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National municipal review, May, 1922

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National municipal review, May, 1922
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National municipal review
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National Municipal League
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Volume 1, Issue 1

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Full Text
NATIONAL
MUNICIPAL REVIEW
Vol. XI, No. 5 MAY, 1922 Total No. 71
VIEWS AND REVIEWS
Turn in the direction of Harvard and make a bow to a rare reformer! His name is Lewis Jerome Johnson and his hobby has been for some ten years the preferential ballot.
When he began, somewhere back of 1914, he showed originality by not founding a Preferential Ballot League, but contenting himself with accepting invitations to speak and using the mails at his own expense. He pointed out the undeniable advantage of counting second-choice votes—saving the expense and effort of the primary election which then appeared in most commission government charters, automatically reuniting split majorities against compact machine-disciplined minorities, etc. The device was adopted in Grand Junction, Col., and Professor Johnson industriously brought the idea to the attention of charter commissions elsewhere until it was in effect in upwards of a hundred cities and towns, the largest being Cleveland.
But he never advanced it as a complete solution of governmental ills. I recall my astonishment when after speaking forcefully for it at a meeting in Washington, he said to me—“Your short ballot is one reform that I recognize as more important than mine!” Such a concession was not typical of political propagandists in general!
Three or four years ago things began
to quiet down on this subject and the device could be called “the pestilential ballot” without provoking a rejoinder from Cambridge. Professor Johnson still answered inquiries and continued to act as the clearing house for our League and everybody else on this movement but he did no more pushing. To a recent inquirer he explains:
I believe the time has now come when the only form of city administration that should interest progressives is the proportional representation city-manager plan. The old commission government, with its effort to place the city government in the hands of a council representative only of the majority, indicated, as the doctors would say, the preferential ballot. That plan must now give way, in my judgment, to a still better thing, the P. R. city-manager plan, such as has been adopted in Ashtabula, Boulder, Sacramento, and Cleveland. With the Hare system in use for the choice of city councils, I believe that it is inexpedient to try to develop further or to extend, even for election of single officials, any other system.
Moderation, self-effacement and open-mindedness again! (An example that might be observed profitably by the other and more common type, e.g., the prominent enthusiast who assured the civil service reform convention a year ago that all other reforms were superfluous and that by the merit system, alone and all-sufficient, could we reach salvation; therefore would we


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“fools” please drop all our other projects of reform as useless distractions?)
*
Professor Johnson’s reasoning is good. So also was his reasoning when he started the preferential ballot movement. No one could have foreseen then how soon the city-manager movement would become important, and proportional representation seemed even more remote. Even considered as an intermediate reform, a palliative of certain evils of the election of single officials by majority vote, the preferential ballot seemed to have scope for a long and useful career. Our model charter included it as an option and we expected many more cities to take interest in it than in proportional representation during the current decade at least. And now, so swiftly have we moved in these matters that we have leap-frogged over preferential ballot clear to proportional representation within ten years and our model charter with its most advanced options is a reality in enough cities to ensure its perm,anence and growth.
The preferential ballot agitation was useful in clearing the path for “P. R. ” It disclosed some of the possibilities of second-choice voting, broke down the universal assumption that the majority system was the only possible one and upset by ample experience the fear that voters could not understand such voting directions. But for such breaking of the ground, the Proportional Representation League might still be in the outer darkness of untried theory propounding a quaint mathematical contraption with too many elements of novelty to command serious consideration!
*
How complete is the rapid triumph of zoning is revealed by the experience of New York City, the first city to enact a comprehensive ordinance of
[May
this character. In the five years that the ordinance has been in effect here, 158 applications for changes in the ordinance have been granted and 134 denied. In 1916 these pleas were entirely for the purpose of relaxing the restrictions, then came an increasing number of applications to extend or stiffen the restrictions, those which were granted in 1917 numbering 19 per cent of those that relaxed. In 1918 it was 30 per cent, in 1919, 54 per cent, in 1920, 125 per cent and in 1921, 153 per cent. In other words property owners now prefer to be restricted and have learned to prize the stability of value that real estate gains when protected from un-neighborly invasions by industry. As the zoning ordinance was one of the achievements of the Mitchel administration and indeed its leading contribution to the art of municipal administration, Tammany night to take advantage of such opposition as existed to the ordinance by denouncing it in its 1917 platform. The Hylan administration neglected it, but it grew stronger with time and was not tampered with during the next four years nor mentioned in the platform of 1921. *
Our growing list of pamphlets advertised elsewhere in this issue is assuming the proportions of a considerable library. There are now about twenty titles. Several have run through two or three editions and “The Story of the City-Manager Plan” is in its sixtieth thousand. Our ability so often to supply in handy and authoritative form exactly the information that is demanded, brings in an increasing volume of inquiries—upwards of six hundred a month at the present time— and when they fall outside our printed material, as of course they often do since they range the whole field of public affairs, we answer by letter elaborately and carefully, often sponging on


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our always obliging neighbor, the Bureau of Municipal Research for facts outside our experience or clipping files, and sometimes searching the municipal reference library or sending out letters to experts in numerous quarters for help. At any rate every serious inquirer gets his answer and incidentally we educate ourselves. Whenever an item in our clipping service indicates a “prospect,” he receives one or another of numerous form letters exhibiting our stock, and the dimes and quarters that flow back sustain the endeavor. So likewise do we make the inquiries from high school debaters and civics teachers pay their way. Pamphlets are often sent free where they seem especially likely to do good, especially to officials and official commissions, and occasionally we circularize a whole legislature.
All told it constitutes an important central service.
*
Eventually we hope to develop pamphlets, either monographs by specialists or committee reports, on every subject in our field. Our typical
“Technical Pamphlet” undertakes to tell the whole story of one reform proposal, the need for it, the advantages of it, all the trials of it and their working and the ideals to which it should measure up, for the person who really wants to know regardless of the dullness that may be inherent in the subject. Such a pamphlet was our last issue on “Public Pensions.” Our average member had no longing to read it and no probable use for the information, but distributing it as a special issue of the Review was the only way to make its existence widely known to people who did want it badly and who recognized it as the first printed collection of complete data on the most vexatious subject in public administration.
Our pamphlets in the Pocket Civics Series are more popular and are intended to catch the interest of people who are not looking up the subject but who ought to know, e.g., the pamphlet “Ramshackle County Government” (out of print just now) which seeks to make people realize that there is such a thing as a vast and difficult county government problem.
Richard S. Childs.


THE ST. LOUIS MUNICIPAL OUTDOOR
THEATRE
BY M. GENEVIEVE TIERNEY Secretary of the St. Louis Pageant Drama Association
I
In July, 1913, a group of public-spirited St. Louisans organized the St. Louis Pageant Drama Association for the purpose of encouraging the production of performances for the entertainment and education of our citizens and to create and promote public sentiment for a civic theatre. The time was opportune in view of the fact that the 150th anniversary of the city’s founding occurred in 1914 and it was decided to commemorate this event with a production that would at once challenge the attention of the country and leave our city a heritage for future inspiration.
The St. Louis Pageant and Masque of 1914, the former a drama by Thomas Wood Stevens portraying our city’s history, and the latter a symbolic poem prophesying its future by Percy Mac-Kaye, was the result. This superb production, after a year of preparation, was produced in the natural amphitheatre on Art Hill, in the heart of Forest Park, and its unforgetable loveliness will linger as long as life in the memory of all who saw it. So far-reaching and fundamental was the purpose underlying it, that every element of our social fabric was eventually drawn into the current, and it marked an epoch in the civic and artistic life of our city, of which co-ordination of civic effort was the keynote; 7,500 citizen-actors participated in the production and the spectacle was witnessed by 400,000 people, the largest audience
ever assembled to view a dramatic production.
In the discussion of entertainment for the masses one frequently hears the statement that producers must give the public what they want, the general inference being that too high-typed a production is over the head of the crowd. The Pageant Drama Association, being inexperienced producers, reversed this rather generally accepted theory with a firm conviction that art and beauty are universal in their appeal, and for once producers gave no consideration to any commevvial phase of the production, concentra mg entirely on the esthetically constructive principles of dramatic art.
Certainly no audience was ever more democratic. In size it has never been equalled and in appreciation it has never been excelled, and so far as St. Louis audiences are concerned, it corrected any impression to the contrary that may have existed in certain channels as to the type of entertainment to which the masses respond. It is significant that with a complete indifference to box office results and a seating capacity of 50,000, one-half of which was free to the public, the Association realized a surplus of $17,125.
Thus was public sentiment created and crystallized for a civic theatre— and now for the realization.
II
When the Association decided to commemorate the tercentennial of
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Shakespeare’s death, it was felt no better way could be devised than to produce one of his plays, adapted to the outdoors, in some natural setting more intimate than the big Pageant site on ArtHill, since it would have been impossible to have heard the players in the big auditorium.
After deciding on the play, Miss Margaret Anglin was asked to produce it, and invited to come to St. Louis to look over a number of available sites. Miss Anglin arrived on a cold, raw November Sunday and, accompanied by Mr. John H. Gundlach, President of the Association, Mr. W. W. LaBeaume and Mr. Lambert E. Walther, made a tour of Forest Park, visiting various sites that looked promising. The Municipal Theatre site was the last visited and, while the choice of the committee, the committee was nevertheless very anxious to learn what Miss Anglin thought of it. Her reaction was immediate and enthusiastic, and after testing the acoustics from every angle, the availability of the site for varied productions having been carefully considered and a minute study of transportation facilities having previously been made, it was selected as the proper site.
The artistic success of the performance surpassed all expectations—the audience was enthralled by the unrivalled beauty of the production and was quick to realize that no small part of the excellence of the production was due to the enchanting beauty of the stage and auditorium and Miss Anglin’s intelligent treatment of the natural loveliness of the stage.
In the “As You Like It” performance, as in the Pageant and Masque, the Association emphasized community participation in the performances. Hundreds of our people took part in the prologue of Elizabethan dances, directed by Mr. Cecil Sharp of London.
Ill
Having faith in the great educational value of the theatre to our people and in the belief that St. Louis should maintain its leadership in the community play, the Association as the conclusion of the “As You Like It” performance presented the stage and its accessories to the city with the request that funds be provided to make the site a permanent outdoor theatre for the use of the people.
The following year the city placed the theatre on a permanent basis, building a stage and concrete auditorium, and erecting at the entrance an ornamental colonnade.
The Municipal Theatre is situated in St. Louis’s largest park—Forest Park, on a wooded hill overlooking the River des Peres, the slope of which is admirably adapted to the seating arrangement. Experts have generally agreed that there is no lovelieT environment for an outdoor theatre in the world.
The auditorium, which is entirely surrounded by trees, has a depth of 256 feet, an average width of 225 feet and a total seating capacity of 9,270. It is constructed of reinforced concrete-portable chairs being used for seats. The exits are so arranged that the theatre can be emptied in from ten to twenty minutes. Everyone in the audience has an unobstructed view of the stage, the acoustics being such that the voices of the performers carry satisfactorily to every part of the auditorium.
The stage is built upon the banks of the River des Peres, in the midst of a dense shrubbery. Two majestic oaks, about seventy feet high, form a proscenium arch in the foreground. Between the stage and the audience is an orchestra pit, 10 to 18 feet wide, which will accommodate an orchestra of 150. The difference in the elevation of this


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pit and that of the farthest row of seats in the auditorium is 53 feet. The stage has a total width of 120 feet and is 90 feet deep, connecting to a bridge leading across the little river to the dressing rooms, all permanent buildings, hidden in the shrubbery. The bridge is so located that it may be effectively used in connection with the stage. The lighting is by electricity, both large searchlights and smaller lights being used, and the artistry of the lighting effects is unsurpassingly beautiful.
The theatre is at the disposal of the people of St. Louis for civic entertainments of all kinds, but may not be used at any time for the purpose of obtaining revenue. All funds derived through the use of the theatre must be expended in improving the theatre—installing complete lighting devices, concrete ornamentation and comforts for the audience.
IV
Since the completion in 1916, the Municipal Theatre has been used on more than 195 occasions, the character of the performances given consisting of grand opera, choral concerts, dramatic productions, playground festivals, Greek games, and a now permanent mid-summer season of light opera and a permanent late summer fashion show of fall styles.
[May
It is interesting to note that the Municipal Theatre is not “municipal” in the same sense as are the Art Museum, the Public Library or the Zoological Gardens, all of which are supported by taxation. While our parks are maintained from the general municipal revenue and the Municipal Theatre is in our largest park, the theatre is supported by fees derived from the Opera and Fashion Show, to which admission is charged, it being stipulated that 1,600 free seats be provided for the public at all performances. With these exceptions the theatre is at the disposal of the public, free of charge, under the regulation of the Department of Parks and Recreation.
The Municipal Theatre is a triumph of community effort and is now an accepted factor in the recreational life of our people. Through its policy of community participa1:on and free admissions, it has awakened an interest in music, dancing, singing, designing and kindred elements of histrionic art that make for the ultimate realization of the goal of its founders—the democratization of art. Its founders have fostered the idea that much of the value of the theatre will be nullified unless our people are drawn into the performances and free admission provided so every citizen may have the cultural advantages he has helped to create.


EMERGENCY ZONING IN SYRACUSE
BY F. G. CRAWFORD Syracuse University
The common council of the city of Syracuse, New York, adopted on January 30, 1922, an ordinance providing for a comprehensive zoning plan. For ten years property had been protected by special ordinances until the city was a network of special zones, secured from time to time by the residents of certain streets.
In the case of Hayden vs. Clary, which involved the building of a drug store in a restricted block, Justice Irving It. Devendorf handed down a decision declaring such ordinances illegal and void, and asserted that property development should not be restricted except by a comprehensive zoning system applying to the entire city. Notwithstanding this decision, the city council, two days later, passed additional restrictive ordinances. The bureau of buildings was at once flooded with applications for permits to construct stores in districts that had been protected for years by special ordinances. The superintendent of building, on the advice of the corporation council, held up all such permits, and the citizens organized to demand the passage of a comprehensive zoning ordinance. The city-planning commission had had under way such a plan, which was completed and submitted to the council on January 30. In the meantime injunctions had been secured by irate property owners to prevent the issuance of permits, and damage actions were begun on the basis of these injunctions. Public opinion was aroused to a high pitch, for the objection of one of the nineteen aldermen would hold over the ordinance until February 6, and in that
week permits might be issued. Party lines were swept aside and a tremendous force of public opinion centered behind the proposition, broke down opposition and the ordinance was passed.
This law provides for five zones as follows:
First:
Class A. One- and two-family dwellings, colleges, schools, convents, churches, and fire stations with every structure twenty feet from the street line and with only 60 per cent of the lot utilized for the building.
Class B. Apartment and multiple dwellings, fraternity and sorority houses, clubs, hospitals and sanitariums.
Second: Commercial and local business buildings.
Third: Strictly commercial business and light manufacturing.
Fourth: Industrial manufacturing. Fifth: Unclassified.
Under the ordinance the city-planning commission will hereafter exercise complete control over all building activity in Syracuse. Amendment will be made by two-thirds vote of the council upon recommendation of the commission. Nothing in the plan affects buildings in existence or prevents replacements, provided the replacement does not exceed 50 per cent of the assessed valuation. Buildings in existence in zones where they do not belong can be altered or repaired if the cost does not exceed 30 per cent of the assessed valuation. Syracuse has taken a step forward which was necessary and vital to her future.


THE CORONERS AGAIN
BY LENT D. UPSON Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research, Inc.
Coroners in partnership with undertakers, unnecessary and misleading inquests and neglect of duty featured the administration of many coroners. Why is it so hard to do anything about it? :: ::
This is a story of that ancient and honorable office of the coroner, of some fumbling efforts at abolishing it, and of how poorly they succeeded. It is set down only as a recital of errors that may guide some future adventurer in county reform.
Not a great many years ago, two Wayne County coroners were sent to prison because of official misconduct, much against the peace and dignity of the people of Michigan. Before and since that time there have been reoccurring allegations to the effect that certain coroners were silent partners in undertaking firms, which firms profited measurably through these connections; that the coroners did not always view the bodies of deceased persons, but left this task to non-medical subordinates; that the property of deceased persons did not always reach the heirs or the state; that frequently inquests were unnecessarily held for the jury fees involved; and that inquests in criminal cases frequently prejudiced the trial of offenders by the prosecutor. By no means have all coroners’ administrations been bad, but the good have been consistently tarred by the vicious.
MEDICAL EXAMINER RECOMMENDED
In 1920 the board of county auditors invited the Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research to make a study of the coroner’s office and suggest reme-
dies for generally accepted evils rather than prove charges against individuals. The bureau spent some months studying the local office, and the procedures in Massachusetts, New York, and elsewhere.
The bureau finally reached these conclusions:
1. That responsibility for the office should be located in a single appointed official with a legal-medical training.
2. That immediate subordinates should be medically trained.
3. That the office should determine the cause of death, but not the responsibility for it, turning available evidence over to the police and prosecutor.
4. That the office of public administrator should be created to handle the estates of unknown deceased persons.
The present generation will grant the merits of a single appointive officer for this position with thoroughly trained subordinates. The two elective coroners of Wayne County are an inheritance of the time when a large county had poor methods of transportation and these officers actually functioned outside of the city of Detroit, instead of leaving the county jobs largely to the justices of the peace.
It is believed that selection by appointment is the only means of ending connivance with undertaking establishments in the disposal of bodies, or which at least would provide an avenue of protest to the appointing authority. Out of 1,700 cases reported to the coro-


THE CORONERS AGAIN
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ner’s office during the period checked, 87 went to one undertaker, or about twice the number of the nearest competitor. Of greater significance is the fact that all but 6 of the 87 cases were reported by other than the family concerned,—i.e., were cases susceptible to “ recommendation.”
CORONER SHOULD NOT HAVE INQUEST POWERS
The more important recommendation was that of removing inquest powers from the coroner’s office. One Wayne County prosecutor had stated: “The entire theory of the operation of the coroner’s inquest is directly opposed to the theory on which criminal prosecutions are conducted, and in practice the testimony given by witnesses at a coroner’s case interferes with the obtaining of proper justice at trials months afterwards.”
Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York City, and Maryland have supplanted the coroner by a physician trained in medico-legal jurisprudence. To this medical examiner has been delegated the power to investigate all coroner cases as to the cause of death, but without power to fix responsibility. This report of the medical examiner is filed with the prosecutor, with all the facts determined by scientific investigation. If the report indicates that the death was caused by other than natural causes, the police and prosecuting attorney assume the duty of fixing the responsibility. The bureau believes that this is a correct procedure in spite of isolated cases where exoneration by a coroners’ jury has certain advantages.
As an alternative to the medical examiner proposal there was a temptation to suggest that the entire function of the office be turned over to the health authorities of the cities and county. Of coroners’ cases investi-
gated, 68 per cent were medical, 23 per cent were accidental and 9 per cent were by acts of violence. Further, it appeared that inquests were held in about 5 per cent of the cases so investigated, and in less than 1 per cent of all cases was any criminal act involved. The police and the prosecutor were independently investigating these deaths without regard to the coroner. In fact, public officials recalled no single instance in which the coroners had actually unearthed a crime. Could not the health authorities have issued death certificates equally well? Such a proposal appeared too far-reaching for the moment.
The proposal of a public administrator was advanced by the coroners themselves and was being urged by the governor. Such a measure was passed by the legislature, and should insure the estates of unknown deceased persons going intact to the state, and not being squandered in fancy funerals and undertakers’ fees.
COMPROMISE MEASURE PASSED
The bureau prepared a report and drafted a tentative act providing for an appointive medical examiner; the coroners proposed a compromise bill of their own; and the Detroit Citizens’ League was in the legislature urging an amendment to the constitution providing for home rule for counties, which, if successful, would have permitted a local revamping of the coroner’s office. This last measure was of highest importance, and too much dabbling in other county reforms at the legislature would have meant its certain defeat.
However, the coroner’s office was in substantial agreement with the bureau on a number of proposals to modify the procedure. The bureau therefore agreed to a bill drafted by the prosecutor which provided for the abolition of


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the inquest except upon request of the prosecutor, and for minor amendments in procedure. The coroners were willing that one of their number should be known as a presiding coroner, and be ostensibly in charge of the work, but would not stand for the abolition of the dual office. The bureau reserved the right to make a plea before the legislative committee to substitute an appointive officer for the two elective ones. With the county home rule bill in constant jeopardy (and it later lost its life before the legislature) it was not
[May
opportune to make a fight on this point or for a genuine revision of the coroner’s office. The compromise bill went through without a dissenting voice.
However, county home rule is now being placed before Michigan voters by initiative petition. Its acceptance seems inevitable. When some time in the near future there is a revision of the government of Wayne County, the bureau believes it has sufficient facts to put the office of coroner into the limbo of suspenders, mustache cups, and other accessories of another age.
THREE TOWN MANAGERS IN TROUBLE
STRATFORD, CONNECTICUT, — DECATUR, GEORGIA,— MANSFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS
BY RICHARD S. CHILDS
I
E ably in my observation of the workings of the city-manager plan I was convinced that in towns of less than ten thousand population all bets were off as to how a modem charter would work; that is to say, an average of progress and success could be safely predicted as to such towns in general but as to a given case, no predictions could safely be ventured. In towns of that size the personal equation looms high, a single trouble-maker can upset the apple cart and the manager’s personality and tact are put to their stiffest tests. In such a town the manager is not part of a considerable machine of government but is almost its entire active personnel. He does not sit behind a big desk and issue written orders; rather he carries his office in his hat and learns to call the road foreman “Charlie.” Instead of the mild fluctuations of the party votes characteristic of a big city, we see the
quietness of a mill pond and unopposed re-elections at one season and a little tornado of bitter personal politics the next. Accordingly trouble, when it comes, is likely to be acute and the excitement keen even to the point of comicality.
II
Stratford, Connecticut (population 6,970), adopted its city-manager charter with some help from our field director, Dr. Hatton, in 1921. The town is straggling in its layout with several distinct sections, making wards and a ward-elected council more acceptable than the usual method of election at large. The first council was somewhat mixed in character and political complexion and not of very high ability. It selected as town manager, R. W. Hunter, formerly the town manager of Ambridge, Pennsylvania, and things started off smoothly.


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Stratford, like most Connecticut small towns, is solidly Republican. It was the Republican Town Committee which had started the movement for a new charter, expanding promptly, however, to include outsiders of all elements. Nevertheless, it is assumed that the party leaders developed a dislike for the manager. Being a stranger, very likely he went ahead, did the work and made his purchases and appointments without consulting the old unofficial government.
One night last January, with very little warning, the council voted, 6 to 3, to demand the resignation of the manager, asserting that Mr. Hunter had been inefficient and inattentive, and charging specifically that in buying two ash cans he had signed the requisition after the purchase, and that by ordering a bin filled with coal he had purchased seven tons when intending to purchase only five. The manager described the action as a thunderbolt from a clear sky and pleaded digni-fiedly but vainly for opportunity to prepare a reply to the charges.
The obvious triviality of the charges struck the people as indicating that the real reasons were not being disclosed and as being unfair to the city manager.
The fine public zeal that had been built up for the charter a few months earlier revived promptly and petitions, reciting the unfairness of the action and asking that it be rescinded, were signed by over a thousand voters, one third of the voting list, within twrenty-four hours. People who had never come into contact with Mr. Hunter became suddenly his violent partisans.
A secretive summoning of the council at unusually short notice leaked out and the Town Hall was packed to its capacity with a crowd'that waited two hours with increasing impatience while the council held a private session.
When the councilmen finally emerged, the spokesman of the crowd demanded that the council’s action be rescinded. The council was firm, but so flustered that it adjourned having voted on a minor amendment of a motion to reconsider but not having voted at all on the motion.
Then came two or three district meetings packed to support the action of the council. They were of local civic clubs, restricted to paid-up members and certain members were urged to pay up in time to enable them to participate in the proposed action. This promptly inspired other and wide-open meetings, practically all of which demanded that their councilmen rescind or resign.
Despite all this, the council at its next meeting ten days later, elaborately protected by police in the presence of a thousand storming citizens, voted 7 to 2 to oust the manager at one day’s notice and named a temporary successor. It was not certified as an emergency resolution, and Hunter proved by the charter that no such motion could take effect in less than 30 days. He resisted ouster and presently a referendum petition signed by 1,607 of the town’s 3,700 voters served to suspend the ouster resolution pending its reconsideration or submission to the people. There are two managers at present writing.
Mr. Hunter appears to have behaved as a manager should in such circumstances, remaining inactive and as far as possible a silent spectator, but even so, his position under the council must be untenable for any length of time and essentially unpleasant. The plan is stronger than ever in Stratford.
Ill
Decatur, Georgia (population 6,150) put the plan into effect in January, 1921. The charter had carried by the trifling


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majority of 27 votes, leaving to the opponents the solace that they might reasonably hope to reverse the action the first time the new government struck a controversial subject. The nominators of the winning ticket at the first election purposely included one candidate who had opposed the new charter but who had later announced his conversion. He seems, however, to have made himself the nucleus of the opposition.
The commission received five hundred applications for the managership and elected P. P. Pilcher, a non-resident, by unanimous vote. He soon found the above-mentioned commissioner opposing him and at the election of 1921 when two friendly commissioners came up for re-election, one was defeated and the minority was strengthened. The former mayor was appointed director of the department of law (equivalent to the city attorney), as a matter of political strategy, but, having exercised larger powers, he apparently found it difficult to let go and continued to issue directions in the police department and elsewhere. He came promptly into collision with the city manager and resigned to take a leading place with the opposition.
The manager was able at the end of the first year to show on a balance sheet prepared by outside auditors that the town was $6,000 better off than before and claims that the administration has been improved in various respects, politics having been “almost entirely” excluded from the departments under his control.
The city manager continued to be a target for criticism which could be directed only against the majority of the council. The ex-mayor threatened the use of the recall against them every time some particular thing failed to go according to his liking, and sometimes
[May
circulated petitions which seized upon the fact that expenses exceeded income as basis for charges of mismanagement. In the 1921 election the manager was, to some extent, an issue and after the campaign, the manager announced he would resign early in 1922. The minority persisted in efforts to displace him sooner, arguing that the new manager should be installed soon enough to prepare the new budget, the majority maintaining that the experience of the old manager should be held available for that purpose. At the request of the latter, he stayed until April first. The manager frankly stated that his resignation was for the purpose of clearing the decks of all personal questions and help straighten out the political situation. He being eliminated, the opposition turned against the three majority commissioners still more directly and it was made plain that the fight was against the whole new system. Cooler heads, however, began to prevail and the recall petitions with their vague charges were dropped. The whole five commissioners resigned, a special election was called, and committees representing both factions succeeded in agreeing upon a ticket. This was confirmed at a mass meeting on March 1, at which time, also, resolutions were passed clearing the commissioners of the imputations on the recall petitions. Election of the new ticket without opposition is a reasonable certainty and the government will start afresh in more auspicious and harmonious circumstances. The majority and the manager did not have to resign but the good will they showed in eliminating themselves in the interest of the success of the new form of government has disarmed its opponents and the new government, having thus survived the earthquake, is left considerably stronger than before.


1922]
THREE TOWN MANAGERS IN TROUBLE
137
IV
Mansfield, Massachusetts (population 6,255), put into effect the manager charter in February, 1921. Our Dr. Hatton helped draft the charter and in his draft retained an old New England name of excellent traditions by calling the council of five “Board of Selectmen.” A high-grade board, four business men and a railway conductor were elected and they selected as manager, Eldredge R. Conant, former Engineer and Purchasing Officer of Savannah, Ga., at a salary of $4,000.
Conant found the usual easy-going practices of a country town and proceeded briskly to speed things up, unaware that a strong minority of the people were bitterly hostile to the innovation. The first step was the elimination of various departmental boards, the members of which had drawn salaries of $200 a year or less, and they frequently developed hostility. He consolidated two departments, the heads of which he considered incompetent, and appointed a young engineer from out of town who seems to have done well in making people who had long enjoyed leniency as to water charges pay their full share—a process which made further enemies.
This engineer was for a time a target on various grounds, e.g. his war record was unsuccessfully challenged by the Legion, and his membership in the Catholic Church was cited against him. The Selectmen and Manager stood by him but he resigned after a year.
The town treasurer, long a leading political figure of Mansfield, was continued in office on trial but the State Accountants presently came around and disclosed a condition of things in his office which resulted in a prompt change. He organized the opposition industriously and in February, 1922, contrived to elect an anti-manager
candidate to the Board of Selectmen. In the same month came the annual financial town meeting and here a vote was carried to cut the manager’s salary from $4,000 to $1,000. The new treas-urerwas remembered with a cutof $640. The selectmen have the power under the charter to fix these salaries and the manager’s claim would be valid but awkward to collect as the town meeting’s action cut off the grant of the funds.
Having tasted victory in the February election, the opposition in March, filed a recall petition against two of the five selectmen thus attempting to reinforce the new member sufficiently to constitute a majority that would remove the manager. But the recall election in April scored a success for the city manager plan. The members of the Board of Selectmen were both upheld in the election. The fact of concern to us here is the extent to which so small a public question as the changing of a few municipal employes can, in a small town, serve to create a tempest that may upset the orderly working of the city-manager plan or any other. So intimately personal an issue could hardly be used to so bedevil the manager of a large city.
The Mansfield News’ account of speeches at an opposition meeting reveals nothing but antiquated rhetoric ineluding the following pearl from the lips of one disgruntled speaker:
“----the town manager form lies in
the hands of a highly organized crowd of Capitalists who are directly connected with the National Municipal League. This League has headquarters in New York and branches in every city and is organized for the sole purpose of distributing propaganda destructive of the old form of town government.”
At the end of March, after the Selectmen had refused to ask his resignation


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on motion from the new member of the Board, Manager Conant resigned, accepting the position of surveyor of Manchester, N. H.
The town meeting was retained by Dr. Hatton in his draft of this charter as an interesting substitute for the more usual and less expeditious initiative and referendum, and its misuse for purposes of political retaliation is an unexpected outcome.
The peril of all town meetings is that they will be representative only of the special groups who are excited about some semi-private question and who consequently bestir themselves to attend the meetings whereas the greater mass of citizens, whose interest is only general, do not turn out to defend the ^treasury. In early days when a town meeting was the great central event of the season in an isolated community, a full and completely representative attendance was easily brought out, but there are other indoor and outdoor
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sports in New England to-day, and town meetings composed of less than one per cent of the voting list are common. It is accordingly no longer democratic in practice and is a disappearing institution. Dr. Hatton’s interesting attempt to give it a place in a modem village government will have forked the lines of responsibility if the Mansfield town meeting’s interference with the budget proves actually troublesome.
V
All three of these stories are based on the long-distance evidence of letters and newspaper reports, and may be one-sided as to details and characterizations. The facts are clear enough, nevertheless, to show how much more personalities count for in small cities than in large ones and imw much more difficult it may be to 1 â– < p the administrative officers uniforrmy out of politics in little communities.
A “SWIMMING HOLE” IN CHICAGO
BY RUTH DEAN Landscape Architect, New York City
I
If you had your choice between the most up-to-date, tiled pool in the world, and the old swimming hole, you would not hesitate long over the choice; snakes, roots and scum notwithstanding, you would dive deep into the pond’s friendly waters, in preference to plunging toward the unromantic white tiles on the bottom of the pool.
This is the simple reasoning behind Mr. Jensen’s successful attempt to create for the thousands of Chicago children who have never hung their “clothes on a hickory limb,” the en-
vironment of a real swimming hole. He knows that it is impossible to take many of these children to the country for even a short visit, and that most of them will never know at all the ooze of clean mud between their toes, the splash of a fat bullfrog startled from his shelter under a fern frond, the lazy arms of willow dipping down into the water. “We must bring the country in to them, then,” says Mr. Jensen; “instead of a concrete bathtub set in a glare of gravel, we must give them a bit of real woodland—a rocky pool shut in from tall smokestacks and trolley cars by elms


A “SWIMMING HOLE” IN CHICAGO
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and maples; screened around with river alder and dewberry and dogwood; with ferns down to the water’s edge, and wild grapevines sprawling over the rocky ledges; and we will make the pool safe and sanitary as well, with ladders into the water, a life rail around the edge, easy drainage and a large-volume supply, so that our health cranks may not complain that it is dangerous and unwholesome.
Of course if one is hungry it is better to have food in however dreary surroundings than to starve; and any bath at all is preferable to going dirty; but beauty is not less a fundamental of the spirit’s existence than is food or cleanliness of the body’s; and although the joy to be had in the mere act of swimming is not easily destroyed, the pleasure of the sport is vastly increased by the stimulus of lovely surroundings. A turn round the obvious limits of a concrete rectangle may provide exercise, but it fails to touch the imagination, and is dull pleasure compared to an equal sixty feet and back in a country pond.
II
To combine the necessary practical elements of one, with the careless beauty of the other, and this on a large enough scale to accommodate three or four hundred children at one time, was the task Mr. Jensen set himself in making the swimming pool in Columbus Park.
His first move was to shut out the noisy city, with thick belts of real country planting,—not such tame garden vegetation as one sees on the average gentlemanly country place (and alas in too many parks)—lilacs and snowballs and barberry and bridal wreath,—but heavy country hedgerows with a backbone of elms, maples, lindens, ash, and an undergrowth of hawthorn, crab apple, sumach, wild plum and cherry. The pool itself grew into
two pools, a deep one,—seven to eight feet in depth and about ninety feet in diameter to take care of the older children and those who could dive,—and a bigger, shallow pool, about four and one half feet deep, two hundred and twenty feet long and from sixty to one hundred and thirty feet wide, for the little children. The bottom of both pools is of concrete, expansion-jointed in fifty feet squares. The sides, also, to the coping are of concrete, and the coping is of flat stones. This coping projects slightly above and over the gutter formed by the concrete and casts a shadow which quite conceals the gutter and to a large extent the life rail.
Around at least two thirds of both pools runs a stretch of varying width which is paved with flat irregular stones so that the users of the pools may sun themselves, or rest between dips.
The pools are fed ostensibly by a little waterfall that tumbles into the deeper pool; this pool is somewhat higher than the shallow one, and empties in turn into the shallow pool. Of course the waterfall does not do all of the work of feeding the pools but is supplemented by several supply pipes in the bottom.
Ill
The most skillful feature of the whole scheme is the handling of the pool’s borders. Ledges of rock rise sheer from the water’s edge in places, and, after running along the water for a stretch, are carried back so as to leave room for the paved space, and then break irregularly into the surrounding grade. To make rock work so that it looks as if God had done it is no mean act of creation; for the most part, man achieves something which is all too patently a “rockery”; but in this case, despite the handicaps due to the public character of the work and the necessity


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for extra precautions, Mr. Jensen has transplanted a bit of nature. He has used big flat slabs of rock brought for the purpose from a quarry in Wisconsin, and has laid them to simulate the horizontal stratification of the natural rock formation. Layer is laid on layer with puddled clay for mortar (except in the case of waterfalls where cement mortar is used) and the joints are raked out six inches or more. Pockets of
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earth are left everywhere for vines and wood plants, and the illusion of naturalness is carried out by rough stepping-stones from the higher to the lower levels.
In these sunny woodland pools, a few steps from flourishing factories, the city child has a taste of the country boy’s pleasures, and perhaps borrows a little grace for his soul from the pleasant ways of Nature.
DEADLOCK IN PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATION
VI. MUNICIPAL ACTION TO BREAK THE DEADLOCK
BY JOHN BAUER
Consultant on Public Utilities
The municipal governments as constructive advocates must plead the grievances of their constituents before the utility commissions and must equip themselves by a pooled technical service on which numerous cities may draw. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: ::
In previous discussions of this series, the conditions were considered that have led to practical deadlock in public utility regulation. This final article is devoted to an outline of municipal action to break the deadlock.
In every city of considerable size, the most important local problem centers around public utility rates and service. This has been the chief issue in a number of municipal elections the past year, and is bound to be the principal ground of contention throughout the country. The solution must be based upon a positive program of sound economic and public policy.
The controlling fact in the establishment of such a program is that the cities must rely upon themselves; that they cannot depend upon the public service commissions except as machinery thro ugh which to function. The locally
elected officials are much closer to the needs of the people than are any other governmental agencies, and are inevitably responsible for important municipal matters. They must determine for themselves what is needed and decide upon a definite policy, and then appear before the commissions to translate such purposes into accomplishment.
An earlier article considered the character of the public service commissions, explaining the unusual combination of legislative, administrative and judicial powers. The fact was emphasized that, while the commissions have been charged with the responsibility of promoting the public welfare, because of their judicial responsibility they have not actively pressed the local public interests where there would be a clash with private interests. The com-


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missions could hardly be expected to make trouble for themselves, and for the most part they have started proceedings for the reduction of rates or improvement of service only upon clamoring municipal insistence. For this reason, the cities must determine for themselves the proper policies, and then use the commissions, clothed with the police power, to carry out the established purposes. If the cities appear before the commissions with a definite program and the facts supporting it, effective action can be obtained, especially if the force of public opinion is properly marshalled.
The writer believes that the commissions endowed with the unusual combination of powers constitute a necessary part of the machineiy to carry out desirable local policies as to public service corporations. But, they are not suited to the purpose of formulating such policies and carrying them out on their own initiative. The policymaking function, as experience has amply demonstrated, properly belongs to the local municipal authorities, who are elected by the people, and are more responsive to public needs. The cities themselves, therefore, ought actively to assume the responsibility of working out their public utility problems; then appear with their programs and facts before the commissions and use these special bodies, with their police power, to carry out the local purposes. The commissions will exercise their powers when thus actively confronted by the organized desires of the cities, but will do practically nothing, as experience has shown, if left to their own initiative and responsibility.
VALUATION FIRST
The first point in a positive municipal program is to establish once and for all the valuation of the properties upon
which the investors are entitled to a return, and that valuation must be definitely recognized by the public as entitled to a return. As explained previously, the matter of valuation has furnished a continuous battleground of rate regulation, and with comparatively few exceptions nothing has ever been definitely settled. This must be cleared up before other constructive measures can be carried out. The rights of the investors must be clearly defined, and in turn the duties of the public must be definitely fixed. Otherwise the constant disagreement between public and private claims will continue, the processes of regulation will remain unwieldy, and deadlock will prevail.
If the valuations are once fixed, so that the rights of the investors as well as the duty of the public are clearly defined, then the technical processes of rate making could be made exceedingly simple. To the valuations would be added all subsequent additional investments for improvements and extensions, and provisions would be made for the complete maintenance of the properties, including adequate reserves for depreciation, renewals and contingencies. The books of the companies would thus continuously show the amount of the investment entitled to a return, and a record of the receipts and costs of operation would show also whether or not the investors are receiving the return to which they are entitled. The necessary facts upon which rates are properly based would be available at any moment from the accounts and records kept under the commissions’ supervision. If in any case the earnings above current operating costs and reasonable provision for reserves and contingencies become greater than the necessary return upon investment, the fact would appear clearly from the accounts and the rates could be readily


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reduced without affecting the rights of the investors. Similarly if the earnings become inadequate, the rates could be promptly increased without placing an unjustified burden upon the public. The facts would be constantly available, and rates could be fixed almost automatically without injury or special benefit to private or public rights.
In clearing up the confusion as to valuations, it is necessary that proper principles and methods be used so that no unreasonable burdens be placed upon the public and that no real private investments be confiscated. The basis of valuation would be exceedingly important, and its determination would require the greatest regard by each municipality as well as maximum cooperation between cities. Correct principles ought to be vigorously urged before the commissions. With the support of public opinion and with cooperation and vigorous action by cities, valuations based upon sound principles could be generally established fairly quickly and applied to all the properties with reasonable expedition; definite amounts entitled to a return could thus be fixed within two years’ time even in the most complicated situations. Then subsequent rate making would be a simple process, based upon agreed facts, without the acrimony of litigation and without profit or loss to private or public rights. Deadlock will inevitably continue until such an automatic machinery has become operative, based upon fixed valuations, definite rights, and constantly established facts.
PROGRESSIVE METHODS
The second point in a municipal program is to establish the most economical methods of operation. As set forth previously the companies are employing to a large extent antiquated
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or inadequate plant and equipment, are maintaining unduly costly methods of operation, and particularly have permitted the accumulation or continuance of undue overhead expenses. These conditions result in excessive costs, poor service, and high rates. The commissions have done very little in promoting progressive economies, such as forcing the companies to install proper plant and equipment, and furnishing proper service at minimum cost. If the public wishes to keep abreast with the advance in the arts and to obtain the benefit of rates based upon maximum economy, the cities must take the initiative themselves. They must show wherein the management is uneconomical; then place the facts and recommendations before the commissions and thus use this special machinery with its police power to require the companies to employ all possible economy in providing service.
CONSISTENT FOLLOW-UP
The third point in the program is that the cities must keep regularly in contact with methods of operation, costs, and returns, so as to plan intelligent action based upon facts. While the commissions’ police power ought to be used by the cities to carry out their program, there must be exact and adequate knowledge to prepare a program, and there must be an organization for that purpose. The original intention of the public utility laws in establishing the commissions was undoubtedly that these special bodies were to take the requisite initiative in procuring proper management with the lowest possible cost and rates to the consumers. But this reliance upon the commissions has been futile; the cities themselves must provide the means by which desirable municipal policies may first be developed, then using the commissions as


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vehicles for carrying out the municipal purposes.
Heretofore the cities have done practically nothing on their own initiative in the development of consistent policies, and have acted only when partial crises had developed. Then, in most instances, they were not prepared for intelligent action; while floundering they called in experts, appropriated large sums of money, made lavish expenditures, and obtained little in desirable permanent results. In particular cases the cities have secured reductions in rates or prevented increases, or even brought about improvements in service. In general, however, they have acted spasmodically, and have made little effort to keep constantly informed about conditions and costs of service and to develop and carry out a systematic program in the interest of the public.
If, then, the cities wish to have the best possible service at the lowest possible cost to the public, they simply must have systematic organization to get the facts, and to develop and carry out regularly the desirable municipal purposes. In most instances, however, the cost to the cities would be prohibitive if they were to place such an organization among the regular municipal departments. The services of the highest grade of financial, accounting and engineering experts would be required, and if each city were to maintain such an independent organization, the expense would be overwhelming and any thoroughgoing policy impracticable.
Except in the case of possibly a few very large municipalities, the reasonable course would be for the cities to act together in some form of co-operative organization, so as to distribute broadly the cost of obtaining the best experts necessary to carry otit the program. The cities could thus secure the highest grade of technical skill and would be
able to pay the necessary compensation to first-class experts. Since no one city would require the exclusive services of such an organization, the cost could be apportioned so as to weigh but lightly upon each municipality.
CO-OPERATIVE SERVICE
There are two possible plans for carrying out large scale co-operation in the use of a technical organization: (1) the cities themselves organize a public utility bureau, and prorate expenses, and (2) form a private organize tion to work with the cities, entering into a separate agreement with each city and fixing the charges according to individual circumstances. A direct public utility bureau organized by the municipalities, would be difficult to maintain because of the inevitably cumbersome control. The alternative private association would be more easily managed and could be more readily adapted to varying needs. Safeguards could be readily provided for proper sendee, so that the cost to the cities would be kept within reasonable figures.
With either form of arrangement, whether a public utility bureau under the direct control of the cities or a private organization, the cost of carrying out a consistent municipal policy could be made so low that every city of considerable size could afford the service; or could not afford to go without it. The organization would first help each city work out its own particular program suited to local conditions. Then, in co-operation with the local authorities, it would obtain the establishment of definite valuations of the public utility properties. Working with a number of cities, such organization would have the advantage of presenting consistent principles and methods throughout and would thus be in a


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particularly strong position to obtain fair valuations for the public.
As a necessary part of a regular program, the organization would make a periodical report to the municipal authorities covering the financial results of operation. It would investigate also the methods of operation and the physical conditions of the properties showing where improvements could be made and costs reduced. It would not only present an analysis of the facts, but would make recommendations as to any particular action that ought to be taken. And it would assist or represent the cities before the commissions and courts in all public utility actions relating to rates, service, issuance of securities, economy or any other technical matter. There would then be an assurance that the public interest be most effectively promoted in every action.
The outline here presented is, of
[May
course, only suggestive. This much, however, is clear to the writer: Some such plan must be adopted and carried out if the existing deadlock is to be broken. Regulation has existed over fifteen years; has produced few constructive results, but has impeded the progress of economy and caused extensive impairment of the credit of the companies. The cities must act for themselves if they wish proper service at reasonable rates for the people. In order to carry out their purposes, the cities must use the commissions; but experience has demonstrated beyond doubt that reliance upon these outside quasi-judicial bodies to do vigorous planning and pushing for the local public is unjustified and useless. The local authorities simply must assume this responsibility if the rights of the public are to be properly safeguarded and promoted.
STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, CIRCULATION, ETC., REQUIRED BY THE ACT OF CONGRESS OF AUGUST 24, 1912 Of the National Municipal Review, published monthly for April i, 1922.
State of New York, \ __
County of New York. /
Before me, a Notary Public, in and for the State and’county aforesaid, personally appeared G. R. Howe, who, having been duly sworn according to law, deposes and says that she is the Business Manager of the National Municipal Review, and that the following is, to the best of her knowledge and belief, a true statement of the ownership, management, etc., of the aforesaid publication for the date shown in the above caption, required by the Act of August 24,1912,.embodied in section 443, Postal Laws and Regulations, printed on the reverse of this form, to wit:
1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, editor, managing editor, and business managers are:
Publisher: National Municipal League, 261 Broadway, New York, N. Y. Editor: H. W. Dodds, 261 Broadway, New York City. Managing Editor: R. S. Childs. Business Manager: G. R. Howe.
2. That the owners are:
National Municipal League, New York City, a voluntary association, unincorporated. The officers of the National Municipal League are: H. M. Waite, Pres.; Carl H. Pforzheimer, Treas.; H, W. Dodds, Secretary.
3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders owning or holding 1 per cent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities are: None.
4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving the names of the owners, stockholders, and security holders, if any, contain not only the list of stockholders and security holders as they appear upon the books of the company but also, in cases where the stockholder or security holder appears upon the books of the company as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, the name of the person or corporation for whom such trustee is acting, is given; also that the said two paragraphs contain statements embracing affiant's full knowledge and belief as to the circumstances and conditions under which stockholders and security holders who do not appear upon the books of the company as trustees, hold stock and securities in a capacity other than that of a bona fide owner; and this affiant has no reason to believe that any other person, association, or corporation has any interest direct or indirect in the said stock, bonds, or other securities than as so stated by him.
G. R. HOWE.
Sworn to and subscribed before me this nth day of April, 1922.
HENRY J. WEHLE,
[seal] Notary Public, New York County.
(My commission expires March 30, 1923.)


PENSIONS IN PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT
MINORITY REPORT OF ALBERT de ROODE
The main report of our committee on the above subject was published as a special issue of the REVIEW in April. This minority report relating to the committee’s preference for the contributory principle was crowded out for lack of space. :: :: :: :: :: ::
I find myself unable to concur in all the recommendations of the committee.
My chief objection is to the so-called contributory principle.
In an article published in June, 1913, in the American Economic Review entitled “Pensions as Wages,” I pointed out the fallacy of treating a pension as other than a part of the real wages of the employe, both in public and private employment. A pension is part of the real wages of an employe and it is economically unsound to consider an employe as paying part of his own wages. Speaking of an employe contributing to a pension fund is as unsound as to say that an employe shall pay half of the overtime paid him for night work.
In this minority report I submit as my views on the pension question the following extracts from my article in 1913:
The main difficulty in the way of adopting a pension system is the conflict between those who contend that the government should pay the pension and those who contend that the employe should pay the pension, or rather that out of the present wage of the employe he should be required to set aside, under government control, sufficient to provide his own pension. Considering pensions as part of wages, as in private employ, this conflict resolves itself into the question whether the present scale of wages, paid employes in the federal government, is sufficient to justify requiring the employes to set aside out of such wages the savings necessary for their pensions. That this is the question is recognized generally by advocates of the so-called “contributory” plan when they say that where wages are found to be inadequate the remedy is to increase the wage. The difficulty with this is that an increase under such a plan would be apt to take the form
of a flat rate of increase applying to classes of salaries or wages generally, and not meeting individual cases. Thus, for an illustration, assume two employes, one 35 years old and the other 45, each getting a salary of $1,200. Under the contributory plan the employe 45 years old must contribute more to provide for his pension than the younger employe, yet any increase that would naturally be made would be to raise the salaries of all $1,200 men.
The very demand for pensions on the part of the government employes indicates that the present salaries are not sufficient, according to the ideas of the employes. The logical way to treat this situation would be for the government to pay the pensions and then adjust the money wages accordingly. To expect the employe to provide for a pension system out of his present scale of wages and then rely upon future increases in wages, is to force the employe into the field of collective bargaining for such increases. This would not necessarily take the form of labor unions, but possibly might resolve itself into a more dangerous method, that of lobbying and attempting to influence the election of representatives. Inasmuch as the government is maintaining a quasi-pension plan which it is highly desirable should be abolished, and inasmuch as the adoption of an intelligent pension plan would benefit the government quite as much as the employe, it would seem only the part of wisdom and decent interest in the welfare of its employes, such as the age demands of the government, for it to take the initiative.
Two things should be insisted upon: the separate treatment of each individual as to his pension and the proper funding, year by year, of a pension fund. Unless pensions are treated individually, there is a tendency to overload the fund for special cases or the fund becomes a general grab-bag. Unless proper provision is made for the funding year by year (so that pensions are not merely paid out as part of current expense), there is no way of finding just what pensions are costing nor of checking up and making adjustment. A pension fund of the government should be conducted with the same precision and fiscal intelligence as are the funds of insurance companies and railroads.
Under a system which, starting on the basis of the present rate of wages, the government should pay in addition to these wages the amount nec-
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essary for the pension, there would work out, by and large, a better adjustment of wages than could be expected under the contributory plan. For example, take the same two employes, aged 35 and 45, each getting a salary of $1,200. The pension contribution by the government in the case of the younger employe would be much less than in the case of the older employe, and when, in the natural progress of service, the time came around for the older employe to receive an increase in salary, it could be pointed out that he was already receiving an increase in the shape of a pension contribution, and in that way wages of employes could be better adjusted to meet individual cases.
In other words, under the contributory plan the tendency would be to raise the wages by some rule of thumb with not so much reference to any individual case as to specific rates of wages. Under the plan in which the government should contribute the pension in addition to the present rate of wages, through promotion and normal salary increases, there would be a better and more exact opportunity for adjusting the individual case, and in the course of a very few years the general situation would be, one might almost say, automatically adjusted.
Considering pensions as a part of wages, the contributions made each year to the pension fund by the government should be considered, subject to one exception, as deferred wages, payable to the employe upon separation from the service, or to his heirs in case of death. The exception to this general principle should be in the case of the early years of service. A pension is not a mere increase in wages; it is an inducement to continued service. Many persons enter government service as a temporary occupation. The right of the employe, therefore, to the accrued value of his pension should not commence until he has passed what might be called the temporary stage. Roughly speaking this would be five or six years, and the accrued value of the pension returned to him upon separation would commence with the beginning of what might be called the more permanent service.
There are two ideas underlying this return of the accrued value of the pension. First, the natural one following from the consideration of a pension as a form of wages, that the accrued value of the pension is actually earned by the employe and as a matter of morals should be returned to
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him. Second, and this is particularly important in government pensions, the natural instinct of government authorities would be not to dismiss an employe where such dismissal meant the forfeiture of a considerable money value. This is human and obtains very largely, I imagine, in private employment. It obtains to a much greater extent in public employment where there is no pocket nerve touched by the retention of the inefficient. It would make the dismissal of the inefficient government employe much easier for the removing authority if the accrued value of the pension fund were given him upon dismissal.
A third idea may be added. To the author’s mind the success of democracy depends upon the absence of rigid classes or strata among the people. We do not want to develop an officeholding class, except upon the basis of proven efficiency. We, therefore, should not make it difficult for the employe in the government service to get out of the government service because of the lure of a pension at the end of a stated time, the accrued value of which he forfeits if he leaves. We should not make it difficult for those in authority to remove the inefficient because of the forfeiture of the accrued value of the pension.
Considering pensions as wages, and not mere gratuities, such as might have been given by the Stuarts to their court favorites, it seems that a sound pension plan should be developed on the following principles:
(1) Pay the sums necessary to maintain the pension fund over and above the present scale of wages of its employes.
(2) Treat each employe’s pension separately.
(3) Make proper funding provision upon actuarial calculation and set aside year by year the necessary sums.
(4) Give to each employe, upon separation from the service, or, in case of death, to his heirs: (a) the accrued value of his pension, or (b) the commutation of such value in the shape of a smaller annual pension; the accrued value of the pension to be determined from such point in his service as would exclude refund in the case of merely temporary service.
Respectfully submitted,
Albert de Roode.
June 9, 1921.


NOTES AND EVENTS
I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
A Constitutional Convention in Virginia will be held in 1925 if the people so vote at a referendum ordered for next November.
*
Sonoma County, California.—Forty citizens from all parts of the county met at Santa Rosa in February to organize a county charter league and to arrange to nominate freeholders to draft a county-manager charter.
*
Butte County, California.—A board of freeholders began to hold meetings on April 14 at Chico for the purpose of revising the county charter, and a group of citizens are organizing to press for adoption of the county-manager plan. *
Sacramento County, California.—The February election of freeholders resulted in the election of the entire ticket pledged to the submission of a county-manager charter and the freeholders are now at work. The sentiment for the plan is based largely upon the brilliant progress which the city manager of Sacramento is exhibiting. The city report for the first six months shows increase of miscellaneous revenues from $143,000 to $227,000. Operating costs dropped $110,000 for the six months. The old administration had spent 59 per cent of the budget but the manager ran the city for the remaining half year on the other 41 per cent, took care of some $30,000 of special expenses and had $28,000 surplus left over.
*
Home Rule in New York.—After a fight lasting for many years the cities of New York state have persuaded the legislature to take the first big step toward substantial home rule for municipalities. In passing the Tolbert amendment the Republican majority has paid heed to a strong and growing public sentiment in the cities. Section 2 of the amendment just adopted reads:
The Legislature shall not pass any law relating to the property, affairs or government of cities, which shall be special or local either in its terms or in its effect, but shall act in relation to the property, affairs or government of any city only by general laws which shall in terms and in effect apply alike to all cities except on
message from the governor declaring that an emergency exists and the concurrent action of two-thirds of the members of each house of the legislature.
The amendment must pass the next legislature and be approved at the polls in November, 1923. A provision permitting cities to draft their own charters appeared in the original draft but was dropped.
*
The Louisville Short Ballot Charter.—A few months ago Louisville, Kentucky, wanted to modernize its government and called in our Dr. Hatton as consultant. The state constitution compelled two-headed municipal governments, so our model charter could not be considered, but Dr. Hatton helped to lay out the simplest structure of government that was possible under the restrictions, and this short ballot charter, as it was called, was gotten through the legislature with the support of both parties but was finally vetoed by the governor.
*
May Change County Government System in North Carolina.—Governor Morrison is dissatisfied with the state’s present county government system, and he will recommend radical changes in the law to the next legislature.
The governor in April selected a commission of representative citizens of the state, who will be invited to come together and take into consideration the drafting for submission to the 1923 legislature of a new county government law in North Carolina.
While he has made no statement yet, it is learned that the governor thinks there should be a complete reorganization of the form of county government and the accounting systems in operation in them.
*
A New Pension Law.—New York has taken an important step to stop the development of further unsound public pension practices in the cities and counties by enacting a new law (Sen. 1212) which admits to participation in the State Employes’ Retirement System all city and county employes in the state except those who already
147


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[May
enjoy systems of their own, and forbids the creation of any further pension systems by cities or counties.
*
Federal Personal Board.—Early in his administration, President Harding expressed his ideas of the employment policy of the government in the following terms:
The time haa come for the federal government to organize its agencies of employment in accordance with the principles which have been tested and approved by the best modern business practice. . . . Though
the necessity for a budget system is great, perhaps even greater is the need for a system which will give federal employes a square deal in promotions, pay and continuity of service while obtaining for the nation’s taxpayers, in return, a high standard of skill and continued loyalty among the employes who serve them. . .
The most important step taken by the present administration toward the reabzation of this program is the appointment of a Federal Personnel Board. This Board was authorized in an executive order bearing the date of December 23 and issued over the signature of General Dawes of the Bureau of the Budget. It is to consist of representatives of each one of the departments and independent establishments. They are to serve under the chairmanship of the president of the Civil Service Commission. The Board’s functions are practically as broad as the whole personnel field itself. Follow-up, transfer, promotion, training, standard hours and leaves,
n. CITY-MA
Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan.—Petitions were circulated recently looking toward a return to the aldermanic form of government, whereupon a statement favoring the present city-manager form was signed by every minister, priest and pastor in the city.
♦
Hinsdale, Illinois, adopted city-manager government in February, 1922. It went into operation April 1. F. D. Danielson is village manager. *
Salem, Virginia (5,000), adopted manager government by a 7 to 1 vote on February 7.
*
Sapulpa, Oklahoma (population 17,500).— Victor Kirk, secretary of chamber of commerce, has led the fight for the manager charter. Of the two local newspapers, the smaller is in “opposition” and claims the labor vote. Personalities entered the fight. Fourteen citizens were
“ and other matters designed to obtain effectiveness of the public service,” form the program of action.
There is, however, no more important function contemplated for the Federal Personnel Board than to make the Civil Service Commission a more integral part of the machinery responsible for employment administration. The chief reason for the red-tape character of the methods of the Civil Service Commission is its enforced isolation. In the past it has had little direct contact with the organizations which it is called upon to serve. This handicap will now be overcome if special officers are detailed from all of the departments in accordance with this executive order. The Board is specifically commissioned to perfect a liaison system between the civil service agency and the departments to the end “that the entire personnel selection and administration may be more practical and more cooperative.”
In view of the success of similar co-ordinating committees already created under the Bureau of the Budget, it is to be expected that the Federal PersQnnel Board will substitute a progressive employment policy for the policy of drift which, judging from the report of the Reclassification Commission, seems to be the only title that applies at present to employment administration in the federal government.
W. E. Mosher.
AGER NOTES
quoted as opposing the manager idea in the “opposition” paper and the next day the other paper quoted nine of the same fourteen as favoring the manager change. The election was held February 28. The vote was 3 to 1 for a manager charter.
*
Janesville, Wisconsin, adopted city-manager government by 711 majority April 5. The women did it. New government will be in effect April, 1923.
*
Muskegon Heights, Michigan (population 12,000), has adopted a manager charter. The census shows a growth of 463 per cent in the last decade,
*
Niagara Falls, Ontario, voted for a manager charter in March and the bill now goes to the provincial legislature.


1922]
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149
Bozeman, Montana (population 8,250), is the first Montana city to adopt a city-manager charter. Mr. Sam Mendenhall is the first manager.
*
New Manager Cities have been found recently. They are Ames, Iowa (5,455), modified form of manager government, Mgr. P. F. Hopkins; Marysville, Michigan, Mgr. H. B. Hollister; Brush, Colorado, and Grandfield, Oklahoma.
*
Plymouth, Michigan (population 2,130).— The citizens recently endorsed the city-manager government by a 4 J to 1 vote.
*
Belmar, New Jersey.—Mr. Cook Howland is the first city manager in New Jersey. Though New Jersey statutes are practically prohibitive, the office was established by an ordinance of the council sponsored by the mayor.
♦
Sedalia, Missouri, lost its manager charter fight by a small margin. The opposition resorted to various political tricks, it is reported. The reason ascribed for the defeat is that many people who favored manager government were so sure it would carry that they did not bother to go and vote.
*
Grand Rapids, Michigan.—April 3, the proposed amendments that would have meant return to aldermanic rule wereVoted down by a substantial majority.
*
City Manager W. B. Anthony, of Walters, Oklahoma, is now president of the Oklahoma Municipal League. This makes four city managers who are presidents of state municipal
leagues—Charles E. Hewes of Long Beach, California, Louis Brownlow of Petersburg, Virginia, H. J. Graeser, of Tyler, Texas.
*
Combination Managerships.—The naming of the new manager at Petoskey, Michigan, is believed to forecast the divorcing of the city managership and the secretaryship of the chamber of commerce, which two offices were held by J. Frank Quinn for the past two years. S. E. Northway, who had held the dual position of city manager and school superintendent in Sherrill, New York, decided to devote all his time to school work, and C. B. Salisbury is now manager. Homer D. Wade held the dual position of secretary of the chamber of commerce and city manager in Stamford, Texas, until the first of the year, but now he is devoting his entire time to chamber of commerce work and H. S. Bradshaw, former city engineer, is now manager. A Pennsylvania town had a combination manager position for a time and dropped the arrangement, but so far as is known all such capacities are now divorced from city-manager positions.
*
Interest is being shown in city-manager government in the following cities: St. Paul, Minnesota; Utica, New York; Parsons, Kansas; Methuen, Massachusetts; Greenville, South Carolina; Burlington, North Carolina; Knoxville, Tennessee; Lawrence, Kansas; Waterloo, Iowa; Marion, Indiana; Hattiesburg, Mississippi; Three Forks, Montana; Cherokee, Iowa; Savannah, Georgia; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Prince Rupert, British Columbia; Eureka, California; Oshkosh, Wisconsin; Coffey ville, Kansas; Temple, Texas; Orlando, Florida; Warren, Ohio; Mexia and Gainesville, Texas.
Paul B. Wilcox.
III. MISCELLANEOUS
Replanning Salonika after the Great Fire.—
The replotting provisions of the recent Salonika Town Planning Act were drafted by a commission of English and French experts. In August, 1917, Salonika was totally destroyed by fire for the fifth time, and the statute was passed to take advantage of this great opportunity to replan it.
The first act of the government was to issue a Royal Decree prohibiting the erection or repair of any building prior to the adoption of the new
law. A survey and plan of the city were then made. Under the Greek Constitution the government was obliged to pay immediately the full value of the property, for which purpose it had no available funds. The owners of property in the burnt district were therefore, by virtue of the act, incorporated as a Property Owners’ Association for the purpose of executing the new scheme, and all individual rights and titles extinguished; each property owner was made a


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
shareholder in the company to the amount of the value of his individual holding; and the management of the company was given to the government. A careful method of valuing the property thus compulsively taken over by the company was adopted, the property owner being given a hearing and right of appeal. In exchange for his property each owner received state bonds, which he was forbidden to sell, but on which, as collateral, the National Bank of Greece was authorized to advance to him 75 per cent of their face value.
The city was then replanned and replotted, and the sale of the new lots arranged for, the owners of the bonds having the right to turn them in, at their face value, in payment for any lots purchased by them. Other things being equal, the preference was given, in purchasing, to the old property owners. They also received 50 per cent of any profit realized by the company, the other 50 per cent going to the municipality of Solonika, to be expended in the construction of public buildings.
Frank B. Williams. if
Victory for Elimination of Illuminated Signs.— The merchants of Thirty-fourth Street between Fourth and Seventh Avenues, New York City, in several cases sought to enjoin the several defendants from taking down illuminated signs of the various plaintiffs, claiming that the city ordinance which prohibited illuminated signs on Thirty-fourth Street between Fourth and Seventh Avenues, except for carriage calls and places of amusement, was illegal. A recent decision vacates the injunctions and sets up progressive bill-board theory.
“There is no doubt that advertising by illuminated signs is very beneficial to business,” states the judge. “ At the same time the multiplication of those outstanding signs in this very busy section of the city easily can become an eyesore, a nuisance and an improper use of the air space over the thoroughfares. We may assume that the board of aldermen before passing this restrictive ordinance gave due consideration to the interests of those theretofore maintaining illuminated signB on Thirty-fourth Street and that the ordinance was adopted as the result of its deliberate judgment that the interest, comfort and convenience of the public demanded it."
That is the story; but the sequel is even more interesting. Now that the signs are down the Thirty-fourth Street merchants, it is reported, claim that there is a great improvement in their street and that they are converted to the public convenience and comfort of the law. H. J.
[May
Loyal Legion Posts Plant Trees.—The Loyal Legion urges its members to plant trees on Arbor Day in memory of those who did not come back. In private premises, public parks, bordering streets, trees planted in this generation may give grateful shade while yet the planters live. By consulting park commissions, shade tree commissions, local agricultural bureaus and other competent tree experts, the Legion may avoid depleted ranks or awkward squads of trees which would hardly prove the fitting memorials they were designed to be. But if the patriotic impulse of the Legion is joined to the scientific knowledge available no finer memorials could be conceived than “God’s green trees.”
*
American Civic Association Chairmen.—The
following chairmen for the American Civic Association are announced; Billboards and Smoke—Everett L. Millard, Chicago; City Planning—John Nolen, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Civic Programs—Mrs. Edward Biddle, Philadelphia; Housing—Electus D. Litchfield, New York; Noise—Mrs. Imogen Oakley, Philadelphia; State and City Parks—Harold A. Caparn, New York; Traffic Courts—H. Marie Dermitt, Pittsburgh. Mr. McFarland represents the American Civic Association on the Committee on Zoning formed by Mr. Hoover. Mr. Millard represents the American Civic Association on a committee formed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers to work on a model smoke ordinance. The National Park activities are being handled through the main office.
H. J.
*
National Parks.—Senator Walsh has presented to the Senate Committee on Irrigation and Reclamation a substitute bill which would make it mandatory upon the Secretary of the Interior through the Reclamation Service to build a weir across the Yellowstone River whenever the irrigation people of Montana shall raise the necessary funds. Since this would introduce into the Yellowstone Park two distinctly non-park interests the bill is believed to be most objectionable from the standpoint of national park administration. The Secretary of the Interior has not yet replied to the request of the committee for comment on the bill.


1922]
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151
Barbour BUI
The House Committee on Public Lands has reported favorably the Barbour Bill to enlarge the present Sequoia National Park to include the best of the Kern and Kings River Canyons under the name of Roosevelt-Sequoia National Park. The bill would place this enlarged park on exactly the same status as all other national parks were placed by the passage of the Jones-Esch amendment to the Federal Power Act which exempted all existing national parks from the jurisdiction of the Federal Power Commission. It has been impossible to secure consideration of the bill on the unanimous-consent calendar because of the objection of Representative Osborne who is interested in the power applications of Los Angeles; but it is thought that when the bill comes up on the regular committee calendar there will be a good majority of representatives who are in favor of it in its present form.
Grand Canyon Appropriations
Senator Cameron of Arizona succeeded in having the entire appropriation for the Grand Canyon National Park stricken from the Appropriation Bill for the Interior Department and made the occasion one to attack the whole policy of the National Park Service. Undoubtedly the Conference Committee will restore the appropriation, but the public should understand that the most careful study over a period of years reveals a conscientious and progressive policy in the National Park Service to open up to all the people their national parks. If this policy sometimes curtails or eliminates private gains to individual citizens, it does not mean that the National Park Service is wrong or shortsighted, but that the interests of all the people are held superior, as they should be, to the financial gain of a few individuals. We grant that the sites of the mining claims along Bright Angel Trail and around the scenic spots on the south rim of the canyon might prove profitable to the holders; but the returns, so it is said, would come from tourists and not from ore. Moreover we are inclined to agree with the Supreme Court of the United States in its decisions affecting several of these claims that the Secretary of the Interior should have the right to satisfy himself of the bona fide mining value of such claims before issuing patents. At any rate the rather complicated history of these mining claims and Bright Angel Trail explains, if it does not excuse, the attack of Senator Cameron on the National Park Service.
State Parks—Second National Conference, May 22-25, 192* •—It was only fifty years ago that the Yellowstone National Park was created by Congress. For more than a generation the difficulties of travel limited visitors to this and other national parks created in more recent years. In its eighteen years of life the American Civic Association has seen the park idea developed from a presumed frill or luxury to a definite necessity. It was our persistent pioneer work which lead to the creation of the National Park Service six years ago. Our hopes have been more than justified. The Fifth Annual Report of the National Park Service shows that the visitors to the national parks increased from 356,097 in 1916 to over a 1,000,000 in 1921, the automobiles from 25,358 to over 175,000. The people are coming to appreciate and use their National Park possessions.
The first National Conference on State Parks, called by Hon. John Barton Payne, then Secretary of the Interior, through the co-operation of Governor Harding, was held in Des Moines in January of 1921. The second Conference will meet this year, May 22-25, at Bear Mountain Inn, Palisades Interstate Park, New York, which in its 36,000 acres contains half a hundred mountain peaks over a thousand feet high. There came last season to the park by river boat, by ferry, by motor, by steam railway, by trolley and on foot, more than a million visitors.
Two days of the Conference will be devoted to the business of State Parks. A trip through the Palisades Interstate Park to West Point, along a new state highway around Storm King, through the New York Zoological Park and the Bronx River Parkway will give those who attend the Conference an opportunity to see scenery of rare beauty and to realize the cash value in actual revenue and the social value in the improved health of the people which such parks may bring to any state.
The Conference Committee consisting of John Barton Payne, chairman, Stephen T. Mather, vice-chairman, Edgar E. Harlan, secretary, W. F. Bade, Alfred Britt, W. L. Harding, Richard Lieber, J. Horace McFarland, James C. Rogers and Mrs. John D. Sherman, is using every resource to make this Second National Conference on State Parks an inspiration to all the states of the Union.
H. A. Caparn of New York is state park chairman for the American Civic Association.
H. J.


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Preparation of Teachers of Social Studies for the Secondary Schools is the title of Bulletin 1922, No. 3 of the federal Bureau of Education. It is an important country-wide survey prepared by Edgar Dawson of our associate editorial staff.
♦
Boston has appropriated $10,000 toward the preparation of a comprehensive city plan.
*
Robert E. Tracy, until recently director of the Bureau of Governmental Research of the Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce and formerly secretary of the Philadelphia Bureau of Municipal Research, has returned to Philadelphia to become civic secretary of the City Club in that city.
*
A National Council for the Social Studies
completed its organization in Chicago on February 25. Its purpose is to lay the foundations for training democratic citizens; and its sponsors believe that such training can result only from a carefully developed and adequately supported system of teaching in the elementary and secondary schools. Its plan looks to promoting co-operation among those who are responsible for such training, including at least the university departments which contribute knowledge of facts and principles to civic education; and the leading groups of educational leaders, such as principals, superintendents, and professors of education, who develop the methods of handling these facts.
An advisory board was set up composed of representatives of (1) the five associations of scholars most nearly related to the purpose of the National Council—historians, economists, political scientists, sociologists, and geographers;
(2) the national organizations of educational investigators and administrators—elementary and high school principals, teachers of education, normal school principals, and superintendents; and
(3) regionary associations of teachers of history and civics. The function of this advisory board is to bring into the National Council the points of view of the organizations represented by its members and to insure a development of the social studies which will be in harmony with the best educational thought as well as based on the best present practice.
The following officers were elected for the year 1922-1923: L. C. Marshall, Professor of Economics in the University of Chicago, president; Henry Johnson, Professor of History in Teachers College, vice-president; Edgar Dawson,
[May-
Professor of Government in Hunter College, secretary-treasurer; E. U. Rugg, Lincoln School, New York, assistant secretary. An executive committee, charged with the general direction of the policies of the association, will consist of the officers and the following elected members: C. A. Coulomb, District Superintendent, Philadelphia; W. H. Hathaway, Riverside High School, Milwaukee; Bessie L. Pierce, Iowa University High School.
The first task the National Council is undertaking is the preparation of a Finding List of those experiments or undertakings in the teaching of the social studies which now give promise of being useful. This list will contain such exposition of the character and aims of these experiments as to make it possible for those working along parallel lines to discover each other and to co-operate more fully than would otherwise be probable. This expository material will have another purpose,—that of indicating outstanding differences of opinion and program in order that these differences may be systematically stated for purposes of analysis and discussion.
To aid in the discovery and assessment of these experiments, the National Council has in preparation a list of Key Men and Women who will be appointed in the various states to represent the National Council in its efforts to collect useful information and then to give currency to it. While this organization seems to represent all the elements out of which the best development of the social studies must proceed, the most useful work will be done only with the co-operation of teachers and investigators in all parts of the country to the end that lost motion and useless repetition may be eliminated and that mutually strengthening experiments may be pressed forward.
Persons who are interested in the wholesome development of the social studies, whether teachers or others, and if teachers, whether teachers of the social subjects or of some other subject, are urged to communicate at the earliest convenient moment with the secretary of the National Council, Edgar Dawson, 671 Park Avenue, New York City.
♦
The Southwestern Political Science Association held its third annual meeting at the University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, March 23-25, 1922. The program for the first day consisted of papers on the economic prob-


1922]
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153
lems of the Southwest, concluding with an evening address by Judge C. B. Ames of Oklahoma City, formerly Assistant United States Attorney-General, on “Article Eight, League of Nations Covenant, and the Washington Conference.” Discussions the second day were upon the subjects of international relations and general problems of political science. A session on public law concluded the program on the third day.
Officers for the ensuing year are: Judge C. B. Ames, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, president; vice-presidents, re-elected, George B. Dealey, Dallas, Texas; F. F. Blachly, University of Oklahoma; D. Y. Thomas, University of Arkansas; Professor Herman G. James of the University of Texas was appointed editor of Publications and Mr. Frank M. Stewart of the University of Texas was reappointed secretary-treasurer. The executive council of the association consists of the officers, two elected members and the past presidents. The elected members of the council are: Professor E. T. Miller of the University of Texas, re-elected, and Professor J. P. Comer, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas; past presidents are: Mr. A. P. Wooldridge, Austin, Texas, and Mr. George Vaughan, Little Rock, Arkansas. Members of the advisory editorial board, re-elected, are Professors Blachly and Thomas, Professor M. S. Handman, University of Texas, Professor C. F. Coan, University of New Mexico, and Professor J. M. Fletcher, Tulane University of Louisiana.
The fourth annual meeting will be held in Dallas in the spring of 1923.
*
An International Clearing House of Civic Information.—During the first International Congress of Cities held in Ghent in 1913 there was formed an organization known as Union Internationale des Villes (International Union of Cities). The name, however, does not fully express its function, for it is the main purpose of this organization to collect and study contemporaneous documentary information of all kinds relating to civic affairs, to supplement this research work by the preparation of briefs or short reviews and to promptly distribute these results throughout the world. This work, therefore, is of very evident
social interest, for social progress elaborates itself and becomes realized in large part through the influence of cities.
The project was necessarily laid aside during the Great War, but in 1920 at Brussels was taken up again and is now making rapid progress toward the accomplishment of its aims. A brief outline, therefore, of the organization and its methods of work may be of interest. There is first the main office at Brussels (where the writer has been helping on the work during the last summer), with an able directing personnel and a carefully selected staff of assistants—and, by the way, thanks to the generosity and interest of the Belgian Government; with ample opportunity for expansion, an important item.
Membership in the association includes the four following classes:
A. Honorary Members.
B. Active Members: Cities and towns joining the organization officially and represented by some authorized official, mayor or alderman, or otherwise. These communities pay an assessment which they fix themselves, but which may not be less than 50 francs a year. The executive committee estimates that an assessment of one centime for every three inhabitants will be necessary for the development of the Institution. This would amount for a city of 30,000 population to 10,000 centimes or 100 francs,—at the present rate of exchange from $7 to $10.
C. Corresponding Members: Separate or independent groups, associations or organizations which function in the sphere of communal interests. These would pay at least 20 francs a year.
D. Subscribing Members: Individuals who by their occupation, duties or studies are interested in municipal questions. These would be assessed 10 francs a year.
Official correspondence should be addressed to the Directeur de l’Union Internationale des Villes, 3 bis, Rue de la Regence, Bruxelles, but the undersigned who was present at the organization meetings in September, 1920, and was at that time delegated to further the interests of the Union in America, would be glad to answer inquiries.
Stephen Child, Tremont Building, Boston.


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Handbook of Municipal Government
An Analysis and comparison of the methods of various types of city government—the borough, town meeting, federal type, mayor council type, commission, and city manager plans. Also discusses charters, duties of officers, elections, appointments, in fact, every phase of this important subject.
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Natioaal
Municipal
Review
Vol. XI, No. 6 June, 1922 Total No. 72
Modern City Planning
Its Meaning and Methods
By THOMAS ADAMS
Town Planning Consultant to the Dominion of Canada Lecturer on Civic Design, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
“This is the age of cities, and all the world is city-building.... In a dim sort of way many persons understand that the time has come when art and skill and foresight should control what so far has been left to chance to work out; that there should be a more orderly conception of civic action; that there is a real art of citymaking, and that it behooves this generation to master and practise it.” — Macdonell.
PUBLISHED BY THE
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE
RUMFORD BUILDING, CONCORD, N. H.
EDITORIAL OFFICE, 261 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, N. Y.


NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE
National Municipal League
Harold W. Dodds, Editor
The NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW is sent to all members of the National Municipal League. Those who do not desire to become members of the League may subscribe to the REVIEW by paying five dollars a year in advance. Canada subscription rates $5.25 in advance; foreign $5.50. Checks should be made payable to the National Municipal League and mailed to 261 Broadway, New York, N. Y.
CONTENTS
MODERN CITY PLANNING—ITS MEANING AND METHODS
I. Introduction.................-.............................................. 156
Scrawny City Planning; Need of Practical Methods; Is It Ever Too Late to Plan; Fundamental Elements and Services of City; City Services; Suitable Areas for Planning.
II. The Methods of the City Planner............................................. 160
Order of Studies and Planning; Relative Importance of City Planning and Zoning; Appointment of City Planning Commission; Employment of Expert Advice by Cities; Existing Maps and Data; Aerial Maps; Preliminary Reconnaissance Surveys;
City Survey.
III. The City Planner’s Problems................................................... 166
The Street and Transit System; The Zone Plan; Parks; The Civic Centre; Site Planning; Alleys or Lanes; Depth of Lots; Intersections; Preservation of Trees and Open Spaces in New Subdivisions; The Problem of the Outskirts; Agricultural Belts.
IV. City Planning Law .......................................................... 173
Excess Condemnation; Slum Clearance; Special Assessments; Restrictions; Making New Streets Conform.
V. Central Administration or Supervision of Local Planning..................... 175
Appendix..................................................................... 177
Regional and Civic Surveys; Summary of Matters to be Studied.
This monograph completes an important group of National Municipal League pamphlets, as follows; Modern City Planning, by Thomas Adams.
The Law of the City Plan, by Charles Backus Williams (Revised 1922).
Zoning, by Edward M. Bassett (Revised 1922).
The Law of Zoning, by Herbert S. Swan.
Griffenhagen & Associates, Ltd.
An organization of Engineers, Accountants, and Specialists in the Administrative and Financial Problems of Public Bodies with over ten years of Practical Experience in Efficiency and Economy Work.
HEADQUARTERS OFFICES AT 116 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO


Full Text

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW ~~ VOL. XI, No. 5 MAY, 1922 TOTAL No. 71 Turn in the direction of Harvard and make a bow to a rare reformer! His name is Lewis Jerome Johnson and his hobby has been for some ten years the preferential ballot. When he began, somewhere back of 1914, he showed originality by not founding a PreferentiaI Ballot League, but contenting himself with accepting invitations to speak and using the mails at his own expense. He pointed out the undeniable advantage of counting second-choice votes-saving the expense and effort of the primary election which then appeared in most commission government charters, automatically reuniting split majorities against compact machine-disciplined minorities, etc. The device was adopted in Grand Junction, CoI., and Professor Johnson industriously brought the idea to the attention of charter commissions elsewhere until it was in effect in upwards of a hundred cities and towns, the largest being Cleveland. But he never advanced it as a complete solution of governmental ills. I recall my astonishment when after speaking forcefully for it at a meeting in Washington, he said to me-“Your short ballot is one reform that I recognize as more important than mine!” Such a concession was not typical of political propagandists in general! Three or four years ago things began to quiet down on this subject and the device could be called “the pestilential ballot ” without provoking a rejoinder from Cambridge. Professor Johnson still answered inquiries and continued to act as the clearing house for our League and everybody else on this movement but he did no more pushing. To a recent inquirer he explains: I believe the time has now come when the only form of city administration that should interest progressives is the proportional representation city-manager plan. The old commission government, with its effort to place the city government in the hands of a council representative only of the majority, indicated, 89 the doctors would say. the preferential ballot. That plan must now give way, in my judgment, to a still better thing, the P. R. city-manager plan, such as has been adopted in Ashtabula, Bodder, Sacramento, and Cleveland. With the Hare system in use for the choice of city councils, I believe that it is inexpedient to try to develop further or to extend, even for election of single officials, any other system. Moderation, self-eff acement and open-mindedness again! (An example that might be observed profitably by the other and more common type, e.g., the prominent enthusiast who assured the civil service reform convention a year ago that all other reforms were superfluous and that by the merit system, alone and all-sufficient, could we reach salvation; therefore would we VIEWS AND REVIEWS 135

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126 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Fray “fools” please drop all our other projects of reform as useless distractions?) * Professor Johnson’s reasoning is good. So also was his reasoning when he started the preferential ballot movement. No one could have foreseen then how soon the city-manager movement would become important, and proportional representation seemed even more remote. Even considered as an intermediate reform, a palliative of certain evils of the election of single officials by majority vote, the preferential ballot seemed to have scope for a long and useful career. Our model charter included it as an option and we expected many more cities to take interest in it than in proportional representation during the current decade at least. And now, so swiftly have we moved in these matters that we have leap-frogged over preferential ballot clear to proportional representation within ten years and our model charter with its most advanced options is a reality in enough cities to ensure its perlqanence and growth. The preferential ballot agitation was useful in clearing the path for “P. R.” It disclosed some of the possibilities of second-choice voting, broke down the universal assumption that the majority system was the only possible one and upset by ample experience the fear that voters could not understand such voting directions. But for such breaking of the ground, the Proportional Representation League might still be in the outer darkness of untried theory propounding a quaint mathematical contraption with too many elements of novelty to command serious consideration! 0 How complete is the rapid triumph of zoning is revealed by the experience of New York City, the first city to enact a comprehensive ordinance of this character. In the five years that the ordinance has been in effect here, 158 applications for changes in the ordinance have been granted and 134 denied. In 1916 these pleas were entirely for the purpose of relaxing the restrictions, then came an increasing number of applications to extend or stiffen the restrictions, those which were granted in 1917 numbering 19 per cent of those that relaxed. In 1918 it was 30 per cent, in 1919,54 per cent, in 1920, 135 per cent and in 1921, 153 per cent. In other words property owners now prefer to be restricted and have learned to prize the stability of value that real estate gains when protected from unneighborly invasions by industry. As the zoning ordinance was one of the achievements of the Mitchel administration and indeed its leading contribution to the art of miinicipal administration, Tammany )light to take advantage of such opposition as existed to the ordinance by denouncing it in its 1917 platform. The Hylan administration neglected it, but it grew stronger with time and was not tampered with during the next four years nor mentioned in the platform of 1921. * Our growing list of pamphlets advertised elsewhere in this issue is assuming the proportions of a considerable library. There are now about twenty titles. Several have run through two or three editions and “The Story of the City-Manager Plan” is in its sixtieth thousand. Ow ability so often to supply in handy and authoritative form exactly the information that is demanded, brings in an increasing volume of inquiries-upwards of six hundred a month at the present timeand when they fall outside our printed material, as of course they often do since they range the whole field of public affairs, we answer by letter elaborately and carefully, often sponging on

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19921 VIEWS AND REVIEWS 127 our always obliging neighbor, the “Technical Pamphlet ” undertakes to Bureau of Municipal Research for facts outside our experience or clipping files, and sometimes searching the municipal reference library or sending out letters to experts in numerous quarters for help. At any rate every serious inquirer gets his answer and incidentally we educate ourselves. Whenever an item in our clipping service indicates a prospect, ” he receives one or another of numerous form letters exhibiting our stock, and the dimes and quarters that flow back sustain the endeavor. So likewise do we make the inquiries from high school debaters and civics teachers pay their way. Pamphlets are often sent free where they seem especially likely to do good, especially to officials and o5cial commissions, and occasionally we circularize a whole legislature. All told it constitutes an important central service. 66 * Eventually we hope to develop pamphlets, either monographs by specialists or committee reDorts, on evew tell the whole story of one reform proposal, the need for it, the advantages of it, all the trials of it and their working and the ideals to which it should measure up, for the person who really wants to know regardless of the dullness that may be inherent in the subject. Such a pamphlet was our last issue on “Public Pensions.” Our average member had no longing to read it and no probable use for the information, but distributing it as a special issue of the REVIEW was the only way to make its existence widely known to people who did want it badly and who recognized it as the first printed collection of complete data on the most vexatious subject in public administration. Our pamphlets in the Pocket Civics Series are more popular and are intended to catch the interest ‘of people who are not looking up the subject but who ought to know, e.g., the pamphlet “ Ramshackle County Government” (out of print just now) which seeks to make people realize that there is such a thing as a vast and difficult county government Droblem. subject in our field.O& typical RICHARD S. CHILDS.

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THE ST. LOUIS MUNICIPAL OUTDOOR THEATRE BY M. GENEVIEVE TIERNEY Secretary of the St. Louw Pageant Drama Asaoeiatwn I IN July, 1913, a group of publicspirited St. Louisans organized the St. Louis Pageant Drama Association for the purpose of encouraging the production of performances for the entertainment and education of our citizens and to create and promote public sentiment for a civic theatre. The time was opportune in view of the fact that the 150th anniversary of the city’s founding occurred in 1914 and it was decided to commemorate this event with a production that would at once challenge the attention of the country and leave our city a heritage for future inspiration. The St. Louis Pageant and Masque of 1914, the former a drama by Thomas Wood Stevens portraying our city’s history, and the latter a symbolic poem prophesying its future by Percy MacKaye, was the result. This superb production, after a year of preparation, was produced in the natural amphitheatre on Art Hill, in the heart of Forest Park, and its unforgetable loveliness will linger as long as life in the memory of all who saw it. So farreaching and fundamental was the purpose underlying it, that every element of our social fabric was eventually drawn into the current, and it marked an epoch in the civic and artistic life of our city, of which co-ordination of civic effort was the keynote; 7,500 citizen-actors participated in the production and the spectacle was witnessed by 400,000 people, the largest audience ever assembled to view a dramatic production. In the discussion of entertainment for the masses one frequently hears the statement that producers must give the public what they want, the general inference being that too high-typed a production is over the head of the crowd. The Pageant Drama Association, being inexperienced producers, reversed this rather generally accepted theory with a firm conviction that art and beauty are universal in their appeal, and for once producers gave no consideration to any commc~ -id phase of the production, concentr:. :ng entirely on the esthetically constructive principles of dramatic art. Certainly no audience was ever more democratic. In size it has never been equalled and in appreciation it has never been excelled, and so far as St. Louis audiences are concerned, it corrected any impression to the contrary that may have existed in certain channels as to the type of entertainment to which the masses respond. It is significant that with a complete indifference to box office results and a seating capacity of 50,000, one-half of which was free to the public, the Association realized a surplus of $17,125. Thus was public sentiment created and crystallized for a civic theatreand now for the realization. I1 When the Association decided to commemorate the tercentennial of

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19221 ST. LOUIS MUNICIPAL OUTDOOR THEATRE 129 Shakespeare’s death, it was felt no better way could be devised than to produce one of his plays, adapted to the outdoors, in some natural setting more intimate than the big Pageant site on Art Hill, since it would have been impossible to have heard the players in the big auditorium. After deciding on the play, Miss Margaret Anglin was asked to produce it, and invited to come to St. Louis to look over a number of available sites. Miss Anglin arrived on a cold, raw November Sunday and, accompanied by Mi. John H. Gundlach, President of the Association, Mr. W. W. LaBeaume and Mr. Lambert E. Walther, made a tour of Forest Park, visiting various sites that looked promising. The Municipal Theatre site was the last visited and, while the choice of the committee, the committee was nevertheless very anxious to learn what Miss Anglin thought of it. Her reaction was immediate and enthusiastic, and after testing the acoustics from every angle, the availability of the site for vaned productions having been carefully considered and a minute study of transportation facilities having previously been made, it was selected as the proper site. The artistic success of the performance surpassed all expectations-the audience was enthralled by the unrivalled beauty of the production and was quick to realize that no small part of the excellence of the production was due to the enchanting beauty of the stage and auditorium and Miss Anglin’s intelligent treatment of the natural loveliness of the stage. In the “As You Like It” performance, as in the Pageant and Masque, the Association emphasized community participation in the performances. Hundreds of our people took part in the prologue of Elizabethan dances, directed by Mr. Cecil Sharp of London. I11 Having faith in the great educational value of the theatre to our people and in the belief that St. Louis should maintain its leadership in the community play, the Association as the conclusion of the “As You Like It” performance presented the stage and its accessories to the city with the request that funds be provided to make the site a permanent outdoor theatre for the use of the people. The following year the city placed the theatre on a permanent basis, building a stage and concrete auditorium, and erecting at the entrance an ornamental colonnade. The Municipal Theatre is situated in St. Louis’s largest park-Forest Park, on a wooded hill overlooking the River des Peres, the slope of which is admirably adapted to the seating arrangement. Experts have generally agreed that there is no lovelier environment for an outdoor theatre in the world. The auditorium, which is entirely surrounded by trees, has a depth of 256 feet, an average width of 225 feet and a total seating capacity of 9,270. It is constructed of reinforced concreteportable chairs being used for seats. The exits are so arranged that the theatre can be emptied in from ten to twenty minutes. Everyone in the audience has an unobstructed view of the stage, the acoustics being such that the voices of the performers carry satisfactorily to every part of the auditorium. The stage is built upon the banks of the River des Peres, in the midst of a dense shrubbery. Two majestic oaks, about seventy feet high, form a proscenium arch in the foreground. Between the stage and the audience is an orchestra pit, 10 to 18 feet wide, which will accommodate an orchestra of 150. The difference in the elesation of this

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130 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [May pit and that of the farthest row of seats in the auditorium is 53 feet. The stage has a total width of 120 feet and is 90 feet deep, connecting to a bridge leading across the little river to the dressing rooms, all permanent buildings, hidden in the shrubbery. The bridge is so located that it may be effectively used in connection with the stage. The lighting is by electricity, both large searchlights and smaller lights being used, and the artistry of the lighting effects is unsurpassingly beautiful. The theatre is at the disposal of the people of St. Louis for civic entertainments of all kinds, but may not be used at any time for the purpose of obtaining revenue. All funds derivedfhrough the use of the theatre must be expended in improving the theatre-installing complete lighting devices, concrete ornamentation and comforts for the audience. IV Since the completion in 1916, the Municipal Theatre has been used on more than 195 occasions, the character of the performances given consisting of grand opera, choral concerts, dramatic productions, playground festivals, Greek games, and a now permanent mid-summer season of light opera and a permanent late summer fashion show of fall styles. It is interesting to note that the Municipal Theatre is not “municipal” in the same sense as are the Art Museum, the Public Library or the Zoological Gardens, all of which are supported by taxation. While our parks are maintained from the general municipal revenue and the Municipal Theatre is in our largest park, the theatre is supported by fees derived from the Opera and Fashion Show, to which admission is charged, it being stipulated that 1,600 free seats be provided for the public at all performances. With these exceptions the theatre is at the disposal of the public, free of charge, under the regulation of the Department of Parks and Recreation. The Municipal Theatre is a triumph of community effort and is now an accepted factor in the recreational life of our people. Throush its policy of community participat ;uu and free admissions, it has awakened an interest in music, dancing, singing, designing and kindred elements of histrionic art that make for the ultimate realization of the goal of its founders-the democratization of art. Its founders have fostered the idea that much of the value of the theatre will be nullifled unless OUT people are drawn into the performances and free admission provided so every citizen may have the cultural advantages he has helped to create.

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EMERGENCY ZONING IN SYRACUSE BY F. G. CRAWFORD Syracuse Universiiy THE common council of the city of Syracuse, New York, adopted on January 30, 19252, an ordinance providing for a comprehensive zoning plan. For ten years property had been protected by special ordinances until the city was a network of special zones, secured from time to time by the residents of certain streets. In the case of Hayden vs. Clary, which involved the building of a drug store in a restricted block, Justice Irving R. Devendorf handed down a decision declaring such ordinances illegal and void, and asserted that property development should not be restricted except by a comprehensive zoning system applying to the entire city. Notwithstanding this decision, the city council, two days later, passed additional restrictive ordinances. The bureau of buildings was at once flooded with applications for permits to construct stores in districts that had been protected for years by special ordinances. The superintendent of building, on the advice of the corporation council, held up all such permits, and the citizens organized to demand the passage of a comprehensive zoning ordinance. The city-planning commission had had under way such a plan, which was completed and submitted to the council on January 30. In the meantime injunctions had been secured by irate property owners to prevent the issuance of permits, and damage actions were begun on the basis of these injunctions. Public opinion was aroused to a high pitch, for the objection of one of the nineteen aldermen would hold over the ordinance until February 6, and in that week permits might be issued. Party lines wereswept aside and a tremendous force of public opinion centered behind the proposition, broke down opposition and the ordinance was passed. This law provides for five zones as follows : Pirst : Class A. Oneand two-family dwellings, colleges, schools, convents, churches, and fire stations with every structure twenty feet from the street line and with only 60 per cent of the lot utilized for the building. Class B. Apartment and multiple dwellings, fraternity and sorority houses, clubs, hospitals and sanitariums. Second: Commercial and local business buildings. Third: Strictly commercial business and light manufacturing. Fourth: Industrial manufacturing. Fifth: Unclassified. Under the ordinance the city-planning commission will hereafter exercise complete control over all building activity in Syracuse. Amendment will be made by two-thirds vote of the council upon recommendation of the commission. Nothing in the plan affects buildings in existence or prevents replacements, provided the replacement does not exceed 50 per cent of the assessed valuation. Buildings in existence in zones where they do not belong can be altered or repaired if the cost does not exceed 30 per cent of the assessed valuation. Syracuse has taken a step forward which was necessary and vital to her future. 131

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THE CORONERS AGAIN BY LENT D. UPSON Detroit Bureau of Govmmental Research, Inc. Coroners in partnership with undertakers, unnecessary and misleading inquests and neglect of duty featured the administration of many coroners. Why is it so hard to do anything about it? :: .. .. TRIS is a story of that ancient and honorable office of the coroner, of some fumbling efforts at abolishing it, and of how poorly they succeeded. It is set down only as a recital of errors that may guide some future adventurer in county reform. Not a great many years ago, two Wayne County coroners were sent to prison because of official misconduct, much against the peace and dignity of the people of Michigan. Before and since tha.t time there have been reoccurring allegations to the effect that certain coroners were silent partners in undertaking flrms, which firms profited measurably through these connections; that the coroners did not always view the bodies of deceased persons, but left this task to non-medical subordinates; that the property of deceased persons did not always reach the heirs or the state; that frequently inquests were unnecessarily held for the jury fees involved; and that inquests in criminal cases frequently prejudiced the trial of offenders by the prosecutor. By no means have all coroners’ administrations been bad, but the good have been consistently tarred by the vicious. MEDICAL EXAIAINER RECOMMENDED In 1920 the board of county auditors invited the Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research to make a study of the coroner’s office and suggest remedies for generally accepted evils rather than prove charges against individuals. The bureau spent some months studying the local office, and the procedures in Massachusetts, New York, and elsewhere. The bureau finally reached these conclusions : 1. That responsibility for the office should be located in a Single appointed 05cial with a legalmedical training. 2. That immediate sulurdinstes should be medically trained. 3. That the office should determine the cause of death, but not the responsibility for it, turning available evidence over to, the police and prosecutor. 4. That the office of public administrator should be created to handle the estates of unknown deceased persons. The present generation will grant the merits of a single appointive officer for this position with thoroughly trained subordinates. The two elective coroners of Wayne County are an inheritance of the time when a large county had poor methods of transportation and these officers actually functioned outside of the city of Detroit, instead of leaving the county jobs largely to the justices of the peace. It is believed that selection by appointment is the only means of ending connivance with undertaking establishments in the disposal of bodies, or which at least would provide an avenue of protest to the appointing authority. Out of 1,700 cases reported to the coro

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19221 THE CORONERS AGAIN 133 ner’s office during the period checked, 87 went to one undertaker, or about twice the number of the nearest competitor. Of greater significance is the fact that all but 6 of the 87 cases were reported by other than the family concerned,-i.e., were cases susceptible to “recommendation.” CORONER SHOULD NOT HAVE INQUEST POWERS The more important recommendation was that of removing inquest powers from the coroner’s office. One Wayne County prosecutor had stated: “The entire theory of the operation of the coroner’s inquest is directly opposed to the theory on which criminal prosecutions are conducted, and in practice the testimony given by witnesses at a coroner’s case interferes with the obtaining of proper justice at trials months afterwards.” Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York City, and Maryland have supplanted the coroner by a physician trained in medico-legal jurisprudence. To this medical examiner has been delegated the power to investigate all coroner cases as to the cause of death, but without power to fix responsibility. This report of the medical examiner is filed with the prosecutor, with all the facts determined by scientific investigation. If the report-indicates that the death was caused by other than natural causes, the police and prosecuting attorney assume the duty of fixing the responsibility. The bureau believes that this is a correct procedure in spite of isolated cases where exoneration by a coroners’ jury has certain advantages. As an alternative to the medical examiner proposal there was a temptation to suggest that the entire function of the office be turned over to the health authorities of the cities and county. Of coroners’ cases investigated, 68 per cent were medical, 83 per cent were accidental and 9 per cent were by acts of violence. Further, it appeared that’ inquests were held in about 5 per cent of the cases so investigated, and in less than 1 per cent of all cases was any criminal act involved. The police and the prosecutor were independently investigating these deaths without regard to the coroner. In fact, public officials recalled no single instance in which the coroners had actually unearthed a crime. Could not the health authorities have issued death certificates equally well? Such a proposal appeared too far-reaching for the moment. The proposal of a public administrator was advanced by the coroners themselves and was being urged by the governor. Such a measure was passed by the legislature, and should insure the estates of unknown deceased persons going intact to the state, and not being squandered in fancy funerals and undertakers’ fees. COMPROMISE MEASURE PASSED The bureau prepared a report and drafted a tentative act providing for an appointive medical examiner; the coroners proposed a compromise bill of their own; and the Detroit Citizens’ League was in the legislature urging an amendment to the constitution providing for home rule for counties, which, if successful, would have permitted a local revamping of the coroner’s office. This last measure was of highest importance, and too much dabbling in other county reforms at the legislature would have meant its certain defeat. However, the coroner’s oEce was in substantial agreement with the bureau on a number of proposals to modify the procedure. The bureau therefore agreed to a bill drafted by the prosecutor which provided for the abolition of

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134 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [May the inquest except upon request of the prosecutor, and for minor amendments in procedure. The coroners were willing that one of their number should be known as a presiding coroner, and be ostensibly in charge of the work, but would not stand for the abolition of the dual oflice. The bureau reserved the right to make a plea before the legislative committee to substitute an appointive officer for the two elective ones. With the county home rule bill in constant jeopardy (and it later lost its life before the legislature) it was not opportune to make a fight on this point or for a genuine revision of the coroner’s office. The compromise bill went through without a dissenting voice. However, county home rule is now being placed before Michigan voters by initiative petition. Its acceptance seems inevitable. When some time in the near future there is a revision of the government of Wayne County, the bureau believes it has sufficient facts to put the office of coroner into the limbo of suspenders, mustache cups, and other accessories of another age. THREE TOWN MANAGERS IN TROUBLE STRATFORD, CONNECTICUT, -DECATUR, GEORGIA, MANSFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS BY RICHARD S. CHILDS I Emmin my observation of the workings of the city-manager plan I was convinced that in towns of less than ten thousand population all bets were off as to how a modern charter would work; that is to say, an average of progress and success could be safely predicted as to such towns in general but as to a given case, no predictions could safely be ventured. In towns of that size the personal equation looms high, a single trouble-maker can upset the apple cart and the manager’s personality and tact are put to their stiffest tests. In such a town the manager is not part of a considerable machine of government but is almost its entire active personnel. He does not sit behind a big desk and issue written orders; rather he carries his office in his hat and learns to call the road foreman “Charlie.” Instead of the mild fluctuations of the party votes characteristic of a big city, we see the quietness of a mill pond and unopposed re-elections at one seaSon and a little tornado of bitter personal politics the next. Accordingly trouble, when it comes, is likely to be acute and the excitement keen even to the point of comicality. I1 Stratford, Connecticut (population 6,970), adopted its city-manager charter with some help from our field director, Dr. Hatton, in 1921. The town is straggling in its layout with several distinct sections, making wards and a ward-elected council more acceptable than the usual method of election at large. The first council was somewhat mixed in character and political complexion and not of very high ability. It selected as town manager, R. W. Hunter, formerly the town manager of Ambridge, Pennsylvania, and things started off smoothly.

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19221 THREE TOWN MANAGERS IN TROUBLE 135 Stratford, like most Connecticut small towns, is solidly Republican. It was the Republican Town Committee which had started the movement for a new charter, expanding promptly, however, to include outsiders of all elements. Nevertheless, it is assumed that the party leaders developed a dislike for the manager. Being a stranger, very likely he went ahead, did the work and made his purchases and appointments without consulting the old unofficial government. One night last January, with very little warning, the council voted, 6 to 3, to demand the resignation of the manager, asserting that Mr. Hunter had been inefficient and inattentive, and charging specifically that in buying two ash cans he had signed the requisition after the purchase, and that by ordering a bin med with coal he had purchased seven tons when intending to purchase only five. The manager described the action as a thunderbolt from a clear sky and pleaded dignifiedly but vainly for opportunity to prepare a reply to the charges. The obvious triviality of the charges struck the people as indicating that the real reasons were not being disclosed and as being unfair to the city manager. The fine public zeal that had been built up for the charter a few months earlier revived promptly and petitions, reciting the unfairness of the action and asking that it be rescinded, were signed by over a thousand voters, one third of the voting list, within twentyfour hours. People who had never come into contact with Mr. Hunter became suddenly his violent partisans. A secretive summoning of the council at unusually short notice leaked out and the Town Hall was packed to its capacity with a crowdthat waited two hours with increasing impatience while the council held a private session. When the councilmen finally emerged, the spokesman of the crowd demanded that the council’s action be rescinded. The council was firm, but so flustered that it adjourned having voted on a minor amendment of a motion to reconsider but not having voted at all on the motion. Then came two or three district meetings packed to support the action of the council. They were of local civic clubs, restricted to paid-up members and certain members were urged to pay up in time to enable them to participate in the proposed action. This promptly inspired other and wide-open meetings, practically afl of which demanded that their councilmen rescind or resign. Despite all this, the council at its next meeting ten days later, elaborately protected by police in the presence of a thousand storming citizens, voted 7 to 2 to oust the manager at one day’s notice and named a temporary successor. It was not certified as an emergency resolution, and Hunter proved by the charter that no such motion could take effect in less than 30 days. He resisted ouster and presently a referendum petition signed by 1,607 of the town’s 3,700 voters served to suspend the ouster resolution pending its reconsideration or submission to the people. There are two managers at present writing. Mr. Hunter appears to have behaved as a manager should in such circumstances, remaining inactive and as far as possible a silent spectator, but even so, his position under the council must be untenable for any length of time and essentially unpleasant. The plan is stronger than ever in Stratford. I11 Decatur, Georgia (population 6,150) put the plan intoeffect in January, 1921. The charter had carried by the trifling

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136 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [May majority of 27 votes, leaving to the opponents the solace that they might reasonably hope to reverse the action the first time the new government struck a controversial subject. The nominators of the winning ticket at the fist election purposely included one candidate who bad opposed the new charter but who had later announced his conversion. He seems, however, to have made himself the nucleus of the opposition. The commission received five hundred applications for the managership andelected P. P. Pilcher, a non-resident, by unanimous vote. He soon found the above-mentioned commissioner opposing him and at the election of 1921 when two friendly commissioners came up for re-election, one was defeated and the minority was strengthened. The former mayor was appointed director of thedepartment of lam (equivalent to the city attorney), as a matter of political strategy, but, having exercised larger powers, he apparently found it difficult to let go and continued to issue directions in the police department and elsewhere. He came promptly into collision with the city manager and resigned to take a leading place with the opposition. The manager was able at the end of the first year to show on a balance sheet prepared by outside auditors that the town was $6,000 better off than before and claims that the administration has been improved in various respects, politics having been “almost entirely” excluded from the depcrtments under his control. The city manager continued to be a target for criticism which could be directed only against the majority of the council. The ex-mayor threatened the use of the recall against them every time some particular thing failed to go according to his liking, and sometimes circulated petitions which seized upon the fact that expenses exceeded income as basis for charges of mismanagement. In the 1921 election the manager was, to some extent, an issue and after the campaign, the manager announced he would resign early in 1922. The minority persisted in efforts to displace him sooner, arguing that the new manager should be installed soon enough to prepare the new budget, the majority maintaining that the experience of the old manager should be held available for that purpose. At the request of the latter, he stayed until April first. The manager frankly stated that his resignation was for the purpose of clearing the decks of all personal questions and help straighten out the political situation. He being eliminated, the opposition turned against the three majority commissioners still more directly and it was made plain that the Sght was against the whole new system. Cocler heads, however, began to prevail and the recall petitions with their vague charges were dropped. The whole five commissioners resigned, a special election was called, and committees representing both fadions succeeded in agreeing upon a ticket. This was confirmed at a mass meeting on March 1, at which time, also, resolutions were passed clearing the commissioners of the imputations on the recall petitions. Election of the new ticket without opposition is a reasonable certainty and the government will start afresh in more auspicious and harmonious circumstances. The majority and the manager did not have to resign but the good will they showed in eliminating themselves in the interest of the success of the new form of government has disarmed its opponents and the new government, having thus survived the earthquake, is left considerably stronger than before.

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THREE TOWN MANAGERS IN TROUBLE 137 IV Mansfield, Massachusetts (population 6,255), put into effect the manager charter in February, 1921. Our Dr. Hatton helped draft the charter and in his draft retained an old New England name of excellent traditions by calling the council of five “Board of Selectmen.” A high-grade board, four business men and a railway conductor were elected and they selected as manager, Eldredge R. Conant, former Engineer and Purchasing Officer of Savannah, Ga., at a salary of $4,000. Conant found the usual easy-going practices of a country town and proceeded briskly to speed things up, unaware that a strong minority of the people were bitterly hostile to the innovation. The first step was the elimination of various departmental boards, the members of which had drawn salaries of $200 a year or less, and they frequently developed hostility. He consolidated two departments, the heads of which he considered incompetent, and appointed a young engineer from out of town who seems to have done well in making people who had long enjoyed leniency as to water cbarges pay their full share-a process which made further enemies. This engineer was f0.r a time a target on various grounds, e.g. his war record was unsuccessfully challenged by the Legion, and his membership in the Catholic Church was cited against him. The Selectmen and Manager stood by him but he resigned after a year. The town treasurer, long a leading political figure of Mansfield, was continued in ofice on trial but the State Accountants presently came around and disclosed a condition of things in his o6ce which resulted in a prompt change. He organized the opposition industriously and in February, 1943, contrived to elect an anti-manager candidate to the Board of SeIectmen. In the same month came the annual financial town meeting and here a vote was carried to cut the manager’s salary from $4,000 to $1,000. The new treasurerwas remembered with a cutof $640. The selectmen have the power under the charter to fix these salaries and the manager’s claim would be valid but awkward to collect as the town meeting’s action cut off the grant of the funds. Having tasted victory in the February election, the opposition in March, filed a recall petition against two of the five selectmen thus attempting to reinforce the new member sufficiently to constitute a majority that would remove the manager. But the recall election in April scored a success for the city manager plan. The members of the Board of Selectmen were both upheld in the election. The fact of concern to us here is the extent to which so small a public question as the changing of a few municipal employes can, in a small town, serve to create a tempest that may upset the orderly working of the city-manager plan or any other. So intimately personal an issue could hardly be used to so bedevil the manager of a large city. The Mansfield News’ account of speeches at an opposition meeting reveals nothing but antiquated rhetoric ineluding the following pearl from the lips of one disgruntled speaker: ‘ ‘the town manager form lies in the hands of a highly organized crowd of Capitalists who are directly connected with the National Municipal League. This League has headquarters in New York and branches in every city and is organized for the sole purpose of distributing propaganda destructive of the old form of town government .” At the end of March, after the Selectmen had refused to ask his resignation

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138 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW on motion from the new member of the Board, Manager Conant resigned, accepting the position of surveyor of Manchester, N. H. The town meeting was retained by Dr. Hatton in his draft of this charter as an interesting substitute for the more usual and less expeditious initiative and referendum, and its misuse for purposes of political retaliation is an unexpected outcome. The peril of all town meetings is that they will be representative only of the special groups who are excited about some semi-private question and who consequently bestir themselves to attend the meetings whereas the greater mass of citizens, whose interest is only general, do not turn out to defend the %treasury. In early days when a town meeting was the great central event of the season in an isolated community, a full and completely representative attendance was easily brought out, but there are other indoor and outdoor sports in New England to-day, and town meetings composed of less than one per cent of the voting list are common. It is accordingly no longer democratic in practice and is a disappearing institution. Dr. Hatton’s interesting attempt to give it a place in a modern village government will have forked the lines of responsibility if the Mansfield town meeting’s interference with the budget proves actually troublesome. v All three of these stories are based on the long-distance evidence of letters and newspaper reports, and may be one-sided as to details and characterizations. The facts are clear enough, nevertheless, to show how much more personalities count for in small cities than in large ones and !low imch more difficult it may be to 1 ’”p the administrative officers uniforriay out of politics in little communities. A “SWIMMING HOLE” IN CHICAGO BY RUTH DEAN Landscape Architect. New York City I IF you had your choice between the most up-to-date, tiled pool in the world, and the old swimming hole, you would not hesitate long over the choice; snakes, roots and scum natwithstanding, you would dive deep into the pond’s friendly waters, in preference to plunging ‘toward the unromantic white tiles on the bottom of the pool. This is the simple reasoning behind Mi. Jensen’s successful attempt to create for the thousands of Chicago children who have never hung their “clothes on a hickory limb,” the environment of a real swimming hole. He knows that it is impossible to take many of these children to the country for even a shoTt visit, and that most of them will never know at all the ooze of clean mud between their toes, the splash of a fat bullfrog startled from his shelter under a fern frond, the lazy arms of willow dipping down into the water. “We must bring the country in to them, then,” says Mi. Jensen; “instead of a concrete bathtub set ina glare of gravel, we must give them a bit of real woodland-a rocky pool shut in from tall smokestacks and trolley cars by elms

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and maples; screened around with river alder and dewberry and dogwood; with ferns down to the water’s edge, and wild grapevines sprawling over the rocky ledges; and we will make the pool safe and sanitary as well, with ladders into the water, a life rail around the edge, easy drainage and a large-volume supply, so that our health cranks may not complain that it is dangerous and unwholesome. Of course if one is hungry it is better to have food in however dreary surroundings than to starve; and any bath at all is preferable to going dirty; but beauty is not less a fundamental of the spirit’s existence than is food or cleanliness of the body’s; and although the joy to be had in the mere act of swimming is not easily destroyed, the pleasure of the sport is vastly increased by the stimulus of lovely surroundings. A turn round the obvious limits of a concrete rectangle may provide exercise, but it fails to touch the imagination, and is dull pleasure compared to an equal sixty feet and back in a country pond. I1 To combine the necessary practical elements of one, with the careless beauty of the other, and this on a large enough scale to accommodate three or four hundred children at one time, was the task Mi. Jensen set himself in making the swimming pool in Columbus Park. His first move was to shut out the noisy city, with thick belts of real country planting,-not such tame garden vegetation as one sees on the average gentlemanly country place (and alas in too many parks)-lilacs and snowballs and barberry and bridal wreath,-but heavy country hedgerows with a backbone of elms, maples, lindens, ash, and an undergrowth of hawthorn, crab apple, sumach, wild plum and cherry. The pool itself grew into 19!~] A “SWIMMING HOLE” IN CHICAGO 139 two pools, a deep one,-seven to eight feet in depth and about ninety feet in diameter to take care of the older children and those who could dive,-and a bigger, shallow pool, about four and one half feet deep, two hundred and twenty feet long and from sixty to one hundred and thirty feet wide, for the little children. The bottom of both pools is of concrete, expansion-jointed in fifty feet squares. The sides, also, to the coping are of concrete, and the coping is of flat stones. This coping projects slightly above and over the gutter formed by the concrete and casts a shadow which quite conceals the gutter and to a large extent the life rail. Around at least two thirds of both pools runs a stretch of varying width which is paved with flat irregular stones so that the users of the pools may sun themselves, or rest between dips. The pools are fed ostensibly by a little waterfall that tumbles into the deeper pool; this pool is somewhat higher than the shallow one, and empties in turn into the shallow pool. Of course the waterfall does not do all of the work of feeding the pools but is supplemented by several supply pipes in the bottom. 111 The most skillful feature of the whole scheme is the handling of the pool’s borders. Ledges of rock rise sheer from the water’s edge in places, and, after running along the water for a stretch, are carried back so as to leave room for the paved space, and then break irregularly into the surrounding grade. To make rock work so that it looks as if God had done it is no mean act of creation; for the most part, man achieves something which is all too patently a “rockery”; but in this case, despite the handicaps due to the public character of the work and the necessity

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140 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [May for extra precautions, Mi. Jensen has transplanted a bit of nature. He has used big flat slabs of rock brought for the purpose from a quarry in Wisconsin, and has laid them to simulate the horizontal stratification of the natural rock formation. Layer is laid on layer with puddled clay for mortar (except in the case of waterfalls where cement mortar is used) and the joints are raked out six inches or more. Pockets of earth are left everywhere for vines and wood plants, and the illusion of naturalness is carried out by rough steppingstones from the higher to the lower levels. In these sunny woodland pools, a few steps from flourishing factories, the city child has a taste of the country boy’s pleasures, and perhaps borrows a little grace for his soul from the pleasant ways of Nature. DEADLOCK IN PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATION VI. MUNICIPAL ACTION TO BREAK THE DEADLOCK BY JOHN BAUER Cansul!anl an Public Utililies The municipal governments as constructive advocates must pirad the grievances of their constituents before the utility commissions und must equip themselves by a pooled technical service on which numerous cities .. .. .. may draw. :: .. IN previous discussions of this series, the conditions were considered that have led to practical deadlock in public utility regulation. This final article is devoted to an outline of municipal action to break the deadlock. In every city of considerable size, the most important local problem centers around public utility rates and service. This has been the chief issue in a number of municipal elections the past year, and is bound to be the principal ground of contention thoughont the country. The solution must be based upon a positive program of sound economic and public policy. The controlling fact in the establishment of such a program is that the cities must rely upon themselves; that they cannot depend upon the public service commissions except as machinery through which to function. The locally .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. elected officials are much closer to the needs of the people than are any other governmental agencies, and are inevitably responsible for important municipal matters. They must determine for themselves what is needed and decide upon a definite policy, and then appear before the commissions to translate such purposes into accomplishment. An earlier article considered the character of the public service commissions, explaining the unusual combination of legislative, administrative and judicial powers. The fact was emphasized that, while the commissions have .been charged with the responsibility of promoting the public welfare, because of their judicial responsibility they have not actively pressed the local public interests where there would be a clash with private interests. The com

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19221 DEADLOCK IN PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATION 141 missions could hardly be expected to make trouble for themselves, and for the most part they have started proceedings for the reduction of rates or improvement of service only upon clamoring municipal insistence. For this reason,the cities mustdetermine for themselves the proper policies, and then use the commissions, clothed with the police power, to carry out the established purposes. If the cities appear before the commissions with a definite program and the facts supporting it, effective action can be obtained, especially if the force of public opinion is properly marshalled. The writer believes that the commissions endowed with the unusual combination of powers constitute a necessary part of the machinery to carry out desirable local policies as to public service corporations. But, they are not suited to the purpose of formulating such policies and carrying them out on their own initiative. The policymaking function, as experience has amply demonstrated, properly belongs to the local municipal authorities, who are elected by the people, and are more responsive to public needs. The cities themselves, therefore, ought actively to assume the responsibility of working out their public utility problems; then appear with their programs and facts before the commissions and use these special bodies, with their police power, to carry out the local purposes. The commissions will exercise their powers when thus actively confronted by the organized desires of the cities, but will do practically nothing, as experience has shown, if left to their own initiative and responsibility. VALUATION FIRST The first point in a positive municipal program is to establish once and for all the valuation of the properties upon which the investors are entitled to a return, and that valuation must be definitely recognized by the public as entitled to a return. As explained previously, the matter of valuation has furnished a continuous battleground of rate regulation, and with comparatively few exceptions nothing has ever been dehitely settled. This must be cleared up before other constructive measures can be carried out. The rights of the investors must be clearly defined, and in turn the duties of the public must be definitely fixed. Otherwise the constant disagreement between public and private claims will continue, the processes of regulation will remain unwieldy, and deadlock will prevail. If the valuations are once fixed, so that the rights of the investors as well as the duty of the public are clearly defined, then the technical processes of rate making could be made exceedingly simple. To the valuations would be added all subsequent additional int-estments for improvements andextensions, and provisions would be made for the complete maintenance of the properties, including adequate reserves for depreciation, renewals and contingencies. The books of the companies would thus continuously show the amount of the investment entitled to a return, and a record of the receipts and costs of operation would show also whether or not the investors are receiving the return to which they are entitled. The necessary facts upon which rates are properly based mould be available at any moment from the accounts and records kept under the commissions’ supervision. If in any case the earnings above current operating costs and reasonable provision for reserves and contingencies become greater than the necessary return upon investment, the fact would appear clearly from the accounts and the rates could be readily

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW reduced without aEecting the rights of the investors. Similarly if the earnings become inadequate, the rates could be promptly increased without placing an unjustified burden upon the public. The facts would be constantly available, and rates could be &ed almost automatically without injury or special benefit to private or public rights. In clearing up the confusion as to valuations, it is necessary that proper principles and methods be used so that no unreasonable burdens be placed upon the public and that no real private investments be codscated. The basis of valuation would be exceedingly important, and its determination would require the greatest regard by each municipality as well as maximum cooperation between cities. Correct principles ought to be vigorously urged before the commissions. With the support of public opinion and with cooperation and vigorous action by cities, valuations based upon sound principles could be generally established fairly quickly and applied to all the properties with reasonable expedition; dehite amounts entitled to a return could thus be fked within two years’ time even in the most complicated situations. Then subsequent rate making would be a simple process, based upon agreed facts, without the acrimony of litigation andwithout profit or loss to private or public rights. Deadlock will inevitably continue until such an automatic machinery has become operative, based upon fixed valuations, dehite rights, and constantly established facts. PROGRESSIVE METHODS The second point in a municipal program is to establish the most economical methods of operation. As set forth previously the companies are employing to a large extent antiquated or inadequate plant and equipment, are maintaining unduly costly methods of operation, and particularly have permitted the accumulation or continuance of undue overhead expenses. These conditions result in excessive costs, poor service, and high rates. The commissions have done very little in promoting progressive economies, such as forcing the companies to install proper plant and equipment, and furnishing proper service at minimum cost. If the public wishes to keep abreast with the advance in the arts and to obtain the benefit of rates based upon maximum economy, the cities must take the initiative themselves. They must show wherein the management is uneconomical; then place the facts and recommendations before the commissions and thus use this special machinery with its police power to require the companies to employ all possible economy in providing service. CONSISTENT FOLLOW-UP The third point in the program is that the cities must keep regularly in contact with methods of operation, costs, and returns, so as to plan intelligent action based upon facts. While the commissions’ police power ought to be used by the cities to carry out their program, there must be exact and adequate knowledge to prepare a program, and there must be an organization for that purpose. The original intention of the public utility laws in establishing the commissions was undoubtedly that these special bodies were to take the requisite initiative in procuring proper management with the lowest possible cost and rates to the consumers. But this reliance upon the commissions has been futile; the cities themselves must provide the means by which desirable municipal policies may fbt be developed, then using the commissions as

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19921 DEADLOCK IN PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATION 143 vehicles for carrying out the municipal purposes. Heretofore the cities have done practically nothing on their own initiative in the development of consistent policies, and have acted only when partial crises had developed. Then, in most instances, they were not prepared for intelligent action; while floundering they called in experts, appropriated large sum of money, made lavish expenditures, and obtained little in desirable permanent results. In particular cases the cities have secured reductions in rates or prevented increases, or even brought about improvements in service. In general, however, they have acted spasmodically, and have made little effort to keep constantly informed about conditions and costs of service and to develop and carry out a systematic program in the interest of the public. If, then, the cities wish to have the best possible service at the lowest possible cost to the public, they simply must have systematic organization to get the facts, and to develop and carry out regularly the desirable municipal purposes, In most instances, however, the cost to the cities would be prohibitive if they were to place such an organization among the regular municipal departments. The services of the highest grade of financial, accounting and engineering experts would be required, and if each city were to maintain such an independent organization, the expense would be overwhelming and any thoroughgoing policy impracticable. Except in the case of possibly a few very large municipalities, the reasonable course would be for the cities to act together in some form of co-operative organization, so as to distribute broadly the cost of obtaining the best experts necessary to carry oW the program. The cities could thus secure the highest grade of technical skill and would be able to pay the necessary compensation to first-class experts. Since no one cit,y would require the exclusive services of such an organization, the cost could be apportioned so as to weigh but lightly upon each municipality. CO-OPERATIVE SERVICE There are two possible plans for carrying out large scale co-operation in the use of a technical organization: (1) the cities themselves organize a public utility bureau, and prorate expenses, and (2) form a private organization to work with the cities, entering into a separate agreement' with each city and fixing the charges according to individual circumstances. A direct public utility bureau organized by the municipalities, would be di5cult to maintain because of the inevitably cumbersome control. The alternative private association would be more easily managed and could be more readily adapted to varying needs. Safeguards could be readily provided for proper service, so that the cost to the cities would be kept within reasonable figures. With either form of arrangement, whether a public utility bureau under the direct control of the cities or a private organization, the cost of carrying out a consistent municipal policy could be made so low that every city of considerable size could afford the service; or could not afford to go without it. The organization would first help each city work out its own particular program suited to local conditions. Then, in co-operation with the local authorities, it would obtain the establishment of definite valuations of the public utility properties. Working with a number of cities, such organization mould have the advantage of presenting consistent principles and methods throughout and would thus be in ;b

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144 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [May particularly strong position to obtain fair valuations for the public. As a necessary part of a regular program, the organization would make a periodical report to the municipal authorities covering the financial results of operation. It would investigate also the methods of operation and the physical conditions of the properties showing where improvements could be made and costs reduced. It would not only present an analysis of the facts, but would make recommendations as to any particular action that ought to be taken. And it would assist or represent the cities before the commissions and courts in all public utility actions relating to rates, service, issuance of securities, economy or any other technical matter. There would then be an assurance that the public interest be most effectively promoted in every action. The outline here presented is, of course, only suggestive. This much, however, is clear to the writer: Some such plan must be adopted and carried out if the existing deadlock is to be broken. Regulation has existed over fifteen years; has produced few constructive results, but has impeded the progress of economy and caused extensive impairment of the credit of the companies. The cities must act for themselves if they wish proper service at reasonable rates for the people. In order to carry out their purposes, the cities must use the commissions; but experience has demonstrated beyond doubt that reliance upon these outside quasi-judicial bodies to do vigorous planning and pushing for the local public is unjustifled and useless. The local authorities simply must assume this responsibility if the rights of the public are to be propdp safeguarded and promoted. STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP. MANAGEMENT. CIRCULATION, ETC., REQUIRED BY THE Of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, published monthly for April I. 1922. ACT OF CONGRESS OF AUGUST 24. 1912 STATE OF New YORX. COUNTY OF NEW YO=. } SS. Before me, a Notary Public, in and for the State and'county aforesaid, personally appeared G R Howe, who having been duly sworn according to law: deposes and says that she is the Business Manager oi the NATIONAL MLMCIPAL REVIEW. and that the folloanng 1s. to !he best of her knowledge and belief. a true statement of the ownership, management, etc.. of the aforewd publication for the date shown in the above caption, required by the Act of August 24. xgx2,embodied in section 493, Postal Laws and Regulations, printed on the reverse of this form, to vat: I. That the names and addresses of the publisher. editor, managing editor, and business managers are: Publisher: National Municipal +we, a61 Broadway. New York. N. Y. Editor: H. W. Dodds. 261 Broadway, New York City. Managing Editor: R s. Childs. 2. That the owners are: National Municipal League. New York City. a voluntary association. unincorporated. The officers of the 3. That the known bondholders. mortgagees. and other security holders owning or holding I per cent or more Business Manager: G. R. Howe. National Municipal League are: H. M. Waite. Pres.; Carl H. Pfonheimer, Treas.; H. W. Dodds, Secretary. of total amount of bonds. mortgages, or other securities are: None. 4. That the two paragraphs next above. giving the names of the ownen stockholders and security holden. if any, contain not only the list *>f stockholders and security holders as the; appear upon'the books of the company but also in cases where the stockholder or security holder appears upon the books of the company as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation. the name of the person or corporation for whom such trustee is actin=. is given: also that the said two paragraphs contan statements embracing affiant's full knowledge and belief as to the circumstances and conditions under which stockholders and security holders who do not appear upon the books of the company as trustees, hold stock and securities in a capacity other than that of a bona fide owner and this affiant has no reason to believe that any other person. association. or corporation has any interest direc; or indirect in the said stock, bonds, or other securities than as so stated by him. ~ ~~~~~~ G. R. HOWE. Sworn to and subscribed before me this 11th day of April, 1922. [SEAL] HENRY J. WEHLE Nolary Publrc. Nm York Couniy. (My ommission expires March 30. 1923.1

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PENSIONS IN PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT MINORITY REPORT OF ALBERT DE ROODE The main rep& of our committee on the above subject wa.8 published as a special issue of the REVIEW in April. This minority report relating to the committee’s preference for the contributmy principle was crowded out for lack of space. :: :: :: :: :: :: I find myself unable to concur in all the recommendations of the committee. My chief objection is to the so-called contributory principle. In an article published in June, 1913, in the American Economic Review entitled “Pensions as Wages,” I pointed out the fallacy of treating a pension as other than a part of the real wages of the employe, both in public and private employment. A pension is part of the real wages of an employe and it is economically unsound to consider an employe as paying part of his own wages. Speaking of an employe contributing to a pension fund is as unsound as to say that an employe shall pay half of the overtime paid him for night work. In this minority report I submit as my views on the pension question the following extracts from my article in 1913: The main difficulty in the way of adopting a pension system is the conflict between those who contend that the government should pay the pension and those who contend that the employe should pay the pension, or rather that out of the present wage of the employe he should be required to set aside, under government control, sufficient to provide his own pension. Considering pensions as part of wages, as in private employ, this conflict resolves itself into the question whether the present scale of wages, paid employes in the federal government, is sufficient to justify requiring the employes to set aside out of such wages the savings necessary for their pensions. That this is the question is recognized generally by advocates of the so-called “contributory” plan when they say that wBere wages are found to be inadequate the remedy is to increase the wage. The dsculty with this is that an increase under such a plan would be apt to take the form of a flat rate of increase applying to classes of salaries or wages generally, and not meeting individual cases. Thus, for an illustration, assume two employes, one 35 years old and the other 45, each getting a salary of $1,900. Under the contributory plan the employe 45 years old must contribute more to provide for his pension than the younger employe, yet any increase that would naturally be made would be to raise the salaries of all $1,200 men. The very demand for pensions on the part of the government employes indicates that the present salaries are not sufficient, according to the ideas of the employes. The logical way to treat this situation would be for the government to pay the pensions and then adjust the money wages accordingly. To expect the employe to provide for a pension system out of his present scale of wages and then rely upon future increases in wages. is to force the employe into the field of collective bargaining for such increases. This would not necessarily take the form of labor unions, but possibly might resolve itself into a more dangerous method, that of lobbying and attempting to influence the election of representatives. Inasmuch as the government is maintaining a quasi-pension plan which it is highly desirable should be abolished, and inasmuch as the adoption of an intelligent pension plan 5-ould benefit the government quite as much as the employe, it would seem only the part of wisdom and decent interest in the welfare of its employes, such as the age demands of the government, for it to take the initiative. Two things should be insisted upon: the sep arate treatment of each individual as to his pension and the proper funding, year by year, of a pension fund. Unless pensions are treated individually, there is a tendency to overload the fund for special cases or the fund becomes a general grab-bag. Unless proper provision is made for the funding year by year (so that pensions are not merely paid out as part of current expense), there is no way of finding just what pensions are costing nor of checking up and making adjustment. A pension fund of the government should be conducted with the same precision and fiscal intelligence as are the funds of insurance companies and railroads. Under a system which, starting on the basis of the present rate of wages, the government should pay in addition to these wages the amount nec

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146 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [May essary for the pension, there would work out, by and large, a better adjustment of wages than could be expected under the contributory plan. For example, take the same two employes, aged 35 and 45, each getting a salary of $l,%OO. The pension contribution by the government in the case of the younger employe would be much less than in the case of the older employe, and when, in the natural progress of service, the time came around for the older employe to receive an increase in salary, it could be pointed out that he was already receiving an increase in the shape of a pension contribution, and in that way wages of employes could be better adjusted to meet individual cases. In other words, under the contributory plan the tendency would be to raise the wages by some rule of thumb with not so much reference to any individual case as to specific rates of wages. Under the plan in which the government should contribute the pen~on in addition to the present rate of wages, through promotion and normal salary increases, there would be a better and more exact opportunity for adjusting the individual case, and in the course of a very few years the general situation would be, one might almost say, automatically adjusted. Considering pensions as a part of wages, the contributions made each year to the pension fund by the government should be considered, subject to one exception, as deferred wages, payable to the employe upon separation from the service, or to his heirs in case of death. The exception to this general principle should be in the case of the early years of service. A pension is not a mere increase in wages; it is an inducement to continued service. Many persons enter government service as a temporary occupation. The right of the employe, therefore, to the accrued value of his pension should not commence until he has passed what might be called the temporary stage. Roughly speaking this would be five or six years, and the accrued value of the pension returned to him upon separation would commence with the beginning of what might be called the more permanent service. There are two ideas underlying this return of the accrued value of the pension. First, the natural one following from the consideration of a pension as a form of wages, that the accrued value of the pension is actually earned by the employe and as a matter of morals should be returned to him. Second, and this is particularly important in government pensions, the natural instinct of government authorities would be not to dismiss an employe where such dismissal meant the forfeiture of a considerable money value. This is human and obtains very largely, I imagine, in private employment. It obtains to a much greater extent in public employment where there is no pocket nerve touched by the retention of the inefficient. It would make the dismissal of the inefficient government employe much easier for the removing authority if the accrued value of the pension fund were given him upon dismissal. To the author’s mind the success of democracy depends upon the absence of rigid classes or strata among the people. We do not want to develop an officeholding class, except upon the basis of proven efficiency. We, therefore, should not make it difficult for the employe in the government service to get out of the government service because of the lure of a pension at the end of a stated time, the accrued value of which he forfeits if he leaves. We should not make it difficult for those in authority to remove the inefficient because of the forfeiture of the accrued value of the pension. Considering pensions as wages, and not mere gratuities, such as might hare been given by the Stuarts to their court favoiiies, it seems that a sound pension plan should te developed on the following principles: (1) Pay the sums necessary to maintain the pension fund over and above the present scale of wages of its employes. (2) Treat each employ
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NOTES AND EVENTS I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION A Constitutional Convention in Vi will be held in 1925 if the people so vote at a referendum ordered for next November. * Sonoma County, California.-Forty citizens from all parts of the county met at Santa Rosa in February to organize a county charter league and to arrange to nominate freeholders to draft a county-manager charter. * Butte County, California.-A board of freeholders began to hold meetings on April 14 at Chico for the purpose of revising the county charter, and a group of citizens are organizing to press for adoption of the county-manager plan. * Sacramento County, California.-The February election of freeholders resulted in the election of the entire ticket pledged to the submission of a county-manager charter and the freeholders are now at work. The sentiment for the plan is based largely upon the brilliant progress which the city manager of Sacramento is exhibiting. The city report for the first six months shows increase of miscellaneous revenues from $143.000 to $227,000. Operating costs dropped $110,000 for the six months. The old administration had spent 59 per ent of the budget but the manager ran the city for the remaining half year on the other 41 per cent, took care of some $30,000 of special expenses and had $28,000 surplus left over. * Home Rule in New Yak.-After a fight lasting for many years the cities of New Tork state have persuaded the legislature to take the first big step toward substantial home rule for municipalities. In passing the Tolbert amendment the Republican majority has paid heed to a strong and growing public sentiment in the cities. Section 2 of the amendment just adopted reads: The Legislature shall not pass any law relating to the property, affairs or government of cities, which shall be special or local either in its terms or in its effect, but shall act in relation to the property, affairs or government of any city only by general laws which shall in terms and in effect apply alike to all cities except on message from the governor declaring that an emergency exists and the concurrent action of two-thirds of the members of each house of the legislature. The amendment must pass the next legislature and be approved at the polls in November, 1923. A provision permitting cities to draft their own charters appeared in the original draft but was dropped. * The Louisville Short Ballot Charter.-A few months ago Louisville, Kentucky, wanted to modernize its government and called in our Dr. Hatton as consultant. The state constitution compelled two-headed municipal governments, so our model charter could not be considered, but Dr. Hatton helped to lay out the simplest structure of government that was possible under the restrictions. and this short ballot charter, as it was called, was gotten through the legislature with the support of both parties but was finally vetoed by the governor. * May Change County Government System in North Carolina.-Governor Morrison is dissatisfied with the state’s present county government system, and he will recommend radical changes in the law to the next legislature. The governor in April selected a commission of representative citizens of the state, who will be invited to come together and take into consideration the drafting for submission to the 1923 legislature of a new county government law in North Carolina. While he has made no statement yet, it is learned that the governor thinks there should be a complete reorganization of the form of county government and the accounting system in operation in them. * A New Pension Law.-Xew York has taken an important step to stop the development of further unsound public pension practices in the cities and counties by enacting a new law (Sen. 1212) which admits to participation in the State Employes’ Retirement System all city and county employes in the state except those who already 147

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148 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW enjoy systems of their own, and forbids the creation of any further pension systems by cities or counties. * Federal Personal Board.-Early in his administration, President Harding expressed his ideas of the employment policy of the government in the following terms: The time has come for the federal government to organize its agencies of employment in accordance with the principles which have been tested and approved by the best modern busineea practice. . . . Though the necessity for a budget system is great, perhaps even greater is the need for a system which will give federal employes a square deal in promotions, pay and continuity of service while obtaining for the nation’s taxpayers. in return, a high standard of ski11 and continued loyalty among the employes who serve them. . , . The most important step taken by the present administration toward the realization of this program is the appointment of a Federal Personnel Board. This Board was authorized in an executive order bearing the date of December 23 and issued over the signature of General Dawes of the Bureau of the Budget. It is to consist of representatives of each one of the departments and independent establishments. They are to serve under the chairmanship of the president of the Civil Service Commission. The Board’s functions are practically as broad as the whole personnel field itself. Follow-up, transfer, promotion, training, standard hours and leaves, “and other matters designed to obtain effectiveness of the public service.” form the program of action. There is, however, no more important function contemplated for the Federal Personnel Board than to make the Civil Service Commission a more integral part of the machinery responsible for employment administration. The chief reason for the red-tape character of the methods of the Civil Service Commission is its enforced isolation. In the past it has had little direct contact with the organizations which it is called upon to serve. This handicap will now be overcome if special officers are detailed from all of the departments in accordance with this executive order. The Board is specifically commissioned to perfect a liaison system between the civil service agency and the departments to the end “that the entire personnel selection and administration may be more practical and more cooperative.” In view of the success of similar co-ordinating committees already created under the Bureau of the Budget, it is to be expected that the Federal PersQnnel Board will substitute a progressive employment policy for the policy of drift which, judging from the report of the Reclassification Commission, seems to be the only title that applies at present to employment administration in the federal government. W. E. MOBHER. II. CITY-MANAGER NOTES Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan.-Petitions were circulated recently looking toward a return to quoted as opposing the manager idea in the “opposition” paper and the next day the other the aldermanic form of government, whereupon a statement favoring the present city-manager form was signed by every minister, priest and pastor in the city. * Hinsdale, Illinois, adopted city-manager government in February, 19%. It went into operation April 1. F. D. Danielson is village manager. Salem, Virginia (5,000), adopted manager gov* ernment by a 7 to 1 vote on February 7. * Sapulpa, Oklahoma (population 17,500).Victor Kirk, secretary of chamber of commerce, has led the fight for the manager charter. Of the two local newspapers, the smaller is in “opposition’’ and claims the labor vote. Personalities entered the fight. Fourteen citizens were paper quoted nine of the same fourteen as favoring the manager change. The election was held February %8. The vote was 3 to 1 for a manager charter. * Janesdle, Wisconsin, adopted city-manager government by 711 majority April 5. The women did it. New government will be in effect April, 1923. * Muskegon Heights, Michigan (population l5!,000), has adopted a manager charter. The census shows a growth of 463 per cent in the last decade. * Niagara Falls, Ontario, voted for a manager charter in March and the bill now goes to the provincial legislature.

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19221 NOTES AND EVENTS 149 Bozeman, Montana (population 8,950). is the 6rst Montana city to adopt a city-manager charter. Mr. Sam Mendenhall is the first manager. 4 New Manager Cities have been found recently. They are Ames, Iowa (5,455), modified form of manager government, Mgr. P. F. Hopkins; Marysville, Michigan, Mgr. H. B. Hollister; Brush, Colorado, and Grandfield, Oklahoma. * Plymouth, Michigan (population e,lso).The citizens recently endorsed the city-manager government by a 41 to 1 vote. * Belmar, New Jersey.-Mr. Cook Howland is the fist city manager in New Jersey. Though New Jersey statutes are practically prohibitive, the office was established by an ordinance of the council sponsored by the mayor. * Sedalia, Missouri, lost its manager charter fight by a small margin. The opposition resorted to various political tricks, it is reported. The reason ascribed for the defeat is that many people who favored manager government were so sure it mould carry that they did not bother to go and vote. * Grand Rapids, Michigan.-April 3, the proposed amendments that would have meant return to aldermanic rule were:voted down by a substantial majority. * 'City Manager W. B. Anthony, of Walters. Oklahoma, is now president of the Oklahoma Municipal League. This makes four city managers who are presidents of state municipal Iesgues-Charles E. Hewes of Long Beach, California, Louis Brownlow of Petersburg, Virginia, H. J. Graeser, of Tyler, Texas. * Combination Managerships.-The naming of the new manager at Petoskey, Michigan, is believed to forecast the divorcing of the city managership and the secretaryship of the chamber of commerce, which two offices were held by J. Frank Quinn for the past two years. S. E. Northway, who had held the dual position of city manager and school superintendent in Sherrill, New York. decided to devote all his time to School work, and C. B. Salisbury is now manager. Homer D. Wade held the dual position of secretary of the chamber of commerce and city manager in Stamford, Texas, until the first of the year, but now he is devoting his entire time to chamber of commerce work and H. S. Bradshaw, former city engineer, is nowmanager. A Pennsylvania town had a combination manager position for a time and dropped the arrangement, but so far as is known all such capacities are now divorced from city-manager positions. * Interest is being shown in city-manager government in the following cities: St. Paul, Minnesota; Utica, New York; Parsons, Kansas; Methuen, Massachusetts; Greenville. South Carolina; Burlington, North Carolina; Knoxville, Tennessee; Lawrence, Kansas; Waterloo, Iowa; Marion, Indiana; ' Hattiesburg, Mississippi; Three Forks, Montana; Cherokee, Iowa; Savannah, Georgia; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Prince Rupert, British Columbia; Eureka, California; Oshkosh, Wisconsin; Coffeyville, Kansas; Temple, Texas; Orlando, Florida; Warren, Ohio; Mexia and Gainesville. Texas. PAUL B. WXLCOX. 111. MISCELLANEOUS Replanning Salonika after the Great Fire.The replotting provisions of the recent Salonika Town Planning Act were drafted by a commission of English and French experts. In August, 1917, Salonika mas totally destroyed by fire for the fifth time, and the statute was passed to take advantage of this great opportunity to replan it. The first act of the government was to issue a Royal Decree prohibiting the erection or repair of any building prior to the adoption of the new law. A survey and plan of the city were then made. Under the Greek Constitution the government was obliged to pay immediately the full value of the property, for which purpose it had no avaiIable funds. The owners of property in the burnt district mere therefore, by virtue of the act, incorporated as a Property Owners' Association for the purpose of executing the new scheme, and all individual rights and titles extinguished; each property on-ner was made a

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150 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW shareholder in the company to the amount of the value of his individual holding; and the management of the company was given to the government. A careful method of valuing the property thus compulsively taken over by the company was adopted, the property owner being given a hearing and right of appeal. In exchange for his property each owner received state bonds, which he was forbidden to sell, but on which, as collateral, the National Bank of Greece was authorized to advance to him 75 per cent of their face value. The city was then replanned and replotted, and the sale of the new lots arranged for, the owners of the bonds having the right to turn them in, at their face value, in payment for any lots purchased by them. Other things being equal, the preference was given. in purchasing, to the old property owners. They also received 50 per cent of any profit realized by the company, the other 50 per cent going to the municipality of Solonika, to be expended in the construction of public buildings. FRANK B. WILLIAMS. * Victory for Eiimination of Illuminated Signs.The merchants of Thirty-fourth Street between Fourth and Seventh Avenues, New York City, in several cases sought to enjoin the several defendants from taking down illuminated sign3 of the various plaintiffs, claiming that the city ordinance which prohibited illuminated signs on Thirty-fourth Street between Fourth and Seventh Avenues, except for carriage calls and places of amusement, wu illegal. A recent decision vacates the injunctions and sets up progressive bill-board theory. “There is no doubt that advertising by illuminated signs is very beneficial to business.” states the judge. “At the same time the multiplication of those outstanding signs in this very busy section of the city easily can become an eyesore. a nuisance and an improper use of the air space over the thoroughfares. We may assume that the board of aldermen before passing this restrictive ordinance gave due Consideration to the interests of those theretofore maintaining illuminated signs on Thirty-fourth Street andthat the ordinance was adopted as the result of its deliherate judgment that the interest, comfort and convenience of the public demanded it.” That is the story; but the sequel is even more interesting. Now that the signs are down the Thirty-fourth Street merchants. it is reported, claim that there is a great improvement in their street and that they are converted to the public convecience and comfort of the law. H. J. Loyal Legion Posts Plant Trees.-The Loyal Legion urges its members to plant trees on Arbor Day in memory of those who did not come back. In private premises, pnblic parks, bordering streets, trees planted in this generation may give grateful shade while yet the planters live. By consulting park commissions, shade tree commissions, local agricultural bureaus and other competent tree experts, the Legion may avoid depleted ranks or awkward squads of trees which would hardly prove the fitting memorials they were designed to be. But if the patriotic impulse of the Legion is joined to the scientific knowledge available no finer memorials could be conceived than “God’s green trees.” American Civic Association Chairmen.-The following chairmen for the American Civic Association are announced: Billboards and Smoke-Everett L. Millard, Chicago; City Planning-John Nolen, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Civic Programs-hh Edward Biddle. Philadelphia; Housing-Electus D. Litchfield. New York; Noise-Mrs. Imogen OakIey, Philadelphia; State and City Parks-Harold A. Caparn, New York; Traffic Courts-H. Marie Dermitt. Pittsburgh. Mr. McFarland represents the American Civic Association on the Committee on Zoning formed by Mr. Hoover. Mr. Millard represents the American Civic Association on a committee formed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers to work on a model smoke ordinance. The National Park activities are being handled through the main Office. H. J. * National Parks.-Senator Walsh bas presented to the Senate Committee on Irrigation and Reclamation a substitute bill which would make it mandatory upon the Secretary of the Interior through the Reclamation Service to build a weir across the Yellowstone River whenever the irrigation people of Montana shall raise the necessary funds. Since this would introduce into the Yellowstone Park two distinctly nonpark interests the bill is believed to be most objectionable from the standpoint of national park administration. The Secretary of the Interior has not yet replied to the request of the committee for comment on the bill.

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19221 NOTES AND EVENTS 151 Barbour Bill The House Committee on Public Lands has reported favorably the Barbour Bill to enlarge the present Sequoia National Park to include the best of the Kern and Kings River Canyons under the name of Roosevelt-Sequoia National Park. The bill would place this enlarged park on exactly the same status as all other national parks were placed by the passage of the Jones-Esch amendment to the Federal Power Act which exempted all eziSling national parks from the jurisdiction of the Federal Power Commission. It has been impossible to secure consideration of the bill on the unanimousansent calendar because of the objection of Representative Osborne who is interested in the power applications of Los Angeles; but it is thought that when the bill comes up on the regular committee calendar there will be a good majority of representatives who are in favor of it in its present form. Grand Canyon Appropria&ns Senator Cameron of Arizona succeeded in having the entire appropriation for the Grand Canyon National Park stricken from the Ag propriation Bill for the Interior Department and made the occasion one to attack the whole policy of the National Park Service. Undoubtedly the Conference Committee will restore the appropriation, but the public should understand that the most careful study over a period of years reveals a conscientious and progressive policy in the National Park Service to open up to all the people their national parks. If this policy sometimes curtails or eliminates private gains to individual citizens, it does not mean that the National Park Service is wrong or shortsighted, but that the interests of all the people are held superior, as they should be, to the financial gain of a few individuals. We grant that the sites of the mining claims along Bright Angel Trail and around the scenic spots on the south rim of the canyon might prove profitable to the holders; but the returns, so it is said, would come from tourists and not from ore. Moreover we are inclined to agree with the Supreme Court of the United States in its decisions affecting several of these claims that the Secretary of the Interior should have the right to satisfy himself of the bona fide mining value of such claims before issuing patents. At any rate the rather complicated history of these mining claims and Bright Angel Trail explains, if it does not excuse, the attack of Senator Cameron on the National Park Service. State Parks-Second National Conference, Yay 22-a5, 192a.-It was only fifty years ago that the Yellowstone National Park was created by Congress. For more than a generation the di5culties of travel limited visitors to this and other national parka created in more recent years. In its eighteen years of lie the American Civic Association has seen the park idea developed from a presumed frill or luxury to a definite necessity. It was our persistent pioneer work which lead to the creation of the National Park Service six years ago. Our hopes have been more than justified. The Fifth Annual Report of the National Park Service shows that the visitors to the national parks increased from 556,097 in 1916 to over a 1.000.000 in 1981. the automobiles from 95,358 to over 175,000. The people are coming to appreciate and use their National Park possessions. The first National Conference on State Parks, called by Hon. John Barton Payne, then Secretary of the Interior. through the co-operation of Governor Harding, was held in Des Moines in January of 1991. The second Conference will meet this year, May 92-25. at Bear Mountain Inn. Palisades Interstate Park, New York, which in its 56.000 acres contains half a hundred mountain peaks over a thousand feet high. There came last season to the park by river boat, by ferry, by motor, by steam railway, by trolley and on foot, more than a million visitors. Two days of the Conference will be devoted to the business of State Parks. A trip through the Palisades Interstate Park to West Point, along a new state highway around Storm King, through the New York Zoological Park and the Brow River Parkway will give those who attend the Conference an opportunity to see scenery of rare beauty and to realize the cash value in actual revenue and the social value in the improved health of the people which such parks may bring to any state. The Conference Committee consisting of John Barton Payne. chairman, Stephen T. Mather, vice-chairman, Edgar E. Harlan, secretary, W. F. Bade, Alfred Britt, W. L. Harding, Richard Lieber, J. Horace McFarland, James C. Rogers and Mrs. John D. Sherman, is using every resource to make this Second IVational Conference on State Parks an inspiration to all the states of the Union. H. A. Caparn of New York is state park chairman for the American Civic Association. H. J.

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153 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [May Prepuration of Teachers of Social Studies for the Secondary Schools is the title of Bulletin 1922, No. 3 of the federal Bureau of Education. It is an important country-wide survey prepared by Edgar Dawson of our associate editorial staff. * Boston has appropriated $10,000 toward the preparation of a comprehensive city plan. d Robert E. Tracy, until recently director of the Bureau of Governmental Research of the Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce and formerly secretary of the Philadelphia Bureau of Municipal Research, has returned to Philadelphia to become civic secretary of the City Club in that city. * A National Council for the Social Studies completed its organization in Chicago on February 25. Its purpose is to lay the foundations for training democratic citizens; and its sponsors believe that such training can result only from a carefully developed and adequately supported system of teaching in the elementary and secondary schools. Its plan looks to promoting cc-operation among those who are responsible for such training, including at least the university departments which contribute knowledge of facts and principles to civic education; and the leading groups of educational leaders, such as principals, superintendents, and professors of education, who develop the methods of handling these facts. An advisory board was set up composed of representatives of (1) the five associations of scholars most nearly related to the purpose of the National Council-historians, economists, political scientists, sociologists, and geographers; (2) the national organizations of educational investigators and administrators-elemenhry and high school principals, teachers of education, normal school principals, and superintendents; and (3) regionary associations of teachers of history and civics. The function of this advisory board is to bring into the National Council the points of view of the organizations represented by its members and to insure a development of the social studies which will be in harmony with the best educational thought as well as based on the best present practice. The following officers were elected for the year 1922-1923: L. C. Marshall, Professor of Economics in the University of Chicago, president; Henry Johnson, Professor of History in Teachers College, vice-president; Edgar Dawson, Professor of Government in Hunter College, secretary-treasurer; E. U. Rugg, Lincoln School, New York, assistant secretary. An executive committee, charged with the general direction of the policies of the association, will consist of the officers and the following elected members: C. A. Coulomb, District Superintendent, Philadelphia; W. H. Hathaway, Riverside High School, Milwaukee; Bessie L. Pierce, Iowa University High School. The first task the National Council is undertaking is the preparation of a Finding List of those experiments or undertakings in the teaching of the social studies which now give promise of being useful. This list will contain such exposition of the character and aims of these experiments as to make it possible for those working along parallel lines to discover each other and to co-operate more fully than would otherwise be probable. This expository material will have another purpose,-that of indicating outstanding differences of opinion and program in order that these differences may be systematically stated for purposes of analysis and discussion. To aid in the discovery and assessment of these experiments, the National Council has in preparation a list of Ky Men and Women who will be appointed in the various states to represent the National Council in its efforts to collect useful information and then to give currency to it. While this organization Seems to represent all the elements out of which the best development of the social studies must proceed, the most useful work will be done only with the co-operation of teachers and investigators in all parts of the country to the end that lost motion and useless repetition may be eliminated and that mutually strengthening experiments may be pressed forward. Persons who are interested in the wholesome development of the social studies, whether teachers or others, and if teachers, whether teachers of the social subjects or of some other subject, are urged to communicate at the earliest convenient moment with the secretary of the National Council, Edgar Dawson, 671 Park Avenue, New York City. d The Southwestern Political Science Association held its third annual meeting at the University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, March 23-25, 1922. The program for the first day consisted of papers on the economic prob

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19221 NOTES AND EVENTS 153 lems of the Southwest, concluding with an evening address by Judge C. B. Ames of Oklahoma City, formerly Assistant United States AttorneyGeneral, on “Article Eight, League of Nations Covenant, and the Washington Conference.” Discussions the second day were upon the subjects of international relations and general problem of political science. A session on public law concluded the program on the third day. 05cers for the ensuing year are: Judge C. B. Ames, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, president; vice-presidents, reelected, George B. Dealey, Dallas, Texas; F. F. Blachly, University of Oklahoma; D. Y. Thomas, University of Arkansas; Professor Herman G. James of the University of Texas was appointed editor of Publications and Mr. Frank M. Stewart of the University of Texas was reappointed secretary-treasurer. The executive council of the association consists of the officers, two elected members and the past presidents. The elected members of the council are: Professor E. T. Miller of the University of Texas, re-elected, and Professor J. P. Comer, Southern Methodist University. Dallas, Texas; past presidents are: Mr. A. P. Wooldridge, Austin, Texas, and Mr. George Vaughan, Little Rock, Arkansas. Members of the advisory editorial board, re-elected, are Professors Blachly and Thomas, Professor M. S. Handman. University of Texas, Professor C. F. Coan, University of New Mexico, and Professor J. M. Fletcher, Tulane University of Louisiana. The fourth annual meeting will be held in Dallas in the spring of 1923. * An International Clearing House of Civic Information.-During the first International Congress of Cities held in Ghent in 1913 there was formed an organization known as Union Internationale des Villes (International Union of Cities). The name, however, does not fully express its function, for it is the main purpose of this organization to collect and study contemporaneous doeumentury infwmatMn of all kinds relating to civic affairs, to supplement this research work by the preparation of briefs or short reviews and to promptly distribute these results throughout the world. This work, therefore, is of very evident social interest, for social progress elaborates itself and becomes realized in large part through the influence of cities. The project was necessarily laid aside during the Great War, but in 19ZO at Brussels was taken up again and is now making rapid progress toward the accomplishment of its aims. A brief outline, therefore, of the organization and its methods of work may be of interest. There is &st the main office at Brussels (where the miter has been helping on the work during the last summer), with an able directing personnel and a carefully selected staff of assistants-and, by the way, thanks to the generosity and interest of the Belgian Government; with ample opportunity for expansion, an important item. Membership in the association includes the four following classes: A. Honorary Members. B. Active Members: Cities and towns joining the organization officially and represented by some authorized official, mayor or alderman, or otherwise. These communities pay an assessment which they fix themselves, but which may not be less than 50 francs a year. The ezeculiue committee estimates that an assessment of one centime for every three inhabitants will be necessary for the development of the Institution. This would amount for a city of 30.000 population to 10,000 centimes or 100 francs,-at the present rate of exchange from $7 to $10. C. Corresponding Members: Separate or independent groups, associations or organizations which function in the sphere of communal interests. These would pay at least 20 francs a year. D. Subscribing Members: Individuals who by their occupation, duties or studies are interested in municipal questions. These would be assessed 10 francs a year. Official correspondence should be addressed to the Directeur de l‘Union Internationale des Villes, 3 bis, Rue de la Regence, Bruxelles. but the undersigned who was present at the organization meetings in September, 1920, and was at that time delegated to further the interests of the Union in America, would be glad to answer inquiries. STEPHEN CHILD, Tremont Building. Boston.

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Two Books of Interest to Every Student of City Problems By CEARLF~ M. FASSETT, who has been a successful engineer, President of a Chamber of Commerce, Mkyor of Spokane, and is now with the University of Kansas. A man of both experience and vision. Assets of the Ideal Handbook of Municipal City Government Tm up step by step the problems of the modern. well-governed city-water supply, gas, electricity, telephones. sewage disposal, street improvement, etc. Admayor content with the ‘‘good enough” but AN ANALYSIS and comparison of the methods of various types of city govment-the hroWh. town meting. to every and town that is not mrsslons and Plans* Also discusses chhsrters. duties of officers, elections, appointments, in fact. every phase of this important subject. By Mail $1.60 wants the best. Eacb $1.50 at Bookstores. THOMAS Y. CROWELL COMPANY, NEW YORK GOVERNMENTAL SURVEYS :;:;;z: Lion-Xethods-A drninlntration-Salary Standardization -Budget MakingTnx.tion-Barenulas-EIpsnd~tnresCivil 8eirice-AcconntlngPulbllc Worka J. L. JACOBS & COMPANY Municipal Consultants and Enginccra Monmdnock Building, Chiugo (Ovsr 11 ym.’ apertsnci tss ClIy. Counry and Stole Stud&#) R. HUSSELMAN Mem. Am. Soc. C. E. Am. A..n. ElUn. CONSUL TING ENGINEER Design and Construction of Electric, Water Works Investigations and APRI~IS~% CUYAHOGA BLDC. CLEVELAND, OHIO and Filtration PLantJ. Public Utility Rate CHAS. BROSSMAN Consulting Engineer Water Worka and Electric Light Rants Sewerage and Sewage D~sposal Merchants Bank, Indianapolis, Ind. Mom. Am,Soe. C.E. Mem. Am. Soc. M.E. ~ PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION &st Bmis for the City Manager Pfan Send2kfOtLkNo. IO(HowP.RWorkiinS.uammto) md new Lft. No. 5 (Explanation of Hare System of P. R) Still better. join the Lasuc. ha. $2. pay for quarterly Rmdew and dl atha Iitaature for year. PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION LEAGUE 1417 LOCUST STREET, PHILADELPHIA ~ ~~ The City Manager Profession has doubled its ranks in the past three years. City Manager Bulletin printed monthly keeps you in touch with openings and current progress in the field. A set of City Manager Yearbooks containing concrete facts of accomplishments. 50c Most eminent city Manager DebQte HATTON-HULL 25c A $10.00 membership in the City Managers’ Association entitles you to all these and service. PAUL B. WILCOX, Exec. Sec’y. City Hall East Cleveland. Ohio I

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National Municipal Review Vol. XI, No. 6 June, 1922 Total No. 72 Modern City Planning Its Meaning and Methods By THOMAS ADAMS Town Plunning Conaultunt to the Dominion of CQiiQdQ Lecturer on Civic Deaign, Mwaachuaetta Ingtitute of Tachnolo#y “This is the age of cities, and all the world is city-building.. . . In a dim sort of way many persons understand that the time ha. come when art and skill and foresight should control what so far has been left to chance to work out; that there should be a more orderly conception of civic action; that there is a real art of citymaking, and that it behooves this generation to master and practise it.” Macdonell. PUBLISHED BY THE NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE RUMFORD BUILDING, CONCORD, N. I. EDITORIAL OFFICE, 261 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, N. Y.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE National Municipal League HAROLD W. DODDS, Editor The NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW is sent to all members of the National Municipal League. Those who do not desire to become members of the League may subscribe to the REVIEW by paying five dollars a year in advance. Canada subscription rates $5.25 in advance; foreign $5.50. Checks should be made payable to the National Municipal League and mailed to 261 Broadway, New York, N. Y. CONTENTS MODERN CITY PLANNING-ITS MEANING AND METHODS I. INTRODUCTION .................................................................. 156 Scrawny City Planning; Need of Practical Methods; Is It Ever Too Late to Plan; Fundamental Elements and Services of City; City Services; Suitable. Areas for Planning. 11. THE METFIODS OF THE CITY PLANNER. ........................................... Order of Studies and Planning; Relative Importance of City Planning and Zoning; Appointment of City Planning Commission; Employment of Expert Advice by Cities; Existing Maps and Data; Aerial Maps; Preliminary Reconnaissance Surveys; City Survey. 111. THE CITY PLANNER'S PROBLE~~~. ................................................ The Street and Transit System; The Zone Plan; Parks; The Civic Centre; Site Planning; Alleys or Lanes; Depth of Lots; Intersections; Preservation of Trees and Open Spaces in New Subdivisions; The Problem of the Outskirts; Agricultural Belts. Excess Condemnation; Slum Clearance; Special Assessments; Restrictions; Making New Streets Conform. 175 APPENDIX.. ................................................................... 177 Regional and Civic Surveys; Summary of Matters to be Studied. 160 166 IV. CITYPLANNING LA. ........................................................... 173 v. CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION OR SlJPERVISION OF LOCAL PLANNING. .................... This monograph completes an important group of National Municipal League pamphlets, as follows : Modern City Planning, by Thomas Adams. The Law of the City Plan, by Charles Backus Williams (Revised 1922). Zoning, by Edward M. Bassett (Revised 1922). The Law of Zoning, by Herbert S. Swan. . GRIFFENHAGEN & ASSOCIATES, LTD. An organization of Engineers, Accountants, and Specialists in the Administrative and Financial Problems of Public Bodies with over ten years of Practical Experience in Efficiency and Economy Work. HEADQUARTERS OFFICES AT 116 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO