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National municipal review, February, 1923

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National municipal review, February, 1923
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National municipal review
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National Municipal League
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National Municipal League
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Volume 1, Issue 1

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NATIONAL
MUNICIPAL REVIEW
bt —r1 ■■■ —- ■■■■■■■" ■ . -l
Vol. XII, No. 2 FEBRUARY, 1923 Total No. 80
WAS THE NEBRASKA ADMINISTRATIVE CODE REPUDIATED AT LAST ELECTION?
BY RALPH S. BOOTS University of Nebraska
Nebraska elected a Republican legislature pledged to support the code; and a Democratic governor who had promised to destroy it, in spite of the fact that increased efficiency secured by the code enabled Governor McKelvie to summon the legislature in January, 1922, to reduce appropriations in order that the savings might at once be reflected in lower taxes. Is the code an issue or a football? :: :: ::
To a friend who wired this inquiry from New York: “Did the industrial court play any part in the recent election results?” William Allen White is reported to have replied: “Industrial court played important part in election. Was vigorously supported in Republican platform and violently denounced in Democratic platform and issue hotly contested in election. People voted for Democratic governor pledged to repeal law and elected Republican legislature pledged to sustain law. Tune in and when you pick up vox popvli vox dei wire me collect.” It was thus with the “code” in Nebraska.
The Republican platform pronounced for the principle of the code “subject to such amendments as four years of experience have demonstrated will make for further efficiency and economy,” and the candidate stood squarely
on the platform. The Democratic platform read: “Specifically we pledge ourselves to the abolishment of the existing duplicate state government by the repeal of the administrative code law, to the discharge of the great army of useless employees now on the pay roll, and to a regrouping of the various departments in the hands of the elected state officials, thus restoring constitutional government that is responsible to the people and responsive to their will.” Mr. Bryan is quoted in the October Commoner as follows:
The code law ... is a law by which the power vested in the regular state officers elected by you is taken from them and centralized in the governor, giving him more power than a crowned head abroad. He in turn delegates this power out . . - with the result that you find a great army of political employees standing between you and your government. The theory of the code system is that you cannot elect men


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competent enough to handle the government affairs so you go out and hire experts at $5,000 a year to handle the affairs for them.
An investigating committee of the Farmers’ Union credited the code with enabling the agencies to function in a business-like manner and strongly approved the executive budget, but said of reorganization: “It has removed from the people the right to elect their department heads; it has put a powerfully organized system before every legislature which can assume official dictation and make it hard for the people to be heard.”
THE GOVERNOR A DEMOCRAT; OTHER ELECTED OFFICERS REPUBLICAN
Mr. Bryan was overwhelmingly elected. Of the seven other state executive officers the Democrats elected only the secretary of state. The legislature is safely Republican. What is the interpretation thereof?
The Lincoln Star says: “A mandate to repeal the code”—one fact made irrevocably plain. The Omaha World-Herald hopes Bryan will not mitigate his efforts for a repeal of the code law, since his election made unmistakable the public attitude. The Nebraska State Journal (Lincoln, opposing Bryan) treats the situation in a rather humorous vein, concluding that the people wished Mr. Bryan for governor but gave him a Republican legislature so he couldn’t run away. The Omaha Bee thinks that the “romance that clings to the Bryan name was too much” for the campaign of education which the Republicans planned.
The state constitution expressly permits the legislature to place the constitutional elective officers as heads over such departments of government as it may by law create. The heads of executive departments established by law are to be appointed by the governor with the consent of a majority of the
elected house and senate members in joint session. The electors have apparently played a sly joke on Mr. Bryan.
WHAT DOES THE NEW GOVERNOR INTEND TO DO?
Toward the end of December, Mr. Bryan announced that he did not believe it businesslike or fair to the public or the legislature to remove arbitrarily the heads of the code departments and employees, at any rate, “ without the legislature having an opportunity to act on legislative plans.” He promised to lay before the legislature recommendations in accordance with the people’s decision. Three of the six code secretaries seem to have agreed to stay in office for thirty days with the understanding that either secretary or the governor shall give fifteen days notice of a change of mind.
The messages of the retiring and the incoming governor sounded veiy much like a set debate—one speech on each side and no rebuttal. Mr. McKelvie explained and defended the code in a masterly, almost schoolmasterly, manner, and asserted that, since responsibility for any change would rest primarily with the legislature, a majority of which is pledged to retain the code principle, it is fairer to say that, in consideration of the vote at the last election, the people desire the code retained.
Mr. Bryan, touching the same point, could draw only a diametrically opposite conclusion. “The code system centralizes in the chief executive all responsibility for not only executing the administrative policies of the state but of determining all administrative policies. ... It is impossible for the chief executive to be constantly available or prepared to confer and decide important policies coming up from the various code department secretaries,


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THE NEBRASKA ADMINISTRATIVE CODE
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who are employees with no direct responsibility to the taxpayers.’’ He then proceeds to recommend an executive council of ex-officio members “to determine the state’s administrative policy.”
The Stale Journal concludes that “the code question bids fair to be mainly one of whether or not the legislature cares to enact some camouflage whereby to save the governor’s face.” Nothing is settled yet. The question of patronage may yet constitute a considerable factor in the determination of the outcome.
HIGH TAXES CHARGED TO CODE
The “code” in Nebraska runs through over three hundred pages, providing not only the administrative reorganization but containing also the regulations which the officers are to enforce. Hence a repeal of the “code” would repeal these regulations. As in many other states, the appropriations in 1921 were almost double those of 1917-19, the last Democratic administration. The Democrats in a campaign characterized by glaring inaccuracies, if not misrepresentations, made the chief issue taxation, and laid the blame for increased expenditures on the “code,” with good post hoc logic. Probably many persons in a state largely rural chafe under recently adopted regulatory measures. The “army of inspectors” is denounced, and the governor’s “machine.” It does seem that numerous appointees
mixed in the campaign. Furthermore a petition for a referendum on the “code” in 1919 was rejected by the secretary of state because a copy of the law was not attached to each petition sheet. The district court sustained this action and the supreme court, admitting the unreasonableness of the secretary’s position, declined jurisdiction because the appeal was not taken within the time limit fixed by the referendum law. All this did not popularize the “code.”
THE “code” HAS BECOME A STEREOTYPE
It seems safe to say that the people are opposed to something they call the “code.” This is probably mostly because they are all opposed to high taxes, partly because some of them are opposed, and others think they are, to new governmental activities, and partly because they nearly all believe ardently in popular capacity to elect all officers, and partly because many really disapprove concentration of power and political influence (the merit system would help greatly if the people had not so largely lost confidence in the possibility of fair operation). It cannot be said, however, that the election was an expression of popular judgment on the principle of what we call responsible state government. As one Democratic member of the legislature is reported to have said, “ We’ve got to get a new name for the code.”


NATURE GUIDING IN OUR NATIONAL
PARKS1
BY A. E. DEMARAY Editor, National Park Service
A new service for visitors to the national parks, increasing the pleasures of the tourist by revealing new mysteries and stimulating old enthusiasms. :: :: :: :: :: :: ::
The astonishing popularity of the free nature guide service, now available during the travel season in several of the larger national parks, and being extended by the National Park Service into other parks as rapidly as funds permit, is testimony of its value in helping visitors better to understand and more thoroughly enjoy the things they see. This service, the outgrowth of studies made in Norway and Switzerland by the World Recreation Survey, was first undertaken in the United States in 1919 at Lake Tahoe by the California state fish and game commission. So attractive did it prove that business men deserted fishing trips for hikes with the nature guides. Stephen T. Mather, director of the National Park Service, happened to be at Lake Tahoe at the time, and, the work of the nature guides coming under his observation, he decided that such service ought to be available to visitors to the national parks. There were no government funds which corld be used, but this did not deter the park director. Approaching the fish and game commissioners, he told them he wanted their nature guides in Yosemite National Park the next summer.
“You agree to stand half the expense and I will personally take care of the other half,” said Director Mather.
1 Contributed at the request of the American Civic Association.
Whether other argument was necessary or not is unimportant, for in 1920 free nature guide service was inaugurated in Yosemite under the joint auspices of the fish and game commission and the National Park Service. That year 27,047 visitors came in contact with the service and it became an assured success. Next year 33,759 persons, or one out of every three visitors in the park, came in personal touch with the nature guide service. These Yosemite visitors, on arriving at other parks, sought first the office of the nature guide and, on finding there were no nature guides employed, wanted to know why not. So in order to meet an insistent demand, nature guide service has been installed in other parks; first in Yellowstone in 1921, and during the past year in Glacier, Mount Rainier and Sequoia Parks. In 1922 nature guide work was carried on in five national parks and will be continued in these parks next year.
WHAT IS A NATURE GUIDE
What is nature guiding and a nature guide, perhaps you are saying. A nature guide is a hike leader, school teacher, lecturer, scientist, and game leader all in one; in fact, he is a walking encyclopedia of out-doors information. His job is to tell you the names of the animals, birds, trees, flowers, and
56


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57
to discover with you nature’s secrets that lie hidden to the multitudes, but in plain view of one who has eyes to see.
An account of the work undertaken last year in the various parks will afford a better understanding of the nature guide service. In Yosemite Valley, daily field trips for old and young were made under the guidance of experienced nature guides, giving those taking the trips an opportunity to see and study the living and growing things of the park. Lectures and camp-fire talks on the flora and fauna were given nightly at the hotels and camps, even extending to the outlying lodges above the valley’s rim. A flower show, where specimens of the park flowers in season were kept on display, enabled those interested to study them at close range. Regular office hours were kept in which those interested might come and ask questions concerning the botany, zoology, topography, and geology of the park.
LARGE NUMBERS PROFIT
The lecture attendance last year was 39,525 persons, while 3,039 persons made the field trips. Also 33,071 persons visited the park museum to study the exhibits exemplifying the natural histoiy, zoology, ethnology, botany and history of the region. In Yellowstone Park a nature guide delivered a total of 232 lectures on the park, its geology, flora, fauna, history, etc., to 60,000 visitors. Lectures were given at Mammoth Camp, Mammoth Hotel, and in the auto camp ground at Mammoth before the evening bonfire. Twenty-seven thousand one hundred and three people were guided over the formations at Upper Geyser Basin and 10,396 people were guided over the hot-spring terraces at Mammoth. The information office and museum at park
headquarters at Mammoth were visited by thousands of persons.
The nature guide service in Glacier Park was conducted under the auspices of the University of Montana. Information desks were established at the principal tourist centers at which the nature guides were available to answer questions on the geology, flora and fauna, and scenic features. Many walks were taken, during which natural objects of interest were pointed out and explained to visitors.
In Mount Rainier National Park a nature guide at Paradise Valley answered questions on the flora, fauna, and geology of the locality, and took interested visitors on short field trips to study these features. Each evening he gave a short talk illustrated with colored slides outlining the chief natural features of the mountain. At Longmire Springs in the auto camp grounds a novel sylvan theater was constructed by arranging the glacial boulders at hand. Here camp-fire talks were given of evenings on the flora, fauna, geology, and history of the park.
Mention should also be made of the exceptional service rendered by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, who, for several years, has conducted archaeological excavations in Mesa Verde National Park. Each evening at the camp-fire circle in Spruce Tree Camp he reconstructed for the visitors in intensely interesting talks the life of the early dwellers on the mesa, whose remarkable cliff dwelling ruins are the only records of these people vanished centuries ago.
THE BIG TREES AND THE LITTLE PIKA
Amid the giant sequoias in Sequoia National Park a nature guide told of the centuries that these big trees have looked down to earth, for many were


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
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sturdy youths when Christ was born in Bethlehem. Another resident of Sequoia which has come down through the ages as a survival of the fittest to live in a region difficult for other animals to utilize, is the Mount Whitney pika, or cony, which lives in rock slides. Making these shy little animals known to the visitor was one of the many pleasant duties of the nature guide for perhaps no other animal is of greater interest to the lover of nature. Home-loving creatures, always living in groups, their industry excells that of most animals. With the head of a rat, the body and fur of a rabbit, and no visible tail, the pika presents a curious appearance. They have a protective coloring that blends with the rocks of their surroundings and, owing to their extreme shyness, they usually escape
the attention of the ordinary park visitor; but he who is fortunate to walk with the nature guide may discover their haunts and so watch these creatures freely existing in their rocky abodes safe at least from man, for hunting is not permitted in the national parks.
Besides being the vacation grounds of the nation, rich in majestic scenery and opportunities for healthy recreation, our national parks are veritable storehouses of education. As Director Mather once said, they are the “school rooms of Americanism where people are studying, enjoying, and learning to love more deeply this land in which they live.” The nature guides are the willing teachers in these out-door classrooms ready to assist you better to enjoy your vacation.
THE UNITED STATES COMPTROLLER GENERAL AND HIS OPPORTUNITIES
BY WM. H. ALLEN Director, Institute for Public Service
Dr. Allen's incisive paper directs (Mention to a recently created official possessing unique possibilities in danger of being pigeon-holed. Did you know that there is a comptroller general with a fifteen-year
term? :: :: :: ::
After listening to Director Lord’s most interesting illustration of constructive work being done by the bureau of the budget, and after reading his statement entitled “The National Budgetary System,” I feel more strongly than ever before the importance of the comptroller general’s opportunity.
A NEGLECTED OFFICE
The fact that this office and its relation to the whole budget program was not mentioned by Budget Director
Lord;1 was only once even incidentally mentioned in the monthly issues by the National Budget Committee from April to November, 1922; and has been barely discovered as yet by most commentators upon the budget merely accentuates the comptroller general’s opportunities.
The fact that the nation’s business men, speaking through the organ of the
1 In his oral address before the National Municipal League. Mention is made in the forma] copy of the address printed in this issue.


1923] THE UNITED STATES COMPTROLLER GENERAL
59
Chamber of Commerce of the U. S. A., should talk about the budget director as a “field marshall of figures,” again without discovering the comptroller general’s relation to the budget, adds to the conviction that we cannot safely go on much farther without discovering, uncovering and spot-lighting the •opportunities of the comptroller general.
Another aspect of the budget director’s statement emphasizes the terrific cost that is bound to result from our failure to see now, after the budget law, what congressional leaders saw before that law was passed, namely, that congress and the public need what only someone outside the presidential family will ever give—an independent check on executive expenditure and executive publicity. Only as a shrinking violet does there appear in the budget director’s statement or in the numerous statements by the National Budget Committee and other more or less official utterances respecting the budget, the conception of the budget as a work program. On the contrary, the budget is defined by General Lord, speaking here as the nation’s budget architect, as “a detailed statement of expected receipts and proposed expenditure.” That definition of a federal budget or a state budget or a city budget or a family budget misses the spirit and essence of the budget movement, namely that a budget should be first of all a picture, not of expected receipts and proposed expenditure, but of expected benefits and proposed service.
Unless service is taken as a starting point and final testing point of budget making, we shall find here as Herbert Casson, an American economist, wrote from London about Britain’s carefully balanced budgets, that “the budget has about as much effect in checking extravagance as a ribbon on a frog.”
IS THE JOKE ON THE TROMBONE PLATER?
The very humorous illustration1 which Director Lord used of confusion and lack of team work in government, seems to me to show the need for “expected service” rather than “expected receipts ” as the basis of budget making. He cited a New England orchestra whose leader said, “We shall now play Number 16,” and whose trombone player forthwith ejaculated, “Why I’ve just played Number 16.” Director Lord and the audience saw in this a joke on the trombone player, but why, pray, should not our trombones play Number 16 or Number 166 when the rest of the band is playing Number 6, if neither the director nor the audience knows the difference ? With the kind of budget approach and budget development which does not include the independent, unhampered, fearless, faetbased analysis and criticism which congress says shall be given by the comptroller general, no method ever yet devised will help our budget director or our public know whether the trombone player is at Number 16 or Number 6.
THE COMPTROLLER GENERAL’S OPPORTUNITIES GREATER THAN ANT OTHER OFFICER’S
The opportunities of the comptroller general to serve the United States where it now most urgently needs help are greater than those of any other elected or appointed public officer, not excluding the president and his cabinet. A comptroller general who lives up to his opportunities can do more to make the president efficient;, to make the president’s budget director efficient, to make congress and its committees and our voters efficient than any other single officer.
* Introduced as an “aside” in General Lord’s address.


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If public charges are made that the department of justice wastes tens of thousands of dollars on a Cronldte case, that our foreign service is hurting our foreign business because underfinanced, that our shipping board wastes millions by incompetence, that wasteful methods are subsidized by the budget director, the comptroller general is the only officer with power, duty and motive to give the public the truth.
When, as is happening right now, the minority party denies the accuracy of statements made by the budget director and holds up to public ridicule alleged perversions of the budgetary power, an interested public will never accept the statements of the budget director or the executive who names him, or of the party in power as nonpartisan, unbiased statements of fact. Moreover, there is not “a Chinaman’s chance” that the present budget director, in spite of his personal desire for the truth and the whole truth, will feel free to advertise publicly either errors in the work of his predecessor or defects of his own machinery or astigmatism on the part of the departmental budget officers from whom he takes his own description of departmental needs.
HIS UNIQUE POSITION
The comptroller general’s extraordinary opportunities for stimulating and compelling efficiency are given in the federal budget law. His term is fifteen years, overlapping four presidential terms and eight congresses. He is named not by the president, not by either house of congress, but by joint resolution of congress. Unless the office is abolished, he cannot be removed by any spender or even by congress itself, except by impeachment or after proof that he is physically incapacitated or has been guilty of either inefficiency,
neglect of duty, malfeasance in office, or conduct involving moral turpitude.
It is his special business to report to congress at least once a year and oftener when congress is in session if he wishes recommendations looking to greater economy or efficiency in public expenditure. For failing to make such reports, after investigation upon which such reports can be fact-based, he can be removed. For telling the truth, no matter how unpleasant, he cannot be removed unless congress is willing to. declare that telling the truth about public waste and inefficiency is a clear sign of moral turpitude.
POWEB TO AUDIT RESULTS
If the comptroller general uses his opportunity, he cab drive home not only to our federal government but to state and city governments, great relief funds and foundations, colleges and universities, three badly needed lessons:
1. A mere audit of money is no protection whatever against misuse of money and of power; audit or field studies of results is needed.
2. The executive who spends the money and directs the use of delegated power—whether president, governor, mayor, city manager, university president or foundation head—cannot be trusted to seek and to broadcast the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth about preventable waste of money and preventable misuse and underuse of power. If we really want this service, we must look for it to the office not responsible to our spenders, such as the auditor of the state, the comptroller of the city, the division of reference and research for the board of education, the special auditing division of the foundation responsible to its trustees.
3. Extravagance and not efficiency will come from our imitating European balanced budgets unless we refuse to


1923]
THE NATIONAL BUDGET SYSTEM
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imitate the European practice of balancing a budget by merely raising money enough to pay for wildest extravagance.
If the comptroller general lives up to his powers of scrutiny, subpoena,
truth telling and protection against penalties for telling unpleasant truth, it will be vastly easier for taxpayers throughout our country to insist upon similar truth about waste and opportunities in cities and states.
THE NATIONAL BUDGET SYSTEM1
AND THE FINANCIAL SITUATION FACING THE UNITED STATES
BY GENERAL H. M. LORD Director of the Budget
A budget is a detailed statement of expected receipts and proposed expenditures, prepared prior to the period to which it pertains. The Budget and Accounting Act, approved by President Harding June 10, 1921, provides for just that, with the requirement that if the Administration’s detailed statement of proposed expenditures called for more funds than the detailed statement of expected receipts evidenced would be available, the president should submit as part of the budget his recommendation of ways and means to secure the additional revenue required to finance the spending program recommended. The Budget and Accounting Act of June 10,1921, provided an agency for carrying out the terms of the act, termed the bureau of the budget. This bureau was created as an instrumentality directly under the control of the president for the purpose of enabling him to make effective his responsibility to congress and to the country for the efficient exercise of his administrative authority over the operation of the budget and over the expenditure of funds thereunder appropriated for the support of the
1 An address before the National Municipal League at Philadelphia, Nov. 23, 1922.
government. It was established solely upon the principle of presidential responsibility, and it is given no function under the Budget and Accounting Act which it can exercise independently of the president. This is as it should be, for the president is the head of the business organization of the government.
THE COMPTBOLLEB GENEBAL
The Budget and Accounting Act also created an establishment of the government known as the general accounting office, which is independent of the executive departments and under the control and direction of the comptroller general of the United States. Among the duties devolving upon the comptroller general are those of prescribing the forms, systems, and procedure for administrative appropriation and fund accounting in the several departments and establishments of the government and for the administrative examination of fiscal officers’ accounts and claims against the United States. The comptroller general has already placed in effect a classification of objects of expenditure for the departments and establishments of the government for the purpose of obtaining uniformity in


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[February
administrative appropriation and fund accounting and in the analysis of governmental expenditures. This is a long stride in the direction of uniformity of fiscal accounting, and marks the beginning of the plans of the comptroller general to establish uniformity in the accounting system for governmental expenditures.
I plan to confine my discussion, however, to the subjects of governmental estimating for funds, control of expenditures, and the co-ordinating of the federal business activities—a discussion of the routine business of the federal government.
GETTING THE MONEY
One of the most necessary things in a business—and the United States government is the biggest business in the world—is to get the money for operating purposes. Heretofore the estimates were prepared by a multitude of unco-ordinated agencies, and when brought together in the book of estimates for submission to congress represented no administrative policy, had been compiled without regard to treasury conditions, and were always greatly in excess of actual operating needs. From 1890 to 1922 the estimates submitted by the executive departments were twenty-three billions in excess of the appropriations made. Under the budget law this most undesirable, unscientific and expensive system has given way to a method of actual, careful estimating. Under the law each head of a government agency charged with the administration of public funds appoints a budget officer, who is charged with the preparation of estimates for his department. Through contact with the bureau of the budget he is informed of the administrative policy and of treasury conditions, and is expected to prepare and is in a position to prepare and sub-
mit to the head of his department an estimate that will fit into the national program. The various departmental estimates, prepared in this scientific way, approved by the departmental heads, are forwarded to the bureau of the budget. Here they are submitted for careful examination to investigators, one for each department, whose entire time is devoted to the work of that department, who know its genesis, organization and functions, and who have been available for assistance to the corresponding budget officer in preparing the estimate. Comparison is made of the estimates from one department with estimates from other departments, duplications eliminated, modifications and necessary reductions made, the conditions of the treasury studied, and the entire collection-estimates from the forty-three departments and independent establishments of the government—dove-tailed together, welded into a harmonious whole, reflecting in dollars and cents the policy of the administration. During this process the bureau of the budget consults frequently with the chief executive and the department and establishment heads so that the budget will really represent the actual needs of the government and the policy of the administration. The budget, prepared in this way, is then submitted to congress by the president, with recommendations of ways and means of procuring additional revenue, if the income from established sources is not sufficient to finance the spending program recommended. Heretofore chiefs of departments and independent agencies could submit estimates for appropriations to congress without restraint. Under the budget law all requests for appropriations must be submitted to the bureau of the budget, for submission to the chief executive,


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in whom is vested the exclusive power of submitting estimates to Congress.
APPROPRIATING THE MONEY
As a result of the enactment of the budget law a great revolution has taken place in the organization of the house and senate along appropriating lines. To-day all appropriations of the government are made on bills reported to congress from one committee, the appropriations committee of the house, and the appropriations committee of the senate. This arrangement affords opportunity for comparing the estimates of one bureau with those of another, and permits consideration of the country’s needs as one complete study by one committee acting for the house and one committee acting for the senate.
Under the operation of the budget law the annual appropriations for each department now all appear in one act, and it is not necessary in order to find how much money is available for a department or agency to search through several different appropriation acts for that information. This is certainly a long step in advance along the road of proper governmental financial procedure.
BPENDING THE MONEY
As under the old procedure there was no co-ordination of estimating or appropriating, so there was no co-ordination of expenditures. The amount appropriated was regarded as the minimum to be spent. The late Andrew Carnegie said at one time that he considered it a crime to die rich. The spending agencies of the federal government seemed to feel that way about their appropriations, and that it was inexcusable to terminate a fiscal year with an unobligated Balance of an annual appropriation in the treasury. Some years ago a government official,
having a considerable balance, promptly turned it back into the treasury, reaping therefor contumely, scorn and criticism instead of expected plaudits and commendation. These governmental officials, however, simply carried out what was understood to be the wishes of congress in those days of generous excesses of treasury receipts over liberal expenditures. Times have changed, however, and under the existing order of things the amount appropriated is intended to be the maximum of expenditure, with pressure for such efficient and economical administration as will produce the desired result with an expenditure less than the appropriation.
The co-ordination and control of expenditures, at this time without doubt the most important and urgent need of the government, is also the most difficult of realization. With the installation of the budget system the president of the United States, for the first time in the history of this country, assumed his proper place as the actual head of the business organization of the government, accepting in so doing all the great and trying responsibilities that such assumption of direct leadership entailed. The budget law gave him an agency for imposing policies of economy on the government’s many establishments, an agency which he is utilizing and proposes still to utilize for the purpose of saving millions of dollars of the people’s money.
THIS YEAR’S FINANCES
The best estimate of proposed expenditure for the fiscal year 1923, as of July 1, 1922, is $3,771,258,542. This includes the amounts the spending agencies of the government estimate they will expend; it includes also $489,231,368 customs refunds, pensions and other items not subject to administrative control; includes $330,-


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
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300,000 for reduction in the public debt, $34,362,000 investment of trust funds; and carries also $975,000,000, interest on the public debt. Of course, no account can be taken of further demands which may result from legislation yet to be enacted for this current fiscal year by congress. All of this adds interest to an already interesting problem.
The best estimate of ordinary treasury receipts from all sources for this fiscal year is $3,098,825,311. This includes $1,300,000,000 expected from income and profits taxes, $900,000,000 from miscellaneous internal revenue, with a grand total of $523,825,311 miscellaneous revenue which includes $225,000,000 from interest on foreign obligations.
Thus the excess of estimated expenditures over estimated receipts is $672,433,231.
Expenditures must be reduced and projects that can be postponed to a subsequent and more favorable season must be so deferred. The departments and independent establishments of the government, in compliance with the recommendation of the president, have set aside in a fund termed a general reserve an amount totalling many millions of dollars which they will try and save. This money is not subject to obligation by the spending agencies in a department without specific authority from the department head. These agencies are expected to plan their program for the fiscal year as if the amount in the general reserve did not exist. The anti-deficiency act, which requires apportionments of funds over an entire year to prevent exhaustion of appropriations in the first half of the year with resulting deficiency appropriations, is being strictly enforced, not only with a view to prevent deficiencies, but with an eye on attendant economies through restricting
the activities for each quarter to the money allotted to that quarter.
Another factor in the solution of this problem is the increase of revenues from established sources. One of these is the sale of surplus property. There is included in the anticipated receipts for 1924 the sum of $80,000,000 as the expected yield from sales of supplies. The surplus supply situation is being intensively studied with a view to so accelerating the declaring of surplus and its sale that additional and needed millions may be added to miscellaneous receipts of the treasury. Other sources of revenue are being studied for the same purpose—increase of ordinary receipts. It is an interesting problem that means a dogged, persistent, tireless, fight until the treasury closes at half-past four, the afternoon of June 30, 1923. And if when the returns are all in, and the budget for the fiscal year 1923 is balanced, it will be due to the firm and businesslike stand taken by the president, the co-operation of the business personnel of government, and the indorsement of the people at large who realize the importance of the problem and the direct bearing it has upon them.
NEXT YEAR’S FINANCES
Coincident with the task of reducing expenditures and increasing revenues for the current operating year is the work of preparing estimates for funds necessary to finance the administration for the next fiscal year which will begin July 1,1923. Estimated receipts for next year, compiled by the treasury department, amount to $3,198,-456,871. The president, carrying out his policy of keeping expenditures within receipts, informed the personnel of the business organization of the government at its second annual meeting July 11, last, that he would approve no estimates which with existing au-


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thorizations of expenditure would total more than that amount. The forty-three departments and independent establishments of the government are required by law to submit their annual estimates to the director of the bureau of the budget not later than September 15. For the purpose of getting a bird’s-eye view of the needs of the executive departments, call was made by the bureau of the budget for the submission of preliminary estimates, without supporting detail, August 1. In this call attention was invited to the instructions of the president and his additional statement that the estimate of receipts for 1924 evidently would not permit as liberal appropriations for 1924 as had been granted by congress for 1923. When the preliminary estimates were received, however, it was found that not only were they many millions in excess of the current year’s appropriations but nearly $200,000,000 in excess of the estimated receipts for the next fiscal year. The director of the budget, then, with the approval of the president, took each estimate, cut it down, item by item, in the light of the best information available as to the merits of the various projects, combined the resulting totals and found he was within the maximum amount fixed by the president—expected receipts for the next year. Then by direction of the president the budget director allocated the new total of each estimate to the department concerned with instructions to distribute that amount over its various activities and projects, and submit the result as the regular estimate September 15. The estimating agencies were notified at the same time that if the amounts falling to any item or group of items under this plan were inadequate a full presentation of the case should be made when the estimates were submitted and the
statement would be given consideration. This accomplished what was intended, a complete reversal of former procedure under which there was little or no limit or restraint upon the amounts that could be estimated for, the reviewing authority being obliged to prove that the amounts requested for the several items were too large. Anyone familiar with the enthusiasm and surpassing ability with which the experts in the departments defend their estimates, no matter how swollen, will appreciate the utter hopelessness of that task when the field to be covered involves items of estimates numbering hundreds if not thousands. Under the new procedure the proponents of the estimates must justify and prove the need of increases over the amounts allocated, which is an altogether different procedure. This will give you some idea of what the Budget and Accounting Act has made possible in the important field of estimating.
THE BUDGET BUREAU NON-POLITICAL
There is one point that I wish to emphasize at this time, and that is that the bureau of the budget is in no sense of the word a political agency. The budget movement in its inception, both in the country and in congress, was absolutely non-political. The proposal for the establishment of a national budget system was advocated by chambers of commerce and other commercial bodies and trade associations throughout the country regardless of political or geographical division. It was favored by both President Taft and President Wilson, and received indorsement in the platforms of all political parties. When the budget proposal was before congress experienced leaders of both parties served on the select budget committees of the house


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and senate, and in the preparation of the bill party lines were completely obliterated. The measure was advocated with equal enthusiasm on the floor of the house and the senate by Democrats and Republicans, and it passed the senate without a dissenting vote, while only three votes were recorded against it in the house. No other conception of the budget bureau than as a non-political, impersonal agency is proper, and any attempt to construe its purposes otherwise than for the general good of the country irrespective of party would be most unfortunate and disastrous, and seriously hamper its legitimate activities.
NOT A MAGIC WAND
The Budget and Accounting Act is. not itself a magic wand that waves out all faulty financial procedures and beckons in the financial millennium. Habits, customs, regulation^, laws that, the passage of a hundred years or more has built into the very machinery of the government are not eradicated over night. The most flagrant faults will be corrected first, but it must be a continuous process, that will require years of patient, persistent, and courageous endeavor, with the unwavering, vigorous support of the executive, the cooperation of the personnel of the government, and the watchful interest and intelligent indorsement of the people of this country.
THE LEGISLATIVE BODY IN CITY MANAGER GOVERNMENT
BY HENRY M. WAITE President, National Municipal League
Being Colonel Waites' ‘presidential address before the Twenty-eighth Annual Meeting of the League at Philadelphia. :: ::
With the growth of the city manager government, we are gaining in experience. Originally, it was popular to have the commission elected at large. The original National Municipal League charter so provided. Experience in the operation of this charter has enlightened us. The duties of the commissions are different from those of the old council. Their responsibilities are greater.
The old councilman represented his district. He had his political organization behind him. He kept the people of his ward and precincts advised. With smaller representative bodies elected at large this is not so easily accomplished.
THE COMMISSIONERS MAT GET OUT OF TOUCH WITH THE PEOPLE
Commissioners, under the manager form are the directors. The governmental organization under this new form is more centralized. A great many felt, and still feel, that the commissioners, in this new form, should be business men. It was popularly believed that a business man was the only one who appreciated the responsibilities of directorship. Experience has taught us that this is not true.
One of the great difficulties has been that the commissioners sit as directors and as such determine their policies,


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and the city manager administers these policies, but the board of directors does not explain these policies to the stockholders.
Changes of charters are usually followed by a broadening of program for the community welfare. Those who are most interested in the adoption of the new government are the ones most interested in the variations of municipal activity. The ambition of the commissioners is to accomplish much that is new and good for the community. They take on extensive programs for improvement. Their minds become centered on these new programs. They become absorbed in themselves and their advisers and fail to keep in touch with their stockholders, the citizens. Often, the commissioners find that they are ahead of their constituents in thought and activity and that the voters are ignorant of what is being done. The realization of this fact sometimes comes too late and is answered by an election of new commissioners. Such boards of directors have been too much absorbed in whai they were doing, and not enough in those for whom they were doing.
VALUE OF PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION
Much thought has been given and many suggestions made to cure this condition. Proportional representation is most generally favored as the remedy. Cleveland has adopted it in its new charter. Through proportional representation we are getting approximately a commission representing the cross section of a community. This will help. If the commission is elected under proportional representation, we shall have the personal interest of the commissioner in his constituency. The commissioner should be able to keep fairly in touch with the people of his representative district. At least, there
will be more interest in what he says to them than if he were elected at large by majority vote.
In large communities, too small representative districts will mean too large a commission. Much, we believe, will be accomplished, however, by electing by means of proportional representation.
Election by districts under proportional representation does not mean return to the old ward system. The old ward system did have the virtue, however, of bringing into the council men of a variety of social classes. Proportional representation revives that single virtue of the ward system in a better way. In large cities, election by large districts is a necessary detail for the application of proportional representation.
The election of commissions at large is a great improvement over the election by wards. Commissioners elected at large, however, must realize their responsibility in keeping the citizens advised as to the policies and programs of the commission. The ward representatives, under the old system, did so. The smaller the representative body, the greater is the individual responsibility of each member to keep the public informed.
MANAGER COMPELLED TO DO TOO MUCH EXPLAINING
Methods of election, however, will not overcome many of the difficulties encountered by commissioners in this new form of government. There is a natural tendency on their part to feel that the manager, as administrator, can better explain to the public what is being done. Such commissioners lose sight of the important fact that they are responsible for the policies of the government. They forget that they are to be re-elected and not the manager. They neglect to take into con-
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sideration that the success of the government depends upon the composition of the commission. However, the commissioner in this new form of government must appreciate, as experience has demonstrated, that the community is interested in hearing from their elected representative for whom they feel a responsibility, and that they are not so much interested, or should not be so much interested, in what the manager has to say.
Our feeling is that the manager does too much talking and the commissioners not enough. It reminds me of the story they tell about Mr. Wright. They never could get the Wright Brothers to talk and when one of them was asked for an explanation of his aversion to publicity, he replied that, of the birds, the poll-parrot is the best talker but the poorest flier. This may be one of the troubles. The city managers are better talkers than the commissioners. Experience, however, leads me to believe that the manager has become a better talker through experience and the commissions are forcing him into the experience.
THE NOSE FOR NEWS
These remarks are largely taken from the experiences in Dayton where our program for increased activities was so great that it was all absorbing. Suddenly, we found that we were far ahead of the majority of the people of the community. A newspaper man told me that undoubtedly what we were doing was all rig.it but that our publicity was so dry that he could not read it. All department heads were keyed up to accomplishment. They had no time to talk to the reporters. The reporters in the past were used to sitting down with office holders, whose future election depended upon publicity, and hearing long explanations of what they were accomplishing. We
found that the heads of our departments did not have the nose for news. The result was that all mail baskets were open for inspection to the newspaper reporters, whose noses were sharpened for news and they were directed to the correspondence files and given information explaining what they had found.
All new activities were stopped until what we had done could be explained to the community. There were instantaneous results of renewed public interest.
The success and growth of this new form of government depends largely on its being able to overcome many of the difficulties which the form itself imposes. We believe that proportional representation will aid materially. However, the commissioners must realize that this kind of an election carries with it the obligation of a direct explanation to their constituents.
NEED NOT FEAR POLITICAL PARTIES
The question is often asked—How will the city manager government operate if a political party gets control of the commission? This is a natural question, as most of the movements to establish this modem government are made by non-partisan efforts. Its continuance is, therefore, considered dependent upon keeping it out of political control.
We do not believe this is essential. There must be political parties in this country. Democracy is dependent upon them.
The issues in' municipal elections will not be the same as they are in national elections. It is, therefore, obvious that the party lines will not be so closely drawn in municipal affairs as in national affairs. The growing use of the non-partisan ballot aids materially in this direction.
What we desire to do is to turn over


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to the people a first-rate vehicle for good government. The vast independent vote of this country is rapidly abolishing the old party lines. Our political parties are campaigning more and more on personalities and not on principles. Platforms are designed to get the votes from each party. We can vote for principles expressed in platforms, but we have no way of enforcing action on the principles after election. The politician is daily adding recruits to the independents. The pendulum swings slowly in our democracy, but our faith in our democracy is due to our knowing that this pendulum always swings.
Slowly the politician is realizing that an enlightened community wants to hear about principles and not about personalities. This enlightened public is demanding that party lines be defined on principles. This enlightened public wants to know what it is voting for. It wants to vote intelligently. When it has voted for principles, it demands that these principles be enacted. When the politician realizes these facts, the pendulum will swing back, the independents will decrease, and platforms will cease to be scraps of paper. This is why we do not fear party politics in our municipal commissions.
We have tried and failed utterly to
get good city government through charters which tie our officials, hand and foot, with red tape. We are struggling to give more liberal charters by which we can more easily and economically obtain good government.
To our minds, it is no great achievement for a commission and manager to give better government. They certainly are dismal failures if they do not. This new charter gives them the machinery that makes good government more easily obtainable. Therein lies the hope. This explains its growth in spite of the antagonism from the local politician. He fights this charter because he believes it threatens his prerogatives. It is, nevertheless, in this charter that he has the means to give the very thing he is struggling to give—better government.
If we admit that we must have political parties in a democracy, then we must admit that the commissions under these improved charters will eventually be controlled by them. The political parties are wise—they will soon see the many advantages of this new form of government and it is through an enlightened public, comprising the political parties that we must obtain the charters with centralized authority in county and in state government.


DAYTON LEVIES SPECIAL ASSESSMENT TO BUILD PARK
BY R. L. SESSIONS
Prior to the acquisition of the Day-ton View park site, the city of Dayton had never attempted to acquire park lands by special assessment. The various parks throughout the city have been secured generally by gift or bond issue.
Dayton View park will extend along the shore of the Miami river beginning at Dayton View bridge and extending southward about one quarter of a mile to the mouth of the Wolf creek. One of the city’s best residential sections will be greatly benefited by the fine approach this park will render to Dayton View.
In order to acquire that portion of the park leading from the Dayton View bridge as indicated by the cross hatching on the accompanying map, various old buildings along the Miami river were condemned. The total cost of land and buildings involved in the condemnation proceedings came to $110,000. As the result of the efforts of an association of Dayton View citizens, $25,000 was raised by subscription. The city authorities agreed that the city should give $30,000, the remaining $55,000 to be assessed on the Dayton View property owners.
That portion of Davton View park to the left marked “ Conservancy ” and another portion extending along Wolf creek up to Orth avenue will be purchased by the city, thus extending considerably the park site outside the condemned area.
GRADUATED ASSESSMENTS
In order to assess the $55,000 upon the property owners of Dayton View,
it was thought best to assess over the entire area back to the corporation line. The assessment area established for this purpose is indicated by the map.
The south boundary of the assessment area follows the shore of the Wolf creek. The northeast line follows as closely as possible what is considered the boundary line between Day-ton View and Riverdale, an adjoining residential section having a fine park and therefore not subject to assessment for Dayton View park. Although the Miami river was made the southeast boundary line, property across the river will have an excellent outlook upon the park. These properties were not assessed, for the reason that the river formed a convenient physical boundary and only the rear of these properties faced the park.
In accordance with the principle that the benefit derived from a public improvement of this character diminishes with the distance and at a faster rate, it was determined to grade the individual assessments in accordance with a definite ratio commencing with $100 for a standard lot in the first zone, $27.60 for a standard lot in the second, and so on down to $1,146 for a lot in the last. The ratio for each zone is shown in column 3 of the table below as the “preliminary zone rate.” The amount of benefit assigned to each standard lot was termed “one benefit.”
As indicated on the accompanying map, the writer placed all property abutting on the park in zone number one, dividing the remaining distance to the corporation line into fourteen additional zones of approximately equal
70


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71
width. By referring to the map, it will establish the zone widths on Salem be seen that the abutting properties of avenue. These lines were then trans-
zone number one all border on River- ferred to several large maps showing
MAP SHOWING SPECIAL ASSESSMENT AREA FOR DAYTON VIEW PARK
view avenue, and the zone lines are lot numbers, the result being a series of drawn normal to Salem avenue used as broken lines generally running along an axis. In drawing these preliminary the street and alley. Whenever the lines, a pair of dividers was used to course of the broken line by following


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the street and alley would deviate too much from the preliminary curved line, then the course would be drawn between properties. Streets and alleys were used for the dividing lines as much as possible, for the reason that it was thought that many property owners would have difficulty in understanding why two adjoining properties should be placed in different zones, it being more or less clear to them why a neighbor across the street could be placed in a different zone. It was thought that this difficulty might arise, especially in the first two or three zones, where the rates change rapidly.
In some zones of the assessment area, the prevailing lot width was found to be 30 feet, in another 40 feet, one benefit being given in either case. Wherever an extra house could be built, an extra one half benefit was given. Following the plan used in Day-ton in assessing sanitary sewers, a
corner lot was assessed an extra one half benefit. This extra amount might be considered somewhat high but was thought advisable in keeping with local practice.
HOW RATES WERE COMPUTED
After arriving at the benefit ratio by zones, the number of benefits were totalled for each zone as indicated in column 2. Then the individual items of column 2 were multiplied with the corresponding items of column 3, giving the total preliminary assessment for the zone as indicated in column 4. It will be noticed that the total preliminary assessment for the entire assessment area came to $41,502.00. As $55,000 was the amount to be levied, the division of $55,000 by $41,449 gives 1.3272 as a factor to be used in multiplying each of the preliminary rates in order to obtain the final zone rates, as given in column 5. The final assessment for each zone is shown in column 6.
Assessment Rates—Dayton View Pabk, Dayton, Ohio
(1) Zone No. No. of Benefits (3) Preliminary Zone Rate (4) Preliminary Assessment («) Final Zone Rate (6) Final Assessment
1 78.0 $100.00 $7,800 $132.72 $10,352.15
* 263.0 27.60 7,260 36.62 9,594.35
3 282.5 13.60 3,840 18.05 5,099.50
4 319.0 9.35 2,980 12.39 3,952.00
5 323.5 8.06 2,630 10.70 3,462.55
6 424.5 6.90 2,925 9.15 3,883.15
7 455.5 5.76 2,625 7.64 3,481.50
8 509.0 5.20 2,640 6.89 3,500.10
9 518.0 4.70 2,440 6.24 3,230.50
10..........., 590,0 4.04 2,380 5.35 3,157.00
11 617.0 3 36 2,070 4.46 2,754.00
18 358.5 2.89 1,038 3.83 1,372.80
13 246.5 2.31 568 3.06 754.30
14 128.0 1.735 222 2.30 294.40
15 73.5 1.146 84 1.52 111.70
$41,502 $55,000.00


1923] EMPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT IN BRITISH EMPIRE 73
The meetings of the board of revision brought out the following complaints. Fourteen property owners objected to any assessment whatsoever on the ground that they would not use the park or that the park would be of no benefit to their property. Eight property owners who had previously subscribed to the Dayton View Association, asked to be relieved of the assessment. Seven property owners claimed they were assessed with too many benefits. Five asked for an equalization of their assessment with those of their neighbors, which were generally granted if thought reasonable. One property owner complained that the entire assessment was illegal. Another owner asked to be relieved of
a part of his assessment as he had sold a portion of his lot.
One citizen maintained that the northeast boundary should be moved over at least one block, in order to take in more territory. It was explained that the line was arbitrary and should stand as drawn.
The commission, after receiving the report of the board of revision, passed the necessary assessment ordinance. Thereupon bills were served providing for payment within thirty days. In case payment is not made within thirty days, the assessments will be certified to the county to be placed upon the tax duplicate and collected along with the general levy in ten yearly installments. All unpaid assessments will bear 5 per cent annual interest.
EMPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT IN THE BRITISH EMPIRE1
BY W. E. MOSHER National Institute of Public Administration
The drift is towards a central agency with jurisdiction over working
conditions. :: :: ::
If for no other reason than lack of funds, the majority of our civil service commissions have generally been unable to develop other functions than examination and certification of eligi-bles, even though the law under which they are operating usually gives them a wide range of powers in employment matters. In foreign countries, however, noteworthy developments along these lines have recently taken place. This
1 Originally prepared for the report of the Committee on Civil Service,of the Governmental Research Conference, entitled the “Character and Functioning of Municipal Civil Service Commissions in the United States.”
is particularly true of the English-speaking countries. As it is to Great Britain that we owe our first civil service law and procedure, it is natural that we should look to England and the dominions for guidance as to the probable evolution of our existing practices.2
2 Inasmuch as the English municipalities have no civil service commissions, attention is directed in this section to the conditions in the central government, both in England and its dependencies. It is of interest to note that a recent writer, who reviews the employment situation in the English municipalities, urges in the name of proficiency the adoption of minmium qualifies.


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THE DBIFT TOWARDS CENTRAL MANAGEMENT
The purpose of this article is to point out that centralized employment management under the conditions of public administration is an accomplished fact, and that, except for England, the central agency is the civil or public service commission. On the other hand, the mother country has gone much farther in the organized development of employee representation than have the other countries. We shall thus see that government is looking in the same directions for the solution of its “industrial relations problem” as the private employer. Like conditions are calling forth like remedies.
England, the older and more conservative country, has been slow to adopt new methods and extend the functions of its administrative agencies, but the tendency toward service-wide standardization of employment conditions is noticeably forging ahead. It is in the government of the dominions, however, that centralization of employment control under a single responsible agency has made most progress. In Canada, New Zealand and the states of Australia, the functions of the civil service commission have been expanded to include most duties that pertain to employment control and in many cases, what is more, also to cover functions that properly belong to a bureau of administration and efficiency.
tions for entrance into the service. He deplores the system of patronage encountered in local government which is charged to the absence of any method of recruitment based on officially controlled qualifying tests. Robson. From Patronage to Proficiency in the Public Service, The Fabian Society, 1922, pp. 40, 43.
ENGLAND
The situation in England is in a state of flux at the present time. The one constant seems to be the civil service commission. Apparently, it i3 expected that it will continue as heretofore as the recruiting and examining agency without undergoing either curtailment or expansion of duties.
It appears likely, however, that the Treasury will exercise more and more those functions that properly belong to a central employment department.
Both the most recent Royal Commission on Civil Service appointed in 1912 and a special board of commissioners, reporting to the Treasury on organization and staffing in 1919, urged that the Treasury be strengthened with a view to exercising more effective control over the organization of the civil service and further that a special division be created in the Treasury for that purpose.
The functions contemplated for the Treasury may be summarized under the following heads:5
1. To watch over general conditions
and activities of the civil service with a view to its effective, economic employment.
2. To make suggestions to the head
of the department.
3. To secure machinery for recog-
nizing and rewarding exceptional cases of ability and merit.
4. To bring about transfers if such
transfers are to the advantage of the service.
5. To carry out inquiries and inves-
tigations into any matters connected with the departmental administration or methods of work.
3 Fourth Report of the Royal Commission on Civil Service, p. 87.


1928] EMPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT IN BRITISH EMPIRE 75
The commission on organization and staffing is even more specific in that it recommends the creation of an establishment division of the Treasury as well as the appointment of an establishment officer in each department whose business would be to co-operate with the treasury division. The establishment division would supply the need of permanent staff management, being responsible for the adoption of uniform regulations covering selection, probation, promotion, placement, transfer, sick leave, superannuation, etc. It would also serve as a clearing house for records, better methods of management, the installation of labor-saving devices, and the like.
Whether because of the above recommendations or on account of other causes, the Treasury has been reorganized and a controller of establishments has been appointed and endowed with very wide powers. This appointment will inevitably extend the activities of the Treasury in its control of salaries and personnel matters.
Another force making for standardized employment conditions and a progressive policy is the National Whitley Council that has been operating since 1919. Because of its achievements, its broad program and its promise, a brief description of it will be appropriate at this point.
The Whitley Council consists of fifty-four members appointed in equal numbers by the government and the associations of employees. Its constitution gives it a very broad commission enabling it to deal with questions that range from remuneration to the improvement of office machinery and organization. The council works by agreement. If agreement is reached, the decisions become operative, as the staff members will have gotten their instructions during the negotiations from the Treasury or on special mat-
ters from the cabinet. The administration of the order is then vested in the Treasury or the department involved.
The records of the agreements reached by the Whitley Council already cover vital employment matters as, for instance, classification and methods and lines of promotion. When it is considered that the constitution of the National Whitley Council authorizes it to investigate and report “on matters affecting the civil service with a view to increased efficiency in the public service combined with the well-being of those employed,” we may predict that as an outgrowth of Whitley procedure the Treasury will become more and more active as the center of personnel administration.4
THE DOMINIONS
In a minority report on the question of central supervision and control of personnel policy, Sir Kenneth Muir Mackenzie, an eminent legal authority, strongly urged that the Treasury should not be given the responsibility that was recommended by the majority members of the Royal Commission on Civil Service, but rather that some independent body should be chosen. He concluded his comments by suggesting that if “the civil service commission were properly constituted, it would more nearly approach what is required.”
The dominions which have been less hampered by tradition and a strongly entrenched central department, such as the Treasury, have adopted the policy outlined by Mr. Mackenzie. That is to say, the civil
* The Whitley scheme was also applied to the municipal governments on a national scale, but on account of a lack of co-operation broke down in 1921. About 93 municipal joint committees are still operating, however, and a movement is under way for the re-establishment of the national organization.


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service commission, or rather public service commission, the more usual designation, has been given a broader charter both to supervise and control all conditions affecting the civil service and also to investigate any and all phases of departmental management that make for efficiency and economy. The latter provision covers departmental organization, organization of work, use of labor-saving devices, and similar matters.6
If space permitted it would be well worth while to summarize the activities described in the annual reports of these commissions in order to indicate that the manifold duties prescribed in the law have been faithfully and, in some cases, most thoroughly carried out as regards both personnel and general administration.
For instance, the Queensland commission has paid much attention to recruiting junior employees from the schools and to training those already in the service for advancement. It has also gone into the matter of providing adequate housing for the employees in the outlying districts. In the last re-
5 This obviously goes well beyond what is ordinarily assigned to the division in charge of personnel. It may be explained as due to the close relation between the size and quality of the staff and the whole work policy and scheme of organization, but it is also due to the obvious need of having a clearing house for information as to the most approved methods of administration and a center for co-ordinating the work of the various departments. At any rate, legislation in New South Wales (1902), in Canada (1918), in South Australia (1916) and Queensland (1920), and the proposed act for regulating the public service in the Commonwealth of Australia, imposes the double function described above on the public service commissioners.
It should also be noted that a number of municipal commissions in the United States have the power to investigate the organization and efficiency of departments and to recommend changes.
port for New South Wales, considerable space was given to the justification of periodic tests as a means of stimulating-zeal for promotion and of broadening the equipment and outlook of the civil servants. The question of standard provisions for travel expenses and the necessary means of transportation is considered in three or four of the reports. Standardization of leaves, holidays and overtime remuneration, as well as the matter of appeals, discipline and dismissal, are given more or less space in most of the annual reports. In short “the placing of all staff matters and appointments under the jurisdiction of the public service commission,” to quote the last annual report from South Australia, “is in operation in all states of Australia and New Zealand.”
The foregoing brief review will indicate how truly the civil service commission has become the central employment agency of the governments concerned. There is, in fact, practically no function normally performed by the typical personnel department in the field of private employment which has not been performed by one or more of the civil service commissions under review.
Before concluding this brief outline, reference should be made to the general practice in the dominions to recognize the advantages of providing some means whereby the representatives of the rank and file of the employees may be consulted with regard to matters of interest to them. In one form or another various commissioners virtually subscribe to the statement of the Royal Commissioner of Queensland, who, in commenting on his own weekly meetings with the employees’ representatives, expressed the opinion that “ these meetings are tending to make the wheels of public service administration run more smoothly.” The co-opera-


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77
tion of the employees in regard to policies affecting their work and working conditions is being stimulated, therefore, by some form of representation both in England and its dominions.
CONCLUSION
It will be seen from the above review that the government-employer is not lagging very far behind the industrial leader. Both have to meet similar human problems and both have pursued similar methods. Instead of letting vital problems solve themselves or go unsolved, both have established a central human relations department, endowed it with ample powers and supplied it with funds adequate to its functions. In the name of a fuller understanding and increased interest in the work, both have also provided or sanctioned a considerable degree of self-expression through the medium of
representatives chosen by the rank and file of the workers.
The conditions that give rise to these developments in the relations between employer and employee, whether in private industry or in the governments of the British Empire, are not materially different from conditions encountered to-day in the various jurisdictions in the United States. The typical civil service commission in this county now largely engrossed in selecting new employees might well follow the lead of the commissions just described and adapt to the public service the whole range of employment policies that have a recognized place in modem administration. There is probably no more difficult task confronting public administrators today than that of improving the efficiency of the public servants but then too there is none whose solution promises so sure returns in the form of more efficient and less costly governmental service.
BRIEF REVIEW OF CITY PLANNING IN THE UNITED STATES, 1921-1922
BY THEODORA KIMBALL
Librarian, School of Landscape Architecture, Harvard University Hon. Librarian, American City Planning Institute
Before long it will be easier to make a list of principal cities which are laggard in city planning than to review the accomplishments of those which are active. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: ::
There is actually at hand recent news of city planning in various stages from nearly 150 cities and towns, and at least twenty-five have reached the point in 1922 of issuing published plan reports. Of the forty-three cities in the United States with a population of 150,000 or over, news has been received during 1922 from all but three; and of these three, only one,—San Antonio,
Texas,—has not had some form of city plan report in the past. In the present annual survey,1 many interesting items have had to be sacrificed to
1 Miss Kimball again contributes the annual review of city planning progress in the United States. Such reviews, begun by Mr. Charles Mulford Robinson and continued after his death by Miss Kimball, have been a feature of this magazine since its founding.


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[February
the exigencies of space; and no attention has been given to the important field of housing, because this subject is covered so fully and well by Mr. Lawrence Veiller in the issues of Housing Betterment.
OFFICIAL SUPPORT
In the invitations to the National Conference on City Planning, at Springfield, Massachusetts, June, 1922, the secretary of the Conference reported that “every city of the metropolitan class in the United States with a population of over 300,000 has adopted city planning as a part of its official program.” Two cities in this class deserve especial mention: Pittsburgh, aroused by the pioneer work of the Citizens .Committee on City Plan, has put city planning on an official basis, securing continuity of effort by appointing on the official plan commission several important members of the Citizens Committee. Boston, where an able official city planning board has been active for several years on a limited appropriation, has embarked on a definite program of accomplishment. 1922 marked the centennial of Boston as a city and the advent of a new mayor who made the occasion of the centennial an opportunity publicly to announce his interest and support, and increased appropriations for city planning work.
Another mayor has made city planning a major feature of his administration. The mayor of Raleigh, North Carolina, issued early in the year a pamphlet which contained a compelling statement of the need for city planning in Raleigh, and the permissive legislation. The city has since made an appropriation for preliminary work in city planning and zoning. In contrast to the official indifference which city planning has encountered in the past,
this example of executive initiative is noteworthy.
Springfield, Massachusetts, has shown its belief in the value of a city plan by liberal appropriations, and Portland, Oregon, after an interval of non-support, has again given financial backing to the plan commission. It is now, unfortunately, Cleveland’s turn to feel the humiliation of having its city plan commission’s work, known and quoted throughout the country, summarily suspended through lack of funds. In the case of Cleveland, harm is done not only to the work within the city but to the very promising activities of the Cleveland metropolitan planning commission, since its principal member is unable to bear its share in the joint program. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, has proposed to give greater official impetus to its city planning program by the appointment of a city planning commission to work with the bureau of surveys, but no news has yet been received of the passage of the ordinance submitted by the mayor to the council on June first. It would be possible to cite other instructive cases of both support and non-support, but it is fair to say that the good news far out-; weighs the bad, and we are given reason to hope that the official gain for 1923 will be even greater than that for 1922.
PUBLIC UNDERSTANDING
The “promotion” of city planning has proceeded actively during the year, both by national and local organizations. More than ever before, real estate boards have been waking up. The fact that Secretary Hoover established a division of building and housing in the department of commerce, and appointed an advisory committee on building codes and zoning, has led to wide publicity for zoning and city


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planning, and the speeches of Mr. Hoover and Mr. Gries, chief of the division, in various parts of the country have served further to bring the matter home to important bodies of business men. The civic development department of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States reflects increased activity on the part of local chambers of commerce, and inquiries received by officers of the National Conference on City Planning, American Civic Association, National Housing Association, the National Municipal League, and the School of Landscape Architecture at Harvard University, show how widespread and genuine the interest in city planning has become.
Three states have large and vigorous organizations which have met during the year. The Massachusetts Federation of Planning Boards, at its meeting in November, reported fifty-three constituent official boards. The Ohio State Conference on City Planning had a successful meeting in October, one day joining with the American Society for Municipal Improvements. The Iowa Town Planning Association issues a monthly mimeographed bulletin full of live news and well-selected statements of principles.
New forms of publicity in 1922 appeared in the zoning “movie” called “Growing Pains,” prepared by the American City Bureau and in the “radio debut” of the Pittsburgh Plan last February,—broadcasting the results of the school children’s competition for the best essay on city planning. The Zoning Primer, issued by Secretary Hoover’s advisory committee on zoning as a series of short releases in newspapers and then in pamphlet form, has probably been circulated more widely than any previous city planning publicity leaflet. The leaflet, “Helps in Conducting Publicity Campaigns for Zoning,” preprinted from the July 1922
issue of Landscape A rchitecture, has also been widely distributed.
Chicago, Pittsburgh, and Buffalo should all be especially mentioned for their educational work in city planning during 1922.
PROGRESS IN CONSTRUCTION
The citizens of Milwaukee have recently supported a two-and-a-half-million-dollar bond issue to provide funds for the civic center and for the traffic artery being constructed through the center of the city. Progress on Boston’s western artery has been made in 1922. In Utica the abandoned route of the Erie canal is being replaced by an important new street. St. Louis reports that the last two and probably the most important projects of the major street plan have been authorized. In Chicago the progress in carrying out the plan is steady. Twelve major features are under way and seventy-five more are pending. Philadelphia is pushing construction in anticipation of the Sesqui-Centennial. Cleveland in spite of present handicaps is able to report part of its thoroughfare plan materialized. Pittsburgh has an enviable record for 1922.
Visitors to Washington see some improvement of the area around the Lincoln Memorial, and the embellishment of Denver’s civic center has been furthered by a generous private bequest. Buffalo, in the midst of its effective publicity campaign, taking stock of its achievements up to October, 1922, reports work under way on street plan, zoning, harbor development, terminals, and bridges. Baltimore’s harbor development is also being pushed.
LEGISLATION
The quantity of zoning legislation alone would have been incredible five years ago. Although some of the zoning


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ordinances have undoubtedly been put through too hastily, there is nevertheless a very considerable number of a comprehensive character. The importance of properly delegated authority from the state has been brought home by the Missouri decision, threatening the St. Louis zoning ordinance. The standard state zoning enabling act, prepared by Secretary Hoover’s advisory committee on zoning, should be a stimulus to wise legislation in 1923.
Laws and ordinances creating city planning and zoning commissions have increased in number and in geographical distribution. More southern cities have taken the necessary preliminary steps for city planning. An important legislative proposal now pending is the state city planning bureau for Maryland.
Of interest all over the country is the application of excess condemnation to the new Milwaukee traffic artery. Providence has also recently employed excess condemnation in the Wicken-den street improvement. Flint, Michigan, passed a building line ordinance, in January, 1922, with no public protest against its passage; and Cleveland revised its original building line ordinance alter a year’s successful operation by a new ordinance passed December, 1921.
City planning legislation has undoubtedly derived material benefit from the two authoritative monographs issued in revised form in 1922, by the National Municipal Review, making available the legal experience of Mr. Bassett and Mr. Williams. Most important of all, however, is the appearance of Mr. Williams’s long-anticipated treatise, The Law of City Planning and Zoning (Macmillan), just as the year closes. This is the first comprehensive American work in its field, and, indeed, surpasses in scope any foreign work. Its wealth of citations
coupled with the thorough organization of subject matter and the unassailable status of its author gives the volume promise of far-reaching influence on the future of city planning law in this country.
TECHNICAL ADVANCE
An epitome of the technical advance in city planning methods will be found in Modem City Planning by Thomas Adams, again a supplement to the National Municipal Review, June, 1922. In technical work generally throughout the country increasing attention has been paid to regional studies, and the value of serial survey maps in the determination of broad relations more and more appreciated.
At the two meetings of the American City Planning Institute during the year problems of technique have been thrashed over. The February meeting was devoted to a discussion of data for zoning and the November meeting took the form of a “clinic” on Welwyn, the new English Garden City. The exposition of Regional Planning Theory, “a reply to the British challenge,” by Mr. Arthur Comey, presented at this Welwyn meeting (to be issued as a pamphlet) is one of the technical contributions of the year. Advances in clearness of thought in city planning matters were evident at the annual meeting of the National Conference on City Planning in such papers as Mr. Hubbard’s Parks and Playgrounds, Dr. Strayer’s School Building Program, and Mr. Turner’s Fundamentals of Transit Planning'?
The most important opportunity for the development of city planning technique lies with the group of experts assembled to prepare the Sage Foundation’s “Plan of New York and Its Environs.” A notable series of survey
* Fourteenth Proceedings of the Conference just published.


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maps for the New York region has already been prepared under the direction of Mr. Nelson Lewis, in charge of physical surveys.
METROPOLITAN, COUNTY, AND REGIONAL PLANNING
The “Plan of New York and Its Environs” is our greatest regional undertaking and its financing a generous endowment of the cause. The plan was launched at a meeting held by the Sage Foundation in May, 1922, with addresses by Mr. Hoover, Mr. Root, and others of national reputation. A full discussion of this great enterprise will be found in the booklet issued by the Sage Foundation at the time of the meeting.
The Pacific Coast maintains its reputation for progressiveness in the establishment of a Regional Planning Conference of Los Angeles County, which met first at Pasadena on January 21, 1922. Hennepin County, Minnesota, has secured the appointment of an official county planning commission to co-operate with Minneapolis and local authorities for the systematic development of the county. In Wisconsin the rural plan commissioners have been at work over a year.
Pittsburgh is largely responsible for the joint committee representing the official city and county planning commissions and the citizens’ committee to effect a close liaison between these three planning bodies. The setback to Cleveland’s metropolitan planning commission has already been mentioned, but the metropolitan park work is going forward. A regional project concerning our national capital is afoot with good promise of fulfillment, through the efforts of the city planning authorities of Baltimore and the National Commission of Fine Arts for a Maryland state bureau of city planning.
Boston, regarded as the home of
metropolitan development in municipal affairs, has nevertheless lagged in cooperative city planning. Valuable reports have not been followed by action. Of more than local interest, therefore, is the report of the Boston Chamber of Commerce recommending the formation of a permanent metropolitan planning board with power to construct transportation facilities of a metropolitan class. This report was presented at the November meeting of the Massachusetts Federation of Planning Boards and there endorsed, a large number of the planning boards in the metropolitan district being present. There is reason to hope that a bill can be put through the legislature which will crown the long series of efforts to secure a powerful metropolitan agency. This report contains an excellent assemblage of information on metropolitan districts which should be of service to other regions contemplating like action.
ZONING
As last year, of all branches of city planning, zoning has been foremost in the public eye and in the press. The work of Secretary Hoover’s advisory committee, already referred to, the important place given the subject in the programs of national and local societies, the popular and direct appeal of its advantages to the home-owner, have combined to advance zoning activities north, south, east and west. On December 1, 1922, there were on record in the office of the division of building and housing of the department of commerce, 87 municipalities having zoning ordinances, of which more than 60 are comprehensive in character. The number with zoning plans in progress or about to be undertaken is probably close to 150.
A brief review of Zoning Progress in the United States, prepared by Miss


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Mary T. Voorhees (of the division of building and housing), was published in the Engineering News Record for September 28, 1922. At that date 75 per cent of the cities of the United States with a population of over 100,-000 were zoned, or about to be zoned, and the small cities and towns far outnumbered the larger ones in zoning activity. Twenty-five states and the District of Columbia now have laws granting either all or some of their cities the right to zone. In this article, record was made only of those cities which were actually known to have passed zoning ordinances. Since that date, news has been received of the passage of nine ordinances including Memphis and Indianapolis. Of the cities which passed ordinances earlier in 1922 may be mentioned St. Paul, Wichita, Jersey City, and Hoboken, besides many smaller New Jersey municipalities, Syracuse, Richmond and Dallas (use only), Akron and Janesville. The Atlanta ordinance (Robert Whitten, consultant) has aroused wide discussion because it adds race districts to the usual classifications.
Among the zoning plans being comprehensively prepared are those for Baltimore, Philadelphia, Boston, Providence, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Grand Rapids, Detroit, Columbus, Toledo, Kansas City (Missouri), Lincoln, Seattle, and Spokane, and Springfield, Massachusetts, where an interim ordinance was recently enacted.
PLAN REPORTS
Comprehensive plan reports have been published during 1922 for East Orange, New Jersey, Springfield and Worcester, Massachusetts (all three with Technical Advisory Corporation as consultants); Fall River, Massachusetts (Arthur A. Shurtleff, town planner, John P. Fox, consultant on zoning); Memphis, Tennessee, and Lan-
sing, Michigan (Harland Bartholomew, consultant). Preliminary reports for Kalamazoo, Michigan (Mr. Bartholomew) and Hightstown, New Jersey (Russell V. Black) have also appeared, and a series of special studies for Paterson, New Jersey (Herbert S. Swan and George W. Tuttle). Utica’s Major Street Plan (Mr. Bartholomew), the Delaware River Bridge report, the St. Louis Railroad Terminals report, and the reports of and in opposition to the Port of New York Authority may also be added to the list.
The brief space allotted to this article in the National Municipal Review does not permit a more extended mention of reports of special activities. A fuller account with a bibliography of plan reports for 1921-22 will be found in Landscape Architecture for January, 1923, also reprinted.
Among the plans in progress might be mentioned as especially noteworthy the model town of Mariemont, near Cincinnati, designed by Mr. Nolen, and the huge Palos Verdes Project,3 near Los Angeles, its design under the charge of Olmsted Brothers with a board of associated experts. Widely scattered cities which have reported city plans under way, or about to be undertaken, are Asheville, North Carolina, Spartanburg, South Carolina, Atlanta, Georgia, St. Petersburg, Florida, New Orleans, Louisiana, Chattanooga, Tennessee, Toledo and Cincinnati, Ohio, Duluth, Minnesota, Oklahoma City, Topeka, Kansas, Indianapolis, South Bend, and Evansville, Indiana, Troy, New York, Springfield, Illinois, Long Beach and Paso Robles, California. There are many others. Before long it will be easier to make a list of principal cities which are laggards in city planning than to “’review the accomplishments of thosej,which are active.
' See Review, September, 1922, p. 304.


PARTIES IN NON-PARTISAN BOSTON'
BY DAVID STOFFER Harvard Law School
How the Good Government Association replaced the Republican party as the antagonist of the Democratic “ organization,” and why parties will continue under the non-partisan ballot. :: :: :: ::
A long list of opprobrious adjectives has been used by writers on municipal government to describe the political situation in Boston before 1909. Yet essentially the same phenomenon characterized the government of the Hub as was to be found in other large cities: the rule of a powerful political machine with all that the term implies. The Democratic party was invincible, and its preponderance was maintained largely by the refusal of the suburban districts in the Metropolitan area to be joined to the city of Boston. It became apparent, therefore, that the only hope for better government lay in attracting to the existing Republican minority the better class of citizens who were voting the Democratic ticket, not because they believed it to stand for the best interests of the city, but on account of the prejudice created by their national political affiliations.
HOW NON-PARTISAN ELECTIONS WERE ADOPTED
Accordingly six commercial organizations and the Bar Association united in 1903 to form the Good Government Association. At the outset this body did not endorse any candidates. It
1 The writer desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. Geo. H. McCaffrey, Secretary of the Boston Good Government Association, and to Messrs. A. C. Hanford and W. A. I. Anglin, of the department of government at Harvard, for valuable assistance in the preparation of the thesis on which this article is based.
merely furnished unbiased information concerning their life, education and experience, hoping thereby to influence the party leaders to make satisfactory nominations, but threatening to nominate its own candidates if the old parties persisted in supporting the objectionable office-seekers. While the work of the Association was as valuable as a mere educational force behind an inert electorate could be, it was ineffective politically before 1909. The disparity in the power of the principal parties rendered insignificant the vote which the reformers were able to sway.
Voter’s league tactics having failed, another method was sought. In 1907 the administration of the government was so extremely corrupt that, largely through the efforts of the Association, a Committee of One Hundred was formed, which influenced the mayor to appoint a finance commission to investigate conditions. During a year and a half of careful work the commission issued its reports, which mercilessly criticised past administrations, and indicated the imperative need of scrapping a considerable portion of Boston’s municipal machinery, as well as political traditions. It proposed a charter embodying these features: First, government by a mayor and council of nine members elected at large; second, the administration of departments by trained experts appointed by the mayor, subject to approval by the state civil service
s
£3


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commission; third, nomination by petition, and removal of party designations from the ballot; fourth, a permanent finance commission “to investigate the departments and to report from time to time.”
Naturally the political machines opposed the adoption of these recommendations. The state legislature was prevailed upon to refer two plans to the voters. Plan One (the bosses’ plan) provided for nomination by party primaries and conventions, party designations on the ballots, a term of only two years for the mayor, and a council elected by wards. Plan Two was the one formulated by the finance commission. The inertia of the electorate having been temporarily overcome by the recent disclosures, the new charter (Plan Two) was adopted by a vote of 39,170 against 35,276. The slight majority of four thousand votes presaged a division of the citizens into two camps: the “Goo-goos,” inspired by the halo which now surrounded the reform organization, and the “Gang,” composed chiefly of the adherents of the old order.
FIRST NON-PARTISAN ELECTION
The first non-partisan election took place in 1910. In the Association’s report on candidates for that year occurs this significant statement: “ Contrary to a somewhat popular misapprehension, Plan Two does not involve the absence of all parties in municipal politics, but on the contrary distinctly contemplates the organization of municipal parties. The recently-formed Citizen’s Municipal League is such a party, and the so-called Timulty-Curley combination may be fairly regarded as a somewhat indefinite move in the direction of another.” The Citizen’s Municipal League was in reality the substitute for the Republican minority, while the Timulty-
Curley group represented the old Democrats. In the election campaign, the Association affected a non-partisan attitude, but its leanings were unmistakable. The six candidates it recommended for the city council were all taken from the nominees of the Municipal League, whereas it emphatically opposed everyone of the Timulty-Curley men. On the mayoralty candidates, its stand was unequivocal. “The real contest,” the report reads, “is between Mr. Storrow and Mr. Fitzgerald; between decent government and wasteful, corrupt, and inefficient government.”
After the demise of the Municipal League in 1914, the Association remained the sole defender of the principles of those opposed to the Gang. In the 1910 pamphlet it had styled the League a municipal party, and the interesting question arises whether there is any reason aside from political expediency for the insistence that the term party should not apply as well to the League’s heir and successor, the Good Government Association. The test should be more substantial and logical than mere nomenclature. The activities of the Association support the conclusion that it is the political organization which the Republicans and better class of Democrats have followed in municipal elections, at least since 1914.
The first of these activities is its r61e in conjunction with the Boston Charter Association, its faithful ally, as the protector of the charter of 1909. The Democratic leaders at the time of its enactment realized that the new charter would ultimately deprive them of their power. Two of its features were particularly repugnant to the devotees of the old regime: First, the requirement that the state civil service commission approve the mayor’s appointment of department heads made


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it almost impossible to reward their henchmen with lucrative political offices; secondly, the provision for a small council of nine elected at large threatened to disrupt the ward organizations, since it prevented the leaders from compensating their lieutenants with a term or two in the city council, and this destroyed most of the incentive for maintaining the ward machines. Consequently an attack was launched against the charter as early as 1910, and it has been continued yearly in an effort to return to the status quo ante. The Good Government Association, in guarding the new charter, has in effect been defending certain municipal policies, and in this sense has clearly been performing one of the functions of a municipal party.
THE DEMOCRATS VS. THE GOOD GOVERNMENT ASSOCIATION
By far the best indicators of the change in the political alignment which has occurred since 1909 are the four mayoralty elections which have been held under the new plan. The relative strength of the Democrats and Republicans before the non-partisan plan became effective stood in the ratio of about two to one. In only five of the twenty-five wards did the Republicans have a majority. Another significant fact is that while the total registered vote in Boston in 1908 was 110,656, only 70,716, or 64 per cent, voted. Forty thousand men, a number large enough to decide any election, were not sufficiently interested to exercise their franchise. It was on this body of citizens that hopes for a change in the political status rested.
In the first election under the new plan, Fitzgerald, the Irish Democratic candidate, defeated Storrow, the Protestant “decent Democrat” endorsed by the Good Government Association, by the narrow margin of 1,400 votes.
Storrow would in all probability have won had not Hibbard, a Protestant Republican, also entered the contest and polled several thousand votes. Despite the outcome, however, this election did much to advance the reform movement in Boston. The baptism of the new-born charter evoked an abnormal civic interest, for about
25,000 of the 40,000 who had failed to vote in 1908 did respond at this election, and fully 20,000 of these voted for Storrow.2
Diverse elements were included in this number. First came those usually termed “independents”; secondly, many voters were attracted by the prospect of reform, who had previously abstained from taking part in the “filthy politics” of the city; thirdly, a large number came to Storrow’s support because of the intensification of the religious division which followed the introduction of the non-partisan plan. Boston was a Democratic stronghold in national elections, and many non-Catholics had, under the old regime, voted the Democratic ticket in city elections merely by force of habit, or through a false sense of party loyalty. The spell of non-partisanship had a beneficial influence on these men, in that it freed them from the national party prejudice. But another form of prejudice—the religious—assumed greater importance under the nonpartisan plan, and the non-Catholic forces gained. It is true that the political division had been roughly along Irish Democratic, Yankee Republican lines before 1909; but in the election under the new plan in 1910 it
1 One of the favorite arguments of the Gang ever since, to bear out their charge that the Good Government Association is backed by certain financial interests, is that Storrow spent over $100,000 on this campaign. It is contended by the G.G.A. that Fitzgerald spent fully as much, if not more. The exact figures are not obtainable.


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became more pronouncedly a Catholic versus Protestant issue, with one significant exception in the case of those known as the “decent Democrats,” who constituted the fourth element of the twenty thousand new votes which Storrow succeeded in attracting. Most of these “decent Democrats” were Irish citizens striving to secure better government.
Has this alignment remained as established in 1910, or has the power shifted sufficiently to give one of the contending forces a distinct advantage? In 1914 the Good Government Association endorsed another of the “decent Democrats,” Thomas J. Kenny, in an effort to defeat James M. Curley, one of the foremost leaders of the opposition, and a man of great influence and popularity among his co-religionists. Curley won with 43,262 votes, against 37,522 for Kenny. About
81.000 votes were cast at this election,
14.000 less than in 1910. Of this number Curley suffered a loss of about 4,000, and Kenny of about 8,000, compared with the vote of the respective sides in the Storrow-Fitzgerald contest. In other words, the figures indicate that the relative strength of the Gang and Good Government forces remained fairly constant.
In 1917 Curley was the Gang candidate for re-election, and the Goo-goo opposed to him was Peters, a Protestant Democrat; but Gallivan, another Catholic Democrat also became a contestant, and his candidacy ensured the election of Peters, jus': as Hibbard’s interlopement in 1910 contributed to Fitzgerald’s victory.
THE woman’s VOTE DOES NOT ALTER THE RESULT
The 1921 election was the first in which the women voters participated, and it provides an object lesson on the woman suffrage problem, as well as on
their probable influence under the nonpartisan scheme of elections. It is to their credit that the same proportion of the registered women voters cast ballots as men. Of 133,275 registered male voters, 102,704, or 78 per cent, actually voted, while 59,428 of 87,131 women, or 78 per cent, participated in the election. It may be to their discredit that the addition of this vast number to the electorate caused no change in the comparative strength of the parties. It was a reasonable expectation that the women voters would add greatly to the Good Government forces. The very name, if not the ideal, was expected to have a psychological effect. The result, however, was disappointing to the Goo-goos. Curley nosed out Murphy by the slight margin of 2,470 votes. The 60,-000 women voters had apparently divided between the two principal parties without disturbing the balance to any noticeable extent.
THE RELIGIOUS ISSUE
The 1921 election was characterized also by a greater exploitation of religious prejudices. The Good-Government Association made a politic move under the existing circumstances by endorsing a “decent Democrat” who was also a Catholic. The Gang, threatened with the loss of one of its most effective weapons, proceeded in a most insidious manner to reflect on the quality of Murphy’s Catholicism. It then circulated reports that Murphy was a member of the Loyal Coalition, that he was supported by the American Protestant Association, and that his affiliations in general were non-Cath-olic. One of the surprising features is that this campaign of misrepresentation was carried out principally by a group of women, who became known as the “poison squad.” Their work was more effective in detracting votes


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from Murphy in favor of Curley than the candidacies of Baxter and O’Connor, who together received but 15,000 out of the 160,000 votes cast.
No more significant proof can be adduced for the persistence of the alignment as drawn in 1910 than the following tabular presentation of the results of the four elections which have been held under the new plan:
Total Vole G.G.A.
1910 ........ 95,893 Stobbow 45,775
1914..........80,823 Kenny 37,522
1917 ........ 88,302 Peters 37,952
1921.........162,132 Muri-hy 71,791
COUNCILMEN ELECTED BY MINORITY
The council elections do not lend themselves easily to detailed analysis, and may best be considered in general since 1910. During this period, the Good Government Association has endorsed 47 men, of whom 32 have been successful. In its pamphlets reporting on candidates, it has generally advised the defeat of those obviously with the Gang, whereas it has used a milder form (“we cannot recommend his election”) in the case of any other candidates who were thought to be unqualified. The division is sharply drawn. Each side knows its opponents, but while the Gang has resorted to its old party methods of hurling abuse at the Goo-goos, the Association has done its work in a more dignified, systematic, and effective maimer, by giving facts about the objectionable men which were formerly never exposed to the scrutiny of the voters. The latter have not, however, become enthused over this service. In the council election of December, 1921, about 31 per cent of the voters did the electing, while an even smaller percentage voted in the 1922 election. The present council is, therefore, a body elected by a minority
of the voters, and this minority rule has vested control of the council in the Gang.
That this factional struggle exists, and that the parties are the two described, is borne out further by the testimony of the press and by the admission of the Association itself. The Boston Herald in an editorial November 1,1920, says: “Nomination
Gang
=47+% Fitzgerald 47,177 = 49+%
=46+% Curley 43,262=53+%
=42+% Curley & Galltvan 48,275 = 54+% =44+% Curley 74,261=45+%
by petition and the elimination of party designations have not freed Boston from the incubus of factional politics.” This statement assumes that the non-partisan plan was conceived as an instrument for the total abolition of local partisanship. It is doubtful whether the elimination of municipal political divisions is possible or even desirable. The editorial does, nevertheless, emphasize the existence of factions, suggesting that the Democratic-Republican alignment has merely been supplanted by the Gang-Good Government Association division. This may be inferred also from the following comment in the Boston Post on the 1920 council election: “The result of the election yesterday means that the city council will continue for another year at least in control of the anti-Good Government Association forces.” The Boston Herald in its issue of December 15, 1920, speaks of the council election as follows: “Hoping for a much better showing, the Good Government Association had predicted not only the re-election of Hagen and Lane whom it had endorsed, but also Kinney, whom it had endorsed to defeat Moriarity for re-election. But when it became clear that most of the voters


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intended to stay away from the polls, the officials of the Association conceded long before the polls were closed, that Kinney had been defeated and Moriarity elected.” This harks back to the methodology of the old party campaigns. The flavor of official predictions is still preserved.
THE G.G.A. A POLITICAL PARTY
Objectively, therefore, the Association functions like, and is regarded as, a municipal party. Subjective evidence to the same effect is found in an official pamphlet issued in December, 1920, in which the Association’s membership is held to include “all those who support its work either financially or politically.” If an organization -participating regularly in the political campaigns of a city considers that the forty or fifty thousand who vote for its candidates are members of that organization, what can distinguish it from any political party? The executive committee places its stamp of approval on certain men, and the members of the Association ratify these choices about as implicitly as the Gang follows its leaders. This is conceded in the pamphlet referred to, which holds that “Many thousand voters habitually follow the recommendations of the Association substantially, if not wholly, and the influence of the Association, exerted mainly in this manner, has in the course of years become so well recognized that it is generally admitted to he the most powerful single factor in municipal elections at the present time.”
A municipal party may fairly be defined as any political organization which, independently of the state and national parties, habitually participates in local elections in support of certain candidates, principles, or policies. The Good Government Association fulfills all the essential conditions. Moreover, as the aggressor in Boston elections
since 1910, it has compelled the “antis” to rise to its own level. Since the “Gang” has been forced to act independently of the state party in local elections, to depend on its own men and their own principles, and to stand in opposition to the reformers, it also meets the requirements of a municipal party.
It may be objected that the power of nomination is the principal characteristic of parties. The answer is that both the Gang and the Good Government Association do in effect have this power. Nomination is nothing more than a method of selection, and its substitute under the non-partisan plan is the party “endorsement.” Suppose, for example, that after the preliminary elimination of aspiring candidates because of defects in their records, the Association still has more office seekers than the number of offices to be filled. There is little doubt that it would endorse those who promised to make the most effective popular appeal. This process is to all intents and purposes little distinguishable from the method of selection by a nominating committee and party primary. Nominations under the partisan plan was a means of concentrating the party vote behind those candidates who could attract the largest vote; endorsement under the non-partisan plan accomplishes the same result. The council elections from 1910 to date, which are summarized in the following table, are quite convincing on this point:
Total number elected to the council (1910-
1922).............................50
Number of these endorsed by the G.G.A.. 82 Number of these endorsed by the “ Gang ”. 15 Number of these who ran independently.. .3
—50
LOCAL PARTIES AND LOCAL ISSUES
Boston’s experience suggests several conclusions as to the non-partisan


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municipal plan. (1) The separation of local from state and national elections requires a group effectively organized for the purpose. (2) The very nature of its work compels such an organization to adopt tactics which stamp it as a party, even though it assumes the name Good Government Association or Municipal League. (3) The loosening of the bonds of national political affiliations tends to effect a realignment of the voters on the basis of racial, religious and class differences, since men whose interests are similar or who are otherwise bound by close ties tend to gravitate together. A survey by correspondence of thirty other nonpartisan cities has reinforced the observations drawn from the writer’s personal study of Boston.
The problem which engrossed the student of municipal government at
the inception of the non-partisan scheme was that of administrative inefficiency, which was so intimately connected with machine politics. Nonpartisan elections, although they have failed to eliminate parties, have contributed towards a higher type of official and an improved administration. But these benefits have been purchased at a heavy cost: an intensification of the racial and religious question. It is submitted that from the point of view of the principles of democratic government this is a decidedly more serious problem than that of maladministration of municipal affairs. No more subversive force threatens our institutions than the shrouded form with masked face, the incarnation of racial and religious hatred as a principle of political action.


ITEMS ON MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING
EDITED BY WILLIAM A. BASSETT
Tastes and Odors in Public Water Supplies.— Unusual and unpleasant tastes and odors in public water supplies which otherwise are entirely suitable for domestic use are of not infrequent occurrence. The causes of these manifestations are in general well known to water supply engineers, together with ways of combating them, but there is need for an explanation of these causes and their significance to the public. The reasons for this are simple to understand. People have been taught that unsuitable water supply is a potential carrier of diseases and any sudden change in the physical characteristics of water supply is apt to cause distrust in the quality of that supply.
An unusual example of this character was disclosed by the experience of the city of Danville, Illinois, during the winter of 1921. The water in reservoirs supplying that city reached a low level in the late fall of 1920 and unpleasant tastes and odors developed. At the request of the local health officer, who was led to believe that the water was dangerous because of the taste and odor, the state department of health was requested to investigate. The investigation demonstrated that the water was safe for domestic use, although it had taste and odor. However, the school authorities of the city took somewhat hasty action and cut off temporarily the local supply from the schools. In one school the drinking fountain was cut off and a barrel of water provided for the school children. This water was obtained from a shallow dug well located only about fifteen feet from a privy and open to probable contamination from that source. Fortunately, this condition was discovered before any serious illness developed as a result of the use of water .'rom this source of supply.
Emphasis should be placed on the fact that taste and odor do not necessarily represent unsuitable quality of water. It is true that the physiological effect of such characteristics is sometimes bad on certain people and may tend to lower their general physical condition. A greater hazard perhaps lies in the unintelligent distrust of water supply having such character-
istics and the resort to other supplies of questionable safety. Without going into the technique of the subject, attention is called to the fact that tastes and odors in water supply are generally due to one of two causes. These are: first, the presence of micro-organisms in the supply, and, second, the effect of free chlorine or hypo-chlorite used for purification in order to safeguard the quality of the water.
Micro-organisms may and frequently do occur in stored water supply, even when of the best quality.
An unusual example of this character occurred during the fall of 1921 in the Catskill water supply of New York City. The presence of a micro-organism, Synura, in that supply imparted to it a very pronounced taste, described as resembling that of a ripe cucumber. Its presence was not discovered in time to enable suitable treatment of that supply until it had been used by the public for a few days. There was nothing sinister in the presence of this microorganism and an increase in the amount of chlorine given the water, together with treatment of copper sulphate, corrected this condition in a very short time.
*
Safeguarding the Use of Steam Boilers—They May Be More Dangerous Than Dynamite.—
Further progress in the reduction of explosion hazard incidental to the operation of steam boilers should result from the adoption of the proposed amendments to the so-called Boiler Code of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers which were recommended by that Society at its annual meeting recently held in New York City. The Code comprises standard specifications for the construction of both high and low pressure steam boilers, together with hot water heating systems, and rules governing the operation of these types of plant equipment. In 1915 it was recommended in practically its present form to the council of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers by a committee of prominent engineers after a comprehensive study of the problem extending over a period of four years. Since that time the essential provi-
90


1923]
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sions of the Code have been iacorporated in the laws of seventeen states and ten cities in the United States. Since the adoption of the Boiler Code, records show that those states and cities have been singularly free from fatal accidents due to boiler explosions. It is also stated that as a result of the adoption of similar legislation by the German government before the war, accidents of this character were reduced to but five or six a year throughout the entire empire.
It is believed that the public at large does not appreciate adequately the hazard that exists from unregulated boiler construction and operation. Mr. John A. Stevens, chairman of the boiler code committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, states that steam not properly controlled is more dangerous than dynamite. Another authority, Professor R. H. Thurston, in comparing the energy of water and of steam in the steam boiler with that of gunpowder states that a cubic foot of heated water under a pressure of 60 or 70 pounds per square inch, the latter being the ordinary pressure of heating plants, has about the same energy as one pound of gunpowder. The energy stored up in the ordinary boiler of this type under the conditions noted, if released through accident, would be sufficient to, project the boiler to a height of over 5,000 feet with an initial velocity of approximately 588 feet per second. The location of a powder magazine beneath a school or large office building or under the sidewalk of an important street would produce a storm of protest from the citizens of any community, and if unusual conditions demanded the continuance of such a hazard in their midst, the most stringent regulation and other precautionary measures would be demanded by the public in order to protect the community.
At the same time there are to-day many communities in which the laws of the city and state governing the construction and operation of both steam and hot water boiler plants are of the most lax and ineffective character. That the hazard incurred as the result of these conditions is a serious one is demonstrated by the number of boiler explositions that occur each year. It is estimated that this equals about 1,500 annually. The loss of life from these causes ranges from four to five hundred annually, the number of people injured reaches approximately double those amounts, while the property loss amounts to hundreds of thousands of dollars each year.
It is moreover an established fact that all
boiler explosions are preventable. Good design, good construction, and good management may be said to be the three main iequirements of safe boiler operation. Of these three, good management is equal in importance with the first two requirements, and an essential feature of good management is regular effective inspection. The Boiler Code of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers not alone definitizes the requirements to be met to ensure suitable design and construction, but also points the way to securing effective management.
It may be said without qualification that if the provisions of the existing Code were uniformly adopted and enforced the hazard from boiler explosions would be in the main eliminated.
*
Public Improvement Construction Work by Department Forces vs. U. S. Contract System.—
Sound arguments against any general practice of conducting public improvement construction work by department forces rather than by contract are presented by Mr. William C. Connell, consulting engineer, in a report based on a study of the administration of the Pennsylvania state highway department, made by Mr. Connell for Governor-Elect Gifford Pinchot of that state. While obviously the conclusions arrived at with regard to this practice are directed particularly to the administration of state highway construction work, the principles enunciated apply equally well to all classes of public improvement construction work whether conducted by the state or any municipality. Mr. Connell’s discussion of this matter appeared in connection with his consideration of the administration of a special bureau established during 1920 for the purpose of carrying on highway construction work with state forces. His comments on the subject in question are substantially as follows:
“The bureau was organized with a view to training an organization that would take over the work on which the contractors might fail, due to financial difficulties or other reasons, and to perform work where it was felt that competitive bids were too high.
"The first reason would have some merit if it were not for the fact that the maintenance division of the state highway department, through the nature of its work, is necessarily called upon to do so much work with its own forces that these forces could not be readily used to finish the work where contractors failed to complete their contract.


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"The second reason is very questionable, as it is hard to conceive of an organization employed by a state department, confronted with the red tape and difficulties surrounding public departments, performing work more cheaply than it can be performed under competitive bids, provided complete information concerning the work to be performed is supplied to bidders.
"There will always be instances where the bids are too high, but the work can be readvertised. There may be isolated instances where department forces will do work of this nature cheaper than under a competitive basis, but when all the factors entering into the cost have been given proper consideration the competitive system taken year in and year out will be less costly for this character of work. Construction work by state forces to the extent it is being done in Pennsylvania to-day is establishing a dangerous precedent. Even though they may be doing the work economically and efficiently, it can be readily understood how it could be abused under a purely political or inefficient administration of the state highway department, such as states have from time to time.
"With our present form of government the method of performing work under the jurisdiction of a public works department should be designed to safeguard the public interests best throughout changing administrations. It is, therefore, a much wiser and safer policy to devote all possible energy to the development of healthy competition of competent contracting forces in public work. . . .
“It may be desirable to do some construction work with state forces, but it should be confined to small jobs of a nature that are not easily specifiable, or can be more readily handled by the state forces than under competitive bids. In short it is inadvisable for the state to go into the construction business to any greater extent than is necessary. The controlling factor should be the character of the work. All work that is not easily specifiable and subject to proper control under contracts may be performed by state forces. But all work that is specifiable, and of a definite nature so that bids can be received on predetermined quantities and the work properly inspected, should be done so far as is possible under competitive bids.”
*
Weakness of Special Assessment Bonds in State of Washington.—Inadequate protection of the holders of local improvement bonds ap-
parently constitutes a serious defect in the laws of the state of Washington governing the financing of local improvements. Weaknesses of this character are particularly in evidence in the law under which improvement bonds are issued, known as the Local Improvement Law. Article 13 of that law provides for the establishment by a city council of improvement districts within a municipality for the purpose of carrying out street, sewer, or other local improvements and distributing their cost over the property within the district deemed to be benefited.
Upon completion of any such improvement, the property owners may, within SO days, elect to pay cash for the assessment levelled against their property, or the city can issue bonds for the total cost involved. The law provides that such bonds shall constitute a lien against the property benefited. The council, at the time of passing the ordinance establishing assessment districts, must stipulate the term of the bonds. Ordinarily, the bonds issued are twelve-year serials. In any event the property owner is required to pay his assessment, which includes interest charges, by installments so that the last installment will be paid two years before the bonds mature. Thus, for twelve-year bonds the property owner pays each year one-tenth of the principle and interest comprising the entire cost of the improvement. This gives time for the adjustment of delinquencies in payment before the maturity of the bonds.
This policy representing as it does a means of providing for the retirement of a certain amount of bonds each year would appear to be entirely sound were it not for certain weaknesses in the law. The latter relate to protection of the bondholder in the event of delinquency on the part of the property owners in the matter of paying assessments levied. Naturally the liquidation of bonds as they mature depends upon funds collected from the special assessment liens on property benefited. The first application on these funds is for interest charges and if property owners fail to pay their assessments on time, it will be necessary either to provide funds for retiring the bonds from other sources or else default in making bond payments. There is, of course, always recourse to foreclosure sales either by the county or the municipality. This practice entails considerable delay and does not always ensure securing adequate funds to meet the complete payment of bond indebtedness. Moreover, while under the provisions of the


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local Improvement District Law the city may foreclose for the unpaid assessments, there is no law to compel the city government to do this.
It is true that cities with twenty thousand population or over are permitted by an act of the 1917 legislature to create either a “Local Improvement Guarantee Fund” or Revolving Fund maintained by general tax levy for the purpose of taking care of bond delinquencies. Even this protection to the purchaser of bonds is not made mandatory on the part of the city. In Spokane a revolving fund was established and later discontinued by the following city administration, thus removing an element of protection that the purchaser of any bonds issued during the first administration might have been led to believe that he had. Apparently there are sound grounds for modifying the present Local Improvement District Law so as to provide additional protection to the purchasers of improvement bonds.
It is stated that practically every city in the state of Washington, with the exception of Seattle, has improvement bonds in default. In spite of this fact, the statement is made that there is a ready market for municipal bonds of that state. However, the rate of interest on municipal bonds is said to range as high in some cases as 8 per cent and to prevail at about 6 per cent. This would indicate that these bonds were not regarded as particularly desirable investments from the banking point of view as would otherwise appear. Cities whose credit is . unquestioned in other states ordinarily find a ready sale of their bonds at much lower rates of interest than prevail in Washington. Whether these conditions can be attributed with justice to the above weaknesses in the assessment bond law of Washington is problematical. It should, however, be noted that anything that tends to affect harmfully the city’s credit whether evidenced by a demand for higher rates of interest on its bonds than are required elsewhere, or in other ways, is undesirable and should be avoided.
*
Control of Traffic Movement on Important City Streets.—Synchronized movement of vehicular traffic by means of a system of signal
lights operated from towers has been tried with success on certain important streets in some of the larger cities of this country. In fact the control over traffic on Fifth Avenue, New York, which has been effected by this means has proven so satisfactory that the original signal towers have been replaced by more permanent and ornamental ones and an extension of the system is planned for other thoroughfares in Manhattan. It is interesting to note, however, that the proposal for the extension of the system dispenses with the signal towers in the middle of the street. The reasons for this modification of the present arrangement as outlined by Hon. Julius Miller, president of the borough of Manhattan, apply not only to the local situation but also to practically every community contemplating the installation of a traffic control system of this character. Mr. Miller points out that any obstruction within the highway is an impediment to free movement of traffic and should be avoided where intensity of traffic is very great. Obviously, signal towers cannot be located on any street or avenue which has an elevated railroad structure or surface tracks.
In order to operate a system of this kind on avenues or streets where such conditions exist, signal lamps would have to be supported by some other structure. The logical place for the signals is on lamp-posts at street intersections preferably suspended from an arm extending diagonally into the street intersection. An arrangement of this kind would make sueh lights visible for a considerable distance from both intersecting streets. One such light at each intersection would flash the signal to all traffic on any avenue or street and on account of their proximity there would be less obstruction to their visibility in foggy weather or from any other cause.
Hie cost of installation of a system of this kind would also be materially less than that where signal towers are used. Also the cost of operating the system would also be materially reduced as two men at a single point could control lights operating over a very extensive area. This would release traffic officers located in towers for service in controlling pedestrian traffic at important intersections which is admittedly a necessary service.


RECENT BOOKS REVIEWED
County and Township Government in the United States. By Kirk H. Porter, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Iowa. Macmillan, 1922. Pp. 362.
This valuable volume gives us the first textbook on county government, replacing the pioneer book of H. S. Gilbertson, which broke ground in this subject in 1917. Gilbertson’s book had to be privately printed because of lack of interest in the theme, and the fact that Mr. Porter was able to get a regular publisher to handle his manuscript is in itself a mark of progress. The library of county government literature now numbers three volumes and a half, Fairlie and Maxey being the other authors, but as this book makes Gilbertson’s almost unnecessary by overlapping it rather completely, it is a substitution rather than an addition.
Professor Porter omits the attack on county government as a rotten and dangerous neglected political institution which was Gilbertson’s message and which still is the main burden of the reformer in this field, but he does, in milder phrase, speak well of orthodox and sweeping reforms even if he does not dwell upon the necessity for any reform at all.
Starting historically, he describes the current variations of county government in the various groups of states, shows the inherent weaknesses and anachronisms of the framework and freely recommends the full list of reforms which we of the National Municipal League are urging, such
District attorneys to be made subject to an appointive attorney-general of the state.
Sheriffs as peace officers to give way to state police. |
Public defenders to replace assigned council.
State administrative oversight of county finances.
Short ballot—county clerk, treasurer, assessor, etc., to be made appointive under the county board.
County the unit for education outside of cities, for highways, health, care of dependents, assessments, etc.
Reduction of powers of townships and other small units.
Abolition of eoroners.
County manager (although he did not apparently have quite the nerve to picture this radical feature in his diagram of a revised government).
As he neglects to do more than gently deplore the present state of county government without picturing its badness, so also he refrains from substantiating the need for his specific proposals of reform. Moderation is fashionable in textbooks, but Professor Porter takes refuge so uniformly in true but unsupported generalities that he neglects to prove his case. And to have brought new and later evidence to support Gilbertson’s demand for county government reform and to have adduced new documents in advocacy of the specific proposals of reconstruction would have been helpful to the cause and not unwelcome in the classroom.
Richard S. Childs.
*
Taxation of Federal, State and Municipal
Bonds. By John H. Hoffman and David M.
Wood. New York: Wilbur and Hastings.
Pp. 115.
Though this little book is prepared for investors and dealers in federal, state and municipal bonds, the presentation which it gives of the present federal and state laws and decisions on the subject of the taxation of bonds raises a great many questions of current interest. The book itself is divided into two approximately equal parts: the first deals with the general rules of law with regard to the taxing power, taxation of federal bonds, taxation of state and municipal bonds, exemption of state and municipal bonds, contracts for exemption, income taxes, taxation of bonds of non-residents, inheritance taxes, franchise and privilege taxes, and taxation of corporate stock. Not more than a few pages each are devoted to these topics. The entire definition of the taxing power both of the federal government and of the state governments, and of the limitations of the taxing power are disposed of in three introductory pages. The second part of the book is arranged alphabetically by states and territories. Under each state or territory the provisions of law with regard to the exemption or taxation of bonds, with citations of 94


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law and of decisions, are presented in oatline form under the following five topics:
' 1. Bonds of the United States and territories
ft. Bonds of the state
3. Bonds of subdivisions of the state
4. Bonds of other states and subdivisions
5. State income tax provisions
The book shows signs of careful preparation and is well annotated with extensive footnotes. The table of contents, table of cases, and the index which is very full for so brief a volume, are an object lesson to those who are engaged in preparing books to be of use to others than the author.
The student of taxation will naturally be disappointed in finding no discussion at all of the larger economic and political problems involved in the tax exemption of federal, state and municipal bonds. In spite of the nation-wide agitation for the abolition of tax exemption for all public bonds, there is in this volume no echo of the general discussion. The volume is intended by the authors to present a concise exposition of the law of taxation and an analysis of the tax laws rather than a treatise on the broader problems involved. This task has been well done.
Luther Gulick.
*
Electrical Rates. By G. P. Watkins, Ph.D.
Baltimore: The Lord Baltimore Press, 1921.
Dr. Watkins’ discussion of modem theory and practice with respect to rates charged for electricity for power and lighting purposes is presented to the country at a time when this particular field is in need of a great deal of sound enlightenment. His Electrical Rates is an outgrowth of nine years of experience in the statistical bureau of a public service commission.
In the light of the very recent decision at the Wisconsin commission in the Chippewa Power Company case, where a court decision was set aside and the municipalities nearest the source of energy were given preference in rates, and because of the increasing number of rate litigation cases, it is evident that the subject of differentiation in electrical rates is at present a much mooted question of public policy and of vita] importance in oar modern economic structure.
Introducing this subject from the standpoint of interest and importance, Dr. Watkins sketches briefly the types of load curves common to various kinds of service corporations, and indicates in what respects these load curves have
changed since the early days of small isolated plants supplying sirictly lightingloads, to modem light and power systems with their numerous and complicated problems.
His discussion then takes up in detail every phase of differential rate making in vogue and in discard, with opinions as to the value and limitations of each. He concluded with a description of the general theory of differential rates, noting the occasions for price differences and stating the significance of rate analyses from a legal and a political standpoint as well as the economic.
Dr. Watkins proposes a schedule of fair-electrical rates for power and light which could be used under certain operating conditions, but he does not attempt to determine equitable returns on investments in electric manufacturing companies. His discussion practically limits itself to differentiation.
From the standpoint of municipal versus private ownership of public utilities, the discussion is of such a nature that the facts presented will apply equally well to rate making under either condition. Dr. Watkins’ attitude in this respect is that of the impartial student who wishes to disclose the facts and study every angle of the situation from its intrinsic merits.
Electrical Rates may perhaps be very well adapted as a text-book for engineering or accounting classes in college work. However, the great value of the material found in the discussion, coupled with the evident care used in the presentation of the subject, would seem to-indicate that operators, owners, and regulatory commissions will be the chief beneficiaries.
Harold S. Langland.
*
The Smokeless Citt. By E. D. Simon,
Lord Mayor of Manchester (England), and
Marion Fitzgerald, Associate of the Royal
Sanitary Institute. New York and London,.
1922: Longmans Green & Co. Pp. 82.
Here is a little book of importance out of all proportion to its size. It deals with the smoke problem wholly in its relation to the domestic use of bituminous coal. As Lord Newton says in his introduction, “The battle . . . against industrial smoke may be said to have been won in principle,” and this is a fact in the United States as much as in the United Kingdom. But the coal strike has made smokeless anthracite all


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[February
but impossible in the United States (or most houses and kitchens, wherefore we are facing more and worse atmospheric pollution.
Mr. Simon and Miss Fitzgerald have addressed themselves in gratifying detail to the problem, and in this work propose methods which if carried out would make possible approximately smokeless use of the coal which must come to be our main resource for home heating and cooking in America. Stress is laid on the use of coke, of gas, of electricity, and the firing methods detailed where “soft” coal must be used are parallel with those laid before the 1981 Convention of the American Civic Association in Chicago by an able official of the Bureau of Mines.
This English work is commended as constructive, timely and valuable.
J. Horace McFarland.
*
The Women’s Dat Court of Manhattan and The Bronx. A reprint from The Journal of Social Hygiene for October, 1922, published by the American Social Hygiene Association, 870 Seventh Avenue.1
This is the fourth of a series of studies by George E. Worthington of the American Social Hygiene Association, and Miss Ruth Topping of the Bureau of Social Hygiene, of specialized courts dealing with sex delinquency. The preceding studies were of the Morals Court of Chicago, the misdemeanants’ division of the Philadelphia Municipal Court and the Second Session of the Municipal Court of the City of Boston.
The fifth section will present a comparative study of the four courts. This will probably prove to be the most valuable to tbe general reader, for the detail studies of the individual courts, of the laws which they enforce and of their procedure and the results obtained, are presented in too much detail to interest the general reader while comparison is practically impossible except to those thoroughly familiar with any one of the four.
Of the Women’s Court of New York the writers say it “ is the first court in the United States to be established as a special court dealing with women delinquents. There is doubtless no other court in this country to-day which is so highly specialized along the lines of sex delinquency.” The most striking of the laws, with the enforce-
1 It is expected that the Studies will be combined and reissued as a volume of the Bureau of Social Hygiene Series.
ment of which this court deals, was adopted in 1915. It declares to be a vagrant a person who offers to commit prostitution or who receives any person into any place, or conveyance, for the purpose of prostitution or assignation. The court also reaches the younger offender, not as yet guilty of such acts, under an Incorrigible Statute, which provides that a female found associating with vicious and dissolute persons or prostitutes and so in danger of becoming morally depraved, may be committed to a reformatory institution.
The sessions of the court are from ten-thirty in the morning to five in the afternoon. The change from night sessions, which were originally held, was made in 1918. The magistrates who are appointed by the mayor, are especially assigned to preside in the Women’s Court by the chief city magistrate.
The complaining witnesses are with rare exceptions police officers attached to vice squads. Full stenographic minutes are taken by an official stenographer. Defendants may be released upon bail, pending trial in an average amount of $500. Failure to appear personally results in the forfeiture of the whole amount of this bail, which, as special care is taken in its acceptance, results in its full recovery by the state. If convicted, the prisoner is remanded 48 hours for finger printing and physical examination, and, in case she is found to be without record of previous conviction, she is sent to a special hospital, to be detained by the board of health until no longer suffering in a communicable stage, whereupon she is returned to the court for sentence. If found to be without disease and to have shown' a willingness to accept supervision, she is placed upon probation. The cases of those returned from the hospital are treated as though the examination following conviction had resulted in a report of not diseased.
Those found to be diseased and with a record of prior convictions are committed to the work-house for a period of 100 days, during which they are treated in the hospital attached to that institution. Those placed upon probation are supervised by the probation officer in charge and her four assistants, who receive valuable assistance from the representatives of various volunteer agencies who supplement the work of the official officers, not only during the probation period but in after-care.
Those with records of three or more prior convictions may be committed under an Indeterminate Sentence Law, whereby the maximum


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period of detention may be two years, the actual detention being determined by a commission created by the law. It is customary for this commission to detain such persons for six months, after which they are released upon parole for the remainder of the two years.
In addition, the magistrate may commit to three reformatory institutions maintained under private auspices, or to the State Reformatory for Women at Bedford Hills, in which case the period of detention within the maximum of two and three years is determined by the institution authorities.
The importance of the finger print record in determining these dispositions is worthy of special note. Without them, the magistrates would be seriously handicapped and the effectiveness of the court greatly decreased. Appeals from the decision of the magistrate are heard in the appellate court upon the stenographic record, the case not being tried de novo.
Mr. Worthington and Miss Topping make no mention in their study of the plans and endeavors of those associated with the courts for improvements. These for the New York court are briefly: a special building to house the court and to constitute a house of detention for those awaiting trial not released upon bail, or detained for examination pending the sentence: also the assignment of psychiatrist for the mental examination of those who give indications of abnormality. Two amendments of existing laws are being advocated: a widening of the provisions dealing with incorrigible girls, to make less difficult their arraignment in the court, and the apprehension and punishment of the male customer of the prostitute; it not being finally determined, as yet, whether or not the existing law is sufficient. Mr. Worthington sets forth at some length in the study the facts and argument in the case which at present is accepted as controlling. Frederick H. Whitbt.


NOTES AND EVENTS
I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
The Missouri Constitutional Convention adjourned December 15 until April 15, to avoid conflict â– with the state legislature now meeting. *
P. R. Unconstitutional in California.—The supreme court of California has denied a rehearing on the constitutionality of the proportional representation feature of the Sacramento charter. This in effect affirms the decision of the appellate court (reported in the December Review) declaring P. R. unconstitutional in California.
*
Correction in Comparative Tax Rate Published in December Review.—In fairness to Boston we wish to make the following correction: Owing to the tax rate data furnished by Boston being misinterpreted by the Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research in its compilation published in the December Review, Boston’s tax rate was erroneously reported. Boston’s tax rate should read $12.33 and total tax rate $24.70. Her rank as adjusted should be 13th instead of 2d.
*
Salary Scale Adjusted to Change in living Costs.—The new salary ordinance of St. Paul, Minnesota, provides for the adjustment of salaries to the rise and fall in the cost of living.
The classification consists of seventeen grades of service. A basic rate for 1916 is set, upon which all increases or decreases are founded. The cost of living index figures of the National Industrial Conference are used.
*
Graft Charged to Knoxville Commission— City Manager Proposed.—The city commissioners of Knoxville, Tennessee, are defendants in a taxpayer’s suit charging malfeasance in paying to a construction company high prices for street work for which no real bids were taken. The complaint prays that further payments on account of such work be enjoined and that the commissioners and their bondsmen make good for excessive funds already advanced. Other suits will be filed later.
Dissatisfaction with commission government
has been general for some time. A new charter bill is being drafted providing for a city manager. *
Efforts Renewed to Amend Boston Charter.— The election for councilmen of Boston on December 12, in which only about 30 per cent of the registered voters participated, has given a new impetus to changing the charter. The principal objectives seem to be a return to a large council elected by wards and the abandonment of nonpartisan elections in favor of party tickets. On the other hand a militant group are putting forward proportional representation for the election of the council.
Bills are being prepared to change Boston’s charter, the original small council charter in the United States, but it is yet too early to know how public sentiment will crystallize.
*
The I. and R. in Missouri.—As already noted in these pages, practically the whole legislative program put through the 1921 legislature by the Republican majority, including the governor’s bills reorganizing the state administrative system, was defeated by approximately a 2 to 1 vote at a referendum election last November. These bills were loudly opposed by the Democratic party, which, officially or unofficially, circulated petitions throughout the state sufficient to place them on the ballot.
This partisan use of the referendum (heretofore organized parties have refrained from instigating and executing referenda campaigns) has resulted in strong opposition to both the initiative and referendum with the demand that they be abolished. In response to this sentiment, the Missouri constitutional convention has more than doubled the percentage of signatures required to invoke the I. and R. Should this be adopted, their abolition will be virtually accomplished.
*
The Gasoline Curb Station Dispute.—Is the familiar curb station to be banned as an aesthetic atrocity and a traffic menace, or does its obvious convenience to motorists justify its existence?
Data assembled by the Toledo City Journal
98


1923]
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show that curb pumps have been forbidden in New York, Rochester, Washington, Columbus, Baltimore, St. Louis, Yonkers, Denver, Wichita, and Cambridge, Massachusetts. Akron, Minneapolis, and Paterson, New Jersey, permit existing pumps only. Omaha, Milwaukee, Atlanta, and Evanston, Illinois, prohibit them in residence districts by means of zoning ordinances. St. Paul prohibits them on car lines and Minneapolis in fire limit districts.
The drive-in station has also come in for some proper regulation. The right of adjoining property owners to determine the desirability of such stations has been recognized in Washington, D. C., and Oak Park, Illinois. There is a growing sentiment in favor of requiring drive-in stations to be of pleasing architectural design.
If the curb pump is abandoned more attention will have to be given to the fire menace attending the storage and handling of gasoline in garages.
*
An Unusual Inaugural Message.—The inaugural message of the newly-elected mayor of Camden, New Jersey, Mr. Victor King, is unusual in the number of unpleasant facts which it discloses. Although Camden has not indulged in luxuries which in many other cities are now considered necessities, she is more heavily in debt than any other large city in the state. The seemingly low tax rate is offset by the exorbitant water rate. The huge sums turned over by the water department to the general fund are said to constitute municipal profiteering on a large scale.
The mayor also finds that the administrative departments carry too heavy pay rolls; that asphalt and street lighting cost more than in other cities, but that welfare appropriations are small although the infant mortality rate is high. If Camden didn’t have so many special boards and secretaries, says the mayor, it could afford municipal band concerts. At present each department handles its own purchasing.
The mayor wants the police taken out of politics (on election day the city was left practically unprotected while the police did political work at the polls). He favors a city plan, a zoning ordinance and a new building code.
Our information is that the majority in council represent Camden contented and that the mayor has outlined a heroic task for the next three years.
Budget System Brings Good Results in Virginia.—In an address before the Governors’ Conference at White Sulphur Springs in December, Governor Trinkle of Virginia paid high tribute to the operation of the executive budget system first employed in that state in 1920. Although the legislature can increase the governor’s budget at will, the net changes in the final appropriation bill for 1920 was only 1.0 per cent over the budget estimates, and in 1922 less than one per cent. Approximately 98 per cent of all moneys appropriated were contained in the general appropriation bill.
In 1922 a system of operating control was established by means of a monthly reporting system for state institutions and departments. On the basis of these reports a study of unit or per capita costs for state institutions has been started. Even the value of supplies produced and consumed by the institutions, appraised in accordance with a uniform price list for all institutions, is included in the estimates of unit costs. Institutions which heretofore have always required deficiency appropriations will come through with substantial surpluses. Maj. Leroy Hodges, well known to readers of the Review, is director of the budget under Governor Trinkle.
*
New York City to Spend One and One Half Tons of Gold Per Day.—New York city will spend $353,350,976 during 1923, or $968,084.86 per day. If the amount used each day were converted into pure gold it would weight 2,927 pounds or approximately one and one half tons.
The principal items in the budget are: Debt service, which is $84,935,642, or 24.03 per cent of the total budget and $15.10 per inhabitant of New York city; the department of education, which is $75,805,355, or 21.45 per cent of the total budget and $13.48 per inhabitant; and the police department, which is $32,042,223, or is 9.07 per cent of the total budget and $5.70 per inhabitant. The total per capita cost will be $62.86. In 1912 the total per capita cost was $34.37. Thus the 1923 budget shows a per capita increase of $28.49, or 83 per cent over the 1912 budget.
The appropriations for governmental functions other than debt service and state taxes have increased more than would be apparent on a casual examination of the budget because of the considerable reductions in these two items. The
4


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city debt service appropriation for 1923 is $17,-302,150 below 1922 figures and the state taxes are $1,834,889,57 below 1922, Had it not been for the reduction in these two items the 1923 budget would be much larger than it is now.
The following table contains a summary of the budget with the various items summed up according to function. This table cannot be taken as absolutely accurate because of the overlapping nature of some of the items, yet it does show the distribution of funds, among the various governmental functions, with comparative accuracy:
inasmuch as authority already exists under the present constitution for the enactment of such a tax. The proposed constitution merely gave authority to make personal exemptions and to levy graduated taxes. Opponents of the convention persuaded large numbers of people that the purpose was to place a heavy tax on all modest incomes and proponents of the plan were unable to counteract this impression.
Although Chicago receives proportionate representation in the lower house of the state legislature her representation was, by the new
Cost or New York Citt Government fob 1923
Percentage Per
Departmental of Total Capita
Total Budget Colt
General Administration $47,042,747 13.30% $8.39
Legislative (Board of aldermen and city clerk) 423,212 .12 .08
Judicial 3,718,523 1.06 .66
Educational Recreation, Science and Art 79,823,829 22.60 14.19
Parks, Parkways and Drives 4,075,293 1.17 .73
Zoological and Botanical Gardens, Museums, etc 1,953,368 .56 .34
Health and Sanitation 34,068,110 9.66 6.08
Protection of Life and Property 71,833,626 20.32 12.76
Retirement and Relief Funds 7,104,127 2.01 1.26
Miscellaneous 1,506,188 .42 .27
Debt Service 84,985,642 24.03 15.10
State and County Tax 23,178,459 6.54 4.12
Total 359,663,124 101.79 63.98
Less Revenue from Corporate Stock 6,312,148 1.79 1.12
Total New York City Budget $353,350,976 100.00% $62.86
James B. Iusr.
*
Proposed Illinois Constitution Defeated.—
The work of the Illinois constitutional convention, covering a period of two years and submitted as a complete document to the people on December 12, was overwl elmingly defeated. The majority is reported to have been more than 700,000, of which nearly five-sevenths came from Cook county. There are many opinions as to why the people so rapturously turned down the new document. Opposition seems to have centered around two provisions, the one authorizing a state income tax and the other limiting the representation of Cook county (Chicago) in the senate to one third of the membership.
The income tax provision was nothing radical
document, strictly limited in the senate. The question of Chicago’s representation was a bone of contention in the convention and the resentment against such limitation was extremely deep in Chicago.
Further opposition developed from the rephrasing of certain sections in the present constitution to clarify and modernise them. The people were suspicious, however, that the new phrases contained hidden meanings, else they would have been retained as before. Furthermore, a section guaranteeing representative government, while probably meaningless, was interpreted to prohibit forever the initiative and referendum, and as such was opposed.
Among other reasons for the defeat of the


NOTES AND EVENTS
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1923]
constitution must lie included the fact that it was submitted as one document, so that the excellent provisions had to bear the burden of the poor ones, and the low prestige of the convention which had consumed two years in, what seemed to be, useless wrangling.
♦
Municipal Home Rule Approved in Pennsylvania.—At the November election Pennsylvania voters ratified the Municipal Home Rule amendment to the constitution by a majority of 132,-400, Although the amendment carried only 33 counties out of 67, it was approved by counties containing 70 per cent of the state’s population.
The amendment adopted is permissive and, like the home rule amendments in Michigan, Minnesota and Texas, requires legislative action to make it effective. It authorizes the legislature to empower cities or cities of a class to frame their own charters, subject to such restrictions, limitations and regulations as may be imposed by the legislature. Laws also may be enacted affecting the organization and government of cities and boroughs, which shall become effective in any city or borough only when submitted to the electors thereof and approved by a majority of those voting thereon. Thus cities only may be given the right to frame their own charters; but both cities and boroughs may be offered a choice, for example, of councilmanic, commission or city manager government as set forth in optional charter acts to be passed by the legislature.
During the recent meeting of the National Municipal League representatives of the City Conference of Philadelphia and solicitors from cities of the second and third class discussed the advisability of uniting upon a single home rule enabling act to be passed by the legislature of 1928. A tentative draft of such act following in general the recommendations of the Committee on Municipal Program of the National Municipal League, 1913, was presented by the City Conference.
The thought was expressed that separate enabling acts for each class of cities had not worked well in other states. Such acts encouraged legislative inroads upon the exercise of home rule powers (1) by facilitating detailed restrictions upon each class of cities instead of broad limitations applicable to all cities, and (2) by narrowing the opposition to such encroachments by the legislature to cities of the particular
class affected. These dangers would be magnified by the constitutional amendment proposed by the legislature of 1921 increasing the classes of cities to seven and boroughs to three.
However, it is likely that the habit of class legislation for Pennsylvania cities will prevail in the enactment of laws making the home rule amendment effective.
Leonard P. Fox.1
*
Employment Standardization in Minneapolis. —Under date of June 19, 1922, J. L. Jacobs & Company of Chicago transmitted a report of 497 printed pages on the “classification of positions and schedules of compensation” for the city of Minneapolis to the “Joint Salary Survey Committee” of that city.
One of the items of interest in connection with this report is that it was prepared under the direction of a “joint” official committee, composed of three representatives of the board of estimate and taxation and three representatives of the civil service commission. The president, of the civil service commission acted as chairman of the joint committee. To all appearances this rather unusual arrangement is the result of a compromise between two different viewpoints-as to whether the employment agency of government or the budget agency should perform the function of classifying positions and recommending standard rates of pay.
The scheme of classification differs only slightly from those used by J. L. Jacobs & Company in other cities. Of course, each private consulting firm has its own preferences in this matter. The result is'that we have at least as many different schemes of classification as we have private consulting firms engaged in classifying positions in the public service. Perhaps at this stage of development in employment standardization something is still to be gained from experimentation with various ideas; but before long, let us hope, we can get together on a uniform plan.
One other feature of the report that deserves attention even in this brief note, is the proposed salary schedule. During and shortly after the World War it appeared to be quite generally recognized that public salaries had fallen behind in the upward procession of prices, and “stand-ardizers” regularly recommended increases in pay
‘Research Manager, Pennsylvania State Chamber
of Co mine roe.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
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for practically every class of employment. Apparently this tendency has come to a halt. The Minneapolis report in effect recommends a salary cut, though present incumbents of positions are not to be reduced. Even the maximum rates in the new schedule fall slightly below the existing level of salaries; and the minimum rates would lower that level by 11.2 per cent.1 Whether this schedule would keep intact the pre-war purchasing power of municipal salaries and wages cannot be gleaned from the report.
Not all classes of workers, however, are faced with a reduction in standards of pay. Some of them, principally brain-workers, are to have slight advances. This is true of employes in the educational service, the investigating and
‘This applies to positions other than those in the educational service for which the salary rates suggested are approximately the same as those adopted by the Board of Education itself and are Blightly higher than existing rates.
examining service, the legal service, the library service, the professional engineering service, the scientific and laboratory service, the stationary engine operation service, and the domestic and institution service. On the other hand, the most drastic cuts are proposed for the fire fighters, for employes in the guard and detention service, for unskilled laborers, and for policemen. Fellow-sufferers with them, if the report is adopted as it stands, will be those who are in the following services: clerical and administrative; custodial and building maintenance; inspections!; medical; nursing; park maintenance and recreation; portable equipment operation; school and janitor-enginemen; skilled and semiskilled trade; sub-professional engineering; and supervisory skilled trade and labor.
Copies of the report can be secured at the office of the board of estimate and taxation, 343 City Hall, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
William C. Beyer.
H. CIVIC COMMENT
Contributed by the American Civic Association
Mr. J. C. Nichols, vice-president of the American Civic Association, and developer of the Country Club district in Kansas City, spent the summer months studying European cities, always comparing in his own mind the opportunities and achievements of American cities. “ ‘ Too late’ are the saddest words in city planning,” comments Mr. Nichols.
*
Read “Building Cities for To-morrow,” by Lucius E. Wilson. He offers a prescription “to make the public think.” This is the beginning of all good civic things.
♦
The Proposed State Housing Code is again up for consideration in Pennsylvania. The state department of health and the Pennsylvania Housing and Town Planning Association are conferring with the State Chamber of Commerce to agree upon a revised draft for presentation to the legislature.
*
The Louisville Women’s City Club is taking an active part in the movement to pass a housing ordinance for the city.
*
In December Progress, published to promote the Pittsburgh Plan, appears a picture of several
handsome residences and a vacant lot. In the vacant lot is a sign which reads “For Sale—No Restrictions.” Suppose some enterprising purchaser erects a public garage on the property. What will happen to the peace of mind and to the financial investments of those owners of residences?
*
Jens Jensen, president of the Friends of Our Native Landscape, in a talk before the City Club of Chicago, made an eloquent plea for the people of Illinois to extend their State Park System.
♦
The Massachusetts Forestry Association announces another national parks and forests tour for 1923. More people visit their national parks each year. Why not join the 1923 party? *
In Visalia, California, it is claimed, is the smallest park in the world. In order to prevent the cutting of a handsome tree in the roadway, a city park was established and curbed with a ring around the tree, and a traffic post set facing each direction to warn drivers to pass to the right.
*
Mimeographed Copies of an article in the Engineering News-Record on “How to Lay Out


1928]
NOTES AND EVENTS
103
and Build an Airplane Landing Field” by Archibald Black are available. Write the American Civic Association.
*
W. C. Nason of the bureau of agricultural economics, department of agriculture, has prepared Farmers’ Bulletin No. 1274 on “Uses of Rural Community Buildings.” The rural community building is a good civic first step as is proved by the activities which Mr. Nason describes. Write the American Civic Association for a copy.
*
A report on Recommended Minimum Standards for Small Dwelling Construction is announced by the department of commerce, prepared by the Advisory Committee on Building Codes of which Ira H. Woolson is chairman. Write the American Civic Association if you desire a copy.
*
A new edition of the Standard State Zoning Enabling Act has been issued by the division of building and housing, department of commerce. Do you desire a copy?
*
Tables showing the acreage and appropriations for parks and playgrounds, miles of paved highways, police protection and appropriations for Pennsylvania cities of the third class have been issued by the bureau of publications, Pennsylvania department of internal affairs. If you desire copies write to the American Civic Association.
*
The Address of Dr. John Nolen on The Place of the Beautiful in the City Plan delivered at the Conference on City Planning in Springfield, Massachusetts, has been published and is available at 25 cents a copy.
*
State Parks.—Following the successful state park conference held last year in Palisades Interstate Park the invitation of the Indiana conservation department to hold this year’s conference early in May at the Hotel in Turkey Run State Park has been accepted. Indiana has developed a useful state park system. Those who attend the May meeting will undoubtedly be well repaid for the trip. The committee in charge of the meeting consists of Judge John Barton Payne of Chicago and Washington, chairman; Chauncey J. Hamlin of Buffalo,
vice-chairman; Alfred M. Collins of Philadelphia, treasurer; Beatrice M. Ward of Washington, secretary; Mrs. Samuel Sloan of New York, J. Horace McFarland of Harrisburg, Dr. Henry S. Cowles of Chicago, Edgar R. Harlan of Des Moines, Franklin W. Hopkins of the Palisades Interstate Park board, E. G. Sauers of Indianapolis and Joseph D. Grant of San Francisco.
*
American Civic Association’s Park Primer.— The American Civic Association has issued a four-page primer entitled “What Everybody Should Know About Parks.” Careful definitions are given of national parks and monuments, state and interstate parks, regional parks, city parks, city playgrounds and municipal camps.
A national park is defined as “an area of some magnitude distinguished by scenic attractions and natural wonders and beauties which are distinctly national in interest and in which the public-service value in preserving mountains, valleys, forests, lakes and streams with their characteristic plant and animal life for the ‘use and enjoyment of all the people’ distinctly outweighs the possible benefit to the few who would profit by commercial uses.” “A national park possessing these qualifications,” it is stated, “deserves to be protected jealously and completely from all outside utilitarian and commercial uses.” The basic theory upon which all commercial encroachments are opposed is set forth clearly. “All proposals to use any part of a national park for utilitarian purposes imply either the desire to take the property of all for the advantage of the few, or a desire to use public property to avoid paying for what otherwise must be paid for. If it were possible to estimate the actual cash value of park scenery and assess it against those who would despoil it, there would be no more applications for reservoirs in national parks.”
The state park is coming into popularity and provides a way to serve the people of the country through the establishment of areas devoted to outdoor recreation near the people who would use them. New York and New Jersey, and Wisconsin and Minnesota have joined in notable interstate parks which are administered jointly for the benefit of the people of contiguous states.
The people and officials of the cities of the country would do well to heed the warning given


104 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [February
in the quotation from Mr, Capara, chairman on parks of the American Civic Association: “Parks serve the public by preserving open spaces. Land dedicated to park purposes should not be made the site of buildings which do not serve park purposes in the mistaken idea that an economy is effected. Such encroachments upon park areas are wrong in principle and likely to prove exceedingly expensive.”
The various types of city playgrounds are defined in such a way as to make clear that parks
and playgrounds have distinctly different qualifications in treatment and use.
Municipal camps must not be mistaken for the parks since they cannot be construed as of recreational value to the town maintaining them, and are usually established because of the profitable trade they tend to attract.
The primer may be secured in quantities for local educational purposes at 2 cents each.
Hahlean Jamks, Secretary.
IH. MISCELLANEOUS
Mr. William H. Emhardt has been elected president of the City Club of Philadelphia to succeed William R. Nicholson.
*
A Second-Story Tunnel for New York Traffic. —Pointing out that New York’s vehicular traffic doubles every three years, Police Commissioner Enright asks what it will be in 1928, and proposes a second-story vehicular tunnel, extending from the Battery to Harlem to be cut through existing buildings. This elevated roadway would be 100 feet wide and make possible a speed of 30 miles an hour for automobiles.
*
Boston Sends Municipal Christmas Cards.— On Christmas morning, each guest in Boston’s hotels received an attractively engraved Christmas card extending the welcome and best wishes of the mayor and citizens of Boston to the stranger within their gates. The same greeting was conveyed on the screens of all down-town motion picture theatres.
*
Mr. Thomas Adams, town planning adviser to the Canadian government, well known in die United States and author of the League’s pamphlet on Modern City Planning, and Mr. L. Thompson, formerly assistant architect to the housing department, ministry of health, have entered into partnership for the purpose of practising as town planning consultants, with London offices at 121 Victoria Street, Westminster, S. W. 1, and New York offices at 16 East 41st Street.
*
The Annual Meeting of the Political Science Association was held in Chicago, December 27-
29. Program topics included international political science and international law, political theory, psychology and politics, administration, and political research. Two sessions were devoted to committee reports and discussion of the last subject. President H. A. Garfield of Williams College was elected president for the year 1923 and Professor Charles E. Merriam of Chicago first vice-president. Professor Frederic A. Ogg was re-elected secretary and treasurer.
Other learned societies meeting at the same time and place included the American Economic Association and the American Sociological Society.
♦
How Much Can You Afford to Pay for a Home?
—A very real service has been rendered to the cause of home ownership by the division of building and housing of the department of commerce which has recently prepared important information for the guidance of the average man in home-financing, showing the relation between the cost of a home and his annual salary or income.
The department of commerce has readied the conclusion that a man may safely own a home worth one and one-half to two and one-half times his annual income. After pointing out that the chief difficulty in purchasing a home on the instalment plan lies in the fact that the payments during the first few years are heavier than in the latter ones, it shows, in addition to the money that would ordinarily be paid out for rent, that savings or extra earrings must be devoted to the paying off of the principal on loans in order to get through these first few years.—Housing Betterment.


Full Text

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW VOL. XU, No. 2 FEBRUARY, 1933 TOTAL No. 80 WAS THE NEBRASKA ADMINISTRATIVE CODE REPUDIATED AT LAST ELECTION? BY RALPH S. BOOTS University of Nebraska Nebraska elected a Wblican legislrrture pledged to auPp0l.t the code; and a Denumratic governor who had promised to destrq it, in spite of the fact that inmeaaed efic;encY secured by the code enabled Ommor McKeEZtie to mmmon the legislature in Januaq, 1922, to reduce appropriations in order that the aamngs might at once be re$e& in .. .. .. lower tazes. Is the code an ivsue 07 a football? :: .. To a friend who wired this inquiry from New York: “Did the industrial court play any part in the recent election results?” William Allen White is reported to have replied: “Industrial court played importsnt part in election. Was vigorously supported in Republican platform and violently denounced in Democratic platform and issue hotly contested in election. People voted for Democratic governor pledged to repeal law and elected Republican legislature pledged to sustain law. Tune in and when you pick up voz populi vox dei wire me collect.” It wm thus with the “code” in Nebraska. TheRepublican platform pronounced for the principle of the code “subject to such amendments as four years of experience have demonstrated will make for further efficiency and economy,” and the candidate stood squarely on the platform. The Democratic platform read: “Specifically we pledge ourselves to the abolishment of the existing duplicate state government by the repeal of the administrative code law, to the discharge of the great army of useless employees now on the pay roll, and to a regrouping of the various departments in the hands of the elected state officials, thus restoring constitutional government that is responsible to the people and responsive to their will.” Mr. Bryan is quoted in the October Commoner as follows: Thecodelaw . . . ia alaw by which the power vested in the regular state officers elected by you ia taken from them and centralized in the governor, giving him more power than a crowned head abroad. He in turn delegatm this power out . . . with the result that you find 8 great army of political employees standing between you and your government. The theory of the code system is that you cannot elect men

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54 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW February aompetent enough to hsndle the government &airs so you go out and hue experts at $5,000 a yeaz to handle the aflairs for them. An investigating committee of the Farmers’ Union credited the code with enabling the agencies to function in a business-like manner and strongly approved the executive budget, but said of reorganization : “It has removed from the people the right to elect their department heads; it has put a powerfully organized system before every legislature which can assume official dictation and make it hard for the people to be heard.” THE GOVERNOR A DE-XOCRAT; OTHER ELECTED OFFICERS REPUBLICAN Mr. Bryan was overwhelmingly elected. Of the seven other state executive officers the Democrats elected only the secretary of state. The legislature is safely Republican. What is the interpretation thereof? The Lincoln Star says: “A mandate to repeal the code”--one fact made irrevocably pIain. The Omaha WorldHerald hopes Bryan will not mitigate his efforts for a repeal of the code law, since his election made unmistakable the public attitude. The Nebraska State Journal (Lincoln, opposing Bryan) treats the situation in a rather humorous vein, concluding that the people wished Mr. Bryan for governor but gave him a Republican legislature so he couldn’t run away. The Omaha Bee thinks that the “romance that clings to the Bryan name was too much” for the campaign of education which the Republicans planned. The state constitution expressly permits the legislature to place the constitutional elective officers as heads over such departments of qvernment 8s it may by law create. The heads of executive departments established by law are to be appointed by the governor with the consent of a majority of the elected house and senate members in joint session. The electors have apparently played a sly joke on Mr. Bryan. WJ3AT DOES TEE NEW GOVERNOR INTEND TO DO? Toward the end of December, Mr. Bryan announced that he did not believe it businesslike or fair to the public or the legislature to remove arbitrarily the heads of the code departments and employees, at any rate, “without the legislature having an opportunity to act on legislative plans.” He promised to lay before the legislature recommendations in accordance with the people’s decision. Three of the six code secretaries seem to have agreed to stay in office for thirty days with the understanding that either secretary or the governor shall give fifteen days notice of a change of mind. The messages of the retiring and the incoming governor sounded very much like a set debat-ne speech on each side and no rebuttal Mr. McKelvie explained and defended the code in a masterly, almost schoolmasterly, manner, and asserted that, since responsibility for any change would rest primarily with the legislature, a majority of which is pledged to retain the code principle, it is fairer to say that, in consideration of the vote at the last election, the people desire the code retained. Mr. Bryan, touching the same point, could draw only a diametrically opposite conclusion. “The code system centralizes in the chief executive all responsibility for not only executing the administrative policies of the state but of determining all administrative policies. . . . It is impossible for the chief executive to be constantly available or prepared to confer and decide important policies coming up from the various code department secretaries,

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19231 THE NEBRASKA AD1 dINISTRATIVE CODE 65 who are employees with no direct responsibility to the taxpayers.” He ’then proceeds to recommend an executive council of ex-officio members “to determine the state’s administrative policy. ” The State Journal concludes that “the code question bids fair to be mainly one of whether or not the legislature cares to enact some camouflage whereby to save the governor’s face.” Nothing is settled yet. The question of patronage may yet constitute a considerable factor in the determination of the outcome. HIGH TAXES CHARGED TO CODE The “code” in Nebraska NIIS through over three hundred pages, providing not only the administrative reorganization but containing also the regulations which the officers are to enforce. Hence a repeal of the “code” would repeal these regulations. As in many other states, the appropriations in 1921 wete almost double those of 1917-19, the last Democratic administration. The Democrats in a campaign characterized by glaring inaccuracies, if not misrepresentations, made the. chief issue taxation, and laid the blame for increased expenditurea on the “code,” with good post hoc logic. Probably many persons in a state largely rural chafe under recently adopted regulatory measures. The “army of inspectors” is denounced, and the governor’s “machine.” It does seem that numerous appointees mixed in the campaign. Furthermore a petition for a referendum on the “code” in 19i9 was rejected by the secretary of state because a copy of the law was not attached to each petition sheet. The district court sustained this action and the supreme court, admitting the unreasonableness of the secretary’s position, declined jurisdiction because the appeal was not taken within the time limit fixed by the referendum law. rill this did not popularize the “code.” THE “CODE” HAS BECOME A STEREOIt seems safe to say that the people are opposed to something they call the code.” This is probably mostly because they are all opposed to high taxes, partly because some of them are opposed, and others think they are, to new governmental activities, and partly because they nearly ail believe ardently in popular capacity to elect all officers, and partly because many really disapprove concentration of power and political influence (the merit system would help greatly if the people had not so largely lost confidence in the possibility of fair operation). It cannot be said, however, that the election was an expression of popular judgment on the principle of what we call responsible state government. As one Democratic member of the legislature is reported to have said, “We’ve got to get a new name for the code.” TYPE

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NATURE GUIDING IN OUR NATIONAL PARKS BY A. E. DEMARAY Editor, N&d Park Smks A new service for Vi&Ors to the national parks, inmeaskg the pleasures of the tourist by revealing new mysteries and stimulating .. .. .. old enthusiasms. .. THE astonishing popularity of the free nature guide service, now available during the travel season in several of the larger national parks, and being extended by the National Park Service into other parks as rapidly as funds permit, is testimony of its value in helping visitors better to understand and more thoroughly enjoy the things they see. This service, the outgrowth of studies made in Norway and Switzerland by the World Recreation Survey, was first undertaken in the United States in 1919 at Lake Tahoe by the California state fish and game commission. So attractive did it prove that business men deserted fishing trips for hikes with the nature guides. Stephen T. Mather, director of the National Park Service, happened to be at Lake Tahoe at the time, and, the work of the nature guides coming under his observation, he decided that such service ought to be available to visitors to the national parks. There were no government funds which corld be used, but this did not deter the park director. Approaching the fish and game commissioners, he told them he wanted their nature guides in Yosemite National Park the next summer. “You agree to stand half the expense and I will personally take care of the other half,” said Director Mather. 1 Contributed at the request of the American Civic Association. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Whether other argument was necessary or not is unimportant, for in 1920 free nature guide service was inaugurated in Yosemite under the joint auspices of the fish and game commission and the National Park Service, That year 27,047 visitors came in contact with the service and it became an assured success. Next year 33,759 persons, or one out of every three visitors in the park, came in personal touch with the nature guide service. These Yosemite visitors, on arriving at other parks, sought first the ofice of the nature guide and, on finding there were no nature guides employed, wanted to know why not. So in order to meet an insistent demand, nature guide service has been installed in other parks; first in Yellowstone in 1921, and during the past year in Glacier, Mount Rainier and Sequoia Parks. In 192% nature guide work was carried on in five national parks and will be continued in these parks next year. WHAT IS A NATURE GUIDE What is nature guiding and a nature guide, perhaps you are saying. A nature guide is a hike leader, schod teacher, lecturer, scientist, and game leader all in one; in fact, he is a walking encyclopedia of out-doors information. His job is to tell you the names of the animals, birds, trees, flowers, and 66

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19931 NATURE GUIDING IN OUR NATIONAL PARKS 57 to discover with you nature's secrets that lie hidden to the multitudes, but in plain view of one who has eyes to An account of the work undertaken last year in the various parks will afford 8 better understanding of the nature guide service. In Yosemite Valley, daily field trips for old and young were made under the guidance of experienced nature guides, giving those taking the trips an opportunity to see and study the living and growing things of the park. Lectures and campfire talks on the flora and fauna were given nightly at the hotels and camps, even extending to the outlying lodges above the valley's rim. A flower show, where specimens of the park flowers in season were kept on dispIay, enabled those interested to study them at close range. Regular ofice hours were kept in which those interested might come and ask questions concerning the botany, zoology, topography, 'and geology of the park. See. LARGE NUMBERS PROFIT The lecture attendance last year was 39,535 persons, while 3,039 persons made the fieId trips. Also 33,071 persons visited the park museum to study the exhibits exemplifying the natural history, zoiilogy, ethnology, botany and history of the region. In Yellowstone Park a nature guide delivered a total of 233 lectures on the park, its geology, flora, fauna, history, etc., to 00,000 visitors. Lectures were given at Mammoth Camp, Mammoth Hotel, and in the auto camp ground at Mammoth before the evening bonfire. Twenty-seven thousand one hundred and three people were guided over the formations at Upper Geyser Basin and 10,396 people were guided over the hot-spring terraces at Mammoth. The information o%ke and museum at park headquarters at Mammoth were visited by thousands of persons. The nature guide service in Glacier Park was conducted under the auspices of the University of Montana. Information desks were established at the principal tourist centers at which the nature guides were available to answer questions on the geology, flora and fauna, and scenic features. Many walks were taken, during which natural objects of interest were pointed out and explained to visitors. . In Mount Rainier National Park a nature guide at Paradise Valley answered questions on the flora, fauna, and geology of the locality, and took interested visitors on short field trips to study these features. Each evening he gave a short talk illustrated with colored slides outlining the chief natural features of the mountain. At Longmire Springs in the auto camp grounds a novel sylvan theater was constructed by arranging the glacial boulders at hand. Here camp-fire talks were given of evenings on the flora, fauna, geology, and history of the park. Mention should also be made of the exceptional service rendered by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, who, for several years, has conducted archaeological excavations in Mesa Verde National Park. Each evening at the camp-fire circle in Spruce Tree Canip he reconstructed for the visitors in intensely interesting talks the life of the early dwellers on the mesa, whose remarkable cliff dwelling ruins are the only records of these people vanished centuries ago. THE BIG TREES AND THE LITTLE PIKA Amid the giant sequoias in Sequoia National Park a nature guide told of the centuries that these big trees have looked down to earth, for many were

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68 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW IFebruarg sturdy youths when Christ was born in Bethlehem. Another resident of Sequoia which has come down through the ages as a survival of the fittest to live in a region difficult for other animals to utilize, is the Mount Whitney pika, or cony, which lives in rock slides. Making these shy little animals known to the visitor was one of the many pleasant duties of the nature guide for perhaps no other animal is of greater interest to the lover of nature. Homeloving creatures, always living in groups, their industry excells that of most animals. With the head of a rat, the body and fur of a rabbit, and no visible tail, the pika presents a curious appearance. They have a protective coloring that blends with the rocks of their surroundings and, owing to their extreme shyness, they usually escape the attention of the ordinary park visitor; but he who is fortunate to walk with the nature guide may discover their haunts and so watch these creatures freely existing in their rocky abodes safe at least from man, .for hunting is not permitted in the national parks. Besides being the vacation grounds of the nation, rich in majestic scenery and opportunities for healthy recreation, our national parks are veritable storehouses of education. As Director Mather once said, they are the “schoo1 rooms of Americanism where people are studying, enjoying, and learning to love more deeply this land in which they live.” The nature guides are the willing teachers in these outdoor classrooms ready to assist you better to enjoy your vacation. THE UNITED STATES COMPTROLLER GENERAL AND HIS OPPORTUNITIES BY WM. H. ALLEN Dire&, Inat&& for Public Service 07. Allen’s inckive paper directs attention to a recently creaikd oficial possessing unique possibilities in danger of being pigeon-holed. Did you know that there is a comptroller general with a $$%en-year .. .. .. .. .. .. .. tenn? .. APTER listening to Director Lord‘s most interesting illustration of constructive work being done by the bureau of the budget, abd after reading his statement entitled “The National Budgetary System,” I feel more strongly than ever before the importance of the comptroller general’s opportunity. A NEGLECTED OFFICE The fact that this office and its relation to the whole budget program was not mentioned by Budget Director .. .. .. .. .. .. .. *. .. .. Lord;’ was only once even incidentally mentioned in the monthly issues by the National Budget Committee from April to November, 1992; and has been barely discovered as yet by most commentators upon the budget merely accentuates the comptroller general‘s opportunities. The fact that the nation’s business men, speaking through the organ of the 1 In his oral address before the National Mu+ ipal League. Mention is made in the formal copy of the address printed in this issue.

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19231 THE UNITED STATES COMPTROLLER GENERAL 59 Chamber of Commerce of the U. S. A., should talk about the budget director as a “field marshall of figures,” again without discovering the comptroller general’s relation to the budget, adds to the conviction that we cannot safely go on much farther without discovering, uncovering and spot-lighting the .opportunities of the comptroller general. Another aspect of the budget director’s statement emphasizes the terrific cost that is bound to result from our failure to see now, after the budget law, what congressional leaders saw before that law was passed, namely, that congress and the public need what only someone outside the presidential family will ever give-an independent check on executive expenditure and executive publicity. Only as a shrinking violet does there appear in the budget director’s statement or in the numerous statements by the National Budget Committee and other more or less official utterances respecting the budget, the conception of the budget as a work program. On the contrary, the budget is dehed by General Lord, speaking here as the nation’s budget architect, as “a detailed statement of expected receipts and proposed expenditure.” That definition of a federal budget or a state budget or a city budget or a family budget misses the spirit and essence of the budget movement, namely that a budget should be first of all a picture, not of expected receipts and proposed expenditure, but of expected benefits and proposed service. Unless service is taken as a starting point and find testing point of budget making, we shall find here as Herbert Casson, an American economist, wrote from London about Britain’s carefully balanced budgets, that “the budget has about as much effect in checking extravagance as a ribbon on a frog.” I8 TEE JOKE ON THE TROMBONE PLAYER? The very humorous illustrationz which Director Lord used of confusion and lack of team work in government, seems to me to show the need for “expected service” rather than “expected receipts” as the basis of budget making. He cited a New England orchestra whose leader said, “We shall now play Number 16,” and whose trombone player forthwith ejaculated, “Why I’ve just played Number 16.” Director Lord and the audience saw in this a joke on the trombone player, but why, pray, should not our trombones play Number 16 or Number 166 when the rest of the band is playing Number 6, if neither the director nor the audience knows the difference? With the kind of budget approach and budget development which does not include the independent, unhampered, fearless, factbased analysis and criticism which congress says shall be given by the comptroller general, no method ever yet devised will help our budget director or our public know whether the trombone player is at Number 16 or Number 6. TEE COMPTBOLLER GENERAL’S OPPOROTHER OFFICER’S The opportunities of the comptroller general to serve the United States where it now most urgently needs help are greater than those of any other elected or appointed public officer, not excluding the president and his cabinet. A comptroller general who lives up to his opportunities can do more to make the president efficient, to make the president’s budget director efficient, to make congress and its committees and our voters efficient than any other single officer. 1 Introduced 89 an “aside” in General Lord’s ocidress. TUMTIES GREATER THAN ANT

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60 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW If public charges are made that the department of justice wastes tens of thousands of dollars on a Cronkite case, that our foreign service is hurting our foreign business because underfinanced, that our shipping board wastes millions by incompetence, that wasteful methods are subsidized by the budget director, the comptroller general is the only officer with power, duty and motive to give the public the truth. When, as is happening right now, the minority party denies the accuracy of statements made by the budget director and holds up to public ridicule alleged perversions of the budgetary power, an interested public will never accept the statements of the budget director or the executive who names him, or of the party in power as nonpartisan, unbiased statements of fact. Moreover, there is not “a Chinaman’s chance” that the present budget director, in spite of his personal desire for the truth and the whole truth, will feel free to advertise publicly either errors in the work of his predecessor or defects of his own machinery or astigmatism on the part of the departmental budget officers from whom he takes his own description of departmental needs. HIS UAJQUE POSITION The comptroller general’s extraordinary opportunities for stimulating and compelling efficiency are given in the federal budget law. His term is fifteen years, overlapping four presidential terms and eight congresses. He is named not by the president, not by either house of congress, but by joint resolution of congress. Unless the office is abolished, he cannot be removed by any spender or even by congress itself, except by impeachment or after proof that he is physically incapacitated or has been guilty of either inefficiency, neglect of duty, malfeasance in office, or conduct involving moral turpitude. It is his special business to report to congress at least once a year and oftener when congress is in session if he wishes recommendations looking to greater economy or efficiency in public expenditure. For failing to make such reports, after investigation upon which such reports can be fact-based, he can be removed. For telling the truth, no matter how unpleasant, he cannot be removed unless congress is williig to, declare that telling the truth about public waste and inefficiency is a clear sign of moral turpitude. POWER TO AUDIT RESULTS If the comptroller general uses his opportunity, he cah drive home not only to our federal government but to state and city governments, great relief funds and foundations, colleges and universities, three badly needed lessons: 1. A mere audit of money is no protection whatever against misuse of money and of power; audit or field studies of results is needed. 2. The executive who spends the money and directs the use of delegated power-whether president, governor, mayor, city manager, university president or foundation head-cannot be trusted to seek and to broadcast the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth about preventable waste of money and preventable misuse and underuse of power. If we realy want this service, we must look for it to the office not responsible to our spenders, such as the auditor of the state, the comptroller of the city, the division of reference and research for the board of education, the special auditing division of the foundation responsible to its trustees. 3. Extravagance and not efficiency will come from our imitating European balanced budgets unless we refuse to

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1994 TEE NATIONAL BUDGET SYSTEM 61 imitate the European practice of baltruth telling and protection against ancing 8 budget by merely raising penalties for telling unpleasant truth, tnoney enough to pay for wildest exit will be vastly easier for taxpayers travagance. throughout our country to insist upon I the comptroller general lives up similar truth about waste and opporto his powers of scrutiny, subpoena, tunities in cities and states. THE NATIONAL BUDGET SYSTEM AND THE FINANCIAL SITUATION FACING THE UNITED STATES BY GENERAL H. M. LORD DkW 4 k%6 Budget A BUDGET is a detailed statement of expected receipts and proposed expenditures, prepared prior to the period to which it pertains. The Budget and Accounting Act, approved by President Harding June 10, 1991, provides for just that, with the requirement that if the Administration’s detailed statement of proposed expenditures called for more funds than the detailed statement of expected receipts evidenced would be available, the president should submit as part of the budget his recommendation of ways and means to secure the additional revenue required to finance the spending program recommended. The Budget and Accounting Act of June 10,1991, provided an agency for carrying out the terms of the act, termed the bureau of the budget. This bureau was created as an instrumentality directly under the control of the president for the purpose of enabling him to make effective his responsibility to congress and to the country for the efficient exercise of his administrative authority over the operation of the budget and over the expenditure of funds thereunder appropriated for the support of the IAn addrea before the National Municipal League at Philadelphia, Nov. eS. 192% government. It was established solely upon the principle of presidential responsibility, and it is given no function under the Budget and Accounting Act which it can exercise independently of the president. This is as it should be, for the president is the head of the business organization of the government. TEE COMPTROLLER GENERAL The Budget and Accounting Act also created a,n establishment of the government known as the general accounting oflice, which is independent of the executive departments and under the control and direction of the comptroller general of the United States. Among the duties devolving upon the comptroller general are those of prescribing the forms, systems, and procedure for administrative appropriation and fund accounting in the several departments and establishments of the government and for the administrative examination of fiscal o5cers’ accounts and claims against the United States. The comptroller general has already placed in effect a classification of objects of expenditure for the departments and establishments of the government for the purpose of obtaining uniformity in

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69 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [February administrative appropriation and fund accounting and in the analysis of governmental expenditures. This is a long stride in the direction of uniformity of fiscal accounting, and marks the beginning of the plans of the comptroller general to establish uniformity in the accounting system for governmental expenditures. I plan to confine my discussion, however, to the subjects of governmental estimating for funds, control of expenditures, and the co-ordinsting of the federal business activities-a discussion of the routine business of the federal government. GETTING THE MONEY One of the most necessary things in a business-and the United States government is the biggest business in the world-is to get the money for operating purposes. Heretofore the estimates were prepared by a multitude of unco-ordinated agencies, and when brought together in the book of estimates for submission to congress represented no administrative policy, had been compiled without regard to treasury conditions, and were always greatly in excess of actual operating needs. From 1890 to l92Q the estimates submitted by the executive departments were twenty-three billions in excess of the appropriations made. Under the budget law this most undesirable, unscientific and expensive system has given way to a method of actual, careful estimating. Under the law each htad of a government agency charged with the administration of public funds appoints a budget officer, who is charged with the preparation of estimates for his department. Through contact with the bureau of the budget he is informed of the administrative policy and of treasury conditions, and is expected to prepare and is in a position to prepare and submit to the head of his department an estimate that will fit into the national program. The various departmental estimates, prepared in this scientific way, approved by the departmental heads, are forwarded to the bureau of the budget. Here they are submitted for careful examination to investigators, one for each department, whose entire time is devoted to the work of that department, who know its genesis, organization and functions, and who have been available for assistance to the corresponding budget officer in preparing the estimate. Comparison is made of the estimates from one department with estimates from other departments, duplications eliminated, modifications and necessary reductions made, the conditions of the treasury studied, and the entire collectionestimates from the forty-three departments and independent establishments of the government-dove-tailed together, welded into a harmonious whole, reflecting in dollars and cents the policy of the administration. During thii process the bureau of the budget consults frequently with the chief executive and the department and establishment beads so that the budget will really represent the actual needs of the government and the policy of the administration. The budget, prepared in this way, is then submitted to congress by the president, with recommendations of ways and meana of procuring additional revenue, if the income from established sources is not sufEcient to finance the spending program recommended. Heretoore chiefs of departments and independent agencies could submit estimates for appropriations to congress without restraint. Under the budget law all requests for appropriations must be submitted to the bureau of the budget, for submission to the chief executive,

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IS!%] THE NATIONAL in whom is vested the exclusive power of submitting estimates to Congress. APPEOPRUTTNG THE MONEY As a result of the enactment of the budget law a great revolution has taken place in the organization of the house and senate along appropriating lines. To-day all appropriations of the government are made on bills reported to congress from one committee, the appropriations committee of the house, and the appropriations committee of the senate. This arrangement affords opportunity for comparing the estimates of one bureau with those of another, and permits consideration of the country’s needs as one complete study by one committee acting for the house and one committee acting for the senate. Under the operation of the budget law the annual appropriations for each department now all appear in one act, and it is not necessary in order to find how much money is available for a department or agency to search through several different appropriation acts for that information. This is certainly a long step in advance along the road of proper governmental financial procedure. EPENDINQ THE MONEY As under the old procedure there WM no coordination of estimating or appropriating, 80 there was no co-ordination of expenditures. The amount appropriated was regarded as the minimum to be spent. The late Andrew Carnegie said at one time that he considered it a crime to die rich. The spending agencies of the federal government seemed to feel that way about their appropriations, and that it was inexcusable to terminate a fiscal year with an unobligated G’alance of an annual appropriation in the treasury. Some years ago a government official, BUDGET SYSTEM 63 having aconsiderable balance, promptly turned it back into the treasury, reaping therefor contumely, scorn and criticism instead of expected plaudits and commendation. These governmental officials, however, simply carried out what was understood to be the wishes of congress in those days of generous excesses of treasury receipts over liberal expenditures. Times have changed, however, and under the existing order of things the amount appropriated is intended to be the maximum of expenditure, with pressure for such efficient and economical administration as will produce the desired result with an expenditure less than the appropriation. The co-ordination and control of expenditures, at this time without doubt the most important and urgent need of the government, is also the mst difficult of realization. With the installation of the budget system the president of the United States, for the first time in the history of this country, assumed his proper place as the actual head of the business organization of the government, accepting in so doing a11 the great and trying responsibilities that such assumption of direct leadership entailed. The budget law gave him an agency for imposing policies of economy on the government’s many establishments, an agency which he is utilizing and proposes still to utilize for the purpose of saving millions of dollars of the people’s money. THIS YEAR’S FINANCES The best estimate of proposed expenditure for the fiscal year 1933, as of July 1, 1932, is $3,771,!258,543. This includes the amounts the spending agencies of the government estimate they will expend; it includes also $489,451,368 customs refunds, pensions and other items not subject to administrative control; includes $330,

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64 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [February 300,000 for reduction ip the public debt, $34,362,000 investment of trust funds; and carries also $975,000,000, interest on the public debt. Of course, no account can be taken of further demands which may result from legislation yet to be enacted for this current fiscal year by congress. All of this adds interest to an already interesting problem. The best estbate of ordhary treasury receipts from all sources for this fiscal year is $3,098,835,311. This includes $1,300,000,000 expected from income and profits taxes, $9OO,OOO,OOO from miscellaneous internal revenue, with a grand total of $523,835,311 miscellaneous revenue which includes $225,000,000 from interest on foreign obligations. Thus the excess of estimated expenditures over estimated receipts is $672,433,231. Expenditures must be reduced and projects that can be postponed to a subsequent and more favorable season must be so deferred. The departments and independent establishments of the government, in compliance with the recommendation of the president, have set aside in a fund termed a general reserve an amount totalling many millions of dollars which they will try and save. This money is not subject to obligation by the spending agencies in a department without specSc authority from the department head. These agencies are expected to plan their program for the fiscal year as if the amount in the general reserve did not exist. The anti-deficiency act, which requires apportionments of funds over an entire year to prevent exhaustion of appropriations in the first half of the year with resulting deficiency appropriations, is being strictly enforced, not only with a view to prevent deficiencies, but with an eye on attendant economies through restricting the activities for each quarter to the money allotted to that quarter. Another factor in the solution of this problem is the increase of revenues from established sources. One of these is the sale of surplus property. There is included in the anticipated receipts for 1934 the sum of $80,000,000 as the expected yield from sales of supplies. The surplus supply situation is being intensively studied with a view to so accelerating the declaring of surplus and its sale that additional and needed millions may be added to miscellaneous receipts of the treasury. Other sources of revenue are being studied for the same purpose-increase of ordinary receipts. It is an interesting problem that means a dogged, persistent, tireless, fight until the treasury closes at half-past four, the afternoon of June 30, 1923. And if when the returns are all in, and the budget for the fiscal year 1923 is balanced, it will be due to the firm and businesslike stand taken by the president, the co-operation of the business personnel of .government, and the indorsement of the people at large who realize the importance of the pmblem and the direct bearing it has upon them. NEXT YEAR’B FINANCES Coincident with the task of reducing expenditures and ihcreasing revenues for the current operating year is the work of preparing estimates for funds necessary to finance the administration for the next fiscal year which will begin July I, 1933. Estimated receipts for next year, compiled by the treasury department, amount to $3,198,456,871. The president, carrying out his policy of keeping expenditures within receipts, informed the personnel of the business organization of the government at its second annual meeting July 11, last, that he would approve no estimates which with existing au

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19231 THE NATIONAL BUDGET SYSTEM 65 thorizations of expenditure would total more than that amount. The fortythree departments and independent establishments of the government are required by law to submit their annual estimates to the director of the bureau of the budget not later than September 15. For the purpose of getting a bird'seye view of the needs of the executive departments, call was made by the bureau of the budget for the submission of preliminary estimates, without supporting detail, August 1. In this call attention was invited to the instructions of the president and his additional statement that the estimate of receipts for 1934 evidently would not permit as liberal appropriations for 1924 as had been granted by congress for 1983. When the preliminary estimates were received, however, it was found that not only were they many millions in excess of the current year's appropriations but nearly $200,000,000 in excess of the estimated receipts for the next fiscal year. The director of the budget, then, with the approval of the president, took each estimate, cut it down, item by item, in the light of the best information available as to the merits of the various projects, combined the resulting totals and found he was within the maximum amount fixed by the president-xpected receipts for the next year. Then by direction of the president the budget director allocated the new total of each estimate to the department concerned with instructions to distribute that amount over its various activities and projects, and submit the result as the regular estimate September 15. The estimating agencies were notified at the same time that if the amounts falling to any item or group of items under this plan were inadequate a full presentation of the case should be made when the estimates were submitted and the statement would be given consideration. This accomplished what was intended, a complete reversal of former procedure under which there was little or no limit or restraint upon the amounts that could be estimated for, the reviewing authority being obliged to prove that the amounts requested for the several items were too large. Anyone familiar with the enthusiasm and surpassing ability with which the experts in the departments defend their estimates, no matter how swollen, will appreciate the utter hopelessness of that task when the field to be covered involves items of estimates numbering hundreds if not thousands. Under the new procedure the proponents of the estimates must justify and prove the need of increases over the amounts allocated, which is an altogether different procedure. This will give you some idea of what the Budget and Accounting Act has made possible in the important field of estimating. THE BUDGET BUREAU NON-POLITICAL There is one point that I wish to .emphasize at this time, and that is that the bureau of the budget is in no sense of the word a political agency. The budget movement in its inception, both in the country and in congress, was absolutely non-political. The proposal fm the establishment of a national budget system was advocated by chambers of ccmmerce and other commercial bodies and trade associations throughout the country regardless of political or geographical division. It was favored by both President Taft and President Wilson, and received indorsement in the platforms of all political parties. When the budget proposal was before congress experienced leaders of both parties served on the select budget committees of the house

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,66 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW February and senate, and in the preparation of the bill party lines were complete ly obliterated. The measure was advocated with equal enthusiasm on the floor of the house and the senate by Democrats and Republicans, and it passed the senate without a dissenting vote, while only three votes were recorded against it in the house. No other conception of the budget bureau than as a non-political, impersonal agency is proper, and any attempt to construe its purposes otherwise than for the general good of the country irrespective of party would. be most unfortunate and disastrous, and seriously hamper its legitimate activities. NOT A UQIC WAND The Budget and Accounting Act is not itself a magic wand that waves out all faulty financial procedures and beckons in the financial millennium. Habits, customs, regulationg, laws that the passage of a hundred years or more has built into the very machinery of the government are not eradicated over night. The most flagrant faults will be corrected first, but it must be a continuous process, that will require years of patient, persistent, and courageous endeavor, with the unwavering, vigorous support of the executive, the cooperation of the personnel of the government, and the watchful interest and intelligent indorsement of the people of this country. THE LEGISLATIVE BODY IN CITY MANAGER GOVERNMENT BY HENRY M. WAITE Presidsnt, N&nal MunicipaJ Leugw Being Colonel Wuites’ presidenlial address before the Twenty.. eighth Annual Meeting of the League at Philudelphia. :: .. WITH the growth of the city mmager government, we are gaining in experience. Originally, it was popular to have the commission elected at large. The original National Municipal League charter so provided. Experience in the operation of this charter has enlightened us. The duties of the commissions are difereut from those of the 0.M council. Their responsibilities are greater. The ofd councilman represented his district. He had his political organization behind him. He kept the people of his ward and precincts advised. With smaller representative bodies elected at large this is not so easily accomplished. THE CO~ISSIONERS MAY QET OUT OF’ TOUCH WITH THE PEOPLE Commissioners, under the manager form are the directors. The governmental organization under this new form is more centralized. A great many felt, and still feel, that the commissioners, in this new form, should be business men. It was pop ularly believed that a business man was the only one who appreciated the responsibilities of directorship. Erperience has taught us that this is not true. One of the great difficulties has been that the commissioners sit as directors and as such determine their policies,

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19B] LEGISLATIVE BODY IN CITY WAGER GOVERNMENT 67 and the city manager admisters these policies, but the board of directOrs does not explain these policies to the stockhoIders. Changes of charters are usually followed by a broadening of program for the community welfare. Those who are most interested in the adoption of the new government are the ones most interested in the variations of municipal activity, The ambition of the commissioners is to accomplish much that is new and good for the community. They take on extensive programs for improvement. Their minds become centered on these new programs. They become absorbed in themselves and their advisers and fail to keep in touch with their stockholders, the citizens. Often, the commissioners find that they are ahead of their constituents in thought and activity and that the voters are ignorant of what is being done. The realization of this fact sometimes comes too late and is answered by an election of new commissioners. Such boards of directors have been too much absorbed in what they were doing, and not enough in those for whom they were doing. VALUE OF PROPORTIONAL BEPRESENTATION Much thought has been given and many suggestions made to cure this condition. Proportional representation is most generally favored as the remedy. Cleveland has adopted it in its new charter. Through proportional representation we are getting approximately a commission representing the cross section of a community. This will help. If the commission is elected under proportional representation, we shall have the personal interest of the commissioner in his coptituency. The commissioner should be able to keep fairly in touch with the people of his representative district. At least, there 2 will be more interest in what he says to them than if he were elected at large by majority vote. In large communities, too small representative districts will mean too large a commission. Much, we believe, will be accomplished, however, by electing by means of proportional representation. Election by districts under proportional representation does not mean return to the old ward system. The old ward system did have the virtue, however, of bringing into the council men of a variety of social classes. Proportional representation revives that single virtue of the ward system in a better way. In large cities, election by large districts is a necessary detail for the application of proportional representation. The election of commissions at large is a great improvement over the election by wards. Commissioners elected at large, however, must realize their responsibility in keeping the citizens advised as to the policies and programs of the commission. The ward representatives, under the old system, did so. The smaller the representative body, the greater is the individual responsibility of each member to keep the public informed. MANAGER COMPELLED TO DO TOO MUCH ExPIuu"G Methods of election, however, will not overcome many of the difficulties encountered by commissioners in this new form of government. There is a natural tendency on their part to feel that the manager, as administrator, can better explain to the public what is being done. Such commissioners lose sight of the important fact that they are responsible for the policies of the government. They forget that they are to be reelected and not the manager. They neglect to take into con

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68 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [February sideration that the success of the government depends upon the composition of the commission. However, the commissioner in this new form of government must appreciate, as experience has demonstrated, that the community is interested in hearing from their elected representative for whom they feel a responsibility, and that they are not so much interested, or should not be so much interested, in what the manager has to say. Our feeling is that the manager does too much talking and the commissioners not enough. It reminds me of the story they tell about Mr. Wright. They never could get the Wright Brothers to talk and when one of them was asked for an explanation of his .aversion to publicity, he replied that, of the birds, the poll-parrot is the best talker but the poorest flier. This may be one of the troubles. The city managers are better talkers than the commissioners. Experience, however, leads me to believe that the manager has become a better talker through experience and the commissions are forcing him into the experience. THE NOSE FOR NEWS These remarks are largely taken from the experiences in Dayton where our program for increased activities was so great that it was all absorbing. Suddenly, we found that we were far ahead of the majority of the people of the community. A newspaper man told me that undoubtedly what we were doing was all rig.it but that our publicity was so dry that he could not read it. All department heads were keyed up to accomplishment. They had no time to talk to the reporters. The reporters in the past were used to sitting down with office holders, whose future election depended upon publicity, and hearing long explanations of what they were accomplishing. We found that the heads of our departments did not have the nose for news. The result was that all mail baskets were open for inspection to the newspaper reporters, whose noses were sharpened for news and they were directed to the correspondence files and given information explaining what they had found. All new activities were stopped until what we had done could be explained' to the community. There were instantaneous results of renewed public interest. The success and growth of this new form of government depends largely on its being able to overcome many bf the difficulties which the form itself imposes. We believe that proportional representation will aid materially. However, the commissioners must realize that this kind of an election carries with it the obligation of a direct explanation to their constituents. NEED NOT FEAR POLITICAL PARTIES The question is often asked-How will the city manager government operate if a political party gets control of the commission? This is a natural question, as most of the movements to establish this modern government are made by non-partisan efforts. Its continuance is, therefore, considered dependent upon keeping it out of political control. We do not believe this is essential. There must be political parties in this country. Democracy is dependent upon them. The issues in' municipal elections will not be the same as they are in national elections. It is, therefore, obvious that the party lines will not be so closely drawn in municipal affairs as in national affairs. The growing use of the non-partisan ballot aids materially in this direction. What we desire to do is to turn over

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19231 LEGISLATIVE BODY IN CITY MANAGER GOVERNMENT 69 to the people a first-rate vehicle for good government. The vast independent vote of this country is rapidiy abolishing the old party lines. Our political parties are campaigning more and more on personalities and not on principles. Platforms are designed to get the votes from each party. We can vote for principles expressed in platforms, but we have no way of enforcing action on the principles after election. The politician is daily adding recruits to the independents. The pendulum swings slowly in our democracy, but our faith in our democracy is due to our knowing that this pendulum always swings. Slowly the politician is realizing that an enlightened community wants to hear about principles and not about personalities. This enlightened public is demanding that party lines be defined on principles. This enlightened public wants to know what it is voting for. It wants to vote intelligently. When it has voted for principles, it demands that these principles be enacted. When the politician realizes these facts, the pendulum will swing back, the independents will decrease, and platforms will cease to be scraps of paper. This is why we do not fear party politics in our municipal commissions. We have tried and failed utterly to get good city government through charters which tie our officials, hand and foot, with red tape. We are struggling to give more liberal charters by which we can more easily and economically obtain good government. To our minds, it is no great achievement for a commission and manager to give better government. They certainly are dismal failures if they do not. This new charter gives them the machinery that makes good government more easily obtainable. Therein lies the hope. This explains its growth in spite of the antagonism from the local politician. He fights this charter because he believes it threatens his prerogatives. It is, nevertheless, in this charter that he has the means to give the very thing he is struggling to give-better government. If we admit that we must have political parties in a democracy, then we must admit that the commissions under these improved charters will eventually be controlled by them. The political parties are wise-they will soon see the many advantages of this new form of government and it is through an enlightened public, comprising the political parties that we must obtain the charters with centralized authority in county and in state government.

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DAYTON LEVIES SPECIAL ASSESSMENT TO BUILD PARK BY R L. SESSIONS PRIOR to the acquisition of the Dayton View park site, the city of Dayton had never attempted to acquire park Ian& by special assessment. The various parks throughout the city have been secured generally by gift or bond issue. Dayton View park will extend along the shore of the Miami river beginning at Dayton View bridge and extending southward about one quarter of a mile to the mouth of the Wolf creek. One of the city’s best residential sections will be greatly benefited by the fine approach this park will render to Dayton View. In order to acquire that portion of the park leading from the Dayton View bridge as indicated by the cross hatching on the accompanying map, various old buildings along the Miami river were condemed. The total cost of land and buildings involved in the condemnation proceedings came to $110,000. As the result of the efforts of an association of Dayton View citizens, $25,000 was raised by subscription. The city authorities agreed that the city should give $SO,OOO, the remaining $55,000 to be assessed on the Dayton View property owners. That portion of Dayton View park to the left marked “ Conservancy ” and another portion extending along Wolf creek up to Orth avenue milI be purchased by the city, thus extending considerably the park site outside the condemned area. GRADUATED ASSESSMENTS In order to assess the $55,000 upon the property owners of Dayton View, it was thought best to assess over the entire area back to the corporation lie. The assessment area established for this purpose is indicated by the map. The south boundary of the assessment area follows the shore of the Wolf creek. The northeast line follows as closely as possible what is considered the boundary line between Dayton View and Riverdale, an adjoining residential section having a fine park and therefore not subject to assessment for Dayton View park. Although the Miami river was made the southeast boundary lie, property across the river will have an excellent outlook upon the park. These properties were not assessed, for the reason that the river formed a convenient physical boundary and only the rear of these properties faced the park. In accordance with the principle that the benefit derived from a public improvement of this character diminishes with the distance and at a faster rate, it was determined to grade the individual assessments in accordance with a definite ratio commencing with $100 for a standard lot in the first zone, 827.60 for a standard lot in the second, and so on down to $1.146 for a lot in the last. The ratio for each zone is shown in column 3 of the table below as the “preliminary zone rate.” The amount of benefit assigned to each standard lot was termed “one benefit.” -4s indicated on the accompanying map, the writer placed all property abutting on the park in zone number one, dividing the remaining distance to the corporation line into fourteen additional zones of approximately equal 70

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1=1 DAYTON LEVIES SPECIAL ASSESSMENT 71 width. By referring to the map, it will establish the zone widths on Salem be seen that the abutting properties of avenue. These lines were then trans'zone number one all border on Riverferred to several large maps showing \ MAP SHOWING 8PECIAL ASSESSMENT AREA FOR DAYTON VIEW PARK View avenue, and the zone lines are lot numbers, the result being a series of drawn normal to Salem avenue used as broken lines generally running along an axis. In drawing these preliminary the street and alley. Whenever the lines, a pair of dividers was used to course of the broken line by following

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75 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [February (4) Preliminary Assessment the street and aUey would deviate too much from the preliminary curved line, then the course would be drawn between properties. Streets and aUeys were used for the dividing lines as much as possible, for the reason that it was thought that many property owners would have difficulty in understanding why two adjoining properties should be placed in different zones, it being more or less clear to them why a neighbor across the street could be placed in a different zone. It was thought that this difficulty might arise, especially in the first two or three zones, where the rates change rapidly. In some zones of the assessment area, the prevailing lot width was found to be 30 feet, in another 40 feet, one benefit being given in either case. Wherever an extra house could be built, an extra one half benefit was given. Following the plan used in Dayton in assessing sanitary sewers, a (5) Final Zone Rate corner lot was assessed an extra one half benefit. This extra amount might be considered somewhat high but was thought advisable in keeping with local practice. HOW RATES WERE COMPUTED After arriving at the benefit ratio by zones, the number of benef3.s were totalled for each zone as indicated in column 12. Then the individual items of column 12 were multiplied with the corresponding items of column 3, giving the total preliminary assessment for the zone as indicated in column 4. It will be noticed that the total preliminary asessment for the entire assessment area came to $41,502.00. As $55,000 was the amount to be levied, the division of $55,000 by $41,449 gives 1.312712 as a factor to be used in multiplying each of the preliminary rates in order to obtain the final zone rates, as given in column 5. The final assessment for each zone is shown in column 6. (9) No. of Benefits 78.0 263.0 P82.5 319.0 533.5 424.5 455.5 509.0 518.0 590.0 617.0 358.5 246.5 198.0 73.5 AMCBSMENT RATES-DAYTON VIEW PARK. DAYTON, OHIO (3) Prelimiiar y Zone Rate $100.00 27.60 13.60 9.36 8.06 6.90 5.76 5.20 4.70 4.04 3.36 2.89 9.31 1.735 1.146 (1) Zone No. 1 ........... 4 ........... 3 ........... 4 ........... 5 ........... 6 ........... 7 ........... 8 ........... 9 ........... 10. .......... 11 ........... 12 ........... I3 ........... 14. .......... 15. .......... $7,800 7.f6O 5,840 2.980 2,630 2,925 2,6B 2,640 2.440 2,380 2,070 1,OSB 568 292 84 $41,509 $132.79 36.82 18.06 12.39 10.70 9.15 7.64 6.89 6.24 5.95 4.46 3.I 3.06 2.30 1.52 810.352.15 9.594.35 5.099.50 S.962.00 3,462.65 5,885.18 9.481.50 3.500.10 3.m. 60 3,167.00 2.754.00 3.372.80 754.s 294.40 111.70 $55,000 .oo

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lSaS] EMPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT IN BRITISH EMPIRE 73 The meetings of the board of revision brought out the following complaints. Fourteen property owners objected to any assessment whatsoever on the ground that they would not use the park or that the park would be of no benefit to their property. Eight property owners who had previously subscribed to the Dayton View Association, asked to be relieved of the assessment. Seven property owners claimed they were assessed with too many benefits. Five asked for an equalization of their assessment with those of their neighbors, which were generally granted if thought reasonable. One property owner complained that the entire assessment was illegal. Another owner asked to be relieved of a part of his assessment as he had sold a portion of his lot. One citizen maintained that the northeast boundary should be moved over at least one block, in order to take in more territory. It was explained that the line was arbitrary and should stand as drawn. The commission, after receiving the report of the board of revision, passed the necessary assessment ordinance. Thereupon bills were served providing for payment within thirty days. In case payment is not made within thirty days, the assessments will be certi6ed to the county to be placed upon the tax duplicate and collected along with the general levy in ten yearly installments. All unpaid assessments will bear 5 per cent annual interest. EMPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT IN THE BRITISH EMPIRE’ BY W. E. MOSHER Naiwd Institute of Public Administration The drift .is towards a central agency with jurisdiction orer workitig .. .. .. conditions. : : .. IF for no other reason than lack of funds, the majority of our civil service commissions have generally been unable to develop other functions than examination and certification of eligibles, even though the law under which they are operating usually gives them a wide range of powers in employment matters. In foreign countries, however, noteworthy developments along these lines have recently taken place. This ’Originally prepared for the report of the Committee on Civil Service of the Governmental Research Conference, entitled the “Character and Functioning of Municipal Civil Service Commissions in the United States.” .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. is particularly true of the Englishspeaking countries. As it is to Great Britain that we owe our first civil service law and procedure, it is natural that me should look to England and the dombions for guidance as to the probable evolution of our existing practices.2 * Inasmuch as the English municipnlities have no civil service commissions, attention is directed in this section to the conditions in the central government, both in England and its dependencies. It is of interest to note that a recent writer, who reviews the employment situation in the English municipalities, urges in the name of proficiency the adoption of minmiom qualifica..

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74 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [February THE DRIFT TOWARDS CENTRAL MANAGEMENT The purpose of this article is to point out that centralized employment management under the conditions of public administration is an accomplished fact, and that, except for England, the central agency is the civil or public service commission. On the other hand, the mother country has gone much farther in the organized development of employee representation than have the other countries. We shall thus see that government is looking in the same directions for the solution of its “industrial relations problem” as the private employer. Like conditions are calling forth like remedies. England, the older and more conservative country, has been slow to adopt new methods and extend the functions of its administrative agencies, but the tendency toward service-wide standardization of employment conditions is noticeably forging ahead. It is in the government of the dominions, however, that centralization of employment control under a single responsible agency has made most progress. In Canada, New Zealand and the states of Australia, the functions of the civil service commission have been expanded to include most duties that pertain to employment control and in many cases, what is more, also to cover functions that properly belong to a bureau of administration and efficiency. tions for entrance into the service. He deplores the system of patronage encountered in local government which is charged to the absence of any method of recruitment based on officially controlled qualifying tests. Robson. From Patronage to Projciency in the Public Sercice, The Fabian Society, 19%. pp. 40, 43. ENGW The situation in England is in a state of flux at the present time. The one constant seems to be the civil service commission. Apparently, it is expected that it will continue as heretofore as the recruiting and examining agency without undergoing either curtailment or expansion of duties. It appears likely, however, that the Treasury will exercise more and more those functions that properly belong to a central employment department. Both the most recent Royal Commission on Civil Service appointed in 191% and a special board of commissioners, reporting to the Treasury on organization and staffing in 1919, urged that the Treasury be stkngthened with a view to exercising more effective control over the organization of the civil service and further that a special division be created in the Treasury for that purpose. The functions contemplated for the Treasury may be summarized under the following heads : 1. To watch over general conditions and activities of the civil service with a view to its effective, economic employment. 2. To make suggestions to the head of the department. 3. To secure machinery for recognizing and rewarding exceptional cases of ability and merit. 4. To bring about transfers if such transfers are to the advantage of the service. 5. To carry out inquiries and investigations into any matters connected with the departmental administration or methods of work. J Fourth Report of the Royal Commhion on Civil Service, p. 87.

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19%3] EMPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT IN BRITISH EMPIRE 78 The commission on organization and staffing is even more specific in that it recommends the creation of an establishment division of the Treasury as well as the appointment of an establishment officer in each department whose business would be to co-operate with the treasury division. The establishment: division would supply the need of permanent staff management, being responsible for the adoption of uniform regulations covering selection, probation, promotion, placement, transter, sick leave, superannuation, etc. It would also serve as a clearing house or records, better methods of management, the installation of labor-saving devices, and the like. Whether because of the above recommendations or on account of other causes, the Treasury has been reorganized and a controller of establishments has been appointed and endowed with very wide powers. This appointment will inevitably extend the activities of the Treasury in its control of salaries and personnel matters. Another force making for standardized employment conditions and a progressive policy is the National Whitley Council that has been operating since 1919. Because of its achievements, it5 broad program and its promise, a brief description of it will be appropriate at this point. The Whitley Council consists of Hty-four members appointed in equal numbers by the government and the associations of employees. Its constitution gives it a very broad commission enabling it to deal with questions that range from remuneration to the improvement of office machinery and organization. The council works by agreement. If agreement is reached, the decisions become operative, m the staff members will have gotten their instructions during the negotiations from the Treasury or on special matters from the cabinet. The administration of the order is then vested in the Treasury or the department involved. The records of the agreements reached by the Whitley Council already cover vital employment matters as, for instance, classihation and methods and lines of promotion. When it is considered that the constitution of the National Whitley Council authorizes it to investigate and report “on matters affecting the civil service with a view to increased efficiency in the public service I combined with the well-being of those employed,’’ we may predict that as an outgrowth of Whitley procedure the Treasury will become more and more active as the center of personnel administration: THE DOMINIONS In a minority report on the question of central supervision and control of personnel policy, Sir Kenneth Muir Mackenzie, an eminent legal authority, strongly urged that the Treasury should not be given the responsibility that was recommended by the majority members of the Royal Commission on Civil Service, but rather that some independent body should be chosen. He concluded his comments by suggesting that if “the civil service commission were properly constituted, it would more nearly approach what is required.” The dominions which have been less hampered by tradition and a strongly entrenched central department, such as the Treasury, have adopted the policy outlined by Mr. Mackenzie. That is to say, the civil 4 The Whitley scheme was also applied to the municipal governments on a national acale, but on account of a lack of co-operation broke down in 1921. About 93 rnm*cipel joint committees are still operating. however, and a movement is under way for the re-establishment of the national organization.

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76 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [February service commission, or rather public service commission, the more usual designation, has been given a broader charter both to supervise and control all conditions affecting the civil service and also to investigate any and all phases of departmental management that make for efliciency and economy. The latter provision covers departmental organization, organization of work, use of labor-saving devices, and similar matters) If space permitted it would be well worth while to summarize the activities described in the annual reports of these commissions in order to indicate that the manifold duties prescribed in the law have been faithfully and, in some cases, most thoroughly carried out as regards both personnel and general administration. For instance, the Queensland commission has paid much attention to recruiting junior employees from the schools and to training those already in the service for advancement. It has also gone into the matter of providing adequate housing for the employees in the oiitlying districts. In the last re&This obviously g0e.s well beyond what is ordinarily assigned to the division in charge of personnel. It may be explained as due to the close relation between the size and quality of the staff and the whole work policy and scheme of organization, but it is also due to the obvious need of having a clearing house for information as to the most approved methods of adminiitration and a center for co-ordinating the work of the various departments. At any rate, legislation in New South Wales (1902), in Canada (1918), in South Australia (1918) and Queensland (1920), and,the proposed act for regulating the public service in the Commonwealth of Australia, impow the double function described above on the public service commissioners. It should also be noted that a number of municipal commissions in the United States have the power to investigate the organization and e5ciency of departments and to recommend changes. port for New South Wales, considerable space was given to the justification of periodic tests as a means of stimulating zeal for promotion and of broadening the equipment and outlook of the civil servants. The question of standard provisions for travel expenses and the necessary means of transportation is, considered in three or four of the reports. Standardization of leaves, holidays and overtime remuneration, as well as the matter of appeals, discipline and dismissal, are given more or less space in most of the annual reports. In short “the placing of all staff matters and appointments under the jurisdiction of the public service commission,” to quote the last annual report from South Australia, “is in operation in all states of Australia and New Zealand.” The foregoing brief review will indicate how truly the civil service commission has become the central employment agency of the governments concerned. There is, in fact, practically no function normally performed by the typical personnel department in the field of private employment which has not been performed by one or more of the civil service commissions under review. Before concluding this brief outline, reference should be made to the general practice in the dominions to recognize the advantages of providing some means whereby the representatives of the rank and file of the employees may be consulted with regard to matters of interest to them. In one form or another various commissioners virtually subscribe to the statement of the Royal Commissioner of Queensland, who, in commenting on his om weekly meetings with the employees’ representatives, expressed the opinion that “these meetings are tending to make the wheels of public service administration run more smoothly.” The co-opera

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19231 BRIEF REVIEW OF CITY PLANNING 77 tion of the employees in regard to policies affecting their work and working conditions is being stimulated, therefore, by some form of representation both in England and its dominions. CONCLUSION It will be seen from the above review that the government-employer is not lagging very far behind the industrial leader. Both have to meet similar human problems and both have pursued similar methods. Instead of letting vital problems solve themselves or go unsolved, both have established a central human relations department, endowed it with ample powers and supplied it with funds adequate to its functions. In the name of a fuller understanding and increased interest in the work, both have also provided or sanctioned a considerable degree of self-expression through the medium of representatives chosen by the rank and file of the workers. The conditions that give rise to these developments in the relations between employer and employee, whether in private industry or in the governments of the British Empire, are not materially different from conditions encountered today in the various jurisdictions in the United States. The typical civil service commission in this county now largely engrossed in selecting new employees might well follow the lead of the commissions just described and adapt to the public service the whole range of employment policies that have a recognized place in modern administration. There is probably no more difficult task confronting public administrators today than that of improving the efficiency of the public servants but then too there is none whose solution promises so sure returns in the form of more efficient and less costly governmental service. BRIEF REVIEW OF CITY PLANNING IN THE UNITED STATES, 1921-1922 BY THEODORA KIMBAU Librarian, School of Ladcape Architecture, Hamard University Hon. Librarian, American Ci& Planning Institute Before long it wiU be easier to make a list of principal cities which are laggard in city planning than to review th accomplishments of those .. which are a&e. :-: .. THERE is actually at hand recent news of city planning in various stages from nearly 150 cities and towns, and at least twenty-five have reached the point in 199% of issuing pubIished plan reports. Of the forty-three cities in the United States with a population of 150,000 or over, news has been received during 199% from all but three; and of these three, only one,-San Antonio, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1. .. Texas,-has not had some form of city plan report in the past. In the present annual survey,' many interesting items have had to be sacrificed to 1 Miss Kimball again contributes the annual review of city planning progress in the United States. Such reviews, begun by Mr. Charles Mulford Robinson and continued after his death by Miss Kimball, have been a feature of this magazine since its founding.

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78 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [February the exigencies of space; and no atteqtion has been given to the important field of housing, because this subject is covered so fully and well by Mr. Lawrence Veiller in the issues of Rowing Bettemmt. OFFICIAL SUPPORT In the invitations to the National’ Conference on City Planning, at Sprin$eld, Massachusetts, June, 1922, the secretary of the Conference reported that “every city of the metropolitan class in the United States with a population of over 300,000 has adopted city planning as a part of its official program.” Two cities in this class deserve especial mention: Pittsburgh, aroused by the pioneer work of the Citizens Committee on City Plan, has put city planning on an official basis, securing continuity of effort by appointing on the official plan commission several important members of the Citizens Committee. Boston, where an able official city planning board has been active for several years on a limited appropriation, has embarked on a definite program of accomplishment. 1929 marked the centennial of Boston as a city and the advent of a new mayor who made the occasion of the centennial an opportunity publicly to announce his interest and support, and increased appropriations for city planning work. Another mayor has made city planning a major feature of his administration. The mayor of Raleigh, North Carolina, issued early in the year a pamphlet which contained a compelling statement of the need for city planning in Raleigh, and the permissive legislation. The city has since made an appropriation for preliminary work in city planning and zoning. In contrast to the o5cial indifference which city planning has encountered in the past, this example of executive initiative is noteworthy. Sprin&eld, Massachusetts, has shown its belief in the value of a city plan by liberal appropriations, and Portland, Oregon, after an interval of non-support, has again given finaniial backing to the plan commission. It is now, unfortunately, Cleveland‘s turn to feel the humiliation of having its city plan commission’s work, known and quoted throughout the country, summarily suspended through lack of funds. In the case of Cleveland, harm is done not only to the work within the city but to the very promising activities of the Cleveland metropolitan planning commission, since its principal member is unable to bear its share in the joint program. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, has proposed to give greater official impetus to its city planning program by the appointment of a city planning commission to work with the bureau of surveys, but no news has yet been received of the passage of the ordinance submitted by the mayor to the council on June first. It mould be possible to cite other instructive cases of both support and non-support. but it is fair to say that the good news far out-weighs the bad, and we are given reason to hope that the official gain for 1923 will be even greater than that for 192% PUBLIC UNDERSTANDING The “promotion” of city planning has proceeded actively during the year, both by national and local organizations. More than ever before, real estate boards have been waking up, The fact that Secretary Hoover established a division of building and housing in the department of commerce, and appointed an advisory committee on building codes and zoning, has led to wide publicity for zoning and city

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19B] BRIEF REVIEW OF CITY PLANNING 79 planning, and the speeches of Mr. issue of Landscape A,rchitecture, has also Hoover and Mr. Gries, chief of the been widely distributed. division, in various pasts of the country Chicago, Pittsburgh, and Buffalo have served further to bring the matter should all be especially mentioned for home to important bodies of business their educational work in city planning men. The civic development departduring 1922. ment of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States reflects increased adivitv on the art of local chambers PROGRESS IN CONSTRUCTION The citizens of Milwaukee have reof commerce, and inquiries received by officers of the National Conference on City Planning, American Civic Association, National Housing Association, the National Municipal League, and the School of Landscape Architecture at Harvard University, show how widespread and genuine the interest in city planning has become. Three states have large and vigorous organizations which have met during the year. The Massachusetts Federation of Planning Boards, at its meeting in November, reported fXty-three constituent official boards. The Ohio State Conference on City PIanning had a successful meeting in October, one day joining with the American Society for Municipal Improvements. The Iowa Town Planning Association issues a monthly mimeographed bulletin full of live news and well-selected statements of principles. New forms of publicity in 1922 appeared in the zoning “movie” called “Growing Pains,” prepared by the AmericanCity Bureau and in the “radio debut” of the Pittsburgh Plan last February,-broadcasting the results of the school children’s competition for the best essay on city planning. The Zoning Primer, issued by Secretary Hoover’s advisory committee on zoning as a series of short releases in newspapers and then in pamphlet form, has probably been circulated more widely than any previous city planning publicity leaflet. The leziflet, “Helps in Conducting Publicity Campaigns for Zoning,” preprinted from the July 19% cently supported a two-and-a-halfmillion-dollar bond issue to provide funds for the civic center and for the traffic artery being constructed through the center of the city. Progress on Boston’s western artery has been made in 192% In Utica the abandoned route of the Erie canal is being replaced by an important new street. St. Louis reports that the last two and probably the most important projects of the major street plan have been authorized. In Chicago the progress in carrying out the plan is steady. Twelve major features are under way and seventy-five more are pending. Philadelphia is pushing construction in anticipation of the Sesqui-Centennial. Cleveland in spite of present handicaps is able to report part of its thoroughfare plaii materialized. Pittsburgh has an enviable record for 1922. Visitors to Washington see some improvement of the area around the Lincoln Memorial, and the embellishment of Denver’s civic center has been furthered by a generous private bequest. Buffalo, in the midst of its effective publicity campaign, taking stock of its achievements up to October, 1922, reports work under way on street plan, zoning, harbor development, terminals, and bridges. Baltimore’s harbor development is also being pushed. LEGISLATION The quantity of zoning legislation alone would have been incredible five years ago. Although some of the zoning

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80 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW !February ordinances have undoubtedly been put through too hastily, there is nevertheless a very considerable number of a comprehensive character. The importance! of properly delegated authority from the state has been brought home by the Missouri decision, threatening the St. Louis zoning ordinance. The standard state zoning enabling act, prepared by Secretary Hoover’s advisory committee on zoning, should be a stimulus to wise legislation in 1923. Laws and ordinances creating city planning and zoning commissions have increased in number and in geographical distribution. More southern cities have taken the necessary preliminary steps for city planning. An important legislative proposal now pending is the state city planning bureau for Maryland. Of interest all over the country is the application of excess condemnation to the new Milwaukee traffic artery. Providence has also recently employed excess condemnation in the Wickenden street improvement. Flit, Michigan, passed a building line ordinance, in January, 1929, with no public protest against its passage; and Cleveland revised its original building line ordinance after a year’s successful operation by a new ordinance passed December, 1921. City planning legislation has undoubtedly derived material benefit from the two authoritative monographs issued in revised form in 1922, by the NATIONAL MTJNICIPAL REVIEW, making available the legal experience of Mr. Bassett and M.r. Williams. Most important of all, however, is the appearance of Mi. Williams’s long-anticipated treatise, The Law of City Planning and Zoning (Macmillan), just as the year closes. This is the first comprehensive American work in its field, and, indeed, subasses in scope any foreign work. Its wealth of citations coupled with the thorough organization of subject matter and the unassailable status of its author gives the volume promise of far-reaching influence on the future of city planning law in this country. TECHNICAL ADVANCE An epitome of the technical advance in city planning methods will be found in Modern City Planning by Thomas Adams, again a supplement to the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, June, 19%. In technical work generally throughout the country increasing attention has been paid to regional studies, and the value of *rial survey mapq in the determination of broad relations more and more appreciated. At the two meetings of the American City Planning Institute during the year problems of technique have been thrashed over. The February meeting was devoted to a discussion of data for zoning and the November meeting took the form of a “clinic” on Welwyn, the new English Garden City. The exposition of Rzgignd Planning Theory, “a reply to the British challenge,” by Mr. Arthur Comey, presented at this Welwp meeting (to be issued as a pamphlet) is one of the technical con-, tributions of the year. Advances in clearness of thought in city planning matters were evident at the annual meeting of the National Conference on City Planning in such papers as Mi.. Hubbard’s Parks and Playgrounds, Dr. Strayer’s School Building Program, and Mr. Turner’s Fundamentals of Transit Planning? The most important opportunity for the development of city planning technique Iies with the group of experts assembled to prepare the Sage Foundation’s “Plan of New York and Its Environs.” A notable series of survey ‘Fourteenth Proceedings of the Conference just published.

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19B] BRIEF REVIEW OF CITY PLANNING 81 maps for the New York region has al,ready been prepared under the direction of Mi. Nelson Lewis, in charge of physical surveys. METROPOLITIN, COUNTY, AND REGIONAL PLANNING The “Plan of New York and Its Environs” is our greatest regional undertaking and its financing a generous endowment of the cause. The plan was launched at a meeting held by the Sage Foundation in May, 1922, with addresses by Mr. Hoover, Mr. Root, and others of national reputation. A full discussion of this great enterprise will be found in the booklet issued by the Sage Foundation at the time of the meeting. The Pacific Coast maintains its reputation for progressiveness in the establishment of a Regional Planning Conference of Los Angeles County, which met first at Pasadena on January 21, 1922. Hennepin County, Minnesota, has secured the appointment of an official county planning commission to co-operate with Minneapolis and local authorities for the systematic development of the county. In Wisconsin the rural plan commissioners have been at work over a year. Pittsburgh is largely responsible for the joint committee representing the official city and county planning commiYsions and the citizens’ committee to effect a close liaison between these three planning bodies. The setback to Cleveland‘s metropolitan planning commission has already been mentioned, but the metropolitan park work is going forward. A regional project concerning our national capital is afootwith good promise of fuEllment, through the efforts of the city planning authorities of Baltimore and the National Commission of‘ Fine Arts for a Maryland state bureau of city planning. Boston, regarded as the home of metropolitan development in municipal affairs, has nevertheless lagged in cooperative city piannhg. Valuable reports have not been followed by action. Of more than local interest, therefore, is the report of the Boston Chamber of Commerce recommending the formation of a permanent metropolitan planning board with power to construct transportation facilities of a metropolitan class. This report was presented at the November meeting of the Massachusetts Federation of Planning Boards and there endorsed, a large number of the planning boards in the metropolitan district being present. There is reason to hope that a bill can be put through the legislature which will crown the long series of efforts to secure a powerful metropolitan agency. This report contains an excellent assemblage of information on metropolitan districts which should be of service to other regions contemplating like action. ZONING As last year, of all branches of city planning, zoning has been foremost in the public eye and in the press. The work of Secretary Hoover’s advisory committee, already referred to, the important place given the subject in the programs of national and local societies, the popular and direct appeal of its advantages to the home-owner, have combined to advance zoning activities north, south, east and west. On December 1, 1922, there were on record in the office of the division of building and housing of the department of commerce, 87 municipalities having zoning ordinances, of which more than 60 are comprehensive in character. The number with zoning plans in progress or about to be undertaken is probably close to 150. A brief review of Zoning Progress in the United States, prepared by Miss

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83 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Febmrtry Mary T. Voorhees (of the division of building and housing), was published in the Engineering News Record for September 98, 1923. At that date 75 per cent of the cities of the United States with a population of over 100,000 were zoned, or about to be zoned, and the small cities and towns far outnumbered the larger ones in zoning activity. Twenty-five states and the District of Columbia now have laws granting either all or some of their cities the right to zone. In this article, record waa made only of those cities which were actually known to have passed zoning ordinances. Since that date, news has been received of the passage of nine ordinances including Memphis and Indianapolis. Of the j cities which passed ordinances earlier in 1933 may be mentioned St. Paul, Wichita, Jersey City, and Hoboken, besides many smaller New Jersey municipalities, Syracuse, Richmond and Dallas (use only), Akron and Janesville. The Atlanta ordinance (Robert Whitten, consultant) has aroused wide discussion because it adds race districts to the usual classifications. Among the zoning plans being comprehensively prepared are those for Baltimore, Philadelphia, Boston, Providence, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Grand Rapids, Detroit, Columbus, Toledo, Kansas City (Missouri), Lincoln, Seattle, and Spokane, and Springfield, Massschusetts, where an interim ordinance was recently enacted. PLAN REPC'RTS Comprehensive plan reports have been published during 1922 for East Orange, New Jersey, Springfield and Worcester, Massachusetts (all three with Technical Advisory Corporation as consultants) ; Fall River, Massachusetts (Arthur A. Shurtleff, town planner, John P. Fox, consultant on zoning) ; Memphis, Tennessee, and Lansing, Michigan (Harland Bartholomew, consultant). Preliminary reports for Kdamazoo, Michigan (Mr. Bartholomew) and Hightstown, New Jersey (Russell V. Black) have also appeared, and a series of special studies for Paterson, New Jersey (Herbert S. Swan and George W. Tuttle). Utica's Major Street Plan (Mi. Bartholomew), the Delaware River Bridge report, the St. Louis Raiioad Terminals report, and the reports of and in opposition to the Port of New York Authority may also be added to the list. The brief space allotted to this article in the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW does not permit a more extended mention of reports of special activities. A fuller account with a bibliography of plan reports for 1931-22 will be found in Landscape Architecture for January, 1933, also reprinted. Among the plans in progress might be mentioned as especially noteworthy the model town of Mariemont, near Cincinnati, designed by Mr. Nolen, and the huge Palos Verdes Project? near Los Angeles, its design under the charge of Olmsted Brothers with a board of associated experts. Widely scattered cities which have reported city plans under way, or about to be undertaken, are Asheville, North Carolina, Spartanburg, South Carolina, Atlanta, Georgia, St. Petersburg, Florida, New Orleans, Louisiana, Chattanooga, Tennessee, Toledo and Cincinnati, Ohio, Duluth, Minnesota, Oklahoma City, Topeka, Kansas, Indianapolis, South Bend, and Evansville, Indiana, Troy, New York, Springfield, Illinois, Long Beach and Paso Robles, California. There are many others, Before long it will be easier to make a list of principal cities which are laggards in city planning than to'&4ew the accomplishments of thoseiwhich are active. See REVIEW, September, 1929, p. 904.

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PARTIES IN NON-YAKiISAN BOSTON' BY DAVID S")FF'ER Harvard Law School Ha0 tht? Good Government As~ociaiion repJaced the Republican party as the antago&t of the Democratic c'mganization,'y and why parties will continue under the non-partisan baht. :: I. .. .. .. .. .. A LONG list of opprobrious adjectives has been used by writers on municipal government to describe the political situation in Boston before 1909. Yet essentially the same phenomenon characterized the government of the Hub as was to be found in other large cities: the rule of a powerful political machine with all that the term implies. The Democratic party was invincible, and its preponderance was maintained largely by the refusal of the suburban districts in the Metropolitan area to be joined to the city of Boston. It became apparent, therefore, that the only hope for better government lay in attracting to the existing Republican minority the better class of citizens who were voting the Democratic ticket, not because they believed it to stand for the best interests of the city, but on account of the prejudice created by their national political affiliations. HOW NON-PARTISAN ELECTIONB ADOPTED Accordingly six commercial organizations and the Bar Association united in 1903 to form the Good Government Association. At the outset this body did not endorse any candidates. It "l''he wrib desirea to acknowledge his hdebtednem to Mr. Geo. H. McCaflrey, &taq' of the Boston Good Government As&ation, and to Mesars. A. C. Word and W. A. I. Anglin, of the department of government at Harvard. for valuable assistance in the prepare tion of the thesis on which thii article is based. 8 83 merely furnished unbiased information concerning their Me, education and experience, hoping thereby to influence the party leaders to make satisfactory nominations, but thratening to nominate its own candidates if the old parties persisted in supporting the objectionable office-seekers. While the work of the Association was as valuable as a mere educational force behind an inert electorate could be, it was inetiective politically before 1909. The disparity in the power of the principal parties rendered insignscant the vote which the reformers were able to sway. Voter's league tactics having failed, mother method was sought. In 1907 the administration of the government was so extremely corrupt that, largely through the efforts of the Association, a Committee of One Hundred was formed, which influbnced the mayor to appoint a finance commission to investigate conditions. During a yeaz and a half of careful work the commission issued its reports, which mercilessly criticised past administrations, and indicated the imperative need of scrapping a considerable portion of Boston's municipal machinery, as well as political traditions. It proposed a charter embodying these features: First, government by a mayor and council of nine members elected at large; second, the administration of departments by trained experts appointed by the mayor, subject to approval by the state civil service

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84 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [February commission; third, nomination by petition, and T~~OVUJ of party designations from the ballot; fourth, a permanent Gnance commission “to investigate the departments and to report from time to time.” Naturally the political machines opposed the adoption of these recommendations. The state Iegislature was prevailed upon to refer two plans to the voters. Plan One (the bosses’ plan) provided for nomination by party primaries and convention.., party designations on the ballots, a term of only two years for the mayor, and a council elected by wards. Plan Two was the one formulated by the finance commission. The inertia of the electorate having been temporarily overcome by the recent disclosures, the new charter (Plan Two) was adopted by a vote of 39,170 against 35,276. The slight majority of four thousand votes presaged a division of the citizens into two camps: the “Goo-goos,” inspired by the halo which now surrounded the reform organization, and the “Gang,” composed chiefly of the adherents of the old order. FIRST NON-PABTISAN ELECTION The first non-partisan election took place in 1910. In the Association’s report on candidates for that year occurs this si&cant statement : ‘‘ Contrary to a somewhat popular misapprehension, Plan Two does not involve the absence of all parties in municipal politics, but on the contraty distinctly contsmplatea :he organization of municipal parties. The recentlyformed Citizen’s Municipal League is such a party, and the so-called TimultyCurley combination may be fairly regarded as a somewhat indefinite move in the direction of another.” The Citizen’s Municipal League was in reality the substitute for the Republican minority, while the TimultyCurley group represented the old Democrats. In the election campaign, the Association affected a non-partisan attitude, but its leanings were unmistakable. The six candidates it recommended for the city council were all taken from the nominees of the Municipal League, whereas it emphatically opposed everyone of the TimultyCurley men. On the mayoralty candidates, its stand was unequivocal. “The real contest,” the report reads, “is between Mr. Storrow and Mr. Fitzgerald; between decent government and wasteful, corrupt, and inefficient government.” After the demise of the Municipal League in 1914, the Association remained the sole defender of the phciples of those opposed to the Gang. In the 1910 pamphlet it had styled the League a municipal party, and the interesting question arises whether there is any reason aside from political expediency for the insistence that the term party should not apply as well to the League’s heir and successor, the Good Government Association. The test should be more substantial and logical than mere nomenclature. The activities of the Association support the conclusion that it is the political organization which the Republicans and better class of Democrats have followed in municipal elections, at least since 1914. The first of these activities is its r81e in conjunction with the Boston Charter Association, its faithful ally, as the protector of the charter of 1909. The Democratic leaders at the time of its enactment realized that the new charter would ultimately deprive them of their power. Two of its features were particularly repugnant to the devotees of the old dgime: ]First, the requirement that the state civil service commission approve the mayor’s appointment of department heads made

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19931 PARTIES IN NON-PARTISAN BOSTON 85 it almost impossible to reward their henchmen with lucrative political offices; secondly, the provision for a small council of nine elected at large threatened to disrupt the ward organizations, since it prevented the leaders from compensating their lieutenants with a term or two in the city council, and this destroyed most of the incentive for maintaining the ward machines. Consequently an attack was launched against the charter as early as 1910, and it has been continued yearly in an effort to return to the atalus quo ante. The Good Government Association, in guarding the new charter, has in effect been defending certain municipal policies, and in this sense has clearly been performing one of the functions of a municipal party. THE DEMOCRATS VS. THE GOOD GOVERNMENT ASSOCIATION By far the best indicators of the change in the political alignment which has occurred since 1909 are the four mayoralty elections which have been held under the new plan. The relative strength of the Democrats and Republicans before the non-partisan plan became effective stood in the ratio of about two to one. In only five of the twenty-five wards did the Republicans have a majority. Another signi6cant fact is that while the total registered vote in Boston in 1908 waa 110,656, only 70,716, or 64 per cent, voted. Forty thousand men, a number large enough to decide any election, were not sufficiently interested to exercise their franchise. It was on this body of citizens that hopes for a change in the political status rested. In the first election under the new plan, Fitzgerald, the Irish Democratic candidate, defeated Storrow, the Protestant “decent Democrat ” endorsed by the Good Government Association, by the narrow margin of 1,400 votes. Storrow would in all probability have won had not Hibbard, a Protestant Bepublican, also entered the contest and polled several thousand votes. Despite the outcome, however, this election did much to advance the reform movement in Boston. The baptism of the new-born charter evoked an abnormal civic interest, for about 25,000 of the 40,000 who had failed to vote in 1908 did respond at this election, and fully 20,000 of these voted for Storrow? Diverse elements were included in this number. First came those usually termed “independents”; secondly, many voters were attracted by the prospect of reform, who had previously abstained from taking part in the Wthy politics” of the city; thirdly, a large number came to Storrow’s support because of the intensification of the religious division which followed the introduction of the non-partisan plan. Boston was a Democratic stronghold in national elections, and many non-Catholics had, under the old rbgime, voted the Democratic ticket in city elections merely by force of habit, or through a false sense of party loyalty. The spell of non-partisanship had a beneficial influence on these men, in that it freed them from the national party prejudice. But another form of prejudice-the religious-assumed greater importance under the nonpartisan plan, and the non-CathoIic forces gained. It is true that the political division had been roughly along Irish Democratic, Yankee Republican lines before 1909; but in the election under the new plan in 1910 it f One of the favorite arguments of the Gang ever since, to bear out their charge that the Good Government Association is backed by certain hncid interests, is that Storrow spent over $lOO.oOO on this campaign. It is contended by the G.G.A. that Fitzgerald spent fully as much, if not more. The exact figures are not obtainable.

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86 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [February became more pronouncedly a Catholic versus Protestant issue, with one significant exception in the case of those known as the “decent Democrats,” who constituted the fourth element of the twenty thousand new votes which Storrow succeeded in attrwting. Most of these “decent Democrats” were Irish citizens striving to secure better government. Has this alignment remained as established in 1910, or has the power shifted sufficiently to give one of the contending forces a distinct advantage? In 1914 the Good Government Association endorsed another of the “decent Democrats,’’ Thomas J. Kenny, in an effort to defeat James M. Curley, one of the foremost leaders of the opposition, and a man of great influence and popularity among his co-religionists. Curley won with 43,262 votes, against 37,522 for Kenny. About 81,000 votes were cast at this election, 14,000 less than in 1910. Of this number Curley suffered a loss of about 4,000, and Kenny of about 8,000, compared with the vote of the respective sides in the Storrow-Fitzgerald contest. In other words, the figures indicate that the relative strength of the Gang and Good Government forces remained fairly constant. In 1917 Curley was the Gang candidate for re-election, and the Goo-goo opposed to him was Peters, a Protestant Democrat; but Gallivan, another Catholic Democrat also became a contestant, and his candidacy ensured the election of Peters, jusl as Hibbard‘s interlopement in 1910 contributed to Fitzgerald‘s victory. THE WOMAN’S VOTE DOES NOT ALTER THE RESULT The 1921 election was the first in which the women voters participated, and it provides an object lesson on the woman suffrage problem, as well as on their probable influence under the nonpartisan scheme of elections. It is to their credit that the same proportion of the registered women voters cast ballots as men. Of 133,275 registered male voters, 102,704, or 78 per cent, actually voted, while 59,438 of 87,131 women, or 78 per cent, participated in the election. It may be to their discredit that the addition of this vast number to the electorate caused no change in the comparative strength of the parties. It was a reasonable expectation that the women voters would add greatly to the Good Government forces. The very name, if not the ideal, was expected to have a psychological effect. The result, however, was disappointing to the Goo-goos. Curley nosed out Murphy by the slight margin of 2,470 votes. The 60,000 women voters had apparently divided between the two principal parties without disturbing the balance to any noticeable extent. THE RELIGIOUS ISSUE The 1921 election was characterized also by a greater exploitation of religious prejudices. The Good-Government Association made a politic move under the existing circumstances by endorsing a “decent Democrat ” who was also a Catholic. The Gang, threatened with the loss of one of its most effective weapons, proceeded in a most insidious manner to reflect on the quality of Murphy’s Catholicism. It then circulated reports that Murphy was a member of the Loyal Coalition, that he was supported by the American Protestant Association, and that his affiliations in general were non-Catholic. One of the surprising features is that this campaign of misrepresentation was carried out principally by a group of women, who became known as the “poison squad.” Their work was more effective in detracting votes

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1 SaS] PARTIES IN NON-PARTISAN BOSTON 87 from Murphy in favor of Curley than .the candidacies of Baxter and O’Connor, who together received but 15,000 out of the 160,000 votes cast. No more significant proof can be adduced for the persistence of the alignment as drawn in 1910 than the following tabular presentation of the resdts of the four elections which have been held under the new plan: of the voters, and this minority rule has vested control of the council in the Gang. That this factional struggle exists, and that the parties are the two described, is borne out further by the testimony of the press and by the admission of the Association itself. The Boston Herald in an editorial November 1,1930, says: “Nomination Tofal Vote G.G.A. Gang 1910.. . . .. . . 95,393 STOBaOW 45,775 =47+0/o FITZGEULD 47.177==49+0/0 1914.. . ... . . .80,89S I(Wm 37,532=46+% C-EY 4S,362=53+% 1917.. . . . . . ..88,903 PETERS 37.969=42+% CWLEY & GALWAN 48.275=54+% lael.. . . . . . .16!2,139 MURI.HY 71,791 =44+% CWLEY 74.361 =45+’% COUNCILMEN ELECTED BY MINORITY The council elections do not lend themselves easily to detailed analysis, and may best be considered in general since 1910. During this period, the Good Government Association has endorsed 47 men, of whom 33 have been successful. In its pamphlets reporting on candidates, it has generally advised the defeat of those obviously with the Gang, whereas it has used a milder form (“we cannot recommend his election”) in the case of any other candidates who were thought to be unqualified. The division is sharply drawn. Each side knows its opponents, but while the Gang htls resorted to its old party methods of hurling abuse at the Googoos, the Association has done its work in a more dignsed, systematic, and effective manner, by giving facts about the objectionable men which were formerly never exposed to the scrutiny of the voters. The latter have not, however, become enthused over this service. In the council election of December, 1981, about 31 per cent of the voters did the electing, while an even smaller percentage voted in the 1999 election. The present council is, therefore, a body elected by a minority by petition and the elimination of party designations have not freed Boston from the incubus of factional politics.” This statement assumes that the non-partisan plan was conceived as an instrument for the total abolition of local partisanship. It is doubtful whether the elimination of municipal political divisions is possible or even desirable. The editorial does, nevertheless, emphasize the existence of factions, suggesting that the Democratic-Republican alignment has merely been supplanted by the Gang-Good Government Association division. This may be inferred also from the following comment in the Boston Post on the 1920 council election: “The result of the election yesterday means that the city council will continue for another year at least in control of the anti-Good Government Association forces.” The Boston Herald in its issue of December 15,1920, speaks of the council election as follows: “Hoping for a much better showing, the Good Government Association had predicted not only the reelection of Hagen and Lane whom it had endorsed, but also Kinney, whom it had endorsed to defeat Moriarity for re-election. But when it became clear that most of the voters

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88 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [February intended to stay away from the polls, the officials of the Association conceded long before the polls were dosed, that Kinney had been defeated and Moriarity elected.” This harks back to the methodology of the old party campaigns. The flavor of official predictions is still preserved. THE Q.G.A. A POLITICAL PARTY Objectively, therefore, the Association functions like, and is regarded as, a municipal party. Subjective evidence to the same effect is found in an official pamphlet issued in December, lSa0, in which the Association’s membership is held to include “all those who support its work either financially or p~litically.’~ If an organization .participating regularly in the political campaigns of a city considers that the forty or f3ty thousand who vote for its candidates are members of that organization, what can distinguish it from any political party? The executive committee places its stamp of approval on certain men, and the members of the Association ratify these choices about 8s implicitly as the Gang follows its Ieaders. This is conceded in the pamphlet referred to, which holds that “Many thousand voters habitually follow the recommendations of the Association substantially, if not wholly, and the influence of the Association, exerted mainly in this manner, has in the course of years become 90 well recognized that it is generally admitted to be the most powerful single factor in municipal elections at t1.e present time.” A municipal party may fairly be defined as any political organization which, independently of the state and national parties, habitually participates in local elections in support of certain candidates, principles, or policies. The Good Government Association fuklls all the essential conditions. Moreover, as the aggressor in Boston elections since 1910, it has compelled the “antis” to rise to its own level. Since the “Gang” has been forced to aet independently of the state party in local elections, to depend on its own men and their own principles, and to stand in opposition to the reformers, it also meets the requirements of a municipal party. It may be objected that the power of nomination is the principal characteristic of parties. The answer is that both the Gang and the Good Government Association do in effect have this power. Nomination is nothing more than a method of selection, and its substitute under the non-partisan plan is the party “endorsement.” Suppose, for example, that after the preliminary elimination of aspiring candidates because of defects in their records, the Association still has more office seekers than the number of offices to be filled. There is little doubt that it mould endorse those who promised to make the most effective popular appeal. This process is to all intents and purposes little distinguishable from the method of selection by a nominating committee and party primary. Nominations under the partisan plan waa a means of concentrating the party vote behind those candidates who could attract the largest vote; endorsement under the non-partisan plan accomplishes the same result. The council elections from 1910 to date, which are summarized in the following table, are quite convincing on this point: Total number elected to the council (1910Number of these endorsed by the G.G.A. . 32 Number of these endorsed by the “Gang”. 16 Number of these who ran independently.. .3 1999). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .M) -60 LOCAL PARTIES AND LOCAL ISSUES Boston’s experience suggests several conclusions as to the non-partisan

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1%S] PARTIES IN NON-PARTISAN BOSTON 89 municipal plan. (1) The separation of local from state and national elections requires a group effectively organized for the purpose. (2) The very nature of its work compels such an organization to adopt tactics which stamp it as a party, even though it assumes the name Good Government Association or Municipal League. (3) The loosening of the bonds of national political affiliations tends to effect a realignment of the voters on the basis of racial, religious and class differences, since men whose interests are similar or who are otherwise bound by close ties tend to gravitate together. A survey by correspondence of thirty other nonpartisan cities has reinforced the observations drawn from the writer’s personal study of Boston. The problem which engrossed the student of municipal government at the inception of the non-partisan scheme was that of administrative inefliciency, which waa so intimately connected with machine politics. Nonpartisan elections, although they have failed to eIiminate parties, have contributed towards a higher type of official and an improved administration. But these benefits have been purchased at a heavy cost: an intensification of the racial and religious question. It is submitted that from the point of view of the principles of democratic government this is a decidedly more serious problem than that of maladministration of municipal dabs. No more subversive force threatens our institutions than the shrouded form with masked face, the incarnation of racial and religious hatred as a principle of political action.

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ITEMS ON MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING EDITED BY WILLIAM A. BASSETT Tastes and Odors in Public Water Supplies.Unusual and unpleasant tastes and odors in public water supplies which otherwise are entirely suitable for domestic use are of not infrequent occurrence. The causes of these manifestations are in general well known to water supply engineers, together with ways of combating them, but there is need for an explanation of these causes and their significance to the public. The reasona for this are simple to understand. People have been taught that unsuitable water supply is a potential carrier of diseaeea and any sudden change in the physical characteristics of water supply is apt to cause distrust in the quality of that supply. An unusual example of this character was disclosed by the experience of the city of Dandle, uliois, during the winter of 1921. The water in reservoirs supplying that city reached a low level in the late fall of 1920 and unpleasant tastes and odors developed. At the request of the local health officer, who was led to believe that the water was dangerous because of the taste and odor, the state department of health was requested to investigate. The investigation demonstrated that the water was safe for domestic use, although it had taste and odor. However, the school authorities of the city took somewhat hasty action and cut off temporarily the local supply from the schools. In one school the drinking fountain was cut off and a barrel of water provided for the school children. This water was obtained from a shallow dug well located only about 6fteen feet from a privy and open to probable contamination from that source. Fortunately, this condition was discovered before any serious illness developed as a result of the use of water kom thii source of supply. Emphasis should be placed on the fact that taste and odor do not necessarily represent unsuitable quality of water. It is true that the physiological effect of such characteristics is sometimes bad on certain people and may tend to lower their general physical condition. A greater hazard perhaps lies in the unintelligent distrust of water supply having such characteristics and the resort to other supplies of questionable safety. Without going into the technique of the subject, attention is called to the fact that taates and odors in water supply are generally due to one of two causes. These are: first. the presence of microorganisms ia the supply, and, second, the effect of tree chlorine or hypo-chlorite used for purification in order to safeguard the quality of the water. Microorganisms may and frequently do occur in stored water supply. even when of the best qdity. An unusual example of this character occurred during the fall of 1921 in the Catskill water supply of New York City. The preaenw of (L micro-organism, Synura, in that supply imparted to it a very pronounced taste, described as resembling that of a ripe cucumber. Its preaence was not discovered in time to enable suib able treatment of that supply until it had been used by the public for a few days. There was nothing sinister in the presence of this microorganism and an increase in the amount of chlorine given the water, together with treatment of copper sulphate, corrected thii condition in a very short time. $ May Be More Dangerous Than Dymmite.Further progress in the reduction of explosion hazard incidental to the operation of steam boilers should result from the adoption of the proposed amendments to the so-called Boiler Code of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers which were recommended by that Society at its annual meeting recently heldin New York City. The Code comprises standard specifications for the construction of both high and low p~~sure steam boilers, together with hot water heating systems. and rules governing the operation of these types of plant equipment. In 1915 it was recommended in practically its present form to the council of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers by a committee of prominent engineers after a comprehensive study of the problem extending over a period of four years. Since that time the essential proviSafeguarding the Use of Steam Boiler+-They ,

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1m1 ITEMS ON MUNICIPBL ENGINEERING 91 ions of the code have been incorporated in the laws of seventeen states and ten cities in the United States. Since the adoption of the Bollef code. records ahow that those states and cities have been singularly free from fatal accidents due to boiler explosions. It is also stated that as a result of the adoption of similar legislation by the German government before the war, accidents of thii character were reduced to but five or six a year throughout the entire empire. It is believed that the public at large does not appreciate adequately the hazard that exists from unregulated boiler construction and operation. Mr. John A. Stevens, chairman of the Kiler code committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, states that steam not properly controlled ia more dangerous than dynamite. Another authority, Professor R. H. Thurston, in comparing the energy of water and of steam in the steam boiler with that of gunpowder states that a cubic foot of heated water under a pressure of 60 or 70 pounds per square inch, the latter being the ordinary pressure of heating plants. has about the same energy as one pound of gunpowder. The energy stored up in the ordinary boiler of this type under the conditions noted, if released through accident, would be su5cient to project the boiler to a height of over 5,000 feet with an initial velocity of approximately 588 feet per second. The location of a powder magazine beneath a school or large office building or under the sidewalk of an important street would produce a storm of protest from the citi~e~ of any community. and if unusual conditions demanded the continuance of such a hazard in their midst, the most stringent regulation and other precautionary measures would be demanded by the public in order to protect the community. At the same time there are today many communities in which the laws of the city and state governing the construction and operation of both steam and hot water boiler plants are of the most lax and ineffective character. That the hazard incurred as the result of these conditions is a eerious one is demonstrated by the number of boiler explositions that occur each year. It is estimated that this equali about 1,500 annually. The loss of life from these caw ranges from four to five hundred annually, the number of people injured reaches spproximately double those amounts, while the property loss amounts to hundreda of thousands of dollars each year. It is moreover an established fact that all boiler explosions are preventable. Good design. good construction, and good management may be said Lu ‘k the ‘Ltt lequirements of safe boiler operation. Of these three, good management is equal in importance with the first two requirements. and an essential feature of good management is regular effective inspection. The Boiler Code of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers not alone definitizes the requirements to be met to ensure suitable design and construction, but also points the way to securing etIective management. It may be said without qualification that if the provisions of the existing Code were uniformly adopted and enforced the hazard from boiler explosions would be in the main eliminated. * Public Improvement Construction Werk by Department Forces vs. U. S. Contract System.Sound arguments against any general practice of conducting public improvement construction work by department forces rather than by contract are presented by Mr. William C. Connell. consulting engineer, in a report based on a study of the administration of the Pennsylvania state highway department, made by Mr. Connell for Governor-Elect GiEord Pinchot of that state. Wile obviously the conclusions arrived at with regard to this practice are directed particularly to the administration of state highway construction work, theprinciplesenunciatedspplyequally well to d classes of public improvement construction work whether conducted by the state or any municipality. Mr. Connell’s discussion of this matter appeared in connection with his consideration of the adminiitration of a special bureau established during ID20 for the purpose of carrying on highway construction work with state forces. Hi comments on the subject in question are substantially aa follows: “The bureau was organized with a view to training an organization that would take over the work on which the contractors might fail, due to 6nancial di5culties or other reasons. and to perform work where it waa felt that competitive bids were too high. “The first reason would have some merit if it were not for the fact that the maintenance division of the state highway department, through the nature of its work, is necessarily called upon to do 90 much work with its own forces that these forces could not be readily used to finish the work where contractors failed to complete their contract.

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9% NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [February “The second reason is very questionable, as it in hard to conceive of an organization employed by a state department, confronted with the red tape and dif5culties surrounding public departments, performing work more cheaply than it can be performed under competitive bids, provided complete information concerning the work to be performed is supplied to bidders. “There will always be instances where the bids are too high, but the work can be readvertised. There may be isolated instances where department forces will do work of this nature cheaper than under a competitive basis, but when all the fadors entering into the cost have been given proper consideration the competitive system taken year in and year out will be less costly for this character of work. Construction work by state forces to the extent it is beiig done in Pennsylvania to-day is establishing a dangerous precedent. Even though they may be doing the work economically and efficiently. it can be readily understood how it could be abused under a purely political or inefficient administration of the state highway department, such as states have from time to time. “With our present form of government the method of performing work under the jurisdiction of a public works department should be designed to safeguard the public interests best throughout changing administrations. It is, therefore, a much wiser and safer policy to devote all possible energy to the development of healthy competition of competent contracting forces in publicwork. . . . “It may be desirable to do some construction work with state forces, but it should be confined to small jobs of a nature that are not easily specifiable, or can be more readily handled by the state forces than under competitive bids. In short it is inadvisable for the state to go into the construction business to any greater extent than is necessary. The controlling factor should be the character of the work. All work that is not easily specifitrble and subject to proper control under contrscte may be performed by state forces. But all work that is specifiable. and of a definite nature so that bids can be received on predetermined quantities and the work properly inspected, should be done so far as is possible under competitive bids.” * Weakness d Special Assessment Bonds in State of Wadhgton.-Inadequate protection of the holders of local improvement bonds ap parently constitutes a serious defect in the lam of the state of Washington governing the 6nancing of local improvements. Weaknesses of thb character are particularly in evidence in the law under which improvement bonds are issued, known aa the Locsl Improvement Law. Article 13 of that law provides for the establishment by a city council of improvement districtn within a municipality for the purpose of carrying out street, sewer, or other local improvements and distributing their cost over the property within the district deemed to be benefited. Upon completion of any such improvement, the property ownem may, within SO days, el& to pay cash for the assessment levelled against their property, or the city issue bonds for the total cost involved. The law provides that such bonds shall constitute a lien against the property benefited. The council, at the time of passing the ordinance establishing assessment districts, must stipulate the term of the bonds. Ordinsrily, the bonds issued are twelve-year serials. In any event the property owner is required to pay his assessment. which includes interest charges. by installments so that the last installment will be paid two years before the bonds mature. Thus, for twelveyear bonds the property owner pays each year one-tenth of the principle and interest comprising the entire cost of the improvement. This gives time for the adjustment of delinquencies in payment before the maturity of the bonds. This policy representing as it does a meana of providing for the retirement of a certain amount of bonds each year would appear to be entirely sound were it not for certsin wetakneses in the law. The latter relate to protection of the bondholder in the event of delinquency on the part of the property owners in the matter of psying assessments levied. Naturally the liquidation of bonds as they mature depends upon fun& collected from the special assessment liens on property benefited. The first application on these funds is for interest charges and if property owners fail to pay their assessments OP time, it will be necessary either to provide funds for retiring the bonds from other sources or ek default in making bond payments. There is. of course, always recourse to foreclosure sales either by the county or the municipality. This pm tice entails considerable delay and doee not always emure securing adequate funds to meet the complete payment of bond indebtedness. Moreover, while under the provisiom of the

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ITEMS ON MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 93 Local Improvement District Law the City may foreclose. for the unpaid assessmenta. there is no law to compel the city government to do this. It is true that cities with twenty thousand population or over are permitted by an act of the 1917 legislature to create either a “Local Improvement Guarantee Fund” or Revolving Fund maintained by general tax levy for the pupow of taking care of bond delinquencies. Even this protection to the purchaser of bonds M not made mandatory on the part of the city. In Spokane a revolving fund was established and later discontinued by the following city administration, thus removing an element of protection that the purchaser of any bonds issued during the 6rst administration might have been led to believe that he had. Apparently there are mud grounds for modifying the present hl Improvement District Law so as to provide additional protection to the purchasers of improvement bonds. It is stated that practically every city in the atate of Washington, with the exception of Seattle. has improvement bonds in default. In apite of this fact, the statement is made that there is a ready market for municipal bonds of that state. However, the rate of interest on municipal bonds is said to range as high in some cases as 8 per cent and to prevail at about 6 per cent. This would indicate that these bonds were not regarded as particularly desirable investment~ from the banking point of view as would otherwise appear. Citie whose. credit is unquestioned in other states ordinarily find a ready of the.ir bonds at much lower mtea of intaest than prevail in Washington. Whether these amditiona can be attributed with justice to the above weakmxws in the rclsesement bond law of Weehington is problemstical. It should, however, be noted that anything thst tends to rflect harmfully the city’s credit whether evidenced by a demand for higher rates of intenet on its bonds than are required elsewhere. or in other ways. is undesirable and should be avoided. * Cmtrol of Tra5c Movement 011 Important City Stxeets.-Synchronized movement of vehicular traffic by means of a system of signal lights operated from towers has been tried with success on certain important streets in some of the larger cities of this country. In fact the control over trdc on Fifth Avenue, New York, which has been effected by this meam has proven 80 satisfactory that the original signal towers have been replaced by more permanent and ornamental ones nd an extension of the system is planned for other thoroughfares in Manhattan. It is interesting to note, however, that the proposal for the extension of the system dispenses with the signal towers in the middle of the street. The reasons for this moc’i6cation of the present arrangement aa outliined by Hon. Julius Miller, president of the borough of Manhattan, apply not only to the local situation but also to practically every community contemplating the installation of a traEc control system of this character. Mr. Miller points out that any obstruction within the highway is an impediment to free movement of trac and should be avoided where intensity of tra5c is very great. Obviously, signal towers cannot be located on any street or avenue which hm an elevated railroad structure or surface tracks. In order to operate a system of this kind on avenues or streets where such conditions exist, signal lamps would have to be supported by some other structure. The logical place for the signale is on lampposts at street intersections preferably suspended from an arm extending diagonally into the street intudon. An arrangement of this kind would make such lights visible for 8 considerable distance from both intersecting stzeets. One such light at each intersection would fiash the signal to all traffic on any avenue or street and on account of their proximitythere would be less obatruction to their visibility in foggy weather or from any other cause. The cost of installation of a system of this kind would also be materially less than that where signal towers are used. Also the cost of operating the system would also be materially reduced aa two men at a single point could control lights operating over a very extensive area. This would release traffic 05ws located in toaers for service in controlling pedestrian tra5c at important intersections which is admittedly a necessary service.

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RECENT BOOKS REVIEWED GUNTY AND TOWNSHIP G0WR"T IN TEE UNITED STATES. By Kiik H. Porter, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Iowa. Macmillan. 192% Pp. 38% This valuable volume gives us the 6rst textbook on county government, replacing the pioneer book of H. S. Gilbertson. which broke ground in this subject in 1917. Gdberbon's book had to be privately printed because of lack of interest in the theme, and the fact that Mr. Porter was able to get a regular publisher to handle his manuscript is in itself a mark of progreas. The library of county government literature now numbers three volumes and a half, Fairlie and Maxey being the other authors, but as this book makes Gdbertson's almost unneceassry by overlapping it rather completely, it is a substitution rather than an addition. Professor Porter omits the attack on county government as a rotten and dangerous neglected political institution which was Gilbertson's message and which still is the main burden of the reformer in this field, but he does, in milder phrase, speak well of orthodox and sweeping reforms even if he does not dwell upon the necessity for any reform at all. Starting historically, he describes the current variations of county government in the various groups of states, shows the iaherent weaknesses and anachronisms of the framework and freely recommends the full list of reforms which we of the National Municipal League are urging, such District attorneys to be made subject to an appointive attorney-general of the state. SherifTs as peace officers to give way to state police. Public defenders to replace assigned coun State administrative oversight of county finances. Short ballot-county clerk, treasurer, assessor. etc., to be made appointive under the county board. County the unit for education outside of cities, for highways, health, care of dependents, assessments, etc. Reduction of powers of townships and other Abolition of coroners. as: b$, small units. County manager (although he did not apparently have quite the nerve to picture this radical feature in his diagram of a revised government). As he neglects to do more than gently deplore the present state of county government without picturing its badness, so also he refrains from substantiating the need for his specific proposals of reform. Moderation is fashionable in tert boob. but Professor Porter takes refuge so uniformly in true but unsupported generalities that he neglects to prove his case. And to have brought new and later evidence to a~pport Gdbertson's demand for county government reform and to have adduced new documents in advocacy of the specific proposals of reconstruction would have been helpful to the cause and not unwelcome in the classroom. RICHAF~D S. CHILDS. * TAKATION OF FEDERAL, STATE AND MUNKIPAL BONDS. By John H. Hoffman and David M. Wood. New York: Wilbur and Hastings. Pp. 116. Though this little book is prepared for investors and dealers in federal, state and municipal bonds, the presentation which it gives of the present federal and state laws and decisions on the subject of the taxation of bonds raises a great many questions of current interest. The book itself is divided into two approximately equal parts: the 6rst deals with the general rules of law with regard to the taxing power, taxation of federal bonds. taxation of state and municipd bonds. exemption of state and municipal bonds, contracts for exemption, income taxea, taxation of bonds of non-residents, inheritance taxes. franchise and privilege taxes, and taxation of corporate stock. Not more than a few paged each are devoted to these topics. The entire definition of the taxing power both of the federal government and of the state governmeats, and of the limitations of the taxing power are disposed of in three introductory pages. The second part of the book is arranged alphabetically by states and territories. Under each state or territory the provisions of law with regard to the exemption or taxation of bonds, with citatione of

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BOOK REVIEWS .95 hw and of decisions, are presented in outline form under the following five topics: ’ 1. Bonda of the United States and territories 9. Bonda of the state 3. Bonda of subdivisions of the state 4. BOB~S of other states and subdiviaions 6. State income tax provisions The book shows signs of careful preparation and is well annotated with extensive footnotes. The table of contente. table of caws. and the index which is very full for so brief a volume, are an object lesson to those who are engaged in preparing books to be of use to others than the author. The student of taxation will naturally be 6sappointed in finding no discussion at all of the larger economic and political problems involved in the tar exemption of federal, state and municipal bonds. In spite of the nation-wide agitation for the abolition of tax exemption for all public bonds, there is in this volume no echo of the general discussion. The volume is intended by the authors to present a concise exposition of the law of taxation and an analysis of the tax laws rather than a treatise on the broader problems involved. This task has been well done. LUTHER GWLICK. * ELECTRICAL RATES. By G. P. Watkins. Ph.D. Baltimore: The Lord Baltimore Press. 1431. Dr. Watkii’ discussion of modern theory and prsctice with respect to rates charged for eltricity for power and lighting purposes is premted to the country at a time when this particular field is in need of a great deal of mund enlightenment. His Efedricd &tea is 811 outgrowth of nine yems of experience in the statjstical bureau of a public service CO&OB. In the light of the veq recent decision of the Wirconsin commiaaion in the Chippewa Power Company case. where a court decision was set anide and the municipalities nearest the source of energy were given preference in ratee, and because of the increaahg number of rate litigation cases. it is evident that the subject of differentiation in electrical rates is at present a much mooted question of public policy and of vital importance in our modern economic structure. Introducing thir subject from the standpoint of intereat and importance, Dr. Watkina sketchbriefly the types of load curvea common to vsrjous kinds of service corporations, and indicab in what reape& these load curves have changed since the early days of small isolated plants supplying strictly lightingloads. to modern light and pew= systems with their numerous and complicated problems. His discussion then tnkes up in detail every phase of merential rate making in vogue and in discard, with opinions aa to the value and limitations of each. He concluded with a desaiption of the general theory of differential rates. noting the occasions for price differences and stating the significance of rate analyses from a legal and a political standpoint as well as the economic. Dr. Watkins proposes a schedule of fair electrical rates for power and light which could be used under certain operating conditions, but he does not attempt to determine equitable returns on investments in electric manufacturing companies. His discussion practically limits itself to differentiation. From the atandpoint of municipal versus private ownership of public utilities, the discussion is of such a nature that the facts presented will apply equally well to rate making under either condition. Dr. Watkins’ attitude in this respect is that of the impartial student who wishes to disclose the facts and study every angle of the situation from its intrinsic merits. Eled7ical Rates may perhaps be very wel adapted aa a text-book for engineering or ae counting classes in college work. However, the great value of the material found in the discussion, coupled with the evident care ueed in the presentstion of the subject, would seem to indicate that operators, owners, and regulatory commissions will be the chief beneficiaries. HAROLD S. LANQLAND. * Tag Suom~~ea CITY. By E. D. Skuon, Lord Mayor of Mancheater (England), and Marion Fitzperald, Associate of the Royal Sanitary Institute. New York and London, lD33: Longmans Green & Co. Pp. 82. Here is a little book of importance out of al1 proportion to its size. It deals with the smoke problem wholly in its relation to the domestic use of bituminous coal. As Lord Newton PBJ-s in hi introduction, “The battle . . . against industrial smoke may be said to have been won in principle,” and this is a fact in the United States aa much as in the United Kingdom. But the coal strike has made smokeless anthracite all

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98 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [February but impossible in the United States for most houses and kitchens. wherefore we are facing more and worse atmospheric pollution. Mr. Simon and Miss Fitzgerald have addressed themselves in gratifying detail to the problem, and in thia work propose methods which if carried out would make possible approdmately smokeless use of the coal which must come to be our main reaource for home heating and cooking in America. Stress is laid on the use of coke, of gas, of electricity, and the firing methods detailed where “soft” coal must be used are parallel with those laid before the 1921 Convention of the American Civic Association in Chicago by an able official of the Bureau of Mines. This Englii work is commended aa constructive, timely and valuable. J. Houcn McFAB~. IP T~E WOMEN’B DAY COURT OF MANHATTAN AND THE BRONX. A reprint from Ths Joud of Social Hygiene for October, 19!22, published by the American Social Hygiene Association, 370 Seventh Avenue.‘ This is the fourth of a series of studies by George E. Worthington of the American Social Hygiene Association, and Miss Ruth Topping of the Bureau of Soeial Hygiene, of specialized courh dealing with sex delinquency. The preceding studies were of the Morals Court of Chicago, the misdemeanants’ division of the Philadelphia Municipal Court and the Second Session of the Municipal Court of the City of Boston. The fifth section wiU present a comparative atudy of the four courts. This will probably pmve to be the most valuable to the general reader, for the detail studies of the individual courts. of the laws which they enforce and of their procedure and the results obtained, are pmented in too much detail to interest the general reader while comparison is practically impossible except to those thoroughly familiar with any one of the four. Of the Wornen’s Court of New York the writera say it “is the 6rst court in the United States to be established as a special court dealing with women delinquents. There is doubtless no other court in this country to-day which is so highly specialized along the lines of sex delinquency.” The most striking of the laws, with the enforce1 It is expeatal that the Studwill be oombined and reissued IU) a volume of the Bureau of Social Hygiene Beriea. ment of which thi court deals. was adopted in 1915. It declares to be a vagrant a person who offera to commit prostitution or who receives any person into any place, or conveyance, for the purpose of prostitution or assignation. The court also reaches the younger offender, not aa yet guilty of such acts. under an Incorrigible Statute. which provides that a female found associating with vicious and dissolute persons or prostitutes and so in dange of becoming morally depraved, may be committed to a reformatory institution. The sessions of the court are from ten-thiity in the morning to five in the afternoon. The change from night sessions. which were originally held. was made in 1918. The magistrates who are ap pointed by the mayor, are especially assigned to preside in the Women’s Court by the chief city magistrate. The complaining witnesses are with rare exceptions police officers attached to vice squads. Full stenogrsphic minutes are taken by an official stenographer. Defendants may be released upon bail, pending trial in an average amount of $500. Failure to appear personally results in the forfeiture of the whole amount of this bail, which, aa special care is taken in its acceptance, results in its full recovery by the state. If convicted, the prisoner k remanded 48 hours for hger printing and physical examination, and, in case she is found to be without record of previous conviction, she is sent to a special hospital. to be detained by the board of health until no longer sufiering in a communicable stage, whereupon she is returned to the court for sentence. If found to be Without disease and to have shown a willingness to accept supervision, she is placeai upon probation. The casea of those returned from the hospital are treated as though the examination following conviction had resulted in P report of not dieeased. Those found to be diseased and with a record of prior convictions are committed to the workhouse for a period of 100 days. during which they are treated in the hospital attached to that institution. Those placed upon probation are supervised by the probation officer ia chargo and her four asiatants, who receive valuable assistance from the representatives of various volunteer agencies who supplement the work of the official officers. not only during the probation period but in aftercare. Those with records of three or more prior convictions may be committed under an Inde terminate Sentence Law. whereby the maximum

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BOOK REVIEWS 97 period of detention may be two years. the actual detention being determined by a commixOion ueated by the law. It is customary for this commission to detain such persons for six months, after which they are released upon parole for the remainder of the two years. In additiob the magistrate may commit to three reformatory institutions maintained under private auspices, or to the State Reformatory for Women at Bedford Hills, in which case the period of detention within the maximum of two and three years is determined by the institution The importance of the finger print mrd in determining these dipPositions is worthy of special note. Without them, the magistrates would he seriously handicapped and the effectiveneas of the court greatly decreased. Appeals from the decision of the magistrate are heard in the appellate court upon the stenographic record. the case not being tried d8 Iultro. 8UthOntiH. Mi. Worthington and Miss Topping make no mention in ihek study of the plan3 and endeavors of those associated with the courts for improvements. These for the New York court are briefly: a special building to house the court and to constitute a house of detention for those awaiting trial not released upon bail, or detained for examination pending the sentence: also the assignment of psychiatrist for the mental examination of those who give indications of abnormality. Two amendments of existing laws are being advocated: a widening of the provisions dealing with inwrrigihle &Is. to make lese di9icult their arraignment in the court. and the ap prehension and punishment of the male customet of the prostitute; it not being 6nally determined, as yet, whether or not the existing law is sdcient. Mr. Worthington sets forth at mme length in the study the facts and argument in the case which at present is accepted aa controlling. FREDEBICX H. WEITIN.

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NOTES AND EVENTS I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION The Missauri cinstibtid convention adjourned December 15 until April 15, to avoid conflict with the state legislature now meeting. * p. R. Unconstitufd in Califomia.-The supreme court of California haa denied a rehearing on the constitutionality of the proportional representation feature of the Sacramento charter. This in effect a5rms the decision of the appellate court (reported in the December hw) declaring P. R. unconstitutional in California. * Correction in Comparative Tax Rate Published in December Review.-In fairness to Boston we wish to make the following correction: Owing to the tax rate data furnished by Boston being misinterpreted by the Detroit Bureau of Governmental ReJesrch in its compilation published in the December REVIEW, Boston’s tax rate was erroneously reported. Boston’s tax rate should read $12.33 and total tax rate $24.70. Her rank aa adjusted should be 13th instead of 2d. * Salary Scale Adjusted to Change in Living Costs.-The new salary ordinance of St. Pad, Minnesota, provides for the adjustment of sslariea to the rise and fall in the cost of living. The classification ~~i~ts of seventeen grades of service. A basic rate for 1916 is set. upon which all increases or decreases are founded. The cost of living index figures of the National Induetrid Conference are used. * Graft Charged to Knoxville CommissionCity Manager Proposed.-T!ie city commissionera of Knoxville, Tennessee. are defendants in a taxpayer’s suit charging malfeasance in paying to a construction company high prices for atreet work for which no real bids were taken. The complaint prays that further payments on account of such work be enjoined and that the commissioners and their bondsmen make good for exceasive funds already advanced. Other suits will be filed later. Dissatisfaction with commission government has been general for Borne time. A new charter bill is being drafted providing for a city m~~ger. * Efforts Renewed to Amend B&n Charter.The election for councilmen of Boston on December 12, in which only about SO per cent of the registered voters participated, has given a uew impetus to changing the charter. The principal objectives seem to be a return to a large council elected by wards and the abandonment of nonpartisan elections in favor of party tickets. On the other hand a militant group are putting forward proportional representation for the election of the council. Bills are being prepared to change Boston’s charter, the original small council charter in the United States, but it is yet. too early to know how public sentiment will crystallize. 42 The I. and R in Missouri.-As hdy noted in these pages, practically the whole legislative program put through the 1921 legislature by the Republican majority, including the governor’s bills reorganizing the stateadmiitiveaystem, waa defeated by approximately a 2 to 1 vote at a referendum election last November. Theae bills were loudly oppad by the Democratic party, which, 05Ually or uno5cially. circulated petitions throughout the state su5cient to place them on the ballot. This partisan use of the referendum (heretofore organized parties have refrained from instigating and executing referenda campaigns) haa resulted in strong opposition to bath the initiative and referendum with the demand that they be abolished. In response to this sentiment, the Miaaouri constitutional convention has more than doubled the percentage of signatuxw required to invoke the I. and R. Should this be adopted, their abolition will be virtually accomplished. * The Gasoline Curb Station Dispute.--Le the familiar curb station to be banned aa an asthetic atrocity and a traffic menace, or does its obvious convenience to motorists justify its existence? Data assembled by the Toledo Citg Juurnal 98

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NOTES AND EVENTS 99 ahow that curb pumps have been forbidden in New York, Rocheater, Washington. Columbus, Baltimore. St. Louis, Yonkers, Denver, Wichita, and Cumbridge, Msssschusetts. Akron, Mimeapob. and Patereon, New Jersey, permit exiSting pumps only. Omaha, Milvaukee. Atlsnta, and Evanston. Illinois. prohibit them in residence distrids by means of zoning ordinances. St. Paul prohibits them on car lines and Mlinnespolis in fire limit districta. The drive-in station has also come in for some proper regulation. The right of adjoining property owners to determine the desirabity of mch stations has been recognized in Washington, D. c.. and Oak Park, Illinois. There is 8 Gowing sentiment in favor of requiring drive-in stations to be of pleasing architectural design. If the curb pump is abandoned more attention will have to be given to the fire menace attending the storage and handling of gasoline in gwgee. * An Unusual Inaugural Message.-The inaugural message of the newlyelected mayor of Camden. New Jersey, Mr. Victor King. is unusual in the number of unpleasant facts which it discloses. Although Camden has not indulged in lumiries which in many other cities are now considered necessities, she is more heavily in debt than any other large city in the state. The geemingly low tax rate is offset by the exorbitant water rate. The huge sums turned over by the water department to the general fund are mid to constitute municipal pmfiteering on a Iarge scale. The mayor also finds that the administrative departments carry too heavy pay rolls; that asphalt and street lighting cost more than in other cities. but that welfare appropriations are d although the infant mortality rate is high. If Camden didn’t have so many special boards and secretaries. says the mayor, it could afford municipal band concerts. At present each department handlea its own purchasing. The mayor wants the police taken out of politics (on election day the city was left prno tically unprotected while the police did political work at the pob). He favors a city plan. a zoning ordinance and a new building code. our informstion that the majority in cod represent Camden contented and that the mayor hm outlined a heroic task for the next three Y-. 4 Budget System Brings Good Results in Vi-.-In an addresa before the Governors’ conference at white Sulphur Springs in December, Governor Trinkle of Virginia paid high tribute to the operation of the executive budget system first employed in that state in 1930. Although the legislature can increase the governor’s budget at will, the net changes in the final appropriation bill for 1990 was only 1.6 per cent over the budget estimates. and in 19% lesa than one per cent. Approximately 98 per cent of all moneys appropriated were contained in the general appropriation bill. In 1920 a system of operating control was established by means of a monthly reporting system for state institutions and departments. On the basis of these reports a study of unit or per capita costs for state institutions haa heen started. Even the value of supplies produced and consumed by the institutions, appraised in accordance with a uniform price list for all institutions, is included in the estimates of unit costs. Institutions wbich heretofore have always required deficiency appropriations will come through with substantial stupluw. Maj. Leroy Hodges, well known to readers of the REVIEW, is director of the budget under Governor Trinkle. * New York CiQ to Spend One and One Half Tons of Gold Per Day.-New York city will spend $353,550,976 during 1993, or $968,084.86 per day, If the amount used each day were converted into pure gold it wodd weight 9,927 pounds or approximately one and one haif toas. The principal items in the budget are: Debt service, which is @4,995,643, or 34.03 per cent of the total budget and $15.10 per inhabitant of New York city; the department of education, which is $75,805,355, or 21.05 per cent of the total budget and $13.48 per inhabitant; and the police department, which is $53,04fz,fzPS. or ia 9.07 per cent of the total budget and $5.70 per inhabitant. The total per capita cost will be $80.86. In 1913 the total per capita cost was $3437. Thus the 1923 budget shows 8 per capita increase of $k?8.40, or 85 per oent over the 1910 budget. The appropriations for governmental functions other than debt service and state taxes have increased more than would be apparent on a casual esamination of the budget because of the comiderable reductions in these two items. The

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100 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [February city debt service appropriation for 1923 is $17.S02,lSO below 1922 figures and the state taxea are $1.8%.889.57 below 193%. Had it not been for the reduction in these. two items the lSa3 budget would be much larger than it is now. The following table contains a summary of the budget with the various items summed up according to function. This table cannot be taken aa absolutely accurate because of the overlapping nature of some of the item, yet it does show the distribution of funds, among the varioua governmental functions. with comparative accuracy: inasmuch as authority already exists under the p-t constitution for the enactment of such a tax. The proposed constitution merely gave authority to make personal exemptions and to levy graduated taxes. Opponents of the convention persuaded large numbers of people that the purpose w89 to place a heavy tax on all modest incomes and proponents of the plan were unable to counteract thii impression. Although Chicago receives proportionate representation in the lower house of the etate legislature her representation was, by the new Cm OF NEW YOEK Cm Go=FOR 1923 General Administration. ............................... Legislative (Board of aldermen and city clerk). ........... Judicial ............................................. Educational. ......................................... .Recreation, Science and Art Parks. Parkways and Drives. .......................... Zo6logical and Botanical Gardens, Museums, ek.. ....... Health and Sanitation. ................................ Protection of Life and Property. ....................... Retirement and Relief Funds.. ........................ Miscellanmus ........................................ Debt Service. ......................................... State and County Tax. ................................ Departmenial Tdal $47,042,747 423,212 5,718,535 79,823,829 4,075,995 1,953,368 34,068,110 71,858,686 7,104,127 1,508,188 84,955,642 B,l78,459 Total ............................................. 559.663,laL Less Revenue from Corporate Stock. .................. 6,512,148 Perceniage of Torol Budgd 18.30% . l 1.06 28.60 1.17 .56 9.66 20,s 2.01 .4% 94.03 6.54 101.79 1.70 PCr Caph Corl 88.39 .08 .a 14.19 .73 .54 6.08 13.76 1.M -27 16.10 4.lP 89.98 1.19 Total New York City Budget. ........................ $353,860,978 100.00% 8eP.86 Cb Pmpowd Illinois Constitution DefeatdThe work of the Ninois constitutional convention, covering a period of two years and idmitted as a complete document to the people on December 12, was overwlelmingly defeated. The majority is reported to have been more than 700.000, of which nearly five-sevenths came from Cook county. There are many opinions aa to why the people so rapturously turned down the new document. Opposition seema to have centered around two provisions, the one authorizing a state income tax and the other limiting the representation of Cook county (Chicago) in the senate to one third of the membership. The income tax provision was nothing radical document, strictly limited in the senate. The question of Chicago’s representation was L bo~ of contention in the convention and the reaentment against such limitation was extremely deep in Chicago. Further opposition developed from the rephrasing of certain sections in the present constitution to clariiy and modernire them. The people were suspicious, however, that the new phrsses contained hidden meanings, else they would have been retained as before. Furthermore, a section guaranteeing representative government, while probably meanidgless. wan interpreted to prohibit forever the initiative and referendum, and as such waa opposed. Among other ressons for the defeat of the

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NOTES AND EVENTS 101 comtitution must be included the fad that it was submitted aa one document, so that the excelknt .pmvisione had to bear the burden of the poor ones, and the low prestige of the convention which had consumed two years in, what seemed to be, useless wrangling. * Mrmidpal B[ome Rule ApproVea ia P-1--At the November election Pennsylvania voters ratified the Municipal Home Rule amendment to the constitution by a majority of IS%4w). Although the amendment carried only 9s counties out of 67, it was approved by counties containing 70 per cent of the state’s popuhtion. The amendment adopted is permissive and, like the home rule amendments in Michigan, Minnesota and Texas. requires legislative action to make it effective. It authorizes the legislature to empower cities or cities of a class to frame their own charters, subject to such restrictions, limitations and regulations as may be imposed by the legislature. Laws also may be enacted affecting the organization and government of cities and borough, which shall become effective in any city or borough only when submitted to the electors thereof and approved by a majority of those voting thereon. Thus cities only may be given the right to frame their own charter; but both cities and boroughs may be offered a choice, for example, of councilmanic, commission or city manager government as set forth in optional charter acts to be pased by the legislature. During the recent meeting of the National Municipal League representatives of the City Conference of Philadelphia and solicitors from cities of the second and third class discussed the advisability of uniting upon a single home rule enabling act to be passed by the legishture of IseS. A tentative draft of such act following in general the recommendations of the Committee on Municipal Program of the National Municipal League. 1915, was presented by the City Conferenm. The thought was expre3sed that separate enabling acts for each class of cities had not worked well in other states. Such acts encouraged legislative inroads upon the exercise of home rule powers (I) by facilitating detailed restrictions upon each cLy of cities instead of broad litations applicable to all cities, and (2) by narrowing the opposition to such encroachmentd by the legislature to cities of the particular class &ected. These dangers would be magnified by the condiiutional amendment proposed by the legislature of leal increasing the classes of cities to seven and boroughs to three. However, it ie likely that the habit of class legislation for Pennsylvania cities will prevail in the enactment of laws making the home rule amendment effective. LEONARD P. Fox.‘ * Employment Standardhtion m Miuneapolis. -Under date of June 19, 192%. J. L. Jscobs & Company of Chicago transmitted a report of 497 printed pages on the “classification of positions and schedules of compensation” for the city of Minneapolis to the “Joint Salary Survey committee” of that city. One of the items of interest in connection with this report is that it was prepared under the direction of a “joint” official committee, composed of three representatives of the board of estimate and taxation and three representatives of the cinl service commission. The president. of the civil service commission acted as chairman of the joint committee. To all appearances this rather unusual arrangement is the result of a compromise between two different viewpoints as to whether the employment agency of government or the budget agency should perform the function of classifying positions and recommendThe scheme of classiscation mers only slightly from those used by J. L. Jacobs & Company in other cities. Of course, each private consulting 6rm has its own preferencea in this matter. The result ia‘that we have at least ~9 many merent schemes of classification aa we have private consulting firms engaged in classiying positions in the public aervice. Perhaps at thin atage of development in employment standardization something is still to be gained from experimentation with various ideas; but before long, let us hope. we can get together on a uniOne other feature of the report that deserves attention even in this brief note, is the proposed salary schedule. During and shortly after the World War it appeared to be quite generally recognkd that public salaries had fallen behind in the upward procession of prices, and “standardizers” regularly recommended increases in pay IResearch Mansger, Pennsylvania State Chamber of Cornmeroe. ing standard rates of pay. form plan.

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102 for practically every class of employment. Apparently this tendency has come to a halt. The Minneapolis report in effect recommends a salary cut, though present incumbents of pitiom are not to be reduced. Even the maximum rates iu the new schedule fall slightly below the existing level of salaries; and the minimum rates wouldlowerthat level by’Il.2per cent.’ Whether this schedule would keep intact the pre-war purchasing power of municipal salaries and wages cannot be gleaned from the report. Not all clsseecl of workers, however, are faced with a reduction in standards of pay. Some of them, principally brain-workers, are to have alight advances. This is true of employes in the educational service, the investigating and 1Thh appliea to pmitiona other than thane in the eduoational service for which the enlary raten sullgested are approximately the aame 88 those adopted by the Board of Eduoation itoelf and are slightly higher than existing rated. LI. CIVIC NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW February CONTEUBUTED BY m AXERICAM Cmc ASSOCIATION examining service. the legal service, the library service, the professional engineering service, the scientific and laboratory service, the stationary engine operation service. and the domestic and institution senice. On the other hand, the most drastic cuts are proposed for the fire fighters, for employes in the guard and detention service, for unskilIed laborers, and for polioemen. Fellow-suEerer8 with them, if the report is adopted aa it stands, will be those who are in the. following servicea: clerical and administrative; alstodial and building maintenance; inspedional; medical; nursing; park maintenance and recreation; portable equipment operation; echo01 and janitor-enginemen; skilled and semiskilled trade; sub-professional engineering; and supervisory skilled trade and labor. Copies of the report can be secured at tha office of the board of estimate and taxation, City Hall, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Ww C. BEYICB. COMMENT Mr. J. C. Nichols, vice-president of the American Civic Association. and developer of the Country Club district in Kansas City, spent the summer months studying European cities, always comparing in hia own mind the opportunities and achievements of American cities. “‘Too late’ are the esddeat won% in city planning,” comments Mr. Nichols. 4, Read LIBuilding Cities for To-morrow,” by Lucius E. Wilson. He offers a prescription “to make the public think.” This is the beginning of all good civic things. 4, The Proposed State IIaUsing Code is again up for consideration in Pennsylvania. The state department of health and the Pennsylvania Housing and Town Planning hciation are conferring with the State Chamber of Commerce to agree upon a revised draft for presentation to the legislature. 4, The Louisville Women’s City Club is taking an active part in the movement to pass a housing ordinance for the city. * In December Pmprea3, published to promote the Pittsburgh Plan, appears a picture of several handsome residences and a vacant lot. In the vacant lot is a sign which reads “For Sale-No Restrictions.” Suppose some enterprising purher erects a public garage on the property. Whst wiB happen to the peace of mind 8nd b the financial investments of those ownem of residences? * Jens Jensen, president of the Wen& of Our Native Landscape, in a talk before the City Club of Chicago, made an eloquent plea for the people of Illinois to extend their State Park Syatem. 4, The Massachusetts Fomstry Aswdatlon announces another national parks and forests tour for IQeS. More people visit their national parks each year. Why not join the 1923 patty? 9 In Visalia, California, it is claimed. is the smanest park in the world. In order to prevent the cutting of a handsome tree in the rodway, a city park waa established and curbed with a ring around the tree. and a tra5c post set facing a& direction to warn drivers to pass to the right. * Mimeographed Copies of an article in the En&m+g Nacrs-Recosd on “HOW to Lay Out

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NOTES AND EVENTS 103 nnd Build an Airplane Landing Field” by ArchiWd Black are available. Write the American Civic Associaton. * W. C. Nam of the bureau of agricultrusl emllomicB, department of agriculture, hap prepBnd Farmers’ Bulletin No. 1P74 on “Uses of Rd Community Buildings.” The rural community building is a good civic first step an is proved by the activities which Mr. Nason describes. Write the American Civic Association for a copy. * A report on Recommended Minimum Standard~ for Small Dwelling Construction is announced by the department of commerce. pnpared by the Adviaory Committee on Building Codea of which Ira H. Woolson is chaiin. Write the American Civic Association if you desire a copy. .b A new edition of the Standard State Zoning Enabling Ad has been issued by tbe division of building and housing, department of commerce. Do you desire a copy? f Tables ahowingthe acreage and appropriations for parka and playgrounds, miles of paved highways, police protection and appropriations for Pennsylvania citiea of the third class have been iseued by the bureau of publications. Pennsylvania department of internal affairs. If you desire copies write to the Ameriean Civic Association. 9 The Address of Dr. John Nolen on The Place of the Beautiful in the City Plan delivered at the Conferenoe on City Planning in Springfield, Maasachusette. has been published and is adable at 26 cents a copy. 9 State Fkks-Following the successful state park conference held last year in Palisades Interstate Park the invitation of the Indiana comervation department to hold this year’s conference early in May at the Hotel in Turkey Run State Park has been accepted. Indurn hsa developed a ueeful state park system. Those who attend the May meeting will undoubtedly be well repaid for the trip, The committeein charge of the meeting consists of Judge John Barton Payne of Chicago and Washington, chairman; Chauncey J. Ha& of Buffalo, vioe-cbairman; Alfred M. Collins of Philadelphia, treasurer; Beatrice M. Ward of Washington, secretary; Mrs. Ssmuel Sloan of New York, J. Horace McFarland of Harrisburg, Dr. Henry S. Cowles of Chicago, Edgar R. Harlan of Des Moines. Franklin W. Hopkins of the Palisades Interstate Park board, E. G. Sauers of Indianapolis and Joseph D. Grant of San Francisco. * American Civic Association”s park Rimer.The American Civic Aasociation hap issued a four-page primer entitled ‘What Everybody Should Know About Parks.” Careful definitiom are given of national parks and monuments, state and interstate parks. regional parks, city parka, city playgrounds and municipal amps. A national park is defined as “an am of mme magnitude distinguished by scenic attractions and natural wonders and beauties which are distinctly national in interest and in which the public-service value in preserving mountains, valleys. forests, lakea and streams with their characteristic plant and animal life for the ‘we and enjoyment of all the people’ distinctly outweighs the possible bene6t to the few who would profit by commercial uaes.” “A national park possessing these qualifications.” it ia stated, “deserves to be protected jealously and completely from all outside utilitarian and commercial uses.’’ The basic theory upon which dl commercial encroachments are opposed is set forth clearly. “All proposals to usc any part of a national park for utilitarian purposes imply either the &i to take the property of all for the advantage of the few, or a desire to use public property to avoid paying for what otherwise must be paid for. If it were poaible to estimate the actual caeh value of park scenery and aaeaa it against thoae who would despoil it, there would be no more applications for reservoirs in national parks.” The state park is coming into popularity and provides a way to serve the people of the country through the establishment of areas devoted to outdoor recreation near the people who would use them. New York and New Jersey. and Wiscollgin and Minnesota have joined in notable interstate parka which are administered jointly for the benefit of the people of contiguous States. The people and officials of the cities of the country would do well to heed the warning given

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104 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW February in the quotation from Mr. Capam, chaiian on park3 of the American Civic Association: “Parks me the public by preserving open spaces. Land dedicated to park purposes should not be made the site of buildings which do not serve pk purposee in the mistaken idea that an economy is effected. Such encroachments upon park areas are wmng in principle and liiely to prove exceedingly expensive.” The various types of city playgrounds a~ defined in such a way as to make clear that parks and playgrounds have distinctly diaerent qualifications in treatment and we. Municipal camps must not be mistaken for the parks since they cannot be construed as of recreational value to the town maintaining them, and are usually established because of the profitable trade they tend to attract. The primer may be secured in quantities for local educational purposes at e cents each. Sf%d4Ity. HARLEM JAMES, In. MISCELLANEOUS Mr. William I. Emhardt has been elected preaident of the City Club of Philadelphia to succeed William R. Nicholson. * A Second-Storp Tunnel for New York Traffic. -Pointing out that New York’s vehicular traffic doubles every three years, Police Commissioner Enright asks what it will be in I%%, and propow a second-story vehicular tunnel, extending from the Battery to Harlem to be cut through existing buildings. This elevated roadway would be 100 feet wide and make possible a speed of 50 miles an hour for automobiles. 4, Boston Sends Municipal CMstmas Cards,On Christmaa morning. & guest in Boston’s hotels received an attractively engraved Christmas card extending the welcome and best wishes of the mayor and citizens of Boston to the stranger within their gates. The same greeting was conveyed on the screens of all down-town motion picture theatres. 9 Mr. Thomas Adams, tow planning adviser to the Canadian government, well known in the United States and author of the League’s pamphlet on Modern City Planning, and Mr. L. Thompson, formerly assistant architect to the housing department, ministry of health, have entered into partnership for the purpose of practising an town planning consultants, with London offices at 1 Victaria Street, Westminster, s. W. 1, and New York 05ices at 18 East 4lat Street. 9 The Annual Meeting of the political Science as so cia^^ waa held in Cbicsgo, December W29. Program topics included international political science and international law. political tion. and political research. Two eeasions were devoted to committee reports and discussion of the last subject. President H. A. Garfield of Wdliams College was elected president for the year 195% and Professor Charles E. Merriam of Chicago first vice-president. Professor Frederic A. Ogg was re-elected secretary and treasurer. Other learned societies meeting at the same time and place included the American Economic Association and the American Sociological Society. * HowMuchCan You Mord to Pay far a Home? -A very real service has been rendered to the cause of home ownerehip by the division of building and housing of the department of ammerce which has recently prepared important information for the guidance of the average man in home-financing, showing the relation between the cost of a home and hia annual salary or income. The department of mmmem hau nached the conclusion that 8 man may safely own a home worth one and one-half to two and onehalf times hie annual income. After pointing out that the chief d$iculty in purcbssing a home on the idment plan lies in the fact that the payments during the first few yemn are heavier than in the latter ones, it shows, in ad&tion to the money that would ordinarily be paid out for rent, that savings or extra eargings must be devoted to the paying off of the principal on loans in order to get through thecle fht few years.-Howing Be&%mnent. theory, psychology and politics, admmstm ..