Citation
A Question of balance : managing scenic and mineral resources on the Rocky Mountain front range

Material Information

Title:
A Question of balance : managing scenic and mineral resources on the Rocky Mountain front range
Creator:
Adams, Carol
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of landscape architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Landscape architecture
Committee Chair:
Flores, Phillip E.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Auraria Library
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Carol Adams. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
A0AW5
A ClucaUm ol Saleutce
Cooley Gravel Company Scenic and Mineral Resources on the Colorado Front Range Rattlesnake Gulch Jefferson County, Colorado


i~V i/fo fi'j'J.
A QUESTION OF BALANCE
MANAGING SCENIC AND MINERAL RESOURCES ON THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN FRONT RANGE
Case Study:
Rattlesnake Gulch Jefferson County, Colorado
Submitted by: Carol Adams May 15, 1986


THIS THESIS IS SUBMITTED AS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR A MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DEGREE AT
THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING GRADUATE PROGRAM OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
Kathleen Moss, Resource Planner Cooley Gravel Company
Design Workshop, Inc.
15 May 1986


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Special thanks for he and insight on this project go to:
Kathleen Moss Cooley Gravel Company
Dennis Oost
Design Workshop, Inc.
Kurt Culbertson Design Workshop, Inc.
Peter, Lin, and Sandi


TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART ONE
THE OVERALL PROJECT I. INTRODUCTION
Summary la
Preface 2a
Purpose of Project 8a
Methodology 9a
II. VISUAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FOR MINING
Visual Resource Management 11a
Visual Simulation
and Impact Assessment 13a
Incorporating VRM
into Mining Regulations 16a
The Process 20a
Conclusion 23a
PART TWO
THE CASE STUDY I. INTRODUCTION
Summary 1 Project Background 2 Problem Statement 10 Goals and Objectives 11 Methodology 12 Project Premises 15 Land Use Rationale 16
II. SITE AND OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS
Site Context 20 The Site 25 The Operations 29 Mining Impacts 34


III. IMPROVEMENTS
Siting the Mine 39 Siting the Processing Equipment 43 The Color of the Mine 46 Reclamation Techniques 49 Reclamation Phasing 53
IV. FINAL USE
Overall Planning and Design Concept 59 Relationship of Mining and Development 61 Site Analysis 62 Site Program 63 Design Concepts 64
V. APPENDICES
A: Reclamation Cost Estimate B: Suggested Plant List C: Reductions of Drawings submitted to the ASLA Competition D: Sample Visual Assessment "Scoping Questionaire" for Planners E: Design Techniques for Mitigating Visual Impacts (BLM)
F: Project Description Guidelines (BLM)
VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY


PART ONE:
THE OVERALL PROJECT


The earth is neither an ecosystem to be preserved unchanged, nor a quarry to be exploited for selfish and short-range economic reasons, but a garden to be cultivated for the development of its own potentialities, and the potentialities of the human species.
Rene Dubos The Res i1i ence of Ecosystems


INTRODUCTION


Conducting accurate visual impact assessments in the planning stages of mining operations will result in operations that are more sensitive to the visual environment and the surrounding communities.
Incorporating visual impact assessment techniques, modeled after Federal Agencies, into current mining and reclamation laws will result in a methodology for systematically evaluating impacts of proposed projects and a means to suggest mitigating measures.
A case study conducted at Rattlesnake Gulch Aggregate Mine in Jefferson County, Colorado clearly shows that visual impacts can be substantially reduced by accurately assessing the impacts in the planning stages and offering alternatives to the operations and reclamation plans. Additionally, mining can work toward shaping the land for an alternative use after mining operations cease.
SUMMARY: Page la


We are dependant on many natural resources for basic survival and for maintenance of our standard of living. Construction minerals, such as crushed stone and sand and gravel are vital to our society. They are necessary materials in all aspects of the construction industry such as road building, residential developments, commercial developments, etc. Over seventeen thousand pounds of construction minerals for every person in the United States is used each year. Importantly, these minerals can be mined only where they occur naturally and their distribution is limited. In Colorado, high quality aggregate is found in the foothills, and the expanding Front Range Urban Growth Corridor is putting increased pressure on the mountains for minerals.
Mining, as a human activity, is by nature exploitative in that it depletes and cannot replace the extracted resource. Mining procedures can drastically alter the face of the environment. But, while mining is exploitative, it does not have to be destructive, only disruptive. While the mining operator cannot replace the extracted re-
PREFACE: Page 2a


source, the process of modifying the land always result is some land or water available for an appropriate after-use. Through careful pre-planning, and through progressive rehabilitation-extraction techniques, mining can actually create new landforms and ecosystems that are ecologically sound, economically productive, and aesthetically pleasing (Dubos, p. 2).
While this is true, in the past most mining operations have been destructive to the environment and have not been successfully reclaimed after the operations have ceased. Laws that controlled mining and subsequent reclamation did not exist and there was no economic incentive to reclaim the land. Additionally, the absence of preplanning left (and continues to leave) a "mined area where topographic and vegetative characteristics are poorly suited for long-term land usage and whose reclamation may involve excessive costs and manpower" (Pugliese, p. 13). Evidence of this exists all over Colorado today.
With the 1973 Colorado Open Mining Reclama-
PREFACE: Page 3a


tion Act, followed by the 1976 Colorado Mined Land Rehabilitation Act, various aspects of the construction minerals industry have come under state control. To obtain a mining permit in Colorado under the 1976 act, information on the existing condition of the site, the proposed mining plans, proposed reclamation plans, data on water, wildlife, soils, vegetation, climatic resources and projected impacts must be submitted. The permit is then subject to public scrutiny, Mined Land Board approval, and, in some cases, public approval. There are no specific criteria for visual considerations in this act.
While the adoption of reclamation laws in effect in Colorado today is a big step in controlling potential environmental and social impacts of construction mineral mining, there are areas where the laws or regulations can be improved upon for more effective control of mining activities and mining impacts. Improving the regulations might ease some of the existing conflicts between the public and the industry and might create land from mining that is healthier and more suitable for
PREFACE: Page 4a


beneficial after-use. The issue is not only regulation but also educating the operators/developers that there is a better way to approach mining— an approach that can expedite approvals, improve their image in the community, and remain cost effective.
A crucial aspect of mining that is overlooked by the 1976 act (and hence by most mining operations) is the VISUAL IMPACT that mining has on the environment. "Changes in natural landform, color and texture that create contrast between the mine and its surroundings produce surface mining's major visual impacts" (Simpson, p. 329). Over the past decade, preservation of the visual resource has become a primary public concern. Federal agencies, under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) now specifically manage their visual resources.
At a state ox local level in Colorado, however, there are no regulations controlling the visual impacts of mining. But, conversations with county planners in Colorado indicate that while
PREFACE: Page 5a


there are no LAWS governing the visual impacts of mining, visual issues are always a primary concern in reviewing mining applications. Permits are never denied specifically due to potential visual impacts but they often contribute to the denial. It is obvious that mine operators, and county and state officials need a systematic method for analyzing and mitigating visual impacts. It i-s to the benefit of everyone but until it is required by law, mandated by the public or becomes economically desirable, visual resource management and visual impact assessment will not occur in a systematic way in mining and reclamation schemes. Reduction of visual impacts of mining should be a major goal of reclamation.
Visual resource management and visual impact assessment is required, as previously mentioned, on federal lands concerned with management activities such as mining, timber harvesting, or road construction. The United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Department of Highways have each developed separate, yet related, procedures for analyzing and mitigating
PREFACE: Page 6a


visual impacts of potentially destructive activities. It is appropriate to investigate these procedures and determine their applicability to mining in the private, or non-federal sectors. Understanding these procedures and applying them to private mining sites will aid in developing regulations for Colorado that will require visual impact assessment and visual resource management as part of the reclamation procedure.
PREFACE: Page 7a


The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the importance of assessing the visual impacts of mining at the planning stage. Mines should be designed with visual issues as important criteria and regulations should insure that visual issues are addressed. Investigating the Federal systems of Visual Resource Management and impact assessment will provide clues toward inclusion of visual criteria into state laws.
The main portion of the work consists of a case study mine site in the Colorado Front Range. A proposed mine was analyzed for potential impacts and suggestions were made for mitigation of those impacts. The case study demonstrates the need and a methodology for analyzing visual impacts of mining. To complete the project, an after-use for the mine was proposed and designed. Mining should work toward a final land use, creating landforms that are appropriate for alternative use.
PURPOSE OF PROJECT: Page 8a


Research on Visual Resource Management systems and the case study application of visual impact assessment techniques provides a basis for incorporating visual criteria into existing state laws regulating mining. In doing this, mining can be much more compatible with surrounding land uses and with the scenic quality of an area.
Computer simulations were the main vehicle for analyzing visual impacts at the case study site. Computer simulations were used because they are extremely accurate, quick to generate, and the project can be viewed from any and all key viewpoints. After a thorough inventory of the region, the site, and the proposed mining plans, simulations were generated to analyze visual impacts. Modifications to the plans were made and new simulations generated. These simulations indicate a substantial reduction of the visual impacts in the modified plan.
Addtitionally, after research and analysis of existing land use patterns, growth trends, and county development objectives, a final land use (for the post-mining site) was selected and a
METHODOLOGY: Page 9a


master plan prepared for the site. This step demonstrates that mining can work to shape land for beneficial use.
The case study portion was submitted for consideration in the Annual ASLA/NSA/NGSA student competition. Their requirements include a narrative description of the project, a cost estimate of the reclamation work, three boards graphically depicting the site and operational analyses, improvements, and a master plan for a final, alternative use.
METHODOLOGY: Page 10a


VISUAL
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


One of the most challenging aspects of making land use decisions is assessing the visual impacts of proposed changes accurately enough to judge whether or not those changes are acceptable. Both the land manager and the public want to know— and need to know-- in advance, what a project will look like when it's done.
BLM Visual Simulation Manual


Federal visual resource management systems developed out of a growing public concern for protecting the scenic quality of the environment. With legislation in the 1970's such as NEPA, federal agencies that manage public land, such as the United States Forest Service (USFS) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) were required to consider scenic resources on the same level as other resources. Protecting these resources was mandated by the public.
The USFS and the BLM as a result of NEPA and other legislation, developed different, yet similar, systems for managing their scenic resources. Both systems inventory the resource and provide measurable standards for the evaluation of it. Both systems have proved legally defensible through the process of objectively quantifying the resource based on research in visual perception.
The USFS Visual Management System and the BLM Visual Resource Management programs set guidelines for future development by classifying the landscape into management levels related to the scenic quality of the area. When a specific
VISUAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: Page 11a


project is proposed (such as timber harvesting of mining), each system has a methodology for evaluating the impacts of the project. The USFS's visual absorption capability and the BLM's visual contrast rating evaluate the project in terms of its "fit" with the landscape. A project may be suitable on one classification of land, but not another. This can be determined through the inventory process and the evaluation of the project.
Another factor important in both systems is the viewer response level or viewer sensitivity. Landscapes seen by more people are assumed to be more sensitive to change. Other factors considered are viewing distance and view duration.
Mining activities alter the landscape in terms of form, line, color and texture. Landscapes are percieved via these four elements. If a proposed activity can borrow form, line, color, and texture from the surrounding landscape, there will be little visual impact or change.
VISUAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: Page 12a


In order to assess the impacts of a project, however, we must know what a project will look like. Visual impact assessment is based on whether or not an accurate picture or simulation can be developed.
Traditional methods of visual simulation have included anything from a verbal description to an "artists concept" of a project. The public has come to mistrust these methods because they are often not accurate or truly representative of the project. The project, once built, does not resemble the rendering or "simulation" in either scale or impact.
Some simulation methods have a higher degree of accuracy but are extremely labor intensive and static, depicting the project from only one viewpoint. (To perform an adequate impact assesment, the project must be viewed from several viewpoints at the minimum, and preferrably from all key viewpoints). These techniques include rendering on a photograph or slide, photomontage, or building a scale model. Even in these methods, however, there is a problem with scale and accuracy, especially
VISUAL SIMULATION AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Page 13a


in dealing with projects that involve large areas of the landscape (such as mining).
Computer technology, however, has developed to a high level of accuracy and speed in creating visual simulations. Entire landscapes can be modeled with project alternatives overlayed. The project and its alternatives can be evaluated quickly from any reasonable viewpoint, and the limits of the projects visibility can be determined. The computer system used in this case study of Rattlesnake Gulch also allows a project to be viewed in real time as it would be viewed when driving or moving past it. A movie or videotape can be generated that views a proposed project from the road, for example, at a given speed. This simulates what it would be like to drive past the project at the posted speed limit. The accuracy of this system makes the legality of the process of simulation hard to dispute.
However, producing simulations of a project is only one step of the impact assessment process. There must be a way to measure the impacts and
VISUAL SIMULATION AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Page 14a


then mitigating measures should be recommended. For example, the BLM's "visual contrast rating" system quantifies impacts based on the assumption that the degree that a project affects visual quality is based on the amount of contrast created between a project and the existing landscape. Contrast can be measured by comparing the form, line, color and texture of a project with the existing landscape. In evaluating contrast, it is important to judge the activity in worst case scenarios (under the most severe, sensitive conditions possible). In mining, which is such a longterm activity, it is crucial to evaluate the project for both short term and long term impacts, as well as monitor the project the project throughout its lifetime.
VISUAL SIMULATION AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Page 15a


Managing scenic resources should be as high of a priority as managing environmental resources at the state level as well as the federal level. The technology and the knowledge exists to successfully manage our scenic resources. Visual impact assessment should be a legal extension of the Mined Land Reclamation Board's authority.
There is a precedence for protecting asethetic values in NEPA and various areas of planning law such as the common law nuisance doctrine (which includes visual annoyance), Health Safety and Welfare regulations and eminent domain (often used to acquire open space lands). The main issue, legally, is that disruption of the visual environment will have a detrimental effect on the quality of life of surrounding citizens and can affect the health, safety and welfare of the community.
INCORPORATING VRM INTO REGULATIONS: Page 16a


The goal should be to incorporate visual resource management principles into existing reclamation laws to ensure the management of our scenic resources. In order for this to be successful, the adopted (and adapted) system must be understandable to all parties involved (from mine operators to evaluators); it must be viewed as a process flexible to change; and it must be accurate and legally defensible.
The federal systems provide clues as to how visual resource management and impact assessment might be adapted to a specific management activity (mining) at a state level. However, parts of the federal system are not applicable to state regulation of mining. The systems can be simplified somewhat because there is only one management activity to deal with, and entire landscapes need not be inventoried and classified as is required on federal land. Mining projects can be evaluated on a project to project basis, involving smaller portions of land.
INCORPORATING VRM INTO REGULATIONS: Page 17a


There are several approaches to assessing visual quality and visual impacts. One approach is to ask viewer groups directly for their visual preferences for an area. This technique, while useful can be difficult to implement. Another approach, used by the USFS and BLM looks to the regional landscape for indicators of visual quality and objectives for management. These systems "presume a region-wide visual analysis as a starting point and may be difficult to implement on a project to project basis" (FHA, p. 13). A fourth approach, used by the Federal Highway Administration to evaluate visual impacts of highways, is more appropriate to adapt to mining. Their approach to the evaluation of "visual quality looks for indicators on the level of visual relationships rather than on the level of landscape components" (FHA, p. 14).
On a project to project basis, internal aesthetics (design of the mine itself) and relational aesthetics (how does the mine relate to its surroundings) need to be addressed. There should always be some form of public participation. With
INCORPORATING VRM INTO REGULATIONS: Page 18a


mining activities, however, high viewer sensitivity, regardless of the landscape quality, should always be assumed because of the level of landform modification associated with mining. Mining on non-federal lands almost always occurs near developed areas (due to the nature of the industry) and impacts will affect permanent residents as well as tourists. As a result, there will undoubtedly be viewer sensitivity from people that must live or work near the mining activity.
INCORPORATING VRM INTO REGULATIONS: Page 19a


The process of visual impact assessment will involve the mine operator, the Mined Land Reclamation Board, the profession of Landscape Architecture, and the general public. Because visual resource assessments are usually conducted in advance of public hearings, the public should be given adequate notice and information later on the proposed project in order to have some form of input. The first step in the process involves identifying the visual issues of a project. This should be done by a trained professional. At this stage, public involvement is crucial in determining what the concerns of nearby residents are. Identifying the visual issues of a project involves determining the project characteristics, the visual environment of a project, the significant visual resource issues, significant viewer response issues, and the visual impacts and impact management. A standardized form has been prepared (modeled after the FHA's method for "scoping visual impacts") that can be used to document the visual issues of mining. (See Appendix D).
THE PROCESS: Page 20a


A section in the mining permit application (required by law) should be added to include visual issues (i.e. "exhibit x"). This "Exhibit X" can be the questionaire filled out by a trained professional. It is then the responsibility of the board, with the assistance of trained professionals in visual impact assessment, to evaluate the application for its visual implications (as well as all of the other criteria that a mine is evaluated by), and then recommendations should be made regarding mitigating unacceptable visual impacts.
From the case study project included in this study, it is clear that visual impacts can be assessed accurately in the planning stages of a mining operation. Following this example, and utilizing techniques such as the questionaire and evaluation process (described below), mining operations can be more sensitive to the visual environment and surounding communities.
THE PROCESS
Page 21a


The overall process has two phases: documentation and evaluation. The documentation should be done by a trained specialist in visual resource assessment. The evaluation is then carried out by the Mined Land Reclamation Board with input from the viusal resource field as needed. The process should include the following steps:
DOCUMENTATION
Step 1: perform visual assessment ("scope the impacts" of a project). (See Appendix D for a sample form to fill out to assess impacts)
Step 2: Document the site and landscape context (photo)
Step 3: Prepare simulations of the project from key viewpoints
Step 4: Prepare schedule of progressive-rehabilitation measures (that relate to visual impacts)
REVIEW
Step 5: evalute the proposed project in terms of contrast in form, line, color, and texture (modeled after the BLM's visual contrast rating system)
Step 6: Propose mitigation measures (alter plans, alter rehabilitation measures or schedule, abandon, or accept)
THE PROCESS: Page 22a


The ultimate goal should be to balance scenic resources with mineral resources. Both resources are vital to our society and both need to be protected. Provisions for managing our scenic resources in relation to mining need to be included in our current reclamation laws. This thesis documents a process for evaluating visual impacts of a proposed mine in Colorado and suggests mitigating measures. It also presents a methodology (modeled after existing visual resource management systems) for the inclusion of visual impact assessment in our current laws. Consideration of visual quality and visual impacts in mining can help protect our valuable scenic resources, help preserve our quality of life, and ensure that future generations can benefit from these resources as we have.
CONCLUSION: Page 23a


PART TWO:
THE CASE STUDY


A remarkable landscape occurs in Colorado where the Great Plains give way to the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The region abounds with a natural and human heritage so rich it staggers the imagination. This is the land where the Rockies rise more than one and a half miles above the plains to the east, where whitewater streams tumble down canyons from glaciers to farmlands, and where climates vary so much that, within a few miles, droughty grasslands yield to montane forests and alpine tundra. Its crest divides the continent's waters between the Atlantic and the Pacific, its natural resources have nourished human cultures for thousands of years, and its scenery, viewed from the summit of Pikes Peak, inspired Katherine Lee Bates to write "America the Beautiful."
Gleaves Whitney Colorado


INTRODUCTION


Visual considerations are crucial when planning a mining operation in the scenic Rocky Mountain Front Range. The mountains yield high quality aggregate along with scenic resources and a balance should be sought in the management of both of these resources.
At Rattlesnake Gulch, visual impacts of a proposed mining operation can be substantially reduced by redesigning the benches, relocating some of the processing equipment, utilizing progressive rehabilitation techniques, and giving attention to the form and color changes that ac-ccompany mining activity.
Through mining, Rattlesnake Gulch is transformed from a steep mountainside to a developable site. Determining an appropriate use for the site (in this case, a corporate headquarters) and giving the development the same visual attention that the mining operation received results in a site that is compatible with the surrounding landscape in character and land use.
SUMMARY: Page 1


The Rattlesnake Gulch mineral extraction site lies within the scenic Deer Creek Canyon in Jefferson County, Colorado. Cooley Gravel Company owns one thousand acres of mountainous land within the canyon, sixty-three of which are slated to be mined for aggregate. (This study will concentrate on the land that will be affected by mining.) The Rocky Mountain Front Range runs north-south through Jefferson County extending from Fort Collins to Pueblo. Much of the character of the county is defined by the scenic foothills and mountains that rise out of the high plains to the east.
COLORADO
PROJECT BACKGROUND: Page 2


JEFFERSON COUNTY
Site Context
PROJECT BACKGROUND: Page 3


The Rattlesnake Gulch site consists of
scenic, mountainous terrain in the Rocky Mountain Front Range. Mining for aggregate in the mountains is becoming more and more necessary as floodplain resources to the east become depleted and the Front Range Urban corridor continues to grow. "Stretching from Fort Collins in the North to Pueblo in the South (and including Greeley, Boulder, Denver and Colorado Springs), the Front Range Urban corridor contains only eight percent of the state's land, yet presently it has over eighty percent of Colorado's population" (Whitney, p. 124). Additionally, high quality aggregate, usually found in the mountains, is needed for many specific construction jobs.
Colorado relies heavily on a thriving tourist industry and the close proximity of the Denver area to the mountains allows for scenic trips away from the hustle and bustle of the city. The mountains help define a sense of place and quality of life for people that live along the Front Range and residents identify strongly with the
PROJECT BACKGROUND: Page 4


mountains. People settle here because they want to be close to the mountains. Because of this, mining in the mountains is a very sensitive issue, as the mining activity is often extremely visible, and can "spoil the view".
PROJECT BACKGROUND: Page 5


Front Range County Planners regard visual impacts of mining as one of the greatest concerns and these impacts are always an issue when mining permits are reviewed. A mine or quarry in the mountains must be very visually sensitive in order to gain approval in the permitting process.
Panel seeks ‘aesthetic limit on mine permits
A00
a^e
od
ttVvne

.000*’

e \o P’
\o
oo'
0''e

OP»0'
Agm*
f > Group forms to fight ' & A Eldorado rock quarry
.'»i ..
Tripoli quarry on planners’ agenda
Mine expansion talk planned
Residents throw stones at plans of quarry owner
Recent Headlines in Colorado Newspapers
PROJECT BACKGROUND: Page 6


There are three basic types of mining on the Plains and Front Range of Colorado: foothills mining or quarrying, floodplain mining, and dry, upland colluvial mining.
Most sand and gravel deposits are located in alluvial floodplains. These operations often involve dredging the material from below the water table, creating bodies of water from the excavations. These water features are often viewed as recreational amenities in future development and reclamation schemes but also have unique reclamation problems associated with water bodies. Dry, upland colluvial mining creates either a dished out
PROJECT BACKGROUND: Page 7


area or a level area (when rocky knobs or small hills are removed). These sites are usually the least visible and easiest to reclaim. As no water is encountered in colluvial mining, these sites are good candidates for waste disposal areas. Foothills mining usually requires blasting rock formations underlying the soil and vegetation for crushed stone. These types of mines are usually highly visible and often objectionable to the surrounding communities. The case study for this project falls into the category of foothills mining .
PROJECT BACKGROUND: Page 8


Mining in the mountains is not new to Colorado. Much of the history and heritage of the state is built on the silver and gold mining industries of the 1800's. Mining today is not the economic force that it once was in Colorado. Communities still depend on mining for employment. However, the particular impacts of aggregate mining in the
mountains, and the social climate of the 1980‘s requires that mining plans have a special sensitivity to visual impacts and must try to preserve the quality of life for the communities nearby.
Mining in the mountains can present incredible opportunities in terms of future development. Through mining activities, previously undevelopable (steep) or inaccessible land can become suitable, or even ideal, for appropriate development.
PROJECT BACKGROUND: Page 9


The purpose of this project is to determine the most visually acceptable mining and development plans for Rattlesnake Gulch that will be satisfactory to nearby residents, tourists, pleasure drivers in the canyon, and future users of the site. Mining is necessary along the Front Range and solutions must be found that enable mining activities to be more compatible with surrounding land uses and more compatible with the scenic quality of its surroundings.
The development for the site should be visually acceptable as well as sensitive to the needs of the surrounding community.
PROBLEM STATEMENT: Page 10


The goals and objectives for this project are as
follows:
GOAL 1: To plan a mine, with subsequent reclamation and development that is visually and environmentally sensitive and is compatible with its surroundings.
OBJECTIVES
1. Minimize (or eliminate) visual conflicts.
2. Avoid environmental degradation.
3. Utilize progressive-rehabilitation techniques to mininmize the amount of land impacted at any one time. (Reclaim immediately after mining).
GOAL 2: To prepare a comprehensive master plan for the site that will take advantage of the land shaping opportunities of mining and will provide an appropriate use for the site that takes into account the site's unique character and surrounding context.
OBJECTIVES
1. Understand the character of the site and the
ecomonmic and social needs of the surrounding community.
2. Create a use for the site that is compatible with the goals of the county and state.
3. Design a site that is visually sensitive, energy efficient, and ecologically sound.
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES: Page 11


This project utilizes the concepts of visual impact assessment as a major analysis tool for design and planning of the mine site and its subsequent development. Mining activities create landform modifications that tend to contrast sharply with their surroundings. Removal of vegetation and exposure of minerals creates contrasts in color and texture; bench mining creates contrasts in form and line; and processing equipment creates conflicts through the introduced structures.
In order to understand these impacts, it is necessary to simulate what the project will actually look like. In this project, existing mining plans that were prepared originally for the company were analyzed for visual impacts and were then modified or changed completely to reduce the impacts and create a more visually sensitive site.
METHODOLOGY: Page 12


Computer simulations were the main vehicle for analyzing the visual impacts of the proposed and altered plans. The simulations were used because they are extremely accurate and views of proposed activity can be quickly generated from any viewpoint (such as from a nearby business). While a model can simulate proposed alterations fairly accurately, it is impossible to "get inside" the model and choose accurate viewpoints to look at the activity from. With these simulations it is possible to view the project from "real life" viewpoints and understand the implications and impacts of mining before mining even begins.
Procedure
Phase One Screen load Out
Determine Ret la mat ion Sc heduJe and Techniques Phase Two Treat Upper Benches Develop Site

Phase Three: Treat lower Benches
METHODOLOGY: Page 13


This project involves siting the mine and the loadout/processing area using visual simulations, recommending progressive-reclamation techniques that will be utilized throughout the mining process, and designing a research and development park for the site that also utilizes the simulation capabilities of the computer.
PROJECT ELEMENTS
S,»P 1 Step 2 Step 3
Siting the Processing Equipment
The reclamation techniques suggested will create a site that is visually sensitive and ecologically sound. Issues such as slope stability, erosion, drainage, and revegetation were taken into account. The proposed land use developed out of an understanding of the site and its surroundings. It is appropriate for the site, useful for the community, and takes advantage of the land shaping opportunities of mining.
METHODOLOGY: Page 14


The main premises in this project are as
follows:
1. A balance in managing mineral resources and scenic resources can be found.
2. Aesthetic concerns are critical.
3. Retention of the character of the Colorado Front Range is desirable.
4. Preplanning of mining operations will help
mitigateimpacts and will aid in designing a more sensitive site (both for operations and development).
5. Environmenta 1 and social concerns must be a
large part of mine planning.
PROJECT PREMISES: Page 15


With large areas of residential development nearby and with growth trends toward continued residential growth on the plains (The Front Range Urban Corridor), the Rattlesnake Gulch site ideally should complement these residential areas, offering services and opportunities not typically found in those developments. As the area to the east continues to grow, there will be increased pressure to develop in Deer Creek Canyon. This pattern of development pressure is evident along the Front Range in the more developed metropolitan areas.

Increased Development Pressure on Front Range Canyons
LAND USE RATIONALE: Page 16


It is important to test various land uses for Rattlesnake Gulch to determine the most appropriate after-use for the site. Distance from major highways and rail lines makes manufacturing and industrial uses unfeasible. Additionally, distance from employment and commercial centers and schools makes high density housing questionable. Both low density mountain residential and a corporate head-quarters-type development are appropriate for the site because of the scenic quality of the area, the proximity of the site to similar developments and the current zoning of the site.
With the land uses narrowed down to either low density housing or a corporate headquarters, it is crucial to now look at the character of the site after mining. The mining will create a series of 80 foot benches stepping down to flat, developable areas. The scale of these benches indicates that larger buildings may be more appropriate for this particular site and the dramatic landforms created by mining.
In examining the goals for the county and the
LAND USE RATIONALE: Page 17


state in terms of future development, it is apparent that Colorado desires to attract corporations with research and development and technological orientations. Attracting these types of companies can be very beneficial economically to the surrounding communities and can provide numerous employment opportunities for the residents. Colorado is third in the nation in high-tech employemnt and desires to retain the image associated with high-tech growth and development.
With the nearby dense and expanding residential areas, the Deer Creek Canyon site provides an ideal opportunity to become an employment center for the community. Research from the Urban Land Institute indicates that companies that would be interested in relocating to a research and development park list quality of life, setting, and proximity to residential areas as high priorities for relocation. Often, within these developments, recreational opportunities and commerical services are present for the use of the employees and their families.
The setting in Deer Creek Canyon, the drama-
LAND USE RATIONALE: Page 18


tic landforms that mineral extraction will create, the views the developed site will afford, and the proximity to residential development strongly suggest that Rattlesnake Gulch Technology Park/ Corporate Headquarters will be a unique environment for thousands of workers from the nearby communities to enjoy.
LAND USE RATIONALE: Page 19


ANALYSIS


Deer Creek Canyon is a part of the larger South Platte watershed that flows north and east through Denver and across the plains. Deer Creek flows intermittently through the steep walled and rocky canyon. The predominant landform in the area are foothills have been rounded by many years of erosion. These landforms are cut by deep gulches (such as Rattlesnake Gulch) that transport runoff from the hillsides to Deer Creek. Typically, there is a vertical drop of 1000 feet from the tops of the hills (or mountains) to the creek-bed below.
There are two very distinct plant communities and microclimates found in the area (and on the site). The north facing slopes are moist, retaining snowfall throughout the winter, and consist mainly of dense groves of Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). The south facing slopes are very dry and consist of dense scrub oak thickets (Quercus gambel1i) and various grasses. Both plant communities provide food for wildlife. The wildlife in the area consist of deer, coyote, fox, skunk, marmot, squirrel, small mammals and rodents, and
SITE CONTEXT: Page 20


various birds (R.V. Lord, p. 167).
Immediately to the east of the site, and visible from the site, is a stunning geological formation with red rock outcroppings known as the hogbacks. East of the hogbacks is the Front Range Urban Corridor, and the Denver Skyline (also visible from the site).
The region is characterized by a semi-arid climate with annual precipitation between 14 and 40 inches per year (usually on the lower end of the scale). The precipitation can vary quite a bit from year to year. April and May are the wettest months of the year but tremendous convection storms in the summer account for up to one third of the annual precipitation. Additionally, the Front Range experiences strong daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature.
The immediate region (surrounding and including the site) falls into what is known as the foothills or transitional zone. This zone is characterized by the diverse plant communities found on the north and south facing slopes (see
SITE CONTEXT: Page 21


above) and reflect the intrusions of the plains zone (in the form of grasses) and the montane zone (in the form of pine forests) the transitional foothills zone.
lower
upper
into
SITE CONTEXT
Page 22


The land uses surrounding Rattlesnake Gulch consist of low density mountain residential communities, corportate headquarters for the Johns-Mansville corportat ion, medium to high density residential developments to the east, aggregate mining operations to the north and various public recreational facilities such as Chatfield Reservoir, Chatfield Arboretum, and several Denver mountain parks.
Site Character
SITE CONTEXT: Page 23


Deer Creek Canyon Road, sole access to the site, is a two lane winding mountain road with low posted speeds due to low visibility around some curves. Currently, the Regional Transportation District (RTD) serves the canyon and the Johns-Mansville headquarters less than a mile away by offering public transportation linkage to the canyon from the Denver metropolitan area.
There are trends toward continued expansion of the residential and commercial areas to the east of the canyon, along the Front Range. Much of the area to the north is developed with planned unit developments, including residential reighbor-hoods and commercial and business centers (such as Ken Caryl Ranch located to the north east).
SITE CONTEXT: Page 24


Within the 1000 acres of Cooley property in Deer Creek Canyon, the Rattlesnake Gulch site consists of 60-70 acres that will be directly affected by mining within a proposed mineral conservation zone of 347 acres. This study will concentrate on the land directly affected by mining and the land immediately surrounding the mine.
COOLCY RRORfATY BOUNDARY TOTAL ACREAGE 1000 AC
RATTLESNAKE GULCH MINERAL EXTRACTION SITE
THE SITE: Page 25


Rattlesnake Gulch cuts through the eastern portion of the site and other unnamed gulches bisect the rest of the site. The erosion potential on the site is high due to its steepness and the loose, gravelly nature of the soil.
Deer Creek runs along the bottom of the canyon. It is an intermittent stream with highest flows usually during spring runoff. A runoff discharge of 3860 cfs during the 100 year flood has been calculated for the creek at the mineral extraction site indicating that structures place near the creek will not be affected by flooding if designed properly.
The site, like its surroundings, consists of rounded, weathered mountains covered with Douglas Fir on the north facing slopes and along the drainages, and scrub oak and grasses on the south facing slopes. There are several large rock outcroppings on the site.
The site is quite steep with a large percentage of the site over 15-20 percent slope. The soils found on the site are generally quite shal-
THE SITE: Page 26


low, averaging in depth from 0 to 24 inches. The soils are mainly gravelly loam and are derived from the igneous and metamorphic rocks underneath. The soils, due to their coarseness, are very well drained, but lacking in many nutrients.
â–¡ Oak Brush
â–¡ Douglas Fir
H Ponderosa Pine/Oak Brush
Natural Systems
Deer Creek
THE SITE: Page 27


The geology of the site consists of pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks with igneous intrusions that are typical of the area. Uplift (the orogenies that resulted in the formation of the Front Range) tilted the underlying strata to expose the mineral deposit that is found today.
The mineral deposit on the site consist mainly of granite and granitic gneiss. It is a high quality aggregate deposit suitable for many construction jobs, including the proposed runway expansion at Stapleton airport in Denver. (Most floodplain deposits because of the quality of the material would not be suitable for this type of construction).
THE SITE: Page 28


The mineral at Rattlesnake Gulch will be
extracted in a series of benches. Blasting will be used to loosen the material and the site will be mined in a series of 40 foot benches. On alternate benches, a minimum of 40 feet will remain as a permanent bench. These benches will provide a safety factor against possible rockslides and will
ultimately provide a platform for revegetation. The benches should be designed to blend in with the natural topography as much as possible and should retain some of the natural forms of the hillsides prior to mining.
Bench Mining
A haul road will be needed to allow trucks and equipment to reach the upper benches of the mine. The site will be mined from the top down,
THE OPERATIONS: Page 29


starting at an elevation of 6775 feet. The material, once loosened, will be brought down from the hillside in large trucks. The material will be dumped into the primary crusher which will reduce the material to a diameter of 6 inches. From there, via a conveyor belt and surge pile, the material will enter the secondary crusher where the material will be reduced to a 3 inch diameter. From there, via a covered conveyor belt, the material will be deposited into load out bins in the load out area, near the road, and will then be transferred by truck to the Littleton Processing Plant, owned by Cooley Gravel, for further processing, separation, and sale.
Processing
THE OPERATIONS: Page 30


The main portion of processing needed to ready the quarry material for sale will not take place on the site because the steep topography and the narrowness of the gulches prohibits large processing equipment and stockpiling areas. Additionally, the proximity of the permanent processing plant in Littleton allows for an economical solution for processing the material, and machinery need not be duplicated. The company will operate all of the trucks from the site to the plant, which will allow for greater safety control than if the trucking in the canyon was contracted out to various other companies.
PROCESSING PLANT
THE OPERATIONS: Page 31


Before mining begins, the overburden from the upper benches will be stripped and stockpiled or used for fill platforms for the processing equipment. The stockpiled area will be used as a nursery area for future revegetation. As benches are mined, further areas will be stripped of overburden and that material will be used to rehabilitate previously mined benches immediately after mining. Due to the nature of the soil, the topsoil will not be separated from the overburden.
Sediment ponds will be constructed above and below the processing area to catch runoff from mined portions of the site to insure that runoff does not add sedimentation to Deer Creek. The ponds will be able to accomodate a 25 year flood. The water in these ponds will be used throughout operations to help settle dust and to irrigate newly planted areas. Each bench will be designed to retain the runoff on the bench itself and the water will be allowd to settle back in, aiding newly planted grasses, shrubs, and trees.
THE OPERATIONS: Page 32


The proposed mining operations are indicated below:
Operations Analysis

\ Edge of mining ,w (tvit
It ’
PUcr owrhwrrhm ixt!vinu>lv â–  lumrri bf'ixtw*
in
toon .i*mI color with surrnuiMiuiKk
ot- load-ar»a urnbk* rood
/
Out -Bios
Managers office
C.ukh
of befK.lv. from oft-sii»»
■ lltirh -ttm nmmmim •WallHim maximum limvunnmt ,mgh- V»"t
THE OPERATIONS: Page 33


Following this plan, mining will result in visual, environmental, and social impacts. These impacts include the following:
VISUAL IMPACTS
"In order to adequately and credibly assess visual impacts, we must accurately depict the visual appearance of project alternatives as they would actually be seen from representative viewpoints" (FHA, p. 38).
The large mined areas (benches) seen from a distance will be a different color and a different form from surrounding areas. The load out facility will be visible form the road and will consist of large structures and conveyor belts. The haul road will be partially visible from the road.
These simulations depict the topography of Rattlesnake Gulch before and after mining, following the proposed mining plan. The mine here is being viewed from the opposite ridge to the north. In the next chapter, changes and modifications to the mining plan will be suggested to reduce impacts .
MINING IMPACTS: Page 34


Topography before mining.
Topography after mining.
MINING IMPACTS: Page 35


The viewpoint for this simulation is from the Johns-Mansvi 1 le headquarters, a common viewpoint for many people. Many viewpoints were generated throughout the process for analysis purposes. Viewpoints were selected to represent common views seen by most people, or were selected because they showed the mining changes clearly.
MINING IMPACTS: Page 36


The load out area, as proposed, will be viewed for approximately 200 feet in each direction. This simulation depicts the proposed load out area from a viewpoint along the road. Again, in the next chapter, alternatives will be looked at to suggest ways to mitigate the visual impacts of this facility.
MINING IMPACTS: Page 37


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Mining aggregate at Rattlesnake Gulch will not introduce toxic material to the site but could result in an increased sedimentation load for Deer Creek and an erosion problem for the site, especially in the benched area. The growth medium replaced will be deficient in some nutrients and in the availablity of some minerals. Mining could also disrupt the natural drainage pattern of the site. Removal of vegetation will increase erosion and could be detrimental to the wildlife populations in the area by reducing food and habitat. In this case however, the resulting effect would be displacement, not elimination of wildlife. Mining, especially in a dry climate, can disrupt air quality, adding dust and particulates to the surrounding atmosphere.
SOCIAL IMPACTS
Undoubtedly, one of the biggest social impacts of mining is the increased truck traffic that will occur on Deer Creek Canyon Road. Additionally, noise from blasting may be heard from nearby residences.
MINING IMPACTS: Page 38


IMPROVEMENTS


The issues involved in siting the mine are both visual and environmental. The following modifications suggested for the mining plan will reduce impacts and will result in extraction of the desired amount of mineral. The modifications are as follows:
1. Use the existing topography as a guide for the design of the benches to create a more interesting landform that is consistant with the surrounding topography.
2. Use the drainages at the east and west edges of the mine to define the mine's boundaries to avoid degredation to these drainages.
3. Leave the knoll intact from the north side to create a visual barrier to the site, which will block the benches from view from the road below.
4. Mine the last bench 40 feet deeper to compensate for the mineral lost in leaving the knoll intact. This lower bench will not be visible from the road below.
SITING THE MINE: Page 39


Alternative (modified) mining plan: (please refer to page 33 for the original mining plan).
Operations Concepts
Ih-sign fjrtirhrs to hhinl wiih to*r>nraphv
Imai bturh
a.ill hjll n ‘ »»t uppt*r in-o* Ih*s unpjtl no (Je\*-4np»nnu
.«r
♦Vi.unrajo itr.uruK*
Io.mJou( *"th tn*-» brno
ol mu it* vtVitilr
.1 v
SITING THE MINE: Page 40


SITING THE MINE: Page 41


From the Mansville viewpoint, it is apparent that the upper benches are still visible from a distance (but not from the road below the mine). While it would be possible to begin mining low enough on the hillside at Rattlesnake Gulch to essentially "hide" the mine from view, this project will assume that the upper benches are visible from a distance in order to confront the serious issues of form and color change inherent in mining activity in the mountains.
Relationship of Viewer to Mine
Viewpoint A- road B: in
SITING THE MINE: Page 42


Due to the steepness of the site it is best to bring the crushed material to the load out bins via a conveyor belt. The processing equipment
must be located in a drainage, because of steep slopes and the topography. There are drainages on the site that are suitable for 1 ting this equipment.
the
two
oca-
SITING THE PROCESSING EQUIPMENT: Page 43


The major visual impacts of the proposed plan (located in drainage A) are the location (and visibility) of the transfer station and the conveyor belt leading to the load out bins. Two alternatives for mitigation of the impacts of the processing equipment are available. The first would be to simply move the transfer station and conveyor belt further uphill and add plant materials to screen the loadout bins.
SITING THE PROCESSING EQUIPMENT: Page 44


Another option is to relocate the facilities to the other drainage. Doing this eliminates the need for a transfer station (one of the most visible structures in the first proposal). However, in exaiming this location from several viewpoints along the road, it is evident that this option would have the most yisual impact of all because there is not a ridge on either side to screen the crushers and surge pile from view.
Thus, the best option for locating the e-quipment is the modification of the first proposal in which the transfer station and final conveyor belt are tucked closer in to the hillside. Additionally, treating the facades to resemble historic mining structures will reduce impacts even further, providing an interesting (and common) scene to travellers passing by.
SITING THE PROCESSING EQUIPMENT: Page 45


As mentioned earlier, the color of the newly mined area will contrast sharply with its
surroundings. In order to understand the impacts of this color change, it is necessary to first determine what the colors are on the site and what the color of the mined area will be. Site inspection reveals the following colors exist on the site during the spring months:
These colors are found on the Liquitex color chart (commonly used for mixing paints). It is used here because the computer can accurately simulate these colors using hue, value and chroma data provided on the chart. In this way, accurate simulations can be prepared that model the colors of the site before, during and after mining.
Thorough analysis would include determining
THE COLOR OF THE MINE: Page 46


colors for all seasons, as well as for different times of the day and different lighting conditions. Inspection of the minerals on the site as well as analyzing the mine across the canyon (same minerals being mined) provides clues as to the future colors of the mine.
Various methodologies can be used for treating the color contrast problem. Because the benches are 80 feet high, vegetation can only be a partial solution. The plant materials used on the benches should relate strongly to the surrounding vegetation, both for color similarities and texture similarities. Plantings should be designed to mimic natural vegetation and to reduce the horizon-tality of the benches.
In addition to plant materials, various dyes and chemicals (that have been found to be environmentally safe) can be used to stain, color, or artificially weather the rock. These techniques include the use of green dyes, eonite (a chemical process) and manure slurry (to encourage lichen growth) and to speed up weathering. Using a combi-
THE COLOR OF THE MINE: Page 47


nation of these techniques, a pattern can be developed that will help blend the mined area with its surroundings. This is especially important in the early stages of mining and reclamation, before plant materials have had time to mature and the rock is newly fractured. Also, mining begins at the top of the site and the upper benches are the only portion of the mine visible from a distance (and the first to be seen).
THE COLOR OF THE MINE: Page 48


In addition to the color contrast problems of the benches, there will also be a contrast in form of the benches with the surrounding topography. To reduce this contrast, the benches should be designed to help create landform diversity by varying the angle of the walls and undulating the benches to mimic the previously existing landform (follow ridges and drainages that used to exist). Additionally, when the benches are backfilled after mining, they should be backfilled unevenly to reduce the horizonta1ity of the benches and allow the tops of the trees to vary in height when mature. Adding the topsoil will also reduce the color contrast by darkening the unnaturally light areas of the exposed rock.
Additionally, large natural rock outcroppings encountered in mineral extraction should be left in place. This will help to create a more "natural" appearance. The rocky nature of the slopes and benches will allow for planting pockets and the plantings will help to reduce erosion. The revegetation of the site should consist mainly of native, drought tolerant plants that will do well
RECLAMATION TECHNIQUES: Page 49


on the site and in the sandy soil. (See Appendix B for plant materials selected for various areas on the site).
The Benches
V •
-Design benches to blend with surrounding topography
iackfill benches unevenly to reduce hori^ontality
■Plant trees and shrubs in "pockets” in walls created by blasting
leave rock faces in walls to resemble itural rock outcroppings
'Use native' vegetation planted in patterns similar to surroundings
Ireat color contrasts with dyes, plants
r"V
V
S l
RECLAMATION TECHNIQUES: Page 50


The walls on the site will be 80 feet high except for the final (lowest) wall, which has been left at 40 feet to reduce the impacts of contrast in scale with proposed development. Rock shaping of this final bench and wall after mining can result in exciting landforms as a backdrop to proposed development.
Water from the sediment pond will be used to drip irrigate newly planted vegetation and the pond will later become an aesthetic and recreational amenity for the future development.
As each bench is mined, the overburden stripped from that bench will be spread over the previously mined bench. This eliminates double handling of material and the need for stockpiling. The equipment from the processing and load out area will be removed following operations and the overburden used to construct platforms for equipment will be removed from the drainage and spread over the final bench. Due to the deficient nature of the soil and the slopes of the walls, mulch, soil ammendments and topsoil will need to be added.
RECLAMATION TECHNIQUES: Page 51


The seeding mixture proposed for the site has been very successful at another aggregate mine nearby. It consists of indigenous, hardy species. In addition to grasses it includes various shrub species that do well in this climate. The mixture is as follows:
Western Wheatgrass 9.0 lbs/acre
Sideoats Grama 3.6 lbs/acre
Crested Wheatgrass 3.8 lbs/acre
Pubescent Wheatgrass 11.0 lbs/acre
(Apply the following seed twice:)
Blueflax 1.0 lbs/acre
Mountain Mahogany 1.0 lbs/acre
Rabbit Brush 1.0 lbs/acre
Hansens Rose 1.0 lbs/acre
Alsike Clover .5 lbs/acre
RECLAMATION TECHNIQUES: Page 52


The phasing of reclamation activities at
Rattlesnake Gulch relates directly to the of mining activities and the areas that ar (view zones).
PHASING PLAN
sequence e viewed
RECLAMATION PHASING: Page 53


Reclamation Phasing
PHASE 1
I
RECLAMATION PHASING: Page 54


Reclamation Phasing
MINING SEQUENCE
RECLAMATION PHASING: Page 55


Reclaim upper benches
(treat form and color contraata, revegetate)
PHASE 2
PHASE 3
Develop site
PHASE 4
RECLAMATION PHASING: Page 56


The mining begins at the uppermost bench and progresses downward to the final bench. Each bench is reclaimed immediately after mining, reducing the amount of land impacted at any one time. The reclamation needs to be coordinated with the season of the year. It is best to plant, for example, in February and March. Mining at Rattle-
nake Gulch will probably continue for 15-20 years after it begins. The site can not be developed until the mining is completed due to the sequence of mining (development "pads” or final benches are mined last) and access to the site (the haul route will become the entry to the developed site). However, through the progressive rclamation of the site, once mining has been completed, development will occur on a site that has been restored to ecological health and is aesthetically pleasing.
The following is a phasing plan and a timetable of activities that will take place during the mining and reclamation of Rattlesnake Gulch.
RECLAMATION PHASING: Page 57


RECLAMATION PHASING
PHASE
PHASE 1
PHASE 2
PHASE 3
ACTIVITY
DURATION (years
grade and berm load out area plant (screen) load out area construct haul road construct turn lanes strip overburden
grade and fill equipment platforms construct sediment pond plant nursery area (topsoil)
mining
backfilling (grading) color treatment seeding planting
mining
backfilling (grading) rock placement
rock work (further blasting)
seeding
planting
treat pond edge (reexcavate) begin trail
remove plant operations
grading
layout road
begin construction
RECLAMATION PHASING: Page 58


FINAL USE


Once an appropriate after-use for the site was determined, a planning approach was developed. The overall planning and design concept for Rattlesnake Gulch Technology Park/ Corporate Headquarters was to provide a development for employees that enhances and contributes to their day to day experience by providing a dramatic site setting (benched backdrop or "hillside garden" and spectacular views) and providing services and amenities that complement the work day activities.
Elements of the ideal work environment.
OVERALL PLANNING AND DESIGN CONCEPT Page 59


The development consists of 130,000 square feet of office space, employing many people from surrounding communities. A comprehensively planned and energy efficient development, the park will include offices, shared meeting and conference facilities; retail, restaurant, and day care facilities; and recreational amenities such as an extensive trail system, recreation club and lake.
Trail Along Bench___________________________
OVERALL PLANNING AND DESIGN CONCEPT Page 60


Full Text

PAGE 1

Cooley Gravel o mpan Scen ic a nd Min e ral R eso urces o n t h e Colorado Front Rang e -------------Rattlesnake Gulch J effe rson Count y , C olorado

PAGE 2

A QUESTION 6F BALANCE A1P L.P u1o A17 t1?b At; MANAGING SCENIC AND MINERAL RESOURCES ON THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN FRONT RANGE Case Study: Rattlesnake Gulch Jefferson County, Colorado Submitted by: Carol Adams May 15, 1986

PAGE 3

THIS THESIS IS SUBMITTED AS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR A MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DEGREE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING GRADUATE PROGRAM OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE ACCEPTED: 15 May 1986 Moss, Resource anner Cooley Gravel Company

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special thanks for help and insight on this project go to: Kathleen Moss Cooley Gravel Company Dennis Oost Design Workshop, Inc. Kurt Culbertson Design Workshop, Inc. Peter, Lin, and Sandi

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS PART ONE THE OVERALL PROJECT I. INTRODUCTION Summary Preface Purpose of Project Methodology II. VISUAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FOR MINING Visual Resource Management Visual Simulation and Impact Assessment Incorporating VRM into Mining Regulations The Process Conclusion PART TWO THE CASE STUDY I. INTRODUCTION Summary Project Background Problem Statement Goals and Objectives Methodology Project Premises Land Use Rationale II. SITE AND OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS Site Context The Site The Operations Mining Impacts l a 2a 8a 9a lla 13a 16a 20a 23a 1 2 10 11 12 15 16 20 25 29 34

PAGE 6

III. IMPROVEMENTS Siting the Mine Siting the Processing Equipment The Color of the Mine Reclamation Techniques Reclamation Phasing IV. FINAL USE 39 43 46 49 53 Overall Planning and Design Concept 59 Relationship of Mining and Development 61 Site Analysis 62 Site Program 63 Design Concepts 64 V. APPENDICES A: Reclamation Cost Estimate B: Suggested Plant List C: Reductions of Drawings submitted to the ASLA Competition D: Sample Visual Assessment "Scoping Questionaire" for Planners E: Design Techniques for Mitigating Visual Impacts (BLM) F: Project Description Guidelines (BLM) VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY

PAGE 7

PART ONE: THE OVERALL PROJECT

PAGE 8

The earth is neither an ecosystem to be preserved unchanged, nor a quarry to be exploited for selfish and short-range economic reasons, but a garden to be cultivated for the development of its own potentialities, and the potentialities of the human species. Rene Dubos The Res i 1 i ence of Ecosystems

PAGE 9

INTRODUCTION

PAGE 10

Conducting accurate visual impact assessments in the planning stages of mining operations will result in operations that are more sensitive to the visual environment and the surrounding communities. Incorporating visual impact assessment techniques, modeled after Federal Agencies, into current mining and reclamation laws will result in a methodology for systematically evaluating impact s of proposed projects and a means to suggest mitigating measures. A case study conducted at Rattlesnake Gulch Aggregate Mine in Jefferson County, Colorado clearly shows that visual impacts can be substantially reduced by accurately assessing the impacts in the planning stages and offering alternatives to the operations and reclamation plans. Additionally, mining can work toward shaping the land for an alternative use after mining operations cease. SUMMARY: Page la

PAGE 11

We are dependant on many natural resources for basic survival and for maintenance of our standard of living. minerals, such as crushed stone and sand and gravel are vital to our society. They are necessary materials in all aspects of the construction industry such as road building, residential developments, commercial developments, etc. Over seventeen thousand pounds of construction minerals for every person in the United States is used each year. Importantly, these minerals can be mined only where they occur naturally and their distribution is limited. In Colorado, high quality aggregate is found in the foothills, and the expanding Front Range Urban Growth Corridor is putting increased pressure on the mountains for minerals. Mining, as a human activity, is by nature exploitative in that it depletes and cannot replace the extracted resource. Mining procedures can drastically alter the face of the environment. But, while mining is exploitative, it does not have to be destructive, only disruptive. While the mining operator cannot replace the extracted re-PREFACE: Page 2a

PAGE 12

source, the process of modifying the land always result is some land or water avaliable for an appropriate after-use. Through careful pre-planning, and through progressive rehabilitationextraction techniques, mining can actually create new landforms and ecosystems that are ecologically sound, economically productive, and aesthetically pleasing (Dubos, p. 2). While this is true, in the past most mining operations have been destructive to the environment and have not been successfully reclaimed after the operations have ceased. Laws that con-trolled mining and subsequent reclamation did not exist and there was no economic incentive to reclaim the land. Additionally, the absence of preplanning left (and continues to leave) a "mined area where topographic and vegetative characteristics are poorly suited for long-term land usage and whose reclamation may involve excessive costs and manpower" (Pugliese, p. 13). Evidence of this exists all over Colorado today. With the 1973 Colorado Open Mining Reclama-PREFACE: Page Ja

PAGE 13

tion Act, followed by the 1976 Colorado Mined Land Rehabilitation Act, various aspects of the construction minerals industry have come under state control. To obtain a mining permit in Colorado under the 1976 act, information on the existing condition of the site, the proposed mining plans, proposed reclamation plans, data on .water, wildlife, soils, vegetation, climatic resources and projected impacts must be submitted. The permit is then subject to public scrutiny, Mined Land Board approval, and, in some cases, public approval. There are no specific criteria for visual considerations in this act. While the adoption of reclamation laws in effect in Colorado today is a big step in controlling potential environmental and social impacts of construction mineral mining, there are areas where the laws or regulations can be improved upon for more effective control of mining activities and mining impacts. Improving the regulations might ease some of the existing conflicts between the public and the industry and might create land from mining that is healthier and more suitable for PREFACE: Page 4a

PAGE 14

beneficial after-use. The issue is not only regulation but also educating the operators/developers that there is a better way to approach mining--an approach that can expedite approvals, improve their image in the community, and remain cost effective. A crucial aspect of mining that is overlooked by the 1976 act (and hence by most mining operations) is the VISUAL IMPACT that mining has on the environment. "Changes in natural landform, color and texture that create contrast between the mine and its surroundings produce surface mining's major visual impacts" (Simpson, p. 329). Over the past decade, preservation of the visual resource has become a primary public concern. Federal agencies, under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) now specifically manage their visual resources. At a state or local level in Colorado, however, there are no regulations controlling the visual impacts of mining. But, conversations with county planners in Colorado indicate that while PREFACE: Page Sa

PAGE 15

there are no LAWS governing the visual impacts of mining, visual issues are always a primary concern in reviewing mining applications. Permits are never denied specifically due to potential visual impacts but they often contribute to the denial. It is obvious that mine operators, and county and state officials need a systematic method for analyzing and mitigating visual impacts. It to the benefit of everyone but until it is required by law, mandated by the public or becomes economically desirable, visual resource management and visual impact assessment will not occur in a systematic way in mining and reclamation schemes. Reduction of visual impacts of mining should be a major goal of reclamation. Visual resource management and visual impact assessment is required, as previously mentioned, on federal lands concerned with management activities such as mining, timber harvesting, or road construction. The United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Department of Highways hqve each developed separate, yet related, procedures for analyzing and mitigating PREFACE: Page 6a

PAGE 16

visual impacts of potentially destructive activi-ties. It is appropriate to investigate these procedures and determine their applicability to mining in the private, or non-federal sectors. Understanding these procedures and applying them to private mining sites will aid in developing regulations for Colorado that will require visual impact assessment and visual resource management as part of the reclamation procedure. PREFACE: Page 7a

PAGE 17

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the importance of assessing the visual impacts of mining at the planning stage. Mines should be designed with visual issues as important criteria and regulations should insure that visual issues are addressed. Investigating the Federal systems of Visual Resource Management and impact assessment will provide clues toward inclusion of visual criteria into state laws. The main portion of the work consists of a case study mine site in the Colorado Front Range. A proposed mine was analyzed for potential impacts and suggestions were made for mitigation of those impacts. The case study demonstrates the need and a methodology for analyzing visual impacts of mining. To complete the project, an after-use for the mine was proposed and designed. Mining should work toward a final land use, creating landforms that are appropriate for alternative use. PURPOSE OF PROJECT: Page Sa

PAGE 18

Research on Visual Resource Management systems and the case study application of visual impact assessment techniques provides a basis for incorporating visual criteria into existing state laws regulating mining. In doing this, mining can be much more compatible with surrounding land uses and with the scenic quality of an area. Computer simulations were the main vehicle for analyzing visual impacts at the case study site. Computer simulations were used because they are extremely accurate, quick to generate, and the project can be viewed from any and all key viewpoints. After a thorough inventory of the region, the site, and the proposed mining plans, simulations were generated to analyze visual impacts. Modifications to the plans were made and new simulations generated. These simulations indicate a substantial reduction of the visual impacts in the modified plan. Addtitionally, after research and analysis of existing land use patterns, growth trends, and county development objectives, a final land use (for the post-mining site) was selected and a METHODOLOGY: Page 9a

PAGE 19

master plan prepared for the site. This step demonstrates that mining can work to shape land for beneficial use. The case study portion was submitted for consideration in the Annual ASLA/NSA/NGSA student competition. Their requirements include a narrative description of the project, a cost estimate of the reclamation work, three boards graphically depicting the site and operational analyses, improvements, and a master plan for a final, alternative use. METHODOLOGY: Page lOa

PAGE 20

VISUAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

PAGE 21

One of the most challenging aspects of making land use decisions is assessing the visual impacts of proposed changes accurately 'enough to judge whether or not those changes are acceptable. Both the land manager and the public want to know--and need to know--in advance, what a project will look like when it's done. BLM Visual Simulation Manual

PAGE 22

Federal visual resource management systems developed out of a growing public concern for protecting the scenic quality of the environment. With legislation in the 1970's such as NEPA, federal agencies that manage public land, such as the United States Forest Service (USFS) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) were required to consider scenic resources on the same level as other resources. Protecting these resources was mandated by the public. The USFS and the BLM as a result of NEPA and other legislation, developed different, yet similar, systems for managing their scenic resources. Both systems inventory the resource and provide measurable standards for the evaluation of i t . Both systems have proved legally defensible through the process of objectively quantifying the resource based on research in visual perception. The DSFS Visual Management System and the BLM Visual Resource Management programs set guidelines for future development by classifying the landscape into management levels related to the scenic quality of the area. When a specific VISUAL RESOURCE MAHAGEMENT: Page lla

PAGE 23

project is proposed (such as timber harvesting of mining), each system has a methodology for evaluating the impacts of the project. The USFS's visual absorption capability and the BLM's visual contrast rating evaluate the project in terms of its "fit" with the landscape. A project may be suitable on one classification of land, but not another. This can be determined through the inventory process and the evaluation of the project. Another factor important in both systems is the viewer response level or viewer sensitivity. Landscapes seen by more people are assumed to be more sensitive to change. Other factors are viewing distance and view duration. Mining activities alter the landscape in terms of form, line, color and texture. Landscapes are percieved via these four elements. If a proposed activity can borrow form, line, color, and texture from the surrounding landscape, there will be little visual impact or change. VISUAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: Page 12a

PAGE 24

In order to assess the impacts of a project, however, we must know what a project will look like. Visual impact assessment is based on whether or not an accurate picture or simulation can be developed. Traditional methods of visual simulation have included anything from a verbal description to an "artists concept" of a project. The public has come to mistrust these methods because they are often not accurate or truly representative of the project. The project, once built, does not resemble the rendering or "simulation" in either scale or impact. Some simulation methods have a higher degree of accuracy but are extremely labor intensive and static, depicting the project from only one viewpoint. (To perform an adequate impact assesment, the project must be viewed from several viewpoints at the minimum, and preferrably from all key viewpoints). These techniques include rendering on a photograph or slide, photomontage, or building a scale model. Even in these methods, however, there is a problem with scale and accuracy, especially VISUAL SIMULATION AHD IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Page 13a

PAGE 25

in dealing with projects that involve large areas of the landscape (such as mining). Computer technology, however, has developed to a high level of accuracy and speed in creating visual simulations. Entire landscapes can be modeled with project alternatives overlayed. The project and its alternatives can be evaluated quickly from any reasonable viewpoint, and the limits of the projects visibility can be determined. The computer system used in this case study of Rattlesnake Gulch also allows a project to be viewed in real time as it would be viewed when driving or moving past it. A movie or videotape can be generated that views a proposed project from the road, for example, at a given speed. This simulates what it would be like to drive past the project at the posted speed limit. The accuracy of this system makes the 1 ega 1 i ty of the process of simulation hard to dispute. However, producing simulations of a project is only one step of the impact assessment process. There must be a way to measure the impacts and VISUAL SIMULATION MID IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Page 14a

PAGE 26

then mitigating measures should be recommended. For example, the BLM's "visual contrast rating" system quantifies impacts based on the assumption that the degree that a project affects visual quality is based on the amount of contrast created between a project and the existing landscape. Contrast can be measured by comparing the form, line, color and texture of a project with the existing landscape. In evaluating contrast, it is important to judge the activity in worst case scenarios (under the most severe, sensitive conditions possible). In mining, which is such a longterm activity, it is crucial to evaluate the project for both short term and long term impacts, as well as monitor the project the project throughout its 1 i fetime. VISUAL SIMULATION AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Page 15a

PAGE 27

Managing scenic resources should be as high of a priority as managing environmental resources at the state level as well as the federal level. The technology and the knowledge exists to successfully manage our scenic resources. Visual impact assessment should be a legal extension of the Mined Land Reclamation Board's authority. There is a precedence for protecting asethetic values in NEPA and various areas of planning law such as the common law nuisance doctrine (which includes visual annoyance), Health Safety and Welfare regulations and eminent domain (often used to acquire open space lands). The main issue, legally, is that disruption of the visual environment will have a detrimental effect on the quality of life of surroundinq citizens and can affect the health, safety and welfare of the community. INCORPORATING VRM INTO REGULATIONS: Page 16a

PAGE 28

The goal should be to incorporate visual resource management principles into existing reclamation laws to ensure the management of our scenic resources. In order for this to be successfu 1, the adopted (and adapted) system must be understandable to all parties involved (from mine operators to evaluators); it must be viewed as a process flexible to and it must be accurate and legally defensible. The federal systems provide clues as to how visual resource management and impact assessment might be adapted to a specific management activity (mining) at a state level. However, parts of the federal system are not applicable to state regulation of mining. The systems can be simplified somewhat because there is only one management activity to deal with, and entire landscapes need not be inventoried and classified as is required on federal land. Mining projects can be evaluated on a project to project basis, involving smaller portions of land. INCORPORATING VRM INTO REGULATIONS: Page 17a

PAGE 29

There are several approaches to assessing visual quality and visual impacts. Dne approach is to ask viewer groups directly for their visual preferences for an area. This technique, while useful can be difficult to implement. Another approach, used by the USFS and BLM looks to the regional landscape for indicators of visual quality and objectives for management. These systems "presume a region-wide visual analysis as a starting point and may be difficult to implement on a project to project basis" (FHA, p. 13). A fourth approach, used by the Federal Highway Administration to evaluate visual impacts of highways, is more appropriate to adapt to mining. Their approach to the evaluation of "visual quality looks for indicators on the level of visual relationships rather than on the level of landscape components" (FHA, p. 14). On a project to project basis, internal aesthetics (design of the mine itself) and relational aesthetics (how does the mine relate to its surroundings) need to be addressed. There should always be some form of public participation. With INCORPORATING VRM INTO REGULATIONS: Page lBa

PAGE 30

mining activities, however, high viewer sensitivity, regardless of the landscape quality, should always be assumed because of the level of landform modification associated with mining. Mining on non-federal lands almost always occurs near developed areas (due to the nature of the industry) and impacts will affect permanent residents as well as tourists. As a result, there will undoubtedly be viewer sensitivity from people that must live or work near the mining activity. INCORPORATING VRM INTO REGULATIONS: Page 19a

PAGE 31

The process of visual impact assessment will involve the mine operator, the Mined Land Reclamation Board, the profession of Landscape Architecture, and the general public. Because visual resource assessments are usually conducted in advance of public hearings, the public should be given adequate notice and information later on the proposed project in order to have some form of input. The first step in the process involves identifying the visual issues of a project. This should be done by a trained professional. At this stage, public involvement is crucial in determining what the concerns of nearby residents are. Identifying the visual issues of a project involves determining the project characteristics, the visual environment of a project, the significant visual resource issues, significant viewer response issues, and the visual impacts and impact management. A standardized form has been prepared (modeled after the FHA's method for "seeping visual impacts") that can be used to document the visual issues of mining. (See Appendix D). THE PROCESS: Page 20a

PAGE 32

A section in the mining permit application (required by law) should be added to include visual issues (i.e. "exhibit x"). This "Exhibit X" can be the questionaire filled out by a trained professional. It is then the responsibility of the board, with the assistance of trained professionals in visual impact assessment, to evaluate the application for its visual implications (as well as all of the other criteria that a mine is evaluated by), and then recommendations should be made regarding mitigating unacceptable visual impacts. From the case study project included in this study, it is clear that visual impacts can be assessed accurately in the planning stages of a mining operation. Following this example, and utilizing techniques such as the questionaire and evaluation process {described below), mining operations can be more sensitive to the visual environment and surounding communities. THE PROCESS: Page 2la

PAGE 33

The overall process has two phases: documen-tation and evaluation. The documentation should be done by a trained specialist in visual resource assessment. The evaluation is then carried out by the Mined Land Reclamation Board with input from the viusal resource field as needed. The process should include the following steps: DOCUMENTATION Step l: per form visual assessment ("scope the impacts" of a project). (See Appendix D for a sample form to fill out to assess impacts) Step 2: Document the site and landscape context (photo) Step 3: Prepare simulations of the project from key viewpoints s t e_ p 4 : P r epa r e s c h e d u l e o f p r o g r e s s i v e -rehabilitation measures (that relate to visual impacts) REVIEW Step 5: evalute the proposed project in terms of contrast in form, line, color, and texture (modeled after the BLM's visual contrast rating system) Step 6: Propose mitigation measures (alter plans, alter rehabilitation measures or schedule, abandon, or accept) THE PROCESS: Page 22a

PAGE 34

The ultimate goal should be to balance seen i c resources with mi nera 1 resources. Both resources are vital to our society and both need to be protected. Provisions for managing our scenic resources in relation to mining need to be included in our current reclamation laws. This thesis documents a process for evaluating visual impacts of a proposed mine in Colorado and suggests mitigating measures. It also presents a methodology (modeled after existing visual resource management systems) for the inclusion of visual impact assessment in our current laws. Consideration of visual quality and visual impacts in mining can help protect our valuable scenic resources, help preserve our quality of life, and ensure that future generations can benefit from these resources as we have. CONCLUSION: Page 23a

PAGE 35

PART TWO: THE CASE STUDY

PAGE 36

A remarkable landscape occurs in Colorado where the Great Plains give way to the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The region abounds with a natural and human heritage so rich it staggers the imagination. This is the land where the Rockies rise more than one and a half miles above the plains to the east, where whitewater streams tumble down canyons from glaciers to farmlands, and where climates vary so much that, within a few miles, droughty grasslands yield to montane forests and alpine tundra. Its crest divides the continent's waters between the Atlantic and the Pacific, its natural resources have nourished human cultures for thousands of years, and its scenery, viewed from the summit of Pikes Peak, inspired Katherine Lee Bates to write "America the Beautiful." Gleaves Whitney Colorado Front Range. A Lanascape ---------

PAGE 37

INTRODUCTION

PAGE 38

Visual considerations are crucial when planning a mining operation in the scenic Rocky Mountain Front Range. The mountains yield high quality aggregate along with scenic resources and a balance should be sought in the management of both of these resources. At Rattlesnake Gulch, visual impacts of a proposed mining operation can be substantially reduced by redesigning the benches, relocating some of the processing equipment, utilizing progressive rehabilitation techniques, and giving attention to the form and color changes that acccompany mining activity. Through mining, Rattlesnake Gulch is trans formed from a steep mountainside to a developable site. Determining an appropriate use for the site (in this case, a corporate headquarters) and giving the development the same visual attention that the mining operation received results in a site that is compatible with the surrounding landscape in character and land use. SUMMARY: Page 1

PAGE 39

The Rattlesnake Gulch mineral extraction site 1 ies within the scenic Deer Creek Canyon in Jefferson County, Colorado. Cooley Gravel Coapany owns one thousand acres of mountainous land within the canyon, sixty-three of which are slated to be mined for aggregate. (This study will concentrate on the land that wi 11 be affected by mining.) The Rocky Mountain Front Range runs north-south through Jefferson County extending from Fort Collins to Pueblo. Much of the character of the county is defined by the scenic foothills and mountains that rise out of the high plains to the east. Jefferson Colorado Springs FRONT RANGE 1-25 COLORADO PROJECT BACKGROUBD: Page 2

PAGE 40

JEFFERSON COUNTY Site Context MlN. ll t\l RESIDENTIAL RESlm N llA L 7' RATTLESNAKE GULCH MINERAl EXTRACTION SITE PROJECT BACKGROUND: Page 3

PAGE 41

The Rattlesnake Gulch site consists of scenic, mountainous terrain in the Rocky Mountain Front Range. Mining for aggregate in the mountains is becoming more and more necessary as floodplain resources to the east become depleted and the Front Range Urban corridor continues to grow. "Stretching from Fort Collins in the North to Pueblo in the South (and including Greeley, Boulder, Denver and Colorado Springs), the Front Range Urban corridor contains only eight percent of the state's land, yet presently it has over eighty percent of Colorado's population" (Whitney, p. 124). Additionally, high quality aggregate, usually found in the mountains, is needed for many specific construction jobs. Colorado relies heavily on a thriving tourist industry and the close proximity of the Denver area to the mountains allows for scenic trips away from the hustle and bustle of the city. The mountains help define a sense of place and quality of life for people that live along the Front Range and residents identify strongly with the PROJECT BACKGROUND: Page 4

PAGE 42

mountains. People settle here because they want t o be close to the mountains. Because of this, mining in the mountains is a very sensitive issue, as the mining activity is often extremely visible, and can "spoil the view". PROJECT BACKGROUND: Page 5

PAGE 43

Front Range County Planners regard visual impacts of mining as one of the greatest concerns and these impacts are always an issue when mining are reviewed. A mine or quarry in the mountains must be very visually sensitive in order to gain approval in the permitting process. Residents throw stones at plans of quarry . owner Recent Headlines in Colorado Newspapers PROJECT BACKGROUND: Page 6

PAGE 44

There are three basic types of mining on the Plains and Front Range of Colorado: foothills mining or quarrying, floodplain mining, and dry, upland colluvial mining. ,.... . "' Foothills);/ Mining p ' "'it-Colluvial Mining ' . FRONT RANGE ,..-... 7 .. ':::--Fioodplain MininJl Types of Mining Most sand and gravel deposits are located in allu-vial floodplains. These operations often involve dredging the material from below the water table, creating bodies of water from the excavations. These water features are often viewed as recrea-tional amenities in future development and recla-mation schemes but also have unique reclamation problems associated with water bodies. Dry, up-land colluvial mining creates either a dished out PROJECT BACKGROUND: Page 7

PAGE 45

area or a level (when rocky knobs or small hills are removed). These sites are usually the least visible and easiest to reclaim. As no water is encountered in colluvial mining, these sites are good candidates for waste disposal areas. Foothills mining usually requires blasting rock formations underlying the soil and vegetation for crushed stone. These types of mines are usually highly visible and often objectionable to the surrounding communities. The case study for this project falls into the category of foothills mining. Visibility of Mountains PROJECT BACKGROUND: Page 8

PAGE 46

Mining in the mountains is not new to Colorado. Much of the history and heritage of the state is built on the silver and gold mining industries of the 1800's. Mining today is not the economic force that it once was in Colorado. Communities still depend on mining for employment. However, the particular impacts of aggregate mining in the mountains, and.the social climate of the 1980's requires that mining plans have a special sensitivity to visual impacts and must try to preserve the quality of life for the communities nearby. Mining in the mountains can present incredible opportunities in terms of future development. Through mining activities, previously undevelopable (steep) or inaccessible land can become suitable, or even ideal, for appropriate development. PROJECT BACKGROUND: Page 9

PAGE 47

The purpose of this project is to determine the most visually acceptable mining and development plans for Rattlesnake Gulch that will be satisfactory to nearby residents, tourists, pleasure drivers in the canyon, and future users of the site. Mining is necessary along the Front Range and solutions must be found that enable mining activities to be more compatible with surrounding land uses and more compatible with the scenic quality of its surroundings. The development for the site should be visually acceptable as well as sensitive to the needs of the surrounding community. PROBLEM STATEMENT: Page 10

PAGE 48

The goals and objectives for this project are as follows: GOAL 1: To plan a mine, with subsequent reclama-tion and development that is visually and environ-mentally sensitive and is compatible with its surroundings. OBJECTIVES 1. Minimize (or eliminate) visual conflicts. 2. Avoid environmental degradation. 3. Utilize progressive-rehabilitation techniques t'O mininmize the amount of land impacted at any one time. (Reclaim immediately after mining). GOAL 2: To prepare a comprehensive master plan for the site that will take advantage of the land shaping opportunities of mining and will provide an appropriate use for the site that takes into account the site's unique character and surroun-ding context. OBJECTIVES 1. Understand the character of the site and the ecomonmic and social needs of the surrounding community. 2. Create a use for the site that is compatible with the goals of the county and state. 3. Design a site that is visually sensitive, energy efficient, and ecologically sound. GOALS AII1D OBJECTIVES: Page 11

PAGE 49

This project utilizes the concepts of visual impact assessment as a major analysis tool for design and planning of the mine site and its subsequent development. Mining activities create landform modifications that tend to contrast shar-ply with their surroundings. Removal of vegeta-tion and exposure of minerals creates contrasts in color and bench mining creates contrasts in form and and processing equipment creates conflicts through the introduced structures. In order to understand these impacts, it is necessary to simulate what the project will actually look like. In this project, existing mining plans that were prepared originally for the company were analyzed for visual impacts and were then modified or changed completely to reduce the impacts and create a more visually sensitive site. METHODOLOGY: Page 12

PAGE 50

Computer simulations were the main vehicle for analyzing the visual impacts of the proposed and altered plans. The simulations were used because they are extremely accurate and views of proposed activity can be quickly generated from any viewpoint (such as from a nearby business). While a model can simulate proposed alterations fairly accurately, it is impossible to "get inside" the model and choose accurate viewpoints to look at the activity from. With these simulations it is possible to view the project from "real life" viewpoints and understand the impl ications and impacts of mining before mining even begins. Procedure METHODOLOGY: Page 13

PAGE 51

This involves siting the mine and the loadout/processing area using visual simulations, recommending progressive-reclamation techniques that will be utilized throughout the mining pro-cess, and designing a research and development park for the site that also utilizes the simula-tion capabilities of the computer. PROJECT ELEMENTS Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Siting the Mine Siting the Proceaalng Equipment The reclamation techniques suggested will create a site that is visually sensitive and eco-logically sound. Issues such as slope stability, erosion, drainage, and revegetation were taken into account. The proposed land use developed out of an understanding of the site and its surroun-dings. It is appropriate for the site, useful for the community, and takes advantage of the land shaping opportunities of mining. METHODOLOGY: Page 14

PAGE 52

The main premises in this project are as follows: 1. A balance in managing mineral resources and scenic resources can be found. 2. Aesthetic concerns are critical. 3. Retention of the character of the Colorado Front Range is desirable. 4.Preplanning of mining operations will help mitigateimpacts and will aid in designing a more sensitive site (both for operations and development). S.Environmental and social concerns must be a large part of mine planning. PROJECT PREMISES: Page 15

PAGE 53

With large areas of residential development nearby and with growth trends toward continued residential growth on the plains {The Front Range Urban Corridor), the Rattlesnake Gulch site ideal-ly should complement these residential areas, offering services and opportunities not typically found in those dev e 1 opment s. As the area to the east continues to grow, there will be increased pressure to develop in Deer Creek Canyon. This pattern of development pressure is evident along the Front Range in the more developed metropolitan areas. . ,, , ,_,. ........... , ... ' / Deer Creek , ' , ''"\Area , \ ' I , ___ , Increased Development Pressure on Front Range Canyons LARD USE RATIONALE: Page 16

PAGE 54

It is important to test various land uses for Rattlesnake Gulch to determine the most appropriate after-use for the site. Distance from major highways and rail lines makes manufacturing and industrial uses unfeasible. Additionally, distance from employment and commercial centers and schools makes high density housing questionable. Both low density mountain residential and a corporate headquarters-type development are appropriate for the site because of the scenic quality of the area, the proximity of the site to similar developments and the current zoning of the site. With the land uses narrowed down to either low density housing or a corporate headquarters, it is crucial to now look at the character of the site after mining. The mining will create a series of 80 foot benches stepping down to flat, areas. The scale of these benches indicates that larger buildings may be more appropriate for this particular site and the dramatic landforms created by mining. In examining the goa 1 s for the county and the LARD USE RATIONALE: Page 17

PAGE 55

state in terms of future development, it is apparent that Colorado desires to attract corporations with research and development and technological orientations. Attracting these types of companies can be very beneficial economically to the surrounding communities and can provide numerous employment opportunities for the residents. Colorado is third in the nation in high-tech employemnt and desires to retain the image associated with high-tech growth and development. With the nearby dense and expanding residential areas, the Deer Creek Canyon site provides an ideal opportunity to become an employment center for the community. Research from the Urban Land Institute indicates that companies that would be interested in relocating to a research and development park list quality of life, setting, and proximity to residential areas as high priorities for relocation. Often, within these developments, recreational opportunities and commerical services are present for the use of the employees and their families. The setting in Deer Creek Canyon, the dramaLAND USE RATIONALE: Page 18

PAGE 56

tic landforms that mineral extraction will create, the views the developed site will afford, and the proximity to residential development strongly suggest that Rattlesnake Gulch Technology Park/ Corporate Headquarters will be a unique environment for thousands of workers from the nearby communities to enjoy. LAND USE RATIONALE: Page 19

PAGE 57

ANALYSIS

PAGE 58

Deer Creek Canyon is a part of the larger South Platte watershed that flows north and east through Denver and across the plains. Deer Creek flows intermittently through the steep walled and rocky canyon. The predominant landform in the area are foothills have been rounded by many years of erosion. These landforms are cut by deep gulches (such as Rattlesnake Gulch) that transport runoff from the hillsides to Deer Creek. Typically, there is a vertical drop of 1000 feet from the tops of the hills (or mountains) to the creekbed below. There are two very distinct plant communities and microclimates found in the area (and on the site). The north facing slopes are moist, retaining snowfall throughout the winter, and consist mainly of dense groves of Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). The south facing slopes are very dry and consist of dense scrub oak thickets (Quercus gambelli) and various grasses. Both plant communities provide food for wildlife. The wildlife in the area consist of deer, coyote, fox, skunk, marmot, squirrel, small mammals and rodents, and SITE CONTEXT: Page 20

PAGE 59

various birds (R.V. Lord, p. 167). Immediately to the east of the site, and visible from the site, is a stunning geological formation with red rock outcroppings known as the hogbacks. East of the hogbacks is the Front Range Urban Corridor, and the Denver Skyline (also visible from the site). The region is characterized by a semi-arid climate with annual precipitation between 14 and 40 inches per year (usually on the lower end of the scale). The precipitation can vary quite a bit from year to year. April and May are the wettest months of the year but tremendous convect ion storms in the summer account for up to one third of the annual precipitation. Additionally, the Front Range experiences strong daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature. The immediate region (surrounding and including the site) falls into what is known as the foothills or transitional zone. This zone is characterized by the diverse plant communities found on the north and south facing slopes (see SITE CONTEXT: Page 21

PAGE 60

above) and reflect the intrusions of the lower plains zone (in the form of grasses) and the upper montane zone (in the form of pine forests) into the transitional foothills zone. SITE CONTEXT: Page 22

PAGE 61

The land uses surrounding Rattlesnake Gulch consist of low density mountain residential communities, corportate headquarters for the JohnsMansville corportation, medium to high density residential developments to the east, aggregate mining operations to the north and various public recreational faci 1 i ties such as Chat field Reservoir, Chatfield Arboretum, and several Denver mountain parks. Site Character SITE CONTEXT: Page 23

PAGE 62

Deer Creek Canyon Road, sole access to the site, is a two lane winding mountain road with low posted speeds due to low visibility around some curves. Currently, the Regional Transportation District (RTD) serves the canyon and the JohnsMansville headquarters less than a mile away by offering public transportation linkage to the canyon from the Denver metropolitan area. There are trends toward continued expansion of the residential and commercial areas to the east of the canyon, along the Front Range. Much of the area to the north is developed with planned unit developments, including residential reighborhoods and commercial and business centers (such as Ken Caryl Ranch located to the north east). SITE CONTEXT: Page 24

PAGE 63

Within the 1000 acres of Cooley property in Deer Creek Canyon, the Rattlesnake Gulch site consists of 60-70 acres that will be directly affected by mining within a proposed mineral con-servation zone of 347 acres. This study will concentrate on the land directly affected by mining and the land immediately surrounding the mine. r-.J I L.--I COOl!Y -IITY 80UHDAJIY LJ RA TlJ_ESNAKE GULCH MINERAL EXTRACT10N SITE THE SITE: Page 25

PAGE 64

Rattlesnake Gulch cuts through the eastern portion of the site and other unnamed gulches bisect the rest of the site. The erosion potential on the site is high due to its steepness and the loose, gravelly nature of the soil. Deer Creek runs along the bottom of the canyon. It is an intermittent stream with highest flows usually during spring runoff. A runoff discharge of 3860 cfs during the 100 year flood has been calculated for the creek at the mineral extraction site indicating that structures place near the creek will not be affected by flooding if designed properly. The site, like its surroundings, consists of rounded, weathered mountains covered with Douglas Fir on the north facing slopes and along the drainages, and scrub oak and grasses on the south facing slopes. There are several large rock outcroppings on the site. The site is quite steep with a large percentage of the site over 15-20 percent slope. The soils found on the site are generally quite shalTHE SITE: Page 26

PAGE 65

low, averaging in depth from 0 to 24 inches. The soils are mainly gravelly loam and are derived from the igneous and metamorphic rocks underneath. The soils, due to their coarseness, are very well drained, but lacking in many nutrients. Natural Systems : ... : : ... : :. . . .. : . ' . THE SITE: Page 27 0 Oak Brus h D Douglas F i r \. ! . . ' I .. • Ponderosa Pine / Oak Brush

PAGE 66

The geology of the site consists of preCambrian metamorphic rocks with igneous intrusions that are typical of the area. Uplift {the orogenies that resulted in the formation of the Front Range) tilted the underlying strata to expose the mineral deposit that is found today. The mineral deposit on the site consist mainly of granite granitic gneiss. It is a high qua 1 i ty aggregate deposit sui table for many construction jobs, including the proposed runway expansion at Stapleton airport in Denver. {Most floodplain deposits because of the quality of the material would not be suitable for this type of construction). THE SITE: Page 28

PAGE 67

The mineral at Rattlesnake Gulch will be extracted in a series of benches. Blasting will be used to loosen the material and the site will be mined in a series of 40 foot benches. On alternate benches, a minimum of 40 feet will remain as a permanent bench. These benches wi 11 provide a safety factor against possible rockslides and will ultimately provide a platform for revegetation. The benches should be designed to blend in with the natural topography as much as possible and should retain some of the natural forms of the hillsides prior to mining. Bench Mining of Mining ,---------Granite Cm'iss A haul road will be needed to allow trucks and equipment to reach the upper benches of the mine. The site will be mined from the top down, TOE OPERATIONS: Page 29

PAGE 68

starting at an elevation of 6775 feet. The material, once loosened, will be brought down from the hillside in large trucks. The material will be dumped into the primary crusher which will reduce the material to a diameter of 6 inches. From there, via a conveyor belt and surge pile, the material will enter the secondary crusher where the material will be reduced to a 3 inch diameter. From there, via a covered conveyor belt, the ma-terial will be deposited into load out bins in the load out area, near the road, and will then be transferred by truck to the Littleton Processing Plant, owned by Cooley Gravel, for further proc-essing, separation, and sale. Processing Surge Pile-------/ St>condary Crusher----.../ THE OPERATIORS: Page 30 Stc1tion

PAGE 69

The main portion of processing needed to ready the quarry material for sale wi 11 not take place on the site because the steep topography and the narrowness of the gulches prohibits large processing equipment and stockpiling areas. Ad-ditionally, the proximity of the permanent processinq plant in Littleton allows for an economical solution for processing the material, and machin-ery need not be duplicated. The company wi 11 op-erate all of the trucks from the site to the plant, which will allow for greater safety control than if the trucking in the canyon was contracted out to various other companies. HAUL ROUTE . j THE OPERATIONS: Page 31

PAGE 70

Before mining begins, the overburden from the upper benches will be stripped and stockpiled or used for fill platforms for the processing equipment. The stockpiled area will be used as a nursery area for future revegetation. As benches are mined, further areas will be stripped of overburden and that material will be used to rehabilitate previously mined benches immediately after mining. Due to the nature of the soil, the topsoil will not be separated from the overburden. Sediment ponds will be constructed above and below the processing area to catch runoff from mined portions of the site to insure that runoff does not add sedimentation to Deer Creek. The ponds will be able to accomodate a 25 year flood. The water in these ponds will be used throughout operations to help settle dust and to irrigate newly planted areas. Each bench wi 11 be designed to retain the runoff on the bench itself and the water will be allowd to settle back in, aiding newly planted grasses, shrubs, and trees. THE OPERATIONS: Page 32

PAGE 71

The proposed mining operations are indicated below: Operations Analysis ' ' " _ ,. , .... A-A' THE OPERATIONS: Page 33

PAGE 72

Following this plan, mining will result in visual, environmental, and social impacts. These impacts include the following: VISUAL IMPACTS "In order to adequately and credibly assess visual impacts, we must accurately depict the visual appearance of project alternatives as they would actually be seen from representative viewpoints" (FHA, p. 3 8). The large mined areas (benches) seen from a distance will be a different color and a different form from surrounding areas. The load out facility will be visible form the road and will consist of large structures and conveyor belts. The haul road will be partially visible from the road. These simulations depict the topography of Rattlesnake Gulch before and after mining, following the proposed mining plan. The mine here is being viewed from the opposite ridge to the north. In the next chapter, changes and modifications to the mining plan will be suggested to reduce impacts. MIRING IMPACTS: Page 34

PAGE 73

Topography before mining. Topography after mining. MINING IMPACTS: Page 35

PAGE 74

' ' The viewpoint for this simulation is from the Johns-Mansville headquarters, a common viewpoint for many people. Many viewpoints were generated throughout the process for analysis purposes. Viewpoints were selected to represent common views seen by most people, or were selected because they showed the mining changes clearly. MINING IMPACTS: Page 36

PAGE 75

The load out area, as proposed, will be viewed for approximately 200 feet in each direction. This simulation depicts the proposed load out area from a viewpoint along the road. Again, in the next chapter, alternatives will be looked at to suggest ways to mitigate the visual impacts of this facility. MINING IMPACTS: Page 37

PAGE 76

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Mining aggregate at Rattlesnake Gulch will not introduce toxic material to the site but could result in an increased sedimentation load for Deer Creek and an erosion problem for the site, espec-ially in the benched area. The growth medium replaced will be deficient in some nutrients and in the availablity of some minerals. Mining could also disrupt the natural drainage pattern of the site. Removal of vegetation will increase erosion and could be detrimental to the wildlife popula-tions in the area by reducing food and habitat. In this case however, the resulting effect would be displacement, not elimination of wildlife. Mining, especially in a dry climate, can disrupt air qual. , ity, adding dust and particulates to the surroun-ding atmosphere. SOCIAL IMPACTS Undoubtedly, one of the biggest social im-pacts of mining is the increased truck traffic that will occur on Deer Creek Canyon Road. Addi-tionally, noise from blasting may be heard from nearby residences. MINING IMPACTS: Page 38

PAGE 77

IMPROVEMENTS

PAGE 78

The issues involved in siting the mine are both visual and environmental. The following modifications suggested for the mining plan will reduce impacts and will result in extraction of the desired amount of mineral. The modifications are as follows: 1. Use the existing topography as a guide for the design of the benches to create a more interesting landform that is consistant with the surrounding topography. 2. Use the drainages at the east and west edges of the mine to define the mine's boundaries to avoid degredation to these drainages. 3. Leave the knoll intact from the north side to create a visual barrier to the site, which will block the benches from view from the road below. 4. Mine the last bench 40 feet deeper to compensate for the mineral lost in leaving the knoll intact. This lower bench will not be visible from the road below. SITING THE MIRE: Page 39

PAGE 79

Alternative (modified) mining plan: (please refer to page 33 for the original mining plan) I . ' ' _, . , lUI II U " • SITIRG THE MIRE: Page 40

PAGE 80

View of modified mining plan from Johns-Mansville. SITING THE MINE: Page 41

PAGE 81

From the Mansville viewpoint, it is apparent that the upper benches are still visible from a distance (but not from the road below the mine). While it would be possible to begin mining low enough on the hillside at Rattlesnake Gulch to essentially "hide" the mine from view, this pro-ject will assume that the upper benches are visi-ble from a distance in order to confront the serious issues of form and color change inherent in mining activity in the mountains. Relationship of Viewer to Mine Viewpoint A: road B : in below canyon St'Pn irom B Upper Bt>ncht>s Lowf'r BenchPs Loadout Area SITING THE MINE: Page 42

PAGE 82

Due to the steepness of the site it is best to bring the crushed material to the load out bins via a conveyor belt. Theprocessing equipment must be located in a drainage, because of the steep slopes and the topography. There are two drainages on the site that are suitable for loca-ting this equipment. . . • FOR PROCESSING EQUIPMENT L .. _ .. _j SITIRG THE PROCESSING EOUIPMERT: Page 43

PAGE 83

The major visual impacts of the proposed plan (located in drainage A) are the location (and visibility) of the transfer station and the conveyor belt leading to the load out bins. Two alternatives for mitigation of the impacts of the processing equipment are available. The first would be to simply move the transfer station and conveyor belt further uphill and add plant materials to screen the loadout bins. SITING THE PROCESSING EQUIPMENT: Page 44

PAGE 84

Another option is to relocate the facilities to the other drainage. Doing this eliminates the need for a transfer station (one of the most visible structures in the first proposal). However, in exaiming this location from several viewpoints along the road, it is evident that this option would have the most visual impact of all because there is not a ridge on either side to screen the crushers and surge pile from view. Thus, the best option for locating the equipment is the modification of the first proposal in which the transfer station and final conveyor belt are tucked closer in to the hillside. Additionally, treating the facades to resemble historic mining structures will reduce impacts even further, providing an interesting common) scene to travellers passing by. SITIHG THE PROCESSING EQUIPMENT: Page 45

PAGE 85

As mentioned earlier, the color of the newly mined area will contrast sharply with its surroundings. In order to understand the impacts of this color change, it is necessary to first determine what the colors are on the site and what the color of the mined area will be. Site inspection reveals the following colors exist on the site during the spring months: MINE Bronze Yellow Turner• Yellow Cadmium Yellow These colors are found on the Liquitex color chart (commonly used for mixing paints). It is used here because the computer can accurately simulate these colors using hue, value and chroma data provided on the chart. In this way, accurate simulations can be prepared that model the colors of the site before, during and after mining. Thorough analysis would include determining THE COLOR OF THE MINE: Page 46

PAGE 86

colors for all seasons, as well as for different times of the day and different lighting conditions. Inspection of the minerals on the site as well as analyzing the mine across the canyon (same minerals being mined) provides clues as to the future colors of the mine. Various methodologies can be used for treating the color contrast problem. Because the benches are 80 feet high, vegetation can only be a partial solution. The plant materials used on the benches should relate strongly to the surrounding vegetation, both for color similarities and texture similarities. Plantings should be designed to mimic natural vegetation and to reduce the horizontality of the benches. In addition to plant materials, various dyes and chemicals (that have been found to be environmentally safe) can be used to stain, color, or artificially weather the rock. These techniques include the use of green dyes, eonite (a chemical process) and manure slurry (to encourage lichen growth) and to speed up weathering. Using a combi-THE COLOR OF THE MIRE: Page 47

PAGE 87

nation of these techniques, a pattern can be developed that will help blend the mined area with its surroundings. This is especially important in the early stages of mining and reclamation, before plant materials have had time to mature and the rock is newly fractured. Also, mining begins at the top of the site and the upper benches are the only portion of the mine visible from a distance (and the first to be seen). mE COLOR OF mE MIRE: Page 48

PAGE 88

In addition to the color contrast problems of the benches, there will also be a contrast in form of the benches with the surrounding topography. To reduce this contrast, the benches should be designed to help create landform diversity by varying the angle of the walls and undulating the benches to mimic the previously existing landform (follow ridges and drainages that used to exist). Additionally, when the benches are backfilled after mining, they should be backfilled unevenly to reduce the horizontality of the benches and allow the tops of the trees to vary in height when mature. Adding the topsoil will also reduce the color contrast by darkening the unnaturally light areas of the exposed rock. Additionally, large natural rock outcroppings encountered in mineral extraction should be left in place. This will help to create a more "natural" appearance. The rocky nature of the slopes and benches will allow for planting pockets and the plantings will help to reduce erosion. The revegetation of the site should consist mainly of native, drought tolerant plants that will do well RECLAMATION TECHNIQUES: Page 49

PAGE 89

on the site and in the sandy soil. (See Appendix B for plant materials selected for various areas on the site). The Benches to biPnd Wtth s urr o und i n g t opograp h y ackf d l be n ches unewnly to horiLont,11i ty P lant t rC't.'S and s hrubs in " pockt t s " in walls crea ted by blasting leave rock f.1res i n to rPst.•mbll' natural rock Use n,Jt.tvc • vt>gl•t,ltton pl.mtPd i n pa t t Prns simtlar to s urr oundings 1 w.11 colo r co n t r.1st wit h pl.ttlt S RECLAMATION TECHNIQUES: Page 50

PAGE 90

The walls on the site wi 11 be 80 feet high except for the final (lowest) wall, which has been left at 40 feet to reduce the impacts of contrast in scale with proposed development. Rock shaping of this final bench and wall after mining can result in exciting landforms as a backdrop to proposed development. Water from the sediment pond wi 11 be used to drip irrigate newly planted vegetation and the pond will later become an aesthetic and recreational amenity for the future development. As each bench is mined, the overburden stripped from that bench wi 11 be spread over the previously mined bench. This eliminates double handling of material and the need for stockpiling. The equipment from the processing and load out area will be removed following operations and the overburden used to construct platforms for equipment will be removed from the drainage and spread over the final bench. Due to the deficient nature of the soil and the slopes of the walls, mulch, soil ammendments and topsoil will need to be added. RECLAMATION TECHNIQUES: Page 51

PAGE 91

The seeding mixture proposed for the site has been very successful at another aggregate mine nearby. It consists of indigenous, hardy species. In addition to grasses it includes various shrub species that do well in this climate. The mixture is as follows: Western Wheatgrass Sideoats Grama Crested Wheatgrass Pubescent Wheatgrass 9.0 lbs/acre 3.6 lbs/acre 3.8 lbs/acre 11.0 lbs/acre (Apply the following seed twice:) Blue flax Mountain Mahogany Rabbit Brush Hansens Rose Alsike Clover RECLAMATION TECHRIQUES: Page 52 1.0 lbs/acre 1.0 lbs/acre 1.0 lbs/acre 1.0 lbs/acre .5 lbs/acre

PAGE 92

The of reclamation activities at Rattlesnake Gulch relates directly to the sequence of mining activities and the areas that are viewed (view zones). . . L I .. _j PHASING PLAN RECLAMATION PHASING: Page 53 • . ) • •

PAGE 93

Reclamation Phasing , .. -l()()l)' "' . ... 1• 1 Screen load out erea PHASE 1 RECLAMATION PHASING: Page 54

PAGE 94

Reclamation Phasing I". ili(HI' ..... _ '(, . STEP 2 ---' Mine 11pper bench•• , . , Mine Conatr11ct lo•dollt •r•• lower bench•• MINING SEQUENCE RECLAMATION PHASING: Page 55 / . .,

PAGE 95

Reclaim upper benchea (treat form and color contraata, revegetate) PHASE 2 Reclaim tower bench•• PHASE 3 Develop alte PHASE 4 RECLAMATION PHASING: Page 56

PAGE 96

The mining begins at the uppermost bench and progr esse s downward to the f ina 1 bench. Each bench is reclaimed immediately after mining, reducing the amount of land impacted at any one time. The reclamation needs to be coordinated with the season of the year. It is best to plant, for example, in February and March. Mining at Rattlenake Gulch will probably continue for 15-20 years after it begins. The site can not be developed until the mining is completed due to the sequence of mining {development "pads" or final benches are mined last) and access to the site (the haul route will become the entry to the developed site). However, through the progressive rclamation of the site, once mining has been completed, development will occur on a site that has been restored to ecological health and is aesthetically pleasing. The following is a phasing plan and a timetable of activities that will take place during the mining and reclamation of Rattlesnake Gulch. RECLAMATION PHASING: Page 57

PAGE 97

RECLAMATION PHASING PHASE PHASE 1 PHASE 2 PHASE 3 ACTIVI'I'Y grade and bera load out area p lant (acreen) load out area conatruct haul road conatruct turn lanea atrip overburden grade and fill equipaent plat fora• conatruct aediaent pond plant nuraery area (topaoil) aining backfilling (grading) color treataent aeeding planting aining backfilling (grading) rock placeaent rock vork (further blaating) aeeding planting treat pond edge (reezcavate) begin trail reaove plant operation• grading layout road begin conatruction RECLAMATION PHASING: Page 58 OUU.TIOH (years) 1 5 10 15 18 --------------

PAGE 98

FINAL USE

PAGE 99

Once an appropriate after-use for the site was determined, a planning approach was developed. The overall planning and design concept for Ratt 1 esnake Gu 1 ch Techno 1 ogy Park/ Corporate Headquarters was to provide a development for employees that enhances and contributes to their day to day experience by providing a dramatic site setting {benched backdrop or "hillside garden" and spectacular views) and providing services and amenities that complement the .work day activities. Elements of the ideal work environment. OVERALL PLANNING AND DESIGN CONCEPT Page 59

PAGE 100

The development consists of 130,000 square feet of office space, employing many people from surrounding communities. A comprehensively planned and energy efficient development, the park will include offices, shared meeting and conference facilities: retail, restaurant, and day care facilities: and recreational amenities such as an extensive trail system, recreation club and lake. Trail Along Bench OVERALL PLANNING AND DESIGN CONCEPT Page 60

PAGE 101

Mining activities at Rattlesnake Gulch will create a developable site of 30 acres. '---Before After The change in gradient creates a site that is suitable for development. Two level areas (2-4% slope) are separated vertically by 40 feet as a result of modifying the mining plan to reduce visual impacts. This affords the opportunity of creating dramatic views and overlooks from each bench and creating a focal point on the wall itself. The development will create a demand for housing nearby. With increased pressure for hous-ing as well as for construction minerals, the Cooley properties offer the opportunity to mine remaining portions of the site and create more developable land nearby. RELATIONSHIP OF MINING AND DEVELOPMENT: Page 61

PAGE 102

Analysis of the final landform indicates that there will be an area at the base of the north facing benches and slopes that will not receive a sufficient amount of solar gain. Because of this, this area should remain as open space. Additionally, there is a zone around the outer perimeter of the site (the outer edge of the final bench) that should remain as open space. Doing this will insure that visibility of the develop-ment from the road below will be minimized. Rei at ion ship of Viewer to Development l Ope n spac ; setback S ite build i ng s to r e duc e v isibility from off site SITE ANALYSIS: Page 62

PAGE 103

The site program includes the following elements: Research and Development Headquarters 130,00 square feet of office space plazas parking Recreation Center (25,000 square feet) swimming pool tennis raquetball fitness trail aerobics health facilities Site Amenities lake open space extensive trail system panoramic views hillside garden Retail Center (10,000 square feet) convenience store dry cleaner day care center restaurant drug store SITE PROGRAM: Page 63

PAGE 104

THE BUILDINGS The buildings themselves can be used to dramatize the site and its benches by stepping in down in height. This will maximize views off the site as well. The buildings need to be sufficien-tly large in scale to fit in with the mined topo-graphy. T e rraced build i ngs dramat i ze ben c h e d site and take a d vantage of view s Set build ings away from benches for solar acc ess DESIGN CONCEPTS: Page 64

PAGE 105

CIRC U LATION The winding entrance to the site emphasizes the mountain character of the area. While the grade is fairly steep in parts, with proper maintenance, the road will be safe and snow free in the winter months. Ample parking has been provided throughout the site (based on Jefferson County Development standards). A major attractant to office parks is the amount of free parking available to employees and visitors. The suburban location indicates that, in addition to RTD mass transit, automobiles will be a major form of transportation to the site. Rapid transit should be emphasized, however, to reduce automobile traffic in tpe canyon and provide a more energy efficient alternative. DESIGN CONCEPTS: Page 65

PAGE 106

ORIENTATION The development is centered around the water feature (created from the sediment ponds used in the operations), and the final 40 foot high wall. This wall is shaped into a dramatic landform with a variety of trees and shrubs planted on it. While the development appears to focused inward, views are also maintained off site toward the mountains in one direction, and toward Denver in another. Views to mount a ins Views to Denver SITE BUILDINGS FOR VIEWS DESIGN CONCEPTS: Page 66

PAGE 107

RECREATION The recreational amenities of the site are an important part of the development. In addition to the recreational facilities provided in the recreation center, the site itself affords many recreational opportunities. An extensive trail system, leading from the development, traverses the site and the surroundings (the development consists of 30 acres within 1000 acres of the total property). Part of the trail is along one of the lower benches, and views from the trail are spectacular. A large portion of the trail system is on north facing slopes making it ideal for cross country skiing in the winter. The water feature also affords water-related recreational opportunities, so welcome in the semi-arid climate of Colorado. DESIGN CONCEPTS: Page 67

PAGE 108

THE MASTER PLAN: Section 8 8 ' ' ' DESIGN CONCEPTS: Page 68

PAGE 109

Ultimately, the development relates to the form of the site and to the needs of the surrounding communities. By utilizing the forms and views created by mining the development fits with the landscape. DESIGN CONCEPTS: Page 69

PAGE 110

APPENDICES

PAGE 111

APPENDIX A

PAGE 112

COST ESTIMATE Unit Unit Cost Total Qty. Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Total Cost Earthwork Bulk Filling cuyd $0.70 75,000 cuyd $1,129.00 $8,583.00 $43,479.00 $53,191.00 Spreading overburden & shaping of lake) Double Handling cuyd $1.40 4,195 cuyd $2,936.00 $2,936.00 (1st two benches) Ripping haul road acre $200.00 3.8 ac $60.00 $700.00 $760.00 and load out area Planting Drip irrigation total $30,000.00 1 $30,000.00 $30,000.00 system (setup) system Seed bed prepara-acre $200.00 42.3 ac $760.00 $7,700.00 $8,460.00 tion: fertilizer ammendments, mix-ing) Seeding acre $475.00 42.3 ac $1,805.00 $18,287.00 $20,092.00 Mulching & acre $200.00 42.3 ac $760.00 $7,700.00 $8,460.00 Crimping

PAGE 113

Page 2 Unit Shrubs, Vines, plant ground covers, (1 gal.) (includes delivery & plant-ing) Trees (includes plant delivery & plant-ing) Color Treatment for Walls dye (2:1 mix) 5 gal ( 5 gal. covers 25,000 sq.ft.) Eonit e (2:1 mix) 5 gal Application Cost day (150 ft/day) TOTAL COST Avge. Cost/Year Avge. Cost/Acre mined Avge. Cost total site acres (Mineral Conservation Zone) Unit Cost Total Q ty. Phase 1 $43.00 4230 $18,490.00 $63.00 4230 $27,090.00 $50.00 25 gal $200.00 25 gal $500.00 BOO Phase 2 Phase 3 $16,340.00 $147,060.00 $23,940.00 $215,460.00 $1,250.00 $5,000.00 $400,000.00 't'otal Cost $181,890.00 $266,490.00 $1,250.00 $5,000.00 $400,000.00 $978,529.00 $48,926.00 $23,133.00 $2,820.00

PAGE 114

APPENDIX B

PAGE 115

SUGGESTED PLANT SPECIES FOR RATTLESNAKE GULCH SITE AREA Upper Benches North Facing Slopes, Benches, Shady Areas SPECIES *Pseudotsuga menziesii *Quercus gambeli *Pinus ponderosa *Juniperus communis *Parthenocissus tricuspidata Pinus aristata Picea pungens Populus tremuloides *Quercus gambeli *Pseudotsuga menziesii Crataegus ambigua I..ABDSCAPE VALUE FOR SITE Native to site. Will help benches blend with surroundings. Native to site. Wi 11 help benches blend with surroundings. Nice fall color. Native to site. Will help benches blend with surroundings. Native to foothills. Good plant for undergrowth, groundcover. Excellent vine for clinging to rock. Does best in shade. Will help hide color of exposed rock. One of the few pines that is shade to 1 erant. Interesting texture. Native, state tree. Nice mixed in with pines. Color varies from blues to greens. Native. Beautiful fall color. See above See above Drought tolerant, hardy. Good for massing, screening, wildlife.

PAGE 116

South Facing Slopes, Benches, Open Areas Potentilla fruiticosa Mahonia aquifolium Fragaria americana Ligustrum vulgare Vinca minor *Parthenocissus tricuspidata *Pinus ponderosa *Pinus sylvestris *Pinus cembroides edul1s Abies concolor Acer ginnala Juniperus scopulorum Eleagnus angustifolia Native, found with Populus tremuloides. Blooms throughout the summer. Good on slopes. Nice bloom. Native. Good for wildlife. Found with Popu.!_us tremuloides. Hardy, shade tolerant, nice bloom, fruit. Excellent ground cover, shade tolerant, evergreen. See above. See above. Grows fast. Good screening plant. Native, drought tolerant Speciman, drought tolerant, can grow on near barren rock. Nice when mixed with evergreens. Speciman. Grows up to 7800'. Beautiful red fall color. Native, evergreen, drought tolerant. Grows up to 8500'. Drought tolerant, good for wildlife. Grows along water as well.

PAGE 117

Near Water Rhus trilobata *Cercocarpus montanus Rubus delicious Cotoneaster apiculatus *Chrysothamnus nauseosus Mahonia repens Populus angustifolia Cornus sericea Cornus sericea flav1reamea Salix iorata symthoicarros x c enault1 Betula fontinalis Fragaria americana Good on slopes. Dryland. Native, dryland, good for wildlife. Native, showy, grows in cracks in rocks. Good for wildlife. Good bank cover. Good for wildlife. Drought tolerant. Yellow bloms in fall. Good for bank stabilization, wildlife. Native. Purple in fall and winter. Native, extremely hardy. Grows rapidly, food for revegetation. Winter interest. Good for screening, massing Winter interest (yellow stems). Native. good for screening, massing. Winter interest. Native. Good for waterside revegeation. Mix with dogwoods for interesting colors. Excellent bank cover. Native. Grows near water up to 9500'. Interesting bark, fruit. See above. (Note: * indicates plants to be used in reclamation. The remaining plants would be appropriate in the further development of the site).

PAGE 118

APPENDIX C

PAGE 119

Over v i e w The F!Of'lt o t the R ocky r un s nonh IS locolted . MuCh of the of the ( 0\JOfy IS deltned bythescemc foothtlls tNt rtM! out oi the Colorido rehes on o1 thnvmg IOUrtSI •ndusll'y t h e close pro,.;tmtty 01 m.u to the reKt1ly .tfotds access tor thouwnds "'""""" g.te mtmrtg t n the the concerns tor mtntng. Ylt:'YO'po!OIS, •nd modtiiCoi!IOnS wt'"fe t'! reduce the Further Stmul•ll ons mdtCollr •mp.Kts ca n be wbsunu.1lly reduced betort> mtntngbegtnS. Ope rati o n s Analysis ANALYSIS Sit e Loca ti on ( 0101!: \()0 I I . L _ _j 1 il ! I ): ___ _lj ____./ Cnttss / / R:Af lllS'-AII.[ GUlCH \II'IERAL E'< fi!:AlfiON SITE Rel ationsh i p of V i ewe r to Mine Sit e Charac ter . _, .. , 1•• • .•• 0 I k)fnhl t•ndo.• Cool ey G r avel Company Scenic a nd Min eral R eso ur ces on the Colorado Front Range Rattlesnake Gulch Jeffer son County , Colorado

PAGE 120

Over v ie w "t•n.ng. throu gh l .and lon'n mod•fK.aiiOf'l_ . .nd the muoducuon of eq..npment ,md s truc tutH. w.ll .al!er the erMmnmenc. t4.l Q.lkh v rsu"l c .m be wlxumtollly reduc ed by •nd tftlc• ll"f$ • nd \o(r'f!l'!fllng the processul$ eq1.up m e ru leol'llng • kr101l •mKl ( t'•ri!C'I' pl•ns call lo r r ts wtll Vlnu•Jiv hide the mtned from v.ew I rom the road btolow •nd onlv t ht' u ppet" benches will bt' lftn 11"01'1'1 • dt\Unce n,. conro u ndll"' i u n be rrunii'T\Ilftt bv dt'si!Jntns tlw btonctw-s to 1 1 '' poutble 10 mtrot" det'pt'r 10 the df!\lred •mount d sttll hide the mtM rrom \lt.W I n c te•ted Thls.,ffords the Ot)pOr'lun•tv mentollhtS ttt', IOd Qm.lltftlht'bt'nch.!dch..ltr;KH'fot !he Sift' Mid Ukt' old\01tnt.ge ot OUIM,Jndl"fl _.., trom the MO rnultt ngltol.'els. Ope rati o n s C onc e pts ' ' ' .... o:, ... ,,._d . ... I / ( / R eclamati O n Phas1n g I I I I ._ __________ --r-:h.ht ' I 1 '>t tf't•n lo,itl out L __ IMPROVEMENTS Procedu r e . I _, I •"' R ecla m a tiOn Phasing I I I I Relat1ons h'p o f Viewer to M1ne View f rom t h e R oa d The Processing Equi pment \tt'\'\pomt , ..... "" I l.h.o.' L ' I Uj)l}t1 b t •fll h t•" _j Ph,,..._. I ltt-,11 ii.Jo.Htbt•tl(ht•" Cool e y Gra vel C om p a n y Scenic a nd Mine r a l R eso ur ces o n the C o l o r a do Fro n t Range Rattlesnake Gulch J effe r son County , Colorado

PAGE 121

Overview piMJmng ilnd JOf R.Jnlerwke The wrrvund•"B Lind the loahOn at the "'e neilr restMnu.al •nd the pis iltld iot the COli"'Vindote Ttwt !Mal kxiltiDn empblment Thmusft mm•ng. 1\ tnnvetme
PAGE 122

APPENDIX D

PAGE 123

SCOPING QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PLANNERS 1. Project Characteristics A. What are the major project desicrn features (size, bench height, fill platforms, sediment ponds)? B. What processing facilities or other related structures are part of the project? c. Are any roadway changes part of the project? D. Are any drainage changes(channelling, filling) part of the project? 2. Visual Environment of Project A. What landscape components (landform, water, vegetation and manmade development) are characteristic of the regional landscape and the immediate project area? B. Where is the project likely to be seen from?

PAGE 124

C. What major viewer groups are likely to see the project? 3. Significant Visual Resource Issues A. What Landscape components are now present within the visual environment and how would project alternatives change these? B. What is the present visual character of the project environment (e.g. form, line, color texture, and dominance, scale, diversity, continuity) and how compatible would project alternatives be with this character? C. What levels of quality now exist (evaluating by criteria such as vividness, intactness and unity, or by other indicators) and how much would project alternatives affect these?

PAGE 125

4. Significant Viewer Response Issues. A. What is the viewer exposure to project alternatives for different groups (numbers, duration, distance and speed of view, etc.) and how much would these alternatives alter important existing views? B. Are there any visual resources in the project environment that are particualrly impor-tant to local viewers? Are there any districts, sites, or features that are regionally or nationally recognized? C. Is the project thought to threaten or support expectations for the future appearance of the area? 5. Visual Impacts and Impact A. In summary, what significant visual impacts during mining appear likely? B. What alternatives might avoid, minimize, or reduce any adverse visual impacts and by how much?

PAGE 126

C. How will progressiverehabilitation efforts affect (reduce) visual impacts? D. What stages of operation will these mitigation efforts occur? E. What actions might rectify or compensate for adverse visual impacts and by how much?

PAGE 127

APPENDIX E

PAGE 128

Appendix 3, Page l ( II ID4) H-8431-1 VISUAL RESOURCE CONTRAST RATING A Sample List of Design Techniques for Mitigating Visual Impacts A. LANDFORM/WATER BODY. (1) Reduce Size of Cut and Fill Slopes. Consider: (a) relocating to an area with less slope. (b) changing road width, grade, etc. (c) changing alignment to follow existing grades. (d) prohibiting dumping of excess material on downhill slopes. (2) Reduce Earthwork Contrasts. Consider: (a) r 'unding and/or warping slopes. (b) retaining rocks, trees, drainages, etc. (c) toning down freshly broken rock faces with asphalt emulsion spray or with gray paint. (d) adding mulch, hydromulch, or topsoil. (e) shaping cuts and fills to appear as natural forms. (f) cutting rock areas so forms are irregular. (g) designing to take advantage of natural screens (i.e., vegetation, land forms). (h) grass seeding of cuts and fills. (3) Maintain the Integrity of Topographic Units. Consider: (a) locating projects away from prominent topographic features. (b) designing projects to blend with topographic forms in shape and placement. B. VEGETATION. (l) Retain Existing Vegetation. Consider: (a) using retaining walls on fill slopes. (b) reducing surface disturbance. (c) protecting roots from damage during excavations. (2) Enhance Revegetation. Consider: (a) mulching cleared areas. (b) controlling planting times. (c) furrowing slopes. (d) planting holes on cut/fill slopes. (e) choosing native plant species. (f) stockpiling and reusing topsoil . . (g) fertilizing, mulching, and watering vegetation. BLM MA UA L Supersedes Rel.

PAGE 129

Appendix 3, Page 2 H-8431-1 VISUAL RESOURCE CONTRAST RATING (3) Minimize Impact on Existing Vegetation. Consider: (a) partial cut instead of clear cut. (b) using irregular clearing shapes. (c) feathering/thinning edges. (d) disposing of all slash. (e) controlling construction access. (f) utilizing existing roads. (g) limiting work within construction area. (h) selecting type of equipment to be used. (i) minimizing clearing size (i.e., strip only where necessary). (j) grass seeding of cleared areas. (4) Maintain the Integrity of Vegetative Units. Consider: (a) utilizing the edge effect for structure placement along natural vegetative breaks. C. STRUCTURES. (1) Minimize the Number of Visible Structures. (2) Minimize Structure Contrast. Consider: (a) using earth-tone paints and stains. (b) using cor-ten steel (self-weathering). (c) treating wood for self-weathering. (d) using natural stone surfaces. (e) burying all or part of the structure. (f) selecting paint finishes with low levels of reflectivity (i.e., flat or semi-gloss). (3) Redesign Structures that do not Blend/Fit. (a) using rustic designs and native building materials. (b) using natural appearing forms to complement landscape character (use special designs only as a last resort). (c) relocating structure. (4) Minimize Impact of Utility Crossings. Consider: (a) makir.g crossings at right (b) setting back structures at a maximum distance from the crossing. (c) leaving vegetation along the roadside. (d) minimizing viewing time. (e) utilizing natural screening. BL:\1 Super$edes Rd.

PAGE 130

.. Appendix 3, Page 3 H-8431-l VISUAL RESOURCE CONTRAST RATING (5) Recognize the Value and Limitations of Color. Consider: (a) that color (hue) is most effective within 1,000 feet. Beyond that point color becomes more difficult to distinguish and tone or value determine s visibility and resulting visual contrast. (b) that using color has limited effectiveness (in the background distance zone) in reducing visual impacts on structures that are silhouetted against the sky. (c) painting structures somewhat darker than the adjacent landscape to compensate for the effects of shade and shadow. (d) selecting color to blend with the land and not the sky. I ' l.\1 . 1.\ ;-i lJ A L Rd.

PAGE 131

APPENDIX F

PAGE 132

Append i x l, Page l (II) H-8431-l VISUAL RESOURCE CONTRAST RATING Project Description Guidelines Project proposals, whether site-specific, corridor, o r large-scale, must be described using plans, sketches, simulations, or narratives in sufficient detai l so that the expected changes in the landscape feature s (landform/water, vegetation, and structures) can be visualized. If a proposal does n o t contai n sufficient detailed information, it must be obtained or t h e assumptions clearly documented. Use the following checklist as a guide when identifying the information needed for each proposal: l. General. a. Type of project. b. Specific location(s). c. Proposed methods of operation from preplanning and design through project completion. d. Size and magnitude. e. Time period of operation, including specific phasing and discrete operations. f. Specific committed standard operational procedures of proposal . g. Projected ultimate land use and adjacent land use. 2. Specific. a. Feature: Landform and Wate r . (1) Exact location of undertaking, and depth of excavation and f ill (horizontal, vertical, and slope). (2) Color of the exposed soils, subsoils, bedrock, overburden, or fill material when major excavations or fills are anticipated. ( 3 ) Anticipated water coloration where reservoir, tailing areas, etc., are planned. (4) Timing and duration of exposed excavation or fill. (5) Methods of operation, how long each phase of t h e operation will last. ( 6) Reshaping after use, including final landform appearance (grades, slopes, drainage patterns) . ( 7 ) Anticipated ultimate use. b. Feature: Vegetation. BLi\1 . 1 ANUAL Supersedes Rel. (l) Exact location and method of vegetative manipulation (extent of clearing and modification). (2) Size and magnitude of change. (3) Type, location, method, quan;ity, and timing of replanting and/or reseeding.

PAGE 133

Appendix l , Page 2 H-8431-l VISUAL RESOURCE CONTRAST RATING c . Feature: Structures. B U I !t'IANU AL Rel. (l) Exact locations where structures are to be placed within the project area. (2) Design of structures. (a) Size and type. (b) Form. (c) Texture(s) and color(s) of exterior materials and construction method to be U_!Jed ) . (3) Life expectancy. ( 4 ) Operations and maintenance (schedule and methods).

PAGE 134

Bl BLIOGRAPHY

PAGE 135

American Society of Landscape Architects. Creating Land for Tomorrow. A Guide to Land scape A"rCh1te-ct'SPartici pat ionTn Planning Mineral Development. Washington, D.C.: Information Series Vol. 1 No. 3, 1978. American Society of Landscape Architects. Visual Resource Management. Washington, D.C.: Landscape Architecture Technical Information Series Vol. 1 No. 2, 1978. Bates, Robert L. and Julia A. Jackson. Our Modern Stone Age. Los Altos, CA: William-Kaufmann, Inc., 1982. Bradshaw, A.D. and M.J. Chadwick. The Restoration of Land. Berkeley: Univeristy of Califor nia Press, 1980. Bradshaw, A.D. "Ecological Principles and land Reclamation Practice," Landscape Planning, 11: 35-48, 1948. Bureau of Land Management. Visual Resource Management. BLM Manual 8400. aureau of Land Management. Rehab. Oil and Gas Technical Bulletin No. 1. Wyom:lngstate OITTce: --Burea-u or Land Management Press, 1981. Bureau of Mines. "Mining Technology Research." Department of the Interior. June, 1975. Carmen, John L. "Strip Mine Housing: A Reclamation Option," Landscape Architecture zine, 71: 474-475. July, 1981. Chris Mulder Associates, Inc. "Honeydew Quarry Reclamation Plan." Unpublished planning document. Lynnwood Glen, Pretoria. September, 1981.

PAGE 136

Chris Mulder Associates, Inc. "Reclamation Plan for Rooikraal Dolomite Quarry." Unpublished planning document. Lynnwood Glen, Pretoria. February, 1981. Chris Mulder Associates, Inc. "Cape Blue Rock. Revised Mining and Reclamation Plan." Un published planning document. Lynnwood Glen, Pretoria. November, 1981. Coates, Wi 11 iam E. "Mining and Park Deve 1 opment Wi thing City Limits." Landscape Architecture Magazine,75:64-65. Coates, W.E. and O.R. Scott. "A Study of Pit and Quarry Rehabilitation in Southern Ontario." Ontario. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Pater 83, Ministry of Natural Resources, 1979. Colorado Department of Highways. I-70 in a Mountain Environment. Vail Pass,C01orad0. Committee on Surface Mining and Reclamation. Sur face Mining of Non-Coal Minerals. WashIngton, D.C. Nat1onal Academy of SCiences, 1979. Committee on Surface Mining and Reclamation. Sur face Mining of Non-Coal Minerals. Appenari 1: Sand and Gravel Mining and Quarrying and Blastingfor Crushed Stoneand other Con structiOn MateriafS: Washington, D.C.: Na tional Academy of scllences, 1980. Daniel, Terry. "Measuring Public Preferences for Scenic Quality." in Reclamation and Use of Disturbed Land in the Southwest. ea:-by John Thames. Tucson:T1i"eUniveristy of Arizona Press, 1978. Dubos, Rene. The Resi!!ence of Ecosystems. An Eco!!1ica! of Restoration. Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press, 1978.

PAGE 137

Federal Highway Administration. Visual Impact Assessment for Highway Projects:'Wash1ngton, D.C.: American Soc1ety of Landscape Architects. Ferguson, Bruce K. "A Watershed Approach to Past Mistakes." Landscape Architecture 75: 42-50. Fitzgerald, Randall Boyd. "Visual Analysis as a Design and Decision-making Tool in the Development of a Quarry. Proceedings of Our National Landscape, ed. by Gary H. Elsner and Richard C. Smardon. Berkeley: U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-35, pp. 335-339, 1979. Gemmel, R.P. and R.K. Connell. "Conservation and Creation of Wildlife Habitats on Industrial Land in Greater Manchester," Landscape Planning, 11: 175-186, 1984. Hackett, Brian, ed. Landscape Reclamation Practice. Surrey, England: IPC science and Technology Press, 1977. Hatfield, Michael A., J. LeRoy Balzer and Roger E. Nelson. "Computer-Aided Visual Assessment in Mine Planning and Design". Proceedings of Our National Landsape, ed. by Gary H. Elsner and Richard C. Smardon. Berkeley: U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PSW35, pp. 323-327, 1979. Jaakson, Reiner. "Recreation Design Alternatives for a Disturbed Urban Landform," Landscape Planning, 8: 31-68, 1981. Jefferson County Colorado. Mineral Extraction Policy Plan. 1977. Jefferson County Colorado. Jefferson County Land Use Plan. 1984.

PAGE 138

Klite, Paul. Reclamation Art. Denver: for the Colorado Council on the Humanities and the Colorado Mined lamation Division, 1985. Proposal Arts and Land Rec-Landphair, Harlow, C. "Texas Lignite and the Visual Resource." Proceedings of Our National Landscape. ed. by Gary H. Elsner and Richard C, Smardon. Berkely: U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-35, pp. 312-322, 1979. Landscape Archi tecure Department, Texas A&t-1 University. "Landscape Management Study. Perch-Hill Quarry. Bridgeport, Texas." Unpubl i.shed document prepared by students at Texas A&M University. College Station, Texas, 1978. Law, Dennis. Mined-Land Rehabilitation. New York: Van Nostrand Re1nhold Company, 1984. Leaming, George. "Economic Constraints" in Reclamation and Use of Disturbed Land ir}The Southwest. Thames. Tucson: The Univers1ty of Arizona Press, 1977. Leopold, Robert, Bruce Rowland and Reed Stalder. "Surface Mining". Proceedings of Our National Landscape. ea. by Gary H. Elsner and Richard c. Smardon. Berkeley: U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-35, pp. 20-24, 1979. Lowe, S.B. "Trees and Shrubs for the Improvement and Rehabilitation of Pits and Quarries i n Ontario." Ontario. Ministry of Natural Resources, 1979. Massie, Sue. "Timeless Healing at Buffalo Rock." Landscpae Architecture Magazine. 75: 70-71.

PAGE 139

McKenzie, Stewart and Ricki Mckenzie. "The Big Hole. Planning a Quarry's Reuse," Landscape Architecture Magazine, p. 62-69. January, 1979. Mined Land Recalmation Division. "Colorado Mined Land Reclamation Act." Denver:Department of Natural Resources, 1973. Mined Land Reclamation Division. "Mineral Rules and Regulations." Denver: Department of Natural Resources, 1978. Moore, Russell and Thomas Mills. An Environmental Guide to Western surface Ml:ning: Part Two: IiiiPactS, M 1 t 1 gat 1on, and-Mon1 torl. ng. U.s. life Service, December 1977. Pugliese, J.M., D.E. Swanson, W.H. Engelmann, and T.R. Bur. "Quarrying Near Urban Areas: An Aid to Premine Planning." Information Circular 8804. U.S. Department of the Interior and the Bureau of Mines. Rowe, J.E. "A Suitability Matrix for Selecting Land Use Alternatives for Reclaimed Strip Mined Areas," Landscape Planning, 4: 257-271, 1977. R.V. Lord and Associates. Rattlesnake Gulch Aggregate Development. Boulder, Colorado. Schwochow, S.D., R.R. Shroba, and P.C. Wicklein. Sand, Gravel and Quarry Aggregate resources Colorado Count1es Special Publlcatlon SA. Denver: Colorado Geological Survey, Department of Natural Resources, 1974. Simmonds, John. Landscape Architecture. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983.

PAGE 140

Simpson, John W. "Opportunities for Visual Resour.. ce Management in the Southern Appalachian Coal Basin." Proceedings of Our National Landscape. ed. by Gary H. Elsnerand Richard C. Smardon. Berkeley: U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-35, pp. 328-334, 1979. Skaller, Michael. "Vegetation Management by Minimal Intervention: Working with Succession," Landscape Planning, 8: 149-174, 1981. Slick, Bernard. "Revegetation for Aesthetics," in Lexington: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service General Technical Report NE 61, 1980. Soden, Mark. "Landscape Capability Before and After Surface Mining." Unpublished Master's Thesis. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University, 1980. Thames, John L., ed. Reclamation and Use of Disturbed Land in the Un1vers1ty of-xriZOna Press, 1977. Thornburg, Ashley. Plant Materials for Use on Surface Mined L-anas 1n Arid anaseinlar10 Reg1ons. -wasnlngton D.C.: -So1l -Conservat 1on Serv1ce, 1982. Thorne Ecological Institute. "Final Supplemental Rec lama-t. ion Program. Prepared for High Point Centre." Unpublished planning document. Boulder: Thorne Ecological Institute. November, 1983. Tomlinson, Paul. "Evaluating the Success .of Land Reclamati.on Schemes," Landscape Planning, 11: 187-203, 1984. United States Department of Agriculture. National Forest Landscape Management. Volume One. Handbook 434, 1973. --------

PAGE 141

United States Department of Agriculture. National Forest Landscape Management. Volume Two, Chapter One. ManagementSystem. HandboOk -462, -1974.--------------Wright, Robert, ed. The Reclamation of Disturbed Arid Lands. Albuquerque: uniVersfty01New Mexrco-Press, 1978. Wh i t n e y, G 1 e a v e s . Co 1 or ado Front Range . A Landscape Di 1983. Zube, Ervin. "Landscape Aesthetics: Policy and Planning in the u.s." in The Aesthetics of Landscape ed. by J. Appleton. Landscape Research Group and Final Planning Services Ltd. Publication No. 7.


ERROR CAUGHT WHILE SAVING NEW DIGITAL RESOURCE TO SOLR INDEXES
5/13/2019 4:21:19 PM

Unable to connect to the remote server
at SolrNet.Impl.SolrConnection.PostStream(String relativeUrl, String contentType, Stream content, IEnumerable`1 parameters) in d:\BuildAgent-01\work\e4797f8bddc217f4\SolrNet\Impl\SolrConnection.cs:line 119
at SolrNet.Impl.SolrConnection.Post(String relativeUrl, String s) in d:\BuildAgent-01\work\e4797f8bddc217f4\SolrNet\Impl\SolrConnection.cs:line 84
at SolrNet.Impl.SolrBasicServer`1.SendAndParseHeader(ISolrCommand cmd) in d:\BuildAgent-01\work\e4797f8bddc217f4\SolrNet\Impl\SolrBasicServer.cs:line 112
at SobekCM.Engine_Library.Solr.v5.v5_Solr_Controller.Update_Index(String SolrDocumentUrl, String SolrPageUrl, SobekCM_Item Resource, Boolean Include_Text) in C:\GitRepository\SobekCM-Web-Application\SobekCM_Engine_Library\Solr\v5\v5_Solr_Controller.cs:line 59
at SobekCM.Engine_Library.Solr.Solr_Controller.Update_Index(String SolrDocumentUrl, String SolrPageUrl, SobekCM_Item Resource, Boolean Include_Text) in C:\GitRepository\SobekCM-Web-Application\SobekCM_Engine_Library\Solr\Solr_Controller.cs:line 33
at SobekCM.Library.MySobekViewer.New_Group_And_Item_MySobekViewer.complete_item_submission(SobekCM_Item Item_To_Complete, Custom_Tracer Tracer) in C:\GitRepository\SobekCM-Web-Application\SobekCM_Library\MySobekViewer\New_Group_And_Item_MySobekViewer.cs:line 857