Citation
National municipal review, Supplement 2, 1928

Material Information

Title:
National municipal review, Supplement 2, 1928
Series Title:
National municipal review
Creator:
National Municipal League
Place of Publication:
Philadelphia, PA
Publisher:
National Municipal League
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

General Note:
Volume 1, Issue 1

Record Information

Source Institution:
Auraria Library
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright National Civic League. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
Special Convention Number
OCTOBER 15, 1928
EDITORIAL COMMENT
PLEASE READ THIS CAREFULLY BEFORE GOING FURTHER
Usually the Review is a serious journal, devoted to advancing better government and administration, particularly in cities.
In fact, at certain times it has been accused of being too serious. Some of the rougher characters in the Governmental Research Association, desiring to see at least one issue in harmony with the spirit of the jazz age, decided to take matters into their own hands, with this result.
You will find this issue of the Review prepared to entertain and amuse you. Perhaps this amusement may be at your own expense. If so, don’t get too hot under the collar, but remember that boys will be boys. It was our intention to let no one escape. If we have failed, notify us, and the error will be rectified next year, if we live to do it.
And please remember that the regular Review staff are not responsible for this issue. In November, the same old serious and earnest publication will appear, under the usual auspices, and showing, we hope, no battle scars.
This special issue has been made possible through the courtesy of the Rumford Press, of Concord, New Hampshire, whose advertisement appears on the rear cover.
The Editorial Staff
From our The NewYork Times
^ighbor, °f September 31,
commenting editorially on our September editorial referring to the Times of August 21, which quoted from the second preliminary report of the National Committee on Municipal Standards published in the
July Review observed: “Mr. Clarence Riddles is secretary of a joint committee of the Governmental Research Association, National Municipal League, and City Managers’ Association, which is essaying the task of measuring government. They have taken Upson themselves the duty to Beard the
1


2
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
philosopher in his den. If they do not pass the Buck we may not have to Waite long for the third preliminary report.”
*
Measuring A staff member of
the Joint in the Detroit Bureau
Government 0f Governmental Re-
search who has served on all the committees of the organizations to which he belongs, except the Riddles Committee on Measuring the Joint in Government, suggests in an extended article appearing in the box on p. 735 in the current American City (January, 1929) that the Joint Riddles Measurers would make more progress if they commenced by determining what kind of a measure to use. “As for me,” he said, “though I guess the proportions with considerable accuracy, I favor a $1.69 glass shaker, graduated by ounces. Then I would beg gin.” Perhaps he is Rightor than the committee.
The Central The editor of the
American Review is in Nica-
Situation ragua again. This
time he is accompanied by Mrs. Harold W. Dodds of Princeton.
*
In memory of C. E. Rightor, who passed out in a night club recently, the League is offering a Rightor Memorial Prize for essays submitted on one or more of the following topics:
Causes of Increasing Baldness among Members of the Research Movement. The Budget and Its Relation to the Facts of Life.
Does work have its place in a research bureau?
First prize-—a subscription to
Rightor
Memorial
Prize
“Whoopee,” the official night club journal, edited by Mrs. Willie Brant.
Second prize—two theatre ticket stubs (name your own show).
Third prize—a framed motto “God Bless Our Bureau.”
Essays are to be submitted to the committee on or before October 18, 1928.
♦
Letters to The editor of this is-
the Editor sue has received the
letter printed below. It is too late to do anything about it now, thank God!
To the Editor of the National Municipal Review. Gents:
Why in God's name the National Municipal Review was ever accepted as a magazine is beyond human comprehension. The attempt of the editors to take it at all seriously is most pathetic! And where do you find such a collection of contributors? Has it ever occurred to you that you might abandon your penurious policy and pay for certain desirdble articles? It might thus be possible to discard the present regular “ authors" (most of whom are so mediocre that they are flattered to appear in print at all) and get some real writers. Even the American Mercury has to pay for some of its articles! Look over a copy of the Police Gazette if you have any doubt as to the possibilities in a publication for municipal officials. Even certain New York tabloids might lend the cuts of some of their illustrations to throw some light upon municipal affairs and municipal officials. Incidentally, these pictures would certainly arouse interest among government researchere that are advocating the pay-as-you-go plan. “Boroughing” into this matter should be to the "Queen’s" taste, as it will require both long-term bonds and the pay-as-you-go plan to keep up the present rate of expenditures. This will satisfy both the pay-as-you-go and the long term bond issue advocates and settle the ever recurring dispute between these two factions. Why has the Review failed to promote this ingenious scheme?
And the book reviews! Perhaps you haven't heard of that new book on political theory that came out after Rousseau’s "Confessions." How could you remain in blissful ignorance, when his methods instead of Rousseau's were used in the recent Knapp case? While the actual confession was not obtained, the result was the same. I must confess, however, that your reviewers cannot be accused of having complete cerebral paralysis! I was gratified to discover that it is against their policy to read the books for fear they might be prejudiced thereby when writing tbeir reviews. This is commendable!
My final plea is jazz up your editorial comment. Your writers have ceased to care whether Shem, Ham and Japbeth bad a forensic contest as to whose wife should first enter their father’s Ark. The public is much more anxious to hear whether a certain city father died of cranial ossification or merely of shock when he discovered that Lindbergh was not formally engaged to the daughter of the Ambassador to Mexico.
Hopelessly yours,
A.Scandal.


GETTING READY FOR A CITY MANAGER
BY LORELIE LEE
Researcher at Large
Gentlemen■—and professors—still prefer blondes, and blondes seem to feel that professors can show them more about life. :: :: ::
Well, I am writing in my diary again about the most educational trip I ever took. I have been to Sarahcuse University to see Doctor Mosher and I am going to get ready for a city manager.
After our “Little Mouse” was born, I found I was still full of ambitions. And so I told Henry Spoffard, my husband, that I thought educated girls like I should have some other career beside “Motherhood.” I wanted to have a career in the cinema or go in the Follies like Dorothy, but Henry said that I ought to go in for reform work of some kind like he has, so that I could help people to live cleaner lives.
CITY MANAGERS AND UNMARRIED MOTHERS
Well, Henry came home one night from a meeting of the Ante-Tuberculosis League and waited up for me and Dorothy to return from a party at one of the Follies girls apartments. He said he had met a Mr. Davenport who is a congressman and a great reformer and has a school at Sarahcuse where nice boys are taught to be city managers. I wasn’t interested until Henry said that almost every city manager had to supervise a home for unmarried mothers where girls who have taken a wrong step are kept, and then I felt sure I could be a success on account of the influence I have had upon Dorothy.
Dorothy said she would hate to live in a city which I managed for I would probably run off with the may-
or’s Crown Jewels. Besides, she said I could learn more about managing a city in one night with Jimmy Walker than I could learn in a year at Sarahcuse. But, then, what else could you expect from a girl like Dorothy who has come from a low environment and always has low thoughts.
ON TO SARAHCUSE
Well, this Mr. Davenport wrote to Mr. Mosher at Sarahcuse and Mr. Mosher sent me a telegram from Cleveland asking me to meet him at his office the next morning. And so I took a night train to Sarahcuse and arrived there after a dull and uninteresting night, for I did not meet a single nice gentleman on the whole trip.
LORELIE MEETS DR. MOSHER
I called Mr. Mosher by telephone as soon as I arrived in Sarahcuse, for I have learned that educational gentlemen like to have their students get up early and appear eager for learning more about Life. But Mr. Mosher did not recognize me when I told him I was Lorelie Lee from New York, and said he would be in an important conference practically all day. But when he learned that I was the conference it was different. You see when I decided to get ready for a city manager I joined the Lucy Stone league, for I have learned from my parties with Jimmy Walker that a young lady cannot do much with a man about managing a city if he thinks she is married. Besides I left my wedding ring with Henry in New York, for I
3


4
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October 15
believe a woman can have more influence without it.
Well, I finally got to Dr. Mosher’s office and found him dicktating letters to his secretary. But when he saw me he seemed impressed and told his secretary that would be all just then. Then he told me what it meant to be a city manager and what I would have to do to get ready for one. He said I would have to learn about something he called a Budget and would have to know all about public works and how to construct constructions. But I told him that I had learned about how the public works from Dorothy. I was depressed, for it seemed as though you have to learn a lot to get ready for a city manager. At first he seemed to doubt whether I could be one of his students because they had never had young ladies for students. But when he saw how educated I am he said that he would be glad to consider me because I seemed to have the proper Approach to the Subject and a nice viewpoint. Then he gave me what he called a Questionair to fill in. Most of the blanks I could not fill in because I have never been educated in educational colleges. But when I told Mr. Mosher about having been educated in Europe by Gus Eiseman, the button king, and by my contacts with brokers in New York, he said they would accept it as the Equivalent of education in college.
Then Mr. Mosher wanted me to talk with Mrs. Knapp, who seems to be a graduate student of Sarahcuse and knows all about Home Eckonomics and good government. But Mrs. Knapp seemed to be away on a vacation or something, so we did not see her.
Well, it finally seemed to be time for lunch and Dr. Mosher said he wanted me to meet two of the other teachers. And so we went to the Fackulty Club, and I met a lot of educated genelemen.
LORELIE MEETS THE BOYS
At our table I was introduced to Dr. All-Porte and Mr. Catch-em, who seem to be teachers in what they call the school of citizenship. I was thrilled to be with such clean Christian gentlemen and I thought it would be nice to live the mental life. But I soon became depressed because they used such big words that I did not understand.
As I had about decided to order potato salad and fruit salad, Dr. Mosher all at once took out his watch, pounded the table, and said My Goodness Gracious I forgot that I am to speak at the Lions Club for lunch. Then he left me with Mr. All-Porte and Mr. Catch-em, but said he wanted to learn more about my background during the afternoon in his office.
But when I learned that Mr. All-Porte is a “Psychologist” I felt more at home because ever since I saw Dr. Froid in Vienna I have known a lot about “Psychology.” Mr, Catch-em turned out to be a “Philosopher” and knows a Mr. Mackiavalet who wrote the life of a Prince. Dr. All-Porte seemed to be depressed about something, but Mr. Catch-em seemed impressed and kept looking at me most of the time. When I looked at Mr. Catch-em in the same way, I suddenly realized that we probably had something that was common and that perhaps life among the Christian per-fessors was not all mental.
CATCH-EM OFFERS FREE BED
Well, Mr. All-Porte said he had to conduct a Semenar and left me with Mr. Catch-em. Then Mr. Catch-em said he would take me for a drive in his car until Dr. Mosher got back from his speech. On the drive Mr. Catch-em asked me where I was staying that night in Sarahcuse and I told him I


GETTING READY FOR A CITY MANAGER
5
1928]
had left my things at the station. Then he said that I could come to the Alpha Pie house where he stays and where they often keep nice girls over night. But I thought it best to refuse because I have learned that when I am alone with a nice gentleman something is almost always likely to happen. And so I told Dr. Catch-em that I would stay there next fall. And that seemed to make him less depressed.
Then Dr. Mosher told me in the afternoon that he had considered the matter very carefully and after seeing more of me had decided that I could become one of his students. Beside he said that he had found that in the post office department that nice girls often do a lot of good and that my influence in a city would be stimulatting and helpful in the same way it has been with Dorothy.
MOSHER OFFERS FELLOWSHIP
Before I said goodbye to Mr. Mosher I found he was quite a human
man in spite of first impressions. He does understand us girls. I mean he knows his way about. Of course I thought it would take a lot of Henry’s money to get ready for a city manager, but Mr. Mosher says he will arrange a little fellowship for me when I go back to Sarahcuse and that I won’t have any expenses at all. I must tell Dorothy how straightforward and efficient things are in these colleges that are run by the younger generation. It would save a lot of worries to run a city the same way.
Well, Dr. Mosher finally took me to the train and went With me as far as Uticka where he had to make another speech. On the way to the station we almost hit a truck and were held up by a policeman. But when the policeman saw it was Dr. Mosher he let us go on. I guess Dr. Mosher must have worked his way through college by driving a taxi, but I did not ask him.
And so I am going to get ready for a city manager at Sarahcuse next fall.


THE INVENTORY AS AN INDEX OF ADMINISTRATIVE EFFICIENCY
BY CARL E. McCOMBS, M.D., T.S.P.S. ’12, N.I.P.A., I.R.T., N.Y.C.R.R.
Dr. McCombs is a recognized authority on surveys. His recommendation that researchers carry out their own beer bottles from Y. M. C. A.'s has been nationally adopted. Since prohibition he also makes his own gin. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: ::
Much has been written on the desirability of inventories as means of aiding the administrative officer in the preparation of his budget, but little or nothing has been said on the use of the inventory as a means of appraising administrative processes. The writer proposes, therefore, briefly to present some illustrations drawn from his own experience in surveys of public institutions and agencies, which will make clear to other students and research workers the method of utilizing the inventory in this latter way.
AND how!
It has been the writer’s practice since 1859, when he began his survey work, to make a complete inventory of the institution or agency with which his survey was concerned as a first step. He has continued to do so up to the present day, excepting during the period 1861-1865, when his work was interrupted by a war. It is to this practice of first making a thorough inventory at the beginning of each survey that he attributes his tremendous success in survey work and his unfailing vigor even at his present advanced age. But for his constant use of the inventory it is not likely that he would have been able to avoid the infirmities of impaired vision, dyspepsia, fallen arches, dandruff, halitosis, and that body odor which seems to have afflicted so many of his contemporaries. It is
all too true that even your best friends won’t tell you.
THE INVENTORY AS A TIME SHAVER
It will be argued by many that the inventory is unnecessarily time-consuming if made with the degree of precision upon which the writer has always insisted. But I have not found this to be the case where the simplified method which I practice is taken advantage of. This will be explained later when I get damned good and ready. Certain it is that the time spent in making a thorough inventory invariably shortens the time required for further survey activities and furnishes a wealth of information that cannot possibly be obtained in any other way. For example, in 1880, I began a survey of an institution for the blind in a western state, and, as usual, first made an inventory. On the completion of the inventory in the winter of 1888, which will be remembered by many of my fellow surveyors as the year of the great blizzard, the first item which struck my eye like an overripe tomato wTas a veritable forest of toothpicks. The institution’s supply of this instrument, which some wag has called our nation’s greatest weapon of offense, comprised 1,283 cartons of twenty-four packages each, each package containing 5,000 tooth picks according to the manufacturer’s sworn statement on the label. It would have
6


THE INVENTORY AS AN INDEX OF EFFICIENCY
7
been more consistent with scientific method, perhaps, to have counted the tooth picks in each package, but owing to the necessity of conserving time, it was deemed sufficient to accept the manufacturer’s statement as to the precise number.
To put the matter in plain terms, here was an institution with seven blind inmates and a staff of three employees which had on hand as a year’s supply, 153,960,000 extra long, double pointed, grade A, white-wood toothpicks which meant that the consumption of toothpicks was at the rate of 4,218.08 per person per day. This calculation brought out immediately two vital defects in administration. First, such a daily use of toothpicks particularly of this type and grade constituted a serious menace to the welfare of blind inmates. My earlier investigations of the use of toothpicks in institutions for the blind had proved conclusively that toothpicks, particularly of this type and grade, were extremely dangerous implements even in the hands of the most expert, endowed with perfect sight and in full possession of all his physical faculties.
Furthermore, such an extraordinary use of picks invariably results in injury to the eye teeth of the blind and gives rise also to a condition of the gastrointestinal tract which is characteristic of inveterate toothpick users, namely enteritis toothpickii or sliveritis. Second, the extraordinary toothpick consumption suggested some defect in diet conducive to abnormal toothpicking. I found, as a matter of fact, that the dietary of the institution was almost exclusively round steak and popcorn, both of which induce extreme tooth picking and are otherwise unsuitable as a dietary basis in institutions for the blind, however well suited they may be to purposes of the lumbermen and toothpick manufacturers.
Carrying my inquiry still further, I discovered that the member of the board of trustees who was responsible for purchasing was indeed a lumberman who supplied toothpick timber to manufacturers. The conclusion was obvious that this member was simply exploiting these unfortunate blind persons in the interest of his lumbering operations. No more despickable misuse of public office has ever come to my attention. I have recently been informed that as the result of my survey, the rate of toothpick consumption is now only two and one third toothpicks per person per day and that the net annual saving on toothpicks alone is $11.1975. Sliveritis is now a thing of the past. Truly it may be said that toothpicks show which way the wind blows in institutional administration. The administrative pickture revealed by the inventory in this case was unmistakably one of incompetency.
A CUSPIDORIAL INVENTORY
In the same institution my inventory showed the institution to contain 327 brass cuspidors or an allowance of 32.7 cuspidors per person. Even assuming that all inmates and all employees were addicted to eating tobacco this appeared to be a most extravagant allowance. It is proper enough for the blind to be thoroughly instructed in the use of cuspidors, and owing to their infirmity it is, of course, necessary to provide more such receptacles than would be needed by the same number of persons with normal vision, but an allowance of 32.7 cuspidors per person is decidedly too much—in fact, it is too damn much. Moreover, my subsequent inquiry elicited the fact that of the three female inmates only one used tobacco and of the four males only two were tobacco users. Since none of them had ever seen a cuspidor, none had the slightest idea about their use.


8
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October 15
The superintendent and his staff were all addicted to tobacco but declared they had never used cuspidors. Examination of rugs, carpets, and waste baskets in their offices indicated the truth of their statements.
To sum up my cuspidorial inquiry, it was disclosed that another member of the board in the general household and provision supply business had obtained thirty dozen of these cuspidors from a tobacco dealer and had offered them as prizes to purchasers of eating tobacco. His customers feeling, rightly enough, that others might think them undemocratic in using cuspidors in their homes, would have none of them, and so the dealer seized the opportunity to foist the whole thirty dozen on the institution for the blind at a good profit. I might say that the balance of the lot of 360 cuspidors, numbering thirty-three, were found after several weeks search in the possession of former inmates who had carried them away from the institution with a view to using them as olive dishes, sugar bowls, aquariums, and the like. Here again, by thorough inventory, even of such humble items as cuspidors, a most significant defect of administration was revealed. As might be expectorated, I recommended the appointment of a full time, technically trained cuspidorian and on the inauguration of this officer the spituation was quickly remedied.
whoopee!
In another southern state my inventory of a penitentiary which operated a large farm showed a supply of horseshoe nails in the blacksmith shop numbering 2,862,9.27. Running down my inventory to discover how many horses were used, I discovered that the only animals employed were mules, not counting, of course, the official
jackasses in charge of the institution. Experience in the south had taught me that mules on penitentiary farms are not shod and therefore such a supply of horseshoe nails must be used for some other purpose. That purpose was, I discovered, the manufacture of finger rings for employees. When I reported the facts to the superintendent he tried to laugh it off, saying it was a horse on him, but the courts did not view it in this light. He was convicted of malfeasance, misfeasance, nonfeasance, and simple feasance. Mentally unbalanced by the unenviable notoriety which he received, he finally committed suicide by falling upon a rusty horseshoe nail, which penetrated his corpus luteum to my great satisfaction. Never have I had a survey bring such prompt and constructive improvement in administration, and all because of an inventory that left no horseshoe nail unturned.
INVENTORY FORMS
To describe in full detail my inventory procedure and the forms which I use would require more space than is allotted to me here. It will be sufficient perhaps to introduce a sample page from the annual report of an institution which I surveyed in 1872 and which is still following my procedure. This page, reproduced below, is taken verbatim from that part of the report of the Dementia, Saskatchewan, Institute for Feebleminded and Epileptic Veterans of the War of 1812, which has to do with the inventory of the maternity hospital supplies. It will be noted that there are occasional errors in spelling but as the inventory is always taken in this institution by one of the feebleminded inmates, that is to be expected. As a matter of fact, no one but a feebleminded person could or would prepare such an inventory.


1928] THE INVENTORY AS AN INDEX OF EFFICIENCY 9
HOSPITAL WARD
Oil and Acid Salves and Ointments Yt oz. Amber Red 1 oz. Black Pepper
1 oz. Cajeput 3 oz. Caraway
Y oz. Nutmeg
2 oz. Horsemint
1 oz. Sandlewood Oil
3 oz. Eucalyptus
2 oz. Oil Bay Leaves
1 pt. Tar
8 oz. Turpentine Rootfied
2 oz. Acid Acetic Distilled
8 oz. Acid Hydrochloric Diluted 1 pt. Sulphuric Aromatic 1 pt. Carbolic Acid 1 oz. Acid Nitric 8 oz. Oil Wormwood 1 Yl oz. Oil of Pimiento 1 oz. Oil of Pepsin 1 oz. Orijanum
Hospital Pills 500 Aconitine Crystals 400 Alternating Compound
1.000 Arsenic Iodode
800 Anti-Arthmatic No. 55 300 Anti-Dyspeptic Rx. 2 900 Asafitida and Iron
2.000 Betanaphthal
750 Shromium Sulphate 1,300 Calomel and Sodium Bi-Carb. 500 Cortsa 100 Carminitive 375 Crystitis RY 1.
1.500 Edena
400 Digestive Aromatic 150 Emmegagigue 200 Gelsemium 3 Minimume 500 Gelsemium 5 Minimume 200 Ilexamethyleretramine 1,200 Nitroglycerine and 2 Strychnine
2.500 Nitroglycerine
100 Pepsin and Salol Compound 200 Rhenacitine and Salol 250 Phosphoros Zinc and Stric.
500 Potassium Chloride and Borax 250 Fillicular Tonsillitis 300 Sedative Compound
1.500 Sodium Clycochiate Compound
4.000 Calcium Sulphate
25 Varercanated
200 Sulphate Carbolated Compound 100 Sodium Colocylates
2.000 Astrignent Wash
1 lb. Lithium Citrate 750 Antanillida and Sodium 250 Cold Specials
1.000 Mercury Poticide 500 Manganise Diozide 450 Cacidin
500 Neuralgic
300 Alkaline Anaseptic
4.000 Bland and Strychnine 500 C.C.
300 1-40 Gr. Strychnine 700 Amonia Clortcaupan 900 Charcoal 200 Colcum Lucate % lb. Bi-Chloride Mercury 500 1 Gr. Calomel
PILLS AND PILLAGE
The above page was selected from among the 928 pages of inventory in this report because it presents the inventory of hospital pills in great detail,'—and thereby hangs a tale. I found it necessary in this institution to insist upon a complete pill inventory because of the outrageous misuse of hospital pills. I discovered the reason for this extravagance to be that the feebleminded veterans in the manual training department were using the pills in the making of bead bags, necklaces, and such articles, and as material for inlaying the tops of milking stools which were one of the chief items of manufacture. This was not only an abuse of public property, but a grave danger to the health of the inmates. In one case which came to my observation, a veteran of 112 years, in a year of mental aberration, which is not uncommon among feebleminded veterans, had made himself a necklace of bichloride of mercury tablets thinking they were antidyspeptic pills. As the poor old chap was cutting his fourth set of teeth he habitually sucked the necklace and in consequence suffered


10
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October 15
violently from mercury poisoning. Indeed the mercury rose so rapidly in him that when I saw him it had already reached the red mark on his motometer indicating “ overheated motor.” Prompt treatment resulted in his attaining “summer average” by the following day and, although it was necessary to install a new set of ball bearings, he is still regarded as a good trade-in proposition in the low priced field.
On the whole I am convinced that
nothing yields greater return in the study of administration than an inventory such as that described. It establishes at once a fact basis for further inquiry about which there can be no controversy. One thousand toothpicks or one thousand calomel pills are just that, and don’t let any one tell you different. There is no limit to the information which such an inventory will furnish to any student of public administration who is sap enough to make one.
STANDARDS OF FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION1
BY LENT D. UPSON AND C. E. RIGHTOR Bankrupt Financiers for Cities
Here the experts agree that absolute criteria of city finance are feasible. A harmonious ending to a distressing controversy. :: :: ::
The purpose of this article is to enumerate some of the more important and generally accepted qualities that characterize sound financial administration in an urban community. Public finance covers a wide scope of community endeavor, and obviously the criteria of correct practices must be widely comprehensive. At the same time they must be direct and simple, so as to permit free and easy application.
Here follow four simple tests which will tell in an instant the financial condition of any city. Anyone can use them. Even a child can understand them.
Is your city solvent? How do you know? You don’t until you’ve applied these tests.
1. Has your city any money in the
1 Approved for publication by Francis Oakey,
C.P.A.
bank? If so it isn’t broke. If, however, the bank is broke your city is out of luck, and you might as well quit trying these tests now.
2. What is the lax rate per cubic fool of the city council’s cranial capacity? This is a far more important element than is commonly supposed. Strange as it may seem, the cranial capacity of the city council has a direct relation to the tax rate and the financial condition of a city.
3. How many bootleggers have you in your city? What is their number per dollar in taxes? Again the relationship here may seem remote, but it really is very close. The more bootleggers per tax dollar, the more there is to drink. The more there is to drink, the less the taxpayers worry about the taxes. A series of painful researches by Thompson, Capone, and Crowe of the Chicago Bureau of Applied Politics have dem-


1928]
REPORTING MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT
II
onstrated conclusively the soundness of this test.
4. What are the facilities offered by your city for tax dodging? If it is hard to avoid paying taxes, everyone is paying his fair share of the costs of government. Then if the city goes on
the rocks, we have only the taxpayers to blame. On the other hand, if you can dodge taxes, do so by all means, and quit worrying about what it costs to run your city. You’ll be getting something for nothing, so shut up and let someone else do the worrying.
REPORTING MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT
BALLOTS, BULLETS, AND BABBITS
BY Y. DIDIE KILPATRICK
University of Gopher Prairie
A satisfactory report is the prime requisite of all governments, as well as of all firecrackers. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: ::
Says Calvin Coolidge: “I believe in the ballot. Without it where and what would America be today?” Ah, yes, where? Probably still in the northern half of the western hemisphere. As to what, that is another matter. But never was there made a truer or more pertinent remark. The ballot is the bulwark of civilization and democracy in these United States, now unhappily, coming of age. And who wouldn’t believe in the ballot if he, like Dr. Coolidge, were President of the United States? Ballots put him there. But ballots are not enough. This is self-evident from the mere fact that he is there. A new day is coming in government, particularly in municipal government. A new technique of politics has been developed in Chicago which bids fair to revolutionize the American electoral system.
Hard by the ivy-covered walls of one of America’s more prominent seats of learning, and basking in the aura of scientific scholarship that exudes from its Gothic towers and pinnacles, has arisen a new school of political research. This school is formed largely
of young men, who with a rashness that bespeaks their years ask questions that conservative and timid age avoids. They say, “Ballots are well enough in their place, but they will not suffice. Who can be sure that they will be cast in the right way? What guarantee is there that the repeater will repeat as per agreement, or that the honest voter who has just sold his vote for two bits will not throw the boys down?” And to these questions their faculty, the gangsters, have given us the answer.
Say the gangs, “We believe in the Bullet.”
Another trenchant truth is this. These ringing words will pass on down through the ages, bringing light to the dark continent of American politics, and guiding the weary footsteps of the American people towards righteousness and truth and better government. The bullet and its first cousin, the pineapple, have brought about, in Chicago, a new conception of the rights and duties of man and of the citizen, and a new era of political freedom is upon us.
But what though we have both the bullet and the ballot, is there not more?


12
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October 15
asks Henry L. Mencken, better known to his more intimate friends as Hank, the Friend of the Common People.
Says Mencken, “I believe in Babbits.”
And here we reach the crux of the matter, for Hank, the Democrat, is a true and worthy successor to the Father of Democracy, Thomas Jefferson, and what he says has meaning. Asks
Hank, aptly enough, “What boots it though we have both the ballot and the bullet? Forsooth, there must be someone to cast the ballot and someone to receive the bullet, hence the Babbit.” But by this time, the reader is doubtless asking himself, “What in hell has this to do with municipal reporting? I don’t know.” And, dear reader, neither do we.
A UNIFORM CLASSIFICATION
A Report by the Committee on Uniforms of the International Association of Bureaus, Chiffoniers, Dressers, Highboys, Lowboys and Secretaries of Governmental Research
What the well-dressed man and woman will wear.
I. GENERAL
In general, uniforms shall be uniform for the uniformed rank of uniform Bureaus, Chiffoniers, Dressers, Highboys, Lowboys, and Secretaries. The only exception shall be in the case of Dressers of a period later than the Victorian, in which case the said Dressers shall be designated as Snappy Dressers and their uniforms need not be uniform except as to Drawers. With respect to Highboys considerable latitude shall be allowed in uniforms except that in no case shall their latitude exceed one third (|) of their longitude. In all other respects uniforms of uniform grades of Bureaus, Chiffoniers, Dressers, Highboys, Lowboys, and Secretaries shall conform to the prevailing mode of the period, comma, semi-colon, or colon, as the case may be.
II. UNIFORMED RANK
1. Boards of Trustees. The uniforms of Trustees meeting annually
shall be similar in style to that worn by the late senator C. Julius Caesar on the Ides of March, provided the annual meeting of Trustees falls on that date. If falling upon some other date, fig, orange, melon or banana, Trustees may wear whatever is convenient, seasonable, and decent, except that in all cases Trustees’ uniforms shall contain not less than one dozen (12) extra large, bellows type, well lined pockets, without fishhooks. The wearing by Trustees of unlined pockets or pockets lined with fishhooks will be considered a breach of etiquette, if the said pockets are breeches pockets. When about to retire, trustees shall wear pajamas.
2. Directors. The uniform of a Director shall consist of a scarlet tunic similar in style to that worn by an officer of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police. The said tunic shall be ornamented with gold braided epaulets similar to those worn by a field marshal with baton of the Royal Abyssinian Camel Corps. It is recom-


A UNIFORM CLASSIFICATION
IS
1928]
mended, however, that the baton be used with discretion. When on field duty, the Director shall also wear a pith helmet similar to those formerly worn by members of the New York Street Cleaning Department. On the front of such helmet there shall be a shield in the shape of a pretzel symbolizing the efforts of a director to make ends meet. The said shield shall be illuminated with the initial letters in gold of the Bureau, Chiffonier, Dresser, Highboy, Lowboy, or Secretary to which the Director is attached, provided he is attached to it. If not attached to it, the shield shall be in the form of a hand with fingers outspread, the thumb touching a nose, thus indicating non-attachment or disrepect according to the sign language of the ancient Egyptians and Ford automobile drivers. The Phi Beta Kappa key shall be suspended from the third button of the tunic in the exact middle line, indicating freedom from bias. Beards are optional, but Ph.D.’s, and rubber heels are mandatory.
3. Staff. The uniforms of Staff Members, except Accountants and Librarians, shall consist of coat, vest, shirt, pants, socks, and shoes as a minimum. Pants, if worn, shall be reinforced where evidence of wear is greatest. If not worn, a new deal may be demanded by the player to the left of the dealer. Vests shall not be cut lower than the joint between the manubrium and gladiolus of the breast bone, except that if beards are worn a lower cut is permitted, providing the
beard extends below the said joint of the breast bone. In such cases also collars and ties may be dispensed with. Phi Beta Kappa keys, Ph.D.’s, hip flasks, and fraternity pins shall not be worn except in an emergency.1
Accountants and Librarians may be permitted to wear whatever style of uniform is best adapted to their figures, speaking literally and figuratively. In the case of Accountants, coats and vests may be dispensed with, provided suspenders are not worn. In the case of Librarians, however, suspenders must not be worn under any circumstances. In lieu of suspenders, Librarians will be permitted the use of safety pins to the number of not less than six, and in length not less than one and one half inches. A charge of non-support will be entered against any Librarian failing to observe these regulations.
III. CIVILIAN HANK
Under this head will be included all persons not on the regular pay roll, such as training school students, visiting members of university faculties, and other hangers on. For these persons it is recommended that they furnish themselves with good serviceable overalls, and canvas gloves, as they will be expected to do a great deal of the dirty work.
By order of the Committee: Clarence B. (“Bruce”) Smith Secretary
1 An Emergency shall be considered to exist only in an emergency.


THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION—AN EXPERIMENT IN DEMOCRACY
BY TOOTHER WOODTICK Plain facts for serious readers. Truth never dies.
This brief history is done in the tabloid style, for it is felt by the author that pictures speak for themselves; they cannot lie, and therefore they will tell a more truthful story of the rise, growth, and progress of this great institution
A few words of description and explanation may not come amiss, however.
A RESULT OF CORRUPTION
The seeds of the National Institute of Public Administration were sown by
Plate I
The Former Home of the National Institute of Public Administration.
Dr. Luther Gulick, as a Child Appears in the Foreground
than any conglomeration of words can possibly do. These pictures have been collected after a long period of patient investigation, bribery, and theft. It is felt by those in charge of the Institute that it is now high time to “let these facts be submitted to a candid world.”
the Burr Conspiracy, the Mississippi Bubble, and the Whiskey Rebellion (in fact, it is alleged that some of the present staff may be staging, perhaps, a whiskey rebellion on their own account in these days of prohibition). Its actual rise and formation, however, date
It


AN EXPERIMENT IN DEMOCRACY
15
from the days of the Tweed Ring. When Boss Tweed held sway over New York City and its brownstone fronts, it was necessary to organize a group of high pressure men to collect the graft. When the ring collapsed, this high pressure gang felt that their services to the community must go on, and so the National Institute of Public Administration was organized.
called in to serve Croker in his administration of the city. Soon achieving a reputation, the Institute was summoned to make surveys for some of the more important civic leaders elsewhere. Its first important service outside of New York was rendered to the Philadelphia Gas Ring, and its assistance in promoting the civic activities of that organization was generally recognized
Plate II
The Exterior of the Institute’s Splendid New Home
Its first step was to adopt the following motto, as typical of the great public service which it sought to render, “Privilege, Pillage, and Plucking.” Its second step was to select its office headquarters. These are shown in Plate I. The Institute’s third step was to raise funds, which it still does, largely by check.
GRAFTING FOR THE NATION
The importance of its great public service was soon recognized, and it was
as invaluable. Although acting primarily as collectors of graft, the members of the Institute devised new schemes for mulcting the taxpayers, and their reputation in New York and Philadelphia became nationwide. The Institute therefore extended its field of operations and surveys to assist political machines throughout the country. Its assistance, for example, to Schmitz and Reuf in building up their civic program for San Francisco is too well known to be retold here.


16
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October 15
Plate III
Sumptuously Appointed Offices of the Institute
Plate IV
Staff Members on a Field Survey


1928] AN EXPERIMENT IN DEMOCRACY IT
Plate V
Dr. Luther Gulick, Director of the National Institute of Public Administration
Plate VI
Dr. Gulick, Hard at Work in His Office


18
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October 15
PERSONALITIES
Finally, the growth and development of the Institute became such that it was necessary to move into new and more commodious quarters. These are
tantly by Dr. Watson, Dr. Cornick, Dr. Buck, and Dr. Smith, but circumstances over which they had no control made their participation in the work necessary. They all said, upon its completion, that they had learned
Plate VII
Dr. Bruce Smith, Expert in Crime
shown in Plates II (exterior) and III (interior). Plates IV-X are pictures of some of the staff members. Plate IV is a photograph of four members engaged in a survey of one of New York’s state institutions, from the inside. This survey was undertaken rather reluc-
valuable lessons from their experiences and that next time in conducting a survey of a bank they were going to be more careful.
Plate V is a portrait of Dr. Gulick, director of the Institute. The original of this is in the files of the New York


AN EXPERIMENT IN DEMOCRACY
m
1928]
City Police Department, in the departmental collection of photographs of some of the more prominent New Yorkers. It was furnished through the courtesy of the police, with whom Dr. Gulick is unusually popular. Plate VI is a sketch of Dr. Gulick, hard at work in his new office. This was made by one of his co-workers, and reached the outside world through the connivance of a guard. When Dr. Gulick made his headquarters there, he was informed that he had a life job.
Plate VII is a recent photograph of Bruce Smith, staff member, now engaged in a personal investigation of the internal condition of European jails. Plate VIII is a staff photograph. Reading from left to right the members are: (front row) Carl E. McCombs, A. E. Buck, Clarence Ridley; (rear row)
William Watson, Philip H. Cornick. Plate IX is a sketch of Dr. Ridley at rest, after a survey, and Plate X shows Dr. McCombs hard at work on the same job.
FUTURE PROGRAM
The program of the National Institute of Public Administration for the future, though born of enthusiasm and science, is nurtured by the realities of experience.
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE
Associated with the Institute is the National Municipal League, an organization which exists for no good purpose (what its purpose is, God only knows). Plate XI shows Harold W. Dodds, ex-secretary, engaged in raising funds to carry on his work.
Plate VIII
Staff Photograph
Front row: McCombs, Buck, Ridley Rear row: Watson, Cornick


NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October 15
SO
Plate IX
Dr. Clarence Ridley at Rest


1928]
AN EXPERIMENT IN DEMOCRACY
21
Plate X
Dr. McCombs at Rest


22
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
Plate XI
Harold W. Dodds Raising Money


CONTROL FORM FOR PARK PICNICS
BY FRANCE IS OX
Picnics are at present a menace to girth control. Here is a practical measure for controlling the waste line. :: :: :: :: ::
There is no problem of public management that cannot be solved by the development of proper control forms. Control, however, is often not an easy matter, and care should be taken to develop the form along the most approved Mack Sennett lines.
The following experience of the author with forms during his formative years gives an idea of the only correct procedure in developing a good one.
PARK PICNIC DIETETIC CONTROL
The Rightor was recently called upon to deal constructively with the problem of public park picnics. Though Dr. Careless E. McCombs and Professor Randolph Obiter Huuuus were associated with him, to deal respectively with the health and apparatus features of the problem, their contribution was of little significance. He discovered that the real difficulty lay not in (a) the free lunch served, (b) the quantities consumed per child, or (c) the system of steam tables and serving trays, as certain other so-called experts who were associated with him had concluded. It lay rather in the fact that there were no control forms in operation! We then went to work, without our associates, and developed the ideal form as shown on page 24.
EXPLANATION OF FORM
A word of explanation with regard to this form is in order. This can best be done from a procedural standpoint, as the form was designed for use, though it has not yet been put into operation, due to the fact that corn on the cob is not
being served at park picnics at this season of the year.
On coming to a public picnic each person, young or old, is made to go through a'turnstile and is tagged with the picnic control tag. The tag is non-transferrable, and says so right on its face. The tag or form is printed in three colors. The purpose of this is to start conversation. “Aha, I see you have an orange tag,” etc., and to make it less monotonous for the park attendants to gather up the tags after the picnic. On passing through the turnstile, a stub chopper is used to remove the stub, which is conveniently labeled “ stub.” These are later thrown away. The name of the patron is written on the tag, on the stub, and on the “ Completion Record ” appearing at the bottom of the tag, on the line marked “ Q ”, which is the Latin for Quis, meaning Whoin’ell. The “Ge” on the stub stands for age, and is used to avoid embarrassment in the case of advanced maidens.
Every individual is then weighed and measured by health department inspectors to determine the “ normal appetite expectance safety factor.” This is correlated with the index of break horsepower generated by the individual in passing through the turnstiles, which is automatically recorded upon the forms at the time of issue, and a “Maximum feed quota” is then determined for each picnicker. This may be, say, Hot Dogs, 5; Ears of Corn, 7; Pieces of Pie, 4; Bottles of Pop, 2; and Mugs of Beer,
5. This scientific determination is indicated on the card by punching out the
23


24
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October 15
appropriate squares on the tag beginning at the right and working to the left. The punch used is in the form of a skull, symbolizing the danger of going beyond the scientific safety quota.
Then the individual proceeds to the “food issue control booths,” unless it is already time for him to go home, and secures his lunch. As each hot dog is issued, the tag is punched in the appropriate square.
The same process is followed for all other supplies, but this time going from
left to right as with an ear of corn. When the quota or the picnicker is exhausted, no more food is issued.1
As the picnicker departs, he again walks over the platform of a bathroom scales and passes through a turnstile. Both records, weight and break-horse-power, are noted and recorded on the “ Completion Record ” on which is also entered the ratio of actual food consumption to the quota allotted for statistical purposes. This completes the procedure.
â–  1 This is where the control comes in.
RAIN CHECK
NO.T13HO Q____________GE_______
W CktxA m cmp* vfp'+i* lOffe t** bcmrm*’ fe OMB
CJf** a R0VN BATH - V**jCiTTCL*MI
NO.T13HO
Tvrn*tifa hrumK her** fx>#cr-----
ktlJgeJL
i
f . »
HOT 0005 PICKLES
ICE CftE/T/1
BOTTLES OF POP MUGS OF BEER
â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡
â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡
â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡
â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡
â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡
_______Imt_ atf. _____—-----------
COMPLETION RECORD
N0.1T3H0 Q______________
GrC____fNf-----TurniTile h- P-----

i
PA UK PICNIC CONTROL rORH


RECENT BOOKS VIEWED
The President’s Daughter. By N. Brittain.
This book should be avidly read by every director of a municipal research bureau, as it contains the outlines of financing a new research movement in a joyful, happy manner. By writing on government, from the sex angle, the author has been able to accomplish wonders, educating the masses, while financing a campaign to remove one of the sore spots from our civilization. The book is written in a delightful style. It has the same delicious swing as does a report •of the Social Hygiene Association. While it might be criticized as putting foolish ideas into ■the heads of young girls who desire to go places and do things, still if read from a scientific view point, the reader can emerge from the book, take a cold bath, and show few effects from then on. The central theme running through the story is the virile call of a strong man for a mate. Around the answer to that call is built a nucleus for a new research organization.
Its characters are said to be drawn from actual life, which shows the urgent necessity of universal psychiatric tests for all who enter public service. The hero is a lovable man, who married an ice cold mama. This marriage, during the course of years, had a bad effect on his rheumatism and lumbago. In the course of time, he was elected to the highest office of our land. He had found previously, as a legislator, that his life belonged to his country, and that, therefore, he ought to do something about the rheumatism which was not getting any better.
He did.
He became intensely interested in a young lady who, it might be added, was good for the eyes, the rheumatism, and that tired feeling. It was an ideal situation; the ice cold mama furnished advice and money—the warmer and younger lady gave sympathy and children. What could be nicer?
It would be foolish to go into the details of the story—that would spoil the suspense, and should the older and wiser readers of this review be told the ending at this time, it is doubtful if they could be persuaded to read the book at all. It would be all too horrifying to them, for, as they would trace the history of this one man through the pages, they would shudder and squirm, get hot flushes, become bilious, and in general, have the
whole day spoiled. It might recall to them that stenographer, or the little girl who was secretary to their largest contributor, or the sister-in-law of the assistant director—every page would bring its suggestion, and each suggestion would bring its remorse. And they could only repeat fervently that, instead of being presidents, they were humble researchers; that the wife’s folks did not have two dimes to rub together; and that Good Luck, rather than Good Sense, guided them in their hour of agony.
Besides being historical and sexual, the book serves a moral purpose, in that it shows the pitfalls into which directors of research bureaus may fall.
First, it would seem that when a researcher takes a wife, she should not be the ice cold mama type, but should have ideals like papa’s. It seems that this one fact was the basis for the hero of this tale going wrong.
Second, if the book under review has been published too late to change the selection of the little wife, it carries a warning that great care should be used in selecting your sweetie. She may be young, affectionate, sympathetic, even beautiful; but she must be dumb. Oh! How dumb that girl must be!.' And how!!! For she must care neither for money nor Literary Fame. She must think that an “affair” is a personal matter, if not for her own finer feelings, at least for the sake of the child, for there is always a child. She would have to be willing to name the child “Pippin,” so when a new guild is named after it, the membership would be kept small by the wisecrack, “It sounds like applesauce to me.” Books she should regard as silly things, to be written only by old ladies with funny figures. If the sweetie does not measure up to these standards, no matter how appealing she may be, resist that impulse—GIVE HER THE GATE.
Third, you must improve your education along more sophisticated lines, as the hero did not. He often regretted he had never read the following: Plain Facts, or Happy Though Childless, What an Old Married Man Should Know, and Why the Orphans Homes are Being Built Larger This Year. The knowledge that would be yours from such books would greatly assist in removing some of the odium from the pages
25


26
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October 15
of any book which might be written about you after your death.
Fourth, it would seem that if you must have your sweetie, but if your face, fortune, and figure are such that you caDnot be too particular in your selection, some sacrifice is necessary. If the betterment of the human race and purity of government are the ideals lying closest to your heart, it might be well to consider a change from a research bureau to some other position where the morals are neither so strict or so necessary as, say, a policeman.
Miss A. Nonnie Mouse.
*
Governmental, Purchasing. By Russell Forbes, S.N.M.L. (not a degree, but a job). To be printed if and when terms satisfactory to the author can be arranged with the publishers. Pages: front matter, l.xxxviii; text, 384; appendices, 497; index, not yet determined. Profusely illustrated. 1 The opportunity to review this forthcoming book is indeed a rare one. It will give the literati and the researchers a hint of what is in store for them. Rarely, if ever, before has a book of this kind been so important as to call for a review several weeks before its publication.
One has only to read the first few paragraphs to see that the author is thoroughly converted to the idea of “centralized purchasing,” and before the end of the first chapter he gets terribly in earnest about it. In short, he thinks it is just about as fundamental in the structure of human society as the single tax. But as a panacea for the ills of government the single tax “ain't” in it compared with centralized purchasing. And so he holds up centralized purchasing to the reader as the philosopher held up the lead pencil before his class with the remark that if we knew all about this lead pencil we would know the riddle of the universe. Perhaps so, but the reviewer reserves judgment at this point.
The style in which the book is written is excellent; in fact, it is entirely too good for the subject matter. It is a shame to waste such diction on requisitions, order forms, tickler files, and stores control. Mr. Forbes has certainly missed the proper groove (or should we say niche?) in the literary world. He should
1 Since this review was written two publishers have been found.—The Author. We thought publishers had more sense.—Editor.
have been writing about what gentlemen prefer when they feel real devilish, or he should have been a reporter to some Hawkshaw. In either case, he would have made at least $50,000 from the same effort that he has put in this magnum opus on governmental purchasing, which will probably return him $10 in royalties provided all the libraries in the country purchase copies.
Mr. Forbes believes that every book should have an appendix, in fact, several of them. He would not think of getting out a book which was entirely stripped of these handy references for the avid reader. The effect upon the nervous system of such a reader might be terrible should he approach the last sentence of the last chapter with naught but the index staring him in the face. While Mr. Forbes admits that the appendices to his book are quite lengthy, he says confidentially (not for publication in any reputable journal) that they are of the accordion type and therefore easily adaptable to the exigencies of the printing industry, should the prospective publishers raise any kick about their length.
The figures to be found in this book deserve at least a word. The reviewer must say reluctantly that these figures do not in any way relate to nudes and he believes will not be found to have any sex appeal even for perverts of the futurist school of art. Perhaps 75 of these figures will help the reader to understand what the author is talking about, but the other 150 not even the author can explain.
As a parting word, the reviewer must let you in on one little secret of the author’s life. This is his first book, so be sympathetic if you can’t be complimentary. He says it will be his last one, but as soon as he recovers from the birth pangs of this maiden effort he will probably try another. Like those who enter into second marriage, it will be for him the triumph of hope over experience.
G. B. S. (not to be mistaken for the initials of George Bernard Shaw.)
*
An Adventure in Democracy. By Luther Gulick. New York, The National Institute of Public Administration, 1928. Pp. 10G.
The only excuse I have to offer for my Review of the dish of literary applesauce which Dr. Gulick has set before us in this book is that owing to circumstances over which I have no control, I cannot give him the sock in the eye which he


1928]
RECENT BOOKS VIEWED
27
so richly deserves for the preparation of such an atrocious diet for his fellow workers.
The title “An Adventure in Democracy” sets a new record for nonsense. My secretary, to whom I delegated the tiresome and unprofitable task of reading the book, informs me under oath that there is not between its covers a single reference to the Democrats. Furthermore, to call the career of infamy which this volume discloses “An Adventure” does the research movement grave dishonor. If the career of the now defunct (Thank God!) Bureau of Municipal Research and the National Institute of Public Administration is adventure, then Captain Kidd, Gyp the Blood, and Senator Fall were honorable adventurers.
Aside from this ridiculous and mendacious title, the book is a complete bust. It is literally crammed with errors of fact. Indeed, I doubt if even Upson and Rightor could have made more errors in the same page space. Instead of putting his treatment on a sound factual basis, Dr. Gulick has adopted the same method of treatment that he has found so successful in his “Finney and Fanny” bed time stories, published in the Christian Science Monitor. It is quite apparent that Dr. Gulick’s literary metier is the bed time story and not serious writing. It would have been much better if he had published his “Adventure in Democracy” as he publishes “Finny and Fanny”—anonymously.
It would be a waste of time to catalogue in detail the errors as to facts with which the book bristles. It is my plain duty, however, to point out those which seem to me to qualify this volume only as a suitable interior decoration for an ash can. These are, briefly:
1. The survey of the city of Cornwall to which Dr. Gulick devotes so much attention was not made by the Bureau of Municipal Research and, furthermore, was not the first municipal survey as the author implies. The survey of the city of Cornwall was made under the reviewer’s personal supervision and on his own responsibility with the assistance of several training school students. The first municipal survey, moreover, of which the reviewer has a photographic copy, was made for King Arthur by Sir Galahad during his search for the Holy Grail which took him into all cities of the kingdom. His report was submitted to the Round Table on Municipal Grails, several hundred years before the city of Cornwall was incorporated.
2. The real god-father of the research move-
ment was not R. Fulton Cutting, as Director Gulick declares, but a thin, tall fellow with a black moustache who was assisted by a thickset, clean-shaven fellow. The names of these gentlemen as any one may discover by reference to the records of police magistrates are John Doe and Richard Roe.
3. Contrary fo Mr. Gulick’s statements, John D. Rockefeller did underwrite the entire budget of the Bureau of Municipal Research in 1915. It is a matter of record that his check for $3.27 passed through the counting room of the Bureau, and the reviewer has a photographic copy of that check.
i. The statement by Professor Gulick that William H. Allen, Frederick A. Cleveland, and Henry Bruere were joint directors of the Bureau in the early period of its existence is incorrect. None of them had any connection with any joint whatever.
5. The Training School for Public Service was not established for the purpose of training students for public service as Colonel Gulick states. When it was founded, its sole purpose was to provide a rest camp for the horde of underprivileged, undernourished, and underintelligenced graduates of our incompetent and inefficient schools and colleges. The reviewer’s investigators, who have gone carefully into the matter, have furnished him with sworn statements to the effect that the present Training School for Public Service still adheres to its original policy and that there is no change in curriculum, except for the worse, under its present management,—if the present half-baked operation of the Training School can be referred to as management.
To sum up, this book typifies the kind of hokum that a number of sophomoric representatives of the research movement think is required to meet the present day’s taste in movements. In attempting to provide a mantle of respectability for the infamous career of the Bureau .of Municipal Research, Mayor Gulick has exhibited traits which seem quite inconsistent with the traditions of his honored family. The book is a bloomer and everyone should know it. No doubt the Reverend Gulick’s intentions were honorable but it is not too much to say that Hell is paved with such intentions. As a matter of fact, if enough of these books have been printed they might very well be used for that purpose. There will be a few morons and others who still believe in fairies who will read the book if they can get free copies—but for the rank and file of


28
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[October 15
researchers, the reviewer's advice is, save your money.
Pro Bono Publico.
(Name on request)
*
Public Recreation Fees, a New Phase of the
Budget Problem. By A. E. Buck. Pp. 658.
Dr. Buck has recommended that the fees charged on public tennis courts be levied according to the following formula:
In this formula F is taken as the fee, C, the money correlation factor, x, the area of the players’ feet in square feet, y, the weight of the players, p the force of gravity, l the time played, and > their average speed in covering the court.
The learned professor explains his formula as follows: “ It is an accepted cannon that recreation fees should be based upon the cost of maintenance of the facility, which in turn depends upon the wear and tear due to use. My formula determines this with mathematical accuracy. By multiplying the force due to gravity, )gtJ, (gravity times the time squared in seconds divided by two), by the weight of the players y and their speed in chasing volleys we get the pressure on the court’s surface. Now it is a fundamental law of physics that the weight is distributed in proportion to the area. By squaring, therefore, the square foot area of the players feet, x, and multiplying by the coefficient of friction, n, for the kind of shoes and court, we get a force on the court, which is a differential of the pressure. By multiplying this force by the derivative of the pressure, and then by the money correlation factor (determined by the index number system) we get the exact fee in dollars and cents. While some of these factors cannot be determined absolutely, the formula recommends itself because of its simplicity.” Tables of friction coefficients for gravel, clay, concrete, and grass courts, and rubber aDd leather soled shoes, and tables of money correlations are included.
Professor Buck announces that he is at present working out a fee formula for public golf courses, based upon a correlation between the age and weight of the players, the size of their feet, and the number of divots taken. He adds that his chief difficulty now lies in perfecting an infallible divot meter. Wotta Sapp, LL.D.
The Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report of the
Paluka State Hospital for Feebleminded
and Epileptic. Published at Paluka, B. S.,
1928. Pp. 897.
This excellent and voluminous report, which is typical of the kind of hogwash published by institutions of this character, is worthy the attention of all students of public affairs and the National Association of Waste Paper Balers. It is bound in red oilcloth and is stamped with a. yellow design on the cover which is presumably the state seal, but to the unprejudiced eye of the reviewer looks more like a violent outbreak of yellow jaundice complicated with eczema. The report weighs exactly four and a half pounds and would undoubtedly make a great impression on the reader if it should be dropped on him from any great height.
The report opens auspiciously with a portrait of the superintendent who, if his mug can be taken as an index to his mentality, should also be found in the group picture of feebleminded inmates on page 733. Following this is the letter of transmittal to the board of trustees, in which the superintendent does the usual amount of bootlicking. He particularly thanks the board for their untiring devotion to the interests of the institution, when as a matter of fact, the board visited the institution only once during the biennium and then only for the purpose of inspecting a new bull purchased for the dairy herd.
The statistical summaries which follow are most illuminating and show conclusively why we have institutions for the feebleminded. The first table presents a correlation between the intelligence quotient of inmates and the mean average rainfall in the state during the biennium. No one can review this table without nausea. Another excellent table is that which shows in comparative form the production of the dairy herd and the production by inmates of baskets, doilies, rag rugs, grass mats, and other objects of art. This is the kind of statistical information which is all too often lacking in institutional reports and without which no proper estimate can be made either of their gasoline consumption per mile or colon bacilli per cc. A third table of particular interest shows how many inmates were and how many were not during the biennium. Of those that were not it appears that 6 per cent had other resources and could therefore not be admitted to the Training School for Public Service—except on payment of the usual fee.


1928]
RECENT BOOKS VIEWED
You will enjoy these tables if you are that kind of a nut.
The report is unusually well illustrated. Attention is called to the full page photograph of the interior of the dairy bam on page 623. The photograph is so remarkably clear that the reviewer was able to count 32,826 flies on a single milk can. You don’t believe it? Well, count them yourself then. What do you think I am? The photograph of the administrative building is splendid and resembles closely the aspect of a small pox pest house of the vintage of 1863 which the reviewer once saw near Denver, Colorado. The gentleman leaning against the railing is presumably the superintendent, although I doubt if even such a simp as he appears to be would be photographed in front of a joint like this. The picture of the operating room on Christmas Eve, page 721, is also excellent. It looks very much like the interior of a Child’s Restaurant except that Child’s restaurants specialize somewhat more in vegetarian foods. At that, it may be a Child’s restaurant but wot th’ ’ell of it. You can’t make me mad.
The piece de resistance as Professor Beard, would have it, is a group picture of inmates on page 733. Among those present the reader will recognize many familiar faces. The imbecile on the extreme left, I discover, is not the superintendent, but his twin brother, sixteen years younger, but otherwise just as foolish. A horse and buggy appears in the background of this picture which will help you to distinguish the inmate group from the employee group on page 742. Certainly it is a horse, and I’d give odds
it’s buggy, knowing what I do about institutions like this. The final picture is of the herd of 300 or so full bred Duroc hawgs and this alone justifies the report. The editor of the report and the photographer who made these pictures certainly deserve the highest commendation and a swift kick in the pants.
The report concludes with a summary showing the results of treatment of the feebleminded during the biennium. It is convincing evidence that the institution has no reason for existence. Out of 72 inmates, 87 died or were otherwise disposed of, giving a mortality of 120.8 per cent. This mortality is so low as to lead to the suspicion that the figures are inaccurate. Four hundred per cent, counting flies and cockroaches, would be nearer the correct figure. The net return on disposal of the dead and uncalled for was 87 cents for the biennium, a very excellent showing. This money was used to provide insect powder for firing the institutional cannon at the Fourth of July celebration held under the potted palm loaned by the Ladies Auxiliary of the Paluka Association Opposed to Imbecility.
The report has no appendix, this having been removed by the house physician early in the report. An excellent index is supplied but unfortunately this was not available at the time of going to press and will therefore not be printed until a subsequent report—and a hell of a good idea, if you ask me. The best thing about this report is that it appears only once every two years and then only for a moment.
Howitt Reeks, Ph.D.


JUDICIAL INDECISIONS
EDITED BY TOM AND JERRY
The Expansion of Municipal Functions Since Prohibition.—It has long been a fact of interest to outstanding students of municipal corporation Jaw that city functions are increasing in number by leaps and bounds. Daily we see shattered world records for the city charter broad jump. (See A. R. Hatton, Leaping to Progress, or Rum, Rheumatism, and Rebellion, and William Bennett Munro, Court Inflation of Balloon Tire Charters.) Indeed, the rate of this increase is so rapid that it is comparable only to the fast growth of the United States navy under the Coolidge-Wilbur naval disarmament program. Although new functions are being added to an already overcrowded municipal list faster than an adding machine can total them, the courts, staunch upholders of the lazy-fare theory, have been far behind the times, and it has been only in recent years, particularly since such disasters as the World War, the Mississippi Floods of 1927, and National Prohibition, that they have viewed these new accretions to municipal powers in a friendly light.
With the well-known case of Slippery Slim v. Village of Squeedunk, 164 F. F. V. 82, came a turning point in legal history. This case is too well known to be rehashed here, and, besides the weather was too hot when this was written to do any more work than was absolutely necessary. Suffice it to say that in this case the court sustained the power of a city to maintain and operate a frog pond, in order to provide frogs’ legs for the prisoners in the city jail. It is true that their diet had been deficient up to this point, consisting chiefly of C. C. pills, but none the less this case marks the day that the courts got off their high horse and used some common sense. It was high time. Later the court upheld a city in its attempt to maintain a collar button factory to provide diamond collar buttons for all hoboes, in order to improve the appearance of the local slum district. (People ex rel. Second-story Sieve, Taxpayer, v. City of Wienerbumbelworfeml-orfensteinschnitzelpilsenerurquel, 142 Ham and. 38.) This case, by the way, was one of the earlier cases decided by the court upon purely sociological grounds. Still more recently in Attorney General ex rel. Titmouse v. Eighty-nine Fleas, -83 U. S. P. 487, the court, in a bit of obiter
dictum hinted at the possible validity of a municipal flea circus. (But see contra, Port Authorities of Mudville, Idaho v. Steamboat Bill, 36 Snooker 419, in which the right of a city to maintain a goldfish aquarium for the amusement of its civil service commission was denied, and Hooknose Harry v. Vermin County Taxing District, 146 Flit 35, wherein the court refused to permit a city to install patent louse and bedbug traps in its municipal lodging house.)
It was not until after the coming of Prohibition, however, that the courts became unanimously liberal. It will be recalled that with the great drouth of 1918 the drinking habit became universal in America almost overnight. Cities soon found it necessary to cater to the appetites of their citizens for wine, women, and song. (Previous numbers of the Review have contained articles on the last two subjects. See especially “Municipal Necking Nooks—the Newest Phase of the Playground Movement,” by Randolph Overnight Huus and “ Municipal Caterwauling and Yodeling,” by Bruce Smith, in the Convention Number for 1927.)
Three recent cases sustain the authority of the city to provide alcoholic delights for its citizens. In Twenty-five Cases of Beer v. Cockroach Stratton, 5 Sat. Eve. Pest 63, a municipally operated speakeasy was recognized as legal by the court. In this case the city council of Three Schooners, D. T., in an attempt to carry out a campaign pledge to the W. C. T. U. for “ Bigger and Better Beers,” had set up a city owned and operated beer emporium. A local bootlegger protested, and sought to libel twenty-five cases of beer, imported from Canada. He won in the lower courts, but in the name of beer and justice the case was appealed. After consuming what remained of the evidence, the appellate court sustained the city on broad oratorical grounds. Said the learned judge, in part, “We can see no reason why a city should not sell beer, or even give it away. Beer is one of the greatest boons of God to suffering mankind. It cools the parched throats and soothes the fevered lips of the sick; it eases the last moments of the dying; it gives solace and comfort to the bereaved. What would an Irish wake be u ithout beer? To the weary worker and the tired business man.
30


JUDICIAL INDECISIONS
31
fatigued, nay exhausted, after a hard day of labor, a glass of beer comes as the nectar of Zeus, or the manna from heaven.
“ It is contended that beer is degrading. We do not, in fact cannot, agree. Quite the contrary. In the springtime of youth and the autumn of old age, by the mighty rich and the lowly poor, by the idling broker in his great castle and the toiling peasant in his humble cot, by each and all beer is enjoyed as the one great delight of the soul. Universal education is regarded by many as one of the chief bulwarks of American civilization. We find still a greater, beer. Though we be condemned from the very housetops by those who hear us, yet say we, Rather would we assent to abolishing the city schools than to estopping the municipal speakeasy.”
In the contrast to this eulogium a recent decision sustaining the operation of a night club by Cocktail City, Kansas, or Texas, we forget which, is of considerable interest to the student of sociological jurisprudence. (Morgan, et. Al. v. Guinan, 36 Whoopee 42.) Here the court dwelt especially upon the social aspects of the case. Frankly admitting the necessity of night clubs, with their attendant hostesses, $50 a bottle champagne for prohibition agents, and nude entertainment, the court nevertheless saw certain grave social dangers in permitting such institutions to have a free scope of activity. Said the court, in part, “ In a hectic day and age such as ours, with all the evils attendant upon overcrowded cities, mass production, and high pressure salesmanship, the night club is necessary as an outlet for the emotions and inhibitions of those who in a more primitive day would have been content with drinking apple jack, playing
post office, and taking buggy rides. It is admitted by both sides that low prices are the ruin of the night club business. As the learned counsel for the appellant so aptly state, no one would feel flattered at being addressed as ‘ Sucker’ by Miss Guinan in her friendly way, and then getting nicked for a mere fiver, or at the most, just a ten spot. Such a situation would make all night clubs take the count in no time. Viewing the matter in this light, we are firmly of the belief that the only way to give the sucker his chance is. to keep the night club a city owned monopoly, and, incidentally, thereby avoid the three o’clock curfew. The sucker has his rights; among them is the right to be skinned right and left; this-right lies at the base of his very existence, for without it he would not be a sucker. IT must be protected at all costs. This state, long the home of the shirt tail ranger, is now known as the home of the night club, and this position as a leader in social progress must be maintained.”
This decision was cited with approval in Haig and Haig v. John Dewar, 100 Proof 1. In this case the city of Bloody Gulch provided as a franchise requirement that all voters should present at the polls cancelled municipal night clul> checks, amounting to at least $250. It was felt that in this way the voting public could be kept down to a small and easily controlled number of the wealthier and better citizens. Furthermore, the court took cognizance of the fact that as a result of this, the desire to vote being particularly strong in Bloody Gulch, the revenues of the city-had increased to such a point that the council had abolished all taxes, and had recently declared a dividend. (Bloody Gulch preferred and common are now listed on the New York Curb.)
The Balance of This Material Was Censored for the Sake of the Methodist Board of Prohibition, Temperance, and Public Morals


PUBLIC FUTILITIES
EDITED BY JOHN SOUR
It is often very hard to distinguish between the ratable rentable and the rentable ratable bases of evaluation though it is admitted, in view of the recent decision of the U. S, Circuit court in the Ham case (Ham v. Mustard, 88 B. & G. 377), that the logic of the situation is more clearly discernible every day in the practical operations of those public futilities which are generally conceded by unbiased students of the matter to fall within the ambit of progressive consideration as has been demonstrated time and again in the decisions of the courts, public service stations, legislative bodies, and international boundary commissions especially in the waterpower litigations where the question of the water shedding Tights of passers-by with rain coats or with umbrellas has been brought into question, judicially we may infer, though all assumptions must be guarded against rigidly in matters of this sort which have not reached a final ajudication; nevertheless, impartial observers whose only interest is professional may venture the suggestion that a .solution is rather to be found by approaching the matter laterally along the right of way conceded by all as originally dedicated to the utilities even as far back as 1812 when all parties, even those arranged by the mayor for distinguished visitors, and before the time of the 3 o’clock curfew or the development of the modern system of laying patrons in clay conduits beneath the street surface immediately after the completion of a pavement, that is unless, of course, there was an opportunity of scarifying the surface for a sewer or water main, neither of which, however, raised directly the question which is here at issue, because in those days water and sewer rights were purely public, however this may effect the question, and we must not neglect the scientific implications arising from the undeniable conflict of interests due to the electrolytic corrosion produced by high voltages utilized by street railways upon the cables of telephone and telegraph companies especially where through the accidents of priority development and antecedent franchise grants a utility in its corporate capacity as created by the state whether domestic or foreign, which through the commerce clause of the United States Constitu-
tion leads us into what has been termed by those more steeped in legal history the “ Battle of the Century,” it may be inferred, perhaps not without a certain sense of suspended judgment with regard to the final issues, that time, in and of itself, is a material factor influencing the nature of the grant fundamentally so that time may be regarded as an inalienable right which is just as much a fixed piece of property of the corporation as any of its rails, poles and rolling stock even though it is incorporeal and intangible, in fact such an authority as Dillon has frequently urged, and not without the support of much eloquence and some evidence, that the stability of modern society and the degree of advancement of civilization, in cultural and ethical fields no less than in the more frankly economic lines, is determined by the extent to which intangible rights are protected by the constitution of the state, the “state” symbolizing of course the entire compass of effective organized power, that is the “sovereignty” as understood before Laski plucked the feathers of that bird of the philosophers’paradise, and the term constitution must be accepted as embracing whatever we may think at the time being is a characteristic feature of human relations in a given geographic area and regardless of the peculiar habit-patters, may be outlined in written constitutions, royal-grants, laws, charters, public contracts, ordinances and utility franchises, of which the franchises alone are not subject to popular construction, (but see Pete Sluyvesant v. Jimmy Walker, in 234 Night Court 77, where the court in its obiter dicta advances the contention that what is a public hereditament can only be rendered private through a legislative enactment consummated, whether freely for a public consideration or fraudulently for a private consideration, provided the question of fraud is not taken cognizance of by the court or admitted by the clerk of the corporation (or clarke as some of the early manuscripts render it, thus leaving the matter in such a condition that nothing is gained by speculating as to what may happen until further facts are turned up by the experts which are now at work under the direction of the master so recently appointed by the court)).
32


GOVERNMENTAL RESEARCH ASSASSINATION NOTES
EDITED BY RUSSELL FOIBLES
Secretary
Recent reports of research agencies received at the central library of the Association:
Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research:
The Correlation between Moral Turpitude and Juvenile Delinquency with Charts.
Philadelphia Bureau of Municipal Research: Correlation Factors between the Tax Rate and the Death Rate, showing the number of taxpayers dying of heart failure on account of lower taxes.
Institute for Public Service, New York City: Bath House Facts. A study of the facts of life in New York public baths.
Cleveland Bureau of Municipal Research:
Why Girls Leave Home. Prepared by Alden C. Fensel. A series of personal reminiscences of the infancy of the research movement.
*
National Institute of Public Administration.— Bruce Smith of the Committee on Uniform Crime Records is now in Europe gathering data. At present he is studying city jail conditions at first hand, as a result of an unfortunate encounter with the Berlin polizei. We hope to hear from Mr. Smith .soon. Ilis record should provide interesting source material for his committee.
*
Kansas City Public Service Institute.—The Institute is engaged in a survey of recreation and amusement facilities in Kansas City, Missouri. This will settle once and for all the question “When is a town open?” The director is at present making a personal study of all cabarets (as night clubs are called in the wild and woolly West), black-and-tans, and bootleggers. The result of this study will be published in several volumes, the first of which will be a "Kansas City Bootleggers’ Directory.” It is understood that several thousand copies of this book have been ordered in advance by traveling salesmen and
Kansas City hotels. Order your copy today. (Advt.)
*
Cincinnati Bureau of Municipal Research.— The Bureau has shown an unusual amount of activity this season. Work piled up so high on Director Blandford’s desk that finally he decided, about the end of August, that the best way to get the work done was to take a vacation and leave it to Donald C. Stone, who also went on one. Mr. Stone is still on his vacation, being now associated with the Committee on Uniform Crime Records.
*
The National Institute of Public Administration.—The Institute is considering moving its headquarters over to Hoboken, inasmuch as most of its staff seem to spend the greater part of their time there; anyway, Hoboken is a nice town.
*
Watch for your name here next month. If you don’t see it, write in. (Advt.)
*
Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research.—
Dr. Upson’s gang are thinking of moving over to Windsor, for the sake of convenience. They feel that they will be much nearer their customary field of operations.
*
National Committee on Municipal Standards. —This committee is experiencing considerable difficulty in getting the necessary data and cooperation from bureaus. Secretary A. D. McLarty of the Illinois Municipal League insists that the presence of a sand bank in a city will prevent a satisfactory measurement standard being adopted for paving. The committee is looking into this matter, and promises a standard for sand banks in the near future. They will not be sand bagged, however, into doing anything rash.
33


NOOSE NOTES
EDITED BY RUSSELL FOIBLES
Hubert Stone, research secretary of the Finance Committee of the town of Harrison, has been working for the Westchester County Bureau of Governmental Research since August 1, when he went on a month’s vacation. On September 1 he returned to his work for the town of Harrison.
*
Rumor has it that Dr. Mosher has invited Gene Tunney to study municipal research at the School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University, when Mr. Tunney returns from Paris. Dr. Mosher is reported to have said “Tunney will give a long needed knock-out punch to the research movement.”
The Review staff were unable to get in touch with Dr. Mosher before going to press. Mr. Tunney was engaged at the time and therefore was likewise unavailable. Hence this rumor is not confirmed, and we cannot vouch for its veracity.
*
W. W. Collins, a boozem friend of Dr. Carl E. McCombs, was in New York a few days ago to negotiate a loan for his city. The loan was placed with the Bank of America for the time being, but was subsequently absorbed by Dr. McCombs, who exhibits the bonds with much pride. They are unique in that they bear the surcharge “no account.” Dr. McCombs is looking forward to seeing Mr. Collins again on his next visit.
*
The city of Jerkwater, New York, has adopted the pay-as-you-go plan of financing public improvements. This was adopted after a long and bitter fight during which public hearings were held. These hearings were attended by Messrs. T. David Zukerman and Gaylord Cummin, both of whom spoke on the plan.
The importance and significance of this adoption lies in the fact that Jerkwater is planning to undertake a hundred-year budding program
which will cost between five and ten thousand dollars. For a city of this size with a program as extensive as this one to adopt pay-as-you-go is indeed of great significance.
Arguments against the plan were vehemently advanced by Mr. Zukerman during the hearings. He said in part, “What our cities need today is bigger and better bonds. We are not bonded enough. What is the use of a debt limit if a city cannot live up to it? Without debts there would be no one to pay them and if a city has no one to pay its debts it has reached a sad state indeed.
“Furthermore, I want to point out the similarity between pay-as-you-go for cities and the pay-as-you-enter system for street car companies. Both are vicious. We have all seen the time when there has been a crowd attempting to get on a street car during rush hours, and with pay-as-you-enter, it takes too long for the crowd to get on. The result is that the crowd pushes through and the conductor is trampled upon in the rush.
“The same with pay-as-you-go. There will be a rush of taxpayers who will jam the City Hall and undoubtedly kill the Mayor and his associates.”
Mr. Cummin spoke in favor of this plan, saying, “A program the size of this one cannot be borne by one generation, but must be borne by all. The best way to do this is to.pay for each improvement as it is obtained, otherwise the citizens will be enjoying benefits which their children, grandchildren, great grandchildren, great great grandchildren, great great great grandchildren, etc., ad infinitum will be paying for.
“A little bond issue is a dangerous thing. Dr. McCombs of the National Institute of Public Administration can testify as to what happens when loans are negotiated without sufficient funds.”
At the close of the hearings, pay-as-you-go was adopted upon the recommendation of Mr. Cummin.
34


Full Text

PAGE 1

NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW SPECIAL CONVENTION NUMBER OCTOBER 15, 1998 EDITORIAL COMMENT PLEASE READ THIS CAREFULLY BEFORE GOING FURTHER USUALLY the REVIEW is a serious journal, devoted to advancing better government and administration, particularly in cities. In fact, at certain times it has been accused of being too serious. Some of the rougher characters in the Governmental Research Association, desiring to see at least one issue in harmony with the spirit of the jazz age, decided to take matters into their own hands, with this result. You will find this issue of the REVIEW prepared to entertain and amuse you. Perhaps this amusement may be at your own expense. If so, don’t get too hot under the collar, but remember that boys will be boys. It was our intention to let no one escape. If we have failed, notify us, and the error will be rectified next year, if we live to do it. And please remember that the regular REVIEW staff are not responsible for this issue. In November, the same old serious and earnest publication will appear, under the usual auspices, and showing, we hope, no battle scars. This special issue has been made possible through the courtesy of the Rumford Press, of Concord, New Hampshire, whose advertisement appears on the rear cover. THE EDITORIAL STAFF From our The NewYork Times July REVIEW observed: “Mr. Clarence Neighbor, of September 31, Riddles is secretary of a joint commitThe Times commenting editoritee of the Governmental Research Asally on our September editorial refersociation, National Municipal League, ring to the Times of August 21, which and City Managers’ Association, which quoted from the second preliminary is essaying the task of measuring govreport of the National Committee on ernment. They have taken Upson Municipal Standards published in the themselves the duty to Beard the 1

PAGE 2

$2 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW philosopher in his den. If they do not pass the Buck we may not have to Waite long for the third preliminary report.” * Measuring A staff member of the Joint in the Detroit Bureau of Governmental ReGovernment search who has served on all the committees of the organizations to which he belongs, except the Riddles Committee on Measuring the Joint in Government, suggests in an extended article appearing in the box on p. 735 in the current American City (January, 1029) that the Joint Riddles Measurers would make more progress if they commenced by determining what kind of a measure to use. “As for me,” he said, “though I guess the proportions with considerable accuracy, I favor a $1.69 glass shaker, graduated by ounces. Then Perhaps he is committee. The Central American Situation I woad beg gin.” Rightor than the * The editor of the REVIEW is in Nicaragua again. This time he is accompanied by Mrs. Harold W. Dodds of Princeton. * Rightor In memory of C. E. Memorial Rightor, who passed out in a night club Prize recently, the League is offering a Rightor Memorial Prize for essays submitted on one or more of the following topics: Causes of Increasing Baldness among Members of the Research Movement. The Budget and Its Relation to the Facts of Life. Does work have its place in a research bureau? First prize-a subscription to “Whoopee,” the official night club journal, edited by Mrs. Willie Brant. Second prize-two theatre ticket stubs (name your om show). Third prize-a framed motto “God Bless Our Bureau.” Essays are to be submitted to the committee on or before October 18, 1928. .L. Letters to The editor of this isthe Editor sue has received the letter printed below. It is too late to do anything about it now, thank God! To the Editor of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW. Gents: Why in God’s name the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REvIrW was ever accepted as a magazine is beyond human comprehension. The attempt of the editors to take it at all seriously is most pathetic1 And where do you find such a collection of contributors? Has it ever occurred to you that you might abandon your penurious policy and pay for certain desirable articlw? It might thus be poasible to discard the present regular “authors” (moet of whom are so mediocre that they are flattered to appear in print at d) and get some real writem. Even the American Mercuru has to pay for some of ita articles! Look over a eopy of the Pdicc Ohrelk if you have any doubt 811 to the poesibilitiw in a publication for municipal officials. Even certain New York tabloids might lend the cub of some of their illustrations to throw some light upon municipal dairs and municipal officials. Incidentally, these pictures would certainly arowe interest among government rwearchem that are advocating the pay-as-you-go plsn. “Boroughing” into this matter should be to the “Queen’s’’ taste. as it will reqwre both long-term bonds and the pay-~~-you-go plan to keep up the present rate of expenditurea. This will satisfy both the pay-as-you-go and the long term bond issue advocatw and settle the ever recurring dispute between these two factions. Why has the REVIEW failed to promote this ingenious scheme? And the book reviews! Perhaps you haven’t heard of that new book on political theory that came out after Rousseau’s “Confeasiom.“ How could you remain in blissful ignorance, when his methods instead of Rousseau’s were used in the recent Knapp case? While the actual confession w89 not obtained. the result was the same. I must confess, however, that your reviewers cannot be accused of having complete cerehral paralysis! I was gratified to discover that it ie against their policy to read the boob for fear they might be prejudiced thereby when writing their reviews. This is commendable! My final plea is JAZZ UP YOUR EDITORIAL COMMENT. Your writers have ceased to care whether Shem, Ham and Japheth had a forensic contest as to whoee wife should first enter their father’s Ark. The public is much more anxious to hear whether a certain city father died of cranial oasification or merely of shock when he discovered that Lindbergh wm not formally engaged to the dauchter of the Ambassador to Mexico. Hoprleasly yours, A. SCANDAL.

PAGE 3

GETTING READY FOR A CITY MANAGER BY LORELIE LEE Reaearchm at Large Gentlemen-and professors-still prefer blondes, and blondes seem to .. .. .. feel that professors can show them more about life. :: .. WELL, I am writing in my diary again about the most educational trip I ever took. I have been to Sarahcuse University to see Doctor Mosher and I am going to get ready for a city manager. After our “Little Mouse” was born, I found I was still full of ambitions. And so I told Henry Spoffard, my husband, that I thought educated girls like I should have some other career beside “Motherhood.” I wanted to have a career in the cinema or go in the Follies like Dorothy, but Henry said that I ought to go in for reform work of some kind like he has, so that I could help people to live cleaner lives. CITY MANAGERS AND UNMARRIED MOTHERS Well, Henry came home one night from a meeting of the Ante-Tuberculosis League and waited up for me and Dorothy to return from a party at one of the Follies girls apartments. He said he had met a Mr. Davenport who is a congressman and a great reformer and has a school at Sarahcuse where nice boys are taught to be city managers. I wasn’t interested until Henry said that almost every city manager had to supervise a home for unmarried mothers where girls who have taken a wrong step are kept, and then I felt sure I could be a success on account of the influence I have had upon Dorothy. Dorothy said she would hate to live in a city which I managed for I would probably run off with the mayor’s Crown Jewels. Besides, she said I could learn more about managing a city in one night with Jimmy Walker than I could learn in a year at Sarahcuse. But, then, what else could you expect from a girl like Dorothy who has come from a low environment and always has low thoughts. ON TO SARAHCUSE Well, this Mr. Davenport wrote to Mr. Mosher at Sarahcuse and Mr. Mosher sent me a telegram from Cleveland asking me to meet him at his office the next morning. And so I took a night train to Sarahcuse and arrived there after a dull and uninteresting night, for I did not meet a single nice gentleman on the whole trip. LORELIE MEETS DR. MOSHER I called Mr. Mosher by telephone as soon as I arrived in Sarahcuse, for I have learned that educational gentlemen like to have their students get up early and appear eager for learning more about Life. But Mr. Mosher did not recognize me when I told him I was Lorelie Lee from New York, and said he would be in an important conference practically all day. But when he learned that I was the conference it was different. You see when I decided to get ready for a city manager I joined the Lucy Stone League, for I have learned from my parties with Jimmy Walker that a young lady cannot do much with a man about managing a city if he thinks she is married. Besides I left my wedding ring with Henry in New York, for I 3

PAGE 4

4 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October 15 believe a woman can have more influence without it. Well, I finally got to Dr. Mosher’s office and found him dicktating letters to his secretary. But when he saw me he seemed impressed and told his secretary that would be all just then. Then he told me what it meant to be a city manager and what I would have to do to get ready for one. He said I would have to learn about something he called a Budget and would have to know all about public works and how to construct constructions. But I told him that I had learned about how the public works from Dorothy. I was depressed, for it seemed as though you have to learn a lot to get ready for a city manager. At first he seemed to doubt whether I could be one of his students because they had never had young ladies for students. But when he saw how educated I am he said that he would be glad to consider me because I seemed to have the proper Approach to the Subject and a nice viewpoint. Then he gave me what he called a Questionair to fill in. Most of the blanks I could not fill in because I have never been educated in educational colleges. But when I told Mr. Mosher about having been educated in Europe by Gus Eiseman, the button king, and by my contacts with brokers in New York, he said they would accept it as the Equivalent of education in college. Then Mi. Mosher wanted me to talk with Mrs. Knapp, who seems to be a graduate student of Sarahcuse and knows all about Home Eckonomics and good government. But Mrs. Knapp seemed to be away on a vacation or something, so we did not see her. Well, it finally seemed to be time for lunch and Dr. Mosher said he wanted me to meet two of the other teachers. And so we went to the Fackulty Club, and I met a lot of educated genelemen. LORELIE MEETS THE BOYS At our table I was introduced to Dr. All-Porte and Mr. Catch-em, who seem to be teachers in what they call the school of citizenship. I was thrilled to be with such clean Christian gentlemen and I thought it would be nice to live the mental life. But I soon became depressed because they used such big words that I did not understand. As I had about decided to order potato salad and fruit salad, Dr. Mosher all at once took out his watch, pounded the table, and said My Goodness Gracious I forgot that I am to speak at the Lions Club for lunch. Then he left me with Mr. All-Porte and Mr. Catchem, but said he wanted to learn more about my background during the afternoon in his office. But when I learned that Mr. AllPorte is a ‘‘Psychologist’’ I felt more at home because ever since I saw Dr. Froid in Vienna I have known a lot about “Psychology.” Mr,. Catch-em turned out to be a “Philosopher” and knows a Mr. Mackiavalet who wrote the life of a Prince. Dr. AllPorte seemed to be depressed about something, but Mr. Catch-em seemed impressed and kept looking at me most of the time. When I looked at Mr. Catch-em in the same way, I suddenly realized that we probably had something that was common and that perhaps life among the Christian perfessors was not all mental. CATCH-EM OFFERS FREE BED Well, Mr. All-Porte said he had to conduct a Semenar and left me with Mr. Catch-ern. Then Mr. Catch-em said he would take me for a drive in his car until Dr. Mosher got back from his speech. On the drive Mr. Catch-em asked me where I was staying that night in Sarahcuse and I told him I

PAGE 5

19281 GETTING READY FOR A CITY MLVAGER 5 had left my things at the station. Then he said that I could come to the Alpha Pie house where he stays and where they often keep nice girls over night. But I thought it best to refuse because I have learned that when I am alone with a nice gentleman something is almost always likely to happen. And so I told Dr. Catch-em that I would stay there next fall. And that seemed to make him less depressed. ThenDr. Mosher told me in the afternoon that he had cohsidered the matter very carefully and after seeing more of me had decided that I could become one of his students. Beside he said that he had found that in the post office department that nice girls often do a lot of good and that my in%uence in a city would be stimulatting and helpful in the same way it has been with Dorothy. MOSHER OFFERS FELLOWSHIP Before I said goodbye to Mi. Mosher I found he was quite a human man in spite of first impressions. He does understand us girls. I mean he knows his way about. Of course I thought it would take a lot of Henry's money to get ready for a city manager, but Mr. Mosher says he will arrange a little fellowship for me when I go back to Sarahcuse and that I won't have any expenses at all. I must tell Dorothy how straightforward and efficient things are in these colleges that are run by the younger generation. It would save a lot of worries to run a city the same way. Well, Dr. Mosher finally took me to the train and went with me as far as Uticka where he had to make another speech. On the way to the station we almost hit a truck and were held up by a policeman. But when the policeman saw it was Dr. Mosher he let us go on. I guess Dr. Moiher must have worked his way through college by driving a taxi, but I did not ask him. And so I am going to get ready for a city manager at Sarahcuse next fall.

PAGE 6

THE INVENTORY AS AN INDEX OF ADMINISTRATIVE EFFICIENCY BY CARL E. McCOMBS. M.D., T.S.P.S.’le, N.I.P.A., I.R.T., N.Y.C.R.R. Dr. McCombs is a recognized authority on surveys. His recommendation that researchers carry out their own beer bottles from Y. M. C. A.’s has been nationally adopted. Since prohibition he also makes his .. .. .. .. .. own gin. :: .. MUCH has been written on the desirability of inventories as means of aiding the administrative oEcer in the preparation of his budget, but little or nothing has been said on the use of the inventory as a means of appraising administrative processes. The writer proposes, therefore, briefly to present some illustrations drawn from his own experience in surveys of public institutions and agencies, which will make clear to other students and research workers the method of utilizing the inventory in this latter way. AND HOW! It has been the writer’s practice since 1859, when he began his survey work, to make a complete inventory of the institution or agency with which his survey was concerned as a first step. He has continued to do so up to the present day, excepting during the period 1861-1865, when his work was interrupted by a war. It is to this practice of first making a thorough inventory at the beginning of each survey that he attributes his tremendous success in survey work and his unfailing vigor even at his present advanced age. But for his constant use of the inventory it is not likely that he would have been able to avoid the infirmities of impaired vision, dyspepsia, fallen arches, dandruff, halitosis, and that body odor which seems to have afflicted so many of his contemporaries. It is .. .. .. .. .. I. .. .. .. .. .. .. all too true that even your best friends won’t tell you. THE INVENTORY AS A TIME SHAVER It will be argued by many that the inventory is unnecessarily time-consuming if made with the degree of precision upon which the writer has always insisted. But I have not found this to be the case where the simplified method which I practice is taken advantage of. This will be explained later when I get damned good and ready. Certain it is that the time spent in making a thorough inventory invariably shortens the time required for further survey activities and furnishes a wealth of information that cannot possibly be obtained in any other way. For example, in 1880, I began a survey of an institution for the blind in a western state, and, as usual, first made an inventory. On the completion of the inventory in the winter of 1888, which will be remembered by many of my fellow surveyors RS the year of the great blizzard, the first item which struck my eye like an overripe tomato was a veritable forest of toothpicks. The institution’s supply of this instrument, which some wag has called our nation’s greatest weapon of offense, comprised 1,283 cartons of twenty-four packages each, each package containing 5,000 tooth picks according to the manufacturer’s sworn statement on the label. It would have 6

PAGE 7

THE INVENTORY AS AN been more consistent with scientifk method, perhaps, to have counted the tooth picks in each package, but owing to the necessity of conserving time, it was deemed sufficient to accept the manufacturer’s statement as to the precise number. To put the matter in plain terms, here was an institution with seven blind inmates and a staff of three employees which had on hand as a year’s supply, 153,960,000 extra long, double pointed, grade A, white-wood toothpicks which meant that the consumption of toothpicks was at the rate of 4,218.08 per person per day. This calculation brought out immediately two vital defects in administration. First, such a daily use of toothpicks particularly of this type and grade constituted a serious menace to the welfare of blind inmates. My earlier investigations of the use of toothpicks in institutions for the blind had proved conclusively that toothpicks, particularly of this type and grade, were extremely dangerous implements even in the hands of the most expert, endowed with perfect sight and in full possessionof allhis physical faculties. Furthermore, such an extraordinary use of picks invariably results in injury to the eye teeth of the blind and gives rise also to a condition of the gastrointestinal tract which is characteristic of inveterate toothpick users, namely enteritis toothpickii or sliveritis. Second, the extraordinary toothpick consumption suggested some defect in diet conducive to abnormal toothpicking. I found, as a matter of fact, that the dietary of the institution was almost exclusively round steak and popcorn, both of which induce extreme toothpicking and are otherwise unsuitable as a dietary basis in institutions for the blind, however well suited they may be to purposes of the lumbermen and toothpick manufacturers. INDEX OF EFFICIENCY 7 Carrying my inquiry still further, I discovered that the member of the board of trustees who was responsible for purchasing was indeed a lumberman who supplied toothpick timber to manufacturers. The conclusion was obvious that this member was simply exploiting these unfortunate blind persons in the interest of his lumbering operations. No more despickable misuse of public office has ever come to my attention. I have recently been informed that as the result of my survey, the rate of toothpick consumption is now only two and one third toothpicks per person per day and that the net annual saving on toothpicks alone is $11.1975. Sliveritis is now a thing of the past. Truly it may be said that toothpicks show which way the wind blows in institutional administration. The administrative pickture revealed by the inventory in this case was unmistakably one of incompetency. A CUSPIDORIAL INVENTORY In the same institution my inventory showed the institution to contain 337 brass cuspidors or an allowance of 32.7 cuspidors per person. Even assuming that all inmates and all employees were addicted to eating tobacco this appeared to be a most extravagant allowance. It is proper enough for the blind to be thoroughly instructed in the use of cuspidors, and owing to their infirmity it is, of course, necessary to provide more such receptacles than would be needed by the same number of persons with normal vision, but an allowance of 32.7 cuspidors per person is decidedly too much-in fact, it is too damn much. Moreover, my subsequent inquiry elicited the fact that of the three female inmates only one used tobacco and of the four males only two were tobacco users. Since none of them had ever seen a cuspidor, none had the slightest idea about their use.

PAGE 8

8 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October 15 The superintendent and his staff were all addicted to tobacco but declared they had never used cuspidors. Examination of rugs, carpets, and waste baskets in their offices indicated the truth of their statements. To sum up my cuspidorial inquiry, it was disclosed that another member of the board in the general household and provision supply business had obtained thirty dozen of these cuspidors from a tobacco dealer and had offered them as prizes to purchasers of eating tobacco. His customers feeling, rightly enough, that others might think them undemocratic in using cuspidors in their homes, uould have none of them, and so the dealer seized the opportunity to foist the whole thirty dozen on the institution for the blind at a good profit. I might say that the balance of the lot of 360 cuspidors, numbering thirtythree, were found after several weeks search in the possession of former inmates who had carried them away from the institution with a view to using them as olive dishes, sugar bowls, aquariums, and the like. Here again, by thorough inventory, even of such humble items as cuspidors, a most significant defect of administration was revealed. As might be expectorated, I recommended the appointment of a full time, technically trained cuspidorian and on the inauguration of this officer the spituation was quickly remedied. WHOOPEE ! In another southern state my inventory of a penitentiary which operated a large farm showed a supply of horseshoe nails in the blacksmith shop numbering 2,862,987. Running down my inventory to discover how many horses were used, I discovered that the only animals employed were mules, not counting, of course, the official jackasses in charge of the institution. Experience in the south had taught me that mules on penitentiary farms are not shod and therefore such a supply of horseshoe nails must be used for some other purpose. That purpose was, I discovered, the mandacture of finger rings for employees. When I reported the facts to the superintendent he tried to laugh it off, saying it was a horse on him, but the courts did not view it in this light. He was convicted of malfeasance, misfeasance, nonfeasance, and simple feasance. Mentally unbalanced by the unenviable notoriety which he received, he finally committed suicide by falling upon a rusty horseshoe nail, which penetrated his corpus luteum to my great satisfaction. Never have I had a survey bring such prompt and constructive improvement in administration, and all because of an inventory that left no horseshoe nail unturned. INVENTORY FORMS To describe in full detail my inventory procedure and the forms which I use would require more space than is allotted to me here. It will be sufficient perhaps to introduce a sample page from the annual report of an institution which I surveyed in 1872 and which is still following my procedure. This page, reproduced below, is taken verbatim from that part of the report of the Dementia, Saskatchewan, Institute for Feebleminded and Epileptic Veterans of the War of 1812, which has to do with the inventory of the maternity hospital supplies. It will be noted that there are occasional errors in spelling but as the inventory is always taken in this institution by one of the feebleminded inmates, that is to be expected. As a matter of fact, no one but a feebleminded person could or would prepare such an inventory.

PAGE 9

19281 THE INVENTORY AS AN INDEX OF EFFICIENCY 9 HOSPITAL WARD Oil and Ad Salves and Oinlntents W 02. Amber Red 1 02. Black Pepper 102. Cajeput 3 oz. Caraway M oz. Nutmeg 9 oz. Horsemint 1 02. Sandlewood Oil 3 oz. Eucalyptus 9 oz. Oil Bay Leaves 1 pt. Tar 8 oz. Turpentine Rootfied 2 oz. Acid Acetic Distilled 8 02. Acid Hydrochloric Diluted 1 pt. Sulphuric Aromatic 1 pt. Carbolic Acid 1 oz. Acid Nitric 8 02. Oil Wormwood 1% oz. Oil of Pimiento 1 oz. Oil of Pepsin 1 oz. Orijanum Hospdal PiuS 500 Acomtine Crystals 400 Alternating Compound 800 Anti-Arthmatic No. 55 SO0 Anti-Dyspeptic Rx. 9 900 Asafitida and Iron 750 Shromium Sulphate 500 cortsa 100 Carminitive 375 Crystitis RY 1. 400 Digestive Aromatic 150 Emmegagigue 200 Gelsemiurn 3 Minimume 500 Gelsemiurn 5 Minimume 200 IIexamethyleretramine 1,OOO Arsenic Iodode 9,WO Betanaphthal 1,300 Calomel and Sodium Bi-Carb. 1,500 Edena 1,200 Nitroglycerine and 2 Strychnine 2,500 Nitroglycerine 100 Pepsin and Salol Compound 900 Rhenacitine and Salol '250 Phosphoros Zinc and Stric. 500 Potassium Chloride and Borax so Fillicular Tonsillitis 300 Sedative Compound 1,500 Sodium Clycochiate Compound 4,000 Calcium Sulphate 25 Varercanated NO Sulphate Carbolated Compound 100 Sodium Colocylates 1 Ib. Lithium Citrate 9,000 Astrignent Wash 760 Antanillida and Sodium 2.50 Cold Specials 500 Manganise Diozide 450 Cacidin 500 Neuralgic 300 Alkaline Anaseptic 4,000 Bland and Strychnine 500 C.C. 300 1-40 Gr. Strychnine 700 Amonia Clortcaupan 900 Charcoal 900 Colcum Lucate 500 1 Gr. Calomel 1,000 Mercury Poticide lb. Bi-Chloride Mercury PILLS AND PILLAGE The above page was selected from among the 928 pages of inventory in this report because it presents the inventory of hospital pills in great detail,-and thereby hangs a tale. I found it necessary in this institution to insist upon a complete pill inventory because of the outrageous misuse of hospital pills. I discovered the reason for this extravagance to be that the feebleminded veterans in the manual training department were using the pills in the making of bead bags, necklaces, and such articles, and as material for inlaying the tops of milking stools which were one of the chief items of manufacture. This was not only an abuse of public property, but a grave danger to the health of the inmates. In one case which came to my observation, a veteran of 112 years, in a year of mental aberration, which is not uncommon among feebleminded veterans, had made himself a necklace of bichloride of mercury tablets thinking they were antidyspeptic pills. As the poor old chap was cutting his fourth set of teeth he habitually sucked the necklace and in consequence suffered

PAGE 10

10 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October 15 violently from mercury poisoning. Indeed the mercury rose so rapidly in him that when I saw him it had slready reached the red mark on his motometer indicating “overheated motor.” Prompt treatment resulted in his attaining “summer average” by the following day and, although it was necessary to install a new set of ball bearings, he is still regarded as a good trade-in proposition in the low priced field. On the whole I am convinced that nothing yields greater return in the study of administration than an inventory such as that described. It establishes at once a fact basis for further inquiry about which there can be no controversy. One thousand toothpicks or one thousand calomel pills are just that, and don’t let any one tell you different. There is no limit to the information which such an inventory will fnrnish to any student of public administration who is sap enough to make one. STANDARDS OF FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION BY LENT D. UPSON AND C. E. RIGHTOR Bankrupt Financiers for Cities Here the experts agree that absolute criteria of city jinance are feasible. .. .. .. A harmonious ending to a distressing controversy. :: .. THE purpose of this article is to enumerate some of the more important and generally accepted qualities that characterize sound financial aclministration in an urban community. Public finance covers a wide scope of community endeavor, and obviously the criteria of correct practices must be widely comprehensive. At the same time they must be direct and simple, so as to permit free and easy application. Here follow four simple tests which will tell in an instant the financial condition of any city. Anyone can use them. Even a child can understand them. How do you know? You don’t until you’ve applied these tests. 1. Hns your city any money in the 1 Appro~rd for publication by Francis Oakey, Is your city solvent? C.P.A. bank? If so it isn’t broke. If, however, the bank is broke your city is out of luck, and you might as well quit trying these tests now. 2. What is the tax rate per cubic foot of the city council’s cranial capacity? This is a far more important element than is commonly supposed. Strange as it may seem, the cranial capacity of the city council has a direct relation to the tax rate and the financial condition of a city. 3. How many bootleggers have you in your city? What is their number per dollar in taxes? Again the relationship here may seem remote, but it really is very close. The more bootleggers per tax dollar, the more there is to drink. The more there is to drink, the less the taxpayers worry about the taxes. A series of painful researches by Thompson, Capone, and Crowe of the Chicago Bureau of Applied Politics have dem

PAGE 11

19281 REPORTING MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 11 onstrated conclusively the soundness of the rocks, we have only the taxpayers this test. to blame. On the other hand, if you 4. What are the facilities offered by can dodge taxes, do so by all means, your cily for tax dodging? If it is hard and quit worrying about what it costs to avoid paying taxes, everyone is to run your city. You’ll be getting paying his fair share of the costs of something for nothing, SO shut up and government. Then if the city goes on let someone else do the worrying, REPORTING MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT BALLOTS, BULLETS, AND BABBITS BY Y. DIDIE KILPATRICK University of Gopher Prairie A satisfactory report is the prime requisite of all governments, as well .. as of aUJire&ackers. :: .. SAYS Calvin Coolidge: “I believe in the ballot. Without it where and what would America be today?” Ah, yes, where? Probably still in the northern half of the western hemisphere. As to what, that is another matter. But never was there made a truer or more pertinent remark. The ballot is the bulwark of civilization and democracy in these United States, now unhappily, coming of age. And who wouldn’t believe in the ballot if he, like Dr. Coolidge, were President of the United States? Ballots put him there. But ballots are not enough. This is selfevident from the mere fact that he is there. A new day is coming in government, particularly in municipal government. A new technique of politics has been developed in Chicago which bids fair to revolutionize the American electoral system. Hard by the ivy-covered walls of one of America’s more prominent seats of learning, and basking in the aura of scientific scholarship that exudes from its Gothic towers and pinnacles, has arisen a new school of political re.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. of young men, who with a rashness that bespeaks their years ask questions that conservative and timid age avoids. They say, “Ballots are well enough in their place, but they will not suffice. Who can be sure that they will be cast in the right way? What guarantee is there that the repeater will repeat as per agreement, or that the honest voter who has just sold his vote for two bits will not throw the boys down?” And to these questions their faculty, the gangsters, have given us the answer. Say the gangs, “We believe in the Bullet.” Another trenchant truth is this. These ringing words will pass on down through the ages, bringing light to the dark continent of American politics, and guiding the weary footsteps of the American people towards righteousness and truth and better government. The bullet and its first cousin, the pineapple, have brought about, in Chicago, a new conception of the rights and duties of man and of the citizen, and a new era of political freedom is upon us. But what though we have both the search. This school is foimed largely bullet and the ball& is there not more?

PAGE 12

12 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October 15 asks Henry L. Mencken, better known to his more intimate friends as Hank, the Friend of the Common People. Says Mencken, “I believe in Babbits.” And here we reach the crux of the matter, for Hank, the Democrat, is a true and worthy successor to the Father of Democracy, Thomas Jefferson, and what he says has meaning. Asks Hank, aptly enough, “What boots it though we have both the ballot and the bullet? Forsooth, there must be someone to cast the ballot and someone to receive the bullet, hence the Babbit.” But by this time, the reader is doubtless asking himself, “What in hell has this to do with municipal reporting? I don’t know.” And, dear reader, neither do we. A UNIFORM CLASSIFICATION A Report by the Committee on Uniforms of the International Association of Bureaus, Chiffoniers, Dressers, Highboys, Lowboys and Secretaries of Governmental Research What the welldressed man and woman wiU wear. I. GENERAL IN general, uniforms shall he uniform for the uniformed rank of uniform Bureaus, Chiffoniers, Dressers, Highboys, Lowboys, and Secretaries. The only exception shall be in the case of Dressers of a period later than the Victorian, in which case the said Dressers shall he designated as Snappy Dressen and their uniforms need not be uniform except as to Drawers. With respect to Highboys considerable latitude shall be allowed in uniforms except that in no case shall their latitude exceed one third (f) of their longitude. In all other respects uniforms of uniform grades of Bureaus, Chiffoniers, Dressers, Highboys, Lowboys, and Secretaries shall conform to the prevailing mode of the period, comma, semi-colon, or colon, as the case may be. 11. UNIFORhlFD RASK 1. Boards of Trustees. The uniforms of Trustees meeting annually shall be similar in style to that worn by the late senator C. Julius Caesar on the Ides of March, provided the annual meeting of Trustees falls on that date. If falling upon some other date, fig, orange, melon or banana, Trustees may wear whatever is convenient, seasonable, and decent, except that in all cases Trustees’ uniforms shall contain not less than one dozen (1%) extra large, bellows type, well lined pockets, without fishhooks. The wearing by Trustees of unlined pockets or pockets lined with fishhooks will be considered a breach of etiquette, if the said pockets are breeches pockets. When about to retire, trustees shall wear pajamas. 2. Directors. The uniform of a Director shall consist of a scarlet tunic similar in style to that worn by an officer of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police. The said tunic shall be ornamented with gold braided epaulets similar to those worn by a field marshal with baton of the Royal Abyssinian Camel Corps. It is recom

PAGE 13

19281 A UNIFORM CLASSIFICATION 1s mended, however, that the baton be used with discretion. When on field duty, the Director shall also wear a pith helmet similar to those formerly worn by members of the New York Street Cleaning Department. On the front of such helmet there shall be a shield in the shape of a pretzel symbolizing the efforts of a director to make ends meet. The said shield shall be illuminated with the initial letters in gold of the Bureau, Chiffonier, Dresser, Highboy, Lowboy, or Secretary to which the Director is attached, provided he is attached to it. If not attached to it, the shield shall be in the form of a hand with fingers outspread, the thumb touching a nose, thus indicating non-attachment or disrepect according to the sign language of the ancient Egyptians and Ford automobile drivers. The Phi Beta Kappa key shall be suspended from the third button of the tunic in the exact middle line, indicating freedom from bias. Beards are optional, but Ph.D.’s. and rubber heels are mandatory. 3. Stuf. The uniforms of Staff Members, except Accountants and Librarians, shall consist of coat, vest, shirt, pants, socks, and shoes as a minimum. Pants, if worn, shall be reinforced where evidence of wear is greatest. If not worn, a new deal may be demanded by the player to the left of the dealer. Vests shall not be cut lower than the joint between the manubrium and gladiolus of the breast bone, cxcept that if beards are worn a lower cut is permitted, providing the beard extends below the said joint of the breast bone. In such cases also collars and ties may be dispensed with. Phi Beta Kappa keys, Ph.D.’s, hip flash, and fraternity pins shall not be worn except in an emergency.’ Accountants and Librarians may be permitted to wear whatever style of uniform is best adapted to their figures, speaking literally and figuratively. In the case of Accountants, coats and vests may be dispensed with, provided suspenders are not worn. In the case of Librarians, however, suspenders must not be worn under any circumstances. In lieu of suspenders, Librarians will be permitted the use of safety pins to the number of not less than six, and in length not less than one and one half inches. A charge of non-support will be entered against any Librarian failing to observe these regulations. 111. CIVILIAN RANK Under this head will be included .all persons not on the regular pay roll, such as training school students, visiting members of university faculties, and other hangers on. For these persons it is recommended that they furnish themselves with good serviceable overalls, and canvas gloves, as they will be expected to do a great deal of the dirty work. By order of the Committee: CLARENCE B. (“BRUCE”) SMITH Secretary An Emergency shall be considered to exist only in an emergency.

PAGE 14

THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC IN DEMOCRACY ADMINISTRATION-AN EXPERIMENT BY TOOTHER WOODTICK Plain fads for seriom readers. Truth never dies. THIS brief history is done in the tabloid style, for it is felt by the author that pictures speak for themselves; they more truthful story of the rise, growth, and progress of this great institution A few words of description and explanation may not come amiss, however. annot lie, and therefore they will tell a A RESULT OF CORRUPTION The seeds of the National Institute of Public Administration were sown by PWTE I The Former Home of the National Institute of Public Administration. Dr. Luther Culick. as a Child Appears in the Foreground than any conglomeration of words can possibly do. These pictures have been collected after a long period of patient investigation, bribery, and theft. It is felt by those in charge of the Institute that it is now high time to “let these facts be submitted to a candid world.” the Burr Conspiracy, the Mississippi Bubble, and the Whiskey Rebellion (in fact, it is alleged that some of the present staff may be staging, perhaps, a whiskey rebellion on their own account in these days of prohibition). Its actual rise and formation, however, date 11

PAGE 15

AN EXPERIMENT IN DEMOCRACY 15 from the days of the Tweed Ring. When Boss Tweed held sway over New York City and its brownstone fronts, it was necessary to organize a group of lligh pressure men to collect the graft. When the ring collapsed, this high pressure gang felt that their services to the community must go on, and so the National Institute of Public Administration was organized. called in to serve Croker in his administration of the city. Soon achieving a reputation, the Institute was summoned to make surveys for some of the more important civic leaders elsewhere. Its first important service outside of New York was rendered to the Philadelphia Gas Ring, and its assistance in promoting the civic activities of that organization was generally recognized h4TE 11 The Exterior of the Institute’s Splendid New Home Its first step was to adopt the following motto, as typical of the great public service which it sought to render, “Privilege, Pillage, and Plucking.” Its second step was to select its o6ce headquarters. These arc shown in Plate I. The Institute’s third step was to raise funds, which it still does, largely by check. GRAFTING FOR THE NATION The importance of its great public service was soon recognized, and it was as invaluable. Although acting primarily as collectors of graft, the members of the Institute devised new schemes for mulcting the taxpayers, and their reputation in New York and Philadelphia became nationwide. The Institute therefore extended its field of operations and surveys to assist political machines throughout the country. Its assistance, for example, to Schmitz and Reuf in building up their civic program for San Francisco is too well known to be retold here.

PAGE 16

16 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October 15 PLATE IJI Sumptuously Appointed Offices of the Institute PLATE 1V Staff Members on a Field Survey

PAGE 17

19281 AN EXPERIMENT IN DEMOCRACY PLATE V Dr. Luther Gulick, Director of the National Institute of Public Administration 17 PLATE VI Dr. Gulick, Hard at Work in His OEce

PAGE 18

18 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October 15 tantly by Dr. Watson, Dr. Cornick, Dr. PERSONALITIES Buck, and Dr. Smith, but circumFinally, the growth and development stances over which they had no control of the Institute became such that it was made their participation in the work necessary to move into new and more necessary. They all said, upon its commodious quarters. These are completion, that they had learned PLATE VII Dr. Bruce Smith, Expert in Crime shown in Plates I1 (exterior) and I11 valuable lessons from their experiences (interior). Plates IV-X are pictures of and that next time in conducting a sursome of the staff members. Plate IVis vey of a bank they were going to be a photograph of four members engaged more careful. in a survey of one of New York’s state Plate V is a portrait of Dr. Gulick, institutions, from the inside. This director of the Institute. The original survey was undertaken rather relucof this is in the files of the New York

PAGE 19

19281 AN EXPERIMENT IN DEMOCRACY 19 City Police Department, in the departmental collection of photographs of some of the more prominent New Yorkers. It was furnished through the courtesy of the police, with whom Dr. Gulick is unusually popular. Plate VI is a sketch of Dr. Gulick, hard at work in his new office. This was made by one of his co-workers, and reached the outside world through the connivance. of a guard. When Dr. Gulick made his headquarters there, he was informed that he had a life job. Plate VII is a recent photograph of Bruce Smith, staff member, now engaged in a personal investigation of the internal condition of European jails. Plate VIII is a staff photograph. Reading from left to right the members are: (front row) Carl E. McCombs, A. E. Buck, Clarence Ridley; (rear row) William Watson, Philip H. Cornick. Plate IX is a sketch of Dr. Ridley at rest, after a survey, and Plate X shows Dr. McCombs hard at work on the same job. FUTURE PROGRAM The program of the National Institute of Public Administration for the future, though born of enthusiasm and science, is nurtured by the realities of experience. NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE Associated with the Institute is the National Municipal League, an organization which exists for no good purpose (what its purpose is, God only knows). Plate XI shows Harold W. Dodds, ex-secretary, engaged in raising funds to carry on his work. PLATE VIII Staff Photograph Front row: McCombs, Buck, Ridley Rear row: Watson, Cornick

PAGE 20

NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October 16; PLATE IX Dr. Clarence Ridley at Rest

PAGE 21

19881 AN EXPERIMENT IN DEMOCRACY PLATE X Dr. McCombs at Rest

PAGE 22

NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW PLATE XI Harold W. Dodds Raising Money

PAGE 23

CONTROL FORM FOR PARK PICNICS BY FRANCE IS O.K. Picnics are at present a menace to girth control. Here is a practical .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. measure for controlling the waste line. THERE is no problem of public management that cannot be solved by the development of proper control forms. Control, however, is often not an easy matter, and care should be taken to develop the form along the most approved Mack Sennett lines. The following experience of the author with forms during his formative years gives an idea of the only correct procedure in developing a good one. PARK PICNIC DIETETIC CONTROL The Rightor was recently called upon to deal constructively with the problem of public park picnics. Though Dr. Careless E. McCombs and Professor Randolph Obiter Huuuus were associated with him, to deal respectively with the health and apparatus features of the problem, their contribution was of little significance. He discovered that the real difficulty lay not in (a) the free lunch served, (b) the quantities consumed per child, or (c) the system of steam tables and serving trays, as certain other so-called experts who were associated with him had concluded. It lay rather in the fact that there were no control forms in operation! We then went to work, without our associates, and developed the ideal form as shown on page 24. EXPLANATION OF FORM A word of explanation with regard to this form is in order. This can best be done from a procedural standpoint, as the form was designed for use, though it has not yet been put into operation, due to the fact that corn on the cob is not being served at park picnics at this season of the year. On coming to a public picnic each person, young or old, is made to go through a‘turnstile and is tagged with the picnic control tag. The tag is nontransferrable, and says so right on its face. The tag or form is printed in three colors. The purpose of this is to start conversation. “Aha, I see you have an orange tag,” etc., and to make it less monotonous for the park attendants to gather up the tags after the picnic. On passing through the turnstile, a stub chopper is used to remove the stub, which is conveniently labeled “stub.” These are later thrown away. The name of the patron is written on the tag, on the stub, and on the “Completion Record ” appearing at the bottom of the tag, on the line marked “Q”, which is the Latin for Quis, meaning Whoin’ell. The “Ge” on the stub stands for age, and is used to avoid embarrassment in the case of advanced maidens. Every individual is then weighed and measured by health department inspectors to determine the “ normal appetite expectance safety factor.” This is correlated with the index of break horsepower generated by the individual in passing through the turnstiles, which is automatically recorded upon the forms at the time of issue, and a “Maximum feed quota” is then determined for each picnicker. This may be, say, Hot Dogs, 5; Ears of Corn, 7; Pieces of Pie, 4; Bottles of Pop, 2; and Mugs of Beer, 5. This scientific determination is indicated on the card by punching out the 43

PAGE 24

$24 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October 15 appropriate squares on the tag beginning at the right and working to the left. The punch used is in the form of a skull, symbolizing the danger of going beyond the scientific safety quota. Then the individual proceeds to the “food issue control booths,” unless it is already time for him to go home, and secures his lunch. As each hot dog is issued, the tag is punched in the appropriate square. The same process is followed for all other supplies, but this time going from left to right as with an ear of corn. When the quota or the picnicker is exhausted, no more food is issued.‘ As the picnicker departs, he again walks over the platform of a bathroom scales and passes through a turnstile. Both records, weight and break-horsepower, are noted and recorded on the “Completion Record” on which is also entered the ratio of actual food consumption to the quota allotted for statistical purposes. This completes the procedure. . This is where the control mmes in.

PAGE 25

RECENT BOOKS VIEWED TEE PFCE~IDENT’S DAUGRTER. By N. Brittain. This book should be avidly read by every director of a municipal research bureau, as it contains the outlines of financing a new research movement in a joyful, happy manner. By writing on government, from the sex angle, the author has been able to accomplish wonders, educating the masses, while financing a campaign to remove one of the sore spots from our civilization. The book is written in a delightful style. It has the same delicious swing as does a report of the Social Hygiene Association. While it might be criticized as putting foolish ideas into the heads of young girls who desire to go places and do things, still if read from a scientific view point, the reader can emerge from the book, take a cold bath, and show few effects from then on. The central theme running through the story is the virile call of a strong man for a mate. Around the answer to that call is built a nucleus for a new research organization. Its characters are said to be drawn from actual life, which shows the urgent necessity of universal psychiatric tests for all who enter public service. The hero is a lovable man, who married an ice cold mama. This marriage, during the course of years, had a bad effect on his rheumatism and lumbago. In the course of time, he was elected to the highest office of our land. He had found previously, as a legislator, that his life belonged to his country, and that, therefore, he ought to do something about the rheumatism which was not getting any better. He did. IIe became intensely interested in a young lady who, it might be added, was good for the eyes, the rheumatism, and that tired feeling. It was an ideal situation; the ice cold mama furnished advice and money-the warmer and younger lady gave sympathy and children. What muld be nicer? It would be foolish to go into the details of the story-that would spoil the suspense, and should the older and wiser readers of this review be told the ending at this time, it is doubtful if they could be persuaded to read the book at all. It would be all too horrifying to them, for, as they would trace the history of this one man through the pages, they would shudder and squirm, get hot flushes, become bilious, and in general, have the whole day spoiled. It might recall to them that stenographer, or the little girl who was secretary to their largest contributor, or the sister-in-law of the assistant director-every page would bring its suggestion, and each suggestion would bring its remorse. And they could only repeat fervently that, instead of being presidents, they were. humble researchers; that the wife’s folks did not have two dimes to rub together; and that Good Luck, rather than Good Sense, guided them in their hour of agony. Besides being historical and sexual, the book serves a moral purpose, in that it shows the pitfalls into which directors of research bureaus may fall. First, it would seem that when a researcher takes a wife, she should not be the ice cold mama type, but should have ideals like papa’s. It seems that this one fact.was the basis for the hero of this tale going wrong. Second, if the book under review has been published too late to change the selection of the little wife, it carries a warning that great care should be used in selecting your sweetie. She may be young, affectionate, sympathetic, even beautiful; but she MUST be dumb. Oh! HOW dumb that girl must be!! And how!!! For she must care neither for money nor Literary Fame. She must think that an “affair” is a personal matter, if not for her own finer feelings, at least for the sake of the child, for there is always a child. She would have to be willing to name the child “Pippin,” so when a new guild is named after it, the membership would be kept small by the wisecrack, “It Bounds lie applesauce to me.” Books she should regard as silly things, to be written only by old ladies with funny figures. If the sweetie does not measure up to these standards, no matter how appealing she may be, RESIST THAT IMPUIBAIVE HER THE GATE. Third, you must improve your education along more sophisticated lines, as the hero did not. He often regretted he had never read the following: Plain Facts, or Happy Though Childless, Whai an OM Married Man Should Know, and Why the Orphans Homes are Being Built Larger This Year. The knowledge that would be yours from such books would greatly assist in removing some of the odium from the pagu 45

PAGE 26

26 NATIONAL iMUNICIPAL REVIEW [October 15 of any book which might be written about you after your death. Fmh, it would seem that if you MUST have your sweetie, but if your face, fortune, and figure are such thst you cannot be too particular in your selection, some sacrifice is necessary. If the betterment of the human race and purity of government are the ideals lying closest to your heart, it might be well to consider a change from a research bureau to some other position where the morals are neither so strict or so necessary as, say, a policeman. Miss -4. NONWE MOUSE. * GOVERNMBNTAL PLlRCR.40INQ. By RUS~ Forbes, S.N.M.L. (not a degree, but a job). To be printed if and when terms satisfactory to the author can be arranged with the publishers. Pages: front matter, lsxxviii; text, 384; appendices, 497; index, not yet determined. Profusely illustrated. The opportunity to review this forthcoming book is indeed a rare one. It will give the literati and the researchers a hint of what is in store for them. &rely, if ever, before has a book of this kind been so important as to call for a review several weeks before its publication. One has only to read the fist few paragraphs to see that the author is thoroughly converted to the idea of “centralized purchasing.” and before the end of the first chapter he gets terribly in earnest about it. In short, he thinks it is just about as fundamental in the structure of human society as the single tax. But as a panacea for the ills of government the single tax “ain’t’’ in it compared with centralized purchasing. .4nd so he holds up centralized purchasing to the reader as the philosopher held up the lead pencil before his class with the remark that if we knew all about this lead pencil we would know the riddle of the universe. Perhaps so, but the reviewer reserves judgment at this point. The style in which the book is aritten is excellent; in fact, it is entirely too good for the subject matter. It is a shame to naste such diction on requisitions, order fnrnis, tickler files, and stores control. Mr. Forbes has certainly missed the proper groove (or should we say niche?) in the literary world. He should I Since tbb review wns written two publishers ha\e been found --TEE ALTROR. \Ye thuught publtshem had more senW.-EDlToR. have been writing about what gentlemen prefer when they feel real devilish, or he should have been a reporter to some Hawkshaw. In either case, he would have made at least $50,000 from the same e5ort that he has put in this magnum opus on governmental purchasing, which will probably return him $10 in royalties provided all the libraries in the country purchase copies. Mr. Forbes believes that every book should have an appendix, in fact, several of them. He would not think of getting out a book which was entirely stripped of these handy references for the avid reader. The effect upon the nervous system of such a reader might be terrible should he approach the last sentence of the last chapter with naught but the index staring him in the face. While Mr. Forbes admits that the appendices to his book are quite lengthy, he says confidentially (not for publication in any reputable journal) that they are of the accordion type and therefore easily adaptable to the exigencies of the printing industry, should the prospective publishers raise any kick about their length. The figures to be found in this book deserve at least a word. The reviewer must say reluctantly that these figures do not in any way relate to nudes and he believes will not be found to have any sex appeal even for perverts of the futurist school of art. Perhaps 75 of these figures will help the reader to understand what the author is talking about, but the other 150 not even the author can explain. As a parting word, the reviewer must let you in on one little secret of the author’s life. This is his first book, so be sympathetic if you can’t be complimentary. He says it will be his last one, but as won as he recovers from the birth pangs of this maiden effort he will probably try another. Like those who enter into second marriage, it mill be for him the triumph of hope over experience. G. B. S. (not to be mistaken for the initials of George Bernard Shaw.) * As .\DI-ESTURE IN DEMOCUCY. By Luther New York, The National Institute Gulick. of Public .4dministration. 1928. The only excuse I have to offer for my Review of the dish of literary applesauce Khich Dr. Gulick has set before us in this book is that owing to circumstances over which I have no control, I cannot give him the sock in the eye which he Pp. 106.

PAGE 27

19281 RECENT BOOKS VIEWED so richly deserves for the preparation of such an atrocious diet for his fellow workers. The title “An Adventure in Democracy” sets a new record for nonsense. My secretary, to whom I delegated the tiresome and unprofitable task of reading the book, informs me under oath that there is not between its covers a single reference to the Democrats. Furthermore, to call the career of infamy whi’ch this volume discloses “An Adventure” does the research movement grave dishonor. If the career of the now defunct (Thank God!) Bureau of Municipal Research and the National Institute of Public Administration is adventure, then Captain Kidd, Gyp the Blood, and Senator Fall were honorable adventurers. Aside from this ridiculous and mendacious title, the book is a complete bust. It is literally crammed with errors of fact. Indeed, I doubt if even Upson and Hightor could have made more errors in the same page space. Instead of putting his treatment on a sound factual basis, Dr. Gulick has adopted the same method of treatment that he has found so successful in his “Finney and Fanny” bed time stories, published in the Christian Science Monitor. It is quite apparent that Dr. Gulick‘s literary metie7 is the bed time story and not serious writing. It would have been much better if he had published his “Adventure in Democracy” as he publishes “Finny and Fanny”anonymous1y. It would be a waste of time to catalogue in detail the errors as to facts with which the book bristles. It is my plain duty, however, to point out those which seem to me to qualify this volume only as a suitable interior decoration for an ash can. 1. The survey of the city of Cornwall to which Dr. Gulick devotes so much attention was not made by the Bureau of Municipal Research and, furthermore, was not the first municipal survey as the author implies. The survey of the city of Cornwall was made under the reviewer’s personal supervision and on his own responsibility with the assistance of several training school students. The fist municipal survey, moreover, of which the reviewer has a photographic copy, was made for King Arthur by Sir Galahad during his search for the Holy Grail which took him into all cities of the kingdom. His report was submitted to the Round Table on Municipal Grails, several hundred years before the city of Cornwall was incorporated. a. The real god-father of the research moveThese are, briefly: ment was not R. Pulton Cutting, as Director Gulick declares, but a thin, tall fellow with a black moustache who was assisted by a thickset, clean-shaven fellow. The names of these gentlemen as any one may discover by reference to the records of police magistrates are John Doe and Richard Roe. 3. Contrary Co Mr. Gulick‘s statements, John D. Rockefeller did underwrite the entire budget of the Bureau of Municipal Research in 1915. It is a matter of record that his check for $3.27 passed through the counting room of the Bureau, and the reviewer has a photographic copy of that check. 4. The statement by Professor Gulick that William H. Allen, Frederick A. Cleveland, and Henry Brubre were joint directors of the Bureau in the early period of its existence is incorrect. None of them had any connection with any joint whatever. 5. The Training School for Public Service was not established for the purpose of training students for public service as Colonel Gulick states. When it was founded, its sole purpose was to provide a rest camp for the horde of underprivileged, undernourished, and underintelligenced graduates of our incompetent and inefficient schools and colleges. The reviewer’s inveatigators, who have gone carefully into the matter, have furnished him with sworn statements to the effect that the present Training School for Public Service still adheres to its original policy and that there is no change in curriculum, except for the worse, under its present management,-if the present half-baked operation of the Training School can be referred to as management. To sum up, this book typifies the kind of hokum that a number of sophomoric representatives of the research movement think is required to meet the present day’s taste in movements. In attempting to provide a mantle of respectability for the infamous career of the Bureau.of Municipal Research, Mayor Gulick has exhibited traits which seem quite inconsistent with the traditions of his honored family. The book is a bloomer and everyone should know it. No doubt the Reverend Gulick’s intentions were honorable but it is not too much to say that Hell is paved with such intentions. As a matter of fact, if enough of these books have been printed they might very well be used for that purpose. There will be a few morons and others who still believe in fairies who will read the book ifthey can get free copies-but for the rank and file of

PAGE 28

28 N.4TIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [October 15 researchers, the reviewer‘s advice is, save your money. PRO Roxo PUBLICO. (Name on request) f Pwuc RECREATION FEES, A NEW PHASE OF THE RIJDGEI PBOBLEM. By .4. E. Buck. Pp. 658. Dr. Buck has recommended that the fees charged on public tennis courts be levied according to the following formula: In this formula F is taken as the fee, C. the money correlation factor, r, the area of the players’ feet in square feet, y, the weight of the players, p the force of gravity, t the time played, and u their average speed in covering the court. The learned professor explains his formula as follows: “It is an accepted cannon that recreation fees should be based upon the cost of maintenance of the facility, which in turn depends upon the wear and tear due to use. My formula determines this with mathematical accuracy. By multiplying the force due to gravity, fgtz, (gravity times the time squared in seconds divided by two), by the weight of the players y and their speed in chasing volleys .?, we get the pressure on the court’s surface. Now it is a fundamental law of physics that the weight is distributed in proportion to the area. By squaring, therefore, the square foot area of the players feet, r, and multiplying by the coefficient of friction, p, for the kind of shoes and court, we get a force on the court, which is a differential of the pressure. By multiplying this force by the derivative of the pressure, and then by the money correlation factor (determined by the index number system) we get the exact fee in dollars and cents. IVhile some of these factors cannot be determined absolutely, the formula recommends itself bec3use of its simplicity.” Tables of friction coeficients for gravel, clay, concrete, and grass courts, and rubber and leather soled shoes, and tables of money currelations are included. Professor Buck announces that he is at present working out a fee formula for public golf courses, based upon a correlation between the age and weight of the players, the size of their feet, and the number of divots taken. He adds that his chief difficulty now lies in perfecting an infallible divot meter. NOTTA S.~PP, LL.D. THE TWENTY-FIPTA BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE PALDKA STATE HOBPITAL FOR FEEBLEMINDED AND EPILE~IC. Published at Paluka, B. S., 1928. Pp. 897. This excellent and voluminous report, which is typical of the kind of hogwash published by institutions of this character, is worthy the attention of all students of public affairs and the National Association of Waste Paper Balers. It is bound in red oilcloth and is stamped with a. yellow design on tbe cover which is presumably the state seal, but to the unprejudiced eye of the reviewer looks more lie a violent outbreak of yeUow jaundice complicated with eczema. The report weighs exactly four and a half pounds and would undoubtedly make a great impression on the reader if it should be dropped on him from any great height. The report opens auspiciously with a portrait of the superintendent who. if his mug can be taken as an index to his mentality, should also be found in the group picture of feebleminded inmates on page 7%. Following this is the letter of transmittal to the board of trustees, in which the superintendent does the usual amount of bootlicking. He particularly thanks the board for their untiring devotion to the interests of the institution, when as a matter of fact, the board visited the institution only once during the biennium and then only for the purpose of inspecting a new bull purchased for the dairy herd. The statistical suminaries wbich follow are most illuminating and show conclusively why we have institutions for the feebleminded. The first table presents a correlation between the intelligence quotient of inmates and the mean average rainfall in the state during the biennium. No one can review this table without nausea. Another excelleut table is that which shows in comparative form the production of the dairy herd and the production by inmates of baskets, doilies, rag rugs, grass mats, and other objects of art. This is the kind of statistical information which is all too often lacking in institutional reports and without which no proper estimate can be made either of their gasoline consumption per mile or colon bacilli per cc. A third table of particular interest shows how many inmates were and how many were not during the biennium. Of those that were not it appears that 6 per cent had other resources and could therefore not be admitted to the Training School for Public Servic-xcept on payment of the usual fee.

PAGE 29

19981 RECENT BOOKS VIEWED 49 You will enjoy these tables if you are that kind of a nut. The report is unusually well illustrated. Attention is called to the full page photograph of the interior of the dairy barn on page 695. The photograph is so remarkably clear that the reviewer was able to count 39,826 flies on a single milk can. You don’t believe it? Well, count them yourself then. What do you think I am? The photograph of the administrative building is splendid and resembles closely the aspect of a small pox pest house of the vintage of 1885 which the reviewer once saw near Denver, Colorado. The gentleman leaning against the railing is presumably the superintendent, although I doubt if even such a simp as he appears to be would be photographed in front of a joint like this. The picture of the operating room on Christmas Eve, page 791, is also excellent. It looks very much like the interior of a Child’s Restaurant except that Child’s restaurants specialize somewhat more in vegetarian foods. At that, it may be a Child’s restaurant but wot th ’ell of it. You can’t make me mad. The pikce de resistance as Professor Beard, would have it, is a group picture of inmates on page 753. Among those present the reader will recognize many familiar faces. The imbecile on the extreme left, I discover, is not the superintendent, but his twin brother, sixteen years younger, but otherwise just as foolish. A horse and buggy appears in the background of this picture which will help you to distinguish the inmate group from the employee group on page 743. Certainly it is a horse, and I’d give odds it’s buggy, knowing what I do about institutions like this. The final picture is of the herd of 300 or so full bred Duroc hawgs and this alone justifies the report. The editor of the report and the photographer who made these pictures certainly deserve the highest commendation and a swift kick in the pants. The report concludes with a summary showing the results of treatment of the feebleminded during the biennium. It is convincing evidence that the institution has no reason for existence. Out of 78 inmates, 87 died or were otherwise disposed of, giving a mortality of 120.8 per cent. This mortality is so low as to lead to the suspicion that the figures are inaccurate. Four hundred per cent, counting fies and cockroaches, would be nearer the correct figure. The net return on disposal of the dead and uncalled for was !37 cents for the biennium, a very excellent showing. This money was used to provide insect powder for firing the institutional cannon at the Fourth of July celebration held under the potted palm loaned by the Ladies Auxiliary of the Paluka Association Opposed to Imbecility. The report has no appendix, this having been removed by the house physician early in the report. An excellent index is supplied but unfortunately this was not available at the time of going to press and will thwefore not be printed until a subsequent report-and a hell of a good idea, if you ask me. The best thing about this report is that it appears only once every two years and then only for a moment. HOWITT REEHG, Pri.D.

PAGE 30

JUDICIAL INDECISIONS EDITED BY TOM AND JERRY The Expansion of Municipal Functions Since Prohibition.-It has long been a fact of interest to outstanding students of municipal corporation law that city functions are increasing in number by leaps and bounds. Daily we see shattered world mrdn for the city charter broad jump. (See A. R. Hatton, Leaping lo Pr~gress, OT Rum, Rheuntufism, and Rebellion, and William Bennett Mum. Couri Injlafh of Balloon 7trc Ch07‘frrS.) Indeed, the rate of this increase is so rapid that it is comparable only to the fast growth of the United States navy under the Coolidge-Wilbur naval disarmament program. Although new functions are being added to an already overcrowded municipal list faster than an adding machine can total them, the courts, staunch up holders of the lazy-fare theory, have been far behind the times, and it has been only in recent years, particularly since such disasters as the World War, the Mississippi Floods of 1937, and National Prohibition, that they have viewed -these new awretions to municipal powers in a friendly light. With the well-known case of Slippery Slim v. Village of Squeedunk, 164 F. F. V. 89, came a turning point in legal history. This case is too well known to be rehashed here, and, besides the weather mas too hot when this was written to do any more work than was absolutely necessary. Suffice it to say that in this case the court sustained the power of a city to maintain and operate a frog pond, in order to provide frogs’ legs for the prisoners in the city jail. It is true that their diet had been deficient up to this point, consisting chiefly of C. C. pills, but none the less this case marks the day that the courts got off their high horse and used some common seme. It was high time. Later the court upheld a city in its attempt to maintain a collar button factory to provide diamond collar buttons for all hoboes, in order to improve the appearance of the local slum district. (People ex rel. Second-story Stwe, Tarpayer. v. Cily of Il’ien~bumbelu~orfentlorjmsleinschn if:elpibPnerurqirrl. 142 Ham and. 38.) This case, by the nay, was one of the earlier cases decided by the court upon purely sociological grounds. Still more recently in AtIurncy General cx rel. Titmmcse v. Eighfy-nine Fleas, 83 U. S. P. 487. the court, in a bit of obiler dictum hinted at the possible validity of a municipal flea circus. (But see contra, Pmt Authw ities of Mudidle, Idaho v. Steambod Bill. 36 Snooker 419, in which the right of a city to maintain a goldfish aquarium for the amusement of its civil service commission was denied, and Hooknose Harry v. Verniin County Taxing fisflid, 146 Flit 35, wherein the court refused to permit a city to imtall patent louse and bedbug traps in its municipal lodging house.) It was not until after the coming of Prohibition, however, that the courts became unanimously liberal. It will be recalled that with the great drouth of 1918 the drinking habit became universal in America almost overnight. Cities soon found it necessary to cater to the appetites of their citizens for wine, women, and song. (Previous numbers of the REVIEW have contained articles on the last two subjects. See especially ‘I Municipal Necking Nooks-the Newest Phase of the Playground Movement,” by Randolph Overnight Huus and ‘‘Municipal Caterwauling and Yodeling.” by Bruce Smith, in the Convention Number for 192.) Three recent cases sustain the authority of the city to provide alcoholic delights for its citizens. In Twenty-$we Cwes of Beer v. Cockroach Slraifon, 5 Sat. Eve. Pest 63, a municipally operated speakeasy was recognized as legal by the court. In this case the city council of Three Schooners, D. T., in an attempt to carry out a campaign pledge to the W. C. T. U. for “Bigger and Better Beers,” had set up a city owned and operated beer emporium. A local bootlegger protested, and sought to libel twenty-Bve cases of beer, imported from Canada. IIe won in the lower courts, but in the name of beer and justice the case \\as appealed. After consuming what remained of the evidence, the appellate court SUStained the city on broad oratorical grounds. Said the learned judge, in part, “ \Ye can see no reason why a city should not sell beer, or even give it away. Beer is one of the greatest boons of God to suffering mankind. It cools the parched throats and soothes the fevered lips of the sick; it eases the last moments of the dying; it gives solace and comfort to the bereaved. What \\auld an Irish wake be vithout beer? To the weary worker and the tired business man. 30

PAGE 31

JUDICIAL INDECISIONS 31 fatigued, nay exhausted, after a hard day of labor, a glass of beer curnes as the nectar of Zeus, or the manna from heaven. “It is contended that beer is degrading. We do not, in fact cannot, agree. Quite the contrary. In the springtime of youth and the autumn of old age, by the mighty rich and the lowly poor, by the idling broker in his great castle and the toiling peasant in his humble cot, by each and all beer is enjoyed as the one great delight of the soul. Universal education is regarded by many as one of the chief bulwarks of American civilization. We find still a greater, beer. Though we be condemned from the very housetops by those who hear us, yet say we, Rather would we assent to abolishing the city schools than to estopping the municipal speakeasy.” In the contrast to this eulogium a recent decision sustaining the operation of a night club by Cocktail City, Kansas, or Texas, we forget which, is of considerable interest to the student of sociological jurisprudence. (Mcrrgan, et. A]. v. Guinan, 36 Whoopee 42.) Here the court dwelt especially upon the social aspects of the case. Frankly admitting the necessity of night clubs, with their attendant hostesses, $50 a bottle champagne for prohibition agents, and nude entertainment, the court nevertheless saw certain grave social dangers in permitting such institutions to have a free scope of activity. Said the court, in part, ‘‘ In a hectic day and age such as ours, with all the evils attendant upon overcrowded cities, mass production, and high pressure salesmanship, the night club is necessary as an outlet for the emotions and inhibitions of those who in a more primitive day would have been content with drinking apple jack, playing post office, and taking buggy rides. It is admitted by both sides that low prices are the ruin of the night club business. As the learned counsel for the appellant so aptly state, no one would feel flattered at being addressed as ‘ Sucker’ by Miss Guinan in her friendly way, and then getting nicked for a mere fiver, or at the most, just a ten spot. Such a situation would make all night clubs take the count in no time. Viewing the matter in this light, we are firmly of the belief that the only way to give the sucker his chance is. to keep the night club a city owned monopoly, and, incidentally, thereby avoid the three o’clock curfew. The sucker has his rights; among them is the right to be skinned right and left; this right lies at the base of his very existence, for without it he would not be a sucker. IT must be protected at all costs. This state, long the home of the shirt tail ranger, is now known as the home of the night club, and this position as a leader irr social progress must be maintained.” This decision was cited with approval in Haig and Haig v. John Dewar, 100 Proof 1. In this case the city of Bloody Gulch provided as a frandise requirement that all voters should present at the polls cancelled municipal night club checks, amounting to at least $250. It waa felt that in this way the voting public could he kept down to a small and easily controlled number of the wealthier and better citizens. Furthermore, the court took cognizance of the fact that as a result of this, the desire to vote being particularly strong in Bloody Gulch, the revenues of the city had increased to such a point that the counci! had abolished all taxes, and had recently declared a dividend. (Bloody Gulch preferred and common are now listed on the New York Curb.) THE BALANCE OF THIS MATERIAL WAS CENSORED FOR THE SAKE OF THE METHODIST BOARD OF PROHIBITION, TEMPERANCE, AND PUBLIC MORALS

PAGE 32

PUBLIC FUTILITIES EDITED BY JOHN SOUR It is often very hard to distinguish between the ratable rentable and the rentable ratable bases of evaluation though it is admitted, in view of the recent decision of the Zi. S. Circuit court in the Ham case (Horn v. Nusfard, 88 B. & G. 377), that the logic of the situation is more clearly discernible wery day in the practical operations of those public futilities which are generally conceded by unbiased students of the matter to fall within the ambit of progressive consideration as has been demonstrated time and again in the decisions of the courts. public service stations, legislative bodies, and international boundary commissions especially in the waterpower litigations where the question of the water shedding rights of passers-by with rain coats or with umbrellas has been brought into question, judicially we may infer, though all assumptions must be guarded against rigidly in matters of this sort which have not reached a final ajudication; nevertheless, impartial observers whose only interest is professional may venture the suggestion that a .solution is rather to be found by approaching the matter laterally along the right of way conceded by all as originally dedicated to the utilities even as far back as 1818 when all parties, even those arranged by the mayor for distinguished visitors, and before the time of the 3 o’clock curfew or the development of the modern system of laying patrons in clay conduits beneath the street surface immediately after the completion of a pavement, that is unless, of course, there was an opportunity of scarrifying the surface for a sewer or water main, neither of which, however, raised directly the question which is here at issue, because in those days water and sewer rights were purely public, however this may effect the question, and we must not neglect the scientific implications arising from the undeniable conflict of interests due to the electrolytic corrosion produced by high voltages utilized by street railways upon the cables of telephone and telegraph companies especially where through the accidents of priority development and antecedent franchise grants a utility in its corporate capacity as created by the state whether domestic or foreign, which through the commerce clause of the trnited States Constitution leads us into what has been termed by those more steeped in legal history the “Battle of the Century,” it may be inferred, perhaps not without a certain sense of suspended judgment with regard to the final issues, that time, in and of itself, is a material factor influencing the nature of the grant fundamentally so that time may be regarded as an inalienable right which is just as much a fixed piece of property of the corporation as any of its rails, poles and rolling stock even though it is incorporeal and intangible, in fact such an authority as Dillon has frequently urged, and not without the support of much eloquence and some evidence, that the stability of niodern society and the degree of advancement of civilization, in cultural and ethical fields no less than in the more frankly economic lines, is determined by the extent to which intangible rights are protected by the constitution of the state, the “state” symbolizing of course the entire compass of effective organized power, that is the “sovereignty” as understood before Laski plucked the feathers of that bird of thephilosophers’paradise, and the term constitution must be accepted as embracing whatever we may think at the time being is a characteristic feature of human relations in a given geographic area and regardless of the peculiar habit-patters, may be outlined in written constitutions, royal-grants, laws, charters, public contracts, ordinances and utility franchises, of which the franchises alone are not subject to popular construction, (but see Pete Stuyresaiti v. Jimmy Walker, in 234 Night Court 77, where the court in its obiter dido advances the contention that what is a public hereditament can only be rendered private through a legislative enactment consummated, whether freely for a .public consideration or fraudulently for a private consideration, provided the question of fraud is not taken cognizance of by the court or admitted by the clerk of the corporation (or Clarke as some of the early manuscripts render it, thus leaving the matter in such a condition that nothing is gained by speculating as to what may happen until further facts are turned up by the experts which are now at work under the direction of the master so recently appointed by the court)).

PAGE 33

GOVERNMENTAL RESEARCH ASSASSINATION NOTES EDITED BY RUSSELL FOIBLES SCCrdrn# Recent reports of research agencies received at the central library of the Association: Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research: Juvenile DelinquGncy with Charts. The Caelaiion between Mwal hcrpilude and Philadelphia Bureau of Municipal Research: Cwelaiion Faciots bdwm the Taz Rafc and the Deafh R&, showing the number of taxpayers dying of heart failure on account of lower taxes. Institute for Public Service, New York City: Bath Howe Fads. A study of the facts of life in New Yo& public baths. Cleveland Bureau of Municipal Research: Why Girls Leave Home. Prepared by Alden C. Fensel. A series of personal reminiscencea of the infancy of the research movement. * National Institute of Public Admiiation.-Bruce Smith of the Committee on Uniform Crime Records is now in Europe gathering data. At present he is studying city jail conditions at first hand, as a result of an unfortunate encounter with the Berlin polizei. We hope to hear from Mr. Smith .soon. His record should provide interesting source material for his committee. * Kansas City Public Service Institute.-The Institute is engaged in a survey of recreation and amusement facilities in Kansas City, Missouri. This will settle once and for all the question “When is a town open?” The director ia at present making a personal study of all cabarets (as night clubs are ealled in the wild and woolly West), black-and-tans, and bootleggers. The result of this study will be published in several volumes, the first of which will be a “Kansas City Bootleggers’ Directory.” It is understood that several thousand copiea of this book have been nrtlereti in arlvnnce by trnveling salesmen and I(anaas City hotels. Order your copy todny. (Advt.) * Cincinnati Bureau of Municipal Research.The Bureau has shown an unusual amount of activity this gemon. Work piled up so high on Director Blandford’s desk that finally he decided, about the end of .August, that the best way to get the work done was to take a vacation and leave it to Donald C. Stone, who also went on one. Mr. Stone is still on his vacation, being now associated with the Committee on IJniform Crime Records. * The National Institute of Public Administration.--The Institute is considering moving ite headquarters over to Hoboken, inasmuch M most of its staff seem to spend the greater part of their time there; anyway, Hoboken is a nice town. * (Advt.) * Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research.Dr. Upson’s gang are thinking of moving over to Windsor, for the sake of convenience. They feel that they will be much nearer their customary field of operations. * National Committee on Municipal Standads. -Thia committee is experiencing considerable difficulty in getting the necessary data and CDoperation from bureaus. Secretary A. D. M&rty of the Illinois Municipal League insistn that the presence of a sand bank in a city will prevent a satinfactory measurement standard being adopted for paving. The committee is looking into thL matter, and promises a standard for sand hanks in the near future. They will not be sand bagged, however, into doing rnything rash. Watch for your name here next month. If you don’t see it. write in.

PAGE 34

NOOSE NOTES EDITED BY RUSSELL FOIBLES Hubert Stone. research secretary of the Finance Committee of the town of Harrison, haa been working for the Kestchestez county Bureau of Governmental Research since August 1, when he went on a month’s vacation. On September 1 he returned to his work for the town of Harrison. f Rumor has it that Dr. Mosher has invited Gene Tunney to study municipal research at the School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University, when Mr. Tunney returns from Paris. Dr. hiosher is reported to have said “Tunney will give a long needed knock-out punch to the research movement.” The REVIEW staff were unable to get in touch with Dr. Mosher before going to press. Mr. Tunney was engaged at the time and therefore was likewise unavailable. Hence this rumor is not confirmed, and we cannot vouch for its veracity. f K, w’. Collins, a boowm friend of Dr. Carl E. McCombs. was in New York a few days ago to negotiate a loan for his city. The loan was placed with the Bank of America for the time being, but was subsequently absorbed by Dr. McCombs, who exhibits the bonds with much pride. They are unique in that they bear the surcharge “NO ACCOUNT.” Dr. McCombs is looking forward to seeing Mr. Collins again on his next visit. * The city of Jerkwater, New York, has adopted the pay-as-you-go plan of financing public improvements. This was adopted after a long and bitter fight during which public hearings were held. These hearings were attended by hlessrs. T. David Zukerman and Gaylord Cummin, both of whom spoke on the plan. The importance and significance of this adoption lies in the fact that Jerkwater is planning to undertake a hundred-year bu.lding program which will cost between five and ten thousand dollars. For a city of this size with a program as extensive as this one to adopt pay-as-you-go is indeed of great significance. Arguments against the plan were vehemently advanced by Mr. Zukerman during the hearings. He said in part, “What our cities need today is bigger and better bonds. We are not bonded enough. What is the use of a debt limit if a city cannot live up to it? Without debts there would be no one to pay them and if a city has no one to pay its debts it has reached a sad state indeed. “Furthermore, 1 want to point out the similarity between pay-as-you-go for cities and the pay-as-you-enter system for street car companies. Both are vicious. We have all seen the time when there has been a crowd attempting to get on a street car during rush hours, and with payas-you-enter, it takes too long for the crowd to get on. The result is that the crowd pushes through and the conductor is trampled upon in the rush. There will be a rush of taxpayers who will jam the City Hall and undoubtedly kill the Mayor and his associates.” Mr. Cummin spoke in favor of this plan, saying, “A program the size of this one cannot be borne by one generation, but must be borne by all. The best way to do this is to.pay for each improvement as it is obtained, otherwise the citizens will be enjoying benefits which their children, grandchildren, great grandchildren, great great grandchildren, great great great grandchildren, etc., ad infiniturn will be paying for. Dr. McCombs of the National Institute of Public Administration can testify as to what happens when loans are negotiated without sufficient funds.” At the close of the hearings, pay-as-you-go was adopted upon the recommendation of Mr. Cummin. “The same with pay-as-you-go. “A little bond issue is a dangerous thing.