Citation
Inter culture market

Material Information

Title:
Inter culture market
Creator:
Anderson, Elayne
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Committee Chair:
Heath, Paul
Committee Members:
Sanderson, George

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Elayne Anderson. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
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MARKET
An Architectural Thesis presented to the
College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
Elayne Anderson Fall 198^


The Thesis of Elayne Anderson is approved.
Paul Heath, Committee Chairman
George Sanderson, Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver December 198A


Dedicated
To the following for their kindness, persaverance and support:
• Lois Ann
• Marlena
• Margaret
Special thank you
To the following for their time and support:
• George Chelwick - developer, Mile High Land Associates
• George Sanderson - architect, Carl Worthington Partnership
• Peter Monroe - structural engineer, Richard Weingardt Con.
9 Gary Powell - landscape architect, Denton, Harper, Marshall


Table of Contents
Thesis Proposal
Project Statement & Definition ....................... \
Philosophy Statement ................................. 2
Historical & Modern Context .......................... 5
Hypothesis' 1,2,3 .................................... 7
Site Selection Alternatives ........................... 10
Master Plan & Proposals ............................... 15
Site Survey ........................................... 20
Environmental Conditions
Soils ............................................... 21
Floodplain .......................................... 22
Ecology/Water Quality ............................... 23
Air Quality ......................................... 24
Climate/Energy ...................................... 25
Land Use
Site Analysis ....................................... 29
Historic Sites ...................................... 30
Parks/Open Space .................................... 31
Cultural Facilities ................................. 32
Commercial .......................................... 34
Residential ......................................... 35
Transportation
Vehicular Access .................................... 36
Railroad ............................................ 38
Bicycle/Pedestrian .................................. 39
Light Rail .......................................... 40
Spine Road Concept .................................. 41
Code Reviews
Building Code Analysis ......................... 42
Zoning .............................................. 46
Parking ............................................. 47
Building Program
Arts Facility Square Footages ....................... 48
Market Facility Square Footages ..................... 49
Spatial Activities .................................. 50
Capital Construction Cost Estimate .................... 53
Thesis Drawings ......................................
Appendix •
Cultural Group Census ..............................
Planning Task Force Objectives .....................
Questionnaires .....................................
Interview synopsis .................................
P.U.D. Design Criteria .............................
Footnotes ............................................
Bibliography .........................................
Conclusion ...........................................


Thesis Proposal


Project Description
The proposed Inter Cultural Market will be a dual-complex facility dedicated to the promotion of increasing cultural awareness, in order to stimulate communication of the worlds multi-faceted cultures.
The intent is that by creating a center which promotes the education of cultural activities at the local level, its benefits might be felt on a national level in bettering international relations.
In order to facilitate this ideal the Inter Cultural Market, which is to be located in Denver, Colorado just east of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek confluence, will include the following components:
• A semi-open air market for the sale of cultural foods, spices and drinks
• Retail shops for the sale of cultural arts and crafts
• Outdoor spaces for open air festival performances, cafes, concessionaires and landscaped art gardens
• An enclosed facility including a small performance hall for cultural dances, theatre and music; an art gallery; an exhibition space; foreign language class rooms; intercultural cooking classrooms and bookstore
Project Definition
As the Market is titled Inter Cultural, a brief explaination of this term is in order since there is a significant differen between the terms international and intercultural. When applied to the idea of communication, international refers to a political situation at a national level. Its audiences are large and the process is very formal. Intercultural refers to communication between members of two cultures even though they may be from the same nation. This interaction is a more personal face to face situation and far less formal.
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Philosophy Statement
The problem ...
ethnocentric ignorance.
Ethnocentrism is the tendency to view people unconsciously by using our own group and our own customs as the standard for all judgements. When we identify with specific political units - cities, counties, states, nations - we
’ 1
restrict our area of social and moral obligation. In a UNESCO report in which nine nations were studied on "how nations see each other" is was determined that national states provide social frameworks which powerfully determine the way in which o^her nations and its cultures are viewed and interpreted.
These stereotyped cultural images are not fixed, but are constantly reinforced by the transactions that occur between distinctly differentiated systems. Any negative political or national ideals that are interlaced during any cultural interchange will be immediately perceived and all too often believed. The reduction of these unfavorable stereotypes will depend upon basing socio-educational efforts toward an understanding of Ijhe dynamic context and components on which they are based.
Aristotle defined a political community as the group of people within the range of a single man's voice. By that definition the inhabitants o^ this planet are rapidly becoming a single community. It is then necessary to create a spirit of communication between the members of this community, as it is also just as necessary to remove any ignorance about and amoungst its members. This notion became clearly apparent in the after maths of World War II as it brought about the creation of the United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) In 1945, Archibald MacLeish, the United States representative to UNESCO's first executive board, stated it this way:
" If suspicion and fear as between the people's of the world have become immediate and present dangers it follows that international trust and confidence are no longer ideal goals to be realized in some utopian future; but present and urgent and inescap-
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able necessities to be realized at once and by every available means. One such means is by a direct attempt to remove the ignorance and prejudice upon which fear and suspicion feed and to _~ replace them with the knowledge and understanding which give rise to a sense of common humanity and therefore to a common life."
This ignorance, or better yet, this lack of knowledge and education of other cultural groups, whether it be due to a national policy or individual myopic views is the summation of the ethnocentric problem.
In a recent report to the U.S. Senate, entitled, "What We Don't Know Can Hurt Us", by the American Council on Education, it was stated that "U.S. security is endnagered in part by Americans' ignorance of foreign languages and cultures ... a shortfall in our international competance." This shortfall has to a small extent been detected by most of our national leaders and has found its way into congressional legislation in the form of programs to help facilitate cultural exchanges in the arts and humanities. (For further information, refer to the Cultural Program Outline in the appendix of this report.)
The key words to note in most of these programs are mutual and reciprocal as they apply to cultural exchanges. This important aspect of cultural interaction was best summed up during the L.B. Johnson's administrations, Blueprint for Peace Symposium, when the task force for Promoting Cultural Exchange made the statement that:
"There is a need for the United States to develop an Ear of America to go along with the Voice of America. The American attempt to be heard has exceeded the effort to listen. The rest of the world should have the opportunity to display its art and thought to Americans."
Learning about a country is hardly a science but an art. Learning from a country is hardly an art but a science. There are two ways in which the learning of a country takes
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place. The first is through making a careful study of some aspects of its history, customs, physical characteristics and institutions. The second way is to study the culture, or in another term, the gestault of a country so thoroughly and imagimatively that one comes to see it from the inside.It is only at this point that true understanding can take place.
Inducing this type of cultural exposure to the public, while at the same time reserving a space within the vast expanding urban network, for the assured continued ex-istance of cultural and ethnic heritages, is the motive behind the Inter Cultural Market.


Historical & Modern Context
The greatest human migration in history occured during the century beginning in 1820. During that time millions of people came to the United States as parts of two great overlapping immigrant streams. The first stream (the "old" immigration) consisted mainly of people from Ireland, Germany, England and Scandinavia. The second great stream (the "new" immigration) consisted mainly of people from Italy, Austria, Hungary and Russia.
Both the old immigrants and the new tended to cluster together with others from their land of origin. In the process, they formed ethnic communities for mutual aid and the preservation of their ethnic heritages. This new situation found most of these people divorced from their homelands, and engaged to a new land which they soon realized was clothed in discrimination. Their feelings of exclusion brought about a need and desire to establish formal ethnic organizations in order to provide a degree of structure, stability and continuity to the newly formed community.
Denver is no exception to the rule and due to its central geographic location has a wealth of cultural and ethnic history. The discovery of gold in the 1860’s brought thousands of miners to the area and as can be expected, the merchants were sure to follow. Therefore in the 1880's a wave of Jewish, Polish, Swedish and Slavic immigrants came and settled in separate sections within the South Platte River and Cherry Creek confluence area.
As the local economy and interest was channeled towards agricultural commodities, the Hispanics came from the south to work the sugar beet and wheat fields. The following enterprise, was of course, the expansion of the railways. With that the Japanese and Chinese immigrants came and transformed the vision and dream of a trans-continental railway into a reality.
This explains in part how just a few of the ethnic groups came to settle in the Rocky Mountain region. The U.S. Department of Commerce 1980 Census of Population documents 35 cultural/ethnic groups' in the Denver metropolitan area.
5


Most groups have either formed their own small organizations, with an average membership of 200-500 or they belong to the Colorado Folk Art Council which is a blanket oganization representing several ethnic groups. Their festivals are annual events in which these groups invite and encourage participation from the rest of the Denver community.
A problem that they face in organizing such activities in Denver, is the lack of public places with the facilities capable of handling events of that magnitude. As it stands now, they must either utilize hospital grounds, high school gymnasiums or church sites which are not always condusive to the festive atmosphere they work so hard to create. These non-profit ethnic organizations often times must enter into profit loosing contractual agreements with the owners of these facilities,.just in order to utilize an area for the expression and celebration of their cultural heritage.
The survival of an ethnic community and an ethnic "life" is largely a result of the continued existance of ethnic organizations, for it is mainly their purpose to ensure the continuation of the ethnic society. Because culture is learned and not biologically inherited, its transmission from one generation to the next depends upon an effective system of communication', hopefully to be found within the atmoshpere of the Inter Cultural Market.


Hypothesis 1
It is my intent to show that the Inter Cultural Market can act as an inoculator, in order to reintroduce to Denver its own embroyonic components; its own ethnic cultural groups.
The new and sterile development of Denver's urban core has cleansed it of those colorful, fundamental elements that are responsible for its conception in the first place.
This current lack of exposure and social interaction with and amoungst the ethnic groups is the reason Denver fails to have the vital and vivacious character of a true urban environment. The experience of visiting this city is not one to include the sights, smells or sounds of a Chinatown, Little Italy or Greek Astoria, yet there exists close to thirty-five ethnic groups in the Denver community.
It is my contention that the true experience of these groups can only be had by visiting the place of their origin. But, this proposes a problem in Denver, due to its central geographic location some people are unable to afford the cost of travel, while most others have developed myopic vision. Today, when information is so accessible, these are not valid excuses for cultural ignorance, especially of the cultures within ones own city.
Those that migrate to the area for its climatic and environmental amenities are for the most part unaware of its strong cultural amenities. Its no wonder though, since the thriving ethnic groups are only to be found within the small confines of their neighborhoods which in Denver have been hidden and obscured by commercial strip zoning. If an ethnic food store can be found it is likely to be located in a typical .strip commercial shopping center, an area not condusive to arousing ones interest to investigate the cultural offerings of the neighborhood any further.
It is through the social act of shopping within an atmosphere of cultural cuisine and arts that I intend to expose Denver to its primal beginnings.


Hypothesis 2
I also intend to show that the Inter Cultural Market can become the catalyst that is needed to spawn future people-oriented development in the Central Platte Valley. Due to the site location between the soft open spaces of the Platte river and the hard urban grid system of Lower Downtown, the project will play a strategic role of melding the design vocabulary of the two into a new human language of its own.
This particular place within urban space lends itself, and therefore lends to the Market, the ability to become a nucleus of social interaction from which radiates an aura of revitalization of both the physical and the cultural environment.
As the ethnic groups begin to utilize the facility for the preservation of their customs, culture and language; it is my contention that while they reinforce these cultural mores in their children they will simultaneously reinforce the knowledge of their existance within the community.
As the Denver public begins to utilize the facility as a recreational and shopping area; it is also my contention that only renewed awareness of cultural existance can result.
In essence, the social process of cultural restoration can be made possible due to facilities like the proposed Inter Cultural Market.
8


Hypothesis 3
Finally I intend to show that a facility composed of human scale structures and intimate landscaped spaces can create the informal atmosphere that is required for intercultural communication to take place.
The historic layout of the marketplace or festival ground created directions, paths and eddies where face to face interaction between people played a key role in its success as a social stimulator. The meandering, non-formality of the site will facilitate such actions as sitting on the grass, loosening a tie or maybe even splashing in the water, all of which are a far cry from the formal stances and gestures used in daily urban interaction.
In summation, it is only through a renewed awareness of the significant role that cultural groups have within our society, that will make Denver and its citizens concerned about significant cultural issues and problems.
The Inter Cultural Market is only to be viewed as a beginning for this growth process and not by any means an end point in itself.
9


Site Selection Alternatives
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Alternative 1
Advantages:
• excellent view of downtown skyline
• historical railway buildings for adaptive reuse
• picturesque water front setting on Platte with large cottonwoods
• possible connection with Children's Museum
• nice feeling of open space
Disadvantages:
• Mile High Stadium an eye-sore
• possible flood plain problem
• pedestrian access extremely limited
• current high tech Water Street Center proposal extremely detrimental to character of valley
• noise from 1-25 a problem
10


Alternative 2
Advantages:
• possible adaptive reuse of parts of Forney Museum
• Confluence Park provides excellent outdoor urban space
• newly renovated office building, restaurant and bar nearby
Disadvantages:
• extremely tight sight, allows for little expansion
• parking is severely limited
• too close to 1-25 and Speer Blvd. intersection
11


Alternative 3 (site selected)
Advantages:
• close to developing areas of lower downtown
• possibility for grading, terracing down to Cherry Creek
• existing railway bridges could be tied into open space concept
• site visual from Speer Blvd., therefore increased public awareness
Disadvantages:
• distorted view of skyline
• vehicle accessibility is currently limited
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Alternative 4
Advantages:
• good node point for continuation of 16th Street shuttle
• excellent preservation/reuse possibility
• future open-space use as prommenade proposal attractive
Disadvantages:
• convention center plans at Denver Union Terminal undecided
13


Alternative 5
Advantages:
• good pedestrian access from Auraria, Convention Center and central business district
• public already comes for art events and activities
• existing parking
Disadvantages:
• would entail demolition, remodel of auditorium and retail areas
• too much concrete for "human" environment of ICM
• scale too large
• possible management problems
14


Master Plan & Proposals

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Master Plan
This architectural thesis was done independent of but in co-operation with Mile High Land Associates, the owner/developer of 155 acres located in the Central Platte Valley.
Mile High Land Associates has developed a Master Plan for the 155 acre site which is entitled the Mile High Land Project. The following drawings indicated their proposals and plans.
Since the site selected for the Inter Cultural Market is currently in their ownership, adherance to their future plans will be of utmost importance in this thesis project.
At the writing of this report, Mayor Fredrico Pena has appointed the Downtown Plan Steering Committee whose task is to develop a Master Plan for the entire Downtown/Central Platte Valley that will take Denver into the 21st cetury. The committee consists of 27 individuals representing property owners, preservationists, developers, lawyers and bankers. The Plan is to be completed by the end of 1985.
Therefore, this thesis proposal is based upon many assumptions derived from research and interviews of some of the officials involved with the Master Plan development. (See appendix for Interview Synopsis) Those assumptions are located under their appropriate catagorey in the following text.
15




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MILE HIGH LAND PROJECT
Denver • Colorado ______________ ____________ _________
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Note Tbit it not a survey. Parcel hues are approximate


Site Survey


Site Survey
Location: Bounded by Cherry Creek on the southwest
Bounded by 15th St. on the northeast Bounded by Delegany St. on the souteast Ownership: Mile High Land Associates
Acreage: 8.659 acres (not all to be utilized in this thesis
Circulation: 1-25, Speer Blvd., 15th St.
Waterways: Cherry Creek, South Platte River to the east
20


Environmental Conditions


Soils
• Bedrock - 40-50 feet. Part of the Denver Formation
consisting of interstratified lenses of claystone, siltstone and sandstone.
• Overburden Soils - the natural overburden soils consist
of clean sands with scattered areas of gravel.
Sporatic conditions exist due to the flood plain alluvial deposits.
• Man-Made Fill - a trash fill covers the site which is
composed of cinders, wood, concrete and construction debris. The depth ranges from 3 to 6 feet over the majority of the site. Deep areas of fill 6 to 9 feet deep are expected along Cherry Creek due to improvements and changes in the channel alignment.
• Ground Water - the stabilized water level on the site
is approx. 17 to 20 feet below the ground surface. Fluctuations on the order of 3 to 5 feet in the ground water level adjacent to the rivers should be anticipated with changes in the level of both the South Platte River and Cherry Creek.
21
Source: Mile High Land Associates


Floodplain
• Although current mapping indicates otherwise, Army Corps of Engineers and Urban Drainage and Flood Control District analysis concludes that Cherry Creek will stay within its channel walls during a 100 year storm and will not flood the area north of Speer in the Central Platte Valley.
• There is an opportunity for channelization or rebanking of the creek in order to create public open space that is accessible to the unique water frontage.
(If done, a permit from the Army Corps of Engineers is required.)
• There may be a problem with storm run-off as it increases with development. (90% run-off on parking, 85% run-off on buildings, 35% run-off on greenery.)
Source: Mile High Land Associates
22


Ecology
Historically, in the 1850's the junction of the Platte River and the Cherry Creek presented a sylvan scene of sparkling waters amidst towering cottonwoods.
Currently a diverse riparian vegetation exists along the rivers. This sparse natural vegetation currently provides a limited habitat for small mammals and a variety of birds. Habitat restoration may produce an increase in the animal species populations.
The quality of water in the South Platte River and Cherry Creek has been improving in the past decade. Increased run-off caused by any development could adversely affect water quality unless treated before flowing into the rivers.
Source: Center for Community Design and Development,UCD
23


Air Quality
• Central Platte Valley is a topographical sink or
depresstion where temperature inversions are common and air circulation is poor.
• The main pollutants include:
- Carbon monoxide (CO) primarily from motor vehicles
- Ozone (0^) generated when oxygen interacts with hydro carbons from auto exhaust and nitrous oxides from all burning processes.
- Suspended particles (TSP, total suspended particulates) the "brown cloud".
• Care should be taken to utilize maximum amount of native
vegetation to help replace carbon dioxide with 02 oxygen around immediate site.
• Promotion of pedestrian/bike paths along with shuttle
systems, mass transit and light rail will strongly be urged in this proposal.
24 Source: Center for Community Design and Development, UCD


Climate/Energy
Denver lies in the semi-arid rain shadow of the Rocky Mountains and its area temperatures typify a mild interior continental region. The following data and statistics are explained by climatic components for use in the site analysis.
Wind
Annual average wind speed: 9.1 miles per hour Wind speeds in Denver are normally highest in winter and spring and lowest in late summer and fall. Because of the nighttime drainage wind down the South Platte Valley, south is the prevailing wind direction in all seasons.
Knowledge of the prevailing wind direction is a grossly over used and not particularly revealing statistic by itself for heating, ventilation and air conditioning applications. It is much more importatrt to know the various wind speeds in relation to the outdoor temperatures in the building at the time HVAC equipment is
25


functioning.
Since the Inter Cultural Market will include an enclosed theatre/arts complex and a semi-open air market, two different design temperatures will be assigned to each.
Wind data will be helpful in determining the way doors should swing out, patio and terrace construction, and landscaping placement for the creation of wind breaks and breezeways.
Temperature
In Denver, extremes of hot and cold temperature lasting beyond 5-6 days are a rarity. The diurnal temperature range between night and day is greater than the winter to summer swing. The following table gives the mean and extreme temperature summary as recorded by the United states Weather Bureau at Denver, Colorado.
This data will be helpful in designing awnings/shading devices for the semi-open aire market, also for the placement of landscaping and water amenities to help cool hot areas.
Precipitat ion
Mean annual precipitation equals 15.51 inches with the bulk of the moisture coming in the spring months. Heavy thundershowers are not uncommon during the warm summer months. From November to March the precipitation usually falls as snow which averages 59.9 inches per year.
These will become important factors when designing for the semi-open air market. Specifically it will effect roof loading conditions and quanities and placement of glazing.
26


Month Mean Wind Speed (mph) Prevailing Direction Maximum Wind Speed Recorded (mph) Direction Associated with Maximum
Jan 9.2 S 53 N
Feb 9.4 S 49 NW
Mar 10.1 S 53 NW
Apr 10.4 S 56 NW
May 9.6 S 43 SW
Jun 9.2 S 47 S
Jul 8.5 S 56 SW
Aug 8.2 S 42 SW
Sep 8.2 S 47 NW
Oct 8.2 S 45 NW
Nov 8.7 S 48 W
Dec 9.0 s 51 NE
Annual 9.1 s 56 NW
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977
MEAN AND EXTREME TEMPERATURE SUMMARY l°FI DENVER, COLO.
Month Dally Maxinun Dally Minimum Monthly Mean Record High Record Low Normal Degree Days f5°F Mean Su-her of P 90°F and ays Iecrcratuiea 32°F and below
(Heating) (Cooling) above
Jan A3.5 16.2 29.9 72 -25 1088 0 0 30
Feb AS.2 19.A 32.8 76 -30 902 0 0 27
Mar 50.1 23.8 37.0 84 -11 869 0 0 27
Apr 61.0 33.9 A7.S 85 - 2 525 0 0 13
May 70.3 A3.6 57.0 96 22 253 0 • 2
Jun 80.1 51.9 66.0 104 30 80 110 5 0
Jul 87.A 58.6 73.0 104 A3 0 248 15 0
Aug 85.8 57.A 71.6 101 41 0 208 9 0
Sep 77.7 A7.8 62.8 97 20 120 54 2 >
Oct 66.8 37.2 52.0 88 3 408 5 0 9
Now 53.3 25.A 39.A 79 - R 768 0 0 25
Dec A6.2 18.9 32.6 74 -18 1004 0 0 29
Annual 6A.0 36.2 50.1 104 -30 6016 625 32 162
* Leas than one half.
Source: Department of Coanerce, 1977
DAILY, MONTHLY AND ANNUAL PRECIPITATION DATA [inches! DENVER, COLORADO
Month Tc Precl tal pltat ion
Mean Monthly Monthly Minimum Maximum 24-hour of Days with Precipitation ^,.01 Inch Monthly Mean Maximum Monthlw of Daya with Snow 1.0 inch
Jan .61 0.01 1.02 6 8.4 23.7 2
Feb .67 1.66 0.01 1.01 6 8.0 18.3 2
Mar 1.21 2.89 0.13 1.48 8 12.6 29.2 4
Apr 1.93 A.17 0.03 3.25 9 9.6 28.3 3
May 2.64 7.31 0.06 3.55 10 1.5 13.6 eb
Jun 1.93 4.69 0.10 3.16 9 T« 0.3 0
Jul 1.78 6.41 0.17 2.42 9 0.0 0.0 0
Aug 1.29 4.47 0.06 3.43 8 0.0 0.0 0
Sep 1.13 4.67 T« 2.44 6 1.9 21.3 •
Oct 1.13 4.17 0.05 1.71 5 3.8 31.2 1
Now 0.76 2.97 0.01 1.29 5 7.6 39.1 2
Dec 0.43 2.84 0.03 1.38 5 6.5 30.8 2
Total 15.51 7.31 T« 3.55 88 5*»-9 39.1 18
* Monthly totals are rounded to the nearest whole day. h*Dcnotes leas than one-half.
CTT'—iotas a trace of precipitation
27
SOURCE: 0. S. Departaent of Cooaerca, 1977


PLAN OF SOLAR ANGLES
ZENITH
SOLAR ANGLES, SEASONAL VARIATION, DENVER.I40°NI
28



Land Use


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Site Analysis
A combined look at various visual and audio fators when situated in the Lower Platte Valley.
29


Historic Sites
Current recognized historic areas within the sites vicinity, by the Preservation Alliance include:
• Amos Root Building
• Forney Museum
• Union Station
• Moffatt Station
• District near 15th & Wewatta including two blacksmith shops, two flour mills and the old Daniels & Fisher Warehouse
Since the site for the Inter Cultural Market borders the historic district near 15th & Wewatta every effort in the design process will be made to enhance the district's historical character and significance.
The site for the Inter Cultural Market itself is full of historical and cultural significance. Before Denver's existance the confluence area was often used by Native American Indians for their encampments. Later with the founding of Denver it was setteled by Jewish immigrants, and then finally it became part of the Railway system.
30


Parks/Open Space
The surrounding parks include:
• South Platte Greenway
• Confluence Park
• Gates Crescent Park
• Centenial Park (dedicated)
The development of the Inter Cultural Market provides an opportunity to expand the Platte River Greenway up into the Cherry Creek banks. This could provide public open space for the redeveloping lower downtown district.
The development also provides the opportunity to explore the ammenities of the waterfront of the Cherry Creek.
Due to the site's strategic location and the costs of land development, it is unrealistic to assume the entire 8.56 acres could become open park space. The schematic design process for this thesis will establish the amount of land required to make the Inter Cultural Market a successful project.
31


Cultural Facilities
The Cultural Explorations inventory of cultural art life in Denver gives the following statistics:
• 149 arts organizations comprise a $25 million industry
• 7,000 performances were given for audiences of more than 2 million
• 7,500 days of exhibition space and art shows for 1.2 million people
Together the organizations earn nearly $13 million of their expenses from ticket sales, admissions and concessions. They raise another $7.5 million from business, foundations and individuals. The rest comes from federal, state and local government appropriations and grants.
The problem in Denver is that there is a substantial gap between the level of activity and support among the large organizations and that os the medium to small groups. When the discrepency in size between large and small organizations is so great, there appears to be some danger that the latter may be overwhelmed and find the struggle for survival
32


even more difficult. When asked what services in Denver were currently lacking the 149 organizations stated there was a need for arts facilites at reasonable costs, for promoting and giving credibility to cultural activites.
37 of the organizations expressed a need for better or additional places to perform, additional administrative space and rehearsal space.
Of those 149 groups approximately 30 are ethnic/cultural art groups.
The Inter Cultural Market's pupose is to provide spatial needs for the Denver based ethnic art groups and to also provide space for touring groups to perform for Denver audiences. As these international groups travel to New York and San Francisco to perform it would be easier for Denver to catch them enroute if there was available quality theater spaces.
Some of the existing arts facilities in the downtown Denver area which should also be linked up to the Inter Cultural Market with a people mover system include:
• DCPA Theatre
• Boettcher Concert Hall
• Denver Art Museum
• Auditorium Theatre & Arena
• Children's Museum
• Auraria Gallery
Source: The Business & Arts Council of Patten Institute for the Arts


Commercial
Core area commercial development within the Central Platte Valley is projected by DRCOG to be approximately 17,000,000 sq. ft.
Mile High Land Project retail should be complimentary to other uses and tied to a downtown retail strategy. Festival Festival retail/entertainment/restaurants as amenities will be important to market other uses and should reinforce open space/river edge amenities. Retail absorption should keep pace with other uses, at approximately 25,-60,000 sf per year.
The proposed 30,000 si. Inter Cultural Market provides an oppertunity to create a unique retail market/arts environment in the Central Platte Valley. This type of facility has been listed as. a need in the Denver area by Mile High Land Associates, the Planning Department, Colorado Arts and Humanities Council and the Colorado Folk Arts Council.
The retail amenities of Tivoli, Larimer Sqaure and the 16th St. Mall should be tied together with a people mover system.
Source: Mile High Land Associates
34


Residential
Residential property in downtown Denver consists of largely rental property to the northwest, high rise apartments and housing for the elderly and handicapped in lower downtown Denver, leaving an unmet need for median income, owner-occupied housing.
Mile High Land Project's propoal 9tates that residential components would best relate to major open space amenities and would be mixed in building form and price range (but predominantly in the affordable range)
The Inter Cultural Market could provide the need for shopping/market opportunities for future residential housing units.
Source: Mile High Land Associates
35


Transportation


Vehicular Access
Interstate 25 between 1-70 and Colfax is currently at or close to its capacity of traffic volume. While interchange improvements can provide short-term relief, a longterm regional solution is required to handle additional transportation needs generated by growth in the Central Business District and the Central Platte Valley.
Improvements should tend to limit viaduct structures to minimize long term maintenance problems such structures pose and minimize their negative visual impacts.
Interviews with Mile High Land Associates, Denver Planning Office and Colorado Department of Highways have led to the following assumptions for this thesis project:
• 16th St. viaduct to be removed and 16th St. Mall Shuttle system to continue at grade to the Platte River
36


• 15th St. viaduct to be removed and a pedestrian/ roadway to be installed at grade.
• Delegany Street to be paved for access to businesses currently located at and around the Daniels & Fisher Warehouse.
• Spine Road for Mile High Land Project to be implemented through center core of site. (See Spine Concept)
• Speer Blvd. to be realigned to the sout at grade to become a parkway.
Source: Mile High Land Associates


Railroad
• The Central Platte Valley is a regional transit center
especially for coal and "piggy back" goods.
• Should Mile High Land Project go ahead, Burlington
Northern mainline, storage yard and trailer operations will move off site.
• Burlington Northern mainline operations will be combined
with other railroads from Speer to 20th Street in one five track, 105 foot wide R.O.W., in the Denver Union Terminal corridor.
• Mile High Land Project will operate on assumption that
mainline will continue at grade at Denver Union Terminal. This thesis will be based on the same assumpt ion
Source: Mile High Land Associates
38


Bicycle / Pedestrian
• 15th Street persents on of the few significant oppor-
tunities for street pedestrian continuity directly up into the Highlands neighborhoods.
• 16th Street presents one of the few transit/pedestrian
connections from downtown to lower downtown to the Platte River Valley.
• The current main pedestrian/bike route along the
Platte Greenway is extensively used, but lacks sufficient access points to maximize use and enjoyment.
• Provisions will be made for amenable ties between the
existing pedestrian/bike system and the Inter Cultural Market site.
Source: Mile High Land Associates
39


Light Rail / People Mover
Since no future dirctions for light rail transportation have been made by the RTD Board the following assumptions will be used in planning the site for the Inter Cultural Center.
A light rail/people mover system should be implemented that will connect all the strategic retail, art centers and sports complex'. Included will be:
• Civic Center/State Capital
• Denver Art Museum
• Auraria campus
• Tivoli
• Me Nichols Arena
• Mile High Stadium
• Children's Museum
• Forney Museum
• Inter Cultural Market
• Union Station
• Larimer Square
• DCPA
• Currigan Hall
• Civic Center
40


Spine Road Concept
Since vehicular access is critical to the development of the Platte Valley, Mile High Land Associates has proposed in their Master Plan what they term the "Spine Road Concept". The objectives behind it are:
o It will act as a main collector/feeder street
o It will provide for project wide continuity
o Intersects with existing valley roads
o Adds an organizing element to the valley
Since it is projected in the Master Plan as intersecting the site selected for the Inter Cultural Market, its presence as a parkway will be incorporated into this thesis.
41


Code Reviews


Building Code Analysis
The applicable building codes for the Inter Cultural Market are:
• Building Code of the City and County of Denver 1976
• Colorado Health Code
The applicable issues and requirements for a P.U.D. submittal derived from these codes are as follows:
Group Occupancy
The Inter Cultural Market will house several different uses and purposes and therefore shall conform to the requirements set forth for a Mixed Use Occupancy. The Denver Building Code in Table 5-A states the different groups of occupancy.
Arts Facility:
Group B, Division 1 - An assembly building with a stage
and an occupant load of less than
1000.
Market Faci-lityT
'Group B, Division 2 - An assembly building without a stage
and an occupant load of 300 or more.
According to Table 5-B, there is no required fire separation between uses of Groups B-l and B-2.
Building Type
As defined in Chapter 17 of the DBC, the Inter Cultural larket will be classified as a Type II Co.nsrt.uct ion. The structural elements will be noncombustible fire-resistive construction material.
Exterior walls will have a 4 hour fire rating, structural frame will have a 1 hour rating and floors will have a 1 hour rating.
Stairs and landings shall be consturcted of structural steel to meet the requirments.
42


Building Area
As set forth in Section 505 of the DBC the allowable floor area for a one story building with a Type II Construction shall not exceed 22,500 s.f. for a B-l Occupancy and 22,500 s.f. for a B-2 occupancy.
Since the Inter Cultural Market has a gross floor area of 37,288 s.f. it is in compliance of the allowed combined total of 45,000 s.f. for each Occupancy use.
Building Height
The maximum height of buildings, as listed in Table 5-D for a Type II Construction for both a B-l and B-2 occupancy is 75 feet or 4 stories.
Building Exits and Egress
For Group B Occupancies the following regulations apply:
Main Exit: The structures shall have a main exit whose width will accomodate one-half of the total occupant load, but shall be at least the total required width of all aisles, exit passageways and stairways leading thereto, and shall connect to a stairway or ramp leading to a publii way.
Side Exits: Every auditorium shall be provided with exits on each side. The exits on each side of the auditorium shall be of width to accommodate one-third of the total occupant load served. Side exits shall open directly to a public way or into an exit court, leading to a public way. Side exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle.
Maximum Travel Distance: Exits shall be arranged st that the
total length of travel from any poii to an exit shall not exceed 150 feel Number Required: Table 33-A states when the occupancy per
use exceeds 50, then a minimum of 2 exits will be provided.
The total number of exits for the Inter Cultural Market will be based upon the specific uses within the facility and not


facility as a whole.
Theatre Exit Requirements
Section 3313 - Aisles
Width: Every aisle shall not be less than 3 feet wide if serving only one side, and not less than 3 feet 6 inches if serving both sides.
Spacing: With standard seating the aisles shall be located so that there will be not more than 6 intervening seats between any seat and the nearest aisle. With continental seating the number of intervening seats may be increased to 29 where exit doors are provided in the proportion of one pair of exit doors for each five rows of seats. The exit doors shall provide a minimum clear width of 66 inches.
Slope: The slope portion of aisles shall not exceed 1 foot in 8 feet.
Section 3314 - Seats
Spacing: With standard seating, the spacing of rows of
seats shall provide a space of at least 12 inches from the back of one seat to the front of the most forward projection of the seat assembly immediately behind it. With continental seating, the spacing of rows of seats shall provide a clear width measured horizontally as follows:
18 inches clear for rows of 18 seats or less
20 inches clear for rows of 35 seats or less
21 inches clear for rows of 45 seats or less
22 inches clear for rows of 46 seats or less
Handicapped Requirements
All provisions for the handicapped visitor will be based upon the National Park Services' document, "Accessibility for Disabled Persons in Park Facilities". Since the Inter Cultural Market is largely a semi-open space and park experience, these guidelines will provide for better opportunities for the disabled individuals enjoyment. Refer to this document for further information.
44


Plumbing Facilities
The following table taken from the DBC will set forth the required number of plumbing fixtures to be provided for in the Inter Cultural Market:
TABLE 5-E
MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES (a) (Fixture* per Occupant* Except where Noted)
TABLE NO. USE W ATER CLOSETS MALE URINALS LAVATORIES Drinking ID FOUNTAINS
MALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE
5-E-l Place* of Aaaetnbly 1C 1 • 1 100 1 - 1-75 2 101 600 2 76 200 3 - 601-950 3 201 400 Add 1 fixture for each additional 500 male* and 1 for each 200 female* 1 - 1-100 2 - 101 600 3 601-950 Add 1 fixture for each additional 200 male* 1 1 250 1 1 200 2 251 600 2 201 600 3 601 775 3 601 1100 Add 1 fixture for each additional 500 male* and 1 for aach 600 females 1 per floor
5-E-2 Industrial, office, retail A Public Buildings 1 - 1-30 1 - 1-10 2 31 60 2 11 30 3 - 61 90 3 31-60 For additional occupant* 1 per 30 1 per 20 0 - 1 10 1 11-60 2 61 120 For additional l'p^rP60U 1 1 30 1 • 1 30 2 31-60 2 31 W 3 - 61 120 3 81 120 For additional occupant* 1 per 40 1 per 40 1 per 75 with I per floor minimum
&-E-3 Taverns and Lounge* 1 - 1-30 2 - 31 90 3 91 150 1 - 1-30 2 - 31-60 3 - 61 90 1 -1-30 2 • 31 60 3-61 90 1-1-60 1-140 2 61 120 2-61 120 3 - 121 180 3 - 121 180 1 per floor
For additional occupant* 1 par 60 1 per 30 For additional occupants 1 per 30 For additional occupant* 1 per 60 1 per 60
5-E-4 School* 5 E 4 All others 1 per 100 1 per 45 1 per 30 1 per 2 water closets and/or urinal* 1 per 100 with 1 per floor
5-E-5 Dormitories 'I' 'hi 1 per 10 1 per 8 1 per 25 over 150 1 per 50 1 per 12 1 per 12 1 per 75 with 1 per floor
See Section 5*19 • a■ and 'h> for additional requirement*
a The plumbing facihlie* thtwn are fih the number of persons indicated or any fraction thereof
b. Provide one ahower for each 5 pupil* of a gym or pool class Cont'd.
45


Zoning
The current zoning ordinance for the Inter Cultural Market site is a 1-2 district which is classified as a heavy industrial district.
Were the Inter Cultural Market to be implemented, a change of zone in the form of a Planned Urban Development (P.U.D.) would be required. A P.U.D. is, in effect, a specific zone district for a specific area, including specific regulations written by the applicant and if approved by City Council, is enforced by the City. It allows maximum flexibility during the planning stage and maximum assurance that exactly what is proposed will be developed as proposed.
The P.U.D. process revolves around site plan review in which city agencies and neighborhood residents have considerable involvement in determining the nature of the development.
For Planning Design Criteria for a P.U.D., refer to the Appendix of this report.

46


Parking
According to the 1982 Denver Zoning Ordinance, Sec. 59-586, the required number of off-street parking spaces is dependent upon the zoning use by right and is therefore catagorized into classes by such uses. Since the Inter Cultural Market has several different uses it can be catagorized into three different classes. However, the majority of those uses, such as gallery, restaurant and theatrf, all fall into Parking Class Four.
The Zoning Ordinance states of this class:
"There shall be one off-street parking space provided for each two hundred square feet of gross floor area contained in any structure containing a use by right."
Since the Inter Cultural Market contains a gross floor area of 37,288 sq. ft. the total number of parking spaces to by provided for is as follows:
37,288 sq.ft. =
200 sq.ft. parking spaces
The Zoning Ordinance further states:
" The propertion of compact car spaces provided to
satisfy these requirements shall not exceed fifty (50) percent of the total of all off-street parking spaces required for each use."
Since current parking studies indicate that by the year 1985, approximately eighty-five (85) percent of the parking spaces will be designed for compact cars, this thesis proposal as a P.U.D. will be designed under those guidelines.
Parking stall dimensions will be as follows:
Large cars Compact cars Handicapped spaces
9x19 feet 7.5x15 feet 12x20 feet


ARTS FACILITY SQUARE FOOTAGES
Performance Hall:
Auditorium - 300 seats ......................................... 2,500 sq. ft.
Stage........................................................... 1,500
Dressing Rooms - 1 mens & 1 womens (300 sq. ft. each)............. 600
Rehearsal Room.................................................... 500
Maintenance/Production............................................ 750
Storage........................................................... 500
Lighting/Projection Booth......................................... 100
Box Office......................................................... 50
Lounge/Bar........................................................ 100
Lobby........................................................... 1,000
Gallery:
Exhibition Area................................................. 5,000
Reception......................................................... 200
Bookstore: .......................................................... 500
Banquet Hall:
Dining Hall - 150 seats........................................... 900
Kitchen............................................................ 400
Coat Room........................................................... 50
Intercultural Cooking Classroom: ................................... 200
Language Classrooms: 2 rooms (175 sq. ft. each).................. 350
Conference Room: 20 people...................................... 300
Meeting Rooms: 2 rooms, 5 people each (125 sq. ft. each)....... 250
Travel/Tour Office: 2 agents................................... 200
Administrative/Management:
Director.......................................................... 150
Performing Arts Co-ordinator...................................... 125
Visual Arts/Exhibition Co-ordinator............................... 125
Receptionist/Secretary............................................. 75
Waiting Area - 4 people............................................ 75
Conference Room - 6 people......................................... 75
Restrooms:
Mens - 2 rooms (125 sq. ft. each)................................. 250
Womens - 2 rooms (125 sq. ft. each)............................... 250
Janitorial/Maintenance: 125
Sub Total:...................................................... 17,200 sq. ft.
Circulation/Mechanical - 15%.................................... 2,580
TOTAL:.............................................................. 19,780 sq. ft.
48


MARKET FACILITY SQ. FOOTAGES
Market Place:
• Booths/Concessionaires 15 @ 500 sq. ft. each ........ 7,500 sq. ft.
20 @ 250 sq. ft. each.......... 5,000
• Cafe/Bars 5 @ 500 sq. ft. each......... 2,500
• Management
- Director .................................................. 150
- Receptionist/Secretary...................................... 75
- Waiting Area................................................ 75
- Conference/Meeting - 5 people............................ 75
• Security Office ............................................. 125
• Maintenance.................................................. 225
Sub Total: ..................................................... 15,225
Circulation/Mechanical - 15%..................................... 2,283
Total: ......................................................... 17,508
ARTS FACILITY................................................... 19,780
MARKET FACILITY................................................. 17,508
TOTAL GROSS SQ. FOOTAGE.......................................... 37,288 sq. ft.
49


y. ’■T.
Building Program EEZ-T-I3


POTENTIAL
POTENTIAL REVENUE
SPACE_______________________ACTIVITIES__________________USERS___________( + ) (-)
Performance Hall
• Stage •
• Audience •
• Dressing Rooms •
• Rehearsal Space •
• Maintenance/ •
Production
• Storage •
• Lighting/ •
Projection Booth
• Box Office •
• Lounge/Bar •
• Lobby •
Performance area for small to medium sized productions of native/ folk music, dance, theatre & lectures.
Seating area for 300.
Layout should allow audience participation.
Dressing, make-up, restrooms & lounge area. One for men, one for women.
Space for individual and group rehearsals.
Back stage receptions & meetings.
Workroom for prop/ exhibit construction and preparation.
Receiving dock.
Scenery/prop storage Extra chairs
Electrical/sound control board. Audiovisual equipment
Ticket sales/lnfor-mation service.
Cash liquor bar used pre, during & post performance.
Gathering area before, during & after performance.
• Intercultural/National performance comp, and individuals.
• Local art organizations
• Public.
® Performers for both inside/outside performances .
• Performers
• Staff
• Staff
• Staff
• Staff
• Technicians
• Art Directors
• Management/Staff
• Staff/Public
« Public
50


SPACE
ACTIVITIES
POTENTIAL
USERS
POTENTIAL
REVENUE
(+) (-)
Gallery
• Exhibition
• Reception
Bookstore
Banquet Room
• Dining Hall
• Kitchen
• Coat Room
International Cooking Classroom
Language Classrooms
Conference/Meeting
• Traveling International/ cultural art exhibits on a regular basis. No permanent collection.
• Informative displays on cultural issues.
• Art opening gathering space.
• Book and gift sales relating to cultural exhibits and issues.
• Multi-purpose room for festival banquets, parties, receptions.
• Food preparation for banquet events.
• Coat & hat check.
For festive events.
May be used for Performance hall also.
• Cooking class for 20-30 students for all types of cuisine.
• Instruction in Foreign languages for 10-15 students.
• Rooms in which large or small organizations can use for regular group meetings.
• Public
• Public
• Public/Staff
• Cultural Groups
• Staffs/Cultural Groups
• Public/Staff
• Public/Staff
• Staff/Students
• Art organizations Ethnic organizations Cultural groups
Travel/Tour office • Organizes & promotes true • Public/Staff
cultural experiences via travel. Educational/ informative travel programs.
51


SPACE
POTENTIAL
ACTIVITIES USERS
Administrative/
Management
• Management activities • Management Staff/
of all of the above Visiting Directors
listed spaces. Coordination of festival events and traveling performing and visual arts.
POTENTIAL
REVENUE
(+) (-)
52




Capital Construction Cost Estimate


CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION COST ESTIMATE *
Marketplace 22,320 s.f. x $23.78 $530,770
Theatre
Auditorium 14,080 52.50 739,200
Basement 8,320 15.44 128,460
Banquet/Gallery 13,888 35.97 599,550
Totals 44,720 s.f. $1,997,980
Additional items:
Sprinklers 1.00/26,000 s.f. 26,000
Kitchens 2@ 100,000 200,000
Total ............................................................ $2,226,000
Average Cost ..................................................... $50.00/s.f.
*Marshall Cost System


Thesis Drawings






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Appendix


CULTURAL GROUP CENSUS
1980 U.S. Department of Commerce Census indicating the cultural groups in the Denver area and their approximate population. Each group may be considered a potential user of the Inter Cultural Market.


PC80-1-C7
Coio.
:f ’ .***> v*"\ i -1 ^JJ J

1 A-rK CL! f'*, VV’i i| /*N dUi i nO
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POPULATION
^ j
Wji
ana
y bcaai Characterise
w UWO
,piv
OLOHaDO
U.S. Department cf BUREAU OF â– 


CULTURAL GROUPS IN METROPOLITAN DENVER
1980 CENSUS
Dutch 3,665
English 33,663
French 3,776
German 35,690
Greek 1,696
Hungarian 1,139
Irish 18,588
Italian 7,994
Norwegian 2,321
Polish 4,263
Portuguese 208
Russian 3,967
Scottish 2,715
Swedish 4,719
Ukranian 791
Other 145,607
White 1,178,275
Black 75,464
Native American 9,426
Eskimo 84
Aleut 25
Japanese 6,629
Chinese 2,859
Filipino 1,372
Korean 2,815
Asian/Indian 1,714
Vietnamese 2,309
Hawaiian 421
Guamanian 119
Samoan 71
Other 2,947
Mexican 96,486
Puerto Rican 1,890
Cuban 1,191
Other Spanish 59,021
TOTAL: 35 Groups


PLANNING TASK FORCE OBJECTIVES
In order to comply with the new city administration's emphasis on planning, several task force groups were put together in order to study the various needs and problems of the Denver community. This paper contains the findings of the group investigating the Cultural/ Rec./Tourism facilities


FOCUS PAPER #3
CULTURAL/RECREATIONAL/TOURISM
FACILITIES
Similarities exist among the subcategories of this focus topic, but there are so many differences that individual attention must also be given to planning for and financing each type of facility. The attached tables reviews the existing and desired facilities by subcategories.
Cultural Facilities
This subcategory was defined as including performing arts, visual arts, museums and permanent exhibitions. Many tourists use these facilities also. the brief discussion of the focus group concluded that only a few voids exist in what should be provided, but that virtually all of our facilities have identified a need or desire to expand. (See Table Two attached). Some additional facilities should be considered.
Recreation and Spectator Sports
In addition to parks, this subcategory was defined as including recreational facilitites and spectator sports f aci 1 i ti es.
Tourism and Economic Development Potential.
Denver has found tourism easy to take for granted, which would be a mistake in the future.
Suburban communities are becoming increasingly more competitive for economic growth and are building facilities that compete with Denver. (e.g. Arvada Performing Arts Centers, Littleton Riverfront Park and proposed convention and sports facilities in Aurora).
For Denver to capture its share of the tourism potential with its concommitant job creation and local tax revenue enhancement, it must be more agressive, the CF'V offers opportunities to increase Denver's share of this market.
Tourism facilities are grouped in a subcategory including convention facilities and tourist/convention hotels/motels, theme parks and an observation tower. Tourists also make up varying proportions of the visitors to museums, performing arts facilities an recreation facilities. Therefore, a key issue is to develop a fair mechanism through which the beneficiaries (users) of a facility are those who financially support it.


CONCLUSIONS AMD RECOMMENDATIONS
Many kinds of -facilities should be available in cities to provide opportunities -for active and passsive recreation that interest all of the people and is accessible and a-f-fordable to them. No one type of facility will appeal to all, so a variety should be planned for and then provided. The Focus Group reviewed the variety of institutions and facilities that Denver has (see Table One) and composed a list of Needs and Desires (see Table Two) for the consideration of the P. V. D. C.
VISION
The CPV could be used to provide major recreational and open sp£^ce amenities tied to the waterways and the hike-bike paths, as well as privately sponsored tourist attractions and amusements with connections to the highway and future transit system. These uses can be designed in our judgement to be compatible with and a major magnet for a vastly expanded and more hetrogeneous central area residential community.
SPECIFICS OF THE VISION
1. Because any unique or large facilities in the Valley will receive so much use by "outsiders," Denver tax payers should not be expected to shoulder the construction and/or operating costs alone. In fact, if they can be made self-supporting or profitable through user fees, ticket sales and concessions, they would be a benefit to the local population that is already carrying disproportionate costs of much of the region’s cultural and recreational facilities.
2. Facilities should be clustered for convenience, interest and economy. New facilities should be clustered with the existing cultural facilities, to the extent thdt is feasible for mutual re—enforcement, shared use of parking, and other economics of operation.
3. the D.C.P.A. Master Plan recommendations should be built before separate facilities are added elsewhere for the performing arts, except that a 2,400 seat amphitheater on the waterfront would be desireable, (see Table Two, p. 5)


4. it seems to be reasonable to cluster several private,
as well as publicly owned recreational -facilities in the Central Platte Valley, and use the highly visable location to attract. tourists to the self-supporting one. Those
intended for local use such as neighborhood parks should have no access from the highway, but should be primarily linked to the neighborhoods these are intended to serve. Facilities that can amortise their costs over time or be the recipient of major corporate contributions incude the following facilities that are popular in other cities:
A. velodrome - centrally located on the extensive and growing, regional bikeway network, not a large use of land, provides active recreation for bicyclists and roller skaters, as well as being a spectator attraction. The one in Colorado Springs was donated by the Couth 1 and Corporation, i si in a city park.
B. natatorium - with one or more large swimming pools could be designed in such a way that it could be a major amenity for tourists, locals, and conventioniers. With proper landscaping possibly a sliding (removable) roof, it could be used year around as a spa.
C. Museum of science and technology__— an
additional museum in the C.F'.V., concentrating on Science and Technology with a strong department on Space Exploration would be an asset to this community that would appear to have merit also as a tourist attraction compatible with the Children's Museum and the Forney Museum.
5. any new or expanded convention center should be sited, in the Focus Group's opinion, so that it strengthens the existing downtown and the new performing arts facilities at
D. C. P. A. ,
6. an observation tower, restaurants and retail shopping should all be clustered with the new or expanded convention center, whenever it is looted,
7. baseball fields, a running track and other facilities that are especially suited to the needs of the residential communities in and around the CPV should be provided with good neighborhood access and limited access for "outsiders."
S. widening of the S. Platte River to provide a lake/ pond water surface would make greater use of and enhance appreciation of the natural waterways.


Focus Group
CULTURAL/ RECREATIONAL/ TOURISM FACILITIES
Discussants: Ellen Pierce, Colurado Council on the Arts and Humanities
Anthony Radich, Arts, Tourism and Cultural Resources of th
National Conference of State Legislators
John Jay, Manager of the Colorado Ballet
Greg Geisler, Denver Commission on Community Relations
Roger Smith, Denver Visitors and Convention Bureau
Cully Stanford, Denver Center Theatre Company
Rod.
Lewi
Convenor and
Report Writer:Gordon Appell, Denver Planning Office
Wibcrga Denver Dept, of Parks and Recreation s Smith, Observation lower promoter


Focus Paper # 3
CULTURAL/RECREATIONAL/TOURIST FACILITIES
p. 1
EXISTING FACILITIES Table One
ITEM PURPOSE/USE CAPACITY/SIZE STRENGTHS/LIMITATIONS /COMMEl
PERFORMING ARTS HALLS
Auditorium Theater Broadway Shows and traveling road shows that require large audiences to book into Denver present facility seats only 2,178 and much of the seating is uncomfortably crowded with poor acoustics Some shows that have been coming and playing to sold out houses are expected to relocate to the new fac ility in the Littleton Riverfront Pai which is already under constructio
Boettcher Concert Hall Concert hall for symphony by design, also used for business meetings, graduations and political rallies 136, 000 square feet gross 2, 634 seats in a surround configeration surround stage which is superior for concerts and dance, poses prob for drama and opera set design contact: Ken McFarland 629-1 534
Bonfils Theater conservatory will restrict use in the future 550 seats in proscenium theater
Denver Theatre Co. repertory company The Stage: 555 seats The Space: 450 seats thrust stage requires special set de experimental theater, flexible seatin
Creek Theater Civic Center outdoor performances unknown about 200 maximum wooden seats have been removed, lighting, etc. needed for evenings
Red Rocks Amphitheater outdoQr performances 9,000 seats unpaved parking lots owned and operated by the City, bi distance from City yields no retail,! seat tax and concessions produce n
Houston Fine Arts n.a., recently taken over by D.U. Law School no longer available for small groups loss leaves a deficiency in dance pel formance space
Phipps Auditorium n.a., recently converted to IMAX previously used for lectures only suitable 1MAX, leaves deficien and mid-sized meetings & dancew
various smaller theaters private theatre companies ■ . . :' !o; • : o ( r ...••iisi.tion wits*. ; ..i. various, sizes Jo vet P’iicnt of there is a market for several',: but tl require central location and low rent scare combination with redeveopmer


NEEDS AND DESIRES
Table Two
ITEM PURPOSE/USE CAPACITY COMMENTS
Convention /exhibition hall of 300, 000 square feet unobstructed space attract and accommodate national scale conventions 300,000 square feet May 1984 - RoF.Q. and selection of consultants June-Nov. 1984 - Feasibility analysis
Amphitheatre large outdoor productions like the Sante Fe Opera 2,400 seats estimated need Should be. located in the CPy.near wa a larger facility is needed than will be provided in D.C.P.A. Master Plar
Municipal auditorium replacement pro^inium theatre mid-size,Broadway Show sized, large enough for road shows and large public meetings Should be ajdjacept to the .Convention
Additional parks and open space network throughout C.P.V. . to partially overcome the large deficiency already existing . to provide for the needs of future residents in CPV and the surrounding areas. . to provide amenities to assist in marketing future development . should meet the full recreational needs of an increasing urban population with more liesure time for all ages and interests. as many-of the projected needs as feasible should be designed for in this last, large inner city land area which is undeveloped Denver owns undeveloped land at the Confluence, where the auto crusl previously was. No plans exist for il use pending the P.V.D.C. planning process and the flood control needs, is in the jurisdiction of the Platte Ri\ Development Committee. Other land shduld be dedicated by th - development process and other land bought if necessary by the City or S to enhance this crossroads location a and entrance to the Capitol of the St
Observation tower . provide a tourist attrac-
(about 750 feet height tion and amusement opportunity should exceed downtown . provide appreciation of the building height, metro community
(Republic Building . attract tourists to
714 feet). central Denver,
particularly off the interstate
. generate year-around attractivity in the C.P.V.
. provide a focal point in the center of the region
. about 5 acres needed . observation deck open to the public for an entrance fee . restaurant and informal dining
. gift and souvenir shops at the base and convenience . shared parking with adjacent attractions
need at least one restaurant as a major tenant to help amortize the initial cost of construction and souve and gift sale would also produce inco and sales tax revenue.
No existing or proposed skyscaper in Denver provides public access to the views from their tops Seattle tower nets $80,000 per year on the sale of t-shirts alone.


Focus' Paper
j CULTURAL/ RECREATIONAL/ TOURISM FACII ,ES
A 1
p. G "
NEEDS AND DESIRES
' ■ ' T' ‘
Table Two
TEM
PURPOSE/USE CAPACITY
COMMENTS
Open space designed large open air events that for large crowds and > attract people from through-special events like the out the region Capitol Hill People's Fair, inaugerations,
Cinco de Mayo, the Festival of Mountains £
Plains , visits by celebrities
Source: Nancy Rettig, former Director of C.H.
People's Fair, several years
Needs identified by former sponsor of People's Fair: 5, 000 - 10, 000/ hr.centrally located, highly visable site 50, 000 to 60,000 per day, transit access would reduce parking n<
100, 000 per weekend parking for autos and busesjsome
paved area; some grassed areas',
needs boundaries for control of crowd
zoned for fairs; health dept, approvec
good bathrooms
night lighting
electricity-outlets
shade trees
loading areas
stages for performances
domed stadium to accommodate a major needs feasibility analysis to
def: all weather facility league baseball team estimate size that could be
___________________________________________________________justified by the market______
natatorium
recreational and competitive 2 pools; one Olympic size swimming events one with high tower
__________________________________diving boards______________
loss of the Gold has been threatened; the over-lapping schedules of baseball and Spring football make the shared use impractical; conversion time probli Provided in other cities like White Rive State P^rk’/ieaindianapolis' downtown. Would^used by trainees for Olympic competition and local swimmers; woulc provide economy of scale ov^yg/n^l pc
v elodrome
def. bicycling irack, oval with concrete or wood surface, banked track, not necessarily enclosed
Source:
Dean Crandall,
M.E.A. and B.R.A.C. staff
recreational and competitive bicycling; skill levels can be separately scheduled . can charge racers a fee to participate
. can attract paid attendance at $5-$6 ea. on a regular basis
Normally sponsored by the municipality with a local bicycling club
333 meter in an oval shape (I/3 mile) smaller than high school track.
Land area needed ± 6 acres including
spectator space desirable Could have rollerskating rink in center to provide additional recreational use.
Market exists for immediate use, only one in western U.S. is in Colo.Spgs., cost of the one in C.S. was $l million but very elaborate; several in California, Mississippi valley £ east coast.
More licensed riders per I, 000 population in Colorado than any other stat . I,200 bicyclist licensed as racers in Colo, already
. 1,000 members in Denver Bicycle Touring Club
. 500 members in Mountain Bicyclists Assn.


QUESTIONNAIRES
These were passed out to the members of the Colorado Folk Arts Council the evening of 12 July 1984. Unfortunately the rate of return was only about 18%. The Colorado Folk Arts Council is a parent organization representing various cultural groups in the Denver area. This organization and its members can also be veiwed as potential users of the Inter Cultural Market.


Elayne Anderson
Architectural Masters Thesis
University of Colorado at Denver
ES2
WSMM INTER
l CULTURE CENTER

• Cultural group represented?
[^- t 1
• Estimated population in Denver area?.
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Does your cultural group hold annual festivals in Denver? • If so,'please Answer the following:
yes.
no
• What is the festival title? ___________
• How many days does it last?____________
• When is the festival held?_____________
• What is the average visitor attendance?
• How many food concessions are there?___
0 foe any arts or crafts sold?____________
• Would your group use a facility like the proposed Inter Cultural Center?
yes
iz:
no
• Would you personally visit such a facility? yes.
no ,
• Which of the following spaces would you like to see within the center?
Marketplace for cultural foods Marketplace for arts and crafts Outdoor eating areas
/ ^ /uvui*.‘irV
Outdoor performance areas
Restaurants or concessions of cultual foods
Gallery/ Exhibition space
Bookstore
Banquet hall -j"SpftCE SoOi\l_
Language classrooms Intercultural cooking classrooms Meeting rooms Tour/ Travel office

• Any other suggestions and/or comments would be greatly appreciated!


Elayne Anderson
Architectural Masters Thesis
University of Colorado at Denver
INTER
CULTURE CENTER
Cultural group represented? $ hn t r> if. a K !4 tS'jfir'C if A
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Estimated population in Denver area?.

• Does your cultural group hold annual festivals in Denver? ves * no
• If so, please answer the following:
• What is the festival ti
• How many days does it last?.
• When is the festival held?
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• What is the average visitor attendance?

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• Art’ any arts or crafts sold?. ... __________
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no
Would you personally visit such a facility? yes.
no
Which of the following spaces would you like to see within the center? Marketplace for cultural foods ----—
Marketplace for arts and crafts Outdoor eating areas Outdoor performance areas
Restaurants or concessions of cultual foods
Gallery/ Exhibition space
Bookstore
Banquet hall
Language classrooms
Intercultural cooking classrooms
Meeting rooms
Tour/ Travel office
• Any other suggestions and/or comments would be greatly appreciated!
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Elayrte Anderson
Architectural Masters Thesis
University of Colorado at Denver
SI13S1 INTER
2 CULTURE CENTER

9 Cultural group represented?
^ / / // cs aJ / /z? a/
9 Estimated population in Denver area?.

* Does your cultural group hold annual festivals in Denver? yes.
• If so, please answer the following:
• What is the festival title? __________________________________
9 How many days does it last?____________________________________
• When is the festival held?____________________________________
no
X
• What is the average visitor attendance?
• How many food concessions are there?___________________________________
A Arc any arts or crafts sold?___________________________________________
• Would your group use a facility like the proposed Inter Cultural Center?
yes ^ ____no___________
a Would you personally visit such a facility? yes no_________
• Which of the following spaces would you like to see within the center?
Marketplace for cultural foods Marketplace for arts and crafts Outdoor eating areas Outdoor performance areas
Restaurants or concessions of cultual foods Gallery/ Exhibition space Bookstore Banquet hall Language classrooms Intercultural cooking classrooms Meeting rooms Tour/ Travel office
• Any other suggestions and/or comments would be greatly appreciated!
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Elayne Anderson
Architectural Masters Thesis
University of Colorado at Denver
INTER
CULTURE
CENTER
• Cultural group represented?

• Estimated population in Denver area?.
• Does your cultural group hold annual festivals in Denver? yes.
X.
no
• If so, please answer the following:
• What is the festival title? ^i?
• How many days does it last? 0AC..
• When is the festival held?,

~d
• What is the average visitor attendance?
• How many food concessions are there?______
w Afe any arts or crafts sold?________^ 7)
7
• Would your group use a facility like the proposed Inter Cultural Center?
?
yes____:
no
• Would you personally visit such a facility?
yes

no .
Which of the following spaces would you like to see within the center?
Marketplace for cultural foods Marketplace for arts and crafts Outdoor eating areas Outdoor performance areas
Restaurants or concessions of cultual foods
Gallery/ Exhibition space
Bookstore
Banquet hall
Language classrooms
Intercultural cooking classrooms
Meeting rooms
Tour/ Travel office
A.

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• Any other suggestions and/or comments would be greatly appreciated!


6th Colorado Folk Arts Council
INTERNAT50N HERITAGE FESTIVAL
JULY 21 & 22, 1984
THE EVENT
The Colorado Folk Arts Council & Larimer Square present the sixth annual INTERNATIONAL HERITAGE FESTIVAL, in cooperation with the Denver Commission of Cultural Affairs. The street festival features continuous international folk dancing and music. Colorfully decorated booths with foods & crafts from around the world line the street. IT'S FREE & open to the public.
WHEN
Saturday, July 21 from 11:30 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Sunday, July 22 from noon to 8:00 p.m.
WHERE
HISTORIC LARIMER SQUARE...located in the heart of downtown Denver. Parking is available in lots on 14th & Market Streets, Auraria campus and the Denver Center for the Performing Arts.
An "Old World" street festival is re-created to salute America's international heritage. Twenty-four countries will inter-
national dance, music and food to Denver's Larimer Square.
OPENING CEREMONIES
The "Parade of Nations" will open the festival at 11:30 a.m. Saturday, July 21st with a parade of flags, led by the Rocky Mountain Scottish Highland Pipers. Foreign Consuls, Colorado and Denver dignitaries will attend the opening ceremony, at the Victorian Bandstand in Larimer Square.
FOLK FOOD & DRINKS
Open air sidewalk booths offer ethnic foods, soft drinks and beer. Armenians of Colorado will provide various delicacies; the Colorado Chinese Club offers sweet & sour chicken with noodles, Sainin (noodle soup), egg rolls, fruit wonton & fortune cookies; the German booth serves bratwurst, sauerkraut, German potato salad & pretzels; the Hungarian Club prepares palacsinta (crepes) & kolbasz (sausage); Italians offer pizza, sausage, canoli, desserts & cappuccino; the Lithuanian booth will serve cabbage rolls & pastries; the Mexican booth will have burritos, tostados, nachos & pastries; and the Scottish booth will offer shortbread.
11:30 a.m. PARADE OF NATIONS, led by Rocky Mountain Highland Pipers
NOON OPENING CEREMONIES, followed by a concert by Gold Nugget Brass Band
1:00 p.m. American Indian Inter-Tribal Dancing
1:15 p.m. Public Dancing. Rick Borger & the Average German Band
2:00 p.m. Red Boot Polish Dancers (Ted Brott)
2:15 p.m. Groupo Folklorico Mexican Dancers (Anna Castaneda)
2:30 p.m. Public Dancing.
3:00 p.m. Ruta Lithuanian Dancers (Arvidas Jarasius)
3:15 p.m. T.E.V. Edelweiss/German Schuplattlers (Bob Akmenkalns)
3:30 p.m. Public Dancing.
4:00 p.m. Scottish Country Dancers of St. Andrew Society (Scotty Barnes)
4:15 p.m. Pastalnieki Latvian Youth Dancers (Inara Humeyumptewa)
4:30 p.m. Public Dancing.
-5:00 p.m. Ballet Folklorico de Denver (Lu Linan)
5:15 p.m. T.E.V. Edelweiss/German Folk-dancers (Elizabeth Burbach)
5:30 p.m. Public Dancing.
6:00 p.m. Postoley Ukranian Dancers of Boulder (Tom Masterson)
6:15 p.m. Boulder Scandinavian Dancers (Erica Rice)
7:00 to Public Dancing. George Meier Band
11:00 p.m.
Sunday, July 22
Noon Music by "Three String Balalaikas"
12:30 p.m. LIA Belly Dancers (Lia Ridley)
1:15 p.m. Chinese American Dancers (Nettie Zen)
1:30 p.m. Public Dancing. Bill Leuthauser Band.
2:00 p.m. Red Boots Polish Dancers (Ted Brott)
2:15 p.m. Kefi Greek Dancers (Larry Tuttle)
2:30 p.m. Public Dancing.
3:00 p.m. East Indian Community Group (Manju Gupta)
3:15 p.m. Shibolim Israeli Folkdance Ensemble (Zahava Koll)
3:30 p.m. Public Dancing.
4:00 p.m. Troupe Zaghareet Mid-East Dancers (Shireen Malik)
4:15 p.m. Verkhovyna Ukranian Dancers (Don Shkotich)
4:30 p .m. Public Dancing.
5:00 p.m. Ballet Folklorico de Denver (Lu Linan)
5:15 p.m. Circleweavers (Donna McGinnis)
5:30 p.m. Public Dancing.
6:00 p.m. Jeanette McDowell Spanish Dancers
6:15 to Public Dancing.
8:00 p.m.
LaRIMER SQUARE. DENVER. COLORADO 80202 C AREA CODE 303 PHONE 534-2367


INTERVIEWS SYNOPSIS
The following interviews were condected over the course of 1% years in preparation of this thesis proposal. A special thank you is extended to all who shared a few minutes of their time to discuss the project and also to contribute their own invaluable insights.


INTERVIEWS SYNOPSIS
Name: Joan Madison, Art Facilities Programmer Joan Madison Collaborative Date: 18 February 1983
Subject: Objectives for an Arts Facility
To make this complex as feasible as possible, market the facility as an "International Center" and not just another performing arts facility. Bill it as being unique to the area and providing a service that is not already existing in the Denver area. Find out how international corporations in Denver may benefit from such a facility by using it for building better community relations by helping with subsidies.
Name: Kent Gonzales, Planner
Downtown Development Inc.
Date: 22 July 1983
Subject: Future Downtown Development
The future decision of the Convention Center site will shape the direction and type of growth in the downtown area. Mass transportation is a big problem due to RTD Board studies and would like to see the public to be able to bicycle and walk all over the downtown area. The mayoral election will shape future planning and growth more than any other factor.
Name: Wally Bombrick, Leasing Agent
Bill Walters Co.
Date : 20 January 1984
Subject: International Market Center Development
The Bill Walters Co. is currently in the process of developing an 88 acre site in southeast Denver for a regional design and merchandise mart, to compete with the Dallas and San Francisco markets. The project will include a hotel, showrooms, convention hall and retail stores. The term "international" in their title has nothing to do with its definition and was used only to detour the fact that this is a "regional" center.
It is hoped that the term international will help capture a much larger market.
Name: Mary Anne Koenig, President
Patten Institute for the Arts Date: 22 January 1984
Subject: Use of Denver's Art Facilities
The Institute has just completed a listing of 142 art organizations in the Denver area, about their personnel, funding sources and purpose. These organizations have also been interviewed according to how they see Denver and its support for the Arts. There is a need in Denver for spaces like those projected for the Inter Cultural Market but it needs to be easily accessible for people to get to, otherwise they will not go to the performances.


Name: George Chelwick, Developer
Miller, Klutznick, Davis & Gray Date: 21 June 1984
Subj ect: Platte Valley Development
The Mile High Land Project has developed a Master Plan for the 150 acres of its ownership in the Platte Valley. The Plan calls for mixed uses of retail, commercial and housing and will different characteristics on either side of Speer Blvd. To the north of Speer it will be a high density lower downtown flavor and to the south it will be lower density, lower in scale with on open space feeling. Suggested four of the site alternatives that were compared in the begining of this document.
Name: Gary Powell, Landscape Architect
Denton, Harper, Marshall Date : 25 June 1984
Subj ect: Site Selection
Incorporating the Inter Cultural Market with water eminity such as the Cherry Creek or Platte River will be very important to the success and festival atmosphere of the project. Alluvial soils in the Cherry Creek area will allow for excellent landscape possibilities. All of Gary's comments have been incorporated in the Site Alternative section of this doument.
Name: Will Flessig, Architect/Planner Denver Planning Office Date: 28 June 1984 Subj ect : Site Selection
An excellent reference for this project is a book Will Flessig wrote entitled, "Planning for the Arts". Suggested two possible sites, one on the Platte River around 19th St. as there used to be a historic amusement park there. The second site he suggested would be the triangulated lot at 16th St. & Broadway where the new RTD facility is to be located underneath. Apparently there is a competition for that site for development proposals. He also mentioned another excellent reference which was the Multi-Cultural Park, that was proposed to have been built at Exhibition Park, the site of the 1984 Olympics. The project is very similar to the Inter Cultural Market and was taken from the programming phase through the construction documents but then all funding was cut when the state of California held its elctions for a new governor.
Name: John McBeth, Architect _ '
California State Architects Office Date: 28 June 1984
Subj ect: Multi-Cultural Park
Said that the project architect for the Multi-Cultural park in L.A. was Merle Carnagie who was no longer working with this office. He has since changed jobs and is with the California State Wide Health Planning Office. He said that Governor Jerry Bown was the prime mover and instigator for the project and when he lost his re-election for governor the people of California lost the Multi-Cultural Park.


Name: Jim Winkler, Architect Bart/Myers Associates Date: 28 June 1984 Subject: Multi-Cultural Park
Jim said that this firm was part of the architectural joint venture' to put together the construction documents for the Multi-Cultural Park.
He said the Park was the brainchild of one man, Pete Dagermont, who was a planner appointed by Jerry Brown. The idea was that there needed to be sevices for the urban population to enjoy and this meant that urban living requires a cultural center. There was a high priority put upon landscaping and open space in the design. The hardest design issue to contend with is how you deal with the appearance of the building and relating that to the multi-cultural theme. It was decided that the building should be a neutral framework from which fabric banners could be draped for various festival locations. This let each cultural group decorate the building as they required for their festivals.
Name: Morris Blevis, Developer Trizec Western Date: 29 June 1984
Subj ect: Water Street Center Development
The proposed Water Street Center is a 17 acre site development located directly next to the new Children's Museum. It is a phased office complex which will contain a total of 1,600,000 s.f. within a low rise glass curtain wall system. The project is currently in the leasing phase and no dates have been set as to when actual constuction is to begin.
Name: Greg Giesler, Director
Commission of Cultural Affairs Date: 29 June 1984
Subj ect: Denver's Cultural Needs
Try to avoid a Disneyland, ticky-tac proposal. Thinks it would be a good idea to try to incorporate a little bit of Colorado history into the project. The play off of the water is very important in a semi-arid climate. Financial subsidies from the city would almost be impossible as a form of financing for the project.
Name: Gordon Appell, Planner
Denver Planning Office Date: 2 July 1984
Subj ect: Platte Valley Development
In order to comply with the new city administration's emphasis on planning for the future of Denver, several task force groups were put together in order to study various needs and problems of the community. One such task force headed up by Gordon Appell, concentrated on the Cultural/ Recreational/Tourism Facilities. Refer to their paper in this appendix. One need that was pointed out for the Denver area was a space much like the proposed Inter Cultural Market.


Name: Becky Hannum, Arts in the Marketplace Director Rouse & Co.
Date: 5 July 1984
Subject: Rouse & Co. Programs for the Arts
Leasees in a "Rouse" complex contribute $x/year according to lease agreements, that goes towards upkeep and promotion of the facility. Management of the individual facility decides how those proceeds are to be allocated. Most is channeled back into advertising. Becky suggests paying for live artists and performers which will therefore in turn support the community based arts programs. The contribution of $x/year is usually based on the amount of square footage leased out. At times it can be based on a $ amount of profit the leasee makes.
Name: Roger Smith, Director
Convention & Visitors Bureau Date : 5 July 1984
Subj ect: Denver's International Visitors
Said there are no statistics and no way to record the number of international visitors in the Denver area or from where they originate from. Denver is in need of good retail, speciality stores that the visitor can walk to or use a shuttle service to. Denver could also use a few more restaurants.
Name: David Brose, Folk Arts Director
Colorado Arts & Humanities Council Date : 7 July 1984
Subj ect: Folk Arts in Colorado
Thinks that the Inter Cultural Market is a great idea and would succeed in Denver because he gets calls quite often from cultural groups wanting to know if there is a space they can rent out for their festivals. Space for these types of activites is badly needed in the Denver area. Activity spaces he would like to see in the facility include a stage for dances and performances and it must also have a large kitchen.
Name: Richard Flemming, President
Denver Partnership Date: 23 July 1984
Subj ect; Platte Valley Development
A facility like the Inter Cultural Market is the type of project that is needed to help the development of the Platte Valley to be able to attract people back to the water edge. A good possible site might be adjacent to the Union Station as there would be a lot of foot traffic generated from the future development of the station, whether it be a renovation or a new convention center.


P.U.D. GUIDELINES
The following are the design guidelines of the City County of Denver, to be followed when submitting a proposal for a Planned Unit Development.


â–¼ f wt
Procedure ror o c. rLm 1 .v_.__
PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENTS and PLANNED BUILDING GROUPS
pud/pbg
Mules
and
Regulations


Full Text

PAGE 1

fJu:-------1 i . -----. _ _ -------] t 1 -I --: : I -----! t ' ' . I I r -------------• --------J l l j l i .-----. -:j

PAGE 2

An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture Elayne A;lderson Fall 198

PAGE 3

The Thesis of Elayne Anderson is approved. Paul Heath, Committee Chairman George Sanderson, Principal Advisor University of Colorado at Denver December 1984

PAGE 4

Dedicated To the following for their kindness, persaverance and support: • Lois Ann • Marlena • Margaret Special thank you To the following for their time and support: • George Chelwick -developer, Mile High Land Associates • George Sanderson -architect, Carl Worthington Partnership • Peter Monroe -structural engineer, Richard Weingardt Con. • Gary Powell -landscape architect, Denton, Harper, Marshall

PAGE 5

Table of Co ntent s Thesis Proposal Project Statement & Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Philosophy Statement .................... . .......... 2 Historical & Modern Context .....................•.. 5 Hypothesis' 1,2,3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Site Selection Alternatives .......................... 10 Master Plan & Proposals ...................•..•.....•. 15 Site Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Environmental Conditions Soils ........................................... ... 21 Floodplain ......................................... 22 Ecology/Water Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . 23 Air Qualit y . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Climate/Energy ..................................... 25 Land Use Site Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Historic Sites ..................................... 30 Parks/Open Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . 31 Cultural Facilities . . . . . . . . . • . • . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . 32 Commercial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Residential . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Transportation Vehicular Access .••.................•..•.•......... 36 Railroad . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . • • . . . . • 38 Bicycle/Pedestrian •.........••..........•..•...••.. 39 Light Rail .•.......... : . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • 40 Spine Road Concept • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . • . . . . . 41 Code Reviews Building Code ............................. 42 Zoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 7 Building Program Arts Facility Square Footages . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . • . 48 Market Facility Square Footages .............•...... 49 Spatial Activities ....•.............•...•.........• 50 Capital Construction Cost Estimate ................... 53 Thesis Drawings ..................................... . Appendix Cultural Group Census ......................•..•.... Planning Task Force Objectives ..•.................. Questionnaires .................................... . Interview synopsis ................................ . P .U.D. Design Criteria ..........•.................. Footnotes ........................................... . Bibliography ........................................ . Conclusion ......................................... . .

PAGE 6

Thesis Proposal

PAGE 7

Project Description The proposed Inter Cultural Harket will be a dual-complex facility dedicated to the promotion of increasing cultural awareness, in order to stimulate communication of the worlds multi-faceted cultures. The intent is that by creating a center which promotes the education of.cultural activities at the local level, its benefits might be felt on a national level in bettering international relations. In order to facilitate this ideal the Inter Cultural Harket, which is to be located in Denver, Colorado just east of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek confluence, will include the following components: • A semi-open air market for the sale of cultural foods, spices and drinks • Retail shops for the sale of cultural arts and crafts • Outdoor spaces for open air festival performances, cafes, concessionaires and landscaped art gardens • An enclosed facility including a small performance hall for cultural dances, theatre and music; an art gallery; an exhibition space; foreign language class rooms; intercultural cooking classrooms and bookstore Project Definition 1 As the Market is titled Inter Cultural, a brief explaination of this term is in order since there is a significant differenc between the terms international and intercultural. When applied to the idea of communication, international refers to a political situation at a national level. Its audiences are large and the process is very formal. Intercultural refers to communication between member s of two cultures even though they may be from the same nation. This interaction is a more personal face to face situation and far less formal.

PAGE 8

Philosophy Statement 2 The problem ... ethnocentric ignorance. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to view people unconsciously by using our own group and our own customs as the standard for all judgements. When we identify with specific political units -cities, counties, states, nations -we restrict our area of social and moral obligation.1 In a UNESCO report in which nine nations were studied on "how nations see each other" is was determined that national states provide social frameworks which powerfully determine the way in which o2her nations and its cultures are viewed and interpreted. These stereotyped cultural images are not fixed, but are constantly reinforced by the transactions that occur between distinctly differentiated systems. Any negative political or national ideals that are interlaced during any cultural interchange will be imme.diately perceived and all too often believed. The reduction of these unfavorable stereotypes will depend upon basing socioeducational efforts toward an understanding of he dynamic context and components on which they are based. Aristotle defined a political community as the group of people within the range of a single man' s voice. By that definition the inhabitants o this planet are rapidly becoming a single community. It is then necessary to create a spirit of communication between the members of this community, as it is also just as necessary to remove any ignorance about and amoungst its members. This notion became clearly apparent in the after maths of World War II as it brought about the creation of the United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In 1945, Archibald MacLeish, the United States representative to UNESCO's first executive board, stated it this way: " If susp1c1on and fear as between the people's of the world have become immediate and present dangers, it follows that international trust and confidence are no longer ideal goals to be realized in some utopian future; but present and urgent and inescap-

PAGE 9

able necessities to be realized at once and by every available means. One such means is by a direct attempt to remove the ignorance and prejudice upon which fear and suspicion feed and to -replace them with the knowledge and understanding which give rise to a sense of common humanity and therefore to a common life. " This ignorance, or better yet, this lack of knowledge and education other cultural groups, whether it be due to a national policy or individual myopic views is the summation of the ethnocentric problem. In a recent report to the U . S . Senate, entitled, "What \.Je Don't Know Can Hurt Us", by the American Council on Education, it was stated that "U.S. security is endnagered in part by Americans' ignorance of foreign languages and cultures ... a shortfall in our international competance." This shortfall has to a small extent been detected by most of our national leaders and has found its way into congressional legislation in the form of programs to help facilitate cultural exchanges in the arts and humanities. (For further information, refer to the Cultural Program Outline in the appendix of this report. ) The key words to note in most of these programs are mutual and reciprocal as they apply to cultural exchanges. This important aspect of cultural interaction was best summed up during the L.B. Johnson's administrations, Blueprint for Peace Symposium, when the task force for Promoting Cultural Exchange made the statement that: "There is a need for the United States to develop an Ear o f America to go along with the Voice of America. The American attempt to be heard has exceeded the effort to listen. The rest of the world should have the opportunity to display its art and thought to Americans." Learning about a country is hardly a science but an art. Learning from a country is hardly an art but a science. There are two ways in which the learning of a country takes

PAGE 10

4 place. The first is through making a careful study of some aspects of its history, customs, physical characteristics and institutions. The second way is to study the culture, or in another term, the gestault of a country so thoroughly and imagimatively that one comes to see it from the inside.5 It is only at this point that true understanding can take place. Inducing this type of cultural exposure to the public, while at the same time reserving a space within the vast expanding urban network, for the assured continued existance of cultural and ethnic heritages, is the motive behind the Inter Cultural Market.

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Historical & Modern Context 5 The greatest hu man migration in history occured during the century beginning in 1820. During that time millions of people came to the United States as parts of two great overlapping immiguant streams. The first stream (the "old" immigration) consisted mainly of people from Ireland, Germany, England and Scandinavia. The second great stream (the "new" immigration) consisted mainly of people from Italy, Austria, Hungary and Russia. Both the old immigrants and the new tended to cluster together with others from their land of origin. In the process, they formed ethnic communities for aid and the preservation of their ethnic heritages. This new situation found most of these people divorced from their homelands, and engaged to a new land which they soon realized was clothed in discrimination. Their feelings of exclusion brought about a need and desire to establish formal ethnic organizations in order to provide a degree of structure, stability and continuity to the newly formed community. Denver is no exception to the rule and due to its central geographic location has a wealth of cultural and ethnic history. The discovery of gold in the 1860's brought thousands of miners to the area and as can be expected, the merchants were sure to follow. Therefore in the 1880's a wave of Jewish, Polish, Swedish and Slavic immigrants c ame and settled in separate sections within the South Platte River and Cherry Creek confluence area. As the local economy and interest was channeled towards agricultural commodities, the Hispanics came from the south to work the sugar beet and wheat fields. The following enterprise, was of course, the expansion of the railways. With that the Japanese and Chinese immigrants came and transformed the vision and dream of a trans-continental railway into a reality. This explains in part how just a few of the ethnic groups came to settle in the Rocky Mountain region. The U.S. Department of Commerce 1980 Census of Population documents 35 cultural/ethnic groups in the Denver metropolitan area.

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6 Most groups have either formed their own small organizations, with an average membership of 200-500 or they belong to the Colorado Folk Art Council which is a blanket oganization representing several ethnic groups. Their festivals are annual events in which these groups invite and encourage participation from the rest of the Denver community. A problem that they face in organ1z1ng such activities in Denver, is the lack of public places with the facilities capable of handling e v ents of that magnitude. As it stands now, the y must either utilize hospital grounds, high school gymna siums or church sites which are not always conclusive to the f estive atmosphere they work so hard to create. Th ese non-profit ethnic organizations o f ten t i mes must enter into profit loosing contractual agre ements with the owners of these facilities,.just in order to utilize an area for the expression and celebration of their cultural heritage. The survival of an ethnic community and an ethnic "life" is largely a result of the continued existance of ethnic organizations, for it is mainly their purpose to ensure the continuation of the ethnic society. Because culture is l earned and not biologically inherited, its transmission from one g eneration to the n7xt depends upon an effective system of communication , hopefully to be found within the a tmoshpere of t h e Inter Cultural Market.

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7 Hypothesis 1 It is my intent to show that the Inter Cultural Market can act as an inoculator, in order to reintroduce to Denver its own embroyonic components; its own ethnic cultural groups. The new and sterile development of Denver' s urban core has cleansed it of those colorful, fundamental elements that are responsible for its conception in the first place. This current lack o f exposure and social interaction with and amoungst the ethnic groups is the reason Denver fails to have the vital and vivacious character of a true urban environment. The experience of visiting this city is not one to include the sights, smells or sounds of a Chinatown Little Italy or Greek Astoria, yet there exists close to thirty-five ethnic groups in the Denver community. It is my contention that the true experience of these groups can only be had by visiting the place of their origin. But, this proposes a problem in Denver, due to its central geographic location some people are unable to afford the cost of travel, while most others have developed myopic vision. Today, when information is so accessible, these are not valid excuses for cultural ignorance, especially of the cultures within ones own city. Those that migrate to the area for its climatic and environmental amenities are for the most part unaware of its strong cultural amenities. Its no wonder though, since the thriving ethnic groups are only to be found within the small confines of their neighborhoods which in Denver have been hidden and obscured by commercial strip zoning. If an ethnic food store can be found it is likely to be located in a typical commercial s hopping center, an area not conclusive to arousing ones interest to investigate the cultural offerings of the neighborhood any further. It is through the social act of shopping within an atmosphere of cultural cuisine and arts that I intend to expose D enver to its primal beginnings.

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Hypothesis 2 8 I also intend to show that the Inter Cultural Harket can become the catalyst that is needed to spawn future people-oriented development in the Central Platte Valley. Due to the site location between the soft open spaces of the Platte river and the hard urban grid system of Lower Downtown, the project will play a strategic role of melding the design vocabulary of the two into a new human language of its own. This particular place within urban space lends itself, and therefore lends to the Market, the ability to become a nucleus of social interaction from which radiates an aura of revitalization of both the physical and the cultural environment. As the ethnic groups begin to utilize the facility for the preservation of their customs, culture and language; it is my contention that while they reinforce these cultural mores in their children they will simultaneously reinforce the knowledge of their existance within the community. As the D enver public begins to utilize the facility as a recreational and shopping area; it is also my contention that only r enewed awareness of cultural existance can result. In essence, the social process of cultural restoration can be mad e possible due to facilities like the proposed Inter Cultural Market.

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Hypothesis 3 9 Finally I intend to show that a facility composed of human scale structures and intimate landscaped spaces can create the informal atmosphere that is required for intercultural communication to take place. The historic layout of the marketplace or festival ground created directions, paths and eddies where face to face interaction between people played a key role in its success as a social stimulator. The meandering, non-formality of the site will facilitate such actions as sitting on the grass, loosening a tie or maybe even splashing in the water, all of which are a far cry from the formal stances and gestures used in daily urban interaction. In summation, it is only through a renewed awareness of the significant role that cultural groups have within our society, that will make Denver and its citizens concerned about significant cultural issues and problems. The Inter Cultural Market is only to be viewed as a beginning for this growth process and not by any means an end point in itself.

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Site Selection Alternatives

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Alterna tive 1 10 Advantages: • excellent view of downtown skyline • historical railway buildings for adaptive reuse • picturesque wate r front setting on Platte with large • possible connection with Children's Museum • nice feeling of open space Disadvantages: • Mile High Stadium an eye-sore • flood plain problem • pedestrian access extremely limited • current high tech Water Street Center proposal extremely detrimental to character of valley • noise from I-25 a problem

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_ Alterna tive 2 11 Advantages: • possible adaptive reuse of parts of Forney Museum • Confluence Park provides exdellent outdoor urban space • ne\vl y renovated office building, restaurant and bar nearby Disadvantages: • extremely tight sight, allows for little expansion • parking is severely limited • too close to I-25 and Speer Blvd. intersection

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Al te rnative 3 (site selected) 12 Advantages: • close to developing areas of lower downtown • possibility for grading, terracing down to Cherry Creek • existing railway bridges could be tied into open space concept • site visual from Speer Blvd., therefore increased public awareness Disadvantages: • distorted view of skyline • vehicle accessibility is currently limited

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Alternative 4 13 Advantages: • good node point for continuation of 16th Street shuttle • excellent preservation/reuse possibility • future open-space use as promm enade proposal attractive Disadvantages: • convention center plans at Denver Union Terminal undecided

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Alternative 5 14 Advantages: • good pedestrian access from Auraria, Convention Center and central business district • public already comes for art events and activities • existing parking Disadvantages: • would entail demolition, remodel of auditorium and retail areas • too much concrete for "human" environment of ICM • scale too large • possible management problems

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Master Plan & Proposals

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Master Plan 15 This architectural thesis was done independent of but in co-operation with Mile High Land Associates, the owner/developer of 155 acres located in the Central Platte Valley. Mile High Land Associates has developed a Master Plan for the 155 acre site which is entitled the Mile High Land Project. The following drawings indicated their proposals and plans. Since the site selected for the Inter Cultural Market is currently in their ownership, adherance to their future plans will be of utmost importance in this thesis project. At the writing of this report, Mayor Fredrico Pena has appointed the Downtown Plan Steering Committee whose task is to develop a Master Plan for the entire Downtown /Central Platte Valley that will take Denver into the 21st cetury. The committee consists of 27 individuals representing property owners, preservationists, developers, lawyers and bankers. The Plan is to be completed by the end of 1985. Therefore, this thesis proposal is based upon many assumptions derived from research and interviews of some of the officials involved with the Master Plan development. (See appendix for Interview Synopsis) Those assumptions are located under their appropriate catagorey in the following text.

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) l DEFINITIONS _......,-Ow<>e
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/_/, }.-/ _)_ 100FT SETBACK rrom Property Line or / Existing Chonnel 200 FT LI MIT lor oil Paroet A Sub •rea s 7th Sub Areas-Building Height Controls lJnRTrocb Section aa B 250FT LIMIT 2BUILDlN G PENETRATIONS 15 16 Sec!ioncc 19 jl---t--C2 20 200FT LI MIT NO BUILDING PEN ETRATIONS D 1JOFTLIMIT NO BUILDING PENETRATIONS

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J . 4 ac FAR. 7 •oo . oooGFA • " bution (Gross Floor Area) G Density Distri Total: 155 Ac . FAR 1 . 97 Sub Areas ross MILE H IGH lAND !i/ l --n.____ __ Colondo .. .......... L.oolo::'._ • . ...... ltnnt. P.cet linn.,. approc HeM: tws I t not • tunoeY 15 16 19 C2 11oc " 20 16.5ac FAA I 720 ,000 GFA " •

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Site Surve y

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C1 -, A •lEoJ,.lt lUZ7" (HfQGsfiirl)... .. lfo&e"'li ICP1• •B&V' I= 29"51'17" ! • 313.39' . = 163 .30' 1 :H BRG = N 30"1 3'10"W : H = 161.4 5 ' J •REBAR L S 10377 I ' SCALE ' 1"=100' tO .. W4T{IIIIlfN[ SET I V 4 .. 8R ASS CAP 0 IN CONCRETE L.S.1 3155 545"09'41"1;; 'X:T ' 8REBAR "(BR ASS ' 52.93' TAG L S . ,,-S{ ••• -f4\ __ QRO. VO'G, STREE T S ite Survey Location: Bounded by Cherry Creek on the southwest Bounded by 15th St. o n the northeast Bounded by Delegany St. on the souteast Ownership: Mile High Land Associates J.j L Acreage: 8 .659 acres (not all to be utilized in this thesis: Circulation: I-25, Speer Blvd., 15th S t . 20 Waterways: Cherry Creek, South Platte River to the east

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Soils 21 • Bedrock 40-50 feet. Part of the Denve r Formation consisting of interstratified lenses of claystone, siltstone and sandstone. • Overburden Soils -the natural overburden soils consist of clean sands with scattered areas of gravel. Sporatic conditions exist due to the flood plain alluvial deposits. • Man-Made Fill a trash fill covers the site which is composed of cinders, wood, concrete and construction debris. The depth ranges from 3 to 6 feet over the majority of the site. Dee p areas of fill 6 to 9 feet deep are expected along Cherry Creek due to improvements and changes in the channel alignment. • Ground Water -the stabilized water level on the site is approx. 17 to 20 feet below the ground surface. Fluctuations on the order of 3 to 5 feet in the ground water level adjacent to the rivers should be anticipated with changes in the level of both the South Platte River and Cherry Creek. Source: Mile High Land Associates

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Floodplain 22 • Although current mapping indicates otherwise, Army Corps of Engineers and Urban Drainage and Flood Control District analysis concludes that Cherry Creek will stay within its channel walls during a 100 year storm and will not flood the area north of Speer in the Central Platte Valley. • There is an opportunity for channelization or rebanking of the creek in order to create public open space that is accessible to the unique water frontage. (If done, a permit from the Army Corps of Engineers is required.) • There may be a problem with storm run-off.as it increases with development. (90% run-off on parking, 85% run-off on buildings, 35 % run-off on greenery.) Source: Mile High Land Associates

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Ecology 23 Historically, in the 1850' s the junction of the Platte River and the Cherry Creek presented a sylvan scene of sparkling waters amidst towering cottonwoods. Currently a diverse riparian vegetation exists along the rivers. This sparse natural vegetation currently provides a limited habitat for small mammals and a variety of birds. Habitat restoration may produce an increase in the animal species populations. The quality of water in the South Platte River and Cherry Creek has been improving in the past decade. Increased run-off caused by any development could adversely affect water quality unless treated before flowing into the rivers. Source: Center for Community Design and Development,UCD

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Air Quality • Central Platte Valley is a topographical sink or depresstion where temperature inversions are common and air circulation is poor. • The main pollutants include: Carbon monoxide (CO) primarily from motor vehicles Ozone (03 ) generated when oxygen interacts with hydro carbons from auto exhaust and nitrous oxides fr9m all burning processes. -Suspended particles (TSP, total suspended particulates) the "brown cloud". • Care should be taken to utilize maximum amount of native vegetation to help replace carbon dioxide with o2 oxygen around immediate site. • Promotion of pedestrian/bike paths along with shuttle systems, mass transit and light rail will strongly be urged in this proposal. 24 Source: Center for Community Design and Development, UCD

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_ Climate/ Energy 25 Denver lies in the semi-arid rain shadow of the Rocky Mountains and its area temperatures typify a mild interior continental region. The following data statistics are explained by climatic co mponents for use in the site analysis. Wind Annual average wind speed: 9.1 miles per hour Wind speeds in Denver are normally highest in winter and spring and lowest in late summer and fall. Because of the nighttime drainage wind down the South Platte Valley, south is the prevailing wind direction in all seasons. Knowledge of the prevailing wind direction is a grossly over used and not particularly revealing statistic by itself f o r heating, ventilation and air conditioning applications. It is much more important to know the various wind speeds in relation to the outdoor temp eratures in the building at the time HVAC equipment is

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functioning. Since the Inter Cultural Market will include an enclosed theatre/arts complex and a semi-open air market, two different design temperatures will be assigned to each. Wind data will be helpful in determining the way doors should swing out, patio and terrace construction, and landscaping placement for the creation of wind breaks and breezeways. Temperature In D enver, extremes of hot and cold temperature lasting beyond 5-6 days are a rarity. The diurnal temperature range between night and day is greater than the winter to summer swing. The following table gives the mean and extreme tem perature summary as recorded by the United states Weather Bureau at Denver, Colorado. This data will be helpful in designing awnings/shading devices for the semi-open aire market, also for the placement of landscaping and water amenities to help cool hot areas. Precipitation Mean annual precipitation equals 15.51 inches with the bulk of the moisture coming in the spring months. Heavy thundershowers are not uncommon during the warm summer months. From November to March the precipitation usually falls a s snow which averages 59 . 9 inches per year. These will become important factors when designing for the semi-open air market. Specifically it will effect roof loading conditions and quanities and placement of glazing. 26

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27 Maximum Direction M o n t h Mean Wind Prevailing Wind Speed Aesociated vith S pe e d (mph) Direction Recor ded (mph) Maximum Jan 9.2 s 5 3 N Feb 9.4 s 49 NW Mar 10 . 1 s 53 NW Apr 10.4 s 56 NW May 9.6 s 43 sw Jun 9 . 2 s 47 s Jul 8.5 s 5 6 sw Aug 8 . 2 s 42 sw Sep 8.2 s 47 NW Oct 8 . 2 s 45 NW Nov 8 . 1 s 48 w Dec 9. 0 s 51 NE Annual 9 . 1 s 56 NW SOU'aC L : O.S. Department o! 19 77 ME AN AND EXTRE ME T E M PERATURE SU MMARY 1F( DENVER , CO L O . D ar• . .,_ .. D dJy Ddl:' Hontblr Recor d •ecot'd 90F a nd Kuiaua Kini11ua t'.ean Lov (Heat in&) (Coolin•> above J o n 4J. S 16.2 29.9 12 2S 0 0 , . . 46.2 19 . 4 32. 8 7 . -JO !'02 0 0 "" 50.1 2). 8 31.0 8 4 -II 0 0 • • • 61.0 )).9 47.5 8S 2 SlS 0 0 Koy 7 1).3 4 3.6 }7.0 9 6 " 2Sl 0 . J un M.l 51.9 66.0 ) 04 ) 0 80 11 0 s Jul 17.4 58.6 13.0 104 43 0 248 IS A u 8 es. e 57. 4 71.6 101 " 0 20. ' • • • 77.7 41.11 62.1 " 20 120 s • ' Oct 6 6 .A )7.2 SI.O 8e J s 0 . . . SJ. l 2}. 4 )9. 4 79 -. 760 0 0 Dec 46 . 2 18.9 )2. 6 ,. -18 1004 0 0 Ann u a l 64.0 3 6 . 2 50.1 )04 -30 6016 us )2 • Le u t h a n one h a.l f . S ourca z D e p art• ent ot eo-erca, 1971 D A I L Y , MONTHLY AND A NNUAL PRE CIPI TA T IO N D A TA [inches ) DEN VER , CO L ORADO Tota l Pred 1tat1on Mea n l'lUI"'ber a Snov &nth1 y l;tonthly !Uxl•uHonth He an H.u:ill\1111 Klnt•ua 24-hour J a n .61 l.U n.,t 1.02 ••• . 6 7 1.66 0.01 1.01 "'' 1.21 2.89 o.u 1.4 8 ... J.9 J 4 . 11 O.t)J J.n I__:__ ... , 2.64 1. )1 0 .06 J . S5 J un ).9 ) 4.69 t).lO ) .16 Jul 1. 78 6 . 4 ] 0.11 2.1.2 • • • 1.29 4.41 n .o6 3 . 4 ) ... l.ll 4 . 6 1 t< l . U Oct l.ll 4.l1 o.os 1.11 ... 0.7 6 2.91 0 . 01 1.29 Dec 0 . 43 2.ft4 0.0) ).)8 T o t a l U.SJ 7 .3) T< J.SS • Honthly tota l a a r e rounde d to the nearea t whole d a y . b • D •oot• a ]eaa tha n o ne-halt . Cfl'oo"'Olea a tra c e of pre c1 pita t 1 o a o r Day• V ith Monthly f'!.&xbiUD Pudpltuton > .01 inch Pte an 1'\onthly 8.4 2 ).7 )A. ) 12.6 l9. 1 9.6 2".3 1 0 I . S 13 . 6 T< O.J o.o 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 1.9 Zl.l ) . 8 JJ.l 1.6 n . 1 6.S 30.1 88 5•.9 39.1 -nr a nd b •Jov )0 " " ll 2 0 0 0 ! • lS 29 162 Hr a n • of D aya vlth -1 . 0 inch .. 18

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28 40" NORTH LATITUDE PLAN OF SOLAR ANGLES / / SOLAR ANGLES, SEASONAL VARIATION, DENVER .I40N(

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Land Use

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Site Analysis 29 A combined look at various visual and audio fators when situated in the Lower Platte Valley.

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H ist or i c Sites 30 Current recognized historic areas within the stes vicinity, by the Preservation Alliance include: • Amos Root Building • Forney Museum • Union Station • Moffatt Station • District near 15th & Wewatta including two blacksmith shops, two flour mills and the old Daniels & Fisher Warehouse Since t h e sit e for the Inter Cultural Market borders the historic district near 15t h & Hewatta every effor t in the design process will be made to enhance the district' s historical character and significance. The site for the Inter Cultural Market itself is full of historical and cultural significance. Before Denver's existance the confluence area was often used by Native American Indians for their encampmen ts. Later with the founding of Denver it was setteled by Jewish immigrants, and then finally it became part of t h e Railway system.

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Parks I O pen S pac e 31 The surrounding parks include: • South Platte Greenway • Confluence Park • Gates Crescent Park • Centenial Park (dedicated) The development of the Inter Cultural Market provides an opportunity to expand the Platte River Greenway up into the Cherry Creek banks. This could provide public open space for the redeveloping lower downtown district. The development also provides the opportunity to explore the ammenities of the waterfront of the Cherry Creek. Due to the site's location and the costs of land development, it is unrealistic to assume the entire 8.56 acres could become open park space. The schematic design process for this thesis will establish the amount of land required to make the Inter Cultural Market a successful project.

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C ult u ral Fac i l ities 32 The Cultural Explorations inventory of cultural art life in Denver gives the following statistics: • 149 arts organizations comprise a $25 million industry • 7 , 0 0 0 performances were given for audiences of more than 2 million • 7,500 days of exhibition space and art shows for 1 . 2 million people Together the organizations earn nearly $13 million of their expenses from ticket sales, admissions and concessions. They raise another $7.5 million from business, foundations and individuals. The rest comes from federal, state and local government appropriations and grants. The problem in Denyer is that there is a substantial gap between the level of activit y and s upport among the large organizations and that os the medium to small groups. lVhen the discrepency in size between large and small organizations is so great, there appears to be some danger that the latter may b e overwhelmed and find the struggle for survival

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33 even more difficult. When asked wha t services in Denver were currently lacking the 149 organizations stated there was a need for arts facilites at reasonable costs, for promoting and giving credibility to cultural activites. 37 of the organizations expressed a need for better or additional places to perform, additional administrative space and rehearsal space. Of those 149 groups approximately 30 are ethnic/cultural art groups. The Inter Cultural Market' s pupose is to provide spatial needs for the Denver based ethnic art groups and to also provide space for touring groups to perform for Denver audiences. As these international groups travel to New York and San Francisco to perform it would be easier for Denver to catch them enroute if there was available quality theater spaces. Some of the existin g arts facilities in the downtown Denver area which should also be linked up to the Inter Cultural Market with a people mover system include: • DCPA Theatre • Boettcher Concert Hall • Denver Art Museum e . Auditorium Theatre & Ar ena • Children's Museum • Auraria Gallery Source: The Business & Arts Council of Patten Institute for the Arts

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Commercial 34 Core area commercial development within the Central Platte Valley is projected by DRCOG to be approximately 17,000,000 sq. ft. Mile High Land Project retail should be complimentary to other uses and tied to a downtown retail strategy. Festival Festival retail/entertainment/restaurants as amenities will be important t o market other uses and should reinforce open space/river edge amenities. Retail absorption should keep pace with other uses, at approximately 25,60,000 sf per year. The proposed 30,000 s.f . Inter Cultural Market provides an oppertunity to create a unique retail market/arts environment in the Central Platte Valley. This type of facility has been listed as. a need in the Denver area b y Mile High Land Associates, the Planning Department, Colorado Arts and Humanities Council and the Colorado Folk Arts Council. The retail amenities of Tivoli, Larimer Sqaure and the 16th St. Mall should be tied together with a people mover system. Source: Mile High Land Associates

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Residential 35 Residential property in downtown Denver consists of largely rental property to the northwest, high rise apartments and housing for the elderly and handicapped in lower downtown Denver, leaving an unmet need for median income, owner-occupied housing. Mile High Land Project' s propoal states that residential components would best relate to major open space amen ities and would be mi xed in building form and price range (but predominantly in the affordable range) The Inter Cultural Market could provide the need for shopping/market oppertunities for future residential housing units. Source: Mile High Land Associates

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Vehicular Access 36 Interstate 25 between I-70 and Colfax is currently at or close to its capacity of traffic volume. While interchange improvements can provide short-term relief, a longterm regional solution is required to handle additional transportation needs generated by growth in the Central Business District and the Central Platte Valley. Improvements should tend to limit viaduct structures to m1n1m1ze long term maintenance problems such structures pose and minimize their negative visual impacts. Interviews with Mile High Land Associates, Denver Planning Office and Colorado Department of Highways have led to the following assumptions for this thesis project: • 16th St. viaduct to be removed and 16th St. Mall Shuttle system to continue at grade to the Platte River

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37 • 15th St. viaduct to be removed and a pedestrian/ roadway to be installed at grade. • Delegany Street to be paved for access to businesses currently located at and around the Daniels & Fisher Warehouse. • Spine Road for Mile High Land Project to be implemented through center core of site. (See Spine Concept) • Speer Blvd. to be realigned to the sout at grade to become a parkway. Source: Mile High Land Associates

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Railroad 38 • The Central Platte Vall e y is a regional transit center especially for coal and "piggy back" goods. • Should Mile High Land Project g o ahead, Burlington Northern mainline, .storage yard and trailer operations will move off site. • Burlington Northern mainline operations will be combined with other railroads from Sp eer to 20th Street in on e five track, 105 foot wide R.O.W., in the D enve r Union T erminal corridor . • Mile High Land Project will operate on assumption that mainline will continue at grade at Denver Union Terminal. This thesis will be based on the same assumption Source: Mile High Land Associates

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... ... Bicycle I Pedestrian 39 • 15th Street persents on of the few significant opportunities for street pedestrian continuity directly up into the Highlands neighborhoods. • 16th Street presents one of the few transit/pedestrian connections from downtown to lower downtown to the Platte River Valley. • The current main pedestrian/bike route along the Platte Greenway is extensively used, but lacks sufficient access points to maximize use and enjoyment. • P rovisions will be made for amenable ties between the existing p e destrian/bike system and the Inter Cultural Market site. Source: Mile High Land Associates

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Light Rail I People Mover 40 Since no future dirctions for light rail transportation have been made by the RTD Board the following assumptions will be used in planning the site for the Inter Cultural Center. A light rail/people mover system should be implemented that will connect all the strategic retail, art centers and sports complex' . Included will be: • Civic Center/State Capital • Union Station • Denver Art Museum • Larimer Square • Auraria campus • DCPA • Tivoli • Currigan Hall • Me Nichols Arena • Civic Center • Mile High Stadium • Children' s Museum • Forney Museum • Inter Cultural Market

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Spine Road Concept 41 Since vehicular access is critical to the development of the Platte Valley, Mile High Land Associates has proposed in their Master Plan what they term the "Spine Road Concept". The objectives behind it are: o It will act as a main collector/feeder street o It will provide for project wide continuity o Intersects with existing valley roads o Adds an organizing element to the valley Since it is projected in the Master Plan as intersecting the site selected for the Inter Cultural Market, its presence as a parkway will be incorporated into this thesis.

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Code Reviews

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Building Code Analysis 42 The applicable building codes for the Inter Cultural Market are: • Building Code of the City and County of Denver 1 976 • Colorado Health Code The applicable issues and r equirementi for a P.U.D. submittal derived from these codes are as follows: Group Occupancy The Inter Cultural Market will house several different uses and purposes and therefore shall conform to the requirements set forth for a Mixed Use Occupancy. The Denver Building Code in Table 5-A states the different groups of occupancy. Arts Facility: Group B, Division 1 -An assembly building with a stage and an occupant load of less than 1000. Market FaciJity;'Group B, Division 2 -An assembly building without a stage and an occupant load of 300 or more. According to Table 5-B , there is no required fire separation between uses of Groups B-1 and B-2. Building Type As defined in Chapter 17 of the DBC, the Inter Cultural larket will be classified as a Type II Consrtuction. The structural elements will be noncombustible fire-resistive construction material . Exterior walls will have a 4 hour fire rating, structural frame will have a 1 hour rating and floors will have a 1 hour rating. Stairs and landings shall be consturcted of structural steel tomeet the requirments.

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I . 'l Building Area As set forth in Section 505 of the DBC the allowable floor area for a one story building with a Type II Construction shall not exceed 22,500 s.f. for a B-1 Occupancy and 22,500 s.f. for a B-2 occupancy. Since the Inter Cultural Market has a gross floor area of 37,288 s.f. it is in compliance of the allowed combined total of 45,000 s.f. for each Occupancy use. Building Height The maximum height of buildings, as listed in Table 5-D for a Type II Construction for both a B-1 and B-2 occupancy is 75 feet or 4 stories. Building Exits and Egress For Group B Occupancies the following regulations apply: Main Exit: The structures shall have a main exit whose width will accomodate one-half of the total occupant load, but shall be at least the total required width of all aisles, exit passage ways and stairways leading thereto, and shall connect to a stairway or ramp leading to a publi< way . Side Exits: Every auditorium shall be provided with exits on each side. The exits on each side of the auditorium shall be of width to accommodate of the total occupant load served. Side exits shall open directly to a public way or into an exit court, leading to a public way. Side exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle. Haximum Travel Distance: Exits shall be arranged st that the total length of travel from any poir to an exit shall not exceed 150 feet Number Required: Table 33-A states when the occupancy per use exceeds 50, then a minimum of 2 exits will be provided. The total number of exits for the Inter Cultural Market will be based upon the specific uses within the facility and not

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facility as a whole. Theatre Exit Requirements Section 3313 -Aisles Every aisle shall not be less than 3 feet wide if serving only one side, and not less than 3 feet 6 inches if serving both sides. Spacing: With standard seating the aisles shall be located so that there will be not more than 6 intervening seats between any seat and the nearest aisle. With continental seating the number of intervening seats may be increased to 29 where exit doors are provided in the proportion of one pair of exit doors for each five rows of seats. The exit doors shall provide a minimum clear width of 66 inches. Slope: The slope portion of aisles shall not exceed 1 foot in 8 feet. Section 3314 Seats Spacing: With standard seating, the spacing of rows of seats shall provide a space of at least 12 inches from the back of one seat to the front of the most forward projection of the seat assembly immediately behind it. With continental seating, the spacing of rows of seats shall provide a clear width measured horizontally as follows: 18 inches clear for rows of 18 seats or less 20 inches clear for rows of 35 seats or less 21 inches clear for rows of 45 seats or less 22 inches clear for rows of 46 seats or less Handicapped Requirements All provisions for the handicapped visitor will be based upon the National Park Services' document, "Accessibility for Disabled Persons in Park Facilities". Since the Inter Market is largely a semi-open space and p ark experience, these guidelines will provide for better opportunities for the disabled individuals enjoyment. Refer to this document for further information. 44

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Plumbing Facilities The following table taken from the DBC will set forth the required number of plumbing fixtures to be provided for in the Inter Cultural Market: 45 TABLE 5-E PLUMBING FACILITIES t a l per Es.ccpt where Noted} TABLE NO . USE WATER CLOSLTS MAU: URINAlS f d l LAVATORIES ..... 5 E .5 Platftol Aswmbl11c1 lndu.tna.l. ofT ... r-et.ailA Pub"' Buildtnp To..,.. .... ""'-ScbooU tliJ fl
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Zoning 46 The current ordinance for the Inter Cultural Market site is a 1-2 district which is classified as a heavy industrial district. Were the Inter Cultural Market to be implemented, a change of zone in the form of a Planned Urban Development (P.U.D.) would be required. A P.U.D. in effect, a specific zone district for a specific area, including specific regulations written by the applicant and if approved by City Council, is enforced by the City. It allows maximum flexibility during the planning stage and maximum assurance that exactly what is proposed will be developed as proposed. The P.U.D. process revolves around site plan review in which city agencies and neighborhood residents have considerable involvement in determining the nature of the development. For Planning Design Criteria for a P.U.D., refer to the Appendix of this report.

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Parking According to the 1982 Denver Zoning Ordinance, Sec. 59-586, the required number of off-street parking spaces is dependent upon the zoning use by right and is therefore catagorized into classes by such uses. Since the Inter Oultural Market has several different uses it can be catagorized into three different classes. However, the majority of those uses, such as gallery, restaurant and all fall into Parking Class Four. The Zoning Ordinance states of this class: "Th ere shall be one off-street parking space provided for each two hundred square feet of gross floor area contained in any structure containing a use by right." Since the Inter Cultural Market contains a gross floor area of 37,288 sq. ft. the total number of parking spaces to by provided for is as follows: 37,288 sq.ft. 200 sq.ft. = 186 parking spaces The Zoning Ordinance further state s : " The propertion of compact car spaces provided to satisfy these requirements shall not exceed fifty (50) percent of the total of all off-street parking spaces required for each use." Since current parking studies indicate that by the year . 1985, approximately eighty-five (85) percent of the parking spaces will be designed for compact cars, this thesis proposal as a P.U.D. will be designed under those guidelines. Parking stall dimensions will be as follows: Large cars Compact cars Handicapped spaces 9x19 feet 7.5x15 feet 12x2 0 feet

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ARTS FACILITY SQUARE FOOTAGES Performance Hall: Auditorium 300 seats .................................... . 2,500 sq. ft. Stage ...................................................... . Dressing Rooms-1 mens & 1 womens (300 sq. ft. each) ...... . Rehearsal Roon: ............................................. . Maintenance/Production ..................................... . Storage .................................................... . Lighting/Projection Booth .................................. . B o x Office ................................................. . Lounge/Bar ................................................. . Lobby ...................................................... . Gallery: Exhibition Area ............................................ . Reception .................................................. . Bookstore: Banquet Hall: I 1,500 600 500 750 500 100 50 100 1,000 5,000 200 500 Dining Hall 150 seats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900 Kitchen................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 Coat Room................................................... 50 Intercultural Cooking Classroom:.............................. 200 Language Classrooms: 2 rooms (175 sq. ft. each)............... 350 Conference Room: 20 people.................................... 300 Meeting Rooms: 2 rooms, 5 people each ( 125 sq. ft. each)...... 250 Travel/Tour Office: 2 agents ................................ . 200 Administrative/Management: Director. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Performing Arts Co-ordinator................................ 125 Visual Arts/Exhibition Co-ordinator......................... 125 Receptionist/Secretary...................................... 75 Waiting Area 4 people..................................... 75 Conference Room-6 people.................... . ............. 75 Restrooms: Mens -2 rooms ( 125 sq. ft. each). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 Womens-2 rooms (125 sq. ft. each).................. ....... 250 Janitorial/Maintenance: 125 Sub Total: Circulation/Mechanical-15% ................................. . 17, 200 sq. ft. 2,580 TOTAL: ....................................................... . 19,780 sq. ft. 48

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MARKET FACILITY SQ. FOOTAGES Market Place: • Booths/Concessionaires 15@ 500 sq. ft. each ....... . 7, 500 sq. ft. 20@ 250 sq. ft. each ......... 5,000 • Cafe/Bars 5 @ 500 sq. ft. each ........ . 2,500 • Managemen t -Director -Receptionist/Secretary ................................ . -Waiting Area .......................................... . -Confe rence/Meeting-5 people .................•........ • Security Office ........................................ . • Maintenance ............................................. . 150 75 75 75 125 225 Sub Total: .................................................... 15,225 Circulation/Mechanical-15% .................................. 2,283 Total: ........................................................ 17,508 ARTS FACILITY ................................................. 19,780 MARKET FACILITY ............................................... 17,508 TOTAL GROSS SQ. FOOTAGE ....................................... 37,288 sq . ft. 49

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Building Program

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SPACE Performance Hall • Stage • Audience • Dressing Rooms • Rehearsal Space • Maintenance/ Production • Storage • Lighting/ Projection Booth • Box Office • Lounge/Bar • Lobby ACTIVITIES • Performance area for small to medium sized productions of native/ folk music, dance, theatre & lectures. • Seating area for 300. • Layout should allow audience participation. • Dressing, make-up, restrooms & lounge area. One for men, one for women. • Space for individual and group rehearsals. • Back stage receptions & meetings. • Workroom for prop/ exhibit construction and preparation. • Receiving dock . • Scenery/prop storage • Extra chairs • Electrical/sound control board.. Audiovisual equipment • Ticket sales/Information service. • Cash liquor bar used pre, during & post performance. • Gathering area before, during & after performance. POTENTIAL USERS POTENTIAL REVENUE (+) (-) • Intercultural/National performance comp. and individuals. • Local art organizations • Public . • Performers for both inside/outside performances. • Performers • Staff • Staff • Staff • Staff • Technicians • Art Directors • Management/Staff • Staff/Public • Public 50

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SPACE Gallery • Exhibitio n • Reception Bookstore Banquet Room • Dining Hall • Kitchen • Coat Room International Cooking Classroom Language Classrooms Conference/Meeting Travel/Tour office ACTIVITIES • Traveling International/ cultural art exhibits on a regular basis. No permanent collection. • Informative displays on cultural issues. • Art gathering space. • Boo k and gift sales relating to cultural exhibits and issues. • Multi-purpose roo m for festival banquets, parties, receptions. • Food preparation for banquet events. • Coat & hat check . For festive events. May be used for Per formance hall also. • Cooking class for 20-30 students for all types of cuisine. • Instruction in Foreign languages for 1 0-15 students. • Rooms in which large or small organizations can use for regular group meetings. POTENTIAL USERS • Public • Public • Public/Staff • Cultural Groups POTENTIAL REVENUE (+) (-) • Staffs/Cultural Groups • Public/Staff • Public/Staff • Staff/Students • Art organizations Ethnic organizations Cultural groups • Organizes & promotes true • Public/Staff cultural experiences via travel. Educational/ informative travel programs. 51

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SPACE Administrative/ Management ACTIVITIES • Management activities of all of the above listed spaces. Coordination of festival events and traveling performing and visual arts. POTENTIAL USERS • Management Staff/ Visiting Directors POTENTIAL REVENUE (+) (-) 5 2

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Capital Construction Cost Estimate

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CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION COST ESTIMATE * Marketplace 22,320 s.f. X $23.78 $530' 770 Theatre Auditorium 14' 080 52.50 739,200 Basement 8,320 15.44 128,460 Banquet/Gallery 13,888 35.97 599,550 Totals 44' 720 s . f. $1,997,980 Additional items: Sprinklers 1. 00/2 6' 000 s. f . 26,000 Kitchens 2@ 100,000 200,000 Total .......................................................... $2,226,000 Average Cost ................................................... $50.00/s.f. *Marshall Cost System

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. I

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I t vicinitY-. maQ \, f ' ' :J \ \ \ . '.,, \ \ '\ \ \ \ . \ -__,.___,' -. ____ .)) . --' .-\ \ \ / ',, -r-: ...... I I I I I ... I I I I I I I : • I I I I I r I I : I I • I I I • I I I I I I I lr 'I I \I I II I I \ I I I I I I I I \ I I I I I I I \ I I> I I u I \.; I I ( I I I I I I I •--'' I : ,J • ' I I 1 ,t,.O\ I I .. 1-i I I I I I I I ' I I ,, I • . ' ' .. ... .I • ,. C1 0 [] ., ,., ...

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II site plan I l 15th stre t

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/ theatre cent e r gallery / / / market /

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sections section thru mark e t section thru gallery section thru banqu t section thru theat r e

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ga ery circulation Jk'llllll'lt, dtMI Ill f u-fl • It • J.:IOU!ld \Lih pt: • nlllt:'lt. • r •nsul.tt•orl barrlt'• L . j --) I. detail W!Oil'f ,KJ1u,1 ,1blt• \Uil control >
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'I" • tl."'''''L: • .. I.! I' 1 ., , , theatre ,':.,,.'" "'' I• I \""'Ill.! "I' . I llllldlt'l!

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Appendix

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C ULTURAL GROUP CENSUS 1980 U.S. Department of Commerce Census indicating the cultural groups in the Denver area and their approximate population. Each group may be considered a potential user of the Inter Cultural Market.

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PC801 -C7 Colo. / / ' / .. / ' l I ChARACTEP.lS TICS O F T HE POPULA T ION ' . , r r :: ... ., c:J ll p ( ;-; v J • .. •• J.i ,._ . , . ' . . j ) I • . " . . .I. . ... • . •.

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Dutch English F rench German Greek Hungarian Irish Italian Norwegian Polish Portuguese Russian Scottish Swedish Ukranian Other White Black Native American Eskimo Aleut Japanese Chinese Filipino Korean Asian/Indian Vietnamese Hawaiian Guamanian Samoan Other Mexican Puerto Rican Cuban Oth e r Spanish TOTAL: 35 Groups CULTURAL GROUPS IN METROPOLITAN DENVER 1980 CENSUS 3,665 33,663 3' 776 33,690 1,696 1,139 18,588 7,994 2,321 4,263 208 3,967 2, 715 4,719 791 145,607 1,178,275 75,464 9,426 84 25 6,629 2,859 1,372 2,815 1,714 2,309 421 119 71 2,947 96,486 1,890 1,191 59,021

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PLANNING TASK FORCE OBJECTIVES In order to comply with the new city administration's e mphasis on planning, several task force groups were put together in order to study the various needs and problems of the Denver community. This paper contains the findings of the group investigating the Cultural/ Rec./Tourism facilities.

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FOCUS PAPER # 3 CULTURAL/REC REATIONAL/TOURISM FACILITIES subcC\te,Jori es of d i f f-ere n c e s t h t this focus individu.:d Similarities exist among the but there are so many attention must also be given each type of facility. The to planning for and financing attached tables reviews the existing and desired facilities by subcategories. This subcategory was defined as including performing arts, visual arts, museums and permanent exhibitions. Many tourists use these facilities also. the brief discussion of the focus group concluded that only a few voids exist in what should be provided, but that virtually all of our facilities have identified a need or desire to expand.
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CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Many kinds of facilities should be available in cities to provide opportunities for active and passive recreation that interest all the people and is accessible and affordable to them. No one type of facility will appeal to so a variety should be planned for and then provided. The Focus Group reviewed the variety of institutions and facilities that Denver has r. Plan r-ecommendations should be bui 1 t bEfore sep.;,rate faci l i tit?!:.; are addEd El sewhere for the performing arts, except that a 2,400 seat amphitheater on the waterfront w ould be desireable, (see Table Two, p. 5)

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4. it seems to be reasonable to cluster several as well as publicly owned recreational facilities in the Central Platte and use the highly visable location to attr1:1ct. tourists tc• the self-supporting onE'. intended for local use such as neighborhood parks should hc:..ve no c\CCess from t.:he but should prim.:urily l i to the nEi ghborhoods these are i ntendE d to st::rve. Facilities that. can amortize their costs Dver time orbe the recipient of major corporate contributions incude the following facilities that are popular in other cities: A. vel_od_!"_qme-centrally located on the e:-:tensive and regional b i not c\ large use of provides active recreation for bicyclists and roller as well as being a spectator attraction. The one in Colorado Springs was donated by the Southland is in a city park. B. 1-.Ji tt .. , one m-mot-e 1 arge swimming pools could be designed in such a way that it c o u l d b e a m ;:ij m-.:un en i t y f o tt o Lur i s t !:_.:; l o c a l s , and conventioniers. With proper landscaping p o s s i b l y a s 1 . i d i n g ( r E m c:o v a b l E ) r Do f , i t c o ul d be used year around as a spa. C. ______ _ __ _ _ggy-= i-:\n additional museum in the C.P.V., concentrating on Science and Techpology with a strong department on Space Exploration would be an asset to this community that would appear to have merit also as a tourist attraction compatible with the Children's Museum and the Forney 1'1useum. 5 . any new or expanded convention center should be in. the Focus Group's opinion, so that it strengthens the existing downtown and the new performing arts facilities at D.C.F'.A., 6 . an observation restaurants and retail shopping should all be clustered with the new or convention whenever it is located, 7. .:1 running track .:1nd that are especially suited to the needs of the residential communities in and around t.:he CPV should be provided with good neighborhoodc\CCess limited access for "outsiders. " 8. widening of the S. Platte River to provide a lake/ pond water surface would make greater use of and appreciation of the natural waterways. enhance

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Focus Group CULTURAL/ TOURISM FACILITIES Discussants: Colorado 0n the Arts and Arts, Tourism Cultural of the and National of State John Jcy, of the Colcrauo Ballet Geisler, Denver Commission on Roger Der.ver Visitcrs Convention Staiifotd, Center Denver P=rk3 and Recreation ew1s Report Appell, Denver Planning Office

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Focus Paper # 3 CULTURAL/RECREATIONAL/TOURIST LIT I ES p. 1 EXISTING FACILITIES Table One ITEM PURPOSE/USE CAPACITY /SIZE STRENGTHS/LIMITATIONS /COMMEI PERFORfvliNG ARTS HALLS Auditorium Theater Boettcher Concert Hall Bonfils Theater Denver Theatre Co. Greek Theater Civic Center Red Rocks Amphitheater Houston Fine Arts Phipps Auditorium various smaller thea tcrs Broadway Shows and traveling toad shows that require large audiences to book into Denver Concert hall for symphony by design, also used for business meetings, graduations and political rallies conservatory will restrict use in the future repertory company outdoor performances outdoqr performances n.a., recently taken over by D. U. Law School present facility seats only 2 , 1 7 8 and much of the sea t i n g is uncomfortably crowded with poor acoustics 136, 000 square feet gross 2, 634 seats in a surround configeration 550 seats in proscenium theater The Stage: 555 seats The Space: 450 seats unknown about 200 maximum 9, 000 seats unpaved parking lots no longer available for small groups Someshows that have been coming and playing to sold out houses are expected to relocate to the new fac ility in the Littleton Riverfront Pat which is already under constructio surround stage which is superior for concerts and dance, poses prob for drama and opera set design contact: Ken McFarland 629-1534 thrust stage requires special set de experimental theater., flexible seatin woodef'"l seats have been removed, lighting, etc. needed for evenings owned and opera ted by the City, bL distance from City yields no retail ,l seat tax and concessions produce n loss leaves a deficiency in dance pe1 formance space n.a., recently converted to IMAX previously used for lectures :only suitable IMAX, leaves deficien and mid -sized meetings f, dancew private theatre :companies . :: !Vari.ous . sizes there is a market for several. ; but t l require central location and low rent scare combination with redeveopmer

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NEEDS AND DES I RES ITEM -PURPOSE/USE Convention /exhibition attract and accommodate hall of 300,000 square national scale conventions CAPACITY 300, 000 square fee t Table Two COMMENTS May 1984-RoF.Q. and selection of consultants feet unobstructed spaC!e June-Nov. 1984-Feasibility analysis Amphitheatre Municipal auditorium replacement Additional parks and open space network throughout C.P.V. Observation tower (about 750 feet height should exceed downtown building height, (Republic Building 714feet). large outdoor productions like the Sante Fe Opera . h procm1um t eatre ,... . to partially overcome the large deficiency already existing • to provide for the needs of future residents in CPV and the surrounding areas. • to provide amenities to assist in marketing future development • should meet the full recreational needs of an increasing urban population with more liesure time for all ages and interests. 2,400 seats estimated need mid-size1Broadway Show sized, large enough for road shows and large public meetings as many of the projected needs as feasible should be designed for in this last, Ia rge inner city land a rea which is undeveloped • provide a tourist attrac• about 5 acres needed tion and amusement opportunity . observation deck open to the . provide appreciation of the public for an entrance fee metro community • restaurant and informal • attract tourists to dining central Denver, • gift and souvenir shops particularly off the inter-at the base and convenience state • shared parking with . generate year-around adjacent attractions attractivity in the C.P.V • . provide a focal point in the center of the region Should bE!.IO!:pted in the CPV. near:-1ra a larger tac111ty IS needed than w1 be provided in D.C.P.A. Master Plar Sho.uld be tq tbe .Conv_ertion Denver owns undeveloped land at the Confluence, where the auto crusl previously was. No plans exist for il use pending the P.V.D.C. planning process and the flood control needs. is in the jurisdiction of the Platte Rh Development Committee. . Other land should be dedicated by th development process and other land bought if necessary by the City or S to enhance this crossroads location a , and entrance to the Capitol of the St need at least one restaurant as a major tenant to help amortize the initial cost of construction and souve and gift sale would also produce inco and sales tax revenue. No existing or proposed skyscaper in Denver provides public access to the views from their tops Seattle tower nets $80,000 per year on the sale of t-shirts alone.

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Focu s Paper ' J CULTURAL/ RECREATIONAL/ TOURISM FA ' CII NEEDS AND DES I RES TEM PURPOSE/USE Open space designed large open air events that for large crowds and • attract people from throughspecial events like the out the region Capitol Hill People's inaugerations, Cinco de Mayo, the Festival of Mountains & Plains, visits by celebrities Source: Nancy Rettig, former Director of C. H. P eople's Fair, several years domed stadium to accommodate a major def: all weather facility league baseball team natatorium v elodro me def. bicycling irack ----, oval with concrete or wood surface, ban ked track, not necessarily enclosed Source: recreational and competitive sw!mming events recreational and competitive bicycling; skill levels can be separately scheduled • can charge racers a fee to participate • can attract paid attendance at $5-$6 ea. on a regular basis CAPACITY People's Fair: 5, 000-10,000/ SO, 000 to 60, 000 per day, 100,000 per weekend needs feasibility analysis to estimate size that could be justified by the market 2 pools; one olympic size one with high tower diving boards 333 meter in an oval shape (1/3 mile) smaller than high school track. Land a rea neede d ::!:: 6 acres including spectator space desirable Could have rollerska ting rink in center to provide ad-D ean Crandall, M.B.A. and Normally sponsored cipality with a local b th . ditional recreational use. y e munlB . R . A . C . staff bicycling club " 1 Table Two COMMENTS Needs identified by former sponsor of hr. centrally located, highly visable site transit access would reduce parking n1 parking for autos and busesjsome paved area; some grassed needs boundaries for control of crowd zoned for fairs; health dept. approvec good bathrooms night lighting electricity-outlets shade trees loading areas stages for performances loss of the Gold has been threatened; the over-lapping schedules of baseball and Spring football make the shared use impractical; conversion time probl1 Provided i n other cities like White RivE State P15rk?eafndianapolis' downtown. Wouldl'\uesed by trainees for Olympic competitio n and local swimmers; woulc provide economy of scale pc Market exists for immediate use, only one in western U.S. is in Colo. Spg s., cost of the one in C. S. was $1 million but very elaborate; several in California, Mississippi valley & east coast. More licensed riders per I, 000 population in Colorado than any other stat• 1,200 bicyclist licensed as racers in Colo. already • I, 000 members in Denver Bicycle Touring Club . 500 members in Mountain Bicyclists Assn.

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QUESTIONNAIRES These were passed out to the members of the Colorado Folk Arts Council the evening of 12 July 1984. Unfortunately the rate of return was only about 18 % . The Colorado Folk Arts Council is a parent organization representing various cultural groups in the D enver area. This organization and its m embers can also be veiwed as potential users of the Inter Cultural Market.

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Architectural Masters Thesis • • Elayne Anderson Z?????? CUL1URE • Cultural group represented? • Estimated population in Denver area? Z .. co -3cO (k. no v----• Does your cultural' group hold annual in Denver? yes __ _ w-e-{) 0-rt..-\ [ pcd-L .:.J... iA +. 'v"---'1.. • If so,Vplease the following: • What is the festival title? • How many days does it last? ________________ ____ ________________________________ __ • When is the festival held? ____________________________________________________ __ • What is the average visitor • How many food concessions are there? ______ ____ ________________________________ __ • Arc any arts or crafts sold? __________________________________________________ ___ • Would your group use a facility like the proposed Inter Cultural Center? yes /'---no -----• Would yo u personally visit such a facility? yes V no --------• Which of the following spaces would you like to see within the center? Marketplace for cultural foods Marketplace for arts and crafts Outdoor areas • ...n... Outdoor areas Restaurants or concessions of cultual foods Gallery/ Exhibition space Bookstore Banquet hall -tSff\Q R>q Soeti\L Language classrooms Intercultural cooking classrooms Meeting rooms tour/ Travel office v • Any other suggestio.ns and/or comments would be greatly appreciated!

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• Cultural group represented? /Jme. rt'c.ar" Elayne Anderson Architectural Masters Thesis University of Colorado at Denver • Estimated population in Denver • Does your cultural group hold annual festivals in Denver ? yes / no ___ _ • If so, please answer the following: • What is the festival title? • How many days does it last? ___ • When is the festival held? __ ____ ______________ _ 1 • What is the average visitor attendance? _____ • How many food concessions are there? .d/r.• n J' / ' <-""I' f;;c{_ _ • Arc any arts or crafts • Would your group use a facility like the proposed Inter Cultural Center? yes/b;;,i/c no ___ _ • Would you personally visit such a facility? yes rno --------• Which of the following spaces would you like to see within the center? Marketplace for cultural foods Marketplace for arts and crafts Outdoor eating areas performance areas Restaurants or concessions of cultual foods Gallery/ Exhibition space Bookstore Banquet hall Language classrooms Intercultural cooking classrooms Meeting rooms Tour/ Travel office • Any other suggestions and/or comments would be greatly appreciated! JlfecfiiJ
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• Cultural group represented? Elayne Anaeraon Architectural Mastera Thesis University of Colorado at Denver • Estimated population in Denver area? _______ ___ cr __ o ______________________________ _ • Does your cultural group hold annual festivals in Denver? yes __ _ X no------• If so, please answer the following: • What is the festival title? ---------------------------------------------------• How many days does it last? ____________________________________________________ __ • When is the festival • What is the average visitor attendance? _____________________________________ __ • How many food concessions are there? _________________________________________ __ • Arc any arts or crafts sold? _________________________________________________ __ • Woul d your group use a facility like the proposed Inter Cultural Center? X yes _____ no----• Would you personally visit such a facility? yes )( no _____ _ • Which of the following spaces would you like to see within the center? Marketplace for cultural foods Marketplace for arts and crafts Outdoor eating areas Outdoor performance areas Restaurants or concessions of cultual foods Gallery/ E xhibition space Bookstore Banquet hall Language classrooms Intercultural cooking classrooms Meeting rooms Tour/ Travel office X X X X • Any other suggestions and/or comments would be greatly appreciated!

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• • Elayne Anderson University of Colorado at Denver ???????c CULlURE -CENfER • Cultural group represented? • Estimated population in Denver area? ___________________________________________ ___ • Does your cultural group hold annual festivals in Denver? yes no ______ _ • If so, please answer the • How many days does it last? ____ • What is the festival title? • When is the festival held? _____ • What is the average visitor attendance? _____________________________________ __ • How many food concessions are there? _________________________________________ __ • Arc any arts or crafts sold? ______ • Would your group use a facility like the proposed Inter Cultural Center? ? yes ____ no -------• Would you personally visit such a facility? yes A no--------• Which of the following spaces would you like to see within the center? Marketplace for cultural foods Marketplace for arts and crafts Outdoor eating areas Outdoor performance areas Restaurants or concessions of cultual foods Gallery/ Exhibition space Bookstore Banquet hall Language classrooms Intercultural cooking classrooms Meeting rooms Tour/ Travel office > <::::: X > <:: ,-A • Any other suggestions and/or comments would be greatly appreciated!

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6th Colorado Folk Arts Council HERITAGE ; FESTIVAL JULY 21 & 22, 1984 THE EVENT The Colorado Folk Arts Council & Larimer Square present the sixth annual INTERNATIONAL HERITAGE FESTIVAL, in cooperation with the Denver Commissio n of Cultural Affairs. The street festival features continuous international folk dancing and music. Colorfully decorated booths with foods & crafts from around the world line the street. IT'S FREE & open to the public. WHEN Saturday, July 21 from 11:30 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Sunday, July 22 from noon to 8:00 p.m. WHERE HISTORIC LARIMER SQUARE ... located in the heart of downtown Denver. Parking is available in lots on 14th & Market Streets, Auraria campus and the Denver Center for the Arts. An "Old World" street festival is re-created to salute America's international heritage. Twenty-four countries will inter-national dance, music and food to Denver's Larimer Square. OPENING CEREMONIES The "Parade of Nations" will open the festival at 11:30 a.m. Saturday, July 21st with a parade of flags, led by the Rocky Mountain Scottish Highland Pipers. Foreign Consuls, Colorado 11:30 a.m. NOON 1:00 p.m. 1:15 p.m. 2:00 p.m. 2:15p.m. 2:30 p.m. 3:00 p.m. 3:15p.m. 3:30 p.m. 4:00 p.m. 4:15 p .m. 4:30 p.m. .5:00 p.m. 5:15p.m. 5:30 p.m. 6:00 p.m. 6:15p.m. 7:00 to 11:00 p.m . PARADE OF NATIONS, led by Rocky Mountain Highland Pipers OPENING CEREMONIES, followed by a concert by Gold Nugget Brass Band American Indian Inter-Tribal Dancing Public Dancing. Rick Borger & the Average German Band Red Boot Polish Dancers (Ted Brott) , Groupo Folklorico Mexican Dancers (Anna Castaneda) Public Dancing. Ruta Lithuanian Dancers (Arvidas Jarasiue) T.E.V. Edelweiss/German Schuplattlers (Bob Akmenkalns) Public Dancing. Scottish Country Dancers St. Andrew Society (Scotty Barnes) Pastalnieki Latvian Youth Dancers nnara Humeyumptewa) Public Dancing. Ballet Folklor1co de Denver (Lu Linan) T.E.V. Edelweiss/German Folk dancers (Elizabeth Burbach) Public Dancing. Postoley Ukranian uancers of Boulder (To m Masterson) Boulde r Scandinavian Dancers (Erica Rice) Public Dancing. George Meier Band and Denver dignitaries will attend the opening ceremony, at the Victorian Bandstand in Sunday, Jul y 22 Larimer Square. FOLK FOOD & DRINKS Open air sidewalk booths offer ethnic foods, soft drinks and beer. Armenians of Colorado will provide various delicacies; the Colorado Chinese Club offers sweet & sour chicken with n oodles, Sainin (noodle soup), egg rolls, fruit wanton & fortune cookies; the German booth serves bratwurst, sauerkraut, German potato salad & pretzels; the Hungarian Club prepares palacsinta (crepes) & kolbasz (sausage); Italians offer pizza, sausage, canoli, desserts & cappuccino; the Lithuanian booth will serve cabbage rolls & pastries; t h e Mexican booth will have burritos, tostados, nachos & pastries; and the Scottish booth will offer shortbread. Noon 12:30 p.m. 1:15 p.m. 1:30 p.m. 2:00 p.m. 2:15p.m. 2:30 p.m. 3:00 p.m. 3:15 p.m . 3:30 p.m. 4:00p.m. 4:15 p.m. 4:30p.m. 5:00 p .m. 5:15 p.m. 5:30p.m. 6:00 p.m. 6:15 to 8 :00 p.m. Music by "Three String Balalaikas" LlA Belly Dancers (Lia Ridley) Chinese American Dancers (Nettie Zen ) Public Dancing. Bill Leuthauser Band. Red Boots Polish Dancers (Ted Brott) Kefi Greek Dancers (Larry Tuttle) Public Dancing. East Indian Community Gro up (Manju Gupta) Shibolim Israeli Folkdance Ensemble (Zahava Koll) Public Dancing. Troupe Zaghareet Mid-East Dancers ( Shireen Malik) Verkhovyna Ukranian Dancers (Don Shkotich) Public Dancing. Ballet Folklorico de Denver (Lu Linan) Circleweavers (Donna McGinnis) Public Dancing. Jeanette McDowell Spanish Dancers Public Dancing. LARIMER SQUARE. DENVER. COLORADO 80202 0 AREA CODE 303 PHONE 53.2367

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INTERVIEWS SYNOPSIS The following interviews were condected over the course of years in preparation of this thesis proposal. A special thank you is extended to all who shared a few minutes of their time to discuss the project and also to contribute their own invaluable insights.

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Name: Joan Madison, Art Facilities Programmer Joan Madison Collaborative Date: 18 February 1983 Subject: Objectives for an Arts Facility INTERVIEWS SYNOPSIS To make this complex as feasible as possible, market the facility as an "International Center" and not just another performing arts facility. Bill it as being unique to the area and providing a service that is not already existing in the Denver area. Find out how international corporations in Denver may benefit from such a facility by using it for building better community relations by helping with subsidies. Name: Kent Gonzales, Planner Downtown Development Inc. Date: 22 July 1983 Subject: Future Downtown Development The future decision of the Convention Center site will shape the direction and type of growth in the downtown area. Mass transportation is a big problem due to RTD Board studies and would like to see the public to be able to bicycle and walk all over the downtown area. The mayoral election will shape future planning and growth more than any other factor. Name: Wally Bambrick, Leasing Agent Bill Walters Co. Date: 20 January 1984 Subject: International Center Development The Bill Walters Co. is currently in the process of developing an 88 acre site in southeast Denver for a regional design and merchandise mart, to compete with the Dallas and San Francisco markets. The project will include a hotel, showrooms, convention hall and retail stores. The term "international" in their title has nothing to do with its definition and was used only to detour the fact that this is a "regional" center. It is hoped that the term international help capture a much larger market. Name: Mary Anne Koenig, President Patten Institute for the Arts Date: 22 January 1984 Subject: Use of Denver's Art Facilities The Institute has just completed a listing of 142 art organizations in the Denver area, about their personnel, funding sources and purpose. These organizations have also been interviewed according to how they see Denver and its support for the Arts. There is a need in Denver for spaces like those projected for the Inter Cultural Market but it needs to be easily accessible for people to get to, otherwise they will not go to the performances.

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George Chelwick, Developer Miller, Klutznick, Davis & Gray Date : 21 June 1 9 84 Subject: Platte Valley Development The Mile High Land Project has developed a Master Plan for the 150 acres of its ownership in the Platte Valley. The Plan calls for mixed uses of retail, commercial and housing and will different characteristics on either side of Speer Blvd. To the north of Speer it will be a high density lower downtown flavor and to the south it will be lower density, lower in scale with on open space feeling. Suggested four of the site alternatives that were compared in the begining of this document. Name: Gary Powell, Landscape Architect Denton, Marshall Date: 25 June 1984 Subject: Site Selection Incorporating the Inter Cultural Market with water eminity such as the Cherry Creek or Platte River will be very important to the success and festival atmosphere of the project. Alluvial soils in the Cherry Creek area will allow for excellent landscape possibilities. All of Gary's comments have been incorporated in the Site Alternative section of this doument. Name: Will Flessig, Architect/Planner Denver Planning Office Date: 28 June 1984 Subject: Site Selection An excellent reference for this project is a book Will Flessig wrote entitled, "Planning for the Arts". Suggested two possible sites, one on the Platte River around 19th St. as there used to be a historic amusement park there. The second site he suggested would be the triangulated lot at 16th St. & Broadway where the new RTD facility is to be located underneath. Apparently there is a competition for that site for development proposals. He also mentioned another excellent reference which was the Multi-Cultural Park, that was proposed to have been built at Exhibition Park, the site of the 1984 Olympics. The project is very similar to the Inter Cultural Market and was taken from the programming phase through the construction documents but then all funding was cut when the state of California held its elctions for a new governor. Name: John McBeth, Architect California State Architects Office Date: 28 June 1984 Subject: Multi-Cultural Park Said that the project architect for the Multi-Cultural park in L.A. was Merle Carnagie who was no longer working with this office. He has since changed jobs and is with the California State Wide Health Planning Office. He said that Governor Jerry Bown was the prime mover and instigator for the project and when he lost his re-election for governor the people of California lost the Multi-Cultural Park.

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Name: Jim Hinkler, Architect Bart/Myers Associates Date: 28 June 1984 Subject: Multi-Cultural Park Jim said that this firm was part of the architectural joint venture' to put together the construction documents for the Multi-Cultural Park. He said the Park was the brainchild of one man, Pete Dagermont, who was a planner appointed by Jerry Brown . The idea was that there needed to be sevices for the urban population to enjoy and this meant that urban living requires a cultural center. There was a high priority put upon landscaping and open s pace in the design. The h ardest design issue to contend with is how you deal with the appearance of the building and relating that to the multi-cultural theme. It was decided that the building should be a neutral framew ork from which fabric banners could be draped for various festival locations. This let each cultural group decorate the building as they required for their festivals. Name: Morris Blevis, Developer Trizec Hestern Date: 29 June 1984 Subject: Street Center Development The proposed Hater Street Center is a 17 acre site development located directly next to the new Children's Museum. It is a phased office compl e x which will contain a total of 1,600,000 s.f. within a low rise glass curtain wall system. The project is currently in the leasing phase and no dates have been set as to when actual constuction is to begin. a rne: Greg Giesler, Director Commission of Cultural Affairs Date: 29 June 1984 Subject: Denver's Cultural Needs Try to avoid a Disneyland, ticky-tac proposal. Thinks it would be a good idea to try to incorporate a little bit of Colorado history into the project. The play off of the water is very important in a s emi-arid climate. Financial subsidies from the city would almost be impossible as a form of financing for the project. Name : Gordon Appell, Planner Denver Planning Office Date: 2 July 1984 Subject: Platte Valley Development In order to comply with the new city administration's emphasis on planning for the future of D enver, several task force groups were put together in order to study various needs and problems of the community. One such task force h eaded up by Gordon Appell, concentrated on the Cultural/ Recreational/Tourism Facilities. R efer to their pape r in this appendix. One need that was pointed out for the D enve r area was a spac e much like the proposed Inter Cultural Mark et.

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Name: Becky Hannum, Arts in the Marketplace Director Rouse & Co. D ate: 5 July 1984 Subject: Rouse & Co. Programs for the Arts Leasees in a "Rouse" complex contribute $x/year according to lease agreements, that goes towards upkeep and promotion of the facility. Management of the individual facility decides how those proceeds are to be allocated. Most is channeled back into advertising. Becky suggests paying for live artists and performers which will therefore in turn support the community based arts programs. The contribution of $x/year is usually based on the amount of square footage leased out. At times it can be based on a $ amount of profit the leasee makes. Name: Roger Smith, Director Convention & Visitors Bureau Date: 5 July 1984 Subject: Denver's International Visitors Said there are no statistics and no way to record the number of international visitors in the Denver area or from where they originate from. Denver is in need of good retail, speciality stores that the visitor can walk to or use a shuttle service to. Denver could also use a few more restaurants. Name: David Brose, Folk Arts Director Colorado Arts & Humanities Council Date: 7 July 1984 Subject: Folk Arts in Colorado Thinks that the Inter Cultural Market is a great idea and would succeed in Denver because he gets calls quite often from cultural groups wanting to know if there is a space they can rent out for their festivals. Space for these types of activites is badly needed in the Denver area. Activity spaces he would like to see in the facility include a stage for dances and performances and it must also have a large kitchen. Name: Richard Flemming, President Denver Partnership Date: 23 July 1984 Subject: Platte Valley Development A facility like the Inter Cultural Market is the type of project that is needed to help the development of the Platte Valley to be able to attract people back to the water edge. A good possible site might be adjacent to the Union Station as there would be a lot of foot traffic generated from the future development of the station, whether it be a renovation or a new convention center.

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P.U.D. GUIDELINES The following are the design guidelines of the City & County of Denver, to be followed when submitting a proposal for a Planned Unit Development.

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V. PLANNING DESIGN CRITERIA A. Open Space 1. Open space design is to be considered a primary aspect of the site development and should receive equal emphasis in its treatment. 2. When determining the amount of open space to be provided within a development, the standard of 2.5 acres of open space per 1000 population (approximately 110 sq. ft. per person) should serve as a general guideline. In order to compute the anticipated population the following standards should be used: Type of Units single family duplex triplex, fourplex 5-8 unit structures over 9 unit structures Persons Per Unit 3.60 2.84 2.40 2.33 1.97 3. Open space areas should be specifically designed, arranged and intended for passive and active recreation uses. 4. Open areas should be landscaped and maintained, creating an environment appropriate for recreation. 5. Open spaces should be accessible and usable to the residents it is intended to serve. 13 6. Linear open spaces, not intended for active recreation, should be a minimum of 30 feet in width. B. Circulation Elements 1. Walkways should fit natural topography using site features to best advantage. Avoid putting walks through topographic depressions or other places where water has a tendency to accumulate. 2. Walks should be a m1n1mum of 4 feet in width, and should be adequately lighte d 3. Avoid long circuitous routes. Pedestrian traffic tends to follow the shortest distance between two points and direct paths are generally the best arrangement. 4. Maintain adequate separation between pedestrian and vehicular circulation systems. 5. Walkways should be provided in the peripherial areas of each project to allow easy access to nearby schools, shopping areas, recreation areas and bus facilities. 1-'79

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6. Sidewalks should be located on the edge of most parking areas and should be wide enough to allow four feet of useable area adjacent to parked vehicles. 7. Paved plaza areas should substitute for narrow walks in areas where pedestrian movement is concentrated. 14 8. Design of vehicular facilities in residential areas should maximize safety and convenience to the residents and minimize intrusion of adverse sights and sounds. 9. Public or private streets should be adapted to the topography of the site in such a way to create safe, convenient, and enjoyable means of movement in and around the site. 10. Circulation patterns should provide sufficient access to all areas of the project. 11. Avoid street or drive alignments that encourage large volumes of through traffic within the project area. 12. Bicycle paths should be provided to facilitate movement between residential areas and activity areas, i.e., public buildings, schools, shopping areas, playground and recreational areas. Wherever possible, and when recommended by the Planning Office, bicycle paths shall also be connected with the commuter bicycling network as shown on the adopted Bicycle Plan for the City and County of Denver. Secure and adequate bicycle storage and/or parking facilities shall provided at all new commercial areas and public buildings. C. Building Orientation 1. Within a large residential development, a mix of building types should be provided rather than many houses and buildings of similar type and size. 2. Natural site features and landscape elements should be used to minimize adverse sights and sounds. 3. Residential structures should be located within a reasonable pro.ximity to active recreation areas. However privacy should be maintained through the uses of screening devices. 4. Buildings should be related to each other in ways that promote privacy within the dwelling units. D. Land Use and Energy Conservation Potentials Land use planning offers a unique instrument for reducing energy consumption whil e at the same time improving opportunities for passive and active solar energy use. The basic relationship rests in the fact that improved efficiencies in land development and transportation systems will result in lessened energy costs and fuel consumption. Reductions in emissions and travel requirements and the magnitude of non-point source pollutants can also result.

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15 This section will, very briefly, focus.on specific site development potentials for energy conservation. The greatest potentials lie in optimum building and site orientation. The most important characteristics of sites and building orientation which need to be analyzed include the following items: L Lots which have their long axis running east-west may require less frontage on streets. 2. Lots which have their long axis running north-south may require more frontage on streets. 3. Buildings should be sited on the northern portions of lots and designed with their long axis east-west. 4. Streets should run with the contours and, whenever possible, east and west. 5. The use of zero lot lines and other zoning flexibilities to provide exterior living space with southern exposure. 6. Use of plant materials to enhance all aspects of temperature modification by reducing summertime heat absorption of impervious surfaces. 7. Reduce heating and cooling requirements with earth berms to protect lower walls from winter heat loss and summer heat gain. 8. Consideration of tree form, branching density, maximum height, foilage, texture and density, etc. in reiation to their shadow patterns. 0 SUMMER / _ _ _ Energy considerations at this level of planning provide great opportunities for conservation. All of these considerations and others should be analyzed in the process of determining final development plans. They are an inherent part of the foundation for a responsible comprehensive energy conservation program.

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15A E. Parking 1. The number of spaces and dimensions of all parking areas shall comply with the parking requirements set forth in the Denver Zoning Ordinance. 2. Parking areas of a depth of two or more aisles (double loaded) shall have a landscaped strip six feet wide minimum between the aisles. Landscaped areas should be used to avoid the sterile appearance of overly long parking rows (200' maximum). Minimum inside turning radius is 20 feet. Minimum driveway width is 25 feet for two-way traffic. One-way drives should be avoided, but if necessary, be of short length. Dead end drives must have an adequate turnaround space. 3. Wheel stops must be provided in all parking areas abutting a building or sidewalk. Raised curbs are to be provided to protect radii and islands. Suitable barriers are to be provided between parking areas and adjacent paved recreational areas; these barriers should be architecturally compatible with the housing structures. 4. Parking spaces should be located at a distance not greater than 150 feet from the units they are intended to serve. Parking lots shall be located in such a manner so as to minimize the nuisance of car noise, lights, and reflections. Vehicular access to parking lots should occur at safe locations and in such a manner as to provide good visibility at entrance points. Entrance to parking lots should be at right angles to the road. F . Site Requirements for Disabled P ersons 1. Parking spaces for disabled persons the distance to accessible building accessible route to such entrances. number of required spaces.) shall be located so as to minimize entrances and to provide an (See Zoning Ordinance for 2 . Parking spaces for disabled persons shall be a minimum of 12 feet wide and 19 feet long, provided, however, that where two such spaces are side by side, they may each be reduced to 8 feet in width if a common access aisle, 5 feet in width, is provided between them. vfuere provided, t h i s access aisle shall be clearly delineated. Accessible parking spaces shall be designated as reserved for the disabled by a sign showing the symbol of accessibility . Such signs shall not be obscurred by a vehicle.parked in the space. 3. At least one accessible route shall be provided from public streets or sidewalks to the accessible entrance. At least one accessible route shall connect accessible buildings, facilities, elements, and spaces on the same site. An accessible route with a running slope greater than 1:20 is a ramp and shall comply with specifications referenced in Chapter 64 of the Denver Building Code.

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15B 4. Passenger loading areas shall have adjacent and parallel access aisles or walkways at least 4 feet in width. Where a curb separates the loading area from the access aisle or walkway, a ramp, with a maximum slope of 1:12, shall be used .. Built-up curb ramps shall not project into the loading area so as to obstruct traffic. 5 . Dwelling units: In H-1, H-2, and B-3 occupancies consisting of 8 or more units, one of the first 8 units and one unit for each 7 thereafter shall be accessible per Chapter 64 of the Denver Building Code. Exception: H-3 occupancies where all sleeping facilities are on the 2nd floor.

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Footnotes

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1) Richard Porter, "An Overview of Intercultural Communication" (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1972) p.117. 2) Bryant Wedge, "Nationality and Social Perception" (Belmont, California: -wad"S'Worth Publishing Co., 1972) p.273. 3) Ibid., p.280. 4) Richard N. Gardner, Blueprint for Peace. (New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Co., 1978) p. 83. 5) George N. Shuster, "The Nature and Development of United States Cultural Relations" (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co . , 1 9 7 5 ) p . 4 5 . FOOTNOTES 6) Michael Novak , , The Rise of the Unmeltable Ethnics: Politics and Culture of the 70's. (New York, New York: MacMillan Co., 1971) p.34 7) Ibid., p.49.

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Bibliography

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International & Intercultural Relations • Blum, Robert. Cultural Affairs & Foreign Relations. The American Assembly. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc. , 1963. Selection: Lowry, W . McNeil & Hooker, S. Gertrude. "The Role of the Arts and the Humanities. " Discusses the United States' role in cultural exchanges and some o f the organizations & legislation involved. • Burnell, Elaine. Asian Dilemma: United States, Japan and China. The Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, Washington D.C., 1969 . Several writings on the problems between the east & west and offers various solutions. In one particular writing, "The Importance of Cultural Exchange" by Musumi Ezaki; the state ment is made that cultural exchanges must mutually enrich and enhance goodwill along with sharing knowledge of each country . • Gardner, Richard N . Blueprint for Peace. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Co. , 1978. President Johnson put together a constituency of 365 individuals representing all facets of the American community in order to form task groups to help stratagize how each faction could be an instrument in promoting peace. One special committee was devoted to the idea of promoting cultural exchanges in the performing and visual arts and its positive effects. • McLemore , S . Dale. Racial & Ethnic Relations in America. Boston, Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon, Inc. , 1980. A text on various cultural group s and their assimilation into the American society. • McHurry , Ruth. , Lee, Muna. The Cultural Approach -Another l.Jay to International Relations. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1947. Written after WWII to help rebuild relations between countries and how important the idea of an international solidarity through a cultural relationship, can be to help to detour war. Archibald MacLeish, the United States representative to UNESCO in 1945, writes of the role the United Nations could and should play.

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International & Intercultural Relations (cont ... ) • Samovar, Larry A. and Porter, Richard E. Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1972 . Selections: Mead, Margaret. "Some Cultural Approaches to Communication Problems." Emphases on the importance of communication both in language and action between different cultures. Porter, Richard. "An Overview of Intercultural Communication. " Discussed is the idea of ethnocentrism and the fact that it is the chief barrier to intercultural communication. Sitram, K.S . "What Is Intercultural Communication. " Explains the difference between the terms 'international' .and 'intercultural' and how they relate to communication. Wedge, Bryant. "Nationality and Social Perception." In this article the idea of stereotyped national images is examined and how destructive they can be. The sharing of "networks of complimentary communication" is offered as a solution to the problem.

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Facility Development & Planning Process • Brown, Catherine R., Flessig, William B., Morrish, William R., Building for the Arts: A Guidebook for the Planning and Design of Cultural Facilities. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Hestern States Arts Foundation, 1984. Directs the non-professional through the conception to the opening day ceremonies for performing and visual art centers. Explains how to determine feasibility of the project, how to obtain government and community support, funding and programing the building plan. • Jewell, Don. Public Assembly Facilities, Planning & Management . New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1976. Tells how through data to assimilate a prospective project's feasibility and marketability. • Jones, J. Christopher. Design Methods: Seeds of Human Futures. New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1981 . Relates the new methods of the "Developing Design Process" to each other; to the new problems they are intended to solve and to the traditional design process. • Preiser, Wolfgang F . E. Facility Programming: Methods and Applications. Stroudburg, Pennsylvannia: Dowden, Hutchison & Ross, Inc., 1978 This is part of the Community Development Series, which are various books that provide an overview and detailed information on problem defining for the built environment. • Sanoff, Henry. Methods of Architectural Programming. Stroudburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc., 1980. As Henry Sanoff states in the preface, the contents can be compared to a set of navigational aids to help guide the designer to a designated destination. The basics of programming are outlined and then six different methods are expalined in some detail. • Urban Land Institue. Downtown Development Handbook. Washington D.C., 1980. An overview of the development process with an emphasis on the Central Business Districts in major cities. Included and explained as part of the process is real estate, leasing, construction scheduling, management and maintenance.

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Real Estate & Finance • Swinburne, Herbert. Design Cost Analysis for Architects & Engineers. New York, New York: McGraw Hill Co., 1980. A guide to cost awareness and exactly where those costs are located within the design process. Presents several methods to seek out the final construction costs and how to utilize those findings. • Wiedemer, John P. Real Estate Financing. Reston, Virginia: Reston Publishing Co. Inc., 1977. Chapter 11 specifically deals with loan analysis of income properties with a special section on shopping centers and their feasibility reports. Chapter 13 discusses alternative financing methods other than the norm. Building Case Studies • Alexander, Edward P. Museums in Motion -An Introduction to the History & Functions of Museums. Nashville, Tennessee: Amer ican Association for State & Local History, 1979. Discusses the history of the museum, its function as an exhibition space and its function as a cultural center and social instrument. • Burcaw, G . Ellis. Introduction to Museum Work . Nashville, Tennessee: American Association for State & Local History, 1980. Explains museum. required the function, administration and management of a It also compares the organizational management for different types of museums . • Gruen, Victor. Centers for the Urban Environment -Survival of the Cities. Los Angeles, California: Litton Educational Publishing, 1973. A review of how the shopping center has affected urban growth & planning and how the shopping center is evolving back to the urban core as a multifunctional center. • Sternberg, Eugene D. & Barbara E . Community Centers & Student Unions. New York, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1971. International examples of shopping centers and community centers; and their effect on the community.

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' Documents & Surveys • The Business & Arts Council of Patten Institute for the Arts. Directory Qf the Arts . December 1982 Describes the history , purpose and funding of 125 non-profit organizations in the & Boulder area. • The Business & Arts Council of Patten Institute for the Arts. Cultural Explorations in Metropolitan Denver. 1980. A fact finding and planning project designed to stimulate coordinated programs of action which will help the arts flourish in the Denver area in the 1980's. • The Denver Urban Observatory; Von Stroh, Gordon E . Who Uses Denver Public Facilities? University of Denver; Denver, Colorado. 6th Report 1982 . This is a published result of interviews conducted by the DUO to establish overall use patterns for five cultural facilities in the Denver area. • Polese, Richard. Celebrate: The Story of the Museum o f International Folk Art. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Museum o f New Mexico Press, 1979 . The catalogue from the International Folk Art Museum, tells of ts founder, Ms. Florence Dibell Bartlett and her conception and implementation of the facility.

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I Conclusion In concluding the design phase of the Inter Cultural Market, the issues of site utilization and building image became the most difficult to resolve when integrated with the hypothesis that were set forth in the beginning of the project. Since the facility was developed with the users, (the individuals of the cultural groups) in mind and the site designed accordingly; the fact became evident that since there is no such cultural facility in existance, how these individuals would utilize such a space could only be determined by actual observation of the interaction after such a complex had been built. The conjectural, hypothetical assesments of their needs on my part could only be proved or disproved after the project was completed in a threedimensional form. Whether they would communicate to one another due to an axial spine through the four buildings, which would provide for a , face to face encounter, would depend on the indivduals from that point on. Communication amoungst the groups could be facilitated in the plazas and sidewalk areas but I feel that the flow became too straight and regimented and should have been designed with a more informal, meandering quality. The problem of building image induced the following question: Does a complex of buildings that try to blend in with an existing urban environment, ie .. small, low brick forms, cause the individuals of the cultural groups to feel anonymous within a community and structure which was in fact designed specifically so that they would in fact stand out in the Community? The design would either make them feel like they are truely an integral part of the urban framework or make them feel as though they have nothing more to offer than the surrounding mediocrity; which I know for a fact is not the case.


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