Citation
Old and new in an office complex

Material Information

Title:
Old and new in an office complex
Creator:
Aviram, Avy Nadab
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Committee Chair:
Rinker, Ronald
Committee Members:
Hornbein, Victor
Zomer, Clara

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Avy Aviram. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text


"OLD AND NEW IN AN OFFICE COMPLEX"
An architectural thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master in Architecture.
AVY NADAB AVI RAM
Spring 198A


The Thesis of Avy Nadab Aviram
f

i,
is approved.
(Ronald rinker a.i.a.) Committee Chairman
(Victor Hot nbe In A. I .A.) P f i PIC i PG 1 AdViSOP
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
MAY 198A


To ray parents
For their everlasting supportive effort and help through the inevitable ups and downs, frustrations and elations, certainties and uncertainties. For this, and for all they have given over the years, they are as much the authors of this thesis as I.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. THE INTRODUCTION............................................................1
- Project
- Thesis
2. THE REGION..................................................................8
- History of Costa Rica
- Overview of Costa Rica & San Jose
3. THE INSTITUTION........................................................... 26
- Functions and Objectives
- Internal Functions
- Powers
- INVU and the Problem of Housing in Costa Rica
4. THE SITE ....................... ..........................................43
- Immediate Surroundings
- Site Amenities
- Site Problems
- Climactic Impact on Site
- Functional Requirements
- Old Main Customs House Building
5. THE PROGRAM....................... ........................................61
- General Notes
- Breakdown of Space Needs
- Summary of Space Needs
- Tables of Design Criteria
- Cost & Construction Time
6. THE BUILDING CODE...................... ...................................102
- Notes on the Costa Rican Building Code Applicable to This Program
- Notes on Seismic Design Criteria
7 . THE BIBLIOGRAPHY...........................................................12 7
8. THE CONCLUSION ...................... ...................................129
- Synthesis
- Final Product


NOixonaouiNi 3 hi


INTRODUCTION
Architecture and its elements have traveled through time and places, The past and the elements of bygone times have planted in today's world the search for the security that yesterday can give us. We can not unfasten ourselves from the past since it has been the vehicle that transported us to the present. The past is a legacy that contains, sometimes more evident than others, the heritage, the understanding, and the evidence of today's being. It is necessary to preserve those old pages and add more, in order to complete, join, or question those that have been written.
The housing authority in Costa Rica called INVU (National Institute of Urbanism and Rousing) needs to gather all of their presently scattered departments and offices into an office complex to become their headquarters. INVU needs a complex that ijs representative of their own identity. For the purposes of containing in one all of their departments they have acquired a site located in the city of San Jose (the capital of Costa Rica). The site contains an old building erected in 1850 which originally housed the Costa Rican Customs Department arid its warehouses. This building, which covers an area of 1891 sq. m (19.045 sq. ft.) of 17,600 sq. in (189,451 sq. ft.) of the total site area, has been declared national


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patrimony and therefore it must be preserved. A later addition to this building has been studied and as a result it has been concluded that the addition will be demolished since it disturbs the integrity and unique character of the original building.
The project is based on rehabilitating this old building to accomodate some of the office space required by INVU in addition to designing a new section to be allocated on the same site in order to complete their space requirements. The total space requirements for the INVU headquarters is of 9914 sq. m (94,876 sq. ft.) which includes office space; parking and landscaping is not included in this figure.
I have done extensive research on the INVU, their departments, their employees, and their function in order to determine and elaborate a program suitable to all of their quantitative as well as qualitative requirements and needs.
The thesis will deal specifically with:
1. Preservation and revitalization of a_n old building. A century ago John Ruskin said of architecture: "We may live without her, and worship without her, but we can not remember without her." Our built environment is the most tangible


record we possess, the most palpable proof of civilization's continuous evolution. This idea helps explain the enormous impact of the concept of historic preservation during the last decades. Successful revitalization demonstrates that the forms and materials devised in the past are still valid when properly adapted to the functions of today's life. Architecture is called the "inescapable art," but many of our proudest buildings escape from us every year, making way for routine office buildings or rectilinear condominiums or, worst, parking lots. That doesn't have to happen and as an intention I'm going to try to prove it.
2. The impact caused by the clash o_f yesterday' s and today' s architecture in
search of right and necessary ingredients to create an architecture that blends harmoniously into an existing context. When asked, many people will say that an addition is in harmony with the original building because the new wing uses the same materials or continues the roof line of the original building. But such devices merely implement the overall concept that unites new and old. Conceptually, the addition may be a reproduction of the original building, an abstraction of it, a background building, or a sympathetic contrast to the original building. Of
these I will use three of the concepts to unite new and old. First, proper defer-
ence to the contemporary idiom will be achieved by focusing the viewer's attention on the existing building and providing the addition in the least obtrusive manner;


the addition will become a background building. The addition is larger than the original building and it will literally become a background against which the principal object is viewed. Second, I will use an abstraction of the original building. The intent is to achieve harmony between the old and new by recreating the essence of the original building without reproducing it. Finally, I will use some contrast in order to increase the appreciation of both architectural styles.
A contrast between the solidness of the masonry walls of the historic building and the transparency of the glass and steel skin of the addition as contemporary method of construction.
3. The creation of a complex image that employees as well as public can identify with. An image that synthesizes the institution's functions, objectives and goals. There has been a rising protest against modern architecture's failure to deliver strong feelings of community and space. This has also included the accusation that architects have been transmitting their message in a private code meaningless to most of the inhabitants of their buildings. I feel that the architect is responsible to create the places that belong to the people. In order to do so it is necessary a good understanding of the functions to be performed by the building itself and by its inhabitants. A good understanding of all the pieces that make up a program can best be reflected in the final design solution.


4. The interaction and separation of public spaces for the well functioning of the institution as a planned system. I want to treat the private/public relationship as a central concept and in a somewhat different way than it is used sometimes. Traditionally, privacy was viewed as an excluding process, as being alone or getting away from others. From the perspective of this thesis, privacy will be approached as a changing self/other boundary regulation process in which a person or a group sometimes needs to be separated from others and sometimes wants or it is necessary to be in contact with others. As a general principle I will attempt to design responsive environments which permit easy alternation between a state of separateness and a state of togetherness.
This program as well as the design project are going to be developed on the metric system in order to facilitate the presentation of both program and design solution to the Housing Authority in Costa Rica (INVU).


6
THE OLD CUSTOMS BUILDING


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8


9
A GLIMPSE OF HISTORY
In 1502, when Christopher Columbus was making his fourth and last voyage in search of Cipango and Catay, he entered the stormy waters of the Caribbean cyclone zone during the months of September and October, the period when the cyclones occur in this region every year. He had scarcely left the Island of Hispanola (or Haiti), sailing south-west, when he was caught in a terrible storm off the coast of present-day Honduras. He went on exploring the coast southwards, and thus discovered Costa Rica. On September 18 of the same year he landed at Cariari near the port of Limon. In his writings concerning this voyage he referred to this land as "Costa Rica" (rich coasts), believing them to have abundant supplies of gold. The story spread, and a few years later the Spanish created the province of Costa Rica as a part of the ancient kingdom of Guatemala - i.e. the present-day Central America - when the Pacific coast was already known and the other countries of Central America had already been conquered. Thus, Costa Rica was the last part of Central America to be conquered by the Spanish by means of expeditions from the province of Nicoya (today Guanacaste) in Nicaragua. Three expeditionary forces, commanded by Juan de Cavallon, Juan Vazquez de Coronado and Perafan de Ribera, achieved the conquest from 1561 to 1573. Although the Spaniards passed through most of the land today constituting Costa Rica, there were no major battles be-


tween them and the natives, who benefited from a more humane form of treatment as laid down by the Nev; Laws of 1542, which protected the Indians and had been based on the principles of their defender, Brother Bartolome de las Casas. There was only one rebel chief, whose name was Garabito; even he did not give battle but went to the jungle so as not to have to swear an oath of allegiance to the King of .Spain as required by the Spanish authorities, who had already occupied the central highlands, and particularly the town of Cartago, founded in 1564 by Juan Vazquez de Coronado. This town was the capital throughout the colonial epoch and the first few years of independence, and it was only in 1823 that San Jose supplanted it. It is very important to note that there was no fighting involved in the conquest of Costa Rica, as there was in Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. The native culture of Costa Rica was a complicated mixture of cultural influences from Central and South America. Towns in the Maya and Aztec styles never existed in this country, which consisted of native communities governed by Indian tribal chiefs. Its Indian population during the sixteenth century is estimated to have been about 27,000.
The Central Valley of Costa Rica was the territory chosen by the Spanish to start their colonial existence, owing to its excellent climate and fertile soil. They settled down to a modest life of cattle-raising and farming, for in spite of


11
the name "Costa Rica", mines were conspicuous by their absence. There were neither gold nor silver, as there were in Nicaragua. The "encomiendas" (Indian communities allocated to the conquistadores) which were created in order to cultivate the soil, lacked manpov/er owing to the scarcity of Indians and rapidly dispersed. This was a subsistence economy. There were few exports, and neighbouring countries such as the kingdoms of Guatemala and Panama provided poor markets. Poverty was the characteristic of the Costa Rica colonists, who mingled with the Indians and formed a half-breed population with a high percentage of European blood. For Costa Rica is the white country of Central America. As there was no rich class consisting of wealthy land owners, the creole aristocracy which existed in other Latin American countries never took shape in Costa Rica, and a feeling for liberty gradually developed there.
In 1821, during the early years of the Republic, the first democratic institutions were established. These, put into practice during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries thanks to education, have enabled Costa Rica to become today a world-wide model for democracy. Anyone visiting this country of Central America will notice the atmosphere of security, peacefulness and respect for the law, in which the free election of governments depends on the will of the people and not the decisive force of the military. Our presidents mix freely with the population


with practically no police protection. Costa Rica is a democratic country, and militarism holds no sway; the army was forbidden by the 1949 Constitution, it was independent on September 15, 1821 at the same time as it was in the order countries of Central America that had formed the Kingdom of Guatemala and, in 1824, became the ephemeral Federal Republic of Central America. By the first half of the nineteenth century there were five completely independent republics linked only by tradition.
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In 1856, the neighbouring republic of Nicaragua was dominated by a group of pirates commanded by William Walker and protected by people in the United States of America with an interest in slavery. The President of Costa Rica, Don Juan Rafael Mora, organized a Costa-Rican army and launched a military campaign against Walker, who had already become President of Nicaragua. With the help of other Central American countries he succeeded in liberating Nicaragua. The fight for liberty lasted a year and brought out a feeling of brotherhood among the countries of Central America. This was the only war during the history of Costa Rica and it produced the national hero, Juan Santamaria. IIis statue can be seen at Alajuela, his place of birth, in the gardens of the Legislative Assembly.
In accordance with the Central-Anerican feeling inherited from the colonial


1
epoch, the five republics and Panama today form the Common Market of Central America, which ensures further understanding among the governments and peoples of these countries.
During the second half of the nineteenth century, Costa Rica underwent a social and economic transformation as a result of increases in exports of coffee, the staple export of the country. This gave rise to a coffee-industry oligarchy, offering greater capacity to firms, making for more extensive culture and even intervening in political life. Efforts undertaken in the cultural field have made possible better educational organization, while new protagonists of a broader education, such as Dr. Jose Maria Castro, Dr. Jesus Jimenez and Mauro Fernandez, have emerged. The last-named carried out educational reforms on liberal lines, assisted by European teachers and scientists who came specially for this purpose.
Thanks to a policy of "more schools and more roads" and to an increase of national political awareness, Costa Rica has, since the beginning of the twentieth century, followed a decisively democratic policy, with a particular respect for human dignity and public opinion as expressed by the mass media and, by establishing universal suffrage, has made possible the full implementation of the principle of the sovereignty of the people in a democratic, representative and independent republic such as Costci Rica.


A REAL DEMOCRACY
I have said that Costa Rica is a model of democracy for the world, the ori-qins of which go back to colonial times when extreme poverty determined a feeling of equality and liberty upon all the inhabitants- It is said that even the Spanish Governor dug his garden in order to grow food. There was no rich, cultured and dominating aristocracy, even if some of them had the blood of the hidalgos of the peninsula in their veins. At the end of the colonial epoch, all felt themselves to be free and equal, for they lived isolated from the American world in the paradisiac lands of the Central Valley. The Government of Guatemala, the capital of the Kingdom, interfered little in the political and economic affairs of Costii Rica. These were colonists without hatred and with no great ambition for political and economic power. On behalf of that, when Independence arrived on September 15, 1821, the Costa-Ricans organized a new democratic, republican government based on the "Concord Pact" - the first Political Constitution which was decreed a few days after independence and was the result of a discussion between the leaders of the country v/ho showed that they had commonsense, patriotism and a respect for the law, just as they have today. Thus, fraternal strife was avoided and democratic institutions were established as from the time when the Republic was founded. Militarism, that political plague of the other countries of Latin


America, did not prosper in this land where law, peace and a respect for human dignity are sacred precepts.
The first Governor, Juan Mora Fernandez, a former schoolmaster, was constitutionally elected, and was one of the personalities who emerged at the time of Independence. He imparted to the education of the people the full importance it deserves in the training of the citizen in a democratic state. And all the presidents who came after him followed the same principle, thus succeeding in creating in Costa Rica a political, social and economic organization which justifies the well-deserved reputation of being the most pure form of democracy imaginable.
Costa Rica is governed by the three classical powers of a republic - executive, legislature and judiciary, each being independent of the others. Government is of the people, representative and responsible. Sovereignty is vested in the people who delegate it to the powers of the State by universal suffrage, the procedure for which is governed by the Supreme Court of the Elections - fourth of the powers of the Republic.
The Executive consists of the President of the Republic and his Ministers of State. The Legislature is the Legislative Assembly. The President of the Republic and the members of the Assembly are elected by direct suffrage for a term of four years. The Judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of Justice, the members


of which are elected by the Legislative /assembly.
Costa Rica is divided into seven provinces for administrative purposes.
These are: San Jose, Cartago, Alajuela, Heredia, Puntarenas, Guanacaste and Limon. Each province is subdivided into cantons and districts, each with its local level of government. In each canton there is a Municipal Council elected by universal suffrage and responsible for the administration of the Canton.
Costa Rica has a number of autonomous institutions with specific responsibilities, such as the Costa-Rican Electricity Institute, the national Housing and Town-planning Institute and the National Aqueducts and Water Reservoirs Service. The banking system is nationalized under the Central Bank, but there are also independent financial undertakings.
Press, radio and television enjoy full liberty in obtaining information and expressing criticism, even concerning national problems affecting the Government and the people. There is no press censorship and journalists can talk freely with senior civil servants, and even with the President of the Republic himself during his frequent press conferences in which he lays down the policy of the Government. Every citizen is free to express his opinion, providing it does not interfere with the liberty of the individual. Governments are respected but not feared, for power comes from the people.


PICTURESQUE COUNTRY
This is a beautiful little country in the heart of America, lying between Panama, Nicaragua, the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. It is known as "the garden of the Americas" on account of the highly varied shades of greenery displayed at all times by its forests and the fields of crops scattered throughout the valleys and mountains, the plains and the superb volcanoes, all of which are easily accessible to the tourist. Costa Rica is so small that within a few hours you can go from a hot climate, with temperatures of up to 37°C (99°F) on the marvelous beaches along the coast to the mountain peaks, where minimum temperatures of zero (32°F) are recorded. Owing to the maritime climate, temperatures are uniform throughout the year in all the towns. The average distance from ocean to ocean is 150 miles, since Costa Rica is part of the Central American isthmus. Rainfall is abundant, although in the central region and the north-west - the dry Pacific - rainfall is seasonal and occurs chiefly between April and November.
Next comes the dry season; known as "summer", during which the coffee, sugar cane and other agricultural products are harvested. This is also the period when most tourists from abroad and from inside the country arrive, for the earth roads are then usable and supplement the other means of communication. There are 20,000 square miles of territory. Of all the Central-Anerican countries only El Salvador


is smaller. In the other geographical areas of the country, such as the Atlantic and northern plains and the plains and valleys of the southern Pacific, there is rain throughout the year, and annual rainfall amounts to as much as 130 inches or more. In these areas, bananas, cacao, african palm trees and other tropical products are grown.
For the traveller visiting the land of the "Ticos" (the inhabitants of Costa Rica) for the first time, the predominant image is one of a country of beautiful mountains huddled together and dominated by a greenery which penetrates you and gives you a feeling of peace and tranquillity. The Central Valley, birthplace of Cos-ta-Rican nationality, is a small but important territory at an altitude of 3,300 feet, with an average temperature of 20°C (68°F) throughout the year, on the 10th parallel North of the Equator. Its area of about 1,300 square miles is divided between two divergent valleys - the eastern valley of Guarco in which is located the former capital of Cartago, and the western valley which contains San Jose, the present captial with its 680,000 inhabitants, and other towns such as Alajuela, Heredia, San Ramon and Grecia, to say nothing of many villages which jostle one another and are endowed with excellent transport, electricity, drinking water, automatic telephone, radio and television facilities. Each village has its school, its Catholic church and sports ground; this is characteristic of the coun-


try districts of Costa Rica.
In the towns are to be found the secondary and technical schools. Two universities and an institute of technology provide training in the arts and sciences. In Costa Rica, education is a major aim of the State. The funds set aside for education account for 21% of the total national budget.
The Central Valley is the chief geographical area of the country and has the highest population density, since it contains 60% of the country's total population. On its fertile soil, coffee, sugar cane, fruit, vegetables and flowers are grown. Industrial and commercial expansion over the past few years has been mainly based on the towns of the plateau, particularly the metropolitan area and the provincial capitals, such as Cartago, Alajuela and Heredia. Winding roads run in all directions and climb to the peaks of the cordilleras at an average altitude of 10,000 feet forming the Central Valley. All along these roads are small villages and country houses in vivid colors nearly always adorned with ornamental plants such as ferns, begonias, geraniums and bougainvilles. The inhabitants are jovial in character and friendly to strangers. Motor vehicles mingle with the typical carts drawn by yoked oxen and with the small horses used by the peasants for work and marketing. Modern agricultural machinery alternates with traditional farming tools and the typical plow drawn by oxen, bequeathed to


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the peasants by the Spanish. All these people are provided with state services in the form of free education, bank loans and means of communication. Social legislation provides for their economic well-being, health and pensions through the Costa-Rican Social Security Fund and the I.abour Code.
What I have just said concerning the Central Valley applies to the other geographical regions, which are determined by the relief and other climatic factors. The mountains of Costa Rica are situated near the Pacific coast from North-west to South-east. They are divided into three main cordilleras - the Guanacaste volcanic cordillera, with a number of volcanoes including the Rincon de la Vieja and the Arenal; the Central volcanic cordillera, which marks the northern extremity of the Great Valley and contains the volcanoes of Poas, Irazu, Barba and Turrialba (the two first are of extraordinary beauty, with roads leading to the very edge of the crater, two hours by car from San Jose. These volcanoes have been declared "national parks" so as to conserve their natural beauty. The crater of the Poas is nearly a mile wide and is one of the largest in the world); the Talamanca cordillera, the highest and longest, which runs as far as the frontier with Panama.
This cordillera contains the peak of Chirripo (12,861 feet), the highest in the country. Numerous rivers rise in these cordilleras. Although they are not navigable, they have a vast hydro-electric potential.


o
The cordilleras mentioned above divide the territory into a number of regions; to the North of the Central volcanic cordillera are the northern plains, with their forests, abundant watercourses, coffee, sugar-cane, banana, cacao and manioc plantations and their herds of cattle. The Atlantic Plains, facing the Caribbean have a considerable black population, who grow banas, cacao, fruits and raise cattle. The port of Limon is the chief town of this region and is the leading port of Costa Rica. The South Pacific, between the Talamanca Cordillera and the Pacific Ocean, is another region where bananas, cacao, sugar cane, tobacco and coffee are grown and cattle is raised. Lastly, the Dry Pacific includes the Province of Guanacaste, with its flat land and less rainfall, producing grain, cattle and cotton; its coast faces the Pacific Ocean and has numerous, easily accessible fine beaches all the way along the Inter-American Road which links the country to Nicaragua. It is an ideal region for tourists and has a very rich folklore.
The economy of Costa Rica is essentially agricultural, although over the last few decades industry has been developed enormously as a result of protectionist leg islat ion.
The chief exports are coffee, bananas, meat, sugar, cocoa and other products. The chief importing countries were the United States, the Western Europe, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua in that order. The last three are part


of the Central American Common Market. The chief products imported are raw mate-
rials, fertilizers, medicaments, textiles, food, electrical machinery and equipment, etc.
The countries supplying them are the U.S.A., Japan, Venezuela, Mexico, Western Europe, Guatemala, Salvador and Nicaragua.
SAN JOSE
This town was the result of spontaneous colonial expansion during the 17th and 18th centuries from the old capital of Cartago towards the fertile lands of the Western Valley irrigated by the Virilla River, which flows into the Pacific Ocean. It was created by poor peasants who were trying to gain a living by growing tobacco and cane-sugar - products which v/ere sold in the provinces of the Kingdom of Guatemala. Religious and political considerations caused them to live around a temple; the tiny village with its earth-walled and straw-thatched houses took the name of "Hew Town at the Opening of the Mountain"; later it assumed the name of the Patron Saint, "San Jose" in accordance with the custom of the Catholic religion, which is still practiced by many Costa-Ricans.
During the days of political adaptation, when Costa Rica was changing its


position from a colony to a Republic, the town of San Jose played a leading part and acquired all the qualifications for becoming the capital, on May 1023.
Thenceforward, its development was obvious, since it exerted political, economic and cultural hegemony over the other towns of Costa Rica. It may therefore be said that Costa Rica has had two capitals - Cartago during the colonial epoch and San Jose during the Republic. The town is situated on a small plateau of the Western valley between the Torres and Maria Aguilar rivers, which are tributaries of the Virilla. The prosimity of these two deep rivers compelled the inhabitants to build their town in the form of a strip running East and West. Until the first half of the twentieth century, San Jose had a population of about 100,000; however, owing to the outstanding industrial and commercial development of: Costa Rica over the last two decades, the town of San Jose now constitutes a metropole whose population accounts for 25% of the national total.
Nowadays, it has the look of a modern town, with its lofty buildings and dense traffic in the streets running North and South and the avenues running East and West, which are of limited capacity. Second Avenue is the widest and was laid out recently; on the other hand, Central Avenue, which is a very important business thoroughfare, is somewhat narrow. All this makes it necessary to Lake measures to remedy the traffic situation.


2 A
In the eastern part of the city are situated the government office buildings such as the Presidential Residence, the Parliament House, the nigh Court of Justice, the Yellow House which contains the Foreign Office, and other buildings such as the National Library, the National Museum, the Calderon Guardia Hospital, the Railway Station for Main Lines to the Atlantic and the National Insurance Institute. Here also is to be found the National Park containing the monument commemorating the National Campaign of 1856, the Spanish Park and the Morazan Park.
In the central sector can be seen the National Theater, an architectural jew-el, the Central Dank and the Costa Rica National Bank, the Anglo Bank, the Costa-Rican Social Security Offices, the Metropolitan Cathedral containing the residence of the Archbishop of San Jose, a number of cinemas and hotels, the Municipal Market and the chief commercial buildings. The Central Park and the Cleto Gonzalez Viguez Kindergarten are also located in this sector.
In the western sector are the San Juan de Dios Hospital, the National Hospital for Children, the National Stadium, the National Gymnasium and the Costa-Rican Electricity Institute. The residential quarters are located in the town, as are also the primary and secondary schools such as the Edificio Metalico, the Girls0 High School and the Costa Rica Secondary School.


There is
The town is very active, commercially, financially and culturally, a permanent bus service connecting the capital to the neighbouring and distant towns of Costa Rica. In reality, San Jose is the heart of the country and over the past few years has been a meeting place for conferences and other international events.


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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HOUSING AND CITY PLANNING (INVU)
1. Date of Creation
INVU was created by Law No. 1788 on the 24th of August of 1954, during the second administration of former President Figueres.
2. Principal Objectives
To direct its activities towards the obtainment of a better socioeconomic welfare, procuring for the Costa Rican family a better home and the corresponding economic resources.
To plan the development and the growth of the cities and of other minor centers, with the goal of promoting the best use of the land.
To locate public areas for community services to establish functional systems of roads and to formulate plans of investment into public works.
As an autonomous institution of public law, it has legal representation and its own patrimony. It possesses technical and administrative autonomy.
3. Economic and Personal Resources
The Institute relies upon different sources of revenue in order to


finance its projects such as: state subsidies, donations, internal and external loans and its own revenues. The principal sources of the last one mentioned proceed from recoveries of bad debts, the interest on loans which have been granted, and the revenues from Savings and Loan.
The Institute functions with 494 employees in its central administrative plant and approximately 700 rural employees who take care of "in situ" the works of city planning and the construction of houses.
4. Organization: Principal Units
Board of Directors
Executive President
Internal Office of the Auditor
Technical Advising Committee
Management
Department of Planning and Finance Department of Urban Planning Construction Department Administrative Department Legal Department Credit Department Department of Social Work


2 I
5. Functions and Integration of the Principal Units
5.1 Board of Directors Functions
To determine the policy of the Institute. To examine and approve balances and financial and economic statements. To expedite the programs which the Institute requires. To approve the operations of greates importance. To empower the management, to put into execution those programs which are agreed upon by the Board of Directors. To agree upon the investment of the resources of the same. To appoint and remove the Director, Assistant Director, and the Auditor.
Integration
a) An Executive President who is named by the Advisory Board
and who shall be a full-time official who shall exclusively dedicate himself to this position.
Requirements
Demonstrated experience and knowledge in the field of activities which concern the Institute,


2
Must be older than 25 years of age.
Must be Costa Rican by birth or by naturalization, with no less than 10 years of residency in the country.
Functions
To ensure that the decisions made by the Board of Directors are carried out, and also to coordinate the activities of the governing Board with the other institutions of the state.
To ensure the fulfillment of the obligations and objectives of the Institute. To call regular and special meetings of the Board, working out the respective agendas. lie represents the Institute judicially and extrajudicially.
lie shall not be able to perform a single other public duty, nor practice liberal professions, during the exercise of his office.
b) Six people of demonstrated experience and knowledge in the field of the activities of the Institute or with a professional license recognized by the state, and whose appointment in performed by the Advisory Board to the government.
5.2 Internal Office of the Auditor


It depends hierarchically upon the executive presidency. It is the body
encharged with the accounting and financial control of the operations of the Institute.
5.3 Technical Advising Committee
Advisor to the executive presidency about technical problems or projects of the Institute. It is made up of the Director, Assistant Director, and the heads of the departments.
5.4 Management
To oversee the efficient and correct functioning of the subordinate agencies. The Director is the principal administrative official of the Institute.
5.5 Department of Planning and Finance
It is the department responsible for the entire planning of all of the activities of the Institute, and is equally responsible for short, medium and long-range activities.
This planning in its economic aspect reflects projection and strictly adheres to the general outlines which the National Plan of Economic and Social development prescribes for the entire country.


3
Among the functions of the same ;i:s found the administration of finances which, among other activities, consists of the budgeting of estimated daily and special expenses in order to cover the financial necessities of the projects which are being carried out and those which are planned. To this same end, the Department intervenes in the acquisition of the additional necessary funds in order to make the annual goals aw well as those medium-range goals a reality, and also performs an analysis of the offers of financing which might be received or negotiated.
The respective analyses are also carried out in relation to costs and other aspects of the projects which the Institute might conclude likewise, the financial statements and the liquidations of the budget are prepared on a monthly basis, containing the respective analysis and recommending corrective measures when they might correspond. In this respect, the control is exercised for all the housing and city planning projects which might be found to be under study or in progress.
The department constitutes the channel of information to the Executive Presidency and to the management of the Institute,and, as a sectorial unit of Planning, it supplies a series of information to the Housing and Human Settlement Sector,
OFIPLAN, Central Bank and other public organizations with whom a strict coordination of activities is maintained, and it also has as its responsibility those


efforts which will tend to an increase in the administrative effectiveness of the institute. This department relies upon the following divisions:
Planning and Organization, Control of Programs and Statistics, Accounting, and the Center of Calculations,
5.6 Department of City Planning
In compliance with Law No. 4240, "Law of Urban PLanning", the management of City Planning has, among other objectives, that of promoting the coordination of public or private projects, assessing and lending technical assistance to the municipalities and public organizations dedicated to physical planning, exercising the vigilance and the authority which might be possible to it for the proper fulfillment of the standards of national, regional, and local interest, included in the law and in the by-laws in force for the control of Urban Development, This department relies upon the following divisions; National Urban Planning, Local Urban Planning, and Technical Cooperation.
5.7 Construction Department
It is the department which designs and coordinates the residential constructiion projects, making sure that the technical specifications, advance plans, and footage plans of all types of construction and city planning be fulfilled.
The department relies upon the following divisions;


Project Division; It has under its responsibility the design and production
of all the plans of the projects which the Institute carries out, as well as the topographical calculations cf the land and the making of the appraisals of the credit granted by the INVU.
Division of Supervision; Its functions are based upon the supervision and execution of the projects under construction, which come into being by official means and through bidding, and also by means of the inspection of the credit which is granted through the supervised system of savings and loan which is also available to rural areas,
5.8 Administrative Division
To attend to the administrative services of the Institute. It relies upon the following units: The Division of General Services and the Office of the Proveyor, the Personnel Division, the Division of Administration of Residential Units and Property.
5.9 Legal Department
To offer the services of a legal nature which should be attended to in the organization. To assess it the legal aspect the administrative branches of the Institute. To carry out internal and public legal consultations. To


carry out the studies of the case and to attend to the notarial matters in which the Institute might have interest.
5.10 Credit Department
The attention of all of the applications for housing and the analysis, investigation, and distribution of the mortgage loans which the Institute might grant correspond to this department.
Based upon the applications received and carrying out the corresponding analysis, pertinent recommendations shall be made. It shall be attended to and shall be directed to the grantees and to the borrowers in matters relative to:
a) The awarding of housing
b) The setting of quotas and installment periods
c) The exchange of housing
d) The appointment of new representatives for the obligations with the INVU
e) The efforts towards the promotion of credit
f) The analysis and the drawing up of applications of credit-
In the financial field, the analysis of the status of the account of each debtor of the Institute shall be carried out to the end that, by means of the impetus of collections, the delinquent debtors might arrange the settlement of their accounts.
It relies upon the following divisions; the Division of Savings and Loan,


3
the Division of Savings and Credit, the Division of Collections, the Division of Systems of Credit, and the Regional Headquarters decentralized in Lirnon and Puntarenas.
5.11 Department of Social Work
The detection of the necessities and the uneasy feelings of the rural communities of the country, related to the problem of housing is under the jurisdiction of this department. To project the INVU to all the communities of the country making known its policies, programs, and fields of activity.
To promote cooperation between INVU, local governments, community groups, and institutions interested in resolving the problems of housing and city planning.
To study and analyze, in conjunction with the Department of City Planning, the problem of physical regulation and community facilities of the minor and intermediate centers of population.
To promote programs for the rural community to a national level and to improve the housing with the resources of the same communities.
To promote and to look after the program of rural loans at the national
level.


To promote and carry out feasibility studies for housing projects.
To take care of the social implications which are derived from the programs for the eradication of shacks or of urban regulation.
To persuade and direct the grantees and borrowers to make payments in order to diminish the delinquency in payment.
To carry out socioeconomic studies for the granting of housing, to attend to applications and negotiations, which the grantees and the borrowers might present The control of irregularities with the use and occupation of the residences and also the control and reporting of unoccupied residences.
6. Powers
With the purpose of making INVU able to fulfill its objectives, it has been legally provided with adequate powers. Thus, it is its responsibility:
a) To prepare and establish regulations for regulating plans for the urban conglomerates of the country, which, in its judgement, might merit it.
b) To gradually eliminate from the ux'ban areas, the unsanitary or dangerous buildings and residences, by means of plans for reconstruction or remodeling of the same.
c) To complete housing programs, in groups or individually, for families with scant economic resources, which might tend toward the planning of residen-
tial zones.


3
d) To formulate general plans, to carry out programs for the construction and cleaning of residences or of neighborhoods, or for the formation of real estate developments, in accordance to the degree of necessity and urgency which, in that respect, might exist in different parts of the country.
e) To construct, as part of its plans for the building of residences, sanitation facilities and complementary housing, as well as centers for indispensable community services.
f) To foster the construction, Scinitation, reparation or expansion of housing; and the execution of housing projects and sanitation on the part of people or public and private organizations, always conforming to the technical norms which INVU might dictate.
g) To promote the coordination of the activities related to housing and city planning of the governmental agencies and autonomous institutions of the state which might be occupied with these matters.
h) To grant loans in cash or in materials with a mortgaged guarantee for the construction, reconstruction, expansion or sanitation of real estate developments, neigborhoods, or urban or rural residences.
i) To establish systems of saving and lending in order to finance the following operations related to the residential homes of the persons who subscribe to said systems;


3
i. The purchase of housing and land or construction of the same, on one's own plot of land.
ii. The purchase, expansion, or repare of the residence.
iii. The settlement of the liens upon the house owned.
iv. The purchase of the land by the owner of the residence, in the event that it might have been constructed on somebody else's property.
j) To issue bonds and to obtain loans in order to fulfill the objectives of its Organic Law.
k) To acquire, according to the norms of common law, or by means of expropia-tion, according to the corresponding law, personal property or real estate.
l) To establish a system of financing residences with a guarantee of policies from a National Institute of Insurance, the Insurance Corporation of the National Magistrate, or of the Costa Rican Cashier of Social Security, which might guarantee the total payment of the respective mortgage, in the event that the acquirer should die, with the purpose of having the assignees be left as owners of the real estate property, free from leins,
m) To prepare, revise, and keep up-to-date a national plan for urban development, with the purpose of promoting:


m The orderly expansion of the urban centers.
® The satisfactory equilibrium between the urban development and the rural development, by means of an adequate distribution of the population and the economic activities.
« The efficient development of the urban areas, in order to contribute to the better use of natural and human resources.
• The guided investment into public improvements.
The INVU and the Problem of Housing in Costa Rica
7.1 Brief Diagnosis of the Housing Situation in Costa Rica
A study of the present situation of housing in Costa Rica can not be totally brought up to date since new events take place practically every day. Nevertheless, ir order to have a general panoramic view of the necessity for housing, which troubles the Costa Ricans, some suggestions about this relevant problem are brought into consideration.
In our country, it is calculated that at the end of the year 1979, there was an estimated defficiency of 94,000 residential units, and the homes which were physically deteriorated or which had an insufficient amount of space,


according to the number of person living there, is estimated at 141,700. Such a situation, directly affects 26.2% of the Costa Rican population.
Studies which have been conducted, reveal that, if the country were to seek to resolve its housing needs, which arise with the growth of its population the replacement of deteriorated homes and the gradual elimination of the deficit to the year 2000, that a minimum of 27,000 houses should be constructed annually Even if the deficit were not to be considered, to concentrate the efforts only to take care of the demand because of the population growth and replacement, it would be necessary to construct no less than 24,000 homes per year.
The Public Sector, as well as the Private Sector, have constructed 18,000 units annually, in the last two years, ciccording to what is registered in the corresponding statistics. The total investment into housing in Costa Rica represents at least 3.8% of the gross internal product.
Costa Rica, being a poor country, should strive to see to it that the inter nal savings, as well as the external, be channelled into investments which make its development dynamic, by means of an efficient allowance of its resources.
It has been said more than once that, in underdeveloped countries, they should give preference to taking care of the investments which are directed to the


4
productive sectors of agriculture and industry, with the object of initiating the take off toward the long process of development, and that, only in more advanced stages, should funds be diverted in order to take care of the needs which, like those of housing, do not promote "per se" the economic growth. Nevertheless, such a line of thinking has fortunately been overcome, by the acceptance of the fact that the contribution of the investment into housing toward the economic and social development is realized every time that the laborer, whether he be from industry or agriculture, when he has a shelter which will assure him a minimum level of hygiene and decorum, in which his basic human aspirations are realized, might be able to improve his productivity in the economic sectors in which he works.
It ought to be kept in mind besides that, after the construction of houses, strong and important sectors of the national economy will be mobilized; with that it is encouraged the improvement of the numerous participating unions. Besides, the utilization of manual labor in the industries, complementary activities and services is unquestionable.
Given that the country shows a strong dependence upon foreign economy in its external trade, especially upon developed countries, and considering that the predictions of economic depression are imminent, one of the most viable ways


of making our economy less vulnerable to the situation which is approaching, consists of the intensification on the part of the government of the construction of public works.
Here the intensive construction of residences for the approaching years, can be one of the most effective palliatives in order to assure the existing jobs and to create new opportunities for the population which year by year increases the ranks of those who are economically active. It is estimated that the construction sector might absorb 8% of the total labor strength; and that that sector indirectly generates aproximately 20% of jobs. From this it is deduced that, for each laborer who is employed in the construction of housing, considering this subsector with a narrow relationship with all the sectors of economic activity, it generates 2 1/2 jobs in the total economic activity. This multiplying effect is relevant and worthy of being considered by the planners of the economic policy of the country for the coming years.




The Site and its Immediate Surroundings
The site is located on the northeast section of San Jose and it occupies an area of 17,600 square meters. It is accessed by 47th Street from the west and 45th Street from the east and by 5th and 7th Avenues from the east and west. The site is located out of the central business district so the immediate surrounding is composed of different land uses. To the north, separated by a sidewalk, is the Santa Teresita church; to the south is border by the Atlantic rail tracks and across them there is a 1930's low rise office building; to the east the site faces a residential area of varied styles; and to the west is bounded by the Atlantic train station, an office building, a school yard, a receptions hall and a colonial time house. Because of the varied types of buildings and styles around the site there is not a specific character to the area, however the most striking element is the old flavor of the area given by the church, the train station, the colonial house, and the building to be preserved and renovated that sits on the site and this program deals with (the old customs warehouse).




TO THE WEST
TO THE WEST
4
TO THE WEST
TO THE EAST
(ri


4i
TO THE SOUTH


4
Site Amenities
There are some features of the site which are positively unique or pleasurable in the light of its use as a location for an office complex. The first thing that strikes one is the multi-view (every direction) of the mountains. The second great quality of the site is its location within the city of San Jose; it is at a top of a hill which overlooks the central business district from the southwest with very few barriers; also being away from the C.B.D. makes this site more appropriate for an office complex since it is away from the noise and traffic generated in the rest of the city. Also the size of the site is a characteristic that can contribute in allowing easy and ample parking spaces, green landscaped areas, as well as extra space for future expansion if any. And finally the site's topography since it has been graded and allows an easy spot to hold a building.
Site Problems
There seem to be only a few substantial site problems that would have to be dealt with during the design phase or construction phase. First, the close proximity to the train station can generate some exterior noise. Second, the site contains no vegetation of any type so a landscaping design is necessary to enhance


the complex itself. Also an existing addition to the Old Customs Warehouse needs to be demolished since its characteristics and visual appearance detract from the
original to deal located
Customs Warehouse with in the region on a seismic zone
Building. And finally, a is that of an antiseismic with frequent earthquakes.
problem that design since
any building has Costa Rica is


4
SITE PLAN


THE SITE
CLIMACTIC IMPACT ON SITE - SUN
.081
LATITUDE 12 NORTH ‘ +
Hinos zi 3anmvT


TKC SITE
CLIMACTIC IMPACT OH SITE
YEAR JAN FEB MARCH
1978 HE NE NE
1979 HE NE NE
1980 NE NE HE
1981 NE NE NE
1982 NE NE HE
MEAN Mp 4.1 i-J NE NE
1978 12.0 15.2 14.6
1979 14.5 17.3 16.4
1980 14.2 15. 9 18.3
1981 14.2 17.2 13.1
MEAN 13.7 15.9 14.9
WIND
PREDOMINANT DIRECTION
APRIL MAY JUNE JULY
NE NE NE NE
NE NE NE HE
NE NE NE NE
NE NE NE NE
NE NE N NE
NE NE NE NE
VELOCITY (kms/h r. )
13.6 9.4 9.4 9.8
11.4 9.6 8.6 9.0
14.2 8.0 8.0 10.5
14.2 8.6 8.1 9.1
13.2 9.1 8.4 9.9
AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC
HE NE NE NE NE
HE NE NE NE NE
NE NW NVJ NE NE
NE NE NE NE NE
NE NE NE NE NE
NE NE HE NE NE
10.0 7.4 7.9 10.9 12.8
9.3 6.3 6.6 9.8 13.3
8.3 6.7 7.5 8.2 13.9
7.3 7.5 6.8 10.7 12.6
9.0 7.5 7.4 9.7 12.7


5
THE SITE
CLIMACTIC IMPACT Oil SITE - TEMPERATURE, RELATIVE HUMIDITY, PRECIPITATION
TEMPERATURE (°C)
YEAR JAN FEB MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC
1980 75 73 74 72 72 71 70 69 69 68 68 69
1981 76 75 72 71 70 70 70 70 69 68 68 68
1982 73 7 5 73 72 71 70 70 70 70 69 69 69
MEAN 74.6 74.3 73 71.6 71 70.3 70 69.6 69.3 68.3 68.3 69.3
RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
1980 50 40 41 41 50 60 60 70 70 75 65 50
1981 40 38 40 41 55 55 60 75 74 75 68 55
1982 48 37 40 40 54 58 60 77 80 73 75 60
MEAN 46 38.3 40. 3 40.6 53 57.6 60 74 74.6 74.3 67.6 55
PRECIPI TATION ()
1980 5. 6 5. 3 12. 6 28. 9 280.3 217 207.7 148.1 389.2 224.8 126.2 34.7
1981 2.4 8.2 10.0 268 171.3 289.9 259.3 340.2 300.6 294.3 112.3 52. 1
1982 18 4.7 11.6 67.6 309.5 241.7 198.6 364 419.0 219. 3 217.5 43.5
MEAN 9.5 5.7 11.7 121.5 266.1 245.4 218.1 253.8 329.7 229.7 181.7 40.4


The Site - Functional Requirements
Access: access must be provided for both internal use (employees, loading - trucks,
etc.) and public use. Also a 10 meter easement is required for fire lane easements. Access is very good as 45th and 47th Streets run north-south the entire length of the site and should not give any problems.
Parking: open air parking must be provided for public use and it should conform
to the requirements discussed later under building codes. Parking can be successfully incorporated on the western or eastern edges of the site.
Public Utility: the site is provided with all public utility elements and no problem is present. Utilities include electricity, telephone lines, water supply, and sewage and water drainage.
Landscaping: as part of the design landscaping of the site must be provided. Actually, the site contains no planting material. Landscaping should enhance the complex and encourage some type of outdoor activity to be used for the most part during lunch time hours or during special events.
Other: sidewalks, handicapped ramps, stairs, plazas, open air spaces should be
included as part of the design.


5
OLD MAIN CUSTOMS HOUSE BUILDING
2
The total area of the building is 1,891 ra and it presents the following characteristics: it consists of the northern pavillion building of the old
customs house giving way to a totally open space without any partitions. This type of building is considered a historical monument and it must be preserved by law.
2
Its walls are made of burned bricks with a width of 0.75 m due to the bond used (rocks and ashes) and of considerable height (6 m) that could allow for the construction of a mezzanine. The ceiling is of exposed metal trusses and covered with galvanized iron. Ventilation is now provided by a sky light, but it has good possibilities for improvement by taking advantage of the existing spaces of approximately 2,30 m in length, which are now covered with steel doors and through the upper wheel windows, which at the same time would improve the lighting conditions.
The floors are rock tiles, stained and uneven, but they could be easily restored. But depending on the use assigned to the premises, wooden platforms or a new floor should be laid to guarantee the leveling required by some fur-
niture .


The electrical wiring is very deficient and should the building be used for offices, it would have to be redone completely. There are no existing restrooms, therefore they will have to be built based on the number of employees and on the use assigned to the space in question.
In general, the building is in good condition. Only in some areas are the walls somewhat deteriorated, but do not present a problem to the structural soundness of the building;and could be repaired according to the renovation and preservation codes.


5
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FLOOR PLAN
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9



NOI1VA313 1S3M/1SV3


DETAIL PARTIAL ELEVATION


5 9



6 C


THE PROGRAM


THE PROGRAM
A. GENERAL NOTES
1. The office areas have been obtained from the total sum of the space occupied by the furniture and its working areas; the main furniture such as desks and reception areas include the working areas in the recorded data. It is considered that the working areas of the rest of the furniture (cabinet files, bookcases, tables, etc.) are included in the percentage assigned to circulation and lobby area for each department.
2. To compute the required area for each section or department, it has been estimated 15% to circulation and 10% to lobby over the total area for all offices of the section or department.
3. In the final computation of the total area required by the analyzed institution, 15% has been estimated for general circulation of the entire building. This area includes:
- main halls
- main lobby
- access hall
- public telephones


6
4. It must be noted that the 15% for general circulation is a preliminary estimate and that it will depend on the special design and rationalization for communication and services forseen by the designer.
5. The areas noted as complementary should be considered only as recommendations and subject to modifications due to urban and architectonic characteristics determined by the building designer.
6. The vertical distribution, that is, the number of floors and the plant area per floor is reserved according to the architectonic and functional solution found most adequate by the designer.
7. It is considered that the actual building represents approximately 40% of the lot; the rest of the land would be occupied by what has been designated complementary areas, including parking, yards, gardens, etc,
0. It must be noted that the areas computed as offices and other zones should be
considered as a minimum. Should it be desirable to round up the figures for the purpose of space modulation, it is recommended to carry the areas to the next higher round figure.
9. A very important consideration to the study of the areas is related to personnel, equipment and special area projections which will be required in short, mid and


long terms by the institution under study. Actually, the reliability of said projections is minimal due to the fact that the offices under study are state offices; and therefore subject to structural and functional changes according to the expectations of the government in power. For this study, only the new area requirements, as formulated by officers and technicians interviewed and with the observations before mentioned, have been considered as short term proj ections.
10. The areas required in each of the INVU offices were determined by their own internal technicians. According to the INVU technicians, the "model" office was determined by an analysis of the space needed for furniture, equipment and internal circulation at each office. The determined "model" offices are represented in the following table.
TYPE OF EMPLOYEE
a. Department Head 20 m'
b. Assistant Department Head 15 m‘
c. Section Head 12 m
d. Employee occupying a drafting table or dealing
with the public at his/her desk 10 m
e. Employee occupying a desk 7 m
f. Employee with minimum space requirement 2.4 m
g. Employee working outside main offices 0 m
h. Manager or Executive President 30 m
REQUIRED AREA
2 2 2


64
11. To the total determined area, considered at about 75% of the total building
area, the remaining 25% corresponding to subsidiary services (restrooms, hallways, lobbies, janitorial rooms, etc.) has been added.
B. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE ARCHITECTONIC PROGRAM
1. Board of Directors
The waiting room could be shared with the Executive President and it was so considered in the areas analysis, but it could also be set up independently (therefore the area would increase),
The Board of Directors closer ties are with the recording secretary and with the executive presidency.
The two directors' offices are designed to meet the public. A restroom for men and another one for women must be provided, as well as telephone services for the directors (one outside line and one internal line).
2. Executive Presidency
The waiting room could be shared with the board of directors, but it could also be designed independently. The closest tie is with the board of directors.


It is desirable for the executive president to have private access to his office without having to go through the reception area.
The two offices designed for the directors to meet the public should be placed in such a way that they can be utilized by the executive presidency for some of its activities. Restrooms for the executive president and the secretary must be provided.
Management
2
Next to the manager's private office, two small offices (12 m each) for the legal counselors, are required. These offices should connected with the manager's office, but should have independent access.
Next to the waiting room, space must be provided for the INVU public relations officer, who also functions as receptionist for Management. The manager's secretary must be located between the waiting room and the offices of the manager and the legal counselors. A private restroom for the manager and restrooms for the staff are required. It is recommended that on the floor where the management offices are located there should be restrooms open to the public.


6.
4. General Secretariat
The functions of the general secretariat are divided in two: one includes functions proper to the general secretary and the other one includes the functions proper to the recording secretary,which are closely related to the executive board.
A small cafeteria is required for the use of the executive board. An attendant for the cafeteria will work directly under the recording secretary. Restrooms for men and women are required.


AREA; PLANNING & FINANCE a) HEADSHIP
FUNCTIONS
Responsible for regional studies of housing necessities and urban development Responsible of planification of housing programs
VINCULUM
- With all other Headships at a technical advising level
- Management
PERSONNEL
Head
- Secretary SPACIAL COMPONENTS
- Office Head 20
- Office Secretary 7
- Meeting Room 15
- 15% Circulation 6
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
48 sq. m


AREA: PLANNING & FINANCE
b) PLANNING
FUNCTIONS
Proposed programs and policies in order to achieve INVU°s goals Execution of regional studies on housing issues - Supervise socio-economic studies on economics and market of urban developmental housing Prepare budget of investment
VINCULUM
With Headship
- With all other Headships
- With Personnel
PERSONNEL
- Head Secretary
5 Office Clerks Type E
- 4 Office Clerks Type D
SFACIAL COMPONENTS
- Office Head 12
- Office Secretary 7
- Office Office Clerks 75
- .15% Circulation 14
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
108 sq. m


6
AREA: PLANNING & FINANCE
c) PROGRAMMING STATISTICS
FUNCTIONS
Organize Archives and Statistics Prepare Statistical Bulletin
Give information to all credit institutions that relate with INVU Evaluate the financial status of INVU
VINCULUM
Credit
- Town-Planning
- Management
PERSONNEL
- Head
- Secretary
- 22 Office Clerks Type C
- 3 Office Clerks Type D
SPACIAL COMPONENTS
-- Office Head 12
- Office Secretary 7
- Office Office Clerks 65
- 15% Circulation 13
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
97 sq. in


7 C
AREA: PLANNING & FINANCE
cl) ACCOUNTANCY
FUNCTIONS
- Interpretation of financial status
- Keep registration and archives of all contracts
VINCULUM
- Credit
- Planning
- Treasurers Office
— With all Headships
PER SONNEL
— Headship
- Secretary
- 21 Office Clerks Type C
— 7 Office Clerks Type D
SPACIAL COMPONENTS
— Office Head 12
- Office Secretary 7
- Office Office Clerks 217
- Equipment 21
- 15% Circulation 35
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
271 sq. m


AREA: CONSTRUCTTOM
a) IIEADSIIIP "
FUNCTIONS
Elaboration of plans and budgets of urban and architectural projects Urban programming of all projects
Supervision of projects by contract or self construction VINCULUM
Credit
Purveyor's Office
- Technical Advising Committee
Management
PERSONNEL
- Head Secretary
- Receptionist
SPACIAL COMPONENTS
- Office Head 20
- Office Secretary 7
- Office Receptionist 7
- Meeting Room 15
- 15% Circulation 7
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
56 sq. m


AREA: CONSTRUCTION
h) PROJECTS
FUNCTIONS
Design of all projects
Topographic calculations of all sites
Appraisement of credit given by INVU
VINCULUM
Credit
- Purveyor’s Office
- Real State Conservation
PERSONNEL
Head
- Secretary
40 Office Clerks Type D
SPACIAL COMPONENTS
- Office Head 15
- Office Secretary 7
- Office Office Clerks 400
- Meeting Room 92
- 15% Circulation 77
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
591 sq
72
m


AREA: CONSTRUCTION
c) SUPERVISION
FUNCTIONS
Execution & supervision of projects during construction Inspection of credit given through the loan and savings syste
VINCULUM
- Credit Purveyor's Office
- Real State Conservation
PERSONNEL
- Head
- Secretary
- 20 Office Clerks Type C
SPACIAL COMPONENTS
Office Head 15 Office Secretary 7 Office Office Clerks 140 Meeting Room 20 15% Circulation 27
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
20 9 sq
m


74
AREA: ADMINISTRATIVE
a) HEADSHIP
FUNCTIONS
Policies for required personnel
- Supervise cleanliness and maintenance of building
- Supervise personnel records
VINCULUM
- Technical Advising Committee
- Management
- Executive Presidency Public
PERSONNEL
- Head
- Secretary
SPACIAL COMPONENTS
- Office Head 20
- Office Secretary 7
- Meeting Room 15
- 15% Circulation 6
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
48 sq. m


AREA: ADMINISTRATIVE
b) PERSONNEL
FUNCTIONS
Description of personnel positions Changes, recruiting and promotions Management of personnel
VINCULUM
Technical Advising Committee All Other Departments
PERSONNEL
Head
- Secretary
3 Office Clerks Type G
SPACIAL COMPONENTS
- Office Head
- Office Secretary Office Office Clerks
- Interview Room
- .15% Circulation
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
7 5
of personnel
20
7
35
25
12
94 sq. m


7 6
AREA: ADMINISTRATIVE
c) PURVEYOR1-3 OFFICE, GENERAL SERVICES
FUNCTIONS
- Buy material and equipment
- Offer transportation, maintenance vigilance, and publication services VINCULUM
- With All Other Departments PERSONNEL
Head
- Secretary
- 2 Assistants
- Maintenance and Vigilance Head
- Publications Head
- 20 Janitors
- 7 Publications Technicians
- Stationer's Head
- Stationer's Assistant
SFACIAL COMPONENTS
Office Head 12 Office Secretary 7 Office Assistants 14 Me e t i n g Room 3 2 Office Stationer's Head 7 Storage 65 Office Maintenance Head 10 Janitor's Room 40 Office Publications Head 12 Stationer's Room 100 Publications Shop 132 15% Circulation 69
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
495 sq. m


AREA: ADMINISTRATIVE
aT REAL STATE CONSERVATION
FUNCTIONS
- Administration of real state Public relations v/ith municipalities Request permission for new urbanizations
VINCULUM
- Construction Department
- Planning & Finance Department
- Treasure Department
- Legal Department
- Credit Department
PERSONNEL
- Head
Secretary
3 Office Clerks Type C SPACIAL COMPONENTS
Office Head 12 Office Secretary 7 Office Office Clerks 56 Meeting Room 10 15% Circulation 13
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
98 sq
77
m


78
AREA: TOWN PLANNING
al HEADSHIP
FUNCTIONS
- Supervise all urban planning tasks at a national level
Coordination of integrated plans and programs related to urban planning Control over private national urban development
VINCULUM
- Technical Advising Committee
- Management
PERSONNEL
Head
Secretary
- 30 Office Clerks Type C
- 2 Office Clerks Type D
SPACIAL COMPONENTS
Office Head 20 Office Secretary 7 Office Office Clerks 41 Meeting Room 45 15% Circulation 17
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
130 sq. m


AREA: TOWN PLANNING
ED LOCAL URBAN PLANNING
FUNCTIONS
Elaborate studies for national urban programmi Lead all activities of national urban planning Assistance to municipalities
VINCULUM
- Social Work
- Credit Constructions
PERSONNEL
Head
2 Secretaries
- 13 Office Clerks Type C 9 Office Clerks Type D
- Internal Head
SPACIAL COMPONENTS
2 Offices Heads 12 each
2 Offices Secretaries 7 each
2 Archives Rooms 25 each
Office Office Clerks 186
15% Circulation 41
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
315 sq. m


AREA: TOWN PLANNING
c) LEGAL & TECHNICAL COOPERATION
FUNCTIONS
Advisement on all urban legal aspects VINCULUM
- Legal
- Rest of Town Planning Department PERSONNEL
- Legal Consultant
- Head (Technical Cooperation)
- Secretary
2 Office Clerks Type E
- 5 Office Clerks Type C
5 Office Clerks Type D
SPACIAL COMPONENTS
Office Legal Consultant 12 Office Head 12 Office Secretary 7 Office Office Clerks 170 Archives Room 30 15% Circulation 35
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
266 sq
8 0
m


AREA: LEGAL
al HEADSHIP
FUNCTIONS
Control over till legal activity - Set goals for legal collection
VINCULUM
Technical Advising Committee - Management
PERSONNEL
Head
Secretary
Office Clerk Type E
SFACIAL COMPONENTS
Office Head Office Secretary
- Office Office Clerk
- Archives/Waiting Room 15% Circulation
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
8
20
7
2
65
14
108 sq. m


AREA
: LEGAL
b) JUDICIAL,
ADMINISTRATIVE AND NOTARY
FUNCTIONS
- Claims for and againts INVU Promotion of all expropiation diligences
- Control of all administrative activities of the department
VINCULUM
- With All Other Departments
PERSONNEL
- Judicial Head Notary Head Administrative Head 3 Secretaries 7 Office Clerks Type G
SPACIAL COMPONENTS
- 3 Offices Heads 12 each
- 3 Offices Secretaries 7 each
- Office Office Clerks 53
- Waiting/Meeting Room 65
- 15% Circulation 28
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
215 sq. m


AREA: CREDIT
a) HEADSHIP
FUNCTIONS
Analysis and administration of all credit programs
Reach goals of loan, savings, rural credit, communal finance, hypoth etc.
- Social/eeonomic studies of future bidders.
VINCULUM
-â–  Technical Advising Committee
- Management
PERSONNEL
- Head Secretary
2 Office Clerks Type G
- 2 Office Clerks Type D
SFACIAL COMPONENTS
Office Head 20 Office Secretary 7 Office Office Clerks 24 Meeting Room 3 0 15% Circulation 12
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
93 sq. m


8 4
AREA: CREDIT
b) Savings, loans. credit and collection
FUNCTIONS
Administration of credit systems for housing
- Supervise collection
- Reception of applications for credit and houses VINCULUM
Public Accountancy Planning Social Work
PERSONNEL
Savings 6 Loans Head
- Credit Head Collections Head 3 Secretaries
- 5 Office Clerks Type C
- 7 Office Clerks Type D
SPACIAL COMPONENTS
3 Offices Heads 12 each
3 Offices Secretaries 7 each
Office Office Clerks 105
Meeting Room 30
2 Archives Rooms 15 each
15% Circulation 33
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
255 sq. m


8 i
AREA: SOCIAL WORK
a~) HEADSHIP
FUNCTIONS
- Elaboration of studies and propositions for solutions to family, social and economic problems of the bidders' families
Elaboration of studies of social housing market
VINCULUM
Technical Advising Committee
- Management
PERSONNEL
Head
- Secretary SFACIAL COMPONENTS
- Office Head 20
- Office Secretary 7
- Archives Room 5
- Meeting Room 20
- 15% Circulation 8
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
60 sq. m


AREA: SOCIAL WORK
b) SOCIAL PROMOTION, SOCIAL WORK
FUNCTIONS
- Plan programs, lead and execution of social promotion labor Studies of urban developments integrated for social development
- Evaluate the outcomes of the programs
VINCULUM
Credit
- Planning
- Town Planning Constructions
PERSONNEL
- Social Promotion Head
- Rural Credit Head
- Social Work Head
- 3 Secretaries
— 15 Office Clerks Type C
SFACIAL COMPONENTS
— 3 Offices Heads 12 each
- 3 Offices Secretaries 7 each
- Office Office Clerks 105
- Meeting Room 20
- 15% Circulation 27
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
209 sq. m


8
AREA: HOARD OF DIRECTORS
FUNCTIONS
- Establish Policies
- Approve Financial and Economic Issues
- Approve Major Programs
VINCULUM
- Management
- Executive Presidency
- Legal Department
- Auditor
- General Secretariat PERSONNEL
All Members of the Board of Directors SPACIAL COMPONENTS
Meeting Room • 120 2 Offices 20 Waiting Room 20 15% Circulation 24
each
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
184 sq. m


86
AREA: EXECUTIVE PRESIDENCY
FUNCTIONS
Legal and official representative of the institution. VINCULUM
- Board of Directors
- Legal Consultants
- Auditor
Technical Advising Committee
- Management
PERSONNEL
Executive President
Secretary
Assistant
SFACIAL COMPONENTS
Office Executive President 30 Office Secretary 7 Office Assistant 10 Archives Room 25 Waiting Room 25 15% Circulation 10
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
82 sq. m


8<
AREA: MANAGEMENT
FUNCTIONS
Insure the Efficiency of all Departments VINCULUM
- With all the Administration Personnel With all other Departments
PERSONNEL
- Manager Executive Secretary
- Archives and Correspondence Manager
2 Office Clerks (Type D)
SPACIAL COMPONENTS
Office Manager 30
Office Secretary 12
Office Archives 12
2 Offices Type D 10 each
Waiting Room 35
15% Circulation 16
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
125 sq. m


90
AREA: TREASURER°S OFFICE
FUNCTIONS
- Control balance and money values
- Payments
- Flov; of money
VINCULUM
Technical Advising Committee
- Management
Board of Directors
PERSONNEL
- Head Secretary Assistant
- 10 Office Clerks Type C 1 Office Clerk Type D
SRACIAL COMPONENTS
- Office Head 12
- Office Secretary 7
- Office Assistant 12
- Office Office Clerks 80
- Equipment 80
- 15% Circulation 29
TOTAL REQUIRED AREA
220 sq. m


Full Text

PAGE 2

"OLD AND NEW IN AN OFFICE COMPLEXu An architectural thesis presented to the College of Design and University of Colorado at in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of r1aster in Arcllitectu r e. AVY NADAB AVI Spring 1984

PAGE 3

The Thesis of Avy Nodob Avlrom is approved. f .... ,Principal Advisor (Eng. Clara Zomer> UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER 1984

PAGE 4

To my parents For their everlasting supportive effort and help through the inevitable ups and downs, frustrations and elations, certainties and uncertainties. For this, and for all they have given over the years, they are as much the authors o f this thesis as I.

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 . THE INTRODUC'riON • • • . • • . . • . . • • • • • • . . • • • • • . . . • • 1 -Project -Thesis 2 . TilE REGION ••••.••••••.•.••.••••.•••••.•.•• 8 -History of Costa Rica Ovecview of Costa Rica & San Jose 3 . THE INSTITUTION •••.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6 -Functions and Objectives -Internal Functions Powecs INVU ann the Problem of Housing in Costa Rica 4 . THE SITE . .43 -Immediate Surroundings Site Amenities Site Problems -Climactic Impact on Site -Functional Requirements Old f1ain Customs Ilou se Building 5 . THE PROGRAM. • • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 -General Notes Breakdown of Space Needs Summary of Space Needs -Tables of Design Criteria -Cost & Construction Time 6. THE BUILDING CODE. • .•.•..••.••..•••.••.•.•...• 102 -Notes on the Costa Rican Building Code Applicable to This Program 7. 8. -Notes on Seismic Design Criteci a THE BIBLIOGRAPHY • . THE CONCLUSION • -Synthesis -Final Product .127 . . . 129

PAGE 6

THE INTRODiJCTUON

PAGE 7

INTRODUCTION Architecture and its elements have traveled through time and places. The past and the elements of bygone times have planted in today's world the search for the security that yesterday can give us. We can not unfasten ourselves from the past since it has been the vehicle that transported us to the present. The past is a legacy that contains, sometimes more evident than others, the heritage, the understanding, and the eJidence of today's being. It is necessary to preserve those old pages and add more, in order to complete, join, or question those that have been \'lri t ten. 'l'he housing authority in Costa Hica called INVU (National Institute of Urban ism and Housing) needs to gather all of their presently scattered departments and offices into an office complex to become their headquarters. INVU needs n complex that is representative:_ of their own identity. For the purposes of containing in one all of their departments they have acquired a site located in the city of San Jose (the capital of Costa Rica}. The site contains an old building erected in 1850 which originally housed the Costa Rican Customs Department and its warehouses. This building, which covers an area of 1891 sq. m (19,045 sq. ft.) of 17, 600 sq. m ( 18 9, 451 sq. ft. ) of the total site area, has been declared national

PAGE 8

patrimony and therefore it must be preserved. A later addition to this building has been studied and as a result it has been concluded that the addition will be demolished since it disturbs the integrity and unique character of the original building. The project is based on rehabilitating this old building to accomodate some of the office space required by INVU in addition to designing a new section to be allocated on the same site in order to complete their space requirements. The total space requirements for the INVU headquarters is of 9914 sq. m (94,876 sq. ft.) which includes office space: parking and landscaping is not included in this figure. I have done extensive research on the INVU, their departments, their employees, and their function in order to determine and elaborate a program suitable to all of their quantitative as well as qualitative requirements and needs. The thesis will deal specifically with: 1. Preservation and revitalization of old A century ago John Ruskin said of architecture: "We may live without her, and worship without her, but we can not remember without her." Our built environment is the tangible 2

PAGE 9

record we possess, the most palpable proof of civilization's continuous evolution. Tl1is idea helps explain the enormous impact of the concept of historic preservation during the last decades. Successful revitalization demonstrates that the forms and materials devised in the past are still valid when properly adapted to the functions of today•s life. Architecture is called the "inescapable art," but many of our proudest buildings escape from us every year, making way for routine office buildings or rectilinear condominiums or, worst, parking lots. That doesn't have to happen and as an intention I'm going to try to prove it. 2. }mpact aused QY the today•s architecture in search of righ t and necessary ingredients to create an architecture that blends harmoniously into an existing context. When asked, many people will say that a n addition is in harmony with the original building because the new wing uses the same materials or continues the roof line of the original building. nut such devices merely implement the overall concept that unites new and old. Conceptually, the addition may be a reproduction of the original building, an abstraction of it, a background building, or a sympathetic contrast to the original building. Of these I will use three of the concepts to unite new and old. First, proper deference to the contemporary idiom will be achieved by focusing the viewer • s attention on the existing building and providing the addition in the least obtrusive 3

PAGE 10

the addition will become a background building. The addition is larger than the original building and it will 'literally become a background against which the principal object is viewed. Second, I will use an abstraction of the original building. The intent is to achieve harmony between the old and new by recreating the essence of the original building without reproducing it. Finally, I will use some contrast in order to increase the appreciation of both architectural styles. A contrast between the solidness of the masonry walls of the historic building and the transparency of the glass and steel skin of the a<'ldition as contemporary meth of construction. 3. The creation of a complex image that employees as well as public can identify with. An image that synthesizes the institution's functions, objectives and goals. There has been a rising protest against modern architecture's failure to deliver strong feelings of community and space. This has also included the accusation that architects have been transmitting their message in a private code meaningless to most of the inhabitants of their buildings. I feel that the architect is responsible to create the places that belong to the people. In order to do so it is necessary a good understanding of the functions to be performed by the building itself and by its inhabitants. A good understanding of all the pieces that make up a program can best be reflected in the final design solution. 4

PAGE 11

r. •• ! 4. The interaction and _:3eparation of public spaces for the well functioning of the institution as a planned system. I want to treat the private/public relation-ship as a central concept and in a somewhat different way than it is used some-times. Traditionally, privacy was viewed as an excluding process, as being alone or getting away from others. From the perspective of this thesis, privacy will be approached as a changing self/other boundary regulation process in which a person or a gt:oup sometimes needs to be separated from others and sometimes wants o r it is necessary to be in contact with others. As a general principle I will attempt to design responsive environments which permit eas y alternation between a state of separateness and a state of togetherness. This program a s well as the design project are going to be developed on the metric system in order to facilitate the presentation of both program and design solution to the Housing Authority in Costa Rica (INVU}.

PAGE 12

6 THE OLD CUSTOMS BUILDING •

PAGE 13

7 ADIT/ON TO BE DEMOLISHED

PAGE 14

THE REGION

PAGE 15

NICARAGUA COSTA R I C A 8

PAGE 16

A GLU1 PSE OF IUS'I'ORY In 150 2 , when Christopher Coln-r.1bus was making his fourth and last voyage in search of Cipango and Catay, he entered the stormy waters of the Caribbean cyclone zone during t h e months of September and October, the period when the cyclones occur in this region e very year. He had scarcely left the Island of Hispanola (or II a it i ) , sa i 1 in
PAGE 17

tween them and the natives, \'lho benefited from a more humane form of treatment as laid down by the New Laws of 1542, which protected the Indians and had been based on the principles of their defender, Brother Bartolome de las Casas. There was only one rebel chief, whose name was GarabitoJ even he did not give battle but went to the jungle so as not to have to swear an oath of alle0iance to the King o f Spain as required by the Spanish authorities, who had already occupied the central highlands , and particularly the town of Cartaqo, founded in 1564 by Juan Vazquez de Coronado. This town was the capital throughout the colonial epoch and the first few years of independence, and it was only in 1823 that San Jose supplanted it. It is very important to note that there was no fighting involved in the conquest of Costa Rica, as there was in Guatemala, El Salvador and Uonduras. The native culture of Costa Rica was a complicated mixture of cultural influences from Central and South America. Towns in the Maya and Aztec styles never existed in this country, which consisted of native cornr.mnities governeCI by Indian tribal cl1iefs. Its Indian population during the sixteenth century is estimated to have been about 27,000. The Central Valley of Costa Rica was the territory chosen by the Spanish to start their colonial existence, owing to its excellent climate and fertile soil. They s ettled down to a life of cattle-raising and farming, for in spite of 10

PAGE 18

the name "Costa Rica", mines were conspicuous by their absence. There were nei-ther gold nor silver, as there were in Nicaragua. The "encomiendas" (Indian com-munities allocaten to the conquistadores) whicb were in order to cultivate the soil, lacked manpower owing to the scarcity of Indians and rapidly dispersed. This was a subsistence economy. There were few exports, and neighbouring coun-tries such as the kingdoms of Guatemala and Panama provided poor market s . Poverty was the characteristic of the Costa Rica colonists, who mingled with the Indians and formed a half-breed population with a high percentage of European b lood. For ta Rica j s the white country of Central America. . As there was no rich class consisting of wealthy land owners, the creole aristocracy which existed in other Latin American countries never took shape in Costa Rica, and a feeling for liberty developen there. In 1021, during the eacly years of the Republic, the first democratic institutions were established. These, put into practice during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries thanks to education, have enabled Costa Rica to become today a world-wide model for democracy. Anyone visitjng this country of Central America will notice the atmosphere of security, peacefulness and respect for the law, i11 which the free election of governments depends on the will of the people and not the decisive force oE the military. OJr presidents mix freel . y with the population l 1

PAGE 19

with practjcally no police protection. Costa Rica is a democratic country, and militarism holds no sway: the army was forbidden by the 1949 Constitution, it was independent on September 15, 1821 at the same time as it was in the order countries of Central America that had formed the Kingdom of Guatemala and, in 1824, became the ephemeral Federal Republic o Central America. By the first hal( of the nineteenth century there were five completely republics linked only by tradition. I n 1856, the neighbouring republic of Nicaragua was dominated by a gr-oup of pirates commanded by William vlalker:-anft protected by people in the United States of America with an interest in slavery. The President o . E Costa Rica, Don Juan Rafael Mora, organized a Costa-Rican army and launched a campaign against Walker, who had already become President of Nicaragua. With the help of other Central American countries he succeeded in liberating Nicara0ua. The fight for liberty lasted a year brought out a feeling of brotherhood among the countries of Central America. This was the only war du r:-i ng the his tory of Costa Rica and it pr:-oauced the national hero, Juan Santamaria. Ilis statue can be seen at Alajuela, his place of birth, in the gardens of t h e Legislative Assemhly. In accor-dance with the Ccntral-Anerican feeling inherited from the colonial 1 2

PAGE 20

epoch, the five republics and Panama today form the Common Market of Central America, which ensures further among the governments and peoples of these countries. During the second half of the nineteenth century, Costa Rica underwent a social and economic transformation as a result of increases i n exports of coffee, tl1e staple export of the country. This gave rise to a coffee-industry oligarchy, offering greater capacity to firms, making for more extensive culture and even intervening in p o l itical life. Efforts undertaken in the cultural field l1ave made possible better educational organization, while new protagonists of a broader edu cation, such as Dr. Jose Maria Castro, Dr . Jesus Jimenez and Mauro Fernandez, have emerged. The last-named carried out educational reforms on liberal lines, assist-ed by European teachers and scientists who came specially for this purpose. Thanks to a policy of "more schools and more roads" and to an increase of national political awareness, Costa Rica has, since the beginning of the twentieth century, followed a decisively democratic policy, with a particular respect for human dignity and public opinion as expressed by the mass media and, by establishing universal suffrage, has made possible the full implementation of the principle of the sovereignty of the people in a democratic, representative and independent republic such as Costa R ica. 1

PAGE 21

A REAL DEMOCRACY I have said that Costa Rica is a model of for the world, the ori gins of which go back to colonial times when extreme poverty determined a feeling of and liberty upon all the inhabitants. It is said that even the Span ish Governor dug his garden in order t o grow food. There was no rich, cultured and dominating aristocracy, even if some of them had the blood of the hidalgos of the peninsula in their veins. At the end of the colonial epoch, all felt themselves to be free and equal, for they lived isolated f rom the American world in the paradisiac lands of the Central Valley. The Government of Guatemala, the capital of tl1e Kingdom, i nterfered little i n t h e political a nd economic affairs of Cocta Rica. These were colonists without hatred and with no great ambition for political ancl economic power. On behalf of that, Hhen Independence arrived on September 15, 1821, the Costa-Ricans organized a new democratic, republican government based on the "Concord Pact" -the first Political Constitution which was decreed a few days after independence and was the result of a d iscussion between the leaders of the country vJho showed that they had commonsense, patriotism and a respect for the law, just as they have today. •rllU s , fr a terna 1 strife was avoided and democratic institutions were established as from the time when the Republic was founded. Militarism, that political plague of the other countries of Latin

PAGE 22

America, did not prosper in this land where lavJ, peace and a respect for human dignity are sacred precepts. The first Governor, Juan Mora a former schoolmaster, was constitutionally elected, and was one of the personalities who emerged at the time of Independence. He imparted to the education of the people the full importance it deserves in the training of the citizen in a democratic state. And all the presidents who came after him the same principle, thus succeeding in creating in Costa Rica a political, social and economic organization which justifies the well-deserved reputation of being the 1nost pure form of democracy imaginable. Costa Rica is governed by the three classical powers of a republic -execu-tivc, legislature and judiciary, each being independent of the others. Government is of the people, representative and responsible. Sovereignty is vested i n the people Hho delegate it to the pov7ers of the State by univer. al suffrage, the procedure for which is governed by the Supreme Court of the Elections -fourth of the powers of the Republic. The Executive consists of the President of the Republic and his Ministers of State. The Legislature is the LeQislative Assembly. 'l'he President of the Republie and the members of the Assembly are elected by direct suffrage for a term of fouryears. The Judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of Justice, the members

PAGE 23

of wt1ich are elected by the Legislative Assembly. Costa Rica is divided into seven provinces for administrative purposes. These are: San Jose, Cartage, Alajuela, Heredia, Puntarenas, Guanacaste and Limon. Each province is s ubdivided into cantons and districts, each with its local level of government. In each canton there is a Municipal Council elected by universal suffrage and responsible for the administration of the Canton. Costa Rica has a number of autonomous institutions with specific responsibil ities, such as the Costa-Rican Electricity Institute, the National Housing and Town-planning Institute and the National Aqueducts and Water Reservoirs Service. The banking system is nationalized under the Central Bank, but there are also in dep_ndent financial Press, radio and television enjoy full liberty in obtaining information and expressing criticism, even concernin0 national affecting the Government and the people. 'I'here is no press censorship and journalists can talk freely with senior civil servants, and even with the President of the Republic himself during l1is frequent press conferences in which he lays down the policy oE the Govern-ment. Every citizen is free to express his opinion, providing it does not inter-ere with the liberty of the individual. Governments are respected but not fcared, for po\'Jer. comes from the people.

PAGE 24

PICTURESQUE COUNTRY 'l'h is is a beautiful l :it tle country in the heart of America, lying between Panama, Nicaragua, the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. It is known as 11the garden of lhe Americas'' on account of the highly varied shades of greenery dis played at all times by its forests and the fields of crops scattered throughout the valleys and mountains, the plains and the superb volcanoes, all o f which are easily accessible to the tourist. Costa Rica is so small that within a few hours you can from a hot climate, with temperatures of up to 37C (99F) on the mar v elous beaches along the coast to the mountain peaks, where minimum temperatures of zero (32F) are recorded. Owin0 to the maritime climate, temperatures are uniforr.1 throughout t h e year in all the towns. The average distance from ocean to ocean is 150 miles, since Costa Rica is part of the Central American isthmus. Rainfall is abundant, although in the central region and the north-\
PAGE 25

is smaller. In the other geographical areas of the country, such as the 1\tlantic northern plains and the plains and valleys of the southern Pacific, there is rain throughout the year, and annual rainfall amounts to as much as 130 inches or more. In these areas, bananas, cacao, african palm trees and other tropical prod-ucts are gr:-ovm. For the traveller visiting the land of the 11Ticos11 (the inhabitants of Costa Rica) for the first time, the predominant image is one of a country of beautiful mountains together and by a greenery which penetrates you and gives you a feeling of peace and tranquillity. The Central Valley, birthplace of Costa-Rican nationality, is a small but important territory at an altitude of 3,300 feet, \'lith a n average temperature of 20C {(i!3F ) throughout the year, on the lOth parallel North of the Equator. Its area oE about 1,300 square miles is divided b etween two divergent valleys -the eastern valley of Guarco in which is located the Conner capital of Cartage, the western valley which contains San Jose, the present captial with its 680,000 inhabitants, and other towns such as Alajuela, Her San Ramon and Grecia, to say nothing of many villages which jostle one another are enclowecl with excellent transport, electricity, drinldng water, a JtOLat.ic telephone, radio nncl television facilities. Each village has its school, its Catholic church and sports this is characteristic of the coun-

PAGE 26

1 1 try districts of Costa Rica. In the towns are to be found the seconclary and technical schools. '1.'\-JO uni-versities and an institute of technology provide training in the arts and sci-ences. In Costa Rica, education is a major aim of the State. The funds set aside for education account for 21% of the total national budget. The Central Valley is the chief geographical of the country and has the highest population since it contains 60% of the country' s total population. On its fertile soil, coffee, sugar cane, fruit, vegetables and flowers are grown. and expansion over the past few years has been mainly based on the towns of the plateau, particularly the metropolitan a rea ancl the pro vi nc ial capitals, such as Carta go, 1\la j ue la and Ilered 1 <'l. ing roads run in all directions and climb to the peaks of the cordilleras at an average altitude oE 10,000 feet forming the Centra l Valley. All along tl1e se road s are small villages and country houses i n vivid colors nearly always adorned with plants sucl1 as ferns, begonias, geraniums and bougainvilles. The inhabitants are jovial 1n character and friendly to strangers. Motor vehicles with the typ ica 1 carts clraHn by yoked oxe n anrl with the small horses used by the peasants for work and marketing. Modecn agricultural machinery alternates with traditional farming tools and the typical plow drawn by oxen, bequeathed to

PAGE 27

the peasants by the Spanish. All these people are provided with state services in the form of free education, bank loans and means of communication. Social legis-lation provides for their economic well-being, health and pensions through the Costa-Rican Social Security Fund and the Labour Code. What I have just said concerning the Central Valley applies to the other geo grapllical regions, which are determined by the relief and other climatic factors. The mountains of Costa Rica are situated near the Pacific coast froc North-west t0 South-east. They are divided into three main cordilleras -the Guanacaste volcan-ic cordillera, with a number of volcanoes including the Rincon de la Vieja and the the Central volcanic cordillera, which marks the northern extremity of the Great Valle y and contains the volcanoes of Poas, Irazu, Barba and Turrialba (the two first are of extraordinary beauty, with roads leading to the very edge of the crater, two hours by car from San Jose. These volcanoes have been declared 11nat iona! parks" so as to conserve their natural beauty. The crater of the Poas is nearly a mile \vide and is one oE the largest in the vJOrld); the Talamanca cordillera, the h iglles t an
PAGE 28

The cordilleras mentioned above divide tl1e territory into a number of regions; to the North of the Central volcanic are the northern plains, with their forests, abundant watercourses, coffee, sugar-can e , banana, cacao and manioc plantations and their herds of cattle. The Atlantic Plains, facing the Caribbean have a considerable black population, who grow banas, cacRo, fruits and raise cattle. The por t of Limon is the chief town of t h i s region and is the leading port of Costa Rica. The South Pacific, betwee n tlte Talamanca Cordillera and the Pacific Ocean, is another region wl1ere bananas, cacao, sugar cane, tobacco and coffee are grown a n d cattle is raised. Lastly, the Dry Pacifi c includes the Prov ince of Guanacaste, with its flat land and less rainfall, producing cattle and cotton; its coast faces the Pacific Ocean and has numerous, easily accessible fine beaches all the way along the Inter-American Road which links the country to Nicaragua. It is an ideal region for tourists and has a very rich folklore. The economy of Costa Rica is essentially agricultural, altllough over the last few decades industry has been developed as a result of protectionist legislation. The chief exports are coffee , bananas, meat, sugar, cocoa and other products. The chief counlries were the United States, the Western Europe, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua in that The last three are part 2

PAGE 29

of the Central American Common Market. The chief products imported are raw materials, fertilizers, medicaments, textiles, food, electrical machinery and equipment, etc. The countries supplying them are the U.S.A., Japan, Venezuela, Mexico, Western Europe, Guatemala, Salvador and Nicaragua. SJI.N JOSE This town was the result of spontaneous colonial expansion during the 17th and 18th centuries from the old capital of Cartage towards the fertile lands of the Western Valley irrigated by the Virilla River, which flows into the Pacific Oc It was created by poor peasants who were trying to gain a living by grow-ing tobacco and cane-sugar -products which were sold in the provinces of the Kingdom of Guatemala. Religious and political considerations caused them to live around a temple; the tiny village with its earth-walled and straw-thatched houses took the name of Town at the Opening of the Hountain"; later it assumed the name of the Patron Saint, "San Jose" in accordance with the custom of the Catholic religion, which is still practiced by many Costa-Ricans. During the days of political adaptation, \vhen Costa Rica was changing its 2:

PAGE 30

position from a colony to a Republic, the town of San Jose played a leading part and acquired all the qualifications for becoming the capital, on May 1823. Thenceforward, its development was obvious, since it exerted political, economic and cultural hegemony over the other towns of Costa Rica. It may therefore be said that Costa Rica has had two capitals -Cartage during the colonial epoch and San Jose uud.nCJ t h e Repuhlic. T h e town is situated n a sn1all plateau of the Western valley between the Torres and Maria Aguilar rivers, which are tributaries of the Virilla. The prosimity of these two deep rivers compelled the inhabitants to build their town in the form of a strip running East and West. Until the first half of the twentieth century, San Jose had a population of about how ever, owing to the outstanding inlustrial and commercial development of Costa over the last two uecades, the town of San Jose now constitutes a metropole whose population accounts for 25% of the national total. Nm Jadays, it has the look of a modern tovm, with its lofty buildings and clense traffic in the streets running North and South and the avenues runnin9 East and Nest, \lhich are of limited capacity. Second Avenue is the widest and was laid out recently; on the other hand, Avenue, which is a very important busi-ness is somewhat ures to remedy the traffic situation. All this makes it to take meas-

PAGE 31

2L1 In the eastern part of the city are situated the government office buildings such as the Presidential Resi ence, the Parliament Ilouse , the lligh Court of Jus-tice , the Yellow House which contains the Foreign Office, and other buildings such as the national Library, the National Huseum, the Calderon Guardia IIospital, the Railway Station for Main Lines to the Atlantic and the National Insurance Insti-tute. Here also is to be Eound the National Park containing the monument com1.1.emorating the tJational Campaign of 1856, the Spanish Park and the Morazan Park. In the central sector can be seen the Nation31 Theater, an architectural jew-. el, the Central Dank and the Costa Rica National Bank, the Anglo Bank, the Costa-Rican Social Security Officec , the Metropolitan Cathedral containing the residence of the Archbishop of San Jose, a number of cinen1as hotels, the Municipal Marl: c t and the chief commercial buildings. The Centra 1 Park and the Cleto Gonzalez Viguez Kindergarten are a lso located in this sector. In the \V'estern sector are the San Juan de Dios Hospital, the National llospital for Children, the National Stadium, the National Gymnasium and the Costa-Rican Electricity Institute. The residential quarters located jn the town, as are also the primary and secondary schools such as the Edificio Metalico, the Girls o High School an(l the Costa n.ica Secondary School.

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The town is very active, commercially , financially and culturally. There i s a permanent bus service connecting the capital to the neighbouring and distant towns of Costa Rica. In reality, San Jose is the heart of the country and over the past few years has bee n a meetin g place for conferences and other international events. 2!

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THE INSTITUTION

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NATI ONAL INSTITUTE OF H O USING AND CITY P LANNING ( INVU } 1 . Da t e o f Creation INVU was created by Law No. 1788 on the 24th of August of 1954, during the second administration of former President Figueres. 2 . Obj ecti.ves To direct its activities towards the obtainment of a better socioeconomic welfare, procuring for the Costa Rican family a better home and the corresponding economic resources. To plan the development and the growth of the cities and of other minor centers, with the goal of promoting the best use of the land. To locate public areas for community services to establish functional systems of roads and to formulate plans of investment into public works. As an autonomous institution of public law, it has legal representation and its own patrimony. It possesses technical and administrative autonomy. 3 . Economic and Personal Resources The Institute relies upon different sources of revenue in order to

PAGE 35

finance its projects such as: state subsidies, donations, internal and external loans and its own revenues. The principal sources of the last one mentioned proceed from recoveries of bad debts, the interest on loans which have been granted, and the revenues from Savings and Loan. The Institute functions with 494 employees in its central administrative plant and approximately 700 rural employees who take care of "in situ" the works of city planning and the construction of houses. 4. Organization: Principal Units Board of Directors Executive President Internal O ffice of the Auditor 'l'echnical Advising Committee M anagement Department of Planning and Finance Department of Urba n Planning Construction Department Administrative Department Legal Department Credit Department D epartment of Social Wor k

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2l 5 . Functions and Integration of the Principal Units 5,1 Board of Directors Functions To determine the policy of the Institute. To examine and approve balances and financial and economic statements. To expedite the programs which the Institute requires. To approve the operations o greates importance. To empower the management to put into execution those programs which are agreed upon by the Board of Directors. To agree upon the investment of the resources of the same. To appoint and remove the Director, Assistant Director, and the Auditor. Integration a ) An Executi v e President who is named by the Advisory Board and who shall be a full-time official who shall exclusively dedicate himself to this position. Demonstrated experience and knowledge in the field of activities which concern the Institute.

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Must be older than 25 years of age. Must be Costa Rican by birth or by naturalization, with no less than 10 years of residency in the country. Functions To ensure that the decisions made by the Board of Directors are carried out, and also to coordinate the activities of the governing Board with the other institutions of the state, To ensure the fulfillment of the obligations and objectives of the Institute. To call regular and special meetings of the Board, working out the respective agendas. He represents the Institute judicially and extrajudicially. Ile shall not be able to perform a single c.ther public duty, nor practice liberal professions, during the exercise of his office. b) Six people of demonstrated experience and knowledge in the field of the activities of the Institute or with a professional license recognized by the state, and whose appointment in performed by the Board to the government. 5 . 2 Internal Office of the Auditor 2

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It depends hierarchically upon the executive presidency. It is the body encharged with the accounting and financial control of the operations of the Institute. 5.3 Technical Advising Advisor to the executive presidency about technical problems or projects of the Institute. It i s made up of the Director, Assistant Director, and the heads of the departments. 5.4 Manaqement To oversee the efficient and correct functioning of the subordinate agencies. The Director is the principal administrative official of the Institute. 5.5 Department of Planning Finance It is the department responsible for the entire planning of all of the activities of the Institute, and is equally responsible for short, medium and long-range activities. This planning in its economic aspect reflects projection and strictly adheres to the general outlines which the National Plan of Economic and Social development prescribes for the entire country, 3

PAGE 39

Among the functions of the same . i : s found the administration of finances which, among other activities, consists of the budgeting of estimated daily and special expenses in order to cover the financial necessities of the projects which are being carried out and those which are planned. To this same end, the Department intervenes in the acquisition of the additional necessary funds in order to make the annual goals aw well as those medium-range goals a reality, and also performs an analysis of the offers of financing which might be received or negotiated. The respective analyses are also carried out in relation to costs and other aspects of the projects which the Institute might conclude likewise, the financial statemen1:s and the liquidations of the budget are prepared on a monthly basis, containing t :he respective analysis and recommending corrective measures when the y might correspond. In this respect, the control is exercised for all the housing and city planning projects which might be found to be under study or in progress. The department constitutes the channel of information to the Executive Presidency and to the management of the Institute,and, as a sectorial unit of Planning, it supplies a series of information to the Housing and Human Settlement Sector, OFIPLA..l'.J, Central Bank and other public organizations with whom a strict coord:!i nation of activities is maintained, and it also has as its responsibility those 3

PAGE 40

efforts which \vill tend to an increase in t.he administrative effectiveness of the lnstitute. This department relies upon the followj.ng divisions: Planning and Organization, Control of Programs and Statistics, Accounting, and the Center of Calculations. 5.6 Department of City Planning In compliance with La\v No . 4 24 0, "Law of Urban PLanning", the management of City Planning has, among other objectives , tha t of promoting the coord.ina tion of public or private projects, assessing and lending technical assistance to the municipalities and public organizations dedicated to physical planning, exercising the vigilance and the authority which might be possible to it for the proper fulfillment of the standards of national, regional, and local interest, included in the law and in the by-law s in force for the control of Urban Development. This department relies upon the following divisions: National Urban Planning, Local Urban Planning, and Technical Cooperation. 5.7 Construction Department It is the department which designs and coordinates the residential constructiion projects, making sure that the technical specifications, advance plans, and footage plans of all types of construction and city planning be fulfilled. The department relies upon the following divisions:

PAGE 41

Project Division: It has under its responsibility the design and production of all the plans of the projects which the Institute carries out, as well as the topographical calculations cf the land and the making of the appraisals of the credit granted by the INVU. Division of Supervision: Its functions are based upon the supervision and execution of the projects under construction, which come into being by official means and through bidding, and also by means of the inspection of the credit which is granted through the supervised system of savings and loan which is also available to rural areas. 5 . 8 Administrative Division To attend to the administrative services of the Institute. It relies upon the following units: The Divtsiopof General Services and the Office of the Proveyor, the Personnel Division, the Divisionof Administration of Residential Units and Property. 5.9 Legal Department To offer the services of a legal nature which should be attended to in the organ:Lzation. To assess i . t the legal aspect the administrative branches of the Institute. To carry out internal and public legal consultations. To

PAGE 42

carry out the studies of the case and to attend to the notarial matters in which the Institute might have interest. 5.10 Credit Department The attention of all of the applications for housing and the analysis, investigation, and distribution of the mortgage loans which the Institute might grant correspond to this department. Based upon the applications received and carrying out the corresponding analysis, pertinent recommendations shall be made. It shall be attended to and shall he directed to the grantees and to the borrowers in matters relative to: a) The awarding of housing b) The setting of quotas and installment periods c) The exchange of housing d) The appointment of new representatives for the obligations with the INVU e) The efforts towards the promotion of credit f) The analysis and the drawing up of applications of credit• In the financial field, the analysis of the status of the account of each debtor of the Institute shall be carried out to the end that, by means of the impetus of collections, the delinquent debtors might arrange the settlement of their accounts. It relies upon the following the Division of Savings and Loan,

PAGE 43

the Division of Savings and Credit, the Division of Collections, the Division of Systems of Credit, and the Regional Headquarters decentralized in L i mon and Puntarenas. 5 .11 Department of Social Work The detect i o n of the necessities and the uneasy feelings of the rural communities of the country, related to the proble m o f h ousing is under the jurisdictj_on o f this departmen t . project the INV U to all the c ommuni ties o f the country making known i ts policies, programs, and fields of activity. To promote cooperation between INVU, local governn1ents, groups, and institutions interested in resolving the problems of housing and city planning. To study and analyze , in con junction with t h e De partment of City Planning, the problem of physical regulation and coramunity facilities o f the minor a n d intermediate centers of population. To promote programs for the r ural commun ity to a national level and to improve the housing with the resources of the same cormnuni ties. To promote and to look afte r the program o f rural loans at the national level.

PAGE 44

To promote and carry out feasibility studies for housing projects. To take care of the social implications which are derived from the programs for the eradication of shacks or of urban regulation. To persuade and direct the grantees and borrowers to make payments in order to diminish the delinquency in payment. To carry out socioeconomic studies f0r the granting of housing, to attend to applications and negotiations, which the grantees and the borrowers might present. The control of irregularities with the use and occupation of the residences, and also the control and reporting of unoccupied residences. 6 . Powers With the purpose of making INVU able to fulfill its objectives, it has been legally provided with adequate powers. Thus, it is its responsibility: a ) To prepare and establish regulations for regulating plans for the urban conglomerates of the country, which, in its judgement, might merit it. b) To gradually eliminate from the urban areas, the unsanitary or dangerous buildings and residences, by means of plans for reconstruction or remodeling of the same. c) To complete housing programs, in groups or individually, for families with scant economic resources, which might tend toward the planning of residential zones.

PAGE 45

d) To formulate general plans, to carry out programs for the construction and cleaning of residences or of neighborhoods, or for the formation of real estate developments, in accordance to the degree of necessity and urgency which, in that respect, might exist in different parts of the country. e) To construct, as part of its plans for the building of residences, sanitation facilities and complementary housing, as well as centers for indispensable community services. f) To foster the construction, sanitation, reparation or expansion of housing; and the execution of housing projects and sanitation on the part of people or public and private organizations, always conforming to the technical norms which INVU might dictate. g) To promote the coordination of the activities related to housing and city planning of the governmental agencies and autonomous institutions of the state which might be occupied with these matters. h) To grant loans in cash or in materials with a mortgaged guarantee for the construction, reconstruction, expansion or sanitation of real estate developments, neigborhoods, or urban or rural residences. i) To establish systems of saving and lending in order to finance the f,ollow ing operations related to the residential homes of the persons who subscribe to said systems; 3

PAGE 46

i. The purchase of housing and land or construction of the same, on one' s own plot of land. ii. The purchase, expansion, or repare of the residence. iii. The settlement of the liens upon the house owned. iv. The purchase of the land by the owner of the residence, in the event that it might have been on somebody else' s property. j} To issue bonds and to obtain loans in order to fulfill the objectives of its Organic Law. k } To acquire, according to the norms of common law, or by means of expropia tion, according to the corresponding law, personal property or real estate. 1} •ro establish a system of financing residences with a guarantee of policies from a National Institute of Insurance, the Insurance Corporation of the National Magistrate, or of the Costa Rican Cashier of Social Security, which might guarantee the total payment of the respective mortgage, in the event that the acquirer should die, with the purpose of having the assignees be left as owners of the real estate property, free from leins. m) To prepare, revise, and keep up-to-date a national plan for urban development, with the purpose of promoting: 3

PAGE 47

• The orderly expansion of the urban centers. • The satisfactory equilibrium between the urban development and the rural development, by means of an adequate distribution of the population and the economic activities. • The efficient development of the urban areas, in order to contribute to the better use of natural and human resources. • The guided investment into public improvements. 7. The INVU and the Problem of Housing in Costa Rica 7.1 Brief Diagnosis of the Housing Situation in Costa Rica A study of the present situation of housing in Costa Rica can not be totally brought up to date since new events take place practically every day. Nevertheless, ir order to have a general panoramic view of the necessity for housing, which troubles the Costn Rj .cans, some suggestions about this relevant problem are brought into consideration. In our country, it is calculated that at the end of the year 1979, there was an estimated defficiency of 94,000 residential units, and the homes which were physically deteriorated or which had an insuffic"ent amount of space, 3

PAGE 48

according to the number of person living there, is estimated at 141,700. Such a situation, directly affects 26.2% of the Costa "Rican population. Studies which have been conducted, reveal that, if the country were to seek to resolve its housing needs, which arise with the growth of its population, the replacement of deteriorated homes and the gradual elimination of the deficit to the that a minimum of 27,000 houses should be constructed annually. Even if the deficit were not to be considered, to concentrate the efforts only to take care of the demand because of the population growth and replacement, it would be necessary to construct no less than 24,000 homes per year. The Public Sector, as well as the Private Sector, have constructed 18,000 units annually, in the last two years, according to what is registered in the corresponding statistics. The total investment into housing in Costa Rica presents at least 3.8% of the gross internal product. Costa Rica, being a poor country, should strive to see to it that the internal savings, as well as the external, be channelled into investments which make its development dynamic, by means of an efficie11t allowance of its resources. It has been said more than once tltat, in underdeveloped countries, they should give preference to taking care of the investments which are directed to the

PAGE 49

productive sectors of agriculture and industry, with the object of initiating the take off toward the long process of development, and that, only in more advanced stages, should funds be diverted in order to take care of the needs which, like those of housing, do not promote ''per se" the economic growth. Nevertheless, such a line of thinking has been overcome, by the a cceptance of the fact that t h e contribution of the investment into housing toward the economic and social development is realized every time that the borer, whether he be from industry o r agriculture, wh e n he has a shelter which will assure him a minimum level of hygiene and decorum, in which his basic human aspirations are realized, might be able to improve his productivity in the economic sectors in which he works. It ought to be kept in mind besides that, after the construction of houses, strong and important sectors of the national economy \vill be mobilized; with that it is encouraged the improvement of the numerous participating unions. Besides, the utilization of manual labor in the industries, complementary ties and services is unquestionable. Given that the country shows a strong dependence upon foreign economy in its external trade, especially upon developed countries, and considering that the predictions of economic depression are imndnent,one of the most viable ways 4

PAGE 50

of making our economy less vulnerable to the situation which is approaching, consists of the intensification on the part of the government of the construction of public works. Here the intensive construction of residences for the approaching years, can be one of the most effective palliatives in order to assure the existing jobs and to create new opportunities for the population which year by year increases the ranks of those who are economically active. It is estimated that the construction sector might absorb 8% of the total labor strength; and that that sector indirectly generates aproximately 20% of jobs. From this it is deduced that, for each laborer who is employed in the construction of housing, considering this subsector with a narrow relationship with all the sectors of economic activity, it generates 2 l/2 jobs in the total economic activity. This multiplying effect is relevant and worthy of being considered by the planners of the economic policy of the country for the coming years. 42

PAGE 51

THE SITE

PAGE 52

43 THE SITE The Site and its Immediate Surroundings The site is located on the northeast section of San Jose and it occupies an area of 17,600 square meters. It is accessed by 47th Street from the west and 45th Street from the east and by 5th and 7th Avenues from the east and west. The site is located out. of the central business district so the immediate surrounding is composed of different land uses. 'l'o the north, separated by a sidewalk, is the Santa Teresita church; to the south is border by the Atlantic rail tracks and across the m there is a 1930's low rise office building; to the east the site faces a residential area of varied styles; and to the west is bounded by the Atlantic train station, an office building, a school yard, a receptions hall and a colonial time house. Because of the varied types of buildings and styles around the site there is not a specific character to the area, however the most striking element is the 0lCI flavor of the area given by the church, the train station, the colonial house, a nd the building to be preserved and renovated that sits on the site and this program deals with (the old customs warehouse).

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44 REGIONAL MAP

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TO THE WEST TO THE WEST TO THE WEST TO THE EAST

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TO THE NORTH TO THE SOUTH

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Site l\menities There are some features of the site which are positively unique or pleasura ble in the light of its use as a location for an office comple x . Tle first thing that strikes one is the multi-view (every direction) of the mountain s . The second great quality of the site is its location within the city of San Jose; it is at a top of a hill which overlooks the central business district from the southwest vli .th very few barriers; also being away from the C . B.D. makes this site more ap propriate for an office complex since it is away from the noise and traffic gen erated in the rest of the city. l\lso the size of the site is a characteristic that can contribute in allowing easy and ample parking spaces, green landscaped areas, as well as extra space for ft1ture expansion if any. finally the site' s topography since it has been graded and allows an easy spot to hold a building. Site Problems Th ere seem to be only a few substantial site proble ms that would have to be dealt with during the design phase or construction phase. First, the close proximity to tile train stat ion can generate some exterior nois e . Second, the site contains no vegetation of: any type so a landscaping design is necessary to enhance

PAGE 57

the complex itself. Also an existing addition to the Old Customs Warehouse needs to be demolished since its characteristics and visual appearance detract from the original Customs Warehot1se Building. And finally, a problem that any building has to with in the region is that of an antiseismic design since Costa Rica is located on a seismic zone with frequent earthquakes. 41

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4 SITE PLAN -.........._ -........__ ------------------------.... •• ,,.u_ "•-• latiiUKl lt•\tC I .. IIIIO•t .. 1 .00.11\lllf "" ___ _j, ---I "

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5C THE SITE CLIMACTIC IMPACT ON SITE SUN LATITUDE 12 NORTII . + 2 H.lnos 0Z:L 30n.ll.l v1

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THE SITE CLIMACTIC IMPACT ON SITE -WIND PREDOHINAUT DIREC'riON YEJl.R JAN fED MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 1978 lJE NE NE NE NE HE rm NE NE NE NE 1979 t1E llE tiE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE 1980 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NW r:1v1 NE NE 1981 NE NE NE NE NE NE tm NE NE NE lJE UE 1982 NE NE NE NE N':> ..... N NE tm NE NE NE NE MEAU NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NF. llE UE VELOCITY (kms/hr.) 1978 12. 0 15. 2 1.4. 6 l:L 6 9 . 4 9 . 4 9 . 8 10. 0 7 . 4 7 . 9 10. 9 12. 8 1979 14. 5 17. 3 16. 4 11.4 9 . 6 8 . 6 9 . 0 9 .. 3 6 . 3 6.G 9 . 8 13.] 1980 1tl . 2 15.9 18.3 14. 2 8.0 8 . 0 10. 5 8 . 3 6.7 7.5 8.2 13. 9 1981 14.2 17. 2 13.1 14.2 8.6 8 . 1 9.1 7.3 7.5 6.8 10.7 12.6 MEAN 13.7 15.9 14. 9 13. 2 9.1 8.4 9.9 9 . 0 7.5 7 . 4 9 . 7 12. 7

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5: THE SITE CLHll\CTIC H1Pl\CT Otl SITE 'rEHPERATURE, RELATIVE HUMIDITY, PRECIPITA'riON TEMPERATURE: (oC) YEZ\R JAN FEB APRIL HAY JUNf.: JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 19CO 75 73 74 72 72 7 1 70 69 69 68 68 69 1981 76 75 72 71. 70 70 70 70 69 68 68 68 1982 73 7S 73 7 2 71 70 70 70 70 69 69 69 HEAN 711.6 74.3 73 71.6 71 70.3 70 69. 6 69. 3 68.3 68.3 69.3 RELATIVE HUMIDITY ( % ) 1980 50 40 41 41 50 60 60 70 70 75 65 50 1981 40 38 40 41 55 55 60 75 74 75 68 55 1982 48 37 40 40 54 58 60 77 80 73 7 5 60 1 1EAN 46 38. 3 40.3 40. 6 53 57. 6 60 74 74.6 74. 3 67.6 55 PI
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The Site -Functional Requirements Access: access must be provided for both internal use (employees, etc. ) and public use. Also a 10 meter easement is required for fire lane easements. Access is very good as 45th and 47th Streets run north-south the entire length of the site and should not give any problems. Parkinq: open air parking must be provided for public use and it should conform to the requirements discussed later under building codes. Parking can be successfully incorporated on the western or eastern edges of the site. Public Utility: the site is provided with all public utility elements and no problem is present. Utilities include electricity, telephone lines, water supply, and sewage and drainage. Landscaping: as part of the design landscaping of the site must be provided. Actually, the site contains no planting material. Landscaping should enhance the complex and encourage s ome type of outdoor activity to be used for the nDst part during lunch time hours or during special events. Other: sidewalks, handicapped ramps, stairs, pl zas, open air spaces should b e included as part of the design.

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OLD MAIN CUSTOMS HOUSE BUILDING The total area of the building is L891 m 2 and it presents the following characteristics: it consists of the northern pavillion building of the old customs house giving way to a totally open space without any partitions. This type of building is considered a historical monument and it must be preserved by law. Its walls are made of burned bricks with a width of 0.75 m 2 due to the bond used (rocks and ashes) and of considerable height (6 m) that could allow for the construction of a mezzanine. The ceiling is of exposed metal trusses and covered with galvanized iron. Ventilation is now provided by a sky light, but it has good possibilities for improvement by taking advantage of the existing spaces of approximately 2,30 m in length, which are now covered with steel doors and through the upper wheel windows, which a t the same time wou l d improve the lighting conditions. The floors are rock tiles, stained and uneven, but they could be easily restored. But depending on the use assigned to the premises, wooden platforms or a new floor should be laid to guarantee the leveling required by some fur niture. 5

PAGE 64

The electrical wiring is very deficient and should the building be used for offices, it would have to be redone completely. There are no existing restrooms, therefore they will have to be built based on the number of employees and on the use assigned to the space in question. In general, the building is .in good condition. Only in some areas are the walls somewhat deteriorated, but do not present a problem to the structural soundness of the building;and could be repaired according to the renovation and preservation codes. /.

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FLOOR PLAN =0= === = = ==

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5 EAST/WEST ELEVATION.

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DETAIL PART/A L ELF. VAT/ON -==-------=-=--=---=----====:.--------==--

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59

PAGE 69

60

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I = I-I== 1--r-1 -'== = -=--\" r------------f---------'r-=--.,_ = --==--__, -= -=---:5 :;;--=====.; _m;;;;;;:;;;::;. ;:-...::• .. -------! ---' ----------=--= }( y y -------::=:_ ---=-= ---------=:-----_ _ , .. lJ \\ )f l{ PROGRAM

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THE PROGRAM A. GENERAL NOTES 1. The office areas have been obtained from the total sum of the space occupied by the furniture and its working areas; the main furniture such as desks and reception areas include the working areas in the recorded data. It is considered that the working areas of the rest of the furniture (cabinet files, bookcases, tables, etc.) are included in the percentage assigned to circulation and lobby area for each department. 2 . To compute the required area for each section or it has been estimated 15% to circulation and 10% to lobby over the total area for all offices of the section or department. 3 . In the final computation of the total area required by the analyzed institution, 1 .5% has been estimated for general circulation of the entire building. This area includes: -main halls -main lobby -access hall -public telephones

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4. I t must be noted that the 15% for general circulation is a preliminary estimate and that it will depend on the special design and rationalization for communication and services forseen by the designer. 5. The areas noted as complementary should be considered only as recommendations and subject to modifications due to urban and architectonic characteristics determined by the building designer. 6. The vertical distribution, that is, the number of floors and the plant area per floor is reserved according to the architectonic and functional solution found most adequate by the designer. 7. It is considered that the actual building represents approximately 40% of the lot; the rest of the land would be occupied by what has been designated complementary areas, including parking, yards, gardens, etc. 8. It must be noted that the areas computed as offices and other zones should be considered as a minimum. Should it be desirable to round up the figures for the purpose of space modulation, it is recommended to carry the areas to the next higher round figure. 9. A very important consideration to the study of the areas is related to personnel, equipment and special area projections which will be required in short, mid and 6

PAGE 73

long terms by the institution under study. Actually, the reliability of said projections is minimal due to the fact that the offices under study are state offices; and therefore subject to structural and functional changes according to the expectations of the government in power. For this study, only the new area requirements, as formulated by officers and technicians interviewed and with the observations before mentioned, have bee n considered as short term projections. 10. The areas required in each of the INVU offices were determined by their own int .ernal technicians, According to the INVU technicians, the 11mod e l11 office was determined by an analysis of the space needed for furniture, equipment and internal circulation at each office. The determined ''mod el" offices are repre-sented in the following table. TYPE OF EMPLOYEE REQUIRED AREA a. Department Head 20 2 m b. Assistant Department Head 15 2 m c. Section Head 12 2 m d. Employee occupying a drafting table or dealing with the public at his/her desk 10 2 Ill e. Employee occupying a desk 7 2 m f. Employee with rninjmum space requirement 2.4 2 m g. Employee working outside main offices 0 2 m h. Manager or Executive President 30 2 m 6

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11. To the total determined area, considered at about 75% of the total building area, the remaining 25% corresponding to subsidiary services (restrooms, hallways, lobbies, janitorial rooms, etc.) has been added. B. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE ARCHITECTONIC PROGRAM l. Board of Directors The waiting room could be shared with the Executive President and it was so considered in the areas analysis, but it could also be set up independently (therefore the area would increase) • The Board of Directors closer ties are with the recording secretary and with the executive presidency. The two directors' offj_ces are designed to meet the public. A restroom for men and another one for women must be provided, as well as telephone services for the directors (one outside line and one internal line). 2. Executive Presidency The wa'ting room could be shared with the board of directors, but it could also be designed independently. The closest tie is with the board of directors. 64

PAGE 75

65 It is desirable for the executive president to have private access to his office without having to go through the reception area. The two offices designed for the directors to meet the public should be placed in such a way that they can be utilized by the executive presidency for some of its activities. Restrooms for the executive president and the secre-tary must be provided. 3. Management 2 Next to the manager's private office, two small offices (12m each) for the legal counselors, are required. These offices should connected. with the manager's office, but should have independent access. Next to the waiting room, space must be provided for the INVU public rela-tions officer, who also functions as receptionist for Management. The manager' s secretary be located between the waiting room and the offices of the man-ager and the legal counselors. A private restroom for the manager and rest-rooms for the staff are required. It is recommended that on the floor where the management offices are located there should be restrooms open to the public.

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4. General Secretariat The functions of the general secretariat are divided in two: one includes functions proper to the general secretary and the other one includes the functions proper to the r ecording secretary,which are closely related to the executive board. A small cafeteria is required for the use of the executive board. An attendant for the cafeteria will work directly under the recording secretary. Restrooms for men and women are required.

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AR8A: PLANNING & FINANCE a) llEADSHIP FUNCTIONS Responsible for regional studies of housing necessities and urban development Responsible of planification of housing programs VINCULUH With all other Headships at a technical advising level Hanagement PERSONNEL Head Secretary SPACihL COMPONENTS Office Head Office Secretary M eeting Hoom 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 20 7 15 6 48 sq. m 6

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AREA: PLANUING & FINAUCE b) PLAUNING FUNCTIONS Proposed programs and policies in to achieve INVU0s goals Execution of regional studies on housing issues Supervise socio-economic studies on economics and market of urban developmental housing Prepare budget of investment VINCULUM vJi th Headship With all other Headships th Personnel PERSONNEL Ilead Secretary 5 Office Clerks Type E 4 Office Type D SPACIAL COMPONENTS Office Head Office Secretary Office Office Clerks 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 12 7 75 14 108 sq. m

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AREA: PLANNING & FINANCE c) PROGRAMMING & STATISTICS FUNCTIONS Organize Archives and Statistics Prepare Statistical Bulletin Give information to all credit institutions that relate with INVU Evaluate the financial status of INVU VINCULUH Credit Tmvn-Planning Hanagement PERSONNEL Head Secretary 22 Office Clerks Type C 3 Office Clerks Type D SPACIAL COMPONENTS -Office Head Office Secretary Office Office Clerks 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 12 7 65 13 97 sq. m

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AREA: PLANNING & FINANCE d ) ACCOUNTANCY FUNCTIONS Interpretation of financial status Keep registration and archives of all contracts VINCULUM Credit Planning Treasurer0s Office With all Headships PERSONNEL Headship Secretary 21 Office Clerks Type C 7 Office Clerks Type D SPACIAL COMPONENTS Office IIead Office Secretary Office Office Clerks Equipment 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 12 7 217 21 35 271 sq. m 7(

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ARCA: CONSTRUCTION a) HEADSHIP FUNCTiotJS Elaboration of plans and budgets of urban and architectural projects Urban programming of all projects Supervision of projects by contract or self construction VINCULUH Credit Purveyor's Office Technical Advising Committee Hanagement PF.RSONNCL Head Secretary Receptionist SPACIAL COt1P01JENTS Office Head Office Secretary Office Receptionist i leet i ng Room 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 20 7 7 15 7 56 sq. m

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AREA: COUSTRUCTIOU ---b) PROJECTS PUNCTIONS Design of all projects Topographic calculations of all sites Appraisement of credit given by INVU VINCULUM CrecH t Purveyor's Office Real State Conservation PERSONHEL Head Secretary 40 Office Clerks Type D SPACIAL COMPONENTS Office Head Office Secretary Office Office Clerks Neeting Room 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 15 7 400 92 77 591 sq. m 72

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AREA: CONSTRUCTION c) SUPERVISION FUNCTIOnS Execution & supervision of projects during construction Inspection of credit given through the loan and savings system VINCULDr1 Credit Purveyor's Office Real State Conservation PERSONNEL Head Secretary 20 Office Clerks Type C SPACIAL COMPONENTS Office Head Office Secretary Office Office Clerks t 1eeting Room 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 15 7 140 20 27 209 sq. m 73

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AREA: ADMHUSTRATIVE a) HEADSHIP FUNCTIONS Policies for required personnel Supervise cleanliness and maintenance of building Supervise personnel records VINCULUM Technical Advising Committee r 1anagement Executive Presidency Public PERSONNEL Ilead Secretary SPACIAL COMPONENTS Office Head Office Secretary lv1eet ing Room 15% Circulation TOTAL R E QUIRED AREA 20 7 15 6 48 sq. m 74

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AREA . : ADMHHSTRA' .riVE ---b) PERSONNEL FUNCTIONS Description of personnel positions Changes1 recruiting and promotions of personnel Management of personnel VINCULm1 Technical Advising Committee All Other Departments PEHSONNEL Head Secretary 3 Office Clerks Type G SPACIAL COMP ONENTS Office Head Office Secretary Office Office Clerks Intervie w Room 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 20 7 35 25 12 94 sq. m 75

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AREA: ADMINISTRATIVE c) PURVEYOR'S OFFICE, GENERAL SERVICES FUNCTIONS Duy material and equipment Offer transportation, maintenance vigilance, and publication servi es VINCULUH With All Other Departments PEHSOmmL Head Secretary 2 Assistants Maintenance and Vigilance Head Publications Head 20 Janitors 7 Publications Technicians Stationer' s IIead Stationer' s Assistant SPACIAL COMPONENTS Office Head Office Secretary Office Heeting Room Office Stationer' s Head Storage Office Maintenance llcad Janitor' s Hoom Office Publications Head Stationer's Room Publications Shop 15% Cir-culation TOTAL AREA 12 7 14 32 7 65 10 40 12 100 132 69 495 sq. m 76

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AREl\: ADMINISTH.ATIVE d} REAT... STATE CONSERVATIOn FUNCTIONS Administration of real state Public relations with municipalities Request permission for new urbanizations VINCULUH Construction Department Planning & Finance Department Treasure Department Legal Department Credit Department PERSONNEL Head Secretary 3 Office Clerks Type C SPACIAL COMPONENTS Office Head Office Secretary Office Office Clerks Meeting Room 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 12 7 56 10 13 98 sq. m 77

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AREA: TOWN PLAUNING a) HEADSHIP FUNCTIONS Supervise all urban planning tasks at a national level Coordination of integrated plans and programs related to urban planning Control over private national urban development VINCULUM Technical Advising Committee Hanagement PEHSONUEL Head Secretary 30 Office Clerks Type C 2 Office Clerks Type D SPACIAL COMPONENTS Office Head Office Secretary Office Office Clerks f'leeting Room 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 20 7 41 45 17 130 sq. m 78

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AREA: TOWN PLANNING b) LOCAL URBAN PLANNING FUNCTIONS Elaborate studies for national urban programming Lead all activities of national urban planning Assistance to municipalities VINCULUM Social \A7ork Credit Constructions PERSONNEL Head 2 Secretaries 13 Office Clerks Type C 9 Office Clerks Type D Internal Head SPACil\L COHP011EN'l'S 2 Offices Heads 2 Offices Secretaries 2 l\rchivcs Rooms Office Office Clerks 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 12 each 7 each 25 each 186 41 315 sg. m

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1\REA : 'rOWN PLAIJNING c ) LEGl\L & TECHNICAL COOPERATION FUN CTIONS Advisement on all urban legal aspects VINCULUH Legal Rest of Town Planning Department PCRSONNEL Legal Consultant Dead (Technical Cooperation) Secretary 2 Office Clerks Type E 5 Office Clerks Type C 5 Office Clerks Type D SPACIAL COMPONENTS Office Legal Consultant Office Head Office Secretary Office Office Clerks A rchives Room 15% Circulation TOTl\L REQUIRED AREA ------------12 12 7 170 30 35 266 sq. m 80

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AREA: LEGAL a) IIEADSHIP FUNCTIOtJS Control over all legal activity Set goals for legal collection VINCULUH Technical Advising Committee l1anagement PERSONNEL Head Secretary Office Clerk Type E SPACIAL COMPONENTS Office Ilead Office Secretary Office Office Clerk Archives/Waiting Room 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIR8D ARRA 20 7 2 65 14 lOU sq. m 8

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AREA: LEGAL b) JUDICIAL, ADf-UNIS'rRATIVE AND NOTARY FUHCTIONS Claims for and againts INVU Promotion of all expropiation diligences Control of all administrative activities of the department VINCULUM With All Other Departments PEHSONNEL Judicial Head Notary Head Administrative Head 3 Secretaries 7 Office Clerks Type G SPACIAL COMPONENTS 3 Offices Heads 3 Offices Secretaries Office Office Clerks Waiting/Meeting Room 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 12 each 7 each 53 65 28 215 sq. m

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1\P.EA: CREDIT ---a) HEADSHIP FUNC'riONS Analysis and administration of all credit programs Reach goals of loan, savings, rural credit, communal finance, hypothecary, etc. Social/economic studies of future bidders. VINCULUH Technical AdvisinCJ Comrnittee Hanagement PERSOHNEL Head Secretary 2 Office Clerks Type G 2 Office Clerks Type D SPACIAL COMPONENTS Office !lead Office Secretary Office Office Clerks 1'1eeting Room 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRE D AREA 20 7 24 30 12 93 sq. m 8:J

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AUEA: CREDI'l' b) SAVINGS, LOANS t l\ND COLLECTION FUUCTIONS Administration of credit systems for housing Supervise collection Reception of applications for credit and houses VINCULUM Public Accountancy Planning Social vlork PEP-SONNEL Savings & Loans Head Credit nead Collections Head 3 Secretaries 5 Office Clerks Type C 7 Offi e 7ype D SPACIAL COMPOlJENTS 3 Offices Heads 3 Offices Secretaries Office Office Clerks Heeting Room 2 Archives Rooms 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 12 each 7 each 105 30 15 each 33 255 sq. m 84

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AREA: SOCIAL WOPu.'< a) HEADSifiP FUIJCTIONS Elaboration of studies and propositions for solutions to family, social and economic problems of the hidders' families Elaboration of studies of social housing market VINCULUM Technical Advising Committee !lead Secretary SPACIAL COMPONENTS Office Head Office Secretary Archives Room Heeting Roo m 15% Circulation REQUIRED nREA 20 7 5 20 8 60 sq. m

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AREA: SOCIAL WORK b) SOCIAL WORK FUNCTI ONS Plan programs, lead and execution of social promotion labor Studies of urban developments integrated for social developments Evaluate the outcoQes of the programs VIUCULUr-1 Credit Planning Tovm Planning Constructions PEHSONNEL Social Promotion Head Rural Credit Head Social Work Head 3 Secretaries 15 Office Clerks Type C SPACIAL COMPONENTS 3 Offices Heads 3 Offices Secretaries Office Office Clerks Heeting Room 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRCD AREA 12 each 7 each 105 20 27 209 sq. m Be

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AR.El1: BOARD OF DIREC'.roru; FUNCTIONS Establish Policies Approve Financial and Economic Issues Approve Major Programs VINCULUM Hanagement Executive Presidency Legal Department Auditor General Secretariat PERSONNEL l"1-ll of the Board of Directors SPACIAL COMPONENTS Meeting Room 2 Offices \vai ting Room 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 120 20 each 20 24 184 sq. m 8

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AREA: EXECUTIVE PRESIDENCY PUNC'l'IONS Legal and official representative of the institution. VINCULUN Board of Directors Legal Consultants Auditor Technical Advising Committee Management PERSONNEL Executive President Secretary Assistant SPACIAL COHPONENTS Office Executive President Office Secretary Office Assistant Archives Room ting Room 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 30 7 10 2 25 10 82 sq. m

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AREA: MANAGEUEN'f FUNCTIONS Insure the Efficiency of all Departments VINCULUM With all the Administration Personnel With all other Departments PERSONNP.L ManRger Executive Secretary Archives and Correspondence Manager 2 Off ice C1e rk s ('rype D) SPACIAL COMPONENTS Office Hanager Office Secretary Office Archives 2 Offices Type D Haiting Room 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 30 12 12 10 each 35 16 125 :::;q. rn.

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AREA: 'l'REASUiillR0S OFFICE FUNCTIONS Control balance and money values Payments of money VINCULUH Technical Advising Committee Mana9ernent Board of Directors PER.SOWJEL Head Secretary Assistant 10 Office Clerks Type C 1 Office Clerk Type D SPACIAL COMPONENTS Office Head Office Secretary Office Assistant Office Office CleLks Equipment 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 12 7 12 80 80 29 220 sq. m 90

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AREA: INTERNAL l\.UDITORY FUNCTIONS Financial control of all operations VINCULUH Accountancy Planning Department Treasurer0s Office Credit PERSONNEL tor Secretary 7 Office Clerks SPACIAL COMPONENTS Office Auditor 20 Office Secretary 12 Office 7 Office Clerks (Type C) 49 Archives/Waiting Room 39 15% Circulation 18 TOTAL AREA 138 sq. m 9

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ARBA: SECRETARIAT PUNCTIONS Supervision and coordination of all secretarial services for Board of Directors anJ Management and the writing of the minute book. VINCULUCJ[ With all the Departments Board of Directors t1anage111ent PERSOU NEL General Secretary Minute Book Secretary 5 Secretaries SPACIAL COMPONENTS Office General Secretary 12 Office Minute nook Secretary 20 Office 5 Secretaries (Type E ) 35 Cafete1:ia 15 Archives Room 25 15% Circulation 16 TOTAL REQUIRED AREA 12 3 sq. rn 92

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AREA: LIBRARY, CAFETERIA, AUDITORIUM FUNC'l'IONS Library for interna l use and s elected public Cafeteria and auditorium for internal and public use VINCULUM All Departments Public PCJ1SOtlNEL is leased to private corporation Librarian SPACIAL COMPOllENTS Library Cafeteria l\ud i tori urn General Archive room Entrance Hall 15% Circulation TOTAL REQUIRE D AREA 150 300 1--DOO 100 65 98 1Jll3 sq. m 93

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SUMIVIARY OF SPACE IJEEDS A . Interior 1. Planning & Finance (Headship) 48 2. Planning Finance (Planning) 108 3. Planning & Finance (Accountancy) 271 4 . Planning & Finance (Programming & Statistics) 97 5. Constructions (Headship) 56 6 . Constructions (Projects) 591 7. Constructions (Supervision) 209 8. Administrative (Headship) 48 9 . Administrative (Personnel) 94 10. Administrative (General Services) 495 11. Administrative (Real State Conservation) 98 12. Town Planning (Headship) 130 13. Town Planning (Planning) 315 14. Town Planning (Legal ) 15. Legal (Headship) 16. Legal (Judicial, Notary) 266 108 215 94

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17. Credit (Headship) 18. Credit (Loan & Savings) 19. Social Work (Headship) 20. Social Work (Social Promotion) 21. Treasurer 22. Board of Directors 23. Executive Presidency 24. Management 25. General Secretariat 26. Internal Auditory 27. Library/Cafeteria/Auditorium 28. General Archives 29. Internal Parking (GO cars) (0\JfoooP,) 25% General Circulation Total Area of Construction B. Exterior Ample public parking (according to code) Access plaza Exterior landscaping Exterior vestibule Exterior grand stair 95 93 255 60 209 220 104 125 123 138 l!Ll2 100 1500 1762 7114 sq. m

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9t DESIGN CRIT ER I A DEPARTMENT SCHEDULE ILLUHINATION --1. Planning & Finance Normal schedule General illumination -2 . Constructions Normal schedule Excellent :ecutive l Presidency 11. Internal Auditory IJormal schedule General illumination 12. •rechnical Advising Heets with Doard --+---of Committee Directors 1 3 . General Secretariat Normal schedule General illumination --------

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9 i DEPARTMEnT ACOUSTICS I LOCA'l'ION 1. Planning & Finance Accountancy and ProgramI Lower Levels ming offices generate • noise due to machinery I 2. Constructions Requires spaces insulated Intermediate L evels away from noise 3. .Administrative Publications shop Intermediate Levels generates a lot of noise , must be kept away from the rest of the departI ment 4 • TO\'ln Planning Drawing sections must be Next to Constructions kept away from noise Department 5. Legal Control over exterior Tied to the Executive noise section (i • Credit !Control over exterior Lower levels, it re--e ceives most of the public I 7. Social Wor k Control over exterior Intermediate levels, ..... 1 .... noise. The collections receives public section produces a lot of noise due to the public. 8. Board of Directors Very good noise insulation Higher levels. Next to Presidency & Management. 9 . Executive Presidency Very good noise insulation Higher levels. Next to I Board of Directors & 110. Management. Management Control over exterior Higher levels. Next to noise Presidency & I3oarct of --

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98 DEPARTMENT ACOUSTICS LOCF,TION -11. Internal Auditory Control over exterior Tied to executive section noise 12. Technical Advising It meets with Board of Committee Directors 13. General Secretariat Control over exterior 'l'i ed to executive section noise

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i:.l & Fina n c e 2. Cons t ructions 3 Adn'inistrative 4 . Tow n Planning 5 . Legal 6 . Credi t 7. Social 8 . Doard of Directors ------------9 . Executive Presidency 1 o . 1 Me:magem e n t 11. Interna l Auditory 1 2 . T e c h n ical Committee 13. G e neral S ecretariat 1 4 Pnb l i c ,..___j__, _ _ _ _ INTERACTI O N M AT R I X

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10( REL A TIONSfi/PS NETWORK

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10 COST AND CONS'l'RUCTION TH1E BUDGE'f This information is not rendily available in detail since the final has not been determined and the actual design needs to be bidded in orde r to de-cide on the total cost of the project. However a figure of five thousand colones per square meter ($125/square meter) is estimate d for this type of project accord-ing to the Costa Rican Institute of Architects. This figure includes improvement of land, the building itself and facilities outside the building. CONSTRUCTION TIME It is estimated to take about 16 months from start (demolish of existin g ad-dition to the old customs warehouse and excavation} to completion (move in).

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THE BUILDING CODE Cl .ause IV.3. Previsions Every building of more than two floors above the sidewalk, or sites where the public congregates, must be built with fireproof exterior walls and must have secu-rity systems against fires. They shall have at least one fire extinguisher of nine and a half liters (9.50 1), of pressurized water per floor or its equivalent in C02 or chemical powder, in accordance to the use of the building. Where the area exceeds more than two hundred square meters (200 m 2), it must have a fire er per each 200 m 2 or fraction thereof. The following design norms must be observed: IV.3.1. The main staircases shall be located next to the halls, circulation spaces or courtyards with direct access. No staircase shall evacuate an 2 area of more than twenty square meters (20 m ) in radius, therefore, should the area exceed this distance,more staircases are required. When serving more than forty (40) people or in public places, doors that open into staircases must open to the outside.

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IV.3.2. The ratio of the steps and step rises as well as their minimum dimen-sions are indicated in the chapter related to each type of building. In all staircase sections, including the landings and on both sides, handrails shall be placed at a height of 90 centimeters (0.90 m) unless differently specified in these Regulations. The maximum height for a staircase section shall be two meters and fifty centimeters (2.50 m), except in housing where it could be up to 3.00 m. Every building of more than three floors shall have emergency staircases according to the following regulations; IV.3.2.1. Fireproof materials shall be used in the construction. Some materials shall be used in the supporting structure. IV.3.2.2. They shall be located as to allow leaving the building ly and safely, in case of emergency; they must lead to the sidewalk, at street level or to any secure way to the outside. IV.3.2,3. The steps must be twenty eight centimeters minimum with eight.,.. een centimet:ers maximum for the step rise. IV.3.2.4. The access doors shall open in the normal direction in which people go out and the l .ocks must be easily opened from the inside. 1 0:

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IV.3.2.5. The guardrails shall be one meter and thirty high. IV. 3 .2.6. The stairs shall have an enclosure made of non-flamable mate-rial to prevent people above it to be trapped by the fire. IV.3.2.7. Folding ladders can be used in the lowest section, but in this case they must be designed in such a way that twenty kilograms in weight can make them descend to the ground. IV.3.2.8. Neither the staircases nor the access to their door can be blocked by machinery, furniture , boxes or any other obstacles. IV.3.2.9 . Access to the emergency staircases must be clearly indicated with visible permanent signs. IV.3.2,10. emergency staircases and their access doors must be con-stantly serviced to insure their operation and to prevent their deterioration with time and weather. Their design and construc-tion are ruled by the E :mergency Staircase Regulations, Executive Decree No. 1538 SPOS, October 7, 1977. IV.3.2,ll, Each floor shall be serviced by an emergency staircase for 2 each six hundred square matters (600 m ) of floor area or any frac-2 tion over three hundred square meters (300 m ) • One staircase can service several floors. 104

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IV. 3. 2. 12, . Minimum width must be one meter, bventy centimeters ( l. 2 0 m) , if spiral staircases are used, and the minimum diameter must be two and one half meters (2.50 m). Step rise maximum shall be eighteen centimeters (0.18 m) with twenty-five centimeters (0.25 m ) for the steps. The emergency staircases can be on the outside, but each floor must have direct access to the staircase by an exit door. Unless they are protected by an enclosure, the staircases must have, on the sides where such protection does not exist, heavy wire netting or any other type of rigid handrail of at least one meter, thirty centimeters (1.30 m) high. Should glass be used in the staircase enclosures, it must be armored glass, The floors in the balconies, steps and step rises in these staircases must be solid, with perforations allowed of no more than twelve and one half milimeters (0.012 5 m ) for drainage. All outside staircases shall be permanently built on all floors, with t .he exception of those on the firs t floor, \vhich c a n be folding ladders. 105

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IV.3.3. Ramps: Should ramps be utilized, their slanting shall be no greater than 1 in 10, and must be built with a nonskid surface. All requirements specified for staircases shall be followed to the extent where they are applicable. Maximum length between landings shall be nine meters (9.00 m). IV.3.4. Revolving Doors: In order to be accep-table as a requirement door, revolving doors must have a radius equal to the width indicated in these Regulations for a common door. For the exits of meeting rooms, only the width of the room, that is the radius of the door shall be considered when determining the capacity requirements, They can not be utilized in buildings where more than sev-enty five (75) people congregate. IV.3.5. Exits: The floor area in front of an internal exit, must b e sufficen t to accomodate all the people who occupy the floor areas serviced, providing an open area of no less than thirty square decimeters (0.30 m 2 ) per person. The minimum area shall be no less than two squa r e meters and forty centimeters (2.40 m 2). IV.3.6. Signs: In public meeting places and public offices, the exits on each floor must be indicated by clear, comprehensive and visible signs in 106

PAGE 118

the halls, open areas and any crossways. The main exit to the outside must have a sign on top, identifyng it as such. When electr.ici ty is used to light said signs, its source of power must be an independent circuit, and must be connected to the emergency system. In the buildings, signs must be very visible and preferably inter-mittently lighted and must be placed in the following places: At level changes Outside exits Elevato r entrances In general, in any similar places to indicate direction changes, exits, danger areas, visible installations, etc. Clause IV.S.Hechanical Conveyor All buildings with living space, including facilities at a height of twelve (12) meters or more, above sidewalk level o r in excess of 4 floors, m ust have an elevator and adjust to the following provisions: "Buildings designated a s offices, hotels, industrial plants, apartments, stores and warehouses, must have elevators capable of serving minimum twelve percent (12%) of the population in each o:E them." 1 0

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i 0 8 To that effect, the population is estimated as follows: IV.5.1 . Offices, Hotels, Industrial Plants: One person per every six square 2 meters (6 rn ) , of the construction gross area. IV.5.4. Internal Dimensions for Elevators: -Door width 90 em. -Insj.de width 110 em. --Inside depth 140 em. -Control panel height 120 em. -Stop exactness 2 em or less In those buildings where there are elevators, at least one of them must: stop at all floors including mezzanines and basements if there are any. Clause IV.6. Trash Conduits ---Every building of more than three floors mttst have conduits with smooth, water proof walls with good ventilation and closed openings for the disposal of trash from all floors. They must be located in the halls, next to the or elevators and with direc t access from the public s l:reet, but their location should not be an obstacle to free transit in the halls and staircases,

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1 0 9 These conduj_ts must be enclosed and this use exclusively. Clause IV. 7 . Building 1\esthetics The facade of building must be in aesthetic relationship with the area in which they are located. If there be disagreenent between the interested party and the municipal-ity, the decision shall be ur to the Federal Association. Clause IV.B. -Building Hej_ght IV.8.l. 'rhe height of the l.mildlng will not exceed one and one haJ f t .he average width of the street it faces, measured from the property line. The INVU Urban Directors and the Municipality can authorize a higher buildiltg b u t : not. to exceed one and a half the distance betv,reen the con-struction line and the facade of the building. IV.8.2. Height determined in the area. The norms contained in the Regulating Plan shall have prevalence over the previous disposition. IV. 8. 3 . Height limitations for corner lots; in the Cc\se of com1er facing treets with different building the maximum height in the narrow way can be adopted in a l ength not to exceed the width of the ' : way.

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Clause IV.9. -Dispersion _ _ IV.9,1. The main entrance doors of the buildings shall open unto a lobby which shall be one hundred and forty centimeters (1.40 m) wide by two hundred centimeters (2,00 m) long minimum. IV.9.2. Where there are secondary lobbies or halls with doors, and on the side to which the door opens, there must be an open space of no less than one hundred and seventy centimeters (1,70 m) long by fifty centimeters (0.50 m) wide additional to width of the domr, on the side where the lock is located. IV.9.3. In the main floor in hotels, offices and schools, mini1num of f:i.fteen percent (15%) of the total of the constructe d areas must be allowed for lobbies, courtyards and halls, IV.9.4. In entertainment centers, meeting halls and other similar places, the 2 dispersion area must be at least twenty-five square decimeters (0.25 m ) per person. One fourth of he total area must be adjacent to a public thoroughfare. The rest of the area could be supplied by interior lobbies: if the capacity i s not defined to the effects of this clause, it shall be ') considered one person per each fifty squar e decimeters (0.50 of m eelr ing space. 11 0

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Clause IV.l4.-Number o f Exits to a Public Thoroughfare IV .14 .1. Door. s to a public thoroughfare must be located in such a way that the distance from any point in the floor space serviced by them to said doors should not exceed those established by the following table: Residencial in general . Hotels, apartment buildings. Commercial buildings and offices Commerce in general. Public and Institutiona l buildings . Warehouses . . . , . . . . . . . 45 m . 57 m . . 57 m 45 m . • 45 m . 45 m IV.l4.2. Any building inhabited l>y more than one hundred (100) persons must have at least t\vo exits separated by three meters, minimu:rr1. IV.l4.3. Each building floor which area exceeds two hundred and fifty square meters (25 0 m 2 ) shall have no less than t\.;o exits with a 3 m minimum separ ation between them. IV.l4. 6 . In those public buildings where the main entrance is not leveled Hi th the sidewalk, t:he distance shall be bridged, in addition to the 1 1 1

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11 2 usual staircases, by a ramp designed according to the norms indica ted under Clause IV.3. 'l'hese ramps shall be built within the property boundaries. C 1 au s e V • 6 . Dimensions of the Courtyard V . 6 .2. Spaces not inhabited; For the purpose of ligl1ting and ventilation, the spaces not inhabited shall have the following dimensions: Height u p to J.1inor dimension I-1inimum area 3 .50 m l. 50 3.00 2 m m 5 .00 III 2.00 5,00 2 m m ..... 7.50 m 2.50 7.00 L. m m ..... 10.00 m 3.00 9,00 L. m m 12,00 m 3 ,50 11.00 2 m m In cases of heights above twelve meters (12.00 m), the minintwo dimension must be one fourth (1/4) the total he).ght of i:he parameter of the walls.

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1 1 ' CODES FO R COBMERCIAL BUILDINGS AND OFFICES Clause VI,l.Location 'I'he location of conunercial buildings must be previously approved by t .he Munici pality, according to the Zoning Rules of U1e Regulating Plan or in its p lace, t h e joint approval of the Health Mini.stry and the INVU. Clause VI. 2,-Courtyards Courtyards used for lighting and ventilation in commercial and office build-ings shall have the same minimal dimensions than those for habitation. Offices and sales areas are considered habitable. Clause VI.3.-Halls Offices and commercial areas in the b uilding must have direct exits to th stre or to halls which lead directly to the staircases, or to the main exi1: to the street. T h e width of the halls shall never be less than one meter and 20 centime te c s ( 1 . 2 0 m) or equal to the vJ.id th of the s t:a.ircases \vh.i . c h open unto them . C l au s e !I . 4 . Materials In interior walls and ceilings, materials shall be used with a fire retardant factor of no less t:han one hom.

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Clause VI.6. -Staircases Commercial and office buildings of more than one floor shall always have stair-cases communicating at all levels, even where there are elevators. The m inimu m width of the staircases shall be one meter and twenty centimeters (1.20 m). The sfeps shall be minimum twenty-six centimeters (0.26 m ) deep and the step rises shall be maximum eighteen centimeters (O.lB m ) high. The staircases m ust be built with materials with a fire retardant factor of no less than one hour and tl1ey shall have handrails placed at a minimal height of ninety centimeters (0.90 m). At each level, a staircase shall service a maximum of one thousand four hundred square meters 2 ( l , 400 m ) of floor area and the '\.vidth shall vary i n the following manner: Up to 700 2 m ? From 700 to 1000 m. 2 From 1000 to 1400 m . Clause VI.7.-Exits 1. 2 0 m v1j.de . 1. 80 m wide • • 2. 4 0 m Clauses IV. 3 and IV. 9 of these Regulations will apply where appropriate.

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115 Clause VI.B.Restrooms VI.B.l. Commercial and office buildings shall have a minimum of t\.;ro rest-rooms per floor, one for men and the other one for women , located in such a way as to make unnecessary to go up or down the stairs to get to them. They shall be designed to allow for adecuate privacy, should they be next to each other. VI. 8 . 2 . For each four hundred square meters (400 m2 ) or fraction, there shall be installed a toilet, an upright urinal and a washstand for men. VI. 8 . 3 . 2 For each three hundred square meters (300 m ) or fraction, there shall be installed a toilet and a washstand for women minimum. Clause VI. 9 . Ventilation and Lighting ---------------Ventilation and lighting in commercial and ofti.ce bui.ld:i.ngs can be natu ral or artificial; when natural the rules in the chapter refering to housing build-ings shall apply, and when artificial , they must s atisfy the necessary conditions so that there is enough ventilation and llghtittg, by systems approved by the Ministry of Health. If natural lighting does not exist, emergency installations must be used.

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CODES FOR PARKING SPACES Clause XVIII. l . Public and Private Offices In excess of two hundred square meters (200 m 2 ) of construction, every office building must allow parking space for every one hundred square meters (100 m 2 ) or fraction, over fifty square meters (50 m 2 ) of additional grossconstruction area. ll 6

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11/ CODES l"OR IlliPAIRS, HEMODELING AND NODIFICATIONS Clause XXVIII.l. -Structural Damages In the case where structural damages are caused by earthquakes, fires or otl1er causes, th':! stru must be repai.red so as to regain its original strength. If the endurance of a b11ilding during an earthquake reveals that the structure, design or construction are deficient to such a degree that it could collapse during a fu-ture earthquake or b y other causes, the structure must b e repaired in accordance t o th_ Earthquake Code of Costa Rica or in its absence, it m ust be demolished, all in the judgement of the competent authorities as indicated in Clause 12, 2 of that Code. Clause XXVIII.2,r Changes in Weight or Structure vvllen the remodeling or modif'ication of a building implies group changes as to usc (Clause XX.l of the exist;ng Regulations) , added weight or ot its structure, it must be redesigned in accordance to Clause 12.3 of Ll1e Earthquake Code of Cos L a Ri .ca,

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CODES FOR STHUCTURAL PH.OTEC'l'ION AGAINST FIRE Clause XXXIV.l.Pillar Protection ----The steel pillar of a structure and the steel reinforced concrete bars, must be protected against the heat of a fire by surrounding them with fire retardant materials. This protection must be complete; f;;rom the floor to the ceiling or to the beams, including corbel, capital and any parts that transmit heat. It must not be interrupted b y holes, pipes or ducts that will all ow the heat pass through. In warehouses or buildings where flanm1able materials are stored, in accordance to Cla use XXXIV.9, the fire protecting materials must last at least three hours, in all floors given to that use. In residential buiJ.dings, offices, hotels or where there are less materials, that protection must last at least one hour . . The exterior of the outside pillars must be protected when the building next to it is built of flammable materials. The protection on the steel pillars must be held in place by heavy winding wire or by any other means that will prevent its coming off during a fire or by daily use of the building. The steel reinforced concrete bars are sufficiently protected by their coating and by the plaster. 11 f

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Clause XXXIV.2.-Floors and Beams Protection against Fi:ce The steel beams and joists and the bracings on the reinforced concrete beams and joists must be protected with fire retardant materials as follows: XXXIV.2.l. 'rhree hour protection in c01mnercial buildings, warehouses, and where flarrunable 1naterials are stored. XXXIV.2 .2. One hour protection i n apartment buildings, offices, hotels and where little flammable materials are stored. XXXIV . 2 . 3 . In floors with steel rafters, the protection can be obtained by plastering ceilings with cement and sand, plaster or any other approved material. The plastered ceiling shall be held in place by a screen and this by nonflammable wires. In planning and constructin0 the ceiling, great care must be observed, so that there are no openings or cracks to alJ.ow in the fire. Clause noo Protection The steel and lumber structure of the roof must be protected agains fires by a plaster ceiling or any other approved flame retardant material for at least one hour. This ceiling must be planned and built as indicated in Clause XXXV. 9 . 11 s

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1 2 c Exempt from ttis requirement shall be residential buildings of no more than two floors, metallomechanical industries buildings, a11d any othe. s that present little fire risks due to the materials they work with or store, in the opinion of the H i .nistry of Ileal th, t:hose con1:aining little inflarnmable materials and build-ings with the roof t russ over six meters (6.00 m) high from the floor. Clause XXXIV.S.-Doors Fire retardant doors to which Clauses V.9, IX.l8 and XVII. 4 refer to must be installed with great care, not to allow any openings between the door and its frame, and between the frame and the wall. Solid h ard wood, laminated or c onglomerated wood of twenty-five milimeters ( 2 5 mrn) i n thickness is accc3ptable for up to one h our fj_re retnrdant door leaves. Each door leaf will be constructed from a single piec e . Doors with stronger resistance to fire will neeJ a special design, Clause XXXIV.G.-Fire Barrier Walls Fire barrier walls such as those indicated in Clause V . 9 , with walls rising from the foundations to forty centimeters (40 em ) past the roof, shall not have openings, shall not be crosswise by steel or wood beams, or pipes.

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12 1 They shall be designed against earthquakes, taking into consideration the bracing provided by the structtre. Also it must be taken into consideration the thermal expansion of the steel beams up to a temperature of 550 c . For buildings, offices and hotels, as well as places where little flarnnable materials are stored, these walls can be built with clay bricks, concrete blocks or reinforced concrete blocks with a minimtim thickness of ten centimeters (10 em) and with at least one and a half centimeters em ) of plaster. Commercial buildings, warehouses and places \vhe r e f J.ammable materials are stored shall have fire barrier walls fifteen centimeters (15 em ) thick, plastered as indicated in the previous paragraph. C lause • .J..._. _ ... and other Insulating Materials Inside the buildings, the 11se of plastics and other materials which produce smoke or poisoneous fumes when burning, is forbidden. The use of similar must be approved by the Ministr y of Health. Clause XXXIV.8.-Sprinklers Every building o f m ore than ten floors must have sprinklers in every floor connected to thermostatic system which Phall activate them when the temperature in a r oom reaches a certain l evel.

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The sprinkler system shall be connected to an independent gravity operated water pipe. It shall have a water tank with storage c apacity so that the sprinklers in a floor can function one hour. There must be a sprinkler for each ten square meters (10.00 m 2 ) of floor area. Clause XXXIV. 10. -f'lame Retardant Haterial s The flame retardRnt materials that can be used are those that pass the ASTM-C 152 and ASTM-E 119-7 6 test. Tl1e following table indicates the width of the different flame retardant materials that should be used. It is an adaptation of Table 4JA of Uniform Building Code of the United States of America. 1 2

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TIME OF PROTEC•riON GIVEN BY SONE :E'IHE RETARDAN'I' HNrERIALS Structural Parts to be protected Steel beams and pillars. Parts of principal structure Insulating material Concrete Pressurized concrete Clay hrick, lime and qravel mortar Clay or concrete blocks, with one centimeter of cement a ncl sand Plaste r Cement and sand plaster with wire mesh or screen 10 10 4 2 . 5 2 c • J -------------------------------+----------------------------1----------------------------l Steel reinforcement in concrete and mesh pillars and bea ms Concrete 4 Protection to ceilings Plaster with c e m ent and l beams and secondary sand in wire mesh or trusses screen. Plaster or burnt clay products. 4 2 . 5 2 12 3

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SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA Earthquakes vary from only a few seconds of ground shaking to several minutes. Therefore, the building should be able to these extended periods of ground shaking 'tJ:ithout failure. Structures that are fixed to the ground in a more c:r less r:igid manner respond to the gr:ound motions. As the base of the structure moves, the upper portions tend to lag behind due to inertia. The rate o f oscilla-tion o a structure is an extremely importan t factor because earthquakes do not result in ground movement in only one direction, in fact it oscillates back and forth i n all directions. The theoretical response of the structure will depend on the impact motion, the periods of vibration of the various modes, the masses at the various floor levels, and damping. The way the structure absorbs transfers the energy released b y an earth
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,,., i thstand is the '"'hoj c c of basic plan shape and con igurr1 t ion. Given that earthquake forces at a site can come from any and all directions, and act upon all elements of the building virtually simultaneously, the obvious best choice is a building v7hich is symmetrical in plan and elevation, and therefore equally capable of withstanding f orces imposed from any direction. Different 1aterials react differently with r spect to inelastic behavior. Ductile material s , such as steel, have an extended inelastic range in which they can undergo permanent deformation without rupture. On the other h a n d , brittle materials such as brick display almost no inelastic bel1avior under loa1ing, a n d expel-ience suclden failure at or n ear tile elastic limit. The same is true, rela-tively speaking, of glass, unreinfor c e d concrete and a ariety of other co tmon matetials. Ductile building systems include steel frames, d u ctile concrete frames a n d wnod diaphragm construction. the connections o f the system 11sed are <1uctile an num e r ous, the overall performance i s improved considerably. Ductility can be thought of as providing a quality of toughness which, to a large extent, d etermines a building' s survival under seismic condition s . S i nee seismic forces af feet all parts of a building, the building must act as a unit to resist these forces. If the structure is not tied together to r espond as a unit, the s_parate elements or components o f the building wil l respond indi-

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vidually and failure can occur beginning at the weakest element or component. The result would be a shift in load carrying or resisting ability of other elements which then also can fail due to overloading. 126

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THE BIBLIOGRAPHY

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1 2 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY Joedicke, Von Jurgen. and Administration Printed in Ge :cmany. Ilohl, Beinholo. Office Buildinqs, Preager, New York. 196!3 . INVU . Reglamento de Constr.ucc i .one s (Costa Rican Building Code), Imprenta Nacional, San J ose, Costa Rica 1983. Klabin, Don. Tommorow1s Yesterday. Progressive Architecture. Vol. 120. No . 2. (Apri l 1980) pp. 1 30-135. Kleinr Judy Graf. The Office Book. Facts on Fil e , Inc. New York, New York, 1982. National Trust for Historic Preservation. and Codes, Washington, D.C. Preservation Press.

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1 28 Palmer, A . Hickey. The Architect's Guide to Facility Programming. American Institute of Archit:ectE>. Wa.,Lington, D.C. 1981. Pile, John. Interiors Third Book of Offices. Watson Guptile Publications, New York, New York, 1976. Shoshkes , Lila. .Eace Planning, Designing the Office Environment, Architectural Record. McGraw Hill Publications, New York, New York, 1976. Smith, Baird HConserving Energy in nistoric Buildings , " Preservation Brief s , No. 3, Government. P rinting O ffice. 'l'he Urban Design Group, Preservation anc! of Commercial Area. R eynolds D eWatt Printing, Inc. New R edford, Massachusetts. u. s . D partme nl: o f Comme 1:-ce, Preservation o f Historic Adobe Structures. u.s. Government Printing Off ice, Washington, D . C . 1977.

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THE CONCLUSION

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CONCLUSION Preservation, restoration, adaptive use, contextual design -all are terms very unfamiliar to architects only a few years ago. Yet suddenly, these and similar concepts have burst upon the current scene because of dramatic changes in society in general and in architectural thought in particular. Among these societal changes are the environmental/conservation movement, the current national nostalgia, and the growing disenchantment with the sterility of suburbia and the hostility of many cities. My interest in historic buildings is due primarily to the elaborate and varied nature of them. The massing and ornamentation of their exteriors are a visual pleasure even when repeated. Historic interiors often have an individuality missing in many contemporary buildings. And the ornament and details of historic buildings show human craftsmanship and care that is unaffordable today. Consequently, people are beginning to save old buildings, both individually and in whole neighborhoods. To remain of service to society, these buildings often have to be modified I .._ ,

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for new uses or new buildings have to be inserted among the existing ones to maintain the lining fabric of our cities, as is the case in my thesis. But modification to existing buildings and new buildings cognizant of their surroundings present unfamiliar design relationships between the new and the old. Contextual design, designing in relation to the context, then, is the main point of my thesis. It elucidates the design relationship between old and new buildings by investigation of the variety of options available. The approach was intended to address the philosophical and specific materialized problems of designing a new building compatible with an old one. The problem of contextual design in the thesis dealt with alterations to the existing old building and with an addition to it. As a designer, the problems of alterations were mainly with the interior and adapting the existing facade to its new use. The way in which the facade is readapted depends upon the amount of modification involved. I found out that the least radical alteration of a facade is the least alteration and I limited the alterations to those necessary for its new use. In terms of scale, the alteration of an existing facade makes the least modification to a streetscape. To be sympathetic,_ the alteration allows the original facade to continue to play a role in the new design. IJV

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Adding to an existing building is probably the most recognized contextual design problem. By its very nature, such a problem imposes considerable constraints upon us, the designers. The way I dealt with the problem was first by using an abstraction of the original building. The intent was to achieve harmony between the old and new by recreating the essence of the original building, and second by sympathetic contrast in order to appreciate both architectural styles, focusing attention on the existing building and providing with the new building a background to the old.

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1 1-''/ OLD AND NEW IN AN OFFICE COMPLEX __j '"""'" \ I . I

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ERROR CAUGHT WHILE SAVING NEW DIGITAL RESOURCE TO SOLR INDEXES
5/13/2019 5:20:04 PM

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