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National municipal review, January, 1923

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National municipal review, January, 1923
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National municipal review
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National Municipal League
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National Municipal League
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Volume 1, Issue 1

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Full Text
NATIONAL
MUNICIPAL REVIEW
Vol. XII, No. 1 JANUARY, 1923 Total No. 79
COMMENT
Baltimore, the oldest city with a bicameral council, has adopted a charter amendment establishing a single chamber legislative body. Kansas City stands now practically alone as the last exponent of the two chamber idea.
*
The Missouri constitutional convention has to date agreed upon some important changes in the constitution. They include an executive budget of the Maryland type, state administrative consolidation, and party discretion as to use of the direct primary. See “Notes and Events” for more complete information.
*
The only constitutional amendment approved by the people of Wisconsin at the recent election was one permitting the legislature to provide that in civil cases a valid verdict may be passed on the votes of a specified number of the jury not less than five-sixths thereof.
*
Passage of legislation imposing a tax of two cents a gallon on gasoline to provide funds for construction and maintenance of roads will be recommended to legislatures of eleven western states according to an agreement reached by the Western Governors’
Conference, which met recently in San Francisco.
♦
Copies of the article by The Budget and name fr0m the pen
Accounting Baw q{ Dr y A CIeveland>
1 which appeared in the
December Review, are now available in pamphlet form. It is a comprehensive survey of the national budget system in operation measured by the principles of political science which underly the budget idea. It will prove very useful for college classes in government.
The price is 15 cents a copy or one dollar a dozen.
♦
Newspaper reports fol-Federal lowing the election last
Reorganization November stated that
the president, under the spur of party chastisement by the voters, would press administrative reorganization as one of the elements in the progressive program which the country evidently wants. To the date of this writing nothing has been done, although the second Monday in December, the day on which the congressional commission was by law instructed to report, has passed.
For further analysis of the present situation see the “Notes and Events” Department.


2
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[January
Beginning with this issue A New the Review will carry a
Department new department edited
by William A. Bassett of the National Institute of Public Administration and entitled “Municipal Engineering Administration.” Mr. Bassett will discuss briefly each month in non-technical language the chief happenings in such fields as traffic control, streets and public works, zoning, and building supervision, in fact the performance of the whole chain of practical jobs which the city performs with the help of the engineer.
*
Idaho Likes . Cabinet Form of Government
The cabinet form of state government has proved a great success in Idaho, D. W. Davis, governor of that state, recently announced on a visit to Portland, Oregon.
“Every public building constructed since we installed the cabinet form of government has been completed ahead of the scheduled date,” said Governor Davis. “There has been similar improvement in efficiency in many other lines. We formerly had 40 boards and commissions, and these we have grouped into eight departments, with a responsible man as head of each. This undivided responsibility in each of the departments is what gets the results.”
*
Our English col-A Strange Violation leag le, The Munici-of Health Rules pal Journal, called attention recently to a practice which, so far as we know, is a stranger to this country. It seems that some butchers, in their anxiety to please their customers who have a penchant for joints that are plump, have a habit of blowing out carcases to secure that degree of plumpness
which is admired so much. Some municipal authorities object to this meat inflation, regarding it as a reprehensible practice, but tolerate it when mechanical devices, like tire pumps, are used for the blowing-out process. They do not, however, allow butchers to blow out meat with their mouths.
In any case, however, the practice is objectionable and legislation is being sought from Parliament to end it completely.
Is It a Privilege to Live in Your Town?
In nearly every town in the United States there are to be found a good many apparently small neglects which in the aggregate tend to give the town a ragged, unkempt and uninviting appearance, and still other neglects, not seen, which actually contribute to the danger of living in the town and to which, year in and year out, certain preventable cases of illness and death may be charged. The true test of any town is whether it is a good place in which to live and bring up children who have a chance to become good citizens. The workers in the mills, the skilled mechanics, the preachers, the teachers, the investors in business enterprises, all who may choose their place of abode, are coming in increasing numbers to shim towns where the living conditions are notoriously bad. A teacher may be offered several positions at the same time. Would you be proud to know that under such circumstances a teacher would refuse to come to your town because of its lack of library facilities and its known neglect of sanitation and health protection? An investor in real property, a merchant who is looking for an opportunity to “locate” in a thriving town, may pass over your town be-


1923]
COMMENT
3
cause the schools are poor, the police protection inadequate and the water supply dangerous.
Why not make it a recognized privilege to live in your town? g j
*
In order fully to protect The Initiative principle of the in-
ond Business jt[ative from attack by
anagemeni legislature, California
and Michigan have provided that no popularly initiated measure can be amended by the legislature unless the measure itself so provides. In California, during the last election, this restriction jumped into prominence in connection with the vote on the water and power act, an initiated measure which did not authorize later amendments by the legislature. This bill, it will be recalled from the account in the last Review, made state credit to the sum of $500,000,000 available for the development of the water power and irrigation facilities of California. An argument against the bill was that it could not be amended, even in the slightest technical detail, except by direct vote of the people. Such a necessity would be a continuing nuisance, it was declared, besides giving rise to possible inconsistencies through occasional amendments as time went on.
Without discussing the intrinsic merit or demerit of the California proposal, which at this distance we shall not presume to judge, the difficulty of amendment is a valid argument against its adoption. Undoubtedly the measure was well drafted, and yet if government is to enter the field of industry on so vast a scale, elasticity in the arrangements for so doing is indispensable. Revision only through the cumbersome instrument of the initiative would weaken the chances for success of any business.
After all, in private business we give our b°ards of directors sweeping power. Hadn't we better direct some attention to improvement of our legislatures to make them trustworthy if our states are to become vast entrepreneurs of industry?
The initiative was not developed as a tool for “fine work.” It resembles a meat ax more than a surgeon’s needle.
*
A great deal is heard How Lang Will these days about the a Majority Rule probability of a third party, and stranger things have happened. England, the old home of the two-party system to which so much of the success of parliamentary government is attributed, is definitely in the throes of three-party if not four-party government, and in view of what may come to pass in our own country a survey of the recent English election by a student of proportional representation is of interest.
Mr. John H. Humphreys, writing in the Manchester Guardian, points out that a minority of the voters have secured a majority in Parliament. While Bonar Law obtained one supporter in Commons for each 18,000 votes, each Labor and National Liberal seat cost 30,000 votes, and each Independent Liberal seat nearly 50,000 votes. The aggregate figures were:
Party Votes Contested seats won Seats in proportion to votes Votes per seat
Conservative.... 5,378,534 297 208 18,110
Lab. and Co-op.. 4,232,739 138 163 30,672
Liberal 2,609,927 53 101 49,244
“Nat.” Liberal.. 1,568,015 50 61 31,360
Ind. and others.. 843,807 8 13 42,984
Totals 14,133,185 546 546 —


4
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[January
The present government is undoubtedly weakened by the fact that it polled little more than one third of the votes. But under P. R. no party would have had control of Parliament. Control would have been obtained only through a bloc which would be relatively unstable. The truth seems to be that the time is coming when a “yes” or “no” attitude on a given set of general propositions no longer
satisfies the voter. Proportional representation by placing a premium on individual opinion as against well-drilled party organization will, when adopted, assist in party subdivision. Will the stability to which we are accustomed, particularly in the executive department, be threatened? If so, what shall we do about it?
H. W. Doddb.
IN MEMORIAM
During the past year it has been our sad duty to note in the Review the passing of two old friends and officers of the League, Mr. John A. Butler of Milwaukee and Mr. Oliver McClintock of Pittsburgh. The death of a third must now be reported. Just three days before we assembled for our annual meeting Mr. -Charles Richardson of Philadelphia passed away. Mr. Richardson was vice-president of the League from its founding in 1894 until failing strength in old age compelled him to retire in 1920.
A MINUTE
The following minute, drafted by Clinton Rogers Woodruff, has been adopted by the Council:
During the year 1922 the National Municipal League haa been called upon to mourn the loea of three of ita moat highly honored and useful members: Mr. Charles Richardson, who was vice-president from 1894 to 1920; John A. Butler, of Milwaukee, who was long a member of the Council, and Mr. Oliver McClintock of Pittsburgh, who waa a member of the Council from 1898 to 1916, and a vice-president from 1916 to his death.
Mr. Richardson was a member of the Committee of the Philadelphia Municipal League which laid the plans for the Philadelphia League for Good City Government in 1894, out of which grew the National Municipal League. He was a member of the Committee of Seven which drew the original constitution and bylaws, and for many years faithfully attended all the meetings both of the League, of the Executive Committee and of the Council, and was at all times a strong friend and a wise adviser of the officers and especially of the secretary, with whom he had offices for many years.
It is difficult to estimate the value of the services of a man like Mr. Richardson, devoted to the public interests and to his public duties; all that we can do is to put on record a minute pointing out the terms of his services and the character of services and our sense of loss.
Mr. Butler was present at the Philadelphia Conference and at most of the succeeding ones until ill health prevented his attendance. He was virile, alert, chivalrous in his advocacy of the highest public interests, and a real coadjutor of the leaders of the movements.
Mr. McClintock wss patient, devoted and unremitting in his attendance to his duties. Like Mr. Richardson and Mr. Butler he was faithful in his attendance of meetings and in meeting his obligations.
The National Municipal League places on record its grateful recognition and appreciation of the services of these pioneers of an organisation which means so much to the welfare of American citizens, and expresses to the members of their respective families its deepest sympathy coupled with an expression of its high esteem of the men as men and as public-spirited citizens.


THE FIRST YEAR'S SUCCESS OF MANAGERS GOVERNMENT IN SACRAMENTO
BY THE CITY CONTROLLER
The Controller of Sacramento reports to the citizens the first year's experience with city manager government. $112,000 saved in operating costs; $260,000 more from revenue producing departments; new activities all financed from the budget— These are some of the high spots. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: ::
The operating costs for the city of Sacramento under the manager form for the year ending June 30, 1922, showed a saving of $112,926.88 oyer the commission form of government for the year previous. Comparative figures are as follows:
Commission form of government,
July 1, 1920, to June 30, 1921, salaries, wages, services, expense, materials and supplies.... $907,889.11 Manager form of government,
July 1,1921, to June 30,1922... 794,962.23
$112,926.88
$450,000 MORE IN NEW EQUIPMENT Under the heading of permanent improvements and outlay for new equipment, there was invested under the manager form $452,331.17 more than was invested by the commission from of government for the preceding year. Important among these figures are the following:
New automobiles and police patrol, police department; new automobiles for inspectors, food and market division; new electrical pumps for Pump No. 1 (thus increasing the efficiency and reducing the operating cost of that division 20 per cent); two vacuum street-cleaning machines, $13,000; $30,-000 in permanent street improvement work; payment on site and new equipment for the city library; modem
sprinkling system for Helvetia Cemetery; new park equipment; improvements at Camp Sacramento such as new buildings, equipment, etc.; water taps, flanges, etc., for the water mains division, $15,000; trucks, bookkeeping machines and equipment for garbage department; equipment for hydroelectric survey.
The above expenditures were made to replace run-down equipment and to improve other equipment that had been allowed to deteriorate in the city’s service. The new activities were financed from the budget.
INDIVIDUAL SERVICE DEPARTMENTS MADE SELF-SUPPORTING
Of equal importance to the reduction of the cost of maintaining the government of the city is the increased revenue through revenue-producing departments, which under the commission form of government were not self-supporting. The total revenue under the commission form of government for the year ending June 30,1921, was $437,928.88, exclusive of taxes. The revenue for the year ending June 30, 1922, under the manager form, was $698,582.85, or an increase of $260,-653.97.
It was found that departments that were rendering services were operating at a large deficit. A survey of conditions was made and amended ordi-
6


6
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[January
nances put through so those departments that rendered an individual service were placed on a self-supporting basis. This affected such departments as the building inspector, water taps, electrical inspection, health inspections, licenses, etc.
During the first year of operation of the manager form, we inaugurated several new departments which have never been a drain upon the taxpayers and are rendering efficient service to the public at this time. Principal among these is the garbage department.
This department was put on a self-supporting basis almost from the beginning, and will pay for all its operating cost and purchase of equipment -and show a profit at the end of this year. We have also eliminated the handling of garbage by incineration and inaugurated a new disposal site, and will derive a considerable profit from the feeding of hogs on the garbage.
The St. Francis Hotel, belonging to the city of Sacramento, and formerly operated under private supervision, is now run by the city. This will show a profit to the city of $8,000 this year.
During the last six months of 1921 it was necessary for the controller to operate the city government on 40 per
cent of the available budget. This was accomplished without borrowing any money, all bills that belonged to the fiscal year were paid, and in addition took care of some $30,000 of obligations that were incurred by the commission form of government, and brought a surplus into this year of $28,500.
The tax rate for 1922 was reduced by 8 cents on each $100 of assessed valuation, and a further reduction was made in the assessed valuation which represented $3,300,000.
The budget for 1922 was $123,000 less than in 1921, and even with this reduction in the budget we were able to increase salaries in the police and fire departments amounting to some $32,000, carry on street work, and keep burning every night throughout the year the arc lights of the city, which had not been done previously.
We feel that the manager form of government, based on the figures that are available in this office and the comment of those interested, is a distinct success.
We expect at the end of the second year of this form of government that the increased efficiency and the savings to be made over previous forms will be’ considerably in excess of what the first year’s activities showed.


BALTIMORE ADOPTS NEW CONCEPTION OF PUBLIC WELFARE
BY BENJAMIN SCHWARTZ
The report of the municipal welfare commission of Baltimore, recently submitted to the mayor, contains a new conception of public welfare which has gained ascendency in the last decade. It is in line with the city planning movement now engaging the attention of the most progressive cities in the United States. After studying the welfare activities of 14 cities of over 100,000 population and comparing their programs with that of Baltimore, the commission found that municipal endeavors along social welfare lines in Baltimore are without vision and careful forethought. Under the present system of government, no person or bureau is specifically charged with planning for the welfare of its inhabitants. The care, in some degree, of the poor, the helpless, the dependent, and the delinquent, is the limited conception of public welfare as carried out by the supervisors of city' charities.
The confused state of affairs in Baltimore is exemplified by the fact that expenditures are made and welfare functions are performed by as many as eleven municipal agencies, consisting of seven boards or commissions and four departments. These do not include the many sub-departments and bureaus under their supervision, nor do they indude the state departments and agencies that perform welfare work fur the city. The city of
E4, Nett. The Major of Baltimore recently appointed a municipal ireifare commission to •tody the consolidation of all sreKare and allied activities performed by the city. The author was the secretary of the cwnmmirai.
Baltimore further discharges its health, charities, recreational and correctional functions through 48 contract institutions and private agencies. It is obvious that under this arrangement, without proper co-ordination, the welfare activities of the city lend themselves neither to progress and growth, nor to the most efficient expenditure of the funds devoted to these purposes.
Started in Kansas City in 1908, the movement for welfare departments in municipalities has constantly grown, with the result that 19 cities in the United States of over 100,000 population have such departments. The tendency in the larger cities is to centralize all health, charities, correctional and recreational activities in one independent department.
A study of fourteen of these cities by the commission shows the wide range of activities included in the conception of public welfare. The city of Cleveland has gone furthest by including the following within the scope of its welfare department: municipal hospital, bureau of vital statistics, laboratories, bureau of sanitation, public nurses, bureau of child hygiene, bureau of communicable diseases, inspection of markets and foods, relief of poor, employment bureau, immigrant aid, workhouse and jail, correctional farms, care of parks and playgrounds and planning of community recreational program. These cities that have adopted modem methods for the welfare of their citizens have raised the department in charge of the work to
7


8
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[January
one of dignity, second only to the department of education.
The commission did not see fit to include in one department all the related welfare activities of Baltimore. It was felt that the greatest present need was for improvement and coordination in the charities and recreational phases of the city’s work, and that the new department should commence with these. As a matter of fact, the commission, satisfied with the way the health department was functioning, recommended that the care of the indigent sick, fourteen contract hospitals and ten dispensaries should be transferred to the health department under an appropriate bureau. We agree that the care of the sick is not -properly a function of the supervisors of charities and that the question of health, not poverty, should determine the jurisdiction. Future developments will dictate whether the health department and the correctional institutions should be incorporated under the general direction of the larger welfare department.
The major recommendations of the commission are three:
1. The creation of a new department of public welfare in charge of a small board of five, one of whom shall be a paid chairman and executive director of the department.
2. The concentration under this department of the powers of the present supervisors of city charities, the free public bath commission and the board for mothers’ relief, with certain welfare functions of other city departments.
3. The recommendation of four new activities to be undertaken by the department:
a. Legal aid to the poor.
b. Social service for city em-
ployees.
c. Limited regulation and endorse-
ment of private charities.
d. Research and social surveys.
It is not expected that this whole program can be put into operation at once. The commission has limited its suggestion to those things which seem to be practicable and in accordance with the present scheme of city government. Further progress can be safely left to the future as the new department demonstrates its usefulness.


REGIONAL PLANNING FOR NEW YORK AND ITS ENVIRONS
BY FLAVEL SHURTLEFF Assistant Secretary, Plan af New York and Its Environs
The formulation of a gigantic regional plan for the New York Metropolitan district is well under way. It should make life worth living in New York. The factors involved are almost infinite. :: ::
The committee appointed by the Russell Sage Foundation, which in May announced its purpose to start the development of a regional plan of New York and its environs, has made profitable use of the summer months. At the time of the announcement, the committee saw pretty clearly the way ahead for two of its proposed studies, the physical and the legal, but was frankly in doubt about the best way to tackle the difficult task involved in making economic and social studies of the highly complex New York area. It could not write the economic and industrial history of New York, nor could it make an exhaustive survey of the social and living conditions of the whole region, and yet no part of these fields could be neglected which would contribute to the body of material out of which the planner would create a regional plan. Pathfinder surveys were needed which would avoid too great detail and yet give an adequate picture of the whole field. This was the work of the summer. The committee now has in hand preliminary reports on which to base its more detailed studies.
ECONOMIC CONDITIONS
Roswell C. McCrea, professor of economics at Columbia University, and Walter W. Stewart, now director of analysis and research of the Federal Reserve Board, have outlined an
economic and industrial inquiry which primarily is an attempt to discover the proper relations of activities to areas so that activities may be rightly located within the region with reference to each other and to national and world economy. The report asks such questions as, What is the work of New York? How much could as well or better be done somewhere else? What are the economic features which influence the growth and character of population? What are the influences which will extend or limit the future population? The influence of building construction on present congestion, of real estate operations, of the growing use of automobiles, are some of the other topics suggested, and they must all be studied and their interrelations traced as far as possible, all to the end that adequate provision may be made for the work to be done, the housing of the workers, and the distribution of their output.
The inquiry under the social and living conditions has been broken up into the units of health, housing, school facilities and recreation. For each of these, a preliminary statement of the problem has been made.
HEALTH
Dr. Haven Emerson, professor of public health administration at Colum--bia has summarized the ways in which planning will be affected by considera'


10
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[January
tions of health and medical care. He stresses the need of three studies: first, the bacteriological examination of waters used for bathing, both fresh and salt, for in spite of abundant evidence of pollution at certain points no exact information of this sort is available; then a thorough study of air pollution, about which, likewise, nothing is known comprehensively; and a survey of all the facilities for health promotion and the care of the sick in the region outside of New York city. Within the city, data of this sort has been compiled very completely by the Academy of Medicine and chapters of the American Red Cross. The goal to be sought is first to know what is available in the way of hospitalization, â– nursing service and clinical facilities; to recognize the unfilled needs; to see how all these services can be co-ordinated and finally to determine site requirements.
HOUSING
In a preliminary study of housing the important task is to get a clear picture of what has been happening over a period of years long enough to indicate trends, so that what is likely to happen can be forecast and then to a degree controlled. It has been found by Lawson Purdy, formerly tax commissioner of New York, and Wayne D. Hey decker of the American City Bureau, that in New York the records of the tax and tenement house departments, together with the zoning maps, the maps prepared by the Physical Survey and the atlases used by insurance companies give a reasonably adequate basis for discovering the trends of new construction. Data of this sort, checked by rapid inspection tours, is now compiled, ready for further analysis, in the office of the committee. Similar methods, with such modifica-
tions as the smaller town will need, can be used throughout the region.
There remain questions for the future. What sort of houses best fit the residence zones, and how should they be placed on their respective parcels of land? What does the city dweller in a specified income group get for the money he spends in housing? What does a man in the same group get in the suburban town?
SCHOOLS
Similar questions about schools are raised by George D. Strayer, and N. L. Engelhardt of Teachers College, Columbia University, but the answers are more nearly ready, for school construction has been in recent years the subject of intensive study and standardization. In the region of the plan there are no less than 787 separate units for educational administration, however, and the mere financial limitations found in many of them may make standardization difficult.
To house pupils, Dr. Strayer suggests in general terms, larger and better school buildings, on sites ranging from five to twelve acres apiece, with fewer and stronger administrative units. Here again the final recommendations must follow the determination of extent of growth and directions of movement within the region, but there is much to be done at once.
RECREATION
If the plan results in grouping people around their work so that time and nervous energy are not so violently snatched away by the daily journey to and from shop or office, there will be for the first time in the experience of hundreds of thousands of New Yorkers a real opportunity for daily outdoor recreation. In a large sense, therefore, the whole work of the committee looks toward recreation as its ultimate result.


1923]
REGIONAL PLANNING FOR NEW YORK
11
True, parks and playgrounds cannot be located, gymnasiums and community houses cannot be provided for, until the plan is sufficiently advanced to indicate where people are going to live and in what numbers. But a good many questions need clearing up before the interests of recreation can be adequately covered in the plan. They have been formulated by Lee F. Hanmer and C. A. Perry, director and associate director, department of recreation, Russell Sage Foundation.
What, for example, is the effect of allowing children to grow up, no matter how near a public playground, without the special experiences of the one-family back yard? And what proportion of the population, being single or childless, can properly be encouraged to seek apartments and leave back yards for the children?
It is vitally important for a neighborhood to feel that it is a neighborhood. Among all the districts of every shape and size created by government and social agencies, what is the unit area in which a community feeling—as expressed in a neighborhood association of some sort—most naturally arises and maintains itself? Once this norm is discovered we shall know better how to locate baby clinics and clubhouses and Boy Scout troops and churches.
Another important study is to determine the adequacy in numbers and size of various types of parks and recreation places in the region and the location of new facilities.
THE PHYSICAL SURVEY
The physical survey in charge of Nelson P. Lewis, former chief engineer of the board of estimate and apportion-
ment, New York city, has completed many items of its inventory of the physical assets and liabilities of the region. Comprehensive plans and drawings have been prepared, many of which are on exhibit at the Russell Sage Foundation building.
THE LEGAL SURVEY
The essence of the city planning problem is how to plan and preserve land and water areas for the best functioning of the region and to determine what areas are needed and best suited for commerce, business, industry, residence and recreation. The solution of these problems requires as complete a knowledge as possible of the uses for which the region is adapted, the trend of industry, residence and other uses, the reasonable need of space for public recreation and health, and the effect of topography in all these considerations. The proper field of the legal survey, therefore, embraces the kind of title that the public or municipalities or individuals have in land, water and land under water, methods of acquiring and transferring these titles so as to bring the greatest measure of utility to the owners with the least expense, the quality of public or private title that will make the land most useful, the method of demarcation of public from private land, the stabilization of this demarcation when not followed up at once by actual public acquirement, and the regulation of private land and the structures thereon for the health, safety and general welfare of the people.
The legal survey has already completed much of this field.


NASHVILLE: A STUDY IN POLITICAL PATHOLOGY
BY ARTHUR B. MAYS
In 1921, Nashville received from the legislature a badly mutilated city manager charter. In the following election, however, a council was elected, pledged to appoint as manager a local leader who had promised to abolish manager government. With the help of this manager, who considers himself to have been elected by the people, representatives to the state legislature have been chosen, pledged to restore the old charter of 1883. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: ::
The city of Nashville, Tennessee, has had since 188S three fundamentally different forms of city government, and at a recent election (July, 1922) by a very large majority the city voted to return to the old type of government it had from 1883 to 1913, when the first change was made. A survey of the charter history of the city shows that the popular method of attempting to remedy the grosser defects in the municipal government up to 1913 was to secure charter amendments. But with the general interest over the country in municipal reform and experiment in city administration, the people of Nashville turned to new forms of government for relief from official inefficiency and corruption. As one studies the changes from councilmanic to commission government in 1913; from commission to city manager in 1921; then from city manager to councilmanic in 1922, he very soon becomes curious as to the causes and methods of the changes. An examination of one of these changes will indicate some of the problems involved in reform movements in American cities.
POLITICIANS IN THE SADDLE
In 1921 Nashville elected representatives to the legislature pledged to
give the city a new charter which would change the government to the city-manager form; and the reason is not far to seek, for it is quite clear from the daily papers that an impossible situation had developed in the city commission which to the non-political voter meant the need of a speedy change of government. The commission was composed of five members including the mayor, and had split in two warring factions with two commissioners in each faction and the fifth voting first with one faction then with the other. By thus holding the balance of power this one commissioner soon became the absolute ruler of the city and Nashville came to suffer all the usual evils of one-man rule. So long as the possibility of such a condition existed, the main issue in the minds of interested voters was to change the form of government.
It seems quite clear also that Nashville, like most other American cities, has for years been more or less under the dominance of one or two well-organized groups of professional politicians and the people, always vaguely conscious of this condition, have struck blindly at every opportunity to rid themselves of this dominance, and a change of government seems an easy way to accomplish this end. The


1923]
A STUDY IN POLITICAL PATHOLOGY
13
presence of such influences is clearly indicated by the clean-cut fight over representation which developed during every one of the charter campaigns, namely: the reformers always fought for elections at large while the professional political group invariably fought for ward elections. The former group made its appeal on the basis of efficiency and honesty in government and the avoidance of log-rolling and petty ward-politics, while the latter made its appeals to love of “freedom,” “liberty,” “democracy,” etc. The earmarks of the appeals made by the latter group are unmistakable to the student of politics and their other methods reveal very clearly the difficulties in the way of scientific, efficient government in Nashville.
LEGISLATURE AMENDS CHARTER BILL BEYOND RECOGNITION After a campaign in which charter change was the issue, the city-manager ticket was elected and apparently the whole matter was settled. When the legislature met and the city-manager charter was presented by the Nashville delegation, one of the leading papers claimed to have discovered that the charter as presented was grossly undemocratic and was a plain effort of the mayor to perpetuate his and his friends’ terms of office and to gain complete control of the entire city for an indefinite period of years. It further discovered that the city-manager form of government was a one-man government in which the people had no influence or power whatever and called on all liberty-loving people to come to the rescue of the city. The other leading paper, of course, took the opposite view regarding the charter and the fight was on. First one group of citizens, then another had conferences with the Davidson county delegation, until one senator went over to the
opponents of the charter. Then the merry game of amendments and compromises began, and it ended with a charter which resembled the original only in exterior form. It seems that the proponents of the new charter had, in their zeal to get strong men on the first council, made the fatal political mistake of inserting the names of the first council. Also because of a state law in Tennessee which makes it impossible to legislate an official out of office, all the old commissioners had to be provided for in the new government till their existing terms of office expired. Both these phases of the charter gave color to the various charges made by the opposition. The result was a split in the legislative delegation which soon spread to the out-of-town legislators, who always make large use of city charter bills for trading purposes. Unfortunately, too, for the friends of the charter they had overlooked, either purposely or inadvertently, that women could vote in the coming general election by a special act exempting them, that year, from registration which normally should have occurred before the date of their enfranchisement. The charter called for the usual electoral qualification and failed to provide for the special exemption for the women. The politically inclined women met and protested and the opponents of the charter naturally seized on this situation with a loud cry and made much of it.
When the remains of the original charter finally reached the governor, another determined effort to defeat the city-manager form was made. In a single day, by nine o’clock a.m., two committees had called on the governor, one to urge him to sign the bill early before anything else happened to it, and the other to urge him to veto it as it was unconstitutional. The governor doubtless being more interested in


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breakfast made an appointment to meet both groups with the attorney-general at noon. At this meeting, after much heated discussion, the bill was further changed and sent back to the legislature, after which it was finally signed. It was after this that the real fighting began.
THE CHARTER A TRAVESTY ON C. M.
PLAN
It was clearly evident by the time the charter bill was signed that the whole question had become merely a political football to be played with by two of the old political factions of professional politicians. Numerous references, in speeches and editorials, to the leaders of the factions and to their â– political records indicate the character of the situation, and doubtless explain a noticeable indifference on the part of the men responsible in the first place for the proposal of a city-manager government. The further fact that various amendments to the charter had in the thought of its earlier proponents changed its whole character and made it, in their opinion, a travesty on a city-manager plan, served to cool their interest and left the field wide open to the warring political factions.
A CANDIDATE FOR MANAGER PRINCIPAL FIGURE IN CAMPAIGN
As soon as the charter bill had become a law, one of the important daily papers made the following astonishing proposal:
The issue has been made. . . . Are the
people of Nashville capable of self-government? The citizens who believe in popular government, who are old-fashioned enough to believe that democracy still lives and are unafraid of popular elections should call upon the most available man in Nashville, for it is evident that some Nashville man is to be selected as city manager—to become a candidate for city manager, a man who is not
dominated or domineering, a man who possesses none of the elements of a tyrant but believes in the privileges of democracy.
It further urged that candidates for the council he placed in the field who would he pledged to such a candidate for city manager “just as presidential electors are selected for a candidate for presidentThis proposal, of course, indicated a clear-cut disposition by one of the factions wholly to disregard the spirit as well as the letter of the new charter and marked the beginning of a typical American mud-slinging municipal contest. The proponents of the charter were placed at the very great disadvantage of advocating merely a principle of political conduct, namely, to elect eouneilmen who would be free to choose a proper city manager according to the spirit of the charter. The opponents at once began a campaign for a person and insisted on holding the fight mainly on the level of personalities. The inevitable result occurred in that the two factions soon settled down to a campaign of vilification of personalities with only occasionally an effort to discuss the real issue before the voters. All the political claptrap so familiar to observers of American politics was freely indulged in and the usual arguments which are used to get the vote of the “common people” were made much of. One of the papers apparently tried very hard to hold attention to the real issue created by the candidacy of a city manager under a charter designed to put the office wholly out of politics, but was forced into the position of answering charges and making countercharges.
THE “mayor-manager” VIRTUALLY ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE
By election day, the real issue was apparently completely submerged and


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the great majority doubtless felt they were voting for the defence of their civil and political liberties guaranteed by the constitution of the United States. Certainly that was what they were told they were voting on, and they were shown by every possible argument that the only way to preserve their liberties was to vote for councilmen pledged to elect the candidate for city manager. This they did overwhelmingly and the candidate, a man of excellent reputation and well liked generally, was considered elected by the people to the office of “mayor-manager,” and the liberties of the people were saved.
The new “mayor-manager” pledged himself to act as a trustee of the city government till such time as a new charter could be obtained and to refrain from exercising any of the “ autocratic” powers granted by a city-manager charter. The ward election map of the city shows that while the victory of the opponents of the new charter was complete, there were significant ward returns indicating in a general way the character of the fight made by the opponents of the charter, and the economic and social class behind the effort to take the mayor’s office as far out of politics as possible. The tenth, or “silk stocking,” ward and the eighth, a substantial residential section, were the only wards giving majorities against the candidate for “mayor-manager,” while the seventh ward which includes a large negro section and factory section gave a vote of about ten to one for him. The fact that the candidate was a very popular man with no bad political record may explain the close vote in some of the other more substantial districts.
MAYOR-MANAGER LEADS FIGHT TO RESTORE OLD GOVERNMENT
In the campaign recently closed (July, 1922) in which the mayor made a fight for a change back to the old councilmanic government with nearly all of the city officials elected by popular vote, he was overwhelmingly successful. The legislators elected are pledged to secure for Nashville such a charter in the new legislature which convenes in January. The usual popular appeal was made and the opponents of the mayor were forced into an impossible position. The present government is a city-manager government in name but possesses none of the virtues of such a form of government, and the earlier proponents of the city-manager charter saw that the only hope of keeping the city from slipping back to the old system of the 1883 charter was to fight for the next best, namely, the commission form of government. But since these same men, in their efforts to get the present charter adopted in 1921, condemned without measure the commission government then in existence, their pleas this summer had small effect.
It is safe to predict that notwithstanding the fact that Nashville has dropped back to where she stood a generation ago, so far as her form of government is concerned, she will not in reality begin just where she left off when the first fundamental change came in 1913. The new charter will, without doubt, show the influence of the spirit of reform and progress has characterized the civic leaders of the past decade, and Nashville, will the more easily catch step with the forward movement in municipal govern^ ment another time.


THE CIVIC CENTER1
BY ARNOLD BRUNNER
We have numerous possibilities for public planes of usefulness and beauty, but we limp behind Europe in developing them. :: ::
The three good men and true who were appointed “Commissioners of Streets and Roads in the City of New York” produced after four years of study the unhappy arrangement we know so well which embodies nearly all the mistakes of judgment possible. The checker-board system of streets, the insufficient number of avenues extending north and south, the absence of diagonal streets are familiar to us all. The one evidence shown by the commissioners that they possessed imagination and a faint appreciation of the future greatness of the city, was the really splendid “parade” indicated on them map. It extended from 23rd to 34th streets and from 3rd to 7th avenues, but by degrees it shrunk until it got to be what is now Madison Square. City Hall Park gave promise of growing into a civic center, but this promise was not fulfilled.
New York has never been able to overcome the disadvantage imposed on it by its wretched plan. We have repeatedly urged some modification which would include an adequate civic center. For j ears we have schemed, protested and explained, but to-day I am unable to point out the civic center of my native town. The surroundings of our charming little city hall, instead of being developed and controlled, are most distressing and in perpetual danger of becoming worse. We have Fifth Avenue (what is left of
1A paper read before the American Civic Association.
it), Broadway, whose admirers at one time strongly objected to my calling it a “ convulsion ” and not a street, Riverside Drive, Central Park, many splendid buildings and some fine statues, but our civic center is still undiscovered.
OTHER CITIES AS BAD AS NEW YORK
While I may not speak of them as freely as I can of New York, there are other cities in the same plight. You recall them, large prosperous towns with streets deformed by trolleys extending in all directions, starting from nowhere and going nowhere in particular. Cities ruined by villainous “improvements,” as they are called, with nothing to distinguish them from each other except the census reports. What we especially miss in them is a civic center, the successor of the old village, green, where there was the town pump and where the market wagons collected on market day.
Before printing was invented and before the daily news was left at our doors every morning the market place exercised a great influence on the life of the people. Not only were goods bought and sold there, but the citizens met and interchanged ideas and discussed the affairs of the day.
THE “PUBLIC place” ABROAD
The Agora of the Greeks where public assemblies were held, the forum of the Romans, that historic meeting place and scene of great athletic games, were the real centers of communal
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intercourse. It is most interesting to trace the development of these open spaces. They kept their place in public life and assumed different forms in different countries throughout the centuries. The central square or Place of mediaeval and renaissance times was seldom consciously planned and owed its existence and its shape, which was usually irregular, to the position of some public building which dominated it. In the south of Europe it was often a cathedral or church, further north it was generally a town hall or “guildhall,” like the beautiful Salle aux Draps at Ypres, so wantonly destroyed in the war.
We find another type of open space formed by cross streams of traffic and instead of marking it only by an “isle of safety,” or a policeman on a box as we do, it was deliberately treated so as to perform its function, which was to provide room for the traffic, subdivide and direct it. There are also minor centers in a properly planned self-respecting city, but the civic center as we now understand it is the place where the chief public buildings are grouped and which is tacitly recognized as the real center—the heart of the city. Once founded and accepted it is difficult to displace it. For instance, in Brussels the Grand Place, that delightful square surrounded by quaint guildhalls, has not been abandoned for newer and larger spaces fronting the modem public buildings. When the Belgians wish to celebrate or riot, sing or pray, they congregate in the Grand Place, “that square of golden beauty” as Brand Whitlock describes it.
If a city possesses elaborate buildings, statues and fountains scattered here and there, it is of course richer for these possessions, but only when they are: assembled so as to form an har-
monious combination does the city, as a city, become more beautiful.
Can you imagine London without Trafalgar Square? Paris without the Place de la Concorde, or Venice without the Piazza di San Marco? Or any of the charming French, Italian or Flemish towns we so much admire without its Place and its encircling buildings? These famous centers in famous cities do not always include the group of official buildings, but they personify the city, represent its intelligence, its soul. We know that they meant this to our enemies, too, for during the war they were the constant target for their bombardment, the favorite mark for their bombs from aeroplanes and Zeppelins.
We in America are just beginning to realize the importance of a proper setting for our monumental buildings, their relation to each other and to their neighbors. Imagine how the dignity and majesty of St. Peters would suffer if the great colonnaded forecourt were blotted from the map of Rome. The Arc de Triomphe through which passed our victorious armies, returning from the war, is a part of the design of the Place de l’Etoile, the arch is the center of the Star—the frame and the pictures were one thought. And let us not forget the superb setting of the Capitol at Washington. Imagine how, but for the genius of Major L’Enfant it might have been disfigured by incongruous surroundings—its beauty spoiled by a mean and inadequate setting.
THE UTILITY OF A CIVIC CENTER
To group the principal municipal buildings is manifestly advantageous for the convenience of transacting the city’s business. Too often such buildings have been erected on sites determined by chance, the interest of small groups of citizens or mere personal preference or whim. Certain activities


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are related to each other and are natural neighbors. Even in this painfully practical age of irritants the telephone and the pneumatic tube cannot take the place of personal conference.
The selection of a site for a civic center depends on local conditions and often there is some spot already accepted as the heart of communal life, but if an entirely new location is sought there are many serious considerations to govern our choice,—its proximity to the center of population and to the geographical center of the town; its accessibility by broad streets and direct thoroughfares and by trolley lines; its relation to important business sections, its probable effect on them and their growth and on the growth of the city; -the possibility of its affording relief of traffic congestion by distributing it or separating it from existing thoroughfares; the visibility of the site from various points, the nature of the environment, its freedom from smoke and dirt; the advantages offered for successful grouping and composition and the elasticity of the plan for future enlargement; the cost of the site and its effect on values of surrounding property by enhancing and stabilizing them. All things being equal it is naturally advisable to select inexpensive ground, not only on account of the initial economy but in order to secure for the city the advantage resulting from the inevitable rise in values of the neighboring ground.
These are a few of the points to be considered, some practical, some aesthetic. The demands of beauty and utility must yield to each other and combine with each other to obtain the complete harmony which we seek and which is surely attainable.
This is the basis of the art of city making, the civic renaissance that is transforming our country, a protest against the license and disorder that
are to be found everywhere. The civic center is an example of wise control. It represents law and order. Here the streets meet and resolve themselves into regular forms; the buildings stop swearing at each other, cease their struggle for prominence and their endeavors to overstep each other, they take their places in the civic ranks like true soldiers obedient to authority.
Unworthy efforts to be conspicuous, petty successes and failures are forgotten, the dignity and majesty of the city are paramount. This is democracy in its best sense. The civic center is the most anti-bolshevik manifestation possible for here civic pride is bom.
OPPOSITION OF “SMALL AMERICANS”
The cost of changing a railroad switch, the grade of a street or moving a fence or telegraph pole, the expense of everything and the difficulty of altering anything have so clouded the perceptions of “practical men” that they cannot look forward at all. Their imitation economy has dispelled many visions and schemes for the benefit of mankind, delayed and even nullified the growth of many a city.
I recall that a number of years ago when a few of us were trying to secure a civic center for New York and endeavoring to find a site for the new court house, we urged the committee in charge of this project to acquire the property on the north side of City Hall Park. You know that New York has always intended to build a new court house, and in political circles selecting a site for it has been considered the king of outdoor sports. I was the spokesman of this particular committee and after explaining our ideas, the chairman of the board said to me, “Young man (you may know by this how long ago it was), do you know how much that property is worth?” Of


THE CIVIC CENTER
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course I did not know and we retired in confusion. Some years after the same scene was repeated, the only difference being that I was a little older and the chairman of the board was replaced by another practical man, who, when he heard our plea for the only logical site for the court house, repeated his predecessor’s question, “Do you know what this property is worth? ” and then I was able to respond triumphantly, “Yes sir, exactly twice what it was worth when we suggested its purchase before.”
THE STATE CAPITAL
Adventurous achievements are to be found everywhere in our young and busy communities. It is impossible to count them, but San Francisco, Chicago, Denver, Portland, Pittsburgh, Harrisburg, New Haven, Philadelphia and Cleveland are among the many that spring to the mind as cities planning great things. Even in the Philippines, Manila and Baguio, the summer capital, have planned themselves in terms of well-ordered beauty.
And now we come to the all-important state capital. The fact that a city has attained to that dignity seems to demand first—and quite rightly—a majestic building for executive and legislative purposes, then acres of ground—a great park approached by wide avenues. Unfortunately, however, this is too often not the case.
We have the Boston State House dominating the town from its proud eminence, the famous gilded dome visible far out at sea; and that other gilded dome in Hartford in its charming environment. We recall the Albany capitol on the crest of the hill at the head of State Street proudly over-
looking the Hudson River and the graceful classic building in Providence also on rising ground, the magnificent capitol of St. Paul, the Des Moines public buildings in their 75 acres of park land, and the symmetrical official group in far-away Olympia in Washington state. These and many others give us varying degrees of pleasure and satisfaction.
But where is the park around the Boston State House? And why is the view from the river of the Albany capitol obscured by an intrusive commercial building? And what is Providence doing about the railroads now too much in evidence? And when will the approaches to the St. Paul capitol be completed? Evidently there are no rules to the game.
In closing I cannot refrain from again referring to Major L’Enfant, whose brilliant plan for the Capital city you all know. When the population of the entire nation was less than four million he saw in his mind a city to hold 800,000 people with splendid streets, broad avenues, parks, statues, pleasing vistas and great groups of government buildings to come. His plan is accepted as a masterpiece and the commission of 1901, while enlarging and elaborating it, vindicated it and used it as a basis for their report. Here was a man with prophetic forethought, a giant imagination, a dreamer with a firm faith in the future, and withal practical.
While no city in the United States has the possibilities of the national capital its inspiration has affected a hundred cities of lesser magnitude and importance in voicing the demand for civic centers.


THE ORGANIZED ATTACK ON THE DAYTON CHARTER
BY WALTER J. MILLARD
Although the Dayton Charter was sustained at the last election by a vote of 25,000 to 16,000, dissatisfaction continues in some quarters. But why should a city with almost the smallest tax vote in the state, a city famous for excellent administration, be so divided as to the merits of its form of government? What created and sustains the opposition?
The Dayton Charter has again been under fire, and the attack came from the same source as before, the Taxpayer’s Protective League. The previous petition, circulated less than a year ago, did not get upon the ballot because of its legal irregularities. This second petition, though it presented a very incoherent scheme of city government, came to vote on November 7. A Charter Defense League was formed which successfully defended city manager government and the present form was sustained by a vote of 25,000 to 16,000. But how can we explain such persistent and organized opposition to a system which placed Dayton in the front rank of well-governed cities?
The Taxpayer’s Protective League is led by one W. A. Silvey, who owns some property that comes within the area that suffered from the disastrous flood of 1913. To guard against a repetition of it, an act was passed by the Ohio legislature setting up the Miami conservancy district which has undertaken immense engineering works now almost completed.
It is impossible not to feel some sympathy for many small property owners who not only had suffered from the flood but had also to shoulder the conservancy tax. Opposition to the conservancy naturally developed out
of such a situation, and Silvey led the opposition. He instituted about forty law suits all of which have failed.
A recent spell of rainy weather and the functioning of the impounding dams did much to bring confidence in the engineering work, though charges of waste and profiteering still pass from mouth to mouth.
The Dayton commission drew against itself this body of protest because it voted to have Dayton included in the conservancy district. The conservancy tax thereby incurred, though it is collected by the county treasurer, is paid over by him to the city treaurer; he in turn gives it to the conservancy without subtracting a penny for the benefit of the city government. There are many citizens who do not thoroughly understand this and regard the conservancy tax as part of the cost of city government.
Three other main sources of discontent become evident upon investigation. They are the rumors concerning the size of the city debt, the size of the tax rate, and the condition of the streets.
DEBT AND TAXES
With regard to the first there is evidently a great deal of misunderstanding. Regular bonds, conservancy district bonds, waterworks bonds, bonds


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for street paving, most of which will be paid by special assessment, bonds in the hands of the trustees of the sinking funds, all these are lumped in the minds of many citizens into totals running from eighteen to thirty millions. The finance director reports, however, that the actual net municipal indebtedness as of October 15, 1922, to be met by general taxation is $7,183,800. Why does this confusion exist? That point will be dealt with later.
The misunderstanding concerning the taxation situation is just as prevalent. The tax rate of Dayton is in appearance the highest of any city of Ohio, $29.60 per $1,000. L. R. Sessions of the National Institute of Public Administration, temporarily in Day-ton, has made an analysis that shows that the real expense for city government is not more than $7.65 per capita. This is the lowest per capita cost for any city of Ohio except Lima, where it is $5.60; that city, however, charges each family fifty-three cents per year for the collection of rubbish which Dayton collects free. The average Daytonian apparently has not learned to judge by the per capita basis, nor does he even know that the rate of $29.60 is a total, including state, county, school, and conservancy rates, as well as the city rate of $9.13. Much less does it seem to be comprehended generally that the rate is based upon an extremely unjust and unreal appraisal. In spite of the mandate of the law the county commissioners have not ordered a re-appraisement for twelve years. In that time Dayton has had a flood which has disturbed the relative values within the city and county, and the world war has disturbed all values. In January an editorial in one of the newspapers blamed the city government for the high rate without the writer apparently
being aware of any of the facts here presented. Why does this ignorance exist even in editorial offices? That, too, will be dealt with later.
THE CONDITION OF THE STREETS
Many of the streets of Dayton are in bad repair, and the city manager and the commission admit it. But the combination of the unjust appraisal and the Smith one-per-cent law, known throughout the state of Ohio as “the farmer’s sacred cow,” have prevented the city from getting sufficient revenue for all purposes and some services have had to suffer. Under a special law a bond issue was ordered, to cover the cost of needed paving. The courts held the total issue invalid but validated the bonds, amounting to $600,-000, which had been issued. Since then the commission has been trying to use the money, only to be met by such a large number of petitions and petitioners whose property would have to bear part of the cost, that it has not had much chance to better the streets as a whole.
The discontented also charge that Dayton View, a suburb inhabited by the bourgeosie, has been favored in the matter of paving, but taxi drivers who were interviewed said that, putting aside two main arteries, the general condition of Dayton View was worse than the rest of the city. But nobody had any exact knowledge. Why are not the main facts behind the paving situation, which an outside investigator could find in half an hour, the property of most of Dayton’s citizens? That point will be discussed together with the other two deferred.
As well as these three present foci of disaffection, there are also several other ghosts of past happenings that would take up too much time to lay here. Also space cannot be used to ex-


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plain the amendment proposed by Mr. Silvey and his friends and to weigh its probable effect if it had carried.
DOES THE GOVERNMENT MEET HUMAN NEEDS
The opinion of all the persons interviewed in a three days’ stay was that the amount of discontent was so great that if a properly integrated amendment had been presented calling for a return to federal form, its chance of adoption would be very strong. This can only be because either the form or the personnel of the Dayton government has failed to meet some human needs. What these needs are becomes apparent almost at once; they are the need of personal contact with the city ■government, the need for authoritative information, and the need for leadership. They will be dealt with in order.
Every person interviewed by the writer in his visits to Dayton in the last two years has pointed out the lack of personal contact of the city hall with the people. Everyone who favors the manager plan admits that a commission of five, three elected one year for a four-year term and two elected two years after, cannot be representative enough to know what the people want. A non-partizan elimination primary is held and if two or three candidates, as the case may be, do not receive a majority, a second election is held, at which twice the number of candidates run who can be elected. As a result, no local interest however real, nor any minority opinion, can be represented on the commission. The Socialist candidates have been highest at the elimination primary on almost every occasion and generally come within 5 per cent of the total vote cast at the final election. No community can have a very healthy civic spirit when 45 per cent of its citizens having keenly
felt interests are without representation. That part of the Silvey proposal that provided for a ward council of twelve made a very strong appeal to the twenty local improvement associations, each of which hankers for a member of the commission “who lives in our end of town.”
P. R. WOULD RESTORE PERSONAL CONTACT
The feeling of practically all those who wish to preserve the manager plan is that proportional representation and an increase in the size of the commission would meet this need. The movement for such a change was in a sense officially launched in an address two years ago by Henry Waite, made when revisiting the city, though no definite steps were taken at that time to apply it. A meeting of civic leaders recently called to safeguard the charter decided that in event the Silvey amendment is defeated, plans would be laid that will shortly place such a P. R. amendment before the voters.
NO WHOLESOME POOD FOR PUBLIC OPINION
The present lack of proper representation partly is responsible for th^ second outstanding need of the citizens of Dayton. It is quite evident to any observer that there is quite a little interest in the city’s affairs, but this interest is practically forced to feed on rumor or gossip. It cannot be appeased by frequent contacts with commissioners and there does not exist any adequate means of getting information and explanation about the city government. Lacking proper means of satisfying curiosity, many humble and well-meaning citizens have taken “ silk-stocking,” “chamber of commerce,” “hell-fire work,” and a few other “stereotypes,” and built out of them very fantastic “pictures in their heads.”


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ATTACK ON THE DAYTON CHARTER
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The terms of Walter Lippmann’s book, Public Opinion, are here used, for the entire situation is a perfect proof of his argument that public opinions must be organized for the newspapers and that we cannot rely upon the newspapers to discover the facts upon which public opinions should be formed.
Dayton has three daily papers that are frankly interested in national political parties. When the federal plan was in use and a Democrat was mayor, then the Republican paper headlined every act that would make political capital, and the same was true, of course, when the shoe was on the other foot. But the actions of the commission cannot be so used. The interest of the editors is not now so strongly focused on the city hall except just previous to elections, when a spasm of civiic virtue leads them to vehemently demand that the voters “save the city from the socialists.” If all reports are true, the young fellows who “cover” the city hall seem to be grateful for what material is actually handed to them in the form of a “story,” but it is nobody’s particular job to be publicity agent and dig up stories for the reporters.
The charter provides for a municipal journal but the cost has always prevented the provision from being carried out. An attempt was made by the commission this year to fulfill it by running the municipal journal as a paid advertisement in the dailies, but no bids were received!
PROPOSALS TO RESTORE CONTACT
The need for making contact and spreading information has led to two proposals by former members of the commission. One proposal is that the city be divided into districts so that even though election is at large, a certain commissioner may be asked to familiarize himself with the paving,
sewerage, lighting, and other needs of a particular part of the city; this idea is actually embodied in the election method of Grand Rapids, Michigan. The other is more ingenious, it is that each commissioner take his turn at giving an entire month’s full time to the city work, not only by daily attendance at the city hall, but by visiting the improvement societies and all similar bodies with civic interest that meet during his term. Unfortunately no means can be found under the charter to provide for the necessary recompense. The provision of the Cleveland amendment that allows extra compensation for the mayor will make the core of this suggestion possible there.
Obviously it would be unwise to have the task of providing the material for public opinion left entirely to city employees or to men who may seek re-election. Some outside source of information should exist in Dayton. At the present time only two exist, both inadequate. Once every month or so the League of Women Voters has been printing a leaflet with pictures and diagrams of such things as the tax rate, that are understandable by the masses. Its size and circulation alone, however, prevent it from reaching many and the resources of that organization prevent it from doing much research work. There is also the Labor Review, which by front page boxed statistics and short articles is spreading accurate information. The Labor Review is the official organ of the labor unions of Dayton. After nine years’ experience organized labor evidently concludes that the manager plan is fundamentally sound.
LEADERSHIP NEEDED
Behind these two more or less obvious sources of irritation, there is another more elusive one which explains not so much the appearance of Silvey’s amendment as the apathetic attitude


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on the part of many who really favor the manager plan. Persons interviewed who are trained in getting the feel of the public mind said that there is lack of vision and leadership both in the government and in the group that have sponsored it. In its inception, the figure of John H. Patterson stood out and, though his interest continued until the last, his business and his age prevented a day by day identification with civic policy. Henry Waite was not only an executive but a leader who found it necessary sometimes to lead the commission and after he had obtained their halting consent to measures he often had the task of leading the people. Most people instinctively like being led and unconsciously Day-tonians thereafter have turned to the manager’s office rather than to the commissioners for leadership. But the successors of Waite have been more solely engineers than of that mixture of capacities that Waite accustomed Dayton to. Though sterling worth has continued to be exhibited in the manager’s office after Waite left, the public has seemingly craved for something else. After a time they turned more to the commission. The commission, however, has been made up of men who, while undoubtedly above the average capacity, have not fired the imagination. The Socialist ticket has possibly attracted many voters because one of the leaders of that party has that elusive thing—personality.
It can hardly be charged that failure to attract leadership is due to the manager plan though the fault may be partly due to the method by which the commission has been elected. The old form of government did not attract leadership either. The capacity for leadership undoubtedly exists in Day-ton but it is being directed toward the unique set of industries upon which
Dayton thrives. It would be unfair to say that the men of parts in the city are absorbed in making money,—the sense of mastery that comes from solving mechanical problems is probably more keenly sought than any other— the Engineers’ Club is now the centre of the masculine brains of the city.
It is a pleasure to record that some of these engineers are taking steps to re-establish the Bureau of Municipal Research. This may lead to a greater interest in civic and political questions in Dayton on the part of those to whom the solving of the problem of automobile lubrication is now the only thing to be considered. But mere digging for facts will not meet Dayton’s problem. Some of the men who find the facts must learn how to interpret them to those who do not have the chance to get them at first hand, and in so doing the leaders needed will arise.
In conclusion, then, it appears to this investigator that the three concrete charges against the present administration, the tax rate, the debt, and the paving, arise from three unfilled psychological needs of the citizens, a sense of personal contact, a desire for information, and a desire to be intelligently and dramatically led. The need for personal contact and some of the desire for information can be met by reforming the election system. The desire for information can be met by making somebody responsible in the city hall for publicity and by the organization of a popularly supported Bureau of Municipal Research that shall not only gather facts but present them popularly to newspapers and other publicity avenues. When these needs are filled, they, together with the present crisis, may conspire to produce the men, or it may be women, who shall fire the imagination and lead the mass.


A NATIONAL FOREST FOR THE NATIONAL CAPITAL
BY WM. M. ELLICOTT President, City Wide Congress, Baltimore
A national forest of 110,000 acres adjacent to Washington is practicable. The land is available. More than half of it is now wooded. ::
The subject of parks and playgrounds for Washington is, perhaps, as old as the original plan of the city made by Major l’Enfant in the latter part of the eighteenth century, but to the writer it comes as a reflection of a project which he suggested in the year 1910. This project bad its birth in a speculative study of Washington in relation to the physical conditions of a very considerable area lying to the north and northeast of the city which attracted his attention because of the great stretches of forest which, even now, largely cover it, the sparse population which inhabits it and its close proximity and relation to one of the great civilized capitals of the world.
It was with this as a thesis that he wrote a paper on “Forests as Pleasure Parks,” which was published in Art and Progress.
The writer drew on his imagination and what knowledge he had of historic forests and parks in the old world and endeavored to picture a living and beautiful forest and park covering the watersheds of the Anacostia and Patuxent rivers and stretching away to the estuaries of the Severn and South rivers as far as Annapolis in one direction and Laurel and the Great Falls of the Potomac in the other. Roads, vistas and grassy avenues were to be opened, refuges were to be built and even a place was to be found for a Greek theater where, annually, representations of Sophocles and Euripides
might lead to the creation of an American drama such as has not yet appeared.
While he was accused of megalomania by some and called a “pipe dreamer,” there were many who took the matter more seriously. The New York Evening Post said
Probably the first impulse of nine persons out of ten, on reading the proposal that the government shall create a national forest of 100,000 acres immediately adjacent to Washington city, will be to say that it is nonsense. But it is anything but nonsense. . . . That there is a
considerable forest area in a primitive state in the region bordering on Washington must strike everyone at all acquainted with that section.
. . , If the tract is all Mr. Ellicott thinks it is, there is probably no investment of a few million dollars that would be better worth while. To preserve in perpetuity a genuine national forest of 150 square miles in extent, within a stone's throw of the national capital, would be an invaluable achievement.
The project was endorsed in principle by the American Institute of Architects, the American Civic Association, the American Federation of Arts, the American Game Protective Association, The Federation of Women’s Clubs of Maryland, The Southern Maryland Society and the Board of Trade of Washington. President Wilson in an audience given to the Directors of the National Conservation Association made particular and extremely favorable mention of it. Lord Brvce, while ambassador from Great


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Britain, spoke of it with the highest approval, as did Col. Henry S. Graves, formerly United States chief forester, Hon. Maurice Francis Egan, Cass Gilbert, formerly president of the American Institute of Architects, the late Senator Francis Newlands and many other cultured and eminent men.
Three years ago Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted, president of the American Society of Landscape Architects, appointed Mr. Stephen Child chairman of a committee to investigate and report on the subject in accordance with instructions of that society. Mr. Child’s committee made extensive investigations, receiving assistance from the forest service of Maryland which had completed surveys of all this territory, •from the commissioners of the District of Columbia, the agricultural department and the federal forestry bureau. Acting on this report the Society drew a resolution which broadened the scope of study of the problem. The Society urged the appointment of a Federal commission to study all the needs of the Washington region under what they termed regional plan, meaning to plan for the extension of the park system of the capital within and without the District of Columbia, to devise complete road systems, provide for hydroelectric development, local and metropolitan water supply, reclamation and forestation, transportation, sanitation, suburban living conditions, laying out of model villages and improvement of existing ones and bringing all these varied btu allied interests into an organic system. It was also recommended that the park system of Baltimore should be co-ordinated with that of Washington.
A NATIONAL FOREST
Respecting the character of the country Mr. F. W. Besley, state forester for Maryland, says concerning
the physical conditions of the territory in an article which he and the writer prepared and which was published in American Forestry in June, 1911:
The area proposed for a national forest represents some of the oldest settled lands of the country. Since its occupation 250 years ago many changes have taken place. A considerable portion of the land under cultivation prior to the Civil War has since grown up in forest, not alone because of the scarcity of labor necessary for its continued cultivation, but because much of it was found better suited to the growing of timber than for agricultural crops. These young forests of hardwood and pine coming as a second growth have attained considerable importance, and by proper management they can be moulded into forests of great value. There are still to be found in small tracts some of the virgin forests showing the magnificence of the original growth and further illustrating future forest possibilities. For the botanist and the dendrologist, this is one of the most interesting regions of the eastern United States. Here on the border of two great physiographical divisions, the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont Plateau, the flora of the north mixes with that of the south, and gives a variety of species difficult to find-in any other area of equal size. As a natural arboretum, this region is unsurpassed. There are over sixty-five tree species alone, to say nothing of a large number of arborescent shrubs. Most of the valuable commercial species of the entire eastern United States are represented here. The great diversity of soils and forest types offers exceptional advantages as a demonstration field for applied forestry.
The large wooded areas, lying between Washington, Baltimore and Annapolis, afford a rare opportunity for carrying out such a plan. The area shown on the map, lying between Washington and the Patuxent river, to the west of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, covers approximately 16,000 acres, of which about 8,300 acres, or 50 per cent, is now wooded. For the purpose of the forest description, any given area is considered wooded where there is a tree growth on the land at least ten feet high and where the trees are close enough together to form a stand. The main body of forest lying east of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, including spurs extending along South river and the Severn river, covers approximately 84,000 acres, of which


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50,800 acres, or 60 per cent, is wooded. The portion south of the Patuxent river is more largely wooded than the rest, amounting to 70 per cent. The portion to the northeast is 50 per cent wooded. The forests differ in character and composition, dependent upon soil conditions, especially as to moisture content, and also de-
The combined areas available for forest reservation as indicated on the map comprise about 110,000 acres, of which practically 64,500 acres, or 58 per cent, is now wooded. By making the boundaries more irregular, or excluding tracts that are nearly all cleared land, the area might be reduced and the percentage of woodlands cor-
pendent upon the extent of previous cutting. On the few high gravel ridges along the edge of the Piedmont Plateau, the characteristic species are rock, post and black oaks. The higher slopes generally throughout the area are covered with scarlet and Spanish oaks, and chestnut; while on the lower slopes are found hickory, white oak and yellow poplar, walnut and black gum as the predominating trees. Along the streams a great variety of species are found, notably the maple, sycamore, beech, ash, birch, elm, etc. The characteristic trees of the swamps are red gum, willow, pin oak and willow oak.
respondingly increased. The presence of cleared lands within the forest boundaries would not be a disadvantage. The best of the farm land could be used as experimental farms in co-operation with the department of agriculture, while those less adapted for agriculture could be planted in forests. It is safe to say that 85,000 acres of the tracts mentioned are typical forest lands already in forest or suitable for reforestation. There are many foreign trees that have not been fully tried in this country under forest conditions. The rate of growth of most of our native species under the most favorable conditions as would result in


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planting have not been determined. The field for forest experimentation is a large and promising one which would find here the ideal conditions for its fulfillment.
Governor Ritchie of Maryland has already appointed a sanitary commission, of which Mr. T. Howard Duckett is chairman, to study and report upon all territory impinging on the District line, and this commission has advanced its work far toward completion. It has very broad power, even in the control of real estate development and entire jurisdiction over watercourses, the maintenance of stream flow, protection of watersheds and similar matters.
STATE SOVEREIGNTY MUST BE CONSIDERED
Properly jealous of the sovereignty of the state, no sanction for a comprehensive scheme of expropriation for forestry or any other purpose by the Federal government has been, or is likely to be, given by the legislature of Maryland or of Virginia, nor could the authorities co-operate until that difficult subject had found a solution. This baffled those interested for a long time. It remained for the Board of Trade of Washington to do this and their committee on parks and playgrounds, Mr. Fred G. Coldren, chairman, has produced a most detailed and searching report and a bill which meets every objection and covers every phase of a very intricate and delicate subject. It is prepared by men who, passing their lives in the capital, know its potentialities and its needs as no outsider could hope to do. They do not ask anything grandiose or extravagant but confine themselves wholly to those extensions of parks which are a natural development of what now exists. The report points out that, while the District line is necessary as a political boundaiy, it has no relation
to the topographical and physical conditions which affect the city and suburbs and that in studying and developing Washington and its neighborhood, plans must be formulated satisfactory both to the Federal government and to the two states in cases where there is a community of interest and along lines in harmony with nature’s setting.
Within the District there will be no question of dual interest but taking as an example, the question of the pollution of Rock creek whose feeders come into the District from Montgomery county, where uncontrolled building operations threaten the maintenance of the stream flow and where pollution affects the lower stream, it is important that some ground of united action be found, and the committee incorporating these provisions in the bill wishes to extend the park system to include these branches and their watersheds and to find a basis of co-operation for all matters which interest both the capital and the dwellers in adjacent territory.
The report recommends a permanent commission to be known as the National Capital Park and Playground Commission, authorized to make a comprehensive study of the development of the park and playground system of the national capital, and to acquire lands necessary for such development, both within the District of Columbia and in adjoining territory of Maryland and Virginia, and to provide for regular annual appropriations to be used by the commission for acquiring such lands. The land so acquired outside the District to be controlled as determined by agreement between the commission and the proper officers of the states of Maryland or Virginia subject to the approval of the president. In the selection of all lands the advice of the Commission of Fine Arts must be had.


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The committee advises a regular annual appropriation of not more than one cent for each inhabitant of the continental United States, which would amount to just about a million dollars at the present time. Three fourths of this sum must be spent within the District and one fourth will therefore be available for expenditure in Maryland or Virginia if desired.
It is recommended that land bordering Rock creek be acquired, that a boulevard be constructed to connect the line of Civil War forts, including Fort Stevens, where Lincoln was under fire. The committee also advises the extension of two park boulevards, one along the Rock creek valley to Baltimore and the other along the Eastern Branch or Anacostra, including Mount Hamilton (designated by the Fine Arts Commission as a future arboretum or botanic garden), extending through Camp Mead, a reservation of 9,000 acres, to Baltimore, a road much needed because of heavy traffic and
trucking along the present Baltimore highway.
Under certain circumstances, the states might be desirous of participating in the purchase of tracts of land, and undoubtedly there is in the bill sufficient latitude for fair and equitable adjustment of such a matter, a part of the cost price being contributed by the Federal government, but the purchase, perhaps, being made by the state.
The City-Wide Congress of Baltimore has endorsed the report and bill as eminently practical, as setting suitable limitations and as giving to the capital what in all justice it should have—a limited authority in the natural and inevitable extension of the city beyond the borders of the District of Columbia. It is recommended strongly to all citizens of the United States who have a pride in their beautiful capital that they support the bill (S. 4062) through letters to senators and congressmen and through resolutions of civic bodies.
AN ANALYSIS OF CLEVELAND’S NEW CHARTER
BY CHESTER C. MAXEY Western Resent University
Cleveland’s newly amended charter is nothing less than revolvtionary.
I. How the Amendment Was Framed
On the eighth of November, 1921, the voters of Cleveland approved a proposed amendment to the charter of the city providing for the substitution of the manager plan in combination with proportional representation for the existing mayor-and-council form of government. This was such an unprecedented, in fact revolutionary,
departure for a large city that it excited universal interest while the equally remarkable way in which it was drafted and adopted has been almost overlooked. Stated briefly, what the amendment did was to repeal sections 3 to 198 inclusive of the existing charter and to substitute therefor one hundred and eighty-one revised sections comprising practically a new instrument of government; and this


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sweeping constituent change was brought to pass not by the usual solemn process of formulation by a representative charter-making body followed by a vote of the people, but by means of the initiative as provided in the charter itself. Doubtless this is the first instance in our municipal history of the use of the initiative for the framing and adoption of a measure of such fundamental and comprehensive character, and this fact, taken together with the unusual character of the amendment itself, lends extraordinary interest to the manner in which it was drafted.
DR. HATTON GIVEN FREE HAND The initiative petition, by virtue of -which the amendment was placed on the ballot, was sponsored by a committee of citizens known as the Committee of One Hundred. The Committee of One Hundred was representative of various civic organizations and interests favorable to the manager plan, and was descended from a committee appointed some two years earlier by the same organizations and known as the Committee of Fifteen. The officers of the Committee of One Hundred were Peter Witt, chairman, A. R. Hatton, vice-chairman, J. D. Halliday, secretary. Dr. Hatton had been one of the most active members of the Committee of Fifteen and by virtue of his familiarity with the situation and his extensive experience as a draftsman of city charters was the logical person to be t elected by the Committee of One Hundred to prepare the proposed amendment. He was given a free hand in the framing of the instrument, and his work was ratified by the Committee of One Hundred without substantial modification. Dr. Hatton was virtually able to rewrite the charter of Cleveland according to his own standards both as
to form and content. He did not fail to take advantage of every opportunity to simplify and clarify the language of the original instrument, nor did he hesitate at any emendations which in his judgment would improve the substance of the charter.
II. The Election, Organization and Procedure of the Council The one feature of the Cleveland amendment which has commanded universal interest is the provision for the election of the members of the city council by the Hare system of proportional representation. Yet it is doubtful if the real purpose of this innovation is generally understood. Proportional representation was not introduced in the Cleveland amendment as an end to be desired for its own sake merely, but to facilitate the attainment of the paramount object of the amendment, which was to bring about a shift of the political center of gravity from the executive to the legislative branch of the city government. Experience had amply demonstrated that the gravest defect of the prevailing system of government was the inevitable contamination of the executive service of the city by the spoils system and the' concomitant evils of personal and parti-zan politics. This was the chief argument for the manager plan, which is supposed to take the executive service out of politics by providing for the choice and control of the chief executive by a small commission or council itself elected by the people on a nonpartizan basis. But Cleveland is several times larger than any city that has tried the commission-manager plan, and it was feared that no matter how chosen, a commission or council of five, seven, or nine members would be too small to be fairly representative of the huge and diverse population of the city. And yet with a larger council it would


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be necessary to revert to the ward system with all of its admitted evils or to employ the method of election at large and contend with the ills incident to the long ballot. Experience, furthermore, supplied convincing proof that neither of these systems would be likely to produce a council that could be entrusted with the responsibility of selecting and controlling the manager. Proportional representation appeared to be the solution of the problem. It would obviate both the long ballot and the ward system, and still it would produce a representative body whose members, according to the contentions of the proportionalists, would be of exceptionally high quality.
The amendment provides for a council of twenty-five members. The city is divided into four districts for the purpose of electing members of the council, and the four districts elect seven, five, six, and seven members respectively by the proportional representation method. This allocation of representation is to remain unchanged until the reapportionment following the next decennial Federal census, unless prior to that time the population of the city shall have been augmented four per cent by the annexation of suburbs. The four districts represent a studied attempt to distribute representation on the basis of social and economic rather than geographical and numerical considerations. The districts are not equal in size or population (hence the inequality of representation in the council), but each is in a broad way a homogeneous social and economic entity. Within each district there are, of course, lesser social and economic groupings, and it is believed that where any of these is of consequence it will be accorded representation through the operation of the Hare system of election. The amendment contains elaborate rules governing the
form, marking and counting of the ballots.1
RESTRAINTS UPON THE COUNCIL One might suppose that the confidence of the authors of the amendment that the new scheme of representation and election would produce a council of superior quality, would have resulted in the abandonment of petty and vexatious restrictions upon councils that customarily abound in municipal charters; but it is a curious fact that the amended charter contains evidence of a deeper distrust of representative bodies than the original instrument. The old charter, for instance, empowers the council to fix the salaries of its own members with the proviso that changes can apply only to the successor of the council making them; but the amendment fixes $1,800 as the council-manic salary and deprives the council of authority to modify that figure. Naturally there occurs the query as to whether the framers feared that a council elected by proportional representation would be less trustworthy than the old council, chosen by the ward system. Another case of the same character is the change made in the rule regarding attendance. The provision of the original charter was that unless excused by a two-thirds vote of the council, a member should forfeit two per cent of his annual salary for each absence from a regular meeting of the council; but the amendment provides that a member shall forfeit two per cent of his annual salary for each absence from a regular or called meeting of the council unless prevented from attending by his own illness„ Does this unreasonable and inflexible rule suggest that the framers of the amendment anticipated that a council
1,1 Revised Hare Rules” published by the-American Proportional Representation Society in 1917.
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chosen by proportional representation would exhibit a higher sense of public duty than councils of the old type? An additional indication of lack of confidence in the results of proportional representation is found in the provision regarding expulsion. Under the old charter a member guilty of misconduct or violation of the rules of the council could be expelled by a two-thirds vote of all of the members elected to the council. The amendment increases the majority required for expulsion to four-fifths of all of the members elected to the council, a majority which could hardly be construed to indicate extensive confidence in the council to be elected by proportional representation. In the same way the majority required .to declare an ordinance immediately in effect as an emergency ordinance has been increased from two-thirds in the old charter to four-fifths in the amendment, a change which would certainly seem to be symptomatic of a fear that the council under the new order would be likely to abuse the emergency power.
WILL THE MAYOR BECOME PREMIER?
The council, as is customary in commission-manager charters, is empowered to choose one of its own members as its president, and this functionary is endowed with the title of mayor and becomes the titular and ceremonial head of the city government. There is a possibility, in fact, that the mayor may develop into something more than the presiding officer of ffie council and the official head of the government. If the position should be filled by a succession of persons possessing qualities of leadership and statesmanship, it could quite readily evolve into a sort of premiership devoid of administrative responsibilities. The mayor, then, would be the political head of the government and the leader of the council in all matters involving the
determination of policies. This would tend to remove the temptation which has victimized so many managers, viz., to overstep the bounds of administration and assume functions of political leadership. In anticipation of such a development the charter amendment provides for paying the mayor a salary commensurate with the importance of his functions.
The council is also authorized to appoint a clerk and such other officers and employees for its own service as it may deem necessary, all such officers and employees to serve during the pleasure of the council. The provisions having to do with the legislative procedure of the council and the form of ordinances and resolutions are carried over from the old charter without substantial modification, except for the insertion of a section providing for the codification of ordinances.
BUDGET MODIFICATIONS
The financial procedure prescribed in the old charter is imported into the amendment with adaptations and emendations designed to improve the operation of the budget system. Except in the case of the earnings of a non-tax-supported public utility the council could under the old charter at any time transfer money from one budget appropriation to another, but the new charter limits this right to unencumbered balances of appropriations. The old charter provided that unexpended balances of appropriations should revert to the respective funds from which they were appropriated; the amendment modifies this by prescribing that only unencumbered balances shall so revert, a very important change from the standpoint of budget control. Another instance of the attempt to tighten up financial procedure is the insertion of the requirement (Section 69), which did not appear in the former charter, that appropriations accounts


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shall be kept for each item of appropriation made by the council, every warrant on the treasury to show specifically against which appropriation item it is drawn, and each account to show in detail the appropriation made by the council, the amount drawn thereon, the unpaid obligations charged against the item, and the unencumbered balance remaining.
IH. The City Manager and the Administrative Service
The council is obliged to appoint a city manager who shall be the chief executive officer of the city. It is specified that the city manager shall be appointed solely on the basis of his executive and administrative qualifications and need not when appointed be a resident of Cleveland or the state of Ohio. He is to be appointed for an indefinite term, but to be removable at any time at the pleasure of the council. It is provided, however, that if he is removed at any time after he has served six months, he may demand that written charges be filed against him and shall be entitled to a public hearing at a meeting of the council prior to the time when his final removal shall take place. Both the wisdom and efficacy" of this provision are open to question. If a council, fearing the publicity involved in written charges and a public hearing, is determined nevertheless to reduce the manager to a position of political subserviency to it, it will find it possible to club the manager into line or remove him during the first six months. Moreover, written charges and a public hearing can be of very little protection to the manager unless they constitute a limitation upon the council's power to remove, which is a result that the amendment disclaims as unintended. A council determined upon the removal of a manager on purely political grounds would have no difficulty in
framing charges of such plausibility and conducting the hearing in such a manner that a manager solicitous of his professional reputation would prefer quietly to resign. Furthermore the council controls the compensation of the city manager, and may reduce his salary at will or abolish it entirely without any public explanation. Obviously this furnishes an indirect way of forcing the resignation of the manager without the necessity of written charges and a public hearing.
COUNCIL FORBIDDEN FROM ADMINISTRATIVE MEDDLING
The council is forbidden to appoint one of its own members as city manager, which in the light of experience would seem to be a prudent restriction. It is likewise declared that neither the council nor any of its committees of members shall dictate or attempt to dictate or influence in any way the appointment or removal of persons in the administrative service under the city manager. And it is further declared that with the exception of conducting inquiries, the council shall deal with the administrative service of the city only through the city manager, and that neither the council nor any of its members shall give orders to any subordinate of the city manager either publicly or privately.
The city manager is declared to be the head of the administrative service of the city and is responsible to the council for the administration of all affairs placed under his charge. He is given power to appoint the directors of all departments and all officers and members of commissions not included in the regular departments unless the charter specifically provides otherwise. The injunction is laid down that:
Appointments made by the city manager shall be on the basis of executive and administrative ability and of the training and experience of such appointees for the work they are to administer.


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Manifestly this is mere counsel of perfection and of no legal force whatever. All officers appointed by the manager are immediately responsible to him and may be removed by him at any time; but in case of removal by the city manager, the person removed is entitled to have written charges filed against him by the city manager and to have a public hearing before the city manager before the removal can be made final. From the standpoint of sound administrative organization this restriction upon the manager’s removing power seems viciously obstructive; for the persons protected against summary removal by the manager are not the great mass of officials and employees whose tenure will be protected -by the civil service provisions of the charter, but the heads of departments and other highly placed officials who will virtually constitute the manager’s cabinet and consequently should be removable by him on such a purely capricious ground as personal incompatibility.
The duties of the city manager are broadly outlined in Section 35 as follows:
To act as chief conservator of the peace within the city; to supervise the administration of the affairs of the city; to see that the ordinances of the city and the laws of the state are enforced; to make such recommendations to the council concerning the affairs of the city as may seem to him desirable; to keep the council advised of the financial condition and future needs of the city; to prepare and submit to the council the annual budget estimate; to prepare and submit to the council such reports as may ue required by that body; and to perform such other duties as may be prescribed by this charter or be required of him by ordinance or resolution of the council.
It is provided that the city manager, the directors of departments, and any other officers designated by vote of the council, shall be entitled to seats in the council, but without power to vote. The manager is to have the right to participate in the discussion of all
matters coming before the council, but the directors and other officers are confined to matters pertaining to their respective departments and offices. Power to investigate the conduct of any department or office of the city, re-inforced by power to subpoena witnesses, administer oaths, and compel the production of books, papers, and other evidence, is conferred upon the council, the city manager, or any person or committee authorized by either of them. The purpose of conferring this power upon the council is obvious, but in case of the manager, who has direct administrative authority over the executive service of the city, it would seem superfluous, unless it was intended to give the manager the power to explore the conduct of the offices under the council, such as mayor and clerk, which, if attempted, would lead to highly amusing complications.
BROAD POWER TO DETERMINE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION
Three departments—law, finance, and public utilities—are created by the charter amendment, and the council is empowered to establish additional departments and offices at will. The council is also given power to revise and reorganize the administrative machinery of the city as it deems expedient, subject to the limitation that no function assigned by the charter to a particular department or office shall be abolished or assigned to another department or office and that no department shall be created or abolished until the recommendations of the city manager have been heard by the council. The functions of the three departments set up by the charter amendment are laid down with considerable explicitness and detail. The head of each department is appointed by the city manager and given the title of director. The work of each department is distributed among divisions, established


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by the charter or by the council, and at the head of each division is an officer known as the commissioner, who is appointed by the director acting in conformity with the civil service provisions of the charter. Each commissioner, with the approval and under the supervision of the director, appoints the officers and employees of his division and administers its affairs.
The provisions of the old charter pertaining to the organization and control of the police and fire departments are carried over by the amendment with only such modifications as are necessary to adapt them to the new administrative set-up, the duality of command which has caused so many difficulties under the old charter being explicitly preserved. In rewriting the civil service provisions of the old charter care was taken not only to make the necessary adaptions to the new organization, but also to inject many provisions designed to safeguard and improve the operation of the merit system. A few examples will be given. The past history of civil service in Cleveland readily explains why the mandate was laid upon the council to appropriate each year a’ sum sufficient to carry out the civil service provisions of the charter, although the legal efficacy of the provision is open to question. The limitation upon transfers to a position subject to competitive tests from one not subject to competitive tests (sec. 96) is manifestly a wise precaution to protect the merit principle. Of the same character is section 98 which requires that the eligible lists and the grades of candidates shall be open to public inspection, and that any person appointed from an eligible list and laid off for lack of work or appropriation shall be placed at the head of such eligible list and fie eligible for reappointment for the period of eligibility provided by the rules of the
commission. The striking increase of the penalty for violation of the civil service provisions of the charter or the rules of the commission from a fine varying from $10 to $100 or imprisonment for not more than ten days, or both, to a fine varying from $50 to $1,000 or imprisonment not exceeding six months, or both, also indicates a determination to put teeth into the civil service laws. The provision (sec. 100) which directs the civil service commission to fix and enforce standards of efficiency and devise measures for co-ordinating the work of the various departments was doubtless introduced in order to pave the way for scientific personnel management in the city administration.
IV. Conclusions
Criticism of the details of the amended charter should not be allowed to obscure the fact that it is altogether the most courageous experiment in political reconstruction that is being undertaken in America to-day, and perfection of detail is not indispensable to its ultimate success. In the mind of the average citizen of Cleveland it probably represents simply a step in the direction of greater efficiency and economy, but it is far more than that. It not only marks the definite abandonment of the venerable principle of separation of powers in municipal government and the ordination of an entirely new relation between the legislative and executive organs of government, but it also marks the advent of a new principle of representation which is likely to produce a legislative body of a composition wholly unlike anything previously known to American experience. It is an edifice of new design, erected upon new foundations, and we have yet to see how it will resist the stress and strain of the elements.


MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING ADMINISTRATION
EDITED BY WILLIAM A. BASSETT
Importance of Adequate Control over the Occupancy of Buildings.—The importance of adequate control over the occupational use made of all buildings, together with the need for more drastic restrictions over the use of inflammable materials in manufacturing, and a better correlation of powers and actions of all governmental agencies having any jurisdiction over such matters was demonstrated once more in the conditions attending a recent fire in Manhattan, which resulted in the loss of four lives and the serious injury of a considerable number of persons. The building in which the fire occurred was an old three-story brick structure, a former residence, modified for business purposes about twenty years ago, and which since that time has been used mainly for light manufacturing. The fire originated on the second floor in a celluloid comb factory, when an electric stove set fire to an assortment of combs on a work bench. The suddenness of the blaze and the character of the smoke which resulted caused a panic of the employees in the celluloid factory as well as those employed in a uniform factory on the top floor. The loss of life appears to have been caused by failure to take advantage of the fire escape at the rear of the building and also a short stairway leading to the roof from the hall on the third floor. The dense smoke at both of these points during the brief interval when escape by these methods was possible apparently led the people on the third floor to believe that they were cut off and forced them to the front of the building.
It is not necessary to go into detail as to the events that followed, but it is desired to point out certain significant features with respect to the building itself and the use made of it.
Previous to 1916 there were three independent governmental agencies having jurisdiction over this building. These were the state department of labor, the bureau of buildings of Manhattan and the bureau of fire prevention of the fire department. The state department of labor up to 1916 had exercised the same jurisdiction over that building as over all other factories. During that year the labor law was modified so as to take
away from the state department of labor the power over factories within New York city, these powers being mainly transferred to the fire department of the city. The building bureau of Manhattan had jurisdiction over all alterations made to the building including any that might be demanded by the fire department in order to guard against fire risk. The fire department was responsible for exercising control over the use of the building. The records of the building bureau show no violations against the building of any importance since 1911. The report shows that all violations had been complied with and the building had apparently met all requirements of the city code and state code consistent with its use.
The fire department exercises control over the use of buildings by means of periodic inspections. There is no evidence that that department has been lax in this particular case. The use of this building not having been changed since 1916 antedates the time when a certificate of occupancy was required from the bureau of buildings, and hence it has been practically impossible for that bureau to have any knowledge of its use except through report by the fire department. The main weakness apparently lies in the fact, that there is no suitable provision in any code, or other regulation, over the use of celluloid except when in a raw state.
The use of this highly inflammable material should be permitted in buildings having means of egress on all sides and then only under such conditions as would preclude the chance of sudden and disastrous spread of flames such as occurred in this particular case. It is interesting to note that recommendations designed to safeguard against such an occurrence in factory buildings were made to the state department of labor in 1918, but appropriate action to accomplish this has not up to the present time been taken by that department. There is a timely warning in the tragedy that took place in Manhattan for every community in the United States which is not protected by suitable legislation and enforcement machinery against the hazard of such a disaster.


1923] MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING ADMINISTRATION
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Sewage Disposal at Lima, Ohio.—The experience of Lima., Ohio, in the matter of securing a sewage disposal plant sounds a note of warning to other communities which may be contemplating the installation of such facilities to meet their own needs. Lima is a manufacturing city with a population of about 45,000. It is located on the Ottawa river, a stream which has a substantial flow during certain months of the year but which becomes almost nominal dining the summer months. The practice which was followed of discharging a considerable volume of the sewage of the city into this stream produced conditions, which, on complaint of certain riparian owners below the city, caused the state department of health under the terms of the Bense Act to order the city to purify its sewage. This was in 1915, but owing to the war definite action in the matter was deferred until 1919, at which time the engineering firm of Fuller and McClintoek were engaged to design a system of intercepting sewers and treatment works. They recommended the adoption of a system including the use of fine screens followed by trickling filters and final settling tanks equipped with Dorr thickeners. One of the reasons for the selection of this type of plant was the comparatively low cost of operation. Under the Ohio Law the interest charges on bond issues authorized for the construction of sewage treatment works when ordered by the state department of health to correct a nuisance, are not required to be paid from the general fund raised for taxation, to which there is a maximum limit of 15 mills per dollar of assessed valuation. On the other hand operating expenses for treatment works must be paid out of funds raised by taxation and kept within the ten-mill rate unless there is a special election to authorize a special tax above that limit. In any event the limit of 15 mills cannot be exceeded. This makes it highly desirable if not imperative to keep the operating expenses of sewage disposal plants as low as possible.
Flans and specifications for the fine screens and sprinkling filters were prepared and submitted to the state department of health for approval. This approval was granted subject to the provision that, if necessary, preliminary sedimentation would be provided in the disposal system and bids were advertised to be received on April 1, 1922. About a week pripr to that date the Municipal Sewage Disposal Company of Philadelphia, which controls the so-called Landreth direct-oxidation process of sewage disposal, in-
duced the city commission of Lima to postpone the original date of letting the contract for the sewage disposal plant, and take steps for receiving alternate bids for a plant of the Landreth direct-oxidation type. This action has been taken, plans and specifications of the latter type of plant have been prepared and submitted to the state department of health for approval. In the meantime the city has retained another consulting engineer to investigate and report on the general suitability of the direct-oxidation process to meet the local problem, and Lima waits for relief.
It is not proposed to discuss in these pages the relative merits of any methods of sewage disposal. It is, however, desired to call attention to certain of the features of the present situation in Lima. The trickling-filter method of sewage disposal has an established record of adequacy and successful performance extending over the past twenty-five years. The Landreth direct-oxidation process is a patented one, in which an electrolytic feature is introduced into what is essentially a modification of the old excess-lime treatment of sewage. The advantages and disadvantages of the latter process have been the matter of sharp controversy and wide difference of opinion among engineers and others since it was first installed as an experimental plant about eight years ago at Elmhurst, Long Island. It is fair to say that conclusive data as to its superiority over other more established methods of treating sewage are lacking.
Although this eleventh-hour controversy to determine which of two different types of sewage plants shall be selected to serve the needs of Lima has caused considerable delay and additional expense to the community, the seriousness of the situation does not lie in these conditions but in the events which lead up to them. The methods of salesmanship employed, which induced the city commission of Lima to modify its action taken after receiving the report of its consulting engineers, and permit a concern selling a pa tented process to offer a competing proposition, savors too much of the practices followed in the past by bridge companies in the sale of highway bridges to communities for which the public paid a heavy toll. This magazine holds no brief for the consulting engineering profession nor does it oppose the use of patented devices or processes on public work. However, it is desired to point out the unwisdom of any community’s disregarding the advice of suitably qualified individuals on mat-


38
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[January
ters of as highly technical a nature as is presented by the problem of sewage disposal. If such a policy is to be pursued the question naturally arises, Why employ such professional experts in the first place? The experience of many communities in such matters has demonstrated that the most competent advice available is the most economical in the end.
*
Meeting the Cost of Paving Between the Tracks.—A proposed amendment to the charter of Omaha, requiring all street railway companies to meet the entire cost of paving the space between tracks and for a distance of eighteen inches outside of the rail, was made the subject of a petition submitted to the city council, and was voted down by that body by a vote of 4 to 3. It appears that the defeat of this proposal was due rather to a lack of the required number of qualified signatures to the petition presented than to a consideration of the merits of the proposal.
The matter of what constitutes an equitable distribution of the cost of paying and maintaining the railroad area of cities has long been the subject of controversy between street railway companies and city governments. The pracjtice of requiring the railway companies to meet the entire cost of this work has been largely followed by American cities. Data compiled by the New York State Bureau of Municipal Information showed that out of 166 cities of 30,000 or more population in-all but one case the companies were held responsible for pavement within the railroad area, although the extent of this area outside of the tracks varies somewhat in different cities. During the past few years a concerted move has been made by street railway companies to secure a certain amount of relief from the financial burden involved in meeting such requirements.
This move has received rather more than nominal support from pul lie service commissions and other regulatory bodies of that character. At the same time there has been pronounced opposition by engineers and other city officials to any modification of present requirements. The main arguments advanced by the companies and the public service commissions comprise: First, a plea for relief from the financial expenditure involved on account of the difficulties in which many street railway companies have been placed during the past few years; sec-
ond, that the conditions governing at the time these requirements were first established, mainly when horse cars were in operation, have changed so radically as to alter entirely the situation.
Objections voiced particularly by engineers have been directed towards the increased cost of construction of street pavements in those streets over which street railway companies operate. Also the claim is made that the high cost of maintenance and relatively short life of pavements adjacent to street car tracks result largely from inadequate street railway construction. Neither of the parties concerned give suitable recognition to the element that most directly affects pavement work, namely traffic.
It is well established that the presence of street car tracks within any street materially affects the cost of maintenance as it invariably causes a change in the distribution of traffic, making a concentration at certain points, thus producing ununiform wear. The objections advanced by engineers with regard to unsuitable street railway construction can and should be met by cities requiring construction of recognized standard design. There is little to choose in the use made by traffic, particularly heavily loaded vehicles, between the railroad area and the rest of the street in.many of our large cities. Unquestionably, this use, accompanied as it is by the necessity of frequent turnouts either to pass street cars or permit the passing of the latter results in excessive wear of the railroad area and that section of the street pavement adjacent to it. At the same time it is an undisputed fact that extensive use is made of the railway area by all kinds of traffic, this use contributing very largely to the wear and tear of that area. Conditions such as these, over which the street railway company has no control, would appear to make it questionable whether the railway company should be held entirely responsible for all damage done.
The financing of street improvement work involving maintenance or repaving should be in accordance with a sound and equitable policy. Street railway companies should be called upon to pay substantial amounts for the privilege of using the public streets, but charges should be determined not in an arbitrary fashion but after a recognition of all elements entering into each case. There are sound grounds for requiring street railway companies to bear their share of maintaining the pavement within the railway area. There should, however, be equally sound


1923] MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING ADMINISTRATION
39
bases for determining what charges should be made. Existing practice does not seem to meet this requirement.
*
Sound Principles for Regulating Motor Traffic.—Measures designed to relieve the serious traffic conditions in Manhattan, proposed by Chief Magistrate William McAdoo of New York City, although directed towards effecting a solution of the local problem, are so sound in principle as to demand the serious attention of all persons engaged in studying traffic regulation. Judge McAdoo’s recommendations provide for: First, a revision of the licensing system to place the emphasis on saving life instead of producing revenue, this to be accomplished by rigorous preliminary examination of drivers, either by the state or if necessary by the city. Second, the appointment of 1,500 additional traffic policemen to be assigned to unprotected street crossings. This increased force is necessitated, if by no other reason, by the fact that “most of the children killed are at crossings without police protection.” Third, placing a limit on the number of taxicabs permitted to operate within the city limits. The latter requirement may be taken care of by the bonding law, which requires all taxicab operators to take out liability insurance, and which has recently been upheld by the Appellate Division; Perhaps the most significant feature in Judge McAdoo’s proposals is his enunciation of the principle that the primary purpose of licensing motor vehicles and operators is the protection of life and property, the production of revenue being subordinate to this. Also it should be recognized that the regulation of traffic over the public highways is one phase of highway ad-. ministration. It is true that the actual enforcement of traffic regulations is a police function and the licensing of operators comes within the purview of the police power of the state. This would seem to demand a close correlation of effort, particularly on the part of the highway and police departments of the state, cities and towns, both in the matter of formulating traffic regulation requirements, and in the subsequent administration of all phases of that work, if the best results are to be obtained. Such an arrangement would seem to justify placing the licensing of motor vehicles and operators either under the control of the state highway department. or the various city police departments.
Practical considerations favor including the
actual administration of such work among the functions of the state highway department while granting the police departments broad powers in prescribing requirements for the protection of life. The state of Massachusetts furnishes perhaps the best example of a plan of administration which includes the licensing of motor vehicles among the functions delegated to the state highway commission. Other states, notably New Jersey and Maryland, have established separate departments to administer motor vehicle regulation.
In most cases the plan of administration followed recognizes the licensing of motor vehicles and operators as being a regulatory function designed to safeguard the use of the public highways. In New York state during 1921 the highway law was amended by an act transferring jurisdiction over motor vehicle regulation from the secretary of state’s office and placing it under the state tax department. Apart from any question as to the quality of service furnished the public in the administration of this work by the tax department it is believed that the present arrangement is entirely illogical and constitutes a possible obstacle to securing the effective control over the rise of the public highways of the state which the present situation so seriously demands. There is need for a revision of many provisions in the present New York state highway law. The most serious need for amendment is in those sections relating to the regulation of traffic over the public highways, and the recommendations made by Judge McAdoo with regard to this matter should receive most careful consideration by those engaged in preparing amendments designed to meet the present need.
*
Municipal Waste Disposal in New Orleans.—
The recent completion and placing in service of a 100-ton capacity garbage incinerator in New Oreans marks an important stage in the carrying out of a plan to provide an up-to-date service for that city in the matter of the collection and disposal of municipal wastes. Under this plan the entire area of the city which lies east of the Mississippi river is divided into five waste collection districts. /The population to be served constitutes, on the basis of the 1920 census figures approximately 862,259, or 93.5 per cent of the total. An incinerator will be constructed in each of these districts at which all garbage and refuse collected within the district will be de-


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[January
stroyed. The boundaries of the collection districts and the sites selected for the incinerators were determined after a careful study of the distribution of population and the production of garbage zones to ensure a minimum haul of the collected wastes. It is planned that the haul to any one of the incinerators will not exceed two miles. The collection equipment comprises city-owned wagons of a modern type of design with demountable steel containers. The total capacity of the five incinerators planned is approximately 400 tons per day.
When these plants are completed it will be possible to abandon entirely the present methods of disposal by dumping and incineration in the open air. The elimination of the dumps used for these purposes will not alone relieve conditions which in some sections of the city cause serious nuisance but also will aid effectively in reducing a potential health hazard to the community. This is due largely to the large number -of rats which infest these dumps and which are recognized as disease carriers. /Dt. C. L. Williams of the United States Public Health Service in commenting on the New Orleans situation strongly emphasizes the difficulties encountered in combating the rat evil and the benefits that should result from the new method of waste disposal. The construction of the elaborate drainage system which serves New Orleans was followed immediately by a marked decrease in the death rate.
It will be interesting to learn if the radical changes being made in the disposal of municipal wastes by that city will have any measurable effects on the health of that community .y
*
Reduction of the Hazard of Night Operation of Automobiles.—With the view of reducing the hazard of night operation of automobiles in Massachusetts, a consistent drive against all violators of the lighting provisions of the motor
vehicle law is being conducted by Frank A. Goodwin, register of motor vehicles of that state. Particular attention is to be given to the enforcement of the requirement governing tail lights, which it is claimed is not met at present by more than one automobile owner in a hundred who is operating within the state. The present statute which was enacted as a result of the recommendations of the Conference of Motor Vehicle Administrators, held in Massachusetts during July, 1922, requires that the tail light on all motor vehicles shall be so arranged as to make the number plate plainly visible at a distance of sixty feet. It is a well-established fact that night driving is peculiarly hazardous. Inadequate street lighting and dazzling lights of motor vehicles produce conditions which constitute a real menace on our highways. When accompanied by reckless driving these constitute a combination that almost always results in disaster.
Obviously, the ordinance in question tends to safeguard the public against reckless driving by enabling a ready detection of the offender. As such it should commend itself to all right-thinking people. The wide divergence in present state requirements governing the lighting of motor vehicles constitutes one of the most serious defects in our system of traffic regulation. It is imperative that uniformity in these laws should be brought about. The proposed uniform vehicle law which has been endorsed by the Motor Vehicle Conference Committee has very carefully worked out lighting provisions. Although the latter regulations represent mainly1, the viewpoint of the manufacturers, they constitute a sound basis for the formulation of a law that will represent adequately all interests concerned. The provision in the Massachusetts law, which has been cited, has merit that should recommend its inclusion in any uniform law for the regulation of motor traffic that may be developed.


NOTES AND EVENTS
I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
Seattle to Cut Car Fare on Municipal Lines.— Reports from Seattle are to the effect that the city council is determined to cut to five cents the present 8j-cent fare. The $15,000,000 purchase is now breaking even on the higher fare, but council is convinced that the system must serve more people even at the risk of a deficit. More riders can be secured only by a reduction in fare. Among other plans, the weekly pass idea is being discussed. Another suggestion is a three-cent fare for school children.
*
Pennsylvania’s Extra-legalBudget.—The Citizens’ Committee appointed by Gifford Pinchot to study Pennsylvania state expenditures, Dr. Clyde L. King, chairman, has prepared and distributed budget estimate sheets to the spending departments to be used in preparing estimates for the next biennium. Although Pennsylvania has no budget law, it is Mr. Pinchot’s purpose to gather and present to the legislature the estimates in budget form. The Citizens’ Committee although an extra-legal body, is receiving the co-operation of the present governor and administrative heads. Thus when Mr. Pinchot enters office in January he will be well advanced in the process of building up an intelligent budget.
*
Baltimore Gains Increased Representation in Legislature.—Two amendments to the state constitution, giving Baltimore increased representation in the legislature, were adopted at the recent election. One of these amendments allows Baltimore two additional senators, and the other twelve additional members of the house of delegates. Baltimore will now have six senators in the state senate out of twenty-nine and thirty-six members of the house of delegates out of 118.
Every county in the state gave a majority against both of these proposed amendments and only the very large majorities given in the city of Baltimore made it possible for the city to win increased representation, the majority in the city being approximately 65,000. The favorable
majority in the state was approximately 26,000.
This is the culmination of an energetic campaign by Baltimore for more equitable representation.
*
Baltimore’s Municipal Stadium.—That a new stadium is not the exclusive privilege of universities is demonstrated by Baltimore’s new municipal stadium with a seating capacity of 43,000.
The expense of building the stadium comes from the direct tax on trolley car fares. This tax is 9 per cent on the gross revenue, and with the seven-cent fare amounts to more than $1,000,000 annually. It is classed as a park improvement and is a memorial to Maj. R. M. Venable, for many years president of the park board, and the first to push with vigor the policy of the city to acquire every year tracts of land for park extensions.
The stadium project was launched exactly one year ago when the Johns Hopkins oval proved too small for the crowds that desired to see the annual game between a team of the third army corps and a team representing the marine corps. Mayor Broening announced to the officers responsible for choosing a field for the game that the city would build a stadium and would give the army and marine corps the privilege of playing the first game. This game marked the formal opening of the stadium. The marine corps won by one point.
*
Increased License Receipts a Source of New Revenue.—Municipal budgets are troublesome these days and hard to balance, and every possible source of additional revenue is eagerly examined. A recent study by the Toledo City Journal finds that revision and strict enforcement of the Toledo license ordinance would bring in $50,000 more to help fill the income deficit. 1921 license fees were only $31,743, chiefly from soft drink vendors and bus owners. The following table showing the scale of license fees for several cities is reprinted from the Jovrnal.


TABLE OF PRESENT LICENSE FEES FOR EIGHT CITIES
42
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[January
Montana Favors City-County Consolidation.— The constitutional amendment permitting the legislature to unite city and county governments under one municipal government was adopted at the last election. No form of government so authorized, however, shall go into effect until approved by the voters of the territory affected.
The city of Butte and the county of Silver Bow will be the first to take steps towards such consolidation. Our charter consultant. Dr. A. R. Hatton, is now in Butte drafting a charter for the proposed new municipality.
The amendment as adopted is as follows:
Section. 7. The Legislative Assembly may, by general or special law, provide any plan, kind, manner or form of municipal government for counties, or counties and cities and towns, or cities and towns, and whenever deemed necessary or advisable, may abolish city or town government and unite, consolidate or merge cities and towns and county under one municipal government, and any limitations in this constitution notwithstanding may designate the name, fix and prescribe the number, designation, terms, qualifications, method of appointment, election or removal of the officers thereof, define their duties and fix penalties for the violation thereof, and fix and define boundaries of the territory so governed, and may provide for the discontinuance of such form of government when deemed advisable; provided, however, that no form of government permitted in this section shall be adopted or discontinued until after it is submitted to the qualified electors in the territory affected and by them approved.
*
Baltimore at Last to Have Single-Chamber Council.—Under the home rule amendment, a petition containing over 10,000 signatures was submitted to the mayor, proposing an amend* ment to the city charter of Baltimore to substitute a one-branch city council in place of the present two-braneh council. Baltimore has had a two-branch council since 1797, being one of the first cities of the United States to adopt it and sharing this distinction with Philadelphia, as I believe both cities adopted the bicameral council about the same time. Baltimore has had, therefore, a bicameral Council longer than any other city in the United States. The vote for the proposed amendment was68,913andthe vote against 33,564.
The present first branch of council consists of 28 members, one elected from each ward. The second branch consists of 11 members, the president of which is elected at large, the other members being elected from councilmanic districts. Under the amendment recently adopted, the council to be elected next May will consist of 19


NOTES AND EVENTS
43
1923]
members, the president of which will be elected at large. The remaining 18 members will be elected by districts, 3 members from each of six districts which are to be established by the supervisors of elections. The compensation of the present members of the council is $1,000 per year, while the compensation to be paid the members under the one-branch council will be $1,300 per year. No change whatever has been made in the qualifications of the members of the council and the one-branch council will exercise all the powers heretofore exercised by both branches of the council, including the power of confirmation of all heads of departments appointed by the mayor. The president of the one-branch council will exercise all the powers now exercised by the president of the second branch, which means that he will be vice-mayor and president of the board of estimates.
Hobace E. Flack.
*
Maryland to Have Fewer Elections, With Longer Terms for Legislators.—Maryland has, for many years, been having annual elections. State elections have occurred in the odd-numbered years, at which time the state and county officials have been elected. In the even-numbered years, the only officials elected have been members of congress, United States Senator and presidential electors. In this way, state and national elections have been entirely separated. On account of increased election expenses and for other reasons, it was felt desirable to reduce the number of elections, so that there would not be an election except every two years. In order to do this, it was necessary to make the terms of all two-year elective officials four years and the amendment was so drawn that the elections for state and county officials will be held in years other than presidential years. At the election in November, 1983, the two-year and four-year elective officials will be elected for a term of three years only and beginning in November, 1926, the election for state and county officials will be held every four years. It is true that under this amendment certain national issues may be injected into state elections, but it was felt desirable to have the election for state officials in those years when there was not a presidential election. Members of the legislature will be elected for terms of four years, though there will still continue to be biennial sessions of the legislature. The next session of
our legislature will be held in January, 1924, after which there will be no session until January, 1927, as it was necessary to have a lapse of three years in order to make the transition from the present system of having the legislature meet in even-numbered years to the odd-numbered years.
There was some criticism on the part of those who thought that there should continue to be biennial elections of the members of the legislature, in order to give the people an opportunity to voice their sentiments, as well as from those who thought that there should be continued the present plan of an entire separation of elections for state and national officers. The principal arguments for the amendment were that it woutd greatly reduce the election expenses and that there was no real reason why the House of Delegates should not be elected for four years, the same as the members of the senate. The vote for the amendment waa 108,458 to 72,562 against.
Hobace E. Flack.
*
Indianapolis Adopts Zoning.—Indianapolis adopted a zoning ordinance November 20 by a unanimous vote of the council. On November 27 the ordinance was approved by the mayor. This is the first zoning ordinance to be adopted by any Indiana city under the authority of the state enabling act adopted in 1921.
The use districts established are: (1) dwelling house; (2) apartment house; (3) business; (4) first industrial and (5) second industrial.
The area requirements are designed to spread out the population, prevent congestion and promote a detached house development; 7,500 square feet of lot area per family is required in a limited section; 4,800 square feet per family in the less developed areas around the borders of the city; and 2,400 square feet or two families to the ordinary 40 by 120-foot lot throughout the rest of the dwelling house areas. In much of the area in which apartment houses are permitted 1,200 square feet per family is required; in limited portions of the apartment house districts only 600 square feet per family is required; and in very limited areas suitable for hotels and elevator apartments, there is no limit as to the number of families that may be housed on a given area. Front, rear and side yards are required in all residence districts.
In the height district allowing maximum


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[January
height, the limit is 180 feet, except that for a street 100 feet or more in width, the limit is 200 feet. As practically all of the streets in this district are 90 feet in width, the limit is really based on two times the street width. Washington Street, with a width of 120 feet, is the only street where the 200-foot height will be allowed at the street line. Greater height will be permitted with a setback in the ratio 1 to 3; but this setback must be from all lot lines as well as from street lines. The city plan commission first recommended a height limit of 150 feet but later agreed to the 180-foot limit as a compromise with the down-town property owners who asked for the retention of the then existing limit of 200 feet.
Work on the zone plan was begun by the city plan commission in January of last year. A careful zoning survey was made and many conferences were held before the ordinance was finally submitted to the council. The zoning ordinance had the active support of the Chamber of Commerce, the Real Estate Board, and other civic organizations. Mr. Robert Whitten is consultant and Lawrence V. Sheridan is secretary and engineer of the city plan commission.
♦
Kansas City Tries for Bi-partisan Water Commission.—For several years, Kansas City has felt the need of extensive additions to its water system. The situation has now become such that there is danger of a serious shortage.
Something over a year ago an engineering firm employed by the water department made an investigation and pointed out the need for immediate large improvements. The nature of these improvements was shown and the cost was estimated at $18,000,000, which was later reduced to $11,000,000 in view of decreasing prices. Conferences were called by the mayor and, as a result, a committee of twenty-five citizens was appointed to work out ways and means. The committee, following a popu'ar demand, recommended that the water department be taken out of the control of the mayor and council and that an independent bi-partisan commission of four members, with complete power to operate the present plant and build the new one, be elected. In order to be sure that the bi-partisan commission would be composed of capable business men, the mayor and council were persuaded to include the names of the proposed commission in the charter amendment.
The amendment was submitted together with a proposition authorizing $11,000,000 of bonds. The amendment earned by a large vote, but the bonds failed to receive the two-thirds majority necessary. This was interpreted to mean that the people were unwilling to vote the bonds until they were sure that the funds would be spent by a bi-partisan commission. The bonds were again submitted at the April election, 1922, and were approved. The newly elected commission took office in April and immediately showed that it intended to operate the water works in a non-partisan manner. A suit was filed in the supreme court of Missouri in the name of a citizen, contesting the validity of the amendment creating the commission. The decision in the case was delayed for several months.
In the meantime the charter commission submitted its new charter with alternative water propositions, one of which would have permitted the return to mayor and council control of the water department. The charter was defeated largely on this issue, though the alternative continuing the present commission carried. On December 6, the supreme court handed down a decision ousting the water commission chiefly on the ground that the submission of the amendment providing for a new commission and including in that amendment the names of the first commission was “doubleness.” An application for a re-hearing will probably be filed, but it is very likely that the decision will be upheld. At the present time, the defenders of the commission do not know what will be the next step.' There is some talk of preparing a complete new non-partisan charter in an attempt to place the entire city government on a non-partisan basis. If this is done, the ousting of the water commission may not be an unmixed evil.
Waites Matschek.
*
Kansas City’s Charter Election Explained.— On November 21, the people of Kansas City voted down a proposed charter on which a charter commission had been working for nearly a year. The charter was not a modern charter compared with a city manager-proportional representation charter. It was, however, an improvement over the present charter. It provided for a one-house council instead of the two-house council now in existence. It gave the mayor much greater responsibility and powers


1923]
NOTES AND EVENTS
45
than he now has and provided for a more centralized administrative organization. The finance and budget sections were good and perhaps the best part of the proposed charter. It also made provision for the elimination of the present tax bill system of paying for public improvements.
The reasons for the defeat of the charter are the opposition of the political machines of the city and the opposition of many friends of better government who believed that the new charter was not sufficiently progressive, or who believed that the adoption of the charter would endanger the bi-partisan water commission which had been recently provided for. It is probable that had the charter commission not decided to submit in the alternative the management of the water department the charter would have carried. The alternatives gave a choice between the continuance of the new bi-partisan commission independent of the city council and mayor, and another commission appointed by the mayor and with reduced powers. The bipartisan commission is very popular and many of its advocates voted against the entire charter, rather than to take a chance that the charter would be adopted with the other alternative.
It is interesting that the bi-partisan water alternative secured a favorable majority of over four thousand, while the charter itself lost by over twelve thousand.
Walter Matschek.
*
The Missouri Constitutional Convention.— The Missouri Constitutional Convention, which met May 15,1928, to draw up a new state constitution has up to this date (December 4, 1922) adopted the following important changes and additions to the present constitution:
Budget—Creation of an executive budget. The Governor is authorized to prepare and submit the budget to the legislature within fifteen days after it convenes. Estimates submitted by the legislative and judicial departments cannot be changed by the governor in preparing the budget. The legislature may decrease the governor’s budget but cannot increase it.
Executive Departments—Provision has been made for the consolidation of all the state activities under not more than,.twelve departments exclusive of the offices of governor and lieutenant governor. Four of these divisions are named in the constitution—department of state, depart-
ment of audit and account, department of law, and department of treasury. The heads of these four departments are elective. The legislature is authorized to create not more than eight other divisions, and provide whether the heads of these shall be elective or appointive.
Nominating Machinery—Political parties have been authorized to decide for themselves, through their state executive committees, whether they will nominate their candidates by the direct primary or by the convention. Both systems of nominating candidates are to be regulated by law.
Suffrage—The present constitution permits aliens to vote upon the mere declaration of intention to become a citizen of the United States. The new provision requires full naturalization before being allowed to vote.
Elections—In order to prevent fraud in elections the new constitution authorizes the opening of the ballot boxes and comparison of ballots with the poll lists in the investigation of fraud, and also the ballots may be used before grand juries and courts in the investigation and prosecution of criminal cases. This provision of the constitution applies both to primary and regular elections. This change was made necessary on account of court decisions holding that the opening of ballot boxes and the comparing of the ballots with the poll lists destroyed secret voting since it disclosed how the individual voted.
Initiative and Referendum—The present constitution requires the signatures of 5 per cent of the legal voters, of each of two-thirds of the congressional districts of the state to initiate a law, a constitutional amendment, or to invoke the referendum on a legislative act. The new provision raises the number of signatures to 8, 12, and 10 per cent respectively.
Workmen’s Compensation—The legislature has been authorized to enact a workmen’s compensation law and provide for state insurance.
Legislature—An increase from five to ten dollars per diem for the members of the legislature has been authorized. In the future legislative expenses in the house and senate are to be limited to $400 and $800 per day respectively for regular sessions and $200 and $100 per day respectively for special sessions. Regular session of the legislature is to be reduced from 70 to 60 days, and the revising session from 120 to 100 days.
Instead of a special election to fill a vacancy which occurs within twenty days of the conven-


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[January
ing of the legislature or during the session thereof, the governor is empowered to fill such vacancy by appointing a person belonging to the political party with which the person chosen by election was identified, said appointee to hold office till the next regular election.
Other subjects which are likely to be considered by the convention are the reorganization of the judicial system, the revision of the tax and educational systems, and an adjustment of the provisions applying to the large cities, especially those relating to St. Louis.
W. W. Hollingsworth.
*
What Has Happened to Administrative Reorganization in Washington?—Reorganization of the government departments, it is said, is not dead. It may be recalled that S. J. 191, which passed the house December 14, 1920, and the senate May 10,1921, and became a law ten days later in the absence of veto by the president, provided for a “survey of the administrative services of the government,” for reports and submission of bills from time to time to congress and for final report to congress by the second Monday of December, 1922. It may also be recalled that at the request of the president, Mr. Walter F. Brown was made a member and chairman of the committee to represent the executive branch of the government. Thereupon the six representatives of congress appeared to lose interest in the project. At any rate the congressional members of the committee were apt to find the pressure of other duties so great that they contrived to find little time to devote to reorganization. In the main, therefore, Mr. Brown was left to struggle with cabinet differences as well as he could. By the fourth of July, 1921, Mr. Brown was ready to say what he thought should be done with every single bureau in the federal government. But there were differences in opinion between the heads of departments. Finally after many months Mr. Brown’s report v> cnt to the president, and there it has remained.
The second Monday of December has arrived. Rumor has it that the president will transmit his recommendations to congress in the very near future.
In the meantime there were introduced into the 67th Congress various measures intended as short-cuts to glory and reorganization. There was the education bill, revised from the 66th Congress, to create a department of education;
there were the bills to create departments of aeronautics, conservation, federal highways, health, land and natural resources, mines, public works and public lands and public welfare. None of these bills got very far. Among the controversies which have attracted the greatest public notice are those relating to the forest service, markets, consular agents, the consolidation of the war and navy departments and the creation of a department of public welfare which would eliminate the proposed separate departments of education and ofhealth and which would involve the transfer of certain services from the present department of labor to the new department.
While all of this reorganization discussion has been going on, the secretary of commerce, with characteristic acumen, began the reorganization of the department he had inherited. According to his annual report, just issued, this reorganization has effected a saving of over $3,000,000, or 13.5 per cent of the available appropriations. “ The bureau of foreign and domestic commerce, census, fisheries and navigation have been completely reorganized as to personnel, administration, policy and method so as to bring them not only greater efficiency and economy but into line with full co-operative spirit with commerce and industry in actual tangible service.” Upon the basis of benefits already secured, the secretary recommends that the various administrations of industry, trade, and navigation, which are now scattered in seven different departments and independent agencies, be concentrated in some department, with “direct savings of upward of $1,000,000 per annum,” and "many times this amount given to the public in increased values and service.”
The secretary of agriculture has also entered upon a program of reorganization from within. With the consent of congress he has consolidated the bureau of markets and the bureau of crop estimates and later the bureau of farm management to form a new bureau of agricultural economics. The administration of the states relation service which was formerly divided into two offices, one for the fifteen southern and one for the thirty-five northern and western states has been centralized in a single office. The secretary of agriculture has succeeded in securing from congress authority for a director of scientific work to co-ordinate all of the research work of the various bureaus, and for a director of regulatory work, such as administration of the pure


1928]
NOTES AND EVENTS
47
food and drugs act, meat inspection, packer and stock-yard supervision and eradication of certain pests. The secretary of agriculture now asks congress for authority to place all appropriate services under a co-ordinator for extension service. Since the two co-ordinators already authorized have effected substantial savings in appropriations, congress seems likely to accede to the secretary’s request. Under the proposed plans for the reorganization of the department of agriculture the office of home economics would be elevated from a division to a bureau.
In short, at least two secretaries in the president’s cabinet (whether stimulated by the Reorganization Committee or not) have made good
progress in reorganizing their departments so far as they can do so without actual transfer of bureaus from one department to another.
From all of which it will be seen that reorganization is already well under way. Let us hope that whatever transfers can be authorized by congress without jeopardizing the best interests of the people will be speedily authorized; but let us not fall into the error of believing that reorganization is something that can be accomplished this year or next, once and for all, and then forgotten for a century. Reorganization ought to be in progress whenever improvements can be made.
Hablban James.
n. CITY MANAGER NOTES
Annual Convention of City Managers’ Association.—The city managers of the country held their ninth and most successful convention in Kansas City, November 14,15 and 16. From this central point the good tidings of the progress of the movement went out by every modern medium, including the radio.
*
New Secretary for City Managers’ Association. —Beginning with January 1 the headquarters of the City Managers’ Association will be at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. Mr. John G. Stutz on this date assumed the office of executive secretary, vice Paul B. Wilcox, resigned. The City Managers’ Yearbook and the City Managers’ Bulletin will hereafter be published from the new address.
*
In Less than Two Years Managers Ballew, of Sturgis, Michigan, and Sprague, of Pipestone, Minnesota, have reduced the city tax rate fifty per cent.
*
While Most Ohio Cities are piling up expenses, Managers Bingham, of Lima, and Cotton, of Ashtabula, are adhering strictly to a “pay-as-you-go” program. East Cleveland has been able to establish a surplus. In Ashtabula, a “P. R.” city, the local car system has been purchased by the city and the tax rate has been reduced.
*
The Following Cities are preparing to hold elections on the manager form of government:
Wellesley, Massachusetts, Whittier, San Mateo, Berkeley and Venice, California, Redford and Port Huron, Michigan. Salt Lake City and Chapel Hill, North Carolina, are expecting legislative enactments.
*
The Following Cities are evidencing interest in the manager plan: Baker City, Oregon, St. Joseph, Missouri, Sheboygan and Racine, Wisconsin, Hutchinson, Iola, Buffalo and Phillips-burg, Kansas, Des Moines and Marion, Iowa, Dinuba and Culver City, California, Parkersburg and Elkins, West Virginia, Bridgeport and Milford, Connecticut, Groton and Amesbury, Massachusetts, Hightstown, New Jersey, May-wood, Illinois.
*
the Manager of Onaway, Michigan, the city which is practically owned by the American Wood Rim Company, has been asked to resign after a four-months’ regime. Lack of finances were given as the reason. Numerous peculiar circumstances enter into the situation, among which is the fact that though Onaway citizens adopted a manager charter more than two years ago, they have had a manager but four months during that time. They advertised in a leading municipal magazine for a manager. His work appears to have been very satisfactory to the people—not to the interests.
*
Nashville Changes Managers.—The instability of the hybrid quasi-mayor-manager charter
4


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[January
operation in Nashville, Tennessee, has been recently illustrated by the replacement of F. Z. Wilson by Percy Sharpe for strictly local political reasons.
*
The Mortality Rate of city managers is being affected by the rapid changes in Columbus, Georgia. Walter A. Richards was appointed, November 4, the third city manager, in ten months. Manager Crawford resigned to do construction work. H. G. Hinkle was the first manager.
*
Long Beach Manager Recall.—Following a very warm campaign, Charles E. Hewes, manager of Long Beach, California, was recalled on November 29 by a majority of about 900 in a total vote of more than 10,000. Long Beach was the third city which Mr. Hewes has served as city manager and his friends supported him ardently as thoroughly competent.
Personalities were freely indulged in during the campaign. The manager was accused, among other things, of forcing the installation of water meters after a seven-to-one referendum against their use, when as a matter of fact only a few test meters were installed in order to establish proper flat rates, and no individual charges were made for these meters.
Another accusation, circulated the night before election, was that a water tap was costing the citizens $20 each whereas under aldermanic government the same tap cost only $5. The fact is that the cost of the tap was $5 as of old, but the city now puts in the service line to the curb for which it charges the property owner about one half of what the plumber formerly charged.
As in the case of the charter recalls noted in the next item, the victor’s opposition was better organized than the defense, which seemed to rely on the result of the earlier victory.
*
Additions and Subtractions in City Manager Government.—During the month of November
eight cities adopted the city manager plan. Two others, Dayton, Ohio, and Alhambra, California, demonstrated at the polls, in an election upon the question of the abolition of the plan, that the majority were satisfied with it.
On the other hand, two cities, Waltham, Massachusetts (population 30,891), and Lawton, Oklahoma (population 8,920), abandoned their charters which provided for manager government. This raises the total of charter manager cities which have abandoned the plan to three, Hot Springs, Arkansas, having been the first. Both Waltham and Lawton revert to the mayor-council plan.
Waltham adopted its charter in 1918. Both political organizations were active in securing its repeal. As is often the case, the tax rate figured largely in the newspapers which played fast and loose with statistics.
General unrest seems to have been the contributing factor in Lawton, as the following excerpt from a responsible source indicates:
la the last eighteen months Lawton has weathered several "setbacks," in the fact that a year ago last November one of our banks failed, and in December the largest bank in the city closed, and neither of them was opened until in the spring. Since then one of them has closed again. We have had continual trouble up until about a year ago with the electric people, and aa the same company owned the gas, as well aa a newspaper, an ice plant and a laundry, all in Lawton, we had frequent difficulties with them and finally had to have a receiver appointed for the gas company in order to protect ourselves from their rapacity. Their newspaper was hammering the chamber of commerce, the city, and every individual of influence, that they could not control. Therefore, in addition to the general election this fall, and the people having an idea that they wanted to hit someone or something and hit hard, as was evidenced in the election throughout the entire country, they seemed to take a great delight in hitting the city government.
The opponents to the manager form of government were much better organised than we anticipated, and were working night and day; while those favoring the manager form of government were probably dilatory in starting the campaign, and then did not push the matter in as forcible a manner as they should have. Most of us really did not think it possible for the opposition to overcome the present form of government.
Pa.ul B. Wilcox.
III. MISCELLANEOUS
Civic Film Service.—A corporation with this name to do what its name implies has been organized with offices at 443 Fourth Avenue. The corporation is an outgrowth of the American
City Bureau Film Service. Wayne D. Hey-decker is secretary and sales manager.
The first film, on zoning, has been circulated since September. Others on the following


1923]
NOTES AND EVENTS
subjects are in course of production: zoning, recreation, housing, health, city planning, education, transportation, highways, city charters—the city manager plan, and social welfare. The rental costs have been fixed at a very moderate level.
*
The Journal of Social Forces.—A new magazine with this name has begun publication under the University of North Carolina Press. Prof. Howard W. Odum is managing editor. In line with other extension activities of the University the primary objective of the magazine is said to be “to build well for North Carolina and to become a southern medium of study and expression.”
It is a bi-monthly and the subscription price is $3.50 per year.
♦
National Institute of Public Administration Elects Officers.—A meeting of the board of directors and trustees of the National Institute of Public Administration and Bureau of Municipal Research was held on December 7, 1932. Robert S. Brookings, R. Fulton Cutting, Raymond B. Fosdick, Mrs. E. H. Harriman, Vernon Kellogg, Frank O. Lowden, Charles E. Merriam and E. R. A. Seligman were present. Newton D. Baker, A. R. Hatton, Herbert Hoover, Richard S. Childs, and Delos F. Wilcox are also trustees.
The following officers were elected: R. Fulton Cutting, chairman; Raymond B. Fosdick, vice-chairman; Richard S. Childs, treasurer; Luther Gulick, secretary and director.
*
Municipal Golf Links.—Of thirty-four park reports examined, seventeen mention municipal golf links—Chicago, Cincinnati, Dayton, Detroit, Hartford, Kansas City, Lincoln, Louisville, Minneapolis, New Orleans, Peoria, Rochester, Rockford (Illinois), San Diego, St. Paul, Washington, D. C., and Worcester (Massachusetts). In many of these cities the links are self-supporting, in some they are an actual source of revenue and in all, apparently, they are much valued by the citizens, judging from the steadily increasing patronage reported. In several of the cities exceedingly well-designed golf houses have been erected. It is no longer necessary to belong to a country club in- order to indulge in golf. It is not even necessary to own clubs, employ a caddy or wear a special costume. Anyone who possesses ordinary health and the
small change to pay the fee charged may play golf in the public parka which belong to the people.
Harlean James.
*
America to Have a Garden Village.—What promises to be one of the most interesting housing developments in the United States, according to Housing Betterment, is the new garden village of Mariemont, on the slopes of the Little Miami river, not many miles from Cincinnati, a model town intended to house from 5,000 to 10,000 people and to cost many millions of dollars.
The land, all of which has now been purchased, embraces a tract of about 365 acres, and the general plan provides for a town with a village-green and public buildings, stores and amusements, school sites, playgrounds and parks and complete and attractive housing accommodations for wage-earners of different economic grades. The normal lot sizes for the detached houses that are to be built range from 50 to 80 feet in frontage with a depth of 120 feet. The houses will be provided with all modern conveniences, including electricity and steam heat from a central plant, and adequate provision will be made for the proper maintenance of the property as a completed town. Even the lots of the smallest group houses are to meet the standards of such English garden cities as Letchworth, Hatnpstead and Port Sunlight, the density of all the houses of Mariemont being between six and seven families to the acre.
Nothing quite like it has been undertaken heretofore in the United States. The nearest approach to it has been the development of some of the communities where war-housing schemes were carried out, but those were necessarily fragmentary and of a temporary nature.
This model village is made possible through the munificence of Mrs. Mary M. Emery, who may perhaps best be described as the Mrs. Russell Sage of Cincinnati, and who now completes her many deeds of public benefaction by this well-thought-out, practical and beneficent plan.
Mr. John Nolen has been selected as adviser and is associated with Mr. Charles J. Livingood, manager of the Emery estate, in the development of the plan.
*
Civic Secretaries Hold Annual Convention.—
The Civic Secretaries held their thirteenth


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[January
annual meeting in Philadelphia simultaneously with the meeting of the League. Representatives from one, two or three organizations in fourteen cities were present.
The sessions were intensely practical. A program had been sent out in advance and members came prepared to discuss concrete subjects in a business-like manner. The following are specimen topics:
Membership and finances—Do you raise money by campaigns? Do you issue information on candidates—do you engage in political campaigns and how? How do you co-operate with the daily press, with city hall? Committee organization and management; entertainments; should a restaurant be made self-supporting—if so, how?
To the civic secretary these are highly important matters. The profession is still young. The fund of knowledge and experience is increasing by leaps and bounds. No officer of a citizens’ organization can afford to miss the convention next year. It is the place to learn. The round-table conferences are worth more than all the books that have been written on organization management.
The following slate presented by the nominating committee was elected for the following year. The report of the committee, prepared in model voters’ directory style by Walter F. Arndt of New York, chairman of the committee, is worth reproducing in whole:
For President (Vote for one)
Dyksbra, C. A. Age, sufficient. Present job—secretary of the City Club of Los Angeles; formerly engaged in uplifting
Cleveland, Chicago and other cities. As he is not present and is therefore unable to decline, his election is emphatically urged. For Secretary (Vote for one)
Tracy, R. E. Age, inconsequential; able, effective and omnipresent secretary of the City Club of Philadelphia; has fully demonstrated his fitness for promotion by his successful and genial capacity as host; voters are urged to support him.
For Treasurer (Vote for one)
Dermitt, H. Marie. Age, over twenty-one; present secretary Civic Club of Allegheny County; has proved herself by experience, training and equipment to be absolutely indispensable in her present position; deserves credit for her successful handling of the funds of the N. A. C. S. Her re-election is urged on the basis of her splendid record of public service.
On motion from the floor the office of vice-president was created and Mr. Arndt elected to it.
*
Membership List of National Association of Civic Secretaries.—We have many requests for a list of voters’ leagues and civic associations. We believe that many of our readers will welcome the publication of this list. Clip it and place it in your files for future reference. When you want information respecting a particular city the civic secretaries are the people to write.
The following has been corrected to December 1,1922. Thanks are due Miss H. Marie Dermitt for keeping it corrected to date:
City and Obganization Representative
Baltimore, Md.
Women’s Civic League....................Mrs. Allison H. Shaw, 108 W. Mulberry St.
City Club...............................George A. Mahone, Munsey Bldg.
Boston, Mass.
Honorary President N. A. C. S...........Addison L. Winship, National Shawmut Bank
City Club...............................Lloyd B. Hayes, 6 Ashburton Place
Women’s City Club.......................Mildred Fiske, 40 Beacon St.
Good Government League..................George H. McCaffery, 11 Pemberton Square
Chicago, 111.
City Club...............................Mayo Fesler, 815 Plymouth Court
Bureau of Public Efficiency.............Harris S. Keeler, 315 Plymouth Court
Women’s City Club.......................Helen Montegriffo, Asst. Ward Secretary
Mrs. Maud R. Turlay, Asst. Civic Director, 16 North Wabash Ave.


1928]
NOTES AND EVENTS
51
City and Organization
Representative
Cincinnati, Ohio
City Club.................
Woman’s City Club.........
Cleveland, Ohio
City Club................
Civic League..............
Women’s City Club.........
Women’s City Club.........
Columbus, Ohio Chief Examiner, State Dept. Detroit, Mich.
Citizens’ League..........
Erie, Pa.
Republican Citizens’ League Grand Rapids, Mich.
Citizens’ League..........
Harrisburg, Pa.
Municipal League..........
Kansas City, Mo.
City Club.................
Women’s City Club.........
Los Angeles, Calif.
City Club.................
Louisville, Ky.
Woman’s City Club.........
Milwaukee, Wi's.
City Club.................
City Club.................
Voters' League............
Niagara Falls, N. Y.
Chamber of Commerce.....
Burnham Finney, 501 Union Central Bldg. Mrs. Ben Lowenstein, Race and Garfield sts.
Francis T. Hayes, Hollenden Hotel 516 Hippodrome Bldg.
Grace Treat, Civic Secretary Mrs. Annie F. Miller, Club Secretary
J. H. Kaufman, Dept. Aud. of State
W. P. Lovett, 1002 Dime Bank Bldg.
Margaret P. Hamilton, S3 Penn Bldg.
Russell F. Griffen, 240 Houseman Bldg.
J. Horace McFarland
George H. Forsee, 1021 Grand Ave.
Mrs. W. J. Doughty, 1111 Grand Ave.
C. A. Dykstra, Chas. C. Chapman Bldg.
Louise C. Morel, 506 West Walnut St.
Leo Tiefenthaler, 211 Grand Ave.
Jessica B. Anderson
George C. Nuesse, S7S Broadway
James E. Gheen
New York, N. Y.
American City.............................H. S. Butteheim, Tribune Bldg.
City Club.................................R. V. Ingersoll, 55 West 44th St.
Citizens’ Union...........................Walter F. Arndt, 41 Park Row
Civic Film Service, Inc...................W. D. Hydecker, 44S 4th Ave.
Institute for Public Service..............William H. Allen, 1125 Amsterdam Ave.
National Civil Service Reform League......H. W. Marsh, 8 West 40th St.
National Municipal League.................H. W. Dodds
National Municipal League.................A. R. Hatton, 261 Broadway
Short Ballot Organization.................Richard S. Childs, 8 West 9th St.
Philadelphia, Pa.
City Club.................................Robert E. Tracy, SIS South Broad St.
Civic Club................................Claire MacAfee, 1300 Spruce St.
Voters’ League............................Florence B. Fulton, 105 South 12th St.
Pittsburgh, Pa.
Civic Club of Allegheny Co................. .H. Marie Dermitt, 608 Keenan Bldg.
Voters’ League............................Tensard De Wolf, Morals Court
Allied Boards of Trade. ’.................J. Ralph Park, 6101 Penn Ave.
Portland, Oregon
City Club.................................Robert W. Osborne, 1010 N. W. Bank Bldg.


52
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[January
City and Organization Representative
Philadelphia, Pa.
Proportional Representation League......Walter J. Millard, 1417 Locust St.
San Francisco, Calif.
Civic League of Improvement Clubs and
Associations..........................George W. Gerhard, 807 Mills Bldg.
St. Louis, Mo.
City Club...............................Gustavus Tuckerman, 911 Locust St.
Toledo, Ohio
City Club...............................Wendell F. Johnson, 1572 Ontario St.
Commission on Publicity and Efficiency... .C. A. Crosser, 412 Valentine Bldg. Tulsa, Okla.
City Club...............................Remington Rodgers
Washington, D. C.
American Civic Association..............Harlean James, 913 Union Trust Bldg.
City Club...............................F. R. Barkley, 1320 G St.
National Popular Government League......Judson King, Munsey Bldg.
National Voters’ League.................Lynn Haines, Woodward Bldg.
U. S. Chamber of Commerce, Civic Development Dept..........................Dorsey W. Hyde, Jr.
R. HUSSELMAN
Consulting Enginssr
Design and Construction of Power Stations and Lighting Systems
Reports, Estimates and Specifications Appraisals and Rate Investigations Electric, Gas and Street Railway CUYAHOGA BLDG. CLEVELAND, OHIO
GOVERNMENTAL SURVEYS
•ion—Method*—A dministration—Salary Standardization —Budget Making—Taxation—Revenue*—Sxpenditar**— Civil Service—Accounting—Public Work!
J. L. JACOBS & COMPANY
Municipal Coneuitante and Engineer* Monadnock Building, Chicago (Oetr 11 gr*.* raj>«ri*nc* in Gitf, County end Stott Studiit)
Proportional Representation
Best Basis for the City Manager Plan
Send 25c for Lft. No. 10 (How P. R. Works in Sacramento) and new Lft. No. 5 (Explanation of Hare System of P. R.)
Still better, join the League. Dues, $2, , pay for quarterly Review and all other literature for year.
Proportional Representation League 1417 Locust Street Philadelphia
Loose-Leaf Digest of City Manager Charters
By Robert T. Crane
'T'HIS digest of one hundred and sixty-seven city manager charters now in operation in American cities is for use by those who are planning to rewrite old city charters or to draft new ones. Price $5.00
(A pamphlet copy of the Model City Charter is included)
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE, 261 Broadway, New York City


Full Text

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW ~VOL. XII, No. 1 JANUARY, 1923 TOTAL No. 79 COMMENT Baltimore, the oldest city with a bicameral council, has adopted a charter amendment establishing a single chamber legislative body. Kansas City stands now practically alone as the last exponent of the two chamber idea. * The Missouri constitutional convention has to date agreed upon some important changes in the constitution. They include an executive budget of the Maryland type, state administrative consolidation, and party discretion as to use of the direct primary. See “Notes and Events” for more complete information. * The only constitutional amendment approved by the people of Wisconsin at the recent election was one permitting the legislature to provide that in civil c,ases a valid verdict may be passed on the votes of a specified number of the jury not less than fivesixths thereof. Conference, which met recently in San Francisco. 9 Copies of the article by Ths and this name from the pen of Dr. F. A. Cleveland, Accounting Law of 19H which appeared in the December REVIEW, are now available in pamphlet form. It is a comprehensive survey of the national budget system in operation measured by the principles of political science which underly the budget idea. It will prove very useful for college classes in government. The price is 15 cents a copy or one dollar a dozen. * Newspaper reports folFederal lowing the election last Reurganiacdion November stated that the president, under the spur of party chastisement by the voters, would press administrative reorganization as one of the elements in the progressive program which the country evidently wants. To the date * of this-writing nothing has been done, Passage of legislation imposing a although the second Monday in Detax of two cents a gallon on gasoline cember, the day on which the conto provide funds for construction and gressional commission was by law maintenance of roads will be recominstructed to report, has passed. mended to legislaturei of eleven westFor further analysis of the present ern states according to an agreement situation see the “Notes and Events” reached by the Western Governors’ Department. 1

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a NATIONAL MUN Beginning with this issue ANm the REVIEW will carry a Dspartment new department edited by William A. Bassett of the National Institute of Public Administration and entitled “Municipal Engineering Administration.” Mr. Bassett will discuss briefly each month in non-technical language the chief happenings in such fields as tra5c control, streets and public works, zoning, and building supervision, in fact the performance of the whole chain of practical jobs which the city performs with the help of the engineer. 3: The cabinet form of Idaho Likee state government has proved a great success in Idaho, D. W. Davis, of Gwernmd governor of that state, recently announced on a visit to Portland, Oregon. “Every public building constructed since we installed the cabinet form of government has been completed ahead of the scheduled date,” said Governor Davis. “There has been similar improvement in efficiency in many other lines. We formerly had 40 boards and commissions, and these we have grouped into eight departments, with a responsible man as head of each. This undivided responsibility in each of the departments is what gets the lWSUltS.” clr Our English colA stsaws vidleag ie, The Municiof BeaWlRuh pal Journal, called attention recently to a practice which, so far as we know, is a stranger to this country. It seems that some butchers, in their anxiety to please their customers who have a penchant for joints that are plump, have a habit of blowing out carcases to secure that degree of plumpness ICIPAL REVIEW [January which is admired so much. Some municipal authorities object to this meat inflation, regarding it as a reprehensible practice, but tolerate it when mechanical devices, like tire pumps, are used for the blowing-out process. They do not, however, allow butchers to blow out meat with their mouths. In any case, however, the practice is objectionable and legislation is being. sought from Parliament to end it completely. 3p Is If a to Lize Tozonp In nearly every town “*P in the United States there are to be found in Your a good many apparently small neglects which in the aggregate tend to give the town a ragged, unkempt and uninviting appearance, and still other neglects, not seen, which actually contribute to the danger of living in the town and to which, year in and year out, certain preventable cases of illness and death may be charged. The true test of any town is whether it is a good place in which to live and bring up children who have a chance to become good citizens. The workers in the mills. the skilled mechanics, the preachers, the teachers, the investors in business enterprises, all who may choose their place of abode, are coming in increasing numbers to shun towns where the living conditions are notoriously bad. A teacher may be offered several positions at the same time. Would you be proud to know that under such circumstances a teacher would refuse to come to your town because of its lack of library facilities and its known neglect of sanitation and health protection? An investor in real property, a merchant who is looking for an opportunity to “locate” in a thriving town, may pass over your town be

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l9%] COMMENT 3 cause the schools are poor, the police protection inadequate and the water supply dangerous. Why not make it a recognized privilege to live in your town? H. J. * In order fully to protect The1niCioCioc the principle of the inandBusiness itiative from attack by the legislature, California Management and Michigan have provided that no popularly initiated measure can be amended by the legislature unless the measure itself so provides. In California, during the last election, this restriction jumped into prominence in connection with the vote on the water and power act, an initiated measure which did not authorize later amendments by the legislature. This bill, it will be recalled from the account in the last REVIEW, made state credit to the sum of $500,000,000 available for the development of the water power and irrigation facilities of California. An argument against the bill was that it could not be amended, even in the slightest technical detail, except by direct vote of the people. Such a necessity would be a continuing nuisance, it was declared, besides giving nse to possible inconsistencies through occasional amendments as time went on. Without discussing the intrinsic merit or demerit of the California proposal, which at this distance we shall not presume to judge, the di5culty of amendment is a valid argument against its adoption. Undoubtedly the measure was well drafted, and yet if government is to enter the field of industry on so vast a scale, elasticity in the arrangements for so doing is indispensable. Revision only through the cumbersome instrument of the initiative would weaken the chances for success of any business. After all, in private business we give our boards of directors sweeping power. Hadn’t we better direct some attention to improvement of our legislatures to make them trustworthy if our states are to become vast entrepl.eneurs of industry? The initiative was not developed as a tool for “fine work.” It resembles a meat ax more than a surgeon’s needle. Row Long WiU a Majority Rub 9 A great deal is heard these days about the probability of a third party, and stranger -things have happened. England, the old home of the two-party system to which so much of the success of parliamentary government is attributed, is definitely in the throes of threeparty if not four-party government, and in view of what may come to pass in our own country a survey of the recent English election by a student of proportional representation is of interest. Mr. John H. Humphreys, writing in the Manchester Guardian, points out that a minority of the voters have secured a majority in Parliament. Wile Bonar Law obtained one supporter in Commons for each 18,000 votes, each Labor and National Liberal seat cost 30,000 votes, and each Independent Liberal seat nearly 50,000 votes. The aggregate figures were : Conservative.. . . 5,578,554 297 208 18,110 Lab. and Co-op. . 4,232,759 138 169 30,672 Liberal.. . . . . ... 2,609,927 53 101 49,244 “Nat.” Liberal.. 1,568,015 50 61 31,360 Ind. and others. . 543,807 8 13 43,981 . Totals.. . .. . 14,133,185 546 546 --

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4 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [J-uars The present government is undoubtedly weakened by the fact that it polled little more than one third of the votes. But under P. R. no party would have had control of Parliament. Control would have been obtained only through a bloc which would be relatively unstable. The truth seems to be that the time is coming when a “yes” or “no” attitude on a given set of general propositions no longer satisfies the voter. Proportionsl representation by placing a premium on individual opinion 89 againat welldrilled party organization will, when adopted, assist in party subdivision. Will the stability to which we are accustomed, particularly in the executive department, be threatened? If so, what shall we do about it? H. W. DODDB. IN MEMORIAM DTJRING the past year it has been our sad duty to note in the REVIEW the passing of two old friends and 05cers of the League, Mr. John A. Butler of Milwaukee and Mr. Oliver McClintock of Pittsburgh. The death of a third must now be reported. Just three days before we assembled for our annual meeting Mi. -Charlea Richardson of Philadelphia passed away. Mi. Rirhardson waa vicepresident of the League from its founding in 1894 until failing strength in old age compelled him to retire in 1920. A MINUTE The following minute, drafted by Clinton Rogers WoodrufT, has been adopted by the Council: During the year lM!2 the National Muniapd Lmgue has been ded upon to mourn the loan d thna of its mont highly honored and dul members: Mr. Charlea Richardson, who WM &president from 1894 to 1920; John A. Butler, Eq. of Milwaukee, who WM long a member d the Counal. and Mr. Oliver McClintock of Pittsburgh, do waa a membex of the Council horn 1898 to 1918. and a vice-president from 1916 to hir death. Mr. Bicbmbon was a member of the Committm of the PhiLdelphia Muniapal League which kid the plma for the Phil-delphia League for Good City Government in 1894. out of which grew the National Municipal League. He WM a manba of the Committee of Seven which dnn the dgbd mnstitution and bylaws, and far mauy yara faithfully attended dl the meet& both d the Lugue. of the Executive CornmittSe 4 of the Council, and was at all timea a atrong friend and a wise adviser of the officers and espedrlly of the secretary. with whom he had dcea for many yesrs. It in dBcult to estimate the value of the serviced of a man like Mr. Richdmn, devoted to the public intaatr and to hie public dutk all that we can do is to put on record a minuta character of &cea and our llenre of loan. Conference and at moat of the mccding oncl until ill health prevented his attendance. He WM virile, alert, chivalroun in his advocacy of the highwt public intererrts. and a real cosdjutor of the leadem of the xno~emata. Mr. McClintocL wm patient, devoted and unremitting in hir attendam to his dutiea. Like Mr. Richardson and Mr. Butler he was faithful in hir attendance of mee&ga and in meeting his obfigations. The National Municipal League pkar on record its grateful recognition and appreciation of the servicea of these pionof an OrgUrisG tion which means M) much to the welfm of American citizens, and upream to the membm of their &ve familia itr deepeat mympathy coupled with an expression of itr high esteem of the men M men and Y publi~irital citizens. pointing out the tmma of his afmicea .nd the Mr. ButJex WM present at the Philadelphia .

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THE FIRST YEAR'S SUCCESS QF MANAGERS GOVERNMENT IN SACRAMENTO BY THE CITY CONTROLLER The Controller of Sacramento repds to the citizens thefirst year's experience with city manager government. $118,000 saved in operating costs; $260,000 we from revenue producing departments; new activities all financed frm the budget These are some of the high Spot.. :: .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. The operating costs for the city of Sacramento under the manager form for the year ending June 30, 19!2!2, showed a saving of $112,926.88 over the commission form of government for the year previous. Comparative figures are as follows: Conunission form of government, Jdy 1, 1920, to June 30, 19'31, salaries, wages, services. expense, materials and supplies.. .. $907,889.11 Manager form of government, July 1.19'31, to June SO, 192'3. .. 794,962.S $11'3.928.88 sprinkling system for Helvetia Cemetery; new park equipment; improvements at Camp Sacramento such as new buildings, equipment, etc.; water taps, flanges, etc., for the water mains division, $15,000; trucks, bookkeeping machines and equipment for garbage department ; equipment for hydroelectric survey. The above expenditures were made to replace run-down equipment and to improve other equipment that had been allowed to deteriorate in the city's service. The new activities were financed from the budget. ' $450,000 MORE IN NEW EQUIPMENT INDIVIDUAL EERVICE DEPARTMENTS MADE SELF-SUPPORTING Under the heading of permanent improvements and outlay for new Of equal importance to the reducequipment, there was invested under tion of the cost of maintaining the the manager form $452,331.17 more government of the city is the increased than was invested by the commission revenue through revenue-producing from of government for the preceding departments, which under the commisyear. Important among these figures sion form of government were not selfare the following: supporting. The total revenue under New automobiles and police patrol, the commission form of government police department; new automobiles for the year ending June 30,1921, was for inspectors, food and market divi$437,938.88, exclusive of taxes. The sion; new electrical pumps for Pump revenue for the year ending June 30, No. 1 (thus increasing the efficiency 1922, under the manager form, was and reducing the operating cost of that $698,583.85, or an increase of $260,division 5% per cent); two vacuum 653.97. streetcleaning machines, $13,000; $30,It was found that departments that 000 in permanent street improvement were rendering services were operating work; payment on site and new equipat a large deficit. A survey of condiment for the city library; modern tions was made and amended ordi6

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6 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW tJanurtry nances put through so those departments that rendered an individual service were placed on a self-supporting basis. This affected such departments as the building inspector, water taps, electrical inspection, health inspections, licenses, etc. During the first yar of operation of the manager form, we inaugurated several new departments which have never been a drain upon the taxpayers and are rendering efficient service to the public at this time. Principal among these is the garbage department. This department was put on a selfsupporting basis almost from the beginning, and will pay for all its operating cost and purchase of equipment and show a profit at the end of this year. We have also eliminated the handling of garbage by incineration and inaugurated a new disposal site, and will derive a considerable profit from the feeding of hogs on the garbage. The St. Francis Hotel, belonging to the city of Sacramento, and formerly operated under private supervision, is now run by the city. This will show a profit to the city of $8,000 this year. During the last six months of 1991 it was necessary for the controller to operate the city government on 40 per cent of the available budget. This was accomplished without borrowing any money, all bills that belonged to the fiscal year were paid, and in addition took care of some $30,000 of obligations that were incurred by the commission form of government, and brought a surplus into this year of $28,500. The tax rate for 1922 was reduced by 8 cents on each $100 of assessed valuation, and a further reduction was made in the assessed valuation which represented $3,300,000. The budget for 192% was 8123,000 less than in 1921, and even with this reduction in the budget we were able to increase salaries in the police and fire departments amounting to some $32,000, carry on street work, and keep burning every night throughout the year the arc lights of the city, which had not been done previously. We feel that the manager form of government, based on the figures that are available in this office and the comment of those interested, is a distinct success. We expect at the end of the second year of this form of government that the increased efficiency and the savings to be made over previous forms will be considerably in excess of what the first year’s activities showed.

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BALTIMORE ADOPTS NEW CONCEPTION OF PUBLIC WELFARE BY BENJAMIN SCHWARTZ THE report of the municipal welfare commission of Baltimore, recently submitted to the ma or, contains a new gained ascendency in the last decade. It is in line with the city prsnning movement now engaging the attention of the most progressive citiea in the United States. After studying the wdare activities of 14 cities of over 100,OOO population and comparing their programs with that of Baltimore, the commission found that municipal endeavors along socisl welfare lines m Baltimore are without vision and careful forethought. Under the present system of government, no person or bmau is speci6caUy charged with planning for the dare of its inhabitanb. Thecare,insomedegree,ofthe pow, the helpleq the dependent, and the delinquent, is the limited conception of public welfare as carried out by the supervisors of city chdies. The canfused state of dairs in Baltimore is exemplified by the fact that expenditures are made and d fare tunetiarw are perfoarmed by aa many as eleven municipal agenrciea. CO-g of seven boards or commi!4 sions and lour &partments These do not include the many su-b and bureaus under their supwiskm nor do they include the state departments and agencies that perfd fare work for the cityThe city of conception of pub i c w&m which has Bdtimore further discharges its health, charities, recreational and correctional functions through 48 contract institutions and private agencies. It is obvious that under this arrangement, without proper co-ordination, the welfare activities of the city lend themdves neither to progress and growth, nor to the most efficient expenditure of the funds devoted to thes Purposes. Started in Kansas City in 1908, the movement for welfm departments in municipalities has constantly grown, with the result that 19 cities in the United States of over 100,OOO population have such departments. The tendency in the larger cities is to tiod and recreational adtivities in one independent department. A study of fourteen of these citiea by the commission shows the wide range of activities included in the conception of public welfare. The city of Cleveland has gone furthest by including the folIowing within the scope of its dare department: municipal hoapitd, bureau of vital statistics, Iabuzatorks, bureau of Sanitation, public nuLseg, bureau of child hygiene, burean of communicable diseases, inspection of markets and foods relief of poor, employment bureau, hmipmt aid, workhouse and jail, correctional farms, care of parks and playpmds centralize dl health, charities, cornand planning community recreaa~aamrmicipl-~tD tianal program. ~hese cities that a**d 9 a have adopted modern methods for the ~&6b periormal by & city. & dare of their citizens have raised the rrathcrcrrbrgopthea=lmkh. department in charge of the work to aNok'3b-d * msxdy 9

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8 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January one of dignity, second only to the department of education. The commission did not see fit to include in one department all the related welfare activities of Baltimore. It was felt that the greatest present need was for improvement and coordination in the charities and recreational phases of the city’s work, and that the new department should commence with these. As a matter of fact, the commission, satisfied with the way the health department was functioning, recommended that the care of the indigent sick, fourteen contract hospitals and ten dispensaries should be transferred to the health department under an appropriate bureau. We agree that the care of the sick is not -properly a function of the supervisors of charities and that the question of health, not poverty, should determine the jurisdiction. Future developments will dictate whether the health department and the correctional institutions should be incorporated under the general direction of the larger welfare department. The major recommendations of the commission are three: 1. The creation of a new department of public welfare in charge of a small board of five, one of whom shall be a paid chairman and executive director of the department. 2. The concentration under this department of the powers of the present supervisors of city charities, the free public bath commission and the board for mothers’ relief, with certain welfare functions of other city departments. 3. The recommendation of four new activities to be undertaken by the department : a. Legal aid to the poor. b. Social service for city emc. Limited regulation and endorsement of private charities. d. Research and social surveys. It is not expected that this whole program can be put into operation at once. The commission has limited its suggestion to those things which seem to be practicable and in accordance with the present scheme of city government. Further progress can be safely left to the future as the new department demonstrates its usefulness. ployees.

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REGIONAL PLANNING FOR NEW YORK AND ITS ENVIRONS BY FLAVEL SHURTLEFF Assisted Smdary. Plan of New York and Its Enwirona The formulation of a gigantic regional plan for the New York Metropolitan district is well under way. It yhould make life worth living .. in New York. The factors involved are almost injinite. :: .. THE committee appointed by the Russell Sage Foundation, which in May announced its purpose to start the development of a regional plan of New York and its environs, has made profitable use of the summer months. At the time of the announcement, the committee saw pretty clearly the way ahead for two of its proposed studies, the physical and the legal, but was frankly in doubt about the best way to tackle the difficult task involved in making economic and social studies of the highly complex New York area. It could not write the economic and industrial history of New York, nor could it make an exhaustive survey of the social and living conditions of the whole region, and yet no part of these fields could be neglected which would contribute to the body of material out of which the planner would create a regional plan. Patffider surveys were needed which would avoid too great detail and yet give an adequate picture of the whole field. This was the work of the summer. The committee now has in hand preliminary reports on which to base its more detailed studies. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS Roswell C. McCrea, professor of economics at Columbia University, and Walter W. Stewart, now director of analysis and research of the Federal Reserve Board, have outlined an economic and industrial inquiry which primarily is an attempt to discover the proper relations of activities to areas so that activities may be rightly 10cated within the region with reference to each other and to national and world economy. The report asks such questions as, What is the work of New York? How much could as well or better be done somewhere else? What are the economic features which influence the growth and character of population? What are the influences which will extend or limit the future population? The influence of building construction on present congestion, of real estate operations, of the growing use of automobiles, are some of the other topics suggested, and they must all be studied and their interrelations traced as far as possible, ah to the end that adequate provision may be made for the work to be done, the housing of the workers, and the distribution of their output. The inquiry under the social and living conditions has been broken up into the units of health, housing, school facilities and recreation. For each of these, a preliminary statement of the problem has been made. HEALTH Dr. Haven Emerson, professor of public health administration at Columbia has summarized the ways in which planning will be affected by considera9

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10 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January tions of health and medical care. He stresses the need of three studies: first, the bacteriological examination of waters used for bathing, both fresh and salt, for in spite of abundant evidence of pollution at certain points no exact information of this sort is available; then a thorough study of air pollution, about which, likewise, nothing is known comprehensively; and a survey of all the facilities for health promotion and the care of the sick in the region outside of New York city. Within the city, data of this sort has been compiled very completely by the Academy of Medicine and chapters of the American Red Cross. The goal to be sought is first to how what is available in the way of hospitalization, .nursing service and clinical facilities; to recognize the unfilled needs; to see how all these services can be co-ordinated and finally to determine site requirements, HOUSING In a preliminary study of housing the important task is to get a clear picture of what has been happening over a period of years long enough to indicate trends, so that what is likely to happen can be forecast and then to a degree controlled. It has been found by Lawson Purdy, formerly tax commissioner of New York, and Wayne D. Heydecker of the American City Bureau, that in New York the records of the tax and tenement house departments, together with t'le zoning maps, the maps prepared by the Physical Survey and the atlases used by insurance companies give a reasonably adequate basis for discovering the trends of new construction. Data of this sort, checked by rapid inspection tours, is now compiled, ready for further analysis, in the office of the committee. tions as the smaller town will need, can be used throughout the region. There remain questions for the future. What sort of houses best fit the residence zones, and how should they be placed on their respective parcels of land? What does the city dweller in a specified income group get for the money he spends in housing? What does a man in the same group get in the suburban town? SCHOOLS Similar questions about schools are raised by George D. Strayer, and N. L. Engelhardt of Teachers College, Columbia University, but the answers are more nearly ready, for school construction has been in recent years the subject of intensive study and standardization. In the region of the plan there are no less than 787 separate units for educational administration, however, and the mere financial limitations found in many of them may make standardization difficult. To house pupils, Dr. Strayer suggests in general terms, larger and better school buildings, on sites ranging from five to twelve acres apiece, with fewer and stronger administrative units. Here again the final recommendations must follow the determination of extent of growth and directions of movement within the region, but there is much to be done at once. RECREATION If the plan results in grouping people around their work so that time and nervous energy are not so violently snatched away by the daily journey to and from shop or office, there will be for the first time in the experience of hundreds of thousands of New Yorkers a real opportunity for daily outdoor recreation. In a large sense, therefore, the whole work of the committee looks Similar methods, with such modificatoward recreation as its ultimate result.

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19as1 REGIONAL PLANNING FOR NEW YORK 11 True, parks and playgrounds cannot be loccited, gymnasiums and community houses cannot be provided for, until the plan is sufliciently advanced to indicate where people are going to live and in what numbers. But a good many questions need clearing up before the interests of recreation can be adequately covered in the plan. They have been formulated by Lee F. Halnmer and C. A. Perry, director and associate director, department of recreation, Russell Sage Foundation. What, for example, is the effect of allowing children to grow up, no matter how near a public playground, without the special experiences of the onefamily back yard? And what proportion of the population, being single or childless, can properly be encouraged to seek apartments and leave back yards for the children? It is vitally important for a neighborhood to feel that it is a neighborhood. Among all the districts of every shape and size created by government and social agencies, what is the unit area in which a community feeling-as expressed in a neighborhood association of some sort-most naturally arises and maintains itself? Once this norm is discovered we shall know better how to locate baby clinics and clubhouses and Boy Scout troops and churches. Another important study is to deterrnine the adequacy in numbers and size of various types of parks and recreation places in the region and the location of new facilities. THE PHYSICAL SURVEY The physical survey in charge of Nelson P. Lewis, former chief engineer of the board of estimate and apportionment, New York city, has completed many items of its inventory of the physical assets and liabilities of the region. Comprehensive plans and drawings have been prepared, many of which are on exhibit at the Russell Sage Foundation building. THE LEGAL SURVEY The essence of the city planning problem is how to plan and preserve land and water areas for the best functioning of the region and to determine what areas are needed and best suited for commerce, business, industry, residence and recreation. The solution of these problems requires as complete a knowledge as possible of the uses for which the region is adapted, the trend of industry, residence and other uses, the reasonable need of space for public recreation and health, and the effect of topography in all these considerations. The proper field of the legal survey, therefore, embraces the kind of title that the public or municipalities or individuals have in land, watei and land under water, methods of acquiring and transferring these titles so as to bring the greatest measure of utility to the owners with the least expense, the quality of public or private title that will make the land most useful, the method of demarcation of public from private land, the stabilization of this demarcation when not followed up at once by actual public acquirement, and the regulation of private land and the structures thereon for the health, safety and general welfare of the people. The legal survey has already completed much of this field.

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NASHVILLE: A STUDY IN POLITICAL PATHOLOGY BY ARTHUR B. MAYS In 19.21, Nashville received from the legislature a badly mutilated city manager charter. In the jollDwing election, however, a council was elected, pledged to appoint as manager a local leader who had promised to abolish manager government. With the help of thi8 manager, who considers himself to have been elected by the people, representatives to the state legislature have been chosen, pledged to ie8tol.e the old charter *. .. .. .. .. of 1883. :: .. THE city of Nashville, Tennessee, has had since 1885 three fundamentally different forms of city government, and at a recent election (July, 1922) by a very large majority the city voted to 'return to the old type of government it had from 1883 to 1913, when the first change was made. A survey of the charter history of the city shows that the popular method of attempting to remedy the grosser defects in the municipal government up to 1913 was to secure charter amendments. But with the general interest over the country in municipal reform and experiment in city administration, the people of Nashville turned to new forms of government for relief from official inefficiency and corruption. As one studies the changes from councilmanic to commission government in 1913; from commission to city manager in 1921; then from city manager to councilmanic in 1922, he very soon becomes curious as to the causes and methods of the changes. An examination of one of these changes will indicate some of the problems involved in reform movements in American cities. POLITICIANS IN THE SADDLE In 1921 Nashville elected representatives to the legislature pledged to .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. give the city a new charter which would change the government to the city-manager form; and the reason is not far to seek, for it is quite clear from the daily papers that an impossible situation had developed in the city commission which to the non-political voter meant the need of a speedy change of government. The commission was composed of five members including the mayor, and had split in two warring factions with two commissioners in each faction and the fifth voting first with one faction then with the other. By thus holding the balance of power this one commissioner soon became the absolute ruler of the city and Nashville came to suffer all the usual evils of one-man rule. So long as the possibility of such a condition existed, the main issue in the minds of interested voters was to change the form of government. It seems quite clear also that Nashville, like most other American cities, has for years been more or less under the dominance of one or two wellorganized groups of professional politicians and the people, always vaguely conscious of this condition, have struck blindly at every opportunity to rid themselves of this dominance, and a change of government seems an easy way to accomplish this end. The

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19!23] A STUDY IN POLITICAL PATHOLOGY 13 presence of such influences is clearly ,indicated by the clean-cut fight over representation which developed during every one of the charter campaigns, namely: the reformers always fought for elections at large while the professional political group invariably fought for ward elections. The former group made its appeal on the basis of efficiency and honesty in government and the avoidance of log-rolling and petty ward-politics, while the latter made its appeals to love of “freedom,” “litwty,” “democracy,” etc. The earmarks of the appeals made by the latter group are unmistakable to the student of politics and their other methods reveal very clearly the difficulties in the way of scientific, efficient government in Nashville. LEGIIBLATURE MENDS CHARTER BILL BEYOND RECOGNITION Mter a campaign in which charter change was the issue, the city-manager ticket was elected and apparently the whole matter was settled. When the legislature met and the city-manager charter was presented by the Nashville delegation, one of the leading papers claimed to have discovered that the charter as presented was grossly undemocratic and was a plain effort of the mayor to perpetuate his and his friends’ terms of office and to gain complete control of the entire city for an indefinite period of years. It further discovered that the city-manager form of government was a one-man government in which the people had no influence or power whatever and called on all liberty-loving people to come to the rescue of the city. The other leading paper, of course, took the opposite view regarding the charter and the fight was on. First one group of citizens, then another had conferences with the Davidson county delegation, until one senator went over to the opponents of the charter. Then the merry game of amendments and compromises began, and it ended with a charter which resembled the original only in exterior form. It seems that the proponents of the new charter had, in their zeal to get strong men on the first council, made the fatal political mistake of inserting the names of the first council. Also because of a state law in Tennessee which makes it impossible to legislate an official out of office, all the old commissioners had to be provided for in the new government till their existing terms of office expired. Both these phases of the charter gave color to the various charges made by the opposition. The resuit was a split in the legislative delegation which soon spread to the out-of-town legislators, who always make large use of city charter bills for trading purposes. Unfortunately, too, for the friends of the charter they had overlooked, either purposely or inadvertently, that women could vote in the coming general election by a special act exempting them, that year, from registration which normally should have occurred before the date of their enfranchisement. The charter called for the usual electoral qualification and failed to provide for the special exemption for the women. The politically inclined women met and protested and the opponents of the charter naturally seized on this situation with a loud cry and made much of it. When the remains of the original charter finally reached the governor, another determined effort to defeat the city-manager form was made. In a single day, by nine o’clock A.M., two committees had called on the governor, one to urge him to sign the bill early before anything else happened to it, and the other to urge him to veto it as it was unconstitutional. The governor doubtless being more interested in

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14 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January breakfast made an appointment to meet both groups with the attorneygeneral at noon. At this meeting, after much heated discussion, the bill was further changed and sent back to the legislature, after which it was finally signed. It was after this that the real fighting began. TEE CHARTER A TRAVESTY ON C. M. PLAN It was clearly evident by the time the charter bill was signed that the whole question had become merely a political football to be played with by two of the old political factions of professional politicians. Numerous references, in speeches and editorials, to the leaders of the factions and to their -political records indicate the character of the situation, and doubtless explain a noticeable indifference on the part of the men responsible in the first place for the proposal of a city-manager government. The further fact that various amendments to the charter had in the thought of its earlier proponents changed its whole character and made it, in their opinion, a travesty on a city-manager plan, served to cool their interest and left the field wide open to the warring political factions. A CANDIDATE FOR MANAGER PRINCIPAL FIGURE W CAMPAIGN As soon as the charter bill had become a law, one of the important daily papers made the following astonishing proposal: The issue has been made. . . . Are the people of Nashville capable of self-government? The citizens who believe in popular government, who are old-fashioned enough to beIieve that democracy still lives and are unafraid of popular elections should call upon the most available man in Nashville, for it is evident that some Nashville man is to be selected as city manager--to becorns a candidate for city manager, a man who is not dominated or domineering, a man who possesses none of the elements of a tyrant but believes in the privileges of democracy. It further urged that candidates for the council be placed in the jield who would be pledged to such a candidate for city manager “just as presidential electors are selected for a candidate for preuident.” This proposal, of course, indicated a clear-cut disposition by one of the factions wholly to disregard the spirit as well as the letter of the new charter and marked the beginning of a typical American mud-slinging municipal contest. The proponents of the charter were placed at the very great disadvantage of advocating merely a principle of political conduct, namely, to elect councilmen who would be free to choose a proper city manager according to the spirit of the charter. The opponents at once began a campaign for a person and insisted on holding the fight mainly on the level of personalities. The inevitable result occurred in that the two factions soon settled down to a campaign of vilification of personalities with only occasionally an effort to discuss the real issue before the voters. All the political claptrap so familiar to observers of American politics was freely indulged in and the usual arguments which are used to get the vote of the common people” were made much of. One of the papers apparently tried very hard to hold attention tQ the real issue created by the candidacy of a city manager under a charter designed to put the office wholly out of politics, but was forced into the position of answering charges and making countercharges. 66 THE “Eh4YOR-MANAGER” VIRTUALLY ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE By election day, the real issue WBS apparently completely submerged and

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19231 A STUDY IN POLITICAL PATHOLOGY 15 the great majority doubtless felt they were voting for the defence of their civil and political liberties guaranteed by the constitution of the United States. Certainly that was what they were told they were voting on, and they were shown by every possible argument that the only way to preserve their liberties was to vote for councilmen pledged to elect the candidate for city manager. This they did overwhelmingly and the candidate, a man of excellent reputation and well liked generally, was considered elected by the. people to the office of “mayormanager,” and the liberties of the people were saved. The new ‘‘ mayor-manager ” pledged himself to act as a trustee of the city government till such time as a new charter could be obtained and to refrain from exercising any of the “autocr:ttic” powers granted by a citymanager charter. The ward election mop of the city shows that while the victory of the opponents of the new charter was complete, there were significant ward returns indicating in a general way the character of the fight made by the opponents of the charter,. and the economic and social class behind the effort to take the mayor’s o%ice as far out of politics as possible. The tenth, or “silk stocking,” ward and the eighth, a substantial residential section, were the only wards giving majorities against the candidate for mayor-manager,” while the seventh ward which includes a large negro section and factory section gave a vote of about ten to one for him. The fact thst the candidate was a very popular m:m with no bad political record may explain the close vote in some of the otlber more substantial districts. MAYOR-MANAGER LEADS FIGHT TO RESTORE OLD GOVERNMENT In the campaign recently closed (July, 1922) in which the mayor made a fight for a change back to the old councilmanic government with nearly all of the city officials elected by popular vote, he was overwhelmingly suecessful. The legislators elected are pledged to secure for Nashville such a charter in the new legislature which convenes in January. The usual popular appeal was made and the opponents of the mayor were forced into an impossible position. The present government is a city-manager government in name but possesses none of the virtues of such a form of government, and the earlier proponents of the city-manager charter saw that the only hope of keeping the city from slipping back to the old system of the 1883 charter was to fight for the next best, namely, the commission form of government. But since these same men, in their efforts to get the present charter adopted in 1921, condemned without measure the commission government then in existence, their pleas this summer had small effect. It is safe to predict that notwithstanding the fact that Nashville has dropped back to where she stood a generation ago, so far as her form of government is concerned, she will not in reality begin just where she left off when the first fundamental change came in 1913. The new charter will, without doubt, show the influence of. the spirit of reform and progress $&at has characterized the civic 1ea;krs of the past decade, and Nashville. will the more easily catch step with the forward movement in municipal goverrnent a not her ti me.

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THE CIVIC CENTER’ BY ARNOLD BRUNNER We have numroua possibilities fw public places of usefulness and .. .. .. .. beauty, but we limp behind Europe in developing them. “FIE three good men and true who were appointed “ Commissioners of Streets and Roads in the City of New York” produced after four years of study the unhappy arrangement we know so well which embodies nearly all the mistakes of judgment possible. The checker-board system of streets, the insuflicient number of avenues extending north and south, the absence of diagonal streets are familiar to us all. The one evidence shown by the commissioners that they possessed imagination and a faint appreciation of the future greatness of the city, was the really splendid “parade” indicated on their map. It extended from 23rd to 34th streets and from 3rd to 7th avenues, but by degrees it shrunk until it got to be what is now RIadison Square. City Hall Park gave promise of growing into a civic center, but this promise was not fulfilled. New York has never been able to overcome the disadvantage imposed on it by its wretched plan. We have repeatedly urged some modification which would include an adequate civic center. For j2ars we have schemed? protested and explained, but to-day I am unable to point out the civic center of my native town. The surroundings of our charming little city hall, instead of being developed and controlled, are most distressing and in perpetual danger of becoming worse. We have Fifth Avenue (what is left of ‘A paper read before the American Civic Association. it), Broadway, whose admirers at one time strongly objected to my calling it a “convulsion” and not a street, Riverside Drive, Central Park, many splendid buildings and some fine statues, but our civic center is still undiscovered. OTHER CITIES AS BAD AS NEW YORE While I may not speak of them as freely as I can of New York, there are other cities in the same plight. You recall them, large prosperous towns with streets deformed by trolleys extending in all directions, starting from nowhere and going nowhere in particular. Cities ruined by villainous “improvements,” as they are called, with nothing to distinguish them from each other except the census reports. What we especially miss in them is a civic center, the successor of the old village green, where there was the town pump and where the market wagons collected on market day. Before printing was invented and before the daily news was left at our doors every morning the market place exercised a great influence on the life of the people. Not only were goods bought and sold there, but the citizens met and interchanged ideas and discussed the affairs of the day. TEE “PUBLIC PLACE” ABROAD The Agora of the Greeks where public assemblies were held, the forum of the Romans, that historic meeting place and scene of great athletic games, were the real centers of communal

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1 SaS] THE CIVIC CENTER 17 intercourse. It is most interesting to trace the development of these open spaces. They kept their place in public life and assumed different forms in different countries throughout the centuries. The central square or Place of me&aeval and renaissance times was seldom consciously planned and owed its existence and its shape, which was usually irregular, to the position of some public building which dominated it. In the south of Europe it was often a atthedral or church, further north it was generally a town hall or “guildhall,” like the beautiful Salle aux Draps at Ypres, so wantonly destroyed in the war. We find another type of open space formed by cross streams of traffic and instead of marking it only by an “isle of safety,” or a policeman on a box as we do, it was deliberately treated so as to ]perform its function, which was to provide room for the traffic, subdivide and direct it. There are also minor centers in a properly planned self-respecting city, but the civic center as we now understand it is the place where the chief public bddings are grouped and which is tacitly recognized as the real center-the heart of the city. Once founded and accepted it is difficult to displace it. For instance, in Brussels the Grand Place, that delightful square surrounded by quaint guildhalls, has not been abandoned for newer and larger spaces fronting the modern public buildings. When the Belgians wish to celebrate or not, sing or pray, they congregate in the Grand Place, “that square of golden beauty” as Brand Whitlock describes it. If a city possesses elaborate buildings, statues and fountains scattered hem and there, it is of course richer for these possessions, but only when they am assembled so as to form an harmonious combination does the city, as a city, become more beautiful. Can you imagine London without Trafalgar Square? Paris without the Place de la Concorde, or Venice without the Piazza di San Marco? Or any of the charming French, Italian or Flemish towns we so much admire without its Place and its encircling buildings? These famous centers in famous cities do not always include the group of official buildings, but they personify the city, represent its intelligence, its soul. We know that they meant this to our enemies, too, for during the war they were the constant target for their bombardment, the favorite mark for their bombs from a~oplanes and Zeppelins. We in America are just beginning to realize the importance of a proper setting for our monumental buildings, their relation to each other and to their neighbors. Imagine how the dignity and majesty of St. Peters would sder if the great colonnaded forecourt were blotted from the map of Rome. The Arc de Triomphe through which passed our victorious armies, returning from the war, is a part of the design of the Place de l’Etoile, the arch is the center of the Star-the frame and the pictures were one thought. And let us not forget the superb setting of the Capitol at Washington. Imagine how, but for the genius of Major L’Enfant it might have been didgured by incongruous surroundings-its beauty spoiled by a mean and inadequate setting, TEE UTILITY OF A CMC CENTER To group the principal municipal buildings is manifestly advantageous for the convenience of transacting the city’s business. Too often such buildings have been erected on sites determined by chance, the interest of small groups of citizens or mere personal preference or whim. Certain activities

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18 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January are related to each other and are natural neighbors. Even in this painfully practical age of irritants the telephone and the pneumatic tube cannot take the place of personal conference. The selection of a site for a civic center depends on local conditions and often there is some spot already accepted as the heart of communal life, but if an entirely new location is sought there are many serious considerations to govern our choice,-its proximity to the center of population and to the geographical center of the town; its accessibility by broad streets and direct thoroughfares and by trolley lines; its relation to important business sections, its probable effect on them and their growth and on the growth of the city; the possibility of its affording relief of traffic congestion by distributing it or separating it from existing thoroughfares; the visibility of the site from various points, the nature of the environment, its freedom from smoke and dirt; the advantages offered for successful grouping and composition and the elasticity of the plan for future enlargement; the cost of the site and its effect on values of surrounding property by enhancing and stabilizing them. All things being equal it is naturally advisable to select inexpensive ground, not only on account of the initial economy but in order to secure for the city the advantage resulting from the inevitable rise in values of the neighboring ground. These are a few of the points to be considered, some praciical, some EMthetic. The demands of beauty and utility must yield to each other and combine with each other to obtain the complete harmony which we seek and which is surely attainable. This is the basis of the art of city making, the civic renaissance that is transforming our country, a protest against the license and disorder that are to be found everywhere. The civic center is an example of wise control. It represents law and order. Here the streets meet and resolve themselves into regular forms; the buildings stop swearing at each other, cease their struggle for prominence and their endeavors to overstep each other, they take their places in the civic ranks like true soldiers obedient to authority. Unworthy efforts to be conspicuous, petty successes and failures are forgotten, the dignity and majesty of the city are paramount. This is democracy in its best sense. The civic center is the most anti-bolshevik manifestation possible for here civic pride is born. OPPOSITION OF ‘‘SIpLL AMERICANS” The cost of changing a railroad switch, the grade of a street or moving a fence or telegraph pole, the expense of everything and the difficulty of altering anything have so clouded the perceptions of “practical men” that they cannot look forward at all. Their imitation economy has dispelled many visions and schemes for the benefit of mankind, delayed and even nullified the growth of many a city. I recall that a number of years ago when a few of us were trying to secure a civic center for New York and endeavoring to find a site for the new court house, we urged the committee in charge of this project to acquire the property on the north side of City Hail Park. You know that New York has always intended to build a new court house, and in political circles selecting a site for it has been considered the king of outdoor sports. I was the spokesman of this particular committee and after explaining our ideas, the chairman of the board said to me, “Young man (you may know by this how long ago it was), do you know how much that property is worth?” of

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19231 THE CIVIC CENTER 19 course I did not know and we retired in confusion. Some years after the same scene was repeated, the only difference being that I was a little older and the chairman of the board was replaced by another practical man, who, when he heard our plea for the only logical site for the court house, repeated his predecessor’s question, << Do you know what this property is worth?” and then I was able to respond triumphantly, “Yes sir, exactly twice what it was worth when we suggested its purchase before.” THE STATE CAPITAL r4dventurous achievements are to be found everywhere in our young and busy communities. It is impossible to count them, but San Francisco, Chicago, Denver, Portland, Pittsburgh, Harrisburg, New Haven, Philadelphia and Cleveland are among the many that spring to the mind as cities planning great things. Even in the Philippines, Manila and Baguio, the summer capital, have planned themselves in terms of well-ordered beauty. And now we come to the all-important state capital. The fact that a city has attained to that dignity seems to demand first-and quite rightlymajestic building for executive and legislative purposes, then acres of grctund-a great park approached by wide avenues. Unfortunately, however, this is too often not the case. We have the Boston State House dominating the town from its proud eminence, the famous gilded dome visible far out at sea; and that other gilded dome in Hartford in its charming environment. We recall the Albany capitol on the crest of the hill at the head of State Street proudly overlooking the I-Iudson River and the graceful classic building in Providence also on rising gro*md, the madcent capitol of St. Paul, the Des Moines public buildings in their 75 acres of park land, and the symmetrical official group in far-away Olympia in Washington state. These and many others give us varying degrees of pleasure and satisfaction. But where is the park around the Boston State House? And why is the view from the river of the Albany capitol obscured by an intrusive commercial building? And what is Providence doing about the railroads now too much in evidence? And when will the approaches to the St. Paul capitol be completed? Evidently there are no rules to the game. In closing I cannot refrain from again referring to Major L’Enfant, whose brilliant plan for the Capital city you all know. When the population of the entire nation was less than four million he saw in his mind a city to hold 800,000 people with splendid streets, broad avenues, parks, statues, pleasing vistas and great groups of government buildings to come. His plan is accepted as a masterpiece and the commission of 1901, while enlarging and elaborating it, vindicated it and used it as a basis for their report. Here was a man with prophetic forethought, a giant imagination, a dreamer with a firm faith in the future, and withal practical. While no city in the United States has the possibilities of the national capital its inspiration has affected a hundred cities of lesser magnitude and importance in voicing the demand for civic centers.

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THE ORGANIZED ATTACK ON THE DAYTON CHARTER BY WALTER J. MILLARD Although the Dayton Charter was sustained at the lust election by a vote of 25,000 to 16,000, dissatisfaction continues in some quarters. But why should a city with almost the smallest tax vote in the state, a city famous for excellent administration, be so divided as to the merits of its form of government? What created and sustains the opposition? THE Dayton Charter has again been under fire, and the attack came from the same source as before, the Taxpayer’s Protective League. The previous petition, circulated less than a .year ago, did not get upon the ballot because of its legal irregularities. This second petition, though it presented a very incoherent scheme of city government, came to vote on November 7. A Charter Defense League was formed which successfully defended city manager government and the present form was sustained by a vote of 25,000 to 16,000. But how can we explain such persistent and organized opposition to a system which placed Dayton in the front rank of wellgoverned cities? The Taxpayer’s Protective League is led by one W. A. Silvey, who owns some property that comes within the area that suffered from the disastrous flood of 1913. To guard against a repetition of it, an act was passed by the Ohio legislature 3etting up the Miami conservancy district which has undertaken immense engineering works now almost completed. It is impossible not to feel some sympathy for many small property owners who not only had suffered from the Hood but had also to shoulder the conservancy tax. Opposition to the conservancy naturally developed out of such a situation, and Silvey led the opposition. He instituted about forty law suits all of which have failed. A recent spell of rainy weather and the functioning of the impounding dams did much to bring coddence in the engineering work, though charges of waste and profiteering still pass from mouth to mouth. The Dayton commission drew against itself this body of protest because it voted to have Dayton included in the conservancy district. The conservancy tax thereby incurred, though it is collected by the county treasurer, is paid over by him to the city treaurer; he in turn gives it to the conservancy without subtracting a penny for the benefit of the city government. There are many citizens who do not thoroughly understand this and regard the conservancy tax as part of the cost of city government. Three other main sources of discontent become evident upon investigation. They are the rumors concerning the size of the city debt, the size of the tax rate, and the condition of the streets. DEBT AND TAXES With regard to the fist there is evidently a great deal of misunderstanding. Regular bonds, conservancy district bonds, waterworks bonds, bonds

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19931 ATTACK ON THE DAYTON CHARTER 21 for street paving, most of which will be paid by special assessment, bonds in ’the hands of the trustees of the siillring funds, all these are lumped in the mirids of many citizens into totals runnh,p from eighteen to thirty millions. “he finance director reports, however, that the actual net municipd indebtedness as of October 15, 1922, to be met by general taxation is $7,183,800. Why does this confusion exist? That point will be dealt with later. The misunderstanding concerning the taxation situation is just as prevalent. The tax rate of Dayton is in appearance the highest of any city of Ohio, $29.60 per $1,000. L. R. Sessions of the National Institute of Public Administration, temporarily in Dayton, has made an analysis that shows that the real expense for city government is not more than $7.65 per capita. This is the lowest per capita cost for any city of Ohio except Lima, where it is $5.60; that city, however, charges each family fifty-three cents per year for the collection of rubbish which Da.yton collects free. The average Da:ytonian apparently has not learned to ;judge by the per capita basis, nor does he even know that the rate of $29.60 is a total, including state, county, school, and conservancy rates, as well as the city rate of $9.13. Much less does it seem to be comprehended generally that the rate is based upon an extremely unjust and unreal appraisal. In spite of the mandate of the law the county commissioners have not ordered a re-appraisement for twelve years. In that time Dayton has had a flood which has disturbed the relative values within the city and county, and the world war has disturhed all values. In January an editorial in one of ‘the newspapers blamed the city government for the high rate without the writer apparently being aware of any of the facts here presented. Why does this ignorance exist eva in editozid offices? That, too, will be dealt with later. THE CONDITION OF THE STREETS Many of the streets of Dayton are in bad repair, and the city manager and the commission admit it. But the combination of the unjust appraisal and the Smith one-per-cent law, known throughout the state of Ohio as “the farmer’s sacred cow,” have prevented the city from getting sufficient revenue for all purposes and some services have had to suffer. Under a special law a bond issue was ordered, to cover the cost of needed paving. The courts held the total issue invalid but validated the bonds, amounting to $600,000, which had been issued. Since then the commission has been trying to use the money, only to be met by such a large number of petitions and petitioners whose property would have to bear part of the cost, that it has not had much chance to better the streets as a whole. The discontented also charge that Dayton View, a suburb inhabited by the bourgeosie, has been favored in the matter of paving, but taxi drivers who were interviewed said that, putting aside two main arteries, the general condition of Dayton View was worse than the rest of the city. But nobody had any exact knowledge. Why are not the main facts behind the paving situation, which an outside investigator could find in half an hour, the property of most of Dayton’s citizens? That point will be discussed together with the other two deferred. As well as these three present foci of disaffection, there are also several other ghosts of past happenings that would take up too much time to lay here. Also space cannot be used to ex

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aa NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January plain the amendment proposed by Mr. Silvey and his friends and to weigh its probable effect if it had carried. DOES THE GOVERNMENT MEET HUMAN NEEDS The opinion of all the persons interviewed in a three days’ stay was that the amount of discontent was so great that if a properly integrated amendment had been presented calling for a return to federal form, its chance of adoption would be very strong. This can only be because either the form or the personnel of the Dayton government has failed to meet some human needs. What these needs are becomes apparent almost at once; they are the need of personal contact with the city .government, the need for authoritative information, and the need for leadership. They will be dealt with in order. Every person interviewed by the writer in his visits to Dayton in the last two years has pointed out the lack of personal contact of the city hall with the people. Everyone who favors the manager plan admits that a commission of five, three elected one year for a four-year term and two elected two years after, cannot be representative enough to know what the people want. A non-partizan elimination primary is held and if two or three candidates, as the case may be, do not receive a majority, a second election is held, at which twice the number of candidates run who can be elected. As a result, no local interest however real, nor any minority opinion, can be represented on the commission. The Socialist candidates have been highest at the elimination primary on almost every occasion and generally come within 5 per cent of the total vote cast at the final election. No community can have a very healthy civic spirit when 45 per cent of its citizens having keenly felt interests are without representation. That part of the Silvey proposal that provided for a ward council of twelve made a very strong appeal to the twenty local improvement associations, each of which hankers for a member of the commission “who lives in our end of town.” P. R. WOULD RESTORE PERSONAL CONTACT The feeling of practically all those who wish to preserve the manager plan is that proportional representation and an increase in the size of the commission would meet this need. The movement for such a change was in a sense officially launched in an address two years ago by Henry Waite, made when revisiting the city, though no definite steps were taken at that time to apply it. A meeting of civic leaders recently called to safeguard the charter decided that in event the Silvey amendment is defeated, plans would be laid that will shortfy place such a P. R. amendment before the voters. NO WHOLESOME FOOD FOR PUBLIC OPINION The present lack of proper representation partly is responsible for thd” second outstanding need of the citizens of Dayton. It is quite evident to any observer that there is quite a little interest in the city’s affairs, but this interest is practically forced to feed on rumor or gossip. It cannot be appeased by frequent contacts with commissioners and there does not exist any adequate means of getting information and explanation about the city government. Lacking proper means of satisfying curiosity, many humble and well-meaning citizens have taken “ silkstocking,” “chamber of commerce,” “hell-fire work,” and a few other stereotypes,” and built out of them very fantastic (‘pictures in their heads.” 6L

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19431 ATTACK ON THE DAYTON CHARTER 23 The terms of Walter Lippmann’s book, Public Opinion, are here used, for the entire situation is a perfect proof of his argument that public opinions must be organized for the newspapers and that we cannot rely upon the newspapers to discover the facts upon which public opinions should be formed. Dayton has three daily papers that are frankly interested in national political parties. When the federal plan ww in use and a Democrat was mayor, then the Republican paper headlined every act that would make political capital, and the same was true, of course, when the shoe was on the other foot. But the actions of the commission cannot be so used. The interest of the editors is not now so strongly focused on the city hall except just previous to elections, when a spasm of civlic virtue leads them to vehemently demand that the voters “save the city froin the socialists.” If all reports are true, the young fellows who “cover” the city hall seem to be grateful for what material is actually handed to them in the form of a “story,” but it is nobody’s particular job to be publicity agent and dig up stories for the reporters. The charter provides for a municipal journal but the cost has always prevented the provision from being carried out. An attempt was made by the commission this year to fulfill it by running the municipal journal as a paid advertisement in the dailies, but no bids were received! PROPOSALS TO RESTORE CONTACT The need for making contact and spreading information has led to two protposals by former members of the commission. One proposal is that the city be divided into districts so that even though election is at large, a certain commissioner may be asked to familiarize himself with the paving, sewerage, lighting, and other needs of a particular part of the city; this idea is actuaily embodied in the election method of Grand Rapids, Michigan. The other is more ingenious, it is that each commissioner take his turn at giving an entire month‘s full time to the city work, not only by daily attendance at the city hall, but by visiting the improvement societies and all similar bodies with civic interest that meet during his term. Unfortunately no means can be found under the charter to provide for the necessary recompense. The provision of the Cleveland amendment that allows extra compensation for the mayor will make the core of this suggestion possible there. Obviously it would be unwise to have the task of providing the material for public opinion left entirely to city employees or to men who may seek reelection. Some outside source of information should exist in Dayton. At the present time only two exist, both inadequate, Once every month or SO the League of Women Voters has been printing a leaflet with pictures and diagrams of such things as the tax rate, that are understandable by the masses. Its size and circulation alone, however, prevent it from reaching many and the resources of that organization prevent it from doing much research work. There is also the Labw Review, which by front page boxed statistics and short articles is spreading accurate information. The Labor Review is the official organ of the labor unions of Dayton. After nine years’ experience organized labor evidently concludes that the manager plan is fundamentally sound. LEADERSHIP NEEDED Behind these two more or less obvious sources of irritation, there is another more elusive one which explains not so much the appearance of Silvey’s amendment as the apathetic attitude

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24 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January on the part of many who really favor the manager plan. Persons interviewed who are trained in getting the feel of the public mind said that there is lack of vision and leadership both in the government and in the group that have sponsored it. In its inception, the figure of John H. Patterson stood out and, though his interest continued until the last, his business and his age prevented a day by day identification with civic policy. Henry Waite was not only an executive but a leader who found it necessary sometimes to lead the commission and after he had obtained their halting consent to measures he often had the task of leading the people. Most people instinctively like being led and unconsciously Day.tonians thereafter have turned to the manager’s office rather than to the commissioners for leadership. But the successors of Waite have been more solely engineers than of that mixture of capacities that Waite accustomed Dayton to. Though sterling worth has continued to be exhibited in the manager’s office after Waite left, the public has seemingly craved for something else. After a time they turned more to the commission. The commission, however, has been made up of men who, while undoubtedly above the average capacity, have not fired the imagination. The Socialist ticket has possibly attracted many voters because one of the leaders of that party has that elusive thing-personality. It can hardly be charged that failure to attract leadership is due to the manager plan though the fault may be partly due to the method by which the commission has been elected. The old form of government did not attract leadership either. The capacity for leadership undoubtedly exists in Dayton but it is being directed toward the unique set of industries upon which Dayton thrives. It would be unfair to say that the men of parts in the city are absorbed in making money,-the sense of mastery that comes from solving mechanical problems is probably more keenly sought than any otherthe Engineers’ Club is now the centre of the masculine brains of the city. It is a pleasure to record that some of these engineers are taking steps to reestablish the Bureau of Municipal Research. This may lead to a greater interest in civic and political questions in Dayton on the part of those to whom the solving of the problem of automobile lubrication is now the only thing to be considered. But mere digging for facts will not meet Dayton’s problem. Some of the men who find the facts must learn how to interpret them to those who do not have the chance to get them at first hand, and in so doing the leaders needed will arise. In conclusion, then, it appears to this investigator that the three concrete charges against the present administration, the tax rate, the debt, and the paving, arise from three unfilled psychological needs of the citizens, a sense of personal contact, a desire for information, and a desire to be intelligently and dramatically led. The ’ need for personal contact and some of the desire for information can be met by reforming the eIection system. The desire for information can be met by making somebody responsible in the city hall for publicity and by the organization of a popularly supported Bureau of Municipal Research that shall not only gather facts but present them popularly to newspapers and other publicity avenues. When these needs are filled, they, together with the present crisis, may conspire to produce the men, or it may be women, who shall fire the imagination and lead the mass.

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A NATIONAL FOREST FOR THE NATIONAL CAPITAL BY WM. M. EUICOTT Pf&, cag Wda CoRpreSs. Baltimrs A national forest of 110,000 acres adjacent to Washington is practicable. The land iu available. More than half of it is now wooded. :: TEE subject of parks and playgrounds for Washington is, perhaps, as old aa the original plan of the city made by Major l’Enfant in the latter part of the eighteenth century, but to the writer it comes as a reflection of a project which he suggested in the year 1910. This project bad its birth in a speculative study of Washington in relation to the physical conditions of a very considerable area lying to the north and northeast of the city which attracted his attention because of the great stretches of forest which, even now, largely cover it, the sparse population which inhabits it and its close proximity and relation to one of the great civilized capitals of the world. It was with this as a thesis that he wrote a paper on “Forests as Pleasure Parks,” which was published in Art and Progress. The writer drew on his imagination and what knowledge he had of historic fon:sts and parks in the old world and endeavored to picture a living and beautiful forest and park covering the watersheds of the Anacostia and Patuxent rivers and stretching away to the estuaries of the Severn and South rivers as far as Annapolis in one direction and Laurel and the Great Falls of the Patomac in the other. Roads, vistas and grassy avenues were to be opened, refuges were to be built and even a place was to be found for a Greek theater where, annually, representations of Sophocles and Euripides might lead to the creation of an American drama such as has not yet appeared. While he was accused of megalomania by some and called a “pipe dreamer,” there were many who took the matter more seriously. The New Yo& Evening Post said Probably the fist impulse of nine persons out of ten, on reading the proposal that the government shall create a national forest of 100.000 acres immediately adjacent to Washington city, will be to say that it is nonsense. But it is anything but nonsense. . . . That there is a considerable forest area in a primitive state in the region bordering on Washington must strike everyone at all acquainted with that section. . . , If the tract is all Mr. Elliwtt this it is, there is probably no investment of a few million dollars that would be better worth while. To preserve in perpetuity a genuine national forest of 150 square miles in extent, within a stone’s throw of the national capital, would be an invaluable achievement. The project was endorsed in principle by the American Institute of Architects, the American Civic Association, the American Federation of Arts, the American Game Protective Association, The Federation of Women’s Clubs of Maryland, The Southern Maryland Society and the Board of Trade of Washington. President Wilson in an audience given to the Directors of the National Conservation Association made particular and extremely favorable mention of it. Lord Bryce, while ambassador from Great 85

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26 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January Britain, spoke of it with the highest approval, as did Col. Henry S. Graves, formerly United States chief forester, Hon. Maurice Francis Egan, Cass Gilbert, formerly president of the American Institute of Architects, the late Senator Francis Newlands and many other cultured and eminent men. Three years ago Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted, president of the American Society of Landscape Architects, appointed Mr. Stephen Child chairman of a committee to investigate and report on the subject in accordance with instructions of that society. Mr. Child’s committee made extensive investigations, receiving assistance from the forest service of RiIaryland which had completed surveys of all this territory, .from the commissioners of the District of Columbia, the agricultural department and the federal forestry bureau. Acting on this report the Society drew a resolution which broadened the scope of study of the problem. The Society urged the appointment of a Federal commission to study all the needs of the Washington region under what they termed regional plan, meaning to plan for the extension of the park system of the capital within and without the District of Columbia, to devise complete road systems, provide for hydroeIectric development, local and metropolitan water supply, reclamation and forestation, transportation, sanitation, suburban living conditions, laying out of model villages and improvement of existing ones and bringing all these varied buL allied interests into an organic system. It was also recommended that the park system of Baltimore should be co-ordinated with that of Washington. A NATIONAL FOREST Respecting the character of the country Mr. F. W. Besley, state forester for Maryland, says concerning the physical conditions of the territory in an article which he and the writer prepared and which was published in American Forestry in June, 1911: The area proposed for a national forest represents some of the oldest settled lands of the country. Since its occupation 450 years ago many changes have taken place. A considerable portion of the land under cultivation prior to the Civil War has since grown up in forest, not alone because of the scarcity of labor necessary for its continued cultivation, but because much of it was found better suited to the growing of timber than for agricultural crops. These young forests of hardwood and pine coming as a second growth have attained considerable importance, and by proper management they can be moulded into forests of great value. There are still to be found in small tracts some of the virgin forests showing the magnificence of the original growth and further illustrating future forest possibilities. For the botanist and the dendrologist, this is one of the most interesting regions of the eastern United States. Here on the border of two peat physiogaphical divisions, the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont Plateau, the flora of the north mixes with that of the south, and gives a variety of species di5cult to find.in any other area of equal size. As a natural arboretum, this region is unsurpassed. There are over sixty-five tree species alone, to say nothing of a large number of arborescent shrubs. Most of the valuable commercial species of the entire eastern United States are represented here. The great diversity of soils and forest types offers exceptional advantages as a demonstration field for applied forestry. The large wooded areas, lying between Washington, Baltimore and Annapolis, afford a rare opportunity for carrying out such a plan. The area shown on the map. lying between Washington and the Patuxent river, to the west of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, covers approximately 16,000 acres. of which about 8,300 acres, or 50 per cent, is now wooded. For the purpose of the forest description, any given area is considered wooded where there is a tree growth on the land at least ten feet high and where the trees are close enough together to form a stand. The main body of forest lying east of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, including spurs extending along South river and the Severn river. covers approximately 84,000 acres, of which

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19931 FOREST FOR THE NATIONAL CAPITAL 27 M,m acres, or 60 per cent, is wooded. The portion south of the Patuxent river is more largely wooded than the rest, amounting to 70 per cent. The portion to the northeast is 50 per cent wooded. The forests differ in character and composition, dependent upon soil conditions, especially as to moisture content, and also de The combined areas available for forest resep. vation as indicated on ihe map comprise about 110,000 acres, of which practically 64,500 acres, or 58 per cent, is now wooded. By making the boundaries more irregular, or excluding tmts that are nearly all cleared land, the area might be reduced and the percentage of woodlands corpendent upon the extent of previous cutting. On the few high gravel ridges along the edge of the Piedmont Plateau. the characteristic species are rock. post and black oaks. The higher slopes generally throughout the area are covered with scarlet and Spanish oaks, and chestnut; while on the lower slopes are found hickory, white oak and yellow poplar, walnut and black pi as the predominating trees. Along the streams a great variety of species are found, notably the maple, sycamore, beech, ash, birch, elm, etc. The characteristic trees of the swamps are red gum, willow, pin oak and willow oak. respondingly increased. The presence of cleared lands within the forest boundaries would not be a disadvantage. The best of the farm land could be used as experimental farms in co-operation with the department of agriculture, while those less adapted for agriculture could be planted in forests. It is safe to say that 85,000 acres of the tracts mentioned are typical forest lands already in forest or suitable for reforestation. There are many foreign trees that have not been fdy tried in this country under forest conditions. The rate of growth of most of our native species under the most favorable conditions as would result in

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as NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January planting have not been determined. The field for forest experimentation is a large and promising one which would find here the ideal conditions for its fulfillment. Governor Ritchie of Maryland has already appointed a sanitary commission, of which Mr. T. Howard Duckett is chairman, to study and report upon all territory impinging on the District line, and this commission has advanced its work far toward completion. It has very broad power, even in the control of real estate development and entire jurisdiction over watercourses, the maintenance of stream flow, protection of watersheds and similar matters. STATE SOVEREIGNTY MUST BE CONSIDERED Properly jealous of the sovereignty of the state, no sanction for a comprehensive scheme of expropriation for forestry or any other purpose by the Federal government has been, or is likely to be, given by the legislature of Maryland or of Virginia, nor could the authorities co-operate until that difficult subject had found a solution. This baffled those interested for a long time. It remained for the Board of Trade of Washington to do this and their committee on parks and playgrounds, Mr. Fred G. Coldren, chairman, has produced a most detailed and searching report and a bill which meets every objection and covers every phase of a very intricate and delicate subject. It is prepared by men who, passing their lives in t1.e capital, know its potentialities and its needs as no outsider could hope to do. They do not ask anything grandiose or extravagant but confine themselves wholly to those extensions of parks which are a natural development of what now exists. The report points out that, while the District line is necessary as a political boundary, it has no relation to the topographical and physical conditions which affect the city and suburbs and that in studying and developing Washington and its neighborhood, plans must be formulated satisfactory both to the Federal government and to the two states in cases where there is a community of interest and along lines in harmony with nature’s setting. Within the District there will be no question of dual interest but taking as an example, the question of the pollution of Rock creek whose feeders come into the District from Montgomery county, where uncontrolled building operations threaten the maintenance of the stream flow and where pollution affects the lower stream, it is important that some ground of united action be found, and the committee incorporating these provisions in the bill wishes to extend the park system to include these branches and their watersheds and to find a basis of co-operation for all matters which interest both the capital and the dwellers in adjacent territory. The report recommends a permanent commission to be known as the National Capital Park and Playground Commission, authorized to make a comprehensive study of the develop-, ment of the park and playground system of the national capital, and to acquire lands necessary for such development, both within the District of Columbia and in adjoining territory of Maryland and Viginia, and to provide for regular annual appropriations to be used by the commission for acquiring such lands. The land so acquired outside the District to be controlled as determined by agreement between the commission and the proper officers of the states of Maryland or Virginia subject to the approval of the president. In the selection of all lands the advice of the Commission of Fine Arts must be had.

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19231 CLEVELAND’S NEW CHARTER as The committee advises a regular annual appropriation of not more than one cent for each inhabitant of the continental United States, which would amount to just about a million dollars at the present time. Three fourths of this sum must be spent within the District and one fourth will therefore be available for expenditure in Maryland. or Virginia if desired. It is recommended that land bordering Rock creek be acquired, that a boulevard be constructed to connect the line of Civil War forts, including Fort. Stevens, where Lincoln was under fie. The committee also advises the extension of two park boulevards, one along the Rock creek valley to Baltimore and the other along the Eastern Branch or Anacostra, including Mount Hannilton (designated by the Fine Arts Conmission as a future arboretum or botanic garden), extending through Camp Mead, a reservation of 9,000 acres, to Baltimore, a road much needed because of heavy traffic and trucking along the present Baltimore highway. Under certain circumstances, the states might be desirous of participating in the purchase of tracts of land, and undoubtedly there is in the bill sufficient latitude for fair and equitable adjustment of such a matter, a part of the cost price being contributed by the Federal government, but the purchase, perhaps, being made by the state. The City-Wide Congress of Baltimore has endorsed the report and bill as eminently practical, as setting suitable limitations and as giving to the capital what in all justice it should have-a limited authority in the natural and inevitable extension of the city beyond the borders of the District of Columbia. It is recommended strongly to all citizens of the United States who have a pride in their beautiful capital that they support the bill (S. 4062) through letters to senators and congressmen and through resolutions of civic bodies. AN ANALYSIS OF CLEVELAND’S NEW CHARTER BY CHESTER C. MAXEY Weden Rearno Univmdg Clevelads newly add charter is nothing less than reooldionary. I. How TEE AMENDMENT WAS FRAMED ON the eighth of November, 1921, the votcers of Cleveland approved a propod amendment to the charter of the city providing for the substitution of the manager plan in combination with proportional representation for the exkting mayor-and4‘ouncil form of government. This was such an unprecedented, in fact revolutionary, departure for a large city that it excited universal interest while the equally remarkable way in which it was drafted and adopted has been almost overlooked. Stated briefly, what the amendment did was to repeal sections 3 to 198 inclusive of the existing charter and to substitute therefor one hundred and eighty-one revised sections comprising practically a new instrument of government; and this

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30 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January sweeping constituent change was brought to pass not by the usual solemn process of formulation by a representative charter-making body followed by a vote of the people, but by means of the initiative as provided in the charter itself. Doubtless this is the first instance in our municipal history of the use of the initiative for the framing and adoption of a measure of such fundamental and comprehensive character, and this fact, taken together with the unusual character of the amendment itself, lends extraordinary interest to the manner in which it was drafted. DR. HATTON GIVEN FREE HAND The initiative petition, by virtue of .which the amendment was placed on the ballot, was sponsored by a committee of citizens known as the Committee of One Hundred. The Committee of One Hundred was representative of various civic organizations and interests favorable to the manager plan, and was descended from a committee appointed some two years earlier by the same organizations and known as the Committee of Fifteen. The officers of the Committee of One Hundred were Peter Witt, chairman, A. R. Hatton, vice-chairman, J. D. Halliday, secretary. Dr. Hatton had been one of the most active members of the Committee of Fifteen and by virtue of his familiarity with the situation and his extensive experience as a draftsman of city charters was the logical person to be Lelected by the Committee of One Hundred to prepare the proposed amendment. He was given a free hand in the framing of the instrument, and his work was ratified by the Committee of One Hundred without substantial modification. Dr. Hatton was virtually able to rewrite the charter of Cleveland according to his own standards both as to form and content. He did not fail to take advantage of every opportunity to simplify and clarify the language of the original instrument, nor did he hesitate at any emendations which in his judgment would improve the substance of the charter. 11. THE ELECTION, ORQANIZATION AND PROCEDURE OF THE COUNCIL The one feature of the Cleveland amendment which has commanded universal interest is the provision for the election of the members of the city council by the Hare system of proportional representation. Yet it is doubtful if the real purpose of this innovation is generally understood. Proportional representation was not introduced in the Cleveland amendment as an end to be desired for its own sake merely, but to facilitate the attainment of the paramount object of the amendment, which was to bring about a shift of the political center of gravity from the executive to the legislative branch of the city government. Experience had amply demonstrated that the gravest defect of the prevailing system of government was the inevitable contamination of the executive service of the city by the spoils system and the’ concomitant evils of personal and partizan politics. This was the chief argument for the manager plan, which is supposed to take the executive service out of politics by providing for the choice and control of the chief executive by a small commission or council itself elected by the people on a nonpartizan basis. But Cleveland is several times larger than any city that has tried the commission-manager plan, and it pias feared that no matter how chosen, a commission or council of five, seven, or nine members would be too small to be fairly representative of the huge and diverse population of the city. And yet with a larger council it would

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19931 CLEVELAND'S NEW CUTER 31 be necessary to revert to the ward system with all of its admitted evils or to employ the method of election at large and contend with the ills incident to the long balIot. Experience, furthermore, supplied convincing proof that neither of these systems would be likely to produce a council that could be entrusted with the responsibility of selecting and controlling the manager. Proportional representation appeared to be the solution of the problem. It would obviate both the long ballot and the ward system, and still it would produce a representative body whose members, according to the contentions of the proportionalists, would be of exceptionally high quality. The amendment provides for a council of twenty-five members. The city is divided into four districts for the purpose of electing members of the council, and the four districts elect seven, five, six, and seven members respectiveIy by the proportional representation method. This allocation of representation is to remain unchanged until the reapportionment following the next decennial Federal census, unless prior to that time the population of the city shall have been augmented four per cent by the annexation of suburbs. The four districts represent a studied attempt to distribute representation on the basis of social and economic rather than geographical and numerical considerations. The districts are not equal in size or population (hence the inequality of representation in the council), but each is in a broad way a homogeneous social and economic entity. Within each district there are, of course, lesser social and economic groupings, and it is believed that where any of these is of consequence it will be accorded representation through the operation of the Hare system of election. The amendment contains elaborate rules governing the 3 form, marking and counting of the ballots.' RES'l'RAINTS UPON TFIE COUNCIL One might suppose that the confidence of the authors of the amendment that the new scheme of representation and election would produce a counci1 of superior quality, would have resulted in the abandonment of petty and vexatious restrictions upon councils that customarily abound in municipal charters; but it is a curious fact that the amended charter contains evidence of a deeper distrust of representative bodies than the original instrument. The old charter, for instance, empowers the council to & the salaries of its own members with the proviso that changes can apply only to the successor of the council making them; but the amendment ikes $1,800 as the councilmanic salary and deprives the council of authority to modify that figure. Naturally there occurs the query as to whether the framers feared that a council elected by proportional representation would be less trustworthy than the old council, chosen by the ward system. Another case of the same character is the change made in the rule regarding attendance. The provision of the original charter was that unless excused by a two-thirds vote of the council, a member should forfeit two per cent of his annual salary for each absence from a regular meeting of the council; but the amendment provides that a member shall forfeit two per cent of his annual salary for each absence from a regular or called meeting of the council unless prevented from attnding by his own illness, Does this unreasonable and inflexible rule suggest that the framers of the amendment anticipated that a council "Revised Hare Rules" published by the American Proportional Representation Society in 1917.

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32 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January chosen by proportional representation would exhibit a higher sense of public duty than councils of the old type? An additional indication of lack of confidence in the results of proportional representation is found in the provision regarding expulsion. Under the old charter a member guilty of misconduct or violation of the rules of the council could be expelled by a two-thirds vote of all of the members elected to the council. The amendment increases the majority required for expulsion to fourHths of all of the members elected to the council, a majority which could hardy be construed to indicate extensive confidence in the council to be elected by proportional representation. In the same way the majority required .to declare an ordinance immediately in effect as an emergency ordinance has been increased from two-thirds in the old charter to four-fifths in the amendment, a change which would certainly seem to be symptomatic of a fear that the council under the new order would be likely to abuse the emergency power. WILL TEE MAYOR BECOME PREMIER? The council, as is customary in commission-manager charters, is empowered to choose one of its own members as its president, and this functionary is endowed with the title of mayor and becomes the titular and ceremonial head of the city government. There is a possibility, in fact, that the mayor may develop into something more than the presiding officer of the council and the official head of the government. If the position should be filled by a succession of persons possessing qualities of leadership and statesmanship, it could quite readily evolve into a sort of premiership devoid of administrative responsibilities. The mayor, then, would be the political head of the government and the leader of the council in all matters involving the determination of policies. This would tend to remove the temptation which has victimized so many managers, viz., to overstep the bounds of administration and assume functions of political leadership. In anticipation of such a development the charter amendment provides for paying the mayor a salary commensurate with the importance of his functions. The council is also authorized to appoint a clerk and such other officers and employees for its own service aa it may deem necessary, all such officers and employees to serve during the pleasure of the council. The provisions having to do with the legislative procedure of the council and the form of ordinances and resolutions are carried over from the old charter without substantial modification, except for the insertion of a section providing for the codifcation of ordinances. BUDGET MODIFICATIONS The financial procedure prescribed in the old charter is imported into the amendment with adaptations and emendations designed to improve the operation of the budget system. Except in the case of the earnings of a non-tax-supported public utility the council could under the old charter at any time transfer money from one budget appropriation to another, but the new charter limits this right tounencumbered balances of appropriation$. The old charter provided that uaexpended balances of appropriations should revert to the respective funds from which they were appropriated; the amendment modifies this by prescribing that only unencumbered balances shall so revert, a very important change from the standpoint of budget control. AJIother instance of the attempt to tighten up financial procedure is the insertion of the requirement (Section 69), which did not appear in the former charter, that appropriations accounts

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19931 CLEVELAND’S NEW CHARTER 33 shall be kept for each item of appropriation made by the council, every warrant on the treasury to show specscally against which appropriation item it is drawn, and each account to show in detail the appropriation made by the council, the amount drawn thereon, the unpaid obligations charged against the item, and the unencumbered balance remaining. III. THE CITY M~NAOER AND THE ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICE The council is obliged to appoint a city manager who shall be the chief executive officer of the city. It is specified that the city manager shall be appointed solely on the basis of his executive and administrative qualifications and need not when appointed be a resident of Cleveland or the state of Ohio. He is to be appointed for an indefinite term, but to be removable at any time at the pleasure of the council. It is provided, however, that if be is removed at any time after he has served six months, he may demand that written charges be fled against him and shall be entitled to a public hearing at a meeting of the council prior to the time when his hal removal shall take place. Both the wisdom and efficacy of this provision are open to question. If a council, fearing the publicity involved in written charges and a public hearing, is determined nevertheless to reduce the manager to a position of political subserviency to it, it will find it possible to club the manager into line or remove him during the first six months. Moreover, written charges and a public hearing can be of very little protection to the manager unless they constitute a limitation upon the council’s power to remove, which is a result that the amendment disclaims as ’unintended. A council determined upon the removal of a manager on purely political grounds would have no dficulty in framing charges of such plausibility and conducting the hearing in such a manner that a manager solicitous of his professional reputation would prefer quietly to resign. Furthermore the council controls the compensation of the city manager, and may reduce his salary at Will or abolish it entirely without any public explanation. Obviously this furnishes an indirect way of forcing the resignation of the manager without the necessity of written charges and a public hearing. COUNCIL FORBIDDEN FROM ADMINISTRATIVE MEDDLING The council is forbidden to appoint one of its own members as city manager, which in the light of experience would seem to be a prudent restriction. It is likewise declared that neither the council nor any of its committees of members shall dictate or attempt to dictate or influence in any way the appointment or removal of persons in the administrative service under the city manager. And it is further declared that with the exception of conducting inquiries, the council shall deal with the administrative service of the city only through the city manager, and that neither the council nor any of its members shall give orders to any subordinate of the city manager either publicly or privately. The city manager is declared to be the head of the administrative service of the city and is responsible to the council for the administration of all affairs placed under his charge. He is given power to appoint the directors of all departments and all officers and members of commissions not included in the regular departments unless the charter specifically provides otherwise. The injunction is laid down that: Appointments made by the city managcr shall be on the basis of exeoutive and administrative ability and of the training and experience of such appointees for the work they are to admiter.

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34 NATIONAL MUNICIYAL REVIEW [January Manifestly this is mere counsel of perfection and of no legal force whatever. All officers appointed by the manager are immediately responsible to him and may be removed by him at any time; but in case of removal by the city manager, the person removed is entitled to have written charges filed against him by the city manager and to have a public hearing before the city manager before the removal can be made final. From the standpoint of sound administrative organization this restriction upon the manager’s removing power seems Viciously obstructive; for the persons protected against summary removal by the manager are not the great mass of officials and employees whose tenure will be protected .by the civil service provisions of the charter, but the heads of departments and other highly placed officials who will virtually constitute the manager’s cabinet and consequently should be removabb by him on such a purely capricious ground as personal incompatibility. The duties of the city manager are broadly outlined in Section 35 as follows : To act as chief conservator of the peace within the city; to supervise the administration of the affairsof thecity; to see that the ordinances of the city and the laws of the state are enforced; to make such recommendations to the council concerning the affairs of the city as may seem to him desirable; to keep the council advised of the financial condition and future needs of the city: to prepare and submit to the council the annual budget estimate; to prepare and submit to the council such reports as may ue required by that body; and to perform such other duties as may be prescribed by this charter or be required of him by ordinance or resolution of the council. It is provided that the city manager, the directors of departments, and any other officers designated by vote of the council, shall be entitled to seats in the council, but without power to vote. The manager is to have the right to participate in the discussion of all matters coming before the council, but the directors and other officers are confined to matters pertaining to their respective departments and offices. Power to investigate the conduct of any department or office of the city, re-inforced by power to subpoena witnesses, administer oaths, and compel the production of books, papers, and other evidence, is conferred upon the council, the city manager, or any person or committee authorized by either of them. The purpose of conferring this power upon the council is obvious, but in case of the manager, who has direct administrative authority over the executive service of the city, it would seem superfluous, unless it was intended to give the manager the power to explore the conduct of the offices under the council, such as mayor and clerk, which, if attempted, would lead to highly amusing complications. BROAD POWER TO DETERMINE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION Three departments-law, finance, and public utilities-axe created by the charter amendment, and the counci1 is empowered to establish additiond departments and offices at will. The council is also given power to revise and reorganize the administrative machinery of the city as it deems expedient, subject to the limitation that no function assigned by the charter to a particular department or office shall be abolished or assigned to another department or office and that no department shall be created or abolished until the recommendations of the city manager have been heard by the council. The functions of the three departments set up by the charter amendment are laid down with considerable explicitness and detail. The head of each department is appointed by the city manager and given the title of director. The work of each department is distributed among divisions, established

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1 SaU] CLEVELAND'S NEW CHARTER 35 by the charter or by the council, and at the head of each division is an officer known as the commissioner, who is appointed by the director acting in conformity with the civil service provisions of the charter. Each commissioner, with the approval and under the !iupervision of the director, appoints the officers and employees of his division and administers its affairs. The provisions of the old charter pertaining to the organization and control of the police and fire departments are carried over by the amendment with only such modifications as are necessary to adapt them to the new adnlinistrative set-up, the duality of command which has caused so many dificulties under the old charter being explicitly preserved. In rewriting the civil service provisions of the old charter care was taken not only to make the necessary adaptions to the new organization, but also to inject many provisions designed to safeguard and improve the operation of the merit system. A few examples will be given. The past history of civil service in Cleveland readily explains why the mandate was laid upon the council to appropriate each year a' sum sufEcient to carry out the civil service provisions of the charter, although the legal efficacy of the provision is open to question. The limitation upon transfers to a position subject to competitive tests from one not subject to competitive tests (sec. 96) is manifestly a wise precaution to protect the merit principle. Of the same character is section 98 which requires that the eligible lists andl the grades of candidates shall be open to public inspection, and that any person appointed from an eligible list and Iaid off for lack of work or appropriation shall be placed at the head of such eligible list and be eligible for reappointment for the period of eligibility provided by the rules of the commission. The striking increase of the penalty for violation of the civil service provisions of the charter or the rules of the commission from a fine varying from $10 to $100 or imprisonment for not more than ten days, or both, to a he varying from $50 to $1,000 or imprisonment not exceeding six months, or both, also indicates a determination to put teeth into the civil service laws. The provision (sec. 100) which directs the civil service commission to fix and enforce standards of efficiency and devise measures for co-ordinating the work of the various departments was doubtless introduced in order to pave the way for scientific personnel management in the city administration. IV. CONCLUSIONS Criticism of the details of the amended charter should not be allowed to obscure the fact that it is altogether the most courageous experiment in political reconstruction that is being undertaken in America to-day, and perfection of detail is not indispensable to its ultimate success. In the mind of the average citizen of Cleveland it probably represents simply a step in the direction of greater efficiency and economy, but it is far more than that. It not only marks the definite abandonment of the venerable principle of sepaxation of powers in municipal government and the ordination of an entirely new relation between the legislative and executive organs of government, but it also marks the advent of a new principle of representation which is likely to produce a legislative body of a composition wholly unlike anything previously known to American experience. It is an edifice of new design, erected upon new foundations, and we have yet to see how it will resist the stress and strain of the elements.

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MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING ADMINISTRATION EDITED BY WILLIAM A. BASSETT Importance of Adequate Control over the OG e~pancy of Buildings.-The importance of adequate control over the occupational use made of all buildings, together with the need for more drastic restrictions over the use of inflammable materials in manufacturing, and a better correlation of powers and actions of all governmental agencies having any jurisdiction over such matters was demonstrated once more in the conditions attending a recent fire in Manhattan, which resulted in the loss of four lives and the serious injury of a considerable number of persons. The building in which the fire occurred was an old three-story brick structure, a former residence. modified for businesa purposes about twenty years ago, and which since that time has been used mainly for light manufacturing. The 6re originated on the second floor in a celluloid comb factory, when an electric stove set fire to an asmrtment of combs on a work bench. The suddenness of the blaze and the character of the smoke which resulted caused a panic of the employees in the celluloid factory as well as those employed in a uniform factory on the top floor. The loss of lie appears to have been caused by failure to take advantage of the 6re escape at the rear of the building and also a short stairway leading to the roof from the hall on the third floor. The dense smoke at both of these points during the brief interval when escape by these methods waa possible apparently led the people on the third floor to believe that they were cut off and forced them to the front of the building. It is not necessary to go into detail as to the events that followed, but it is desired to point out certain significant features Trith respect to the building itself and the use made of it. Previous to 1916 there were three independent governmental agencies having jurisdiction over this building. These were the state department of labor, the bureau of buildings of Manhattan and the bureau of fire prevention of the fire department. The state department of labor up to 1916 had exercised the same jurisdiction over that building as over all other factories. During that year the labor law was modified so as to take away from the state department of labor the power over factories withiin New York city, these powers being mainly transferred to the fire department of the city. The building bureau of Manhattan had jurisdiction over all alterations made to the building including any that might be demanded by the fire department in order to guard against fire risk. The fire department was responsible for exercising control over the use of the building. The records of the building bureau show no violations against the building of any importance since 1911. The report shows that all violations had been complied with and the building had apparently met aU requirements of the city code and state code consistent with its use. The fire department exercises control over the use of buildings by means of periodic inspections. There is no evidence that that department has been lax in this particular case. The use of this building not having been changed since 1916 antedates the time when'a certificate of occupancy waa required from the bureau of buildings, and hence it hm been practically impossible for that bureau to have any knowledge of its use except through report by the fire department. The main weakness apparently lies in the fact, that there is no suitable provision in any code, or other regulation, over the use of celluloid except when in a raw state. The use of this highly inflammable material should be permitted in buildings having means of egress on all sides and then only under such conditions as would preclude the chance of sudden and disastrous spread of flames such as occurred in this particular case. It is interesting to note that recommendations designed to safeguard against such an occurrence in factory buildmgs were made to the state department of labor in 1918, but appropriate action to accomplish this has not up to the present time been taken by that department. There is a timely warning in the tragedy that took place in Manhattan for every community in the United States which is not protected by suitable legislntion and enforcement machinery against the hazard of such a disaster. 36

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19231 MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING ADMINISTRATION 37 Sewage Disposal at Lima, Ohio.-The experience of Lima, Ohio, in the matter of securkg 'a mage disposal plant sounds a note of warning to other communitim which may be contemplating the installation of such facilities to meet their own needs. Lima is a manufacturing city with a population of about 45,000. It is located on the Ottawa river, a stream which has a substantial flow during certain months of the year but which becomes almost nominal during the summer months. The practice which was followed of dixlurrging a considerable volume of the sewage of the city into this stream produced conditions, which, on complaint of certain riparian owners below the city, caused the state department of health under the terms of the Bense Act to order the city to purify its sewage. This was in 1915, but owing to the war definite adion in the matter was deferred until 1919. at which time the engineering firm of Fuller and McCliitock were engaged to design a system of intercepting sewers and treatment works. They recommended the adoption of a system including the use of iine .gcreens followed by trickling filters and final settling tanks equipped with Dorr thickeners. One of the re.asons for the selection of this type of plant was the comparatively low cost of operation. Under the Ohio Law the interest charges on Emd issues authorized for the construction of aewage treatment works when ordered by the ntate department of health to correct a nuisance, are not required to be paid from the general fund raised for taxation. to which there in a maximum limit of 15 mills per dollar of ILsse(lsed valuation. On the other hand operating expenses for treatment works must be paid out of funds raised by taxation and kept within the ten-mill rate unless there is a apecid election to authorize a special tax above that limit. In any event the limit of 16 milla cannot be exceeded. This makea it higdy desirable if not imperative to keep the operating expensea of sewage disposal plants aa low BB possible. Plans and spedications for the fine screens and sprinkling filters were prepared and submitted to the state department of hedth for approval. This approval was granted subject to the providon that, if neceesary, preliminary sedimentation would be provided in the disposal system and bida were advertised to be received on April 1, 192% About a week priqr to that date the Municipal Sewage Disposal Company of Phdadelphh. which controls the secalled Landreth direct-oxidstion process of sewage disposal, induced the city commission of Lima to postpone the origind date of letting the contract for the sewage disposal plant, and take steps for receiving alternate bids for a plant of the Landreth direct-oxidation type. This action bs been taken, plans and specihtions of the latter type of plant have been prepared and submitted to the state department of hedth for approval. In the meantime the city has retained another consulting engineer to investigate and report on the general suitab&ty of the direct-oxidation process to meet the local problem, and Lima waits for relief. It is not proposed to discusa in these pages the relative merits of any methods of sewage disposal. It is, however, desired to call attention to certain of the features of the present situation in Lima. The trickling-filter method of sewage disposal has an established record of adequacy and successful performance extending over the past twenty-five years. The Landreth diredoxidation process is a patented one, in which an electrolytic feature is introdumd into what is essentially a modification of the old excess-lime treatment of sewage. The advantages and disadvantages of the latter process have been the matter of sharp controversy and wide difference of opinion among engineers and others since it was first installed 89 an experimental plant about eight years ago at Elmhurst. Long Island. It is fair to say that conclusive data as to its superiority over other more established methods of Although thia eleventh-hour controversy to determine which of two merent types of sewage. plants shall be selected to serve the needs of Lima bas caused considerable delay and additional expense to the community, the seriousness of the situation does not lie in there conditions but in the events which lead up to them. The methods 0t salesmaaship employed, which induced the city commission of Lima to modify its action taken after receiving the report of its consulting engineers, and permit a concern selling s patented process to offer a competing proposition. savora too much of the practices followed in the past by bridge companies in the sale of highway bridges to communities for which the public paid a heavy toll. This magazine holds no brief for the consulting engineering profession nor does it oppose the use of patented devices or processes on public work. However, it is desired to point out the unwisdom of any community's disregarding the advice of suitably qualified individuals on mattreating sewage are lacking.

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38 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January ters of as highly technical a nature as is presented by the problem of sewage disposal. If such a policy is to be pursued the question naturally arises, why employ such professional experts in the first place? The experience of many communities in such matters has demonstrated that the most competent advice available is the most economical in the end. * Meeting the Cost of Paving Between the Tracks.-A proposed amendment to the charter of Omaha, requiring all street railway companies to meet the entire cost of paving the space between tracks and for a distance of eighteen inches outside of the rail, was made the subject of a petition submitted to the city council, and was voted down by that body by a vote of 4 to 5. It appears that the defeat of this proposal was due rather to a lack of the required number of qualified signatures to the petition presented than to a consideration of the merits of the proposal. The matter of what constitutes an equitable distribution of the cost of paving and maintaining the railroad area of cities has long been the subject of controversy between street railway companies and city governments. The prac,tice of reqairing the railway companies to meet the entire cost of thii work has been largely followed by American cities. Data compiled by the New York State Bureau of Municipal Information showed that out of 166 cities of 50,000 or more population indl but one case the companies were held responsible for pavement within the railroad area, although the extent of this a?ea outside of the tracks varies somewhat in different cities. During the past few years a concerted move has been made by street railway companies tosecurea certainamount of relief from the !inancia1 burden involved in meeting such requirements. This move has received rather more than nominal support from pultic service commissions and other regulatory bodies of that character. At the same time there has been pronounced opposition by engineers and other city officials to any modification of present requirements. The main arguments advanced by tpe companies and the public service commissions comprise: First, a plea for relief from the fmancial expenditure involved on account of the difEculties in which many street railway companies have been placed during the past few years; second, that the conditions governing at the time these requirements were 6rst established, mainly when horse cars were in operation, have changed so radically as to alter entirely the situation. Objections voiced particularly by engineers have been directed towards the increased cost of construction of street pavements in those streets over which street railway companies operate. Also the claim is made that the high cost of maintenance and relatively short lie of pavements adjacent to street car tracks result largely from inadequate street railway construction. Neither of the parties concerned give suitable recognition to the element that moat directly affects pavement work, namely traffic. It is well established that the presence of street car tracks within any street materially affects the cost of maintenance aa it invariably causes a change in the distribution of traffic, making a concentration at certain points, thus producing ununifo? wear. The objections advanced by engineers Gth regard to unsuitable street railway construction can and should be met by cities requiring construction of recognized standard design. There is IittIe to choose in the use made by traffic, particularly heavily loaded vehicles, between the railroad area and the rest of the street in.many of our large cities. Unquestionably, this use, accompanied as it is by the necessity of frequent turnouts either to pass street cars or permit the passing of the latter results in excessive wear of the railroad area and that section of the street pavement adjacent to it. At the same time it is an undisputed fact that extensive &e is made of the railway area by all kinds of traffic, this use contributing very largely to the wear and tear of that area. Conditions such as these, over which the street railway company has no control, would appear to make it questionable whether the railway company ,should be held entirely responsible for all damage done. The financing of street improvement work involving maintenance or repaving should be in accordance with a sound and equitable policy. Street railway companies should be called upon to pay substantial amounts for the privilege of using the public streets, but charges should be determined not in an arbitrary fashion but after a recognition of all elements entering into each case. There are sound grounds for requiring street railway companies to bear their share of maintaining the pavement within the railway area. There should, however, be equally sound

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19Q31 MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING ADMINISTRATION 39 bases for determining what charges should be made. Existing practice does not seem to meet thie requirement. * Soimd Principles for Regulating Motor Traffk-Measures designed to relieve the serious t&c conditions in Manhattan, proposed by Chief Magistrate William McAdoo of New York City, although directed towards effecting a solution of the local problem, are so sound in principle as to demand the serious attention of all persons engaged in studying traffic regulation. Judge McAdoo’s recommendations provide for: First, a revision of the licensing system to place the emphasis on saving lie instead of producing revenue, this to be accomplished by rlgorous prelii examination of drivers, either by the state or if necessary by the city. Second, the appointment of 1,500 additional traffic policemen to bs assigned to unprotected,street crossidg. Thin increased force is necebsitated. if by no other reason, by the fact that “most of the children killed are at crossings without police protection.” Third, placing a limit on the number of taxicabs permitted to operate within the city limits. The latter requirement may be taken care of by the bonding law, which requires all taxicab operators to bike out lisblity insurance, and which has recentl,y been upheld by the Appellate Division: Perhaps the most significant feature in Judge McAdoo’s proposals is his enunciation of the principle that the primary purpose of licensing motm vehicles and operators is the protection of life and property, the production of revenue being subordinate to this. Also it should be recognized that the regulation of trdc over the public highways is one phase of highway ad. ministration. It ia true that the actual enforcement of tra5c regulations is a police function and the licensing of operators comes within the purview of the police power of the state. This would seem to demand a close correlation of effort, particularly on the part of the highway and polioe departments of the state, cities and towns. both in the matter of formulating traffic regulation requirements, and in the subsequent adminktration of all phases of that work, if the best results are to be obtained. Such an arrangement would seem to justify placing the licensing of motor vehicles and operators either under the control of the state highway department or the various city police departments. Practical considerations favor including the actual administration of such work among the functions of the state highway department while granting the police departments broad powers in prescribiFg requirements for the protection of life. The state of Massachusetts furnishes perhaps the best example of a plan of administration which includes the licensing of motor vehicles among the functions delegated to the state highway commission. Other states. notably New Jersey and Maryland, have established separate departments to administer motor vehicle regulation. In most cases the plan of adminiitration followed recognizes the licensing of motor vehicles and operators as being a regulatory function designed to safeguard the use of the public highways. In New York state during 1921 the highway law was amended by an act transferring j~isdiction over motor vehicle regulation from the secretary of state’s office and placing it mder the state tax department. Apart from any question as. to the quality of service furnished the public in the adminiitration of this work by the tax department it is believed that the present arrangement is entirely illogical and constitutes a possible obstacle to securing the effective control over the use of the public highways of the state which the present situation so seriously demands. There is need for a revision of many provisions kt the present New York state highway law. The most serious need for amendment is in those sections relating to the regulation of tr&c over the public highways, and the recommendations made by Judge McAdoo with regard to this matter should receive most careful consideration by those engaged in preparing amendments designed to meet the present need. 9 Municipal Waste Disposal in New Orleans.The recent completion and placing in service of a 1Oo-ton capacity garbage incinerator in New Oreans marks an important stage in the carrying out of a plan to provide an up-to-date service for that city in the matter of the collection and disposal of municipal wastes. Under this plan the entire area of the city which lies east of the Miissippi river is divided into five waste collection districts. /The population to be served constitutes, on the basis of the 1920 census figurea approxbateiy 362,259, or 93.5 per cent Of the total. An incinerator wiU be constructed in each of these districts at which all garbage and refuse collected witbin the district will be de

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40 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January stroyed. The boundaries of the collection districts and the sites selected for the incinerators were determined after a careful study of the distribution of population and the production of garbage zones to ensure a minimum haul of the collected wastes. It is planned that the haul to any one of the incinerators will not exceed two miles. The collection equipment comprises cityowned wagons of a modern type of design with demountable steel containers. The total capacity of the five incinerators planned is approximately 400 tons per day. When these plants are completed it will be possible to abandon entirely the present methods of disposal by dumping and incineration in the open air. The eliiination of the dumps used for these purposes will not alone relieve conditions which in some sections of the city cause serious nuisance but also will aid effectively in reducing a potential health hazard to the community. “hiis is due largely to the large number of rats which infest theae dumps and which are recognized as disease carriers.@r. C. L. WiLams of the United States Public Health Service in commenting on the New Orleans situation strongly emphasizes the difficulties encountered in combating the rat evil and the benefits that should result from the new method of waste dispod. The construction of the elaborate drainage system which serves New Orleans was followed immediately by a marked decrease in the death rate. It will be interesting to learn if the radical changes beiig made in the disposal of municipal wastes by that city wU have any measurable effects on the health of that community. * / Reduction of the Hazard of Night Operation of Automobiles.-With the view of reducing the hazard of night operation of automobiles in Massachusetts, a consistent drive against all violators of the lighting provisions of the motor vehicle law is being conducted by Frank A. Goodwin, register of motor vehicles of that state. Particular attention is to be given to the enforcement of the requirement governing tail lights. which it is claimed is not met at present by more than one automobile owner in a hundred who is operating within the state. The present statute which was enacted as a result of the reeommendations of the Conference of Motor Vehicle Administrators, held in Massachusetts during July, 1922, requires that the tail light on all motor vehicles shall be so arranged as to make the number plate plainly visible at a distance of say feet. It is a wellestablished fact that night driving is peculiarly hazardous. Inadequate street lighting and dazzling lights of motor vehicles produce conditions which constitute a real menace on our highways. When mmpanied by reckless driving these constitute a combination that almost always results in disaster. Obviously, the ordinance in question tends to safeguard the public against reckless driving by enabling a ready detection of the offender. As such it should commend itself to all right-thinking people. The wide divergence in present state requirements governing the lighting of motor vehicles constitute8 one of the most serious defects in our system of tdc regdation. It is imperative that uniformity in these laws should be brought about. The proposed uniform vehicle law which has been endorsed by the Motor Vehicle Conference Committee has very carefully worked out lighting provisions. Although the latter regulations represent main&; the viewpoint of the manufacturers, they constitute a sound basis for the formulation of a law that will represent adequately all interests concerned. The provision in the Massachusetts law, which has been cited, has merit that should recommend its inclusion in any uniform lav for the regulation of motor traffic that may be developed.

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NOTES AND EVENTS I. GOVERNMJ3NT AND ADMINISTRATION Seattle to Cut Car Fare on Municipal Lines.Reports from Seattle are to the effect that the city council is determined to cut to five cents the present Sf-cent fare. The $15,000,000 purchase is now breaking even on the higher fare, but council in convinced that thq system must serve more people even at the risk of a deficit. More riders can be secured only by a reduction in fare. Among other plans. the weekly pass idea is beiig disisrmssed. Another suggestion is a three-cent fare for school children. * Pennsylvania's Extra-1egalBudget.-The Citizens’ Committee appointed by GiEord Pinchot to study Pennsylvania state expenditures, Dr. Clyde L. King, chain, has prepared and distributed budget estimate sheets to the spending departments to be used in preparing estimatea for the next biennium. Although Pennsylvania baa no budget law, it is Mr. Pmchot’s purpose to gatber and present to the legislature the estimates in budget form. The Citizens’ Committee although an extra-legal body, iS receiving the co-operation of tbe present governor and administrative heads. Thus when Mr. Pmchot enters office in January he will be well advanced in the prom of building up an intelligent budget. * B*ltimore Gains Inaeased Represenfation in Legislature.-Two amendments to the state constitution. giving Baltimore increased repremntation in the legislature. were adopted at the recent election. One of these amendments allows Baltimore two additional senators. and the other twelve additional members of the house of delegates. Baltimore will now have six senators in the state senate out of twenty-nine and thirty-six members of the house of delegates out of 11s. Every county in the state gave a majority against both of these propoged amendments and only the very large majorities given in the city of Baltimore made it possible for the city to win increased representation, the majority in the city Wig approximately 65,000. The favorable majority in the state was approximately 26,000. This is the culmination of an energetic campaign by Baltimore for more equitable representation. 9 Baltimore’s Municipal Stadium-That R new stadium is not the exclusive privilege of universities is demonstrated by Baltimore’s new municipal stadium with 8 seating capacity of 43,000. The expense of building the stadium comes from the direct tax on trolley car fares. Thii tax is 9 per cent on the gross revenue, and with the seven-cent fare amounts to more than provement and iS a memorial to Maj. R. M. Venable. for many years president of the park board. and the first to push with vigor the policy of the city to acquire every year tracts of land for park extensions. The stadium project was ~aunched exactly one year ago when the Johns Hopkins oval proved too small for the crowds that desired to see the annual game between a team of the third army eorps and a team representing the msrine corps. Mayor Broening announced to the o5cers responsible for choosing a field for the game that the city would build a stadium and would give the army and marine corps the privilege of phying the 6rst game. This game marked the formal opening of the stadium. The marine carpe won by one point. $~,ooo,ooo 8IUlUally. It iS classed 8s 8 park im* Increased License Receipts a Source of New Revenue.-M&cipal budgets are troublesome these days and hard to balance. and every porrsible source of additional revenue is eagerly examined. A recent study by the Toledo city Journal finds thst revision and strict enforcement of the Toledo license ordinance would bring in $-XI,OOO more to help fill the income deficit. 1921 license fees were only $31,743, chiefly from soft drii vendors and bus owners. The following table showing the scale of license fees for several cities is reprinted from the Journal. 41

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43 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January Montana Favors City-County Consofidation.The constitutional amendment permitting the legislature to unite city and county governments under one municipal government was adopted at the last election. No form of government 80 authorized, however, shall go into &ect until approved by the voters of the territory affected. The city of Butte and the county of Silver Bow will be the first to take steps towards such consolidation. Our charter consultant, Dr. A. R. Hatton, is now in Butte drafting a charter for the proposed new municipality. The amendment as adopted is as follows: Section 7. The Legialative Assembly may, by general or special law, provide any plan, kind, manner or form of municipal government for counties, or counties and cities and tom, or cities and towns, and whenever deemed nece%sarg or advkble. may abobh city OT town government and unite, consolidate or merge cities and towns and county under one municipal government. and any limitstione in thia constitution notwitbatanding may designate the name. fix and prescribe the number, designation, terms, qualificatio~, method of appointment, election or removal of the officers thereof. define their duties and fix penaltien for the violation thereof, and fix. and define boundaries of the territory 80 governed, and may provide for the diacontinusnca of such form of government when deemed advisable: provided, however, that no form of government permitted in thin section shall be adopted or discontinued until after it in submitted to the qualified electom in the tenitom affected and by them approved. 9 Baltimore at Last to Have Single-Chamber Council.-Under the home rule amendment, a petition containing over 10,000 signatures WBB submitted to the mayor, proposing an amen& ment to the city charter of Baltimore to substitute a one-branch city council in place of the present two-brsnch council. Baltimore has had a two-branch council since 1797, beiig one of the first cities of the United States to adopt it and aharing this distinction with Philadelphia, M I believe both cities adopted the bicameral council about the same time. Baltimore has had, therefore, a bicameral Council longer than any other city in the United States. The vote for the pmposed amendment was 68,913and the vote against 33,564. The present first branch of council consists of PB members, one elected from each ward. The second branch consists of 11 members, the president of which is elected at large, the other members being elected from councilmanic districts. Under the amendment recently adopted, the council to be elected next May wilI consist of 19

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19231 NOTES AND EVENTS 43 members. the president of which will be elected at large. The remaining 18 members will be dected by diatricb, S members from each of six digtricte which are to be established by the supervisors of elections. The compensation of the present members of the council ia $1,000 per year, while the compensation to be paid the members under the one-branch council will be $1,600 pr year. No change whatever haa been made in the qualifications of the members of the council and the one-branch council will exercise all the powers heretofore exercised by both branchea of the council, including the per of cnnfirmetion of dl heads of depcutments ap pointed by the mayor. The president of the onebranch council will exercise all the powers now exercised by the president of the second branch, which means that he will be vice-mayor and president of the board of estimates. HORACE E. ~CK. * Maryland to Have Fewer Elections, With Longer Terms for Leg&latom.-Maryland has, for many years, been having annual elections. State elections have occurred in the odd-numbered years. at which time the state and county officials have elected. In the even-numbered years, the only officials elected have been members of congress, United States Senator and presidential electors. In this way, state and national elections have been entirely separated. On account of increased election expenses and for other rts~on~, it waa felt desirable to reduce the number of elections, so that there would not be an election except every two years. In order to do this. it was necessary to make the terms of all two-year elective 05ciSls four years and the amendment was so drawn that the elediOM for state and county officials will be held in years other than presidential years. At the election in November, 192%. the two-year and four-year elective officials will be elected for a term of three years only and beginning in Novcmber. 1926, the election for state and county offickh will be held every four years. It is true that under this amendment certain national hea may be injected into state elections, but it was felt desirable to have the election for state officials in those years when there was not a presidential election. Members of the legislature will be elected for terms of four years, though them will still continue to be biennial sessions of the legislature. The next session of ow legislature will be held in January, 1994, after which there will be no session until Jsnusry, 1927, as it was necessary to have a lapse of three years in order to make the transition from the present system of having the legislature meet in even-numbered years to the odd-numbered years. There was some criticism on the part of those who thought that there should continue to be biennial elections of the members of the legislature, in order to give the people an opportunity to voice their aentiments, as well as from those who thought that there. should be continued the present plan of an entire separation of elections for state and national officers. The principal arguments for the amendment were that it would greatly reduce the election expenses and that there waa no real reBB0n why the House of Delegates should not be elected for four years, the same aa the members of the senate. The vote for the amendment WBB 108,458 to 72.562 against. HORACE E. hm. 9 Indianapolis Adopts Zoning.-Indianapolip adopted a zoning ordinance November 20 by a unanimous vote of the council. On November 97 the ordinance was approved by the mayor. This is the first zoning ordinance to be adopted by any Indiana city under the authority of the state enabling act adopted in 1921. The use districts established are: (1) dwelling house; (9) apartment house; (9) business; (4) 6rat industrial and (6) second industrial. The area requirements are designed to spread out the population. prevent congestion and promote a detached house development; 7.600 square feet of lot area per family is required in a limited section: 4,800 square feet per family in the lem developed am^ around the borders of the city; and 9,400 square feet or two families to the ordinary 40 by l%O-foot lot throughout the rest of the dwelling house areas. In much of the area in which apartment houses are permitted 1,200 square feet per family is required; in limited portions of the apartment house districts only 600 square feet per family is required; and in very limited areas suitable for hotels and elevator apartments. there is no limit as to the number of families that may be housed on a given area. Front, rear and side yards are required in all residence districts. In the height district allowing maximum

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44 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January height, the limit is 180 feet, except that for a street 100 feet or more in width, the limit is 200 feet. As practically all of the streets in this district are 90 feet in width, the limit is really based on two times the street width. Washington Street, with a width of 120 feet, is the only street where the 200-foot height will be allowed at the street line. Greater height dl be permitted with a setback in the ratio 1 to 3; but this setback must be from all lot lines as well 88 from street lines. The city plan commission first recommended a height limit of 150 feet but later agreed to the 180-foot lit 89 8 compromise with the down-town property owners who asked for the retention of the then existing limit of 200 feet. Work on the zone plan was begun by the city plan commission in January of last year. A careful lroning survey was made and many conferences were held before the ordinance W8S finally submitted to the council. The zoning -ordinance had the active support of the Chamber of Commerce. the &al Estate Board, and other civic organizations. Mr. Robert Whitten in consultant and Lawrence V. Sheridan is secretary and engineer of the city plan commission. * Kansas City Tries for Bi-partisan Water Commission.-For several years, Kansas City has felt the need of extensive additions to its water system. The situation has now become such that there is danger of a serious shortage. Something over a year ago an engineering firm employed by the water department made an investigation and pointed out the need for immediate large improvements. The nature of these improvements was shown and the cost was estimated at $lS,OOO,OOO, which waa later reduced to $11,000,000 in view of decreasing prices. Conferences were called by the mayor and. as 8 result, a committee of twenty-five citizens waa appointed to work out ways and means. The committee, following a popu'ar demand, recommended that the water department be taken out of the control of the mayor and council and that an independent bi-partisan commission of four members, with complete power to operate the present plant and build the new one. be elected. In order to be sure that the bi-partisan commission would be composed of capable business men. the mayor and council were persuaded to include the names of the proposed commission in the charter amendment. The amendment waa submitted together with a proposition authorizing $11,000,000 of bonds. The amendment carried by a large vote, but the bonds failed to receive the two-thirds majority necessary. This was interpreted to mean that the people were unwilling to vote the bonde until they were sure that the funds would be spent by a bi-partisan commission. The bonda were again submitted at the April election, 1922. and were approved. The newly elected commission took office in April and immediately showed that it intended to operate the water works in a non-partisan manner. A suit was filed in the supreme court of Missouri in the name of a citizen, contesting the validity of the amendment creating the commission. The decision in the case was delayed for several months. In the meantime the charter commission submitted its new charter with alternative water propositions, one of which would have permitted the return to mayor and council control of the water department. The charter was defeated largely on this issue, though the alternative continuing the present commission carried. On December 6, the supreme court handed down a decision ousting the water commission chiefly on the ground that the submission of the amendment providing for a new commission and including in that amendment the names of the first commission was "doubleness." An appliartion for a re-hearing will probably be fled, but it is very likely that the decision will be upheld. At the present time, the defenders of the commission do not know what will be the next step$ ~ There is some talk of preparing a complete new non-partisan charter in an attempt to phce the entire city government on a non-partisan basis. If this is done, the ousting of the water commission my not be an unmixed ed. WALTER hkSCEEK. * Kansas City's Charter Election ExplainedOn November 21, the people of Kansas City voted down a proposed charter on which a charter commission had been working for nearly a year. The charter was not a modem charter compared with a city manager-proportional representation charter. It was, however, an improvement over the present charter. It provided for a one-house council instead of the twohouse council now in existence. It gave the mayor much greater responsibility and powers

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19931 NOTES AND EVENTS 45 thsn he now bas and provided for a more centralized administrative organization. The .finance and budget dons were good and prhaps the best part of the proposed charter. It ale0 made provision for the elimination of the preaent tax bill system of paying for public improvements. The reasons for the defeat of the charter are the opposition of the political machines of the city and the opposition of many friends of better government who believed that the new charter was not sufficiently progressive. or who believed that the adoption of the eharter would endanger the bi-partisan water commiasion which had been recently provided for. It is probable that had the charter commission not decided to submit in the alternative the management of the water department the charter would have carried. The alternativea gave a choice between the continuance of the new bi-partisan commission independent of the city council and mayor, and another commission appointed by the mayor and with reduced powers. The bipartisan commission is very popular and many of its advocates voted against the entire charter, rather than to take a chance that the charter would be adopted with the other alternative. It is interesting that the bi-partisan water alternative secured a favorable majority of over four thousand, while the charter itself lost by over twelve thousand. WaLTSB MAT3CEEK. * The Missonri Constitutional Convention.The Miuri constitutional Convention. which met May 15,1922, to draw up a new state constitution has up to this date (December 4, 19%) adopted the following important changes and additions to the present constitution: Btulgd-Cmtion of an executive budget. The Governor is authorized to prepare and submit the budget to the legislature within fifteen days after it convenes. Estimates submitted by the legislative and judicial departments cannot be changed by the governor in preparing the budget. The legislature my decrease the governor's budget but cannot increase it. EzavCe Departmmfe-Provision has been made for the consolidation of all the state activities under not more than.twelve departments exclusive of the offices of governor and lieutenant governor. Four of these divisions are named in the constitution-department of state, department of audit and account, department of law. and department of treasury. The heads of these four departments are elective. The legislature is authorized to create not more than eight other divisions, and provide whether the heads of these shall be elective or appointive. Nominating Machinwp-Political parties have been authorized to decide for themselves. through their state executive committees, whether they will nominate their candidates by the direct primary or by the convention. Both system of nominating candidates are to be regulated by law. Sufmgt-The present constitution permits aliens to vote upon the mere declaration of intention to become a citizen of the United States. The new provision requires full naturalization before being allowed to vote. EEeclw-In order to prevent fraud in elections the new constitution authorizes the opening of the ballot boxes and comparison of bdlota with the poll lists in the inwstigation of fraud, and also the ballots may be uaed before grand juries and courts in the investigation and prosecution of criminal casea. !Chis provision of the constitution applies both to primary and regular elections. This change was made necesssry on account of court decisions holding that the opening of ballot boxes and the comparing of the ballots with the poll Fts destroyed secret voting since it disclosed how the individual voted. Initiative and R&endum-!t'he present constitution requires the signatures of 5 per cent of the legal voters. of each of two-thirds of the congressional districts of the state to initiate a law, a constitutional amendment, or to invoke the referendum on a legislative act. The new provision raises the number of signatures to 8, 12. and 10 per cent respectively. Worl..men's Compensdm-The legislature haa been authorized to enact a workmen's cornpens%tion law and provide for state insurance. Legislature-An increase from five to ten dollars per diem for the membera of the legislature has been authorized. In the future legislative expenses in the house and senate are to be limited to $400 and $300 per day respectively for regular sessions and $200 and $100 per day respectively for special sessions. Regular session of the legislature is to be reduced from 70 to 60 days, and the revising session from 120 to 100 days. Instead of a special election to till a vacancy which occurs within twenty days of the conven

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46 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January ing of the legislature or during the session thereof, the governor is empowered to fill such vacancy by appointing a person belonging to the political party with which the person chosen by election was identified, said appointee to hold office till the next regular election. Other subjects which are likely to be considered by the convention are the reorganization of the judicial system, the revision of the tax and educational systems, and an adjustment of the provisions applying to the large cities, especially those relating to St. Louis. W. W. HOLLINQSWOBTH. * What Has Happened to Administrative Reorganization in Washington?-Reorganization of the government departments. it is said, is not dead. It may be recalled that S. J. 191, which passed the house December 14, 19g0, and the senate May 10.1921. and became a law ten days later in the absence of veto by the president, provided for a “survey of the administrative services of the government,” for reports and submission of bas from time to time to congress and for final report to congress by the second Monday of December, 1922. It may also be recalled that at the request of the president, Mr. Walter F. Brown was made a member and chairman of the committee to represent the executive branch of the government. Thereupon the six representatives of congress appeared to lose interest in the project. At any rate the congressionalmembers of the committee were apt to find the pressure of other duties so great that they contrived to find little time to devote to reorganization. In the main, therefore, Mr. Brown was left to struggle with cabinet differences as well as he could. By the fourth of July. 1921, Mr. Brown was ready to say what he thought should be done with every single bureau in the federal government. But there were differences in opinion between the heads of departments. Finally after many months Mr. Brown’s report% cnt to the president, and there it has remained. The second Monday of December has arrived. Rumor has it that the president will transmit his recommendations to congress in the very near future. In the meantime there were introduced into the 67th Congress various measures intended as short-cuts to glory and reorganization. There was the education bill, revised from the 66th Congress, to create a department of education; there were the biUs to create departmenta of aeronautics, conservation, federal highways, health, land and natural resources, mines, public works and public lands and public welfare. None of these bills got very far. Among the amtroversies which have attracted the greatest public notice are those relating to the forest service, markets, consular agents, the consolidation of the war and navy departments and the creation of a department of public welfare which would eliminate the proposed separate departments of education and of health and which would involve the transfer of certain services from the present department of labor to the new department. While all of this reorganization discussion has been going on, the secretary of commerce, with characteristic acumen, began the reorganization of the department he had inherited. According to his annual report, just issued, this reorganization has effected a saving of over $3,000,000, or 18.5 per cent of the available appropriations. “The bureau of foreign and domestic commerce, census, fisheries and navigation have been completely reorganized as to personnel, administration, policy and method so as to bring them not only greater e5ciency and economy but into line with full co-operative spirit with commerce and industry in actual tangible service.” Upon the basis of benefits already secured, the secretary recommends that the various adminiitratioas of industry, trade, and namgation, which are now scattered in seven merent departments and independent agencies, be concentrated in dome department, with “direct savings of upward 04 $1,000,000 per annum,” and “many times this amount given to the public in increased values and service.” The secretary of agriculture has also entered upon a program of reorganization from within, With the consent of congress he has consolidated the bureau of markets and the bureau of crop estimates and later the bureau of farm management to form a new bureau of agricultural economics. The administration of the stat@ relation service which was formerly divided into two offices, one for the fifteen southern and one for the thirty-five northern and western states has been centraliied in a single office. The secretary of agriculture has succeeded in securing from congress authority for a director of scienti& work to co-ordinate all of the research work of the various bureaus, and for a director of regulatory work, such as administration of the pure

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19231 NOTES AND EVENTS 47 food and drugs act, meat inspection, packer and &&-yard supervision and eradication of certain pests. The secretary of agriculture now Mks congress for authority to place all appropriate services under a coordinator for extension service. Since the two coordinators already authorized have effected substantial savings in appropriations, congress seems likely to accede to the secretary’s request. Under the proposed plans for the reorganization of the department of agriculture the office. of home economics would be elevated from a division to a bureau. In short, at least two secretaries in the president’s cabinet (whether stimulated by the Reorganization Committee or not) have made good progress in reorganizing their departments so far as they can do 80 without actual transfer of bureaus from one department to another. From all of which it will’be seen that reorganization is already well under way. Let us hope that whatever transfers can be authorized by conjjress without jeopardizing the best interests of the people will be speedily authorized; but let us not fall into the error of believing that reorganization is something that can be aceompliished this year or next, once and for all, and then forgotten for a century. Reorganization ought to be in progress whenever improvements can be made. HhRLEAN J~ME~. II. CITY MANAGER NOTES Convention of City Managers’ Aseodation.-The city managers of the country held their ninth and most successful convention in Kansas City, November 14.16 and 16. From this central point the good tidings of the progress of the movement went out by every modern medium, including the radio. * New Secretary for City Managers’ Association. -Beginning with January 1 the headquarters of the City Managers’ Bssociation will be at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. Mr. John G. Stub on thia date Bssumed the office of executive secretary. vice Paul B. Wdcox, resigned The City Managers’ Yearbook and the City Managers’ Bulletin will hereafter be published from the new address. 4, In Less than Two Years Managers Ballew. of Sturgis, Michigan, and Sprague. of Pipestone, Minnesota, have reduced the city tax rate 6fty per cent. 9 While Most Ohio Cities are piling up expenses. Managers Bmgham, of Lima. and Cotton, of Ashtabula, are adhering strictly to a “pay-* you-go” program. East Cleveland has been able to establish a surplus. Ln Ashtabula. a ‘‘P. R.” city, the local car system has been purchased by the city and the tax rate has been dUd. * The Following Cities are preparing to hold elections on the manager form of government: 1 Wellesley. Massachusetts, Whittier. San Mateo. Berkeley and Venice. California, Redford and Port Huron, Michigan. Salt Lake City and Chapel Ha, North Carolina, are expecting legislative enactmenta. 9 The Following Cities are evidencing interest in the manager plan: Baker City, Oregon, St. Joseph, Missouri. Sheboygn and Racine. Wi consin, Hutchinuon, IoIa. Bddo and Phillipsburg, Kansas, Des Moines and Marion. Iowa, Dinuba and Culver City, California, Parkere burg and Elldns. West Virginia. Bridgeport and Milford, Connecticut. Groton and Amesbury, Massachusetts, Hightstown, New Jersey, Maywood, ILlinois. 4, The Manager of Onaway, Michigan, the city which ia practically owned by the American Wood Rim Company, has been asked to resign after a four-months’ dgime. Lack of finances were given as the reason. Numerous peculiar circumstances enter into the situation, among which is the fact that though Onaway citizens adopted a manager charter more than two years ago. they have had a manager but four months during that time. They advertised in a leading municipal magazine for a manager. His work appears to have been very satisftactorJI to the people-not to the interests. * Nashville Changes Managers.-The instabidity of the hybrid quasi-mayor-manager charter

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48 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January operation in Nashville, Tennessee. has been recently illustrated by the replacement of F. Z. Wilson by Percy Sharpe for strictly local political reasons. f The Mortality Rate of city managers is being affected by the rapid changes in Columbus. Georgia. Walter A. Richardv was appointed, November 4.. the third city manager, in ten months. Manager Crawford resigned to do construction work. H. G. Hinkle was the first manager. f Long Beach Manager Recall.-Following a very warm campaign, Charles E. Hewes, manager of Long Beach, California, was recalled on November 29 by a majority of about 900 in a total vote of more than 10,000. Long Beach was the thiid city which Mr. Hewes has served as city manager and his friends supported him ardently as thoroughly competent. Personalities were freely indulged in during the campaign. The manager was accused, among other things, of forcing the installation of water meters after a seven-to-one referendum seainst their use, when as a matter of fact ody a few test meters were installed in order to establish proper flat rates, and no individual charges were made for these meters. Another accusation, circulated the night before election. was that a water tap was costing the citizens $20 each whereas under aldermanic government the same tap cost only $6. The fact is tbat the cost of the tap was $5 as of old. but the city now puts in the service line to the curb for which it charges the property owner about one half of what the plumber formerly charged. As in the caw of the charter recalls noted in the next item, the victor’s opposition was better organized than the defense, which seemed to rely on the result of the earlier victory. f Additiw and SubtractionS in City Manager Government.-During the month of November eight cities adopted the city manager plan. Two others, Dayton, Ohio, and Alhambra. Caliomh. demonstrated at the polls, in an election upon the question of the abolition of the plan, that the majority were satisfied with it. On the other hand, two cities, Waltham. Massachusetts (population 30,aQl). and Lawton. Oklahoma (population 8,920), abandoned their charters which provided for manager government. This raises the total of charter manager cities which have abandoned the plan to three, Hot Springs, Arkansas, having been the first. Both Waltham and Lawton revert to the mayorcouncil plan. Waltham adopted its charter in 1918. Both political organizations were active in securing its repeal. As is often the case, the tax rate figured largely in the newspapers which played fast and loose with statistics. General unrest seem to have been the contributing fador in Lawton, as the following excerpt from a responsi6le source indicates: In the laat eighteen months Lawton haa weathered several “setbacks,” in the fact that a year ago last November one of our bankn failed, and in December the largest bank in the city closed, and neither of them wam opened until in the spring. Bince then one of them has closed again. We have had continual trouble up until about a year ago with the electria people. and 811 thesame company owned the gaa,ss well 88 a newspaper. an ice plant and a laundry, all in Lawton. we had frequent difficulties with them and Snslly had to have a receiver appointed for the gaa company in order to protect ourselves from their rapacity. Their newspaper was hammering the chamher of commerce, the city, and every individual of influence. that they muld not control. Therefore. in addition to the gem1 election this fall, and the people having an ides that they wanted to hit aomeone or something and hit hard, as waa evidenced in the election throughout the entire country, they seemed to take a great delight in hitting the city government. The opponents to the manager form of government were much better organid than we antiaipsted. ad were working night and day: while those favoring the manager form of government were probably dilatcry in atarting the campaign, and then did not push the matter in as forcible a manner 88 they should have. Moat of us rally did not think it pwsible for the opposition to overcome the present form of government. PAUL B. Wmor. III. MISCELLANEOUS Civic Film Service.-A corporation with City Bureau Film Service. Wayne D. Heythis name to do what it3 name implies has been organized with offices at 443 Fourth Avenue. The first film, on zoning, has been circulated The corporation is an outgrowth of the American since September. Others on the following decker is secretary and sales manager.

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19as1 NOTES AND EVENTS 49 mbjecta are in course of production: zoning, recreation, housing. health, city planning, kducation, transportation, highways, city chartera-the city manager plan, and social welfare. The rental costs have been fixed at a very moderate level. * The Jotunal of Social Forces-A new magazine with thia name has begun publication under the University of North Carolina Press. Prof. Howard W. Odum is managing editor. In lie with other extension activities of the University the primary objective of the magazine is asid to be “to build well for North Carolina and to become a southern medium of study and expression.” It is a bi-monthly and the subscription price is 89.50 per year. * National Institute of Public Administration Elects 05cers.-A meeting of the board of directors and trustees of the National htitute of Public Administration and Bureau of Municipal Research was held on December 7, lQ29. Robert S. Brookings. R. Fulton Cutting, Raymond B. Fosdick, Mrs. E. H. Harriman. Vernon Kellogg, Frank 0. Lowden, Charles E. Merriam and E. R. A. Seligman were present. Newton D. Bker, A. R. Hatton, Herbert Hoover, Ribd S. Childs. and Delos F. Wdcox arealaotrustees. The following officers were elected: R. Fuiton Cutting, chairman; Raymond B. Fosdick, vicechain; Richard s. Childs. treasurer; Luther Gulick, secretary and dinctor. * Municipal Golf Links.-Of thirty-four park reports examined, seventeen mention municipal golf links--chi cam, Cincinnati, Dayton. Debit, Hartford, Kansas City, Lincoln, Louisville, Minneapolis, New Orleans. Peoria, Rochester, Rackford (Illinois), San Diego, St. Paul, Washington, D. C.. and Worcester (Massachusetts). In many of theae citiea the links are self-sup porting. in dome they are an actual source of revenue and in all. apparently, they are much valued by the citizens, judging from the steadily increasing patronage reported. In several of the cities exceedingly well-designed golf houses have been erected. It is no longer necessary to belong to a country club in, order to indulge in golf. It is not even necessary to om clubs. employ a caddy or wear a special costume. Anyone who possesses ordinary health and the smell change to pay the fee charged may play golf in the public parka which belong to the people. HARIJUN Jxu~a. * America to Have a Garden Village.--What promises to be one of the most interesting housing developments in the United States, according to Housing Bdterment, is the new garden village of Mariemont, on the slopes of the Little Miami river, not many miles from Cincinnati, a model town intended to house from 6,000 to 10,000 people and to cost many milliona of dollars. The land, all of which has now been purchased, embraces a tract of about 386 acres, and the general plan provides for a town with a village green and public buildings, stores and amusements, school sites, playgrounds and parks and complete and attractive housing accommodations for wageearners of different economic grades. The normal lot sk for the detached houses that are to be built range from 50 to 80 feet in frontage with a depth of 190 feet. The homes will be provided with all modern conveniences, including electricity and steam heat from a central plant, and adequate provision will be made for the proper maintenance of the property as a completed town. Even the lots of the smallest group houses are to meet the standards of such English garden cities as Letchworth. Hainpad and Port Sunlight, the density of all the houses of Mariemont being between six and wven families to the acre. Nothing quite like it has been undertaken heretofore in the United States. The nearest approach to it has been the development of mme of the communities where war-housing schemes were carried out, but those were necessarily fragmentary and of a temporary nature. This model village is made possible through the muni6cence of Mrs. Mary M. Emery, who may perhaps best be described as the Mrs. Russell Sage of Cincinnati, and who now compietea her many deeds of public benefaction by this well-thought-out, practical and beneficent Mr. John Nolen has been selected as adviser and is associated with Mr. Charles J. Livingood. manager of the Emery estate, in the development of the plan. * Civic Secretaries Hold Annual Convention.The Civic Secretaries held their thirteenth Pb.

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50 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [January annual meeting in Philadelphia simultaneously with the meeting of the League. Representatives from one. two or three organizations in fourteen cities were present. The sessions were intensely practical. A program had been sent out in advance and members came prepared to discuss concrete subjects in a business-like manner. The following are specimen topics: Membership and financeeDo you raise money by campaigns? Do you issue information on candidateedo you engage in political campaigns and how? How do you co-operate with the daily press, with city ball? Committee organization and management; entertainments; should a restaurant be made self-supporting-if so, how? To the civic secretary these are highly important matters. The profession is still young. The fund of knowledge and experience is increasing by leaps and bounds. No officer of a citizens’ organization can afford to miss the convention next year. It is the place to learn. The round-table conferences are worth more than all the books that have been written on organization management. The following slate presented by the nominating committee was elected for the following year. The report of the committee, prepared in model voters’ directory style by Walter F. Arndt of New York, chaiin of the committee. is worth reproducing in whole: For President (Vote for one) Dykdra, C. A. Age. suEcient. Present job-aecretary of the City Club of Los Angeles; formerly engaged in uplifting CITY AND OEQ~~JIZATION Cleveland, Chicago and other cities. As he is not present and is therefore unable to decline, his election is emphatically urged. Tracy, R. E. Age, inconsequential; able, effective and omnipresent secretary of the City Club of Philadelphia; has fully demonstrated his fitness for promotion by his euccessful and genial capacity as host; voters are urged to support him. For Secretary (Vote for one) For Treasurer (Vote for one) Dermitt. H. Marie. Age, over twenty-one; present secretary Civic Club of Allegheny County: has proved herself by experience, training and equipment to be absolutely indispensable in her present position; deserves credit for her successful handling of the funds of the N. A. C. S. Her reelection is urged on the bash of her splendid record of public service. On motion from the.floor the office of vicepresident was created and Mr. Arndt elected to it. 4, Membership Lit of National Association of Civic Secretaries.-We have many requests for a lit of voters’ leagues and civic associations. We believe that many of our readers will welcome the publication of thia Eat. Clip it and place it in your files for future reference. When you want information respecting a particular city the civic secretaries are the people to write. The following has been corrected to December, 1.1992. Thanks are due Miss H. Marie Dermitt for keeping it corrected to date: REPRESENTATTVED Baltimore, Md. Women’s Civic hgue. ................. .Mrs. Allison H. Shaw. 108 W. Mulberry St. City Club. ............................ .George A. Mahone, Munsey Bldg. City Club. ............................ .Lloyd B. Hayes, 6 Asbburton Place Women’s City Club.. ................... .Mildred Fiske. 40 Beacon St. City Club. ............................ .Mayo Fesler. 516 Plymouth Court Bureau of Public Efficiency. ............. .Harris S. Keeler, 315 Plymouth Court Women’s City Club. .................... .Helen Montegriffo, Asst. Ward Secretary Boston, Mass. Honorary President N. A. C. S.. ......... .Addison L. Winship, National Shawmut Bank Good Government League. .............. .George H. McCaffery, 11 Pemberton Square Chicago, IIl. Mrs. Maud R. Turlay. Asst. Civic Director, 16 North Wabash Ave.

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19BJ NOTES AND EVENTS 61 CITY AND oEQAm2ATION -AllVJl Cincinnati. Ohio City Club. ............................ .Burnhan bey, 601 Union Central Bldg. Woman’s City Club. ................... .&a. Ben LowenStein. Race and Garfield atu. City Club. ........................... .F’rancM T. Hayes, Hollenden Hotel Civic League. .......................... ,616 Hippodrome Bldg. Women’s City Club.. ................... .Grace Treat, Civic Secretary Women’s City Club. .................... .Mrs. Annie F. Miller, Club ktary Chief Examiner, State Dept.. ............. J. H. Kaufmm, Dept. Bud. of State Citizens’ League. ........................ W. P. Lovett, 100% Dime Bank Bldg. Republican Citizene’ League. ............ .Margaret P. Hamilton, 33 Penn Bldg. Citizens’ League. ....................... .Ruesell F. GriBen, %49 Houseman Bldg. Municipal League. ...................... J. Horace McFarland City Club. ............................ .George H. Forsee. 1091 Grand Ave. Women’s City Club.. ................... .Mrs. W. J. Doughty. 1111 Grand Ave. City Club. ............................ .C. A. Dykstrs. Chas. C. Chapman Bldg. Woman’s City Club. ................... .Louise C. Morel, 506 West Walnut St. Cleveland, Ohio Columbus. Ohio Detroit, Mich. Erie, Pa. Grand Rapids. Mich. Harrisburg, Pa. Icaneas City, Mo. Los Angeles, calif. Louisville, Ky. Milwaukee, Wir. City Club. ............................ .Leo Tiefenthaler. 911 Grand Aye. City Club. ............................ .Jessica B. Anderson Voters’ League. ........................ .George C. Nuesse, 375 Broadway Chamber of Commerce. ................. .James E. Gheen American City. ........................ .H. S. Butteheim. Tribune Bldg. City Club. ............................ .R. V. IngersoU, 55 West 44th St. Citizens’ Union. ....................... .Walter F. Amdt, 41 Park Row Civic Film Service. Inc.. ................. W. D. Hydecker. 443 4th Ave. Imtitute for Public service. ............. .William H. Men. 1125 Amsterdam Aye. National Civil Senrice Reform League ..... .H. W. Marsh, 8 West 40th St. National Municipal League. ............. .H. W. Dodds National Municipal be. ............. .A. R. Hatton, 261 Broadway Short Ballot Organization. .............. .Richard S. Childs, 8 West 9th St. City Club. ............................ .Robert E. Tracy. 313 South Broad St. Civic Club. ........................... .CKm MacAfee. 1300 Spruce St. Voters’ League. ........................ .Florence B. Fulton. 105 South Ipth St. Civic Club of Allegheny Co.. ............ .H. Marie Dermitt, 608 Keenan Bldg. Voters’ League. ........................ .Tensard De Wolf. Morals Court Allied Boards of Trade. ................. J. Ralph Park, 6101 Penn Ave. City Club. ............................ .Robert w. oeborne, 1010 N. W. Bank Bldg. Niagara Falls, N. Y. New York, N. Y. Philadelphia, Pa. Pittsburgh. Pa. Portland, Oregon

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59 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [Jmuw By ROBERT T. CRANE HIS digest of one hundred and sixty-seven city manager charters now in operation in rnerican cities is for use by those who are planning to rewrite old city charters Rice $!LOO ~ TA I NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE, 261 Broadway, New York City or to draft new ones. (A pamphlet copy of the Model City Charter ie included) CITI AND OEQANXATION -ATIVRl Proportional Repredentation League. ..... .Walter J. Millard. 1417 Locuet St. Civic League of Improvement Clubs and Philadelphia, Pa. San Francisco, Calif. Associations. ........................ .George W. Gerhard, 807 hCUs Bldg. St. Louis. Mo. Toledo. Ohio City Club. ............................. Gustavus Tuckerman. 911 Locust St. City Club. ............................ .Wendell F. Johnson, 67% Ontario St. Commission on Publicity and Efficiency. .. .C. A. Crosser, 41% Valentine Bldg. City Club. ............................ .Remington Rodgere American Civic Association. ............. .Harlan James, 019 Union Trust Bldg. Natiod Popular Government League.. ... .Judson King, Munsey Bldg. National Voters’ League. ................ .Lynn Haines, Woodward Bldg. U. S. Chamber of Commerce, Civic DeTulsa. Okla. Washington, D. C. City Club. ............................ .F. R. Barkley, 13530 G St. velopment Dept, ..................... .Dorsey W. Hyde. Jr. R. HUSSELMAN Consulting Engin-r Ls@tilU sracmr Reporta, Eutimata and Spedficatio~ Apprat~ala and Rate Innatgutionr Electric, Gea and Street Railway CUYAHOGA BLDC. CLEVELAND, OH10 Dalm and Construction of Power Statioria and Proportional Representation Best Basis for the City Manager Plan Send 2% for Lft. No. 10 (How P. R. Works in Sacramento) and new Lft No. 5 (Explanation of Hare System of P. R.) Still better, join the League. Dues, $2, pay for quarterly Review and all other literature for year. Proportional Representation League 1417 Loclut Street Phu(ld.l* LOOSE-LEAF DIGEST OF CITV MANAGER CHARTERS