERT HARLEY
The simplification of the machinery and procedure for convicting criminals, as achieved by the Detroit unified court bill, is the first actual installation of the principles of court reform developed by the American Judicature Society of which the author is founder. :: :: ::
People who hope to see criminal law administered efficiently are requested to keep an eye on Detroit. For the first time in the history of any considerable American community, we have now a city with adequate criminal court machinery. On April 5, 1920, the people of Detroit adopted, by a vote of more than three to one, the unified court bill enacted nearly a year before by the Michigan legislature.
The new court is a consolidation of two former courts. It possesses every kind of criminal and quasi-criminal jurisdiction. It will have no competition in its field. For the first time we have the instance of unified power and responsibility in criminal law enforcement.
i
Until this time Detroit has had two criminal courts—the recorder’s court, with two judges, and the police court, with three judges. The former court had jurisdiction of felony and city ordinance cases and the police court of misdemeanors.
These two courts were expected to co-ordinate their work, though created as two independent tribunals. At least considerable co-ordination and co-operation would be necessary to efficient services. This grew out of the fact that both courts had to participate in felony cases. The police court was expected to prepare the felony case for trial in the recorder’s
court. The law did not use this language. It provided for a preliminary hearing in the lower court. With a full measure of co-ordination these two independent bodies might have made a fair success in spite of the division of responsibility. But, of course, a full measure of co-ordination was an impossible thing. There may be some American cities where the magistrates and the higher trial courts do co-operate faithfully and effectually, but they are rare. The abrupt break in administration and responsibility between preliminary examination and trial was all to the good of the criminal; it could not possibly expedite trial or strengthen the people’s case.
Another disastrous gap between these two arms of justice arose from the possibility of appealing misdemeanor cases for a new trial in the recorder’s court. Real criminals always appealed; they filed bogus bonds and were free to ply their vicious pursuits until the day of retrial, if it ever came. Two trials quadrupled the criminal’s chance for escape.
We say “criminal” advisedly. Of course most of the people arrested and arraigned were not real criminals. But Detroit, as it outgrew its court machinery, became the center for a large number of professional criminals. Such crimes as snitching (purse-stealing), burglary, robbery, safe-cracking and automobile stealing became extremely common, indicating that crime


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in that locality had become a profitable business. The courts became so cluttered with cases and appeals, they were so utterly unable to adopt efficiency methods, and crime figures mounted so rapidly, that it became apparent that something would have to be done, and that speedily.
n
Of course various remedies were proposed. All but one of the judges wanted to keep up the system as it was, and merely add more judges to the courts. They looked upon their social sewage system as necessary to a modern city.
But Detroit has a large contingent of citizens who have become proficient in city government. Under the leadership of their Citizen’s League they have made over their school board and their city government in the last two years, and with significant results.
After conference with the American Judicature Society a criminal court plan was adopted. The society recommended the unification of all the judges of Wayne county in a single court, of which one department would exercise all criminal jurisdiction. There are strong reasons for believing that the criminal court business should not be 'divorced from the rest of judicial administration. But complete unification was too big a program, and called for too much delay. So it was decided to try a unification of the criminal courts, which would meet with less resistance from vested interests.
The bill did not affect the tenure of the two judges of the recorder’s court, but they nevertheless fought it unrelentingly. It did wipe out the police court, but one of the police court judges, Judge William M. Heston, nevertheless gave loyal support to the measure.
The fight in the Michigan legislature illustrates very well what an obstruc-
[June
tive power a mere handful of politicians, when entrenched in judicial office, can exert in a legislature, though discredited in the minds of practically all decent citizens. The opposition to the court bill was almost wholly sordid and selfish, the remainder being sheer ignorance. It was a fight on behalf of crime of every kind as an incident to official prerogative. The few opponents, representing in reality the interests of some hundreds of thieves, bootleggers, murderers and pimps, made such a resourceful fight that the court bill became the dominant issue in the 1919 session. It finally squeezed through after numerous modifications and with a referendum clause which prevented adoption for nearly a year.
But the enemies of the plan merely dug a pitfall for themselves. Their opposition dramatized the whole matter, so that Detroit had to make good or be hopelessly disgraced. It had the great advantage of bringing out good candidates for the unpopular office of police court judge at the election coming after the passage of the act, and before its adoption. Judge Heston was reelected and another friend of the new act, Thomas M. Cotter, was elected, to succeed a judge who was as fond of reform as the devil is of holy water.
What the bill really did was to kill the police court and give its jurisdiction to the recorder’s court, at the same time increasing the staff of this court from two to seven. The crooks and the politicians aligned with them fought the adoption of the act, but the vote stood 106,132 to 30,617, a sufficient triumph for the Citizens’ League.
Governor Sleeper then appointed the three police court judges to the new court, and also Harry Keidan and Pliny W. Marsh. The appointments were made regardless of political interests. Two of the former magistrates are in sympathy with the reform. Judge


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Keidan has had long experience as first assistant to the Wayne county prosecutor and is held in high esteem by the local bar. Judge Marsh, as counsel for the Citizens’ League, was more largely instrumental than any other person in securing passage of the act. He was induced to accept the appointment only after it became apparent that his refusal would split the ranks of the reformers.
all the offenses which affect the integrity of the family. Another example is the automobile court, in which all violations of traffic laws are prosecuted.
The Detroit court is the only one of its kind. It will have to do some pioneering. It will have to keep records and to a considerable extent be guided by these records in testing various systems of administration.
hi
The new court will have a chief justice, with the usual administrative powers. The accustomed practice of having a preliminary examination in felony cases will be continued, but the examination and the subsequent trial will be only two stages of a single operation. The two judges thus participating will be judges of one court, of equal powers, and equally interested in getting results. When trial follows directly after the examination, as it should, unless a special reason for delay is disclosed, there will doubtless be many more waivers of examination.
There will be no second trial of misdemeanor cases on appeal. To avoid the possibility of mistakes, the act provides for reopening the case within a reasonable period, for trial by jury, in cases in which there has been a conviction without a jury trial. Thus the deserving will get at slight effort all that could be got formerly through appeal, and the undeserving will be kept from making capital out of the transfer of cases from one court to another.
There will of course be a classification of causes so that judges can become highly expert in the various kinds of cases and the law which applies. The division will doubtless be mainly along functional lines. A good example of this practice is offered by the domestic relations courts, which take
IV
In every criminal prosecution there must be good faith, expertness, promptness, and co-operation between all the factors upon which the state relies, if the law is be taken seriously by evil-doers. The principal factors are the police, the jailers, the prosecutor’s office, the judge, the jury and the people’s witnesses. Weaken any link in this long chain and there is a lowered efficiency for all. Remove one link and criminal justice is paralysed. The weakest link in the average American city is the criminal court of first instance, the magistrate’s court, where misdemeanors are tried and examinations are held in felonies. This is the mean little court with small salary, short and uncertain tenure, close political attachment, sordid, inefficient, partisan, which is in truth the most important court in the entire community.
Its failure to punish for the lesser offenses directly increases the number of serious crimes. If its work in preparing felony cases is slipshod or crooked it becomes a matter of slight importance whether the higher trial court is or is not honest and efficient. Its work is prejudiced in the court of first instance. And between the two is a dark alley infested by professional bondsmen with their bogus wares, hungry lawyers, jury-fixers and all the con-nivings of a very real criminal world.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
It is this gap in the chain which accounts for most of the foolish waste of energy in criminal prosecutions. It is closed in Detroit’s new court. Sometimes the police are inefficient, sometimes the prosecutor’s office has to play politics, and sometimes judges are careless or crooked, but nine-tenths of the waste is due to the gap in the court
[June
system. This is the reason for believing that Detroit’s new unified criminal court will show the way to a practical solution of the problems of criminal law enforcement, failure in which in nearly all American jurisdictions has been insidiously undermining our faith in law and government and all human institutions.
A SHORT-BALLOT VICTORY IN NEW YORK
BY RAYMOND V. INGERSOLL
Secretary, City Club of New York
I
Orthodox American traditions favoring diffusion of governmental powers still find an anchorage in the entanglement of our legislative bodies. So it seems, at least, after watching the brief legislative career of the New York reconstruction program.
A non-partisan commission appointed by Governor Smith had recommended constitutional changes providing for the short ballot, centralizing in a few great departments the widely scattered administrative functions, lengthening of the governor’s term and establishment of the executive budget. Prominent Republicans had helped to produce the plan, which in fact had its root back in the New York constitutional convention of 1915. It was endorsed by most of the strong chambers of commerce and civic bodies throughout the state.
At first the leaders of the legislature said with commendable frankness and disconcerting emphasis that they would have nothing of this plan. They spoke as men having specialized knowledge of our sprawling and shapeless state system. Its spider web intricacies appeared to embody to them an interesting achievement of human inge-
nuity. Knowledge of it was a trade secret not to be discussed too lightly even by such experienced public men as Governor Hughes and Senator Root. To make the structure more simple, more direct, more effective, more understandable, seemed to be a crude idea to be treated with the scorn which experience so often offers to good intention. Added to this was the proper degree of hostility during a presidential year toward anything with which a governor of the opposing party had been connected.
But because of the increasing needs of the state and of boasted accomplishments in sister commonwealths, the occasion was ripe. The demand for attention became more insistent. Reconstruction was the word, and counter measures must be introduced which would reconstruct, though in an opposite direction. So the politicians set their wits to work and we saw a delightful array of inventions and a consistent exhibition of their theory of government as they would have it if they could have it their way. First came a bill which would take the highways, canals and other engineering functions out of the reach of the governor and place them under an elective commissioner of public works.


A SHORT-BALLOT VICTORY IN NEW YORK
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Then came a sister bill proposing to abstract the great state institutions— prisons, hospitals for the insane, etc.— and place them under boards or regencies appointed by the legislature. These measures at least would not have the vice of “exalting the chief executive at the expense of the legislature.” But these bills showed little vitality. Neither, however, was there any activity with the carefully prepared bills of the reconstruction commission.
Among legislators the current view of preserving the law-making dignity is to hold as much power as possible over the departments and over all local administrative affairs, postpone discussion of important measures, and allow a huge indigestible mass of bills, great and small, to drift into the closing week of the session when the leaders can decide and when they can enforce their decisions through the caucus and by use of their life and death power over local and private bills.
In this case, fortunately, the leaders relented a bit when notice had been served of a motion to discharge the committee. As a few of their favorite members and clerks had been doing valuable work on legislative budgetmaking, no ground was given as to an executive budget. But a rather curious set of alternative proposals were finally introduced for shortening the ballot and centralizing the departments. Each of these proposals borrowed much of the language of the original reconstruction amendments. Each, however, while giving a list of about twenty departments, left out the essential restriction against the creation of additional departments and floating commissions—a restriction without which it would be impossible to get the scheme of centralization even started. This omission was so absurd that it had to be modified. Similar was the fate of a characteristic provi-
sion in these new bills that all the governor’s chief appointees should be removable, not by the governor but by the senate!
There were a number of other objectionable details both of substance and of draftsmanship. Some were finally eliminated while others remain. The fate of all was determined hastily by a few men during the pressure of business at the end of the session. An important improvement was made on the final day by taking advantage of an accident. By some slip two of the three alternative bills appearing on the calendar were discovered to be identical in language, and their sponsors were persuaded that the one simple way to differentiate would be by bracketing an objectionable feature out of one of them.
The method was needlessly obscure and difficult. But something substantial was finally accomplished. The next legislature will have before it for second approval three alternative amendments, each providing for the short ballot and departmental consolidation and emboding fully four-fifths of the departmental program, as originally recommended. This is the fact though the newspapers have been slow to discover it. Considering the mixture of obstruction and fanaticism which characterized the session it is a rather notable result.
ii
The best of the three alternative amendments and the one most likely to pass the next legislature (1921) by reason of departmental opposition to certain features of the others, provides as follows:
Secretary of state, state treasurer and state engineer and surveyor (now elective) made appointive by the governor.


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State comptroller’s large administrative powers which made him almost a rival of the governor in his control of patronage, transferred to departments under the governor, leaving the comptroller simply as an elective auditor with a small office.
Various important but much neglected boards made up of minor elective officers, ex officio, abolished.
The present 187 boards, commissions and bureaus consolidated into twenty-one logical departments whose heads for the most part are to be appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate and subject to removal by the governor “in a manner to be prescribed by law,” which is likely to mean the requirement of senatorial consent in certain cases. No additional departments may be created hereafter. The legislature varied from the reconstruction commission’s bill by dividing the department of taxation and finance and adding the superfluous department of architecture.
[June
The alternative bills left the state treasurer elective and provided for a certain impracticably large department to handle state institutions.
If passed by the 1921 legislature the amendment will go to the popular referendum in November, 1921, and if accepted the legislature of 1922 must assign the existing divisions to the new departments but the minor state officers elected in 1920 will hold to the end of 1922. The shorter ballot will first be seen in the November election of 1922.
Unless there should be a special session the executive budget will suffer a delay of two years. Time, and a lively increase of taxation, are working in its favor. It is to be hoped that another legislature equally intent upon preserving its own dignity may seek that end through an open and generous discussion of this and like questions of general import. But while waiting for that day of perfection efforts may be made to secure such occasional good results as adverse circumstance will permit.


RAILROADS IN A SOUND CITY PLAN—A STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES
BY CHARLES H. CHENEY AND OTHERS
At the National Conference on City Planning in Cincinnati in April this analysis of the principles that should govern the control of railroads in relation to city development was presented on behalf of the committee on railroads of the American City Planning Institute
1. Unified control and operation of all standard railroad lines within the limits of any city is essential both to the requirements of modern business and to the convenience of the public. It should be brought about with as little delay as possible, at the same time providing opportunities for expansion both of trackage and terminals, in connection with a well considered plan of city development. Means should be found and taken for persuading or compelling all railroads entering the city to connect up with such a unified system at the city limits. The entire question of railroad service should be considered as a whole, not with relation to one system or one part of the city only.
2. The present wasteful and needless duplication of lines and terminals inside of city limits cannot be permitted to continue. Many cities can show millions of dollars spent in unnecessary duplication of passenger stations when the same sums expended in added industrial lines would have increased both the business of the carriers and the prosperity of the city. This is a useless drain on the railroads, resulting in additional cost of operation, for which the public pays. It is a needless inconvenience to the public which can be remedied at comparatively small cost by proper co-operation in planning by both the city and the
railroads. Voluntary action on the part of one road is not to be expected and generally impracticable. The city, with the aid of the state or national government, holds an advantageous position to undertake bringing the railroads together for such intracity unification.
3. All shippers within the city should be free from dependence on one road for cars. In some cities shippers now have to maintain needless additional warehouses on a second line in order to insure prompt delivery of cars on the first line. This is a wasteful expense which must be added to the cost of shipping and doing business, particularly where a perishable product is involved.
4. All spurs and industrial tracks within the city limits should be “common user” tracks, served by a belt line connected with all main lines entering the city, a fair pro rata return being made to the original owner of each line for such use.
5. Municipal ownership of intra-city fines is probably not necessary, provided there is unified control. Expansion of existing terminal companies to include all fines within city limits is probably the most economical, quickest and easiest method of accomplishing unification in most cities. New trunk lines should be allowed to hook on to the city terminal fines at the city


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limits, at any time in the future. This would provide for competitive lines through the country without cutting the city into further pieshaped sections, or causing further blighted areas to property within a block or two of each side of the railroad right of way, through a city, as at present.
6. Provision of complete modern business facilities is essential to all industries. Railroad service, while important, is not the only one of these facilities necessary. Protected industrial districts or zones appropriately and conveniently situated, free from hampering residential requirements, with wide heavy hauling pavements, high pressure fire protection, extra large sewers for industrial wastes, etc., as well as unlimited spur tracks, are necessary in any city of consequence, and many of the progressive cities of the country have already established such zones. The fullest co-operation between the city and the railroads is necessary to make the facilities in these zones most useful in the development of business. Once such zones are established both railroads and shippers can feel safe in concentrating large investments for permanent ultimate service, not otherwise justified.
7. One of the greatest opportunities for railroads to cut down expenses and freight rates is by simplification of terminals. On most of the big roads it costs as much to get a car of freight out of the city limits, as it does to haul it 250 miles or more on the main line. Some roads report as much as 35 per cent of their total freight cost in handling at terminals (from reports of
O. W. R. & N. railroad to Oregon public service commission). This is by far the biggest single item to the railroads in their cost of doing business. A small saving, therefore, in terminal handling, should effect a considerable amount of
[June
saving in freight cost and should be welcomed by railroads and shippers alike.
8. “Whatever the origin or destination, a merchant or manufacturer should be able to receive and ship at the freight station which entails the shortest team haul.”1
9. Adequate expanded classification and freight yards must be provided in every city as part of its future plan and as an adjunct of industrial development. These yards should have long areas uninterrupted by grade crossings and preferably located at one side of or on the outskirts of the city, away from the probable expansion of business and main street traffic lines.
10. In cities which have water-borne commerce, whether coast or inland ports, rail and water terminals should be considered as a single rather than as separate problems; co-ordination of facilities for both methods of transportation should be insisted upon in the interest of the public and of the carriers themselves.
11. The relation of the railroad to the street system of the city should be carefully worked out. The value of the railroad to the prosperity and the very life of the city should be recognized. Wide heavy hauling pavements to freight terminals, docks, and the industrial zones are equally essential and form a natural and important complement to the greatest use of railroad facilities. Direct and amply wide traffic thoroughfares should lead to all principal passenger and freight stations.
12. The elimination of grade crossings on both steam and electric rapid transit lines is essential to public safety and convenience, to prevent the interruption of traffic and for the proper conduct of business. The problem of grade crossing eliminations should be
1 George R. Wadsworth in the City Plan, edited by John Nolen, p. 266.


THE MASSACHUSETTS BUDGET PROCEDURE 353
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studied in the most comprehensive way and not in a piece-meal fashion, even though the execution of the work is to be carried out gradually.
13. The fullest co-operation should be given cities by the railroads in planting and improving the appearance of borders, of rights of way, yards, bridges, viaducts, stations and terminals within the city limits. Much of the present damage to adjacent property values and rentals can be done away with in these matters, at reasonably small expense, by closer
working together of railroad officials, park boards and other city officers.
14. These fundamental considerations in the relation of railroad terminals to city development we respectfully commend to railroad officials, city plan commissions, state public service commissions, and to the distinguished members of the interstate commerce commission, with the conviction that the grave questions of economy and public policy involved merit their fullest concurrence and co-operation.
THE MASSACHUSETTS BUDGET PROCEDURE BEGINS TO WORK
BY LUTHER H. GULICK New York Bureau of Municipal Reasearch
Many states have what they call executive budgets but in numerous cases the officials evade the spirit and purpose of the new procedure. In Massachusetts, however, the budget, despite some bad organization, is
beginning to work out as intended, sound finance. :: :: ::
Massachusetts has made great advances during the last two years by adopting a state budget system and by undertaking the reorganization of the departments and boards. It was the purpose of the budget system to make the governor who is responsible for administering the government of the state also responsible for drawing up the financial plans both as to expenditures and as to revenues. The reorganization of the departments was undertaken as a means of eliminating overlapping boards and commissions, and of centralizing in the governor the responsibility for the management of the business of the commonwealth.
The only trouble with these reforms lies in the fact that they did not go far enough. The constitutional conven-
and there is visible progress toward
tion lost its courage. The elected governor’s council, which should have been abolished, was continued to block and check the governor and to split up his responsibilities. The secretary of the commonwealth, the treasurer, the attorney-general, and the auditor were continued as elective officials, serving still further to divide executive responsibility. To cap the climax, the legislature of 1919 fixed the terms of office for the appointive department heads so that they outlast the man who appoints them, thus robbing the governor still further of power to control the administration. Under these circumstances, a governor who is stripped of the powers necessary to make him a “chief executive” can hardly be expected to have an adminis-


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trative policy or to express such a policy in a budget. The planning must be left to the various department heads, to the supervisor of administration, the governors budget officer, and to the committees of the legislature. The failure to make the governor the actual “chief executive” has made it impossible as a practical matter to hold him fully responsible for the budget.
Governor Coolidge’s budget for 1920 calls for appropriations totaling $39,-
300,000. This is a third of a million dollars less than the governor’s recommendations for 1919. It is eight millions more than the recess committee budget of 1918. It is clear that Massachusetts is swinging back to a peace basis after three years of war finance. Almost $30,000,000 has been spent by the commonwealth for purposes directly connected with the World War. This does not include the increased appropriations to meet the higher costs of service and materials.
APPROPRIATIONS OF OTHER STATES
During the last ten years the increase in appropriations in Massachusetts has been tremendous. The same is true of other states. New York increased from $36,592,000 in 1909 to $95,627,000 in 1919, or 161 per cent. Illinois went from $20,330,000 to $62,111,000, or 205 per cent. Massachusetts jumped from $12,859,000 to $56,755,000, or 341 per cent in the ten years.
This great increase in Massachusetts is due primarily to the liberal policy Massachusetts has adopted toward its soldiers and sailors. No other state in the Union has gone so far in pouring out its treasure for the sake of the men who entered the military and naval service of the nation and for their dependents. During the year 1919 alone, $20,200,000 was appropriated for
[June
this purpose. If this sum is deducted from the 1919 appropriations, to make the comparison with New York and Illinois fair, the ten year increase for Massachusetts is reduced to 184 per cent, or about half way between the ten year increases for Illinois and for New York.
The 1920 appropriations for New York will exceed $130,000,000, an increase of $35,000,000 or practically 35 per cent. The 1920 estimates for Massachusetts actually show a decrease from the 1919 expenses of 27 per cent, or $14,272,000.
WAR EXPENSES AND REFORMS CAUSE MASSACHUSETTS INCREASE
The total annual appropriations for Massachusetts show a gradual increase from 1909 to 1916, followed by a sharp increase from 1916 to 1919. The major part of this last increase is due directly to the war. The balance is attributable to the increased costs of service and materials, the expansion of state functions and services, and to two important financial reforms. Though it may seem strange to list financial reforms as the cause of increased appropriations, this is true of the pay-as-you-go policy and of the requirement that no payments shall be made from the treasury without appropriation. The pay-as-you-go policy has been enforced since 1917 except for certain short term war loans. Governor Coolidge’s budget for 1920 calls attention to the fact that this policy has already resulted in a decrease of requirements for debt service.
Until 1917 various state departments were permitted to expend certain revenues which they collected without specific appropriation by the legislature. This was true, for example, of the motor vehicle fees. In 1916, it was found that $5,000,000 had been


THE MASSACHUSETTS BUDGET PROCEDURE
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spent during that year alone without specific appropriation. Legislation passed in 1917 and 1918 and the constitutional budget amendment of 1918 have ended this practice by requiring all receipts to be paid into the treasury and by prohibiting their expenditure without annual appropriation. This reform has caused an apparent increase in the total appropriations without causing an actual increase in the expenses of government.
GOVERNOR COOUDGE’s RECOMMENDED APPROPRIATIONS
Economy is the controlling policy of the governor’s 1920 budget. As a result, the total appropriations for Massachusetts for 1920 will show a decrease of some 20 per cent below those of 1919. In spite of this policy, however, salary increases for the lower paid employes and the higher costs of supplies have required the allowance of $2,000,000 more than in 1919 for the maintenance of the state departments and institutions. In the field of capital outlays, the governor has eliminated “all projects except such as appear to be particularly urgent or will undoubtedly produce economy in maintenance.” Large public work projects have been postponed, and in the case of one institution a request for mechanical coal handling machinery is refused, but in its place a smaller allowance is made for the installation of experimental oil burning apparatus. This indicates the extent to which the supervisor of administration has gone in the criticism of departmental estimates.
THE GOVERNOR’S REVENUE PROGRAM
Along with all other public and private organizations, Massachusetts faces a serious revenue shortage. The gov-
ernor and his budget staff, therefore, were forced to adopt every expedient to secure a balance between expenditures and revenues. As originally submitted the governor’s revenue program fell short of his recommended expenditures by $1,300,000. Even so, he had included in his estimated revenues the proceeds from the sale of the great drydock which had been built at public expense in Boston Harbor, amounting to $3,100,000 as well as an alleged surplus in the sinking funds of $800,000.
WAYS AND MEANS COMMITTEE REQUESTS BUDGET REVISION
The governor’s budget was referred to the house committee on ways and means. By mutual agreement in 1920, for the first time, the senate and the house committees sitting jointly heard and revised the budget. In previous years the two committees had acted separately. The joint consideration of the budget in 1920 set an important precedent in American state budget procedure.
The joint committee found itself in a difficult position. The governor’s revenue program not only contained some rather questionable recommendations but fell short of his expenditure program by $1,300,000. The first step taken, therefore, was to secure information. The auditor and the treasurer were asked to study the sinking funds and to present a statement of their condition in detail. The auditor was ordered to examine the financing of the drydock and to state how it had been paid for and whether bonds were still outstanding against it. The attorney-general was then asked whether there were constitutional objections to the governor’s plan of using the dry-dock funds for current revenues. These investigations showed that though


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there was a problematical surplus in the sinking funds, it was largely offset by the depreciated value of certain railroad bonds; that there were still bonds outstanding against the drydock, which had been financed primarily through bond issues; and that, in the opinion of the attorney-general, the bulk of the drydock funds could not be credited to the general fund because of a constitutional amendment ratified in 1918.
These facts, and the public criticism of the budget which they aroused in the press, left the governor’s budget high and dry. The ways and means committee, in order to guard against executive evasion of responsibility for the budget, addressed the governor, requesting that he “submit to the general court a supplementary budget containing a statement ‘of all taxes, revenues, loans and other means’ by which the expenditures recommended in his original budget message shall be defrayed.” In other words, the legislature notified the governor that his original budget was unsatisfactory and unsound and that under the constitution it was “up to him” to take the responsibility for preparing a genuine budget and submitting it to them.
THE REVISED BUDGET AND ITS LEGISLATIVE CONSIDERATION
The governor revised his budget following the policy outlined by the ways and means committee. Instead of recommending the misappropriation of capital funds he now faced the music and urged the legislature to increase the direct state tax from $12,000,000 to $14,000,000, and dropped the indef-
[June
inite “special taxes” and substituted additional levies on inheritances and on corporation incomes. Nothing was said, however, about the sinking funds.
The legislative consideration of the expenditure program was uneventful. The committee found few items that could be eliminated or reduced below the governor’s and the supervisor’s figures. The general appropriation bill was debated several days in each house, and though a few amendments were made, it is safe to say that the leadership of the joint ways and means committee was unquestioned.
THE 1920 PRECEDENT
The outstanding facts of this experience with the 1920 budget in Massachusetts are:
1. Executive responsibility for the budget has been maintained through the insistence of the joint ways and means committee, though the governor’s revised budget followed, rather than led, the committee.
2. The detailed legislative consideration of the budget was under the leadership of the ways and means committees of the two houses acting jointly instead of separately.
3. The expenditure program of the governor’s budget was even more satisfactory than in previous years— an indication of the accumulated experience in the office of the supervisor of administration which prepares the budget for the governor.
4. The expenditure program for 1920 is one of economy, while the revenue program calls for fairness in the handling of capital funds and for taxes adequate to meet the current needs of government.


THE FATE OF THE FIVE-CENT FARE
XI. THE SITUATION IN PITTSBURGH
BY GEORGE J. SHAFFER
The principles and powers that should control a traction crisis in any city were worked out by our committee on public utilities in the pamphlet Supplement with the April issue and the Pittsburgh story is a perfect object lesson of the perils of deviation from the proposed standards. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: ::
“This valuation is the key to the whole situation. When the Public Service Commission fixes the value of the railways properties it will have unlocked the door to the new order of things in Pittsburgh’s rapid transit situation.”
The foregoing quotation may be said to have been fairly representative of the sentiment of those of us who watched what we believed to be the death throes of Pittsburgh’s transit octopus in its struggle with the city and surrounding municipalities.
And now, March 23, 1920, that the Public Service Commission has fixed the valuation—not upon the basis of historical cost, not upon prices ruling at times of construction, nor yet upon the estimated cost of reproduction at average prices for the ten years, 1906 to 1915 inclusive (which latter was the basis agreed upon by all parties before the engineers valuation board shortly after it began its seventeen months sitting)—but upon the basis of the abnormal war prices of 1914 to 1918, with apparently some allowance for depreciation, giving the company millions more than it would have been glad to accept when the contest started, now, I say we are greatly disappointed and feel like the traditional prophet in his own country.
THE TRACTION TANGLE
The Pittsburgh railway system embraces over 600 miles of single track, about one-half within and the other one-half outside of the city limits, controlling and operating through leases or through stock ownership by itself or its parent, the Philadelphia Company, practically all the electric transit facilities of Allegheny county with its million population, and extending beyond into Washington and Beaver counties.
Over 200 distinct companies have existed in the 70 years history of Pittsburgh’s Street Railway system. The three great units comprising the present system are the Consolidated Traction Company, controlling practically all the lines between the two rivers, excepting the Second Avenue line (and comprises more than one-third of the mileage); the United Traction, comprising all North Side lines, Second Avenue lines and the old South Side lines (also over one-third the mileage), and the Pittsburgh railways proper, controlling through stock ownership and leases a number of disconnected properties, which are in turn united through the leasehold control by the railway company of the other two great Traction properties. 857


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The outstanding bonds of these three systems aggregate $52,815,500; the outstanding capital stock, $103,475,250, total, $156,290,750.
The commission, in its valuation report, says:
“Deducting all duplications arising from common stock ownership, it would appear that the capital issues of the respondent and its underlying companies, stocks, bonds and car trust certificates, now amount to about $156,000,000. This sum, admittedly, is so out of proportion to the value of the operated property on any theory of valuation presented to us, that it stands in the way of a material improvement required in street car service in the city of Pittsburgh.”
Of this $103,000,000 of capital stock, the Philadelphia Company (which also controls the natural and artificial gas and electric light and power monopolies of the city), owns over $75,000,000 according to its own reports; and of the outstanding bond issues of $52,000,-000 it owned according to its report of March 31, 1918, approximately $11,-000,000—altogether $86,000,000 out of the total of $156,000,000 outstanding stocks and bonds.
The astute owners of some of the underlying important companies refused to lease their lines to the Pittsburgh Railways Company unless the rentals, which were based so as to pay dividends upon an excessive capitalization, were guaranteed by the parent, Philadelphia Company. This was done, and many thousands of dollars had to be made up by the latter on its guarantees.
And read what a great Philadelphia lawyer, as counsel for bondholders of the United Traction Company (one of the three great units) says about the Philadelphia Company, in a bill in equity filed in the United States district court in Pittsburgh against the
[June
railways company and Philadelphia Company shortly before appointment of receivers, wherein it is charged that the latter, through the former, as its agent, under its lease of the United properties, had dismantled the power houses of the United and bought power from its own Duquesne Light Company; had permitted rolling stock to go to the scrap heap in violation of its lease, without replacing it, excepting by cars owned by the railways company, and that it had generally looted the property to the detriment of the bondholders of the United.
He says on page 17 of his bill:
Your orator avers that the Philadelphia Company, for its own profit and advantage, has so dealt with the property and franchises subject to the lien of your orator’3 mortgage as to destroy their value apart from the rest of the Philadelphia Company’s system, and has thus effectually appropriated them to its own use by depriving your orator’s remedy by foreclosure of all practical value. Your orator shows to the court that, because of the said course of dealing of the Philadelphia Company, neither the bondholders themselves nor any outside purchaser could afford to buy the mortgaged properties at foreclosure sale; and the Philadelphia Company, but for the intervention of this court, would be in a position to acquire on its own terms all the properties affected by the default. On information and belief, your orator avers that the occurrence of said defaults is part of a deliberate plan to default on many interest payments as the same mature on other bonds to bring about a receivership of the Pittsburgh railways, and so compel your orator and all other bondholders to submit to a reorganization upon such terms as the Philadelphia Company may dictate.
Nevertheless, in the face of all the foregoing, all of which, with exception of the equity proceeding, is recited by the commission itself, the commission blithely dismisses the complaint as to the Philadelphia Company in these words:
The Philadelphia Company, on July 19, 1918, filed an answer admitting that it was a holding


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company owning the entire capital stock of the Pittsburgh Railways Company and part of the capital stock and other securities of other companies which were named as respondents, but it denied that it was engaged in the street railway service, or that it was subject to the jurisdiction of this commission, and prayed that as to it the complaint might be dismissed. The evidence discloses that the facts are as alleged in the answer, and the complaint as to the Philadelphia Company must, therefore, be dismissed.
THE BREAKDOWN IN SERVICE
Pittsburgh’s wretched street car service has been a byword throughout the country for years with its archaic type of cars taken over from the underlying companies nearly 20 years ago, many of them then in service for years, many of them still in service; its poor roadbed, particularly in the outlying districts, though by no means limited to those portions; its overcrowded cars; the refusal to issue universal transfers, this being particularly annoying because of all lines looping in the downtown district, making it impossible to pass through that section to other parts of the city, cut up as it is by the three rivers, without the payment of two and, in some instances, three fares.
With its great burden of over capitalization and excessive rentals from the very beginning, the railways company management faced a situation which made it impossible to serve both the public and the securities holders, and, as the latter were the more insistent and had power of more direct pressure, the public must needs suffer.
But, when in addition to its original burdens of 1902 there was added, a few years later, the extravagant rentals under the leases of the Mellon lines (The Monongahela Traction Company), extending from the East End out into the various boroughs and
townships east of the city and south of the Monongahela river (which rentals the parent, Philadelphia Company, was compelled to guarantee), all parties realized that only in a receivership, and many of us believed only in public ownership, could the public ever have relief from this intolerable condition.
As to the effect of the payment of these excessive rentals and other fixed charges, and consequent failure to put money back into the property and maintain it in proper condition, permit me to quote from the report of Bion J. Arnold, on the Pittsburgh Transportation Problem in 1910. On page 55 of his Report, he says:
Depreciation Account. During the eight years the present company has been in control, only about one million dollars of its earnings have been put back into the property to take care of renewals, whereas the deterioration of the property due to causes other than ordinary wear and tear has been going on at the rate of at least a million dollars per year. While several million dollars have been expended by the company for renewals during this period, this money, which should have been taken from earnings, was not available owing to the high fixed charges (rentals) which were agreed upon at the time of the consolidation of the various underlying companies constituting the present system operated by the Pittsburgh Railways Company. It was apparently necessary, therefore, for the present management of the Pittsburgh Railways Company to raise this money by adding it to capital account, with the result that possible permanent improvements, such as new cars and better tracks—for which it could otherwise have been expended—were delayed. This failure to take care of renewals out of earnings is one of the chief causes of the present defective condition of the property.
Cumulative Effects. It will be seen that the longer this situation is allowed to drift the greater becomes the accumulation of difficulties, in fact they accrue at what might be termed a compound rate. Rebuilding follows redesign, capital is added to capital, combination follows competition, operating losses follow non-paying extensions, rentals in the form of guaranteed dividends are paid to take over prior leases, capi-


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talization increases and stock is issued as collateral for guaranteed bonds, wear and tear is neglected until the equipment becomes either practically scrap or an excessive burden for repair, depreciation is not recognized and obsolescence of equipment is followed by constantly growing losses of possible patronage due to inefficiency. A falling off in business is followed at once with a withdrawal of cars, which causes a still further reduction in patronage. Next comes the cutting down of the expense of cleaning, of inspection and of repair, and more cars break down and drop out of service, general dissatisfaction takes the place of pride, and the riding habit of the community is reduced to the demands of actual necessity. Thus if something is not done to check the cumulative results of these serious defects, the usefulness of the railway as a public utility will rapidly diminish.
I may say that the situation was “allowed to drift” down to the time of the appointment of the receivers and to a very large extent continues to “drift” to this day.
A PRE-ARRANGED RECEIVERSHIP
On April 22, 1918, a bill in equity was filed by a small creditor in the United States district court at Pittsburgh, praying for the appointment of a receiver for the Pittsburgh Railways Company, and on the same day, by prearrangement, the company filed its answer admitting the facts alleged and joining in the prayer for receiver. This was without any notice to the city, but counsel for the city, learning of the application by chance, requested recognition on behalf of the city in appointment of receivers. The request was ignored and Judge Orr, on the following day, appointed as receivers James D. Callery, II. S. A. Stewart and Charles A. Fagan. Mr. Callery was chairman of the board of the Pittsburgh Railways Company, was vice-president of the Philadelphia Company, and, subject, of course, to the absentee landlords of both,
[June
has always controlled the railways company policy. Mr. Stewart was president of the most important one of the underlying companies which absorbs $228,000 a year from the Pittsburgh Railways Company in rentals. The chief concern of these two receivers so long as they continued in office, if one may judge from the records of the court, was to continue the policy that had bankrupted the company, for in the first seven months they were in office they had paid in fixed charges nearly $1,400,000, going into court regularly every month, and sometimes oftener, for authority to pay those charges (excepting for the first $140,000, which was paid without authority), while, in the same period they appeared but twice in court and secured authority to spend for improvements less than $400,000 and then only when forced to do so by the demands of the war and navy authorities, so that munition workers might not be unduly delayed.
So much for our hopes of relief through a receivership.
However, the pressure of protest in court and open criticism became so great that in December of that year these two company officials resigned as receivers and were replaced, the one by the president of the railways company, and the other by a man of public spirit and recognized business ability. The group as now constituted has shown a far higher degree of interest in the upbuilding of the system than the group as formerly constituted, but I am more impressed with the fact of their repeated demands on the city authorities for relief from performance of franchise and other ordinance obligations such as paving between the tracks, street sweeping charges, bridge tolls, etc., than I am with their trying to secure relief from the overwhelming fixed charges, such as interest, rentals,


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etc., which have bankrupted the company.
THE THREAT OF DISINTEGRATION
Ever since the complaint against the company was filed by the city before the commission in 1917 and particularly since the city intervened in the receivership proceedings in 1918 the great bugaboo of “disintegration” has been constantly waved before the public eye; that is to say, we have been told in court and out of court that if the old bankrupt-tending policies of paying the fixed charges first was not continued, defaults in interest and rentals would necessarily occur which would result in foreclosure of mortgages and cancellation of leases on the various underlying companies, thus breaking them up into their separate units, compelling them to be operated as such on each one of which the riding public would be compelled to pay a separate fare.
To my mind there are four absolutely conclusive answers to this absurd threat:
(a) Ownership by Philadelphia Company.
(b) The bondholders.
(c) The guaranteed leaseholders.
(d) Operation as unitary system recognized by all.
First, let me say that so far as the fare-paying passenger is concerned, the company has always maintained the three great distinct companies. He gets no transfer from the United to the Consolidated, or conversely, or from either to the Pittsburgh railways proper, or conversely, except in a few isolated instances. I would not have you think I overlook the transfers to and from the crosstown line from the downtown business section of Pittsburgh across the Allegheny river to the business district of old Allegheny
city, now the north side of Pittsburgh, which was finally established a couple of years ago after protest and demand for many years.
I can conceive of no amount of disintegration going beyond these three great units. However, let us look at the threat in its extreme phase of disintegration into the 50 odd entities which maintain their active corporate existence:
(a) The Philadelphia Company owns practically all of the capital stock of the three great units and through them the stock of the underlying companies. In addition it has a large ownership of the bonds of the railways company and the underlying companies. According to its own reports its total investment exceeds $32,000,000— more than half of the excessive valuation placed upon the total property by the commission. In addition to this it has guaranteed the principal of other bonds of the underlying companies, amounting to $2,625,000, on which the interest amounts to $131,-250 every year. It has guaranteed rentals on the leases from the Monon-gahela, the Suburban Rapid Transit, and the Birmingham lines, making a total of $652,250 annually in guaranteed interest, and rentals which the Philadelphia Company must pay if the Pittsburgh Railways Company fails to do so.
In the face of these obligations it is inconceivable that the Philadelphia Company would permit a breaking up or disintegration into such a great number of operating units, which would unquestionably cut the already too low riding habit of Pittsburgh (50 per cent of Detroit, Cleveland and other cities) in two, and unlike Job the latter end would be worse than the former.
(b) The bondholders realizing, as shown in the bill filed in the equity


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[June
proceeding above mentioned, that since their respective lines were leased to the railways company nearly 20 years ago the latter had abandoned and dismantled their respective power houses, had so neglected the rolling stock where it had not been sent to the scrap heap, that it was practically worthless; that all new equipment operating over the lines was in the name of the railways company, either actually or nominally, and that altogether about all that is left to secure their mortgage bonds is the proverbial “two streaks of rust,” would hesitate to foreclose on such a prospect, but would follow the lead of the United bondholders into court and demand that the Philadelphia Company pay for that which it had appropriated.
(c) The guaranteed leaseholders, which are all with one exception, companies which do not have franchise rights extending to the downtown section of Pittsburgh, would not cancel for two reasons: (1) because of the Philadelphia Company’s guarantee; and (2) supposing there was no such guarantee, a cancellation of lease and operation as a separate unit by any or all of these outlying companies, would quickly land them high and dry with greatly reduced business and consequent reduced income.
Lastly, under the practice that has grown up in this country (1) by company operation,J(2) by the riding public, and (3) the administration of such properties as one by the Public Service Commissions and the courts, it is inconceivable that the courts sitting in equity would permit the structure to be so torn apart with disastrous results to all.
This bugaboo, nevertheless, seems to have been waved by the company before the commission, with the desired effect, for the latter in its Valua-
tion Report in denying the lower figure contended for by the city, says:
Upon such a valuation the receivership would no doubt continue until foreclosure of mortgages disintegrated the unified system and left the city and vicinity with a number of separately owned street railway companies, each charging fares to care for the public. Such a situation is unthinkable, and, by this report, we believe that we have laid the foundation for all that the complainants may desire or the public may require.
Pittsburgh’s legal disability
Pittsburgh is unfortunate in that it lacks authority to acquire its street railway facilities by condemnation, the same as it may take houses and lands for its public purposes by paying a fair and just value therefor.
The city of Philadelphia (which is a city of the first class) has such right where it proposes to operate the railway. The city of Pittsburgh (of the second class) has the power to acquire street railway facilities in every other way excepting condemnation and, therefore, will be at the mercy of the Traction combine in the matter of negotiation for the acquisition of these properties when the time comes, unless its powers are enlarged by the legislature as above indicated. The constitutional bonded debt limitation will have to be removed in so far as it governs the acquisition of property used for public purposes, as was done in the case of Philadelphia. This lack of power to condemn street railways properties on the part of Pittsburgh was submitted to the last legislature for correction, but no action was taken.
THE VALUATION REPORT
Coming back again to the commission’s valuation report,—it seems to have unlocked a sort of revolving door through which they have guided us,


1920]
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not to the promised land of betterment, but on around and back into the same wilderness of bankruptcy and poor service which we had expected to leave forever.
The railways company’s own reports and exhibits show that for some years they have been paying dividends in the form of rentals on over 16J million of stock and interest on bonds amounting to $46,500,000, or on a total of approximately $63,-
500.000 capitalization, in other words, the company by its own action and payments for years has recognized the validity of about $63,500,000 capitalization in the form of stocks and bonds and this, mark you, has produced bankruptcy,—not by payments and rentals at the rate of 7 per cent, which our Public Service Commission has recognized as the proper allowance for the use of capital, but by paying interest and rentals at an average rate of about 51 per cent. The natural question, therefore, is if the payment of fixed charges at 5$ per cent on $63,-
500.000 produced bankruptcy, will not an attempt to collect and make a return to capital of 7 per cent on $62,500,000 be equally productive of bankruptcy?
It is rather interesting to note that on page 20 of the commission’s Valuation Report as printed, the commission calls attention to the fact that the company needs $4,200,000 with which to pay its annual fixed charges, which amount is 7 per cent on $60,000,000, the best approximation to the valuation of $62,500,000 fixed by the commission that I can find in all the mass of valuation figures, either in the commission’s report or the engineers’ report to the commission.
Utterly ignoring the agreement by the Board of Engineers which furnished all the data to the commission, that the unit prices to be applied to the inventory of the property in ascer-
taining its reproduction new cost should be the average prices for the ten years, 1906 to 1915, inclusive, which, when ascertained, put a value of $56,000,000 without deduction of allowance for depreciation, the commission frankly say that in their opinion a basis of unit costs over the years 1914 to 1918, inclusive, amounting to $73,560,000 is the better basis.
The Board of Engineers in its report to the commission had found an accrued depreciation on Basis 8c (the one adopted by the commission) to be $16,845,200, which, deducted from the valuation basis of $73,560,000, would leave a net valuation of somewhat over $56,000,000, yet the commission chooses to ignore these depreciation figures and seems to prefer a valuation which will insure bankruptcy.
The basis agreed upon by engineering conference known as Basis 3a produced a valuation of $56,000,000; against this the engineering board found a depreciation of over $12,000,-000, leaving a net value of between $41,000,000 and $42,000,000. Yet the city authorities were willing to have the valuation fixed at $48,000,000, surely a generous margin.
The commission say that it is quite obvious that it will require approximately $10,000,000 to provide for improvements and deferred maintenance; yet there is no word to indicate that the company will be required to provide these funds out of this wartime valuation figure of $62,500,000.
One may readily understand why the public should be asked to pay additional fares to pay heavier operating expenses due to war-time conditions and which the company must pay to continue its operation, but why a valuation at war-time prices for construction and rolling stock, which the company has never been required to pay, should be saddled on the backs of


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the people for all time either as a basis for a fair return to capital or as a basis of value for eventual acquisition by the public is hard to understand. In other words, not only have our fares been increased to pay higher cost of operation and maintenance under wartime conditions, but for the future we are to pay a fare which will yield sufficient to operate, maintain, repair and renew the system and also to yield 7 per cent to capital upon the theory that the Pittsburgh railways system of 600 miles never had any existence prior to January 1, 1914, and was built during the five war-time price years of 1914r-18 inclusive.
An official of the company frankly admitted, since the receivers were appointed, the impossibility of private management proving successful in Pittsburgh Street Railway matters, and that public ownership with taxation to make up the deficit was the only solution. We, therefore, were not surprised at the strong effort on the part of the company to have the high valuation fixed which would be used as a basis for eventual unloading
[June
on the public, but we did not anticipate this action on the part of the Public Service Commission.
The commission, in its report after listing certain recommended action looking to betterments, says: “These improvements will require thoughtful and broad-minded co-operation between the municipalities and the company.”
When it is remembered by the people of these municipalities that this same commission solemnly declared in a case between the same parties that a public service corporation’s franchise obligations are not binding upon it; and when, after years of wretched service, they are asked to submit to a valuation burden of over 25 per cent above fair value, one is constrained to ask, How long is this imbecility on the part of the public to continue which permits private ownership of public utilities?
How many times must a man set out for Jericho and be picked up for dead before his action is recognized as being “thoughtful and broad-minded co-operation ?”


DEPARTMENT OF PUBLICATIONS
I. BOOK REVIEWS
Parliament and the Taxpayer. By E. II.
Davenport. London: Skeffington and Sons,
1919. Pp. xviil, 256.
The Great War brought home to the English people two disturbing facts about their public finances. The first was that the budget of the future will have to provide for a revenue not less than four times as large as the revenue in 1913. The second was that under the existing fiscal system the House of Commons is totally incapable of supervising the expenditure of the enormous sum thus to be extracted from the pockets of the taxpayer. Early in the war parliamentary surveillance of the estimates— already recognized to be inadequate—became the merest formality; and while it was accepted as more or less inevitable that in such times huge credits should be voted without discussion, and practically without examination, the House of Commons became considerably stirred up on the situation and began casting about for remedies that could be applied after peace was restored, if not sooner.
The upshot was that, in June, 1917, a select committee on national expenditure was created, under the chairmanship of an ex-postmaster genera] and ex-home secretary, Mr. Herbert Samuel, and charged with the full investigation of the national expenditures and the methods by which they were authorized and carried out, and with making recommendations relating to control within the spending departments, by the treasury, and by Parliament. This committee worked diligently, and within a little over twelve months it presented thirteen reports, which comprise an invaluable body of materials for students of fiscal and budgetary systems no less than for lawmakers and administrators. The secretary of the sub-committee which dealt with the finances of the war office was Mr. E. H. Davenport; and he has sought to present, in the volume under review, an account of the work of the general committee, with an appraisal of the committee’s findings and recommendations. Mr. Samuel himself supplies a luminous introduction.
Of eight chapters into which the book is divided, four trace the development of parlia-
mentary control over national expenditure from the Plantagenet period to the close of the nineteenth century, two describe the existing system, and two discuss, in the light of the committee’s reports, the changes that are desirable and feasible. The historical chapters cover familiar ground and seem to have been written in haste. Hence they are not particularly valuable. But the others are original, painstaking, clear, and decidedly helpful.
The principal recommendations of the committee—with which Mr. Davenport is in full sympathy—are: (1) that the forms of the estimates and accounts shall be simplified, standardized, and made more easy of comprehension; (2) that the annual estimates, on being received from the treasury, shall be referred to two standing committees of the House of Commons, which shall submit reports before discussion on the floor of the house begins; and (3) that motions to reduce estimates, unless touching fundamental matters of policy, shall not be considered as entailing a censure of the government. In these ways, chiefly, the power of the House of Commons over appropriations, it is urged, might be substantially increased, without interfering with the proper functioning of the justly praised budget system. The United States apparently stands at the threshold of an era of budgetary reform, and it is to be hoped that the work of Mr. Samuel’s committee will come to be widely known among legislators and other public men on this side of the Atlantic, even if only in the form of the epitome contained in Mr. Davenport’s little book.
Frederic A. Ogg.
*
Workingmen’s Standard of Living in Philadelphia. By William C. Beyer. New York:
The Macmillan Co., 1919. Pp. 125.
This little study, based on 260 families, was made by the Philadelphia Bureau of Municipal Research to furnish a basis for determining the wages to be paid city employees. Under the direction of Mr. Beyer, Miss Rebekah P. Davis and Miss Myra Thwing, whose names appear as joint authors, made the actual investigations.
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They did most of the actual work themselves checking their results with certain other available studies. The methods used, and the general outline closely parallel the well-known study of Chapin in New York City.
The book contains little discussion of the findings. The schedules used and the index occupy over one-fourth of the space. The balance consists largely of statistical tables with very brief comments.
The peculiar merit of the volume lies in the attempt to get away from prices of commodities to a statement of the actual amounts of shoes, hats, groceries, etc., used by the typical family of five, two adults and three children. These statements are based on records kept by the families although it has been found necessary to supplement these with estimates in many instances. If we accept the conclusions as reasonable it will be relatively easy to determine the cost of living at any time and place for families of similar standards.
With prices as they were in the fall of 1919 the authors say that the family of five should have an income of $1,636 per year. The families studied—203 of the 260 being native born—had an actual average income of $1,262. Just what sacrifices this fact entailed on the families of lower income is not discussed.
The following recommendations are made:
“1. That the city government of Philadelphia, acting through the finance committee of council or through the civil service commission, adopt the standard of living herein outlined as a basis for ascertaining currently the amount of a living wage for manual workers.
“2. That the cost of this standard be ascertained at least once a year by the city government, preferably just before budget-making time.
“3. That in fixing the wages of manual workers above apprentice grade no wage be made lower than the ascertained cost of this standard.
“4. That at least once in five years a new investigation be made with a view of modifying the standard so that it will conform to any changes which may have taken place in the living standards of workingmen’s families.
“5. That standards of living similar in general outline to the one herein suggested for manual workers be devised for other occupational groups to serve as a basis for adjusting the rates of compensation to these groups.”
Whatever the attitude taken towards the recommendations or towards the estimates, the
authors are to be complimented upon their thorough, careful work. They have made a real contribution to our knowledge of the subject.
Cabl Kelsey.1
*
Housing and the Housing Problem. By
Carol Aronovici. Chicago: A. C. McClurg
& Co., 1920. Pp. 163.
This slender little volume is a welcome addition to our all-too-scanty American housing literature. The publishers state the purpose of the National Social Science Series as being “to furnish for busy men and women a brief but essentially sane and sound discussion of present-day questions." Dr. Aronovici’s book is well adapted to this end. Its analyses and deductions are, moreover, worthy the careful attention of serious students.
Using so small a canvas, one has the choice of treating a detail intensively or the whole landscape sketchily. Dr. Aronovici has chosen the latter course and has included in his picture, not only the housing problem in its totality, but the adjacent phenomena of town planning, land, taxation, and transportation. Land especially attracts him. He devotes a whole chapter to it, besides much incidental attention in the other chapters. He points out to the advocates of the single tax that, unless safeguarded by zoning and districting provisions, especially in regard to the height of buildings, the single tax would actually have the effect of increasing congestion instead of lessening it. If these safeguards are furnished, however, he believes the exemption of improvements from taxation would be very beneficial. In fact, he regards it as fundamental.
While the author gives due credit to the restrictive legislation that has been developed in this country in the wake of the New York tenement house law, for much good accomplished in improving the worst housing conditions,—what he calls “pathological” conditions,—he justly concludes that a broader policy will have to be pursued in the future if the problem is in any sense to be solved. “On the whole it may be stated,” he says, “that we are rapidly moving towards a recognition of the need for public funds for private housing enterprises; that the government, whether it be municipal, state, or federal, can obtain loans at a much lower rate than individual or financial institutions; that they (sic) can grant long terms and that they 1 University of Pennsylvania.


1920]
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367
have or can obtain authority to control the investments in housing so as to raise the present standard of sanitation, comfort, privacy, and attractiveness which would affect the home life of the people of this country. The countries of Europe have proved that such methods may be made effective. ”
Dr. Aronovici lays stress on the need of intelligent town planning. He devotes his concluding chapters to the English garden city idea. “The garden city,” he writes, “stands as the first and most successful practical example of community building, elastic in its application to city and country alike, adjustable to the needs of private and public enterprise, economical and just in its distribution of benefits.”
The concluding thought is thus expressed: “The test of the city of the future will be its adequacy in providing for the life, labor and leisure of its people, and the housing reformer will have to join hands with the city planner to achieve this great end.”
Were one seeking for defects, one might complain of the inclusion of Chapter V, The Housing Survey, which takes up a full quarter of the book and constitutes a serious break in its unity. The author explains in his preface that this was “prepared in connection with classes conducted in the Graduate School of the University of Minnesota”—presumably classes in social research— while the rest of the book is based on a series of lectures on housing delivered at the University of Pennsylvania. The busy general reader, for whom the series is published, is not likely to be greatly interested in the technique of social research, and one is inclined to doubt the wisdom of trying to expound it to him, especially when there remains so much under the already extremely wide subject selected, which might advantageously be laid before him.
The important thing, however, about books as about people, is not their faults, but their
H. BOOKS
Armenia and the Armenians. By Kevork Aslan. Translated from the French by Pierre Crabites. New York: The Macmillan Co. Pp. 138. $1.25.
A Straight Deal or the Ancient Grudge. By Owen Wister. New York: The Macmillan Co. 1920. Pp. 287. $2.
Department of Health. City of Chicago. Report for 1911-1918. John Dill Robertson,
virtues, and the upstanding virtue of “ Housing and the Housing Problem” is its clear perception of the inadequacy of our present American formulae for its solution.
Edith Elmer Wood.
*
Government Organization in War Time and
After. By William Franklin Willoughby.
New York: D. Appleton & Company. Pp.
369.
Describing the organization and activities of the new agencies created by the government for war purposes is no small job, as Mr. Willoughby admits. “For years to come,” he says, “the action of the United States in meeting the many problems that confronted it in the prosecution of the war . . . will furnish a wealth of
material for the economist, the political scientist, and all others interested in public affairs.” In the introduction, Mr. Frederick P. Keppel, third assistant secretary of war, emphasizes the same thought in suggesting the concluding chapter of the book be read first, in order to get some idea of the range and complexity of the problems confronting the federal civil agencies created for the prosecution of the war. This done, the reader will know exactly what the author is trying to do and not expect too little or too much from this volume.
Mr. Willoughby has undertaken only a brief general survey of the special war agencies, describing in a cursory way the mobilization of industry, and activities in relation to foreign trade, food, fuel, transportation, shipping, labor, finance, public information, etc. An attempt is made to point out failures and mistakes as well as accomplishments. In the same series most of these subjects is to be dealt with in detail in separate volumes to which this is a logical introduction.
Lent D. Upson.1
RECEIVED
M.D., Commissioner of Health. Pp. 1535. $5.00.
History of Economic Thought. By Lewis H. Haney. New York: The Macmillan Co. 1920. Pp. 677. $3.50.
How to Become a Patrolman. By J. J. O’Reilly. New York: The N. Y. Civil Serv-
1 Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research.


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ice Employees’ Publishing Company, Inc. Pp. 253.
International Waterways. By Paul Morgan Ogilvie. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 424. $3.00.
Landscape Architecture. A Comprehensive Classification Scheme for Books, Plans, Photographs, Notes and Other Collected Material. By Henry Vincent Hubbard and Theodora Kimball. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1920. Pp. 132.
Minutes of Proceedings of Annual Session of Municipal Association of Victoria. Melbourne: Modem Printing Company. Pp. 151.
Organized Labor in American History. By Frank Tracy Carlton. New York: D. Appleton and Company. Pp. 313.
Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work at the Forty-Sixth Annual Session Held in Atlantic City, New Jersey, June 1-8, 1919. Permanent Headquarters, 315 Plymouth Court, Chicago, El. Pp. 813.
Report of the United States Housing Corporation. Volume II — Houses, Site-Planning, Utilities. United States Depart-
[June
ment of Labor, Bureau of Industrial Housing and Transportation. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1919. Pp. 524.
Socialism in Thought and Action. By Harry W. Laidler, Ph.D. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1920. Pp. 546. $2.50.
Statistical Directory of State Institutions for the Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1919. Pp. 257.
The History of Cumulative Voting and Minority Representation in Illinois, 1870-1919. By Blaine F. Moore, Ph.D. University of Illinois Studies in the Social Sciences, June, 1919. Published by the University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. Pp. 70.
The Home I Want. By Richard Reiss. London, New York, Toronto: Hodder and Stroughton. Pp. 197. 4/net.
The Opium Monopoly. By Ellen N. La Motte. New York: The Macmillan Co. Pp. 84. $1.00.
The Scientific Spirit and Social Work. By Arthur James Todd, Ph.D. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 212. $2.
III. REVIEW OF REPORTS
Consolidated Rating.—As an invalid convalescent from an illness feels a desire to rearrange the furniture and to make various long-needed repairs and substitutions, so Great Britain, the war being over, has been casting a critical eye over her household and contemplating reforms and improvements. The brief document under review is a memorandum submitted to the Ministry of Reconstruction by the Council of the Institute of Municipal Treasurers and Accountants and it states the case for an important reform in local administration,—the simplification of the local taxation. Funds for defraying the expenditure of local authorities in the country generally are raised by levying a large variety of rates on different assessments, with different rules for deductions and different collection machinery. Consequently the situation is full of ridiculous anomalies and expensive complexities. Thus a single piece of property, assessed by the Poor Law Union for the purpose of providing a base for the poor rate, might have been valued at an entirely different figure had the property lain in a neighboring union, because of variations in allowances for repairs. Next this property may again be assessed at a different figure by the local government area to afford a base for the sanitary rate. Finally both of these assessments for local purposes may differ from
the assessments established for the national taxes such as the Inhabited House Duty and Schedule A of the Income Tax.
The situation is one of long standing. As early as 1868 a Select Committee appointed to inquire into poor rate assessments recommended one assessment for all rating purposes and one consolidated rate for local government purposes. But progress toward this solution has been painfully slow. It is true that Scotland, under the Lands Valuation Act of 1854, already had unification of assessments—unaccompanied, however, by a consolidated rate and unification of collection machinery. London, by an act passed in 1899, achieved complete consolidation but in addition to these two instances, the reform has been established in only a few localities and by virtue of local acts.
This memorandum describes the situation, analyzes the problem and makes practical detailed suggestions for reform. The section on “the Assessment of Ratable Property” is the best brief description of the English system of local taxation with which the reviewer is acquainted. The suggestions for action are reduced to clear-cut, definite statements of the principles which it is believed should be followed.
American readers, however, will be as much interested in the form of this report as in its


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substance. Most of our reports do not compare favorably with the English, and an analysis of this document will reveal some of the reasons. In the first place, although the subject is large and complicated, the report is short. The writers know the trick of being at once comprehensive and brief. Superfluous, confusing, unimportant detail is ruthlessly eliminated. Again, one is struck by the manner in which emphasis is obtained without either freakishness in typography or extravagance in language. The document is admirably outlined, sub-headed, and summarized, so that the points which the authors wish to impress stand out unmistakably and the emphasis is due largely to the tone of restraint which characterizes the entire document. If there is one lesson which needs to be learned here, it is that emphasis is not achieved merely by printing a large number of adjectives, all in the superlative degree. In its form the report is a model.
Robert M. Haig.1
Assessor's Manual, State of New Jersey.—
This manual has been prepared by Thomas B. Usher as a guide to the assessment of taxes under the New Jersey law. Thanks to his long experience Mr. Usher is able to present the duties of local assessors in lucid and non-technical form. His brief discussion of the valuation of personal and real property should be helpful to any assessor. Assessors are disposed to think that any piece of paper bearing a dollar mark is worth the sum written on it. Mr. Usher says, however, that book credits are difficult of appraisal “because the debtor may be on the verge of insolvency.” He warns assessors against taking the cost of real property even with allowances for depreciation and wear as proof of its value, nor will the asking price at which a property is offered or an offer price in every case settle the value. It is the agreed price which the law contemplates. The manual would be useful not only to assessors but to taxpayers.
Lawson Purdy.
IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY
Compiled bi Rebecca B. Rankin2
Accidents
Detroit Public Library. Accident prevention in industry. A selected bibliography. Nov., 1919. 7 p.
Gainsburgh, E. L. A manual of first aid in accident and disease. 1919. 84 p., illus. New York: Stearns & Beale.
Massachusetts. Industrial Accident Board. Fourth annual report, July 1, 1915, to June 30, 1916. 1917. 27* p„ illus. (Public
doc. no. 105.)
Americanization
Aronovici, Carol. Americanization. 1919. 48 p. St. Paul: Keller Pub. Co.
Chicago Chamber of Commerce. General report of Committee on Americanization of the Chicago Assoc, of Commerce, by W. A. Bond, Jan. 1, 1920. 1919. Annual Report reprint. 6 p.
National Board of Review of Motion Pictures. Americanization motion pictures, listed Dec., 1919. S p., typewritten.
U. S. Bureau of Education. The kindergarten as an Americanizer, by S. E. Weber. Dec., 1919. 5 p. (Kindergarten circular no. 5.)
City Planning
Beardsley, Henry M. The Detroit plan. Feb., 1920. 4 p. (Citizens’ League Bull.)
1 Columbia University.
! Librarian, New York Municipal Reference Library.
Brookline (Mass.). Planning Board. Annual report for the year ending Dec. 81, 1919. 1920. 7 p.
Detroit. City Plan Commission. A building zone plan for Detroit. Nov., 1919. 19 p., illus.
---------. Charter provisions for the City
Plan Commission, effective March 1, 1919. April, 1919. 4 p.
Philadelphia Housing Association. The proposed zoning ordinance of Philadelphia. A letter to the Real Estate Board. 11 p.
St. Louis. City Plan Commission. The zone plan, Harland Bartholomew, engineer. June, 1919. 82 p., maps, plates.
St. Paul Association of Public and Business Affairs. Report of the Special Committee of the City Planning, Sub-Division on Methods for Paying the Costs of Acquiring and Improving Parks, Parkways and Boulevards. 16 p. (Mimeographed report.)
South Australian Town Planning and Housing Association. Municipal town planning schemes, by C. C. Reade. May, 1919. 8 p.
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Trees for town and city streets. 7 p. (Office of information.) (Mimeographed report.)
---------. Street trees, by F. L, Mulford.
1920. 58 p. (Bull. no. 816.)
Wyomissing Development Company. Wy-omissing Park, the modern garden suburb of Reading, Pa. A stepping-stone towards a greater Reading, by Hegemann and Peets. 1919. 48 p., illus.


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Civics
Duvall, J. J. Civil government simplified. A text-book adapted to classes in Americanization. Extended and revised by the author and Senator M. B. Johnson. 1919. 76 p. San
Francisco: Harr Wagner Pub. Co.
Hartford. Mayor’s Americanization Committee. The Hartford handbook for new citizens—and old. 1919. 50 p., illus.
Thomas, David Y. A syllabus on studies in citizenship, prepared especially for the women of Arkansas. March, 1920. 43 p. (Univ. of Arkansas, General Ext. Div., Bull. no. 23.)
Wood, Leonard. The military obligation of citizenship. 1919. 76 p., plates. Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
Civil Service
National Civil Service Reform League. Report on the foreign service. 1919. 322 p.
New York State. Civil Service Commission. Thirty-sixth annual report for the year 1918. 1919. 783 p.
-------——. Civil service law, rules and regulations for the classified service, as amended to Sept. 1, 1919. 1919. Ill p.
Seattle. Civil Service Commission. Laws and rules, 1920. 1920. 49 p.
Cost of Living
Batdorf, J. W. The truth about the rising cost of foods. The remedy through organization methods. Co-operative community council stores. 1919. 32 p. New York: Anti-Socialist Press.
Brookmihe Economic Service. Economic trends of war and reconstruction. 1860-70.
1918. 30 p.
Burton, T. E„ and Selden, G. C. A century of prices. An examination of economic and financial conditions as reflected in prices, money rates, etc., during the past 100 years, with a view to establishing general principles which may aid in interpreting the present and future.
1919. 118 p., tables. New York: Magazine of Wall Street.
Knowles, Morris. Fair average prices in cost of reproduction and the trend of prices after the war. 1919. 15 p., diagrs. (Paper before New Jersey Utility Assoc.) Pittsburgh: M. Knowles.
U. S. House of Representatives. High cost of living. Hearings before the Committee on Agriculture ... on amendments proposed to the Food Control Act, Aug. 15, 20, 1919. 1920. 92 p.
Engineering
Canada. Department of the Interior. Central electric stations in Canada. Part 2— directory (Jan. 1, 1919), by J. T. Johnston. 1919. 252 p. (Water resources paper no. 27.)
Domestic Engineering. Survey of electric lighting and power plants and water supply systems by Research Department, n.d. 29 p., typewritten.
Dunlap, J. H. The new sewage treatment
[June
plant at Montezuma, Iowa. 1919. 19 p., illus.
Reprinted from The Transit, v. 23, 1919.
National Coal Association, Washington, D. C. The fuel manual, containing orders, regulations and notices of the U. S. Fuel Administration, from its inauguration, Aug. 21, 1917, to June 30, 1918. 2 vols., with appendix.
----v. 2, from July 1, 1918, to Jan. 31,1919.
----Appendix A to fuel manual, from Oct. 30,
1919, to Dec. 8, 1919.
Swiggett, Glen Levin. Commercial engineering. Report of a Conference on Business Training for Engineers and Engineering Training for Students of Business, held in Washington, D. C., June 23-24, 1919. 1920. 180 p.
U. S. Bureau of Mines. Efficiency in the use of oil fuel. A handbook for boiler-plant and locomotive engineers, by J. M. Wadsworth.
1919. 86 p., charts.
------------. Explosives and miscellaneous investigations. Explosives research, regulation of explosives and platinum, marine-boiler tests, underground sound ranging, . . . 1919.
107 p. (Bull. 178-D.)
Finance, Municipal
Chicago. Bureau of Public Efficiency. The city bond issues to be voted upon April IS,
1920. Vote no on all four propositions. Statement to the voters of Chicago. April, 1920. 19 p. (315 Plymouth Court. Harris S. Keeler, Director.)
Chicago. Comptroller. Communication of the Comptroller of the City of Chicago to the Mayor and City Council, concerning the conditions and resources of the corporate fund, Dec.
23, 1918. 1919. 52 p„ charts.
Iowa. Auditor. Report on municipal finances. 1919. 270 p.
Texas. University. Bureau of Government Research. Tax rates and taxable values in Texas cities. A summary of the answers received to a questionnaire on the subject sent to Texas cities on Nov. 27, 1919; . . . with the proposed constitutional
amendments relating to local taxation to be voted on by the people on Nov. 4, 1920. Jan.
24, 1920. 22 p., typewritten.
Toronto Bureau of Municipal Research. Toronto’s budget estimates. Citizen control of the Citizen’s Business. March 26, 1920. 6 p. (White paper no. 38.)
Food and Markets
Indianapolis, Ind. Public Schools. Foods, their preparation and serving. 1919. 170 p.
National Lumber Manufacturers Association. Ice houses and ice supply, by F. M. White and C. I. Griffith. Feb., 1918. 3d ed. 23 p., plans. (Farm Bull. no. 6.)
New York State. Governor. In the matter of the investigation into the Department of Farms and Markets, by G. G. Battle, Commissioner appointed by A. E. Smith, Governor of the State of New York, under Section 8 of the Executive Law, commonly referred to as the Moreland Act. Final report. 1919. 145 p.


1920]
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371
---- Reconstruction Commission. Food
production and distribution. Report of the Committee on Food Production and Distribution. Jan. 80, 1920. 71 p.
Government
Gruenberg, Frederick P. The engineer’s responsibility for efficient government. Luncheon address, Sept. 16, 1919, the Engineers’ Club of Philadelphia. Nov., 1919. 3 p.
Kansas. University. Municipal Reference Bureau. Woman’s relation to the city. A brief discussion of a woman’s relation to her city, together with partial bibliography of material which is either concerned or is closely akin to woman’s relation to the city and to municipal government. Feb., 1920. 10 p.,
typewritten.
National Republican Club. The spread of Socialistic doctrine in New York City; report of Special Committee appointed by president. Sept., 1919. 20 p.
Government, Municipal
Boston. Ordinances. The Building Law of the City of Boston. Being acts of 1907, Chap. 550, as amended, also general and special acts relating to buildings and their maintenance, use and occupancy. 1919. 551 p.
Brooklyn Chamber of Commerce. Collection and disposal of municipal waste in New York City. Report of the Health and Sanitation Committee, April, 1919. 26 p.
Campbell, F. J., pub. Chicago’s reconstruction plan. Devoted to Chicago’s economics, hygienic reconstruction and attractive development. n.d. 104 p., illus. Chicago, 80 North Michigan Boulevard.
Chicago. Bureau of Public Efficiency. Consolidation of local governments in Chicago. Draft of a proposed article of the constitution of the State of Illinois providing for the consolidation of local governments having jurisdiction wholly, or partly, within the City of Chicago, together with explanatory statement. Jan., 1920. 23 p., maps.
Citizens Union of the City of New York. Report of the Committee on the Board of Aider-men for the 1918-19 term. 1919. 55 p.
Cleveland Chamber of Commerce. As to a city manager plan for Cleveland. Conclusions of the Chamber . . . Board of Directors.
Report of Chamber’s Representatives to meeting of Cleveland Civic Organizations. Report of Committee of Fifteen of Cleveland Civic Organizations. Committee Plan 1. Committee Plan
2. 21p.
Kansas. Municipal Reference Bureau. The regulation of billboards by Kansas cities. April, 1920. 13 p., typewritten.
Leaque of Cities of the Third Class, Pennsylvania. Report of the Law Committee, by J. A. Gardner. Uniform ordinances for cities of the third class by F. P. Schoonmaker. Municipal Home Rule in Pennsylvania, by C. R. Woodruff. 1919. 80 p.
New York City. Municipal Reference Library. Municipal strikes; a selected list of references on. Apr. 28, 1920.7 p. (typewritten).
Portland. Ordinances. Housing Code. 1919. 49 p.,-)-17 p. (Issued by the Dept, of Public Works.)
Sacramento Chamber of Commerce. City manager government. 3 p. (Mimeographed report.)
U. S. Library of Congress. Div. of Bibliography. List of references on the city manager plan, by H. H. B. Meyer. 13 p. (Mimeographed report.)
---------. List of references on commission
government for cities (supplementary to printed list 1918), H. H. B. Meyer, Chief Bibliographer. Feb. 21, 1920. 13 p. (Mimeographed.)
Government, State
California. Committee on Efficiency and Economy. Report of the Committee . . . to Governor W. D. Stephens and his
message to the legislature in relation thereto, March 12, 1919. 106 p.
City Club of New York. Report of a Special Committee on the Reorganization of the State Government. 1919. 16 p.
Illinois. Constitution. Constitution of the State of Illinois, annotated. 1919. 319 p.
---- Legislative Reference Bureau.
Constitutional convention bulletins, no. 1-15, with consolidated index.
---- ----. Constitutional conventions in
Illinois. 2d ed. 1919. 154 p.
Kansas. Constitution. Constitution of the State of Kansas, 1919. 1919. 71 p.
New York State. Governor. Report of investigation by J. F. Connor, as Commissioner under Sec. 8 of the Executive Law, known as the Moreland Act, in relation to the management and affairs of the State Industrial Commission. Submitted to the Governor, Nov. 17, 1919. 1919. 83 p. .
Wisconsin. Legislative Reference Library. Primary election legislation in the various states. Experience and criticisms obtained through questionnaire. Feb., 1919. 23 p., typewritten.
Health
Frankel, Lee K. The sickness problem. Is social insurance the remedy? 1920. 10 p.
New York, L. K. Frankel, 1 Madison Avenue.
New York State. Department of Health. The public health manual, containing the public health law, the sanitary code, and the provisions in other general laws relating to public health. 1919. 658 p.
New Zealand. Public Health, Hospitals and Charitable Aid Department. Annual report, 1919. 1919. 40 p.
Oklahoma Tuberculosis Association. The Oklahoma public health surveys; Oklahoma City, by M. P. Horowitz and Jules Schevitz. 1919. 157 p., tables, illus.
Texas. Statutes. The sanitary code and other laws pertaining to public health. 1920. 31 p.
------------. Advisory supplement to the sanitary code for Texas, lip.
Wyoming. Board of Health. Synopsis of laws relative to the State Board of Health of the


372 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June
State of Wyoming, together with the rules and regulations adopted by Board and instructions to registrars of vital statistics, n.d. 40 p.
Housing Problem
Aronovici, Carol. Housing and the housing problem. 1920. 168 p. Chicago, McClurg.
Bureau of Municipal Research, N. Y. Shall Wilmington stop growing? The importance of immediate home building. Summary of report on housing situation in Wilmington. Nov., 1919. 12 p. (Issued by the Service Citizens of Delaware, Public Library Building, Wilmington, Del.) (Vol. 1, no. 5.)
Charleston Industrial Corporation. Report on housing. Also living conditions, stores, hospital, library, bank, churches, amusement, welfare work, Police Department, Fire Department, sanitation, street lighting, climatic conditions, etc. . . . 19 p.
Merchants’ Association of New York. The housing shortage and the necessity for exempting from income taxes the return from real estate mortgages. March, 1920. 12 p.
Miller, F. T. The housing situation in England and the United States. 80 p. (F. W. Dodge Co., 119 West 40th Street, New York.)
National Conference on Concrete House Construction. Report of Committee on Resolutions. Feb. 17 to 19, 1920. 10 p. (Mimeographed report.) (Secy., Ill West Washington Street, Chicago.)
New Yore State. Reconstruction Commission, and the Joint Legislative Committee on Housing. Housing conditions. Program of architectural competition for the remodeling of a New York tenement block under the auspices of the . . . March 26, 1920.
18 p.
New York State. Reconstruction Commission, and the Committee on Housing. Housing conditions. Report of the . . . March 26, 1920. 65 p.
Philadelphia Housing Assoc. What shall we do about the housing crisis? A program of work proposed by the . . . 11 p.
Law
California. Statutes. California Motor Vehicle Act, as amended in 1919. 1919. 80 p.
(California. Motor Vehicle Department.)
Detroit Citizens League. The civic searchlight. Shall the City of Detroit adopt the Municipal Court Reform Act. Election—
Monday, April 5. Feb., 1920. 4 p. (Dime Bank Building, Detroit.)
McKelvie, Samuel R. A responsible form of government. A discussion of the Civil Administration Code enacted by the Thirty-Seventh (1919) Session of the Nebraska State Legislature. 10 p.
Nebraska. Secret art of State. Civil Administration Code. 461 p.
Ottawa. Department of Public Information. Summary of legislation. Work of the second session, 13th Parliament as embodied in principal legislation reports, resolutions and
investigations conducted by House committees and commissions. 1919. 40 p.
Seattle. Juvenile Court. Report for the year 1919. 1920. 19 p.
United States. Treasury Department. Digest of the law relating to common law marriage in the states, territories, and dependencies of the United States. 1919. 54 p.
Milk
Illinois. University. The seasonal cost of milk production, by F. A. Pearson. Dec., 1919. 18 p. (Agricultural Experiment Station, Bull. no. 224.)
New York State. Fair Price Milk Committee for the City of New York. Report of the Committee . . . appointed on the
recommendation of the Glynn-Finley Commission, Dec. 27, 1919. 1919. 78 p.
Rochester. Common Council. Report of Rochester milk survey, by the Committee on Public Safety, by C. E. North, Director. Dec. 1919. 227 p.
United States. Department of Agriculture. Cooling milk and storing and shipping it at low temperatures, by J. A. Gamble and J. T. Bowen. Jan., 1919. 28 p., charts. (Professional paper. Bull. no. 744.)
Parks and Recreation
Baltimore. Board of School Commissioners. Manual of physical training and games. 1919.
Draper, G. O. Community recreation, mass games, social games, mass athletics, and stunts requiring no special equipment. 1919. 64 p. New York, Association Press.
Fairmount Park Art Association, The Fairmount Parkway. A pictorial record of development from its first incorporation in the city plan in 1904 to the completion of the main drive from City Hall to Fairmount Park in 1919. 1919. 2 p.,+17 plans.
Indiana. Department of Conservation. Turkey Run State Park, a history and description. 1919. 48 p., illus.
National Parks Association. The new Grand Canyon National Park. An analysis of its scenic features with suggestions for its better comprehension and enjoyment, by R. S. Yard. 1919. 24 p., illus. (Publication no. 1.)
----. The new Zion National Park; rainbow
of the desert. Its relation to the Grand Canyon; also the relation of both, and of Bryce Canyon, to the brilliantly colored pleateau country of southern Utah, by R. S. Yard. 1919. 32 p., illus. (Publication no. 2. Jan., 1920.)
Toronto Bureau of Municipal Research. Municipal Stadiums. Feb., 1920. 6 p. (Citizen Control of the Citizen’s Business.) (189J Church Street, Toronto.)
Police
Citizens’ League. Comparison of police systems of different cities. Jan., 1920. 1 p.
(Bulletin for Good Government in Kansas City and Jackson County.)


1920] BIBLIOGRAPHY 373
Kansas. University. Municipal Reference Bureau. A report on police departments in seventeen Kansas cities of the first and second class and in twenty-five out-of-state cities. A summary of the answers received to a questionnaire on the subject of police departments, including the number of officers, salaries paid, whether or not uniforms are furnished by the city, and policemen’s benefit funds. March, 1920. IS p.
Toledo. Commission on Publicity and Efficiency. A digest of ordinances Toledo police should know. 1919. 8 p.
Rents
Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Rent relief bills, enacted by New York State Legislature, March 81, 1920. 12 p.
New York City. Municipal Reference Library. Rent profiteering, a bibliography, compiled by G. A. Barnardo. March 22, 1920. 3 p., typewritten.
Safety
National Safety Council, Chicago. The principles and practice of safety. A handbook for technical schools and universities. 1919. 72 p., illus.
Payne, E. G. Plan of safety instruction in public and parochial schools, n. d. 16 p.
Safety Institute of America. Lectures given by Safety Institute of America on alternate Saturday mornings, from Feb. 1 to June 7,
1919, for the benefit of factory inspectors employed by the City of New York, the State of New York and New Jersey and insurance companies operating in and near New York City.
1920. 228 p., plates.
Sheet Metal Ware Association. Safety devices used by members of the ... in their plants. Sept., 1919. 16 p.+8 plates.
United States. Department of Labor. Working Conditions Service. Safeguarding workers in the tanning industry. 1919. 121 p., illus.
Taxation and Finance
California. State Controller. Messages of California Governors—portray state’s taxation history. Twenty years ago, as now and in between efficiency, and economy the chief demand. Administrative reorganization as in Illinois, Idaho, and other states, offers most effective means of retrenchment, verdict of New York Commission, by John S. Chambers. Feb., 1920. 16 p. (Mimeographed report.)
Guaranty Trust Company, New York City. Federal taxes on income and profits. 1920. 196 p.
Iowa. University. Answers to income tax questions, by C. B. Stiver. Feb., 1920. 39 p. (Extension Div. Bull. no. 63.)
Irvtng National Bank. New York City. Practical questions and answers on the Federal tax laws, affecting individuals, partnerships and corporations. Jan., 1920. 134 p. (v. 6, no. 1.)
Kahn, Otto H. Two years of faulty taxation and the results. Jan., 1920. 52 p.
National City Bank. New York City. A
handbook of finance and trade with South America. 1919. 51 p.
New York City. Municipal Reference Library. Selected list of material on municipal taxation. Compiled by Jose M. Munda. March, 1920. 19 p., typewritten.
New York State. Governor. Statement of the total amount of appropriations desired by each state department, commission, board, bureau, office or institution, with suggestions for reductions and additions thereto. 1920. 342 p. (Legislative doc. no. 33.)
Virginia. Governor. Budget for 1920-22, for each fiscal year of the biennium, beginning March 1,1920, and ending Feb. 28, 1922. 1920. 339 p.
Transportation
Academy of Political Science in the City of New York. Railroad legislation. A series of addresses and papers presented at the annual meeting . . . Nov. 21-22, 1919. Edited by T. W. Van Metre. Jan., 1920. 268 p. (Proceedings, v. 8, no. 4.)
American Electric Railway Association. Rate of return allowed electric railways based on franchise agreements. Dec., 1919. 9 p., typewritten.
Arent, Leonora. Electric franchises in New York City. 1919. 184 p. (Studies in history, economics and public law, no. 201.) New York, Columbia University.
Batdorf, J. W. The Soviet Plumb Plan for railway reconstruction. Unjust strikes and lockouts must be abolished, n.d. 8 p.
----. “The workers party,” its campaign
book and the aftermath of the war. The people’s plan to settle the railway problem. 1918. 32 p. New York, Anti-Socialist Press.
Bureau of Railway Economics, Library. A list of references to the more important books and articles on government control and operation of railroads. Feb., 1919. 3 parts. 52 p., typewritten.
Chamber of Commerce of Kansas City. The Kansas City street railway situation. The Committee of One Hundred on the street railway situation. Feb., 1920. 48 p.
Detroit. Mayor. For Detroit!—50 per cent more cars, 50 per cent more tracks. Service at once. Detroit’s proposed independent street railway system, n.d. 16 p., map.
Friday, David. Traction rates in New York City. A necessary step in price revision. Jan., 1920. 23 p. (Analysis. Series 1, no. 1.) New York City, Thompson and Black.
Idaho. Department of Public Works. Bureau of Highways. Field manual. Federal and state aid, road work and bureau regulations. June, 1919. 46 p., diagrs.
Kansas. Statutes. Supplemental laws relating to highways and bridges. Passed by the State Legislature of 1919. Published by the Highway Commission. 1919. 72 p.
Leonard, G. B. The Minneapolis street railway and the new franchise. An analysis. 2d rev. ed. Nov., 1919. 68 p. Minneapolis.


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Lovett, R. S. Railroad legislation as developed up to date. Dec., 1919. 24 p. New York, R. S. Lovett, 120 Broadway.
Maine. State Highway Commission. What Maine has done for improved highways and what Maine hopes to do. [1919.] 16 p„ map.
National Transportation Conference. Program of railroad legislation. Oct., 1919. 185 p., charts, tables.
New York City. Thirty-Fourth Street Board of Trade. The subway loop. n.d. 18 p., maps.
Palmer, A. H. Snow and railway transportation. Oct., 1919. 8 p. Reprinted from the Monthly Weather Review.
Pennsylvania. Public Service Commission. The 8c. exchange case; President Mitten’s statement. Northwestern Business Men’s Association vs. Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company. Sept., 1919. 67 p.
Philadelphia. Department of City Transit. Annual report for the year ending Dec. 31,1918. 376 p.
Public Ownership League of America. Public ownership of railways. With a chapter on the Plumb Plan, by Carl D. Thompson. 1919. 100 p. (Bull. no. 12.)
Texas. University. Roads and pavements. 1919. 87 p. (Bull. no. 1922.)
[June
United States. House of Representatives. Report of the railroads to private ownership. Hearings before the Committee of Interstate and Foreign Commerce, ... on H. R. 4378. 1919. 8 vols. (66th Congress, 1st session.) V. 1, July 15-Aug. 19, 1919, Parts 1-7; v. 2, Aug. 20-Sept. 15, 1919, Parts 8-18; v. 3, Sept. 16-Oct. 5, 1919, Parts 14-20, with index.
Virginia. Legislative Reference Bureau. Road laws of the American States. A digest collected by L. H. Machen. 1919. 154 p.
Ward, J. H. Trinity Freight Terminal in the City of New York, comprising a central wholesale food-stuffs market, a union railroad terminal, a shipping terminal, and “store door service.”
1919. 48 p., maps. New York, John H. Ward, 41 Park Row.
Women
First International Congress of Working Women, Washington. Resolutions adopted, Oct. 28, to Nov. 6, 1919. 18 p. (Issued by the
National Women’s Trade Union League of America, 64 West Randolph Street, Chicago,
m.)
United States. Women’s Bureau. Women in the government service, by B. M. Nienburg.
1920. 37 p. (Bull. no. 8.)


NOTES AND EVENTS
I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
Nebraska’s Constitutional Convention.—
After seventy-four days of deliberation the convention adopted forty-one amendments to the present constitution, which are to be submitted to the electors as separate proposals at a special election in September. From the standpoint of progressive government the convention can hardly be called a success. The executive officers of the old constitution have been retained as elective officers. Other executive heads which may be established by law are, under the new constitution, to be appointed by the governor subject to the consent of a majority of “all the members elected to the senate and house of representatives meeting in joint session.” A grudging concession to short ballot principles permits officers so appointed to be removed by the governor alone. No new executive offices can be created except by a two-thirds vote of all the members of both houses, but the legislature is authorized to utilize the existing elective officers as heads of new departments.
The proposed budget amendment is brief. The governor is commanded to present at the beginning of each session “a complete itemized budget of the financial requirements of all departments, institutions and agencies of the state for the ensuing biennium.” It is sought to increase the prestige of the executive budget by the requirement of a three-fifths vote of the legislature to increase the governor’s recommendations; such increases not to be subject, however, to executive veto. Remembering how trivial has been the influence of similar limitations on the power of legislatures to make appropriations for certain purposes, such as grants to private institutions, advocates of the thorough-going executive budget will hardly view the Nebraska provision as a victory.
The convention’s attitude toward present-day unrest is reflected in the provision which would expressly authorize the legislature to distinguish between aliens and citizens with respect to the right to hold property. Other proposed amendments reduce the numbers necessary to invoke the initiative and referendum, decrease urban representation in the legislature by excluding aliens in computing the basis of appor-
tionment and authorize the adoption of pther methods of taxation than the property tax.
The supreme court’s power of judicial review is restricted by making the concurrence of five of the seven judges necessary to declare a law unconstitutional. An effort is made to improve legislative procedure by requiring recorded votes in one house upon amendments by the other and upon reports of conference committees. How this can do anything other than add to the existing confusion and ineffectiveness of roll calls unless an electrical voting machine is adopted is hard to see.
A pamphlet showing the proposed amendments with explanatory statements and a sample ballot has been distributed to the voters.
*
Demand for Administrative Reorganization Brewing in Washington.—The headway made in the past few years in rationalizing the administration of state government has not been without influence upon our national law makers. A number of leaders in congress are studying the present functions and interrelations of the several departments and bureaus with a view to pressing measures for reform when congress reassembles in the fall. It is generally believed that some form of budget bill will be passed during the present session which will clear the slate preparatory to taking up consideration of administrative reorganization later.
Measures have been introduced in both houses providing for the appointment of a joint committee of congress to make a thorough study with a view specially to recommending the regrouping of the services departmentally along functional lines. The resolution introduced by Representative Moore calls special attention to the advisability of removing from the war, navy and treasury departments the several unrelated services and regrouping them under departments or bureaus of public works, education and science, public health, and maritime affairs. The existing provision regarding permanent appropriations are to be examined with a view to establishing a more consistent system of differentiating, between continuing and annual grants. Present
375


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indications are that the influential members who have been active in budget reform clearly realize the next step essential to any economy program and are preparing to push it energetically. Preliminary to a probable broader program, Representative Ireland, chairman of the house committee on accounts, has introduced a bill to consolidate the bureau of war risk insurance and the public health service of the treasury department, and the federal board for vocational education and the bureau of pensions of the department of the interior into one bureau of war benefits under the department of the interior.
*
Nebraska Administrative Code in the Courts.—
Shortly after the code was passed petitions for a referendum were circulated, but the secretary of state refused to receive them because a complete text of the law was not attached to each petition sheet as required by statute. The circulators of the petition claimed that this was impossible since the law covered nearly 500 pages of the statutes, but the lower court decided in favor of the secretary of state. This decision, however, was reversed by the supreme court which held that the section of the statutes which requires the complete copy of the law to be referred to be attached to the petition was unconstitutional since it tended, as in this instance, to obstruct the working of the referendum guaranteed by the constitution.
At first it was thought that pending the referendum the code and the departments under it would be suspended, as is ordinarily the case with measures awaiting the vote of the people, but such was not the case. Until a final mandate is handed down the supreme court has authorized the auditor to pay all vouchers under the code, which thus remains in operation. A motion for rehearing has been made and it will probably be granted. The final order of the court will either discontinue the operation of the code or establish it permanently.
*
Toledo Street Railway Vote Postponed.— At the request of the Toledo railways and light company, and upon the recommendation of the mayor, the Toledo council voted to give the street railway commission more time in which to present their draft of a proposed franchise for the company. The draft had been completed
so far as the commission was concerned, but an extension of time was asked by the company in which to submit their objections on provisions involving rate of return, valuation and municipal ownership.
As a result of the postponement, all attempts to submit the two plans to the voters on the date of the presidential primaries, April 27, were abandoned. The company has offered to stand the expense of a special election at a later date, but the mayor is opposed to such an arrangement and no date has been set.
The council voted to refer the proposed franchise back to the street railway commission for further consideration, with the understanding that the company will submit its objections in writing with its substitute proposals, and that the commission will then submit another report on the matter to the district judge who appointed the commission with the consent of the council.
The municipal ownership branch of the commission now has the advantage of the recent decision of the Ohio supreme court1 to the effect that an ordinance for the issuance of bonds to purchase a public utility is valid so long as the municipality keeps within the limits of indebtedness which cities may incur.
*
New Charter Proposed for Montreal—For the past two years the city of Montreal has been under the tutelage of the Quebec legislature, through the appointment of an administrative commission. Of late, awakened to a new interest in its civic affairs, the provincial government has recognized Montreal’s desire and passed a bill for the appointment of a commission to investigate the best form of government for Montreal. This commission is to consist of two nominees from each of eight of the local public bodies, and five additional nominees, selected by outside mayors, should it be decided to draft a charter for the government of the whole island of Montreal. There is evidently doubt in the minds of some, according to^the Canadian Municipal Journal, as to the wisdom of having the commission consist of amateurs. “Municipal administration to-day is one of the most complex problems in the government of a nation. . . . Municipal government properly carried out means not only the administration of a municipality, but the government of the community as
1 See National Municipal Rxvraw, vol. ix, p. 300.


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well—that is, the local council is responsible for the social as well as the economic welfare of the citizens.”
Old-Age Pensions for the Federal Civil Service.—The Sterling-Lehlbach bill, providing old age retirement allowances for federal government employes in the classified civil service, has been passed by the United States Senate. As amended the bill fixes the retirement age at seventy, and actuaries have determined that with per cent deducted from employes’ wages the average percentage of cost over the first seventy-seven years of the operation of the act will be 85 per cent by employes and 65 per cent by the government. The highest annuity will be $720, the lowest $180, graded according to length of public service. No employe will be eligible to benefit until he has served the government at least fifteen years.
Legislation on this subject has been hanging fire before congress for years, although it has been generally agreed that it is a measure of economy and efficiency for the government, as well as a measure of simple justice to the old men and women who have given a lifetime to the public service. The responsibility and the opportunity for early action on this meritorious measure is now with the house of representatives at Washington. The house committee reported the original bill favorably last July.
*
City-Manager Plan Advocated for Des Moines.—After a twelve-years’ trial of commission government, a campaign has been inaugurated in Des Moines, Iowa, to change to the city-manager form. The proposal is in compliance with the expressed wishes of practically 75 per cent of the voters of the city. Since the
adoption of the Des Moines plan, taxes have practically doubled; the city’s bonded indebtedness is up to the limit and the present year was entered with an overdraft of $900,000. Many people charge that the commission plan has practically plunged the city into bankruptcy and are seeking relief in the city-manager plan. The type of citizen which has sought election as commissioner also comes in for criticism. The salary of $3,000 and the honor of the office has not been sufficient incentive to attract men of broad business experience. The only contention among those advocating a city manager is whether to return to the ward plan of electing a council of seventeen members, which will select the manager, or to adopt the commission-manager plan by which the commission will be elected at large. C. D. Hellen.
*
Commission-Manager Government Recommended for Manila.—After seventeen years’ association with the municipal government, Fred L. Patstone, city engineer of Manila, has proposed the adoption of the commission-manager form of government for that city. This recommendation was made in a report to the governor-general of the Philippines upon Mr. Patstone's retirement from public office in March. In his report he points out that the necessity for a new form of municipal government has only become apparent in recent years. The old order, which has obtained almost to the present day, he says, must give way to modern business methods. Mr. Patstone makes a strong plea for this change in order to insure the execution of adequate plans for the filling of low lands, permanent paving, water supply, school and municipal buildings, extended city limits, and other improvements which he outlines.
R. R.
II. POLITICS
Chicago Defeats Questionable Bond Issues.— Chicago voters, men and women alike, took a decided stand at the last election against all four of the proposed bond issues, aggregating $34,500,000, sponsored by the city administration and intended to provide better street lighting, additional bridges, improved parks and playgrounds and a municipal convention hall. Civic organizations united to defeat the project.
Advocates of the plan admitted that the issue would exceed the city’s legal borrowing limit by about $33,000,000, but if approved it was intended to go before the constitutional convention and point out that the people wanted the stringent borrowing limits removed. If this effort had failed, however, the bond issues would have served as a bar upon the city’s further borrowing power for years to come. The people,


S78
however, seem to believe that the present is a favorable time to begin the practice of municipal economy. The newspapers pointed out that bonds to the amount of $46,000,000 have been already authorized but no work begun as yet on the undertakings involved.
*
Detroit’s Plan for Municipal Ownership.— Detroit prefers Mayor Couzen’s plan to construct a municipal street railway system to the alternative plan submitted by the Detroit United Railway. The former received 63.6 per cent of the votes cast at the recent election on this issue, 60 per cent having been necessary to make the plan effective. Bonds to the sum of $15,000,000 have been authorized to build and equip the municipal system.
The voters believed that D. U. R. had not fulfilled its obligation to make extensions which were sorely needed and turned to public ownership for relief. No new lines will be built to parallel existing privately owned ones, and the city’s lines will be operated as an independent, complete system. The decision, however, to operate two separately owned and competing lines will hardly be considered a permanent solution of Detroit’s traction difficulties,
*
Recent Elections in Milwaukee returned Mayor D. W. Hoan, Socialist, to office, and fourteen Socialists to the council along with seventeen non-partisans. While the numerical strength of the Socialists in the council remains the same as before, their proportionate strength is increased since the council has been reduced from thirty-seven to thirty-one members. At the same election the initiative and referendum was invoked for the first time. After failure of council to act upon a proposition which would group the public buildings in a civic center, a popularly initiated measure, providing for the civic center project, was adopted by referendum.
*
Cleveland Voters Discriminate between Bond Issues.—A proposed bond issue of $15,000,000, sponsored by the Rapid Transit commission, to build a subway system for Cleveland was defeated at the spring election by a vote of three to one. The city will now have to resort to more modest schemes of improvement of its traction service.
[June
At the same election the hospital bonds carried, but the jail bonds were defeated.
*
Sedition Laws Attacked by Bar Association.— Sweeping condemnation of the so-called Lusk bills, which have since passed the New York legislature, intended to bar the Socialist party from participation in the politics and government of the state, is found in a report of the committee on amendment of the law of the City Bar Association of New York. The bills are termed revolutionary in character and “an echo from the days of George III.” They may be considered as the aftermath of the expulsion of the five Socialist members of the assembly. Briefly, the bills provide that if information be presented to the attorney-general that a political organization, otherwise entitled to recognition as a party, advocates principles which tend to the destruction or subversion of existing government, he must institute proceedings in the supreme court. If the political organization shall be found to be of the character alleged, the court shall deny it the right to recognition as a party. Members of an ostracized party who shall have been elected or appointed to a governmental body or board may be excluded by a majority vote of the body or board; and it becomes the duty of the attorney-general to begin proceedings to restrain a disqualified person from undertaking the duties of the office or to compel the forfeiture of the office to which he has been elected or appointed. The defendant will thus be debarred from the right of trial by jury on the subject of his qualifications.
The law committee’s report ealls attention to the crude draftsmanship of the bills. The subversive ‘‘principles, doctrines or policies” may be political, religious or economic since there is no prescribed standard by which they are to be weighed. Doctrines which tend to the destruction of “rights, privileges and institutions secured under existing constitutions” may refer to the single tax, the repeal of the eighteenth amendment or to rent limitation laws introduced in the same legislature. Besides being an attempt to gag citizens by unconstitutionally depriving them of the right of franchise, the report asserts that the proposed legislation imposes a political power on the courts and concludes; “To rest judgment on the length of the chancellor’s foot has for centuries been regarded as monstrous.”
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The same commits ee also registered a vigorous protest against tb j education bill which also passed the legi jlature. The essential features of this bill are that it forbids private schools to operate except under license of the board of regents), which shall not be granted unless the regents are satisfied that the instruction proposed shall not be harmful to the public interest; and that the commissioner of education is empowered to revoke the certificate of any teacher in
the public schools if, in his opinion, the teacher is not “loyal to the institutions of the United States and of the State.”
The above measures now await action by the governor, whose attitude is problematical. The state constitution takes notice of the iniquitous legislative practice which congests the closing days of the session by allowing the governor thirty days after adjournment in which to approve or veto measures passed by the legislature.
in. MISCELLANEOUS.
Wisconsin Township May Subsidize Medical Attention.—Enterprising officials of a township in extreme northwestern Wisconsin have evolved a plan whereby medical practice in their sparsely settled community will be made more attractive than heretofore. Realizing that inability to obtain medical assistance during fatal illnesses of loved ones reacts unfavorably upon the state and local government authorities, they proposed a tax levy sufficient to provide an annual retainer of $1,000 for a physician who shall practice in the locality. Although the proposition was defeated at the polls by a small majority, another campaign will be waged, which it is believed will result in a favorable vote. It was proposed to bond the township to build a physician’s residence in which he could reside, rent free. In return the township board was to reserve the right to regulate the fees charged by the physician. A part of all fees collected for service outside the township was to be turned into the township treasury. In this connection it is said that there are many communities throughout the country that are without physicians.
*
An Ideal Home Exhibition was recently held in England under the auspices of the Daily Mail. Although a commercial exposition intended to show the advantages of various devices and materials for home building, distinguished bodies such as the Royal Institute of British Architects as well as the Ministry of Health participated. The most novel of the newer methods displayed is known as compressed green wood construction. The principal material used is elm wood, the long neglected and cheap hard wood of which there is such an abundant and convenient supply in England. The one essential is that the timber
be wrought immediately after leaving the saw while yet green and soft. After seasoning, the elm assumes a rocklike hardness. The secret of success, therefore, is speedy construction which has best been secured by complete standardization of the cottages in which this material is used.
*
The General Federation Magazine, for April, the official organ of the General Federation of Women’s Clubs, reflects the increasing interest of women in civic affairs in that it is devoted largely to the subject of civics. Special attention is given to women’s new civic responsibilities and relationships.
*
Middletown, Ohio, Claims Attention.—By
the use of every modern device known to campaign promoters, this town of 30,000 inhabitants recently raised a community fund of more than a million dollars. The purposes to which the proceeds will be put are of interest in that several of them are such as would usually be left to taxation. They include:
Necessary additions to Middletown hospital;
Assistance to the board of education in increasing the compensation of teachers of the public schools;
A new system of parks and playgrounds;
A new home for the girls’ club;
A fund for the public library;
A community memorial building;
Permanent headquarters for the Middletown post of the American Legion;
A new Y. M. C. A. building.
Such financial assistance to the city commission a3 that body may need for conduct of its affairs pending the proposed remedial legislation affecting taxation.


CITY MANAGER MOVEMENT
PROGRESS OF MANAGER PLAN IN ONE HUNDRED EIGHTY-FIVE CITIES—DIXIE, BIRTHPLACE OF THE IDEA
BY HARRISON GRAY OTIS1
This is the second instcdlment of a comprehensive study as to the working out of the city manager plan. The country has been covered sectionally. “Dixie” will be followed by “City Managers in and around Ohio.” :: :: :: :: :: :: ::
NORTH CAROLINA
North Carolina is placed second in the list of southern states as it now has nine manager municipalities of which seven have adopted the plan by charter. Two of these, Hickory and Morganton, were among the first three commission-manager cities in the country
Goldsbvro-^Ji acted nation wide attention in 1917 by its methods of advertising for a city manager which yielded a total of 522 applications. Gastonia, with a population of some
12,000, cast but three negative votes in the election by which the manager plan was adopted in 1919,—a ratio of 54 to 1.
Plan Very Popular
High Point. Population, 14,000. Council-manager charter effective May, 1915. R. L. Pickett, the third manager, appointed March, 1919. He succeeded Thos. J. Murphy who reported: “Since May, 1917, we have constructed over 100,000 yards of pavement with concrete base and asphalt top; have built an Imhoff Septic tank of large capacity; have increased our school equipment materially; have purchased a large capacity fire engine,
1 Secretary, City Managers’ Association.
and triple combination truck and gas pump; have secured an appropriation of several thousand dollars from the county to complete paving the main thoroughfares in the city; have built several miles of sewer lines and have extended our water system and installed an additional pump. Our city was in mud and had to get out.”
A recent letter from the mayor of High Point advises that the new plan is very popular. “Work goes on very smoothly and there are few complaints and little friction between the different departments of the city.”
Taxes Low—Efficiency High
Goldsboro. Population, 11,000. Council-manager charter effective July, 1917. I. M. Cashell, the second manager, was appointed October, 1918; salary, $3,800. In spite of the increased costs of labor and materials, Goldsboro operated last year within its budget and without higher taxes. All salaries have been raised and the police service has been improved with a marked increase in law enforcement. All houses in the city have been systematically numbered, at the expense of the owner.
A new thousand gallon pumper has been added to the fire equipment thus relieving the strain of high pressure


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1920]
from the entire city mains. Motor equipment is being provided for the fire department and the filtration plant capacity has been increased 50 per cent by the addition of a new filter unit. Over seven miles of sewer mains are under construction and ten miles of new water lines are being laid. Practically every house in Goldsboro will then be provided with sewerage and water service. The cost of this improvement was covered by bonds which sold above par. Over $400,000 is being spent for paving, streets thirty feet wide, sheet asphalt on concrete base with continuous concrete curb and gutter.
Mr. Cashell has been trained in sanitation and public health, and marked advances have been made along these lines. Enforcement of compulsory vaccination law resulted in more than nine hundred vaccinations in one month. Six thousand dollars is being spent toward destruction of the malarial mosquitoes.
Goldsboro’s tax rate is said to be the lowest in the state and there is now agitation for a reasonable increase to permit still greater improvements. The site has been purchased and plans completed for the erection of a $250,000 memorial community building, the funds being raised by popular subscription. Although the manager plan was adopted by a small number of votes, its popularity is now well established.
Record of Constructive Effort
Elizabeth City. Population, 8,925. City-manager charter effective April, 1915. The third manager, Fred W. Simonds, was appointed June, 1919, and has recently resigned. Salary limited by charter to $2,400.
Elizabeth City has had a variety of experiences under the manager plan
but the last administration has been marked by many improvements and a local paper announces: “Within the brief space of two months, City Manager F. W. Simonds has established a record of constructive civic improvement unequalled in the entire history of Elizabeth City.”
Among the accomplishments of the past year has been the increase of public safety by improvement of the fire and police department. The pay of the police has been raised 33| per cent, the men have been required to wear regulation uniforms, have been equipped with standard firearms and provided with better headquarters. An electric fire siren has replaced the old court house bell.
Sanitary measures have been provided by new ordinances, which are being strictly enforced. The public market, consisting of twenty-four stalls, has been renovated and is yielding an annual income to the city of over $9,000. Garbage disposal has been systematized and the garbage is to be converted into pork. Street repair and general maintenance is now being handled by the city instead of by contract and modern equipment has been purchased. Purchasing of supplies has been put on a competitive basis with resultant economy.
A Saving of $30,000
Hickory. Population, 5,200. Commission-manager charter effective May, 1913. R. G. Henry, the fourth manager, was appointed February, 1920; salary, $3,000. During the first two years this form of government is credited with saving the city over $30,000. Service in all departments has been increased and appointments made without regard to politics. Over $15,000 worth of permanent improvements were constructed and paid for


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out of general funds and without an increase in the tax rate.
Hickory’s new manager faces a heavyprogramof improvements including the erection of a sewage disposal plant and a municipal building. He is 28 years old and experienced in the construction of public utilities.
Thomasville Strikes Its Gait
Thomasville. Population, 5,000. City-manager charter effective May, 1915. James T. Stewart, Jr., the sixth manager, was appointed September, 1919; salary, $2,500.
Thomasville probably holds the record for the greatest number of changes in the position of city manager and until the most recent appointment little progress seems to have been made. A modern municipal accounting department is being worked out and routine office procedure has been greatly improved. Efficiency is being secured by “weeding out the ‘n.g.’ workers.” Better wages are paid to those who remain. Purchasing has been systematized; bills are now discounted for the first time on record.
In the water department, system and economy have resulted in the showing of an operating profit for the first time since the construction of the plant. The creation of an efficient fire department is under way and the police force has been raised from the level of “village constable” to a semblance of real police protection. Perhaps the biggest achievement has been the furnishing of an adequate water supply, which was badly needed. Some $130,000 worth of permanent streets are under construction. The president of the largest manufacturing concern in Thomasville writes that “the improvements made under the present management have been wonderful.”
Mr. Stewart is 36 years old, and had
[June
12 years’ experience in engineering construction before becoming manager.
Unanimous Approval After Seven Years
Morganton. Population, 4,240. Commission-manager charter effective May, 1918. W. R. Patton, the third manager, was appointed May, 1918; salary, $2,100.
After seven years experience under the new form of government at Morganton, Mr. Patton writes: “The manager plan has a firm hold at this place and has given excellent results and I feel safe to say that were a vote taken the manager plan would carry unanimously.” Last year all improvements were made by the city itself instead of by contract. Among these were the following:
150,000 square yards concrete street paving laid at $2.00 per yard.
1,500 square yards sidewalk at $1.80 per yard.
Considerable extension of the sewer system and extension of the water and light lines to reach all citizens in Morganton.
An American La France triple combination pumper chemical and hose car has been installed in the fire department.
Mr. Patton is 33 years old, a civil engineer with municipal experience.
“ Best Plan Yet"
Morehead City. Population, 3,500. Position of city manager created by ordinance June, 1916. John S. Bennett, the third manager, was appointed June, 1919; salary, $2,100.
A recent letter from Morehead City in regard to the manager plan states: “ It seems to be the best plan ever tried here. It gives good satisfaction and is liked by practically all thepeople.”
All electric service has been metered and the metering of the water service


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will soon be completed. The city is carrying on a steady program of improvements including extension of paving, water mains and sewers.
Mr. Bennett is 25 years old and was engineering ensign in the navy for 18 months.
Vote for Manager Plan 162 to 3
Gastonia. Population, 12,871. Adopted “Plan D,” the North Carolina manager plan by a vote of 162 to 3, on April 16, 1919, the charter becoming effective in August with W. J. Alexander as manager; salary, $3,600. He is 56 years old and a mechanical engineer.
Tarboro. Population, 5,100. Created the position of manager by ordinance April, 1915. J. H. Jacocks is said to be manager; salary, $1,500.
SOUTH CAROLINA
To the South Carolina legislature belongs the distinction of being the first to permit a commission-manager charter. Such authorization appears in the act passed in 1912, known as the Columbia bill, granting to certain cities the right to adopt the commission plan and containing a proviso, primarily designed for use by the city of Sumter authorizing a commission and a city manager. This provision was duly incorporated in the Sumter charter which became effective January, 1913. The only two other South Carolina towns to adopt the manager plan are Rock Hill and Beaufort.
Public Kept Constantly Advised
Rock Hill. Population, 10,000. Adopted the commission-manager plan by charter February, 1915. E. R. Treverton, the second manager, was appointed December, 1919; salary, $3,600.
J. G. Barnwell, the first manager, reports: “The city has been operated within its income. Money previously costing 7 per cent has been secured for 2f per cent from the same institutions. Quarterly audits by reputable concerns have been instituted. The purchasing system has been centralized, and a simple, practical requisitioning plan has been successfully installed. Collections, clerical work and departmental offices have been consolidated. Modem, labor-saving devices have been installed. Offices have been built, providing for the proper safe-keeping of valuable documents and records. Vacant city property, buildings, lands, etc., have been profitably utilized by rent or use. Water and electric rates have been reduced 10 per cent. Pure, analyzed water and regulated electric current and power are supplied at all times. A five acre city park has been purchased. Public watering troughs have been installed. Reclamation of lands, hitherto almost uninhabitable, has been made by proper drainage. Grading and surfacing of numerous streets has been done. The health department has almost entirely eradicated typhoid, and carries out rigid inspections of all public places liable to decrease the health of the community.
“The public is kept constantly advised as to the progress and doings of its government, and the taxpayers are always willing to lend a helping hand to assist in public enterprises. This form of government being so simple, the taxpayers are able to see the difficulties, and to appreciate the effort the government puts forth to meet these difficulties.
“This last appeals to me as being the greatest single achievement of the commission-manager government for the people of Rock Hill. It has made a united people, behind a willing, liberal and progressive commission.”


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“Absolutely Free from Politics’’
Sumter. Population, 10,000. Commission-manager charter effective January, 1913. W. T. Brown, the fifth manager, was appointed May, 1919; salary, $4,000.
The mayor of Sumter advises that after seven years under the manager plan he finds no opposition to the present system. He writes: “It is much easier to carry on the business of the city. It is absolutely free from politics. None of the commissioners has any political axe to grind.”
He continues: “The .theory of this form of government is all right and if a city can procure the proper man, who should be an all around man with large brains and a first-class business man, then it is bound to succeed. As you doubtless know, this kind of man is hard to get. We have a very good man now. We have had him for about a year and he is improving all the while.”
The letter concludes: “ In my opinion, the difference between a city government without a manager and with a manager is the same as trying to run a big corporation without a superintendent and with a superintendent.”
Four Hundred Acres Escaped Taxes
Beaufort. Population, 3,700. Attempted the manager plan by ordinance in January, 1915, but superseded the makeshift combination by a commission-manager charter in May, 1915. The fourth manager, Hal R. Pollitzer, was appointed May, 1918;salary$l,800.
The fourth year book of the City Managers’ Association reports: “Politics, which had lead to the removal of the first manager, resulting in an unsuccessful attempt to recall the majority of the city council, have been entirely eliminated from city business,
and for over two years every ordinance passed by unanimous vote. Departments were reorganized, budget and modern accounting systems installed, ordinances rewritten and codified. A complete tax map put over 400 acres of city real estate back on the tax rolls and a taxpayers’ card ledger will keep it there; sinking fund schedule computed, with big saving to taxpayers.
“Rigid building inspection code enforced, with the result that the annual fire loss averaged but ten cents per capita for the three years. Tennis courts, lawns and rose gardens replaced dump heaps. Vice district completely abolished for the first time on record. During the first two years city expenses were decreased 25 per cent, the saving being put into permanent improvements, an inherited floating debt being replaced by a surplus.
“Beaufort leads the cities of South Carolina in low-priced, efficient government, and a questionnaire developed the fact that of cities of her own size she has the lowest total tax rate, the lowest per capita license fees, the lowest per capita fines, the lowest bonded indebtedness and a good sized surplus.
“A $23,000 vitrified brick pavement was constructed without an increase in the tax rate and the bonded indebtedness is no higher than under the old form.”
Mr. Pollitzer is 37 years old, an electrical and mechanical engineer by training and served for many years as superintendent of public works and city engineer at Beaufort prior to his promotion to the managership.
FLORIDA
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feature of which is the provision that interference with any branch of the administration by a member of the commission is made cause for his summary removal.
Largo, population 500, claims the distinction of being the smallest city in the country to have a city manager.
No More Disturbances by Politicians
St. Augustine. Population, 6,192. Commission-manager charter effective July, 1915. Eugene Masters, the second manager, was appointed April, 1918; salary, $3,600.
Under the new plan, the city has lived within its budget at a tax rate of nine mills, the property being assessed at full value. The inherited indebtedness of $37,000 has been paid off and the city is now free from all debt with the exception of $65,000 water works bonds and has a sinking fund amounting to over $16,000 to its credit since the manager plan was adopted.
The assessment of city property on a full valuation basis in 1916 increased the rolls from $2,500,000 to $10,000,000. At first, there were “plenty of kicks,” but all objection has now vanished.
St. Augustine’s modern accounting system has been widely copied throughout the country. Eire and police efficiency have been greatly increased and the city rendered practically free of crime even at the height of the tourist season. During the past year the shortage and high cost of labor lead to a pronounced increase in equipment, which included a scarifier, road engine, road oiler, motor trucks and storage tanks for oil. Two miles of asphalt macadam have been rebuilt by the city at a cost of from 50 to 65 cents per square yard.
The city has established a tourists’ club with headquarters for both men and women and gives weekly street dances, which attract large crowds of
visitors. In co-operation with the hotel association and board of trade, the city has established bowling greens, quoit pitching, and table games in the parks, and provided band concerts for afternoons and evenings during the season. A letter from St. Augustine states: “There have been no more disturbances by the local politicians as predominated during the first year of the city-manager control and there seems to be a universal satisfaction at the manner in which the affairs of the city are conducted.”
Mr. Masters is 51 years old and has held various public offices including that of mayor and tax assessor.
Good Two Months’ Record
Sanford. Population, 6,000. Commission-manager charter effective January, 1920. Gerard A. Abbott, manager; salary, $3,600.
During the first two months under the new plan a very definite start has been made, as will be noted by the following summary:
An effective system of handling complaints established;
Confidence men, wire tappers, and gamblers driven out;
Back yards, alleys, and court ways cleaned of filth and rubbish;
Vacant lots and parks placed in best condition on record;
Eight model ordinances drafted and enacted;
Traffic regulations established and enforced;
Motor cycle officer employed to promote public safety;
Electrically lighted “silent policemen” installed;
Signs for tourists placed at entrances to city;
Several new street signs erected.
Operating expenses of the city reduced as follows: Cost of labor for parks, streets, and sanitation (old


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government), October, $1,160; November, $1,075; December, $1,043—(new government), January, $401; February (three weeks), $275.65.
The city manager has been authorized to appoint a health officer and direct his activities.
Mr. Abbott is so far the only city manager to have been promoted to his fourth city. He entered the field as village manager at Grosse Pointe Shores, Michigan, later serving as manager at Birmingham and Otsego, two small Michigan cities. He is 38 years old and had a general training in commercial law prior to entering the manager field.
“Dead Timber” Removed
Tallahassee. Population, 5,637. Commission-manager charter effective February, 1920. J. W. Greer appointed manager; salary, $4,200.
Tallahassee entered the new field with three of its most successful business men as commissioners. A bond issue of $212,000 has been voted for overhauling and rebuilding its utility plants and a comprehensive program is being developed.
At the end of the first month under the new plan, the manager writes: “We are making rapid progress here. Have bought a complete new gas plant, complete new electric plant and simplified the accounting system. We have lopped off a lot of expensive and superfluous ‘dead timber’ thereby saving much more than the manager’s salary while raising the pay and increasing the efficiency of the other employes. Our bonds are ready to sell and the interest and sinking fund will never cost the taxpayers a cent as they will be met out of the earnings of the municipally owned utilitites named.”
Mr. Greer, the manager, received the appointment unsolicited, because
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of his record at Bryan, Texas, where he served as city manager for two and a half years. He is 52 years old, a mechanical and electrical engineer, with broad experience in public utilities.
Success Limited at Ocala
Ocala. Population, 5,610. Manager plan provided for by charter amendment February, 1918. R. M. Martin, the third manager, was appointed October, 1918; salary, $2,400.
Reports from Ocala indicate that the new plan has not met with the greatest of success. The manager writes that his work is connected with the water and light plant and that he does not consider himself a city manager although the commission has given him that title. The first two managers served but very short terms and there is a general feeling that the plan has not been given a fair trial.
Big Success in Small Town
Largo. Population, 550. Position of city manager created by ordinance June, 1913. W. H. Turner, the third manager, was appointed March, 1918; salary, $1,200.
Largo is the smallest town to operate under the manager plan. Its methods and equipment are up to date in every way. The manager writes that in over two years he has not heard a single complaint as to the manager form of government. Things run so smoothly in fact that his commission, which is made up of business men, does not bother to meet more than two or three times a year, though they are constantly in touch with what is going on and can be called together at any time necessary. The manager is practically the whole city force and he is kept busy superintending the water works system, handling the finances,


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and enforcing the law. The business streets are well paved and sewer system modem.
West Palm Beach. Population,
10,000. Commission-manager charter effective December, 1919. Joseph Firth, manager; salary, $5,000.
GEORGIA
Georgia’s three manager cities have adopted the plan by charter or by charter amendment.
Save per Capita First Year
Griffin. Population, 10,300. City manager charter effective December, 1918, with E. P. Bridges, formerly city clerk and treasurer, as manager; salary, $2,550.
During the first year under the new plan the actual saving is placed at $43,395. Every department has improved materially over its condition under the former government.
More sewer and street paving work was done during 1919 than in any five previous years. The street improvements amounted to $180,000.
After eight months service, the manager wrote: “I have not heard a single criticism of the manager plan.” In a recent letter he adds: “ The present plan is becoming more popular every day.”
Mr. Bridges is 46 years old and served six years as clerk and treasurer at Griffin before becoming manager.
Voters “0. K.” Plan and Commission
Cartersville. Population, 5,810. Manager plan provided by charter amendment August, 1917. Abram Cook, the first manager, was appointed January, 1917; salary, $2,400.
Evidence that the manager plan is successful and popular is found in the
fact that the mayor and the two commissions have been twice elected without a contest of any kind, and without a dissenting vote. This is the first time in the history of the town that such an event has taken place. Every bond issue has been carried by practically an unanimous vote. The city government “sits in on every occasion where there is consultation regarding business achievements, industrial developments, civic and public matters of any kind.”
For more than two years, the Board of Aldermen has unanimously ratified every act of the city manager.
Fire risks have been greatly reduced by passage of model ordinances recommended by the Underwriters’ Association, health protected by insuring pure water, money saved by constructing public improvements by city labor instead of by contract.
In concluding a recent report, the manager refers any one unhesitatingly to any man or woman in Cartersville.
Rome. Population, 14,000. Commission-manager charter effective April, 1919, with Samuel S. King as manager; salary, $3,000.
TENNESSEE
Tennessee has but two cities under the manager plan. The first Kingsport, the second Alcoa. These are both new industrial towns in the mountain region of eastern Tennessee and were incorporated under commission-manager charters.
Manager Plan as Inducement to Industries
Kingsport. Population, 10,000. Commission-manager charter effective March, 1917. Herbert L. Kidd, the third manager, was appointed April 1, 1920; salary, $4,200. He followed F. L. Cloud and W. R. Prouder.


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In 1917 Kingsport consisted of two plants, one store, a dozen homes, lots of mud, no sanitation nor provision for public safety. To-day Kingsport has more than 10,000 people and is a thoroughly charming city with all modern conveniences including six miles of concrete paving. This rapid growth has placed a heavy burden upon the city administration but there is nowhere evidence of the makeshift construction observed in the proverbial boom town.
During the past year the city has laid 56,686 square yards of concrete pavement at an average cost of $1.50 per yard. This paving was constructed under standard specifications and the low price is due to the fact that the city did its own work, crushing its own rock in its own quarry, and secured its cement from a large local mill. Labor cost 32f cents per hour. Plans for the current year include extensive paving, erection of two large school buildings, and the construction of several miles of storm and sanitary sewer.
It is significant that Kingsport’s form of government is used as a definite appeal to home seekers and new busi-
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ness enterprises with successful results. It is reported that 100 per cent of the people approve of the way their government is being conducted.
Mr. Kidd has served for some time as city engineer of Knoxville, Tennesse.
Industrial Town Has Business Charter
Alcoa. Population, 3,500. Incorporated under commission-manager charter effective July, 1919. V. J. Hultquist, construction superintendent of the Aluminum Company of America, which built the town and for which it is named, serves as manager, for which he receives $2,000.
During the first four months under the new plan Alcoa passed forty ordinances and entered upon a program of improvements which was financed by a bond issue of $225,000. Some three miles of concrete paving have been constructed and storm sewers added to the up to date sanitary sewer system. All parts of the city are supplied with excellent drinking water. Alcoa is an industrial city with its government conducted on the plan of a successful industry.


EMPLOYMENT STANDARDIZATION IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE
BY WILLIAM C. BEYER
Assistant Director, Bureau of Municipal Research of Philadelphia
The movement toward employment standardization in our public service has been gathering momentum and becoming increasingly significant during the last ten years. In the following pages an effort is made to review and in some measure to appraise the progress of this movement during the period just mentioned. The material that forms the basis of this review consists mainly of the reports on employment standardization that have been issued by various public bodies throughout the
country. It consists also, however, of the supplementary literature on the subject, of letters from public officials and others describing the operation of standardization measures in their own localities, of interviews with specialists in the field of employment standardization, and of personal observation.
In order to make this review of greater value to the lay reader, it is preceded by a brief discussion of the underlying principles of employment standardization.
PRINCIPLES OF EMPLOYMENT STANDARDIZATION
Instead of making an abstract statement of these principles, let us assume a concrete situation and develop the essential principles involved as we proceed. The reader and the writer, we shall assume, are both public officials upon whom has fallen the responsibility for standardizing the service of a city government.
We shall not stop to picture the conditions in the service that call for correction. The inequalities of pay for similar work, the confusing multiplicity of meaningless titles, the lack of definite lines of promotion, and the demoralizing effect of these conditions upon the morale of the employes in the average municipal service are only too well known to require further description.
EQUAL PAY FOB EQUAL WORK
After considering these conditions from various angles, we conclude quite
properly that one of the basic needs of the service is a concrete application of the principle of equal pay for equal work. If two clerks, for example, are doing the same character and grade of work, it goes without saying that they should have the same pay. This is a matter of the most elementary justice.
WHAT IS EQUAL WORK?
But what is equal work? If the two clerks just mentioned are doing exactly the same kind of work, let us say addressing envelopes, we should decide quite readily that their work was equal. But let us suppose that we are dealing, not with two, but with two hundred clerical positions, scattered throughout a score of different offices and involving a multitude of different tasks. Under such circumstances it would not be so easy to determine equality of work and to 391
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grade the positions accordingly. In fact, this cannot be done at all without some standard for measuring work. A standard of this character, moreover, is not easily devised and its application is not so simple as that of a standard of physical measurement, like the yard stick. Nevertheless it is possible to define a series of standard positions that mark the various grades in any vocational line of work so that the grade of any position in that vocational line can be determined by comparison with the standard positions.
Let us say, for example, that we are grading all positions in a municipal service involving bookkeeping work. After considering the range between the least important and the most important bookkeeping positions in the service, our first task would be to define a number of standard positions that would correspond to the various grades into which the bookkeeping work might properly be divided. Beginning with the lowest grade, we might define standard positions under the titles of junior bookkeeper, bookkeeper, and senior bookkeeper. Then we should compare the duties of each bookkeeping position in the service with these standard positions and place it in the same grade with the standard position that it most closely resembles. Thus, by following the axiom that “things equal to the same thing are equal to each other,” we are able to determine what positions involve equal work and therefore should carry with them equal pay.
NEED OF STANDARDS OF COMPENSATION
After the question of equal work has been settled, it seems at first like a very simple matter to determine the question of equal pay. It is not so simple, however, as it seems.
Let us suppose again that of our two clerks one is receiving $1,200 a year and the other $1,800 a year. We propose to equalize their salaries. How shall we go about it? Shall we pay both clerks $1,200 a year, or shall we pay both $1,800; or shall we decide upon some third figure? Obviously if these clerks are to be treated at all fairly we must be guided by some standard of adequacy. That standard may be determined either by the current market value of the services rendered, or by the cost of maintaining a given standard of living, or by a modification of either or both of these two methods. The essential point is that some standard of adequacy must be used in the process of equalization.
THEORY OF THE RANGE OF COMPENSATION
Let us suppose again that of the two clerks mentioned above one has been in his position for a number of years and has attained a high degree of efficiency in performing his duties, whereas the other, while having exactly the same kind of work to do, is still a novice in his job and consequently not as efficient as his colleague. In this case absolute equalization of pay would not be fair to the more experienced worker. It would not, in fact, be equal pay for equal work, but equal pay for work that is essentially unequal because of the manner in which it is performed. Justice to both workers, therefore, would require a lower rate for the one and a higher rate for the other, even though their duties may be exactly the same. In order to give recognition to this difference in the value of services rendered by different persons in similar positions, our standard of compensation should allow for some variation of rates within certain fixed limits. Instead of a
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standard flat rate there should be, for any given class and grade of work, a standard range of compensation providing standard minimum, maximum and intermediate rates. This is not an alteration but rather a refinement of the principle of equal pay for equal work, for it takes into account not only the nature of the work but also the manner in which it is performed.
NEED OF STANDARD QUALIFICATIONS FOR APPOINTMENT
Having arrived at this point in our standardization program, we should be short-sighted indeed if we did not perceive the next logical step to be taken. Equal pay for equal work must be followed by equal minimum qualifications for appointment. If, for example, an elementary course in bookkeeping is properly required for appointment to one position involving the duties of junior bookkeeper, it is purely a matter of fairness and of common sense that an elementary course in bookkeeping should be required for appointment to all other positions involving the duties of junior bookkeeper. We, therefore, prescribe for each standard position the minimum qualifications that applicants should possess to be eligible for appointment to that position.
OPENING OPPORTUNITIES FOR CAREERS
In standardizing personal service, however, it is not enough to achieve simply a static equality in conditions of employment. The work of any organization ought to be planned in such a manner that it will offer, not merely jobs, but careers to those entering its service. In other words, the process of standardization ought to establish definite avenues of promotion. Each standard position in a vocational group ought to serve as a
natural stepping stone to the next higher position in that group, and with every advance in position there should go a corresponding advance in pay. This feature of standardization brings about the necessity of classifying the service along vocational lines, a task not so easy as it may appear on the surface. In a large organization the work of employes is likely to be highly specialized, whereas in a small one the individual worker’s scope of duties is usually much broader. In a large office, for example, we might find the clerical work performed by three distinct groups of specialists—stenographers, bookkeepers, and clerks. On the other hand, it is not at all uncommon in a smaller office to find a single person employed in the combined capacity of stenographer, bookkeeper, and clerk, simply because there is not sufficient work to keep three specialists fully occupied. That these conditions have a vital bearing upon the problem of classification is obvious. Where the service is highly specialized the classification may follow very narrow vocational lines, such as those of stenography, bookkeeping, typing, and clerking. Where it is not so highly specialized the classification must be made along broader lines. A suitable plan of classification can be determined only after a careful survey of the service to be standardized.
GAUGING THE PERSONAL EQUATION
Finally, it is desirable in standardizing employment to provide means of gauging the personal equation. If we are going to recognize a difference in the value of the services rendered by different workers in similar positions, we should have a way of measuring this difference. For example, if we determine that the salary scale for a junior clerkship shall be $1,200 to
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$1,560 per year, with $1,320 and $1,440 as intermediate rates, it is necessary to devise some standard that will guide us in applying these different rates to different individuals. In other words, assuming as we must that a new appointee would always begin at the lowest rate because of his lack of familiarity with the duties of his position, we need a standard method of advancing employes from lower to higher rates of pay. A standard of this character may consist merely of length of service, the person having served longest in the position being accorded the highest rate of pay. Again, it may consist of the relative efficiency of the individuals concerned, as shown by a system of efficiency records. It may also consist of a combination of both of the foregoing methods.
Once a standard of this kind has been devised, it may be used not only in determining the specific rate of pay that is fair for each individual doing the work of a given position, but also as a factor in determining promotion from a lower to a higher grade position. Let us say that Mr. Jones and Mr. Smith are both junior clerks and are also both candidates for promotion to senior clerks. Other things being equal, if Mr. Jones has a better efficiency record than Mr. Smith, preference in promotion ought to be given to Mr. Jones. The record of efficiency, however, ought not to be the only factor in promotions from lower to higher grade positions, for the higher grade positions usually call for a higher order of ability which can be determined only by a test of capacity. Hence it is a growing practice in the civil service to give a competitive examination to applicants for promotion, thus taking into account their capacity for more responsible work as well as their record in the work they have been performing in the past.
SUMMARY
At this point let us stop for a brief recapitulation. The basic principle with which we started was that of equal pay for equal work. We found that in order to apply this principle intelligently and fairly it is necessary:
1. To define a series of standard positions designated by standard titles by comparison with which it may be possible to determine what positions in the service involve equal work.
2. To determine upon some standard of compensation, such as the current market value of the services under consideration, the cost of maintaining a given standard of living, or a modification of either or both of these standards.
3. To establish for each standard position a range of compensation, rather than a flat rate of pay, so that the efficiency and the length of service of individual employes may be taken into account as well as the character of their duties.
4. To prescribe standard qualifications for each standard position.
5. To classify all positions along vocational lines in order to establish definite avenues of promotion and thus afford to employes an opportunity for a career in the public service.
6. To determine upon some standard method, based either upon efficiency or upon length of service or upon both, of advancing employes from the lower to the higher rates of pay within a given range of compensation.
In the language of the specialist in employment standardization, the standard titles, definitions of duties, qualifications for appointment, and rates of compensation applying to the various standard positions have come to be spoken of as “standard specifications of personal service.”
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EMPLOYMENT STANDARDIZATION IN PRACTICE
It will be of interest now to observe the actual practice of employment standardization. Our field of observation will include sixteen governmental jurisdictions which have undertaken standardization programs and have reached the stage of issuing a report on their work. Listed in chronological order as determined chiefly by the dates of the formal reports, these governmental jurisdictions are as follows: Chicago, 1911; Oakland, California, 1915; Los Angeles County, California, 1915; Pittsburgh, 1915; New York State, 1916; New York City, 1916; Seattle, 1917; Ohio, 1917; Milwaukee City, 1917; New Jersey, 1917; Cleveland, 1917; Akron, Ohio, 1917; Milwaukee County, 1917; St. Louis, 1918; Massachusetts, 1918; Dominion of Canada, 1919. In addition to this list, occasional reference may be made to the standardization work now in progress in the federal civil service and in Philadelphia.
BY WHAT AGENCIES UNDERTAKEN
First of all let us inquire by what agencies standardization programs have been undertaken. The practice in this matter has varied. One is not surprised to learn, however, that no agency has played so conspicuous a part in standardization work as the employment department of government, the civil service commission. It was largely through this agency that Chicago, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Milwaukee City and Milwaukee County, Cleveland, Los Angeles County, Oakland, the states of New Jersey and Ohio, and the government of the Dominion of Canada undertook their various programs. The initial work on standardization in the Chicago city service was done by a “ Municipal Efficiency Commission ” on
which the Civil Service Commission was represented, but after two years of experience the Civil Service Commission assumed all of the functions of the Municipal Efficiency Commission. In some cases where the civil service commission has become the standardization agency it has proceeded to do the work with its own staff, but in other cases it has retained outside consultants for the purpose. The latter course has been followed by the civil service commissions of Oakland, Milwaukee City, Milwaukee County, Cleveland, the state of New Jersey, and the Dominion of Canada.
In two instances an administrative agency other than the civil service commission has been used. New York City created the Bureau of Standards, later known as the Bureau of Personal Service, under the jurisdiction of the Board of Estimate and Apportionment for the specific task of standardizing city employments. Massachusetts designated the Supervisor of Administration for a similar undertaking.
The method of designating a legislative committee to do the work of standardization has been adopted in several cases. In New York State the senate committee on civil service was authorized by the legislature to conduct an inquiry into the conditions of employment in the state service and to make constructive recommendations. In the federal government a Joint Congressional Commission on Reclassification was appointed with similar authority. A slight variation of the same plan was adopted in Akron, Ohio, where the legislative body charged a special committee of its membership with the duty of standardizing the city service and requested the mayor and the local bureau of municipal research, a citizens’ agency, to assist the committee.
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In Seattle the work was done by a special commission appointed by the mayor and consisting of “a member of the City Council, a member of the Civil Service Commission, a member of the Board of Public Works, an employe of the City under Civil Service, a representative of the labor organizations, a representative of the civic organizations and a representative of the business interests of the city.”
It is difficult to judge from the results achieved which of these different methods is best. In the last analysis very much depends upon the local situation. The best method in one city might not be the best method in another city. As a general proposition, however, it may be asserted that unless there are peculiar local conditions that make a different course advisable, it is best to charge the civil service commission with the responsibility of developing the standardization program. If the commission is wise, it will devise means of keeping in close touch with the legislative body, the executive officials, and the employes, upon whose co-operation it must depend to put the standardization plan into effect.
CHARACTER OP THE CLASSIFICATIONS ADOPTED
The second item of interest is the character of the classifications adopted. We may distinguish at once between two general types of classifications which, for convenience, we shall call the Chicago type and the New York type, because of the origin of the former in Chicago and the first distinct formulation of the latter in New York City. The former classifies the service into broad divisions such as the clerical service, the medical service, and the inspection service; whereas the latter follows more restricted voca-
tional lines such as bookkeeping, typing, nursing, and building inspection.
The Chicago type of classification has been adopted not only by the city of Chicago, but also by Oakland, Milwaukee City, Milwaukee County, Seattle, and the state of New Jersey. The classification prepared for the Dominion of Canada also is of the Chicago type. It is worthy of note, however, that in the later classifications of this type there is a decided leaning toward the more restricted service groupings of the New York type. This is evident from the fact that while the original Chicago classification divided the service into only eleven primary divisions, the classification of Milwaukee County provides for seventeen such divisions, that of the city of Milwaukee for nineteen divisions, and that of the Dominion of Canadafor thirty-four divisions. Even the Canadian classification, however, differs fundamentally from the New York type which contains, for New York State, upwards of one hundred and fifty primary divisions of service.
Outside of New York City the New York type of classification has been used in the states of New York, Ohio, and Massachusetts; in the cities of St. Louis, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, and Akron; and in Los Angeles County. It should be mentioned that the Los Angeles County and Pittsburgh classifications both preceded the classification of New York City and foreshadowed its character; but the conspicuous setting of the standardization work in the great metropolis, the clarity of its general plan, and the evident care that had been exercised in applying the vocational method of grouping positions, immediately gave the New York classification a prestige which the two earlier classifications have never had.
Since the classifications of the New York type follow along restricted vo-
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cational lines, one might expect to find practically the same vocational groups in all of these classifications. Such, however, is not the case. An analysis, from which the classifications of the small municipal service of Akron has been excluded, shows that out of a total of 486 vocational groups in all of the remaining eight classifications only 128, or about 26 per cent, appear in more than one classification. Only 65, or about 13 per cent, appear in more than two classifications. Only 27, or about 5.5 per cent, appear in more than three classifications. Only 19, or less than 4 per cent, appear in more than four classifications. Only six vocational groups, those designated as “accountant,” “forester,” “pharmacist,” “stenographer,” “storekeeper,” and “telephone operator,” appear in six classifications; two groups, “bookkeeper” and “physician,” appear in seven classifications; and “clerk” and “nurse” enjoy the exclusive distinction of appearing in all of the eight classifications.
The explanation of this lack of standardization within standardization measures themselves is not difficult to find. In the first place, governmental activities vary from city to city, from county to county, and from state to state. To illustrate, one city may do much of its own printing, whereas the other may have all its printing done by contract. The result would be that in the service classification of the first city there would appear a separate vocational group for printers, but in the classification of the second city no such group would appear. Again, in different governmental jurisdictions different methods of grouping similar employments have been used. St. Louis, for example, has classified chemists in a group by themselves, whereas New York State and New York City have placed both chemists
and physicists in a single group. The state of Ohio has adopted still another method by bringing together in one vocational group not only chemists and physicists, but also bacteriologists and pathologists. In the third place, lack of standardization results from mere lack of a common nomenclature for like vocational groups. In one classification we find “electricians” and in another “electrical workers,” not because of any substantial difference in the two groups, but simply because two different designations have been used for identical groups.
That greater uniformity could be achieved in civil service classifications even after all necessary variations are made to fit local conditions is quite obvious. It is possible, for example, to secure greater consistency in the grouping of related employments than we now have and yet not force upon any local service an arrangement that might prove arbitrary. Certainly where similar vocational groups are known by different designations, it would seem not only feasible but highly desirable to adopt standard designations. It is unlikely, however, that much headway will be made in this direction until we obtain some central clearing house for testing the different methods of classification and recommending as standard those which seem most meritorious. Here is an opportunity for the National Civil Service Reform League, the National Assembly of Civil Service Commissions, the Governmental Research Conference, or for all three of these organizations acting in unison. Already a notable beginning in this direction has been made by the National Assembly of Civil Service Commissions. In June, 1916, a special committee of that organization reported on certain fundamental principles that should govern the classification of positions in
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the public service and, among other things, recommended that a standing committee be appointed “to work out an acceptable classification scheme.” Thus far, however, this recommendation has not been carried into effect.
STANDARDIZATION OF DUTIES AND QUALIFICATIONS
We may now make a cursory examination of two features of employment standardization which are very closely related, namely, the definitions of standard positions and the standard qualifications for appointment.
It is not within the scope of this discussion to comment on the suitability and correctness of the definitions and qualification statements in the various standardization measures, but attention should be called to a few matters of technical practice.
If one did not go back of the printed pages of the annual reports of the Chicago Civil Service Commission one would be left with the impression that the standardization measure of that city contained neither definitions of standard positions nor standard qualifications for appointment. These reports contain only definitions of “services” and “grades” but not of individual positions; and such statements of qualifications as may be discovered at all are most general in character and appear more or less incidentally in the grade definitions. The latter, too, are general rather than specific, and for a very good reason. A grade in the Chicago classification of service frequently includes a dozen or more distinct positions each involving a specialized set of duties and often belonging to a separate vocational line of work from other positions in the same grade. In grade I of the medical service, for example, Chicago has such widely differing positions as “orderly” and
“interne.” Under these circumstances the grade definitions had to be general in character, for any attempt to make them specific would have created difficulty in covering such a large number and variety of positions. As it is, the definitions are so very general that they have almost no practical value as standards for measuring work.
It is only by going behind the printed pages of the reports that the real character of this feature of Chicago’s standardization plan may be ascertained. In the official files of the Civil Service Commission are cards for all the standard positions in the Chicago city service and on these cards appear not only specific definitions of the duties of the standard positions but also specific statements of the examination requirements to be met by applicants for appointment to these positions. The grade definitions appearing in the annual reports of the Chicago Commission are really superfluous timber and could be omitted entirely without detriment to the more essential features which do not appear in the reports. The important unit in employment standardization, after all, is the individual position and not the grade.
The grade definition, however, did not disappear immediately after Chicago’s pioneer work. It was retained in the Oakland standardization of 1915. In the same year Los Angeles County, though it departed radically from Chicago’s type of classification, did not cast overboard the idea of the general grade definition. Neither does its published classification of service contain any statements of appointment qualifications distinct from the general grade definitions. Pittsburgh, which followed closely upon the heels of Los Angeles County in its effort at standardization, continued the grade
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definitions, but made them more specific and also included in its report statements of appointment qualifications applying to all positions in the grade. As late as 1917 Seattle, Washington, adopted a standardization plan which not only retained grade definitions but harked back to the very general type of definition first used by Chicago. In like manner it followed the example of Chicago’s printed reports by omitting all mention of appointment qualifications.
In the standardization measures of New York City and New York State we find for the first time a distinct breaking away from the grade definition and the substitution of definitions of standard positions instead. These two measures which were worked out more or less simultaneously and under the guidance of the same organization, the New York Bureau of Municipal Research, may be said to mark a transitional stage in the development of this phase of technique; for while their departure from the grade definition was distinct yet it was by no means complete. In both measures there remain numerous instances of the use of definitions intended to cover all positions in a grade rather than just one position. In case of the qualifications for appointment we find a like tendency to break away from the grade as the unit of employment and to single out the standard position as the proper unit. It should be noted, however, that in the New York standardization reports there are many more survivals of qualification standards that apply to all positions in a grade than there are of grade definitions of duties.
The states of Ohio and Massachusetts and the city of Cleveland simply followed the New York model without making any contribution of importance to the technique of the work.
It remained for the city of Milwaukee to make thb first complete break from the old grade definitions and grade qualification standards and to adopt a consistent policy of making the standard position the primary unit of employment for all purposes. In the standardization measure of that city every standard position is separately defined and is governed by a separate statement of appointment qualifications. The same practice has been followed by the state of New Jersey, the city of Akron, Milwaukee County, and the Dominion of Canada. The Canadian standardization, it should be added, is so emphatic in its recognition of the standard position as the primary unit of employment that it pays no attention whatever to grades as such. The report published by the Dominion government may be described as a dictionary in which the various standard positions are listed in alphabetical order.
STANDARDS OF COMPENSATION
Still another important item of interest is the practice of the different governments in regard to standards of compensation.
In general, two distinct standards have been used, the market value and the cost of living. The former has been used in practically all jurisdictions where employment standardization has been undertaken. In order to ascertain the market value of definite types of personal service, the rule has been to inquire into the rates of pay for similar employments in local private establishments and in other branches of the public service. For certain classes of skilled labor the union scale of wages has been accepted as the standard, notably in Chicago and Pittsburgh. It should be added, however, that where the market value has
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been ascertained it has not been taken as an absolute standard but rather as a guide. Often it has been found that the conditions surrounding certain employments in the public service were so different from those surrounding analogous employments in private service that fairness required either a higher or a lower rate than the prevailing one.
In 1915 New York City established the precedent of making the cost of living a factor in wage determination. Like every other city of considerable size, New York had in its employ a large body of unskilled manual workers. When the Bureau of Standards came to the problem of setting the wage scale for this particular group, it realized the inequity of being guided solely by the wages prevailing in private employment regardless of their adequacy. Upon the theory that the city government should be a model employer, it was decided to inquire into the cost of living of unskilled laborers in the city of New York. The result of this inquiry was a brief report of 57 pages in which the conclusion was drawn that “below $840 a year an unskilled laborer’s family of five cannot maintain a standard of living consistent with American ideas.” The standard of living outlined in this report, it must be confessed, was too near the poverty level to be considered “consistent with American ideas,” and the recommendation of the Bureau of Standards that $840 be made the maximum rate of pay for unskilled laborers, and attainable only after at least seven years of satisfactory service at lower rates, was hardly in keeping with the pronouncement that the city government should be a model employer; still the mere fact that the cost of living was taken into account at all marked a decided step in advance and gave to New York City a distinct place
in the history of the standardization movement.
Two years later the Bureau of Personal Service, which succeeded the Bureau of Standards, repeated this inquiry and found that, due to higher prices, a minimum of $980 was necessary to provide the standard of living described in the original report.
A broader application of the cost of living principle, though from a different angle, was made in 1918 in Seattle. Unlike New York, that city did not attempt to establish a basic rate for unskilled laborers or for any other group of employes. It did, however, ascertain the increase in the cost of living in Seattle from 1915 to 1918 and then increased the compensation of salaried employes to a point where it was about 40 per cent higher than it was in 1915. While it is true that Seattle prices had gone up considerably more than 40 per cent during the period in question, yet the fact is to be noted that the adjustment in salaries was made with a definite relationship to the cost of living. Since this process brought Seattle salaries about 8 per cent above the 1918 salary rates as they were before the results of the study were applied, the wages of skilled and unskilled laborers also were advanced 8 per cent above the original 1918 rates, thus leaving the existing relativity of wages undisturbed.
The Canadian report on standardization embodies still another approach with regard to the cost of living. In this report it is frankly stated that the revised salaries should not be based upon actual living costs in 1918 which were considered abnormal and unstable, but upon “what would have been normal conditions for 1918 had the tendencies of the period prior to the war continued and had the war not occurred.” For certain classes of positions a special war bonus was recom-
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mended in addition to the regular salaries. As in Seattle, no effort was made to ascertain the cost of maintaining a given standard of living and thus establishing a basic rate for particular groups of employes.
Although the report of the Joint Congressional Commission on Reclassification of Salaries in the federal civil service is not yet available,1 there should be some reference to the very fundamental approach which has been made to the problem of salary adjustment in the studies of this commission. Under its direction the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics has made cost of living inquiries along three different lines. One inquiry resulted in the formulation of a “quantity and cost budget” for a government clerk’s family of five persons and the demonstration that, at October, 1919 prices, such a family could not maintain itself in health and decency on less than $2,288 a year. A similar inquiry developed the fact that at September, 1919 prices, a single man employed as government clerk required a minimum income of $1,057 a year to maintain a corresponding standard of living. A third inquiry found that a single woman clerk must have at least $1,140 a year. With these three basic studies before it the Reclassification Commission was provided with a better fact basis for establishing equitable rates of pay for different classes of workers than any other public agency engaged in employment standardization has ever been.
A word ought to be said, too, with regard to the new undertaking in Philadelphia. While the official work of the Civil Service Commission of this city is as yet hardly under way, there will be available a local study of the cost of living for a workingman’s 1 This report has since been published as House Document No. 686, 66th Congress, 2d Session.
family made by the Bureau of Municipal Research of Philadelphia.2 This study, which was made during 1917 and 1918, outlines a standard of living expressed to a very large extent in terms of actual goods and services, so that its current cost may be readily ascertained at any time by simply revising the price figures appearing opposite the various items listed in the standard. It was found that the annual income required by a workingman’s family of five persons at autumn 1918 prices was $1,636, and that at November, 1919 prices it was $1,803.
The range of compensation rather than the flat rate of pay has been made an essential feature of every standardization measure. Practically the only exceptions to this rule are found in the skilled and unskilled labor employments where the flat rate appeared to be more in conformity with the practice in private service.
ADVANCEMENT WITHIN COMPENSATION RANGES
Perhaps the most difficult problem in employment standardization is that of providing a fair and workable method of governing advancement from lower to higher rates of pay within a given range of compensation. It will be of especial interest therefore to see what has been the actual practice in this regard.
In the recommendations contained in the various reports on standardization, three different methods may be distinguished:
1. Automatic advancement at the end of a given period of time.
2. Advancement after a prescribed minimum period of service if warranted by the efficiency of the individual as
2 “ Workingmen’s Standard of Living in Philadelphia,” published by the Macmillan Company in October, 1919.
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indicated by a system of efficiency records.
3. Advancement upon special appraisal indicating that the increase in salary is justified.
The first of these methods, that of automatic advancement at the end of a given period of time, has found favor in only one jurisdiction—Los Angeles County. Even there, however, its application is limited to the first increase in salary. A new appointee begins at the lowest rate and after one year of service he advances automatically to the next higher rate. Thereafter, however, advancement takes place only after investigation and favorable recommendation by the Bureau of Efficiency of the Civil Service Commission. The weakness of automatic advancement is that it does not discriminate between the less and the more efficient employes.
The second method is much more common. It has been recommended in practically every report on standardization that has appeared thus far. This does not mean that systems of efficiency records have been fully and successfully installed in all jurisdictions where they have been recommended. Ear from it! As a matter of fact, according to fragmentary reports received by the writer, such systems have not been installed at all in Seattle or in Ohio; they have been only partially introduced in New York State and in St. Louis; and nowhere do they appear to have been really satisfactory. For a time the Chicago efficiency record system was heralded abroad as a most successful experiment, but it is no longer so regarded even in Chicago. One of the great difficulties everywhere seems to be to get administrative officials to take their duty of marking the efficiency of employes seriously enough. Too often this work has been done in a most perfunctory manner.
Another difficulty is encountered in reconciling the markings of officials who mark according to widely varying standards; and a third difficulty lies in the fact that the personal bias of the administrator cannot be effectively eliminated from the markings without reducing their scope to a point of comparative uselessness.
In the writer’s opinion the shortcomings of efficiency record systems are so great and in some respects so fundamental that the time, energy, and expense of further experimentation along this line might well be spared were it not for one fact of outstanding importance, and that is the lack of anything more satisfactory. It may be that some of the more recent innovations which place the operation of the system to a large extent under the control of the employes themselves will overcome in part at least the difficulties that stood in the way of the older plans. As yet, however, we have no positive evidence to that effect. The encouraging sign in this situation is that at the present time the whole problem of efficiency records is being approached with much greater care than it was a number of years ago. If there are real possibilities in the system we shall know it before very long; if the system has no possibilities we shall know this also.
The third method of governing advancement, that of special appraisal by a bureau of efficiency or similar administrative agency, has been recommended in New York City and New York State and is in effect in Los Angeles County, as we have already indicated. It should be explained that in both New York City and State this method is applied only to the higher grade positions. In Los Angeles County, as we have seen, it applies to all positions having a range of compensation, but is confined to the
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second, and last, increase in pay in each position. This method must be considered as merely supplementary to other methods, for it is hardly conceivable that in a large service a separate appraisal of the work of every employe could be made every year by an overhead administrative agency.
CONCLUSION
After this somewhat cursory examination of the various standardization plans that have been worked out in different jurisdictions, it may not be wholly amiss to draw a few general conclusions.
In the first place there can be no question that very distinct gains in technique have been made during the last ten years. The later efforts at standardization, as a rule, have been far more scientific and more practicable than the earlier ones.
In the second place it must be frankly confessed that thus far we have not been able to meet squarely two highly important problems with which we have to deal in employment standardization. Most governments have hedged on the question of adequate compensation and none of them has yet proposed a satisfactory solution of the problem of controlling advancement in salary within a range of compensation.
In the third place there appears to be a great lack of standardization within the standardization measures themselves. This is true not only of
the classifications of service but also of the grading schemes, the titles and the definitions of duties. We would reiterate, therefore, the suggestion that either the National Civil Service Reform League, the National Assembly of Civil Service Commissions, or the Governmental Research Conference, or any two or all of them acting in unison, establish some kind of central clearing house or bureau of standards for the purpose of testing out the various methods and ideas that have been advanced in the field of employment standardization and of recommending those which seem most meritorious. Without such a clearing house we shall continue to make confusion worse confounded, especially if every new consultant who appears upon the scene feels it encumbent upon himself to do something differently from the way it was done before whether his method is better or not. This is true particularly of nomenclature in which we already have a veritable babel of voices.
Finally, the warning should be sounded that merely to work out an excellent plan of standardization, or even to secure its adoption, does not solve all employment problems for all time. At best the plan merely makes for clarification and makes equitable employment administration possible. To maintain the plan in working order requires eternal vigilance, and to use it in the best interests of the service requires the most conscientious efforts of the broadest gauged men the community affords.
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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW VOL. M, No. 6 JUNE, 1920 TOTAL No. 48 VIEWS AND REVIEWS I IF the McCormick budget bill passes, the treasury department will have to be dismantled by the transfer of its non-financial functions to other departments. If the project for a new department of public works, now being vigorously advanced by certain of the engineering profession, makes progress, another shakeup impends. A reorganization of the state department is reported as being already scheduled by congressional leaders. The budget process itself will bring to light conflicts of jurisdiction that do not emerge when each department appeals for funds to ,a different committee of congress. Congress believes that an unexplainable number of war-time employes linger needlessly in Washington. It is a fine chance for a commission of inquiry to produce a great report. An ideally bad way to go about it is to have a committee of congress engage untrained counsel, who is confident that common sense is a sufficient equipment, summon busy bureau chiefs and departmental employes before the inattentive committee for long, aimless dreary hearings, ask for data in impracticable classScations, get it in vast tables and reports, which only the proofreader ever reads, and end with a list of mediocre proposals to be promptly frozen into law, beyond the possibility of executive alteration. After which comes:moving day, chaos, demoralization, resignations, slow restoration, and, finally, some solid improvements and a few unforeseen and now irremediable diiliculties. And then stagnation for fifty years. The right way is the reviving of the Taft efficiency and economy commission, plus a continuation of the President’s war-time powers to rearrange departmental functions. Then can follow, week after week, presidential orders, based in many cases on interdepartmental compromises and agreements, a seriatim process extending over several years, subject to frequent amendment and adjustment, and never entirely ceasing. Such would be an evolutionary process instead of a revolutionary; an intimate, intelligent development, instead of long-distance, ignorant interference. I1 WAS there ever so complete a simultaneous contrast in the working of a political device as was seen this spring in the way the presidential primary operated in the two great parties? On the Democratic side we saw almost no use of the primary. The candidates were not afield before the people; they 543

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344 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June ignored this opportunity and method of gathering up delegates, and although the greater part of the population now may vote officially for delegates to the convention, few Democrats in this country had the opportunity to do more than ratify an uncontested, uninstructed machine-picked delegation to San Francisco. The device did not work well or ill; it simply did not work at all. On the Republican side we saw the most satisfactory committee-of-thewhole that has yet been known in a presidential year at this stage. Never have the rank and file of a party enjoyed such a chance to stand up and be counted for their favorites. By the Democratic experience the still-novel presidential preference primary could be proved a farce; by the Republican experience it could be proved an institution of great promise. To be sure the primary, even among the Republicans, was a fragmentary, intermittent and inconclusive affair, not binding upon Chicago, and the nominee may yet be some one not in sight before June. Money counted heavily, for to canvass the greaterpart of the United States, even in the simplest homespun fashion, is an expensive job, and the mere task of getting one’s name on the ballots in all states takes such a staggering amount of organization that none of the candidates achieved it. Myriad voters went to the polls only to find that no delegates favoring their candidate were running in the precinct. In some states the primary came too early; perhaps it was too early in all the states, asking for opinion before opinion had taken form. The holding of the primary on different dates in the respective states, however, must have greatly facilitated the work of the campaign managers. All told, the Republican primary performed important service in putting candidates through their paces, and inducing an earlier crystallization of public opinion. The Democratic politicians, great or small, can work their own unencumbered will at San Francisco; the Republicans start with conflict, and the politicians who deplore the embarrassing presence of opinion in a political convention will be sorely vexed, though not controlled, by those big straw votes of March and April. It may be safely predicted that future years will see a progressive reduction in the discretion allowed the conventions, but the presidential preference primary will need a lot of technical improvement first. 111 IN practically all the city-manager cities a feature of the record is the relative permanence of tenure of the municipal administrative officers below the manager, and the frequency with which occasional vacancies are filled by promotion. In Dayton, for example, when the city manager resigned, the place was filled by promotion of the head of the department of public works, the latter place being likewise filled by promotion. Recently, the post of director of finance became vacant and was filled by the promotion of the city manager’s secretary, and the secretaryship thus vacated was filled by promotion of a departmental secretary. These changes seemed to have been accomplished on both occasions without the participation of the whole political fraternity of the city. District political clubs were not “recognized” or affronted. The manager’s o5ce was not jammed with influential friends of candidates. There are certain city-manager towns in which this would not be true, but, on the whole, the Dayton experience is reasonably typical. RICHARD S. CHILDS.

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DETROIT REFORMS ITS CRIMINAL COURTS BY HERBERT HARLEY The simplijkation of the machinery and procedure for convicting criminals, as achieved by the Detroit uni$ed court biU, is theJirst actual installation of the principles of court reform developed by the American .. .. .. Judicature Society of which the author is founder. :: .. PEOPLE who hope to see criminal law administered efficiently are requested to keep an eye on Detroit. For the first time in the history of any considerable American community, we have now a city with adequate criminal court machinery. On April 5, 1920, the people of Detroit adopted, by a vote of more than three to one, the unXed court bill enacted nearly a year before by the Michigan legislature. The new court is a consolidation of two former courts. It possesses every kind of criminal and quasi-criminal jurisdiction. It will have no competition in its field. For the first time we have the instance of unified power and responsibility in criminal law enforcement. I Until this time Detroit has had two criminal courts-the recorder’s court, with two judges, and the police court, with three judges. The former court had jurisdiction of felony and city ordinance cases and the police court of misdemeanors. These two courts were expected to co-ordinate their work, though created as two independent tribunals. At least considerable co-ordination and co-operation would be necessary to eEcient services. This grew out of the fact that both courts had to participate in felony cases. The police court was expected to prepare the felony case for trial in the recorder’s court. The law did not use this language. It provided for a preliminary hearing in the lower court. With a fulI measure of co-ordination these two independent bodies might have made a fair success in spite of the division of responsibility. But, of course, a full measure of co-ordination was an impossible thing. There may be some American cities where the magistrates and the higher trial courts doco-operate faithfully and effectually, but they are rare. The abrupt break in administration and responsibility between preliminary examination and trial was all to the good of the criminal; it could not possibly expedite trial or strengthen the people’s case. Another disastrous gap between these two arms of justice arose from the possibility of appealing misdemeanor cases for a new trial in the recorder’s court. Real criminals always appealed; they filed bogus bonds and were free to ply their vicious pursuits until the day of retrial, if it ever came. Two trials quadrupled the criminal’s chance for escape. We say “criminal” advisedly. Of course most of the people arrested and arraigned were not real criminals. But Detroit, as it outgrew its court machinery, became the center for a large number of professional criminals. Such crimes as snitching (purse-stealing) , burglary, robbery, safe-cracking and automobile stealing became extremely common, indicating that crime

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346 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June in that locality had become a profitable business. The courts became so cluttered with cases and appeals, they were so utterly unable to adopt efficiency methods, and crime figures mounted so rapidly, that it became apparent that something would have to be done, and that speedily. I1 Of course various remedies were proposed. All but one of the judges wanted to keep up the system as it was, and merely add more judges to the courts. They looked upon their social sewage system as necessary to a modern city. But Detroit has a large contingent of citizens who have become proficient in city government. Under the leadership of their Citizen’s League they have made over their school board and their city government in the last two years, and with significant results. After conference with the American Judicature Society a criminal court plan was adopted. The society recommended the unifkation of all the judges ,of Wayne county in a single court, of which one department would exercise all criminal jurisdiction. There are strong reasons for believing that the .criminal court business should not be divorced from the rest of judicial administration. But complete unification was too big a program, and called for too much delay. So it was decided to try a unification of the criminal courts, which would meet with less resistance from vested interests. The bill did not affect the tenure of the two judges of the recorder’s court, but they nevertheless fought it unrelentingly. It did wipe out the police court, but one of the police court judges, Judge William M. Heston, nevertheless gave loyal support to the measure. The fight in the Michigan legislature illustrates very well what an obstructive power a mere handful of politicians, when entrenched in judicial oEce, can exert in a legislature, though discredited in the minds of practically all decent citizesls. The opposition to the court bill was almost wholly sordid and selfish, the remainder being sheer ignorance. It was a fight on behalf of crime of every kind as an incident to official prerogative. The few opponents, representing in reality the interests of some hundreds of thieves, bootleggers, murderers and pimps, made such a resourceful fight that the court bill became the dominant issue in the 1919 session. It finally squeezed through after numerous modifications and with a referendum clause which prevented adoption for nearly a year. But the enemies of the plan merely dug a pitfall for themselves. Their opposition dramatized the whole matter, so that Detroit -had to make good or be hopelessly disgraced. It had the great advantage of bringing out good candidates for the unpopular office of police court judge at the election coming after the passage of the act, and before its adoption. Judge Heston was reelected and another friend of the new act, Thomas &I. Cotter, was elected, to succeed a judge who was as fond of reform as the devil is of holy water. What the bill really did was to kill the police court and give its jurisdiction to the recorder’s court, at the same time increasing the staff of this court from two to seven. The crooks and the politicians aligned with them fought the adoption of the act, but the vote stood 106,132 to 30,617, a sufficient triumph for the Citizens’ League. Governor Sleeper then appointed the three police court judges to the new court, and also Harry Keidan and Pliny W. Marsh. The appointments were made regardless of political interests. Two of the former magistrates are in sympathy with the reform. Judge

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19201 DETROIT REFORMS ITS CRIMINAL COURTS 347 Keidan has had long experience as first assistant to the Wayne county prosecutor and is held in high esteem by the local bar. Judge Marsh, as counsel for the Citizens’ League, was more largely instrumental than any other person in securing passage of the act. He was induced to accept the appointment only after it became apparent that his refusal would split the ranks of the reformers. I11 The new court will have a chief justice, with the usual administrative powers. The accustomed practice of having a preliminary examination in felony cases will be continued, but the examination and the subsequent trial will be only two stages of a single operation. The two judges thus participating will be judges of one court, of equal powers, and equally interested in getting results. Whentrial follows directly after the examination, as it should, unless a special reason for delay is disclosed, there will doubtless be many more waivers of examination. There will be no second trial of misdemeanor cases on appeal. To avoid the possibility of mistakes, the act provides for reopening the case within a reasonable period, for trial by jury, in cases in which there has been a conviction without a jury trial. Thus the deserving will get at slight effort all that could be got formerly through appeal, and the undeserving will be kept from making capital out of the transfer of cases from one court to another. There will of course be a classification of causes so that judges can become highly expert in the various kinds of cases and the law which applies. The division will doubtless be mainly along functional lines, A good example of this practice is offered by the domestic relations courts, which take all the offenses which affect the integrity of the family. Another example is the automobile court, in which all violations of traffic laws are prosecuted. The Detroit court is the only one of its kind. It will have to do some pioneering. It will have to keep records and to a considerable extent be guided by these records in testing various systems of administration . IV In every criminal prosecution there must be good faith, expertness, promptness, and co-operation between all the factors uponwhich the staterelies, if the law is be taken seriously by evil-doers. The principal factors are the police, the jailers, the prosecutor’s office, the judge, the jury and the people’s witnesses. Weaken any link in this long chain and there is a lowered efficiency for all. Remove one link and criminal justice is paralysed. The weakest link in the average American city is the criminal court of first instance, the magistrate’s court, where misdemeanors are tried and examinations are held in felonies. This is the mean little court with small salary, short and uncertain tenure, close political attachment, sordid, inefficient, partisan, which is in truth the most important court in the entire community. Its failure to punish for the lesser offenses directly increases the number of serious crimes. If its work in preparing felony cases is slipshod or crooked it becomes a matter of slight importance whether the higher trial court is or is not honest and efficient. Its work is prejudiced in the court of first instance. And between the two is a dark alley infested by professional bondsmen with their bogus wares, hungry lawyers, jury-hers and all the connivings of a very real criminal world.

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s4a NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June It is this gap in the chain which accounts for most of the foolish waste of energy in criminal prosecutions. It is closed in Detroit’s new court. Sometimes the police are inefficient, sometimes the prosecutor’s office has to play politics, and sometimes judges are careless or crooked, but nine-tenths of the waste is due to the gap in the court system. This is the reason for believing that Detroit’s new unsed criminal court will show the way to a practical solution of the problems of criminal law enforcement, failure in which in nearly all American jurisdictions has been insidiously undermining our faith in law and government and all human institutions. A SHORT-BALLOT VICTORY IN NEW YORK BY RAYMOND V. INGERSOLL Secretary, City Club of New York I ORTHODOX American traditions favoring diffusion of governmental powers still find an anchorage in the entanglement of our legislative bodies. So it seems, at least, after watching the brief legislative career of the New York reconstruction program. A non-partisancommission appointed by Governor Smith had recommended constitutional changes providing for the short ballot, centralizing in a few great departments the widely scattered administrative functions, lengthening of the governor’s term and establishment of the executive budget. Prominent Republicans had helped to produce the plan, which in fact had its root back in the New York constitutional convention of 1915. It was endorsed by most of the strong chambers of commerce and civic bodies throughout the state. At first the leaders of the legislature said with commendable frankness and disconcerting emphasis that they would have nothing of this plan. They spoke as men having specialized knowledge of our sprawling and shapeless state system. Its spider web intricacies appeared to embody to them an interesting achievement of human ingenuity. Knowledge of it was a trade secret not to be discussed too lightly even by such experienced public men as Governor Hughes and Senator Root. To make the structure more simple, more direct, more effective, more understandable, seemed to be a crude idea to be treated with the scorn which experience so often offers to good intention. Added to this was the proper degree of hostility during a presidential year toward anything with which a governor of the opposing party had been connected. But because of the increasing needs of the state and of boasted accomplishments in sister commonwealths, the occasion was ripe. The demand for attention became more insistent. Reconstruction was the word, and counter measures must be introduced which would reconstruct, though in an opposite direction. So the politicians set their wits to work and we saw a delightful array of inventions and a consistent exhibition of their theory of government as they would have it if they could have it their way. First came a bill which would take the highways, canals and other engineering functions out of the reach of the governor and place them under an elective commissioner of public works.

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19201 A SHORT-BALLOT VICTORY IN NEW YORK 349 “hen came a sister bill proposing to abstract the great state institutionsprisons, hospitals for the insane, etc.and place them under boards or regencies appointed by the legislature. These measures at least would not have the vice of “exalting the chief executive at the expense of the legislature.” But these bills showed little vitality. Neither, however, was there any activity with the carefully prepared bills of the reconstruction commission. Among legislators the current view of preserving the law-making dignity is to hold as much power as possible over the departments and over all local administrative affairs, postpone discussion of important measures, and allow a huge indigestible mass of bills, great and small, to drift into the closing week of the session when the leaders can decide and when they can enforce their decisions through the caucus and by use of their life and death power over local and private bills. In this case, fortunately, the leaders relented a bit when notice had been served of a motion to discharge the committee. As a few of their favorite members and clerks had been doing valuable work on legislative budgetmaking, no ground was given as to an executive budget. But a rather curious set of alternative proposals were finally introduced for shortening the ballot and centralizing the departments. Each of these proposals borrowed much of the language of the original reconstruction amendments. Each, however, while giving a list of about twenty departments, left out the essential restriction against the creation of additional departments and floating commissions-a restriction without which it would be impossible to get the scheme of centralization even started. This omission was so absurd that it had to be moditled. Similar sion in these new bills that all the governor’s chief appointees should be removable, not by the governor but by the senate! There were a number of other objectionable details both of substance and of draftsmanship. Some were finaIly eliminated while others remain. The fate of all was determined hastily by a few men during the pressure of business at the end of the session. An important improvement was made on the final day by taking advantage of an accident. By some slip two of the three alternative bills appearing on the calendar were discovered to be identical in language, and their sponsors were persuaded that the one simple way to differentiate would be by bracketing an objectionable feature out of one of them. The method was needlessly obscure and difficult. But something substantial was finally accomplished. The next 1egisIature will have before it for second approval three alternative amendments, each providing for the short ballot and departmental consolidation and emboding fully four-fifths of the departmental program, as originally recommended. This is the fact though the newspapers have been slow to discover it. Considering the mixture of obstruction and fanaticism which characterized the session it is a rather notable result. 11 The best of the three alternative amendments and the one most likely to pass the next legislature (1921) by reason of departmental opposition to certain features of the others, provides as follows: Secretary of state, state treasurer and state engineer and surveyor (now elective) made appointive by the was the fate of a characteristic provigovernor.

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350 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June State comptroller’s large administrative powers which made him almost a rival of the governor in his control of patronage, transferred to departments under the governor, leaving the comptroller simply as an elective auditor with a small office. Various important but much neglected boards made up of minor elective officers, ex officio, abolished. The present 187 boards, commissions and bureaus consolidated into twentyone logical departments whose heads for the most part are to be appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate and subject to removal by the governor “in a manner to be prescribed by law,” which is likely to mean the requirement of senatorial consent in certain cases. No additional departments may be created hereafter. The legislature varied from the reconstruction commission’s bill by dividing the department of taxation and finance and adding the superfluous department of architecture. The alternative bills left the state treasurer elective and provided for a certain impracticably large department to handle state ins ti tu t ions. If passed by the 1921 legislature the amendment will go to the popular referendum in November, 1921, and if accepted the legislature of 1922 must assign the existing divisions to the new departments but the minor state officers elected in 1920 will hold to the end of 1922. The shorter ballot will first be seen in the November election of 1922. Unless there should be a special session the executive budget will suffer a delay of two years. Time, and a lively increase of taxation, are working in its favor. It is to be hoped that another legislature equally intent upon preserving its own dignity may seek that end through an open aid generous discussion of this and like questions of general import. But while waiting for that day of perfection efforts may be made to secure such occasional good results as adverse circumstance will permit.

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RAILROADS IN A SOUND CITY PLAN-A STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES BY CHARLES H. CHENEY AND OTHERS At the National Conference on City Planning in Cincinnati in April this analysis of the principles that should govern the control of railroads in relation to city development was presented on behaw of the committee on railroads of the American City Planning Institute 1. UNIFIED control and operation of all standard railroad lines within the limits of any city is essential both to the requirements of modern business and to the convenience of the public. It should be brought about with as little delay as possible, at the same time providing opportunities for expansion both of trackage and terminals, .in connection with a well considered plan of city development. Means should be found and taken for persuading or compelling all railroads entering the city to connect up with such a unified system at the city limits. The entire question of railroad service should be considered as a whole, not with relation to one system or one part of the city only. 2. The present wasteful and needless duplication of lines and terminals inside of city limits cannot be permitted to continue. Many cities can show millions of dollars spent in unnecessary duplication of passenger stations when the same sums expended in added industrial lines would have increased both the business of the carriers and the prosperity of the city. This is a useless drain on the railroads, resulting in additional cost of operation, for which the public pays. It is a needless inconvenience to the public which can be remedied at comparatively small cost by proper co-operation in planning by both the city and the railroads. Voluntary action on the part of one road is not to be expected and generally impracticable. The city, with the aid of the state or national government, holds an advantageous position to undertake bringing the railroads together for such intracity unification. 3. All shippers within the city should be free from dependence on one road for cars. In some cities shippers now have to maintain needless additionaI warehouses on a second line in order to insure prompt delivery of cars on the first line. This is a wasteful expense which must be added to the cost of shipping and doing business, particularly where a perishable product is involved. 4. All spurs and industrial tracks within the city limits should be “common user” tracks, served by a belt line connected with all main lines entering the city, a fair pro rata return being made to the original owner of each line for such use. 5. Municipal ownership of intra-city lines is probably not necessary, provided there is unified control. Expansion of existing terminal companies to include all lines within city limits is probably the most economical, quickest and easiest method of accomplishing unification in most cities. New trunk lines should be allowed to hook on to the city terminal lines at the city 551

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353 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June limits, at any time in the future. This would provide for competitive lines through the country without cutting the city into further pieshaped sections, or causing further blighted areas to property within a block or two of each side of the railroad right of way, through a city, as at present. 6. Provision of complete modern business facilities is essential to all industries. Railroad service, while important, is not the only one of these facilities necessary. Protected industrial districts or zones appropriately and conveniently situated, free from hampering residential requirements, with wide heavy hauling pavements, high pressure fire protection, extra large sewers for industrial wastes, etc., as well as unlimited spur tracks, are necessary in any city of consequence, and many of the progressive cities of the country have already established such zones. The fullest co-operation between the city and the railroads is necessary to make the facilities in these zones most useful in the development of business. Once such zones are established both railroads and shippers can feel safe in concentrating large investments for permanent ultimate service, not otherwise justified. 7. One of the greatest opportunities for railroads to cut down expenses and freight rates is by simplification of terminals. On most of the big roads it costs as much to get a car of freight out of the city limits, as it does to haul it 250 miles or more on the main line. Some roads report as much as 35 per cent of their total freight cost in handling at terminals (from reports of 0. W. R. & N. railroad to Oregon public service commission). This is by far the biggest single item to the railroads in their cost of doing business. A small saving, therefore, in terminal handling, should effect a considerable amount of saving in freight cost and should be welcomed by railroads and shippers alike. 8. “Whatever the origin or destination, a merchant or manufacturer should be able to receive and ship at the freight station which entails the shortest team haul.”‘ 9. Adequate expanded classScation and freight yards must be provided in every city as part of its future plan and as an adjunct of industrial development. These yards should have long areas uninterrupted by grade crossings and preferably located at one side of or on the outskirts of the city, away from the probable expansion of business and main street traffic lines. 10. In cities which have water-borne commerce, whether coast or inland ports, rail and water terminals should be considered as single rather than as separate problems; co-ordination of facilities for both methods of transportation should be insisted upon in the interest of the public and of the carriers themselves. 11. The relation of the railroad to the street system of the city should be carefully worked out. The value of the railroad to the prosperity and the very life of the city should be recognized. Wide heavy hauling pavements to freight terminals, docks, and the industrial zones are equally essential and form a natural and important complement to the greatest use of railroad facilities. Direct and amply wide traffic thoroughfares should lead to all principal passenger and freight stations. 12. The elimination of grade crossings on both steam and electric rapid transit lines is essential to public safety and convenience, to prevent the interruption of traffic and for the proper conduct of business. The problem of grade crossing eliminations should be ‘George R. Wadsworth in the City Plan, edited by John Nolen, p. 266.

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19201 TH3 MASSACHUSETTS BUDGET PROCEDURE 353 studied in the most comprehensive way and not in a piece-meal fashion, even though the execution of the work is to be carried out gradually. 13. The fullest co-operation should be given cities by the railroads in planting and improving the appearance of borders, of rights of way, yards, bridges, viaducts, stations and terminals within the city limits. Much of the present damage to adjacent property values and rentals can be done away with in these matters, at reasonably small expense, by closer working together of railroad officials, park boards and other city officers. 14. These fundamental considerations in the relation of railroad terminals to city development we respectfully commend to railroad officials, city plan commissions, state public service commissions, and to the distinguished members of the interstate commerce commission, with the conviction that the grave questions of economy and public policy involved merit their fullest concurrence and co-operation. THE MASSACHUSETTS BUDGET PROCEDURE BEGINS TO WORK BY LUTHER I. GULICK New Ymk Bureau of Municipal Reasearch Many states have what they call executive budgets but in numerous cues the o$icials evade the spirit and purpose of the new procedure. In Massachusetts, however, the budget, despite some bad organization, is beginning to work out as intended, and there is visible progress tozuad .. .. .. sound Jinance. : ; .. MASSACHUSETTS has made great advances during the last two years by adopting a state budget system and by undertaking the reorganization of the departments and boards. It was the purpose of the budget system to make the governor who is responsible for administering the government of the state also responsible for drawing up the financial plans both as to expenditures and as to revenues. The reorganization of the departments was undertaken as a means of eliminating overlapping boards and commissions, and of centralizing in the governor the responsibility for the management of the business of the commonwealth. The only trouble with these reforms lies in the fact that they did not go far enough. The constitutional conven.... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. tion lost its courage. The elected governor’s council, which should have been abolished, WM continued to block and check the governor and to split up his responsibilities. The secretary of the commonwealth, the treasurer, the attorney-general, and the auditor were continued as elective officials, serving still further to divide executive responsibility. To cap the climax, the legislature of 1919 fixed the terms of office for the appointive department heads so that they outlast the man who appoints them, thus robbing the governor still further of power to control the administration. Under these circumstances, a governor who is stripped of the powers necessary to make him a “chief executive’’ can hardly be expected to have an adminis

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354 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June trative policy or to express such a policy in a budget. The planning must be left to the various department heads, to the supervisor of administration, the governors budget officer, and to the committees of the legislature. The failure to make the governor the actual “chief executive” has made it impossible as a practical matter to hold him fully responsible for the budget. Governor Coolidge’s budget for 1930 calls for appropriations totaling $39,300,000. This is a third of a million dollars less than the governor’s recommendations for 1919. It is eight millions more than the recess committee budget of 1915. It is clear that Massachusetts is swinging back to a peace basis after three years of war finance. Nmost $30,000,000 has been spent by the commonwealth for purposes directly connected with the World War. This does not include the increased appropriations to meet the higher costs of service and materials. APPROPRIATIONS OF OTHER STATES During the last ten years the increase in appropriations in Massachusetts has been tremendous. The same is true of other states. New York increased from $36,592,000 in 1909 to $95,627,000 in 1919, or 161 per cent. Illinois went from $20,330,000 to $62,111,000, or 205 per cent. Massachusetts jumped from $13,859,000 to $56,755,000, or 341 per cent in the ten years. This great increase in Massachusetts is due primarily to the liberal policy Massachusetts has adopted toward its soldiers and sailors. No other state in the Union has gone so far in pouring out its treasure for the sake of the men who entered the military and naval service of the nation and for their dependents. During theyear 1919 alone, $!20,!200,000 was appropriated for this purpose. If this sum is deducted from the 1919 appropriations, to make the comparison with New York and Illinois fair, the ten year increase for Massachusetts is reduced to 184 per cent, or about half way between the ten year increases for Illinois and for New York. The 1940 appropriations for New York will exceed $130,000,000, an increase of $35,000,000 or practically 35 per cent. The 1930 estimates for Massachusetts actually show a decrease from the 1919 expenses of 27 per cent, or $14,873,000. WAR EXPENSES AND REFORMS CAUSE MASSACHUSETTS INCREASE The total annual appropriations for Massachusetts show a gradual increase from 1909 to 1916, followed by a sharp increase from 1916 to 1919. The major part of this last increase is due directly to the war. The balance is attributable to the increased costs of service and materials, the expansion of state functions and services, and to two important financial reforms. Though it may seem strange to list financial reforms as the cause of increased appropriations, this is true of the payas-you-go policy and of the requirement that no payments shall be made from the treasury without appropriation. The pay-as-you-go policy has been enforced since 1917 except for certain short term war loans. Governor Coolidge’s budget for 1920 calls attention to the fact that this policy has already resulted in a decrease of requirements for debt service. Until 1917 various state departments were permitted to expend certain revenues which they collected without specific appropriation by the legislature. This was true, for example, of the motor vehicle fees. In 1916, it was found that $5,000,000 had been

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19201 THE MASSACHUSETTS spent during that year alone without specSc appropriation. Legislation passed in 1917 and 1918 and the constitutional budget amendment of 1918 have ended this practice by requiring all receipts to be paid into the treasury and by prohibiting their expenditure without annual appropriation. This reform has caused an apparent increase in the total appropriations without causing an actual increase in the expenses of government. GOVERNOR COOLIDGE’S RECOMMENDED Economy is the controlling policy of the governor’s 1920 budget. As a result, the total appropriations for Massachusetts for 1920 will show a decrease of some 40 per cent below those of 1919. In spite of this policy, however, salary increases for the lower paid employes and the higher costs of supplies have required the allowance of $8,000,000 more than in 1919 for the maintenance of the state departments and institutions. In the field of capital outlays, the governor has eliminated “all projects except such as appear to be particularly urgent or will undoubtedly produce economy in maintenance.” Large public work projects have been postponed, and in the case of one institution a request for mechanical coal handling machinery is refused, but in its place a smaller allowance is made for the installation of experimental oil burning apparatus. This indicates the extent to which the supervisor of administration has gone in the criticism of departmental estimates. APPROPRIATIONS THE GOVERNOR’S REVENUE PROGRAM Along with all other public and private organizations, Massachusetts faces a serious revenue shortage. The govBUDGET PROCEDURE 355 ernor and his budget staff, therefore, were forced to adopt every expedient to secure a balance between expenditures and revenues. As originally submitted the governor’s revenue program fell short of his recommended expenditures by $1,300,000. Even so, he had included in his estimated revenues the proceeds from the sale of the great drydock which had been built at public expense in Boston Harbor, amounting to $3,100,000 as well as an alleged surplus in the sinking funds of $800,000. WAYS AND MEANS COMMITTEE REQUESTS BVDGET REVISION The governor’s budget was referred to the house committee on ways and means. By mutual agreement in 1920, for the first time, the senate and the house committees sitting jointly heard and revised the budget. In previous years the two committees had acted separately. The joint consideration of the budget in 1920 set an important precedent in American state budget procedure. The joint committee found itself in a di5cult position. The governor’s revenue program not only contained some rather questionable recommendations but fell short of his expenditure program by $1,300,000. The first step taken, therefore, was to secure information. The auditor and the treasurer were asked to study the sinking funds and to present a statement of their condition in detail. The auditor was ordered to examine the financing of the drydock and to state how it had been paid for and whether bonds were still outstanding against it. The attorney-general was then asked whether there were constitutional objections to the governor’s plan of using the drydock funds for current revenues. These investigations showed that though

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356 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June there was a problematical surplus in the sinking funds, it was largely offset by the depreciated value of certain railroad bonds; that there were still bonds outstanding against the drydock, which had been financed primarily through bond issues; and that, in the opinion of the attorneygeneral, the bulk of the drydock funds could not be credited to the general fund because of a constitutional amendment ratified in 1918. These facts, and the public criticism of the budget which they aroused in the press, left the governor’s budget high and dry. The ways and means committee, in order to guard against executive evasion of responsibility for the budget, addressed the governor, requesting that he “submit to the general court a supplementary budget containing a statement ‘of all taxes, revenues, loans and other means’ by which the expenditures recommended in his original budget message shall be defrayed.” In other words, the legislature notitied the governor that his original budget was unsatisfactory and unsound and that under the constitution it was ‘‘up to him” to take the responsibility for preparing a genuine budget and submitting it to them. THE REVISED BUDGET AND ITS LEGISWTNE CONSIDERATION The governor revised his budget following the policy outlined by the ways and means committee. Instead of recommending the misappropriation of capital funds he now faced the music and urged the legislature to increase the direct state tax from $12,000,000 to $14,000,000, and dropped the indefinite “special taxes” and substituted additional levies on inheritances and on corporation incomes. Nothing was said, however, about the sinking funds. The legislative consideration of the expenditure program was uneventful. The committee found few items that could be eliminated or reduced below the governor’s and the supervisor’s figures. The general appropriation bill was debated several days in each house, and though a few amendments were made, it is safe to say that the leadership of the joint ways and means committee was unquestioned. THE 1920 PRECEDENT The outstanding facts of this e-xperience with the 1920 budget in Massachusetts are: 1. Executive responsibility for the budget has been maintained through the insistence of the joint ways and means committee, though the governor’s revised budget followed, rather than led, the committee. 8. The detailed legislative consideration of the budget was under the leadership of the ways and means committees of the two houses acting jointly instead of separately. 3. The expenditure program of the governor’s budget was even more satisfactory than in previous yearsan indication of the accumulated experience in the office of the supervisor of administration which prepares the budget for the governor. 4. The expenditure program for 1920 is one of economy, while the revenue program calls for fairness in the handling of capital funds and for taxes adequate to meet the current needs of government.

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THE FATE OF THE FIVE-CENT FARE XI. THE SITUATION IX PITTSBURGH BY GEORGE J. SHAFFER The principles and powers that should control a traction Crisis in any city were worked out by our committee on public utilities in the pamphlet Supplement with the April issue and the Pittsburgh stmy is a perject object lesson of the perils of deviation from the proposed a. .. .. standards. : : .. “THIS valuation is the key to the whole situation. When the Public Service Commission fixes the value of the railways properties it will have unlocked the door to the new order of things in Pittsburgh’s rapid transit situation.” The foregoing quotation may be said to have been fairly representative of the sentiment of those of us who watched what we believed to be the death throes of Pittsburgh’s transit octopus in its struggle with the city arid surrounding municipalities. And now, March 23, 1920, that the Public Service Commission has iixed the valuation-not upon the basis of historical cost, not upon prices ruling at times of construction, nor yet upon the estimated cost of reproduction at average prices for the ten years, 1906 to 1915 inclusive (which latter was the basis agreed upon by all parties before the engineers valuation board shortly after it began its seventeen months sitting)-but upon the basis of the abnormal war prices of 1914 to 1918, with apparently some allowance for depreciation, giving the company millions more than it would have been glad to accept when the contest started, now, I say we are greatly disappointed and feel like the traditional prophet in his own country. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. THE TRACTION TANGLE The Pittsburgh railway system embraces over 600 miles of single track, about one-half within and the other one-half outside of the city limits, controlling and operating through leases or through stock ownership by itself or its parent, the Philadelphia Company, practically all the electric transit facilities of Allegheny county with its million population, and extending beyond into Washington and Beaver counties. Over 200 distinct companies have existed in the 70 years history of Pittsburgh’s Street Railway system. The three great units comprising the present system are the Consolidated Traction Company, controlling practically all the lines between the two rivers, excepting the Second Avenue line (and comprises more than onethird of the mileage); the United Traction, comprising all North Side lines, Second Avenue lines and the old South Side lines (also over one-third the mileage), and the Pittsburgh railways proper, controlling through stock ownership and leases a number of disconnected properties, which are in turn united through the leasehold control by the railway company of the other two great Traction properties. 2 357

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358 NATIOXAL XUKICIPAL REVIEW [June The outstanding bonds of these three systems aggregate $52,816,500; the outstanding capital stock, $103,475,250, total, $156,290,750. The commission, in its valuation report, says : “Deducting all duplications arising from common stock ownership, it would appear that the capital issues of the respondent and its underlying companies, stocks, bonds and car trust certifkates, now amount to about $156,000,000. This sum, admittedly, is so out of proportion to the value of the operated property on any theory of valuation presented to us, that it stands in the way of a material improvement required in street car service in the city of Pittsburgh.” Of this $103,000,000 of capital stock, the Philadelphia Company (which also controls the natural and artificial gas and electric light and power monopolies of the city), owns over $75,000,000 according to its own reports; and of the outstanding bond issues of $52,000,000 it owned according to its report of March 31, 1918, approximately $11,000,000-altogether $86,000,000 out of the total of $156,000,000 outstanding stocks and bonds. The astute owners of some of the underlying important companies refused to lease their lines to the Pittsburgh Railways Company unless the rentals, which were based so as to pay dividends upon an excessive capitalization, were guaranteed by the parent, Philadelphia Company. This was done, and many thousands of dollars had to be made up by the latter on its guarantees. And read what a great Philadelphia lawyer, as counsel for bondholders of the United Traction Company (one of the three great units) says about the Philadelphia Company, in a bill in equity filed in the United States district court in Pittsburgh against the railways company and Philadelphia Company shortly before appointment of receivers, wherein it is charged that the latter, through the former, as its agent, under its lease of the United properties, had dismantled the power houses of the United and bought power from its own DuquesneLight Company; had permitted rolling stock to go to the scrap heap in violation of its lease, without replacing it, excepting by cars owned by the railways company, and that it had generally looted the property to the detriment of the bondholders of the United. He says on page 17 of his bill: Your orator avers that the Philadelphia Company. for its own profit and advantage, has so dealt with the property and franchises subject to the lien of your orator’s mortgage as to destroy their value apart from the rest of the Philadelphia Company’s system, and has thus effectually appropriated them to its own use by depriving your orator’s remedy by foreclosure of all practical value. Your orator shows to the court that, because of the said course of dealing of the Philadelphia Company, neither the bondholders themselves nor any outside purchaser could afford to buy the mortgaged properties at foreclosure sale; and the Philadelphia Company, but for the intervention of this court, would be in a position to acquire on its own terms all the properties affected by the default. On information and belief, your orator avem that the occurrence of said defaults is part of a deliberate plan to default on many interest payments as the same mature on other bonds lo bring about u 76eeiaership of the Pittsburgh railways, and so compel your orator and all other bondholders to submit to a reorganization upon such terms as the Philadelphia Company may dictate. Nevertheless, in the face of all the foregoing, all of which, with exception of the equity proceeding, is recited by the commission itself, the commission blithely dismisses the complaint as to the Philadelphia Company in these words: The Philadelphia Company, on July 19, 1918, filed an answer admitting that it was a holding

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19401 THE FATE OF THE company owning the entire capital stock of the Pittsburgh Railways Company and part of the capital stock and other securities of other companies which were named as respondents, but it denied that it was engaged in the street railway service, or that it was subject to the jurisdiction of this commission, and prayed that as to it the complaint might be dismissed. The evidence discloses that the facts are as alleged in the answer, and the complaint as to the Philadelphia Company must. therefore, be dismissed. THE BREAKDOWN IX SERVICE Pittsburgh’s wretched street car service has been a byword throughout the country for years with its archaic type of cars taken over from the underlying companies nearly 20 years ago, many of them then in service for years, many of them still in service; its poor roadbed, particularly in the outlying districts, though by no means limited to those portions; its overcrowded cars; the refusal to issue universal transfers, this being particularly annoying because of all lines looping in the downtown district, making it impossible to pass through that section to other parts of the city, cut up as it is by the three rivers, without the payment of two and, in some instances, three fares. With its great burden of over capitalization and excessive rentals from the very beginning, the railways company management faced a situation which made it impossible to serve both the public and the securities holders, and, as the latter were the more insistent and had power of more direct pressure, the public must needs suffer. But, when in addition to its original burdens of 1904 there was added, a few years later, the extravagant rentals under the leases of the Mellon lines (The Monongahela Traction Company), extending from the East End out into the various boroughs and FIVE-CENT FARE 359 townships east of the city and south of the Monongahela river (which rentals the parent, Philadelphia Company, was compelled to guarantee), all parties realized that only in a receivership, and many of us believed only in public ownership, could the public ever have relief from this intolerable condition. As to the effect of the payment of these excessive rentals and other fixed charges, and consequent failure to put money back into the property and maintain it in proper condition, permit me to quote from the report of Bion J. Arnold, on the Pittsburgh Transportation Problem in 1910. On page 55 of his Report, he says: Depreciation Account. During the eight years the present company has been in control, only about one million dollars of its earnings have been put back into the property to take care of renewals, whereas the deterioration of the property due to causes other than ordinary wear and tear has been going on at the rate of at least a million dollars per year. While several million dollars have been expended by the company for renewals during this period, this money, which should have been taken from earnings, was not available owing to the high fixed charges (rentals) which were agreed upon at the time of the consolidation of the various underlying companies constituting the present system operated by the Pittsburgh Railways Company. It was apparently necessary, therefore, for the present management of the Pittsburgh Railways Company to raise this money by adding it to capital account, with the result that possible permanent improvements, such aa new cars and better tracks-for which it could otherwise have been expended-were delayed. This failure to take care of renewals out of earnings is one of the chief awes of the present defective condition of the property. It will be seen that the longer this situation is allowed to driit the greater becomes the accumulation of difficulties, in fact they accrue at what might be termed a compound rate. Rebuilding follows redesign, capital is added to capital, combination follows competition, operating losses follow non-paying extensions, rentals in the form of guaranteed dividends are paid to take over prior leases, capiCumulative Effects.

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360 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June talization incresses and stock is issued aa collateral for guaranteed bonds, wear and tear is neglected until the equipment becomes either practically scrap or an excessive burden for repair, depreciation is not recognized and obsw lescence of equipment is followed by constantly growing losses of possible patronage due to ineffieiency. A falling off in business is followed at once with a withdrawal of cars, which causes a still further reduction in patronage. Next comes the cutting down of the expense of cleaning, of inspection and of repair, and more cars break down and drop out of service, general dissatisfaction takes the place of pride, and the riding habit of the community is reduced to the demands of actual necessity. Thus if something is not done to check the cumulative results of these serious defects, the usefulness of the railway as a public utility will rapidly diminish. I may say that the situation was “allowed to drift” down to the time of the appointment of the receivers and to a very large extent continues to “drift” to this day. A PRE-ARRANGED RECEIVERSHIP On April 82, 1918, a bill in equity was filed by a small creditor in the United States district court at Pittsburgh, praying for the appointment of a receiver for the Pittsburgh Railways Company, and on the same day, by prearrangement, the company filed its answer admitting the facts alleged and joining in the prayer for receiver. This was without any notice to the city, but counsel for the city, learning of the application by chance, requested recognition on behalf of the city in appointment of receivers. The request was ignored and Judge Orr, on the following day, appointed as receivers James D. Callery, . S. A. Stewart and Charles A. Fagan. iMr. Callery was chairman of the board of the Pittsburgh Railways Company, was vice-president of the Philadelphia Company, and, subject, of course, to the absentee landlords of both, has always controlled the railways company policy. Mi. Stewart was president of the most important one of the underlying companies which absorbs $8128,000 a year from the Pittsburgh Railways Company in rentals. The chief concern of these two receivers so long as they continued in office, if one may judge from the records of the court, was to continue the policy that had bankrupted the company, for in the first seven months they were in office they had paid in fixed charges nearly $1,400,000, going into court regularly every month, and sometimes oftener, for authority to pay those charges (excepting for the first $140,000, which was paid without authority), while, in the same period they appeared but twice in court and secured authority to spend for improvements less than $400,000 and then only when forced to do so by the demands of the war and navy authorities, so that munition workers might not be unduly delayed. So much for our hopes of relief through a receivership. However, the pressure of protest in court and open criticism became so great that in December of that year these two company officials resigned as receivers and were replaced, the one by the president of the railways company, and the other by a man of public spirit and recognized business ability. The group as now constituted has shown a far higher degree of interest in the upbuilding of the system than the group as formerly constituted, but I am more impressed with the fact of their repeated demands on the city authorities for relief from performance of franchise and other ordinance obligations such as paving between the tracks, street sweeping charges, bridge tolls, etc., than I am with their trying to secure relief from the overwhelming fixed charges, such as interest, rentals,

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19201 THE FATE OF THE FIVE-CENT FARE 361 etc., which have bankrupted the company. THE THREAT OF DISINTEGRATION Ever since the complaint against the company was filed by the city before the commission in 1917 and particularly since the city intervened in the receivership proceedings in 1918 the great bugaboo of “disintegration” has been constantly waved before the public eye; that is to say, we have been told in court and out of court that if the old bankrupt-tending policies of paying the fixed charges first was not continued, defaults in interest and rentals would necessarily occur which would result in foreclosure of mortgages and cancellation of leases on the various underlying companies, thus breaking them up into their separate units, compelling them to be operated as such on each one of which the riding public would be compelled to pay a separate fare. To my mind there are four absolutely conclusive answers to this absurd threat : (a) Ownership by Philadelphia ComPanY * (b) The bondholders. (c) The guaranteed leaseholders. (d) Operation as unitary system recognized by all. First, let me say that so far as the fare-paying passenger is concerned, the company has always maintained the three great distinct companies. He gets no transfer from the United to the Consolidated, or conversely, or from either to the Pittsburgh railways proper, or conversely, except in a few isolated instances. I would not have you think I overlook the transfers to and from the crosstown line from the downtown business section of Pittsburgh across the Allegheny river to the business district of old Allegheny city, now the north side of Pittsburgh, which was finally established a couple of years ago after protest and demand for many years. I can conceive of no amount of disintegration going beyond these three great units. However, let us look at the threat in its extreme phase of disintegration into the 50 odd entities which maintain their active corporate existence: (a) The Philadelphia Company oms practically all of the capital stock of the three great units and through them the stock of the underlying companies. In addition it has a large ownership of the bonds of the railways company and the underlying companies. According to its own reports its total investment exceeds $32,000,000more than half of the excessive valuation placed upon the total property by the commission. In addition to this it has guaranteed the principal of other bonds of the underlying companies, amounting to $2,625,000, on which the interest amounts to $131,250 every year. It has guaranteed rentals on the leases from the Monongahela, the Suburban Rapid Transit, and the Birmingham lines, making a total of $652,250 annually in guaranteed interest, and rentals which the Philadelphia Company must pay if the Pittsburgh Railways Company fails to do so. In the face of these obligations it is inconceivable that the Philadelphia Company would permit a breaking up or disintegration into such a great number of operating units, which would unquestionably cut the already too low riding habit of Pittsburgh (50 per cent of Detroit, Cleveland and other cities) in two, and unlike Job the latter end would be worse than the former. (b) The bondholders realizing, as shown in the bill filed in the equity

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36 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June proceeding above mentioned, that since their respective lines were leased to the railways company nearly 20 years ago the latter had abandoned and dismantled their respective power houses, had so neglected the rolling stock where it had not been sent to the scrap heap, that it was practically worthless; that all new equipment operating over the lines was in the name of the railways company, either actually or nominally, and that altogether about all that is left to secure their mortgage bonds is the proverbial “two streaks of rust,” would hesitate to foreclose on such a prospect, but would follow the lead of the United bondholders into court and demand that the Philadelphia Company pay for that which it had appropriated. (c) The guaranteed leaseholders, which are all with one exception, companies which do not have franchise rights extending to the downtown section of Pittsburgh, would not cancel for two reasons: (1) because of the Philadelphia Company’s guarantee; and (2) supposing there was no such guarantee, a cancellation of lease and operation as a separate unit by any or all of these outlying companies, would quickly land them high and dry with greatly reduced business and consequent reduced income. Lastly, under the practice that has grown up in this country (1) by company operation,!(a) by the riding public, and (3) the administration of such properties as one by the Public Service Commissions and the courts, it is inconceivable that the courts sitting in equity would permit the structure to be so torn apart with disastrous results to all. This bugaboo, nevertheless, seems to have been waved by the company before the commission, with the desired effect, for the latter in its Valuation Report in denying the lower figure contended for by the city, says: Upon such a valuation the receivership would no doubt continue until foreclosure of mortgages disintegrated the unsed system and left the city and vicinity with a number of separately owned street railway companies, each charging fares to care for the public. Such a situation is unthinkable, and, by this report, we believe that we have laid the foundation for all that the complainants may desire or the public may require. PITTSBURGH’S LEGAL DISABILITY Pittsburgh is unfortunate in that it lacks authority to acquire its street railway facilities by condemnation, the same as it may take houses and lands for its public purposes by paying a fair and just value therefor. The city of Philadelphia (which is a city of the first class) has such right where it proposes to operate the railway. The city of Pittsburgh (of the second class) has the power to acquire street railway facilities in every other way excepting condemnation and, therefore, will be at the mercy of the Traction combine in the matter of negotiation for the acquisition of these properties when the time comes, unless its powers are enlarged by the legislature as above indicated. The constitutional bonded debt limitation will have to be removed in so far as it governs the acquisition of property used for public purposes, as was done in the case of Philadelphia. This lack of power to condemn street railways properties on the part of Pittsburgh was submitted to the last legislature for correction, but no action was taken. THE VALUATION REPORT Coming back again to the commission’s valuation report,-it seems to have unlocked a sort of revolving door through which they have guided us,

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19201 THE FATE OF THE FIVE-CENT FARE 363 not to the promised land of betterment, but on around and back into the same wilderness of bankruptcy and poor service which we had expected to leave forever. The railways company’s own reports and exhibits show that for some years they have been paying dividends in the form of rentals on over 164 million of stock and interest on bonds amounting to $46,500,000, or on a total of approximately $63,500,000 capitalization, in other words, the company by its own action and payments for years has recognized the validity of about $63,500,000 capitalization in the form of stocks and bonds and this, mark you, has produced bankruptcy,-not by payments and rentals at the rate of 7 per cent, which our Public Service Commission has recognized as the proper allowance for the use of capital, but by paying interest and rentals at an average rate of about 53 per cent. The natural question, therefore, is if the payment of fixed charges at 53 per cent on $63,500,000 produced bankruptcy, will not an attempt to collect and make a return to capital of 7 per cent on $64,500,000 be equally productive of bankruptcy? It is rather interesting to note that on page 20 of the commission’s Valuation Report as printed, the commission calls attention to the fact that the company needs $4,200,000 with which to pay its annual &xed charges, which amount is 7 per cent on $60,000,000, the best approximation to the valuation of $62,500,000 fixed by the commission that I can find in all the mass of valuation figures, either in the commission’s report or the engineers’ report to the commission. Utterly ignoring the agreement by the Board of Engineers which furnished all the data to the commission, that the unit prices to be applied to the inventory of the property in ascertaining its reproduction new cost should be the average prices for the ten years, 1906 to 1915, inclusive, which, when ascertained, put a value of $56,000,000 without deduction of allowance for depreciation, the commission frankly say that in their opinion a basis of unit costs over the years 1914 to 1918, inclusive, amounting to $73,560,000 is the better basis. The Board of Engineers in its report to the commission had found an accrued depreciation on Basis 3c (the one adopted by the commission) to be $16,845,200, which, deducted from the valuation basis of $73,560,000, would leave a net valuation of somewhat over $56,000,000, yet the commission chooses to ignore these depreciation figures and seems to prefer a valuation which will insure bankruptcy. The basis agreed upon by engineering conference known as Basis 3a produced a valuation of $56,000,000; against this the engineering board found a depreciation of over $12,000,000, leaving a net value of between $41,000,000 and $48,000,000. Yet the city authorities were willing to have the valuation fixed at $48,000,000, surely a generous margin. The commission say that it is quite obvious that it will require approximately $10,000,000 to provide for improvements and deferred maintenance; yet there is no word to indicate that the company will be required to provide these funds out of this wartime valuation figure of $62,500,000. One may readily understand why the public should be asked to pay additional fares to pay heavier operating expenses due to war-time conditions and which the company must pay to continue its operation, but why a valuation at war-time prices or construction and rolling stock, which the company has never been required to pay, should be saddled on the backs of

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364 NATIONAL MUKICIPAL REVIEW [June the people for all time either as a basis for a fair return to capital or as a basis of value for eventual acquisition by the public is hard to understand. In other words; not only have our fares been increased to pay higher cost of operation and maintenance under wartime conditions, but for the future we are to pay a fare which will yield sufficient to operate, maintain, repair and renew the system and also to yield 7 per cent to capital upon the theory that the Pittsburgh railways system of 600 miles never had any existence prior to January 1, 1914, and was built during the five war-time price years of 1914-18 inclusive. An official of the company frankly admitted, since the receivers were appointed, the impossibility of private management proving successful in Pittsburgh Street Railway matters, and that public ownership with taxation to make up the deficit was the only solution. We, therefore, were not surprised at the strong effort on the part of the company to have the high valuation fked which would be used as a basis for eventual unloading on the public, but we did not anticipate this action on the part of the Public Service Commission. The commission, in its report after listing certain recommended action looking to betterments, says: ((These improvements will require thoughtful and broad-minded co-operation between the municipalities and the company.” When it is remembered by the people of these municipalities that this same commission solemnly declared in a case between the same parties that a public service corporation’s franchise obligations are not binding upon it; and when, after years of wretched service, they are asked to submit to a valuation burden of over 25 per cent above fair value, one is constrained to ask, How long is this imbecility on the part of the public to continue which permits private ownership of public utilities? How many times must a man set out for Jericho and be picked up for dead before his action is recognized as being I‘ thoughtful and broad-minded co-operation ?”

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DEPARTMENT OF PUBLICATIONS I. BOOK PARLIAMENT AND THE TAXPAYER. By E. I. Davenport. London: Skeffington and Sons, 1919. Pp. xviii, 256. The Great War brought home to the English people two disturbing facts about their public finances. The first was that the budget of the future will have to provide for a revenue not less than four times as large as the revenue in 1913. The second was that under the existing fiscal system the House of Commons is totally incapable of supervising the expenditure of the enormous sum thus to be extracted from the pockets of the taxpayer. Early in the war parliamentary surveillance of the estimatesalready recognized to he inadequate--became the merest formality; and while it was accepted as more or less inevitable that in such times huge credits should be voted without discussion, and practically without examination, the House of Commons became considerably stirred up on the situation and began casting about for remedies that could be applied after peace was restored, if not sooner. The upshot waa that, in June, 1917, a select committee on national expenditure. was created, under the chairmanship of an ex-postmaster general and ex-home secretary, Mr. Herbert Samuel, and charged with the full investigation of the national expenditures and the methods by which they were authorized and carried out, and with making recommendations relating to control within the spending departments, by the treasury, and by Parliament. This committee worked diligently, and within a little over twelve months it presented thirteen reports, which comprise an inva!uable body of materials for students of fiscal and budgetary systems no less than for lawmakers and administrators. The secretary of the sub-committee which dealt with the finances of the war oflice was Mr. E. H. Davenport; and he has sought to present, in the volume under review, an account ofthe work of the general committee, with an appraisal of the committee’s findings and recommendations. Mr. Samuel himself supplies a luminous introduction. Of eight chapters into which the book is divided, four trace the development of parliaREVIEWS mentary control over national expenditure from the Plantagenet period to the close of the nineteenth century, two describe the existing system, and two discuss, in the light of the committee’s reports, the changes that are desirable and feasible. The historical chapters cover familiar ground and seem to have been written in haste. Hence they are not particularly valuable. But the others are original, painstaking, clear, and decidedly helpful. The principal recommendations of the committepwith which Mr. Davenport is in full sympathy-are: (1) that the forms of the estimates and accounts shall be simplified, standardized, and made more easy of comprehension; (e) that the annual estimates, on being received from the treasury, shall be referred to two standing committees of the House of Commons, which shall submit reports before discussion on the floor of the house begins; and (3) that motions to reduce estimates, unless touching fundamental matters of policy, shall not be considered as entailing a censure of the government. In these ways, chiefly, the power of the House of Commons over appropriations, it is urged, might be substantially increased, without interfering with the proper functioning of the justly praised budget system. The United States apparently stands at the threshold of an era of budgetary reform, and it is to be hoped that the work of Mr. Samuel’s committee will come to be widely known among legislators and other public men on this side of the -4tlantic, even if only in the form of the epitome contained in -Vr. Davenport’s little book. FREDERIC A. OGC. * WORKINGMEN’S STANDARD OF LIVING IN PHILADELPEIA. By William C. Beyer. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1919. This little study, based on 260 families, was made by the Philadelphia Bureau of Municipal Research to furnish a basis for determining the wages to be paid city employees. Under the direction of Mr. Beyer, Miss Rebekah P. Davis and Miss Myra Thwing, whose names appear as joint authors, made the actual investigations. Pp. 125. 365

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366 NATION-AL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June They did most of the actual work themselves checking their results with certain other available studies. The methods used, and the general outline closely parallel the well-known study of Chapin in New York City. The book contains little discussion of the findings. The schedules used and the index occupy over one-fourth of the space. The balance consists largely of statistical tables with very brief comments. The peculiar merit of the volume lies in the attempt to get away from prices of commodities to a statement of the actual amounts of shoes, hats, groceries, etc., used by the typical family of five, two adults and three children. These statements are based on records kept by the families although it has been found necessary to supplement these with estimates in many instances. If we accept the conclusions as reasonable it will be relatively easy to determine the cost of living at any time and place for families of similar standards. Xith prices as they were in the fall of 1919 the authors say that the family of five should have an income of $l,&36 per year. The families studied-20s of the 260 being native born-had an actual average income of $1,262. Just what sacrifices this fact entailed on the families of lower income is not discussed. The following recommendations are made: I‘ 1. That the city government of Philadelphia, acting through the finance committee of council or through the civil service commission, adopt the standard of living herein outlined as a basis for ascertaining currently the amount of a living wage for manual workers. ‘la. That the cost of this standard be ascertained at least once a year by the city government, preferably just before budget-making time. . That in fixing the wages of manual workers above apprentice grade no wage be made lower than the ascertained cost of this standard. . That at least once in five years a new investigation be made with a view of moditying the standard so that it will conform to any changes which may have taken place in the living standards of workingmen’s families. . That standards of living similar in general outline to the one herein suggested for manual workers be devised for other occupational groups to serve as a basis for adjusting the rates of compensation to these groups.” Whatever the attitude taken towards the recommendations or towards the estimates, the authors are to be complimented upon their thorough, careful work. They have made a real contribution to our knowledge of the subject. * CAEL KEL~EY.~ Housr~c AND TEE HOUSmC PROBLEM. By Carol Aronovici. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1920. Pp. 16% This slender little volume is a welcome addition to our all-too-scanty American housing literature. The publishers state the purpose of the National Social Science Series as being “to furnish for busy men and women a brief but essentially sane and sound discussion of present-day questions.” Dr. Aronovici’s book is well adapted to this end. Its analyses and deduc tions are, moreover, worthy the careful attention of serious students. Using so small a canvas, one has the choice of treating a detail intensively or the whole landscape sketchily. Dr. Aronovici has chosen the latter course and has included in his picture, not only the housing problem in its totality, but the adjacent phenomena of town planning, land, taxation, and transportation. Land especially attracts him. He devotes a whole chapter to it, besides much incidental attention in the other chapters. He points out to the advocates of the single tax that, unless safeguarded by zoning and districting provisions, especially in regard to the height of buildings, the single tax would actually have the effect of increasing congestion instead of lessening it. It these safeguards are furnished, however, he believes the exemption of improvements from taxation would be very beneficial. In fact, he regards it as fundamental. While the author gives due credit to the restrictive legislation that has been developed in this country in the wake of the New York tenement house law, for much good accomplished in improving the worst housing conditions,-what he calls “pathological ” conditions,-he justly concludes that a broader policy will have to be pursued in the future if the problem is in any seme to be solved. “On the whole it may be stated.” he says, “that we are rapidly moving towards a recognition of the need for public funds for private housing enterprises; that the government, whether it be municipal, state, or federal, can obtain loans at a much lower rate than individual or financial institutions; that they (sic) can grant long terms and that they University of Pennsylvania.

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19201 BOOKS RECEIVED 367 have or can obtain authority to control the investments in housing so as to raise the present standard of sanitation, comfort, privacy, and attractiveness which would affect the home life of the people of this country. The countries of Europe have proved that such methods may be made effective.” Dr. Aronovici lays stress on the need of intelligent town planning. He devotes his concluding chapters to the English garden city idea. “The garden city,” he writes, “stands as the first and most successful practical example of community building, elastic in its application to city and country alike, adjustable to the needs of private and public enterprise, economical and just in its distribution of benefits.” The concluding thought is thus expressed : “The test of the city of the future will be its adequacy in providing for the life, labor and leisure of its people, and the housing reformer will have to join hands with the city planner to achieve this great end.” Were one seeking for defects, one might complain of the inclusion of Chapter V, The Housing Survey, which takes up a full quarter of the book and constitutes a serious break in its unity. The author explains in his preface that this was “prepared in connection with classes conducted in the Graduate School of the University of Minnesota”-presumably classes in social researchwhile the rest of the book is based on a series of lectures on housing delivered at the University of Pennsylvania. The busy general reader, for whom the series is published, is not likely to be greatly interested in the technique of social re search, and one is inclined to doubt the wisdom of trying to expound it to him, especially when there remains so much under the already extremely wide subject selected, which might advantageously be laid before him. The important thing, however, about books as about people, is not their faults, but their virtues, and the upstanding virtue of “Housing and the Housing Problem” is its clear perception of the inadequacy of our present American formulae for its solution. * GOVERNMSNT ORGANIZATION rn WAR TIME AND AFTER. By William Fkanklin Willoughby. New York: D. Appleton & Company. Pp. 369. Describing the organization and activities of the new agencies created by the government for war purposes is no small job, as Mr. Wdoughby admits. “For years to come,” he says, “the action of the United States in meeting the many problems that confronted it in the prosecution of the war . . . will furnish a wealth of material for the economist, the political scientist, and all others interested in public affairs.” In the introduction, Mr. Frederick P. Keppel, third assistant secretary of war, emphasizes the same thought in suggesting the concluding chapter of the book be read first, in order to get some idea of the range and complexity of the problems confronting the federal civil agencies created for the prosecution of the war. This done, the reader will know exactly what the author is trying to do and not expect too little or too much from this volume. Mr. Wiuoughby has undertaken only a brief general survey of the special war agencies, describing in a cursory way the mobilization of industry, and activities in relation to foreign trade, food, fuel, transportation, shipping, labor, finance, public information, etc. An attempt is made to point out failures and mistakes as well as accomplishments. In the same series most of these subjects is to be dealt with in detail in separate volumes to which this is a logical introduction. EDITH ELMER WOOD. LENT D. UPS ON.^ II. BOOKS RECEIVED ARMENIA AND THE ARMENIANS. By Kevork M.D., Commissioner of Health. Pp. 1535. Aslan. Translated from the French by $5.00. Pierre Crabites. New York: The Macmillan H~STO~Y OF ECONOMLC THOUGHT. By Lewis Co. Pp. 138. $1.25. H. Haney. New York: The Macmillan Co. By Owen Wister. NewYork: TheMacmil~~w TO BECOME A PATROLMAN. By J. J. lance. l9!20. Pp.287. $g. O’Reilly. New York: The N. Y. Civil ServDEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. City of Chicago. Beport for 1911-1918. John Dill Robertson. A STRAIGHT DEAL OR TEE ANCIENT GRUDGE. 1920. Pp.677. $3.50. 1 Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research.

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368 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June ice Employees’ Publishing Company, Inc. Pp. 953. INTERNATIONAL WATERWAYS. By Paul Morgan Ogilvie. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 424. $3.00. LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE. A Comprehensive Classification Scheme for Books, Plans, Photographs, Notes and Other Collected Material. By Henry Vincent Hubbard and Theodora Kimball. Cambridge: Harvard University MINUTES OF PROCEEDINGS OF A~AL SEMION OF M~ICIPAL ASSOCIATION OF VICTORIA. Melbourne: Modern Printing Company. Pp. 151. ORGANIZED LABOR IN AMERICAN HISTORY. By Frank Tracy Carlton. New York: D. Ap pleton and Company. Pp. 31% PROCEEDLUQS OF TEE KATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK at the FortySixth Annual Session Held in Atlantic City, Kew Jersey, June 1-8, 1919. Permanent Headquarters, 915 Plymouth Court, Chicago, IU. Pp. 813. REPORT OF THE UNITED STATES HOCSING CORPORATION. Volume I1 -Houses, SitePlanning, Utilities. United States DepartPress. 1920. Pp. IS2. 111. REVIEW Consolidated Rating.-As an invalid convalescent from an illness feels a desire to rearrange the furniture and to make various long-needed repairs and substitutions, so Great Britain, the war being over, has been casting a critical eye over her household and contemplating reforms and improvements. The brief document under review is a memorandum submitted to the Ministry of Reconstruction by the Council of the Institute of Municipal Treasurers and Accountants and it states the case for an important reform in local administration,-the simplification of the local taxation. Funds for defraying the expenditure of local authorities in the country generally are raised by levying a large variety of rates on ditFerent assessments, with different rules for deductions and different collec tion machinery. Consequently the situation is full of ridiculous anomalies and expensive complexities. Thus a single piece of property, assessed by the Poor Law Union for the purpose of providing a base for the poor rate, might have been valued at an entirely difTerent figure had the property lain in a neighboring union, because of variations in allowances for repairs. Next this property may again be assessed at a ditFerent figure by the local government area to afford a base for the sanitary rate. Finally both of these assessments for local purposes may ditfer from ment of Labor. Bureau of Industrial Housing and Transportation. Washington: Government Printing office. 1919. Pp. 624. By Ha4 W. Laidler, Ph.D. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1920. Pp. 546. ge.50. STATISTICAL DIRECTORY OF STATE INSTITCTIONS FOR THE DEFECTIVE, DEPENDENT, AND DELLVQUENT CLASEES. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1919. Pp. 257. TEE HISTORY OF CUMULATIVE VOTING AND MINORITY REPRESENTATION IN ILLINOIS, 1870-1919. By Blaine F. Moore, Ph.D. University of Illinois Studies in the Social Sciences, June, 1919. Published by the University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill. THE HOME I WANT. By Richard Reiss. London, Sew Pork. Toronto: Hodder and Stroughton. Pp. 197. 4/net. By Ellen N. La Notte. New York: The Macmillan Co. Pp. 84. $1.00. THE SCIENTIFIC SPIRIT AND SOCIAL WORK. By Arthur James Todd, Ph.D. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 212. $2. SOCIALISM N THOUGHT AND A~ION. Pp. 70. TEE OPIUM MONOPOLY. OF REPORTS the assessments established for the national taxes such as the Inhabited House Duty and Schedule A of the Income Tax. The situation is one of long standing. Asearly as 1868 a Select Committee appointed to inquire into poor rate assessments recommended one assessment for all rating purposes and one consolidated rate for local government purposes. But progress toward this solution has been painfully slow. It is true that Scotland. under the Lands Valuation Act of 1854, already had unification of assessments-unaccompanied, however, by a consolidated rate and unification of collection machinery. London, by an act passed in 1899, achieved complete consolidation but in addition to these two instances, the reform has been established in only a few localities and by virtue of local acts. This memorandum describes the situation, analyzes the problem and makes practical detailed suggestions for reform. The section on “the Assessment of Ratable Property” is the best brief description of the English system of local taxation with which the reviewer is acquainted. The suggestions for action are reduced to clear-cut, definite statements of the principles which it is believed should be followed. American readers, however, will be as much interested in the form of this report as in its

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19201 BIBLIOGRAPHY 369 substance. Most of our reports do not compare favorably with the English, and an analysis of this document will reveal some of the reasons. In the first place, although the subject is large and complicated, the report is short. The writers know the trick of beiig at once comprehensive and brief. Superfluous, confusing, unimportant detail is ruthlessly eliminated. Again, one is struck by the manner in which emphasis is obtained without either freakishness in typography or extravagance in language. The document is admirably outlined, subheaded. and summarized, so that the points which the authors wish to impress stand out unmistakably and the emphasis is due largely to the tone of restraint which characterizes the entire document. If there is one lesson which needs to be learned here, it is that emphasis is not achieved merely by printing a large number of adjectives, all in the superlative degree. In its form the report is a model. ROBEET >I. HAIG.~ Assessor’s Manual, State of New Jersey.This manual has been prepared by Thomas B. Usher as a guide to the asessment of taxes under the New Jersey law. Thanks to his long experience Mr. Usher is able to present the duties of local assessors in lucid and non-technical form. His brief discussion of the valuation of personal and real property should be helpful to any assessor. Assesson are disposed to thi that any piece of paper bearing a dollar mark is worth the sum written on it. MI-. Usher says, however, that book credits are difficult of appraisal “because the debtor maybe on the verge of insolvency.” He warns assessors against taking the cost of real property even with allowances for depreciation and wear as proof of its value, nor will the asking price at which a property is offered or an offer price in every case settle the value. It is the agmed price which the law contemplates. The manual would be useful not only to asse-ssors but to taxpayers. LAWSON PURDY. IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY COMPILED BY REBECCA B. RmmZ Accidents DETROIT PUBLIC LIBRARY. Accident prevention in industry. A selected bibliography. GANSBDRGH, E. L. A manual of first aid in accident and disease. 1919. 84 p.. illus. New York: Stearns & Beale. ~ACHUSETTS. LVDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT BOARD. Fourth annual report, July 1, 1915, to June 30, 1918. 1917. 479 p., illus. (Public doc. no. 105.) Americanization ARONOVICI, CAROL. Americanization. 1919. 48 p. St. Paul: Keller Pub. Co. CEICAGO CEAMBER OF COMMERCE. General report of Committee on Americanization of the Chicago Asaoc. of Commerce, by W. A. Bond, Jan. 1, 1920. 1919. Annual Report reprint. 6 p. NATIONAL BOARD OF REVIEW OF MOTION PICTURES. Americanization motion pictures, listed Dec., 1919. S p.. typewritten. U. S. BUREAU OF EDUCATION. The kindergarten as an Americanizer, by S. E. Weber. Dec., 1919. 6 p. (Kindergarten circular no. 5.) City Planning Feb., 19eO. 4 p. (Citizens’ League Bull.) Nov.. 1919. 7 p. BEARDSLEY, HENRY M. The Detroit plan. 1 Columbim University. 2 Librarian, New York Municipd Reference Library. BROOKLINE (hlAEL3.). PLANNIXG BOARD. Annual report for the year ending Dec. 31, 1919. 1940. 7 p. DETROIT. CITY PLAN Coaaarrssro~. A building zone plan for Detroit. Nov., 1919. 19 p., illus. Charter provisions for the City Plan Commission, effective March 1. 1919. April, 1919. 4 p. PBILADELPRIA Honsmo ASSOCIATION. The proposed zoning ordinance of Philadelphia. A letter to the Real Estate Board. ST. Loms. CITY PLAN COMMISSION. The zone plan, Harland Bartholomew. engineer. June, 1919. 84 p., maps, plates. ST. PAUL ASSOCIATION OF Pwuc AND BUSINESS AFFAIRS. Report of the Special Committee of the City Planning, Sub-Division on Methods for Paying the Costs of Acquiring and Improving Parks, Parkways and Boulevards. 18 p. (Mimeographed report.) %UTE AUSTRALIAN Tom PLANNING AND HOUSING ASSOCIATION. Municipal town planning schemes, by C. C. Reade. May, 1919. 8 p. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. Trees for town and city streets. 7 p. (Office of information.) (Mimeographed report.) -. Street trees, by F. L. Mulford. lW. 68 p. (Bull. no. 816.) WYOMWING DEVELOPMENT COMPANY. Wyomissing Park, the modern garden suburb of Reading, Pa. A stepping-stone towards a greater Reading, by FIegemann and Peets. 1919. 48 -. 11 p. p., dus.

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370 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Civics DUVALL, J. J. Civil government simplified. A text-book adapted to classes in Americanization. Extended and revised by the author and Senator M. B. Johnson. 1919. 76 p. San Francisco: Harr Wagner Pub. Co. HARTFORD. MAYOR’S AMERICLVIU~ON COMXIWEE. The Hartford handbook for new citizens-and old. 1919. 50 p., illus. THOMAS, DAVID Y. A syllabus on studies in citizenship, prepared especially for the women of Arkansas. March, 1920. 43 p. (Univ. of Arkansas, General Ext. Div., Bull. no. es.) The military obligation of citizenship. 1919. 76 p.. plates. Princeton: Princeton University Press. WOOD, LEONARD. Civil Service NATIONAL CIVIL SERVICE REFORM LEAGUE. Report on the foreign service. 1919. 3% p. NEW YORK STATE. CIVIL SERVICE COMMIESION. Thiity-sixth annual report for the year 1918. 1919. 783 p. Civil service law, rules and regulations for the classified service, as amended to Sept. 1, 1919. 1919. 111 p. SEATTLE. CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSXON. Laws and rules. 1920. 1920. 49 p. Cost of Living The truth about the rising cost of foods. The remedy through organization methods. Cooperative community council stores. 1919. 32 p. New York: Anti-Socialist Press. BROOKHIRE ECONOKIC SERVICE. Emnomic trends of war and reconstruction. 1860-70. 1918. 30 p. A century of rices. An examination of economic and financia! conditions as reflected in prices, money rates, etc., during the past 100 years, with a view to establishing general principles which may aid in interpreting the present and future. 1919. 118 p., tables. New York: Magazine of Wall Street. Fair average prices in cost of reproduction and the trend of prices after the war. 1919. 15 p.. diagrs. (Paper before New Jersey Utility Assoc.) Pittsburgh: M. -. BATDORF, J. W. BURTON, T. E., and SELDEN, G. C. KNOWLES, MORRIS. Knowles. U. S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. High cost of living. Henrings before the Committee on Agriculture . . on amendments proposed to the Food Control Act, Aug. 15, 20, 1919. 1920. 92p. Engineering CANADA. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. Central electric stations in Canada. Part 2directory (Jan. 1, 1919), by J. T. Johnston. 1919. 252 p. (Water resources paper no. 27.) DOMESTIC ENQNEERING. Survey of electric lighting and power plants and water supply system by Research Department. n.d. e0 p., typewritten. The new sewage treatment DIJNLAP, J. H. [June plant at Montezuma, Iowa. 1919. 19 p., illus. Reprinted from The Transit, v. B, 1919. NATIONAL COAL ASSOCUTION, WASHINGTON, D. C. The fuel manual, containing orders, regulations and notices of the U. S. Fuel Administration, from its inauguration, Aug. 21, 1917, to June 30, 1918. v. 2. from July 1, 1918, to Jan. 51,1919. Appendix A to fuel manual, from Oct. SO, 1919, to Dec. 8, 1919. SWIGGETT. GLEN LEVIN. Commercial engineering. Report of a Conference on Business Training for Engineers and Engineering Training for Students of Business, held in Washington, D. C., June 23-24, 1919. 1920. 180 p. U. S. BUREAU OF MINES. Efficiency in the use of oil fuel. A handbook for boiler-plant and locomotive engineers, by J. M. Wadsworth. 1919. 86 p., charts. Explosives and miscellaneous investigations. Explosives research, regulation of explosives and platinum, marine-boiler tests, 2 vols., with appendix. -. underground sound ranging. . . . 1919, 107 p. (Bull. 178-D.) Finance, Municipal CHICAGO. BUREAU OF PUBLIC EFFICIENCY. The city bond issues to be voted upon April IS, 1920. Vote no on all four propositions. Statement to the voters of Chicago. ApFil, 1920. 19 p. (315 Plymouth Court. Harris S. Keeler, Director.) CHICAGO. COWROLLER. Communication of the Comptroller of the City of Chicago to the Mayor and City Council, concerning the conditions and resources of the corporate fund, Dec. 23, 1918. 1919. 52 p.. charts. IOWA. AUDITOR. Report on municipal finances. 1919. 270p. TEXAS. UNIVERSITY. BUREAU OF GOVERNMENT RESEARCH. Tax rates and taxable values in Texas cities. A summary of the answers received to a questionnaire on the subject sent to Texas cities on Nov. 2, 1919; . . , with the proposedconstitutional amendments relating to local taxation to be voted on by the people on Nov. 4, 1920. Jan. 24, 1920. 92 p.. typewritten. TORONTO BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH. Toronto’s budget estimates. Citizen control of the Citizen’s Business. March 26, 1920. 6 p. (White paper no. 38.) Food and Markets INDIANAPOLIS. IND. PUBLIC SCHOOLS. Foods, their preparation and serving. 1919. 170 p. NATIONAL LUMBER MANUFACTURERS AssoCIATION. Ice houses and ice supply, by F. M. White and C. I. Grfith. Feb., 1918. Sd ed. 23 p., plans. (Farm Bull. no. 6.) NEW YORK STATE. GOVERNOR. In the matter of the investigation into the Department of Farms and Markets, by G. G. Battle, Commissioner appointed by A. E. Smith, Governor of the State of New York, under Section 8 of the Executive Law, commonly referred to as the Moreland Act. Final report. 1910. 145 p.

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19901 BIBLIOGRAPHY 571 RECONSTRUCTION COMMMION. Food production and’ distribution. Report of the Committee on Food Production and Distribution. Jan. SO, 1940. 71 p. Government GRUENBERG, FREDERICK P. The engineer’s responsibility for e5cient government. Luncheon address, Sept. 16, 1919, the Engineers’ Club of Philadelphia. Nov., 1919. S p. ILU.s.u. UNIVERSITY. M~ICIPAL REFERENCE BUREAV. Woman’s relation to the city. A brief discussion of a woman’s relation to her city, together with partial bibliography of material which is either concerned or is closely akin to woman’s relation to the city and to municipal government. Feb.. 1940. 10 p., typewritten. NATIONAL REPUBLICAN CLW. The spread of Socialistic doctrine in New York City; report of Special Committee appointed by president. Sept., 1919. 110 p. Government, Municipal BOSTON. ORDMANCEB. The Building Law of the City of Boston. Being acts of 1907, Chap. 550, as amended, also genera1 and special acts relating to buildings and their maintenance, use and occupancy. 1919. 561 p. BROOKLYN CEAXBER OF COMMERCE. Collection and disposal of municipal waste in New York City. Report of the Health and Sanitation Committee, April, 1919. 46 p. Chicago’s reconstruction plan. Devoted to Chicago’s economics, hygienic reconstruction and attractive develop ment. n.d. 104 p., illus. Chicago, 30 North Michigan Boulevard. CHICAQO. BUREAU OF Pmmc EFFICIENCY. Consolidation of local governments in Chicago. Draft of a proposed article of the constitution of the State of Illinois providing for the consolidation of local governments having jurisdiction wholly, or partly, within the City of Chicago, together with explanatory statement. Jan., 1920. 113 p.. maps. CITIZENS UNION OF TEE CITT OF NEW Yo=. Report of the Committee on the Board of Aldermen for the 1918-19 term. 1919. 55 p. CLEVELAND CHAMBER OF COA~MERCE. As to a city manager plan for Cleveland. Conclusions of the Chamber . . . Board of Directors. Report of Chamber’s Representatives to meeting of Cleveland Civic Organizations. Report of Committee of Fifteen of Cleveland Civic Organizations. Committee Plan 1. Committee Plan e. 21 p. KANSAS. MUNICIPAL REFERENCE BUREAU. The regulation of billboards by Kansas cities. April, 1920. 13 p., typewritten. LEAWE OF CITIES OF TEE TT~IRD CUSS, PENNSYLVANIA. Report of the Law Committee. by J. A. Gardner. Uniform ordinances for cities of the third class by F. P. Schoonmaker. Municipal Home Rule in Pennsylvania, by C. R. Woodruff. 1919. SO p. NEW YORK CITY. MUNICIPAL REFERENCE LIBRARY. Municipalstrikes; aselectedlist ofreferences on. Apr. 28, 1990.7 p. (typewritten). CAMPBELL, F. J., PUB. PORTLAND. ORD~ANCES. Housing C o d e. 1919. 49 p.,+17 p. (Issued by the Dept. of Public Works.) SACRAMENTO CH~WIBER OF COMMERCE. City manager government. S p. (Mimeographed report.) U. S. LIBRARY OF CONQRW. DIV. OF BIBLIOQRAPHY. List of references on the city manager plan. by H. H. B. Meyer. 13p. (Mimeographed report.) -. List of references on commission government for cities (supplementary to printed list 1918), H. H. B. Meper, Chief Bibliographer. Feb. 21, 1920. 13 p. (Mimeographed.) Government, State CALIFORNIA. COMMITTEE ON EFFICIENCY AND ECONOKP. Report of the Committee . . . to Governor W. D. Stephens and his message to the legislature in relation thereto, March 12, 1919. 106 p. CITY CLW OF NEW YORK. Report of a Special Committee on the Reorganization of the State Government. 1919. 16 p. ILLINOIS. CONSTITCTION. Constitution of the State of Illinois, annotated. 1919. 319 p. LEGISLATIVE REFERENCE BWKAU. Constitutional convention bulletins, no. 1-16, with consolidated index. -. Constitutional conventions in Illinois. Ed ed. 1919. 154 p. KANSAS. CONSTITUTION. Constitution of the State of Kansas, 1919. 1919. 71 p. NEW YORK STATE. GOVERNOR. Report of investigation by J. F. Connor. as Commissioner under Sec. 8 of the Executive Law, known 89 the Moreland Act, in relation to the management and affairs of the State Industrial Commission. Submitted to the Governor, Nov. 17, 1919. 1919. 85p. . WIECONRYN. LEGISLATIVE REFERENCE kBRARY. Primary election legislation in the various states. Experience and criticisms obtained through questionnaire. Feb., 1919. OS p.. typewritten. Health FRANKEL, LEE K. The sickness problem. Is social insurance the remedy? 1920. 10 p. New York, L. I(. Frankel, 1 Madison Avenue. NEW YORK STATE. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. The public health manual, containing the public health law, the sanitary code, and the provisions in other general laws relating to public health. 1919. 658p. NEW ZEALAND. PUBLIC HEALTH, HOSPITAUI AND CHARITABLE AID DEPARTMENT. Annual report, 1919. 1919. 40 p. OXUEOMA ~BERCULOSIS ASSOCUTION. The Oklahoma public health surveys; Oklahoma City, by M. P. Horowitz and Jules Schevitz. 1919. 157 p.. tables, illus. TEXAS. STATUTES. The sanitary code and other laws pertaining to public health. 19eO. s1 p. -, Advisory supplement to the sanitary code for Texas. 11 p. WYOMNQ. BOARD OF HEALTH. Synopsis of laws relative to the State Board of Health of the

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373 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW State of Wyoming, together with the rules and regulations adopted by Board and instructions to registrars of vital statistics. n.d. 40 p. Housing Problem ARONOVICI, CAROL. Housing and the housing problem. 1920. 163 p. Chicago, McClurg. BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH, N. Y. Shall Wdmhgton stop growing? The importance of immediate home building. Summary of report on housing situation in Wilmington. Nov.. 1919. 12 p. (Issued by the Service Citizens of Delaware, Public Library Building, Wilmington, Del.) CEARL~TON INDUSTRIAL CORPORATION. Report on housing. Also living conditions, stores, hospital. library, bank, churches, amusement, welfare work, Police Department, Fire Department, sanitation, street lighting, climatic conditions, etc. . . . 19 p. MERCHANTS' ASSOCIATION OF NEW YORK. The housing shortage and the necessity for exempting from income taxes the return from real estate mortgages. March, 1990. 1% p. .MILLER, F. T. The housing situation in England and the United States. SO p. (F. W. Dodge Co., 119 West 40th Street, New York.) NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONCRETE HOUSE COXSTRUCTION. Report of Committee on Resolutions. Feb. 17 to 19, 1920. 10 p. (Mimeographed report.) (Secy.. 111 West Washington Street, Chicago.) NEW YORK STATE. RECONSTRUCTION COM-ION, AND THE JOINT LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE ON HOUSINQ. Housing conditions. Program of architectural competition for the remodeling of a New York tenement block under the auspices of the . . . March 26, 1920. 18 p. NEW YORK STATE. RECONSTRUCTIQN COMMISSION, AND THE COMMITTEE ON HOUSINQ. Housing conditions. Report of the . . , March 26. 195%. 65 p. PHILADELPHIA HOWSINQ Assoc. What shall we do about the housing crisis? A program of work proposed by the . . . 11 p. Law CALIFORNIA. STATUTES. California Motor Vehicle Act, as amended in 1919. 1919. 80 p. (California. Motor Vehicle De artment.) DETROIT CITIZENS LEAGUE. %he civic searchlight. Shall the City of Detroit adopt the Municipal Court Reform Act. ElectionMonday, April 5. Feb., 1920. 4 p. (Dime Bank Building, Detroit.) MCKELVIE. SAMUEL R. A responsible form of government. A discussion of the Civil Administration Code enacted by the Thirty-Seventh (1919) Session of the Nebraska State Legislature. lop. NEBRASU. SECREI-ART OF STATE. Civil Administration Code. 461 p. OTTAWA. DEPAR~ OF PUBLIC ~-FORMATION. Summary of legislation. Work of the second session, 13th Parliament as embodied in principal legislation reports. resolutions and (Vol. 1, no. 5.) [June investigations conducted by Aouse co~itt~ and commissions. 1919. 40 p. SEATTLE. JUVENILE COURT. Report for the year 1019. 1920. 19 p. UNITED STATES. TREASURY DEPART~NT. Digest of the law relating to common law marriage in the states, territories, and dependencies of the United States. 1919. 54 p. Milk ILLLVOIS. UNIVERSITY. The seasonal cost of milk production, by F. A. Pearson. Dec., 1019. 18 p. (A icultural Experiment Station, ~d. no. 2247 MITTEE FOR THE CITY OF NEW YORK. Report of the Committee . . . appointed on the recommendation of the Glynn-Finley Commission, Dec. 27, 1919. 1919. 78 p. ROCHESTER. COMMON COCNCIL. Report of Rochester milk survey, by the Committee on Public Safety, by C. E. North. Director. Dec. 1919. 827p. UNITED STATES. DEPARTXENT OF AGRIOJG TuRE. Cooling & and storing and shipping it at low temperatures, by J. A. Gamble and J. T. Bowen. Jan., 1919. e8 p., charts. (Professional paper, Bull. no. 744.) Parks and Recreation BALTIMORE. BOARD OF SCEOOL CowBIONERS. Manual of physical training and games. 1919. DRAPER, G. 0. Community recreation, mass games, social games, mass athletics, and stunts requiring no special e uipment. 1919. 64 p. New York, Associationkess. FAIRMOUNT PARK ART ASSOCIATION. The Fairmount Parkway. A pictorial record of development from its first incorporation in the city plan in 1904 to the completion of the main drive from City Hall to Fairmount Park in 1919. 1919. 2 p..+17 plans. INDIANA. DEPABTWT OF CONSERVATION. Turkey Ruo State Park, a history and description. 1919. 48 p., illus. NATIONAL PARKS ASSOCIATION. The new Grand Canyon National Park. An analysis of its scenic features with suggestions for its better comprehension and enjoyment, by R. S. Yard. 1919. e4 p.. illus. (Publication no. 1.) . The new Zion National Park; rainbow of the desert. Its relation to the Grand Canyon; also the relation of both, and of Bryce Canyon. to the brilliantly colored pleateau country of southern Utah, by R. S. Yard. 1919. S2 p., illus. (Publication no. E. Jan.. 1920.) TORONTO BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL REBE-CH. Municipal Stadiums. Feb., 1920. 6 p. (Citizen Control of the Citizen's Business.) (1891 Church Street, Toronto.) Police CITIZENS' LEAGUE. Comparison of police systems of different cities. Jan., 1920. 1 p. (Bulletin for Good Government in Kansas City and Jackson County.) NEW YORK STATE. FAIR PRICE MILK cotd

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19201 BIBLIOGRAPHY 373 KANSAS. UNIVERBITY. MUNICIPAL REFERENCE BUREAU. A report on police departments in seventeen Kansas cities of the first and second class and in twenty-five out-of-state cities. A summary of the answers received to a questionnaire on the subject of police departments, including the number of officers, salaries paid, whether or not uniforms are furnished by the city, and policemen’s benefit funds. March, 1920. 16 p. TOLEDO. COWHISSION ON PWLICITY AND EFFICIENCY. A digest of ordinances Toledo police should know. 1919. 8 p. Rents Rent relief bills, enacted by New York State Legislature, March BROOKLYN DAILY EAGLE. handbook of finance and trade with South America. 1919. 51 p. NEW YORE CITY. MUNICIPAL REFERENCE LIBRARY. Selected list of material on municipal taxation. Compiled by Jo& M. Munda. March, 1920. 19 p.. typewritten. NEW YORE STATE. GOVERNOR. Statement of the total amount of appropriatioy deaired by each state department, coussion, board, bureau, 05ce or institution, with suggestions for reductions and additions thereto. 1920. 34% p. (Legislative doc. no. 33.) VIRGINIA. GOVERNOR. Budget for 1990-22, for each fiscal year of the biennium, beginning March 1,1920, and ending Feb. 28, 192%. 1920. 339 p. 31, 1920. 12 p. NEW YORE CITY. MUNICIPAL REFERENCE Lmum. Rent profiteering, a bibliography, compiled by G. A. Barnardo. March 29, 1920. 3 p., typewritten. Safety NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL, CHICAGO. The principles and practice of safety. A handbook for technical schools and universities. 1919. 72 p.. illus. PAYNE, E. G. Plan of safety instruction in public and parochial schools. n. d. 16 p. SAFETY INSTITUTE OF AMERICA. Lectures given by Safety Institute of America on alternate Saturday mornings, from Feb. 1 to June 7, 1919, for the benefit of factory inspectors employed by the City of New York, the State ofNew York and New Jersey and insurance companies operating in and near New York City. 1920. 248 p.. plates. SHEET METAL WARE AMOCMTION. Safety devices used by members of the . . . in their plants. Sept., 1919. 16 p.+8 plates. UNITED STATES. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. WORKINQ CONDITIONS SERVICE. Safeguarding workers in the tanning industry. 1919. 121 p.. illus. Taxation and Finance CALIFORNIA. STATE CONTROLLER. Messagas of California Governors-portray state’s taxation history. Twenty years ago, as now and in between efficiency, and economy the chief demand. Administrative reorganization as in Illinois, Idaho, and other states, offers most effective heans of retrenchment, verdict of New York Commission, by John S. Chambers. Feb., 1920. 16 p. (Mimeographed report.) GUARANTY TRUST COMPANY, NEW YORK CITY. Federal taxes on income and profits. 1990. 196 p. IOWA. UNIVERSITY. Answers to income tax questions, by C. B. Stiver. Feb., 1920. 39 p. (Extension Div. Bull. no. 63.) IRVINQ NATIONAL BANK. NEW YORE CITY. Practical questions and answers on the Federal tax laws, affecting individuals, partnerships and corporations. Jan., 1920. 134 p. (v. 6, no. 1.) =EN, OTTO H. Two years of faulty taxation and the results. Jan., 1920. 52 p. NATIONAL CITY BANK. NEW YORK CITY. A Transportation ACADEMY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE IN THE CITY OF NEW YORE. Railroad legislation. A series of addresses and papers presented at the annual meeting . Nov. 21-22, 1919. Edited by T. W: Van Metre. Jan., 1920. 268 p. (Proceedings, v. 8, no. 4.) AMERICAN ELECTRIC RAILWAY ASSOCIATION. Rate of return allowed electric railways based on franchise agreements. Dec., 1919. 9 p.. typewritten. ARENT, LEONORA. Electric franchises in New York City. 1919. 184 p. (Studies in history, economics and public law, no. 201.) New York. Columbia University. BATDORF, J. W. The Soviet Plumb Plan for railway reconstruction. Unjust strikes and lockouts must be abolished. n.d. 8 p. “The workers party,” its campaign book and the aftermath of the war. The people’s plan to settle the railway problem. 1918. 3% p. New York, AntiSocialist Press. BUREAU OF -WAY ECONOMICS, LIBRARY. A list of references to the more important books and articles on government control and operation ofrailroads. Feb., 1919. Sparts. 52p., typewritten. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF KANSAS CITY. The Kansas City street railway situation. The Committee of One Hundred on the street railway situation. Feb., 1920. 48 p. DETROIT. MAYOR. For Detroit!-50 per cent more cars, 50 per cent more tracks. Service at once. Detroit’s proposed independent street railway system. n.d. 16. p.. map. FRIDAY, DAYID. Traction rates in New York City. A necessary step in price revision. Jan., 1920. 23 p. (Analysis. Series 1, no. 1.) New York City, Thompson and Black. IDAHO. DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS. BUREAU OF HIGHWAYS. Field manual. Federal and state aid, road work and bureau regulations. June, 1919. 46 p., diagrs. KANSAS. STATUTES. Supplemental laws relating to highways and bridges. Passed by the State Legislature of 1919. Published by the Highway Commission. 1919. 78 p. The Minneapolis street railway and the new franchise. An analysis. 2d rev. ed. Nov., 1919. 68 p. Minneapolis. . LEONARD, G. B.

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374 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June LOVETT. R. S. Railroad legislation as developed up to date. Dec.. 1919. 94 p. New York, R. S. Lovetk 120 Broadway. MAINE. STATE HIQHWAY COAU.US~ION. What Maine has done for improved highways and what Maine hopes to do. [1919.] 18 p.. map. NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION CONP-CE. Program of railroad legislation. Oct., 1919. 185 p., charts, tables. NEW YORK CITY. TEIRTY-FOURTH STREET BOARD OF TRADE. The subway loop. n.d. 18 p.. maps. PALMER, A. H. Snow and railway transportation. Oct., 1919. S p. Reprinted from the Monthly Wcathet Review. PFSNBYLVAVIA. PUBLIC SERMCE Corns=ON. The Sc. exchange case; President Mitten’s statement. Northwestern Business Men’s Association 08. Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company. Sept.. 1919. 67 p. PHILADELPHIA. DEPARTXENT OF CITY ‘I“SIT. Annual report for the year ending Dec. 31.1918. 576 p. Public ownership of railways. With a chapter on the Plumb Plan, by Carl D. Thompson. 1919. Tnxns. UNIVERSITY. Roads and pavements. 1919. 87 p. (Bull. no. 1922.) hELIC oWNEE8HIP hQUE OF hBIC.4. 100 p. (Bull. no. 12.) UNITED STATES. HOUSE OF REPRMENTATTVFB. Report of the railroads to private ownership. Hearings before the Committee of H. R. 4578. 1910. 5 vols. (86th‘ dongreas, 1st session.) V. 1, July 16-Aug. 19, 1919, Parte 1-7; v. 2, Aug. PO-Sept. 15. 1919, Parts G1S; v. 3, Sept. IS-Oct. 5. 1919, Parb 14-90, with index. VIRQLNU. LEGISLATIVE REFERENCE Bmn. Road laws of the American States. A digest collected by L. H. Machen. 1919. 164 p. WARD, J. H. Trinity Freight Terminal in the City of New York, comprising a central wholesale food-stds market, a union railroad terminal. a shipping terminal, and “store door service.” 1919. 48 p.. maps. New York, John H. Ward, 41 Park Row. WOmell FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONQRESS OF WORKNQ WOMEN, WASHINGTON. Resolutions adopted, Oct. 28. to Nov. 6,1919. 18 p. (Issued by the National Women’s Trade Union League of America, 64 West Randolph Street, Chicago, xu.) UNITED STATES. WOMEN’S BUREAU. Women in the government service, by B. M. Nienburg. 1990. 57 p. (Bull. no. 8.) Interstate and Pareign Commerce, . on

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NOTES AND EVENTS I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION Nebraska’s constitutid CmventhLAfter seventy-four days of deliberation the convention adopted forty-one amendments to the present constitution, which are to be submitted to the electors BJ separate proposals at a -1 election in September. From the standpoint of progressive government the convention can hardly be called a success. The executive officers of the old constitution have been retained as elective officers. Other executive heads which may be established by law are, under the new constitution, to be appointed by the governor subject to the consent of a majority of “all the members elected to the senate and house of representatives meeting in joint session.” A grudging conceseion to short ballot principles permits officers so appointed to be removed by the governor alone. No new executive offices can be created except by a two-thirds vote of all the members of both how, but the legislature is authorized to utilize the existing elective officers as heads of new departments. The proposed budget amendment is brief. The governor is commanded to present at the beginning of each session “a complete itemized budget of the financial requirement6 of all departments, institutions and agencies of the state for the ensuing biennium.” It is sought to increase the prestige of the executive budget by the requirement of a three-fifths vote of the legislature to increaae the governor’s recommendations; such increase3 not to be subject, however, to executive veto. Remembering how trivial has been the influence of similar limitations on the power of legislatures to make appropriations for certain purposes, such as grants to private institutions, advocates of the thorough-going executive budget will hardly view the Nebraska provision as a victory. The convention’s attitude toward presentday unrest is reflected in the provision which would expressly authorize the legislature to distinguish between aliens and citizens with respect to the right to hold property. Other proposed amendments reduce the numbers necessary to invoke the initiative and referendum, decrease urban representation in the legislature by excluding aliens in computing the basis of apportionment and authorize the adoption of pther metho& of taxation than the property tax. The supreme court’s power of judicial review is restricted by making the concurrence of five of the seven judges necessary to declare a law unconstitutional. An effort is made to improve legislative procedure by requiring recorded vote3 in one house upon amendments by the other and upon reports of conference committees. How this can do anything other than add to the existing confusion and ineffectiveness of roll calls unless an electrical voting machine is adopted is hard to see. A pamphlet showing the proposed amendments with explanatory statements and a sample ballot has been distributed to the voters. * Demand for Adminiatrativs Reorganizatim Brewing in WashhgbL-The headway made in the past few years in rationaliziig the administration of state government has not been without influence upon our national law makers. A number of leaders in congress are studying the present functions and interrelations of the several departments and bureaus with a view to peg measures for reform when congress reassemb1e.a in the fall. It ie generally believed thHt some form of budget bill will be passed during the present session which will clear the slate preparatory to taking up consideration of adminis trative reorganization later. Measures have been introduced in both houses providing for the appointment of a joint committee of congress to make a thorough study with a view specially to recommending the regrouping of the services departmentally along functional lines. The resolution introduced by Representative Moore calls special attention to the advisability of removing from the war, navy and treasury departments the several unrelated services and regrouping them under departments or bureaus of public works, education and science. public health, and maritime affairs. The eristing provision regarding permanent appropriations are to be examined with a view to eatablishing a more consistent system of differentiating, between continuing and annual grants. Present 375

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indications are that the influential members who have been active in budget reform clearly realize the next step essential to any economy program and are preparing to push it energetically. Pnliminary to a probable broader program, RepreBentative Ireland, chairman of the house committee on accounts, hna introduced a bill to consolidate the bureau of war risk insurance and the public health service of the treasury department, and the federal board for vocational education and the bureau of pensions of the department of the interior into one bureau of war benefits under the department of the interior. * Nebraska Administrative Code in the Courts.Shortly after the code was passed petitions for a referendum were circulated. but the secretary of state refused to receive them because a complete text of the law waa not attached to each petition sheet aa required by statute. The circulators of the petition claimed that this was impossible since the law covered nearly 500 pages of the statutes, but the lower court decided in favor of the secretary of state. This decision, however, was reversed by the supreme court which held that the section of the statutes which requires the complete copy of the law to be referred to be attached to the petition waa unconstitutional since it tended, aa in thi instance, to obstruct the working of the referendum guaranteed by the constitution. At first it wag thought that pending the referendum the code and the departments under it would be suspended. as is ordinarily the caae with measurea awaiting the vote of the people, but such was not the caoe. Until a ha1 mandate is handed down the supreme court has authorized the auditor to pay all vouchers under the code, which thus remains in operation. A motion for rehearing haa been made and it will probably be granted. The final order of the court will either discontinue the operation of the code or establish it permanently. * Toledo Street Railway Vote Postponed.At the request of the Toledo railways and light company, and upon the recommendation of the mayor, the Toledo council voted to give the street railway mamission more time in which to present their draft of a proposed franchise for the company. The draft had been completed 376 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June 80 far aa the commission was concerned, but an extension of time was asked by the company in which to submit their objections on provisions involving rate of return, valuation and municipal ownership. As a result of the postponement, all attempts to submit the two plans to the voters on the date of the presidential primaries, April W, were abandoned. The company has offered to stand the expense of a special election at a later date, but the mayor is opposed to such an arrangement and no date has been set. The council voted to refer the proposed franchise back to the street railway commission for further consideration. with the understanding that the company will submit its objections in writing with its substitute proposals, and that the commission will then submit another report on the matter to the district judge who ap pointed the commission with the consent of the council. The municipal ownership branch of the com&ion now has the advantage of the recent decision of the Ohio supreme court‘ to the effect that an ordinance for the issuance of bonds to purchase a public utility is valid so long as the municipality keeps within the limits of indebtednesa which cities may incur. * New Charter Proposed or Montreal-For the past two yean the city of Montreal has been under the tutelage of the Quebec legielature, through the appointment of an administrative commission. Of late, awakened to a new interest in its civic affairs, the provincial government has recognized Montreal’s desire and passed a bill for the appointment of a commission to inventigate the best form of government for Montreal. This commission is to consist of two nominees from each of eight of the local public bodies, and five additional nominees, selected by outside mayors, should it be decided to draft a charter for the government of the whole island of Montreal. There is evidently doubt in the mind8 of some, according to:the Canadian Municipal Journal, as to the wisdom of having the commission consist of amateurs. “iMunicipal administration today is one of the most complex problems ia the government of a nation. . . . Municipal government properly carried out means not only the administration of a municipality, but the government of the community as ‘See NATCONAL M~CIPAL Rmmw, vol. ix, p. 300.

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19201 NOTES AND EVENTS 377 well-that is, the local council ia responsible for the soeial as well as the economic welfare of the citizens.” * Old-Age Pensions for the Federal Civil Service.-The Sterling-Lehlbach bill, providing old age retirement allowances for federal government employes in the classified civil service, has been passed by the United States Senate. As amended the bill fixes the retirement age at seventy, and actuaries have determined that with 24 per cent deducted from employes’ wages the average percentage of cost over the 6rst seventy-seven years of the operation of the act will be 55 per cent by employea and 66 per cent by the government. The highest annuity will be $720, the lowest $180. graded according to length of public service. No employe will be eligible to benefit until he has served the government at least 6fteen years. Legislation on this subject has been hanging iire before congress for years, although it has been generally agreed that it is a measure of economy and efficiency for the government, as well as a measure of simple justice to the old men and women who have given a lifetime to the public service. The responsibility and the opportunity for early action on thia meritorious measure is now with the house of representatives at Waahington. The house committee reported the original bill favorably last July. f City-Manager Plan Advocated for Des Moines.-After a twelve-years’ trial of commission government, a campaign has been inaugurated in Des Moines. Iowa, to change to the city-manager form. The proposal ia in compliance with the expressed wishes of practically 75 per cent of the voters of the city. Since the adoption of the Des Moina plan, taxes have practically doubled; the city’s bonded indebtedneaa is up to the limit and the present year was entered with an overdraft of $000,000. Many people charge that the commission plan has practically plunged the city into bankruptcy and are seeking relief in the city-manager plan. The type of citizen which has sought election as commissioner also comes in for criticism. The salary of $9,OOO and the honor of the office has not been su5cient incentive to attract men of broad business experience. The only contention among those advocating a city manager is whether to return to the ward plan of electing a council of seventeen members. which will select the manager, or to adopt the commission-manager plan by which the commission will be elected at large. Q C. D. HELLEN. Cammission-Manager Government Recommended for Manila.-After seventeen years’ association with the municipal government, Fred L. Patstone, city engineer of Manila, has proposed the adoption of the commission-manager form of government for that city. “his recommendation was made in a report to the governor-general of the Philippines upon Mr. Patstonc‘s retirement from public office in March. In his report he points out that the necessity for a new form of municipal government has only become apparent in recent years. The old order. which has obtained almost to the present day, he says, must give way to modern business methods. Mr. Patstone makes a strong plea for this change in order to insure the execution of adequate plans for the filling of low lands. permanent paving, water supply, school and municipal buildings, extended city limits, and other improvements which he outlines. R. R. 11. POLITICS Chicago Defeats Questionable Bond Issues.Chicago voters, men and women alike. took a decided stand at the last election against all four of the proposed bond issues, aggregating $34,600,000. sponsored by the city administration and intended to provide better street lighting, additional bridges, improved parka cd playgrounds and a municipal convention hall. Civic organizations united to defeat the project. Advocates of the plan admitted that the issue would exceed the city’s legal borrowing limit by about $33,000.000, but if approved it was intended to go before the constitutional convention and point out that the peopIe wanted the stringent borrowing limits removed. If this effort had failed, however, the bond issues would have served as a bar upon the city’s further borrowing power for years to come. The people,

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378 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June however, seem to believe that the present is a favorable time to begin the practice of municipal economy. The newspapers pointed out that bonds to the amount of $46,000,000 have been already authorized but no work begun as yet on the undertakings involved. * Detroit’s Plan for Municipal Ownership.Detroit prefers Mayor Couzen’s plan to construct a municipal street railway system to the alternative plan submitted by the Detroit United Railway. The former received 63.6 per cent of the votes cast at the recent election on this issue, 60 per cent having been necessary to make the plan effective. Bonds to the sum of $15,000,000 have been authorized to build and equip the municipal system. The voters believed that D. U. R. had not fulfilled its obligation to make extensions which were sorely needed and turned to public ownership for relief. No new lines will be built to parallel existing privately owned ones, and the city’s lines will be operated a3 an independent, complete system. The decision, however, to operate two separately owned and competing linea will hardly be considered a permanent solution of Detroit’s traction difficulties. * Recent Elections in Milwaukee returned Mayor D. W. Hoan. Socialist. to office, and fourteen Socialists to the council along with seventeen non-partisans. While the numerical strength of the Socialists in the council remains the mme as before, their proportionate strength ia increased since the council haa been reduced Prom thtty-seven to thirty-one members. At the same election the initiative and referendum was invoked for the first time. After failure of council to act upon a proposition which would group the public buildings in a civic center, a popularly initiated measure, providing for the civic center project, was adopted by referendum. 9 Cleveland Voters Diserhninate between Bond Issues,-A proposed bond issue of $15,000,000. sponsored by the Rapid Transit commission, to build a subway system for Cleveland was defeated at the spring election by a vote of three to one. The city will now have to resort to more modest schemes of improvement of its traction service. At the same election the hospital bonds carried, but the jail bonds were defeated. * Sedition Laws Attacked by Bar Association.Sweeping condemnation of the so-called Lusk bills. which have since passed the New York legislature. intended to bar the Socialist party from participation in the politics and government of the state, is found in a report of the committee on amendment of the law of the City Bar Association of New York. The bas are termed revolutionary in character and “an echo from the days of George III.” They may be considered as the aftermath of the expulsion of the five Socialist members of the assembly. Bray. the bills provide that if information be presented to the attorney-general that a political organization, otherwise entitled to recognition as a party, advocates principles which tend to the destruction or subversion of existing government, he must institute proceedings in the supreme court. If the political organization shall be found to be of the character alleged, the court shall deny it the right to recognition as a party. Members of an ostracized party who shall have been elected or appointed to a governmental body or board may be excluded by a majority vote of the body or board; and it becomes the duty ol the attorney-general to begin proceedings to restrain a disqualified person from undertaking the duties of the office or to compel the forfeiture of the office to which he has been elected or appointed. The defendant will thus be debarred from the right of trial by jury on the subject of his qualifications. The law committee’s report calls attention to the crude draftsmanship of the bills. The subversive “principles. doctrines or policies” may be political, religious or economic since there is no prescribed standard by which they are to be weighed. Doctrines which tend to the destruction of “rights. privileges and institutions secured under existing constitutions” may refer to the single tax, the repeal of the eighteenth amendment or to rent limitation laws introduced in the same legislature. Besides being an attempt to gag citizens by unconstitutionally depriving them of the right of franchise. the report asserts that the proposed legislation imposes a political power on the courts and concludes: “To rest judgment on the length of the chancellor’s foot has for centuries been regarded as monstrous.”

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19201 NOTES AND EVENTS 579 The same commitf .ee also registered a vigorous protest against tb J education bill which also passed the leg dlature. The essential features of this bill are that it forbids private schools to operate exrLept under license of the board of regentF1, which shall not be granted unless the re&-..nts are satisfied that the instruction proposed shall not be harmful to the public interest; and that the commissioner of education is empowered to revoke the certificate of any teacher in the public schools if, in his opinion, the teacher is not “loyal to the institutions of the United States and of the State.” The above measures now await action by the goeernor, whose attitude is problematical. The state constitution takes notice of the iniquitous legislative practice which congats the closing days of the session by allowing the governor thiiy days after adjournment in which to ag prove or veto measures passed by the legislature. m. MISCELLANEOUS. Wisconsin Township May Subsidize Medical Attention.-Enterprising official8 of a township in extreme northwestern Wisconsin have evolved a plan whereby medical practice in their sparsely settled community will be made more attractive than heretofore. Realizing that inability to obtain medical assistance during fatal illnesses of loved ones reacts unfavorably upon the state and local government authorities, they proposed a tax levy sufficient to provide an annual retainer of $1,000 for a physician who shall practice in the locality. Although the proposition was defeated at the polls by a small majority, another campaign will be waged, which it is believed will result in a favorable vote. It was proposed to bond the township to build a physician’s residence in which he could reside, rent free. In return the township board was to reserve the right to regulate the fees charged by the physician. A part of all fees collected for service outside the township was to be turned into the township treasury. In this connection it is said that there are many communities throughout the country that are without physicians. s An Ideal Home Exhibition was recently held in England under the auspices of the Daily Mad. Although a commercial exposition intended to show the advantages of various devices and materials for home building, distinguished bodies such as the Royal Institute of British Architects as well as the Ministry of Health participated. The most novel of the newer methods displayed is known as compressed green wood eonstruction. “he principal material used is elm wood, the long neglected and cheap hard wood of which there is such an abundant and convenient supply in England. The one essential is that the timber be wrought immediately after leaving the saw while yet green and soft. After seasoning, the elm assumes a rocklie hardness. The secret of success, therefore, is speedy construction which has best been secured by complete standardization of the cottages in which thia material is used. s The General Federation Magazine, for April, the official organ of the General Federation of Women’s Clubs, reflects the increasing interest of women in civic affairs in that it is devoted largely to the subject of civics. Special attention is given to women’s new civic responsibilities and relationships. 9 Middletown, Ohio, Claims Attention-By the use of every modern device known to campaign promoters, this town of 50,000 inhabitants recently raised a community fund of more than a million dollars. The purposes to which the proceeds will be put are of interest in that several of them are such as would usually be left to taxation. They include: Neceesary additions to Middletown hospital; Assistance to the board of education in increasing the compensation of teachers of the public schools; A new system of parks and playgrounds; A new home for the girls’ club; A fund for the public library; A community memorial building; Permanent headquarters for the Middletown post of the American Legion; A new Y. M. C. A. building. Such financial assistance to the city commission as that body may need for conduct of its affairs pending the proposed remedial legislation affecting taxation.

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CITY MANAGER MOVEMENT PROGRESS OF MAIYAGER PLAN IN ONE HUXDRED EIGHTYFIVE CITIES-DIXIE, BIRTHPLACE OF THE IDEA BY HARRISON GRAY OTIS’ This is the second installment of a comprehensive study as to fhe working out of the city manager plan. The country has been covered sectionalh. “Dixie” will be followed by “City Managers in and .. .. .. around Ohio.” .. NORTH CAROLINA NORTH CAROLINA is placed second in the list of southern states as it now has nine manager municipalities of which seven have adopted the plan by charter. Two of these, Hickory and Morganton, were among the first three commission-manager cities in the country Goldsbxu-^-‘.L acted nation wide attention in 1917 by its methods of advertising for a city manager which yielded a total of 522 applicdions. Gastonia, with a population of some 12,000, cast but three negative votes in the election by which the manager plan was adopted in 1919,-a ratio Of 54 to 1. Plan Very Popular HIGH POINT. Population, 14,000. Council-manager charter effective May, 1915. R. L. Pickett, the third manager, appointed March, 1919. He succeeded Thos. J. Murphy who reported: ‘‘Since May, 1917, we have constructed over 100,000 yards of pavement with concrete base and asphalt top; have built an Imhoff Septic tank of large capacity; have increaaed our school equipment materially; have purchased a large capacity fire engine, 1 Secretary, City Managers’ Association. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. and triple combination truck and gas pump; have secured an appropriation of several thousand dollars from the county to complete paving the main thoroughfares in the city; have built several miles of sewer lines and have extended our water system and installed an additional pump. Our city waa in mud and had to get out.” A recent letter from the mayor of High Point advises that the new plan is very popular. “Work goes on very smoothly and there are few complaints and little friction between the different departments of the city.” Taxes Low-Efien y High GOLDSBORO. Population, 11,000. Council-manager charter effective July, 1917, I. M. Cashell, the second manager, was appointed October, 1918; salary, $3,300. In spite of the increased costs of labor and materials, Goldsboro operated last year within its budget and without higher taxes. All salaries have been raised and the police service has been improved with a marked increase in law enforcement. All houses in the city have been systematically numbered, at ‘.the expense of the owner. A new thousand gallon pumper has been added to the fire equipment thus relieving the strain of high pressure

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19201 CITY W4NAGER MOVEMENT 38 1 from the entire city mains. Motor equipment is being provided for the fire department and the filtration plant capacity has been increased 50 per cent by the addition of a new filter unit. Over seven miles of sewer mains are under construction and ten miles of new water lines are being laid. Practically every house in Goldsboro will then be provided with sewerage and water service. The cost of this improvement was covered by bonds which sold above par. Over $400,000 is being spent for paving, streets thirty feet wide, sheet asphalt on concrete base with continuous concrete curb and gutter. Mi. Cashell has been trained in sanitation and public health, and marked advances have been made along these lines. Enforcement of compulsory vaccination law resulted in more than nine hundred vaccinations in one month. Six thousand dollars is being spent toward destruction of the malarial mosquitoes. Goldsboro’s tax rate is said to be the lowest in the state and there is now agitation for a reasonable increase to permit still greater improvements, The site has been purchased and plans completed for the erection of a$%O,OOO memorial community building, the funds being raised by popular subscription. Although the manager plan was adopted by a small number of votes, its popularity is now well established. Record of Constructive Efd ELIZABETH CITY. Population, 8,925. City-manager charter effective April, 1915. The third manager, Fred W. Simonds, was appointed June, 1919, and has recently resigned. Salary limited by charter to $!2,4QO. Elizabeth City has had a variety of experiences under the manager plan but the last administration has been marked by many improvements and a local paper announces: “Within the brief space of two months, City Manager F. W. Simonds has established a record of constructive civic improvement unequalled in the entire history of Elizabeth City.” Among the accomplishments of the past year has been the increase of public safety by improvement of the fire and police department. The pay of the police has been raised 339 per cent, the men have been required to wear regulation uniforms, have been equipped with standard firearms and provided with better headquarters. An electric fire siren has replaced the old court house bell. Sanitary measures have been provided by new ordinances, which are being strictly enforced. The public market, consisting of twenty-four stalls, has been renovated and is yielding an annual income to the city of over $9,000. Garbage disposal has been systematized and the garbage is to be converted into pork. Street repair and general maintenance is now being handled by the city instead of by contract and modern equipment has been purchased. Purchasing of supplies has been put on a competitive basis with resultant economy. A Sawing of $30,000 HICKORY. Population, 5,200. Commission-manager charter effective May, 1913. R. G. Henry, the fourth manager, was appointed February, 1920; salary, $3,000. During the first two years this form of government is credited with saving the city over $30,000. Service in all departments has been increased and appointments made without regard to politics. Over $15,000 worth of permanent improvements were constructed and paid for

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out of general funds and without an increase in the tax rate. Hickory’s new manager faces a heavy program of improvements including the erection of a sewage disposal plant and a municipal building. He is 28 years old and experienced in the construction of public utilities. Thomasville Strikes Its Gait THOMASVILLE. Population, 5,000. City-manager charter effective May, 1915. James T. Stewart, Jr., the sixth manager, was appointed September, 1919; salary, $2,500. Thomasville probably holds the record for the greatest number of changes in the position of city manager and until the most recent appointment little progress seems to have been made. A modern municipal accounting department is being worked out and routine oEce procedure has been greatly improved. Efficiency is being secured by “weeding out the hg.’ workers.” Better wages are paid to those who remain. Purchasing has been systematized; bills are now discounted for the first time on record. In the water department, system and economy have resulted in the showing of an operating profit for the first time since the construction of the plant. The creation of an efficient fie department is under way and the police force has been raised from the level of “village constable” to a semblance of real police protection. Perhaps the biggest achievement has been the furnishing of an adequate water supply, which was badly needed. Some $130,000 worth of permanent streets are under construction. The president of the largest manufacturing concern in Thomasville writes that ((the improvements made under the present management have been wonderful.” Mr. Stewart is 36 years old, and had [June 382 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW 12 years’ experience in engineering construction before becoming manager. Unanimous Approval Ajter Seven Years MORGANTON. Population, 4,240. Commission-manager charter effective May, 1918. W. R. Patton, the third manager, was appointed May, 1918; salary, $2,100. After seven years experience under the new form of government at Morganton, Mr. Patton writes: (‘The manager plan has a firm hold at this place and has given excellent results and I feel safe to say that were a vote taken the manager plan would carry unanimously.” Last year all improvements were made by the city itself instead of by contract. Among these were the following : 150,000 square yards concrete street paving laid at $2.00 per yard. 1,500 square yards sidewalk at $1.80 per yard. Considerable extension of the sewer system and extension of the water and light lines to reach all citizens in Morganton. An American La France triple combination pumper chemical and hose car has been installed in the fire department. Mi. Patton is 33 years old, a civil engineer with municipal experience. “Best Plan Yet” MOREHEAD CITY. Population, 3,500. Position of city manager created by ordinance June, 1916. John S. Bennett, the third manager, was appointed June, 1919; salary, $2,100. A recent letter from Morehead City in regard to the manager plan states: “It seems to be the best plan ever tried here. It gives good satisfaction and is liked by practically all thepeople.” All electric service has been metered and the metering of the water service

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191201 CITY MANAGER MOVEMl3NT 383 will soon be completed. The city is carrying on a steady program of improvements including extension of paving, water mains and sewers. Mr. Bennett is 25 years old and was engineering ensign in the navy for 18 months. Vote for Manager Plan 16.2 to 3 GASTONU. Population, 13,871. Adopted “Plan D,” the North Carolina manager plan by a vote of 162 to 3, on April 16, 1919, the charter becoming effective in August with W. J. Alexander as manager; salary, $3,600. He is 56 years old and a mechanical engineer. TARBORO. Population, 5,100. Created the position of manager by ordinance April, 1915. J. H. Jacocks is said to be manager; salary, $1,500. SOUTH CAROLINA To the South Carolina legislature belongs the distinction of being tho ht to permit a commission-manager charter. Such authorization appears in the act passed in 1912, known as the Columbia bill, granting to certain cities the right to adopt the commission plan and containing a proviso, primarily designed for use by the city of Sumter authorizing a commission and a city manager. This provision was duly incorporated in the Sumter charter which became effective January, 1913. The only two other South Carolina towns to adopt the manager plan are Rock Hill and Beaufort. Public Kept Constantly Advised ROCK HILL. Population, 10,000. Adopted the commission-manager plan by charter February, 1915. E. R. Treverton, the second manager, was appointed December, 1919; salary, $3,600. J. G. Barnwell, the fist manager, reports: “The city has been operated within its income. Money previously costing 7 per cent has been secured for 122 per cent from the same institutions. Quarterly audits by reputable concerns have been instituted. The purchasing system has been centralized, and a simple, practical requisitioning plan has been successfully installed. Collections, clerical work and departmental offices have been consolidated. Modern, labor-saving devices have been installed. Offices have been built, providing for the proper safe-keeping of valuable documents and records. Vacant city property, buildings, lands, etc., have been profitably utilized by rent or use. Water and electric rates have been reduced 10 per cent. Pure, analyzed water and regulated electric current and power are supplied at all times. A five acre city park has been purchased. Public watering troughs have been installed. Reclamation of lands, hitherto almost uninhabitable, has been made by proper drainage. Grading and surfacing of numerous streets has been done. The health department has almost entirely eradicated typhoid, and carries out rigid inspections of all public places liable to decrease the health of the community. “The public is kept constantly advised as to the progress and doings of its government, and the taxpayers are always willing to lend a helping hand to assist in public enterprises. This form of government being so simdle, the taxpayers are able to see the difZculties, and to appreciate the effort the government puts forth to meet these ditliculties. “This last appeals to me as being the greatest single achievement of the commission-manager government for the people of Rock Hill. It has made a united people, behind a willing, liberal and progressive commission.”

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384 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June “Absoluteiy Free frm Politics” SUMTER. Population, 10,000. Commission-manager charter effective January, 1913. W. T. Brown, the fifth manager, was appointed May, 1919; salary, $4,000. The mayor of Sumter advises that after seven years under the manager plan he fbds no opposition to the present system. He writes: “It is much easier to carry on the business of the city. It is absolutely free from politics. None of the commissioners has any political axe to grind.” He continues: “Thelheory of this form of government is all right and if a city can procure the proper man, who should be an all around man with large brains and a first-class business man, then it is bound to succeed. As you doubtless know, this kind of man is hard to get. We have a very good man now. We have had him for about a year and he is improving all the while.” The letter concludes: “In my opinion, the difference between a city government without a manager and with a manager is the same as trying to run a big corporation without a superintendent and with a superintendent. ” Four Hundred Acres Escaped Taxes BEAUFORT. Population, 3,700. Attempted the manager plan by ordinance in January, 1915, but superseded the makeshift combination by a commission-manager charter in May, 1915. The fourth manager, Hal R. Pollitzer, was appointed May, 1918; salary $1,800. The fourth year book of the City Managers’ Association reports: “Politics, which had lead to the removal of the fkst manager, resulting in an unsuccessful attempt to recall the majority of the city council, have been entirely eliminated from city business, and for over two years every ordinance passed by unanimous vote. Departments were reorganized, budget and modern accounting systems installed, ordinances rewritten and codified. A complete tax map put over 400 acres of city real estate back on the tax rolls and a taxpayers’ card ledger will keep it there; sinking fund schedule computed, with big saving to taxpayers. “Rigid building inspection code enforced, with the result that the annual fire loss averaged but ten cents per capita for the three years. Tennis courts, lawns and rose gardens replaced dump heaps. Vice district completely abolished for the first time on record. During the first two years city expenses were decreased 25 per cent, the saving being put into permanent improvements, an inherited floating debt being replaced by a surplus. “Beaufort leads the cities of South Carolina in low-priced, efficient government, and a questionnaire developed the fact that of cities of her own size she has the lowest total tax rate, the lowest per capita license fees, the lowest per capita fines, the lowest bonded indebtedness and a good sized surplus. “A $23,000 vitrified brick pavement was constructed without an increase in the tax rate and the bonded indebtedness is no higher than under the old form.” Mr. Pollitzer is 37 years old, an electrical and mechanical engineer by training and served for many years as superintendent of public works and city engineer at Beaufort prior to his promotion to the managership. FLORIDA Florida has to its credit six citymanager cities. Of these St.Augustine, the oldest city in the United States, was the first in the state to adopt a commission-manager charter, a unique

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19201 CITY MANAGER MOVERiIENT 385 feature of which is the provision that interference with any branch of the administration by a member of the commission is made cause for his summary removal. Largo, population 500, claims the distinction of being the smallest city in the country to have a city manager. No More Disturbances by Politicians ST. AUGUSTINE. Population, 6,192. Commission-manager charter effective July, 1915. Eugene Masters, the second manager, was appointed April, 1918; salary, $3,600. Under the new plan, the city has lived within its budget at a tax rate of nine mills, the property being assessed at full value. The inherited indebtedness of $37,000 has been paid off and the city is now free from all debt with the exception of $65,000 water works bonds and has a sinking fund amounting to over $16,000 to its credit since the manager plan was adopted. The assessment of city property on a full valuation basis in 1916 increased the rolls from $2,500,000 to $10,000,000. At fist, there were “plenty of kicks,” but all objection has now vanished. St. Augustine’s modern accounting system has been widely copied throughout the country. Fire and police efficiency have been greatly increased and the city rendered practically free of crime even at the height of the tourist season. During the past year the shortage and high cost of labor lead to a pronounced increase in equipment, which included a scarifier, road engine, road oiler, motor trucks and storage tanks for oil. Two miles of asphalt macadam have been rebuilt by the city at a cost of from 50 to 65 cents per square yard. The city has established a tourists’ club with headquarters for both men and women and gives weekly street dances, which attract large crowds of visitors. In co-operation with the hotel association and board of trade, the city has established bowling greens, quoit pitching, and table games in the parks, and provided band concerts for afternoons and evenings during the season. A letter from St. Augustine states: “There have been no more disturbances by the local politicians as predominated during the first year of the city-manager control and there seems to be a universal satisfaction at the manner in which the affairs of the city are conducted.” Mi. Masters is 51 years old and has held various public offices including that of mayor and tax assessor. Good Two Months’ Record SANFORD. Population, 6,000. Commission-manager charter effective January, 1920. Gerard A. Abbott, manager; salary, $3,600. During the first two months under the new plan a very dehite start has been made, as will be noted by the following summary: An effective system of handling Confidence men, wire tappers, and Back yards, alleys, and court ways Vacant lots and parks placed in best Eight model ordinances drafted and Traffic regulations established and Motor cycle officer employed to proElectrically lighted “silent policeSigns for tourists placed at entrances Several new street signs erected. Operating expenses of the city reduced as follows: Cost of labor for parks, streets, and sanitation (old complaints established; gamblers driven out ; cleaned of filth and rubbish; condition on record; enacted; enforced ; mote public safety; men” installed; to city;

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386 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June government), October, $1,160; November, $1,075; December, $1,043-(new government) , January, $401 ; February (three weeks), $275.65. The city manager has been authorized to appoint a health officer and direct his activities. Mr. Abbott is so far the only city manager to have been promoted to his fourth city. He entered the field as village manager at Grosse Pointe Shores, Michigan, later serving as manager at Birmingham and Otsego, two small Michigan cities. He is 38 years old and had a general training in commercial law prior to entering the manager field. “Dead Timber” Removed TALLAHASSEE. Population, 5,637. Commission-manager charter effective February, 1920. J. W. Greer appointed manager; salary, $4,200. Tallahassee entered the new field with three of its most successful business men as commissioners. A bond issue of $W2,000 has been voted for overhauling and rebuilding its utility plants and a comprehensive program is being developed. At the end of the first month under the new plan, the manager writes: “We are making rapid progress here. Have bought a complete new gas plant, complete new electric plant and simplified the accounting system. We have lopped off a lot of expensive and superfluous ‘dead timber’ thereby saving much more than the manager’s salary while raising the pay and increasing the efficiency of the other employes. Our bonds are ready to sell and the interest and sinking fund will never cost the taxpayers a cent as they will be met out of the earnings of the municipally owned utilitites named.” Mr. Greer, the manager, received the appointment unsolicited, because of his record at Bryan, Texas, where he served as city manager for two and a half years. He is 52 years old, a mechanical and electrical engineer, with broad experiencein public utilities. Success Limited at Ocala OCALA. Population, 5,610. Manager plan provided for by charter amendment February, 1918. R. M. Martin, the third manager, w&s appointed October, 1918; salary, $2,400. Reports from Ocala indicate that the new plan has not met with the greatest of success. The manager writes that his work is connected with the water and light plant and that he does not consider himself a city manager although the commission has given him that title. The first two managers served but very short terms and there is a general feeling that the plan has not been given a fair trial. Big Success in Small Town LARGO. Population, 550. Position of city manager created by ordinance June, 1913. W. H. Turner, the third manqger, was appointed March, 1918; salq, $1,900. Largo is the smallest town to operate under the manager plan. Its methods and equipment are up to date in every way. The manager writes that in over two years he has not heard a single complaint as to the manager form of government. Things run so smoothly in fact that his commission, which is made up of business men, does not bother to meet more than two or three times a year, though they are constantly in touch with what is going on and can be called together at any time necessary. The manager is practically the whole city force and he is kept busy superintending the water works system, handling the finances,

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19201 CITY MANAGER MOVEMENT 387 and enforcing the law. The business streets are well paved and sewer system modern. WEST PALM BIUCE. Population, 10,000. Commission-manager charter effective December, 1919. Joseph Firth, manager; salary, $5,000. GEORGIA Georgia’s three manager cities have adopted the plan by charter or by charter amendment. Save $4 per Capita First Year GRIFFIN. Population, 10,380. City manager charter effective December, 1918, with E. P. Bridges, formerly city clerk and treasurer, as manager; salary, $2,550. During the fist year under the new plan the actual saving is placed at $43,395. Every department has improved materially over its condition under the former government. More sewer and street paving work was done during 1919 than in any fi+e previous years. The street improvements amounted to $180,000. After eight months service, the manager wrote: “I have not heard a single criticism of the manager plan.” In a recent letter he adds: “The present plan is becoming more popular every day.” Mr. Bridges is 46 years old and served six years as clerk and treasurer at Griffin before becoming manager. Voters . K.” Plan and Commission CARTERSVILLE. Population, 5,810. Manager plan provided by charter amendment August, 1917. Abram Cook, the first manager, was appointed January, 1917; salary, $2,400. Evidence that the manager plan is successful and popular is found in the fact that the mayor and the two commissions have been twice elected without a contest of any kind, and without a dissenting vote. This is the &st time in the history of the town that such an event has taken place. Every bond issue has been carried by practically an unanimous vote. The city government “sits in on every occasion where there is consultation regarding business achievements, industrial developments, civic and public matters of any kind.” For more than two years, the Board of Aldermen has unanimously ratzed every act of the city manager. Fire risks have been greatly reduced by passage of model ordinances recommended by the Underwriters’ Association, health protected by insuring pure water, money saved by constructing public improvements by city labor instead of by contract. In concluding a recent report, the manager refers any one unhesitatingly to any man or woman in Cartersville. ROME. Population, 14,000. Commission-manager charter effective April, 1919, with Samuel S. King aa manager; salary, $S,OOO. TENNESSEE Tennessee has but two cities under the manager plan. The first Kingsport, the second Alcoa. These are both new industrial towns in the mountain region of eastern Tennessee and were incorporated under commissionmanager charters. Manager Plan Inducement to Industries KINGSPORT. Population, 10,000. Commission-manager charter effective March, 1917. Herbert L. Kidd, the third manager, was appointed April 1, 1920; salary, $4,200. He followed F. L. Cloud and W. R. Prouder.

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388 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [June In 1917 Kingsport consisted of two plants, one store, a dozen homes, lots of mud, no sanitation nor provision for public safety. To-day Kingsport has more than 10,000 people and is a thoroughly charming city with all modern conveniences including six miles of concrete paving. This rapid growth has placed a heavy burden upon the city administration but there is nowhere evidence of the makeshift construction observed in the proverbial boom town. During the past year the city has laid 36,686 square yards of concrete pavement at an average cost of $1.50 per yard. This paving was constructed under standard specifications and the low price is due to the fact that the city did its own work, crushing its own rock in its own quarry, and secured its cement from a large local mill. L.abor cost 32i cents per hour. Plans for the current year include extensive paving, erection of two large school buildings, and the construction of several miles of storm and sanitary sewer. It is sigacant that Kingsport’s form of government is used as a definite appeal to home seekers and new business enterprises with successful results. It is reported that 100 per cent of the people approve of the way their government is being conducted. Mi. Kidd has served for some time as city engineer of Knoxville, Tennesse. Industrial Town Has Business Charter ALCOA. Population, 3,500. Incorporated under commission-manager charter effective July, 1919. V. J. Hultquist, construction superintendent of the Aluminum Company of America, which built the town and for which it is named, serves as manager, for which he receives $2,000. During the first four months under the new plan Alcoa passed forty ordinances and entered upon a program of improvements which was financed by a bond issue of $225,000. Some three miles of concrete paving have been constructed and storm sewers added to the up to date sanitary sewer system. All parts of the city are supplied with excellent drinking water. Alcoa is an industrial city with its government conducted on the plan of a successful industry.

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EMPLOYMENT STANDARDIZATION IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE BY WILLIAM C. BEYER Assistant Director, Bureau of Municipal Rtxearch of PhWphia THE movement toward employment standardization in our public service has been gathering momentum and becoming increasingly sign5cant during the last ten years. In the following pages an effort is made to review and in some measure to appraise the progress of this movement during the period just mentioned. The material that forms the basis of this review consists mainly of the reports on employment standardization that have been issued by various public bodies throughout the country. It consists also, however, of the supplementary literature on the subject, of letters from public officials and others describing the operation of standardization measures in their own localities, of interviews with specialists in the geld of employment standardization, and of personal observation. In order to make this review of greater value to the lay reader, it is preceded by a brief discussion of the underlying principles of employment standardization. PRINCIPLES OF EMPLOYMENT STANDARDIZATION Instead of making an abstract statement of these principles, let us assume a concrete situation and develop the essential principles involved as we proceed. The reader and the writer, we shall assume, are both public officials upon whom has fallen the responsibility for standardizing the service of a city government. We shall not stop to picture the conditions in the service that call for correction. The inequalities of pay for similar work, the confusing multiplicity of meaningless titles, the lack of definite lines of promotion, and the demoralizing effect of these conditions upon the morale of the employes in the average municipal service are only too well known to require further description. EQUAL PAY FOR EQUAL WORK properly that one of the basic needs of the service is a concrete application of the principle of equal pay for equal work. If two clerks, for example, are doing the same character and grade of work, it goes without saying that they should have the same pay. This is a matter of the most elementary justice. WHAT IS EQUAL WORK? But what is equal work? If the two clerks just mentioned are doing exactly the same kind of work, let us say addressing envelopes, we should decide quite readily that their work was equal. Rut let us suppose that we are dealing, not with two, but with two hundred clerical positions, scattered throughout a score of different offices and involving a multitude of different tasks. Under such circumAfter considering these conditions stances it would not be so easy to from various angles, we conclude quite determine equality of work and to SQl This is trial versionwww.adultpdf.com

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392 NATIONAL IktUNICIPAL grade the positions accordingly. In fact, this cannot be done at all without some standard for measuring work. A standard of this character, moreover, is not easily devised and its application is not so simple as that of a standard of physical measurement, like the yard stick. Nevertheless it is possible to define a series of standard positions that mark the various grades in any vocational line of work so that the grade of any position in that vocational line can be determined by comparison with the standard positions. Let us say, for example, that we are grading all positions in a municipal service invoIving bookkeeping work. After considering the range between the least important and the most important bookkeeping positions in the service, our first task would be to define a number of standard positions that would correspond to the various grades into which the bookkeeping work might properly be divided. Beginning with the lowest grade, we might define standard positions under the titles of junior bookkeeper, bookkeeper, and senior bookkeeper. Then we should compare the duties of each bookkeeping position in the service with these standard positions and place it in the same grade with the standard position that it most closely resembles. Thus, by following the axiom that “things equal to the same thing are equal to each other,” we are able to determine what positions involve equal work and therefore should carry with them equal pay. NEED OF STANDARDS OF COMPENSATION After the question of equal work has been settled, it seems at first like a very simple matter to determine the question of equal pay. It is not so simple, however, as it seems. REVIEW SUPPLEMENT [June Let us suppose again that of our two clerks one is receiving $1,200 a year and the other $1,800 a year. We propose to equalize their salaries. How shall we go about it? Shall we pay both clerks $1,200 a year, or shall we pay both $1,800; or shall we decide upon some third figure? Obviously if these clerks are to be treated at all fairly we must be guided by some standard of adequacy. That standard may be determined either by the current market value of the services rendered, or by the cost of maintaining a given standard of living, or by a modification of either or both of these two methods. The essential point is that some standard of adequacy must be used in the process of equalization. THEORY OF THE RANGE OF COMPENSATION Let us suppose again that of the two clerks mentioned above one has been in his position for a number of years and has attained a high degree of efficiency in performing his duties, whereas the other, while having exactly the same kind of work to do, is still a novice in his job and consequently not as efficient as his colleague. In this case absolute equalization of pay would not be fair to the more experienced worker. It would not, in fact, be equal pay for equal work, but equal pay for work that is essentially unequal because of the manner in which it is performed. Justice to both workers, therefore, would require a lower rate for the one and a higher rate for the other, even though their duties may be exactly the same. In order to give recognition to this difference in the value of services rendered by different persons in similar positions, our standard of compensation should allow for some variation of rates within certain fixed limits. Instead of a This is trial versionwww.adultpdf.com

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19901 EMPLOYMENT STAVDARDIZATION 393 standard flat rate there should be, for any given class and grade of work, a standard range oj compensation providing standard minimum, maximum and intermediate rates. This is not an alteration but rather a refinement of the principle of equal pay for equal work, for it takes into account not only the nature of the work but also the manner in which it is performed. NEED OF STANDARD QUALIFICATIONS FOR APPOINTMENT Having arrived at this point in our standardization program, we should be short-sighted indeed if we did not perceive the next logical step to be taken. Equal pay for equal work must be followed by equal minimum qualifications for appointment. If, for example, an elementary course in bookkeeping is properly required for appointment to one position involving the duties of junior bookkeeper, it is purely a matter of fairness and of common sense that an elementary course in bookkeeping should be required for appointment to all other positions involving the duties of junior bookkeeper. We, therefore, prescribe for each standard position the minimum quaMcations that applicants should possess to be eligible for appointment to that position. OPENING OPPORTUNITIE!S FOR CAREERS In standardizing personal service, however, it is not enough to achieve simply a static equality in conditions of employment. The work of any organization ought to be planned in such a manner that it will offer, not merely jobs, but careers to those entering its service. In other words, the process of standardization ought to establish definite avenues of promotion. Each standard position in a vocational group ought to serve as a natural stepping stone to the next higher position in that group, and with every advance in position there should go a corresponding advance in pay. This feature of standardization brings about the necessity of classifying the service along vocational lines, a task not so easy as it may appear on the surface. In a large organization the work of employes is likely to be highly specialized, whereas in a small one the individual worker's scope of duties is usually much broader. In a large office, for example, we might find the clerical work performed by three distinct groups of specialists-stenographers, bookkeepers, and clerks. On the other hand, it is not at all uncommon in a smaller office to find a single person employed in the combined capacity of stenographer, bookkeeper, and clerk, simply because there is not sufficient work to keep three specialists fully occupied. That these conditions have a vital bearing upon the problem of classifkation is obvious. Where the service is highly specialized the classification may follow very narrow vocational lines, such aa thoseof stenography, bookkeeping, typing, and clerking. Where it is not so highly specialized the classification must be made along broader lines. A suitable plan of classification can be determined only after a careful survey of the service to be standardized. GAUOINQ TEE PERSONAL EQUATION Finally, it is desirable in standardizing employment to provide means of gauging the personal equation. If we are going to recognize a difference in the value of the services rendered by different workers in similar positions, we should have a way of measuring this difference. For example, if we determine that the salary scale for a junior clerkship shall be $1,200 to This is trial versionwww.adultpdf.com

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894 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL $1,560 per year, with $1,320 and $1,440 as intermediate rates, it is necessary to devise some standard that will guide us in applying these different rates to different individuals. In other words, assuming as we must that a new appointee would always begin at the lowest rate because of his lack of familiarity with the duties of his position, we need a standard method of advancing employes from lower to higher rates of pay. A standard of this character may consist merely of length of service, the person having served longest in the position being accorded the highest rate of pay. Again, it may consist of the relative efficiency of the individuals concerned, as shown by a system of efficiency records. It may also consist of a combination of both of the foregoing methods. Once a standard of this kind has been devised, it may be used not only in determining the specific rate of pay that is fair for each individual doing the work of a given position, but also as a factor in determining promotion from a lower to a higher grade position. Let us say that Mi. Jones and Mi. Smith are both junior clerks and are also both candidates for promotion to senior clerks. Other things being equal, if Mi. Jones has a better efficiency record than Mi. Smith, preference in promotion ought to be given to Mi. Jones. The record of efficiency, however, ought not to be the only factor in promotions from lower to higher grade positions, for the higher grade positions usually call for a higher order of ability which can be determined only by a test of capacity. Hence it is a growing practice in the civil service to give a competitive examination to applicants for promotion, thus taking into account their capacity for more responsible work as well as their record in the work they have been performing in the past. REVIEW SUPPLEMENT [June SWY At this point let usstop for a brief recapitulation. The basic principle with which we started was that of equal pay for equal work. We found that in order to apply this principle intelligently and fairly it is necessary: 1. To define a series of standard positions designated by standard titles by comparison with which it may be possible to determine what positions in the service involve equal work. 2. To determine upon some standard of compensation, such as the current market value of the services under consideration, the cost of maintaining a given standard of living, or a modification of either or both of these standards. 3. To establish for each standard position a range of compensation, rather than a flat rate of pay, so that the efficiency and the length of service of individual employes may be taken into account as well as the character of their duties. 4. To prescribe standard qualifications for each standard position. 5. To classify all positions along vocational lines in order to establish definite avenues of promotion and thus afford to employes an opportunity for a career in the public service. 6. To determine upon some standard method, based either upon efficiency or upon length of service or upon both, of advancing employes from the lower to the higher rates of pay within a given range of compensation. In the language of the specialist in employment standardization, the standard titles, definitions of duties, qualifications for appointment, and rates of compensation applying to the various standard positions have come to be spoken of as “standard specifications of personal service.” This is trial versionwww.adultpdf.com

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191201 EMPLOYMENT STANDARDIZATION 395 EMPLOYMENT STANDARDIZATION IN PRACTICE It will be of interest now to observe the actual practice of employment standardization. Our field of observation will include sixteen governmental jurisdictions which have undertaken standardization programs and have reached the stage of issuing a report on their work. Listed in chronological order as determined chiefly by the dates of the formal reports, these governmental jurisdictions are as follows: Chicago, 1911; Oakland, California, 1915; Los Angeles County, California, 1915; Pittsburgh, 1915; New York State, 1916; New York City, 1916; Seattle, 1917; Ohio, 1917; Milwaukee City, 1917; New Jersey, 1917; Cleveland, 1917; Akron, Ohio, 1917; Milwaukee County, 1917; St. Louis, 1918; Massachusetts, 1918; Dominion of Canada, 1919. In addition to this list, occasional reference may be made to the standardization work now in progress in the federal civil service and in Philadelphia. BY WHAT AGENCIES UNDERTAKEN First of all let us inquire by what agencies standardization programs have been undertaken. The practice in this matter has varied. One is not surprised to learn, however, that no agency has played so conspicuous a part in standardization work as the employment department of government, the civil service commission. It was largely through this agency that Chicago, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Milwaukee City and Milwaukee County, Cleveland, Los Angeles County, Oakland, the states of Xew Jersey and Ohio, and the government of the Dominion of Canada undertook their various programs. The initial work on standardization in the Chicago city service was done by a “Municipal Efficiency Commission’’ on which the Civil Service Commission was represented, but after two years of experience the Civil Service Commission assumed all of the functions of the Municipal Efficiency Commission. In some cases where the civil service commission has become the standardization agency it has proceeded to do the work with its own staff, but in other cases it has retained outside consultants for the purpose. The latter course has been followed by the civil service commissions of Oakland, Milwaukee City, Milwaukee County, Cleveland, the state of New Jersey, and the Dominion of Canada. In two instances an administrative agency other than the civil service commission has been used. New York City created the Bureau of Standards, later known as the Bureau of Personal Service, under the jurisdiction of the Board of Estimate and Apportionment for the specific task of standardizing city employments. Massachusetts designated the Supervisor of Administration for a similar undertaking. The method of designating a legislative committee to do the work of standardization has been adopted in several cases. In New York State the senate committee on civil service was authorized by the legislature to conduct an inquiry into the conditions of employment in the state service and to make constructive recommendations. In the federal government a Joint Congressional Commission on Reclassscation was appointed with similar authority. A slight variation of the same plan WM adopted in Akron, Ohio, where the legislative body charged a special committee of its membership with the duty of standardizing the city service and requested the mayor and the local bureau of municipal research, a citizens’ agency, to assist the committee. This is trial versionwww.adultpdf.com

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396 NATIONAL lKUNICIPAL In Seattle the work was done by a special commission appointed by the mayor and consisting of “a member of the City Council, a member of the Civil Service Commission, a member of the Board of Public Works, an employe of the City under Civil Service, a representative of the labor organizations, a representative of the civic organizations and a representative of the business interests of the city.” It is difficult to judge from the results achieved which of these different methods is best. In the last analysis very much depends upon the local situation. The best method in one city might not be the best method in another city. As a general proposition, however, it may be asserted that unless there are peculiar local conditions that make a different course advisable, it is best to charge the civil service commission with the responsibility of developing the standardization program. If the commission is wise, it will devise means of keeping in close touch with the legislative body, the executive officials, and the employes, upon whose co-operation it must depend to put the standardization plan into effect. CHARACTER OF TEE CLASSIFICATIONS ADOPTED The second item of interest is the character of the classifications adopted. We may distinguish at once between two general types of classifications which, for convenience, we shall call the Chicago type and the New York type, because of the origin of the former in Chicago and the first distinct formulation of the latter in New York City. The former classifies the service into broad divisions such as the clerical service, the medical service, and the inspection service; whereas the latter follows more restricted vocaREVIEW SUPPLEMENT [June tional lines such as bookkeeping, typing, nursing, and building inspection. The Chicago type of classification has been adopted not only by the city of Chicago, but also by Oakland, Milwaukee City, Milwaukee County, Seattle, and the state of New Jersey. The classification prepared for the Dominion of Canada also is of the Chicago type. It is worthy of note, however, that in the later classifications of this type there is a decided leaning toward the more restricted service groupings of the New York type. This is evident from the fact that while the original Chicago classification divided the service into only eleven primary divisions, the classification of Milwaukee County provides for seventeen such divisions, that of the city of Milwaukee for nineteen divisions, and that of the Dominion of Canadafor thirty-four divisions. Even the Canadian classification, however, differs fundamentally from the New York type which contains, for New York State, upwards of one hundred and fifty primary divisions of service. Outside of New York City the New York type of classification has been used in the states of New York, Ohio, and Massachusetts; in the cities of St. Louis, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, and Akron; and in Los Angeles County. It should be mentioned that the Los hgeles County and Pittsburgh class%cations both preceded the classification of New York City and foreshadowed its character; but the conspicuous setting of the standardization work in the great metropolis, the clarity of its general plan, and the evident care that had been exercised in applying the vocational method of grouping positions, immediately gave the New York classification a prestige which the two earlier classifications have never had. Since the classifications of the New York type follow along restricted voThis is trial versionwww.adultpdf.com

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19201 EMPLOYMENT STANDARDIZATION 397 cational lines, one might expect to fmd practically the same vocational groups in all of these classifications. Such, however, is not the case. An analysis, from which the classifications of the small municipal service of Akron has been excluded, shows that out of a total of 486 vocational groups in all of the remaining eight classscations only 128, or about 26 per cent, appear in more than one classification. Only 65, or about 13 per cent, appear in more than two classifications. Only 27, or about 5.5 per cent, appear in more than three classifications. Only 19, or less than 4 per cent, appear in more than four classifkations. Only six vocational groups, those designated as “accoun tant,” “forester,” “pharmacist,” “stenographer,” ‘‘ storekeeper,” and “telephone operator,” appear in six classifications; two groups, “bookkeeper” and “physician,” appear in seven classifications; and “clerk” and nurse” enjoy the exclusive distinction of appearing in all of the eight classificat ions. The explanation of this lack of standardization within standardization measures themselves is not difficult to find. In the first place, governmental activities vary from city to city, from county to county, and from state to state. To illustrate, one city may do much of its own printing, whereas the other may have all its printing done by contract. The result would be that in the service classification of the first city there would appear a separate vocational group for printers, but in the classification of the second city no such group would appear. Again, in different governmental jurisdictions different methods of grouping similar employments have been used. St. Louis, for example, has classified chemists in a group by themselves, whereas New York State and New York City have placed both chemists 66 and physicists in a single group. The state of Ohio has adopted still another method by bringing together in one vocational group not only chemists and physicists, but also bacteriologists and pathologists. In the third place, lack of standardization results from mere lack of a common nomenclature for like vocational groups. In one classification we find “electricians ’’ and in another “electrical workers,” not because of any substantial difference in the two groups, but simply because two different designations have been used for identical groups. That greater uniformity could be achieved in civil service classifications even after all necessary variations are made to fit local conditions is quite obvious. It is possible, for example, to secure greater consistency in the grouping of related employments than we now have and yet not force upon any local service an arrangement that might prove arbitrary. Certainly where similar vocational groups are known by different designations, it would seem not only feasible but highly desirable to adopt standard designations. It is unlikely, however, that much headway will be made in this direction until we obtain some central clearing house for testing the different methods of classification and recommending as standard those which seem most meritorious. Here is an opportunity for the National Civil Service Reform League, the National Assembly of Civil Service Commissions, the Governmental Research Conference, or for all three of these organizations acting in unison. Already a notable beginning in this direction has been made by the National Assembly of Civil Service Commissions. In June, 1916, a special committee of that organization reported on certain fundamental principles that should govern the classification of positions in This is trial versionwww.adultpdf.com

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398 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL the public service and, among other things, recommended that a standing committee be appointed “to work out an acceptable classification scheme.” Thus far, however, this recommendation has not been carried into effect. STANDARDIZATION OF DUTIES AND QUALIFICATIONS We may now make a cursory examination of two features of employment standardization which are very closely related, namely, the definitions of standard positions and the standard qualiications for appointment. It is not within the scope of this discussion to comment on the suitability and correctness of the dehitions and qualification statements in the various standardization measures, but attention should be called to a few matters of technical practice. If one did not go back of the printed pages of the annual reports of the Chicago Civil Service commission one would be left with the impression that the standardization measure of that city contained neither definitions of standard positions nor standard qualifications for appointment. These reports contain only definitions of “services” and “grades” but not of individual positions; and such statements of qualifications as may be discovered at all are most general in character and appear more or less incidentally in the grade definitions. The latter, too, are general rather than specific, and for a very good reason. A grade in the Chicago classification of service frequently includes a dozen or more distinct positions each involving a specialized set of duties and often belonging to a separate vocational line of work from other positions in the same grade. In grade I of the medical service, for example, Chicago has such widely differing positions as “orderly” and REVIEW SUPPLEMENT [June interne.” Under these circumstances the grade definitions had to be general in character, for any attempt to make them specific would have created difficulty in covering such a large number and variety of positions. As it is, the definitions are so very general that they have almost no practical value &s standards for measuring work. It is only by going behind the printed pages of the reports that the real character of this feature of Chicago’s standardization plan may be mcertained. In the official files of the Civil Service Commission are cards for all the standard positions in the Chicago city service and on these cards appear not only specific definitions of the duties of the standard positions but also spec& statements of the examination requirements to be met by applicants for appointment to these positions. The grade definitions appearing in the annual reports of the Chicago Commission are really superfluous timber and could be omitted entirely without detriment to the more essential features which do not appear in the reports. The important unit in employment standardization, after all, is the individual position and not the grade. The grade definition, however, did not disappear immediately after Chicago’s pioneer work. It was retained in the Oakland standardization of 1915. In the same year Los Angeles County, though it departed radically from Chicago’s type of classification, did not cast overboard the idea of the general grade definition. Neither does its published classification of service contain any statements of appointment qualifications distinct from the general grade definitions. Pittsburgh, which followed closely upon the heels of Los Angeles County in its effort at standardization, continued the grade rc * This is trial versionwww.adultpdf.com

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19201 EMPLOYMENT STANDARDIZATION 399 definitions, but made them more specific and also included in its report statements of appointment qualifications applying to all positions in the grade. As late as 1917 Seattle, Washington, adopted a standardization plan which not only retained grade definitions but harked back to the very general type of definition first used by Chicago. In like manner it followed the example of Chicago’s printed reports by omitting all mention of appointment qualifications. In the standardization measures of New York City and New York State we find for the first time a distinct breaking away from the grade definition and the substitution of definitions of standard positions instead. These two measures which were worked out more or less simultaneously and under the guidance of the same organization, the New York Bureau of Municipal Research, may be said to mark a transitional stage in the development of this phase of technique; for while their departure from the grade definition was distinct yet it was by no means complete. In both measures there remain numerous instances of the use of definitions intended to cover all positions in a grade rather than just one position. In case of the qualifications for appointment we find a like tendency to break away from the grade as the unit of employment and to single out the standard position as the proper unit. It should be noted, however, that in the New York standardization reports there are many more survivals of quaUcation standards that apply to all positions in a grade than there are of grade definitions of duties. The states of Ohio and Massachusetts and the city of Cleveland simply followed the New York model without making any contribution of importance to the technique of the work. It remained for the city of Milwaukee to make th6 fist complete break from the old grade definitions and grade qualification standards and to adopt a consistent policy of making the standard position the primary unit of employment for all purposes. In the standardization measure of that city every standard position is separately defined and is governed by a separate statement of appointment qualifications. The same practice has been followed by the state of New Jersey, the city of Akron, Milwaukee County, and the Dominion of Canada. The Canadian standardization, it should be added, is so emphatic in its recognition of the standard position as the primary unit of employment that it pays no attention whatever to grades as such. The report published by the Dominion government may be described as a dictionary in which the various standard positions are listed in alphabetical order. STANDARDS OF COMPENSATION Still another important item of interest is the practice of the different governments in regard to standards of compensation. In general, two distinct standards have been used, the market value and the Cost of living. The former has been used in practically all jurisdictions where employment standardization has been undertaken. In order to ascertain the market value of definite types of personal service, the rule has been to inquire into the rates of pay for similar employments in local private establishments and in other branches of the public service. For certain classes of skilled labor the union scale of wages has been accepted as the standard, notably in Chicago and Pittsburgh. It should be added, however, that where the market value has This is trial versionwww.adultpdf.com

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400 NATIONAL MIJNICIPAL been ascertained it has not been tak& as an absolute standard but rather as a guide. Often it has been found that the conditions surrounding certain employments in the public service were so different from those surrounding analogous employments in private service that fairness required either a higher or a lower rate than the prevailing one. In 1915 New York City established the precedent of making the cost of living a factor in wage determination. Like every other city of considerable size, New York had in its employ a large body of unskilled manual workers. When the Bureau of Standards came to the problem of setting the wage scale for this particular group, it realized the inequity of being guided solely by the wages prevailing in private employment regardless of their adequacy. Upon the theory that the city government should be a model employer, it was decided to inquire into the cost of living of unskilled laborers in the city of New York. The result of this inquiry was a brief report of 57 pages in which the conclusion was drawn that “below $840 a year an unskilled laborer’s family of five cannot maintain a standard of living consistent with American ideas.” The standard of living outlined in this report, it must be confessed, was too near the poverty level to be considered “consistent with American ideas,” and the recommendation of the Bureau of Standards that $840 be made the maximum rate of pay for unskilled laborers, and attainable only after at least seven years of satisfactory service at lower rates, was hardly in keeping with the pronouncement that the city government should be a model employer; still the mere fact that the cost of living was taken into account at all marked a decided step in advance and gave to New York City a distinct place REVIEW SUPPLEMENT [June in the history of the standardization movement . Two years later the Bureau of Personal Service, which succeeded the Bureau of Standards, repeated this inquiry and found that, due to higher prices, a minimum of $980 was necessary to provide the standard of living described in the original report. A broader application of the cost of living principle, though from a different angle, was made in 1918 in Seattle. Unlike New York, that city did not attempt to establish a basic rate for unskilled laborers or for any other group of employes. It did, however, ascertain the increase in the cost of living in Seattle from 1915 to 1918 and then increased the compensation of salaried employes to a point where it was about 40 per cent higher than it was in 1915. While it is true that Seattle prices had gone up considerably more than 40 per cent during the period in question, yet the fact is to be noted -that the adjustment in salaries was made with a definite relationship to the cost of living. Since this process brought Seattle salaries about 8 per cent above the 1918 salary rates as they were before the results of the study were applied, the wages of skilled and unskilled laborers also were advanced 8 per cent above the original 1918 rates, thus leaving the existing relativity of wages undisturbed. The Canadian report on standardization embodies still another approach with regard to the cost of living. In this report it is frankly stated that the revised salaries should not be based upon actual living costs in 1918 which were considered abnormal and unstable, but upon “what would have been normal conditions for 1918 had the tendencies of the period prior to the war continued and had the war not occurred.” For certain classes of positions a special war bonus was recomThis is trial versionwww.adultpdf.com

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19201 EMPLOYMENT STANDARDIZATION 401 mended in addition to the regular salaries. As in Seattle, no effort was made to ascertain the cost of maintaining a given standard of living and thus establishing a basic rate for particular groups of employes. Although the report of the Joint Congressional Commission on ReclassScation of Salaries in the federal civil service is not yet available,‘ there should be some reference to the very fundamental approach which has been made to the problem of salary adjustment in the studies of this commission. Under its direction the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics has made cost of living inquiries along three different lines. One inquiry resulted in the formulation of a “quantity and cost budget” for a government clerk‘s family of five persons and the demonstration that, at October, 1919 prices, such a family could not maintain itseIf in health and decency on less than $2,288 a year. A similar inquiry developed the fact that at September, 1919 prices, a single man employed as government clerk required a minimum income of $1,057 a year to maintain a corresponding standard of living. A third inquiry found that a single woman clerk must have at least $1,140 a year. With these three basic studies before it the Reclassifkation Commission was provided with a better fact basis for establishing equitable rates of pay for different classes of workers than any other public agency engaged in employment standardization has ever been. A word ought to be said, too, with regard to the new undertaking in Philadelphia. While the 05cial work of the Civil Service Commission of this city is as yet hardly under way, there will be available a local study of the cost of living for a workingman’s 1 This report has since been published as House Document No. 686, 66th Congress, %d SeBsion. family made by the Bureau of Municipal Research of Philadelphia? This study, which was made during 1917 and 1918, outlines a standard of living expressed to a very large extent in terms of actual goods and services, so that its current cost may be readily ascertained at any ti,me by simply revising the price figures appearing opposite the various items listed in the standard. It was found that the annual income required by a workingman’s family of five persons at autumn 1918 prices was $1,636, and that at November, 1919 prices it was $1,803. The range of compensation rather than the flat rate of pay has been made an essential feature of every standardization measure. Practically the only exceptions to this rule are found in the skilled and unskilled labor employments where the flat rate appeared to be more in conformity with the practice in private service. ADVANCEMENT WITHIN COMPENSATION RANGES Perhaps the most difficuh problem in employment standardization is that of providing a fair and workable method of governing advancement from lower to higher rates of pay within a given range of compensation. It will be of especial interest therefore to see what has been the actual practice in this regard. In the recommendations contained in the various reports on standardization, three different methods may be distinguished: 1. Automatic advancement at the end of a given period of time. 2. Advancement after a prescribed minimum period of service if warranted by the e5ciency of the individual as * “Workingmen’s Standard of Living in Philadelphia,’’ published by the Macmillan Company in October, 1919. This is trial versionwww.adultpdf.com

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402 NATIOKAL MUNICIPAL indicated by a system of efficiency records. 3. Advancement upon special appraisal indicating that the increase in salary is justified. The first of these methods, that of automatic advancement at the end of a given period of time, ha found favor in only one jurisdiction-Los Angeles County. Even there, however, its application is limited to the first increase in salary. A new appointee begins at the lowest rate and after one year of service he advances automatically to the next higher rate. Thereafter, however, advancement takes place only after investigation and favorable recommendation by the Bureau of E5ciency of the Civil Service Commission. The weakness of automatic advancement is that it does not discriminate between the less and the more e5cient employes. The second method is much more common. It has been recommended in practically every report on standardization that has appeared thus far. This does not mean that systems of efficiency records have been fully and successfully installed in all jurisdictions where they have been recommended. Far from it! As a matter of fact, according to fragmentary reports received by the writer, such systems have not been installed at all in Seattle or in Ohio; they have been only partially introduced in New York State and in St. Louis; and nowhere do they appear to have been really satisfactory. For a time the Chicago efficiency record system was heralded abroad as a most successful experiment, but it is no longer so regarded even in Chicago. One of the great di5culties everywhere seems to be to get administrative officials to take their duty of marking the e5ciency of employes seriously enough. Too often this work has been done in a most perfunctory manner. REVIEW SUPPLEMENT [June bother difficulty is encountered in reconciling the markings of officials who mark according to widely varying standards; and a third di5culty lies in the fact that the personal bias of the administrator cannot be effectively eliminated from the markings without reducing their scope to a point of comparative uselessness. In the writer’s opinion the shortcomings of e5ciency record systems are so great and in some respects so fundamental that the time, energy, and expense of further experimentation along this line might well be spared were it not for one fact of outstanding importance, and that is the lack of anything more satisfactory. It may be that some of the more recent innovations which place the operation of the system to a large extent under the control of the employes themselves will overcome in part at least the difficulties that stood in the way of the older plans. As yet, however, we have no positive evidence to that effect. The encouraging sign in this situation is that at the present time the whole problem of e5ciency records is being approached with much greater care than it was a number of years ago. If there are real possibilities in the system we shall know it before very long; if the system has no possibilities we shall know this also. The third method of governing advancement, that of special appraisal by a bureau of efficiency or similar administrative agency, has been recommended in New York City and New York State and is in effect in Los Angeles County, as we have already indicated. It should be explained that in both New York City and State this method is applied only to the higher grade positions. In Los Angeles County, as we have seen, it applies to all positions having a range of compensation, but is confined to the This is trial versionwww.adultpdf.com

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19201 EMPLOYMENT STANDARDIZATION 403 second, and last, increase in pay in each position. This method must be considered as merely supplementary to other methods, for it is hardly conceivable that in a large service a separate appraisal of the work of every employe could be made every year by an overhead administrative agency. CONCLUSION After this somewhat cursory examination of the various standardization plans that have been worked out in different jurisdictions, it may not be wholly amiss to draw a few general conclusions. In the first place there can be no question that very distinct gains in technique have been made during the last ten years. The later efforts at standardization, as a rule, have been far more scientific and more practicable than the earlier ones. In thesecond place it must befrankly confessed that thus far we have not been able to meet squarely two highly important problems with which we have to deal in employment standardization. Most governments have hedged on the question of adequate compensation and none of them has yet proposed a satisfactory solution of the problem of controlling advancement in salary within a range of compensation. In the third place there appears to be a great lack of standardization within the standardization measures themselves. This is true not only of the classifications of service but also of the grading schemes, the titles and the dehitions of duties. We would reiterate, therefore, the suggestion that either the National Civil Service Reform League, the National Assembly of Civil Service Commissions, or the Governmental Research Conference, or any two or all of them acting in unison, establish some kind of centraI clearing house or bureau of standards for the purpose of testing out the various methods and ideas that have been advanced in the field of employment standardization and of recommending those which seem most meritorious. Without such a clearing house we shall continue to make confusion worse confounded, especially if every new consultant who appears upon the scene feels it encumbent upon himself to do something differently from the way it was done before whether his method is better or not. This is true particularly of nomenclature in which we already have a veritable babel of voices. Finally, the warning should be sounded that merely to work out an excellent plan of standardization, or even to secure its adoption, does not solve all employment problems for all time. At best the plan merely makes for clarification and makes equitable employment administration possible. To maintain the plan in working order requires eternal vigilance, and to use it in the best interests of the service requires the most conscientious efforts of the broadest gauged men the community affords. This is trial versionwww.adultpdf.com