Hekatompedon : the library of Western American history

Material Information

Hekatompedon : the library of Western American history
Antonopolous, Nicholas
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Committee Chair:
Kindig, Robert
Committee Members:
McGlaughlin, Scott

Record Information

Source Institution:
Auraria Library
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Antonopoulos, Nicholas. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.


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ARCHIVES LD 1190 A72 1985 A89


NICHOLAS ANTONOPOULOS An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture. 1 9 8 5


The thesis of Nicholas Antonopoulos is approved. Robert Kindig, Committee C Scott McGlaughlin, Principal1Advisor I University of Colorado at Denver Date: J1 (f>


Hekatompedon, or literally "the hundred foot temple," is a reference to tne Archaic temple mark ing sacred groun d , which lies beneath or comprises the foundations of the Parthenon. The term also refers to any earlier temple upon the remains of which a new temple has been built in antiquity. ARCIDTECTURA TE.i\IPLUM MEMORIAE "For books are not absolutely dead thin gs , but do contain a potency of life in them to be as active as that soul was who s e progeny they are; nay, they do preserve as in a vial the purest and extraction of that living intellect tha t bred them. I know they are as lively, a n d as vigorously productive as those fabulou s dragon's teeth; and being sown and down, may chance to spring up arm ed men ..•. as good almost kill a man as kill a good book: who kills a man kills a reasonable creature, God's itn a ge, but h e who destroys a good book kill s reas on itself, kills the image of God, as it were , in the eye." Jonn t 1ilton, Areopagitica


PROJECT SUMMARY The Library of V/estern American History, a closed stack, non-lending specialty library of 30,000 square feet, with an additional 20,000 square feet of basement storage space, is the new incarnation of the Western History Collection of the Denver Public Library. The new facility, a s a distinct entity, will share the same site as the Denver Public Libr ary Central Branch building adjacent to Civic Center in downtown Denver. In addition, both facilities will share under g round park ing a nd service d ocks.


The Western History Department of the Denver Public Library comprises a singularly rare and comprehensive collection of books, manuscripts and visual records-including an important art collection-on Western Americana. It is the most important archive of its kind in this region, and rivals other national collections specializing in regional history, but for one important difference. Most other collections are housed in their own buildings, maintaining their autono:nous status as libraries proper. The Western History Collection, on the other hand, now lies sequestered on the fourth floor of tl1e Public Library Central Branch building, its potential as a resource center rernaining largely unrealized, despite its national and even international standing. This collection, unlike those of the Public Library's more conventional departments, preserves a wholly unique reference compendium, exclusively devoted to the development of America west of the Mississippi River, but with u particular emphasis on the Rocky Mountain West. By virtue of this special status, and given the sheer size and wealth of its holdings, such a collection warrants an edifice of its own. In its present state, the Western History Collection remains a poorly accessible and functionally limited department of the Public Library, where it falls under the rubric of a 11supermarket of information." There is little doubt that tile Collection could better serve its public as an autonomous facility. Now ti1at tt1e Public Library Central Branc11 has itself been slated for expansion, the prospect for separating the two facilities becomes conceivable, freeing needed space for the one, and ultimately fulfilling the functional needs and conceptual intentions of tne


other. With this aim in mind, and to commemorate the fiftieth year since the inception of the Collection, this thesis project proposes the design of a Library of Western American History. Notwithstanding its new incarnation as an independent entity, it is proposed that the Library of Western American History share the same site as its "parent" institution, the Denver Public Library Central Branch. Once the cross-referential relationship of the two facilities is acknowledged, their critical proxi ;nity to each other can be preserved. Yet, the conflict of use between the two ultimately makes the notion of a single facility untenable, despite their cross-referential link. While the Library proper maintains a casual, open-stack lending policy, the Western History Collection must maintain a closed stack, non-lending policy, and a formal operational procedure in order to keep its very valuable holdings securely preserved. In addition, due to its universal demand, the Western History Collection must be enabled to serve a broader community than that of Denver alone; its resource objectives and potential patronage are both broader tind yet more selective than the Public Library's. Siting the two facilities together, while allowing tl1em to remain autonomous structures, reconciles their functional incompatibility to their resource affiliation. In this way, the Library of Western merican History can be clearly identified as a distinct structure in its own right, serving a special purpose, just as its proximity to the Public Library can simultaneously allude to the cooperative aim of the two facilities' joint resources. In order to accommodate both the siting of the new library and the intended expansion of the old, the original 1954 Fischer and Hoyt structure will be retained, while its unremarkable addition will be removed. However, the


parameters of this project preclude master planning of the site for the of the Public Library. Rather, emphasis will be placed on siting tne new library as a means of completing the urban plan offered, and left unresolved, by the Denver Civic Center, which converges with the site. The choice of this particular site-beyond its accommodating the mutual reference needs of the two facilities-also acts as an affirmation of its surrounding urban and historical context, focusing primarily on the existing Civic Center. By virtue of its public endowment and public purpose, the Library of Western American History belongs in Civic Center. There the building can help to revive tne now dormant spirit of Civic Center by tracing and presenting both a tangible, as well as evocative record of tne city's and region's heritage. This can be accomplished through the form the building takes, and by the interpretation of the site. Careful placement of the new building on the site will complete the axially loaded plan of Civic Center, extending and complementing the symmetries of its formal configuration. In restoring the original delimitations of tne Civic Center scheme through its reinterpretation, the opportunity presents itself to resolve the open-ended approach from Acoma Street, and thus to unite what has really been a single site all along, incorporating both the Denver rt :\1useum to the west, and the Denver Public Library to the east. The project still respects Acoma Street's original design intent as a gateway to Civic Center, while strengthening the framed approach, in order to enhance what is now a truncated pedestrian pathway. As the missing piece in the overall Civic Center geometry, the Library of Western American History can serve as a juncture, helping to define boundaries which are already implicit to the greater


whole represented by Civic Center. As generative of, and integral to that whole, the projected building can confirm the continuity of its urban matrix, and in so doing, figuratively link the Public Library and the Art Museum. As such, the addition of the new building to this site can be viewed as striking a balance in the continuum of structures already marking ground there. In its proposed placement the new library would thus take on the aspect of both a destination in itself, and a passage to Civic Center. Even as the new library is integral to its site, it can, in turn, become a critique of that site through its expression, that is, the distinct form the building takes. In response to the specific context posed by the surrounding buildings themselves, and the breadth of historical reference at hand-both from Denver, and the West as a whole -the approach taken in physically and conceptually traversing the site shall be one which, rather than resorting to literal quotations or received stylistic notions, will proceed from a more fundamental understanding, a native understanding, of the particularities of place. This involves a metaphorical reading of the site as well as of the building's use. The building should function as a library certainly, but also function as a symbol of its holdings, a symbol ultimately of the west. To this end, an inclusive vision of the building must admit a symbolism of the past which does not resort to literal reference, especially not to any one fragment of the past over and against any other, and certainly not to any one culture's past, since the history of the West recognizes the presence of the Indian as well as the white man in its evolution. While the immediate context of tl1e site does contribute memorable images to consider, these all gesture most pointedly to its public character: the N eoClassical Federal style of the buildings in Civic Center, theil engaged order,


and the gold dome of the Capitol Building; Gio Ponti's Art M useum as a bastion of arta mountain metaphor-with its seemingly random fenestration and fortification walls clad in faceted tile; the Colorado Heritage Center as an isolated, minimalist structure in its neutral modernist idiom; the Denver Public Library itself, a slightly eccentric International Style structure whose most striking and recognizable attribute is its institutional appearance. If nothing else, the public nature of these buildings, and their dominance over the landscape, demands a monumental response from the proposed library, but one which takes into account the parent institution's more public posture. Beyond the immediate context of the site, numerous precedents for the library as a specific building type may be found, but perhaps these are not completely appropriate as references. The notion of building type is too general to embrace a manifestly regional issue such as "westerness," which does not partake easily of the Classical canon defining libraries as such. The proposed building's uniqueness as a specialty library severely limits the possibility of direct reference to existing parallels. Moreover, the architectonic attributes of libraries qua libraries are not susceptible to easy classification. Otherwise, structures as markedly varied as the Library of Celsus in ancient Ephesus and Aalto's Viipuri or Seinajoki libraries would betray their identity as libraries at first inspection. Dependent on historical and personal conventions of architectural language, the exigencies of library design stem only secondarily from a building's purpose as a library. If a building is singular and distinctive enough, the public will readily find out what it is, whether or not it explicitly reads or announces itself to be a library. It should, however, be apprehensible as a monument with symbolic content in this instance.


Rather than an expression which merely invokes the past in its tangible monuments, the idiom which seems more important to me is one derived fundamentally from the project itself. The ideas which the building strives to commemorate are the ideas which should give rise to the architectonic language in which they are expressed. In this case, what image could best serve as a symbol of this region and its history, while remaining universal enough to encompass the meaning of a library? The Rocky r v1ountains are the most obvious and available metaphor. After all, the mountains seen as purely formal volumes are easily translated architectonically, and their dramatic presence on the landscape is unmistakable. Yet one could just as easily consider the Great Plains, since Denver stands poised at the cusp between the vast southwest desert ecosystem and the mountains themselves. To my mind, a more compelling symbol of the West's development is not the outward manifestation of the mountains, but what lies beneath, what embodies them, the wealth of their mineral resources, and especially evidence of their geologic creation. Visually this is witnessed by the stratification of deposits in road cuts or from natural erosion, which can expose an extraordinary range of color, texture and formation, as if to reveal the secrets of their composition. Just as core samples are extracted from the ground to glean what geologic history l1as placed there, so human history can also be interpreted in layers. Furthermore, the geological history of this region is inextricably linked to, and dwarfs, human history, but even this vast chronicle can readily be recalled in its mineral layers. So the history of a tree can be recalled in its rings, or human history can be recalled in the layered information of books, just as it can be alluded to tl1rough archeological strata. The history of this region in particular owes its development to the discovery and exploitation of its natural resources, and before that, to the intimate relationship its indigenous peoples held with the


land. Since this history makes up the subject of all of the books in the Collection, it is natural to pay homage to it architecturally. Given a history marked by boom/bust cycles of growth, continuity of the western American cityscape has been hard to come by. As boom periods appear, the entire face of the western city, such as Denver, is irrecognizably altered, with few vestiges remaining to remind us of its past. Architecture, as a physical document of the fortunes of the city, vividly ti. es together the periods of its growth and decay. This commemorative quality of building not only poses the question of which buildings to save, to record, as change occurs, but also in the instance of new architecture, necessitates designing a structure which is already in a sense "memorable." In the case of the Library of I estern American History, seeing its architectural expression in this commemorative light is obligatory, and not only from the perspective of urban design. A library is by its very nature a "memory building," a treasure-house of written and visual records, and often a great deal more. What is stored within such a structure, the texts themselves, are vital not merely as passive repositories of information, but as the connective tissue of culture and society, bridging us to the past, and making the future comprehensible through the activity of reading. A library should obviously set the stage for that activity, while preserving and displaying the traditions of the culture. Not only must a building such as this function in the conventional, programmatic sense, but the notion of function must be enlarged to connote the related history and nature of this region in order to be considered complete. This concept of a memory building can shape the outward, public presence of the structure, and yet be reconciled to the distinctly inner focus of the buildin g


as well. As such, a library can be likened to a church, since both are places where people congregate in order to be "alone." This paradoxical communal solitude may help illustrate an urban conception of interior space, where the distinctions between public and private are sometimes ambiguous, but where the idea of memory is nevertheless common to both. "Walls and space are intended to serve as structural delimitations of activity; the layout of 1:t house tells us where to move in it, and it also acts as a memory for what meiy be done witf1in it. This, or course is also the case with space between buildings: hence follows the eerie feeling of another way of life, another era, a human past when we visit an old site containing well-preserved architecture abandoned by the inhabitants centuries ago: the man-made structures remind and reinform us of the chanelling of activity in the absence of human memory. Thus a central facet of architecture is to give order to repeatable movement in the environment." (Frode Strpmnes, "On the Architecture of Thought"; Abacus 2, 1980, Museum of Finnish Architecture.) By its siting, the new building can achieve that implicit order Stromnes describes, by being grounded in its surrounding context, and like the Hekatompedon, reveal the emergent patterning and l1idden nature of the site. By its expression and form, the building can in turn contrast its site, and lend new energy to its surroundings by providing a context of its own. This context will embrace a metaphorical interpretation of regional history, as well as of the nature of a library, by taking as its symbol the stratification of mineral deposits in the Rocky Mountains. By this means the building can summon up an understanding of the physical and temporal foundations of our localhistory. Furtnermore, the effect of stratification can help to extend the continuity and sequence of the urban plan all the way through to the interior of the building.


!he building itself, as a juncture, a vault and a cranium, can evoke the continuous synthesis of memory in the creation of culture, while as an implied bridge to the Art Museum, it can recall the collaboration of the arts to that end .


CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY Denver's mean annual precipitation equals 15.51 inches. Winter months are driest; spring months are Thunderstorms are common in summer, with an annual occurrence of 41 days. Snow fall averages 59.9 inches per year, and has been recorded for every month except July and August. Maximum monthly snowfall equals 39.1 inches; maximum twenty-four hour snowfall equals 19.4 inches . Wind speed is highest in winter and spring. The average annual wind speed is 9.1 miles per hour; is recorded as having the highest average of 10.5 mpg. South is the prevailing wind direction in all seasons, although during late morning and late afternoon, north and northeasterly winds are most frequent. Denver receives an average of 70% of the total possible sunshine throughout the year. Clearest days occur in the fall, and cloudiest days in the spring. Annually, Denver averages 115 clear days (10-30 % cloud covet) and 117 cloudy days (80-100%).


Local Climatological Data Annual Summary With Comparative Data 1982 DENVER, COLORADO Narrative Climatological Summary Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevalls over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration. Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver's weather: Arctic air from Canada and Alaska; warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm, dry a_ir from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west. The good climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds so shade the City that temperatures of 90 or over are reached on an average of only 33 days of the year, and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 mark. In the cold season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to mode rate temperatures. In vas ions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains never reach Denver1s altitude and move off over tne lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains, and chinooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude. In spring when outbreaks of polar air ali waning, they are often met by moist currenn from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition o these two currents produces the rainy season Denver, which reaches its peak in May. Situated a long distance from any moistur source, and separated from the Pacific sourc by several high mountain barriers, Denver enjoy a low relative humidity, low averag precipitation, and considerable sunshine. Spring is the wettest, cloudiest, and windies season. Much of the 37 percent of the annua total precipitation that occurs in spring falls a snow during the colder, earlier period of tha season. Stormy periods are often by stretches of mild sunny weather that remov previous snow cover. Summer precipitation (about 32 percent oft annual total), particularly in July and Augus usually falls mainly from scattered local thun dershowers during the afternoon and evenin Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clou often form during early afternoon and cut of the sunshine at what would otherwise be hottest part of the day. Many afternoons hav a cooling shower. Autumn is the most p leasant season. Loc1 summer thunderstorms are mostly over a n invasions of cold air and severe weat:1er a1 infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness ar a greater percent of possible sunshine than any other time of the year. Periods unpleasant weather are generally brie Precipitation arnounts to about 20 percent of tr annual total. Winter has the least precipitation accumulatio only about 11 percent of the anfJJal total, a r almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequenc however, is higher than in auturnn. Tl-tere also more cloudiness and the relative humidi averages higher than in the aut,Jrnn. Weath can be quite severe, but as a general rule d severity doesn't last long. noaa NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION I NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE. j NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER DATA. AND INFORMATION SERVICE / ASHEVILLE. N . C .


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Average Temperature Heating Degree Days Year ' Jan ' Feb Mar Apr I May ' June t July 1 Aug :Sect I Oct 1 Nov t Dec ' Annual Season . Ju ly • Aug Sect! Oct 1 Nov • Dec : Ja n ' Feb t Mar • Aort May \June Toto! ,OIIt ,,;. .. 1'5! 19U J:. , , t:.n : : ... , lt.a1 n."l " .• i " ' I Jc.e i a: .. 26 .... 0:6.61 u.J, !: . .,, z;. • 11.6• I i llo 91 J .. ,.,, 27.21 n.q 1• . o f .:1. 1j .a t .. a. ' I l2 "' l7 " lO.CI 10 Z :: ::::I 19.S 29 ' i;:: I laoh :.: .. ]5.01 ., .I 1"6' l•.CI H.l !::: 1970 Jn.b, H t-1 :::! t91 1 .,.,..t..:.-r :.', :s. 19H ZJ !S,zj 1 ll.7 ]Q . • t , 1 JZ,JI Jo. 1 1917 Z9oZI ll Cl t•ac a.o\ '"'' 1981 I! lT.J,J6o Z )Doll JZ.l"l '"""' Jc.ol :z.• .. z. rt "'I 11.lj Z'l: l Precipitation ;;. I ' .. • J' ! o'" I "4 o 11 .. , ... t .. 1.0! ...... s 1.11 St'. ! / ... , , ''I .. 1.1) •a. ' j ]lt, f \Z, ] '" \6, S t I H ,,. j B .6ol H. I 57. ' I 56.8 "'I :: ::, 53. 1 . I I 55.7 sa. 1 .... , H,9 '59.1 57 .c !II o ... ,, 1 •a. t f , ... ,'Ill/ , ... Ill 57.11 i I ''' I .... . o ,. 1],11 6<.9 &e. I 6C, 5 :;: ••• 6 "(1• 1 ''-ll 6\. ;;;;I 1, '5 flo2,. ..... ] 7"'.11 .... , ;t). 7 ,,..,&1 s z.a 1Z. 2 '' 7Q.! 72.6 7] o2 7t. s 72 •• 7lil,,! J'S , A 72,7 76. 9 69ol 7t,7 7.,., 12 .r. 7Q.Iro 10.1 l'\.0 , ... ,1 72.7 ,.,, ] 7•-ll '' j "],1 ::::1 12.1 rz. • ... ,d sa.•j 7•.11 r z • .,l 71 •• ,. 11 .z 72.8 12 .a "' I 01.9 10. r l 72.1 n.z 12.7 Tl.l u.1 72.6 1J,II 72.2 72 .s 61.7 7a.•l 70.1 70.1 u.z u.t 71.9 12 .I n .o 7],'5 &9.-; fQ • • , 70.21 70.2 :: ::t ,,.,, :;:;' 7\. ] as.ol 57.0 .J.2 !I! ,J i 59,9 I I il •• I u.21 u.rt llt.S !tS .6 I !Ia r : ! ,. e.s.s 61-'i .... , lldol ""'" u.o b2 .I 60 .; "" Stf.S 0 I .a .. :!:i l ,, .. , ... , , "'' 6Z •• , 11.01 .... 6 sc.o Sl.'" 57.9 52. 7 Hoi 52.2 sz.s 51., .... Sl. I I 5•. 5 52 ... 1 ;).,, .... ""'I 51.1 Sl.l sz.a S2 •• 1 loO,Q 51 •• 6oS. S l1.1 .. a., : . c. ' I •.rot , J "'' ll.O •1 a .... fl1,ft 19. I ' Jl, 1 12.1 r.!J,t Hol n.l a.a .. 0 . 6 JT,& H. S 1•.7 '" ,] 1111, 7 •o . o .. J.l J9 ol :! ::11 lS . o .a . a ]9, 5 •a.JI n .a n.l .... 1 113 JS,7 a .• u .• , 1• ol I 51.' 10o 1 I 10 J obft 0 , q o.•r o.a r o.o• Q .27 o.u a .Jl o.n Q .ta• o.t• t.Ol 0.11 O.IS a.u o.o• a •• -. 0 .:6 I . 50 a . l:ll 0.17\ o.stl o . " I J . 51 I Ooll 0.09 a .zs 0 . 70 z .... a.zt a. 0 .16 'J,Q] loCit ColO t•.H t•.o6 IZ • .!tl 16.11 11. 1•o•'l 1]. •l l!t. 21 T.St u.os \Jo7Z 21.51 u.•o 16. Slo l • 1• .at , ... s 1 2 0 21 10 0 1• 21 .17 10 .Jt l], l1 tt.1l 21. Sl 11.11 ta.n 16. 8l l2 •... , .. ,QJ 1S.Sl ll ... t 10o ]II t 1.70 zo.a 1] •• , t•.ss \9iooJ•II/ool t, ..... :.s l'"li9illt.•lf7 19", ... . ... . 19••-sal 1950 ltSIl 195-HI 1955 19S6oH 19S7UI ltU-591 19H t ua-ui UOIoll 1902-6]: I"'" ) ,;ll :::,, ti o .J a.o J.Cj ... .:J Q.Cj a.a1 a.ol a.q a .ot a .CI c . q =.d : 1965-UI a .::n 1966 -e ' I J • .::1 19• 1 -s!l : . O j tHI-•'" tH•-•cl \UQ-71 J. 1911 o. 191&-77 o.o 1977-11 a . o 197s n c . c t9u-sc o . j tuz-s J a . ; , lt((QOQ •ON e . J • :na1.caces & station move .:r-:-@lcea.clon o f See S catL:;n cabll!. -.ean values abov e olt"e ;:,.e•ns the ::u r:-anc \ear !o:-the i.:'l tan !or ceecerecure ana ;>reci?it!.tion, i93S for snoviall. 7amoeracu:-e and precl.,itaci.on O ti'IIH'' t.he dac.a .are Alr?ort. tocatt.ons.


STATION LOCA TIO N Loca1Joa One o r -.ore locations 16th (fonMrly C Strut) 6. .U.rU..r Stt•et a Woodward lulldins on Kark • t !oroerl y Holida y Strutl b•Neen 15th & 16th Streets C l!.ntoc:k Blcxk 16C.h Stnec 11 Bl ock on t..d .... r Street T abor I l o c k , 16th 6o L.. ri.meT' Streets Pacteraon & Thomu aleck 17th C. Curth Streets Club Build i n ! 1700 Block en Ar a p a not" Stre e t U . S . Post Offi c e 16 t h Ia Arapehoe S t reet• P o.c Of f i c e B uildin' 19th 'Sc out Scr .. cs A I RPORT A dc a n utndon Bulldtng S uoleton Airfield Wl-rM B uildi n g • S c apluo n Airfield T t Stapleton I n t ' 1 AP (tffeccive 10/ 1/64) \J. ! . fore c ast Of fice TT Stapleton lncarnacional Ai'f"??r : rt Weather S•r-v ic: e f'c:sc Oft ice ( Ef f e c t ive 1 970) Wca t h • r S•rvic:e fest Office Sta p l eton Internati on a l A irport S UBSCIUPTlON: 11/185 9 12/1 8 73 MA ll/101713/15/73 N A 3 / 15 / 7 1113 0/75 4DO' """ I 11/ 30/75 7 / 1/77 350' ESE 1/1/77 6/13/8 1 200' ENE 6 / 13/8 12/1 / 8 7 5/1/91 1 10/1 /9SI I 12/8/04jl 1 / 29 / 1 9/15/3 6/25/4 12/1/87 1 2DO' IISW 5 / 1/91 11DO' E S E I 1 0/1/951375' 12/8/04 6DO' s w 1/29/161 ' 8DO' Present 1000' ENE I 6/25/471 l/7/69 10.3 mi.N\1 I I 5 ; 7 / 6 9 , 1 / 2 0 1 82 1 1 . 7 .ESE I 1 / 20 / 821 Pres•nt I ! mi. N lCorth 3 9 " 45' 1os• oo• 39' tos• oo• 39• 4 5 ' 105 00' 39• 45' IDS• DO' 39• 45' 10s• DO' 3 9 • 45' 105• DO' 39• 45' 105 • DO' 39 46 ' 104" 53' 39. 46. !04• 53. . e Q j . c . .. 5177 5 1 120 • 20 5212 7l )7 36 5214 • 70 •32 •32 52!4 180 1 45 44 5204 109 1 73 ! 7 2 521 8 tD3 86 I 8 6 5229 121 : 108 1 10 7 5214 1 5 1 l . n l . n 1 52!9 136 ,129 1 28 "b\72 I 5221 11!3 ! 06 1 08 5292 59 ' '-6 i 46 5292 1 72 ! 6 1 l l283 g20 I I ; . i I I : 5283 J20 I l I I i Grou.nd I , ] I! 119 i NA 9 8 I NA I c 1 d98 I , J 9 I i 2 2 I I I I I 481 I I " I ! I ISO i i , , 6 0 86 79 97 i I I 7'-l 1 119 98 c i 42 ' N A i N A h S : J S 528 2 1 331 l 25 4 , 5 ' ,"JA I I ! . l • !!.!!! I 't( • 4. ... '-fO$ t T • 4.VT O S lleaarkS Voluntar-y obs•rvf'r ' , record. I E stimated.. f Estimated. a Effective. 6/lJ/9 6 . b -Ef!ecuve 3/1 'LO. c • Ra!!'Qved 1.11' 5 0 . d Installed !.. t/50. • lnstalleC 3/.H / 5 '0 . -Effective 2/ltS7. -Effective , ! / 6 0 . fastest :"".it e frr. :..,:• P'ri:r c a .. t:t e . . h S201J' ESE of mometer 5iti. Effec civ.-C • l oO. cnov e d S ' ' 'o9. Pr! c e • n d t n f o rf'141U.)n Nacton•l t.:llmacit Data ftCeral ... ard!n a Zl-t-t.! . Pu :!L..: ,Ht': t ce!" tifv t hat cht!' 1 • a n o f ficia l cuolicatton -of the Octoanl.c a nc: anc! N u ux' Climatic Oat.t Cenu,, Asht!:vtlh, Nort"l Car"f'll ina 2 FIIOl. CEPA'"'TME"'T O F NATIONAl. OCEANIC A t)IO ATMOSPHERI C ACMINISTRATION NATIONAL. ENVIPONMENTAL. S A TEL. ITE, DATA. ANO INFORMATION SERVICE NATIONAL. CL.IMATI C DATA CENTER fii'EC ERAL. 8UIL.01NG ASHEV Il.l.., N . C . 2 1101 U S C011H-NOAA-ASK VILLE 1 810 POSTAGE AND FEES PAID U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERC E COM 210 FIRST CLASS


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PLANNING RELATIONSHIPS !N TERiv1S OF AREAS, CLIMATOLOGICAL & PLANNING w __ -,.-.= ______ ..,. :-nn==MH ' a ... .. I , r . • l t, .. l P:-obleo Area Pa::-.:H!leter s Planning Air Quality Anticyclonic persistence*, Siting and s::ack tet:lperature profiles, of eoission inversion he:ight and street and free;.-ay •.;ind ancl ar.d direction. green space locations. Modes of urbzn tr.3.;:el, land use. Transportation Wind speed, visibility. streets, precipitation, and ice, airports, rights-of-temperature extremes. modes of travel, land use patterns. . Energy Consumption Solar radiation intensity, Building shapes, solar temperature extret:les and access, orientation their duration. and materials, landsea ping and land use. l.jater Supply and Precipita::ion, huoidity, ?aving, \.later Quality air contaminant:s. w:ays and fadl ities, perrrea:,ility of soil. Land and ;.;ater use pat: terns. Building Failure Wind velocit:y, gustiness, Building size, shape, solar radiation, preci.pita-heights, mat:e:-ials, and tion, snow and ice accumulation orient:at:ions, land-and dura cion, temperature scaping, land use. extremes. Human Coofort Prevailing wind direction, Building heights, and Safety floods, heavy precipitation. orient:at:ion, ciensity, land use and *Subsiding air from quasi-stationary high causes cond.!.:ions inversions, can be o:her conci:ions. R p r ; r t I t l ' l. l i . I I ! i I I


SITE SURVEY SUMMARY The site, a major portion of which accommodates t h e Denver Public Libr a r y building, is bounded by West 14tl1 Avenue Parkway on the north, Broadwa y on the east, West 13th Avenue on the south, and Aco m a Street on the west. T he existing buildings stand on stable soils and on a level surface, with negligi ble contours beyond the slo pe necessary for adequate drainage. Utili ties are existing and adequate to meet the needs of a second facility on the site, and can e asily be expanded to meet further demands anticipated by pro grammed improvements. The site is well above the Intermediate Regional Flood Plain ( occurrence probability equals once in 100 ye a rs), a s well as t h e Standa r d Project Flood Plain. Water and service lines bisect the site by runni ng n orth/south. The water table occurs at 30 feet below grade. The existing Library building itself is to be retained, although its so uthern w ing, which was itself an existing structure renovated as an addition, will be removed to make way for the intended expansion of the Public Library, and to a ccommodate the new facility. Parking could be incorporated separately into tl1e building s t h e mselves , or placed underground, to meet the increased density o f construction a nd the g rade level space demand. Acoma Street, bounding the site, may serve a bette r purpose a s a pedestria n walk , uni ting the eastern and western flanks of the site, as well as extending the borders of Civic Center onto the site, enga gin g i t more d i rectly to C i vic Center's o verall configurati on . To implement an underground parking an d service solution, Acoma street would have to vacated.


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SURROUNDING LAND USE SUMMARY As part of the overall Civic Center plan the site falls squarely at the point where two major street grids intersect. This urban pattern creates a distinct edge, where Civic Center acts as a buffer mediating the grids, in order to make the transition from one to the other more rational by reinforcing the sense of centrality that its formal axially-loaded plan provides. From the activating quality of this transitional node, it was natural for the business district to thrive along both Colfax and Broadway Avenues. The urban context established by Civic Center made it the obvious part of the city for public buildings to be located, which set the stage for the later decision to site educational and arts facilities there. Today, the so-called "Golden Triangle" area adjoining Civic Center is under considerable scrutiny for extensive redevelopment, with a particular emphasis on the Acoma Street approach which has, up to now, been neglected as a natural axial entry to Civic Center. Densities will change considerably, making way for intense mixed use development of housing and commercial, displacing the existing low rise structures and parking lots, while certain historically structures retaining landmark status, such as the Queen Ann House on the grounds of the Art Museum, will be saved as physical markers of Denver's past.


The centrality of the site makes it very visible, while the 14th Avenue Parkway's gentle curve further emphasizes its distinct nature. Traffic patterns surrounding the site range from heavy on 13th Avenue, Broadway and Bannock, to moderate on 14th, and light on Acoma. Seen from this perspective, the site seems to be an island tenuously connected to all but the two sides of Aco m a between 13th and 14th, and the green space of Civic Center. Automobile access to the site remains the most convenient and developed, the natural drop off point for the Public Library being Broadway, while the potential exists to enhance pedestrian access from paths already established by Civic Center. A service alley exists off 13th A venue adjacent the existing on-grade par k ing lot. Shared parking structures either underground on site, or in the vicinity as free standing structures, are options for relieving increasing congestion, as seen by the Denver Planning Office, which has also called for expanded pedestrian paths to further activate the area. Visually, the formal approach north on Acoma Street toward the site is very prominent, and would benefit from a terminus, or anchor, which could fram e the entry into Civic Center proper.


Denver Public Library Denver Art Museum


Looking North on Acoma Street Denver Public Library West Facade from Denver Art Museum ' Acoma Street Terminus Denver Public Library South Facade and Parking


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ZONING REGULATIONS REVIEW Zone lot = 129,200 square feet Permitted Uses: B-8 zones are intended for intense commercial activity which serves a large urban area rather than only a local neighborhood. The zoning ordinance was recently amended to allow dwelling units and multiple dwellings in this district. Setbacks and Bulk Standards: No setbacks or bulk restrictions are required. Maximum Floor Area: The gross floor area (not including parking) cannot exceed four times the area of the lot, or 516,800 gross square feet. Premiums can be given for floor areas: Parking: 6 square feet for every one square foot of unenclosed plaza ("plaza" has 25% of its perimeter abutting on a street). 6 square feet for every one square foot of enclosed plaza if at least one entrance is 40 feet wide. 3 square feet for every one square foot of unenclosed arcade ("arcade" is continuously open to the street and at least 12 feet deep and 12 feet high). 2 square feet for every one square foot of enclosed arcade if there are 2 20 foot wide entrances opening onto the street. 2 square feet for every one square foot of low level light area ("low level light area" is 0 to 40 feet above the ground, 25% of the perimeter is open to the street, but does not qualify for plaz a space). The library is a Class 2 building and requires one off-street parking space for every 600 square feet of floor area. Off-street loading required, equals 6 births at least 10 feet wide, 35 feet long and 14 feet high.




_...__ ____ . _ _...-... -... ---.......... __..._ ... _ ,_\_, ___ , ........ .... -------LEGEND HISTORIC STRUCTURES r:oR ' PRESERVATION • I . 1310 Bannock $1. Ord.l25(68) , 2 . 320 W Colfax Ave. Ord . 331 (72) [ill-CMc-cENTER UtSTtiiCT FOR PRESERVATION ORD.I73(76) --CIVICCENTER HEIGHT BOUNDARY. OFFICIAL ZONE MAP ESTABLISHED NOV. 8, 1956 ORO. 392. r------ml S ........ . . I -< :r:i I . & • ; : : : = : ; 3 K •i• = = I •• + . . . . . ! :; . : & • • .1. 1 :l .I. I< ... . . . . . . . . • Bturnod I SIGNS TO A\RKS 6 REC. -. •• .:::-ciVIC CENTER VIEW PLANE


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DENVER BUU..DING CODE REVIEW -Group B, Division 3 Occupancy, Chapter 7, Denver Building Code -Group G, Division 3 Occupancy, Chapter 12-Automobile Parking Garage All Uses Type I Construction Chapter 5 Toilet Facilities, Section 509 Toilet facilities shall be located no more than 200 feet on the same level or more than one floor removed from an occupied area (Table 5-E). Minimum of one lavatory and one water closet for each sex on every floor that has access to the public. Table 5-B No fire separation (in hours) required. Table 5-C Unlimited floor area for all occupancy types of Type I Construction Table 5-D Unlimited height for all occupancy types of Type I Construction Chapter 12 Mechanical ventilation is not required for an automobile parking garage when 2 or more sides are at least 50% open. Chapter 13 Light and Ceiling Heights, Section 1305 Every habitable room shall have a minimum ceiling height of 7 feet over at least 50% of its area. No part of the remaining ceiling shall be less than 5 feet high. Chapter 16 Table, p. 16-3 The Denver Public Library is located in Fire Zone 3.


Chapter 17 Parapets, Section 1710 When parapets are required they shall be at least 30 inches high above the point where the roof surface and the wall intersect. Guardrails, Section 1714 Open guardrails shall have intermediate rails, balusters or other members with no more than 6 inches clear spacing and be at least 42 inches high except as specified in Chapter 33 for stairs. Mezzannines, Section 1715 No mezzannine floor or floors shall cover more than one-third of the area of any room and its height shall be at least 7 feet. Chapter 33 Exits required, Section 3302 When at least two exits are required, they shall be remote from one another and arranged to minimize any possibility that both will become blocked by any one fire or other emergency condition. Exit Doors, Section 3303 All doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel. When doors open over landings, the landing shall extend 2 feet beyond the edge of the door leaf when open and be at least 34 inches wide. Doors shall not swing into the public way. Corridors, Section 3304 (See Section 3317) Corridors shall be at least 44 inches wide (this project). Dead end corridors shall not exceed 20 feet in length. Stairways, Section 3305 Stairways serving an occupant load of more than 50 people shall be at least 44 inches wide. The rise of every step in a stairway shall not exceed 7l/2inches, and the run shall be at least 10 inches. Every landing shall have a dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. This dimension need not exceed 5 feet when the stair has a straight run.


The vertical distance between landings shall not exceed 12 feet, 6 inches. Stairways more than 88 inches in width shall be provided with at least one intermediate handrail to be located in the center of the stair's width. Handrails shall not be placed less than 30 inches, or more than 34 inches above the nosing of the treads. Every stairway shall have a headroom clearance of at least 7 feet, measured vertically from a plane parallel and tangent to the stairway tread nosing to the soffit. Ramps, Section 3306 The width of ramps shall equal those required by stairways. The slope of ramps shall not exceed 1 vertical for every 12 horizontal. Ailes, Section 3313 Seats, Section 3314 Exits: Group B Occupancies, Section 3316 Exits shall be arranged so that the total length of travel from any point to an exit shall not exceed 150 feet. The distance may be increased to 200 feet when the building is protected throughout by an automatic fire extinguishing system. Chapter 38 Skylights, Section 5407, Section 6005 Chapter 55 Vertical and Horizontal Transportation


SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION Stacks (Based on total holding of more than 50,000 volumes, with potential for on-site storage of an additional 50,000 volumes; 285,000 photographs and 3,000 maps. Annual acquisitions range to approximately 1,500 books.) Western History Room Scholar's Reading Room Oral History Room Seminars/Conference Room Lobby/Gallery Area Desk Manager's Office Computer Room Catalog Area (computerized index, conventional index) 13,800 sq. ft. 1,500 sq. ft. 500 sq. ft. 600 sq. ft. 1,300 sq. ft. 2,000 sq. ft. 300 sq. ft. 400 sq. ft. 600 sq. ft. 1,300 sq. ft. Specialists' offices 3 @ 500 sq. ft.= 1,500 sq. ft. Local News Project Room 500 sq. ft. Preservation Area 400 sq. ft. Darkroom 300 sq. ft. Work Areas 4 @ 250 sq. ft.= 1,000 sq. ft. (book processing) Toilets 5@ 400 sq. ft.= 2,000 sq. ft. Book storage 18,000 sq. ft. Mechanical/Circulation @ approximately 15% 4,000 sq. ft. 50,000 sq. ft.


t..oreY I G N-L-Ef2-Y A.P-EA :Lt-lB). i;S l( & :LtJ'OEX


Photo curator 1 Acquisitions ' Specialist ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE General History Specialist Senior Librarians IJ .... r VoJ unteers I Manuscripts Specialist


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DESIGN INTENTIONS Since the nature of the building is a specialty library, it must project its distinct identity as such, while addressing its urban context, both in terms of building type and with respect to regional symbolism. It must both support, and contrast with, its existing urban fabric. The building must establish a cross-referential relationship with its parent institution, the Denver Public Library, that is expressed architecturally. The building must help integrate the Public Library and Art Museum into a single site, which would also conceptually extend the boundaries of Civic Center, enhancing the new shared public space. The building's presence must be consistent with the general guidelines established for Civic Center by the Planning Office with regard to land use, accessibility and overall environmental quality. The closed stack, non-lending character of the library must be maintained, expressive of a formal and secure environment, where the holdings can be kept preserved as they are made accessible to patrons. The facility's distinctly inner focus must be reconciled to the public's need to consult its resources. The facility must provide access to the catalogue both on a self-help basis vis a-vis computerized research, and on an individualized service basis, where "specialists" personally consult patrons, locate and make materials available.


Because of the cultural value of the holdings, the building must retain a high level of environmental control within, regarding security, illumination, acoustics and climatological control, without diminishing the activity of reading and research conducted there.


,/CJ._ .,, fr )> () 0 :!: )> m 1 THE LIBRARY OF LRBAN PLAN 1 : 200 WESTERN AMERICAN HISTORY SITE PLAN 1 : 3 2





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The design solution for the Library of Western American History was generated by closely following the dictates of the program, allowing the building to evolve from the inside out, in response to functional requirements, while simultaneously tempering its exterior by requirements imposed by the site. Integrating the building into a very difficult site, and thereby contributing a needed order upon it, posed the most immediate challenge. The plurality of buildings already situated there had to be reconciled, without violating their uniqueness. This involved recognizing their interdependence in the absence of any overt organizing geometry to wend them together, and allowing such a geometry to emerge, with the new library interposed at its crux, so as to become the fulcrum which unites the variegated elements, yet allows them to stand alone. The parti for such a geometry came from the elliptical wings of the pavilion in Civic Center adjacent to the site. By reintroducing this geometry in a twodimensional form, as paving and path, with the Public Library at its epicenter, and the new library entrance occurring on the periphery of the most important radiating point, the critical "back" portion of the site could be developed and connected to that part which faces Civic Center. Reorienting the entry of the Public Library to this "back" part of the site was a response to redeveloping the site at the point where most pedestrian and car traffic naturally occurs, along Broadway and 13th Avenue. The elliptical path, reinforced by a rational grid of trees, effectively links the new shared entry court for both libraries (as well as their shared underground parking and service facilities) to the 14th Avenue Parkway side of the site, and sets the Public Library building into relief on a


field of green, marking the former back of the building as the unmistakable front. To further emphasize the new cross-referential relationship of the two facilities architectonically, the same encrustation, or rustication, of pigmented aggregate used on the new library, is applied to the "back" facade of the Public Library, creating a consistent enclosure for the courtyard, and visually furthering the continuity between the two structures. The relationship doe s not stop there, however. The entries of the two are also related in terms of their expression. Both are abstract Classical pediments, quoting not only each other, but also referring to the Neo-Classical architecture of Civic Center, which has established this context. The axially-loaded plan of Civic Center is respected in the final scheme, insofar as the path along Acoma Street -vacated to unite the eastern and western flank of the site-has been confirmed. At the point where this path meets the new building and the undulating path from the Art M useum, wed g es of green space are stratified in their corners, making a reference to the overall parti of stratification of the building. The building's northwest edge fully occupies one of the four corners itself. The effect is a kind of miniature canyon or gorge, over which the glazed two storey reading room overlooks, while also gesturing to the inner face of Civic Center. While the functional requirements of the program were most efficiently served by a concentrated, multi-storey volume, the rational, cubical form that was used for the building also very appropriately contrasts the naturalistic applique, creating a dynamic, a tension between the pure geometry of the underlying form with its abstract grid, and the free-form, representational strata coursing


around it. The image is mannered and eclectic, and an attempt to introduce a Baroque Modern idiom to architecture. Not only is it an evocative image of the West, but raises a philosophical question over the dialog of completion, wholeness and fragmentation, and the erosion of time, or how our notion of history remains incomplete. The building is, in a sense, captive to its own origins, while its form is continually emerging, and being resolved, like Michelangelo's Captives. The layers bespeak the sequence of history and of memory that contribute to the perception of architecture, and are meant to be representative of the kind of physical record by which defines architecture, as repeatable movement in the environment, with the cultural traces such "movement" leaves behind. Memory is the frame of reference for this building. It is meant as much to be a poetic gesture, as it is architecturally feasible. The building by its expression is meant to raise questions about time and the mystery of the locus in architecture, and the mutability of our history as well as our landscape. The building shot!ld raise fundamental questions about the distinction between space and place, and the kind of boundaries that define the two. "A boundary is not that at which something stops but, as the Greeks recognized, the boundary is that from which something begins its presencing. That is why the concept is that of horismos, that is, the horizon, the boundary. Space is in the essence for which room has been made, that which is let into its bounds. That for which room is made is always granted and hence is joined, that is, gathered, by virtue of a location, that is, by such a thing as the bridge. Accordingly, spaces receive their being from locations and not from 'space."' (Martin Heiddeger)


Heiddeger hints that space is a negative quantity, existing by virtue of what displaces it, while place has an inherently mystical being, to which I would add that place is a function of memory . Space requires completion to be space, while place completes us, through the imposition of memory. I chose this particular project because it allowed the unique opportunity to address these theoretical questions, apart from the challenge to treat them and the technical aspects of the building architecturally. As a public building with a very specialized public purpose, in a very visibly public site, the appropriateness of this kind of treatment becomes clear. The program was translated into a three-storey structure of approximately thirty thousand square feet, with an additional two basement levels of storage to house one hundred thousand books, bringing the square footage to fifty thousand. The footprint dimensions of the building are one hundred by one hundred feet, reflecting the defining dimensions of the Hekatompedon, for which this project is named. The one hundred foot dimension is also derived from the west flank of the Public Library, as an existing site dimension. The building itself is organized along succeedingly less public functions by floors. The catalog on the main floor is both computerized and conventionally indexed, and is meant to be self-service in nature, while the reading room on the second floor is oriented toward individualized service by the staff. The third floor reading room is accessible by invitation only, and is reserved for scholars maintaining long term research projects. Artificial lighting loads are offset by the atrium, which also serves as the organizational core element of the building, while two light wells, encased in etched glass panels, penetrate the lower depths, humanizing the work areas below by bringing natural lighting to them. Conceptually they reflect the inner


focus of the building, and enhance . the feeling that the building is a vault or geode, from which crystals emerge. The structure is comprised of a steel frame along a nine square grid of thirtythree foot bays, with open web joists, and a unistrut system to suspend the polished granite and aggregate panels. Steel was chosen over concrete for the greater span with the least depth possible, in order to keep the storey to storey height reasonable, as well as to accommodate HVAC demands. The building would be zoned for HV AC by floors and between stacks and public functions, the system consisting of water source heating with VAV boxes for control, cooling being served by a rooftop chiller. The atrium air could be recirculated to lower zones in winter, and vented in summer. Mal

BIBLIOGRAPHY Bloomer, Kent C. and Moore, Charles W. Body, Memory and Architecture. Yale University Press, 1977. Borges, Jorge Luis. "The Library of Babel," Labyrinths, Selected Stories and Other Writings. Edited by Donald A. Yates and James E. Irby. New Directions, 1964. Colquhoun, Alan. Essays in Architectural Criticism. Oppositions Books, The Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies & i'v11T Press, 1981. Cohen, Aaron and Claine. Designing and Space Planning for Libraries. R. R. Bowker Co., 1979. Forster, Kurt, W., ed. "Monument/:Ylemory," Oppositions, No. 25. (Fall 19o2). Freeze, Alys H. "The Western History Collection of the Denver Public Library." Great Plains Journal, VoL 2, No. 2 (Spring 1972). Heidegger, Martin. "Building Dwelling Thinldng." Poetry, Language, Thought, translated by Albert Hofstadter. New York: Harper & Row, 1972. Moholy-Nagy, Sibyl. Matrix of Man. Praeger Publishers, 1966. Pevsner, Nikolaus. A History of Building Types. Princeton University Press, 1976. Rapoport, Amos. Human Aspects of Urban Form. Pergamon Press, Urban and Regional Planning Series, Vol. 15, 1977. Stromnes, Frode. "On the Architecture of Thought." Abacus, Museum of Finnish Architecture, Yearbook 2, 1980. Venturi, Robert; Scott Brown, Denise; and Izenour, Steven. Learning From Las Vegas. MIT Press, 197 7. Yates, Frances A. The Art of Memory. Penguin Books, 1969. "Building Types Study 591: Libraries." Architectural Record, 1983, pp. 7 4-94. Denver Planning Office. Civic Center Area Analysis and Development Policies. January 1978. "Five Designs for a Center for the Visual Arts at the Ohio State University." Issues and Positions in Contemporary Architecture Series, Exhibition Catalog, The American Academy in Rome, November 22-December 29, 1983. Report on Main Library Expansion. Interplan, Inc., July, 1972.


I t I I t l I l I I I THE WESTERN HISTORY COLLECTION OF THE DENVER PUBLIC LIBRARY ALYS H. FREEZE Head, Western History Department , Denver Public Library ER A HUNDRED YEARS Denver has been known as "The Queen Cit y of the Plains," nestling as she does at the foot of the Rocky Mountains , th e mecca of those who crossed the plains confident of reaping their fortunes in the Pikes Peak gold rush. The result was a wealth in both gold and contemporary guide books-road maps of the time-to the land of r i ches. With the epoch came both success and disappointment , as chronicled in the surviving records of the region. To collect that heritage-those scattered written fragments that reveal the drama of the past-was the primary purpose behind the establishment of the Western History Department at the Denver Public Library , a special ized collection that has grown to m ore than so,ooo cataloged volumes, and s , ooo uncataloged pamphlets , periodicals , and newspapers. In 1929, Librarian Malcolm Glenn \Vyer brought to the attention of the D enver Library Commission the fact that no library in this part of the country was building a compre hen sive collection of books and source materials related to the Rocky Mountain region. The western hist o rical societies were gathering what they could with the limited financial re sources granted them, but much invaluable material was g o ing to eastern libraries and book collectors. The R ocky Mountain region , as one of the last pioneer territories of the country, represented an important epoch in the development of the United States. And since Denver was the maj or metropolis in this region , it seemed appropriate for the Denver Public Library to assemble source materials relating to the entire western United State s . As work on the collection beg a n it was soon evident that counsel and advice were needed in formulating basic principles and policies. Profes$or Archer Butler Hulbert of Colorado College in Colorado Springs was se cured as advisor to the librarian and Library Commission for the Wes tern History C ollection. Professor Hulbert became keenly interested in the project and was of great help in delineating the scope of the collection. It \ 101


102 GREAT PLAINS JOURNAL SPRING was he who suggested the development of a pictorial record of the Rocky Mountain region which has grown to include prints and negatives of all kinds including photographs, drawings, engravings, reproductions, and paintings. Such a collection had not previously been attempted in a sys tematic or comprehensive way. Through Professor Hulbert's efforts, the library became joint publisher, with the Stewart Commission of Colorado College, of an important series of eight volumes known as Overland to the Pacific which includes the titles: Zebulon Pike's Arkansas fournal (1932), SouthweJ t on the Turquoise Trail (1933), Where Rolls the Oregon (1933), The Call of the Columbia (1934), The Oregon Crusade (1935), Murcus Whitman, Crusader (1936-41). Plans were b e ing formulated for Professor Hulbert to give his entire time to the library when his sudden death occurred in December 1933. In the meantime Willa Cather spent several weeks in the library re searching the early history of Colorado and New Mexico in preparation for her book, Death Comes for the Archbishop. In discussing her work she expressed regret that several important books on this region were not in the library, nor had she been able to locate them in other libraries in either Colorado or New Mexico. Miss Cather commented on the impor tance of library facilities for literary and historical study, especially in a city such as Denver which provided the only large public library in the entire region. As an author she considered it the obligation of a library such as ours to furnish essential regional materials for scholarship and research . Her vis it confirmed the wisdom of the objectives for establishing theW estern History Collection. The growth of the collection was rapid due to three special Carnegie grants which enabled the library to secure many items when city funds were not available. By 1934 the collection had increased to such size as to w a rrant its organization as a separate Western History Department. Special efforts have been made to obtain pamphlets of all kinds, obscure books, newspapers, magazines, pictures, maps, scrapbooks, manuscripts, eli ppings; ephemeral publications such as programs, yearbooks, leaflets, local organization records, advertising brochures and broadsides; reports of mines, cattle companies, regional industries, municipal reports; the atrical history and memorabilia; and more recently microcards, microfiche, and microfilm as well as tapes through our oral history program. Unusual opportunities have made it possible to secure valuable publications of all kinds, many of which would be absolutely impossible to replace today. Emphasis given by the library to building a regional collection-an unusual project for a public library-attracted the interest and aid of many in dividuals. THE WESTERN HISTORY COLLECTION 103 INDEXES AND FINDING Ams . To the materials listed above, the staff indexes daily the Rocky Mountmn News (Denver), the Denver Post, and Cervi's fournal (Den ver) for articles pertinent to our subject areas. At present this index holds some million entries, including a separate index to the Rocky for the years r86s-r885 which was a WPA project. Fea ture Hems of Interest in the papers are clipped, dated, and filed under subjects established as needed for assistance to patrons. Since few western magazines are indexed in tl1e Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature, fifty three are included in the Western History Department indexing project. In 1935 there were few tools or aids in print to assist anyone attempting research of any proportion in western history. Such tools had to be created or the staff had to hope for contributions &om some devoted soul who had the foresight to do it. Fortunately there was such a person in Denver, Henrietta Bromwell, a lady artist in her young days who devoted her later life to indexing information about important and proper people and their activities. This indexing is now bound in eight volumes of quarto size. The first two volumes, entitled "Colorado Argonauts 1858-t859•" are in dispe.nsable for establishing authentic founding fathers. These are among our. lmporta.nt manuscripts. As bibliographies of the West and special subjects perunent to the West have been published, these have been added so that we now have 250 bibliographies which are constantly in use. Any one checking the Western History Department holdings against the wellknown Early Printing in Colorudo ( 1935) by Douglas C. McM urtne and Albert H. Allen, al!d The Plains and the ( 1953) by Henry R. Wagner and Charles L. Camp, will find a remarkable inclusion of the most important books. With the acquisition of microcards of all but about fifty of the Wagner-Camp items, the library's resources were for th: scholar. The building of a good bibliographic collection smce we consider referral to or borrowing &om other agencies an Important part of our service to patrons. Also found here are the catalogs published by the G. K. Hall Company of The Yale Collection of Western Americana, The Edward E. Ayer Col of AmericaTJa and American Indians at the Newberry Library, His tory of the Americas Collection, New York Public Library, Dictionary Catalog of the Manuscript Division, New York Public Library, Catalog of Printed Books at the Bancroft Library, Biographical and Historical of American Indians ... , U.S. Department of Interior. The National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collc:ctioru is also an important part of this research collection. The Catalog of the Western History Den ver Public Library, was published in seven volumes in 1971.


GREAT PLAINS JOURNAL SPRING NEWSPAPERS OF THE WEST To strengthen the regional aspects of the newspaper holdings, a Western Newspaper Microfi l m Center was established four years ago for which a special printed catalog of holdings has been published. The second edition is now available from the Western History Department. This list is ar ranged by state indicating whether or not we own the negative. At present this is not a circulating collection. There are now 4,100 reels of film here including papers from all states west of the Mississippi-Missouri rivers from 1 8o8 to 1900, such as the New Orleans Times-Picayune, 1837-t88r; the Misiouri Gazette (St. Louis), J8o8-r818; the St. Louis Enquirer, I819182+ In most cases the film in this collection is limited to the nineteenth century. All available indexes have been acquired, some in printed form and some on film. In addition to the Microfilm Center, the Colorado newspaper holdings include some unique titles such as The Solid Muldoon edited by the color ful Dave Day and published in Ouray and Durango, Colorado, from 1879 to r892. It was learned that the original publisher's file of The Solid Muldoon was in the possession of a member of the family living on a ranch near Durango. Many efforts were made to purchase the set or secure it as a gift to one of several Colorado libraries, but the family never would consider parting with it. However, during a visit with George Vest Day, the danger of leaving so important a newspaper collection in a ranch home, subject to loss by fire, was stressed. This argument, plus emphasis on the responsibility of preserving the collection for use in a well-established library, finally induced the family to part with the set. The newspaper was once described: Of all the newspapers in Colorado, the one most strongly individual ized is The Solid Muldoon of Ouray .... The first issue of The Solid Muldoon appeared September sth, I879 All the mining camps of the region had newspapers, even then, but they were mostly mean, witless sheets, subsisting mainly on the legal advertising of the United States Land Office. News was impossible, and opinions, they had none to express. The Muldoon, therefore, burst like a fountain of sweet out of this journalistic Sahara, and there was an immediate rush for it. The scene on the afternoon of its issue was a unique and memorable one in Ouray. Copies were snatched "hot from the press" and read aloud amid roars of laughter by men as sembled in from o( the rows of saloons that lined the main street of the camp. The wit was not so delicate as to escape immediate appre hension. It was coarse, but thoroughly genuine, and instantly touched the chord of popular sympathy throughout the state and the west, but Tt-IE WESTERN HISTORY COLLECTION especially throughout the camps of the San Juan mining region, where the value of such an advocate of local interests-an advocate possessing the first requisite of influence in the ability to command attentionwas immediately appreciated. Its range of editorial observation covered the public men and affairs of the whole state, and its terse, incisive, nipping wit had the great merit for newspaper effect of being quotable, and of course it got widely quoted. It did not have to solicit exchanges; they poured in upon it. In a short time it could get an exchange with any daily in the United States on terms of equality-a rare and almost unprecedented experience for a country weekly. But the best feature of its remarkable success was that it began right at home, and was immediate. It was instantly perceived that the man and the opportunity had met and were equal to each other. The name itself was a hit. Its ridiculous incongruity with anything relating to jourmlism challenged curiosity. The world has probably forgotten that some time before a party of impecunious showmen had "worked a fake" on the public in imitation of the famous "Cardif Giant" scheme, by "finding" a petrified giant of enormous proportions in the Arkansas Valley, which came to be designated the Solid Muldoon. This was the origin of the name.-The Great Divide, July 1890. A few years ago a member of the Western History Department staff journeyed to Breckenridge, Colorado, to witness the dynamiting of an old vault encased in cement which remained intact when a building was demolished. After the door . had been blown off it was discovered that a crack had allowed water to seep in and whatever was in rhe vault was a solid cake of ice. This cake of ice was brought to Denver and placed in an old tunnel under the library building. Each day a layer was peeled off, dried, and cleaned. We had found the only known files of the Breck enridge, Colorado, Summit County Journal, a weekly newspaper pub lished from 1883 to 1888. Crawling around in dusty attics lighted by a gasoline lamp and sorting piles of papers in back of a sooty coal furnace being converted to gas have yielded other newspapers and periodicals of non-existing record. Some of these files are short and incomplete but of inestimable value. PHOTOGRAPI;IS AND LITHOGRAPHS The picture collection mentioned earlier numbers nearly 300,000 prints and negatives which include photographs, lithographs, paintings, repro ductions, steel engravings, and etchings. The photographs are arranged in envelopes according to subject. The subjects covered are as broad as the West. From gold mining in Alaska to missions in New Spain, from the


100 GRAl' PLAINS JOURNAL SPRING early Pacific explorers, Captain James Cook and Captain George Van couver, to the fur trader out of St. Louis. Some particularly notable collections of pictures relating to the West have been secured. In tracing early photographs of the Black Hills, we learned of the work of David F. Barry, an early photographer of the West. He lived in Superior, Wisconsin, but in 1875 had established a gallery at Fort Abraham Lincoln and later at Fort Buford, both in Dakota Territory . Our letters to him were not answered. A close friend of Barry's re ported that the photographer would not sell his work to libraries. He once had presented a complete set of his pictures to a library with the stipulation that anyone wanting copies of these pictures should order them from him (Barry) in Superior. When he learned that the library was copying the rare photographs and selling them, Barry would have nothing further to do with ljbraries. Some years later a letter was sent to him again offering to purchase prints; the reply to this letter came from the administrator of Barry's estate. He explained that it would be impossible to sell prints or the negatives to the Denver Public Library because the most appropriate place for them would be in one of the government agencies, especially the Smithsonian Institution. However, the administrator wrote a few months later and stated that, because of the delay and red tape involved in selling to the government, he would be willing to dispose of the entire collection to the Denver Public Library if a cash transaction could be concluded imme diately. Consequently we secured over 900 negatives of some of the best photographs ever taken of the Sioux Indians, U.S. Army officers, Indian life and encampments, and Buffalo Bill. An attractive catalog listing these pictures has since been published and is available at no cost from this department. Alfred E. Mathews was a water colorist who gradually made his way westward and created some of his best work in the Rocky Mountain region. He was an artist of considerable ability who made sketches in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, and Utah during the r86o's. His paintings and sketches were reproduced by lithography. They include volumes en titled Pencil Sketches of Colorado (r866); Pencil Sketches of Montana (r8 68); Gems of Rocky Mountain Scenety (1866); and Canon City, Colo rado and Its Surroundings (r87o), all now located in the Western History Department. The library has secured many letters and much biographical material relating to Mathews. Dr. Robert Taft of the University of Kansas drew heavily on these materials in writing a chapter on Mathews for his book, Artists and lllrwrators of the Old West, I850-t900 (1953). The ex ceedingly rare narrative, Journal of Flight ( 1H6t ), by A. E. Mathews, which the library owns, recently was published in facsimile. Another famous collection of pictures of the Far West is contained in 1972 THE WESTERN HISTORY C0llCTION IO'J the imperial folio of sketches, Illustrations to Maximilian Pn' nce of Wied's Travels in the Interior of North America (1843-44), by the Swiss artist, Karl Bodmer. Bodmer accompanied Maximilian on his travels through the West, especially along the Missouri River. The work was published in German, French, and English editions; in each, the lithographic reproduc tions of Bodmer's paintings are unusually fine. We secured a portiolio of these reproductions in black and white and searched several years for one of the colored sets. We had orders placed with dealers in European coun tries, but finally secured a colored set at auction at the Park-Bernet Gal leries. One set appeared in a sale at this gallery, and we instructed an agent to bid on it; however, it was sold for a higher price than we had authorized. A few months later another set was advertised. We instructed our agent to secure it, without a price limit, and this time he was successful. We were especially pleased about this because, prior to acquiring the set, a visitor from the East called at the library and asked to see the Bodmer prints, saying that in California he had been told he would find them in the Denver Public Library. Another volume of western illustrations almost as rare as the Maximihan Bodmer folio is among our prized possessions. It is Das 1/lustrirte Missis sippithal ( 1857) by Henry Lewis. This contains eighty beautifully colored pictures of scenes along the mighty river from the Falls of the St. Anthony to the Gulf of Mexico. Another fine volume is Captain H. Warre's Sketches in North America and the Oregon Territory (1848), with fine colored litho graphs. This volume has just been reprinted. Also of interest is a set of water colors tkpicting pioneer scenes during the construction of the Union Pacific Railroad. The thirty or more pictures in this group were secured from Frank Glenn of Kansas City. They are most artractive and have been much admired. The picture collection also includes paintings by Charles M. Russell, Thomas Moran, Albert Bier stadt, John Mix Stanley, Richard Tallant, Harry Learned, George Cathn, Frank P. Sauerwen, Alfred Jacob Miller, Charles Craig, Frederic Reming ton, Raphael Lillywhite, AIJen True, Joseph Hitchins, Gerard Curtis De lano, Harvey Young, and many others. ln a series of twelve oil pajntings, artist Otto Kubler re-created the coal mines and villages of southern Colorado which were the center of the labor struggle in 1913 when federal troops were sent by President Wilson to end the strike. These excellent paintings came to the department as a gift from the artist's wife, Simonne. A catalog, The Land of Lost explains in the artist's own words his concept of the paintings. Some of the desirabl e Currier and Ives, J. E. Dillingham, Vincent Brooks, E. S . Glover, and J. J. Stoner lithographs of the Far West are included in our collection as well. A number of years ago 1 '' 1 ! artist Herndon Davis painted a series of


I08 GREAT PLAINS JOURNAL SPRING pictures of historical buildings in Denver. These were reproduced in the Rocky Mountain News with descriptive text by Joseph Emerson Smith. They are excellent paintings and form an invaluable record of old build ings, many of which have been razed. Some of the Davis paintings were given to the library as individual memorials. The rest were presented by an anonymous donor. Of course the library has the standard sets of books on Indians, with illustrations. Among these are George Carlin's North American Indian Portfolio ( 1844); McKenney and Hall, History of the Indian Tribes of North America (18.p-44); Edward S. Curtis, North America1l Indians (r907-30), with the twenty folio volumes of photogravures; and the recently acquired two volumes of Historic American l11dians (1961-63) by F. A. Rinehart. As difficult as glass negatives are to preserve and utilize, every opportunity has been taken to secure the early gbss negatives of photographers who did notable work in Colorado and other western states. The films of recent photographers are less of a problem because of the ease in storing and handling them, but they are as significant in content as the earlier glass negatives. When L. C. McClure (a photographer who at one time was associated with William H. Jackson in Denver) retired, we acquired his collection of 6,ooo negatives. These include records of early buildings, streets, events in Denver and in other cities throughout the West, mining and railro:.1d development, industries of all kinds, agriculture, and notable scenic views. The negatives matle by Horace S. Poley and Ucnjamin S. Hopkins, both of Colorado Springs, include important views of the Pikes Peak region, Cripple Creek, and portraits of Ute Indians. Special effort has been made to secure early negatives or photographs of western rowns, as well :1s pictures of modern developmt:nts in these locations. Two particularly fine gifts have been the extensive collection built up through the early 190o's by the Rocky Mountain Photo Company and some 47,000 negatives received from the Rocky Mountain News which have greatly augmented our pic torial records of the twentieth century. Another unique group of negatives includes the unusual and striking phmographs of wild in action taken by the famous wildlife pho tographer, A. G. Wallihan, who was a close friend of Theodore Roosevelt and a confirmed naturalist. Colorado's Western Slope was the home o[ a famous early photographer, Thomas M c Kee, of Montrose. He took some of the t:arli e st photographs of Mesa Verde, and we have these as well as examples of his pictures of the Ute Indians. The library also has received a group of negatives from Jesse Nusbaum, first superintendent at Mesa Verde, showing early excavations there. THE WESTERN HISTORY COLLECTION 109 William Henry Jackson's original sample books include nine volumes of his marvelous pictures of the West. He was the first to photograph Y ellowstone National Park and Mesa Verde National Monument. Excellent copy negatives of his own prints have been made. Folios of his hand-tinted photos of American Indians are also in this collection. A recent addition of 20,000 Otto Perry negatives of western railroads will greatly enhance the collection when processed. The Robert E. Eagan photographs of Dodge City. and environs, only recently acquired, include pioneers, famous and infamous people of the early "wild life" there, as wdl as street scenes and happenings. With these are a set of notebooks in which Eagan recorded from the newspaper the items of historic interest with full citation. These serve as guides to more complete research in the original Dodge City papers which are in our Microfilm Cemer. . The comprehensive scope envisioned for the Western History Department permits inclusion of all subjects relating to the West, so from time to time special emphasis has been given to such features as the fur trade, cattle industry, mining operations and promotion, railroads, Indians, foreign elements of population, etc. At present we are particularly active in acquir ing important material on the Chicano, the Indian, and the Negro. Denver has become a focal point for job training of the Indian. There are an ex tremely large number of Mexican-Americans here who are emerging as a strong militant group. All these fields of inquiry are a challenge to acquire basic materials, both in the general circulation areas and in a special department such as ours, for these materials will be imponant cviJmce o( l1istoric struggle a cemury from now. Many times inJividuals in these groups are cooperative and produce private papers from family and friends. RARE BooKs AND DocuMENTs When the mining camps were established in the Rocky Mountains, the enforcement of law and order depended upon local initiative and upon laws and regulations estJb!ished for each mining district. The library has several manuscript copies of these mining district laws, such as Griffith's, 186o; Montgomery's, r861; and Silver Heels', r8p. Also on file are early printed copies for the Central Mining District, 1!>59; the Gregory Mining District, 186o; the Lincoln Mining District, 186o; Union District, r861; and the Spanish Bar Mining District, r86r. There is a copy of the laws of the terriwry of Jefferson printed in Omaha in 1H6o, which is a rare and much soughtafter volume . Early Colorado documents include the Con stitution and Ordinances of the State of Colorado, dl6-1; the State Consti tution ( 1865); A Draft of a Constitution ( 1875); The Constitution ( r876); and "Address to the Pe o ple nl C olorado," a manuscript signed in 1876 by the ten mtmbers appointt:d by the Convemion to draft a State Constitution.


JIO GREAT PLAINS JOURNAL SPRING Among the items relating tO Denver in particular are the first history and city directory, Denver City and Auraria, the Commercial Emporium of the Pikes Region in 1859; The Fiftyniners' Directory, Colorado Argo nauts of 1858-1859, compiled by Henrietta Bromwell; Charter and Or dinances for the years 1862, r866, 187r, and 1875; and Junius Wharton, History of the City of Denver (r866), with marginal notes by John L. Daily, cofounder of the Rocky Mountain News. Much information also is contained in Edward Bliss, A Brief History of the New Gold Regions of Colorado Territory ( 1864); William H . H . Larimer, Reminiscences ( 1905); and H. L. Conard, Uncle Dick Wootton (1890). Of course the library retains m any editions on the expeditions of Lewis and Clark, Stephen H. Long, and Zebulon Pike. M ost recently we acquired the first edition of the Patrick Gass Journal of the Voyages and Travels ... Under the Com mand of Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clark ... (London, 1807). This edition preceded the official account by seven years . Among the accou nts of private expeditions, we have L. H. Garrard, Wah-To-Ya h (1850) and Josiah Gregg, Commerce of the Prairies ( 1851 ), our copy of which has valuable marginal notes and comments by James J. Webb, the Santa Fe merchant. There are too many book s on the early West and overland journeys to mention, but some of our rarities include The Ute War (I!l79), by Dawson and Skiff; History and Directory of Laramie City, Wyoming Territory ... (1875) , and History of Cheyenne and Northern Wyoming ... (1876), by J. H. Triggs; Joel Palmer, Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains ... 1845 and 1846 (1847); The Personal Narrative of James 0. Pattie ( 1833); The Journal of John Wood from Cincinnati to the Gold Diggings in Cali fornia in the Spring and Summer of 1850 ( 1871); C. M. Clark, A Trip to Pikes Peak (1861); Johnson and Winter, Route Across the Rocky Moun tains ( 1846); L. W. Hastings, A New Description of Oregon and California (1857); J ames Linforrh, Route from Liverpool to the Great Salt Lake Valley ( 1855); and the extremely rare Soldier's Letter , Second Colorado Cavalry, a regimental paper to accompany the regiment (r864 1865). There are many notable books and pamphlets on the cattle industry, including the James Cox, His torical and Biogr a phical Record of the Cattle industry and C attleme n of Texas and Adjacent Territory (1895); Prose and Poetry of the Lives tock Industry of the United States ( 1905); Jos ep h C. McC oy, Historic Sketches of the Cattle Trade of the West and South west (1874); A. S. Mercer, Banditti of the Plains (1892); G. B. Loving, The Stock Manual ... Marks and Brands of All the Princip a l Stockmen of Western and Northwestern Texas (1881); and W. P. Brush, Brand Book Containing the Brands of the Cherokee Strip ( 1882); a I so numerous pam phlets, reports, and pictures of the industry in Wyoming, secured through Mrs . Agnes Wright Spring who also has deposited h er private files of Wyoming material. THE WESTERN HISTORY COLLECTION III DocuMENTING THE FRoNTIER THEATER In 1962 an organization meeting for a "Center of Research in Frontier Theater" was called by the late Dr. Campton Bell, head of the School of Theater at the University of Denver. At that time it was decided the West ern History Department of the Denver Public Library would endeavor to collect books, theses-both master's and doctoral-programs and broad sides, pictures of actors and theaters, scrapbooks, personal reminiscences and manuscript material and thus become a center for research in frontier theater. Since the some so,ooo volumes, plus periodicals and newspapers, held in the Western History Department already serve as background material, the emphasis in the Frontier Theater Collection has been to acquire the unpublished and ephemeral items plus the limited number of volumes available which relate to the theater of the West and to the Rocky Moun tain region. There has been no effort to collect the actual plays which were produced. However, one interesting sidelight has been the use of our con siderable collection of dime novels as a basis for television scripts. About 5,000 clippings and theater programs have been assembled, cata loged, and filed into twelve vertical file drawers by state and town. Pro grams of performances during Colorado's territorial period are especially prominent. A complete file of the programs of the Central City (Colo rado) Opera House Play Festival since its beginning in 1931, together with a file of reviews of each performance and biographical information on the performers, is fn:quc:ntly used. Historical information on the Opcr:.t House, which opened in 1878, as well as original programs, is also among these holdings. An interesting aspect of contemporary theater is the revival of the Melo drama in the mountain areas-especially in summer. Hence we are making an attempt to include all available information on the various theaters and groups involved in this revival, including programs. Other summer theater activities are being noted for future research. Many "Little Theater" groups are currently active. These, as well as civic theater projects, frequently change name and location. Part of the raison d' c:tre of the theater file is to chronicle the history and activities of such groups. Related to this are tl1e theatrical projects of various ethnic groups, from the Deutches Theatre of the r88o's to the current Black Theater. Scrapbooks have Leen compiled by devotees of the theater. These include programs, photos of actors and actresses, and clipped reviews of per formances. These scrapbooks may cover a specific theater, a specific period of time, or the general thtater activities of a town or area. Use of these r e veals rare publi cation s p rovi des the flavor of a period or area. Col -


IJ2 GREAT PLAINS JOURNAL SPRING lections of programs relating to specific areas include the Hazel E. Johnson Collection (Greeley, Colorado); the Jesse Randall Collection (Georgetown, Colorado area); the Waddington (Fred Barry) Collection (San Juan, Colorado area). The Chautauqua was active in various areas of the West. Indexing and file arrangements guide the researcher to considerable material in this area. Vaudeville, minstrel shows, and variety theaters are included in the col lection, as well as the circus and Wild West Show. There are numerous items in the department relating to the Wild West Shows of William Frederick ( ' Buffalo Bill") Cody. Many are contained in the collection assembled by Nate Salsbury who was business manager for the shows over a period of many years. Outstanding Salsbury materials are: photographs (over I ,500); programs ( 1 8831909); route cards ( 1893-I91 3); s crapbooks (II volumes of newspaper clippings, r885-1903); periodical extracts and posters. The department has Cody photographs, posters, etc., other than those in the Salsbury Collection, making its holdings among the largest in the world. (Owned by the city and county of Denver is the Buffalo Bill Museum with additional pictorial and written information about the shows. The museum, however, is more concerned with the acqui sition of artifacts than documents.) Other Wil d West showmen represented in the Wild West Collection of the library are Adam Forepaugh, Gordon William Lillie ("Pawnee Bill"), William Frank Carver, the Miller Brothers and the Tompkins Show . Theses and dissertations covering the history of the theater in the West are available in the department. For some areas, Denver for example, the research done has been so systematically distributed as to provide complete coverage. Examples of titles which are especially valuable are Schoberlin's original thesis and the appendix of "From Candles to Footlights: A Chronicle of the Territorial Theater in Colorado," and Campton Bell's "A History of Denver Theater During the Post-Pioneer Period (I88r-I9QI)." Benjamin Draper's "Colorado Theaters, 1855)-1969,'' provides a comprehensive view of more than a century of Colorado theater. Other western cities whose theatrical history has been the subject of theses or disserta tions include Boise, Idaho; Butte, Montana; Deadwood, South Dakota; Sr. Louis, Missouri; Tucson, Arizona; and many others. Routine checking of Dissertations Abstracts, plus an alert eye to the use of our resources by graduate students, ensure the continued acquisition of these valuable aids to rese a rch. The map collection con s ists of approximately 2,000 maps, over r ,ooo of which have been cataloged. Developing rapidly into a valuable and highly useful historical research tool, the collection geographically covers pri marily Denver, Colorado, and the western states. Maps of North America THE WESTERN HISTORY COLLECTION 113 also are included, insofar as they depict western United States history. Explorations and surveys, railroads, trails, mining, and land grants are among the non-geographical subject areas. The percentage of rare and manuscript maps is increasing, since the collection now is recognized as an archival, as well as basic scholarly research unit. Among the rare maps are: a 1730 map of North America by Johann B. Homann; two of the three earliest known maps of Denver, Fosdjck and Tappan, Plan of the Cities of Denver, Auraria and Highlands (1859), and Foster and Marion, Map of Denver, Auraria and Highland (1859); an 1861 Colorado Territory map drawn by Francis Case; and the only known published copy of one of the fiw gold rush guide maps, the North Platte Route to the Gold Mines dated 1859 and signed "J. E. H." Since itinerary and hints for the traveler appear on the back, this is also considered a Pikes Peak guide. Among the important manuscript holdings in the department are the Jacob Adriance diaries of Central City and Black Hawk, Colorado, for 1856--1864, some in the original and others borrowed from various family members and filmed. Adriance was an early Methodist missionary in this district and was instrumental in starting Trinity Methodist Church in Denver. His diaries give insight into a minister's problems and efforts in building religious foundations in a new territory. The original Lemuel Ford diaries, when as a U.S. Dragoon, Ford was in the West from 1834 to 1837, together with the 1851 journal of Josiah M. Rice who was a cannoneer with the Dragoons, offer considt:rable insight intO early military lifl: of the West. A series of letters written by Horace: Greeley to Nathan Meeker, 185o-18p. give instructions concerning the early settlement of the Union Colony at Greeley. Included also are the diaries of William N. Dyers, founder of the Rocky Mountain News and diaries of John Dailey, his partner and cofounder of the same paper. The D. C. Dodge correspondence deals with rates, passes for politic:ll and civil figures, and rebates and drawbacks to favored shippers on the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad for which he was general freight and passenger agent. A recent acquisition added copies of Dodge's speeches on transportation in the West with a natural favor toward railroads. One of the large and fine collections of private papers here is the Gren ville M. Dodge Collection consisting of personal letters, busi . ness cor respondence and papers, and battle reports from the period when he was a Major General during the Civil War and later chief engineer in the building of the Union Pacific Railroad. With this collection came fourteen diaries, dated 1852-1869, of his brother Nathan P. Dodge; these cover the move from Danvers, M : lSSachusetts, to Council nluffs, Iowa, with accounts of Nathan's visits t o Elkhorn, Nebraska, to see another brother, whose letters :Ire ;lso included. The whole collection is further


> ., GREAT PLAINS JOURNAL SPRING enriched by correspondence of their mother, Julia Theresa Dodge, about the social life in both Iowa and Nebraska between the years 1855 and 188o. There are several collections of letters of Indian agents plus reports of battles and the white man's accounts of these. Valuable source information on the Spanish Land Grants is contained in the late Governor Ralph arr papers and scrapbooks acquired from Mrs. Carr; the Frank Springer and Father Stanley papers; and in the sixty-five microfilm reels of documents relating to the New Mexico land grant manuscripts and records located in the U.S. Bureau of Land Management in Santa Fe. To these have been added the late Harold Dunham's papers; Dunham was a professor of Trans-Mississippi hisrory at Denver University. Also housed in the de partment are the microfilm reels of the Spanish Archives of New Mexico, x62I-I821, and the Mexican Archives of New Mexico, 182r-1846. Years ago, John Lawson, who had accumulated much documentary and official material on the United Mine Workers of America during the Lud low (Colorado) incident, deposited his files in the library for the benefit of future research. Since that time the Frederick M. Farrar papers were given by his son. Farrar was attorney general during the time of the jury hearing and court martial proceedings following the Ludlow affatr. Recently personal correspondence and records kept during the Ludlow affair by Ed Doyle, secretary-treasurer of the United Mine Workers of America, District 15, were added through the generosity of his daughter, Mrs. William R. Jackson. A few collections of personal papers, letters, and manuscripts have been deposited, notably of General Irving Hale who was active in the:: Spanish American War and later founded the Veterans of Foreign Wars. All these organizational files are intact as well as his West Point letters and professional papers from his later career as a civil engineer. From Farringmn Carpenter came a collection of records and documents relating to the Taylor Grazing Act. From Mrs. Emily Wilson came a gift of the extensive papers of Eben Smith, her grandfather, who was David Moffat's partner in mining operations and one of the founders of the First National Bank of Denver. Another of our extremely fine collections is the Musicians' Society of Denver Centennial Collection of musical events recorded in programs, scrapbooks, and memorabilia of Denver and Colorado. The Frederi c Remington Colle c tion is rich in his letters and autographed copies of books he illustrated. With these are a few sketches and an oil painting. The manuscript collection can be called versatile, since there are repre sentative material s from most western states . We c a n assist scholars with original source mate rial ranging from a land development scheme in Louisiana in 1718 to the California gold rush in 1H49 and provide on the spot descriptions of the building of Fort Defiance, Arizona, in 1851, and the building of aqueducts in Los Angeles many years later. THE WESTERN HISTORY COllECTION Since have no curatorial staff or field worker, the regular department staff exam111es and makes finding-list records for the manuscripts as time allows. In consequence our contribution to the Library of Congress Manu script Collections is minute compared ro the size of the collection. lt is entirely appropriate that this distinctive Western History Depart ment occupies a spacious and attractive setting with a unique special feature-the beautiful painting, Estes Park, by Albert Bierstadt, executed especially for the home of the Earl of Dunraven in Ireland in 1879 and a gift to the library by Roger Mead in 1948. The Western History Department has achieved widespread recognition as one of the outstanding collections of Western Americana in this coun try, as well as the acclaim of authors, historians, research workers, and seekers of information on the West, both for the materials available and the service of the staff. We believe the policy of the Library Commission in givin? to the preservation of the early history of the Rocky MountaJO regwn has been completely justified.


) }) INTRODUCTION This is a development study of the Civic Center area, often referred to as the "Golden Triangle." One of the smallest neighborhoods of Denver, both in terms of area and population, it is bounded on the West Colfax Avenue, on the east by and Speer Boulevard forms the boundary. Even though these traffic arteries act as barriers, creating an isolated triangular pocket on the map, the Civic Center area has strong links surrounding neighborhoods -especially the and Capitol Hill. The Civic Center Governmental District, an area designated as a Denver landmark district, is the National Register of Historic Places and is located in the northeast corner of the area. CIVIC CENTER GOVERNMENTAL DISTRICT [:;:;):;:);! CIVIC CENTER AREA ••--•--• 1


T A BLE OF INTRODUCTION . Purpose Objectives Historical Background DESCRIPTION & ANALYSIS . . Changing Residential Character Land Use and Zoning • . Circulation . . Streets Parking Bus Routes Bike Paths Pedestrians Environmental Conditions Air Pollution Trees. Floods . Solid Waste EXISTING REGULATIONS CONCLUSION S ... -... DEVELOPMENT POLICIES Land Use Accessibility & Internal Circulation Design & Environment .....••.. 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 . 8 9 10 11 11 15 . 22


DESCRIPTION & ANALYSIS The location of the Civic Center area on the edge of the Central Business District has exposed it to numerous external and internal pressures which have had a significant influence on the socioeconomic and land use patterns. According to the 1972 Denver Community Renewal Program (CRP) report this area was ranked as blighted, based upon an analysis of 15 population and housing-related characteristics. Changing Residential Character The population decline for the Civic Center area as shown in the graph below has been drastic. Between 1960 and 1970 there was a decline of 51 percent in population -from 2,649 persons to 1,293. The 1976 population is 695, a decline of approximately 74 percent from the 1960 population. The 1970 census breakdown indicates that the area had a predominately white population (96%). The housing stock has shown a similar decline from 2,259 dwelling units to 786 dwelling units during th.e period 1950-70. The estimated 1976 count is 515 -a decline of approximately 78% from 1950. POPULATION HOUSING UNITS !1.000 I.DOO 4.DOO 2.000 2.000 t.OOO 0 11160 11180 Cll' "--' DPO f.Miaate Source: DPn Eatimate According to the CRP report, in 1970 approximately 85% of the dwelling units were renter occupied and 9 % were owner occupied; the rest were vacant. In 1976 it estimated that there were 88 % renter-occupied units with only 27 owner occupied houses remaining. The 1970 mean value of housing units was $16,800 and the rental was $58 per month compared to the City averages of $19,500 and $106. The housing problems were demonstrated by a large percentage of units lacking plumbing, built pre-1940, low-rental and low value. 3


Given its location in relation of existing traffic arterials area has great potential as an menting Downtown. Purpose to Downtown Denver, an excellent network and all public services, the Civic Center area of intensive mixed land uses, comple-The purpose of this study is to analyze the existing conditions and trends and formulate development policies for use by the Denver Planning Office, the Planning Board, the Mayor and City Council, concerned government and civic organizations, property owners and neighborhood businesspeople and developers, as a guide to the future development of this area. Objectives 1. To provide policy guidelines for orderly and balanced development and redevelopment of the area. 2. To coordinate development within the Civic Center area with other parts of the City as set forth in the Comprehensive Plan, particularly the Central Business District, Capitol Hill and the Westside. 3. To encourage and protect new and existing developments in the Civic Center area through proper land use policies. 4. To improve external accessibility and internal circulation for the area. 5. To provide design and environmental policies to guide public and private development and improve the image of the area. Historical Background The initial settlement in and near the Civic Center area dates back to 1858, when bands of gold seekers from Kansas organized a company town along Cherry Creek. Subsequent land development and subdivision has been closely tied with the historical development of Denver. The first subdivision recorded in this area dates back to 1885. A rapid growth of residential and commercial and public buildings took place between 1860 and 1920, mostly due to the impact of the State Capitol's construction, completed in 1904. Mayor Robert Speer began efforts for planning of the Civic and between 1912 and 1916 the site for the park was cleared and the Denver Mint and the Library Building (now the Water Board building) were completed. The City-County building was completed in 1932 and the present Public Library built in 1958. In 1971, the Denver Art Museum was completed. Some of the significant redevelopments in the area are the former Forum building, D,enver Public Library, the building formerly used by the United Wav, and the new Police Administration buildings. T here are 15 historic structures in the area that are liste d on the National Regi s t e r o f Historic Places. One of the oldest structures is t h e Byers-Evanshouse built in 1 880 and located at 13th Avenu e and Banno c k Street. 2


) • The housing analysis indicates that much of the present stock is being converted to office uses and the remaining housing is of poor condition. There has been no residential construction in this area since 19 40. The 1970 employment breakdown of the population indicates that 36% were employed in commerce, 30% in industry and the remaining 19% in public and quasi-public service. Out of the resident labor force of 502 in 1970, only 24 persons were unemployed -approximately 5%. The estimated* median family income of this area in 1975 was $9,700 per year as compared to a citywide figure of $12,400. The estimated average number of persons per household was 1.4 in 1975 as compared to 2.1 citywide. The above information indicates that the area is now substantially n o n-residential _ _ redevel92ment wil l probably the o f mixed uses -office, commercial and new high density housing for downtown workers and others. Land Use and Zoning . The Civic Center area comprises 192 acres of land, zoned B-8. The B-8 zone regulations allow almost all types of businesses, commercial and certain industrial and multi-family residential uses. Some o f the uses which may be operated as Uses by Right in this zone are: appliance store, art gallery , assembly without fabrication, auto gasoline station, bank , church, clinic, department store, multiple dwelling unit, eating place, fabrication of certain items, auto repair, garage, hardware store, ho tel, institution, office, parking, retail or wholesale and warehousing and schools. ---------------1976 GROSS LAND Acres tl i. Streets and Alleys 76 39.6% Commercial and Offices 28 1 4.6 Off-Street Parking 26 13.5 Industrial 19 9.9 Public and Quasi-Public 19 9.9 Public Open Space 11.2 5.8 Residential 9.2 4.8 Evans School Site 1.5 0.8 Vacant Land 1.5 0.8 _Utility and Communication 0.6 0.3 192.0 100.0% T he largest land use element in the area is streets and alley s (39.6% o f the gross area) . At present, commercial use is the next largest land use, spread throughout the area, and occupying of the gross land . Approximately 13.5% o f the land is presently used as parking . . The per acre v alue o f land and improvements f o r all uses in this area is very high relative t o the res t of t h e City , due to public and qu a s i-publ i c developm e n t and its l o cation near the d ownt own. The land valu e s in the Civi c C e nter area var y f rom $10 to S20 per square foot. a s compa r ed t o Down land valu e variation o f $10 t o $90 s q u a r e foot. * Source: D enver P lanning Office 4


In spite of the high floor area ratio (FAR) of 4:1 permitted in this B-8 zone, the existing developed FAR is extremely low and the majority of structures are of one and two stories. The public park in Civic Center Governmental district is the area's major open space. It is well maintained and well used by many city residents.and visitors during the day time, with occasional evening musical functions. The narrow strip of open space along Cherry Creek is another open space element. These open spaces are focal points of recreation for the area. Evans Elementary School, now closed, was last used as a school in 1973 and has been privately acquired. Finding a use that will preserve the structure is high priority for the area. There were several buildings formerly used for educational purposes by the Community College of Denver and the Metropolitan State College, but with the opening of the Auraria Higher Education Center these buildings are now vacant. The University of Denver Law School located at 14th Avenue between Bannock and Cherokee Street, has bought the 10 story Forum Building. A bridge is planned to link the two structures and a third law school building is to be built on Bannock Street. There are two churches in the Civic Center area -the Faith Temple Church at West 11th and Acoma Street and the Faith Bible Chapel at West 9th and Acoma Street. The Federal Mint building, the City-County building and the State Capitol are located in the Civic Center Governmental district on the north end of the neighborhood. There are plans for major additions to the main Denver Public Library building located at 14th and Broadway. The Art Museum, located in the block bounded by West 13th Avenue, West 14th Avenue, Acoma and Bannock Streets, plans to add an auditorium, possibly for shared use with the Library. The new Police Administration building on the block bounded by West 13th and 14th Avenues, Cherokee and Delaware Streets, is now completed and approximately 760 will be employed in this complex. The new Fire Headquarters building located on the fringe of the area at West Colfax Avenue and Welton Street is ideally located to serve Civic Center. The State Judicial-Heritage Center is located adjacent to the Civic Center The Denver City-County Detoxification and Halfway House Receiving Center, operated by the Department of Health and Hospitals, is located at West lOth Avenue and Speer Boulevard. These facilities provide a useful social service on a citywide basis. Most of the light industrial and service uses, such as auto related services and printing shops, tend to cluster south of 11th Avenue and west towards Speer Boulevard.


Circulation Streets The Civic Center area is bounded by heavy arterial streets Broadwa y on t h e east, West Colfax on the north, and Speer Boulevard on the southwest. Large volumes of 'through' traffic in the area occur on West 13th Avenue, West 8th Avenue and Bannock Street. All other streets within the neighborhood carry low volumes of traffic. Parking ---.. ... ,AVERAGE DAILY TRAFFIC VOLUME 1975 13th ••• 12th be 8th An MN%' 15 000 & OYER 10 000 -15 000 5000-10000 3000-5000 There are a large number of surface parking lots in the area because of: a) to major employment centers, tourist facilities and public buildings, and b) low parking rates attracting Central Business District users. These lots generate of t h e internal traffic of the area. The 1976 off-street parking break down is public lot p ublic garage private lot priva t e garag e Total off-stree t 6 approximately as 2453 Spaces 66 39 7 5 1 40 663.!. Spaces follows:


Off-street parking comprises 13.5% of the total land use of Civic Center area (approximately 26 acres). There are no lots zoned exclusively for parking in this area. A large portion of the present off-street is located on sites which have been cleared of old structures and appear to be held in hope of some higher return in the future. If these lots are absorbed by new construction, parking problems could increase in the area • . Bus Routes There is adequate bus service in the area along Colfax, Broadway, West 14th Avenue, West 11th Avenue, portions of Bannock Street, and Delaware Street. The Free Ride shuttle bus serves the City and County Building, the Mir.t, and the Art Museum, and a good linkage with downtown and lower downtown. Bike Paths Existing bike routes are along Acoma Street, West lOth Avenue east of Acoma Street, West 14th Avenue east of Acoma Street, and along Civic Center open space. In addition, there is a newly constructed bikeway along Speer Boulevard north, extending from West Colfax to Downing Street. Pedestrians Almost all the sidewalks are well maintained, although there is a lack o f curb-cut ramps for the handicapped in certain locations. The new Police Administration block is a good example of pedestrian-oriented development, encouraging through-block pedestrian movement. Environmental Conditions Air Pollution The nearest air monitoring site to the Civic Center area is located at 21st and Broadway, along a busy arterial boulevard. Conditions measured at this site are considered to be representative of air quality in the area. The one-hour carbon-monoxide standard is 35 parts per million parts of air. This standard was exceeded on two days in 1974 and again in 1975 at 21st and Broadway. The eight-hour carbon monoxide standard is 9 parts per million parts of air. This standard was exceeded on 29 days in 1974 and 21 days in 1975, at 21st and Broadway . . The one-hour total oxidant standard •is .08 parts per million parts of air. This standard was exceeded on . 9 days in 1974 and 5 days in 1975, 'again at 21st and Broadway. Auto traffic is the main con tributorto air pollution in Civic Center and the metro area. Trees Trees are becoming scarce in the Civic Center area due to site clearanc e for automobile parking lots. A good stand of American Elm follows the Creek along S peer Boulevard. Within the neighborhood a few varieties, such as cotton wood, maple, spruce, and elm still flourish. T here is no major disease problem in of these stands. Priv ate develo pers are not req u i r ed t o plant trees, altho u gh a few have voluntarily done so. It should be the City1s policy t o encourage a dditional tree planting. 7


Floods A portion of the Civic Center area has a potential flood hazard from Cherry Creek. The standard hundred year flood would inundate Colfax Avenue between Speer Boulevard and Fox Street. A larger flood would additionally flood the southern and western corners of the area. The city administration has been applying for public works federal funds to finance a construction project which would alleviate this flood threat. vegetation between the walls of Cherry Creek would have to be removed as a part of the remedy. Selected, low growing shrubs and a hiker/biker maintenance trail would be placed back in the channel after the existing debris was removed. Access ramps to the Creek would be placed at various points along Speer Boulevard. The project will begin as soon as funds become available. It is a top pri ority program of the City. Solid Waste The Denver Sanitary Service Division of the Department of Public Works provides for the collection and disposal of all residential waste including garbage, trash and yard materials. Free collection service is provided to all dwellings up to seven units on a once-a-week basis. 8

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EXISTING REGULATIONS The following regulations control development in the Civic Centerarea. a. Zoning: The existing B-8 zoning allows almost all types of development at a floor ratio of 4:1 with premiums for additional floor area for plazas and arcades. Height and bulk of building development is controlled by the floor area ratio. There are no requirements of building setbacks under this zoning. Off-street parking requirements are as per Ordinance 125 of 1967 of the Revised Municipal Code of the City and County of Denver. The provision of off-street spaces is based upon proposed land use of the lot. For multifamily dwelling units open space requirements are applicable. EXISTING ZONING b. Civic Center Mountain View Preservation Ordinance The Revised Municipal Code of the City and County of Denver, Ordinance No. 132, Series of 1971, limits the height of structures within the northern portion of the Civic Center area. c . Civic Center Sign Ordinance The Revised Municipal Code of the City and County of Denver, Ordinance No. 2 1 0-1969 , restricts certain advertising signs within 150 feet of the delineated civic Cenr:er District. This area includes part of the Civic Center area. 9

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) d. Civic Center Height Control Ordinance • Of' • • This 1973 ordinance regulates heights of structures within the Civic Center District and affects a small portion of the north-east of ... .t _he_ Center __ . _. . _ _ _ _ _ _____ _ e. The Speer Boulevard (north and south) Parkwav Ordinance Ordinance No. 185, Series of 1960, of the Revised Municipal Code of the City and County of Denver designates Speer Boulevard as a parkway south from Federal Boulevard to Downing Street. According to this ordinance, the Manager of Parks and Recreation may file with the Building and Zoning Departments the setback requirements along this parkway. CONCLUSIONS civic Center, formerly a residential area, is today an area in transition. Many of the single and multi-family houses are being replaced by parking lots. Some of the residential buildings have been converted to offices and commercial uses. Over the last few years there has been a significant increase in the number of vacant structures due to closing or moving out of several large businesses and educational institutions. The Civic Center area offers future possibilities for development and redevelopment for intense mixed land uses due to its proximity to downtown and major cultural and governmental facilities. It also provides land values that are lower in comparison to those in Denver's Downtown with a location very close to the downtown area . 10

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DEVELOPMENT POLICIES LAND USE M ixed Lan d Uses 1 A DIVERSITY OF LAND USE, INCLUDING OFFICE, RESIDENTIAL, COMMERCIAb, AND LIGHT INDUSTRIAL, SHOULD BE MAI17AINED WITHIN THE CIVIC CENTER AREA AND A LA...'ID USE ARRANGEMENT SHOULD BE WHICH WILL STRENGTHEN THESE ACTIVITIES AND IMPROVE THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO DOWNTOWN AND TO THE ADJACENT NEIGHBORHOODS. Within the Civic Center area, a compatible land use mix and land use arrangement should be encouraged. This could be achieved by: 1) concentrating mixed high density commercial uses along the Colfax and Broadway edges; 2) maintaining public and goverr.mental uses in the Civic Center District near Civic Center Park; 3) locating a mix of office, commercial, and residential development near Speer Boulevard and in the interior part of the neighborhood; and 4) concentrating light industrial uses generally south of 11th Avenue, since dispersed pockets of industrial uses are unlikely to attract new office, business, or residential development to the area. 1 1

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LAND USE Density 2 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CIVIC CENTER AREA SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED AT AN OVERALL DENSITY WHICH WOULD COMPLEMENT THE DOWNTOWN ARE...o\. The existing Downtown core area should continue to be the most intensive commercial area in the City. Redevelopment of the Civic Center area at a comparable density would be detrimental to both areas. The Civic Center area, however, due to its location has great potential in providing support functions for Downtown and for businesses requiring nearby parking. 12

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LAND USE Residential Development 3 THE CIVIC AREA HAS SEEN A DRASTIC REDUCTION OF HOUSING STOCK DUE TO DEMOLITIONS AND CONVERSIONS. NEW HIGH-DENSITY AND HEDIUM DENSITY RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPHENT AND USES TO HOUSING SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED IN CERTAIN PARTS OF THIS AREA. New and existing residential development would provide for 'after office hour population' and other activities associated with resident population. New housing within the area would minimize, to some extent, the dependence upon autos and .public transit. The Speer Boulevard edge of Civic Center has some potential for high density housing for students, single working persons, elderly people (who would like to live near down town), and a limited amount of subsidized rentalhousing. However, the high cost of land and fragmented ship makes such redevelopment difficult. The City could encourage some property owners along the Speer edge to acquire additional land for development thrcugh vacation of certain streets and alleys. The City also could encourage residential-officecommercial development on a planned building group basis, allowing in some cases air right developments above public rights-of-way, shared parking (daynight) among adjacent uses and new incentives to make housing development economically feasible. 13

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LAND USE Optimum Land Utilization 4 EFFICIENT PLANNING OF STREETS, ALLEYS, AND AIR RIGHT DEVELOPMENTS SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED THROUGH OPTIMUM UTILIZATION OF LAND. A high proportion of land in this area (approximately 40 percent) is used for streets, .alleys and public rights-of-way. Along Speer Boulevard north there are many egress and ingress points for auto traffic. Through the cooperation of property owners, imaginative site planning layouts, vacation of certain streets and alleys, and incentives for air right developments over public rights-ofway, more efficient use of the land could be achieved. 14

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ACCESSIBILITY AND INTERNAL CIRCULATION Pedestrian Movement 5 A NETWORK OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PEDESTRIAN WALKWAYS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED !rlAT WOULD IN CORPORATE HIGH OF DESIGNWITH STREET FURNISHINGS, PLANTING, ARCADES, AND CAREFULLY SCALED TO ENCOURAGE PEOPLE MJVEMENT. A pedestrian walkway system could be provided through the Civic Center area, linking Down town and Denver General Hospital. Development of a walkway system requires coordination of public and private sectors as new projects are planned and built in this area. Pedestrian elements like planting, walkways, arcades, and plazas could be coordinated for the benefit of the public. Since this area is small enough in size and adequately served by public transit on its periphery, a pleasant internal network of pedestrian walkways is a real possibility. 15

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ACCESSIBILITY AND INTERNAL CIRCULATION Bikeway 6 NEW DEVELOPMENT SHOULD UTILIZE AND IMPROVE THE EXISTING BIKEWAY SYSTEM BY ADEQUATE CONNECTIONS AND BIKE STORAGE. The level topography and low traffic volume in the Civic Center area provide a unique opportunity to and new bikeway systems with future developments. Also, the need for an east-west bike route through the area should be examined. 16

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ACCESSIBILITY AND INTERNAL CIRCULATION Auto Movement 7 THE EXISTING NETWORK OF STREETS AND ALLEYS FOR AUTO MOVEMENT SHOULD BE REPLANNED TO DISCOlffiAGE HIGH VOLUMES OF THROUGH TRAFFIC. Heavy vehicular traffic is presently confined to the fringe of the area and the arterial streets West 8th, West 11th, West 13th, West 14th Avenues and Bannock Street. The remaining streets carry low volumes of vehicular traffic. With the closure of certain streets and alleys and creation of 'super blocks' (allowing auto access to properties but preventing unnecessary through traffic), the impact of the automobile could be curtailed. Simultaneously with the improvement of pedestrian and bikeway links and public transit, the noise and pollution could be reduced to some extent. The present image of the area should be changed from auto and parking oriented to people oriented. 17

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ACCESSIBILITY AND INTERNAL CIRCULATION Public Transit 8 THE PRESENT ROUTE OF THE FREE RIDE BUS SHOULD BE EXTENDED TO LINK THE DENVER GENERAL HOSPITAL COMPLEX WITH DOWNTOWN. --.... ---The extension of the Free Ride would provide convenient public transit within the Civic Cen ter area while making it easier to travel from 6th Avenue and Denver General Hospital to Down town. Ultimately it could be desirable to connect this area with Downtown through some public transit system, depending on development in Civic Center and the location of future transit corridors. 18

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ACCESSIBILITY AND INTERNAL CIRCULATION Parking 9 ADEQUATE SHARED PARKING STRUCTURES SHOULD BE PLANNED AS NEW DEVELOPMENT TAKES PLACE WITHIN THE AREA TO MEET THE NEEDS OF THE EXISTI N G EXPANDING PUBLIC USES AND TO SERVE THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT. Off-street parkingwill continue to exist and may increase in the area. Presently, the Civic Center area provides for 6,634 off-street parking spaces. Many of these spaces may be displaced through future redevelopment. The Public Library, Art Museum, City-County building and State Judicial and Heritage Center all need parking facilities for visitors and employees. rhe Downtown area attracts visitors, tourists, and employees who use significant numbers of off-street parking spaces in the Civic Center area. A parking garage in the vicinity of the Art Museum and the Public Library should be planned and built by the City, as outlined in the 1973 Civic Center Parking study of the Denver Planning Office. Consideration should be given to shared parking arrangements between private development and public buildings. The existing on-street parking along Speer Boulevard north should be eliminated for reasons of safety and efficient traffic flow.

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. ACCESSIBILITY AND INTERNAL CIRCULATION Goods Movement 1Q TO PREVENT CONFLICT AND DISRUPTION OF TRAFFIC, TRUCK LOADING AND UNLOADING FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS BE ORGANIZED. Adequate off-street loading and unloading facilities should be provided and related to individual use needs of the new developments. Alley and-curbside loading and unloading should be discouraged to avoid conflict with transit, auto traffic and pedestrian movement. No on-street loading facilities should be permitted along Speer Boulevard. 20

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ACCESSIBILITY AND INTERNAL CIRCULATION Improved Intersection 11 HAZARDOUS INTERSECTION S SHOULD BE IMPROVED TO PROVIDE SAFE AND EFFICIENT TRAFFIC CIRCULATION. Several intersections should be redesigned and improved, particularly at 8th Avenue, Bannock Street and Speer Boulevard. Improved intersections would add to safety, efficiency and better circulation of auto, pedestrian and bike traffic. Indirectly, such improvements would help reduce noise and air pollution. 21

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1 DESIGN AND ENVIRONMENT _ Cherry Creek Improvements 12 WATER AND OPEN SPACE ELEMENTS ALONG CHERRY CREEK SHOULD BE DEVELOPED FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE RECREATION. Cherry Creek presently has good potential for active and passive recreation if properly improved. The existing barriers of traffic arterials and inaccessibility to the waterway could be changed through major improvements such as a series of pedestrian-bike underpasses that would link the Civic Center area with Cherry Creek. The Cherry Creek waterway and open space element should be developed fully for the benefit of the area's residents and visitors.

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DESfGN AND ENVIRONMENT . . Open Spaces 13 POCKETS OF MINI-PARKS AND PLA..ZAS COORDINATED WITH PEDESTRIAN WALKWAYS AND PUBLIC AMENITIES SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED IN PRIVATE REDEVELOPMENT, FOR THE BENEFIT OF EMPLOYEES VISITORS. The present zoning has no open space or setback requirements for non-residential uses. The Civic Center open space and the Sunken Gardens provide adequate facilities for open space needs. However, new non-residential and office buildings should be encouraged to provide small landscaped open spaces or plazas linked to public walkways, bikeways, and major open spaces as part of their developments. These small planted or landscaped spaces could enhance the ar.ea' s environment and image. Additional pockets of public open spaces could be developed in the neighborhood through closure of certain alleys and streets. Such street-alley closures would give added opportunity in the vicinity of the churches and the Evans School property for well landscaped plazas. 23

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'\ , , _j.; DESIGN AND ENVIRONMENT Streetscape 14 '. COORDINATED PROGRAMS FOR LANDSCAPING, STREET FURNITURE, AND PEDESTRIAN-BIKEWAY FACILITIES SHOULD BE DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE A FUNCTIONAL UNIFYING IMAGE TO THE AREA. Recognizing that redevelopment will take place over time, a coordinated design approach should be formulated for public and private landscaping, walkway surfaces, bikepaths, street furniture, traffic and light standards, and bus shelters. This would give direction to the developers for better streetscape design and would give a strong internal identity to the area. Hard surface areas now used for truck loading and parking between sidewalks and curbs should be replaced with grass, shrubs, and trees. 2 4

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DESIGN AND ENVIRONMENT Preservation and Renovation 1fi PRESERVATION RENOVATION OF THE OLDER HISTORIC BUILDINGS SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED IN ORDER TO PRESERVE THE REMAINING HISTORIC HERITAGE ADD INTEREST AND VARIETY TO THE AREA. Apart from the 15 structures already listed on the National Register, there are 14 structures within this area listed in the inventory of Denver Landmarks that are being considered for designation as historic landmarks or whose qualifications for historic designation are undetermined. The Denver Landmark Preservation Commission will initiate designation of these structures, where appropriate, in order to contribute to preservation of the historic heritage of the area. The Evans School building, listed in the Denver Historic Inventory, as a structure that has some historic and architectural significance, is presently in a state of neglect and deterioration. Priority should be given for its designation as a Denver landmark. This building has potential for different uses . .,; ..

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DESIGN AND ENVIRONMENT 13 th Avenue Edge 16 A UNITY OF PLANTING AND SURFACE TEXTURES SHOULD BE DEVELOPED ON PROPERTIES ALONG 13TH A VENUE. Thirteenth Avenue from Lincoln Street to Delaware Street provides an opportunity to create a unified landscaped edge through planting and surface textures. A Public Service Company of Colorado substation is scheduled to b . e built on 13th Avenue and Elati Street. New development is also planned for the block between Broadway and Bannock Street along West 13th Avenue, as well as expansion of the Main Library. These developments provide added opportunity for treatment of this edge. 28

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' ' DESIGN AND ENVIRONMENT Speer Boulevard Edge 17 CONTINUITY OF GREENS.PACE AND ALONG SPEER BOULEVARD SHOULD BE MAINTAINED TO CREATE A PARKWAY IMAGE. Speer Boulevard is a wide arterial, well planted along the Cherry Creek side; however, the edge of the Civic Center area along Speer Boulevard is fragmented with numerous auto access points and small irregularly shaped lots. The present zoning allows to be built without any setbacks. New development along Speer Boulevard north should be directed towards reasonable building setbacks, better landscaped edges and low height structures that would not dominate Speer Boulevard. With the cooperation of the property new development along Speer Boulevard should be directed towards reinforcing a parkway design.

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. P DESIGN AND ENVIRONMENT .Signs 18 PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SIGNS SHOULD BE DESIGNED AND PLACED WITH AN AWARENESS OF THEIR ROLE AS COMMUNICATION DEVICES AND AS MAJOR ELEMENTS OF THE TOTAL VISUAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE AREA. Public signs often appear to be redundant both in number and message. The design of public signs should be coordinated as to shape, color, type, style, layout, and placement. Public signs should be placed with regard for the buildings around them and the views beyond them. • .._Private signs should conform to the Denver Sign and the ordinance should be conscientiously enforced. New private signs should be designed with an awareness of their impact upon the larger visual environment of the area . 28

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KA TOll OF DDfVER Booorabla Willi .. B. KcMichola, Jr. D!!IVD. CITY C:OUIICIL Elvia 1.. Caldwell, Praaideat l.arry J. Perry Ja.ea J. llolan K.L. 'Saa' Sandoa Paul A. Reatzell LenDeth K. Kaclatoab l.. lloa tavard F. Burke, Jr. Salvatore 'Sal' Carpio Ca lloaohue vuu-11. &oberu Stepbea P. Grogaa Cathy George A. CaveDder, O..i .... a Harold V. Cook !dvard F. Burke, Jr. lkl.iDley li.llrria Jllarjor1e llorubeu Philip 1!.1latd.11 Jllarie 1.. iock Wilson B. ioup Tanya Wood DEIN!1 I'UJIIIUIC orne! Alaa L. Canter, Director of Plaaaina lobert .A.. Da.erau, .l.aaiataot Direetot' .A.. Cordon Appe.11, P lalmillg Coordinator lillie Bramhall. Chief, S.all Area Plaaoiag Dtviaion Doug Goedert, Planner, Central Area Section llart, Pl....,er, Central Area Section 'Ved 'Var.a tt!'OJtT CllAP'IllCS . , Paul Svetllt Lui Rabenoan l.en &ariu:sa TTPDIG Shirley Jean Carey ,.

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Appendix Formulas and Tables Tht •pptttdlf til tltt mtJjot "WOrk by K qtl D . Plan nina Academic and Rc Ubrary Buildlnp, art 11 lmporr1nr l!1ll Utily coruulttd u tltt ltxt itJtlf l'trhltps of Jrrlltlt 11/ility to tht librory plonrtt' iJ Mttclll(l Apptmlix 8, F01mulu 1ttd Tobltt. h't rrprirtt it lt('rr for thr rradu i 11Jt 11 • qukl rtftrtnc-t wutrt . T1tt mon. r rrftrrrtm to clutpttr lttGdinp , ptJftl . 11nd fitut-tl 11t-t, of count, to tht ori,vul full ttxt of lotttc•l(l ..-orA: 01 publilhtd by McCro.,.lli/1 iiii96J. ll1< ficuruaivrn here art at but only appr oxiona t ionJ and may be altered by local conditions : thty ut not arrivrd at by euct Klentlflc cal c ulation . Six aroupt arc dull with : those rtlatinc to : 1.. Column rpacina . Stt abo Chaptcr 4 . II . Ceilina hciJhts and noorsize ueu. Sec abo ChapterS . Ill. Rudcr accommodationJ . See &lso Chapter 1 . IV. Book uoraac (ucludina problems that arc allrcttd by column spacina) . Sec abo Chaptrr 8 . V . Cud cauloaucr . Stt &lso Stctions 11. 2 and 16. 3 . VI. Govcmmcntllanduds. I . ColutnJt Spoclltf A . Stock Arcu No one siu It for column sizn o . r oolumn tpadna . Other thinp beina equal,the hrarr the bay s.iu , tht belltr,so lon1 u It docs not und uly incruu construction costs, noor to noor hti&Jlu , or column slut. Column spaclna that b, the distan c e buwcen column centers -is aenerally more important in concentrated Slack areas than In comb i ned stack a11d rcadlna ueu because in the lallu suitable adjullrntnlJ arr enicrlo make. Clear space between columns this b not the spac e between column centtrJ -In a c o lumn rwce 1hould prtfrubly be 1 multiple of 3 ft (plus an a ddit i onal 4 in. to providr for lrrrcubr ilies i n the c o lumn sltn and for the end upri&/111 in the nnJ< ) . RanJII' sp•cinl and nnae lcnctlu have a arutciatloa of Ruun:h Ubrw&, u!>du• '""'by lh< C ouncil oa Ubrur RciOUrcrt ; copyrlcht 196:1 ll>t Amm c u Ubmr Auo
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; n ! I I 1 I Ill AI1'[NiliX: fORMULAS AND TABUS TARLE I . lA !:<)lJAI'. E WITII TilE COLUMN Sr•rtNG A t-IULTII'I....E OF J FT (PLUS lj rT rott ritE COLUMN ITSElf)• S".f nk>u r., t.h t lf..a.t f ! l In,t •pedn.c h liU&ni'U, I b4) O D ce.aftrl thndud )' 19"6' X 19'6' 6 nor 6 • •. ,0 • ' ) n ll'6'. 1)'6' 7 ' ) 't' 7 ' n 7 4 nr ll'6' • H '6' 1 nr ' 4')" 'T 4 6 ' 4 • liT x 11'6" ' • n • or 4'9" nj" ' C<•I"Ot W .. idor thaJo t ... O( t,l,. " " ' ' I' 1 Uln lo!IIJCrOiod . dtpth wilh tht knat h on tht a moun t of Ust. 4 . SpociJtJ 4 ft 6 ln. loS fl it Jrnrrous tHn f u r htovily O(Wn o cctn unduauduolt stack if ronats orr I 5 hlona ond h 61n. 011 ccnttrt, ond In clocum•lancfl UJ> to JO fllf 5 (1 on c enlert . 5 . Spodna SIt 10 S f1 10 ln. h u11nccuurily tmerous for ony rta vhr suc k •hchir•a vod i t often ldeqUllte for pe1iod, oua-11 u 4 "" 4 4 ll' s 4 4 4 12!' s s 4 ]4' ' s Hf ' s 11' ' ' • A arn.f, •• \&Mid here. it .. .,. .. •bktt a euder .. C\lt oiT from ... , lldahboc wloo .. dooorth&a J n ....... lh lid• or (oa 4 0 ) llllleao th.t froat t.blo ... It •• bact 4 lo 6 Ia., a.nd umiat cJ\aln on .....t,la w!Ud cualht 4111•""" oo.,... tat an w ""'"""" lo 4 n . ,.., dlotuco •••• n 6 Ia . ir vru-..rlly ,.,auo.._ A doat '""'"" o( 11 lo . Of 010 .. bctw .. o wortlnc auf""'" a.nd ,..thloa at tho lUI lo ,....,. omn>tlnc uol ... k• 1 deor taW. dulnblo. t OUtan< bctw-cat .. tbo..W •ldo• w lui thu 4 n ' Ia.; S nIt pnfmod; ..,)'thine poater It ,..._ arllr ,awrCHU. Wlt.lllrip&.4aaorod tho bact of th< QUlter ooc sho..&4 be kW dow•IO.., 110r. thu 10 ln . abo .. tho lablo top. I Tho dltlltKlt Wlw-.. ...., ..... bc aot '-thaa 4 0 6 Ill. ; and S 0 It pn(und. Wotcll out (or _,LUatlooa.. A window lo pcrcllotop:ally a-d c:anw uo 1101 reromme...s..l (or .....tupwlutn co'"' ltudnt DOl tctuaUy • .,.,.d 18 writ lac 1 du-lllloa.. CW. Ill lho door or pilU &hould w prowlded fot ••pOJil bill Mt lootiL ()oo I<• tl>aa 'n ponlld to IN 4colc wiD 101 pdowwtl. aUy but lnrolve lnaeavd cod, unuud cubic foouce, and uus to allow the slain to a hlJher Ceilln&llciJIIU hove (uncdonal minimums also, and if ttdiiCtd btyood them may bt unpleuant to the uun, m1y seriously afTw boot tapodly and 1\u.lbillty,and nuy netdltaly compllcale li&Jilln&and YCntihtio n . Tobie B . S sugcstJ functional minimum11nd mulmurN. B . Flo Arru Both the number of Ooora ill 1 library and the area of udl Ooor nuy be imp< tJni (unctlotWly and testhctically . IXcisions in ttprd to tlum moy propelly be lnOucnoed by tht site sunouodlnp, UIC .lope of the pound, and nlue or 1M propcny . 11 iJ obvious, bowcvcr, tlut a lk)'1Cnpcr with only sq rr on udl noor would be undcunble and that a 2SO,OOO sq-ft area on one Ooor would lnrolvc unoettllll)' aod undeJinblc horiwolal Table 8 . 6 whlc h or best •n only opproxlmatioru, u to the peranhp: of 1M IJOU squue foota,e of • libruy build inc whlch fuocllo111Uy &hould be on the t(!lrana Of ntnJ. .,mces kvelln 1 typlal aadcmic l ibnry. Ill. Aommod4rlo"" for Rt.dcn $(-&tin& accommO
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I 1 AII' [ NIJI'<. (Oil'IULAS AN() TAillES TAill R . S CLFAR CEilJt..: G IIE IGirTS '""'' ,r . . . . . . . . . '' r i,ht •n,Jr t o , , , , c , ........... . I .. II h u,hh 011 I &nrc tnpt b y tvilin.c uflrn\on . . . , . . . RuJtn, IIUJ undct 100"' h .. lr.-J b'ldu.aJ toUIItl l in l,l)t IIUI . Lure trad in c toom . t ower 100 fl a..u, , b•u•C'n br IC'IhPnt or bo'' lcaws' ........ ... . Aulloroolumt up t o UUO oq It . r J'Itrt-nc e O f nuin IC'\'•rl with O'f'C'1 1 0 .1100 tq 1\ .••••.....• Floot .. u h nl(Uininef. . .... . ... t 'O" 1'6" 1 '4" , ... n , .,. IJ'6 S uuuttd hU\ctMuul nu-..mum• . .,. . .,. , .,. . . ,. n 10'6 10'4. 10'6. liT •ttci'''" l o • u than arcciftcuuon , but ttilinc lhould be UC>Ouecl and p-.J 'l"t'n t i Ut l o n ltturtd. Fin.ancul uwinp wW bt C'Oin re11II"Tiy ln\AU. •c"''"' mar be utelulattlh• t o p oh<>'>lt on tht l o p ola ll. If th< n ....... ... nuLlo O f neaol) fluoh ., ith tht eor .... (buiiWnc rud tio n 1'. Addot ionalsp ac.e rcquir t d lor to r r:adr11 TARLE R . 6 SUGGESTED F OK.MULAS FOK P E RCENT A G E o r C..:IIOSS SQUARE FOOTAGE FUNCTIONALLY llESIK.Aill ON TilE C ENTRALSt:K\'ICT S L EVEL• ..tmilnum Cto•hit.Jina Siu of rolkC1ion1 pt:INnlll"fl .. .. In"' ft ln YOiumu ot 110 u .,, on ""''-t.trvk--ca len I Unclu 10.000 Ut>dto I 00, 000 40-$0 )0 ,000 4 j ,000 100. 000-HO.OOO ll\ • O 40 .ooo ... o ,000 lJ0,000-!00, 000 H -ll\ 1S ,000-UO,OOO J00, 000 1.000 . 000 1D-JO llS,OOO. 1 .000. 000. "Cmlt&l •rYiccs 11 IOIc11ons, oh< public atalo1u•, and ac q..Woioa and ... d •putm < nll . Tbc:e.t oompuiJiiontatt 1pproUrru1"'"' only . but WNUtt r.wtl in lau column wil.l ofte n ahintn, p111 olthc ccnrral atorictt t o o th'i ded . The m o rt ulisfaclory lht ac:conunodali o m and the strvi ces prov i ded, lhe artalcr the ) . The quality or the collc c li o ru . SuJ'<'riO I c o llections incrust usc. 4 . The curriculum . In cencnl, sludcnu in thf humanities and s ocl alsc ienC'ts uu the libnry more than do thou In the pure a n d applied scie nces. S . The emphasis pla c til on lex t boo k inlltuct ion, ltndslo redu c e l i brary usc. 6 . Whether the sludcnt b od y Is rcsldent o r commu tin& and,lf tht forfn<'r . '*he liter th e dor m il orin provide suitable tt udy h cilirie s . llcaviesl tibrary usc In m011 resident ial i nsl i t u l ion s u in t h < cvtn l na ; in commut i na ones, d urin & t h e day timt h ou n . 1 . Whuoha n . o r uoban. urge pop u lati o n cenltn ttnd l o decrrue rvenin1 Ust br cautt of olhrr availabl• activil ics &nd allra c t lons. 8 . Whfthu lht lmli tuli o o t b cotducarion a l o r f o r one ux only . C ocd u c u ion ltnds l o incrcuc tibrary uoc, par ticululy in t h e e ven i n s . ' ' l ht tntphnispl>etd by the f>•u lt\' ""!lo t Jnd tH\ O ttnlt.'C.tbnuk ltJdPIJ I U 1 ht Jl<'rCtntJgt of \l utltnll 111d tlot lidll1 on which thty w01rk. II The instilution ' s polky in rtpod tn unnt c ttd wtth ir. Tlot dtpaotmenral hbmy unnctrn cnts ,. hich may nuke avait.ble o ther rndi111 facilit itl and rtduct thr uH of the ctntullibury. T a bit U . 7 sur.getts formulu for of trudenll f u r ,. h o m UJt in& i s\ltd . II . Suuntionsfa r T y/HI o {SrllrilltArronomr klo ttons 111d tht Ptrctlflllft of Eac h T J ' /H I. For Unduauduatu: a. Tablu for four or mort . Not m ore than 20 I"'' ctnl. Should be IJr&tiY rutri cted to th ose in rtwrvt b oo k and rtferencc rooms . b . L o ungt chain. Not more than IS pCitlonal a J U ooUc,e ln rwaJ uu or urulJ t ow • •.• S urrrior ruidearW ant coUe,e for m e n or w o men ln runl uu Of l n\&.IJ l u •-n . ••.•..••••••..••••... S upUnly. HI J . lables fnr f our 01 more 11i th putolttont on b ot h d i recth•ns . Stc foJ . lb. A fttJI lmprovuntnt ovu a lablt f01 four .,tthnul partit i ons . 4 . Pinwhctl arra n &emtnl f u r four S
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Ill AI' I'FNiliX : FOIHIULAS Al\ll TARL[S H U(flf\ ShQUid pftnidtd hll h"ully ll't' mhtl\ (IIJlRtd Ill fC\.C Jh: h rft l) t (IJ c h crqllll( I he UW' of lthcur IIUictUh tJt11iltd U s :ynnv111 pf'rwdt Jrt tuncstrd. T hty dtouhJ rhH tl(' uw-d H CJfficcs Sec C Jn t S I> btluw f nr wt,r1una lUIIJu dittu•nshms 111d ''"'''l'r menu. C. /)om'"siuru uf k',,,,,,, , Surfocr Ttpr nf Auo mmoJatu>rt. T>blt D 8 pvu I U,.J"IIdtqu>lt No Jlttrnpt n mJdt 10 proptHt m.t..\imum or 1cntrous tilt\ l I A • • rru1r Squlll't' f 'ootllJ,t R rq11irrd ftJr Diff rrrnr 1 : • 1><1 o f Auommruaroort. Th< squur f t><•UJr ltppro'lnutions, bu1 m•y b< hrlpful in r•rl .. nuury sugrs of pl>nnin&. E. AdJtrl(lf!al Spocr RrqomrJ fur Srnic r tu Rra.lrr1. SpiC< for di1tct • e cru 10 1<1tinaoc rortullt>b l < 8 . 9 •nd tl>e -. ht-rr Addilion>l sp>c < rrquirhl< Aoru : llu public CJI>It1Jut. TABLE B . 8 SUG GESTED WORKING SURFACE AREA FOR EACII PERSON 1) rr of accommodal to n lablt f o r . . lnJHtcJ•1.AJ hblt Of Open curd t o r undtrcudullt . . Dlwn c..ancl fot u udrnl .. ilhtl ut book Lhclf it . . . , . , ... C'u1tJ , OP"n or doW'd , for 1 '-.Ju.aiC' studtnl •tih.nt wilb a bock •hc.JJ . . •..•••..•. fa(ulty uuJy .... .... . MiNm um &iu )) •• ll"' n • 2o t )6". 14"1 )6" • 11.' cs • JO" Adequalt tlu )6". 24" )6". ll. 42". 14" cs x JO. 60. x JO. II lh...! 11 ri&ht an,lca 10 a wo.ll, loan a ill< llul mwl be under llllY ci.JcumtiJncu. TI''Y uducc .U...J duluC1ion II ptrlirlons j 2ln. or morr in I orr pl >nJ odrorua t.nd \"Ufftnl pc'rindical culltt:litwll wl1h.'h u It qu11rd nf hu.-y US<. l'uhlic >rru nuuidr savt.:t Sprci>l ucomm<>d11ions fur ol\l.:rnfilm 1tp11'<.1uc tinns . nups , m>nu>eripll. uch1•rs . 1nd o1hrr collections not U\rlvrd in the main su.:k •rr•. m•y includr audiovisuJIIItU of VlriOus 1yprs. S11ff wOJkina quutrfl. which wi:rt wi1h in 7 . 4 . Non Aui&n•blr Aleas . diKUU(d inseclion 16. 1 : Entnncn. vrslibulrs . and lobiJies Conidon Artu USirwrlls and tlrvalor shafts ToilriJ Walls and columns It is suggcstrd th•t no! len th•n 25 sq fl ptr sodu in usi&n•blc or non •ui&n•blr ur1s .,.ill b< rrquiord for thr Scily is butd on : A . Thr numbu of volumts shtlvrd in • s1•nd11d ll> r k Sek stclions in ac•d11 or lru. which, as shown in Table B .IO, include 90 ptr otnl of the boolcJ in a lypic•l collrclion . It is 1uggulrd lh•l moll of the 10 prr c rnl will br concrnlnled in 1 comp1n1ivdy frw suhjeh l.iroev F uol of Shrl•ina : No two libnries ur alokt in this flJRNISIHNCS ANI> IJ TABLE 11.10 BOOK IIEICifTS• l " orlr.u ....... Bll 12 otllory .••••.••••• Ast (nol 1Adudln1 Lu,. alorU folloa) . ........ , 7 Technical and aclauifiC , ' Medical. •.. , . • • • • • S l'ubli<: docutMnll. • • • . • S ao und pcriodi
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,, I Al ' l ' l ,.;111X: ANI> TARLES TABLE 8 .11 \I Ill $ ltr i) U IR.ED FOit A COLlf.lTION l t l I R O M TWO TIIIRD S TO S I X Sf:\ ' 1 Nil I S O f I ULl CA.I' AUTY i nCirnt • l• 6• S• 4• ) • J• hn uli c lll C ruw t I • 1• 6 ' -f l •,t. l t'Ofi'Wt r k i n a t.t.t urft't.eDlt an inctUW O ( I , .. C'ft p t1 CCI'II•tr u c h l'UJ o( lotaJ aumbtl o( 'f'OIU11"11tJ 11 t N enol of ltw: ptrv1ow )'U.I. tAa u il h n-.ctk inouw Jtptucntr •n lnatut uch )'c.&l ,,, • f iTfn or lht t ot.U numb. r or YOIUmt.l .. t.hc hrK uard aa 1 but uwt to dew a not bc:comt luaC't )Uf by yur. t i n n now lilts c om plettly and th r n add SO per cent t o that n umb u t o dete rmine the require mllrc tion at the rnd u f the p r tvioU1 yur, it U k t brtwan live a11d " ' years f o r the llrtl v n to b h lr U I) uoow1 l h r pC t . I . lUnar Spacinc : spacincslr ould br bHed on column s pacin c . which wu discuurd at me brcinnina of thit a pp< is aui gnrd to th.c: u o tlvts o n u h liJr of 1 d o uble faced shelf l<'clio n . Tab l e B .l4 sho'Wt depths o f b ook.s. If lig utrsur correct (the aut ho t bel ieve s the y the utn&< i n and academic a lhelf with 8 in. a c tual dtplh, to gelhtr TABLE 8 .1. PERCENT AGE O F B OOK S IN AN ACADEMIC C OLLECTION B ELOW DIFFERENT DEPTHS MEASURED FROM TilE BACK OF TilE SPINE TO TilE FORE EDGE OF ntE COV ERS' S"orka . . •.... 6'orlta ....••. H l"otloe. . . • . • , .19 a orltu .. ....• 90 ,. 01 .......... 10" orl'"4"f el Sto•qt, p. 45. tAn I oC1ul,l.t , • 9-ln. nomhul d r rrh olorll, will hoiU< 1 10-a d"'p book tmmedi.ordr bthlud lt. M o n looooto c.,,,< Ilk lr>cteooc . I'• 1 )• I I• t• 7 • j o .. r 10 ln. •ill I>< ""'" t lun I I in. to.IJ lf'l &hnuld l Aolllunr:k UlOltd b y tlor o mnu f><:turrn as 9 -in shel vts) art rtetlln mtndcd in pla.:r ol thr 7 or '1-in. actual-dtplh shelves .,. hidt arc c umrnonly used. In man y libnriek a i slr w i dtht 1hould br nn the amoun t o f use by individuals and by 1tuck1 >nd t h e length o f the rantes before a etossa i slt isrrached . Oth AISLE WlOlliS•t H7 S"\:r i J u n lol&lo o ir.k aou 11Uo-t Typical ... or IIOcin & isalttrrd or If columns 14 in. l ona in the directi o n of the and lhr co l umn nncr is ftlltd out with a lectern. 4 ft 6 i n . a i s les <>n bt made available . (Str Fi11 . 4 . 9 and 4 .10. ) Table B .l6 suursls c isle w i dtlu undrr different t ypes and amotJnu of 4 . Cross -AI.sle Aru Ctur acd Apinst Adj>etnl Ruder Acco mmodat i ons : The effect on square foo tasr rrquiicmrnu per suc k u ctio n and v o lume opacit y per net square foo t of •tac k aru, tr s uhin r from the provisi o n of ruder acco mmodation s in ,.,., __________ ""'''"t"'.,"....,.,_, . . ,.,.,,.,.._._.... _______ 't._•-

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Al' l ' lNlliX : fORMULAS ANU TAIIUS TARLE 11.17 fOOTAGE R[QUIRED FOR ONE Sltlt;l E -FACFO STAND AI([) SECTION Rti'J< f.cot SQuan fNI ••lh mUihnurn •Hh rtnttout lfl& t tri. C (IOU ai\.Lo-1• CJOU u'ktf ----s'o .. Ill ,00 . . , .. 1.411 I 10 /1 .. lOllS I 6S io , ,60 uo __ .., _______ tbfl wtlh crott ajtJct combhwd .nth culv. nther tlun dccrcue book capacily "luuc lout of ntt st1ck uta, and In add ilion pro>ide dttiublc and economical accomff)('. l? to 16.21. T ablr B 18 thows SliC k capacity ptl square root ofarra if 100 , 12S,ISO, or lt\Ovolumtl 11111rlud stack ttclion lJ connection with 1 , R \. 9, 01 I 0 "'1 It occupird by uch S N o n AJsignable Space : Noo usigyuble spoce "'" dii.CUlv.d in s om e det1ii In sectio n 16. 2 . lr includtt, u hr u IU tfCccl on book upacity ll conC1'rntd, the noor tpacc occup i ed by columns, nvchankalttrvices , and vrrtiultnntportation of alii inds . We mcntion It htre simply lo call alfentl n n to it. In a carefully dui p1td stack for 2S,( l (JO volumu or morr on one l cvrl, ian alJir IJ• •e sh<'llld not amount to more than 10 of the IIOU S I Jrlc Uti, and with I larJtr intlallati o n comiduably len than that. TARLE 8 .18 CAI'AcrfY I'Efl 1,000 SQUARE FEET OF STACK AllF.A WITH DIHERJ:NT NUMBER OF SQUARE FlET ANU DIFFERENT OF PER S[CTId< thck uctioft. They wiU probably COlt 1n0,.. prr tuy. but l.htr may fir Into ••lilablc "'"" oo ad•"""CC tamed met tombined wi\1\ the wider un.iu . lA IHo. Uay It rntmatod to pro\dc ll in. or ncr (wna tpaor, wiUch, illilkd to ll pet c ... I copooocity. rncndtd thJt the lower liaurc be uud in cslimatina comforuble work Ina upaclty. B . Squal"t of Floor S(IQN Rtqulrrd 10 Filr 1 ,000 Gudt Comforrably. Tht space rtquirt rncnll on : I. The depth of I he trays iJ a somew;hal nriablt factor, u already notcd. 2 . The height of lht cabine Is. 3 . The 1pace between ubinets set asi4e fOf con sultation tab In and for thaw wiiO .._ c:.alalogue. This lhould dcpmd f"f Jt. ._t.,._ lily of uu at the time of lol4 '-A s:null calaiOfUC with huvy uu requiru ftluch mou square (oolagt for 1,000 ard1 than don I one with li&}ll uu. 4 . The space aui"ttd 10 main and sccond.Jry a islu used to approach the cards . Fi,s . 16. 29 to 16. 32 diCTcrcnl mcnu based primHily on the intensity of usc 1111d "'condarily on the slu of the calalocuc which rt1uit In ali the way from 1,000 to 4 ,000 c:.atdJ p
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f. I j lUI Al' l ' ri'HIIX : FOitMlJLAS ANU TABLES , , adJblc j,,fofln.111on abflu• tht a m ount u( u•t tl tlot '""'of ptJk luaJs \'I G tlvrmnt'"' Standnnll hit poui blr 1nd in • •H'Ir C .&\!'I JltCt'l\lfV t O bu.t IJUCf I\-SI&nrntnl l t f > lo not put yourstlf int o alllait jadtl. With thit word o( warnina .st111dardJ lor lllltr drffrrrnt CIOUJ>I lJC notrd : A C olifurni a Start Callrtrr Ltbrarv Sra•rdardL IIHrd u pon ltbrary • o lumrs to b< the ft•ll, ,. inA lpJCe standards Jlt to strve II &uidelinrs f u r thr "'"Vl or ntw buildincs or a dditions to rxi\l i ns build inp: I. Uool: stack utu at the utt ol 0 .10 sq rt per v o luntt . 2 . Rradrrt'stations at the rare ol 2S sq ft per station , oorith starioru to be providrd for 2S crnt of prrdic1rd FTE (full time rquiva knt atudrnlJ) . J . matrria.h. An additi onal area tqual I O 25 ('(I Crnt Of tht bound . v o lumr lltl bt tht budcrt stutdard lor special mat trialsunbound rttiodicah, mapt, COWICI of atudy, and umple tutlx>okt : 4 S prcial functions : (1 hrw: data rtlatt to rach penon rmploytd ln any o r thrw: catreurits) $qut{ttl Ad•n1nittrati o n ................... 0 I SO Ad1n1nnlntht 1oom o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • ISO s..,,, tuy<JU< librarian . . .•.•••.•••. . 110 Aul order Ubnri..ut . . 0 o o o • o •• 0 o o o o • 0 110 S<• pooitlon . . , .... . •.. "'blic ttt'YK'C1 poinu P'tr "brtrhn't 1t.1tioft .......•........ hr duical .•... , ........... . I llO 110 110 110 10 IB 10 B. Tht C,lilorni• St,tt DrpattnM"nl ol EduC3 tion In 19SS lncludtd this tiJitllttnt in A Rrsrudy of lltt Nudr of uli[orni11 i11 llitlrtr Educaltc>fl. . Totallibury ttquittmc:nh, i.ncludinc trudy h.a.lla •nd aJI l •brary-ct•ll work uuc, were oomruttd on the bult of the foUowina t•timtlr&; I. kudinr room• and uudy h . alh . todud ina c irrul.Jiioft dc:d:t &nd 111fT )0 net t.quuc: (tel J'lff tUtit.lft and OfW llttioft for tvcry f our fuiHimt uudcnll. 0 1 1 . , Ml oquart 1 .. 1 piaul flCIUtiu, <• full tim• lludtnt lot th< lint 10,000 llud<• 11udcnt lor the aooiwiJO,OOO atudcnlJ, plut 50 •olum pu uudcnr btyond 10,000 IIWd

5/13/2019 5:06:33 PM

Unable to connect to the remote server
at SolrNet.Impl.SolrConnection.PostStream(String relativeUrl, String contentType, Stream content, IEnumerable`1 parameters) in d:\BuildAgent-01\work\e4797f8bddc217f4\SolrNet\Impl\SolrConnection.cs:line 119
at SolrNet.Impl.SolrConnection.Post(String relativeUrl, String s) in d:\BuildAgent-01\work\e4797f8bddc217f4\SolrNet\Impl\SolrConnection.cs:line 84
at SolrNet.Impl.SolrBasicServer`1.SendAndParseHeader(ISolrCommand cmd) in d:\BuildAgent-01\work\e4797f8bddc217f4\SolrNet\Impl\SolrBasicServer.cs:line 112
at SobekCM.Engine_Library.Solr.v5.v5_Solr_Controller.Update_Index(String SolrDocumentUrl, String SolrPageUrl, SobekCM_Item Resource, Boolean Include_Text) in C:\GitRepository\SobekCM-Web-Application\SobekCM_Engine_Library\Solr\v5\v5_Solr_Controller.cs:line 59
at SobekCM.Engine_Library.Solr.Solr_Controller.Update_Index(String SolrDocumentUrl, String SolrPageUrl, SobekCM_Item Resource, Boolean Include_Text) in C:\GitRepository\SobekCM-Web-Application\SobekCM_Engine_Library\Solr\Solr_Controller.cs:line 33
at SobekCM.Library.MySobekViewer.New_Group_And_Item_MySobekViewer.complete_item_submission(SobekCM_Item Item_To_Complete, Custom_Tracer Tracer) in C:\GitRepository\SobekCM-Web-Application\SobekCM_Library\MySobekViewer\New_Group_And_Item_MySobekViewer.cs:line 857