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National municipal review, May, 1925

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National municipal review, May, 1925
Series Title:
National municipal review
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National Municipal League
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Philadelphia, PA
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National Municipal League
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English

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serial ( sobekcm )

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Volume 1, Issue 1

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Auraria Library
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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
Vol. XIV, No. 5 MAY, 1925 Total No. 107
COMMENT
Oregon is not fond of the income tax. Not only has she repealed it after a brief experiment, but the legislature has referred to the people a constitutional amendment prohibiting the imposition of any inheritance or income tax until 1940. If the amendment is adopted the state may live to regret it.
*
By more than 100,000 votes Mayor Dever’s municipal ownership plan for the Chicago street Railways was defeated on April 7. Straw votes indicated that it would probably carry by a small majority, but the opposition of some important newspapers and division among Mayor Dever’s supporters were sufficient to counteract the ardent support of much of the business element. The plan was undoubtedly advantageous to the traction interests and, for the time being at least, gave the city municipal ownership in name only. A more extended analysis of the election will appear next month.
*
Indications are that there will not be less than one hundred candidates for seats in the second Cleveland council to be elected under proportional representation. Seventy-five are now in the field with their nominating petitions. At the election two years ago there were one hundred thirty-seven candidates at one time in the campaign, but this
number fell to one hundred eighteen at the finish.
♦
Adolph S. Ochs, owner and publisher of the New York Times, has made the University of Chattanooga a gift of $50,000 towards the endowment of a chair in municipal government. In explaining the purpose of his gift Mr. Ochs said:
I want to impress upon young men an appreciation of the field and the opportunity that is theirs, an opportunity not only for service but also for a career. . . . City management is fast becoming a profession, and I hope through this gift not only to aid in the development of this profession but also to give many boys an incentive and an opportunity to fit themselves for such service.
Mr. Ochs’ gift is conditioned upon friends of the University raising $150,-
000. One hundred thousand dollars of this amount has already been pledged.
♦
A bill establishing “home voting” has been introduced into the Wisconsin Senate, at the request of W. E. Hamilton. Mr. Hamilton believes that the stage has now been reached at which people can vote by mail. The bill provides procedure designed to counteract fraud.
*
England reports that it is becoming more and more difficult to find acceptable police recruits. Ninety per cent of the applicants, it is stated, never get so


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far as the examining doctor. Another 5 per cent fail to pass the education tests. The question is whether physical fitness is declining or whether the life of si policeman no longer attracts well-built young men. And if so, Why?
*
The bill, drafted by Dr. A. R. Hatton, permitting the city of Butte and the county of Silverbow to consolidate under the city manager charter, was amended by the Montana legislature at its recent session. The primary was moved up three months, and several municipal officers, namely, the sheriff, attorney and assessor, were made elective instead of appointive. Obviously this constitutes an encroachment on the sound short ballot principles incorporated by Dr. Hatton in the original act.
*
Schenectady, New York, a city of almost 100,000 population, will vote in June upon the adoption of Plan “C” charter, which provides the city manager form with a small council elected at large.
W. J. Millard, field agent of the League, will be in Schenectady during the closing days of the campaign. The election will be watched with great interest by the people of Rochester, New York, where the movement to adopt a city manager charter has attained important proportions.
*
How far we are from °£ a thoroughgoing application of the merit system in the higher political posts, and consequently the establishment of the professional idea in municipal service, is illustrated in a recent report of the New York Citizens’ Union entitled “Why is Hylan?” Another report might be written on “Why is Any Mayor?”
Hylan is unique in some ways, but in utilizing patronage to further his own ends he is no different from the average.
Of the seventy-two district leaders of the Democratic party in New York City, fifty-eight are on the city payroll, at salaries ranging from $8,500 (there is but one as low as this) to $12,000 per year. Only five hold elective office, the rest are appointed. The total annual payroll of the fifty-eight is more than $420,000 per year. In addition three district leaders hold state or national elective office.
Now the district leaders are big men in the party machine. Their tasks as political foreman are heavy and time-consuming, and it is safe to assume that a great deal of the salary paid them by the city is really compensation for their services to Tammany and Mayor Hylan.
Not all of the fifty-eight owe their place to Hylan but a change in the mayor will jeopardize the posts of those holding borough or court posts. This helps explain why A1 Smith, who dislikes Hylan, has not been able to persuade Tammany to throw him down, and his re-election this fall is generally conceded.
The fifty-eight district leader job holders are merely the front rank of a considerably larger crowd of political workers in municipal office. It will be the normal condition as long as the chief operating executive is a politician. And he will normally be a politician until the whole basis of his selection is changed.
The city manager plan does not guarantee that municipal administration will be in the hands of a non-politician. But it does provide a method by which a different sort of person can be made the city’s operating head. The job specifications for the position of city manager are quite different from those for the office of mayor.


A WINDOW DISPLAY OF “MUNICIPAL RESEARCH”
BY EDWARD THURBER PAXTON Bureau of Municipal Research of Philadelphia
Citizens learn what the municipal research bureau does, and incidentally receive some education on what the city provides its people. The cartoons here reproduced, were used in the campaign. :: ::
A window exhibit of its work was requested of the Philadelphia Bureau of Municipal Research during the most recent annual financial drive of the Welfare Federation of Philadelphia.
Exhibitions of work arranged each year by numerous member-agencies, and the service of hospitals, visiting nurses, child-caring, and family relief agencies, and similar organizations whose undertakings appeal to the emotions, are very effectively portrayed. It remained for the Bureau to try visualizing the task of studying and improving government.
The spirit of the occasion was seized by displaying, in posters which formed the “leaders” or “headlines” of the exhibit, the fact that, “ The Bureau of Municipal Research is dedicated to the task of making more effective the services
of Philadelphia's most important welfare agency, the city government.''
Under this caption, the central figure of the display was an enlargement, nine feet long, of the organization chart of the city government recently published by the Bureau. This was mounted on an easel, at eye-height to the passer-by. The portion of the chart representing the registered voters, from which lines of authority spread out, fan-like, directly or indirectly to almost every unit of the complex government, was cut away and replaced by a mirror. Accompanying the chart was the legend, “This is a picture of your city government. You''—and here an arrow pointed to the reader’s reflection in the mirror— “are responsible for its success or failure.”
50,000
people came to municipal health centers
500,000
cubic yank, of street dirt
a year removed by the city
DIVERSIFIED ACTIVITIES OF PHILADELPHIA CITY GOVERNMENT
873


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[May
In 1800 cheese could be soklataguess
NOW, it must be weighed to a fraction
In GOVERNMENT, as in GROCERIES
... guess work doesn’t go.
WE MUST USE FACTS
POSTER USED IN PHILADELPHIA WELFARE DRIVE TO SHOW THE SERVICE OF THE BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH


275
CLEANSING AND AGRICULTURE IN GLASGOW
1925]
Ribbons, in the city’s colors, ran from governmental units on the chart to cards, pictures, and models, in other parts of the window, indicating some of the benefits to citizens contributed by the city government. “Ocean Trade” was linked with the department of wharves, docks, and ferries; “Fresh Air and Sunshine,” with the division of housing and sanitation; “Legal Aid,” with the legal aid bureau. “Justice,” “Civic Beauty,” “Library Service,” “Wholesome Fun and Exercise,” “Better Health,” “Fair Weight and Measure,” “Pure Food,” “Healthy Children,” “HealthfulHomes,” “Good. Streets,” and “Good Street Lighting,” were some of the benefits shown as attributable in some part to the city’s activities. Models were shown of a new city hospital building and a combined police and fire station. Photographs showed a new school building,
a city market, the interior of a filter plant, a Frankford “L” train, and a street-cleaner at work.
Cards and posters, some illustrated with cartoons, pointed out the significance of municipal activities and citizen responsibility for them. An automatic projecting machine displayed lantern slides containing information about the city and the work of the Bureau, effectively enlivened with humorous illustrations by a nationally-known cartoonist. Numerous samples of Citizens’ Business and other Bureau publications were displayed prominently.
The exhibit attracted a great deal of attention from pedestrians on a busy section of Chestnut Street, and, undoubtedly, was instrumental in making the Bureau of Municipal Research better known to a large number of citizens.
CLEANSING AND AGRICULTURE PROFITABLY COMBINED IN GLASGOW
BY W. GREIG
Cleansing Superintendent, Glasgow
The disposal of city refuse is a problem which has perplexed many municipalities, and has taxed the ingenuity and skill of cleansing superintendents everywhere.
With the advance of science in cleansing matters, the methods of dealing with refuse have been gradually changing.
The rough-and-ready practice of depositing contents of ashpits on low lying ground, upon which later dwelling houses were erected, was rightly condemned, and other outlets had to be devised.
With the introduction of the destruc-
tor furnace the difficulties in connection with the disposal of refuse were partially dispelled. There is, however, in almost every city a considerable proportion of the refuse which is suitable for use as a fertilizer, and where there is an outlet for the material among farmers, it can as a rule be disposed of to advantage.
GLASGOW A PIONEER
But there is also a considerable quantity of material which it is impossible either to cremate or sell. It is therefore desirable for a large city, and even for one of moderate size, to possess


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[May
a stretch of land to which such spare material can be despatched. The advantages to be gained by a corporation owning land in this connection are numerous and important.
In proof of the feasibility of a municipality owning land as an adjunct to the ramifications of its cleansing establishment reference may be made to the experience of Glasgow. Glasgow was the first city in Great Britain to launch out in this direction, and may rightly be termed the pioneer of municipal agriculture.
The first attempt was made in 1879, when a stretch of bogland nine miles from the city was leased for 31 years.
When taken over the ground was absolutely useless as an agricultural subject, but it was thoroughly drained, suitable houses were erected, and a railway siding led into it. Provision was also made for tipping unsaleable refuse.
The soil being entirely of a mossy nature yielded good crops, the potatoes being of splendid quality and valuable as seed.
The only regret associated with this venture, however, was that a first-cl?as agricultural subject reverted back to the proprietor.
As a result of the Fulwood moss ground experience, the cleansing committee realized more and more the great necessity of owning land which could be reached by the different railway systems. Consequently, in 1891, when the rapid increase of the city demanded more accommodation for dealing with refuse, it was decided to purchase outright (not lease) the estate of Ryding, near Airdrie, on the L. & N. E. Railway, about eleven miles from the city.
The area then acquired was 564 acres. Since then other adjoining farms were added, thus increasing the estate to 821 acres.
POOB LAND MADE FERTILE
The land is stiff clay, and when purchased was in very poor condition, the crops then raised being light and of inferior quality.
By careful draining, however, and liberal manuring with unsaleable city refuse the land has been brought up to a high state of productiveness, and large crops of hay, oats, wheat, turnips, potatoes, etc., are raised yearly.
The next step taken in acquiring land was in 1895, when the farm of Mary-burgh, 55| acres in extent, and situated , on the L. M. & S. Railway System, was purchased as a refuse tip.
The adjoining farm of Hallbrae was also leased (purchase being impossible), the object being to provide better railway accommodation. The latter farm grows excellent crops, the soil being of superior quality.
A further acquisition was made in 1902, when the historic estate of Robroyston was purchased. The area of this property is 656 acres, and it lies within four miles from the city, on the L. M. & S. Railway System.
The ground was acquired for the purpose of providing tipping accommodation for unsaleable refuse, the raising of food and provender for the stud of the department, and also for the provision of hospital facilities. In connection with the latter scheme an area on an elevated portion of the estate was transferred to the public health department.
A considerable amount of draining and reclamation work has been done since the estate was acquired, and a large number of “unemployed” have been provided with work for a number of winters. Moss and waste lands have been reclaimed, and good crops are now grown thereon. The rest of the land is of fair, good quality, and capable of yielding good results.


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CLEANSING AND AGRICULTURE IN GLASGOW
1925]
The estate possesses historical interest owing to the fact that the betrayal of Scotland’s patriot, Sir William Wallace, took place near the old mansion-house which was demolished some years ago. A monument, erected by public subscription, now marks the spot of the Scottish hero’s betrayal. Wallace’s well, in the near neighborhood, is also a source of interest. Altogether, the estate of Robroyston is a valuable adjunct of the department.
While the mineral rights of Ryding estate are reserved, the minerals in the lands of Robroyston are the property of the corporation, and same have been leased for a period of 31 years as from Whitsunday, 1915, thus adding another source of revenue to the department. There is also a brick works on the estate which yields a good rental.
The latest purchase was made in 1924, when the estate of North Myvot, extending to 93 acres, was acquired. This estate will form a valuable adjunct to Ryding, both for agricultural purposes and for disposal of city refuse.
OPERATED WITHOUT BURDENING TAX RATES
The original cost of the estates is being wiped off by a sinking fund extending over a period of 40 years, so that in the course of time the city will possess a free asset in these valuable lands.
The cleansing committee has all along realized how important and necessary these estates have been in connection with the operations of the department, into which they dovetail so well. Mention may be made of one great advantage, viz., the benefit derived by having at command a good supply of fresh hay and feed for the large stud in the city, consisting of over 300 horses, thereby ensuring a good bill of health. That this is the case is evident from the fact that the average death rate for a
number of years back has been only a fraction over one per cent. The estates also provide a rest camp for horses requiring a change, where they are able to engage in farm work on softer ground, and after a spell return to the city fully recuperated.
During the past four seasons the department’s farming operations—in common with the experience of agriculturists throughout the land—have passed through a trying time, the cropping accounts being on the wrong side. It should be borne in mind, however, that the climatic conditions have been very bad, and in addition to the adverse weather the prices received for produce did not prove remunerative. The government, however, urge the necessity for farmers putting as much land under crop as possible, and with more favorable weather and better prices—which are now showing signs of improvement—the prospects are decidedly brighter.
Reference might also be made to the fact that, notwithstanding the depression in agricultural circles, the cost of labor is still very high. The skilled farm laborer now realizes that he is a highly trained workman and looks for his services to be remunerated on similar lines to other skilled occupations. Little fault can be found with the sons of the soil endeavoring to secure more liberal recognition; at the same time during bad seasons it tends to increase the burden of those engaged in such an uncertain calling as agriculture.
In conclusion, it is satisfactory to be able to say that, notwithstanding the lean years referred to, these estates, and the operations connected therewith, have been conducted without imposing any charge upon the rates.
As pioneers of this branch of municipal enterprise the cleansing committee of Glasgow Corporation has every reason to feel proud of the success which


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[May
has attended their efforts, and it is a further source of gratification to know that other cities and towns have recognized the importance of the step,
with the result that quite a number of other corporations have followed Glasgow’s example and now own land outside their boundaries.
INSURANCE OF MUNICIPAL BONDS
BY HORACE H. SEARS Counsellor at Law, New York City
Municipal bonds should be insured against mistakes in form and procedure of issuing. Such insurance will be particularly helpful to small cities. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: ::
The proper development of city planning requires adequate financing of construction. This cost of projects should be considered as soon as preliminary improvement plans indicate the character of new work. In a case where the city credit is impaired, if for instance, the constitutional debt limit has been reached, financing must receive primary consideration. All too frequently, the matter of financing is reserved to the last, and the public interest in a given project makes progress only to find that means of payment are not easily found.
MUNICIPAL BONDS CAN BE TREATED LIKE PRIVATE MORTGAGE BONDS
This article has reference to the small city financing and the legislation required to standardize practice in the matter of bond issues. Notes and warrants are issued under legislative authority for small amounts when emergency funds are needed. But municipal bonds have more desirable features, both for the city and for the purchaser, in most cases. The bond is considered as similar to a first mortgage on real estate. The security back of the loan is said to be real estate. The private loan, based on a mortgage of
land, has been reduced by legislative enactments and by court decisions to a position of relative certainty in the world of finance. While state laws may vary, f.i. the lien theory and title theory of mortgages, the private bond-and-mortgage-loan may be said to be “ standard practice.”
The Torrens land registration laws represent statutory procedure; the insurable features are set forth in detail and well summarized in Reeves (Real Property, Vol. II, p. 1583): “An examination of title, and adjudication by a competent court of the status and validity of such title; a certificate duly made and issued by the registrar, showing the exact condition of the title; . . . ; and in some jurisdictions, the supplying of an assurance fund, for the payment of any losses that may result from such dealings with the title.” What has been done with respect to private loans and the registration and assurance thereof may be done for municipal bonds which partake of the nature of this private mortgage bond. The success of city planning is in a measure dependent upon safeguarding the investor’s funds which purchase the municipal securities offered to secure funds for construction. This is


1925]
INSURANCE OF MUNICIPAL BONDS
particularly true in the financing of requirements of small cities. We now have various state laws which have made uniform the practice of conducting commercial activities; f.i., uniform negotiable instruments acts. It is in conformity with this practice that legislation should be had respecting state laws which will provide for a uniform municipal bond law. This should result in a standard form for municipal bond and standard procedure relating to the delivery of municipal bonds. (See Richards on Insurance Law, Vol. II, Chap. XI, “The Standard Fire Policy”.) What has been accomplished for fire insurance in standardizing forms and procedure can be had by legislative enactment on behalf of municipal bonds.
Organized effort is needed to educate the people to vote for uniform municipal bond laws. The present hit-or-miss methods relating to municipal financing of needed city improvements should be improved upon. Valid laws exist for municipal corporations to issue bonds. Unfortunately these valid laws are so varied that only where expert counsel is retained, as in the case of large issues by large cities, is there any certainty of a satisfactory check on procedure incident to the issue and delivery of municipal bonds.
The invalid bond, in the hands of an innocent purchaser for value, presents a case of double injury to the cause of public borrowing. The uncertainties above referred to often lead to the issue of bonds which are void from the start. They are usually issued “by and with the advice of counsel,” and they are sold in good faith. Some are paid at maturity, in full, and no harm is done. All too frequently, this type is issued by a city where the advice of counsel is not good, and only when the city, later, fails to pay the interest coupons, and court proceedings result,
279
have we the first indications of invalidity of the bonds.
Present laws also provide the uncertainty, which attends an issue of municipal bonds, that where there is a procedure under a valid law some irregularity in procedure may cause the bond to be declared invalid but not void. This legal distinction between invalidity, which may be corrected by subsequent proceedings, and a bond which is void from its inception, are also too numerous.
UNIFORM PROCEDURE WILL HELP BUT NOT CURE
Standard methods of procedure will help but not entirely cure defective bond issues. Proper legislation will add to the character of municipal bonds and the adverse criticism, if any, be placed with incompetent officials and not upon the legitimate loans secured by municipal bonds. The use by the city of borrowed money should be based upon the same considerations which govern commercial loans, but the municipal corporation should provide a better risk as to loans and as to insurable features than the private corporation offers. The city has an insurable interest in all public improvements. Given proper legislative power to proceed with definiteness, the city should guarantee to the purchaser the municipal bonds for all public purposes.
Owners of municipal bonds will have to be considered as well as the city. Granted that the “underlying lien,” of a special assessment district bond, is the realty of the abutting property owner, the municipal bond in theory is as well protected when issued without the “general obligation” of the city and the bond owner has only the right to foreclose against the abutting property. This is good theory, but not good practice. The cost of borrowing money is less when the “ general obliga-


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tion” of the city is pledged, compared with the limited liability of the abutting property of the special assessment district. What chance for enforcement of this lien rests with an isolated bond owner of a “limited liability” bond? Some states provide a merely nominal fee for collection in such cases which is entirely inadequate for legal proceedings. These improvements are in the nature of “fixtures” to the realty. They improve the city and add to its assessed valuation. Refusal by purchasers of municipal bonds to take anything but “ general obligation ” bonds would result in the passing of adequate legislation to enable a city to pledge its “full faith and credit” in all cases in which bonds are issued by it for municipal corporate purposes.
INSURANCE NEEDED
The city should pledge its credit— in commercial parlance, “indorse its securities”—when bonds, notes or warrants are issued to pay for public improvements. The next step which
the city should take is certification to prospective purchasers of its securities that its procedure has been “insured” by a recognized company of underwriters; that its sinking fund provisions for payment of the bonds at maturity are likewise “underwritten”; and that the bond contract is statutory in form, and clearly represents a promise to pay which is evidenced by the “full, faith and credit” of its corporate resources. A loan based on a promise of this kind should result in lower construction costs and less interest charges.
Insurance would also serve as a protection against cost of litigation concerning procedure. This applies particularly to the small city and should give the additional guarantee of validity which will enable the city to borrow money at the lowest rates. If the legal effect of a municipal bond is similar to the private mortgage bond, then insurance should obtain for the municipal bond as it now does for the realty mortgage of the private individual.


HOW LOS ANGELES IS SPENDING HER POWER BONDS
BY MAJOR CARL A. HEENZE Engineer, Electric Distribution, Los Angeles Bureau of Power and Light
What has been done since the city took over the electric light and power systems. :: ::
In 1917, the population of Lo3 Angeles was approximately 500,000; in 1922, it had increased to approximately 800,000. In 1917, negotiations were entered into between the city and the Southern California Edison Company for the purchase of the entire electrical distributing system of the Southern California Edison Company and the Pacific Light and Power Company within the limits of Los Angeles.
This deal was not fully consummated until May, 1922, and during that interim 800,000 people moved to Los Angeles.
Because they fully expected to turn over their lines at any time, and because they realized that the city had plans of its own regarding future extensions, only the minimum amount of maintenance work was done upon that electrical system. When the city took over the lines of the Edison Company in 1922, it found itself facing the necessity of consolidating three complete electrical systems into one; it found itself faced with the problem of rebuilding two of those systems, the Pacific Light and Power System and the Edison System, to bring them up to date. Extensions to take care of new people coming at the rate of
100,000 per year were imperative.
There was on hand at the time
Ed. Note. This article is based upon an address delivered before the Los Angeles City Club in February.
$1,000,000 of unexpended bond money. This, together with the surplus earned during the year 1922-23, provided funds to cany on, to a limited extent, until the $16,000,000 bond issue was voted in 1924.
The $16,000,000 bond issue provided for the following major items of construction and betterments:
10 substations...................... $3,000,000
Transmission lines and rights of
way................................ 3,500,000
Transportation,' warehouses, pole
yards and general structures.... 500,000
Street lighting systems................ 500,000
Betterments to the overhead and underground distribution systems 4,250,000
Extensions for new business, including addition of Edison System in newly annexed territory..... 10,000,000
It will be noted that this totals more than $16,000,000. The difference will be made up during the ensuing years from surplus earnings.
ACTIVITY SINCE LAST SEPTEMBER
What has been accomplished since September 1 with moneys made available by the $16,000,000 bond issue?
To date, we have purchased $1,750,-000 worth of new material; 1200 employees have been added to the payroll of the bureau of power and light, practically doubling the personnel. More than 2,300,000 pounds of copper wire have been purchased and because ready money was available at the
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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
opportune time, the department was able, through advantageous purchases, to effect a saving of more than $50,000 on the purchase of this wire. 18,000 poles have been purchased in the same period of time, and as in the case of the wire, because of ready money and advantageous purchases, the bureau was able to purchase them at a saving of approximately $50,000.
More than 1,200,000 pounds of the copper wire purchased has already been installed in the system and more than 6,000 of the poles have already been set.
The bureau has purchased the necessary 35,000 volt underground cable, the largest of its kind in the country, for installation between the central receiving station at North Main Street and the Los Angeles River, and Station No. 12 at Fourth and Main, and from there to Station No. 9 at Ninth and Francisco Streets. The installation of this high voltage underground transmission cable will involve an expenditure of more than $500,000 and is necessary because large blocks of power must be brought in to the congested down-town district wh’re tall buildings and traffic prohibit the use of distribution lines or transmission lines strung upon tall poles.
This underground cable has been constructed in accordance with specifications prepared by the bureau’s engineers, and is based upon more than four years’ successful operation of a similar cable in use in the bureau’s system which was the first cable of its kind ever installed and successfully operated in the United States. The bureau, keeping pace with the progress and expansion of the city, in the past six months has installed more than one mile of underground conduit line in the business district for the purpose of removing from the streets overhead poles and wires, thus clearing up the
[May
streets where heavy congestion in business districts exists.
The new substation in the Hollywood District has been completed and represents an expenditure of $400,000 for the most modem substation known in the electrical industry to-day. The cost per kilowatt or unit of this substation compares very favorably, and in most instances less, than that in other cities of the United States. The Hollywood district has been changed over as regards the voltage of the supply lines, from 2,200 to 4,400 volts. This has resulted in materially improved service in Hollywood and has eliminated completely the frequent complaints which came formerly from this district.
The basement for Substation No. 5 at Ninth and Mateo Streets has been finished, and construction work is under way upon that station, which is similar to the one in Hollywood, and which will supply the industrial district in the vicinity of Ninth and Santa Fe Avenue.
Property has been purchased for three more of the 16 substations specified in the bond issue.
10,000 new meters have been installed since September 1 and more are being added at the rate of approximately 1500 per month.
UNIT INVESTMENT COST LOW
Since September 1, more than 55 miles of ornamental street lighting systems have been connected up in the City of Los Angeles. It might be of interest to note that one of the large manufacturing concerns has advised us that we are purchasing more equipment for ornamental street lighting systems in Los Angeles than almost the entire remaining portion of the United States put together.
The budget submitted for the $16,-000,000 bond issue called for the construction of 40 new feeder or supply


1925] HOW LOS ANGELES IS SPENDING POWER BONDS 283
circuits; 16 of these circuits have already been constructed. These have a capacity or the ability, to supply and handle more than 1000 horse power of electrical energy each. New warehouses, machine shops garages and pole yards have been constructed, or are under construction now at various points throughout the city. The bureau’s budget for operation and construction calls for an expenditure of $9,000,000 for labor and material during the year 1925.
When the $21,000,000 capital expenditure is added to the present capital investment of the distribution system of the bureau of power and light, what will we have for our money? It is easy enough to talk of spending $16,000,000, but unless we get value received for our expenditure, this talk will avail us nothing. Our studies show that with the expenditure or addition of the $16,000,000 to the present capital investment, the distribution system will show a unit cost of $230 per kilowatt of consumer’s demand at the central receiving station. This unit cost compares very, very favorably, indeed, with costs of other distribution systems of a like character throughout the country, where the cost at present runs anywhere from
$250 to more than $400 per kilowatt of demand.
In 1927, the people of Los Angeles should, and will, have one of the most modern, efficient and complete electrical distributing systems anywhere in the country, and at a cost per unit much lower than any other system in the country. A record to be proud of and one in keeping with the progress, prosperity and foresightedness of the citizens of Los Angeles.
We will have a complete electrical distribution system capable of distributing 250,000 kilowatts of electricity. The generating system will be capable of supplying not over one-half of this unless immediate steps are taken to provide additional sources of power. At the present time the bureau is generating two-thirds of the energy being distributed and purchasing the other one-third, and it is paying at wholesale prices as much for the other one-third as it costs to generate the two-thirds in its own plants.
If Los Angeles is to move forward and to keep pace with its possibilities, it must have a complete electrical system from the generating sources to the consumer’s meters, and immediate steps should be and must be taken to provide this additional source of power.


CHIEF ELEMENTS OF CONTROVERSY IN PUBLIC UTILITY RATE MAKING
II. DEPRECIATION AS A DEDUCTION IN VALUATION
BY JOHN BADER
Public Utility Consultant, New York City
In the preceding analysis, depreciation was treated from the standpoint of determining the cost of service. We shall now consider depreciation in relation to investment or the determination of “fair value” for rate-making purposes. The total cost of service includes interest or return upon investment. Our problem, therefore, is to determine at any point the amount of the investment entitled to a return in rate making.
If the accounts throughout have been systematically kept on the cost basis the property accounts have been charged with the cost of all new units installed, and the depreciation reserve has been credited with all of the amounts included in the cost ot service for depreciation. As property was abandoned and retired from service, its original cost was taken out of the property account and deducted from the depreciation reserve. Consequently, at any given time the net investment consists of the original cost of all the properties in service as shown by the property accounts, less the amount of the depreciation reserve applicable to those properties.
The depreciation reserve at any moment shows the extent to which the original cost of the properties then in service has already been charged to past cost of operation. The difference between the original cost of the properties and the reserves is the amount of such original cost applicable to future
operation. This balance is the net investment in the properties on which a return would be based for the full determination of the cost of service.
NO CONFISCATION INVOLVED
Frequently the charge is made that deducting the depreciation reserve from the cost of the properties results in confiscation of the investment. This claim, however, is based upon an erroneous conception of what actually takes place in carrying out the cost apportionment through the depreciation charges. It overlooks the fact that the very charge for depreciation each year places so much of the burden upon the consumers and directly reimburses the company for the amount of the charge. This is then automatically locked up in the business and serves immediately to renew the amount of the property consumed in service and charged to the cost of operation.
If this procedure is clearly visualized, we see that there can be no confiscation of investment. As the costs are charged to expenses, they are forthwith made good through the rates paid by the consumers and through funds actually retained in the business. While the addition to the reserve shows so much of a decrease in the then existing property investment, this is immediately and automatically counterbalanced by the funds added to the business through the depreciation


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charge and the payment of the rates based on the charge.
For illustration: Assume that $100,000 has been invested in properties and that 5 per cent of the cost is charged to depreciation for the first year of operation. To correspond with this charge, we have a depreciation reserve which means a deduction of $5,000 from the $100,000 property cost, leaving a net investment of $95,000 applicable to future operation. But simultaneously, the depreciation charge which is carried to the reserve retains in the business $5,000 of current revenue funds which otherwise would have been shown as return. This $5,000 is thus added to the permanent assets of the company and counterbalances forthwith the reduction in the net physical property items. It furnishes the direct renewal or replacement of the depreciation. At the end of the year, therefore, the company has $95,000 of net property, plus $5,000 current funds to be used for the financial benefit of the service, and the total net investment remains at $100,000 as at the beginning of the year.
The course of depreciation charges with the reserves deducted from the property costs does not and cannot result in confiscation. But it does provide for the full and immediate maintenance of the investment so as to prevent any dissipation and to provide for the regular and constant renewal of impaired property items.
SYSTEMATIC COST ACCOUNTING NOT USUALLY MAINTAINED
Once more let us re-state that where scientific accounting has been followed, the net investment entitled to return is equal to the original cost of all the properties and assets in service, less the depreciation reserve. The latter indicates the amount of the original cost already charged to past operation,
and the net shows the amount applicable to future operation. This is the investment entitled to a return.
Unfortunately, however, in perhaps the great majority of cases no such systematic cost accounting has been maintained. Both the charges to property accounts and to operating expenses are unreliable, without any clear relation to cost. Consequently, in practical rate making the problem is to determine the amount of the investment in the absence of reliable cost accounting figures.
In all such cases where the investment is not shown by the accounts, an appraisal is necessary. If an inventory is made of all the properties and the items are priced at the estimated original cost of installation, and if then the depreciation is computed and deducted from the total original cost, we have a direct substitute figure for the investment that would have been shown under proper accounting. An appraisal, therefore, on the basis of the original cost of the properties less estimated depreciation, gives the equivalent net investment on which a return would be allowed under a consistent cost basis of rate making. The amount deducted for depreciation would include an equivalent sum for all property costs properly charged to past cost of service and not to be placed as a burden upon future consumers.
EQUALITY OF TREATMENT
The valuation of properties on the basis of original cost less depreciation, is not offered because of its technical nicety in substituting the amount for net investment that would have been shown under scientific accounting.
This method of appraisal, particularly the deduction for depreciation, is offered on the basis of its own inherent reasonableness. In view of the great increase in price level during the


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past ten years, there is a question of justice whether the inventory should be priced in the first instance at original •cost or should make some allowance for reproduction cost; this will be treated in a later paper. But the deduction for depreciation corresponds with the •common sense of dealing with plant and equipment realties. If it were not made, all properties would be regarded as of equal importance in the valuation, whether brand new and in every way suitable for operation, or old and on the point of discard. Property does depreciate, because of wear and tear, obsolescence and inadequacy. Old plant and equipment notwithstanding their immediate usefulness, are not as serviceable as new facilities just installed, not worn, and fully meeting the up-to-date requirements of service. The depreciation deduction in the appraisal serves to place all properties on an equal footing. As old units are not on a par of complete serviceability with the new, the difference is represented by the depreciation ■deduction.
Take two units, one new with full serviceability, the other old with greatly reduced serviceability. Equality in the appraisal is obtained if the lull cost of the first is recognized, and if a deduction for depreciation is made for the second equivalent to the relatively reduced serviceability for future operation.
As a matter of practical procedure, it would be absurd, in the case of a power plant, to appraise on equal footing at cost new, modern units of
30.000 or 60,000 kw. capacity with full serviceability, and old units of
5.000 kw. capacity which are used only as reserve equipment and not for the regular load of the plant. Likewise, it would be absurd to treat new cars meeting all present-day transportation requirements, equally with old cars
[May
regardless of the wear and tear, inadequacy and other unsuitability to future needs of transportation. Anyone acquainted with utility properties knows that there is the greatest diversity of condition between the different classes and units of plant and equipment. It is these variations that are taken into account by the depreciation deduction, which represents costs belonging to past operation and places old property on par with new in determining present investment and fixing the cost for future operation and ratemaking.
IB THE RESERVE NEEDED ?
The objection is often made that the depreciation reserve may reach 30 to 40 per cent of the original cost of the properties and is not needed; consequently, why should it be accumulated?
This question is usually offered as a solar plexus to the depreciation view. But the blow does not connect. It is wasted in the shadow of confusion as to what actually is involved in the depreciation procedure. The reserve is a mere statistical and accounting measurement as to the extent that existing property costs have been or should have been written off to the past cost of operation. It is needed for the purpose of this record and nothing more. This is its sole function.
The question shows a confusion of the reserve with the funds that are simultaneously locked up, as previously explained, through the depreciation process. These funds, however, as retained from revenues are needed and are used for the regular financial benefit of the properties. They serve directly for physical replacements, for additions and improvements, for working capital, or for other benefits of the properties. There can be no question of their being needed to conserve fully the investment, to


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maintain the proper standards of service for the consumers, and to equalize the cost of service charged to different generations of consumers.
BULE OF SEASON
In any practical appraisal, however, we must recognize that rules of thumb cannot be blindly applied. A careful investigation of the properties must be made, and the depreciation deduction should be determined according to the facts that are found.
We have in mind especially that the so-called straight-life method of computing depreciation should not be followed with an arbitrary rigidity, or in individual cases it may lead to wrong and unjust results. If, say, for power plant equipment an average economic life of twenty years is found to be generally correct, this may not apply to the conditions of a particular
property where given units may be fifteen years old and yet have much greater serviceability than the indicated five remaining years; or considerably less. Similarly, carefully estimated life for any class of property does not apply to all cases, and the particular considerations in each instance must control in computing the depreciation deduction.
The rule of reason, or common sense, must be employed in estimating the past accrued depreciation of existing properties. A reasonable and justifiable amount should be determined. The deduction then eliminates the costs that properly belong to past operation and leaves the net investment applicable to future purposes. To such a deduction there can be no reasonable and valid objection, if we assume that rate making should be based upon the cost of service.
STATUS OF ZONING IN NEW JERSEY
BY PAUL STUDENSKY
Director of Research, New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce
The legality of zoning has been questioned in New Jersey, but it was improper zoning which was condemned, and enlightened cities are proceeding under a new act. :: :: :: :: :: :: ::
Thebe has been a growing appreciation in New Jersey in recent years of the need of zoning the cities and towns so as to segregate business structures from residences, control the height of buildings and otherwise regulate the use of land so as to promote the health, safety and general welfare of the people. A series of laws have been enacted since 1918 permitting such zoning by means of municipal ordinances. Over sixty municipalities have enacted ordinances
under this law to date, so that to-day New Jersey leads the country in the number of municipalities zoned.
NUTLET CASE DISCOUBAGED SOME
The courts sustained the provisions of the zoning ordinances in most of the cases in which they were attacked such as cases involving the exclusion of garages from residential districts. But about a year ago a case occurred in which a reverse decision was rendered.


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This was the now famous Nutley case 1 in which the right of the municipality to prohibit the erection of a grocery in a district designated as residential was challenged. It was felt by many friends of zoning that this case was not representative of good zoning inasmuch as the store in question would have been located a considerable distance away from the nearest habitation; that the arguments and evidence submitted in the case by the defense were far from convincing; and that it was consequently not at all surprising that an unfavorable decision in the instance should have been rendered. Realizing, however, that the adverse decision was likely to hurt the cause of zoning in the state, the New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce joined with the State League of Municipalities in the submission of briefs as amici curiae to the court of last resort appealing the decision. Frank H. Sommer, dean of New York University Law School, submitted the brief on behalf of the State Chamber and several associated local chambers of commerce, and Spaulding Frazer submitted one on behalf of the League of Municipalities. The court of errors sustained the decision of the lower court, but it did so on the ground that the zoning ordinance of Nutley went beyond the powers granted by the law. It did not pass on the constitutional question which the lower court raised and decided adversely. The constitutionality of the law (or rather provision of it which was attacked) remained, therefore, unimpaired—a fact which caused those who intervened to rejoice.
In examining the reasons for the Nutley decision, the advocates of zoning reached the conclusion that the law itself was to some extent at fault in the matter. At the time it was en-
1 See National Municipal Review for August, 1944, p. 457.
[May
acted relatively little experience was available. Consequently the law was not as satisfactory and comprehensive as it should have been. It failed to provide the machinery for an effective review of the acts of the officials enforcing the ordinances. Steps were taken to cure this defect. The old law was repealed and a new one enacted in its place which embodied the results of the experience and researches in the field of zoning and the country over for the past several years.2 This law provided for the establishment of boards of adjustment to which property owners complaining of the acts of building inspectors could submit their cases for adjustment and review. These boards were given the power to modify the application of an ordinance wherever peculiar circumstances arise which make the enforcement of the letter of the ordinance difficult.
All that is required of them in such cases is to preserve the spirit of the ordinance. This gives them considerable latitude and makes the ordinance elastic. If the property owner is still dissatisfied, after the board has rendered its decision, he can appeal to the court for a writ of certiorari that would compel the board to show why it has rendered the decision and would bring the case under review. The court may modify or set aside the decision of the board giving it an opportunity to make another readjustment or render another decision. This procedure is very different from the one pursued under the old law. There the appeal was made for a writ of mandamus that would compel the city to issue the permit applied for; and the legality of the ordinance or constitutionality of the law, rather than the justice of the acts
! The so-called “ Model Zoning Act,” described and annotated by Mr. Edward M. Bassett in the pamphlet on “ Zoning Practice ” issued by the Regional Plan of New York.


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of the officials, was challenged. No leeway was given to the city to tackle the case again and make another adjustment.
Most of the municipalities availed themselves of the new law, amended the ordinances establishingthese boards and went ahead with zoning on the new and better basis. Some of the municipalities, however, interpreted the Nut-ley decision in the sense that it invalidated zoning, and ceased to proceed with their zoning plans.
The fact that following the Nutley case, the zoning ordinances were attacked in several cities and the plaintiffs there secured the permits, at the order of the courts, despite the ordinance, added to their consternation. In order to consolidate the defense of zoning and encourage the faltering municipalities to go ahead, the State League of Municipalities, at the suggestion of Herbert Swan, undertook to create a legal department to be jointly supported by the municipalities which could act for them in all zoning litigation.
GOVERNOR SILZER’s ATTITUDE
Governor Silzer took a hand in the situation. Following a conference with the judges held last January in order to determine their views, he sent a message to the legislature coming out strongly in favor of zoning and suggesting an amendment of the state constitution specifically permitting zoning and the enactment of a law that would permit property owners who felt themselves injured by a zoning ordinance to sue the municipality for damages. The Governor’s message was in part as follows:
Our unfortunate experience has been that after attractive suburban communities have been established, manufacture and business, pushing their way out of the more thickly populated centers, constantly encroach upon these attractive suburban communities, with the result that
the communities are destroyed for suburban purposes, and those seeking the comforts of suburban life are being driven farther and farther away from the place of their daily occupations and subjected to the additional inconvenience of travel.
I do not believe that we can longer afford to neglect this condition. Our experience up to this time has shown us that many who would be most desirable citizens would erect handsome homes and establish themselves in our communities have been driven from here into other states because of our failure to provide proper zoning restrictions as well as proper transit facilities.
Many of them have gone to New York, where protection is given them by zoning laws and where they are assured that, once having erected a handsome home in a suburban community, the character of that community will not change.
In this way we have been deprived not only of those who would have added to the quality of our citizenship, but also a large amount of ratables as well.
I believe that our failure to meet the requirements has been of real damage to the state and that it is going to be of lasting and permanent injury if we do not act soon.
It is easily possible to provide for business and manufacture and for residential requirements as well. The whole character and type of our communities within easy reach of the large cities will be determined beyond possibility of change if we do not act soon. The experience of other states has been that they must provide for both manufacture and business on the one hand and comfortable suburban residential life on the other. A little more delay and the matter will not be possible.
I cannot emphasize too strongly what this would mean to the state and the natural exodus from the state to other places if we continue our present policy.
The State Chamber of Commerce called a conference of all the agencies interested in the subject for March 10, 1925, in Trenton to consider the ways and means of strengthening the zoning movement in the state. The Trenton Chamber of Commerce co-operated in the arrangements. About 150 citizens, representatives of municipalities or chambers of commerce, attended.


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Lawson Purdy, for fifteen years president of the New York City Board of Taxation and vice-chairman of the zoning commission that drew New York city’s zoning ordinance, spoke on the protection of property through zoning. Mr. Purdy emphasized that it was every man’s privilege to use and enjoy his property in every way, provided that he does not interfere with his neighbor’s enjoying similar privileges. Just as the congestion of traffic requires its regulation so that every vehicle or person should have a right of way so today does, in his judgment, the congestion of business and habitation require the regulation of the use of property.
Zoning, he said, is a part of city planning, the difference between the two being that whereas the latter is public regulation of the use of public and private land, the former is public regulation of the use of private land only. Zoning must always be so directed as to enhance the value of land and conserve the value of buildings. This principle was incorporated in the charter of the city of New York. Private covenants endeavor to do that, he said, but they are dangerous in that they may run so long as to outlive the conditions which call for them or so short as to expire when these conditions still continue.
J. David Stern, editor and publisher of the Camden Daily Courier, urged a campaign of education that would make zoning understood by the man on the street. Graphic illustrations by means of pictures and models showing the difference between cities that are zoned and those that are not, according to Mr. Stern, would bring the advantages of zoning home to the people sooner than any other method.
ZONING STILL CONSTITUTIONAL
Spaulding Frazer, chairman of the zoning committee of the League of
[May
Municipalities, spoke on the erroneous impression which some people had gained that zoning was dead in New Jersey because of the Nutley decision. The constitutional status of zoning, he said, has in no way been impaired by the decision. It has been strengthened by the new law. F. W, Carstarphen, chairman of the Trenton zoning commission, made the point that the rights of property just as the rights of liberty are not absolute but are regulated by law and that the value of the zoning ordinances is that it clearly declares what the property rights of the citizens are.
Edward M. Bassett, former chairman of the New York city zoning commission, compared the boards of adjustment provided by the new law to the boards of assessment. If a property owner feels that the assessment made by the assessor is wrong, said Mr. Bassett, he does not appeal to the court for the protection of his constitutional rights but takes the matter up with the board of assessment. If he did otherwise and made such an appeal, the court would dismiss it and direct him to take the matter up with the board. Similarly under the procedure provided by the zoning law, the court would refer the appeals from the acts of a building inspector to the board of adjustment recognizing that the city does not want to do injustice to any property owner but wants to be reasonable and fair. The trouble under the old law in the Nutley case in his opinion was that the city had the power of issuing a blank prohibition without the power to adjust the case in accordance with the rules of reason. Mr. Bassett emphasized the difference between private restrictions which are covenants made by contract and zoning. Anything, he said, can go into the private covenants, but only such restrictions as are for the benefit of the entire community can go into a zoning ordinance. The two


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belong to different spheres of action. Each has its own legal method.
All the speakers spoke in opposition to the proposal to permit suits for damages on account of a zoning ordinance. The proposal, it was said, is based upon a wrong presumption that zoning can damage property. If it does that, it Was said, then it is not good zoning. Zoning properly conceived and carried out benefits all property owners. Assemblyman Black, the introducer of the bill which incorporates this proposal, declared that the criticisms advanced against it have convinced him that the measure is unwise and announced that he will not press it for passage in the legislature.
AMENDMENT DEEMED UNNECESSARY BY MANY
On the question of a constitutional amendment a difference of opinion developed, some of the speakers considering it unnecessary until such time at least as the courts have definitely declared zoning outside the police power of the state. The agitation for such an amendment in their opinion would be equivalent to an admission that zoning has no constitutional status in the state and would tend to discourage the municipalities to carry it on with the result that the orderly development of the communities and the protection of property would suffer. Zoning would still be left open to attack under the Federal Constitution. Others urged it on the ground that it would definitely settle the legal status of zoning.
A resolution introduced by Frank H. Sommer, chairman of the committee on Regional Co-operation of the State Chamber was adopted, which was as follows:
1. That we declare our conviction that the comprehensive zoning of our municipalities is essential to their orderly development.
2. That in our judgment the existing statute
of this state provides for comprehensive zoning with adequate safeguards against arbitrary exercise of the powers thereby conferred, and that we urge on our municipalities that they promptly bring their zoning ordinances into accord with this statute.
S. That we believe that the provisions of this statute are, in fact, directly and immediately related to the public health, safety, morals and the public welfare.
4. That we do not favor suggested legislation which carries a tacit admission that comprehensive zoning lies beyond the police power of the state, and provides for the making of compensation by municipalities adopting zoning ordinances to the owners of lands affected.
5. That in our judgment the enactment of the suggested legislation providing for compensation will stay temporarily, and perhaps permanently, the progress of the zoning of our municipalities, and so delay indefinitely the meeting of public needs that are greatly and immediately pressing.
6. That we refer to the board of trustees of the New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce the question as to the merits of the proposal that the constitution of the state be amended with reference to zoning, in view of the apparent difference of opinion on that question.
7. That we endorse the proposal of the League of Municipalities to create a legal department to be maintained jointly by the municipalities members of the League, devoted to the defense of the zoning act, in order that action shall be consistent and guided by special study.
8. That we urge the State Chamber of Commerce, the local chambers of commerce, and the State League of Municipalities to join to bring together the facts demonstrating the relation of comprehensive zoning to public life, health, morals and the public welfare, and that comprehensive zoning does not take private property for public use, but provides against abuse and falls within the police power of the state.
9. That we urge upon these bodies joint action in an educational campaign to reinforce and strengthen public opinion as to the fundamental basis upon which zoning rests and the public object which is its end.
The amendment of the state constitution with reference to zoning was passed by the legislature and will have to be acted on again next session before it is submitted to the people for a vote.


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ENCOURAGING DEVELOPMENTS
A tendency has been evident recently on the part of the officials vested with the administration of zoning to handle the cases, in which an ordinance is attacked, much more carefully in their initial stages than ever before. It is being recognized that the initial handling very largely determines the whole future course of the case. Thus in Montclair and Newark in two recent cases, the board of adjustment took exhaustive evidence as to whether the refusal of the city in that instance to issue the permit is really necessary from the point of view of health, safety and general welfare of the people. Fire insurance experts, the chiefs of the fire, health and police departments, the engineers of the water, sewer and street cleaning departments and others were made to testify. Thus a strong case was built up from the very foundation. Should these cases be appealed by the property owners, the courts would have before them very substantial evidence in support of the cities. Heretofore, generally, attempts to introduce evidence have been postponed until the case has gone to the courts on appeal
from the action of the city, when it is not easy to build up a record.
A very encouraging decision was rendered recently in a Newark case, in which a realtor who was refused by the building inspector a permit for the construction of a group of garages appealed to the supreme court, disregarding the existence of the board of adjustment. The court refused his application pointing out the existence of a board of adjustment and the provision of the law requiring that appeals must first be submitted to it and saying that the “realtor must exhaust the remedy through such agencies as the legislature has set up for that purpose before applying for the allowance of the discretionary writ of this court.” Thus the board was recognized and given a legal status of adjustment and the procedure provided by the new law was validated by the court.
It is felt by many that what is needed most at the present juncture is the confidence of the people in the soundness and justice of zoning. The legal difficulties must not be permitted to loom too prominently in the situation. They will wane.


THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY IN PHILADELPHIA
A STUDY IN POLITICAL PATHOLOGY
BY AUSTIN F. MACDONALD University of Pennsylvania
The members of the Philadelphia council are all Republicans. There isn’t a Democrat among them. :: :: :: :: :: ::
In the Ohio town of Brand Whitlock’s boyhood memories there lived a solemn gentleman who always walked slowly and with bowed head. Whitlock records that this man puzzled and disturbed him. What deep sorrow, he wondered, caused this melancholy? But one day he learned the awful truth; the fellow was a Democrat! The mystery was solved to young Whitlock’s complete satisfaction. He had never seen a Democrat before, but he felt sure that they all must walk with bowed heads, conscious of their lack of communion with the rest of mankind.
Much the same situation prevails in Philadelphia to-day. There are some Democrats, of course, but so few that they count for nothing on election day. The Republican organization dominates Quaker City politics. In the fall of 1924, preceding the presidential election, about 38,000 men and women registered as Democrats. This figure, it is true, fails to reveal the entire strength of the Democratic party. Many failed to register. Some transferred their allegiance temporarily to Senator La Follette. But many Republicans also stayed at home or joined hands with the third party, and yet nearly 430,000 voters registered as members of the Republican party. At the following election six times as many votes were cast for Coolidge as for Davis, the Republicans carrying
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every one of the city’s forty-eight wards for the first time in a presidential election since 1872. Even the Sixth Ward, the last stronghold of the Democrats, swung into the G. O. P. column. So dominant is the position of the Republican organization that it could foster a third party at almost any municipal election and safely transfer to it enough votes to make it the party of the opposition.
DEMOCRATS ONCE HAD A CHANCE
The Democrats have not always been a hopeless minority in Philadelphia politics. In fact, a delegate to the Pennsylvania constitutional convention of 1872-73 declared: “We have in the city of Philadelphia the two great political parties as nearly equally divided as parties ever have been in a community of an equal number of voters.” When Andrew Curtin was elected the first Republican governor of Pennsylvania in 1860 his Democratic opponent carried the Quaker City with a plurality of two thousand votes. The next year, however, the Republicans elected the mayor for the first time in the city’s history. Public opinion strongly favored the war, and the Irish-controlled Democratic machine strenuously opposed it. From that time on the Democrats of Philadelphia were usually fighting a losing battle, though never without some


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hope of victory. They elected the mayor in 1868, and again in 1881. In 1882 and also in 1890 Robert Pattison, a Democrat, was chosen governor of the state, though the city went Republican at both elections. Republican victories were the rule, but by small pluralities. After 1890, however, the deterioration of the Democratic party became rapid. The Democrats carried ten wards in 1890, and one ward in 1894. In the mayoralty election of 1891 they captured eight wards, and only two four years later.
The presidential elections of the period served to emphasize the Democratic collapse, the number of their wards shrinking from eight in 1892 to one in 1896. So clearly was the tide turning against them that many of the Democratic leaders in each ward met in clubs and saloons and voted upon the question of becoming Republicans. Most of them favored the change, and thereupon shifted their allegiance. But there were a few, of course, who refused to leave the Democratic fold, among them Tommy Ryan, the leader of the Sixth Ward. Ryan was a likable fellow, who knew his friends and stood by them. He agreed to give the support of his ward to the Republican organization at crucial times in exchange for political immunity, and so a tacit alliance was formed between the Sixth Ward Democrats under Ryan’s leadership and the Republicans of the remainder of the city. During the last thirty years the Democrats have seldom captured more than this one ward at any election, and occasionally even it has been found in the Republican column, as it was in 1924.
CAUSES OF DEMOCRATIC ECLIPSE
The reasons for this decadence are difficult, if not impossible, to determine. There are only one or two other large cities in the United States
[May
where a single party so completely controls the government. In many of the largest cities the Democrats have a substantial working majority. Camden, just across the river from Philadelphia, can usually be depended upon to produce a substantial Democratic majority. Philadelphia manufacturers are doubtless interested in the maintenance of a high protective tariff, but no more so than the manufacturers of Democratic Boston. Religion seems to have nothing to do with the matter. If we assume a tacit alliance between the Democratic party and the Roman Catholic church, we should expect to find the cities with the smallest percentages of Catholics most completely under Republican control. But such is not the case. Philadelphia has a smaller percentage of Catholics than most of the large cities, while Boston has about the largest. But New York city, where Tammany holds sway, has a very much smaller percentage of Roman Catholics than Philadelphia—smaller, in fact, than any other large city in the United States.
When we turn to a consideration of the foreign-bom, we have less difficulty in establishing some sort of relationship. The cities with the lowest percentages of aliens—St. Louis, Cincinnati, Baltimore, Los Angeles and Philadelphia—are all Republican, with the single exception of Baltimore, a Southern city; while those with the highest—New York and Boston—are Democratic. Chicago, with a Democratic mayor and a strong Democratic organization, has a large number of foreigners. But so has Cleveland, which is normally Republican. Cleveland’s case may possibly be explained on the basis of the countries of birth of her foreign population. With almost exactly the same number of aliens as Boston, she has four times as many


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Germans and less than one-sixth the number of Irish. And the Germans affiliate themselves with the Republican party almost as readily as the Irish become loyal Democrats. In Philadelphia the Russians predominate, with the Irish and Italians not far behind. It may be, therefore, that a relatively small foreign population, of which the Irish constitute less than one-sixth, is one element making for Republican supremacy in the Quaker City.
Another factor may be the relatively large number of negroes. Philadelphia has a higher percentage of negroes than any of the largest cities except St. Louis, which is also Republican, and Baltimore, which owes its political affiliations to its location; while Democratic New York and Boston have small colored populations. But the influence of the negroes on Philadelphia politics must not be overemphasized, for they constitute only seven per cent of the city’s population. Race, color, and, to a lesser extent, creed may each play a part in determining the relative strength of the major parties in Philadelphia, but the chief causes are probably so complex and so little understood as to defy accurate analysis.
MINORITY PATRONAGE
The loss in power and prestige of the Democratic organization in Philadelphia has become so marked in recent years that one almost wonders why it continues to exist. Indeed, its chief raison d’etre seems to be the minority patronage, which now amounts to $276,000 but will soon be cut to less than half that sum under the operation of a 1921 law. The constitution and statutes of Pennsylvania practically guarantee to the Democratic party a number of elective and appointive offices. Of these, the most important is that of county commis-
sioner. The constitution of the state, in providing for the election of three county commissioners, stipulates that “in the election of said officers, each qualified elector shall vote for no more than two persons, and the three persons having the highest number of votes shall be elected.” The obvious purpose of this provision is to insure representation of the minority party. When several clauses of this nature were first proposed in the constitutional convention of 1872-73, they precipitated a heated debate. One opponent denounced them as “a device of the minority to gain power,” while another expressed his belief that they were “an attack upon the freedom and equality of the ballot, and calculated insidiously to undermine the foundations of freedom.” But these statements evidently carried little weight, for the principle of minority representation was written into the supreme law of Pennsylvania. One advocate of the system urged its adoption as a means of eliminating partisan bitterness. The parties would have less reason to practice unfair methods since their nominees w;ould be certain 'of election. The offices would thus be filled by appointees of the party leaders; but this, he naively explained, was no objection, since the people would have no real choice in the matter under any system.
The Democrats are assured of about one-third of Philadelphia’s twenty-eight magistrates by the act of 1875. These offices are filled by popular vote, “and in the election of said magistrates no voter shall vote for more than two-thirds of the number of persons to be elected.” The remaining offices in which minority representation is guaranteed are filled by appointment. There are two Democrats on the registration commission appointed by the governor. This commission is com-


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posed of five members, “not more than three of whom shall belong to the same political party.” Among its other duties is the appointment of nearly
6,000 registrars to conduct the actual work of registering the voters of the city. Four of these registrars are selected for each election division, at least two of them from “the party polling the highest vote within the election district at the last preceding November election,” and one, at least, from “the party polling the next highest number of votes at said election.” This requirement operated in 1924 to secure the appointment of 44 per cent of the total number of registrars from the membership of the Democratic party.
A 1903 law dealing with the appointment of real estate assessors prohibited the selection of more than half of the total number from the majority party, thus guaranteeing to the Democrats an equal share in the spoils. Assessors are still chosen in Philadelphia from partisan considerations without a merit test of any kind; and as the salary of a real estate assessor is $4,000 these positions are rich political plums to be distributed among the faithful. The 1903 statute passed both houses of the state legislature without debate by overwhelming votes. In 1921 it was so amended as to give the dominant party a free hand in selecting
[May
assessors. “Said appointments shall be made by said board without regard to the political party affiliations of such assessors.” This withdrawal of minority patronage occasioned as little comment in the legislature as its award had done eighteen years previously, and passed both houses with equally large majorities. The assessors now in office have not yet been affected by the new law, as they were appointed in 1921 for four-year terms.
The minority patronage in Philadelphia, presented in tabular form, is therefore as shown below.
MAJORITY REALLY CONTROLS MINORITY PATRONAGE
The practical effect of the constitutional and statutory provisions for minority representation is to place the choice of the minority members directly in the hands of the dominant Republican organization. Two members of the registration commission, for example, must be Democrats. But they are appointed by a Republican governor, and it is scarcely necessary to point out that they must be acceptable to the Republican interests. The Republicans also control the choice of the elected Democrats. If there is any sort of contest within the Democratic ranks for nomination, a few Republicans registered as Democrats are able to swing the nomination to the candi-
Office Number of Minority Representatives Compensation per Person Total Compensation
County Commissioner I $8,000.00 $8,000.00
Registration Commissioner 2 4,000.00 8,000.00
Magistrate 8 4,000.00 32,000.00
Real Estate Assessor 38 4,000.00 152,000.00
Registrar 2,627 $10.00 per diem 76,428.00
Total $276,428.00


THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY IN PHILADELPHIA
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date of their choice without impairing to any extent the Republican strength at the polls. The Republican party is so strong in Philadelphia, moreover, that even when the Democrats are united on a single candidate for a minority office the Republicans are able to elect the majority members and still have enough voting strength remaining to defeat the real Democratic minority candidate.
This has happened on several occasions. A single instance will suffice. In the municipal election of 1923 three county commissioners were to be chosen by the people, each elector casting his vote for but two candidates. The Republicans were to nominate two candidates, it being a foregone conclusion that they would be elected; and the Democrats, two candidates, one for election and one for defeat. One of the two Democratic nominees was then county commissioner, running for re-election. The true Democratic strength at the election was less than
40,000 votes. Only 37,000 persons voted for the Democratic mayoralty candidate, and this was in excess of the number registered as Democrats prior to the election. By a determined effort, however, the Democrats managed to roll up a total of 44,000 for their nominee then representing the minority on the county commission. But when the votes were counted it was found that he had been overwhelmingly defeated by his running mate, who received in excess of 83,000. The only possible explanation of this surprising result is that the Republican organization, for reasons best known to itself, shifted more than 40,000 votes from one of its own candidates to the Democrat it favored.
PARTY ORGANIZATION
The organization of the Democratic party in Philadelphia is quite simple.
In each of the city’s forty-eight wards is a ward executive committee, chosen by the Democratic voters for a two-year period. Ward committeemen are elected at the spring primary in the even-numbered years. The committee is composed of two members from each election division within the ward, with an additional representative from each election division which cast more than one hundred Democratic votes for president at the preceding election. No division may have more than three representatives, regardless of its vote.
This arrangement results in gross inequalities for a number of reasons. In the first place, it allows no more representation to the division with five hundred Democratic voters than to the division with one hundred and one. Then, too, it takes no account of the great variation among the wards as to the number of election divisions contained. In the Sixth Ward there are nine divisions; the Twenty-Second Ward contains eighty-two. This fact produces unbalanced representation on the city executive committee, as we shall see later. Another weakness arises from" the great differences in population of the divisions. One Philadelphia election division has 28 persons according to the latest assessment; another has nearly 2,000. But the division is the election unit without regard to the number of people it contains and with but slight recognition of their political affiliations. The result is that two members of a ward committee may represent four or five Democratic voters, while three others may represent several hundred. Unfair as this method undoubtedly is, it is more equitable than the arrangement used by the Republican party.
The ward committee organizes as soon as possible after its election, choosing its chairman and other offi-


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cers. It meets regularly at least once a month, and much more frequently shortly before an election. To it falls the task of maintaining the interest of the voters, of seeing that they are properly registered, and of getting them to the polls on election day. From time to time a canvass of the district is made. Watchers are chosen to safeguard Democratic interests at the polls. Everything is done, in the words of the “Rules of the Democratic Party of the City and County of Philadelphia,” with “reference to securing a full expression of the will of said Democratic electors at all the general, municipal, primary and special elections.”
The members of each ward committee choose from within or without their number one representative to the city executive committee. Each ward polling 1,500 or more Democratic votes at the preceding presidential election is entitled to an additional representative, similarly chosen, the total possible number for any ward being two. This arrangement produces inequalities as striking as are found in the election of the ward committeemen. The number of election divisions within a ward varies greatly, as indicated above, while the population ranges from less than 4,000 in the Ninth Ward to more than 82,000 in the Thirty-Ninth. At present the city executive committee is composed of 73 members, but the committee to be chosen this spring will be smaller, because the candidacy of Senator La Follette in 1924 caused a considerable reduction in the number of wards polling more than 1,500 Democratic votes.
The city committee exercises general supervision over the affairs of the Democratic party in Philadelphia. The funds contributed to the Democratic cause pass through the hands of
[May
its treasurer. The party campaigns are planned by its members. Close watch is kept over the operations of the ward committees, and stimulation provided when necessary. The work of the city committee is divided among five standing sub-committees: organization, finance, printing, public meetings, and elections. Each sub-committee has sixteen members except that on organization; it has twenty-five. A few members each serve on two or three sub-committees, but most of them are assigned only to one. The ward committees possess the right to recall their representatives on the city committee at any time by a two-thirds vote. On the other hand, a majority of the city executive committee may declare vacant any place in their membership when convinced that any “ward executive committee, or any of the officers thereof, or any [city] committeeman thereof, is not faithful to Democratic principles, and the best interests of the party, or refuses, fails or neglects to work in harmony with them”.
The chairman of the city executive committee, chosen by its members, is the official head of the Democratic party in Philadelphia. He presides over the meetings of the committee, appoints all sub-committees, acts as chairman of the sub-committee on organization, and is an ex-officio member of all other sub-committees. The present chairman is the minority member of the board of county commissioners, and therefore holds the best-paid office in Philadelphia’s government guaranteed to the minority party. The Democratic city committee cannot by any stretch of the imagination be called a group of civic leaders. Professional men—if we except professional politicians—are few, and prominent business men are still fewer. About one-third are mechan-


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ics, clerks or laborers, the laborers predominating. Twenty-seven are on the payrolls of the city or the county, nine of them as real estate assessors, seven as magistrates, five in the office of the county commissioners, and the remainder as minor employees of the courts. The number of the faithful thus rewarded is not greater because of the weakness of the Democratic party. The city committee has three practicing attorneys in its membership. There are six real estate men, one manufacturer, one undertaker, two salesmen, two contractors, one printer and one retail shopkeeper. Two are employed in the internal revenue office of the Federal government, one is a retired sea captain, and two have no visible means of support. This list is not very impressive. It tends to reveal a lack of any real leadership. But the city committee is representative, and that is probably its sole justification. It comes close to being an accurate cross-section of the rank and file of Philadelphians—and, therefore, of Philadelphia Democrats.
The overwhelmingly dominant posi-
tion of the Republican party is unfortunate for the Quaker City, for it makes effective criticism almost impossible. One of the best guarantees of honest and efficient government is an alert, intelligent opposition ready at any time to take the helm, and not unlikely to do so. But the party of the opposition in Philadelphia is as nearly dead as it is possible for any organization to be without inviting an inquest. Those interested in better government must therefore create and maintain their own organization if they wish to carry to the polls the fight on the Machine. This they have done on many occasions, and sometimes they have isecured control of the government. But their organization built to win an election has not been adjusted to the problem of maintaining discipline within its ranks; and so the election following a reform triumph has invariably been the occasion of a return to power by the Machine. This condition of affairs may reasonably be expected to continue until one party ceases continually to dominate Philadelphia politics.


CO-ORDINATION OF SOCIAL WORK IN KNOXVILLE
BY ELIZABETH SIMS BROWNLOW Knoxville, Tennessee
The city’s department of public welfare takes the lead. This is the second article in our series on how responsibility for social work is divided between governmental and private agencies. :: :: ::
Under the council-manager form of government, social work in Knoxville is being co-ordinated under the leadership of a governmental agency—the department of public welfare.
An interesting situation is presented, since the usual order is reversed, and instead of trained social workers in private agencies trying to persuade reluctant city officials to adopt, or at least to recognize, standards of work and service, there is a department of the municipal government endeavoring to raise the standards in all fields of social work, both for public and private agencies.
This leadership is supplied by the director of public welfare, who was chosen because of his experience and training, and is given legal sanction by the city charter, which not only provides for his administration of municipal activities within the welfare field, but also specifically charges him with the duty of study and research into all social problems of the community.
STIMULATION OF A CHARTER CAMPAIGN
This rapidly growing East Tennessee city has recently gone through the experience of changing the form of its local government. After years of the old councilmanic mismanagement, the commission form was set up in 1911, and having failed in its promise of widespread reform, gave place to the council-manager plan in September 1923.
The campaign that effected this change in municipal administration was carried to every household in the community and became the concern of every man and woman capable of understanding the most elementary facts of municipal housekeeping. Such a campaign of education was bound to bring about an awakening among all classes of the people, and the civic consciousness aroused focused its attention on the general welfare, whether the particular phase of work was being carried on by governmental or voluntary agencies.
The city manager government on assuming control was quick to take advantage of this newly-aroused interest of the citizens in social welfare. No prodding by private social agencies was needed to have the city assume a greater share of the social work of the community. For the first time there was a single executive at the head of city affairs unhampered by political considerations. That old bug-a-boo of social workers,—a political appointee without training or experience in charge of public social agencies,— could not be evoked. Municipal administration in its every phase had been divorced from relationship with “politicians.”
The term “social service” might properly be applied to practically the whole of the activities of city government since its chief functions are to
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CO-ORDINATION OF SOCIAL WORK IN KNOXVILLE 301
safeguard the life, health and environment of its citizens, to educate them, and to provide for their comfort and happiness. However the term “public social service ” is commonly used in reference to those functions performed very largely under the direction of a department of public welfare or like agency, in contradistinction to “private social service” performed by private social agencies.
IMPROVEMENT IN CITY SERVICES
The new charter of Knoxville provided for a department of public welfare with a director at its head, appointed by the city manager and responsible only to the city manager, who must be a person with training and experience in the work to be administered. Under this department was grouped the work scattered throughout the city departments consisting of the administration of the general hospital, home for delinquent women, employment bureau, the supervision of parks and playgrounds, and the health activities.
The department was organized with the following divisions: 1. Hospitals; 2. Bureau of Health; 3. Juvenile Court and Detention Home; 4. Bureau of Recreation; 5. Employment Bureau; 6. Bureau of Social Service.
The general hospital had the usual history of political control, corrupt administration, investigation and reform. When the city manager government came into power the reform element was supposedly in control. The superintendent was a former factory superintendent without training or particular aptitude for hospital management. Disorganization and dirt were the most visible shortcomings. A trained hospital organizer was soon put in charge, the primary needs of sanitation were met, the training school for nurses was reorganized, a medical social worker
installed, and an out-patient department established.
Within the year the hospital was accredited by the American College of Surgeons and accepted as a member in the American Hospital Association. In the training school for nurses, educational requirements were established and no student accepted who had not had at least two years of high school work. In the near future it is hoped to raise the standard so as to require high school graduation. The hospital is thus fast assuming its threefold duty to the city: (1) treating the sick; (2) teaching and training doctors, nurses, and social workers for service; (3) contributing information and personnel in its handling of problems of public health and personal hygiene.
The home for delinquent women was originally founded as a home for friendless women, but was finally turned over to the city in 1917 for the use of women prisoners. It is now used as a detention home for women under treatment by the city for venereal disease.
The establishment of a modem bureau of health is probably the most important part of the first year’s work of the new department. There is a fulltime trained health officer in charge, with adequate laboratories, inspection service, contagious diseases service and city physician. The venereal disease clinic at the health center is operated by the bureau.
Some of the activities for the past year especially noteworthy are: an active campaign to minimize commercialized vice; a standard milk ordinance and regulation of the dairying industry; two contagious disease campaigns, typhoid fever and smallpox. When the new city government got under way a smallpox epidemic was raging, there being over 700 cases in the city and environs. A campaign of education was begun on the necessity of


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vaccination which was furnished free by the health bureau to those unable to employ private physicians. The county health authorities co-operated and for the first time required vaccination of pupils in the county public schools. As a result the first case of smallpox this winter was not reported until the last week of February. To the first of March only three cases have been reported. Owing to the lapse in the practice of vaccination throughout a great part of this region, smallpox has again become one of the chief anxieties of the health officer of the cities. An epidemic may occur during any of the winter months.
When the new health officer arrived in the city last June he was confronted with a typhoid epidemic, or what threatened to be. Protective health measures were immediately taken, inoculation was urged, and was furnished free to those unable to pay. Springs in the surrounding country were examined and placarded when found to be polluted. Dairies were examined and some closed. Later a new milk and dairy inspection ordinance was passed.
DEATH RATE LOWER
One result of this health work has been to reduce the general death rate. In 1923 this was 15.4, but in 1924 it dropped to 14.3 per 1000 population. The reduction of 1.1 per 1000 population meant the saving of 100 lives in our city last year.
The bureau of social service operates in connection with the clinics, hospitals, and child caring institutions. Two trained social workers have been employed and another is soon to be added.
The bureau of recreation has control of the parks and playgrounds. The latter to the number of six were started by the Community Service Council and taken over by the city.
[May
The employment bureau was a leftover of war days. It has continued under municipal control as a matter of course. There are two employees, one paid for by the city and one by the federal government.
The juvenile court is a county institution though all the expenses except the salary of the judge and part of the salary of probation officers and clerical help are carried in the budget of the welfare department. The detention home opened last year is under the direct control of a board of trustees, two appointed by the city council and one by the county court. It is however under the supervision of the welfare department. There are two full time probation officers, a man and a woman, and two part-time colored officers.
The city gives no outdoor relief. The almshouse is under the county, which also controls the industrial school for children. Commitments are made by both county and juvenile judges.
Mother’s pensions in the state depend on appropriations made by the county courts. Knox county appropriated $100.00. Even that has not been paid out.
In addition to the development of the department of public welfare a woman’s bureau has been established in the police department. The policewomen and probation officers of the juvenile court constitute the only force in the field of preventive, protective social work in the city. There is no juvenile protective association or like organization.
The public school system has developed but little along social lines. There is medical inspection and five school nurses (now under the supervisor of nurses of the bureau of health). Recently classes for backward children have been started. There are no trade schools, no vocational direction, or scholarships. There are five attend-


1925] CO-ORDINATION OF SOCIAL WORK IN KNOXVILLE 303
ance officers who are assisted by the juvenile court probation officers in the enforcement of the school attendance law of the state. The issuing of employment certificates to children is placed by state law with the superintendent of schools or someone designated by him. This function has been handed over to the Associated Charities. The school board is elected by the people and appoints the superintendent of schools. A new superintendent has been appointed to take the place of the one who has been the head of the school system for fourteen years.
PRIVATE AGENCIES HAVE PROFITED
The private social agencies of Knoxville have likewise profited by the awakened public conscience brought about through the city manager campaign. The feeling aroused against inefficiency in the administration of public affairs was also directed toward a like failing in private social agencies. These agencies had passed through the difficulties of growth so familiar to social workers.
The historical background of the development of social work in Knoxville might be painted in as the setting for a picture of the progress of social work of any community of like size in this country. The processes have been much the same, whether the problems varied because of environmental conditions. Care of the sick and relief for the destitute came to be the responsibility of the community instead of a few charitable persons. This responsibility was met by the establishment of a city hospital on the one hand and the organization of an Associated Charities on the other. Then to the need of salvage was added the greater need of prevention. Public and private agencies developed to meet the differing needs as they arose and were interpreted to the community. To the
extent that this interpretation was intelligently presented and courageously pressed, the development of social work became systematic and progressive. The first line of defense or offense was usually held by the private agency; feeling out the enemy territory by experimentation and demonstration and then leaving the field to the more abundant ammunition of the public agency. Such has been the progress of social work. This has been Knoxville’s experience varied only by the influence of environmental conditions.
The population of the city is homogeneous; there is no immigration problem, the number of foreign bora being less than 1000 in a population of 100,-
000. There are about 10,000 colored inhabitants, a small proportion for a southern city. Health is the chief concern of the social worker in their midst. The mountain people who drift down into the small settlements and thence to the city make up the largest part of the mill and factory population. They are of old Anglo-Saxon stock with the virtues of thrift and industry and that much praised and much condemned characteristic, conservatism. Lack of education, particularly health education, is the fundamental difficulty to be met. Those among them unable to adjust themselves to modem industrial conditions whether because of lack of education or physical or mental disability constitute the big social problem for the community to solve.
PRIVATE AGENCIES CLASSIFIED
To the solution of the problem the community contributes not only through its official agencies, but numerous private agencies as well. The latter may be listed as follows:
1. Rehabilitation and Relief
a. Associated Charities
b. Salvation Army


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c. Volunteers of America
d. Travelers’ Aid
2. Citizenship, Education, Recreation
a. The Y. M. C. A.
b. The Y. W. C. A.
c. Boy Scouts
d. Girl Scouts
e. Community Service Council
f. Two Settlement Houses
3. Homes for Dependent Children
a. Friendless Babies’ Home
b. Children’s Mission Home
c. St. John’s Orphanage
d. Colored Orphanage
4. Health Center, Clinics and Nursing
Service
5. Co-ordination of Social Activities
a. Community Chest
b. Council of Social Agencies
The chief agency for rehabilitation and relief is the Associated Charities. The Salvation Army and Volunteers of America furnish some relief in addition to maintaining temporary lodgings for men. The Travelers’ Aid of course confines its services to those passing through the gates of the city.
The Associated Charities, organized by a small group in 1907 was re-organized in 1912 on a city-wide membership basis. It started with volunteer workers and when later re-organized paid workers were put on. It has been handicapped from the beginning by the lack of trained social case workers. For years its work was almost purely the giving of relief in the form of groceries, coal and clothing. Gradually the work has taken on the character of that of most family service agencies. The records are in good condition. There is need of a larger staff—it now has only four field workers—and of a corps of semi-trained volunteers. The spirit of co-operation with existing agencies has been good, but there seems to have been little
[May
effort to develop such sources of assistance as the churches, and schools. The name of the society should of course be changed to represent more nearly the character of work performed. The issuing of employment certificates should be returned to the school authorities. The size of the Associated Charities staff alone should be sufficient reason for such action.
The Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. carry on the usual work of education, citizenship training, physical training and recreation. The Y. W. C. A. took advantage of the public interest manifested in community problems to launch a campaign for funds to erect a new building to replace the antiquated structure which has housed their necessarily limited activities. When the new building is completed with swimming pool and gymnasium, physical training will be given greater emphasis. Committees have all been enlarged, a trained industrial secretary is to be employed as well as a physical director, and the work of the employment committee reorganized.
The Y. M. C. A., which is also badly housed, will put on a campaign for a building fund in the near future.
The Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts both have excellent leadership and are growing.
The Community Service Council, an outgrowth of the war, has been of great value in demonstrating the necessity for direction and supervision of organized play. It opened several playgrounds and persuaded the old city council to pay the salaries of several supervisors for the summer months. The new government took over the whole budget for the playgrounds. From this beginning has grown the bureau of recreation in charge of a supervisor under the department of public welfare. The Community Council also interested itself in community


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music and dramatics. There is considerable sentiment in favor of the expansion of recreational facilities under the auspices of the city.
Institutional care of dependent children is provided for by the Friendless Babies’ Home, a temporary home for children up to six years of age, the Children’s Mission Home for those between six and fourteen, St. John’s Orphanage, an Episcopal institution, and the Colored Orphanage. There is no local child placing agency, but this is to be developed under the bureau of social service. Child placing in the state is done by the Children’s Home Society, a private agency receiving a subsidy of $25,000 a year from the state. This organization restricts its efforts to the handling of small children (most of them under seven). The state provides an institution for feebleminded children.
The city is hampered by the lack of state machinery for such work as is usually undertaken by a state board of charities or welfare department. In the reorganization of the state government in 1923 the old board of charities and corrections was abolished, and a department of institutions established. Such powers as the old board possessed were transferred to this new department, but they were never assumed as there was no appropriation made for an additional staff. A welfare commission appointed by the governor at the request of the State Council of Social Agencies, made a report last December recommending a state department of public welfare with county and city boards of public welfare similar to the Virginia and North Carolina plan. The governor opposed the creation of the new department and did not include the report in his legislative program presented to the general assembly when it convened in January. Until such legislation is se-
cured the work in city and county will necessarily suffer.
The Knoxville Health Center was established in 1920, on the initiative of the County Red Cross Chapter. Affiliated with the Red Cross were the Child’s Free Clinic, the United States social hygiene service and the local Anti-Tuberculosis Society. The Child’s Free Clinic withdrew at the instance of the director of public welfare, and gave over its work to the city, being convinced that the work could be done better and at less expense by the city. The health center started with three public health nurses for the city and one school nurse for the county. They now have a staff of fourteen including the two nurses attached to the venereal disease clinic operated by the city. The clinics are free to those unable to pay, and until the new government came into power, the only free clinics in the city. As yet there is no psychiatric clinic, but there is a growing interest in the establishment of one.
The Anti-Tuberculosis Society with the aid of one of the civic organizations raised funds for a tuberculosis sanatorium which was opened last spring. There is a children’s preventorium in a separate cottage built by the Junior League. The labor unions of the city are planning a cottage for the use of their members.
Through the efforts of the director of public welfare all nurses doing public health work have been placed in one organization—The Public Health Nursing Service—under a supervisor who is a member of the staff of the bureau of health. The city will be divided into districts and each nurse assigned to a district. Each district will have a welfare station for children. The first big problem of the nursing service will be the reduction of the infant and maternal mortality rate which has been very high.


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GOVERNMENT TAKES THE INITIATIVE
The Community Chest was organized three years ago. It was purely a financial federation and its only development has been the establishment of a social service exchange. This was the first successful effort to bring about co-operation among the social agencies of the city. Each agency had been more or less in a compartment, doing its own work without much recognition or understanding of the work of other agencies. After a survey of the agencies participating in the chest a Social Workers’ Club was organized. In this club were the beginnings of a better understanding of the oneness of the job they were all engaged in. When the director of public welfare in the new government was appointed, the time was ripe for the sort of trained leadership he could furnish in the social field. He was instrumental in the formation of a Council of Social Agencies and was elected its first president. There was no evidence of any feeling that a public official was out of place as a leader of the social forces of the community. The old order of things had been reversed; the education of public officials by trained workers of private social agencies had given place to the education of untrained workers of private social agencies by a trained public official. The new order was made possible by the city manager form of government which furnishes trained leadership for the development and expansion of public social service, and for the correlation of private social service. To the workers in both fields falls the responsibility of educating the public.
In the division of public and private social work the trend has been toward the taking over by the public agency of a service which the private agency has demonstrated is of value to the whole community. In the past the private agency has done most of the experimenting. This may not hold true in the future as governmental agencies enter more largely the field of preventive work with its laboratories of research.
To trace the division of social work in Knoxville or any community, and attempt to determine approximately the deciding factor in each decision as to whether governmental or voluntary societies should take charge of the work, or of a certain section of the work in each special field, would require a detailed study and survey. This would have to include a study of the locality; its history and present status, political, economic, industrial, educational and social; of the particular group interested in the particular work to be transferred. A piece of social case work not to be compressed within the covers of a magazine.
It is possible to do little more than generalize in discussing the past. It is difficult to avoid the temptation of prophecying in discussing the present. In little more than a year social work in Knoxville has made a decided advance. It is no longer compartmented, but co-ordinated. The proofs of its changed spirit are found: in the organization of the Council of Social Agencies; the consolidation of the nursing services under one head, and that governmental; and the willingness to look to the department of public welfare for leadership.


BRIEF REVIEW OF CITY PLANNING IN THE UNITED STATES, 1924*
BY THEODORA KTMBALL HUBBARD Honorary Librarian, American City Planning Institute
Mrs. Hubbard again contributes her annual review of city planning progress. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: ::
The roster of cities and towns from which there has been some kind of city planning news in 1924 is about three hundred and fifty, a hundred more than in 1923. Sixty of these places had a population less than 5,000, over thirty between 5,000 and 10,000, over eighty from 10,000 to 25,000, over a hundred and ten from 25,000 to 100,000, while fifty-seven were among the sixty largest cities. The 1924 figures from the National Conference on City Planning indicated that there were some three hundred city planning and zoning commissions in the country, most of which were active.
These statistics go to show that official recognition of the practical value of city planning has become widespread. Groups and interests formerly unconvinced or antagonistic are often turning into leaders. The realtors of the country are backing the movement more strongly than ever. The City Planning Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers is conducting an educative series of meetings, with valuable published proceedings. Programs of the National and State Municipal Leagues, the
* Continuing the series of reviews begun by Charles Muiford Robinson and carried on since 1919 by the writer. For a fuller account of city and regional planning for 1924 with a bibliography of plan reports, the reader is referred to the April, 1925, issue of the new quarterly City Planning.
American Society for Municipal Improvements, the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, the National Automobile Chamber of Commerce, are all including city planning as an established municipal responsibility. In addition to the splendid work for zoning carried on by Secretary Hoover through the Division of Building and Housing, he was responsible for calling the National Conference on Street and Highway Safety and appointing a City Planning Committee as one of its eight subdivisions.
Foreign recognition of American achievement in city planning comes this year with the holding of the International Town Planning Congress in New York. To our European friends it must be apparent that we are making progress,—in such recent regional projects as the Detroit Super-Highway Plan, reaching far out into the undeveloped suburban territory with 204-foot thoroughfares; the great interstate and county park schemes of New York state; the waterfront reclamation and Michigan Avenue achievement in Chicago; the huge bond issues recently voted by the citizens of St. Louis and of Philadelphia; the port development of Baltimore and of Seattle, the studies of the Regional Plan of New York and the Port of New York Authority; the rehabilitation of our Federal City; the many new industrial and residential towns and large land subdivisions under construction.
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NOTABLE ACHIEVEMENTS
In the record of events during 1924 the success of the comprehensive transportation plan for Louisville, Ky. (Technical Advisory Corporation) deserves mention, the city and the railroads having completely assured its carrying out. In Philadelphia, following the opportunity offered by the Broad Street fire station, the Pennsylvania Railroad has shown great public spirit by its new terminal plans; and the citizens of Philadelphia have followed up their liberality of last year by bond issues totalling $40,000,000 voted November 4, 1924, including the initial steps in reclaiming the Schuylkill banks for public recreation.
As a result of the intensive campaign begun in 1923, Washington, D. C., has an official Capital Park Commission with funds appropriated by congress to undertake a park program. Before 1925 shall have passed it is hoped that a Federal City planning commission may be also authorized by congress. The state capital of Arkansas, just possessed of an interim zoning ordinance, has hopes of culminating its years of spasmodic agitation for the execution of a comprehensive plan by the passage of enabling legislation drafted in 1924.
In Dallas, Tex., the Kessler plan of 1911 has been revived by a strong association growing out of the Dallas Property Owners Association, called the Kessler Plan Association, and cooperating with the official plan commission; the plan is to be republished, and regular bulletins are issued to inform the city and its neighborhood of the plan’s advantages.
Jacksonville, Fla., has a new city plan commission of which the secretary is the chief sanitary engineer of the state board of health. With the official adoption of the major street
[May
plan by Chattanooga, and progress in carrying out almost every phase of the plan of Memphis, adopted last year but just published in admirable form (Plan Commission, Bartholomew), the state of Tennessee comes to the fore. The publication of its plan by Springfield, Mass., in a really notable volume makes freely available to all an account of the methods employed by the Technical Advisory Corporation in the thorough, surveys on which the plan is based. Progress in carrying out a number of recommendations is reported.
A bond issue of $5,000,000 just voted by Los Angeles covers the city’s share of the cost of a group of primary projects in the traffic commission’s major traffic street plan,—the plan itself an important contribution to our understanding of traffic problems in this country. The St. Louis civic center has been finally approved. Milwaukee continues substantial progress under the guidance of the board of public land commissioners, whose powers will repay study. Denver has a new plan, a zoning ordinance in progress, and great public interest. Rochester, N. Y., has opened a new central street, effecting a saving of twenty-seven minutes in getting across town. Buffalo has taken the first step in the development of her administrative center at Niagara Square and is co-operating in the great Niagara Frontier planning enterprise. Chicago has actually started construction on the South Water Street two-level improvement and is able to report further that as a result of fifteen years of effort by the Chicago plan commission, fifteen of the principal features of the plan are completed or assured, involving an expenditure of over $350,000,000. To insure future successes, Chairman Wacker has sent out an “S O S to the Public-Spirited Citizens of Chicago” for in-


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creasing the borrowing capacity of the city in scale with that of the other largest cities of the country.
During 1924 the science of city planning has sustained great losses in the deaths of two of our most eminent engineers, the late Nelson F. Lewis of New York, and the late Professor George C. Whipple of Harvard University. Each has left behind a permanent and substantial contribution in the form of writings and of experience translated into public works, but their personal leadership will be hard to replace.
REGIONAL AND STATE PLANNING WORK
The Regional Plan of New York celebrated its second birthday in May, 1924, by a regional traffic conference and a dinner at which the two years’ progress was summed up. The series of surveys completed comprise economic, housing and recreation studies, besides some 200 engineering studies and legal investigations of great importance. A recently formed division of public relations endeavors to assist communities with local problems and promote a spirit of co-operation, of which there is encouraging evidence.
Local official co-operation is needed for the realization of a regional plan in the Boston district, such as the traffic artery projects prepared by the engineers of the state metropolitan planning division, advised by Arthur Shurtleff. Likewise Philadelphia is the heart of a regional project embracing the Tri-State Metropolitan Area. A citizens’ committee reported in November, 1924, as to a preliminary survey of the problems of the district which embraces over 200 governmental units within twenty-five miles of Philadelphia on both sides of the river. As a result of the committee’s good work there is being formed a Tri-State Federation, of which the first
309
conference will be an important event of 1925.
The Detroit metropolitan area is being studied to secure more administrative unity in the far-reaching plans for Greater Detroit. Much has already been accomplished towards the establishment of the plans. The Los Angeles county regional planning commission has progress to report in the application of the “Interlocking Specifications” drawn up in 1922, and a splendid record of regional co-operation of officials, engineers, special committees, and others. In Ohio there is a new official county planning commission, emanating from the planning activities of Toledo, appointed April, 1924, for Lucas county. Trumbull and Cuyahoga counties secured planning commissions before the close of 1924. The Dayton city plan board, in collaboration with the city commission and the Research Bureau is completing a scientific study of annexation versus regional co-operation for the whole tributary area.
One of the most noteworthy regional achievements of the year is the formation of the Niagara Frontier Planning Association, a voluntary body but including important local officials. Without waiting for the necessary enabling legislation now being sought by the Association, by mutual agreement a Niagara Frontier Regional Planning Committee has been formed, the members appointed by six common councils and twenty-two village boards, and the boards of supervisors of Erie and Niagara counties. This success has inspired the Albany Capital District to undertake an association to be heard from in 1925.
New York has now a strong State Federation of Planning Boards, formed at a conference in Buffalo in June, 1924, under the auspices of the bureau of housing and regional planning
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presided over by Clarence Stein. The bureau issues a Bulletin now graduated into printed form and is the moving force in the regional associations in process of formation. The bureau’s older neighbor, the Massachusetts division of housing and town planning, is very active, its field agent Mr. Hartmann is giving local aid, and the bulletins of the Massachusetts Federation of Planning Boards for 1924 are of great practical value. At the Federation’s annual conference held at Worcester thirty-seven out of seventy-six planning boards reported.
The sixth Ohio State Conference on City Planning at Columbus, also in October, reported twenty-three Ohio cities with planning commissions, besides the county commissions already mentioned, twelve cities with plans completed or in preparation, and twelve cities with zoning ordinances in effect. Recent word from the Conference secretary, Miss Rumbold, indicates an important law extending benefit assessments on the calendar for 1925. Indiana is emulating Ohio in state-wide city planning activity. The recently formed Indiana City Planning Conference had a successful second meeting at Purdue University in April, 1924, and plans its 1925 meeting in Evansville. Largely as a result of interest aroused by these state conferences, the number of plan commissions in Indiana has been increased to eighteen. Iowa has a splendid record for the year, of meetings, city planning and zoning work initiated, and an association monthly bulletin edited by the secretary, Mr. Wallis, which is of far more than local use, and grows constantly more interesting.
Pennsylvania activities have received a setback in the drastic curtailment of appropriations for the valuable work of the town planning division in the bureau of municipalities. Never-
[May
theless the Allentown surveys have been conducted and it is to be hoped that the new year will see proper recognition of the bureau by legislative appropriation.
State programs involving large planning problems should be especially noted for 1924; state and county park systems in New York; roads in Connecticut following the highway survey; forests in Connecticut and Massachusetts; highways in New Jersey, especially as affected by the new Hudson tunnel; and Giant Power in Pennsylvania.
COMPREHENSIVE CITY PLAN REPORTS
The report to the Springfield planning board by the Technical Advisory Corporation, with Mr. Olmsted as special adviser, is a monument to the enterprise of the board. The notable report to the Memphis city pLn commission by Mr. Bartholomew contains plans even more in process of execution than those for Springfield. The series of separate special reports likewise by Mr. Bartholomew to the Toledo city plan commission, parts of a comprehensive study, are summed up in the commission’s Progress Report of 1924. The city plan commission of Duluth has just issued a report of its activities since its creation.
The Boston city planning board is responsible for a most valuable compendium, in which federal, state, municipal and private reports relating to the commerce and industries of Boston are digested. The bulk of the studies relate to physical improvements, with a section covering the progress of city planning and the work of the city planning board from the beginning.
Another important and distinctive compiled report for a city where much has been accomplished is Mr. Fisher’s for the Rochester city planning bureau covering 1918-1922, edited by Mr.


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Hungerford. The official city paper, Denver Municipal Facts, published the report made to the City Planning Association by McCrary, Culley and Carhart, “A City Plan for Half-a-Million Population,” which is timely with the official zoning studies just successfully concluded.
The Allentown reports by Mr. Haldeman issued by the Pennsylvania bureau of municipalities are units in a comprehensive study of the city and region which began in 1923. Passaic, N. J., has a comprehensive report by the Technical Advisory Corporation to the city plan commission. The North Adams (Mass.) planning board report for 1923 contains a survey by Mr. Nolen, carrying on after Thomas Adams. Other preliminary survey reports at hand are three by the Technical Advisory Corporation for New Bedford and Somerville, Mass., and Elizabeth, N. J.; by the City Planning Committee of the Plainfield Chamber of Commerce for Plainfield, N. J.; by the American Civic Association, Washington Committee of One Hundred, under the chairmanship of Mr. Delano, for the Federal City, including nine special subcommittee reports.
The Youngstown planning commission report for 1920-23 reviews the good work in street studies and approval of plats carried on since its establishment. The published street and bridge studies by Mr. Swan for the city planning commission of New Brunswick, N. J., are taken from the comprehensive report in press. Other 1924 comprehensive reports still going through press at the time of preparing this survey are for Cincinnati and Worcester (Technical Advisory Corporation); Sarasota, Fla. (Nolen); Springfield, 111. (West); Malden, Winchester and Dedham, Mass. (A. A. Shurtleff); Wakefield, Mass. (Comey), and Belleville, N. J. (Swan).
ZONING AND PLATTING
The zoning progress of the year has been astounding. The figures of the department of commerce show that sixty-two municipalities adopted zoning ordinances in 1924, bringing the total number up to about three hundred and twenty. At last reports, thirty-three states had zoning enabling acts. Among the important cities zoned were Boston and its neighbor Cambridge, Albany, Utica, Wilmington, Del., Columbia, S. C., Cincinnati, Davenport, Minneapolis, Kansas City, Kan., Omaha (revised ordinance), Bismark, N. D., and Portland, Ore. Notes on the important zoning decisions of the year will be found in Mr. Williams’ department in the American City.
The Boston ordinance is based on most thorough studies directed by Mr. Comey, backed up by Mayor Curley’s advisory committee. It provides for single-family residence districts as have also a considerable number of smaller Massachusetts communities. In a memorable decision, the supreme court of the state has- declared that such regulation is constitutional. The Boston zoning campaign was well conducted and its history appears in the final zoning report just published. Nearly twenty of the forty municipalities in the Boston Metropolitan district are now zoned, a higher record than that of Los Angeles county, California, where sixteen out of forty-four cities had zoning ordinances in November, 1924.
The Portland ordinance, drawn by a joint committee of city planning commission and the Portland Realty Board, and passed by an overwhelming majority, is of particular interest because of the failure of the previous ordinance on popular referendum. Two other leading western cities have


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ordinances under way, Denver and Salt Lake City. A local enabling act of July, 1924, makes it possible for Buffalo to go ahead with zoning as part of her comprehensive program. The situation in Philadelphia remains practically unchanged, although the zoning commission has made a restudy of the entire city. A new enabling act including provision for a board of appeals is sought for in 1925 and may break the deadlock.
The unfortunate court experience of Baltimore, coming on top of the New Jersey decision, has nevertheless left undaunted the Baltimore zoning board, which has succeeded in having an emergency ordinance passed until new legislation can be secured. In St. Louis unscrupulous builders have proceeded to put inappropriate buildings in home districts since the zoning principle has been temporarily nullified by the Missouri courts. The public will undoubtedly force a way through the intolerable situation thus created. The New Jersey tangle culminating in the Nutley decision and now ameliorated by the new enabling act of 1924 (modeled on the department of commerce standard act) is discussed at length in Mr. Bassett’s invaluable new pamphlet “Zoning Practice in the New York Region,” published by the Regional Plan of New York.
Two more of Mr. Whitten’s excellent zoning reports have appeared in 1924, for Cranston, R. I., and West Hartford, Conn, (ordinances passed in both places). In the West Hartford report there is a section, “ Comprehensive Development Plan for Unbuilt Areas,” in which Mr. Whitten tries to make zoning lead up to the adoption of a plan to combine zoning, platting, and general planning powers in controlling the development in unbuilt areas.
The number of cities which now have control over platting and land
[May
subdivision has increased materially. Location of major thoroughfares and of parks and playgrounds on the official map of unbuilt areas and the enforcement of this map is a subject of prime importance. The recent contributions of Mr. Bassett (published by Playground) and of Judge Nichols (published by Massachusetts Federation of Planning Boards) are of great importance.
STREET CONGESTION AND
THOROUGHFARES PLANS
Street traffic and street congestion have undoubtedly been the storm center of city planning this past year. In December there was held in Washington the first National Conference on Street and Highway Safety, called by Secretary Hoover, at which the eight committees appointed by him earlier in the year made reports, which were published, as well as the proceedings of the meeting.
Another important traffic conference was devoted to the problems of the New York region, called at the instance of the Committee on the Regional Plan of New York and fourteen other interested bodies in May, 1924, also with published proceedings. The unbearably acute situation in New York has given rise to proposals for arcading, double and triple decking, such as were discussed especially by Messrs. Tuttle and Corbett before the City Planning Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers in January, 1924. The transit report of Mr. Turner to the New York transit commission makes two long double-deck streets part of his program for permanent relief. The New Jersey state highway commission has designed a special commercial traffic way primarily as an extension of the Hudson vehicular tunnel. Studies for further vehicular tunnels or bridges to connect with


CITY PLANNING IN THE UNITED STATES
SIS
1925]
New Jersey have been made by the Port of New York Authority.
Los Angeles claims the greatest traffic congestion of any city in the United States due to enormous growth of automobile ownership and all-year-round use. The Los Angeles traffic commission, a voluntary body acting with official co-operation of city and county, secured the services of Messrs. Olmsted, Bartholomew, and Cheney to make a comprehensive study of the traffic situation, reviewing all previous studies, and to report on a major traffic street plan (published May, 1924). Detroit’s progress in realizing the magnificent superhighway plan is inspiring and in scale with the tremendous automobile development of the region. Mr. Phillips, consultant to the Detroit city plan commission and several other communities of the region, reports that the plan will probably be carried for at least thirty-three to forty miles out.
Major street plan reports have been published during 1924 for South Bend and for Toledo, prepared for the official commissions by Mr. Bartholomew. Mr. Swan has one for Harrisburg, Pa„ in press, Mr. Bibbins directed the preparation of a complete thoroughfare plan for Indianapolis, and the Beeler Organization reported on the traffic situation in Atlanta.
PARES AND PLAYGROUNDS
At the National Conference on Outdoor Recreation called by President Coolidge in May, 1924, one hundred and twenty-eight national organizations responded by sending delegates. The official status of the gathering, its excellent organization, the hearty spirit of co-operation among delegates, and the series of resolutions adopted make it memorable in the history of recreation. The Playground and Recreation Association in co-operation with
the American Institute of Park Executives is undertaking an investigation of great moment financed by the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Foundation, being an intensive study of recreation in municipal and county parks. An advisory committee including representatives from the American City Planning Institute is assisting in the study.
The establishment of the national capital park commission by Congress already noted promises well for the carrying out of much-needed extensions of the park system. The Park Conference held in Baltimore in June was intended to promote the development of a fuller system of parks, parkways and playgrounds for that city. The Chicago South Parks waterfront development has made great progress during 1924. The plans for the redemption of the Schuylkill banks in Philadelphia will add another great water park such as those of Chicago, Washington, Harrisburg, Boston, and Toronto. Birmingham, Ala., and Santa Barbara, Calif., are having park system plans prepared by Olmsted Brothers, and a special report on Boston parks by Mr. A. A. Shurtleff is just out.
The state of New York leads in almost spectacular plans for county and state parks. The Westchester county park commission report, dated April, 1924, is an important document continuing in spirit as well as on the ground the reports on the now-famous Bronx Parkway. The Erie county park bill was passed by the legislature of 1924, the commission has been appointed, and an initial appropriation made by the board of supervisors. A similar bill for a Niagara county park commission is before the 1925 Legislature.
THE FUTURE
Among the goodly number of projects to be heard from in 1925 in cities


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reporting comprehensive plans recently prepared or under way are Newton and Clinton, Mass.; Stamford, Conn.; Utica, Schenectady, Middletown, and Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; Elizabeth and Camden, N. J.; Ashtabula, Dayton, Oakwood and Wyoming, Ohio; Evansville, Anderson, Muncie, Michigan City and Eokomo, Ind.; Springfield, DeKalb, Oak Park and Jacksonville, 111.; Saginaw, Benton Harbor and St. Joseph, Pontiac and other communities
of the Detroit region, Mich.; Kenosha and Kohler, Wis.; Cedar Rapids and Des Moines, Iowa; St. Joseph, Mo.; Topeka, Kans.; Chattanooga, Tenn.; Norfolk, Va.; Columbus and Athens, Ga.; Shreveport, La.; Houston, Texas; and San Diego, Calif.
It remains to be seen whether the six states not heard from in 1924 join the ranks for 1925, so that we may then say that the city planning movement has become in fact nation-wide.


BOOKS AND REPORTS
Elements or Land Economics. By Richard T. Ely and Edward W. Morehouse, New York: The Macmillan Company, 1924.
Dr. Ely and his collaborator have done one invaluable thing, namely, they have inventoried and very well organized a special field of economics. In this particular they are pioneers and their volume is a distinct contribution to specialized economics.
A fundamental thesis of the bode is taxation of land values on the basis of producing power, which is a perfectly proper basis for income taxes. It is not, however, a proper basis for general property taxes, which are taxes paid for the right to hold property in peace and security under the laws of the land and the customs of society. Which is to say, general property taxes are one thing and income taxes are another. And both in my opinion are perfectly proper taxes. There are all sorts of criticisms of the general property tax, but these taxes are likely to endure to the end of time, and to put general property taxes on the basis d producing power is to confuse the purpose of one tax with the purpose of another tax. This confusion is evident in this volume in the slurring of severance taxes and transfer taxes on unearned incomes. These two subjects are in no wise adequately treated in the book.
Because of the high level of competency in the various chapters, the volume is likely to have very wide use, and this use will mainly be to champion tax doctrines that are very pleasing to particular classes of taxpayers, the farmers in particular, and even more, the holders of farm lands deliberately held out of use for speculative rises in value. Considering the use the volume is being put to, I should say it was innocently or deliberately contrived as a volume of tax propaganda, and must be considered in that aspect rather than as a text-book.
E. C. Branson. University of North Carolina.
*
The Story of Detroit. By George B. Cathn Detroit: The Detroit News, 1923.
Buffalo’s Textbook. By John F. Barry and Robert W. Elmes Buffalo: Robert W. Elmes, 1924.
As one might expect after considering the fact that its population multiplied nine times in the
forty years preceding 1920, the story of Detroit is a moving and interesting one. Mr. Catlin, librarian of the Detroit News, has told this story from the arrival of Antoine Laumet de la Mothe Cadillac in 1701 to the initiation of daily air service from Cleveland in 1923. His history ia journalistic, undocumented but relieved of the crass, babbitesque materialism of most such local chronicles by a fine, discriminating treatment of the social and economic conflicts that the city has experienced. For example, the significant career of Mayor Pingree, municipal reformer and advocate of public ownership, is described with sympathy and admiration.
Buffalo's Textbook is a manual adopted by the department of education for use in the public schools of Buffalo. It contains two hundred pages of facts concerning the government, industries, and the social and civic life of Buffalo. Condensation has been sacrificed for completeness to such a degree that one might appropriately designate the volume as sources of material for the making of a textbook, rather than as a textbook itself.
Raymond Moley.
Columbia University.
*
Report on Traffic Sybtem for Cleveland.
Prepared by the Cleveland Automobile Club,
March, 1925. 93 pp. with maps and graphs.
This report,'issued as the second part of a traffic study begun late in 1924, is the result of a systematic examination of present street traffic conditions in Cleveland. It announces at the very outset that pure theory was either ignored or discarded and that consideration was given only to remedies which could be applied to Cleveland immediately. The traffic systems of the following cities were subjected to scrutiny: New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, Boston, Buffalo, Syracuse, and Atlantic City. The practice and experience of these are considered in a general way, the subject matter being well organized and clearly presented. The general student of traffic regulation will therefore find the report at least of passing interest. The description of methods employed in such important centers, however brief, cannot fail to have some value.
It is interesting to note that the report urgently recommends that all parking be prohibited


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in the moat heavily congested business centers. The tendency everywhere is to the same effect, in spite of active opposition from various quarters. Unregulated or under-regulated parking leads to traffic congestion, which is one of the chief underlying causes of street accidents.
The report probably places an undue emphasis upon the value of mechanical signal systems. Although these unquestionably must be accorded a place in any highly developed scheme for traffic control, the time is doubtless still distant when mechanical devices will exercise a preponderating influence. We are still in the stage of forming the habits of the public while travelling on the highways. The uniformed police officer will continue to be indispensable to such a program of education.
Bruce Smith.
National Institute of Public Administration.
♦
Community Advertising. By Don E. Mowry,
General Secretary, Madison Association of
Commerce. Madison, Wis.: Cantwell Press,
1924. Pp. 456.
Advertising, as that term is usually understood is a means of selling a product or a service to someone else. Mr. Mowry very wisely uses the term community advertising not only in this accepted sense, but as designating a force by which a community may be “sold” to itself. And this internal publicity has a,two fold purpose, too—educating the citizenship as to assets already possessed by their city, and the discovery and correction of community liabilities.
As a prime essential to success, both in external and internal publicity, the author places special emphasis on the developing of the city’s personality: that distinctive characteristic of a community which is hard to define, but which makes it different—desirably different—from other communities, and which "seems to radiate an atmosphere of invigorating, forceful, compelling energy.”
The forty-two chapters in the book are grouped in six main divisions—Fundamentals, Objectives, Machinery, Mediums, Technique and Accomplishments. The section on objectives contains chapters in which practical suggestions are offered as to securing conventions, cultivating tourist business, tying up town and country, securing new residents, and developing local business. The machinery described includes the advertising agency, chamber of com-
[May
merce, schools and churches, women voters and civic clubs, railroads, financial institutions, real estate dealers, public utilities, insurance companies and other agencies; and the mediums analyzed are direct mail, radio, silver screen, newspapers, technical journals, farm publications, exhibits, expositions, posters, outdoor displays, and national magazine advertising.
But advertising costs money, and Mr. Mowry discusses in two chapters the securing of the funds and the preparation and control of the budget. Methods of raising publicity funds by commercial organizations are contrasted with the growing feeling—especially in summer and winter resort communities—that public taxation may properly be used to provide money for publicity purposes.
Readers who wish to know what has actually been done in recent years in community advertising will find much of value in the "Accomplishments” section, with its chapters on City Accomplishments, Town and Country Accomplishments, and State Accomplishments. That Community Advertising will render a real service as a stimulant and guide towards greater accomplishments in future seems certain.
Harold S. Buttenheim. Editor of the American City Magazine.
*
Forest Taxation: Being Part I of the Report of the Special Joint Committee on Taxation and Retrenchment, submitted April 1, 1924. State of New York, Legislative Document (1924), No. 91. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1924. Pp. 13-95 and 175-180.
This document is the fifth report of the Special Joint Committee on Taxation and Retrenchment of the New York Legislature, appointed in 1919 and reappointed in 1923. The previous reports have presented interesting and important treatises upon the public finances of New York, state, county, city and town. The major part of the present report has to do with the subject of forest taxation, and it is this part only which is here submitted to review.
It may as well be frankly stated that to students of the general problem of forest taxation in the United States this report will be a disappointment. A careful reading makes unavoidable the impression that its main purpose was to silence the demands for forest tax legislation in New York and to justify a policy of inaction. That the more vociferous of the


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advocates of forest tax “reform,” not only in New York state but all over the country, have been guilty of erroneous assumptions of theory and extravagant statements of fact is well known, and these advocates deserve a rebuke now and then. Likewise the false basis of practically all past American legislation aimed to give tax relief to forests is well known, as well as the universal failure of such legislation to produce results. The New York record, just criticism of which occupies Chapter I of this report, is simply part of this general development. All this, however, was shown up years ago.1 Today it is only the rubbish that must be brushed aside preparatory to a constructive analysis of the real problem of forest taxation. Failure to progress much beyond this first step is a disappointing feature of the present report.
The writer is much disturbed by the variety in the practical plans of forest tax relief which have been offered in the fifteen years since the subject first received scientific study in America, and he seems to find in this proof that there is no real basis of theory upon which the experts are in agreement. As a matter of fact the theoretical basis of the forest tax problem has been pretty thoroughly established, not merely worked out by the experts but quite generally accepted by the leaders in the practical fields of forestry and lumbering. This is the one solid accomplishment of our fifteen years of effort. The present report fails to distinguish between this basis of theory and the various measures which have been offered in the practical attempt to get whatever relief may be obtainable under actual conditions. For sample, an exclusive yield tax would be in harmony with sound principles, and there are practicable means of mnlring it satisfactory from the point of view of local revenue. But public opinion has been generally slow to accept this plan, being especially reluctant to give up the annual property tax upon the land. This has led to other plans, involving complete or partial taxation of the land, exemption of growing trees, and a yield tax on forest products, as proposed by the forest tax committee of the National Tax Association in 1013 and 1922. With legislation in the hands of forty eight separate states, exhibiting the utmost diversity as to forest conditions, general tax conditions, and public opinion, it is not to be
1 For example, Taxation of Timberlands, Report of the National Conservation Commission, 1909. Vol. II, pp. 581-632.
expected that one uniform plan will receive favor everywhere. The essential point is that, whatever is done, in the way of forest tax relief, be it all that the most ardent reformer, could desire or only the timid first steps, shall be in harmony with sound principles of economics and forestry and not a repetition of the mistaken, though well-meaning, efforts of the past.
In his effort to show that there is no serious problem of forest taxation in New York, the writer fails to grasp the real nature of the problem. He seeks to show (page 43, etc.) that New York state has passed the critical stage in which cut over lands are assessed above their real value, forgetting that it is not the danger at excessive assessment which frightens the forest investor so much as the results of simple honest assessment of land and trees according to the letter of the property tax law. It is claimed that there are few tax sales in New York. But the question whether cut over lands are being reforested to the degree that would be desirable and that would be possible under a sound tax policy is confessedly not answered (page 44). The argument offered here is anything but convincing. The area of 73,000 acres of reforested land (cited on page 45) is inferred from statistics of seedlings planted, nearly half of which are shown by the table on the next page (46) to have been planted by the state on state lands. Worst of all is this statement (page 45): "If now, the burden imposed by the general property tax had been as serious as some of the advocates of changes in the law insist, it is reasonable to assume that there would have been a much greater tendency on the part of thoae actively engaged in reforesting to escape the tax burden by taking advantage of the provisions of the existing laws.” This, in the face of the writer’s own vigorous disclosure of the defects of those laws (pages 15-22), to say nothing of the mass of evidence from all over the United States as to the unwillingness of forest owners to accept the restrictions and red tape involved in such laws as these.
Failure to grasp the real nature of the forest tax problem is shown again in the somewhat supercilibus discussion of evidence based upon hypothetical tables of costs and revenues of forest growing. Reference is made to the importance of the rate of interest selected and the rotation period (pages 47 and 48), but no constructive suggestion is offered as to the correct assumptions. There is evidence upon both of these points which is readily available and which


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should be known to any student of forestry or forest taxation. Finally the whole point of such tables is missed. Of course no such table can show, fifty or sixty years in advance, what will be the financial result of a forest investment. But such tables can and do show what a crushing burden taxation may impose under the existing system. The mere possibility of such a burden is enough to frighten the investor; he will not wait for proof of its certainty.
The reader approaches hopefully the elaborate statistical study contained in Chapter IV, but here again disappointment ensues. In the first place, the authority of the statistical results is seriously weakened by the many arbitrary assumptions which have been made in obtaining them. And the conclusions from them are of little service. For example much is made of the apparent conclusion that full value assessment in the taxing districts would have resulted in a reduced tax burden upon immature forests (page 85, etc.). This is on the assumption that all other property is likewise assessed at its full value and also that the tax rate is reduced so as to yield the same total revenue as under the
existing basis of taxation. This may be true, but what is its practical importance? The forest investor is not worrying about a general full value assessment, with a corresponding reduction of the tax rate, something that never happened and almost certainly never will happen. He is afraid of what will happen to his investment if ever his property, both land and trees, should be assessed at their full market value (as the law requires) with tax rates generally rising, as he knows they are and have been for a generation past. The same expenditure of time and labor, devoted to collection of evidence as to assessed and sales values of forest properties, such as have been conducted, for example, in New Hampshire and certain other states, would have brought forth some interesting and valuable results.
As regards recommendations, certain minor technical changes in the existing New York statutes are suggested, brief uncritical reference is made to certain current plans of forest taxation, and further study of the whole subject is advised.
Fred Rogers Fairchild.
Yale University.


PUBLIC HEALTH NOTES
EDITED BY CARL E. McCOMBS, M.D.
A Legal Decision of Interest to Municipal Officials.—In May of 1924, a dairyman near Jamestown, N. Y., was awarded a verdict of $12,000 damages against the city of Jamestown by a jury in the sapreme court of the state, sitting at Mayville, N. Y. The suit grew out of a typhoid outbreak in Jamestown which- city ^officials claimed was due to the handling of milk by a typhoid carrier on the dairyman’s farm. The dairyman sued the city for $50,000 damages contending that if contamination of his milk had occurred it had resulted from the discharge of raw sewage by the city into a stream on which his farm was located. The case was appealed by the city and the appellate division of the supreme court unanimously reversed the judgment of the lower court. The opinion, which was written by Justice Clark, states “that there were certain erroneous instructions given to the jury that require a new trial.”
In view of the accumulated evidence as to the rflle of typhoid carriers in contaminating milk supplies, it would appear that the presence of a carrier on the dairyman’s farm would be given greater weight by a jury than the dairyman’s contention that a sewage-polluted stream on his farm was responsible for the outbreak. Even assuming the pollution of the stream by raw sewage as the dairyman argued, there would be little likelihood of contamination of milk from such source, if the dairyman’s methods were above reproach.
#
Carbon Monoxid Poisoning of Garage Employees.—Dr. Ettore Champiolini of the division of industrial hygiene of the New York state department of labor has recently reported on the menace of carbon monoxid poisoning among garage employees in New York city. The air of thirty-one garages was examined and found to contain carbon monoxid in all cases, varying from .05 to .2 per cent. In ten of the garages the carbon monoxid content of the air was in excess of .15 per cent which was regarded as the danger point. Forty-two of the workers were examined and carbon monoxid was found combined with the hemoglobin of the blood of twenty-nine of them. Headaches and gastric
symptoms were found in many and several reported insomnia. One worker was found with all of the characteristic symptoms of carbon monoxid poisoning including high carbon monoxid hemoglobin in the blood, headache, gastric and nervous symptoms and slight increase of temperature.
On the evidence furnished by Dr. Champiolini, it is evident that health officials everywhere would do well to see that all possible precautions against carbon monoxid poisoning are observed by garage employers and employees. The condition appears to be of such constant occurrence among garage workers that there is warrant in adding this type of poisoning to the list of occupational diseases and injuries of a compensable nature. Much can of course be done to reduce the dangers to garage workers by supervision of ventilation in garages. The proposals of other investigators in this field, that motor cars be required to equip with exhausts rising to the level of the top of the cars, are worthy of serious consideration.
*
1934 the Year of Lowest Death Bate in History.—From such records as are available regarding mortality of the general population in 1924, it is clear that 1924 was the best health year in the history of this country and Canada. The figures recently published by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company on mortality among its 16,000,000 policyholders are of particular interest in this connection since their mortality records are more promptly available and more thoroughly analyzed than those of the United States bureau of the census. These 16,000,000 policyholders constitute about one-seventh of the total population of the two countries and mortality among them is therefore an excellent index to mortality generally. The death rate of this large group was 8.5 per 1,000 in 1924,—5.2 per cent lower than in 1923. There were 130,790 deaths among the 16,000,000 in 1924 which was 7,210 less than would have occurred under the 1923 rate and 61,958 less than if the 1911 rate had prevailed. This represents for the period 1911-1923, (1923 is the latest year for which comparable data are available) a


320
decline of 28.4 per cent of mortality among the insured as compared with a 12.1 per cent decline in the general population. The insurance experience shows a saving of lives greater by 29,782 in 1923 alone, over and above the saving expected by reason of the decline in the mortality rate of the general population. The accumulated saving in the twelve-year period since 1911 represents a total of 171,341 lives, according to the Metropolitan Life’s statisticians, and they estimate that the added gains in 1924 will bring the savings beyond 200,000 lives.
The extremely low death rate among the Metropolitan Life’s policyholders is of r course due in part to the fact that its policyholders are selected risks. Nevertheless it is reasonable to believe that this result could not have been brought about without the extensive health educational and supervisory service which the Metropolitan has made available to its policyholders. Health education pays. If it didn’t the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company wouldn’t spend its money for that purpose. A few thousand dollars spent for health education by health departments will yield a tremendous return in human vitality.
♦
Health in Rural and Urban Areas.—A recent issue of the statistical bulletin of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company makes certain comparisons of mortality in urban and rural districts that are well worth review. Of the communicable diseases, whooping cough, influenza, small pox, typhoid fever, malaria, dysentery and pellagra show constantly higher mortality rates in rural than in urban areas, for the reason that control procedures are not so readily or efficiently applied. The mortality from the diseases incident to pregnancy and child birth also has a higher rural rate. Chronic rheumatism, apoplexy, paralysis, paresis and other mental diseases and epilepsy also cause higher mortality in rural areas, partly because these diseases affect more of the aged who have greater representation in rural areas and partly because the majority of hospitals and institutions for the aged, infirm and mentally diseased are located in the country outside of city jurisdictions. As might be expected, accidental deaths from food poisonings, deaths in burning buildings, drownings, gun shot wounds, mine and quarry accidents, railroad accidents, deaths in landslides, injuries by animals, by lightning
[May
and excessive cold and heat, cause greater mortality in the country.
Nevertheless, the expectancy of life is better for those in rural areas. The rural boy has an expectancy of 7 J years more than the urban boy, and the rural girl 6 years more than the urban girl. This is due to the fact that the major causes of death such as cancer, tuberculosis, diseases of the heart and arteries, diseases of the kidney, and diarrheal diseases of children over two years of age show higher urban than rural rates. Only one type of cancer, namely skin cancer, and only one type of tuberculosis, the disseminated or general type, show higher rural than urban rates. Angina pectoris which is comparatively rare, is the only disease of the circulatory system group that gives a higher rural than urban mortality. Suicides and homicides are more important causes of mortality in urban than in rural districts, although it appears that the homicide rate in rural areas is tending to approximate that of the urban. This is not to be wondered at in view of the opportunity for rural raids which the automobile has furnished criminals who formerly limited their activities to the cities.
It is of interest in connection with this comparison of rural and urban health to note the result of a survey of physical defects among “country” and "city” children by the division of research of the National Education Association. According to the report of this agency the percentages of physical defects found in the groups are as follows:
Per Cent Per Cent
Teeth Defects Country ... 49.0 City 33.58
Tonsils ... 28.14 16.42
Adenoids ... 23.4 12.5
Eye Defects 21.0 13.4
Malnutrition 16.6 7.68
Enlarged Glands 6.4 2.7
Ear Defects 4.78 1.3
Breathing Defects 4.2 2.1
It might be concluded from this comparison, if we may assume the accuracy of the figures, that the “country” child has a heavy handicap to overcome in his health race with the “city” child. It might also be concluded from comparison of these figures and the figures of life expectancy previously cited that the rural child does eventually overcome these handicaps. But conclusions so drawn may lead to absurdities. The reports of the United States bureau of the census, from which analyses of urban and
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW


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321
rural mortality rates are derived, consider as “rural” all population outside of cities of 10,000 or more. When one considers that there are many communities of less than 10,000 population that have well organized local governments and provide health services as good as are offered in much larger cities, it is clear that mortality rates determined for districts so arbitrarily defined are not of high value in comparing country health with city health. The comparison of physical defects of “country” and “city” children by the National Education Association is interesting but it would be fax more interesting, if in publishing this table (The Nation’» Health, March 15, 1925), the reader were informed of what is meant by “country” and what by “city.” It is probable that “country” as used by the National Education Association represents a quite different area than that which is called “rural” by the United States bureau of the census.
Comparisons of rural and urban health conditions are valuable, but to be of real practical use there should be some agreement on definitions. What is “country” and what "city?” What is “rural” and what "urban?” If “country” means the same as “rural" and “city” the same as “urban” then we may be able to make some comparisons that will be useful in administrative practice, provided “country” or “rural” is actually rural and does not include organized communities of several thousand
people living under circumstances that are truly urban in character.
*
Venereal Diseases in 1924.—The United States public health service reports a great improvement in the reporting of venereal diseases in the year ending June 30, 1924. There were 27,382 more cases reported, an increase of 7.2 per cent over the corresponding period ending June 80, 1923. This does not necessarily mean that venereal disease was more prevalent but more likely that with the improvement of diagnostic methods, more clinics, and the extension of health educational work by official and inofficial bodies, few cases of the disease escaped registration.
A total of 363,063 cases of venereal diseases were reported to various boards of health state and local in the period reviewed. Of these 198,844 were syphilis, 160,790 gonorrhea and 8,429 chancroid. During the fiscal year just passed 504 public clinics reporting to state boards gave 2,147,087 treatments. Large as these figures are they represent as yet only inefficient control of venereal diseases. There are hundreds of thousands of cases that still escape discovery due to the failure of state and local law-making bodies to enact and provide for the enforcement of registration laws and attendant procedures and the failure also of health authorities of many communities to carry out known preventive measures even when authorized by law to do so.


ITEMS ON MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING
EDITED BY WILLIAM A. BASSETT
Advantages of Soft Water for Domestic Industrial Purposes.—Water supplies free from disease-bearing germs, turbidity and obnoxious taste and odors, are today provided for most cities. In fact such a supply is recognized as essential to the prosperity and welfare of a community and great credit is due to those instrumental in securing it. It is, however, believed that up to the present sufficient consideration has not been given to the matter of reducing the hardness of water due to the presence of certain salts in solution. In those cities where water softening plants have been installed, the reason has been the necessity of reducing hardness in order to secure necessary purification rather than the reduction of the hardness alone. It may be said, however, that hardness in water creates an economic disadvantage to the community and, everything else considered, this disadvantage is in direct proportion to the hardness.
The advantages resulting from the use of soft water benefit the domestic user as well as the industrial one. In the household there is a material decrease in the labor of housework when soft water is available. It is demonstrable that clothes washed in soft water have an increased life of from 25 to 100 per cent. There is also the advantage of a lower cost of plumbing, with soft water there is no deposit of scale, for example, in hot water pipes. This means an increased life in water backs and copper coils used in heaters together with reduced fuel consumption due to better conditions in the heating system.
In all industrial lines the advantage of soft water over hard is pronounced. In many plants it is necessary to resort to special treatment of hard waters in order to secure satisfactory and economical operating conditions. It is true that water softening treatment will of necessity increase the cost of providing a supply which will mean increased charges to consumers. It is believed, however, that ordinarily this increased charge for water will be but a small part of the indirect but real economies to the consumer that accompany a reduction in the hardness of any supply. There is need to
educate the public as to the true significance of this matter.
*
Financing City Replanning Improvements in Boston.—Utilization of a fund derived from a personal property tax on automobiles levied by the city of Boston, and from a proposed state excise tax on automobiles to meet in part the cost of street widening and similar replanning projects to relieve traffic congestion on certain important thoroughfares in that city, is a feature of a plan recommended by a state commission appointed to study the problem. For the purpose of distributing the cost of such improvements between the users of the streets and the property owners, the commission recommends: First, that all city revenue derived from motor vehicles should be placed in a highway improvement fund and used for the purpose designated; second, that the remaining cost be met, one-half from funds provided by a tax levy of 50 cents on the $1,000 over the entire city and one-half from special assessments levied on property within the central portion of the city which will receive special benefit from the contemplated improvements. The commission also recommends issuing fifteen year bonds to provide funds for the execution of the improvements.
Applying the principle of assessment for benefit in the financing of projects of this kind is recognized as consistent with the most approved practice. However, the wisdom of certain other provisions recommended by the commission is not at first glance apparent. The net cost of the proposed work, as estimated by the commission, is placed at approximately $24,250,000 of which only $1,350,000, it is anticipated, will be required for construction purposes. Considering the character of the purposes of expenditure which these projects involve and the relative permanency of the changes in conditions that will result from their consummation, it would seem justifiable to distribute the general financial burden over a greater period than fifteen years.
Also it is generally conceded that revenues from motor vehicle taxes when used for street
322


1925]
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32S
improvement purposes should be expended for maintenance of street pavements rather than for capital expense, particularly that for acquiring property. The plan itself undoubtedly has merit in its simplicity and its recognition of the varying benefit that would result both to the user of the street and the property owner from its carrying out. However, some modification in its provisions would seem to be desirable from the point of view of sound financial policy.
*
Electric vs. Gasoline Trucks for Waste Collection.—Electrically operated trucks for the collection of municipal waste have been used with success in a number of cities both in England and on the continent, and more recently this type of equipment is being used to a limited extent for the above purposes by certain American cities. It has already a wide use by business and industry in this country. There appears to be no reason why electric trucks should not be extremely useful for waste collection work where there is not an excessively long haul to the point of final disposal. In the past, two main objections raised against the use of electrically operated vehicles for collection purposes have been the limited mileage over which a truck can operate without recharging the battery and the restricted speed. Naturally it is important that there should be readily available ample facilities for recharging truck batteries without serious delay, but in these days of extensive application of electrical energy this should not be difficult of accomplishment.
It is stated that ordinarily the electric trucks used on collection work are designed for a maximum speed of about fifteen miles an hour. With the present hazard on our public streets due to motor vehicle this would not appear to be a serious objection, at least from the point of view of the public. The average speed of collection equipment is the controlling factor in measuring accomplishment where a large number of stops have to be made and the quick getaway to which the electric vehicle is adapted is in its favor.
Other advantages claimed for the electric truck which seem to be substantiated to a considerable extent in practice are simplicity of design and hence operation, relatively long life and low cost of operation and maintenance. In Washington, D. C., where three electric trucks have been used for rubbish collection during the past year, Morris Hacker, superintendent of the
District of Columbia refuse collection department, in commenting on the experience of that city in the use of this equipment, is quoted as follows:
Electrics are, in the opinion of the city refuse division, cheaper for certain sections of Hie city. In the outlying sections, gas trucks are necessary as the haul is too long for the satisfactory operation of electric trucks.
This statement appears to summarize the experience of other American cities, which have used electric trucks for waste collection purposes. Naturally the adaptability of that type of equipment to these purposes will depend on local conditions. In England it is reported that collection by electric trucks is proving more economical and generally satisfactory than by the use of horse drawn vehicles. Comparative data of this kind are lacking in respect of waste collection in American cities. However, the advantages that electric trucks possess for such work merit careful attention by municipal engineers and other officials in providing waste collection facilities.
*
English Experience With Contract Labor.—
Unusual success has accompanied the execution of building construction projects by force accounts methods or direct labor, according to an editorial appearing in the Local Government News of England. Information on this matter secured by means of a carefully prepared questionnaire discloses the following conditions:
In Manchester, taking the whole of the 332 houses built by direct labor since 1920, it was found that there was a saving over contract price of £13,250; and the housing director said definitely that even if it cost by direct labor 5 per cent more than it did, it would still pay the corporation of Manchester to operate the principle of direct labor. At Swansea, out of 1,310 houses, 718 had been built by direct labor and a further 100 were under construction. On 260 houses alone there was a saving on the sanctioned price of £22,024 and the contractors refused even to tender on the sanctioned price! In 1922-3 houses built by direct labor cost £419 as compared with £476 by contract. The town clerk of Swansea, moreover, wrote to say that, apart from the large saving in cost, the work done by direct labor was better than that done by private contract.
At Tynemouth, 25 houses built by direct labor for £784 as against £884 contract price, produced an actual saving of £2,512, and a potential saving on a further 71 houses of £7,125. At Salisbury, 20 houses built by direct


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labor at £800 were £88 cheaper than those of similar type being built by contract. At Glasgow, , the official figures were £534 for direct labor as against £707 by contract; £647 as against £883; and £731 as against £1,003; and the total saving to the corporation effected by building by direct labor reached the enormous sum of £57,240. From Hartlepool comes a similar tale of municipal success.
In this country there is frequent controversy over the question of conducting public work by contract or force account methods. In general, experience indicates that the contract method is preferable for handling ordinary municipal improvement work. The execution of building projects in this country, by the government, limited as it has been to certain housing development carried out during the war, does not offer the opportunity for comparison of cost between these two methods as that class of work was done under emergency conditions and almost entirely by contract. Incidentally, practically every government housing project proved to be a very expensive investment. The experience of English cities in this matter is an interesting demonstration of what can be accomplished by force account methods on relatively small building construction projects.
Amendment of New York Law Governing Motor Bus Operation.—Legislation that will clarify the powers of the New York state public service commission with regard to regulating the operation of bus lines using the public highways of that state has been asked by the commission.
For all other classes of utilities over which the commission has control there is specific mention in the law of the extent of the supervision. For bus regulation there are no definitely fixed limits.
The report directs especial attention to section 5-A of the public service commission law which seems to give exclusive jurisdiction to the transit commission (the state regulatory body of New York city) over bus lines wherever such lines or any part of them are within the limits of New York city. The jurisdiction of the public service commission is apparently expressly limited to the operation of such lines outside of New York city. If this is a fact, the transit commission only could pass on questions of convenience and necessity for lines or routes, no matter what their extent in the balance of the state, if they pass through, begin or end in New York city. The commission asks that this section be amended.


NOTES AND EVENTS
Official Comprehensive Plan of Cincinnati.— On April 16, Cincinnati officially adopted a Comprehensive City Plan, not only for the city, but for the area three miles outside as well.
This is the first complete city plan to be officially adopted by any large city in the country.
It means that from now on, there can be no use of private property contrary to the zoning and platting regulations of the plan. It also means that no street or means of circulation, nor public buildings, structures or land, nor public utility can be located or developed contrary to the plan, unless it is over-ruled by a two-thirds vote of the city council after public hearing, and with the approval of the department affected.
The plan is the result of three years of continuous work on the part of the city planning commission and its consultants, the Technical Advisory Corporation; furthermore, every city department and every public utility affected by the plan has collaborated in its preparation and concurs in its conclusions.
The program for the carrying out of the plan has been so worked out in detail as to bring no unnecessary burden on the tax-payer. The cost of executing the plan is distributed over fifty years, with no more than a normal proportion of it payable in any one year.
The plan is distinctly a citizens’ plan, as it was initiated and largely paid for by the United City Planning Committee, which is composed of representatives of about thirty of the leading organizations of the city.
*
Demolition of Buildings in Philadelphia is the
subject of a report by the Philadelphia Housing Association, which possesses interest for other cities as well. The report covers the year 1924 and supplements one made for the year previous.
In 1924, 1172 buildings were demolished, 936 of which were residential. Altogether 7,749 persons were dehoused, although 90 per cent of the residential buildings still had a long period of usefulness ahead of them.
Few of the residences demolished were replaced by dwellings. Many of the new buildings were for commercial and manufacturing purposes, but the majority of the houses destroyed were razed to make way for public improvements. These were for the most part low rental accommodations and no relief was planned for the families discommoded.
The survey discloses that the city government loses thousands of dollars in rent and drives families out months earlier than necessary by condemnation and destruction of houses before the city is ready to go ahead with the improvement. In contrast to this stands the practice of private corporations which continue to use or rent dwellings up to the moment when new construction begins. For example, the extension of Spring Garden Street, to provide an approach to the new Delaware River Bridge, was made two years too soon, and the loss in rentals to the city amounted to $66,000 each year.
The report calls attention to the fact that the destruction of existing buildings to make mom for public improvements is proceeding without any comprehensive city plan, and that, although damages have to be paid for losses sustained' through removal of property, public improvements which benefit private property are still paid for by general taxation. Assessments designed to impose part of the burden on the property benefited cannot be applied in Pennsylvania in the case of comprehensive improvements.
*
Four Years of Budget Supervision in Portland, Oregon.—The Multnomah County (Oregon) Tax Supervising and Conservation Commission in its report on budget facts for 1926 reviews the results of four years’ exercise of its power to certify the tax levies of the several governmental bodies within the limits of the county. An important accomplishment is the reduction in appropriations and taxes for each year as follows:
Reductions in Tax Levies $610,806.77 636,959.53 688,643.30 836,745.37
Reductions in Appropriations
1922 Budgets...................................................... $491,330.40
1923 Budgets.................................................... 383,107.23
1924 Budgets.................................................... 408,779.83
1925 Budgets....................................................... 611,755.32
Total, 4 years
325
$1,894,972.79 $2,673,154.97


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The commission believes, however, that its efforts have brought other substantial results in addition to the evidence in the table above. The power of the commission to disallow budget items is said to be in itself a deterrent influence on extravagance. The commission is also a research agency and makes suggestions from time to time regarding administrative rearrangements which effect money savings. It insists upon proper repair and maintenance of existing plants, compels necessary contributions to sinking funds, and requires that work programs, involving either appropriations or borrowings, be carefully thought out in advance.
The commission has always placed a great deal of emphasis on budget procedure, backed up by proper accounting. It believes that the budget idea now means more than ever before to the local governing bodies within the county.
The powers of the commission are indeed broad and their exercise has at times given rise to friction. The commission acts by unanimous vote, however, and does not attempt to dictate on questions of broad policy. Disinterested observers state that it has driven local governing bodies to a more careful study of their budgets. *
The Indiana Plan Criticized.—Like most human devices, this plan has certain merit. Likewise, it has defects. Its value depends on the net outcome from such merits and such defects.
The plan aims to prevent extravagance in governmental management. It purposes to use fear and moral suasion to accomplish such results. Unfortunately it does not tend to correct the real defects in municipal government. Its purpose is to prevent unwarranted tax levies and bond issues, but can be used when levies and issues are merely unwelcome instead of unwarranted.
The plan presupposes a vicious or incompetent and unresponsive body of municipal officials, an electorate which is not wholly indifferent and which contains at least a small group of non-complaisant tax contributors, or both. It affords nothing except moral restraint to the average municipality, for the average municipality will not invoke the machinery of the plan, if one is to believe reports from the home of the plan. This does not mean that the average municipality does not need such service, but merely that the people of such communities have not seen fit to use such service. It is more than probable that the municipalities that do not do
[May
so are the ones that need it the most, for in those communities where such service is asked there is a self-determining movement which should make the over-lord service of the plan unnecessary.
On the other hand, the plan offers nothing and does nothing for the community where proposed tax levies are too low. There is no means by which it offers assistance in forcing tax levies to be as high as they should be. The sinking funds of Minneapolis are four and one-half million dollars less than they should be; the various retirement funds have deficiencies of a somewhat similar amount; in 1919 Minneapolis issued $1,450,000.00 bonds in .order to wipe our deficiencies in various operating funds due to inadequate tax levies of former years. Does the Indiana plan offer any means of preventing a repetition of such conditions?
It is notorious that adequate tax levies are not made in most municipalities to finance various retirement schemes that have been installed throughout the country; it is usual that adequate provisions are not made for amortization of bonds. The Indiana plan does not o.fer a cure for such ills. In fact, it does not in any way solve the real problems involved in municipal finance: what and how much service should a community render; what should such service cost; how is the necessary revenue to be obtained?
Minnesota communities probably need an agency which can give them advice as to financial procedures; preparation of budgets, issuance of bonds, calculations of costs. They certainly need some means of preventing present obligations from being passed on to future generations. They can make good use of a supervising agency which will help local communities to attain the fundamental ideal of the American commonwealth, local self-government. But they do not want officious interference by any agency that does not function generally and that has no direct interest in the financial transactions involved.
Geobge M. Link.
Minneapolis.
*
Seattle Street Railway Making Money.—
The financial report of the Seattle Street Railway for the year 1924 shows a net profit of $369,-430.78 under the 81 cent fare now in force. The statement supplied by I. Comeaux, chief city accountant of Seattle, is as follows:


1925]
NOTES AND EVENTS
Income, Profit and Loss for 1924
327
Gross revenue, 1924........................
Add—Miscellaneous revenue and expense balance
Deduct:
Operating expense......................................... $4,807,588.52'
Interest..................................................... 759,299.27
Bond discount amortization.............................. 6,908.15
Profit and loss, abandoned $5,578,745.94
property, etc.......................................... 187,812.63
$6,119,290.18
11,699.17
$6,130,989.35
5,761,558.57
Net profit for 1924
$369,430.78
Balance Sheet
ASSETS:
Capital assets Less—Accrued depreciation $17,296,597.51b 3,668,458.60 $13,628,138.91
Investments Sinking, redemption and special fund assets Current assets Deferred assets Unamortized discount on bonds Work in progress Deficit 173,280.93 523,499.29 1,349,751.67 2,500.00 67,235.84 9,687.58 615,928.46
$16,370,022.68
LIABILITIES: General lien bonds Revenue bonds $775,000.00 14,191,000.00 $14,966,000.00
Current Liabilities Accounts payable to general fund Deferred liabilities Miscellaneous 1,208,437.51 190,845.17 4,290.00 450.00
$16,870,022.68
• Includes 1685,114.32, year’s depreciation. Also includes maintenance for the year, 1915,652.80. k Includes about 8700,000 real estate omitting bldgs., vis., nondepreciable assets.
Our readers are familiar with the fact that Seattle purchased her street railway system in 1919, when the city’s waterfront was humming with ship building. Mayor Ole Hansen favored the purchase at a price of $15,000,000 and the people approved it in an advisory referendum. It is now generally conceded that the price was exorbitant, that the property was worth not more than ten million at the most. The properties were in an advanced stage of deterioration, and there has always been suspicion of graft on the part of city officials. The next mayor induced the council to appropriate $10,000 for an investigation into possible fraud, but nothing ever came of it.
The city commenced operation April 1, 1919 in a 5 cent fare, but on July 24, 1920, was compelled to increase it to 6 ^ cents, and on January
9, 1921, the fare was raised to 8i cents. The present mayor won his election on a promise to restore the 5 cent fare and on March 1,1923, this rate was established, although past experience did not justify the reduction. Revenues being insufficient, to pay the employees, and the banks being imwilling to c^sh the warrants issued by the city to pay wages, the city was obliged to increase the fare to the previous high level of 8} cents, which has continued in force to the present.
The dty paid for the system in revenue bonds running from three to twenty years, and in addition cancelled franchise obligations (for paving, bridge construction, etc.) approximating $1,-000,000. Each year the city retires $843,000 worth of these bonds, which are an obligation on revenues only. Additional bonds amounting to


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$2,505,000 have been issued. During the periods of low fares, a total deficit of $2,153,000 was accumulated, but of this amount, $1,537,000 has been wiped out by profits under the 8J cent fare.
Now, however, the system is showing a profit. Mr. Comeaux states that ample allowance is made for depreciation and maintenance. Cost of operation has been reduced more than $330,-000 since 1919 in spite of the fact that ma»imimi wages of motormen and conductors have been increased from 53 to 63 cents per hour to 60 to 70 cents per hour.
We are indebted to M. H. Van Nuys, secretary of the Seattle Municipal League and to I. Comeaux, chief city accountant, for the data upon which the above account is based.
*
Fight on Taxicab Control in New York.—The licensing of public hacks and drivers in New York city was transferred from the bureau of licenses to the police department when Mayor Hylan signed the local law amending the greater New York charter to that effect.
Growing pains were apparent as the taxicab industry increased by leaps and bounds and the details of licensing cabs, meters and chauffeurs proved too great an undertaking for the limited staff of the division of licensed vehicles. It became clear that additional workers would have to be assigned to the work and at this juncture the mayor appears to have become interested and assigned a commission to investigate the situation.
By a law of 1914 a centralized licensing department, headed by an appointed commissioner of licenses, was given charge of the bulk of the licensing in New York city including the licensing of taxicabs, meters and chauffeurs, but the granting of licenses to applicants in the case of chauffeurs depended upon the fitness of applicants. Prior to a decision on this point it was mandatory that each applicant be finger printed by the police and careful search made for a police record. The police report was then sent to the division of licensing vehicles and governed the granting of licenses to applicants.
This routine should be borne in mind as it definitely places certain responsibilities upon the police department.
[May
Mr. Hylan introduced the bill for transfer of licensing hacks and drivers and it was apparent from the first that the bill was the administration’s pet measure. The board of estimate passed it with only Mr. Craig's two votes against it. Thirty-four votes would have carried the measure in the board of aldermen, but for some unknown reason the administration wanted a full Democratic line up. Some of the aldermen were not in favor of the bill, but could not resist the pressure, and orders to support it were given personally by Mayor Hylan to each Democratic alderman. One alderman said, “Orders is orders,” and another, “I have been a soldier for years, I am still a soldier and must take my orders.”
The vote in the board of aldermen showed only two Democrats voting with the Republicans against the measure, while two Democrats stayed away and one asked to be excused from voting. ' The affirmative vote was 50, negative 10.
The main argument advanced by the proponents of the bill was that since the police are responsible for traffic control the licensing power should also be theirs, since divided po vers make for irresponsibility. This of course might have been developed into an impressive argument, but Mayor Hylan muffed the opportunity to use it at the board of estimate hearing by citing, as an example of the crime that follows in the wake of divided responsibility, the murder of Kenney by an unlicensed gunman who was driving a taxicab. Controller Craig could not let this pass. In forceful language he called attention to the full power to enforce taxicab regulations already in the hands of the police, including the power to arrest all unlicensed drivers. He wound up with the placement of all blame for the Kenney murder upon the shoulders of the mayor, for appointing as police commissioner a man who does not enforce the law.
The majority report of the committee on local laws of the board of aldermen reported the bill favorably, giving as their reasons that there are 18,000 licensed cabs and 35,000 licensed drivers and in a report for 1922 the commissioner of licenses suggested the transfer to the police department and the mayor’s investigation commission had recently recommended it.


NOTES AND EVENTS
329
1925]
By tax the greatest warfare was waged over the charge that the mayor and his family are financially interested in the Yellow Taxicab Company, and against the unreliableness of the police, who, it is claimed, discriminate at every turn against the independent taxi drivers.
The two direct arguments brought against the bill were first, that the police would have judicial powers as well as enforcement power in that they would issue licenses, inspect, arrest and impose penalties which complete control is not in conformity with American custom. Secondly, the license records under the bill would be secret since they would become police records. This would give the licensing authorities power to make arbitrary and unfair decisions that could not be checked up by wholesome publicity. Here the lack of confidence in the police department was again apparent.
The latter argument is a sound one and one of the Republicans in the board of alderman will shortly propose an amendment that will, if adopted, check up on the secrecy clause. But the first argument regarding enforcement and judicial power might equally well be brought
against all administrative departments which have quasi-judicial powers.
It was conclusively shown that the license department was discriminating in favor of the Yellow Taxicab Company in licensing taxi meters. All independents must stand on line with their cars and await their turn when applying for licenses, sometimes having to stay in line seven days, sleeping in their cars and losing earnings for that time, while an official from the license department is sent to the garage of the Yellow Taxi Company to examine their meters. This also means that the Yellow Taxi meters are not put through the laboratory test and thus do not carry the seal of approval required, although the police, who have full power of enforcement, do not question this shortage.
The taxicab situation has been the most dramatic exercise of home rule power, granted by recent constitutional amendment, which has been afforded to date. Irrespective of the merits of the change, the whole matter was fought out on the home field where all who were involved could participate, instead of at Albany as would formerly have been the case.
G. R. Hows.
NEWS OF THE CITY MANAGER MOVEMENT CONTBXBUTSD Bt JOHN G. SlUTZ
The Attempted Indiana Repeal.—A bill introduced in the Indiana House of Representatives to repeal the present law admitting cities to adopt the city manager form of government which has been taken advantage of only by Michigan City, was killed by the house by being indefinitely postponed.
This repeal is said to have been proposed by Indianapolis politicians in an attempt to make it impossible for the city of Indianapolis to adopt the city manager plan of government as it now seems quite likely will be done.
♦
Where The Opposition Comes From.—To get a small town to change from the old council-manic system of city government to the city manager plan is about as hard as to get a township organization county to change to the commissioner system. The principal reason is that each of the changes results in a decrease in the number of offices. The holders of small offices never like to give them up. They have friends who can vote and argue. Chadron has just voted about two to one against adopting the city manager plan.—Geneva Signal.
Delay is Austin.—Due to the legal tangle which has been the result of the appeal case on the adoption of the city manager charter by Austin, Texas, it is quite probable that the city commissioners will not be selected for that city under the city manager plan until after the case has been decided, although the regular election would come before that time. The council may take one of two courses, that of refusing to hold an election until after the contents have been decided on, or they may call an election under the old charter.
♦
Wheeling Charter Prescribes Local Man.— The present method of selecting city managers in Wheeling is coming in for a great deal of criticism. Those who are familiar with the Wheeling situation will remember that the charter provides that a local man must be appointed. The local paper points out the fact that the managers do not desire to stay in the position more than one term. It is our opinion that this condition is due not so much to the fact that the city manager is selected by the council, as the newspapers point out, but rather to the fact that the council is re-


330 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
quired to appoint a local man, thus making it almost impossible for them to get away from politics.
*
The Plan in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula.—In Michigan’s upper peninsula the city of Ironwood, Michigan, adopted by a vote of more than two to one a new charter which will place that city under the city manager form of government. Council-men to place this form in effect to be elected at the regular spring election in April. Ironwood is a city of well over 16,000 population and is the center of the iron ore mining region of the upper peninsula.
City Manager Fred R. Harris of Escanaba calls attention to the fact that since Escanaba adopted the city manager form of government three years ago, the cities of Gladstone, Kingsford, Stam-bough, and Ironwood on the upper peninsula have also adopted this form of government.
♦
Race for Cincinnati Council.—Already the Cincinnati newspapers are attacking the problems of securing the right kind of nominees for members of the council under the city manager plan which is to go into effect on January 1,1926. Editorials have appeared in the leading newspapers pointing out the fact that already there are a large number of persons declaring themselves candidates for election, many of them members of the political machine which has governed Cincinnati for the past several years. These newspapers point out that if Cincinnati is to have a successful administration the voters should make a complete break from the old politi-
[May
cal machine for the purpose of giving the new plan a fair trial.
♦
Old Government Leaves Unwelcome Heritage.
—Cape May, the first city in New Jersey to adopt the optional city manager law, witnessed a striking example of the attitude of professional politicians toward the city manager plan of government. The commission, which was to go out of office within a week or two, advertised for bids for a municipal orchestra, a three-year electric light contract, the furnishing of material to pave about a mile of street and a “DeLuxe highway bulletin.” The bids were to be opened and contract let two days before the municipal election. Friends of the city manager plan in Cape May are openly asserting that this action was part of a deliberate plot to discredit the incoming managerial form of government basing its assertion upon the fact that the specifications for the orchestra were made so that only a certain friend of one of the present commissioners could qualify as director; second, because the electric light company has been furnishing current on a month to month basis for more than a year; and third, because the paving program let under the commission plan would have to be carried out under the city manager plan. This situation we believe forms a striking example of the usual vindictive attitude taken by professional politicians when the citizens have voted for a city manager form of government and they know that their chances for future political patronage have been definitely removed and hence there is no further reason to curry popular favor.
NOTES ON MUNICIPAL ACTIVITIES ABROAD Contributed by W. E. Mosher
A New Review.—The first issue of a new review entitled. Les Sciences Administrative*, has just been launched at Brussels under the auspices of the International Union of Cities with the co-operation of the permanent Commission of the International Congress of the Sciences of Administration and the International Institute of Bibliography and Documentation. In the future this publication will regularly contain “Les Tablettes Documentaires,” formerly published as a separate bulletin. The purpose of the review is to serve as a clearing house for ideas, methods and practices in administration, both in the field of state and of city government.
Since the significance of the review as the organ of the municipalities will increase in proportion to the number of cities represented on the membership of the International Union of Cities, efforts are being made to bring about a more comprehensive organization. In general it is planned to base the international organization on the national groups. Co-operation to this end on the part of those nations not yet participating is fairly well assured, so far as the important countries go. It is interesting to note that a preliminary step has been taken in the United States through the organization of the Association of American Municipal Organizations which


NOTES AND EVENTS
331
has recently taken place in Lawrence, Kansas, with Dr. Maurice B. Lambie as president and Mr. John G. Stutz as executive secretary.
It is appropriate that the central place in the first issue of the review should be devoted to two reports; one, of the conference of the International Union of Cities and the second of the International Congress of the Science of Administration.
*
The Second International Congress of Cities.
—A summary report of the Second International Congress of Cities, held in Amsterdam in June-July, 1924, is found in the first issue of Let Sciences Administrative!. The unions of cities or individual cities of 21 countries participated in this conference. On the program provision was made for the reports of the unions of cities from various countries, together with special sessions on the handling of municipal health problems, infant welfare, venereal diseases and cancer.
The most important discussions, however, centered about the ways and means of extending the area of co-operation between the various national unions of cities themselves. This has to do with the exchange of information, reports and the like. Specific action in this direction took the form of a recommendation which was based upon the doctrine of “intermunicipality,” and was directed to the League of Nations. In view of the recommendation, the League of Nations subsequently went on record as being in sympathy with the advancement of this doctrine, on the ground that it was in a line with those ideals which brought about the creation of the League. Further, at its last assembly, it adopted t resolution providing that its secretariat prepare a report for the sixth assembly of the League, dealing with the intermunicipal co-operation already existing and the possible ways in which the League of Nations might advance and contribute to it.
*
Uniform Budget Systems.—A movement is under way among the members of the Conference of German Cities (Deutscher St&deUg) to introduce a uniform budget system in the interests of (1) economy. (2) home rule with respect to the empire, the state and economic organizations, and (3) for the purpose of developing financial statistics that will make comparative t^sts possible. It is urged further that the budget plan be set up on the basis of a clear and simple method of accounting. The main divisions proposed are
the following: (a) General Administration, (b) Police Administration (including building, market and health inspection), (c) Building, (d) Public Utilities, (e) Schools, (f) Science and Art, (g) Welfare (including housing, health and employment bureau).
It is also recommended that there should be attached to the budget, statements giving the number of officials and workers for the various departments as well as cost units and other standard units of output and measurement for various activities. The plan originated with the executive committee of the organization of directors of finance. It has the backing of the executive committee of the Conference of German Cities. (Mitteilungen des Deutscher StSdetages, I Januar 1925.)
♦
Housing Politics.—A comprehensive review of the housing situation in Germany, together with proposals for solving the problem, is set forth by Dr. Anacker. By way of retrospect, costs of real estate, construction, interest charges and the increases in rent are compared with the pre-war period. A comparison is also made with housing conditions in English industrial cities that throws light on the gravity of the German situation. Among-other things, it is pointed out that on the average, four or five persons dwell in one house in England, while in similar houses in Germany, over thirty people are to be found.
Some very interesting proposals are made, particularly as to the responsibilities of local communities. These apply to financing, the purchase of land to be leased over a long period of time, and to providing money at a low rate of interest for construction purposes. In the author’s opinion, the proper handling of this problem is the very center of the solution of the social and hygienic problems of Germany.
In the same issue of the magazine carrying Dr. Anacker’s article, is a series of items from 42 different German cities, covering recent activities and ordinances of more or less general interest. The list of cities includes such as the following: Aachen, Essen, Halle, Stuttgart and a number of smaller municipalities.
A review of these reports goes to show how widely recognized is the need of providing housing facilities. In 14 cases, that is one-third of the total, a note is included concerning the purchase of property for housing purposes, the provision of funds for loans or the actual building of houses on the part of the community concerned.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
In one case (Gruenberg), {or instance, provision is made for the erection of 100 dwellings at the cost of from 050,000 to 700,000 marks. The building program of Cologne calls for 3,000 new dwellings in 1025 and, at an increasing rate each year, reaches the maximum of eight thousand in 1029. The administration of Stuttgart plans for 1,000 dwellings at the cost of 8 to 9 million marks.
A detailed investigation of the various methods
[May-
used for stimulating building among German cities would, doubtless, contain some very valuable and fruitful suggestions for the cities of the United States. A great variety of experiments is now under way that should serve as a guide for meeting a situation becoming more and more acute throughout the civilized countries. (Zeit-schrift fur Kommunalwirtschaft, Berlin, den 10 Mara, 1925.)


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW VOL XIV, No. 5 MAY, 1925 TOTAL No. 107 COMMENT Oregon is not fond of the income tax. Not only has she repealed it after a brief experiment, but the legislature has referred to the people a constitutional amendment prohibiting the imposition of any inheritance or income tax until 1940. If the amendment is adopted the state may live to regret it. * By more than 100,000 votes Mayor Dever’s municipal ownership plan for the Chicago street Railways was defeated on April 7. Straw votes indicated that it would probably carry by a small majority, but the opposition of some important newspapers and division among Mayor Dever’s supporters were suflicient to counteract the ardent support of much of the businesselement. The pIan was undoubtedly advantageous to the traction interests and, for the time being at least, gave the city municipal ownership in name only. A more extended analysis of the election will appear next month. * Indications are that there will not be less than one hundred candidates for seats in the second Cleveland council to be elected under proportional representation. Seventy-five are now in the field with their nominating petitions. At the election two years ago there were one hundred thirty-seven candidates at one time in the campaign, but this number fell to one hundred eighteen at the finish. * Adolph S. Ochs, owner and publisher of the New York Times, has made the University of Chattanooga a gift of $50,000 towards the endowment of a chair in municipal government. In explaining the purpose of his gift Mr. Ochs said: I want to impress upon young men an appreciation of the field and the opportunity that is theirs, 811 opportunity not only for mi= but also for a career. . . . City management is‘fast becoming a profession, and I hope through this gift not only to aid in the development of this profession but alao to give many boys an incentive and an opportunity to fit thkmseives for such service. Mr. Ochs’ gift is conditioned upon friends of the University raising $150,000. One hundred thousand dollars of this amount has already been pledged. * A bill establishing “home voting” has been intro,duced into the Wisconsin Senate, at the request of W. E. Hamilton. 1%. Hamilton believes that the stage has now been reached at which people can vote by mail. The bill provides procedure designed to counteract fraud. * England reports that it is becoming more and more difficult to find acceptable police recruits. Ninety per cent of the applicants, it is stated, never get SO 271

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97% NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW far as the examining doctor. Another 5 per cent fail to pass the education tests. The question is whether physical fitness is declining or whether the life of a policeman no longer attracts wellbuilt young men. And if so, Why? * The bill, drafted by Dr. A. R. Hatton, permitting the city of Butte and the county of Silverbow to consolidate under the city manager charter, was amended by the Montana legislature at its recent session. The primary was moved up three months, and several municipal officers, namely, the sheriff, attorney and assessor, were made elective instead of appointive. Obviously this constitutes an encroachment on the sound short ballot principles incorporated by Dr. Hatton in the original act. * Schenectady, New York, a city of almost 100,000 population, will vote in June upon the adoption of Plan “C” charter, which provides the city manager form With a small council elected at large. W. J. Millard, field agent of the League, will be in Schenectady during the closing days of the campaign, The election will be watched with great interest by the people of Rochester, New York, where the movement to adopt a city manager charter has attained important proportions. * How far we are from a thoroughgoing application of the merit system in the higher political posts, and consequently the establishment of the professional idea in mupicipal service, is illustrated in a recent report of the New York Citizens’ Union entitled “Why is Hylan?” Another report might be written on “Why is Any Mayor?” The spoils Of Politics Hylan is unique in some ways, but in utilizing patronage to further his own ends he is no different from the average. Of the seventy-two district leaders of the Democratic party in New York City, fiftyeight are on the city payroll, at salaries ranging from $3,500 (there is but one as low as this) to $12,000 per year. Only five hold elective office, the rest are appointed. The total annual payroll of the fiftyeight is more than $420,000 per year. In addition three district leaders hold state or national elective office. Now the district leaders are big men in the party machine. Their tasks as political foreman are heavy and timeconsuming, and it is safe to assume that a great deal of the salary paid them by the city is really compensation for their services to Tammany and Mayor Hylan. Not all of the fiftyeight owe their place to Hylan but a change in the mayor will jeopardize the posts of those holding borough or court posts. This helps explain why Al Smith, who dislikes Hylan, has not been able to persuade Tammany to throw him down, and his reelection this fall is generally conceded. The fiftyeight district leader job holders are merely the front rank of a considerably larger crowd of political workers in municipal office. It will be the normal condition as long aa the chief operating executive is a politician. And he will normally be a politician until the whole basis of his selection is changed. The city manager plan does not guarantee that municipal administration will be in the hands of a non-politician. But it does provide a method by which a different sort of person can be made the city’s operating head. The job specifications for the position of city manager are quite different from those for the o6ce of mayor.

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A WINDOW DISPLAY OF “ MUNICIPAL RESEARCH ” BY EDWARD TaTJBBER PAXTON Bureau of Municipal haarch of Phildlphia CitW learn what tb municipal rcsearch bureau does, and incidentally receive sonu educcrtim on what the city provides its people. .. .. The cartoons here reproduced were wed in the campaign. :: A WINDOW exhibit of its work was requested of the Philadelphia Bureau of Municipal Research during the most recent annual financial drive of the Welfare Federation of Philadelphia. Exhibitions of work arranged each year by numerous member-agencies, and the service of hospitals, visiting nurses, child-caring, and family relief agencies, and similar organizations whose undertakings appeal to the emotions, are very effectively portrayed. It remained for the Bureau to try visualizing the task of studying and improving government. The spirit of the occasion was seized by displaying, in posters which formed the “leaders” or “headlines” of the exhibit, the fact that, ‘‘ Ths Bureau of Municipal Research is dedicated to the task of making me efective the services of Philadelphia’s most important welfare agency, th.e city govmment.” Under this caption, the central figure of the display was an enlargement, nine feet long, of the organization chart of the city government recently published by the Bureau. This was mounted on an easel, at eyeheight to the passer-by. The portion of the chart representing the registered voters, from which lines of authority spread out, fan-like, directly or indirectly to almost every unit of the complex government, was cut away and replaced by a mirror. Accompanying the chart was the legend, “This is a picture of your city government. You”-and.here an arrow point& to the reader’s reflection in the mirror- “are responsible for its success or failure.” DIVERSIFIED ACTIVITIES OF PHILADELPHIA CITY QOVERNMENT 273

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274 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [May In 1800 cheese could be soldataguess NOW,it must be weighed toafraction InGOVER"T,asin GROCERIES guess work doesn't go. WE-MUST USE FACTS POSTER USED IN PHILADELPHIA WELFARE DRIVE TO SHOW THE SERVICE OF THE BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH

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19251 CLEANSING AND AGRICULTURE IN GLASGOW a75 Ribbons, in the city’s colors, ran from governmental units on the chart to cards, pictures, and models, in other parts of the window, indicating some of the benefits to citizens contributed by the city government. “Ocean Trade” was linked with the department of wharves, docks, and ferries; “Fresh Air and Sunshine,” with the division of housing and sanitation; “Legal Aid,” with the legal aid bureau. “Justice,” “Civic Beauty,” “Library Service,” “Wholesome Fun and Exercise,” “Better Health,” “Fair Weight and Measure,” “Pure Food,” “Healthy Children,” “Healthful Homes,” “Good. Streets,” and “Good Street Lighting,” were some of the benefits shown as attributable in some part to the city’s activities. Models were shown of a new city hospital building and a combined police and fire station. Photographs showed a new school building, a city market, the interior of a filter plant, a Frankford “L” train, and a streetcleaner at work. Cards and posters, some illustrated with cartoons, pointed out the significance of municipal activities and citizen responsibility for them. An automatic projecting machine displayed lantern slides containing information about the city and the work of the Bureau, effectively enlivened with humorous illustrations by a nationallyknown cartoonist. Numerous samples of Citizens’ Business and other Bureau publications were displayed prominently. The exhibit attracted a great deal of attention from pedestrians on a busy section of Chestnut Street, and, undoubtedly, was instrumental in making the Bureau of Municipal Research better known to a large number of citizens. CLEANSING AND AGRICULTURE PROFITABLY COMBINED IN GLASGOW BY W. GREIG Cleanzing Suprrintmdmt, G‘luagow THE disposal of city refuse is a problem which has perplexed many municipalities, and has taxed the ingenuity and skill of cleansing superintendents everywhere. With the advance of science in cleansing matters, the methods of dealing with refuse have been gradually changing. The rough-and-ready practice of depositing contents of ashpits on low lying ground, upon which later dwelling houses were erected, was rightly condemned, and other outlets had to be devised. With the introduction of the destructor furnace the di5culties in connection with the disposal of .refuse were partially dispelled. There is, however, in almost every city a considerable proportion of the refuse which is suitable for use as a fertilizer, and where there is an outlet for the material among farmers, it can &s a rule be disposed of to advantage. GLASGOW A PIONEFR But there is also a considerable quantity of material which it is impossible either to cremate or sell. It is therefore desirable for a large city, and even for one of moderate size, to possess

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276 NATIOXAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW a stretch of land to which such spare material can be despatched. The advantages to be gained by a corporation owning land in this connection are numerous and important. In proof of the feasibility of a municipality owning land as an adjunct to the radcations of its cleansing establishment reference may be made to the experience of Glasgow. Glasgow was the fist city in Great Britain to launch out in this direction, and may rightly be termed the pioneer of municipal agriculture. The first attempt was made in 1879, when a stretch of bogland nine miles from the city was leased for 31 years. When taken over the ground was absolutely useless as an agricultural subject, but it was thoroughly drained, suitable houses were erected, and a railway siding led into it. Provision was also made for tipping unsaleable refuse. The soil being entirely of a mossy nature yielded good crops, the potatoes being of splendid quality and valuable as seed. The only regret associated with this venture, however, was that a first-clras agricultural subject reverted back to the proprietor. As a result of the Fulwood moss ground experience, the cleansing committee realized more and more the great necessity of owning land which could be reached by the different railway systems. Consequently, in 1891, when the rapid increase of the city demanded more accommodation for dealing with refuse, it was decided to purchase outright (not lease) the estate of Ryding, near Airdrie, on the L. & N. E. Railway, about eleven miles from the city. The area then acquired was 564 acres. Since then other adjoining farms were added, thus increasing the estate to 821 acres. POOR LAND MADE FERTILE The land is stiff clay, and when purchased was in very poor condition, the crops then raised being light and of inferior quality. By careful draining, however, and liberal manuring with unsaleable city refuse the land has been brought up to a high state of productiveness, and large crops of hay, oats, wheat, turnips, potatoes, etc., are raised yearly. The next step taken in acquiring land was in 1895, when the farm of Maryburgh, 553 acres in extent, and situated , on the L. M. & S. Railway System, was purchased as a refuse tip. The adjoining farm of Hallbrae was also leased (purchase being impossible), the object being to provide better railway accommodation. The latter farm grows excellent crops, the soil being of superior quality. A further acquisition was made in 1904, when the historic estate of Robroyston was purchased. The area of this property is 656 acres, and it lies within four miles from the city, on the L. M. & S. Railway System. The ground was acquired for the purpose of providing tipping accommodation for unsaleable refuse, the raising of food and provender for the stud of the department, and also for the provision of hospital facilities. In connection with the latter scheme an area on an elevated portion of the estate was transferred to the public health department. A considerable amount of draining and reclamation work has been done since the estate was acquired, and a large number of “unemployed” have been provided with work for a number of winters. Moss and waste lands have been reclaimed, and good crops are now grown thereon. The rest of the land is of fair, good quality, and capable of yielding good results.

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19S] CLEANSING AND AGRICULTURE IN GLASGOW a77 The estate possesses historical interest owing to the fact that the betrayal of Scotland's patriot, Sir Wdliam Wallace, took place near the old mansion-house which was demolished some years ago. A monument, erected by public subscription, now marks the spot of the Scottish hero's betrayal. Wallace's well, in the near neighborhood, is also a source of interest. Altogether, the estate of Robroyston is a valuable adjunct of the department. While the mineral rights of Ryding estate are reserved, the minerals in the lands of Robroyston are the property of the corporation, and same have been leased for a period of 81 years as from Whitsunday, 1915, thus adding another source of revenue to the department. There is also a brick works on the estate which yields a good rental. The latest purchase was made in 1924, when the estate of North Myvot, extending to 93 acres, was acquired. This estate will form a valuable adjunct to Ryding, both for agricultural purposes and for disposal of city refuse. OPERATED WITH0UTBURDE"QTAX RATES The original cost of the estates is being wiped off by a sinking fund extending over a period of 40 years, so that in the course of time the city will possess a free asset in these valuable lands. The cleansing committee has all along realized how important and necessary these estates have been in connection with the operations of the department, into which they dovetail so well. Mention may be made of one great advantage, viz., the benefit derived by having at command a good supply of fresh hay and feed for the large stud in the city, consisting of over 300 horses, thereby ensuring a good bill of health. That this is the case is evident from the fact that the average death rate for a number of years back has been only a fraction over one per cent. The estates also provide a rest camp for horses requiring a change, where they are able to engage in farm work on softer ground, and after a spell return to the city fully recuperated. During the past four seasons the department's farming operations-in common with the experience of agriculturists throughout the land-have passed through a trying time, the cropping accounts being on the wrong side. It should be borne in mind, however, that the climatic conditions have been very bad, and in addition to the adverse weather the prices received for produce did not prove remunerative. The government, however, urge the necessity for farmers putting as much land under crop as possible, and with more favorable weather and better priceewhich are now showing signs of improvement-the prospects are decidedly brighter. Reference might also be made to the fact that, notwithstanding the depression in agricultural circles, the cost of labor is still very high. The skilled farm laborer now realizes that he is a highly trained workman and looks for his services to be remunerated on similar lines to other skilled occupations. Little fault can be found with the sons of the soil endeavoring to secure more liberal recognition; at the same time during bad seasons it tends to increme the burden of those engaged in such an uncertain calling as agriculture. In conclusion, it is satisfactory to be able to say that, notwithstanding the lean years referred to, these estates, and the operations connected therewith, have been conducted without imposing any charge upon the rates. As pioneers of this branch of municipal enterprise the cleansing committee of Glasgow Corporation has every reason to feel proud of the success which

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278 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW has attended their efforts, and it is a further source of gratification to know that other cities and towns have recognized the importance of the step, with the result that quite a number of other corporations have followed GlasBow’s example and now own land outside their boundaries. INSURANCE OF MUNICIPAL BONDS BY HORACE H. SEARS Couwelbr at Law, New Ymk City Municipal bonds should be insured against mistakes in fonn and procedure of issuing. Such insurance wiU be particularly helpful to .. .. .. Smrr~ cities-. :: .. “RE proper development of city planning requires adequate financing of construction. This cost of projects should be considered as soon as preliminary improvement plans indicate the character of new work. In a case where the city credit is impaired, if for instance, the constitutional debt limit has been reached, financing must receive primary consideration. All too frequently, the matter of financing is reserved to the last, and the public interest in a given project makes progress only to find that means of payment are not easily found. MUNICIPAL BONDS CAN BE TREATED LIKE PRIVATE MORTGAGE BONDS This article has reference to the small city financing and the legislation required to standardize practice in the matter of bond issues. Notes and warrants are issued under legislative authority for small amounts when emergency funds are needed. But municipal bonds have more desirable features, both for the city and for the purchaser, in most cases. The bond is considered as similar to a first mortgage on real estate. The security back of the loan is said to be real estate. The private loan, based on a mortgage of .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. land, has been reduced by legislative enactments and by court decisions to a position of relative certainty in the world of finance. While state laws may vary, f.i. the lien theory and title theory of mortgages, the private bondand-mortgage-loan may be said to be “standard practice.” The Torrens land registration laws represent statutory procedure; the insurable features are set forth in detail and well summarized in Reeves (Real Property, Vol. 11, p. 1583): “An examination of title, and adjudication by a competent court of the status and validity of such title; a certscate duly made and issued by the registrar, showing the exact condition of the title; supplying of an assurance fund, for the payment of any losses that may result from such dealings with the title.” What has been done with respect to private loans and the registration and assurance thereof may be done for municipal bonds which partake of the nature of this private mortgage bond. The success of city planning is in a measure dependent upon safeguarding the investor’s funds which purchase the municipal securities offered to secure funds for construction. This is ... ; and in some jurisdictions, the

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192.51 INSURANCE OF MUNICIPAL BONDS 279 particularly true in the hncing of requirements of small cities. We now have various state laws which have made uniform the practice of conducting commercial activities; f.i., uniform negotiable instruments acts. It is in conformity with this practice that legislation should be had respecting state laws which will provide for a uniform municipal bond law. This should result in a standard form for municipal bond and standard procedure relating to the delivery of municipal bonds. (See Richards on Insurance Law, VoI. 11, Chap. XI, “The Standard Fire Policy”.) What has been accomplished for h! insurance in standardizing forms and procedure can be had by legislative enactment on behalf of municipal bonds. Organized effort is needed to educate the people to vote for uniform municipal bond laws. The present hit-ormiss methods relating to municipal financing of needed city improvements should be improved upon. Valid laws exist for municipal corporations to issue bonds. Unfortunately these valid laws are so varied that only where expert counsel is retained, as in the case of large issues by large cities, is there any certainty of a satisfactory check on procedure incident to the issue and delivery of municipal bonds. The invalid bond, in the hands of an innocent purchaser for value, presents a case of double injury to the cause of public borrowing. The uncertainties above referred to often lead to the issue of bonds which are void from the start. They are usually issued “by and with the advice of counsel,” and they are sold in good faith. Some are paid at maturity, in full, and no harm is done. All too frequently, this type is issued by a city where the advice of counsel is not good, and only when the city, later, fails to pay the interest coupons, and court proceedings result, have we the first indications of invalidity of the bonds. Present laws also provide the uncertainty, which attends an issue of municipal bonds, that where there is a procedure under a valid law some irregularity in procedure may cause the bond to be declared invalid but not void. This legal distinction between invalidity, which may be corrected by subsequent proceedings, and a bond which is void from its inception, are also too numerous. UNIFORM PROCEDURE WILL HELP BUT NOT CURE Standard methods of procedure will help but not entirely cure defective bond issues. Proper legislation will add to the character of municipal bonds and the adverse criticism, if any, be placed with incompetent officials and not upon the legitimate loans secured by municipal bonds. The use by the citj. of borrowed money should be based upon the same considerations which govern commercial loans, but the municipal corporation should provide a better risk as to loans and as to insurable features than the private corporation offers. The city has an insurable interest in all public improvements. Given proper legislative power to proceed with definiteness, the city should guarantee to the purchccser the municipal bonds for all public purpdses. Owners of municipal bonds will have to be considered as well aa the city. Granted that the ccunderlying lien,” of a special assessment district bond, is the realty of the abutting property owner, the municipal bond in theory is as well protected when issued without the “general obligation” of the city and the bond owner has only the right to foreclose against the abutting property. This is good theory, but not good practice. The cost of borrowing money is less when the “general obliga

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280 XATIONAL MulyICIPAL REVIEW tion” of the city is pledged, compared with the limited liability of the abutting property of the special assessment district. What chance for enforcement of this lien rests with an isolated bond owner of a “limited liability” bond? Some states provide a merely nominal fee for collection in such cases which is entirely inadequate for legal proceedings. These improvements are in the nature of ‘‘fixtures” to the realty. They improve the city and add to its assessed valuation. Refusal by purchasers of municipal bonds to take anything but “general obligation” bonds would result in the passing of adequate legislation to enable a city to pledge its “full faith and credit” in all cases in which bonds are issued by it for municipal corporate purposes. WSURANCE NEEDED The city should pledge its creditin commercial parlance, “ indorse its securities”--when bonds, notes or warrants are issued to pay for public improvements. The next step which the city should take is certification to prospective purchasers of its securities that its procedure has been “insured” by a recognized company of underwriters; that its sinking fund provisions for payment of the bonds at maturity are likewise ‘‘underwritten’’; and that the bond contract is statutorjr in form, and clearly represents a promise to pay which is evidenced by the “full, faith and credit” of its corporate resources. A loan based on a promise of this kind should result in lower construction costs and less interest charges. Insurance would also serve as a protection against cost of litigation concerning procedure. This applies particularly to the small city and should give the additional guarantee of validity which will enable the city to borrow money at the lowest rates. If the legal effect of a municipal bond is similar to the private mortgage bond, then insurance should obtain for the municipal bond as it now does for the realty mortgage of the private individual.

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HOW LOS ANGELES IS SPENDING HER POWER BONDS BY MAJOB CARL A. HEINZE EnpincSr, E&& LX&bution. Lor Angslcs Bureau of Pmm and Light What has been done ,Gnce the city took over the electric Eight and .. .. .. pozoer8y~. :: .. IN 1917, the population of ,Los Angeles was approximately 500,000; in 1922, it had increased to approximately 800,000. In 1917, negotiations were entered into between the city and the Southern California Edison Company for the purchase of the entire electrical distributing system of the Southern California Edison Company and the Pacific Light and Power Company within the limits of Los Angeles. This deal wm not fully consummated until May, 1933, and during that interim 500,OOO people moved to Los Angeles. Because they fully expected to turn over their lines at any time, and because they realized that the city had plans of its own regarding future extensions, only the minimum amount of maintenance work was done upon that electricd system. When the city took over the lines of the Edison Company in 1922, it found itself facing the necessity of consolidating three complete plectrical systems into one; it found itself faced with the problem of rebuilding two of those systems, the PacXc Light and Power System and the Edison System, to bring them up to date. Extensions to take care of new people coming at the rate of 100,000 per year were imperative. There was on hand at the time ED. NOTE. This article is based upon an addrese delivered before the Los Angeles City Club in February. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. $1,000,000 of unexpended bond money. This, together with the surplus earned during the year 192343, provided funds to carry on, to a limited extent, until the $16,000,000 bond issue was voted in 1934. The $16,000,000 bond issue provided for the following major items of construction and betterments: 16substatbns.. ................. $S,OOO.ooO way ......................... 3,m.OOO yarda and general structure3 .... Mw),OOo Street lighting systems. ......... 500.000 'hnsmiasion lines and rights of Transportstiod warehouses, pole Betterments to the overhead and underground distribution system 4,5?.50,000 Extensiona for new businem, induding addition of Ediaon System in newly annexki territory.. ....... 1O,~,m It will be noted that this totals more than $16,000,000. The difTerence will be made up during the ensuing years from surplus earnings. ACTIVITY SINCE LAST SEPTEMBER What has been accomplished since September 1 with moneys made available by the $16,000,000 bond issue? To date, we have purchased $1,750,000 worth of new material; 1300 employees have been added to the payroll of the bureau of power and light, practically doubling the personnel. iMore than 2,300,000 pounds of copper wire have been purchased and because ready money was available at the

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383 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [May opportune time, the department was able, through advantageous purchases, to effect a saving of more than $50,000 on the purchase of this wire. 18,000 poles have been purchased in the same period of time, and as in the case of the wire, because of ready money and advantageous purchases, the bureau was able to purchase them at a saving of approximately $50,000. More than 1,400,000 pounds of the copper wire purchased has already been installed in the system and more than 6,000 of the poles have already been set. The bureau has purchased the necessary 35,000 volt underground cable, the largest of its kind in the country, for installation between the central receiving station at North Main Street and the Los Angeles River, and Station No. 152 at Fourth and Main, and from there to Station No. 9 at Ninth and Francisco Streets. The installation of this high voltage underground transmission cable will involve an expenditure of more than $500,000 and is necessary because large blocks of power must be brought in to the congested dom-town district wh7re tall buildings and traffic prohibit the use of distribution lines or transmission lines strung upon tall poles. This underground cable has been constructed in accordance with specifications prepared by the bureau’s engineers, and is based upon more than four years’ successful operation of a similar cable in use in the bureau’s system which was the first cable of its kind ever installed and successfully operated in the United States. The bureau, keeping pace with the progress and expansion of the city, in the past six months has installed more than one mile of underground conduit line in the business district for the purpose of removing from the streets overhead poles and wires, thus clearing up the streets where heavy congestion in business districts exists. The new substation in the Hollywood District has been completed and represents an expenditure of $400,000 for the most modem substation known in the electrical industry today. The cost per kilowatt or unit of this substation compares very favorably, and in most instances less, than that in other cities of the United States. The Hollywood district has been changed over as regards the voltage bf the supply lines, from 52,900 to 4,400 volts. This has resulted in materially improved service in Hollywood and has eliminated completely the frequent complaints which came formerly from this district. The basement for Substation No. 5 at Ninth and Mateo Streets has been hished, and construction work is under way upon that station, which is similar to the one in Hollywoxi, and which will supply the industrial district in the vicinity of Ninth and Santa Fe Avenue. Property has been purchased for three more of the 16 substations specified in the bond issue. 10,000 new meters have been installed since September 1 and more are being added at the rate of approximately 1500 per month. UNIT INVESTMENT COST MW Since September 1, more than 55 miles of ornamental street lighting systems have been connected up in the City of Los Angeles. It might be of interest to note that one of the large manufacturing concerns has advised us that we are purchasing more equipment for ornamental street lighting systems in Los Angeles than almost the entire remaining portion of the United States put together. The budget submitted for the $16,000,000 bond issue called for the construction of 40 new feeder or supply

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19251 HOW LOS ANGELES IS SPENDING POWER BONDS 283 circiuts; 16 of these circuits have already been constructed. These have a capacity or the ability, to supply and handle more than 1000 horse power of electrical energy each. New warehouses, machine shops garages and pole yards have been constructed, or are under construction now at various points throughout the city. The bureau’s budget for operation and construction calls for an expenditure of $9,000,000 for labor and material during the year 1935. When the $21,000,000 capital expenditure is added to the present capital investment of the distribution system of the bureau of power and light, what will we have for our money? It is easy enough to talk of spending $16,000,000, but unless we get value received for our expenditure, this talk will avail us nothing. Our studies show that with the expenditure or addition of the $16,000,000 to the present capital investment, the distribution system will show a unit cost of $930 per kilowatt of consumer’s demand at the central receiving station. This unit cost compares very, very favorably, indeed, with costs of other distribution systems of a like character throughout the country, where the cost at present runs anywhere from $250 to more than $400 per kilowatt of demand. In 1927, the people of Los Angeles should, and will, have one of the most modern, efficient and complete electrical distributing systems anywhere in the country, and at a cost per unit much lower than any other system in the country. A record to be proud of and one in keeping with the progress, prosperity and foresightedness of the citizens of Los Angeles. We will have a complete electrical distribution system capable of distributing BO,OoO kilowatts of electricity. The generating system will be capable of supplying not over one-half of this unless immediate steps are taken to provide additional sources of power. At the present time the bureau is generating two-thirds of the energy being distributed and purchasing the other one-third, and it is paying at wholesale prices as much for the other one-third as it costs to generate the two-thirds in its own plants. If Los Angeles is to move forward and to keep pace with its possibilities, it must have a complete electrical system from the generating sources to the consumer’s meters, and immediate steps should be and must be taken to provide this additional source of power.

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CHIEF ELEMENTS OF CONTROVERSY IN PUBLIC UTILITY RATE MAKING 11. DEPRECL4TION AS A DEDUCTION IN VALUATION BY JOHN BAUER Public Utility Camtlbnt, Nm Yozk City IN the preceding analysis, depreciation was treated from the standpoint of determining the cost of service. We shall now consider depreciation in relation to investment or the determination of “fair value” for rate-making purposes. The total cost of service includes interest or return upon investment. Our problem, therefore, is to determine at any point the amount of the investment entitled to a return in rate making. If the accounts throughout have been systematically kept on the cost basis the property accounts have been charged with the cost of all new units installed, and the depreciation reserve has been credited with all of the amounts included in the cost ot service for depreciation. As property was abandoned and retired from service, its original cost was taken out of the property account and deducted from the depreciation reserve. Consequently, at any given time the net investment consists of the original cost of all the properties in service as shown by the property accounts, less the amount of the depreciation reserve applicable to those properties. The depreciation reserve at any moment shows the extent to which the original cost of the properties then in service has already been charged to past cost of operation. The difference between the original cost of the properties and the reserves is the amount of such original cost applicable to future operation. This balance is the net investment in the properties on which a return would be based for the full determination of the cost of service. NO CONFISCATION LNYOLVED Frequently the charge is made that deducting the depreciation reserve from the cost of the properties results in confiscation of the investment. This claim, however, is based upon an erroneous conception of what actually takes place in carrying out the cost apportionment through the depreciation charges. It overlooks the fact that the very charge for depreciation each year places so much of the burden upon the consumers and directly reimburses the company for the amount of the charge. This is then automatically locked up in the business and serves immediately to renew the amount of the property consumed in service and charged to the cost of operation. If this procedure is clearly visualized, we see that there can be no confiscation of investment. As the costs are charged to expenses, they are forthwith made good through the rates paid by the consumers and through funds actually retained in the business. While the addition to the reserve shows so much of a decrease in the then existing property investment, this is immediately and automatically counterbalanced by the funds added to the business through the depreciation

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1%5] CONTROVERSY IN PUBLIC UTILITY RATE MAKING 285 charge and the payment of the rates baaed on the charge. For illustration: kssume that $100,000 has been invested in properties and that 6 per cent of the cost is charged to depreciation for the first year of operation. To correspond with this charge, we have a depreciation reserve which means a deduction of $5,000 from the $100,000 property cost, leaving a net investment of $95,000 applicable to future operation. But simultaneously, the depreciation charge which is carried to the reserve retains in the business $5,000 of current revenue funds which otherwise would have been shown as return. This $5,000 is thus added to the permanent assets of the company and counterbalances forthwith the reduction in the net physical property items. It furnishes the direct renewal or replacement of the depreciation. At the end of the year, therefore, the company has $!l5,000 of net property, plus $5,000 current funds to be used for the financial benefit of the service, and the total net investment remains at $100,000 as at the beginning of the year. The course of depreciation charges with the reserves deducted from the property costs does not and cannot result in confiscation. But it does provide for the full and immediate maintenance of the investment so as to prevent any dissipation and to provide for the regular and constant renewal of impaired property items. SYSTEMATIC COST ACCOUNTING NOT usuALI;p MAINTAINED Once more let us re-state that where scientifk accounting has been followed, the net investment entitled to return is equal to the original cost of all the properties and assets in service, less the depreciation reserve. The latter indicates the amount of the original cost already charged to past operation, and the net shows the amount ap plicable to future operation. This is the investment entitled to a return. Unfortunately, however, in perhaps the great majority of cases no such systematic cost accounting has been maintained. Both the charges to property accounts and to operating expenses are unreliable, without any clear relation to cost. Consequently, in practical rate making the problem is to determine the amount of the investment in the absence of reliable cost accounting figures. In all such cases where the investment is not shown by the accounts, an appraisal is necessary. If an inventory is made of all the properties and the items are priced at the estimated original cost of installation, and if then the depreciation is computed and deducted from the total original cost, we have a direct substitute figure for the investment that would have been shown under proper accounting. An appraisal, therefore, on the basis of the original cost of the properties less estimated depreciation, gives the equivalent net investment on which a return would be allowed under a .consistent cost basis of rate making. The amount deducted for depreciation would include an equivalent sum for all property costs properly charged to past cost of service and not to be placed as a burden upon future consumers. EQUALITY OF TREATMENT The valuation of properties on the basis of originaI cost less depreciation, is not offered because of its technical nicety in substituting the amount for net investment that would have been shown under scientific accounting. This method of appraisal, particularly the deduction for depreciation, is offered on the basis of its own inherent reasonableness. In view of the great increase in price level during the

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286 X'ATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW past ten years, there is a question of justice whether the inventory should be priced in the first instance at original ,cost or should make some allowance for reproduction cost; this will be treated in a later paper. But the deduction for depreciation corresponds with the .common S~DS~ of dealing with plant and equipment realties. If it were not made, all properties would be regarded as of equal importance in the valuation, whether brand new and in every way suitable for operation, or old and on the point of discard. Property does depreciate, because of wear and tear, obsolescence and inadequacy. Old plant and equipment notwithstanding their immediate usefulness, are not as serviceable as new facilities just installed, not worn, and fully meeting the up-todate requirements of service. The depreciation deduction in the appraisal serves to place all properties on an equal footing. As old units are not on a par of complete serviceability with the new, the difference is represented by the depreciation deduction. Take two units, one new with full serviceability, the other old with greatly reduced serviceability. Equality in the appraisal is obtained if the full cost of the first is recognized, and if a deduction for depreciation, is made for the second equivalent to the relatively reduced serviceability for future operation. As a matter of practical procedure, it would be absurd, in the case of a power plant, to appraise on equal footing at cost new, modem units of 30,000 or 60,000 kw. capacity with full serviceability, and old units of 5,000 kw. capacity which are used only as reserve eqdpment and not for the regular load of the plant. Likewise, it would be absurd to treat new cars meeting all present-day transportation requirements, equally with old cars regardless of the wear and tear, inadequacy and other unsuitability to future needs of transportation. Anyone acquainted with utility properties knows that there is the greatest diversity of condition between the different classes and units of plant and equipment. It is these variations that are taken into account by 'the depreciation deduction, which represents costs belonging to past operation and places old property on par with new in determining present investment and fixing the cost for future operation and ratemaking. I0 THE RESERVE NEEDED? The objection is often made that the depreciation reserve may reach 30 to 40 per cent of the original cost of the properties and is not needed; consequently, why should it be accumulated3 This question is usually offee;ed as a solar plexus to the depreciation view. But the blow does not connect. It is wasted in the shadow of confusion as to what actually is involved in the depreciation procedure. The reserve is a mere statistical and accounting measurement as to the extent that existing property costs have been or should have been written off to the past cost of operation. It is needed for the purpose of this record and nothing more. This is its sole function. The question shows a confusion of the reserve with the funds that are simultaneously locked up, as previously explained, through the depreciation process. These funds, however, as retained from revenues are needed and are used for the regular financial benefit of the properties. They serve directly for physical replacements, for additions and improvements, for working capital, or for other benefits of the properties. There can be no question of their being needed to conserve fully the investment, to

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287 19251 STATUS OF ZONING IN NEW JERSEY maintain the proper standards of service for the consumers, and to equalize the cost of service charged to different generations of consumers. BULE OF BEASON In any practical appraisal, however, we must recognize that rules of thumb cannot be blindly applied. A careful investigation of the properties must be made, and the deprecistion deduction should be determined according to the facts that are found. We have in mind especially that the so-called straight-life method of computing depreciation should not be followed with an arbitrary rigidity, or in individual cases it may lead to wrong and unjust results. If, say, for power plant equipment an average economic life of twenty years is found to be generally correct, this may not apply to the conditions of a particular property where given units may be fifteen years old and yet have much greater serviceability than the indicated five remaining years; or considerably less. Similarly, carefully estimated life for any class of property does not apply to all cases, and the particular considerations in each instance must control in computing the depreciation deduction. The rule of reason, or common sense, must be employed in estimating the past accrued depreciation of existing properties. A reasonable and justifiable amount should be determined. The deduction then eliminates the costs that properly belong to past operation and leaves the net investment applicable to future purposes. To such a deduction there can be no reasonable and valid objection, if we assume that rate making should be based upon the cost of Service. STATUS OF ZONING IN NEW JERSEY BY PAUL STUDENSKY Diredm of Ramarch. New Jsraey S& Chamber of CanThe legality of zoning has been Questioned in New Jersey, but it was improper zoning which ww condemned, and enlightened cities are proceeding ude7 a ne~, act. :: THERE has been a growing appreciation in New Jersey in recent years of the need of zoning the cities and towns so as to segregate business structures from residences, control the height of buildings and otherwise regulate the use of land so as to promote the health, safety and general welfare of the people. A series of laws have been enacted since 1918 permitting such zoning by means of municipal ordinances. Over sixty municipalities have enacted ordinances .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. under this law to date, so that to-day New Jersey leads the country in the number of municipalities zoned. NUTLEY CASE DISCOURAGED SOME The courts sustained the provisions of the zoning ordinances in most of the cases in which they were attacked such as cases involving the exclusion of garages from residential districts. But about a year ago a case.occurred in which a reverse decision was rendered.

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288 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Fray This was the now famous Nutley case in which the right of the municipality to prohibit the erection of a grocery in a district designated as residential was challenged. It was felt by many friends of zoning that this case was not representative of good zoning inasmuch as the store in question would have been located a considerable distance away from the nearest habitation; that the arguments and evidence submitted in the case by the defense were far from convincing; and that it was consequently not at all surprising that an unfavorable decision in the instance should have been rendered. Realizing, however, that the adverse decision was likely to hurt the cause of zoning in the state, the New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce joined with the State League of Municipalities in the submission of briefs as amici curiae to the court of last resort appealing the decision. Frank H. Sommer, dean of New York University Law School, submitted the brief on behalf of the State Chamber and several associated local chambers of commerce, and Spaulding Frazer submitted one on behalf of the League of Municipalities. The court of errors sustained the decision of the lower court, but it did so on the ground that the zoning ordinance of Nutley went beyond the powers granted by the law. It did not pass on the constitutional question which the lower court raised and decided adversely. The constitutionality of the law (or rather provision of it which was attacked) remained, therefore, unimpaired-a fact which caused those who intervened to rejoice. In examining the reasons for the Nutley decision, the advocates of zoning reached the conclusion that the law itself was to some extent at fault in the matter. At the time it was en'See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW for August, 19e4. p. 497. acted relatively little experience was available. Consequently the law was not as satisfactory and comprehensive as it should have been. It failed to provide the machinery for an effective review of the acts of the officials enforcing the ordinances. Steps were taken to cure this defect. The old law was repealed and a new one enacted in its place which embodied the results of the experience and researches in the field of zoning and the country over for the past several years.2 This law provided for the establishment of boards of adjustment to which property owners complaining of the acts of building inspectors could submit their cases for adjustment and review. These boards were given the power to modify the application of an ordinance wherever peculiar circumstances arise which make the enforcement of the letter of the ordinance difficult. All that is required of them in such cases is to preserve the spirit of the ordinance. This gives them considerable latitude and makes the ordinance elastic. If the property owner is still dissatisfied, after the board has rendered its decision, he can appeal to the court for a writ of certiorari that would compel the board to show why it has rendered the decision and would bring the case under review. The court may modify or set aside the decision of the board giving it an opportunity to make another readjustment or render another decision. This procedure is very different from the one pursued under the old law. There the appeal was made for a writ of mandamus that would compel the city to issue the permit applied for; and the legality of the ordinance or constitutionality of the law, rather than the justice of the acts * Theao-called '' Model Zoning Ad." described and annotated by Mr. Edward M. Bassett in the pamphlet on "Zoning Practice"issued by the Regional Plan of New York.

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289 19251 STATUS OF ZONING IN NEW JERSEY of the officials, was challenged. No leeway was given to the city to tackle the caseagain and make another adjustment. Most of the municipalities availed themselves of the new law, amended the ordinances establishing these boards and went ahead with zoning on the new and better basis. Some of the municipalities, however, interpreted the Nutley decision in the sense that it invalidated zoning, and ceased to proceed with their zoning plans. The fact that following the Nutley case, the zoning ordinances were attacked in several citiesand the plaintiffs there secured the permits, at the order of the courts, despite the ordinance, added to their consternation. In order to consolidate the defense of zoning and encourage the faltering municipalities to go ahead, the State League of Municipalities, at the suggestion of Herbert Swan, undertook to create a legal department to be jointly supported by the municipalities which could act for them in all zoning litigation. GOVERNOR SILZER’S ATTITUDE Governor Silzer took a hand in the situation. Following a conference with the judges held last January in order to determine their views, he sent a message to the legislature coming o& strongly in favor of zoning and suggesting an amendment of the state constitution specifically permitting zoning and the enactment of a law that would permit property owners who felt themselves injured by a zoning ordinance to sue the municipality for damages. The Governor’s message was in part as follows: Our unfortunate experience has been that after attractive suburban communities have been established. manufacture and business, pushing their way out of the more thickly populated centers, constantly encroach upon these attractive suburban communities. with the result that the communities are destroyed for suburban purposes, and those seeking the comforts of suburban lie are being driven farther and farther away from the place of their daily occupations and subjected to the additional inconvenience of travel. I do not believe that we can longer dord to neglect this condition. Our experience up to this time has shown us that many who would be most desirable citizens would erect handsome homes and establish themselves in our communities have been driven from here into other states because of our failure to provide proper zoning restrictions as well as proper transit facilitiea. Many of them have gone to New York, where protection is given them by zoning laws and where they are assured that, once having erected a handsome home in a suburban community, the character of that community will not change. In this way we have been deprived not only of those who would have added to the quality of our citizenship, but also a large amount of ratablea as well. I believe that our failure to meet the requk ments has been of real damage to the state and that it is going to be of lasting and permanent injury if we do not act soon. It is easily possible to provide for business and manufacture and for residential requirements as well. The whole character and type. of our communities within easy reach of the large cities will be determined beyond possibility of change if we do not act SOOF The experience of other states has been that they must provide for both manufacture and business on the one hand and comfortable suburban residential life on the other. A little more delay and the matter will not be possible. 1 cannot emphasize too strongly what this would mean to the state and the natural exodus from the state to other places if we continue our present policy. The State Chamber of Commerce called a conference of all the agencies interested in the subject for March 10, 1925, in Trenton to consider the ways and means of strengthening the zoning movement in the state. The Trenton Chamber of Commerce co-operated in the arrangements. About 150 citizens, representatives of municipalities or chambers of commerce, attended.

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Lawson Purdy, for fifteen years president of the New York City Board of Taxation and vice-chairman of the zoning commission that drew New York city’s zoning ordinance, spoke on the protection of property through zoning. Mi. Purdy emphasized that it was every man’s privilege to use and enjoy his property in every way, provided that he does not interfere with his neighbor’s enjoying similar privileges. Just as the congestion of traffic requires its regulation so that every vehicle or person should have a right of way so today does, in his judgment, the congestion of business and habitation require the regulation of the use of property. Zoning, he said, is a part of city planning, the difference between the two being that whereas the latter is public regulation of the use of public and private land, the former is public regulation of the use of private land only. Zoning must always be so directed a.s to enhance the value of land and conserve the value of buildings. This principle was incorporated in the charter of the city of New York. Private covenants endeavor to do that, he said, but they are dangerous in that they may run so long as to outlive the conditions which call for them or so short as to expire when these conditions still continue. J. David Stern, editor and publisher of the Camden Daily Courim, urged a campaign of education that would make zoning understood by the man on the street. Graphic illustrations by means of pictures and models showing the difference between cities that are zoned and those that are not, according to Mr. Stern, would bring the advantages of zoning home to the people sooner than any other method. ZONING STILL CONSTITDTIONAL Spaulding Frazer, chairman of the zoning committee of the League of 290 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [May Municipalities, spoke on the erroneous impression which some people had gained that zoning wa~ dead in New Jersey because of the Nutley decision. The constitutional status of zoning, he said, has in no way been impaired by the decision. It has been strengthened by the new law. F. Wi Caxstarphen, chairman of the Trenton zoning commission, made the point that the rights of property just as the rights of liberty are not absolute but are regulated by law and that the value of the zoning ordinances is that it clearly declares what the property rights of the citizens are. Edward M. Bassett, former chairman of the New York city zoning commission, compared the boards of adjustment provided by the new law to the boards of assessment. If a property owner feels that the assessment made by the assessor is wrong, said Mr. Bassett, he does not appeal to the court for the protection of his constitutional rights but takes the matter up with the board of assessment. If he did otherwise and made such an appeal, the court would dismiss it and direct him to take the matter up with the board. Similarly under the procedure provided by the zoning law, the court would refer the appeals from the acts of a building inspector to the board of adjustment recognizing that the city does not want to do injustice to any property owner but wants to be reasonable and fair. The trouble under the old law in the Nutley case in his opinion was that the city had the power of issuing a blank prohibition without the power to adjust the case in accordance with the rules of reason. Mi. Bassett emphasized the difference between private restrictions which are covenants made by contract and zoning. Anything, he said, can go into the private covenants, but only such restrictions as are for the benefit of the entire community can go into a zoning ordinance. The two

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1 SaS] STATUS OF ZONING IN NEW JERSEY 291 belong to different spheres of action. Each has its own legal method. All the speakers spoke in opposition to the proposal to permit suits for damages on account of a zoning ordinance. The proposal, it was said, is based upon a wrong presumption that zoning can damage property. If it does that, it was said, then it is not good zoning. Zoning properly conceived and carried out benefits all property owners. Assemblyman Black, the introducer of the bill which incorporates this proposal, declared that the criticisms. advanced against it have convinced him that the measure is unwise and announced that he will not press it for passage in the legislature. AMENDMENT DEEMED UNNECESSARY BY MANY On the question of a constitutional amendment a difference of opinion developed, some of the speakers considering it unnecessary until such time at least as the courts have definitely declared zoning outside the police power of the state. The agitation for such an amendment in their opinion would be equivalent to an admission that zoning has no constitutional status in the state and would tend to discourage the municipalities to carry it on with the result that the orderly development of the communities and the protection of property would suffer. Zoning would still be left open to attack under the Federal Constitution. 0thers urged it on the ground that it would definitely settle the legal status of zoning. A resolution introduced by Frank H. Sommer, chairman of the committee on Regional Co-operation of the State Chamber was adopted, which was as follows: 1. That we declare our conviction that the comprehensive zoning of our municipalities is essential to their orderly development. e. That in our judgment the existing statute of this state provides for comprehensive zoning with adequate safeguards against arbitrary exercise of the powers thereby conferred, and that we urge on our municipalities that they promptly bring their zoning ordinances into accord with this atatute. 3. That we believe that the provisiona of this statute are, in fact, directly and immediately related to the public health, safety, mod and the public welfare. 4. That we do not favor suggested legislation which carries a tacit admission that comprehensive zoning lies beyond the police power of the state, and provides for the making of compensation by municipalities adopting zoning ordinances to the owners of lands affected. 5. That in our judgment the enactment of the suggested legislation providing for compensation will stay temporarily, and perhapa permanently, the progress of the zoning of our municipalities. and so delay indefinitely the meeting of public needs that are greatly and immediately pressing. 6. That we refer to the board of trustees of the New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce the question as to the merits of the proposal that the constitution of the state be amended with reference to zoning, in view of the apparent diEerence of opinion on that question. 7. That we endorse the proposal of the League of Municipalities to create a legal department to be maintained jointly by the municipalities members of the League, devoted to the defense of the zoning act, in order that action shall be consistent and -fided by special study. 8. That we urge the State Chamber of Commerce, the local chambers of commerce, and the State League of Municipalities to join to bring together the facts demonstrating the relation of comprehensive zoning to public life, health. morals and the public welfare. and that comprehensive zoning does not take private property for public use, but provides against abuse and falls within the police power of the state. 9: That we urge upon these bodies joint action in an educational campaign to reinforce and strengthen public opinion as to the fundaments1 basis upon which zoning rests and the public object which is its end. The amendment of the state constitution with reference to zoning was passed by the legislature and will have to be acted on again next session before it is submitted to the people for a vote.

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292 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW ENCOURAGLUG DEVELOPMENTS A tendency has been evident recently on the part of the officials vested with the administration of zoning to handle the cases, in which an ordinance is attacked, much more carefully in their initial stages than ever before. It is being recognized that the initial handling very largely determines the whole future course of the case. Thus in Montclair and Newark in two recent cases, the board of adjustment took exhaustive evidence as to whether the refusal of the city in that instance to issue the permit is really necessary from the point of view of health, safety and general welfare of the people. Fire insurance experts, the chiefs of the 6re, health and police departments, the engineers of the water, sewer and street cleaning departments and others were made to testify. Thus a strong case was built up from the very foundation. Should these cases be appealed by the property owners, the courts would have before them very substantial evidence in support of the cities. Heretofore, generally, attempts to introduce evidence have been postponed until the case has gone to the courts on appeal from the action of the city, when it is not easy to build up a record. A very encouraging decision was rendered recently in a Newark case, in which a realtor who was refused by the building inspector a permit for the construction of a group of garages appealed to the supreme court, disregarding the existence of the board of adjustment. The court refused his application pointing out the existence of a board of adjustment and the provision of the law requiring that appeals must fist be submitted to it and saying that the “realtor must exhaust the remedy through such agencies as the legislature has set up for that purpose before applying for the allowance of the discretionary writ of this court.” Thus the board was recognized and given a legal status of adjustment and the procedure provided by the new law was validated by the court,. It is felt by many that what is needed most at the present juncture is the confidence of the people in the soundness and justice of zoning. The legal difficulties must not be permitted to loom too prominently in the situation. They will wane.

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THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY IN PHILADELPHIA A STUDY IN POLITICAL PATHOLOGY BY AUSTIN F. MBCDONALD University of PmMylvania The members of Ihe Phikdelphia coZL71cil are all &publieam. The isn’t a Demo& among them. IN the Ohio town of Brand Whitlock’s boyhood memories there lived a solemn gentleman who always walked slowly and with bowed head. Whitlock records that this man puzzled and disturbed him. What deep sorrow, he wondered, caused this melancholy3 But one day he learned the awful truth; the fellow was a Democrat! The mystery was solved to young Whitlock‘s complete satisfaction. He had never seen a Democrat before, but he felt sure that they all must walk with bowed heads, conscious of their lack of communion with the rest of mankind. Much the same situation prevails in Philadelphia to-day. There are some Democrats, of course, but so few that they count for nothing on election day. The Republican organization dominates Quaker City politics. In the fall of 1934, preceding the presidential election, about 38,000 men and women registered as Democrats. This figure, it is true, fails to reveal the entire strength of the Democratic party. Many failed to register. Some transferred their allegiance temporarily to Senator La Follette. But many Republicans also stayed at home or joined hands with the third party, and yet nearly 430,000 voters registered as members of the Republican party. At the following election six times as many votes were cast for Coolidge as for Davis, the Republicans carrying .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. every one of the city’s forty-eight wards for the first time in a presidential election since 1872. Even the Sixth Ward, the last stronghold of the Democrats, swung into the G. 0. P. column. So dominant is the position of the Republican organization that it could foster a third party at almost any municipal election and safely transfer to it enough votes to make it the party of the opposition. DEMOCRATS ONCE HAD A CHANCE The Democrats have not always been a hopeless minority in Philadelphia politics. In fact, a delegate to the Pennsylvania constitutional convention of l87!2-73 declared: “We have in the city of Philadelphia the two great political parties as nearly equally divided as parties ever have been in a community of an equal number of voters.” When Andrew Curtin was elected the first Republican governor of Pennsylvania in 1860 his Democratic opponent carried the Quaker City with a plurality of two thousand votes. The next year, however, the Republicans elected the mayor for the first time in the city’s history. Public opinion strongly favored the war, and the Irish-controlled Democratic machine strenuously opposed it. From that time on the Democrats of Philadelphia were usually fighting a losing battle, though never without some e93

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294 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW hope of victory. They elected the mayor in 1868, and again in 1881. In 18% and also in 1890 Robert Pattison, a Democrat, was chosen governor of the state, though the city went Republican at both elections. Republican victories were the rule, but by small pluralities. After 1890, however, the deterioration of the Democratic party became rapid. The Democrats carried ten wards in 1890, and one ward in 1894. In the mayoralty election of 1891 they captured eight wards, and only two four years later. The presidential elections of the period served to emphasize the Democratic collapse, the number of their wards shrinking from eight in 1893 to one in 1896. So clearly was the tide turning against them that many of the Democratic leaders in each ward met in clubs and saloons and voted upon the question of becoming Republicans. Most of them favored the change, and thereupon shifted their allegiance. But there were a few, of course, who refused to leave the Democratic fold, among them Tommy Ryan, the leader of the Sixth Ward. Ryan was a likable fellow, who knew his friends and stood by them. He agreed to give the support of his ward to the Republican organization at crucial times in exchange for political immunity, and so a tacit alliance was formed between the Sixth Ward Democrats under Ryan’s leadership and the Republicans of the remainder of the city. During the last thirty years the Democrats have seldom captured more than this one ward at any election, and occasionally even it has been found in the Republican column, as it was in 1944. CAUSES OF DEMOCRATIC ECLIPSE The reasons for this decadence are difficult, if not impossible, to determine. There are only one or two other large cities in the United States where a single party so completely controls the government. In many of the largest cities the Democrats have a substantial working majority. Camden, just across the river from Philadelphia, can usually be depended upon to produce a substantial Democratic majority. Philadelphia manufacturers are doubtless interested in the maintenance of a high protective tariff, but no more so than the manufacturers of Democratic Boston. Religion seems to have nothing to do with the matter. If we assume a tacit alliance between the Democratic party and the Romah Catholic church, we should expect to find the cities with the smallest percentages of Catholics most completely under Republican control. But such is not the case. Philadelphia has a smaller percentage of Catholics than most of the large cities, while Boston has about the largest. But New York city, where Tammany holds sway, has a very much smaller percentage of Roman Catholics than Philadelphia-smaller, in fact, than any other large city in the United States. When we turn to a consideration of the foreign-born, we have less di5culty in establishing some sort of relationship. The cities with the lowest percentages of aliensdt. Louis, Cincinnati, Baltimore, Los Angeles and Philadelphia-are all Republican, with the single exception of Baltimore, a Southern city; while those with the highest-New York and Boston-are Democratic. Chicago, with a Democratic mayor and a strong Democratic organization, has a large number of foreigners. But so has Cleveland, which is normally Republican. Cleveland’s case may possibly be explained on the basis of the countries of birth of her foreign population. With almost exactly the same number of aliens as Boston, she has four times as many

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19251 Tm DEMOCRATIC PARTY IN PHILADELPEIIA a95 Germans and less than one-sixth the number of Irish. And the Germans sfEliate themselves with the Republican party almost as readily as the Irish become loyal Democrats. In Philadelphia the Russians predominate, with the Irish and Italians not far behind. It may be, therefore, that a relatively small foreign population, of which the Irish constitute less than onesixth, is one element making for Republican supremacy in the Quaker City. Another factor may be the relatively large number of negroes. Philadelphia has a higher percentage of negroes than any of the largest cities except St. Louis, which is also Republican, and Baltimore, which owes its political a5iliations to its location; while Democratic New York and Boston have small colored populations. But the influence of the negroes on Philadelphia politics must not be overemphasized, for they constitute only seven per cent of the city’s population. Race, color, and, to a lesser extent, creed may each play a part in determining the relative strength of the major parties in Philadelphia, but the chief causes are probably so complex and so little understood as to defy accurate analysis. MINORITY PATRONAQE The loss in power and prestige of the Democratic organization in Philadelphia has become so marked in recent years that one almost wonders why it continues to exist. Indeed, its chief raison d’Ctre seems to be the minority patronage, which now amounts to $876,000 but will soon be cut to less than half that sum under the operation of a 1921 law. The constitution and statutes of Pennsylvania practically guarantee to the Democratic party a number of elective and appointive offices. Of these, the most important is that of county commissioner. The constitution of the state, in providing for the election of three county commissioners, stipulates that “in the election of said officers, each qualified elector shall vote for no more than two persons, and the three persons having the highest number of votes shall be elected.” The obvious purpose of this provision is to insure representation of the minority party. When several clauses of this nature were first proposed in the constitutional convention of 1873-73, they precipitated a heated debate. One opponent denounced them as “a device of the minority to gain power,’’ while another expressed his belief that they were “an attack upon the fredom and equality of the ballot, and calculated insidiously to undermine the foundations of freedom.” But these statements evidently carried little weight, for the principle of minority representation was written into the supreme law of Pennsylvania. One advocate of the system urged its adoption as a means of eliminating partisan bitterness. The parties would have less reason to practice unfair methods since their nominees Todd be certain -of election. The offices would thus be filled by appointees of the party leaders; but this, he naively explained, was no objection, since the people would have no real choice in the matter under any system. The Democrats are assured of about one-third of Philadelphia’s twentyeight magistrates by the act of 1875. These offices are filled by popular vote, “and in the election of said magistrates no voter shall vote for more than two-thirds of the number of persons to be elected.” The remaining offices in which minority representation is guaranteed are filled by appointment. There are two Democrats on the registration commission appointed by the governor. This commission is com

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296 Number of Minority Compensation Representatives per NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Total Compensation posed of five members, “not more than three of whom shall belong to the same political party.” Among its other duties is the appointment of nearly 6,000 registrars to conduct the actual work of registering the voters of the city. Four of these registrars are selected for each election division, at least two of them from “the party polling the highest vote within the election district at the last preceding November election,” and one, at least, from ‘‘the party polling the next highest number of votes at said election.” This requirement operated in 1924 to secure the appointment of 44 per cent of the total number of registrars from the membership of the Democratic party. A 1903 law dealing with the appointment 01 real estate assessors prohibited the selection of more than half of the total number from the majority party, thus guaranteeing to the Democrats an equal share in the spoils. Assessors are still chosen in Philadelphia from partisan considerations without a merit test of any kind; and as the salary of a real estate assessor is $4,000 these positions are rich political plums to be distributed among the faithful. The 1903 statute passed both houses of the state legislature without debate by overwhelming votes. In 1921 it was so amended as to give the dominant party a free hand in selecting County Commissioner.. .......... Registration Commissioner. ....... Magistrate. ..................... Real Estate. Assessor. ............. Registrar. ...................... Total. ..................... assessors. “Said appointments shall be made by said board without regard to the political party aflliations of such assessors.” This withdrawal of minority patronage occasioned as little comment in the legislature as its award had done eighteen years previously, and passed both houses with equally large majorities. The assessors now in office have not yet been affected by the new law, as they were appointed in 1921 for four-year terms. The minority patronage in Philadelphia, presented in tabular form, is therefore as shown below. MWORITY REALLY CONTROLS MINORITY PATRONAGE The practical effect of the constitutional and statutory provisions for minority representation is to place the choice of the minority members directly in the hands of the ddminant Republican organization. Two members of the registration commission, for example, must be Democrats. But they are appointed by a Republican governor, and it is scarcely necessary to point out that they must be acceptable to the Republican interests. The Republicans also control the choice of the elected Democrats. If there is my sort of contest within the Democratic ranks for nomination, a few Republicans registered as Democrats are able to swing the nomination to the candi1 $8,OO0.00 $8.000.00 e 4,000.00 8,000.00 8 4,000.00 32.0OO. 00 58 4,OOO.OO 154,000.00 4.647 $10.00perdiem 76.448.00 $276.4!&3.00 Office

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19251 THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY IN PHILADELPHIA a97 date of their choice without impairing to any extent the Republican strength at the polls. The Republican party is so strong in Philadelphia, moreover, that even when the Democrats are united on a single candidate for a minority office the Republicans are able to elect the majority members and still have enough voting strength remaining to defeat the real Democratic minority candidate. This has happened on several occasions. A single instance will s&ce. In the mumcipal election of 19% three county commissioners were to be chosen by the people, each elector casting his vote for but two candidates. The Republicans were to nominate two candidates, it being a foregone conclusion that they would be elected; and the Democrats, two candidates, one for election and one for defeat. One of the two Democratic nominees was then county commissioner, running for re-election. The true Democratic strength at the election was less than 40,000 votes. Only 37,000 persons voted for the Democratic mayoralty candidate, and this was in excess of the number registered as Democrats prior to the election. By a determined effort, however, the Democrats managed to roll up a total of 44,000 for their nominee then representing the minority on the county commission. But when the votes were counted it was found that he had been overwbelmingly defeated by his running mate, who received in excess of 83,000. The only possible explanation of this surprising result is that the Republican organization, for reasons best known to itself, shifted more than 40,000 votes from one of its own candidates to the Democrat it favored. PARTY ORGANIZATION The organization of the Democratic party in Philadelphia is quite simple. In each of the city’s forty-eight wards is a ward executive committee, chosen by the Democratic voters for a twoyear period. Ward committeemen are elected at the spring primary in the even-numbered years. The committee is composed of two members from each election division within the ward, with an additional representative from each election division which cast more than one hundred Democratic votes for president at the preceding election. No division may have more than three representatives, regardless of its vote. This arrangement results in gross inequalities for a number of reasons. In the &st place, it allows no more representation to the division with five hundred Democratic voters than to the division with one hundred and one. Then, too, it takes no account of the great variation among the wards as to the number of election divisions contained. In the Sixth Ward there are nine divisions; the Twenty-Second Ward contains eighty-two. This fact produces unbalanced representation on the city executive committee, as we shall see later. Another weakness arises fromthe great differences in population of the divisions. One Philadelphia election division has 28 persons according to the latest assessment; another has nearly 2,000. But the division is the election unit without regard to the number of people it contains and with but slight recognition of their political amiations. The result is that two members of a ward committee may represent four or five Democratic voters, while three others may represent several. hundred. Unfair as this method undoubtedly is, it is more equitable than the arrangement used by the Republican party. The ward committee organizes as soon as possible after its election, choosing its chairman and other offi

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298 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW cers. It meets regularly at least once a month, and much more frequently shortly before an election. To it falls the task of maintaining the interest of the voters, of seeing that they are properly registered, and of getting them to the polls on election day. From time to time a canvass of the district is made. Watchers are chosen to safeguard Democritic interests at the polls. Everything is done, in the words of the “Rules of the Democratic Party of the City and County of Philadelphia,” with “reference to securing a full expression of the will of said Democratic electors at all the general, municipal, primary and special elections.” The members of each ward committee choose from within or without their number one representative to the city executive committee. Each ward polling 1,600 or more Democratic votes at the preceding presidential election is entitled to an additional representative, similarly chosen, the total possible number for any ward being two. This arrangement produces inequalities as striking as are found in the election of the ward committeemen. The number of election divisions within a ward varies greatly, as indicated above, while the population ranges from less than 4,000 in the Ninth Ward to more than 83,OOO in the Thirty-Ninth. At present the city executive committee is composed of 73 members, but the committee to be chcsen this spring will be smaller, because the candidacy of Senator La Follette in 1994 caused a considerable reduction in the number of wards polling more than 1,500 Democratic votes. The city committee exercises general supervision over the affairs of the Democratic party in Philadelphia. The funds contributed to the Democratic cause pass through the hands of its treasurer. The party campaigns are planned by its members. Close watch is kept over the operations of the ward committees, and stimulation provided when necessary. The work of the city committee! is divided among five standing sub-committees: organization, finance, printing, public meetings, and elections. Each subcommittee has sixteen members except that on organization; it has twentyfive. A few members each serve on two or three subcommittees, but most of them are assigned only to one. The ward committees possess the right to recall their representatives on the city committee at any time by a two-thirds vote. .On the other hand, a majority of the city executive committee may declare vacant any place in their membership when convinced that any “ward executive committee, or any of the officers thereof, or any [city] committeeman thereof, is not faithful to Democratic principles, and the best interests of the party, or refuses, fails or neglects to work in harmony with them”. The chairman of the city executive committee, chosen by its members, is the official head of the Democratic party in Philadelphia. He presides over the meetings of the committee, appoints all sub-committees, acts as chairman of the sub-committee on organization, and is an ex-officio member of all other sub-committees. The present chairman is the minority member of the board of county commissioners, and therefore holds the bestpaid office in Philadelphia’s government guaranteed to the minority party. The Democratic city committee cannot by any stretch of the imagination be called a group of civic leaders. Professional men-if we except professional politicians-are few, and prominent business men are still fewer. About one-third are mechan

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19951 THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY IN PIFILADELPHIA a99 ics, clerks or laborers, the laborers predominating. Twenty-seven are on the payrolls of the city or the county, nine of them as real estate assessors, seven as magistrates, five in the office of the county commissioners, and the remainder as minor employees of the courts. The number of the faithful thus rewarded is not greater because of the weakness of the Democratic party. The city committee has three practicing attorneys in its membership. There are six real estate men, one manufacturer, one undertaker, two salesmen, two contractors, one printer and one retail shopkeeper. Two are employed in the internal revenue office of the Federal government, one is a retired sea captain, and two have no visible means of support. This list is not very impressive. It tends to reveal a lack of any real leadership. But the city committee is representative, and that is probably its sole justification. It comes close to being an accurate cross-section of the rank and file of Philadelphians-and, therefore, of Philadelphia Democrats. The overwhelmingly dominant position of the Republican party is unfortunate for the Quaker City, for it makes effective criticism almost impossible. One of the best guarantees of honest and efficient government is an alert, intelligent opposition ready at any time to take the helm, and not unlikely to do so. But the party of the opposition in Philadelphia is as nearly dead as it is possible for any organization to be without inviting an inquest. Those interested in better government must therefore create and maintain their own organization if they wish to carry to the polls the fight on the Machine. This they have done on many occasions, and sometimes they have secured control of the government. But their organization built to win an election has not been adjusted to the problem of maintaining discipline within its ranks; and so the election following a reform triumph has invariably been the occasion of a return to power by the Machine. This condition of affairs may reasonably be expected to continue until one party cease3 continually to dominste Philadelphia politics.

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CO-ORDINATION OF SOCIAL WORK IN KNOXVILLE BY ELIZABETH SIMS BROWNLOW Knoavdk?. Tmneasee The city’s department of public welfare takes the lead. This is the second article in our series on how reJponsibdity for social work is .. .. .. diwided between govemrnental and private agencies. :: .. UNDER the council-manager form of government, social work in Knoxville is being co-ordinated under the leadership of a governmental agency-the department of public welfare. An interesting situation is presented, since the usual order is reversed, and instead of trained social workers in private agencies trying to persuade reluctant city officials to adopt, or at least to recognize, standards of work and service, there is a department of the municipal government endeavoring to raise the standards in all fields of social work, both for public and private agencies. This leadership is supplied by the director of public welfare, who was chosen because of his experience and training, and is given legal sanction by the city charter, which not only provides for his administration of municipal activities within the welfare field, but also specifically charges him with the duty of study and research into all social problems of the community. STIMULATION OF A CHARTER CAMPAIGN This rapidly growing East Tennessee city has recently gone through the experience of changing the form of its local government. After years of the old councilmanic mismanagement, the commission form was set up in 1911, and having failed in its promise of widespread reform, gave place to the council-manager plan in September 1923. The campaign that effected this change in municipal administration was carried to every household in the community and became the concern of every man and woman capable of understanding the most elementary facts of municipal housekeeping. Such a campaign of education was bound to bring about an awakening among all classes of the people, and the civic consciousness aroused focused its a‘tention on the general welfare, whether the particular phase of work was being carried on by governmental or voluntary agencies. The city manager government on assuming control was quick to take advantage of this newly-aroused in.terest of the citizens in social welfare. No prodding by private social agencies was needed to have the city assume a greater share of the social work of the community. For the first time there was a single executive at the head of city affairs unhampered by political considerations. That old bug-a-boo of social workers,-a political appointee without training or experience in charge of public social agencies,could not be evoked. Municipal administration in its every phase had been divorced from relationship with “politicians. ” The term “social Service” might properly be applied to practically the whole of the activities of city government since its chief functions are to

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CO-ORDINATION OF SOCIAL WORK IN KNOXVILLE 301 safeguard the life, health and environment of its citizens, to educate them, and to provide for their comfort and happiness. However the term “public social service ” is commonly used in reference to those functions performed very largely under the direction of a department of public welfare or lie agency, in contradistinction to “private social service” performed by private social agencies. IMPROVEMENT IN CITY SERVICE& The new charter of Knoxville provided for a department of public welfare with a director at its head, appointed by the city manager and responsible only to the city manager, who must be a person with training and experience in the work to be administered. Under this department was grouped the work scattered throughout the city departments consisting of the administration of the general hospital, home for delinquent women, employment bureau, the supervision of parks and playgrounds, and the health activities. The department was organized with the following divisions: 1. Hospitals; 9. Bureau of Health; 3. Juvenile Court and Detention Home; 4. Bureau of Recreation; 5. Employment Bureau; 6. Bureau of Social Service. The general hospital had the usual history of political control, corrupt administration, investigation and reform. When the city manager government came into power the reform element was supposedly in control. The superintendent was a former factory superbtendent without training or particular aptitude for hospital management. Disorganization and dirt were the most visible shortcomings. A trained hospital organizer was soon put in charge, the primary needs of sanitation were met, the training school for nurses was reorganized, a medical social worker installed, and an out-patient department established. Within the year the hospital was accredited by the American College of Surgeons and accepted as a member in the American Hospital Association. In the training school for nurses, educational reqdrements were established and no student accepted who had not had at least two years of high school work. In the near future it is hoped to raise the standard so as to require high school graduation. The hospital is thus fast assuming its threefold duty to the city: (1) treating the sick; (a) teaching and training doctors, nurses, and social workers for service; (3) contributing information and personnel in its handling of problems of public health and personal hygiene. The home for delinquent women was originally founded as a home for friendless women, but was finally turned over to the city in 1917 for the use of women prisoners. It is now used as a detention home for women under treatment by the city for venereal disease. The establishment of a modern bureau of health is probably the most important part of the first year’s work of the new department. There is a fulltime trained health officer in charge, with adequate laboratories, inspection service, contagious diseases service and city physician. The venereal disease clinic at the health center is operated by the bureau. Some of the activities for the past year especially noteworthy are!: an active campaign to minimize commercialized vice; a standard milk ordinance and regulation of the dairying industry; two contagious disease campaigns, typhoid fever and smallpox. When the new city government got under way a smallpox epidemic was raging, there being over 700 cases in the city and environs. A campaign of education was begun on the necessity of

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW vaccination which was furnished free by the health bureau to those unable to employ private physicians. The county health authorities co-operated and for the first time required vaccination of pupils in the county public schools. As a result the first case of smallpox this winter was not reported until the last week of February. To the first of March only three cases have been reported. Owing to the lapse in the practice of vaccination throughout a great part of this region, smallpox has again become one of the chief anxieties of the health officer of the cities. An epidemic may occur during any of the winter months. When the new health officer arrived in the city last June he was confronted with a typhoid epidemic, or what threatened to be. Protective health measures were immediately taken, inoculation was urged, and was furnished free to those unable to pay. Springs in the surrounding country were examined and placarded when found to be polluted. Dairies were examined and some closed. Later a new milk and dairy inspection ordinance was passed. DEATH RATE LOWER One result of this health work has been to reduce the general death rate. In 1923 this was 15.4, but in 1924 it dropped to 14.3 per 1000 population. The reduction of 1.1 per 1000 population meant the saving of 100 lives in our city last year. The bureau of social service operates in connection with the clinics, hospitals, and child caring institutions. Two trained social workers have been employed and another is soon to be added. The bureau of recreation has control of the parks and playgrounds. The latter to the number of six were started by the Community Service Council and taken over by the city. The employment bureau was a leftover of war days. It has continued under municipal control as a matter of course. There are two employees, one paid for by the city and one by the federal government. The juvenile court is a county institution though all the expenses except the salary of the judge and part of the salary of probation officers and clerical help are carried in the budget of the welfare department. The detention home opened last year is under the due& control of a board of trustees, two appointed by the city council and one by the county court. It is however under the supervision of the welfare department. There are two full time probation officers, a man and a woman, and two part-time colored ogcers. The city gives no outdoor relief. The almshouse is under the county, which also controls the industri-1 school for children. Commitments are made by both county and juvenile judges. Mother’s pensions in the state depend on appropriations made by the county courts. &OX county appropriated $100.00. Even that has not been paid out. In addition to the development of the department of public welfare a woman’s bureau has been established in the police department. The policewomen and probation officers of the juvenile court constitute the only force in the field of preventive, protective social workin the city. There is no juvenile protective association or like organization. The public school system has developed but little along social lines. There is medical inspection and five school nurses (now under the supervisor of nurses of the bureau of health). Recently classes for backward children have been started. There are no trade schools, no vocational direction, or scholarships. There are five attend

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19951 CO-ORDINATION OF SOCIAL WORK IN KNOXVILLE 303 ance officers who are assisted by the juvenile court probation officers in the enforcement of the school attendance law of the state. The issuing of employment certificates to children is placed by state law with the superintendent of schools or someone designated by him. This function has been handed over to the Associated Charities. The school board is elected by the people and appoints the superintendent of schools. A new superintendent has been appointed to take the place of the one who has been the head of the school system for fourteen years. PRIVATE AGENCIES HAVE PROFITED The private social agencies of &oxville have likewise profited by the awakened public conscience brought about through the city manager campaign. The feeling aroused against inefficiency in the administration of public affairs was also directed toward a like failing in private social agencies. These agencies had passed through the difliculties of growth so familiar to social workers. The historical background of the development of social work in &oxville might be painted in as the setting for a picture of the progress of social work of any community of like size in this country. The processes have been much the same, whether the problems varied because of environmental conditions. Care of the sick and relief for the destitute came to be the responsibility of the community instead of a few charitable persons. This responsibility was met by the establishment of a city hospital on the one hand and the organization of an Associated Charities on the other. Then to the need of salvage was added the greater need of prevention. Public and private agencies developed to meet the differing needs as they arose and were interpreted to the community. To the extent that this interpretation was intelligently presented and courageously pressed, the development of social work became systematic and progressive. The f%st line of defense or offense was usually held by the private agency; feeling out the enemy territory by experimentation and demonstration and then leaving the field to the more abundant ammunition of the public agency. Such has been the progress of social work. This has been Knoxville’s experience varied only by the influence of environmental conditions. The population of the city is homogeneous; there is no immigration problem, the number of foreign born being less than 1000 in a population of 100,000. There are about 10,000 colored inhabitants, a small proportion for a southern city. Health is the chief concern of the social worker in their midst. The mountain people who drift doa into the small settlements and thence to the city make up the largest part of the mill and factory population. They are of old AngloSaxon stock with the virtues of thrift and industry and that much praised and much condemned characteristic, conservatism. Lack of education, particularly health education, is the fundamental difficulty to be met. Those among them unable to adjust themselves to modern industrial conditions whether because of lack of education or physical or mental disability constitute the big social problem for the community to solve. PRIVATE AGENCIES CLASSIFIED To the solution of the problem the community contributes not only through its official agencies, but numerous private agencies as well. The latter may be listed as follows: 1. Rehabilitation and Relief a. Associated Charities b. Salvation Army

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304 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [May c. Volunteers of America d. Travelers’ Aid a. The Y. M. C. A. b. The Y. W. C. A. c. Boy Scouts d. Girl Scouts e. Community Service Council f. Two Settlement Houses 3. Homes for Dependent Children a. Friendless Babies’ Home b. Children’s Mission Home c. St. John’s Orphanage d. Colored Orphanage 2. Citizenship, Education, Recreation 4. Health Center, Clinics and Nursing 6. Co-ordination of Social Activities a. CommunityChest b. Council of Social Agencies The chief agency for rehabilitation and relief is the Associated Charities. The Salvation Army and Volunteers of America furnish some relief in addition to maintaining temporary lodgings for men. The Travelers’ Aid of course codnes its services to those passing through the gates of the city. The Associated Chanties, organized by a small group in 1907 was re-organized in 1919 on a city-wide membership basis. It started with volunteer workers and when later re-organized paid workers were put on. It has been handicapped from the beginning by the lack of trained social case workers. For years its work was almost purely the giving of relief in the form of groceries, coal and clothing. Gradually the work has taken on the character of that of most family service agencies. The records are in good condition. There is need of a larger staff-it now has only four field workers-and of a corps of semi-trained volunteers. The spirit of co-operation with existing agencies has been good, but there seems to have been little service effort to develop such sources of assistance as the churches, and schools. The name of the society should of course be changed to represent more nearly the character of work perlormed. The issuing of employment certificates should be returned to the school authorities. The size of the Associated Charities staff alone should be sufficient reason for such action. TheY.M.C.A.andY.W.C.A. carry on the usual work of education, citizenship training, physical training and recreation. The Y. W. C. A. took advantage of the public interest manifested in community problems to launch a campaign for funds to erect a new building to replace the .antiquated structure which has housed their necessarily limited activities. When the new building is completed with swimming pool and gymnasium, physical training will be given greater emphasis. Committees have all been enlarged, a trained industrial secretary is to be employed as well as a physical director, and the work of the employment committee reorganized. The Y. M. C. A., which is also badly housed, will put on a campaign for a building fund in the near future. The Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts both have excellent leadership and are The Community Service Council, an outgrowth of the war, has been of great value in demonstrating the necessity for direction and supervision of organized play. It opened several playgrounds and persuaded the old city council to pay the salaries of several supervisors for the summer months. The new government took over the whole budget for the playgrounds. From this beginning has grown the bureau of recreation in charge of a supervisor under the department of public welfare. The Community Council also interested itself in community growing.

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19251 CO-ORDINATION OF SOCIAL WORK IN KNOXVILLE 305 music and dramatics. There is considerable sentiment in favor of the expansion of recreational facilities UIIder t&e auspices of the city. Institutional care of dependent children is provided for by the Friendless Babies’ Home, a temporary home for children up to six years of age, the Children’s Mission Home for those between six and fourteen, St. John’s Orphanage, an Episcopal institution, and the Colored Orphanage. There is no local child placing agency, but this is to be developed under the bureau of social service. Child placing in the state is done by the Children’s Home Society, a private agency receiving a subsidy of $25,000 a year from the state. This organization restricts its efforts to the handling of small children (most of them under seven). The state provides an institution for feebleminded children. The city is hampered by the lack of state machinery for such work as is usually undertaken by a state board of charities or welfare department. In the reorganization of the state government in 1933 the old board of charities and corrections was abolished, and a department of institutions established. Such powers as the old board possessed were transferred to this new department, but they were never assumed as there was no appropriation made for an additional staff. A welfare commission appointed by the go-vernor at the request of the State Council of Social Agencies, made a report last December recommending a state department of public welfare with county and city boards of public welfare similar to the Virginia and North Carolina plan. The governor opposed the creation of the new department and did not include the report in his legislative program presented to the general assembly when it convened in January. Until such legislation is secured the work in city and county will necessarily suffer. The Knoxville Health Center was established in 1920, on the initiative of the County Red Cross Chapter. Affiliated with the Red Cross were the Child’s Free Clinic, the United States social hygiene service and the local Anti-Tuberculosis Society. The Child’s Free Clinic withdrew at the instance of the director of public welfare, and gave over its work to the city, being convinced that the work could be done better and at less expense by the city. The health center started with three public health nurses for the city and one school nurse for the county. They now have a staff of fourteen including the two nurses attached to the venereal disease clinic operated by the city. The clinics are free to those unable to pay, and until the new government came into power, the only free clinics in the city. As yet there is no psychiatric clinic, but there is a growing interest in the establishment of one. The Anti-Tuberculosis Society .with the aid of one of the civic organizations raised funds for a tuberculosis sanatorium which was opened last spring. There is a children’s preventorium in a separate cottage built by the Junior League. The labor unions of the city are planning a cottage for the use of their members. Through the efforts of the director of public welfare all nurses doing public health work have been placed in one organization-The Public Health Nursing Service-under a supervisor who is a member of the staff of the bureau of health. The city will be divided into districts and each nurse assigned to a district. Each district will have a welfare station for children. The first big problem of the nursing service will be the reduction of the infant and maternal mortality rate which has been very high.

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306 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW GOVERWENT TAKES THE INITIATIVE The Community Chest was organized three years ago. It was purely a financial federation and its only development has been the establishment of a social service exchange. This was the first successful effort to bring about co-operation among the social agencies of the city. Each agency had been more or less in a compartment, doing its own work without much recognition or understanding of the work of other agencies. After a survey of the agencies participating in the chest a Social Workers' Club was organized. In this club were the beginnings of a better understanding of the oneness of the job they were all engaged in. When the director of public welfare in the new government was appointed, the time was ripe for the sort of trained leadership he could furnish in the social field. He was instrumental in the formation of a Council of Social Agencies and was elected its first president. There was no evidence of any feeling that a public o5cial was out of place as a leader of the social forces of the community. The old order of things had been reversed; the education of public officials by trained workers of private social agencies had given place to the education of untrained workers of private social agencies by a trained public o5cial. The new order was made possible by the city manager form of government which furnishes trained leadership for the development and expansion of public social service, and for the correlation of private social service. To the workers in both fields falls the responsibility of educating the public. In the division of public and private social work the trend has been toward the taking over by the public agency of a service which the private agency has demonstrated is of value to the whole community. In the past the private agency has done most of the experimenting. This may not hold true in the future as governmental agencies enter more largely the field of preventive work with its laboratories of research. To trace the division of social work in Knoxville or any community, and attempt to determine approximately the deciding factor in each decision as to whether governmental or voluntary societies should take charge of the work, or of a certain section of the work in each special field, would require a detailed study and survey. This would have to include a study of the locality; its history ,and present status, political, economic, industrial, educational and social; of the particular group interested in the particular work to be transferred. A'piece of social case work not to be compressed within the covers of a magazine. It is possible to do little more than generalize in discussing the past. It is difficult to avoid the temptation of prophecying in discussing the present. In little more than a year social work in Knoxville has made a decided advance. It is no longer compartmented, but co-ordinated. The proofs of its changed spirit are found: in the organization of the Council of Social Agencies; the consolidation of the nursing services under one head, and that governmental; and the willingness to look to the department of public welfare for leadership.

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BRIEF REVIEW OF CITY PLANNING IN THE UNITED STATES, 1924 * BY TBEODORA KIMBALL HUBBARD Eonuraq Libration, Ancrrimn City Planning Id'tute Mrs. Hubbard again contributes her annud rab of n'ty planning progress. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. THE roster of cities and towns from which there has been some kind of city planning news in 1924 is about three hundred and fifty, a hundred more than in 1923. Sixty of these places had a population less than 5,000, over thirty between 5,000 and 10,000, over eighty from 10,000 to %,OOO, over a hundred and ten from 35,000 to 100,O00, while fifty-seven were among the sixty largest cities. The 1934 figures from the National Conference on City Planning indicated that there were some three hundred city planning and zoning commissions in the country, most of which were active. These statistics go to show that official recognition of the practical value of city planning has become widespread. Groups and interests formerly unconvinced or antagonistic are often turning into leaders. The realtors of the country are backing the movement more strongly than ever. The City planning Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers is conducting an educative series of meetings, with valuable published proceedings. Programs of the National and State Municipal Leagues, the *Continuing the series of reviews begun by Charles Mulford Robinson and carried on since 1919 by the writer. For a fder account of city and regional pknning for 1924 with a bibliography of pkn reports, the reader is referred to the April, 19s. issue of the new quarterly City Plunning. American Society for Municipal Improvements, the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, the National Automobile Chamber of Commerce, are all including city planning as an established municipal responsibility. In addition to the splendid work for zoning carried on by Secretary Hoover through the Division of Building and Housing, he was responsible for calling the National Conference on Street and Highway Safety and appointing a City Planning Committee as one of its eight subdivisions. Foreign recognition of American achievement in city planning comes this year with the holding of the International Town Planning Congress in New York., To our European friends it must be apparent that we are making progress,-in such recent region4 projects as the Detroit Super-Highway Plan, reaching far out into the undeveloped suburban territory with 204foot thoroughfares; the great interstate and county park schemes of New York state; the waterfront reclamation and Michigan Avenue achievement in Chicago; the huge bond issues recently voted by the citizens of St. Louis and of Philadelphia; the port development of Baltimore and of Seattle, the studies of the Regional Plan of New York and the Port of New York Authority; the rehabilitation of our Federal City; the many new industrial and residential towns and large land subdivisions under construction. 307

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308 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [May NOTABLE ACHIFVEMENTB In the record of events during 19% the success of the comprehensive transportation plan for Louisville, Ky. (Technical Advisory Corporation) deserves mention, the city and the railroads having completely assured its carrying out. In Philadelphia, following the opportunity offered by the Broad Street fire station, the Pennsylvania Railroad has shown great public spirit by its new terminal plans; and the citizens of Philadelphia have followed up their liberality of last year by bond issues totalling $4O,OOO,OOO voted November 4, 1924, including the initial step in reclaiming the Schuylkill banks for public recreation. As a result of the intensive campaign begun in 1923, Washington, D. C., has an official Capital Park Commission with funds appropriated by congress to undertake a park program. Before 1925 shall have passed it is hoped that a Federal City planning commission may be also authorized by congress. The state capital of Arkansas, just possessed of an interim zoning ordinance, has hopes of culminating its years of spasmodic agitation for the execution of a comprehensive plan by the passage of enabling legislation drafted in ,1924. In Dallas, Tex., the Kessler plan of 1911 has been revived by a strong association growing out of the Dallas Property Owners Association, called the Kessler Plan Association, and cooperating with the official plan commission; the plan is to be republished, and regular bulletins are issued to inform the city and its neighborhood of the plan’s advantages. Jacksonville, Fla., has a new city plan commission of which the secretary is the chief sanitary engineer of the state board of health. With the official adoption of the major street plan by Chattanooga, and progress in carrying out almost every phase of the plan of Memphis, adopted last year but just published in admirable form (Plan Commission, Bartholomew), the state of Tennessee comes to the fore. The publication of its plan by Sprin&eld, Mass., in a really notable volume makes freely available to all an account of the methods employed by the Technical Advisory Corporation in the thorough.su,rveys on which the plan is based. Progress in carrying out a number of recommendations is reported. A bond issue of $5,000,000 just voted by Los Angeles covers the city’s share of the cost of a group of primary projects in the tr&c commission’s major traffic street plan,-the plan itself an important contribution to our understanding of traffic problems in this country. The St. Louis civic center has been finally approved. Milwaukee continues substantial progress under the guidance of the board of public land commissioners, whose powers will repay study. Denver has a new plan, a zoning ordinance in progress, and great public interest. Rochester, N. Y., has opened a new central street, effecting a saving of twenty-seven minutes in getting across town. Buffalo has taken the fist step in the development of her administrative center at Niagara Square and is co-operating in the great Niagara Frontier planning enterprise. Chicago has actually started construction on the South Water Street two-level improvement and is able to report further that as a result of fifteen years of effort by the Chicago plan commission, fifteen of the principal features of the plan are completed or assured, involving an expenditure of over $350,000,000. To insure future successes, Chairman Wacker has sent out an “S 0 S to the PublicSpirited Citizens of Chicago” for in

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creasing the borrowing capacity of the city in scale with that of the other largest cities of the country. During 1934 the science of city planning has sustained great losses in the deaths of two of our most eminent engineers, the late Nelson P. Lewis of New York, and the late Professor George C. Whipple of Harvard University. Each has left behind a permanent and substantial contribution in the form of writings and of experience translated into public works, but their personal leadership will be hard to replace. REGIONAL AND STATE PLANNING WORK The Regional Plan of New York celebrated its aecond birthday in May, 1944, by a regional tr&c conference and a dinner at which the two years’ progress was summed up. The series of surveys completed comprise economic, housing and recreation studies, besides some 900 engineering studies and legal investigations of great importance. A recently formed division of public relations endeavors‘ to assist communities with local problems and promote a spirit of co-operation, of which there is encouraging evidence. Local official co-operation is needed for the realization of a regional plan in the Boston district, such as the traffic artery projects prepared by the engineers of the state metropolitan planning division, advised by Arthur Shurtleff. Likewise Philadelphia is the heart of a regional project embracing the Tri-State Metropolitan Area. A citizens’ committee reported in November, 1984, as to a preliminary survey of the problems of the district which embraces over 200 governmental units within twenty-five miles of Philadelphia on both sides of the river. As a result of the committee’s good work there is being formed a Triconference will be m important event of 1935. The Detroit metropolitan area is being studied to secure more administrative unity in the far-reaching plans for Greater Detroit. Much has already been accomplished towards the establishment of the plans. The Los Angeles county regional planning commission has progress to report in the application of the “Interlocking Specifications” drawn up in 1933, and a splendid record of regional co-operation of officials, engineers, special committees, and others. In Ohio there is a new official county planning commission, emanating from the planning activities of Toledo, appointed April, 1934, for Luau county. Trumbull and Cuyahoga counties secured planning commissions before the close of 1924. The Dayton city plan board, in collaboration with the city commission and the Research Bureau is completing a scienac study of annexation versus regional co-operation for the whole tributary ares. One of the most noteworthy regional achievements of the year is the formation of the Niagara Frontier Planning Association, a voluntary body but including important local officials. Without waiting for the necessary enabling legislation now being sought by the Association, by mutual agreement a Niagara Frontier Regional Planning Committee has been formed, the members appointed by six common councils and twenty-two village boards, and the boards of supervisors of Erie and Niagara counties. This success has inspired the Albany Capital District to undertake an association to be heard from in 1935. New York has now a strong State Federation of Planning Boards, formed at a conference in BufFalo in June, 1924, under the auspices of the bureau 19353 CITY PLANNING IN THE UNITED STATES 309 State Federation, of which the fbst of housing and regional planning

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310 NATIONAL MITNICIPAL REVIEW Way presided over by Clarence Stein. The bureau issues a BuUetin now graduated into printed form and is the moving force in the regional associations in process of formation. The bureau’s older neighbor, the Massachusetts division of housing and town planning, is very active, its field agent Mi. Hartmann is giving local aid, and the bulletins of the Massachusetts Federation of Planning Boards for 1934 are of great practical value. At the Federation’s annual conference held at Worcester thirty-seven out of seventy-six planning boards reported. The sixth Ohio State Conference on City Planning at Columbus, also in October, reported twenty-three Ohio cities with planning commissions, besides the county commissions already mentioned, twelve cities with plans completed or in preparation, and twelve cities with zoning ordinances in effect. Recent word from the Conference secretary, Miss Rumbold, indicates an important law extending benefit assessments on the calendar for 19%. Indiana is emulating Ohio in statewide city planning activity. The recently formed Indiana City Planning Conference had a successful second meeting at Purdue University in Apd, 19124, and plans its 19% meeting in Evansville. Largely as a result of interest aroused by these state conferences, the number of plan commissions in Indiana has been increased to eighteen. Iowa has a splendid record for the year, of meetings, city planning and zoning work initiated, and an association monthly bulletin edited by the secretary, Mi. Wallis, which is of far more than local use, and grows constantly more interesting. Pennsylvania activities have received a setback in the drastic curtailment of appropriations for the valuable work of the town planning division in the bureau of municipalities. Nevertheless the Allentown surveys have been conducted and it is to be hoped that the new year will see proper recognition of the bureau by legislative appropriation. State programs involving large planning problems should be especially noted for 1934; state and county park systems in New York; roads in Connecticut following the highway survey; forests in Connecticut and Massachusetts; highways in New Jersey, especially as affected by the new Hudson tunnel; and Giant Power in Pennsylvania. COMPREHENSIVE CITY PLAN RE’PORTS The report to the Springfield planning board by the Technical Advisory Corporation, with Mr. Olmsted as special adviser, is a monument to the enterprise of the board. The notable report to the Memphis city p1i.n commission by Mr. Bartholomew contains plans even more in process of execution than those for Springfield. The series of separate special reports likewise by Mr. Bartholomew to the Toledo city plan commission, parts of a comprehensive study, are summed up in the commission’s Progress Report of 1944. The city plan commission of Duluth has just issued a report of its activities since its creation. The Boston city planning board is responsible for a most valuable compendium, in which federal, state, municipal and private reports relating to the commerce and industries of Boston are digested. The bulk of the studies relate to physical improvements, with a section covering the progress of city planning and thework of the city planning board from the beginnmg. Another important and distinctive compiledreport for a city where much has been accomplished is Mr. Fisher’s for the Rochester city planning bureau covering 1918-1922, edited by iMr.

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19351 CITY PLANNING IN THE UNITED STATES 311 Hungerford. The official city paper, Denver Municipal Fads, published the report made to the City Planning Association by McCrary, Culley and Carhart, “A City Plan for Half-aMillion Population,” which is timely with the official zoning studies just successfully concluded. The Allentown reports by Mr. Haldeman issued by the Pennsylvania bureau of municipalities are units in a comprehensive study of the city and region which began in 1923. Passaic, N. J., has a comprehensive report by the Technical Advisory Corporation to the city plan commission. The North Adam (Mass.) planning board report for 1929 contains a survey by Mr. Nolen, carrying on after Thomas Adams. Other preliminary survey reports at hand are three by the Technical Advisory Corporation for New Bedford and Somerville, Mass., and Elizabeth, N. J.; by the City Planning Committee of the Plainfield Chamber of Commerce for Plainfield, N. J.; by the American Civic Association, Washington Committee of One Hundred, under the chairmanship of &. Delano, for the Federal City, including nine special subcommittee reports. The Youngstown planning commission report for 1920-23 reviews the good work in street studies and approval of plats carried on since its establishment. The published street and bridge studies by Mi. Swan for the city planning commission of New Brunswick, N. J., are taken from the comprehensive report in press. Other 1934 comprehensive reports still going through press at the time of preparing this survey are for Cincinnati and Worcester (Technical Advisory Corporation) ; Sarasota, Fla. (Nolen) ; Springfield, Ill. (West); Malden, Winchester and Dedham, Mass. (A. A. Shurtleff) ; Wakefield, Mass. (Comey), and Belleville, N. J. (Swan). ZONING AND PLATTING The zoning progress of the year has been astounding. The figures of the department of commerce show that sixty-two municipalities adopted zoning ordinances in 1934, bringing the total number up to about three hundred and twenty. At last reports, thirty-three states had zoning enabling acts. Among the important cities zoned were Boston and its neighbor Cambridge, Albany, Utica, Wdmington, Del., Columbia, S. C., Cincinnati, Davenport, Minneapolis, Kansas City, Kw., Omaha (revised ordinance), Bismark, N. D., and Portland, Ore. Notes on the important zoning decisions of the year will be found in Mr. Wfims’ department in the American City. The Boston ordinance is based on most thorough studies directed by Mr. Comey, backed up by Mayor Curley’s advisory committee. It provides for single-family residence districts as have also a considerable number of smaller Massachusetts communities. In a memorable decision, the supreme court of the state has>declared that such regulation is constitutional. The Boston zoning campaign was well conducted and its history appears in the final zoning report just published. Nearly twenty of the forty municipalities in the Boston Metropolitan district are now zoned, a higher record than that of Los Angeles county, California, where sixteen out of forty-four cities had zoning ordinances in November, 1934. The Portland ordinance, drawn by a joint committee of city planning commission and the Portland Realty Board, and passed by an overwhelming majority, is of particular interest because of the failure of the previous ordinance on popular referendum. Two other leading western cities have

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312 NATIONAL MuNrcIpAL REVIEW [May ordinances under way, Denver and Salt Lake City. A local enabling act of July, 1944, makes it possible for Buffalo to go ahead with zoning as part of her comprehensive program. The situation in Philadelphia remains practically unchanged, although the zoning commission has made a restudy of the entire city. A new enabling act including provision for a board of ap peals is sought for in 19s and may break the deadlock. The unfortunate court experience of Baltimore, coming on top of the New Jersey decision, has nevertheless left undaunted the Baltimore zoning board, which has succeeded in having an emergency ordinance passed until new legislation can be secured. In St. Louis unscrupulous builders have proceeded to put inappropriate buildings in home districts since the zoning principle has been temporarily nullified by the Missouri courts. The public will undoubtedly force a way through the intolerable situation thus created. The New Jersey tangle culminating in the Nutley decision and now ameliorated by the new enabling act of 1924 (modeled on the department of commerce standard act) is discussed at length in Mr. Bassett’s invaluable new pamphlet “Zoning Practice in the New York Region,” published by the Regional Plan of New York. Two more of Mr. Whitten’s excellent zoning reports have appeared in 1924, for Cranston, R. I., and West Hartford, Corn. (ordinances passed in both places). In the West Hartford report there is a section, “Comprehensive Development Plan for Unbuilt Areas,” in which Mi. Whitten tries to make zoning lead up to the adoption of a plan to combine zoning, platting, and general planning powers in controlling the development in unbuilt areas. The number of cities which now have control over platting and land subdivision has increased materially. Location of major thoroughfares and of parks and playgrounds on the official map of unbuilt areaa and the enforcement of this map is a subject of prime importance. The recent contributions of Mr. Bassett (published by Playground) and of Judge Nichols (published by Massachusetts Federation of Planning Boards) are of great importance. BTREET CONGESTION AND THOBOUGERARES PLAN8 Street traffic and street congestion have undoubtedly been the storm center of city planning this past year. Ln December there was held in Washington the first National Conference on Street and Highway Safety, called by Secretary Hoover, at which the eight committees appointed by him earlier in the year made reports, which were published, as well as the proceedings of the meeting. Another important traffic conference was devoted to the problems of the New York region, called at the instance of the Committee on the Regional Plan of New York and fourteen other interested bodies in May, 1944, also with published proceedings. The unbearably acute situation in New York has given rise to proposals for arcading, double and triple decking, such as were discussed especially by Messrs. Tuttle and Corbett before the City Planning Division of the American Swiety of Civil Engineers in January, 1924. The transit report of Mr. Turner to the New York transit commission makes two long doubledeck streets part of his program for permanent relief. The New Jersey state highway commission has designed a special commercial traffic way primarily as an extension of the Hudson vehicular tunnel. Studies for further vehicular tunnels or bridges to connect with

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19SJ CITY PLANNING IN THE UNITED STATES 31 3 New Jersey have been made by the Port of New York Authority. LOB Angeles claims the greatest tra5c congestion of any city in the United States due to enormous growth of automobile ownership and all-yearround use. The LQS Angeles traffic commission, a voluntary body acting with official co-operation of city and county, secured the services of Messrs. Olmsted, Bartholomew, and Cheney to make a comprehensive study of the trafic situation, reviewing all previous studies, and to report on a major trdc street plan (published Msy, 1924). Detroit’s progress in realizing the magdicent superhighway plan is inspiring and in scale with the tremendous automobile development of the region. Mr. Phillips, consultant to the Detroit city plan commission and several other communities of the region, reports that the plan will probably be carried for at least thirty-three to forty miles out. Major street plan reports have been published during 1934 for South Bend and for Toledo, prepared for the 05cia.l commissions by Mr. Bartholomew. Mr. Swan has one for Harrisburg, Pa., in press, Mr. Bibbins directed the preparation of a complete thoroughfare plan for Indianapolis, and the Beeler Organization reported on the traffic situation in Atlanta. PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS At the National Conference on Outdoor Recreation called by President Coolidge in May, 1924, one hundred and twentyeight national organizations responded by sending delegates. The official status of the gathering, its excellent organization, the hearty spirit of co-operation among delegates, and the series of resolutions adopted make it memorable in the history of recreation. The Playground and Recreation Association in co-operation with the American Institute of Park Executives is undertaking an investigation of great moment financed by the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Foundation, being an intensive study of recreation in municipal and county parks. An advisory committee including representatives from the American City Planning Institute is assisting in the study. The ‘establishment of the national capital park commission by Congress already noted promises well for the carrying out of much-needed extensions of the park system. The Park Conference held in Baltimore in June was intended to promote the development of a fuller system of parks, parkways and playgrounds for that city. The Chicago South Parks waterfront development has made great progress during 1924. The plam for the redemption of the Schuylkill banks in Philadelphia will add another great water park such as those of Chicago, Washington, Harrisburg, Boston, and Toronto. Birmingham, Ala., and Santa Barbara, Calif., are having park system plans prepared by Olmsted Brothers, and a special report on Boston parks by Mr. A. A. shurtleff is just out. The state of New York leads in 81most spectacular plans for county and state parks. The Westchester county park commission report, dated April, 1934, is an important document continuing in spirit aa well as on the ground the reports on the now-famous Bronx Parkway. The Erie county park bill was passed by the legislature of 1924, the commission has been appointed, and an initial appropriation made by the board of supervisors. A similar bill for a Niagara county park commission is before the 1925 Legislature. THE FUTURE Among the goodly number of projects to be heard from in 1925 in cities

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314 NATIONAL MuNrcrpAI, REVIEW reporting comprehensive plans recently prepared or under way are Newton and Clinton, Mass.; Stamford, Conn.; Utica, Schenectady, Middletown. and Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; Elizabeth and Camden, N. J.; Ashtabula, Dayton, Oakwood and Wyoming, Ohio; Evansville, Anderson, Muncie, Michigan City and Kokomo, Ind.; Springfield, DeKalb, Oak Park and Jacksonville, Ill.; Sagmaw, Benton Harbor and St. Joseph, Pontiac and other communities of the Detroit region, Mich.; Kenosha and Kohler, Wis.; Cedar Rapids and Des Moines, Iowa; St. Joseph, Mo.; Topeka, Kans.; Chattanooga, Tenn.; Norfolk, Va.; Columbus and Athens, Ga.; Shreveport, La.; Houston, Texas; and San Diego, Calif. It remains to be seen whether the sir states not heard from in 1924 join the ranks for 1925, 90 that we may then say that the city planning movement has become in fact nation-wide.

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BOOKS AND REPORTS E~MENTI~ OF LUTD ECONOMICS. By 'Richard T. Ely and Edward W. Morehow. New York: "he Macmillan Company, 19% Dr. Ely and his collaborator have done one invaluable thiig, nameJy, they have inventoried and very well organized a specis1 field of economics. In this particular they are pioneers and their volume is a distinct contribution to specialized economics. A fundamental thesis of the book is taxation of land values on the basis of producing power, which is a perfectly proper his for income taxca. It is not, however, a proper basis for general property taxes, which are taxes paid for the right to hold property in peace and security under the laws of the land and the customs of &y. Which is to my. general property taxes are one thing and inwme taxen are another. And both in my opinion are perfectly proper taxes. There are all sorts of criti&mn of the general property tax, but these taxes are likely to endure to the end of time, and to put gene.ral property taxea on the basin d producing power ia to confuae the purpoee of one tax with the purpose of another tax. This confusion is evident in thia volume in the slurring of severance tans and transfer taxa on unearned incomes. These two subjects are in no wise adequately tre&edinthebook. Bearuse of the high level of competency in the various chapters, the volume is likely to have very wide use, and this use will mainly be to champion tax d&ea that me very pleasing to particular classea of taxpayers. the farmers in particular, and even more, the holders of farm lands deliberately held out of use for speculative rises in value. Considering the use the volume. is being put to. I should say it wm innocently or deliberately contrived as a volume of tax propaganda, and must be considered in that aapect rather than as a text-book. E. C. BRANEON. University of North Carolina. * THE STOEY OF DETROIT. By George B. Cathn Detroit: The Detroit News, 1953. BUFFNQ'S TEXTBOOK. By John F. Barry and Robert W. ElmBufTalo: Robert W. Elmes. 1934. As one might expect after considering the fact that ite population multiplied nine times in the forty years preceding lae0. the story of Detroit is a moving and interesting one. Mr. Ca& librarian of the Detroit Newa, has told this story from the arrival of Antoine Laumet de la Moth Cadillac in 1701 to the initiation of daily Sir service from Cleveland in l9B. His history h journalistic. undocumented but reliived of the mas. babbitesque materialism of most such local chronicles by a he, discriiting treatment of the social and economic wntl& that the city has experienced. For example, the significant csreer of Mayor Pingme, municipal reformer and advocate of public ownership. is described with sympathy and admirption. Buflo'a T&k is a manual adopted by the department of education for use in the public schools of BuEalo. It contsinS two hundred pages of facts concerning the government, industries. and the social and civic life of Bdalo. Condensation hes been doxi for completeness to such a degree that one might appropriately designate the volume as sou~ces of material for the making of a k.xtbool. rather than as a textbook itself. Columbia University. RAYXOND Mo~Y. CD REPORT ON TBaFplc Sre~~ar FOR Cmmm. pnpared by the Cleveland Automobile Club, March, 1935. 93 pp. with maps and graphs. This report,'issued aa the sewnd part of a traftic study begun late in 19% ia the result of a systematic examination of present street trsflic conditions in Cleveland. It amounces at the very outset that pure theory wm either ignored or discarded and that consideration was given only to remedies which could be applied to Cleveland immediately. The tra5c systems of the following cities were subjected to scrutiny: New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, Boston, Bdalo, Syracuse, and Atlantic City. The practice and experience of these are considered in a general way, the subject matter being well orgmized and clearly presented. The general student of traffic regulation will therefore find the report at least of passing interest. The description of methods employed in such important centers, however brief. cannot fail to have some value. It is interesting to note that the report urgently recommends that all parking be prohibited 315

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316 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW in the most heavily congested business centers. The tendency everywhere is to the we effect, in spite of active opposition from various quarters. Unregulated or under-regulated parking leads to traffic congestion, which is one of the chief underlying causea of street accidents. The report probably places an undue emphasis upon the value of mechanical signal systems. Although these unquestionably must be accorded a place in any highly developed scheme for traffic control. the time ia doubtleas still distant when mechanical devices will ex& a preponderating iduence. We are still in the utage of forming the habits of the public while hv&g on the highways. The uniformed police officer will continue to be indispemable to such a progrrm of education. BRUCE SMITH. National lnrtitute of Public A8 * ’ tion. * Con ADVERTXSINQ. By Don E. Mowry. General Secretary, Madison Association of Commerce. Madison. Wis.: Cantwell Re=, lW. 9.456. Advertising, an that term is usually understood t a means of selling a product or a service to aomeone else. Mr. Mowry very wisely usea the term community adv&ing not only m this accepted sum, but M designating a force by which 8 community may he ‘‘sold’’ to itself. And this intexml publicity has a,two fold purpase. too-e!ducating the citizenship an to assets already possessed by their city, and the dincovery and comction d commnnity liabilities. L a prime awmti.l to sucesa, both in external and internal publicity, the author places special emp& on the developing of the city’s paaodtg: that distinctive cheracterun * icda community which is hard to dehe, but which maku it ditTerent-deairably diBemnt-from other communities, and which ‘‘seem to radiate 11c atmosphere of invigorating, forceful, mmThe forty-two chapters in the book are grouped in six main divisions-Fundament, Objectives. Machinery, Mediums Technique and Accomplishments. The &ion on objectives contains chapters in which prscticel suggestions are offered aa to securing conventions, cultivating tourist business. tying up town and country, securing new residents, and developing local business. The machinery desrribed includes the adverhiing agency, chamber of compelling energy.” merce. schools and churches. women voters and estate dealers, public utilities. inswane mmpanies and other agencies; and the medim analyzed are direct mail, radio , s il ver screen, newspapers. technical journals, farm publications, exhibits, expositions, poatenr. outdoor displays. and Mtiod magazine adverthg. But advertisii costa money, and Mr. Mowrp discusses in two chapters the Securing of the funds and the preparation and control of the budget. Methods of raising publicity funds by commercial organizations are contrasted with the growing feeling-eapecielly in summer and winter resort communitks-that public taxation may properly be used to provide money for publicity purposes. Readers who wish to know what has actually kn done in recent yeara in couhunity advertising will find much of due in the “Accompliiments” section, with chapters on City Accomplishments. Town and Country Accomplishments, and State Accomplishments. That Community Addng will render a real de an a stimulant and guide towarda greater occompliienb m future seema certain. UViC dubs, l’&Osde, hSt.kUtiOM, d &om S. Bwmmmm. Editor of the American City Magasine. * FOREST T~TION: Being Part 1 of the &port of the Spedal Joint Committee on Taxation and Retrenchment, submitted April 1. 19% State of New York. Legdative Document (19%). No. 91. Albany: J. B. Lyon Can. pany, 19%. Pp. 1S-N end 175-180. This document is the 6fth report of the Special Joint committee on Taxation and Retren-t of the New Yo& LegisIntm. appointed in 1919 and reappointed in 1W. The previous reports have p“sented intand important trestiaed upon the public finances of New York. state, county, city and town. The major part of the present report ha, to do with the subject of forest taxation, and it k tbis part only which is here submitted to review. dents of the general problem of forest taxation in the United States thie report will be a disappointment. A careful reading makes unavoidable the impression that its main purposa was to silence the demands for forest tax legislation in New York and to justify a policy of inaction. That the more vociferous of the It may as well be frankly stated that to atu

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lQaS] BOOKS AND REPORTS 317 advocatc~ of forest tax ‘‘reform.” not only in New York state but all over the country, have and extravagant statements of fact is well known, and these advocates deserve a rebuke now and then. Likewke the false basii of practically all pert American legislation aimed to give tax relief to foreets is well known, IU well IU the universal failure of such legislation to produce mults. The New York record, just critictm of which oaxpies Chapter I of this report, is simply part of this general development. All thiis. however, was shown up years ago.’ Today it is only the rubbish that must be brushed aside preparatory to a constructive analysis of the real problem of forut taxation. Failure to progreaa much beyond this firet step is a disappointing feature of the present report. The writer is much disturbed by the variety in the practical plans of farest tax relief which have been offered in the fifteen years since the subject first received scientific study in America. and he seerxu to find in this proof that there is no real bis of theory upon which the esperta are in agreement. As a matter of fact the theoretical basis of the forest tax problem haa been pretty thoroughly estabhhed, not merely worked out by the experts but quite generally accepted by the Idem in the practical fields of toand lumbering. !I‘hia is the one solid eocompliehment of our fifteen years of dort. The present report fails to distinguish between this his of theory and the various mamma which have been offered in the practical attempt to get whatever relief may be obtainable under actual conditions. For example, an exduaive yield tax would be in harmony with Bound principles, and there are practiuble mcens of making it satisfactory from the point of view of Id revenue. But public opinion hss been generally dow to accept this plan, being especially reluctant to give up the annual property tax upon the land. Thin has led to other plans, involving complete or partial taxation of the land, exemption of growing trees, and a yield tax on forest products, as proposed by the forest tax committee of the National Tax hciation in 1013 and 1922. With legislation in the hands of forty eight separate states. exhibiting the utmost diversity as to forest conditions, general tax conditions, and public opinion, it is not to be 1 For example. Tazdion of Timberlonde, Report of the National Conservation Commiaaion, 1909. Vol. ban Of erroneOud WlUIlptbM Of theoq 11, pp. 581432. enpeded that one uniform plan will receive favor everywhere. The essential point is that, whatever is done, in the way of forest tax relie& be it all that the most ardent reformer could desire or only the timid first steps, shall be in harmony with sound principles of economics and forestry and not a repetition of the mistaken, though well-meaniug, effoh of the past. In his &ort to show that there in no serioua problem of forest taxation in New York, the writer fails to grasp the real nature of the problem. He seeka to show (page 43, etc.) that New York state has passed the critical stage in which cut over lands are assessed above their real value, forgetting that it is not the danger of ucedaive asseprunent which frightens the forest investor so much as the resulta of simple honeat 888ess. ment of land and trees according to the letter of the property tax law. It is claimed that there are few tax sales in New York. But the ques tion whether cut over Id (vc being reforested to the degree that would be desirable and that would be possible under a aound tax policy is confc.wdly not answered (page 44). The armment offered here is anything but convincing. The area af 70.000 amea of reforested land (cited on page 46) is inferred from staWca of sxdhga planted, nearly half of which are shown by the table on the next page (48) to have been planted by the state on state lands. Worst of all is thb statement (pge 45): “If now, the burden impod by the general property tax had been M eerious as mme of the advacates of changes in the law insii, it is reacloIurble to assume that there would have been a much greater tendency on the part of those actively engaged in reforesting to escape the tax burden by taking advantage of the provisions of the existing laws.” Thi in the face of the writer’s OWXI vipmu. disclosure of the defects of those laws (paged I-), to say nothing of the mass of evidende from all over the United Statea as to the unwillingness of fomt owners to accept the &&OM and red tape involved in such laws as these. Failure to grasp the real nature of the foreat tax problem is shown again in the somewhat supercilibus discussion of evidence based upon hypothetical tables of coata and revenues of forest growing. Reference is made to the importance of the rate of interest selected and the mtation period (pages 47 and 48), but no constructive suggestion is offered aa to the correct assumptions. There is evidence upon both of these points which is readily available and which

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318 NATIONAL MUNICLPAL REVIEW should be known to any student of forestry or forest taxation. Finally the whole point of such tables is missed. Of cow no such table can show, fifty or sixty years in advance, what will be the financial result of a forest investment. But such tables can and do show what a crushing burden taxation my impose under the existing system. The mere p08&ddy of such a barden is enough to frighten the investor; he will not wait for proof of its cduinfy. The reader approaches hopefully the elaborate atatistical study contained in Chapter IV, but here again dieappointment ensues. In the first ph the authority of the statietical results is suiody weakened by the many arbitrary ssll~mpti~~ which have been made in obtaining them. And the conclusions from them are of little service. For example much is made of the apparent conclusion that full value assessment in the taxing districts would have resulted in a reduced tax burden upon imdure forests (page! 86, etc.). This is on the assumption that dl other property is likewise d at its full value and also that the tax rate is reduced 80 as to yield the mme total revenue BS under the existing basis of taxation. This may be true, but what is its practical importance? The forest investor is not worrying about a general full value assessment, with a corresponding reduction of the tax rate, something that never happened and almost certainly never will happen. He is afraid of what will happen to hie investment if ever his propeGy, both land and trees, should be assesed at their full market value (as the law requires) with tax rates generally rising, as he knows they are and have been for a generation past. The same expenditure of time and labor. devoted to collection of evidence as to assessed and sales values of forest propertia. such as have been conducted, for example. in New Hamp shire and certain other states, would have brought forth some interesting and valuabl6 results. As regards recommendations. artain minor technical changes in the existing New York statutes are suggested, brief uncritical reference is made to certain current plans of forest taurtion. and further study of the whole subject is advised. FXED ROGERS F.URCEILD. Yale University.

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PUBLIC HEALTH NOTES EDITED BY CARL E. McCOMBS, M.D. A Legal D&on of Interest to Munidpal Officials.-In May of 19M. a dairyman near Jamestown, N. Y.. was awarded a verdict of 412,OOO damages against the city of Jameatown by a jury in the mpreme court of the state, sitting at Mayville, N. Y. The suit grew out of a typhoid outbreak in Jamestown which. city .officials claimed was due to the handling of milk by a typhoid carrier on the daiin’s farm. The daii sued the city for $&O,OOO damages contending that if contamination of his milk had occurred it had resulted from the discbrrrge of raw sewage by the city into a stream on which his farm was locsted. The cnse was appealed by the city and the appellate division of the supreme court unanimously reversed the judgment of the lower court. The opinion, which was written by Justice Clark, states “that there were certain erroneous instructio~ given to the jury that require a new trial.” In view of the accumulated evidence as to the r61e of typhoid carriers in contaminating milk supplies. it would appear that the presence of a camer on the dairymsn’s farm would be given greater weight by a jury than the deiryman’s contention that a sewage-polluted stream on his fmn was responsible for the outbreak. Even sssuming the pollution of the stream by raw sewsge as the dairymsn argued, there would be little likelihood of contamination of milk from such source, if the dairymsn’s methods were above reproach. 9 Carbon Monoxid Poisoning of Garage Employees.--Dr. Ettore Champiolini of the division of industrial hygiene of the New York state department of labor has recently reported on the menace of csrbon monoxid poisoning among garage employees in New York city. The air of thirty-one garages was examined and found to contain carbon monoxid in all cases. varying from .05 to .2 per cent. In ten of the garages the carbon monoxid content of the air was in aces of .15 per cent which was regarded as the danger point. Forty-two of the workers were examined and carbon monoxid was found combined with the hemoglobin of the blood of twenty-nine of them. Headaches and gastric symptom were found in many and severs1 reported insomnia. One worker was found with all of the characteristic symptoms of carbon monoxid poisoning including high carbon monoxid hemoglobin in the blood, headache, gastric and nervous symptoms and slight increase of temperature. On tbe evidence furnished by Dr. Champiolini, it is evident that health officials everywhm would do well to see that all possible pre~a~tions against carbon monoxid poisoning are observed by garage employers and employees. The condition appears to be of mch constant occurrence among garage workers that there is warrant in adding this type of poisoning to the list of occupational disesses and injuriea of a compensable nature. Much can of course be done to reduce the dangers to garage workers by nupervision of ventilation in garages. The proposals of other investigators in this field, that motor cars be required to quip with exhausts rising to the level of the top of the cars, are worthy of serious consideration. * Ithe Year of Lowest Death Rate in History;--From such records as are available regarding mor@lity of the general population in 1924. it is clear that 19e4 was the best health year in the hry of thie country and Canada. The figures recently published by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company on mortality among ita 16.000,OOO policyholders are of particular interedt in thia connection since their mortality records are more promptly availabte and more thoroughly analyzed than those of the United States bureau of the census. These 16,000,000 policyholders constitute about oneseventh of the total population of the two countries and mortality among them is therefore an excellent index to mortality generally. The death rate of this large group wag 8.6 per 1,000 in 10!24,-5.4 per cent lower than in 1953. There were 150,790 deaths among the 16,000,000 in 1924 which was 7,210 less than would have occurred under the 1923 rate and 61,958 less than if the 1911 rate had prevailed. This reprwents for the period 1911-1943, (1993 is the latest year for which comparable data are available) a

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320 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW decline of 98.4 per cent of mortality among the insured as compared with a 14.1 per cent decline in the general population. The insurance experienre shows a saving of lives greater by 49,782 in 1945 alone, over and above the saving expected by reason of the decline in the mortality rate of the general population. The accumulated saving in the twelve-year period since 1911 repreaentd a total of 171,341 lives, according to the Metropolitan Life’s statisticians, and they estimate that the added gains in 1924 will bring the savings beyond poO,OOO lives. The extremely low death rate among the Metropolitan Life’s policyholders is of r course due in part to the fact that ita policyholders are eel4 risks. Nevertheless it is reasonable to believe that this result could not have been brought about without the extensive health educational and supervisory service which the Metropolitan haa made available to its policyholdue. Health education pays. If it didn’t the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company wouldn’t spend its money for that purpose. A few thounand dollars spent for health education by health departmenta will yield a tremendoua return in human vitality. * Health in Rurrl and Urban Areas.-A recent issue of the statistical bulletin of the Metmpolitan Life Inmmma Company makes certain comparisons of mortality in urban and rural Mctn that are well worth review. Of the communicable diseases, whooping cough, influenza. small pox, typhoid fever, malaria, dyantery and pellagra show constantly higher mortality rates in rural than in urban for the reason that control procedm are not so readily or effiaently applied. The mortality from the dieeases incident to pregnancy and child birth also has a higher rural rate. Chronic rheumatism, apoplexy. paralysis, paresis and other mental diseases and epilepsy also cause higher mortality in rural areas, partly because these diaeasee dect more of the aged who have greater representation in rural areas and partly because the majority of hospitais and institutiona for the aged. infirm and mentally diseased are loarted in the country outside of city jurisdictions. As might be expected, accidental deaths from food poisonings, deaths in burning buildings, drownings, gun shot wounds, mine and quarry accidents, railroad accidents, deaths in landslides, injuries by animals, by lightning and excessive cold and heat, cause greater mortality in the country. Nevertheless. the expectancy of life is better for those in rural areas. The rural boy has an expectancy of 73 years more than the urban boy, and the rural girl 6 yesrs more than the urban girl. This is due to the fact that the major causes of death such as cancer, tuberculosis, diseases of the heart and arteries, disesses of the kidney, and diarrheal disea4es of children over two yeam of age show higher urban than rural rates. Only one type of cancer, namely skin cancer, and only one type. of tuberculosis, the disseminated or general type, show higher rural than urban rates. Angina pectoriS which ie comparatively rare, is the only disease of the circulatory epatem group that give a higher rural than urban mortality. Suicides and homicides are more important causes of mortality id urban than in rural districts, although it appears that the homicide rate in rural arean is tending to approximate that of the urban. This is not to be wondered at in view of the opportunity for rural raids which the automobile has furnished criminals who formerly limited their activities to the cities. It is of interest in connection with this comparison of rural and urban health to note the reault of a swey of physical defects among “country” and “city” children by the division of research of the National Education Association. According to the report of this agency the percentages of physical defects found in the groupr are aa follows: Teeth Defects. ........... Tonsils. ................. Adenoids ................ Eye Defects. ............ Malnutrition. ............ Ear Defects. ............ Enlarged Glands. ........ Breathing Defects. ....... Pet Cd 49.0 B.14 23.4 21.0 16.6 0.4 4.78 4.P Pm cent 33.58 16.42 12.5 13.4 7.68 2.7 1.3 2.1 Cdy It might be concluded from this comparison, if we may assume the accuracy of the figures. that the “country” child has a heavy handicap to overcome in his health race with the “city” child. It might also be concluded from mmparison of these figures and the figures of life expectancy previously cited that the rural child does eventually overcome these handicaps. But conclusions so drawn may lead to absurdities. The reports of the United States bureau of the census, from which analyses of urban and

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19951 PUBLIC HEALTH NOTES 321 rural mortality mtea are derived, consider aa “rural” dl population outside of citiea of 10,OOO or more. When one considers that there are many communities of less than 10,OOo population that have well organized local governmats and provide health aervices as good aa are offered in much lnrpr cities. it is dear that mortality rates determined for dist.rict.9 80 arbitrarily dehd are not of high due in comparing country health with city health. The comparison of physical defects of “country” and “aty” children by the National Education Association is interesting but it would be far more inkrating, if in pubthb table (Tb Nation’s HaaW, March 15. 1025). the reader were informed of what is meant by “country” and what by “city.” It is probsble that “country” as used by the Natiod Education Assxiation represents a quite Merent area than that which in called “rural” by the United %tea bureau of the Comparisons of rural and urban health conditions are valuable, but to be of real p&id use there should be me agreement on deli& tions. What ia “muntry” and what “city?” What is “rural” and what “urben?” If “COUtry” mauu thc MIUC u ‘smr .nd “city” the same M “urban” then we may be able to make some comparisons that will be useful in edminiatlntive prcrdice. provided “muntry” or “d is actady nud and doea not indude organieed communitiee of eeveral thousand (XMUa. people living under circuhces that are truly urban in character. * Vcnered Diseases in 1924.-The United States public heslth service reports a great improvement in the reporting of venereal diseasee in the year ending June SO. 1984. Them were 27.588 more cases reported, an increase d 7.e per cent over the corresponding period ending June SO, 1923. This does not necessarily mean that venereal diseaee WM more prevalent but more likely that with the improvement of diagnqtic methods, more clinics, and the extension of health educational work by otficiol and boficial bodies. few caaea of the diuease eecsped registration. A total of 963.063 case3 of venereal dkeaea were reported to vurious boarda of health state and local in the period reviewed. Of these 19S,844 were syphilis, 160.790 gonorrhea and 8.m ehrmcmid. During the kl year just passed 504 public clinics reporting to state boards gave R147.087 treatments. Large M these figures are they repwent aa yet only in&& control of venereal -. There are hundredn of thousands of cased that still escape discoveq due to the failure of state and locsl labodies to enact and provide for the enforcement of registration laws and attendant procedures and the failure also of health authoritiea of many Communitia to cvry out known preventive! measurea even when authorized by law to do m.

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ITEMS ON MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING EDITED BY WILLLAM A. BASSET" Advantages of Soft Water for Domestic Industrial Purposes.-Water supplies free from disease-besring germs, turbidity and obnoxious taste and odors, are today provided for most cities. In fact such a supply is recognized as essential to the prosperity and welfare of a community and great credit is due to those instrumental in securing it. It is, however, believed that up to the present &cient consideration has not been given to the matter of reducing the hardness of water due to the presence of certain salts in solution. In those cities where water softening plant3 have been installed, the reanon has been the n-ity of reducing hardness in order to clecun necessary puri6cation rather than the reduction of the hardnalone. It msy be Raid. however, that hardness in water creata an economic didvantage to the community and, everything else considered, this disadvantage is in direct proportion to the hardnecra. The advantages resulting from the use of aoft water benefit the domestic user as well aa the industrial one. In the houaehold there is a materid deask in the labor of housework when aoft water h available. It is demonstrable that clothes washed in soft water have an inc.reased life of from G to 100 per cent. There is also the advanof a lower cost of plumbing, with soft water there is no deposit of scale, for example, in hot water pipes. This means an increased life in water backa and copper coils used in heatem together with reduced fuel consumption due to better conditions in the heating system. In all industrial lines the advantage of soft water over bard is pronounced. In many plants it is necessary to resort to special treatment of hard waters in order to secure satisfactory and economical operating conditiom. It is true that water softening treatment will of necessity increase the cast of providing a supply which will mean increased charges to consumers. It is believed, however. that ordinarily this increased charge for water will be but a small part of the indirect but real economies to the consumer that accompany a reduction in the hardness of any supply. There is need to educate the public M to the true significance of this matter. * Piicing City Repladug Improvementsin Boston.-Utiliition of a fund derived from a personal property tax on automobiles levied by the city of Boston, and from a proposed state excise tax on automobiles to meet in part the cost of street widening and similar replanning projects to relieve traffic congestion on certain important thoroughfares in that city, is a feature of a plan recommended by a state commission appointed to study the problem. For the purpose of distributing the coat of such improvements between the users of the streets and the property owners, the commission mmmends: First. that all city revenue derived from motor vehicles should be placed in a highway improvement fund and used for tht purpose designated; second, that the remaining cost be met. one-half from funds provided by a tax levy of 50 cents on the 81,OOO over the entire city and one-half from vial asseasmerits levied on property within the central portion of the city which will reaive apecia1 bedt from the contemplated improvements. The commission aLP0 recommends issuing Ween yesr bonds to provide funds for the execution of the improvements. Applying the principle of assessment for benefit in the financing of projects of this kind is recognized as consistent with the most approved practice. However, the wisdom of Certain other provisions recommended by the commission is not at first gkance apparent. The net cost of the proposed work, as estimated by the commission, is placed at approximately $5?4,eM).OOO of which only $1,350,000, it is anticipated, will be required for construction purposes. Considering the character of the purposes of expenditure which these projem involve and the relative permanency of the changes in conditions that will result from their consummation, it would seem justifiable to distribute the general financial burden over a greater period than meen years. Also it is generally conceded that revenues from motor vehicle taxes when used for street

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19353 ITEMS ON MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 3B improvement purposes should be expended for maiqtenance of street pavements rather than for capital expense, particularly that for acquiring property. The plan itself undoubtedly has merit in its simplicity and its recognition of the varying benefit that would result both to the user of the street and the property owner from its carrying out. However, mme modification in its provisions would seem to be desirable from the point of view of sound financial policy. * Electric vs. Gasoline Trucks for Waste Colleetion.-Electrically operated trucks for the collection of municipal waste have been used with mcces~ in a number of cities both in England and on the continent. and more recently this type of equipment ia beii used to a limited extent for the above purposes by certain American citiea. It han already a wide use by bush and industry in thie country. There appears to be no readon why electric trucka should not be extremely usetul for waste collection work where there is not an excessively long haul to the point of final disposal. In the past, two main objectiom M~LIK~ againat the use of electrically operated vehidw for collection purpoeee have been the limited mileage over which a truck csn operate without recharging the battery and the restricted 8peed. Naturally it is important that there should be readily available ample facilities for recharging truck batteries without serious delay, but in these days of extensive application of electrial energy thia should not be di5cult of accompliahment. It is stated that ordinarily the electric tru& used on collection work are designed for a maximum speed of about fifteen miles an hour. With the present hazard on our public streeta due to motor vehicle thia would not appear to be a serious objection. at least from the point of view of the public. The average speed of collection equipment is the controlling factor in measuring accomplishment where a large numb of stops have to be made and the quick getaway to which the electric vehicle is adapted is in its favor. Other advantages claimed for the electric truck which seem to be substantiated to a considerable extent in practice are simplicity of design and hence operation. relatively long life and low cost of operation and maintenance. In Washington, D. C., where three electric trucks have been used for rubbish collection during the past year, ,Morris Hacker, superintendent of the District of Columbia refuse collection department. in commenting on the experience of that city in the use of thia equipment, is quoted SB follows: Electrics are, in the opinion of the city refuse division, cheaper for certain sections of the city. In the outlying sections, gas trucks are necessary as the haul is too long for the satisfactory operation of electric trucks. This atstement appears to summarize the experience of other American cities, which have used electric trucks for waste collection purposes. Naturally the adaptabfity of that type of equipment to these purposes will depend on local conditions. In England it is reported that collection by electric trucks is proving more economical and generally satisfactory than by the use of horse drawn vehicles. Comparative data of this kind are lacking in respect of wa.ste colle-ction in American cities. However. the advantages that electric trucks possess for such work merit careful attention by municipal engineers and other officials in providing waste collection facilities. * English Experience With Contract Labor.Unml success has accompanied the execution of building construction projecta by force &ccounts methoda or direct labor, according ,b an editorial appearing in the hal Gocmnd Nnus of England. Information on this matter secured by means of a carefully prepared pueb tionnaire diecloses the following conditions: In Manchester, taking the whole of the s92 houses built by direct labor since 1990, it waa found that there was a saving over contract price of lS,eSO; and the housing dirextor said definitely that even if it met by direct labor 5 per cent more than it did, it would still pay the corporation of Manchester to operate the principle of dired labor. At Swansea. out of 1,310 houses, 718 had been built by direct labor and a further 100 were under construction. On 260 houses alone there was a saving on the sanctioned price of f%.Oe4 and the contractors refused even to tender on the sanctioned price! In 1922-3 houses built by direct labor cust a19 as compared with g476 by contract. The town clerk of Swansea, moreover, wrote to say that, apart from the large saving in cost. the work done by direct labor was better than that done by private contmct. At Tynemouth, 25 houses built by direct labor for 2.784 as against contract price, produced an actual saving of E2,512, and a potential saving on a further 71 houses of .125. At Salisbury, EO houses built by direct

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334 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW labor at were cheaper than those of similar type beii built by contract. At Glasgow.. the official 6 were for direct labor as against Gby contract; as against ; and as against l,OOS; and the total saving to the corporation effected by by direct labor resched the enormous similar tale of municipal success. sum bui17 o '7,240. From Hartlepool comes a In this country there is frequent controversy over the question of conducting public work by contract or force account methods. In general, uperience indicates that the contract method is preferable for handling ordinary municipal improement work. The execution of building projects in this country. by the government, limited as it has been to certain housing develop ment carried out during the war, does not offer the opportunity for cornpariaon of & betwen these two methods an that class of work was done under emergency conditions and almost entinily by contract. Incidmtally. practically every government housing project proved to be a very espemive investment. The experience of English citiee in this matter is an intereJting demonstration of what can be acmmplished by force account methods on relatively dl building construction projecb. Amendment of New York Law Governing Motor Bus Operation;-Legislation that will clarify the powers of the New York state public service commission with regard to regulating the operation of bus lines using the public highways of that state hss been asked by the commission. For all other chs of utilities over which the commission has control there is @c mention in the law of the extent of the supervision. For bus regulation there are no definitely fixed limits. The report directs especial attention to section 6-A of the public service commission law which seems to give exclusive juridiction to the transit commission (the state regulatory body of New York city) over bus linen wherever such linen or any part of them are within the limits of New York city. The jurisdiction of the public service commission is apparently expressly limited to the operation of such lina outside of New York city. If this is a fact, the transit commission only could pass on questions of convenience and necessity for linen or routee, no matter what their extent in the balance of the state, if they paes through, begin or end in New York city. The commission asks that this &ion he amended.

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NOTES AND EVENTS offleial Comprehensive Ph of Cincinnati.On April 16, Cincinnati 05dy adopted a Comprehensive City Plan. not only for the city, but for the (uea three miles outside as well. This is the tirst complete city plan to be officially adopted by any large city in the country. It means that from now on, there can be no uae of private property contrary to the zoning and platting mgdstiona of the plan. It also means that no street or means of circulation. nor public buildings, strnctuns or land. nor public utility can be located or dedoped contrary to the plan, unless it is over-ruled by a two-thirds vote of the city council after public hearing, and with the approval of the department affected. The plan in the result of three years of mntinuow work on the part of the city planning commimion and ita conaultanta. the Technical Advisory Corporation; furthermore, every city department and every public utility affected by the plan hss collaborated in its preparation and conma in its conclusions. The program for the carryine out of the ph ha been 80 worked out in detail as to bring no unneceesary burden on the tax-payer. The ooat of executing the plan io distributed over flty years, with no more than a normal proportion of it payable in any one year. The plan is distinctly a citizens' plan, as it wau initiated and largely paid for by the United City Planning Committee. which is composed of repneentstiven of about thirty of the leading organizations of the city. * Demolition of Buildings in Pbiladelpkia is the subject of a report by the Philadelphia Housing Amciation, which possesses interest for other citiea as wen. The report corn the year 1934 and aupplements one made for the year previous. In 1924, 1173 buildings were demolished, 9S6 of which were reaidential. Altogether 7,749 persons were dehoused, although 90 per cent of the residential buildings still had a long period of usefulness ahead of them. Few of the residences demolished were replaced by dwellings. Many of the new buildings were for commercial and manufacturing purposes. but the majority of the houaes destroyed were razed to make way for public improvements. "heae were for the most part low rental accommodations and no relief was planned for the familiesdisarmmod ed. The survey disclosea that the city government 10thousands of dollars in rent and drives familien out months earlier than mceamuy by condemnation and deatruction of howen before the city is ready to go ahead with the improve ment. In contrast to this stands the practice of private corporations which continue to use or rent dwellings up to the moment wkn new mnstruction begi~. For example. the extension of Spring Garden Street, to provide an approach to the new Delaware River Bridge. was made two years too soon, and the loss in rentals to the city amounted to $66,oO0 each year. The report & attention to the fact that the deatruction of ding buildiqp to make IUXI for public improvements is proceeding without any comprehensive city plan, and that, although damages have to be puid for losaes euetained' through removal of property, public improvements which benefit private property enstillpaid for by general taration. Aasesmnenta dedigned to impase part of the burden on the property'benefited cannot be applied in Pemylvanie in the caac of comprehensive impmvemenb. * FaurYearsdBudgetSn~aioninPortlrmd, Oregon.-The Multnomah County (Ory(0n) Tax Supervising and Conservation Commission in ita report on budget fa& for 1W revim the results of four years' exercise of its power to certify the tax levies of the eeveral governmental bodies within the limits of the county. An important accomplient is the reduction in appropriations and taxes for each year as follows: Reduetionsin Rsdudionsin Appr~'&'m Taz Leuies 1934 Budgets. ............................................... $491,330.40 $610,806.71 1923 Budgets. ............................................... 385,107. !23 536,959.55 lse4 Budgets.. .............................................. 408,779.89 688,fMS.N 19s Budgets. ............................................... 611,765.34 836,745.fl Total, 4 years. ........................................... $1,894,974.79 $3,673,154.97 35

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326 N.4TION.4L MUNICIPAL REVIEW [May The commission believes, however, that its efforts have brought other substantial results in addition to the evidence in the table above. The power of the commission to disallow budget item is mid to be in itself a deterrent influence on extravagance. The commission is also a research agency and makes suggestions from time to time iegarding administrative rearrangements which effect money savings. It insists upon proper repair and maintenance of existing plants, compeh necessary contributions to sinking funds, and requires that work programs, involving either appropriations or borrowings, be carefully thought out in advance. The co&on has always placed a pat deal of emphis on budget pdure, backed up by proper amounting. It believes that the budget idea now means more than ever before to the local governing bodies within the county. The powem of the codon are indeed broad and their ex& h at times given rise to friction. The commission acts by unanimous vote, however, and does not attempt to dictate on questions of bmad policy. Disinterested obmem atate that it driven local governing bodies to a more careful study of their budgets. * The Indi8xu plrn Criticized-Like most human devices. thia ph b certain merit. Like wine. it har defects. Its due depenb on the net outcome from rmch merits and wch defects. The plan aim to prevent extravagance in governmental management. It purposs to we fear and moral &on to accomplish such results. Cnfortunately it does not tend to correct the real defecta in municipal government. Its purpose ia to prevent unwarranted tax levies and bond issues, but can be used when levies and issues are merely unwelcome instead of unwarranted. The phn pmppoaes a vicious or incompetent and unresponsive body of municipal officials, an electorate which is not wholly indifIerent and which contains at least a dl group of noncwmplaisant tax contributors. or both. It affords nothing except moral restraint to the average municipality, for the average municipality will not invoke the machinery of the plan, if one is to believe reports from the home of the plan. This does not mean that the average municipality does not need such service, but merely that the people of such communities have not seen fit to use such service. It is more than probable that the municipalities that do not do 90 are the ones that need it the most, for in those communities where such eervice is naked there is a sell-determining movement which should make the over-lord service of the plan unnecessary. On the other hand, the plsn offers nothing and does nothing for the community where propod tax levies are too low. "here is no means by which it offers aesistsnce in forcing tax levies to be as high as they should be. The sinking funds of Minnqapoli are four and onehalf million dollars less than they should be; the various retirement funds have deficiencies of a somewhat similar amount; in 1919 Minneapolis issued $1,450,000.00 bonds in order to wipe our deficiencies in various operating funds due to inadequate tax levies of former yeam. Does the Indiana plan offer any meam of preventinga repetition of such conditions? It is notorious that adequate tax levies are not made in most municipalities to finance various retirement schemes that have been installed throughout the country; it is usual that adequate provisions are not made for amortization of bonds. The Indiana plan does not oJer a cure for such ills. In fact, it does not in any way solve the real problem involved in municipal finance: what and how much aervice should a community render; what should such service coat; how is the necessary revenue to be obtained? Minnesota communities probably need an agency which can give them advice as to hcia1 procedures; preparation of budgeta. issuance of bonds, calculations of costs. They certainly need some means of preventing present obligations from being passed on to future generations. They can make good use of a supervining agency which will help local communities to attain the fundamental ideal of the American commonwealth, local self-government. But they do not want 05cious interference by any agency that does not function generally and that has no direct interest in the financial transactions involved. GEORGE M. LINK. Minneapolis. * Seattle Street Railway Making Money.The financial report of the Seattle Street Railway for the year 1934 shows a net profit of 069,430.78 under the 84 cent fare now in force. The statement supplied by I. Comeaux. chief city accountant of Seattle, is as follows:

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19Bl NOTES AND EVENTS 327 INCOIIE. PROF" AND h FOB lw Gmsare.yenue.1934.. .................................................... $6,119,990.18 11,699.17 Ad&l&sdlan BOW revenue and expense balance. ........................... $6.19O,989.35 Deduct: Operatingexpense. ................................... $4,807.638.6!2~ Bond bunt amortization. ........................... 6,908.16 lntemrt. ............................................ 759.299.w Profit and loss. abandoned 8a.673.746.94 Net profit for la. .............................................. pmperty,etc.. ..................................... 187.819.63 5,761,658.67 $S69,4SO.78 BAUNCESHE~~ ASSETS: Capital assets. ....................................... $17,996.697.5lb k-Ameddepncistion.. .......................... 3,688,458.60 $13.6pB,ls8.91 Investments. ....................................................... 173.280.93 sinkiag. redemption and special fund assets. ............................. 6p5.499. eS Current&. ....................................................... 1.349.751.67 Defd umta. ..................................................... 9,500.00 Unamortkd disoount on bonds. ....................................... 67.W. 84 Work in progress. ................................................... 9.687.68 Deficit. ......................................................... 616,Q!U. 46 LIABILITIES: Generallienbonds .................................... 6776,000.00 Revenuebonds.. ..................................... 14.191,000.00 $14.966.Oal.00 Current Lirbitien. .................................................. 1,208,457.51 Accounts payable to general fund. 190.845.17 Deferred liabilitiea ................................................... 4.m.00 Miscdkmolm ....................................................... 460.00 ..................................... Includea $085,114.32, yeart doproohtion b Iooludm about S700,OOO real estate omitting bldgm.. vh., nondepreckble -+a. Ah indudes rmrintansnm for the year. )BlS,~do. Our readers are familiar with the fact that Seattle purchssed her atmet railway system in 1919. when the city's watafmnt waa humming with ahip building. Mayor Ole finsen favored the purchase at a price of $15,000,000 and the people approved it in an advisory referendum. It is now gcndy conceded that the price waa exorbitant, that the property was worth not more than ten million at the most. The pmperties were in an advanced stsge of deterioration, and the hss alwaps been mupicion of graft on the part of city officials. The next mayor induced the counal to appropriate 810,OOO for an investigation into possible fraud, but nothing ever came of it. The city commenced operation April 1, 1919 in a 6 cent fare. but on July 24, 1920, was compelled to increase it to 64 cents, and on January 9, lHl, the fare w89 rad to 8) cents. The presmt mayor won his election on a promhe to reatore the 6 ant fare and on March 1,1923, this rate was established, although past erpericna did not justify the reduction. Revenues beiig indicient to pny the employes, and the banks beig unwillii to aph the warrants issued by the city to pay wages, the city was obliged to increae the fare to the previous high level of 85 cent+ which has continued in force to the present. The city paid for the system in revenue bonds running from three to twenty years, and in addition cancelled franchise obligations (for paving. bridge construction, etc.) approximating $1,000.000. Each year the city retires $843,000 worth of these bonds, which are an obligation on revenues only. Additional bonds amounting to

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW $2,505,000 have been hed. Duringthe perioda of low fares, a total deficit of $2,153,000 was accumulated, but of this amount. $1,537,000 hes been wiped out by profits under the 84 cent fan. Now, however, the system is showing a profit. Mr. Comeaux stake that ample allowance in made for depreciation and maintenance. Coet of operation has been reduced more than $sso,OOO since. 1919 in spite of the fact that maximum wages of motormen and conductors have been incnxmd from 63 to 8s cents per hour to 60 to 70 cents per how. We are indebted to M. H. Van Nuys. seems tary of the Seattle Municipal League and to I. Comeaw. chief city accountant. for the data up on which the above account is bad. * Fight on Taxicab Control in New York.-The licensing of public hacks and drivers in New York city w89 transferred from the bureau of licenses to the police. department when Mayor Hylan signed the local law amending the greater New York charter to that effect. Growing pains were apparent as the taxicab industry increseed by leaps and bounds and the details of licensing cab, meters and chaufTeurs proved too great an undertaking for the limited staff of the division of licensed vehicles. It hecame clear that additional workers would have to he tuaigned to the work and at this juncture the mayor appears to have become interested and aaaigd a commission to investigate the dtustion. By a law of 1014 a centralized licensing department, headed by an appointed commiasioner of licem. was given charge of the bulk of the licensing in New York city including the licens ing of taxicabs, meters and chauffeurs. but the granting of licenses to applicants in the case of chauffeurs depended upon the fitnevl of applicants. Prior to a decision on this point it was mandatory that each applicant be finger printed by the police and carefa search mde for a police record. The police report was then sent to the division of licensing vehicles and governed the granting of licenses to applicants. This routine should be borne in mind as it definitely places certain responsibilities upon the police department. Mr. Hylan introduced the bill for transfer of licensing hacks and drivers and it was apparent from the 6rst that the bill wm the administration’s pet measure. The board of estimate passed it with only Mr. Craig’s two votes against it. Thirty-four votee would have camed the measure in the board of aldermen. but for some unknown reason the administration wnnted a full Democrstic line up. Some of the aldermen were not in favor of the bill, but could not resist the pressure, and orders to support it were given pemnally by Mayor Hylan to each Democratic alderman. One alderman said, “Orders is orders,” and another. “I have been a soldier for years, I am still a soldier and must take my orders.” The vote in the board of aldermen showed only two Democrats voting with the Republicans against the measure, while two Democrats stayed away and one asked to be excused from voting. ’ The a6rmative vote was 60, negative 10. The main argument advanced by the proponents of the bill waa that since the police are responsible for traffic control the licensing power should also be theirs, since divided PO iers make for irresponsibility. This of course might have been developed into an impressive argument, but Mayor Hylan muffed the opportunity to use it at the board of estimate hearing by citing, as an example of the crime that follows in the wake of divided responsibility, the murder of Kenney by an unlicenaed gunman who was driving a taxicab. Controller Craig could not let this pass. In forceful language he called attention to the full power to enforce taxicab regulations already in the handa of the police, including the power to arrest all unlicensed drivers. He wound up with the placement of all blame for the Kenney murder upon the shoulders of the mayor, for appointing as police commissioner a man who does not enforce the law. The majority report of the committee on local laws of the board of aldermen reported the bill favorably, giving aa their reasons that there are 18,oOO licensed cabs and 95,000 licensed drivers and in a report for l9%2 the commissioner of licenses suggested the transfer to the police department and the mayor’s investigation eommkion had recently recommended it.

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1MI NOTES AND EVENTS 339 By fu the patest dam wan waged over the charge that the mayor and his family are handally interested in the Yellow Taxicab Company, and against the diblenesa of the police, who, it is claimed. discrimins te at every turn agaimt the independent taxi driws. The two direct arguments brought sgainst the bill were tint. that the police would have judid porn M well as enforcement power in that they would issue licenses, inspect, arrest and impoee penelties which complete control is not in conformity with American custom. secondty, the license records under the bill would be aecret aina they would become police records. This would give the licensing authorities power to make arbitrary and unfair decisions that could not be checked up by wholesome publicity. Here the lsck of confidence in the police department wan again apparent. The latter argument is a sound one and one of the Republicam in the board of alderman will 8hortly propose an amendment that will. if adopted, check up on the secrecy clause. But the first argument reeprdise enforcement and jupower might equally well bebrought against dl administrative departments which have quasi-judicial powem. It was conclueively shown that the licenee department was discriting in favor of the Yellow Taricsb Company in licensing txi meters. All independents must stand on lie with their cam and await their turn when applying for licenses. mmetimes having to stay in lii seven days, sleeping in theii cam and loning eaminga for that time. while an official from the license department is sent to the garage of the Yellow Taxi Company to examine their meters. This also means that the Yellow Taxi metera are not put through the laboratory test and thw do not carry the sesl of approval required. although the police, who have full power of enforcement. do not question this &ortag. "he taxicab situation has been the most dramatic exercise of home rule power, granted by recent constitutional amendment, which ha9 been afr& to date. Irrespective of the merib of the change, the whole matter wsu fought out on the home 6eld where all who were involved could participste, instead of at Albany ru would formerly hve been the case. G. R. HO'RT. NEWS OF TBE CITY MANAGER MOVEMENT ~ONTBIB~~ BY JOHN G. %m2 Re Atlempted Indianr bill introducad in tbe Indiana House of Represmtativcs to repeal the preaent law admitting citiee to adopt the city manager form of government nhirh laaa been taken adwntagc of only by Michigan City, was killed by the house by being indefinitely postponed. "his repeel is said to have been proposed by hdkupolii politicimu in an uttempt to make it impeaible for the city of Indiu~~poliis to adopt the city manager plan of government BS it now neema quite likely will be done. * Where The Opposition Comes From-To get a mall town to change from the old councilmanic system of city government to the city manager plan is about as hard as to get a township organization county to change to the commissioner system. The principal reason is that each of the changes results in a decrease in the number of offices. The holden of small ofices never like to give them up. They have friends who can vote and argue. Chadron has just voted about two to one against adopting the city manager plan.4enma Signal. Dcky in Auatin.-Due to the legal -1e which b been the dt of the appeal case on the adoption of the city mrrnsger charter by Austin, Terps. it b quite prohble that the city cohmb sionus will not be selected for that city under the decided. although the regular election would come Wore that time. The council may take one of two courses. that oi refusing to hold BD election until after the contenta have been decided on. or they may call an election under the old chsrter. * Wheeling Charter Resuibes Local Man.The pnsent method of selecting city managers in Wheeling is coming in for a pat deal of criticism. Those who am familiar with the Wheeling situstion will member that the chsrter provides that a local man must be appointed. The local paper points out the fact that the managers do not desire to stay in the position more than one term. It is our opinion that this condition is due not so much to the fad that the city manager is selected by the council, BS the newspapers point out, but rather to the fact that the council is recity menage? plan until after the CMC hrs ban

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330 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [May quired to appoint a local man, thus making it almost impossible for them to get away from politics. * The Plan in bfichigan’s Upper Peninsula.-In Michigan’s upper peninsula the city of Lronwood. Michigan, adopted by a vote of more than two to one a new charter which will place that city under the city manager form of government. Councilmen to place this form in effect to be elected at the regular spring election in April. Ironwood is a city of well over 16,000 population and is the center of the iron ore mining region of the upper pe&. City Manager Fred R. Harris of Escanaba calls attention to the fact that since Eearnaba adopted the city manager form of government three yeare ago. the cities of Gladstone, Kingsford, Stambough. and Ironwood on the upper peninsula have also adopted this form of government. * Race for Cincinnati Council.-Already the Cincinnati newspapers are attacking the problems of securing the right kind of nominees for members of the council under the city msnager plan which is to go into effect on January 1,1926. Editorials have appmred in the leading newspaper~ pointing out the fact that already there are a large number of persons declaring themaelvecl candidates for election, many of them members of the political machine which hse governed Cicinneti for the past several yeam. These newspapers point out that if Cincinnati i to have a sud SQliniStra tion the voters ahodd make a complete break from the old political machine for the purpose of giving the new plan a fair trial. * Old Government Leaves Unwelcome Heritage. --Cape May, the &st city in New Jersey to adopt the optional city manager law. witnessed a striking example of the attitude of profmional politiciana toward the city manager plan of government. The commission, which wa8 to go out of office within a week or two. advertised for bids for a municipal orchestra, a three-year electric light contract, the furnishing of material to pave about a mile of street and a “DeLuxe highway bulletin.” The bids were to be opened and contract let two days before the municipal election. Friends of the city manager plan in Cape Miy are openly asserting that this action was part of a deliberate plot to discredit the incoming UUMgerial form of government baaing its assertion upon the fact that the specificati~~ for the orchestra were made so that only a certain friend of one of the present commissioners could qualify as director; second. because the electric light company has been furnishing current on a month to month basis for more than a year; and third. be cause the paving program let under the commission plan would have to be carriedout under the city manager plan. This situation we believe forms a striking example of the usual vindictive attitude taken by profeanional politicians when the cihave voted for a city manager form of government and they know that their chanca for future political patronage have been definitely removed and hence there is no further reason to curry popular favor. NOTES ON MUNICIPAL ACTMTIES ABROAD Co~rrrm BY W. E. Mosm A New Review.-The 6rst issue of a new review entitled, LCJ ScicneSr Admi&hdiw. haa just been launched at Brussels under the auspices of the International Union of Cities with the co-operation of the permanent Commission of the International Congress of the Sciences of Admmstmtion and the International Institute of Bibliography and Documentation. In the future this publication will regularly contain “Les Tablettea Documentaka,” formerly published an a separate bulletin. The purpose of the review is to serve as a clearing house for ideas, methods and practices in administration, both in the field of state and of city government. .. Sice the significance of the review M the organ of the municipalities will increase in proportion to the number of cities represented on the membership of the International Union of Cities, efforts are being made to bring about a more comprehensive organization. In general it is planned to base the international organization on the national groups. Cooperation to this end on the part of those nations not yet participating is fairly well amured. 80 far the important countries go. It is interesting to note that a preliminary step has been taken in the United States through the organizntion of the Association of American Municipal Organizations which

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NOTES AND EVENTS 331 haa recently taken place in Lawrence, Kansss, with Dr. Maurice B. Lsmbie as preaident and Mr. John G. Stub aa executive secretmy. It is appropriate that the central place in the 6rst be of the review should be devoted to two nporta; one. of the conference of the Intermtional Union of Cities and the second of the International Congress of the Science of Adminis tration. * The Second Intexnatid Congress of Cities. -A summary report of the Second International Congreaa of Cities, held in Amsterdam in June July. 1934. is found in the first issue of Lcs SFimear Adminddim. The unions of cities or individual cities of 21 countries participated in this conference. On the program provision waa made for the reporta of the unions of citiu from various countries, together with special sesaians on the handling of municipal health problems, infant welfare, venereal diseases and cancer. The most important discussions, however. centered about the ways and means of extending the area of cooperation between the various national unions of cities themdves. Thh has to do with the exchange of information, reporb and the like. Specific action in this direction took the form of a recommendation which was haqed upon the dodrine of “intermunicipality,” and was directed to the League of Nations. In view of the recommendation, the League of Nations subsequently went on record as being in sympathy with the advancement of this doctrine, on the ground that it was in a line with thoae ideala which brought about the creation of the League. Further, at ita last assembly. it adopted 3 reaolution providing that its secretariat pre!,are a report for the sixth assembly of the Lmgue. dealing with the intmnunicipal -peration already existing and the possible ways in which the League of Nations might advance and contribute to it. * Uniform Budget Systuns.-A n!ovement ia under way among the members of the Conference of German Cities (Deutscher Stiidetag) to introduce a uniform budget system in the kteresta of (1) economy. (2) home rule with respect to the empire, the state and economic orghnizations. and (3) for the purpose of developing linancial statistica that will make comparative t-ds possible. It is urged further that the bud@ plan be set up on the basis of a clear and simple method of accounting. The main divisions propwed are the following: (a) General Adminiatration, (b) PoIice Administrstion (including building, market and health inspedion). (c) Building, (d) Public Utilities, (e) Schools. (f) Science and Art, (g) Welfare (including housing, health and employment bureau). It is also recommended that there should be attached to the budget, statemants giving the number of offiaala and workers for the various departments well aa cost unita and other standard units of output and measurement for various activities. The plan originated with the executive committee of the organization of directon of finance. It has the backing of the executive committee of the Conference of German Cities. (Mitteilungen des Deutscher Stiidetap. 1 Januar 19s.) * Housing PolitIcs.-A comprehensive review of the housing situation in Germany, together with proposals for solving the problem, is set forth by Dr. Anacker. By way of retrospect. mts of real estate, construction, interest charm and the incresses in rent are compared with the pre-war period. A cornparkon is dm made with housing wnditiona in Engliah induetrial citiea that hm light on the gravity of the German situation. Amongother things, it is pointed out that on the average, four or five puso~ dwell in one house in England. while in similar horn in Germany, over thirty people are to be found. Some very interesting proposals are made, particularly BS to the respomibilities of local communities. These apply to financing, the purchase of land to be leased over a long period of time, and to providing money at a low nrte of intered for construction purposes. In the author’s opinion. the proper handling of this prob lem is the very center of the solution of the socisl and hygienic problem of Germany. In the same hue of the magazine carrying Dr. Anacker’s article, is a series of items from 43 different German cities, covering recent activities and ordinances of more or less general interest. The list of cities includes such as the following: Aachen, Essen, Halle, Stuttgart and a number of smaller municipalities. A review of these reports goes to show how widely recognized is the need of providing housing facilities. In 14 cases, that is onethird of the total, a note is included concerning the purchase of property for housing purposes, the provision of funds for 10a~ or the actual building of houses on the part of the community concerned.

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S32 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW WY In one case (Gruenberg), for instance, provision is made for the erection of 100 dwellings at the cost of from 660,OOO to 700,000 marks. The building program of Cologne cab for 3,000 new dwellinga in 19116 and, at an increaeing rate each year, reaches the maximum of eight thousand in IW. The administration of Stuttgart plans for 1,OOO dwdlings at thc cost of 8 to9 millionmarks. A detailed investigation of the various methods uaed for stimulating building among German cities would, doubtless. contain some very valuable and fruitful suggestions for the cities of the United States. A great variety of experiments is now under way that should serve as a guide for meeting a situation becoming more and more acute throughout the civilized countries. (&itschrift fur Koxnmunalwirkhaft, Berlin, den 10 Marc. lsf5.)