Citation
A Mixed use complex for Battery Place Park

Material Information

Title:
A Mixed use complex for Battery Place Park
Creator:
Brewer, Timothy L.
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Committee Chair:
Seacat, R. Russell
Committee Members:
McCormick, Mark

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Timothy Brewer. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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A MIXED USE COMPLEX FOR BATTERY PLACE PARK
Date Due





An Architectural Thesis Planning, University of of the requirements for
presented to the College of Design and Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment the degree of Master of Architecture.
Timothy L. Brewer Spring, 1986


The Thesis of Timothy L. Brewer is approved.
(
R. Russell Seacat
Mark McCormick
University of Colorado at Denver December 6, 1985


INTRODUCTION
Thesis Proposal Thesis Statement Five ideas
History of the Port of New York History of the site (Battery Park City)
PROGRAM
Program Summary
Adjacencies, qualitative and functional analysis of program spaces
■ EXISTING URBAN CONDITIONS—MASTER PLANNING
EXISTING SITE CONDITIONS—ANALYSIS
ESTABLISHED DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BATTERY PARK CITY
â–  APPENDIX 1
Energy, Enviornment, and the Physically Challenged
APPENDIX 2
Uniform Building Code Analysis
APPENDIX 3
Geotechnical Conditions of Site Site Grading Site Utilities
APPENDIX 4
Climatological Summary


â–  INTRODUCTION
WER MANHATTAN


THESIS PROPOSAL:
Manhattan, as a world port, is and has been the gateway to America. As a land mass, the city is part of the literal edge of the North American continent. The density of building and population which occurs on this point of land adds to its dynamism as a natural and man made edge.
At the confluence of the East River, the Hudson River, and the land mass known as Manhattan began an incredible story of American quantitative and qualitative prosperity.
Without the sea, a nations ability to trade and prosper is nonexistent. Manhattan, the symbol and center for American trade and prosperity, owes its success to national and international trade upon the high seas.
My architectural interest in this site centers around the incredible phenomenon of Manhattan as edge, on the sea as a heritage, and on the people who were able to orchestrate, co-exist, and capitalize on these geographic phenomena.
The site for this mixed-use complex of buildings is located in Battery Place Park in Battery Park City on the island of Manhattan in New York City, New York.
The complex of buildings will house a maritime museum of approximately
51.000 square feet, leaseable shipwright space totaling approximately
32.000 square feet, and a residential tower with supporting retail uses totaling approximately 260,000 square feet.


THESIS STATEMENT DRAFT 2
The Financial District of Lower Manhattan has emerged as the dominant financial hub of the post industrial world. One phenomena, or metaphore if you will, which is descriptive of the attitude that permeates the Financial District, is known as Battery Park City. In a deal between the city of New York and the state of New York, an arrangement was made to expand both the physical boundries of the district and the sphere of influence that it has on world finance. The creation of Battery Park City would bolster the district's already heavy hitting lineup of financial super-stars and insure Manhattan's status as the world's financial center into the 21st Century. The project would take twenty years, at a minimum, it would create an additional ninety-two acres of real estate for the city (literally create the land), and, in time, produce "mind-boggling surpluses in city dollars". 1.
The island perimeter, particularly the seaward perimeter of the Financial District, makes no perceivable attempt to resolve itself alonf the water. There is no beach, obviously—that compelling zone of overlap where the land slips into the sea. Yet neither is the island's edge a sea wall—a massive blockade which provides safety from rising waters for the land and its inhabitants. Somehow, all of the energies of Manhattan which come slamming up against the East and Hudson Rivers are expected to resolve themselves along a pencil line of curbing, sidewalk, and chain-link fence, all in a discouraging state of repair.
It seems that the prevailing urban design attitude of Manhattan (until the very recent past) has no concern for its edges. One needs only to look as


far as the World Trade Center towers to experience the manifestation of this attitude. Clearly, there is no regard for any scale transition between the horizontal vastness of New York Harbor and the 100 story skyscrapers which mark the Financial District of Manhattan. If the infamous Manhattan real estate developer, Donald Trump, has his way, the transition from the harbor to the island will become all the more inhuman and obtrusive A site located very near to The Battery has become available and contains the square-footage to support a new, worlds-tallest-skyscraper. Trump's proposal for his 150 story tower will become just that.
The Battery Park City landfill, in its way, also seems to deny Manhattan's island-ness. The creation of the 92 acres of real estate can only in part (about two acres I'd say) be attributed to the disposal of the earth excavated from the World Trade Center site. While the massing of a few particular buildings within Battery Park City does begin a scale shift down
f^felt that it
towards the water's edge, the fact that Manhattan^could expand it's most natural boundry is commentary on its unwillingness to deal with the realities of it's edge.
Make more certain Manhattan's place in the future? Sure. Make more places for people to live and work? Sure. But make more land? Only in New York City The creation of the land for Battery Park City, and the creation of a new city within a city may not, indeed, set the precedent for future development of Manhattan or any world city. It does, however, describe the prevailing attitude of Manhattan and Manhattanites.
From the standpoint of urban design, Manhattan's geographies is one of its


greatest opportunities. When Manhattan, particularly Lower Manhattan, recognizes that it is not a city built at the edge of a meadow or valley which it can expand into, the architecture of the city will reflect this fact. The architecture will respond in terms of form, scale, and expression. The architecture will resolve the edge.
There is another reality of Manhattan's existance which it also seems to deny. It's history. Manhattan is, and began as, a great world port. There would be no Wall Street, indeed, no Financial District today if Manhattan wasn't first and foremost a port city. International trade via the Atlantic Ocean created Manhattan. Manhattan doesn't seem to care about it's roots or it's development. It seems to care only for the present and the future. Indeed, this may contribute to the vitality we feel when we're there. But, Manhattan's architecture could conceivably begin to add a layer of richness and understanding of it's past and be a better place because of it.
Here again, when Manhattan chooses to acknowledge it's undeniable maritime history, it's architecture will reflect this. The architecture will respond not only in terms of form, scale, and expression, but in terms of use.
Ultimately, this thesis will attempt to do one thing—to tell the story of a particular place, towards a greater understanding of that place. In telling this story, the architecture must endeavor to give definition and clarity to the seaward edges of Manhattan. The architecture must also strive to clarify Manhattan's seagoing heritage, its relationship with the East and Hudson Rivers, and with the great Atlantic beyond. Further, the architecture on this site will attempt to mediate and act as a transition piece


between the natural, and historicall significant parcel of land which lies to the immediate southeast—the Marine Fire Station and Battery Park— and the man-made infill parcel of land known as Battery Park City, which lies to the immediate north of the site.
The uses, form, scale, and language of this architecture will "care" for Manhattan's past. Through its existance, the architecture will provide a greater awareness of Manhattan's past and in this way editorialize on Manhattan's and Manhattanites' "make more and never look back" attitude.
An urban place should respond to two kinds of order; the order of the city, and the order of nature. The urban place must function as a bridge between these two determinants. 2.
SCOPE OF THE ARCHITECTURE
I am proposing a mixed-use complex in Battery Place on Manhattan Island.
The complex will house a maritime museum and gallery space to memorialize Manhattan's heritage of the sea. The museum collection and complex of buildings will concentrate on maritime commerce as a theme mainly, as opposed to fishing, pleasure, or sport marine activities.
The complex will also provide leasable shipwright space, where restoration, design and construction of historical and modem sea-going vessels will take place. The provision for these spaces and activities will ensure their continuim into the 21st Century just as Battery Park City's World Financial Center is to provide Manhattan's Financial District's continuim into the 21st Century.
Retail uses such as theatre, restaurants, and ship's chandlery will fix


the project as current, in our time.
Finally, this mixed-use complex will incorporate housing. To be realistic on this site, the housing will be of a high density. Transferred development rights, which presumably would be purchased from the Marine Fire Station, will be employed to increase and maximize the development potentials for this site. Housing is an integral part of the idealogical aspects of the project. It is imperative that people who reside in Lower Manhattan interact with the other proposed uses on the site.


What follows, is a series of architectural ideas, which if successfully manipulated, will add to the over-all success of this thesis. Many of these
ideas are directly applicable to this proposal, others only remotely. Some of the following ideas may in the end, have no influence on this thesis, but are non-the-less meaningful to me in the pursuit of the advancement of our art.
I have no knowledge of architecture—indeed, would not qualify as an ameture—but I live in houses, worship in churches, attend events in auditoriums and sports arenas and,( finding myself in countries where I can neither speak nor read the language, I count much more on architecture than on any other means of communication to speak to me succinctly of the remote past, the immediate past, and the present aspiration of people to whom I can barely say,
'good morning’. 3.
EDITORIALIZING IN ARCHITECTURE
Architecture is a language, and can communicate. Just ask John Cheever.
An important function of architecture is to fix a culture's attitudes and aspirations in time. In Cheever's words, "...the visionary or spiritual aspects of our natures...". Historically, architectural style provides the proof. Roman aqueducts, arenas and houses, Greek temples, and Ren-niasance and Gothic cathedrals all speak with abundant clarity of their societies. Architecture provides the record, the time capsule if you will, of cultures past.
I beleive that when the language of architecture is most legible, and therefore best executed, it is a result of societal aspiration, time, and
geography (or as architects specify it, site).


FIGURE GROUND / FIGURE GROUND REVERSAL
Particularly in densly built and populated areas of the world (cities), the figure, to ground relationships develpoed between buildings and their surrounds are intrigueing to me. The relationships between open spaces (figural voids) and solid spaces (figural solids), at the level of urban fabric as well as within singular architectural pieces can become significant in this thesis problem in terms of analogy (see ANALOGY) and spatial generation.
The modem movement in architecture seems th have demanded that a building read clearly and singularly as a three dimensional object in space. While that may be the reality of any one piece of architecture, when a series of these pieces are placed in a group,(a city) and compete to be appreciated as objects in space, then not only is the strength of the object diminished, but clearly, the legibility of the left over space is sacrificed. What needs to be explored and heightened as an experience in our cities is the spatial void, which can I believe, become an object.


ANALOGY
Analogy in literature is a device used for lending increased understanding of an unknown based upon some known. In architecture, analogy can also promote understanding, which, I believe, is directly related to beauty.
There is an analogy which comes to mind when I think of this complex located on, and attempting to give clarity to, Manhattan's seaward edge.
Manhattan, when approached from the sea or air, or when viewed from Brooklyn or New Jersey, presents the viewer with a tall, solid, if somewhat articulated, barrier. It is understood, however, that there are particular places behind this "wall" that are void. One clearly does not perceive the island as a completely solid mass. Somehow, either through memory or through an anplanned expression on this "wall" we understand that there are void pockets of human activity which occur beyond.
Le Corbusier, in particular at the Villa at Garches and in the facade of the Salvation Army Biulding is, in an architectural sense, trying to express and clarify the same sense of the presence of a spatial void which occur behind a planer, vertical datum. He spent most of his life exploring ways to express thin and deep space on basically two-dimensional plane.
So did many painters.
In a strange way, the "wall" around Manhattan seems to be doing the same thing.
T his thesis reveals itself as a great opportunity to explore ways of cueing three-dimensional space on a primarily two-dimensional vertical plane.


The possibility occurs to me that this complex of buildings, through their arrangement and expression could become an analogy for the phenomena of Manhattan island and there-by provide a greater understanding of both the proposed complex and of the city.
Maison Domino: The structure is not the primary issue.
The vertical slot is left by virtue of the structure. The slot creates the opportunity to free the facade in order to articulate either shallow or deep space behind.
SALVATION ARMY BUILDING Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret, architects. 1932
"Corbs abstract construct-plane (vertical datum plane) is set within a very literal plane, its virtual sense being established in a frontal, and dematerialized vertical referent.
r
From:
"Real and English: The Destruction of the Box. I. by; Peter Eisenman
IT
OPPOSITIONS


CLARITY OF EXPRESSION---FORM VS. CONTENT
I believe that a building does not become architecture until it is beautiful, and meaningful. The key to beauty, I believe, is understanding. It follows then that, in order for architecture to be beautiful, it must be understood. The viewer/user must develop some intimate association or understanding of the architecture.
When form is divorced from content (unintentionally) confusion usually results. Confusion is misunderstanding. Misunderstanding is ugly. A powerful example of unclear expression and form irrelevant to content can be seen in Klaus Herdeg's The Decorated Diagram . His analysis of Le Corbusier's 1930 Errazuris House shows how the language of the butterfly roof form is clearly site generated, and serves as a metaphore for the landscape. It is clearly understood, and it is beautiful.
Marcel Breuer's Exhibition House of 1949, on the other hand, results in complete confusion, and in the end, ugliness. The forms and proportions are very similar to Corbs 1930 house, yet the experience is ugly. Breuer proposes his Exhibition House as a suburban prototype, to be built, built, and rebuilt in Anytown, U.S.A. without regard for either the landscape, or
meaning of form.


BOTH / AND VS. EITHER / OR IN ARCHITECTURE
Cubist painting and sculpture take on special meaning for me because of what I beleive has been the pursuit of both/and in expression. In an ex-treemly clear, if literal way, a super-positioning of the plan expression and the section expression lead to a fuller understanding of the whole. The fact that the experience of any bottle can never be as simultaneously complete as the representation of the same bottle (see diagram), has interesting architectural implications. In particular, the relationship of the experience of plan to the experience of section in architecture is important to me.
This relationship too, must be clear and legible for the architecture to be beautiful.
Both/and in architecture must work at another level in terms of successful architectural expression. Here again, I'm speaking of both the experience and the perception of the architecture. For architecture to work, to be understood, and to be beautiful, it must evoke a response in the viewer/user ( I stress any viewer or user). The work must simultaneously appeal to the non-architecturally educated viewer/user viscerally (at an instinctive, rather than an intellectual level) and must satisfy rigorus analysis by the critic for formal structure, composition, meaning, order, logic, and clarity.
What is by nature, extreemly complex, must be at the same time, simple.
If the architecture is not simultaneously both of these things, than it is limited in terms of who it can touch and bring joy to. Architecture


must remain socially accountable to all—that it contain some level of
association for all.
The example at the right can be appreciated for either or both of two interpretations.Because it can be understood one way, another way, or both ways, it is meaningful to a wider audience. Complexity. . .simplified. Is it a black bottle being hit with a strong light from the right? Or, is it a white bottle which is partially shaded? I would contend that it is either... or better yet, both.


the maritime history of the PORT OF NEW YORK
The New York harbor was created when melting glaciers scoured out what is now known as the Hudson River Valley. The glacial river chiseled a rock-walled chasm nearly as deep (although not as wide) as the Grand Canyon of Colorado.^ During the ice ages, the level of the Atlantic Ocean was far lower than it is today. In fact, Manhattan would have been one hundred and fifty miles inland of the Atlantic. In geologically modem times, the level of the Atlantic began to rise, and Manhattan, once situated 3500 feet above sea level, became the low-lying island that it is today.
Post-glacial man did inhabit the eastern seaboard. Mongoloid tribes, who probably reached the continent from Asia by way of Alaska, were the areas first actual settlers, however. These people were hunters and fishermen and lived in semi nomadic communities. Over time, these communities became more sfable, and developed agriculture.
The indian name for the island was Manna-hata, which has been translated to mean "the island of the hills", and, "the place of surpassing beauty". It was the Dutch who first began to call the island, Manhattan. Hunting, fishing and rudimentary agriculture dominated indian life through the 1400's. Primitive forms of trade did exist, however, with shells, buckskins, and eagle feathers as primary currency.
In 1524, thirty-two years after Columbus discovered America, Giovanni de Verrazano, a Florentine navigator employeed by Francis I, king of France, dropped anchor in New York harbor. In 1525, Esteban Gomez, a


Portuguese sailor for Charles V of Spain explored and charted the mouth of the Hudson.
Henry Hudson, who rounded Sandy Hook on September 3, 1609 was the first sailor to realize the commercial potential in the Port of New York. "This territory is the finest for cultivation that I ever in my
O
life set foot upon and the situation well adapted for shipping".'
During the winter of 1613-14, Captain Block (one of two Dutch captains sent back to America after Hudson's return to Holland) was anchored near Manhattan Island. A disasterous fire broke out aboard Block's ship which, in the end would result in the genesis of a great industry. Block set his men straight to work in building another boat, a "long-yacht", and launched it the following spring. The shipyard, if one could call it that, that Block built this ship in, was probably located on the bank of a creek which still flows under the pavement of Broadway.
In the spring of 1624 Cornelius Jacobsen Mey sailed from Amsterdam with the first Dutch colonists. The vessel carried 110 men, women, and children with farming implements, seeds, and trading goods. On the ship's return voyage to Holland she carried hundreds of otter skins, and thousands of beaver skins. During the following summer, the Dutch West India Company ferried over 100 head of cattle into New York harbor, and the port of New York began its development as a world port.
In the spring of1626, Pieter Minuit was sent to replace Captain Block (who was recalled to Holland) at the New York settlement. By the fall of the same year, Minuit had consumated his famous real estate deal with the indians..."they bought the island Manhattes from the wild men


for the value of sixty guilders, it is 11,000 morgens in extent...".
In 1674 the war between Holland and England came to an end and the treaty of Westminster signed the province of New York over to England.
The new english governor, Edmond Andors, pushed ahead the potentials of the port of New York as seen by Henry Hudson. Governor Andros accomplished much in the way of improvments to the port, including the Battery sea wall, a stone city dock, and Broad Street. The means for these improvments (very high duties) however, would begin to breed the port problems of smuggling and piracy. Before the year 1700 when Lord Bellmont substantially cleared the port of pirates, the New York harbor had its share of rouges, among them, Richard Glover, John Evans, Thomas Wake, John Ireland, Edward Coates, and the infamous Captain William Kidd.
Slave trade is also a part of the history of the port of New York. Some of New York's foremost families invested their capital and ships into this form of commerce. The merchant-ship owners transported thousands of blacks to southern colonial markets and the West Indies, and hundreds more stayed in Manhattan.
By 1763 the city's population had passes the 13000 mark. Shipbuilding bolstered trade with four large yards, with William Walton's as the most profitable. British taxation became the primary issue with the port's merchants, and soon commerce had become the battle ground for power. Controversey centered around British Acts of Trade such as the Stamp Act, high tarrifs on China tea, suger duties, and taxes on molasses,which is integral in the production of rum. It is well known that Bostonians expressed their resentment through a tea party. It is not so well known


that New York staged a tea party of its own on April 22, 1774.
The port of New York also played a major role in aquiring independance for the United States during the Revolutionary War. New York harbor witnessed the world's first submarine. The British frigate "Eagle" was not sunk or even damaged by the submarine invented by the Yale classmate of Nathan Hale, David Bushnell, but did reflect the spirit of experiment and inginiuty in America.
The history of New York is rich indeed. The port, to this day, holds one of America's oldest tresure ship mysteries. The British frigate H.M.S. "Hussar" foundered in Hell Gate on the East River and sank in seventy-five feet of water with four million dollars in gold alledgedly aboard.
The ship went down in 1780, to date, any salvage operations have succed-ed only in amusing the public. If indeed this treasure did ever exist, it's still there today. Significant changes in the topography of the East River shoreline may preclude the recovery of the treasure forever.
Through susequent embargos and blockades, the port continued to prosper. When Great Britain persuaded most world ports not to trad e with America, we developed shipping routes to the Far East and traded extensively with China. New York harbor continued to grow in physical size and in tonnage traded through the development of the steam ship, and led all American ports in volume of imports and exports until the 1950's.
Misery, disease, and shameless exploitayion featured one major branch of the port's history during the years between 1817 and 1857.^ Along


with the textiles and hardware brought westward accross the stormy Atlantic came millions of Irish, German, English and other European immigrants to seek their fortunes in the new world.
The early years of peace after 1815 gave New York its first real taste of wholesale immigration. The federal government did not begin to gather immigration statistics until 1819. The mayor of New York stated that from March 1, 1818 to November 1,1819, 18930 immigrants had reported to his office.^ The numbers of immigrants rose continually to about 30,000 in 1922. The largest immigration boom occured between 1847 and 1854. During the first part of this period, the majority of immigrants came fron Ireland, where the great potatoe famine sent starving Irish overseas in tremendous numbers.
It did not take business men long to see the profits which might follow the systematic organization of this flow of immigrants. "Houses" were established in Manhattan as places for the immigrants to stay while they adjusted to America. These houses would contract for the whole "tween-decks" cargo space of the westbound vessels. Twenty dollars was about the average steerage fare for the voyage and adjustment period.
The grimmest part of the whole arduous migration was, by far, the crossing itself. The usual ship of the period had two decks; the immigrants were normally carried in the "tween-decks", between the upper and lower decks. The orlop, beneath the lower deck, was ordinarily used for heavy frieght, but occasionally even this musty space was used as passenger space for the immigrants. Frequently, there were less than sis feet of clear height in the tween-decks, and seldom were there any port holes; the only bentilation came through the hatches, which


were normally battened down against the foul weather.
Space, indeed, was in short supply, but food too, was another of many sources of difficulty. The immigration ships (packets) carried cows for milk, sheep, pigs, and poultry, but those were only for the cabin passengers. The immigrant's passage money entitled them only to bread, some salt meat, and water. When adverse winds stretched the length of the passage beyond the usual five or six weeks, the ships would almost always run out of food, even though the law required them to varry provisions for ten weeks.
Fire at sea, shipwreck, and contagious epidemics were common aboard the packets. A ship seldom carried more than four lifeboats, and often only two. In case of a disaster, this provided room only for the crew and cabin passengers. The immigrants were, in many cases, doomed from the minute they boarded ship. Thousands and thousands of immigrants died at sea because of shipwreck or fire, but an even more appalling loss of life on these packets was due to disease.
"All the world (our world) is going to America. The packet ship "Europe" sailed this morning for New York with 35 passengers", wrote Phillip Hone. His celebrated diary bares witness more than once to the swarm of travelers who kept comming from Europe.^ These im-igrants left their homes to enter into an infinitely less confortable circumstance on their way to America where they would leave an indelible impression upon New York and upon nte nation.


THE HISTORY OE THE PORT OF NEW YORK
FOOTNOTES
1. A Maritime History of New York by; Work Projects Administration,
City of New York. 1973. pp. 5-92
2. Ibid, p. 55
3. Ibid, pp. AO-63
4. Ibid, p. 140
5. The Rise of New York Port by; Robert Greenhalgh Albion, 1970 pp. 336-354
6. Ibid, p. 318
7. Ibid, p. 353


HISTORY OF THE SITE (BATTERY PARK CITY, BATTERY PLACE PARK)
Battery Park City ia a 92 acre landfill site located on the Hudson River at the southern most tip of Manhattan Island. Extendind northward from pier A ( which received historic designation in 1978) to Chambers Street. It is a planned mixed commercial and residential community with extensive parks and open spaces, harbor views, proximity to the Wall Street Financial District, mass transit, and the World Trade Center complex.
The 6,000,000 square foot World Financial Center, designed by Cesar Pelli, is located in Battery Park City and is scheduled to open in 1986. The World Financial Center is comprised of four towers ranging in height from 33 to 51 stories, two 9 story gateway buildings, an 18,500 square foot winter garden, and a 3 1/2 public plaza. Over 30,000 people will be employed in the World Financial Center which was developed by Olympia and York.
Battery Place Park, which is bounded on the south by pier A and The Battery, and to the north by parcels 1 and 14, is the site for this thesis project. The site encompasses roughly 125,000 square feet.


North
Residential
Area
Vesey St.
North Cove
Liberty St.
Rector
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Residential
Area
Battery
Place
Residential
Area
Commercial
Center
World Financial Center
Rector Par
South Cove
Battery Place
Pier A-------
Battery Park
attery Park City
attery Plac e Residential Area
ooper, Eckstut Associates
Site Plan
Fig. 2


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M PROGRAM


PROGRAM SUMMARY
MARINER'S MUSEUM
• Exhibits/Galleries.......................................18,350
Small boat gallery.....................................A,000
Traveling Exhibits.....................................1,500
Maritime Chapel Exhibit..................................900
Nautical Instruments (repairs, shipsmithing)...........1,500
Planetarium (navigational demonstration, daily skies).... 900
Maritime art gallery...................................1,000
Rigging Loft...........................................2,000
Ropewalk...............................................1,500
Sailmakers Loft........................................1,500
Figureheads gallery....................................1,800
NY Yacht Club Station—America's Cup exhibit............1,750
• Preservation/Restoration Shipyard........................12,500
• Theatre/Auditorium (fixed seating for 300)..............3,300
• Library....................
Rare books collection...
^vfl tv. _
Video collection........
• Administration.............
Director's office.......
Curator's off ice.......
Assistant director......
Assistant curator.......
??. f..
..............900
........ (j)0 0
____3 ,-mo
..............500
............3,100
..............225
..............225
.............200
.............200
op* *
Y~

Yl


5*

Restoration's curator
200


PROGRAM SUMMARY (cont.)
Administration (cont.) Secretarial pool... Kitchen/catering... Supply/copy room... Conference room....
Entrance/Lobby........
Gift shop..........
Toilets............
Orientation........
Exhibit storage.......
Shipping/Receiving....
Security..............
Exhibit Preparation... Exhibit Conservation..
900
150
150 -fy
350
.2,700
625
800
650 A
. .3,625
.1,500 ft S.6.
400 \*
. . 1,500 pF P-fa-
900 f6 B.&
52,275 NSF 62,730 GSF
SHIPWRIGHT SPACE
Loading (materials storage, i.e. lumber,finishes hardware, rigging, appliances, motors)..
Milling Area.....................................
Glassing Area....................................
Hulls and Decks (operations area) 2 bays.........
Sail Loft........................................
Rigging Area.....................................
Paint/Finish Loft................................
3,500 l*-
4,800
1,800 1 — X
5,600 L — o.
2,500 V*'
. .800 > - ^
. .900


PROGRAM SUMMARY (cont.)
SHIPWRIGHT SPACE (cont.)
Toilets.................
Offices (2).............
Design Area.............
Lunch Room..............
First Aid...............
RESTAURANT
Receiving...............
Storage.................
Dishwashing.............
Cooking/food preparation
Employee Toilets........
Public Toilets..........
Office..................
Employee Dressing Areas.
Dining Room.............
Lounge/Bar..............

...300 \
...400
. . .475 **
. . .225
...100

21,400 NSF
25,680 GSF
____75
...350
...200
. . .650
...150
. . .320
...100
...160
.2,500
...975
5,480 NSF 6,576 GSF
RESIDENTIAL
140 Condominium units 800 to 1200 s.f..............140,000
Recreation Facitities...................................10,975
Pool
4,000


PROGRAM SUMMARY (cont.)
Recreation Facilities (cont.)
Filter/Equipment room.................................250
Loading...............................................150
Raquetball/Handball courts (2)....................1,600
Squash courts (2)...................................1,600
Weightroom..........................................1,350
Locker rooms (2)....................................1,400
Lobby/Central control...............................1,000
Retail (residential support i.e. bakery, deli,
newstand, convienence store)......................2,750
153,725 NSF 184,470 GSF
SUMMARY:
MARINER'S MUSEUM....................................52,275
SHIPWRIGHT SPACE....................................41,400
RESTAURANT...........................................5,480
RESIDENTIAL........................................153,725
252,880 NSF 303,456 GSF


EXISTING URBAN CONDITIONS - MASTER PLANNING


SPACE: 6ALI tpiEr ADJACENCIES
CHECKLIST
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SPACE: Milling ap&a
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SPACE: HULte vA PErCte
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SPACE: P-1fe61Kfe AF-EA
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THE 1979 MASTER PLAN FOR BATTERY PARK CITY
The revised Master Plan takes as its theme an acceptance of all that is desirable about New York's basic pattern of development. Included are the City's system of streets and blocks, its prevelant building forms, its density, its mixed land use and its efficient transportation systems. The consultant's objective has been to refine and develop these familiar elements of the New York's environment and to adapt them to the unique opportunities presented by a magnificant waterfront site.
Eight organizing principles define the revised plan. They deal with the overall planning approach, the layout and orientation of the plan, the form of the project, the quality of its neighborhoods, pedestrian circulation, waterfront amenities, special design opportunities, and flexible development controls.
PRINCIPLE ONE: Battery Park City should not be a self-contained new-town-in-town, but a part of Lower Manhattan.
The revised plan recognizes the difficulties inherent in the new town-in-town approach to large scale urban development. The current plan follows this approach and lays out a series of superblocks with very little relation to the rest of Lower Manhattan. This arrangement contributes to a sense of separateness, which is considered to be neither a desirable nor realistic strategy.
The lessons learned from similar projects elsewhere suggest that Battery Park City should not turn its back on Lower Manhatten but instead respond to and build upon the strength and character of the adjacent neighborhoods. Lower Manhattan's assets are its office inventory, its subway services and its community facilities and services. The mixture of uses in the project's development program remains a firm basis upon which to proceed. The challenge is to find the proper layout, building forms, and amenities to express this potential.
PRINCIPLE TWO: The layout and orientation of Battery Park City should be an extension of Lower Manhattan's system of streets and blocks.
There are strong reasons for knitting Battery Park City into the existing grid system of Lower Manhattan. Street extensions can be very


important in helping the project to overcome a potential sense of isolation from the upland area. Utilizing a block system of development can set a structure for Battery Park City that will easily integrate its building forms with the adjacent area's existing development. Creating conventional building lots can reduce the hesitancy of the development community about the project. The normal rules of site development elsewhere in Manhattan should also apply at Battery Park City (see figure 5).
Bringing new development into a closer relationship with the upland area should also benefit Lower Manhattan. The financial core will be able to expand more readily onto the project's reservoir of vacant land. Residents of the project will be better able to support Lower Manhattan's growing range of shops and services. The waterfront amenities at Battery Park City will be more accessible to the employee and resident population of the entire area south of Canal Street. All three of these advantages will be supportive of the goals of the Lower Manhattan Plan.
PRINCIPLE THREE: Battery Park City should offer an active and varied set of waterfront amenities.
Opening up Lower Manhattan to the waterfront is a basic objective of the planning concept, just as it was of the 1969 plan for Battery Park City. The revised plan will recommend ways of improving the previous proposals for waterfront amenities so that they are more attractive, more useful, more accessible, and more safe.
A wide variety of spaces will be provided at the waterfront: Lunchtime sunning areas, an esplanade for strolling along the river's edge, large gathering places for public events, and small, quiet interior courts. The waterfront will have access to and from subway stations, with minimal contact with vehicular traffic. The concept will also give attention to maintenance and safety of the park spaces.
PRINCIPLE FOUR: The design of Battery Park City should take a less idiosyncratic, more recognizable, and more understandable form.
The current plan for Battery Park City proposes 200 acres of land uses on a 92-acre site. The technique for accomplishing this seemingly impossible feat is to stack several uses on top of each other, the upper deck being utilized for open space over streets and public facilities. Analysis of the project's planning program has shown that such a complicated decking scheme is expensive and unnecessarily complex.


Figure 5
Vacant Land
Chambers Street Corridor
Tribeca Residential Conversions
Regularized Street Grid
Subway Access (5 minute walk)
World Trade Center Complex
Liberty Street Corridor
Wall Street Corridor & Office Core Rector Street Corridor
Battery Tunnel Interchange
Broadway Street Wall
Battery Park Pedestrian and — Tourist Activity
Summary of Adjacent Conditions
mu 11 i i
\±y 0 ?00 400 600 800
Battery Park City • 1979 Master Plan |
Alexander Cooper Associates V '« J


The revised plan proposes an alternative to decking. The design image we have aimed for is an adaptation of New York: Streets with sidewalks, along which buildings can be constructed by individual developers, large and small. Public amentities would be the main governmental contribution to environmental quality. Guidelines for building development would allow for the creation of special places within the framework of conventional streets and blocks. This is the physical form and institutional arrangement which is the easiest and most familiar way of constructing new neighborhoods in New York. We feel strongly that it can be adapted to bring high quality environmental design to the project.
PRINCIPLE FIVE: Circulation at Battery Park City should reemphasize the ground level.
Over the past 20 years, planning for large-scale projects the world over has emphasized the isolation of functions from one another and the vertical separation of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. It has become clear in recent years that this concept, thoughtlessly applied, has hampered the success of many new projects rather than enhancing market acceptance.
A more realistic concept would provide basic access at the ground level where it is most convenient. Only in the most congested areas are overhead or underground connections justified. They are most utilized where they lead to an important destination, like a shopping area or a transit station.
At Battery Park City the objective is to provide comfortable street level circulation within the site and at those places where the site meets the existing City. Street level crossings will be emphasized instead of underground or overhead walkways. Only where pedestrian flows are demonstrably heavy, as between the project and the World Trade Center Plaza and transit stations, will offgrade connections be recommended.
The revised plan balances pedestrian needs and vehicular requirements.
As with the pedestrian routes, vehicular circulation will be mainly at the ground level. There is no general policy of vehicular restraint; rather, we have chosen to limit through-traffic by the layout of streets and access points into the project. Placing both vehicles and pedestrians


on the ground level will simplify circulation generally and will allow for pedestrian ease of access to busses, taxis, cars and deliveries.
PRINCIPLE SIX: Battery Park City should reproduce and improve upon what is best about New York's neighborhoods.
New York's finest neighborhoods are the product of incremental development over a long period of time. Their system of streets and blocks has been sufficiently adaptable to allow the replacement of obsolete buildings while maintaining and upgrading buildings of value. The neighborhoods of greatest desirability are often those of the most intensive mixture of land uses and building types such as Greenwich Village, Brooklyn Heights, and the Upper East Side.
The revised planning concept seeks to give Battery Park City a structure that will allow for similar growth and change, but in a more compressed time frame. The plan must suit the long-term construction of buildings, while also being capable of meeting the demands of an accelerated development program.
The object in the layout for Battery Park City will be to foster the sequential small scale spaces that give New York its special character from block to block. The plan will provide for the intimate texture of residential areas that are vital to the livability of the City.
PRINCIPLE SEVEN: Battery Park City's commercial center should become the central focus of the project.
Instead of being located at one end of the project site as in the current plan, the commercial center of Battery Park City should be relocated to the center of the site. In that location, it would be closer to major retail facilities and to the neighboring World Trade Center, and this juxtaposition can create a special type of community center able to compliment other Lower Manhattan sites and with locations in midtown.
The compactness, amenities, and level of integration of this center with the Trade Center should determine its ability to succeed. Because attaining these objectives is a planning and design issue, the layout and building arrangement of the commercial center is specified to a finer level of detail than any other part of the plan. This emphasis is warranted by the importance of the center to the overall ability of Battery Park City to move forward.


Figure 6
design Principles
200 400 600
Battery Park City • 1979 Master Plan J
Alexander Cooper Associates '


PRINCIPLE EIGHT: Land use and development controls should be sufficiently flexible to allow adjustment to future market requirements.
The land use designations in the current Battery Park City plan were fixed by their location on the linear spine and within its decking system. Subsequent changes in land use are difficult to make, because the entire scheme was dependant on the successful completion of each piece.
The revised plan avoids the rigid character of the earlier plan.
The street and block form of development allows land uses to be altered on certain sites if market requirements change—without constraining development on adjacent blocks.
These eight principles, when taken together, form a statement of the planning concept for Battery Park City. They are not in themselves a complete master plan, but they set its basic structure. As such, they constitute the initial stage of the master planning process.
Twelve weeks has not allowed the formulation of a complete master plan to the extent of detailing the location of future community facilities, specific densities for all building lots and estimates of the future employee and resident population block by block. These determinations must await the next stage of planning.
The description which follows shows how the eight principles have been integrated into a plan. The overall pattern of land use is described, the street and block layout is explained, land use allocations are listed, the transportation systems outlined, the open space diagrammed and special places in the plan are illustrated.
The area west of the World Trade Center is the heart of the project ( see figure 7) It can house all of the project's five to six million square feet of office space as well as most of its retail space. With its linkage to the World Trade Center Plaza, this Commercial Center will relate to the Financial District and to Battery Park City's residential neighborhoods to the north and south. The edges of the commercial center are defined by two visual corridors. They are the rights-of-way of Liberty and Vesey Streets, which also form the southern and northern borders of the Trade Center. Each of them will protect the views of the water from upland areas.


Figure 7
North Area: Residential
Central Area: Commercial
South Area: Residential
Waterfront Open Space
Land Use Concept
©i
200 400 600
Battery Park City • 1979 Master Plan
Alexander Cooper Associates


These two areas adjoining Battery Park City on either side of the World Trade Center are strongly contrasted in character. To the south, the site is bounded by a transitional office area; to the north is the changing area of Tribeca and the Washington Market Urban Renewal Project. These differences present constraints and opportunities for the development of Battery Park City. Residential development south of the project's Commercial Center can be planned and marketed to cater to employees of the Financial District who want close walking access to their jobs. Most households will be small and densities can be high.
Since there is no established adjacent residential neighborhood services and facilities to support this area can be orientated to these groups.
The existence of the Tribeca community and the Urban Renewal Project north of the Commercial Center calls for more a complementary neighborhood within Battery Park City. Consequently, buildings will be lower and public spaces more generous. Households can be expected to be larger than in the southern neighborhood. Services for this area will be different in character and the potential exists for integration with the retail and personal service facilities already developing within the Tribeca community.
The waterfront is treated conceptually as the fourth major land use in the diagram. There are large spaces at the north and south ends of the project and a major public plaza will be the focus of activities at the Commercial Center.
Streets and Blocks
By choosing to organize the revised plan around a system of streets and blocks, the revised plan returns to the historic grid pattern of development that has served Manhattan since 1811. It has proven to be highly adaptable. At Battery Park City, utilization of a street grid will assist in establishing physical, visual and functional integration with the adjacent neighborhoods. Some streets will continue directly into the site and will provide direct access to nearby subway stations at Chambers, Liberty, and Rector Streets, as well as at Battery Place
(see figure 8).


The average block size follows the 200' x 400' size that is standard in New York. Over the years, this block dimension has suited buildings ranging in size from small brownstones to large mixed-use projects covering entire blocks. Studies of modern building sizes show that this dimension would adequately serve a wide range of residential and commercial structures. Furthermore, the block size would make possible a parceling of development sites that serve small and large developers alike and broaden the range of developers able to participate in the building of Battery Park City.
Three types of streets will carry traffic and pedestrians and organize development in the project. The principal streets will be two north/south avenues which serve the northern and southern residential neighborhoods. Each of these avenues will be the main focus of activity. They will be both prestigious residential "addresses" and the center of neighborhood shopping, community facilities and entertainment. Each avenue will have a 100' right of way; 40' of this right of way will be a linear park with landscaping and benches. Traffic will be one way and restricted to a 36 foot roadway. The side streets branching off the avenues will serve the adjacent buildings and penetrate to the waterfront. These streets will be landscaped and specially treated at locations where they join the waterfront esplanade.
In addition, there will be private service streets which will function like driveways, serving only a few properties. Typically, they will be short, stub-ended streets connecting the avenues with interior development parcels. Traffic flows on such streets are expected to be light. Although they will be privately constructed and maintained, the streets will have public pedestrian rights of way.
The streets in the Commercial Center could also be private, but for a different reason: They would be built to special design standards and may be restricted to certain classes of traffic.
As can be seen on the street and block plan, (figure 8) the orientation of the street grid is an extension of the grid that intersects with Broadway and is rotated to focus on harbor views. This orientation will greatly enhance the visual quality of the main avenues and provide unparalleled views from the streets and the buildings. The


J =
—1
;
0


secondary streets of the grid system will benefit from this orientation too. All of them, with the exception of a special area in the northern neighborhood, will have views to the water.
The orientation of the streets and the provision of arcades will protect pedestrians from winter winds while permitting summer breezes from the south to circulate along the avenues.
The street and block system serves numerous purposes simultaneously. It sets the structure for a flexible parcelling system, it builds in amenities and activities at the street level, and it furnishes the linkages to upland areas that will help make the neighborhoods of Battery Park City organic extensions of Lower Manhattan.
Land Use Allocation
The proposed distribution of land uses throughout the site emphasizes residential neighborhoods and public open space.( see figured). The residential neighborhoods account for approximately 42% of the total area and public open space for 30% (See Table III). The residential neighborhoods will offer a wide range of development opportunities. The main avenues will provide sites for larger scale buildings. A zoning overlay will allow the development of retail and commercial facilities at street level along the avenue frontages. Community facilities will be distributed throughout the areas as the need emerges.
The Commercial Center is located between the Liberty and Vesey Street corridors. Within that area the main bulk of the 6 million square feet of commercial development will be accomodated. Another 150,000 square feet of retail/entertainment development will be placed in the center related tc the major pedestrian movements.
Although the entire 6 million square feet can be accomodated within the Commercial Center, the potential exists for locating some of it on the blocks immediately to the north and south of the Commercial Center adjacent to West Street. Furthermore, the waterfront blocks within the Commercial Center south of Vesey Street have the potential for outstanding hotel/residential developments.


Figure 9
Land Use Allocation
Residential
Permitted Retail Center Commerc ial/Ret ail Center Potential Commercial or Residential Sites
'MA
0
0 200 400 600
Battery Park City • 1979 Master Plan j
Alexander Cooper Associates v


TABLE III
LAND USE ALLOCATION
Land Use Acres % Of Total Average
1.1 Residential Land* 38.1 42%
1.2 Commercial Land 8.7 9%
1.3 Public Open Space 28.0 30%
(Esplanade) (6.1)
(Park/Plaza) (21.9)
1.4 Streets 17.8 19%
Total Master Plan 92.6 100%
* Residential Land includes 50% allowance for private open space.
Source: Alexander Cooper Associates


Finally, mixed use developments (residential/hotel/retail) are desirable possibilities for locations adjacent to the Commercial Center or to the major open spaces. No special land use category has been shown here but it is recommended that the mixed use proposals be considered favorably in appropriate locations.
It would be unrealistic to set residential density targets at this time. Such targets would build inflexibility into the plan. Instead, the plan postulates the density range necessary to meet the general magnitude of housing units called for in the original planning program. The range is from a low of F.A.R. 9 to a high of F.A.R. 12.
Ultimately the resolution of development density in Battery Park City's neighborhoods will depend upon balancing the Authority's financial needs with the City's housing policies. The next stage of the planning process will require such a resolution. The proposed plan provides for a range in the northern neighborhood of 5,900 units to 7,700 units. South of the Commercial Center, next to the Financial District, 6,500 and 8,500 units can be accommodated.
The next stage of planning will also address the need for community facilities in these neighborhoods. Requirements will depend on the magnitude and demographic characteristics of the eventual population to be served. The street and block system allows for considerable flexibility in the choice of sites for future community facilities. Therefore, it is not necessary now to specify the number and location of such facilities. They can be located later within each neighborhood as the need emerges without significantly narrowing development opportunities for residential buildings.
Vehicular Circulation
Concentration of the bulk of Battery Park City's commercial office sites in one central location benefits both pedestrian and vehicular circulation. The provisions for both are far superior to those in the current plan. As can be seen from Tables IV-VI, by far the majority of person and vehicle trips are generated by the Commercial Center.


TABLE’IV 1979 Master Plan Projected Person Trips
Zone
Round-trips Per Day
Commercial Center
Employee trips 40,000
Visitor trips 48,000
Residential Zones
Work trips 16,800
School trips 9,600
Social/Shopping 32,000
Civic facilities (Employees) 3,375
Local retail (Employees) 400
Visitor trips 8,000
Total Daily Trips 158,175
Source: Vollmer Associates
Table V 1979 Master Plan Modal Split - Commercial Center
Mode Employers Visitors
Walk 2% 4%
Subway/Ferry/PATH 92% 78%
Bus 2% 3%
Auto 3% 5%
Taxi 1% 10%
100% 100%
Source: Vollmer Associates


TABLE V
Projected Peak Hour Traffic
Zone Daily Traffic With Origin Or Destination Outside Of Battery Park City
Residential Zones
Residents
Work Trips 1,180 Autos and taxis
School Trips 30 Buses
Social, Shopping, Etc. 2,570 Autos and taxis
Civil Facilities 220 Autos and taxis
Neighborhood Shopping
Work Trips 20 Autos and taxis
Deliveries 200 Trucks
Visitors 1,080 Autos and taxis
Sub-Total 5,300
Commercial Center
Employees 2,520 Autos and taxis
Visitors 11,200 Autos and taxis
Deliveries 640 Trucks
Sub-Total 14,360
Total 19,600 Vehicles Per Day
Source: Vollmer Associates


Locating the Commercial Center opposite the World Trade Center provides for much improved access to the Lower Manhattan subway systems. Access to the subway stations and PATH in the World Trade Center is of the upmost importance since it is estimated that 92% of all work trips will be made by public transportation.*
Vehicular circulation is also improved by the relocation of the commercial zone. The auto, taxi, and delivery trips to the Commercial Center can be better distributed from the new location onto Westway, onto West Street, and onto the main crosstown streets, Vesey and Liberty.
The street system of the revised plan is organized as a series of loops, each of which serves a specific part of the site (See Figure 10). The loops utilize the grid of streets, but through the use of one way streets they avoid creating conditions that would encourage vehicular traffic to pass through the residential neighborhoods.
The Commercial Center is served from the perimeter by high capacity streets—Vesey, West, and Liberty. All proposed development parcels have both lobby and service access from the streets. In addition, each parcel has the capacity to accommodate up to 100 on-site parking spaces. All buildings in the center will be serviced via internal loading docks.
In the residential neighborhoods vehicular traffic is not expected to be heavy. Consequently, the layout of the main circulation system shows all buildings fronting onto a public street for access. Servicing buildings and access to parking may be achieved from service courts.
Traffic analysis of the proposed system indicates that a number of minor modifications to the present design of intersections between Battery Park City streets and proposed West Street as shown in the Westway Plan are required. These modifications can be accomplished without negative impacts on the operation of proposed West Street and Westway.
* A preliminary analysis of travel and traffic characteristics of the proposed plan has been carried out as part of this study.
See Battery Park 1979 Master Plan: Traffic and Engineering Analysis, Vollmer Associates.


Figure 10
Primary Circulation Secondary Circulation
Vehicular Circulation
©i
200 400 600
Battery Park City • 1979 Master Plan ,
Alexander Cooper Associates 'Oilii


Traffic analysis has also been performed on the proposed system and the interim design for West Street (i.e. the conditions resulting from the demolition of the existing West Side Highway but before Westway is constructed). The proposed system operates satisfactorily under these conditions.
Finally the main vehicular circulation system has been designed to accommodate city bus services, and it is recommended that existing routes be extended into the site.
Pedestrian Circulation
Pedestrian circulation systems (see figure 11) have a number of different functions and characteristics.
The major pedestrian movements in terms of volume will be those generated by the Commercial Center employees crossing onto the World Trade Center Plaza to gain access to the subway and PATH stations. The estimated evening peak hour flow is projected to be 34,270 per hour. This level of pedestrian movement justifies the provision of a major elevated pedestrian link in order to cross West Street and Westway. The volume of pedestrian movement also justifies the provision, within the Commercial Center, of an elevated pedestrian circulation system. This system would link the pedestrian bridge to the World Trade Center with the lobbies of all major building. The elevation of the system would be at approximately +32 feet.
Elsewhere in Battery Park City the projected pedestrian flows will be less and the provision of elevated pedestrian circulation systems are not warranted except where crossing of Westway cannot be easily accomplished at-grade.
Much lighter pedestrian movements will occur within the neighborhoods. Shopping, school, and social pedestrian trips will be handled primarily on the main avenues where two different design features are provided. The avenues have on one side an all weather arcade and on the other, a 40 foot wide linear park, thus providing for both winter and summer movements.
The third set of pedestrian movements are those that are related to the waterfront, the esplanade and parks. These movements are generally




for recreation purposes and include both north/south movements along the waterfront and movements through Battery Park City along east/west streets.
Parking
Parking at Battery Park City should be more simply provided for than in the current project plan. It is recommended that each project provide for its own parking. This would follow present practice in New York City. Each building parcel should be subject to parking requirements that reflect its nearness to main highways, its access to mass transit, the number of households to be housed there, the income mix, and other criteria.
Parking standards, as evolved during the next stage of planning, should also be consistent with proposed regulations limiting parking as part of the Air Quality Control Plan for New York City. The effect of these regulations may be to reduce the number of spaces to be provided in Battery Park City.
Open Space
The most treasured public resource in high-density Manhattan is its open space. The revised Battery Park City Plan has given absolute priority to preserving most of the project site as open space. The Hudson River waterfront is Lower Manhattan's greatest potential recreational amenity. This plan shows how that potential can be turned into reality. The proposed open space plan is shown in Figure
Virtually 70% (65 acres) of the site has been allocated to open space. This is more than was provided for in the earlier plan.
The following Table shows the breakdown of space devoted to public recreation, and public rights of way.
Table VII 1979 Master Plan
Summary Of Open Space Recommendations
Type Acres Percent of Total Site
Public Open Space 28.0 30.2%
Private Open Space (Assuming building coverage of 50%) 19.0 20.5%
Public Rights of Way 17.8 19.2%
TOTAL OPEN SPACE 64.8 69.9%
Source: Alexander Cooper Associates


Parks, esplanades, and other types of public open space will cover 30 percent of the project's site. Building courtyards, resident parks, and other private open spaces will account for another 20.5 percent of the site. And streets, pedestrian ways, and other public rights of way will comprise the remaining 19.2 percent.
Recreational activities along the waterfront will be the principal public amenity of Battery Park City. A broad esplanade will give the public access to the Lower Manhattan waterfront for the first time (see Figure 12). The esplanade will stretch the entire length of Battery Park City, linking a planned extension of Battery Park at the southern end to a new public park at the northern end. Unimpeded view of the harbor, and the Jersey shore will be available from the esplanade. Pedestrian walkways and sidewalks will link directly with the esplanade.
The proposed overhead walkway from the plaza of the World Trade Center to the esplanade will make it possible for pedestrians to go from the transit stations at the World Trade Center to the farthest ends of the esplanade without once crossing a street. Other access points to the esplanade will follow the street system and pedestrian walkways. The grid alignment in the plan is based upon its orientation to the waterfront .
Landscaping will be the second amenity at Battery Park City. Most of the park areas will be densely planted. Some will be designed as places for relaxing during lunch hours or for restful retreats from the fast pace of the nearby City. Others will be grassed areas for more active recreational pursuits.
The open-space plan has been organized as a sequence of experiences.
Most of them will be described as we summarize the plan's "special places" in the following section.
In brief, at the south end of the project will be the extension of Battery Park mentioned earlier. Farther north will be Rector Place, a large space that will link the upland area with the waterfront esplanade.
The Commercial Center will be the site of a 4.2 acre plaza and a Winter Garden. At the end of Vesey Street will be another prominent open space. Finally, a large park will be defined by the curving building wall at the north end of the esplanade.




The design of the open-space system will take account of weather extremes. Planting pattern will vary by the season. Trees will be located in areas where they can break winter winds. And since the buildings along the inner streets and avenues will act as windbreakers on their own, these acres also will be planted so that they can act as attractive alternatives to the esplanade during the cold winter months.*
Land use, streets and blocks, circulation, and open spaces—have all addressed the planning, design, and development possibilities of the Battery Park City site and its surroundings. They form a unified plan (Figure-13) and a cohesive strategy for project execution. The consultants believe that the plan offers public decison makers and private investors a marketable framework for achieving the important public objectives of Battery Park City. This framework is still preliminary and can only become a finished master plan after review and consultation by those who will turn the plan into reality. We see plan making and implementation as interrelated parts of the same process: successful city building.
Special Places In The Plan
The overall site plan for the project illustrates, in general, terms the design concepts described earlier in the report. Within this plan there are certain areas of special significance. These areas have locational primacy or particular design potentials that give them an important role in the realization of the plan. The way in which these "special places" are developed will be extremely important in determining the design quality of the project as a whole.
The following describes the individual characteristics of each of seven special places. It also makes recommendations as to how their particular qualities may be realized in the development process. The location of the place is illustrated in Figure 14.
The last of the special places is the Commercial Center and it is given more detailed consideration than the others. Project implementation will occur there first, and the early completion of its office and retail developments is vital to the overall resolution of the Authority's financial problems.
* For recommendations of planting and design concepts for esplanade and other open space areas, consult: Battery Park 1979 Master Plan: Open
Spaces and Landscape Design Proposals, Zion and Breen, Inc.


Figure 14
Chambers Street Park
North End Avenue
North Cove Plaza
Rector Place
South Cove
South End Avenue
Battery Place
Special Places
©
200 400 600
Battery Park City • 1979 Master Plan
Alexander Cooper Associates


Battery Place Park
At the southern end of the site, a large public park will be created, at the end of Battery Place, as an extension of Battery Park. The new park will be the most southerly open space in the project, and it will serve as the entry point for people from the existing park and from Battery Place (Figure 15).
The park’s size, attractiveness, and views will make it an important resource for Lower Manhattan and the City. It will be large enough to provide for activities that are metropolitan in scale. The dense planting and landscaping should give the park a quiet and shaded character. It will compliment and enhance historic Pier A, which will be the combined focus of recreational and commercial activities.
Views from the park will be the best at Battery Park City. Spectacular panoramas of the harbor, the Statue of Liberty and the Narrows Bridge will be visible. The Battery Place Park will be the southern terminus of Battery Park City's own waterfront esplanade.
A site could be designed within the park for eventual construction of an appropriate public institution—perhaps a museum or art gallery.
No institution has yet been selected, but the presence in the park of a low-scaled, high quality building with public amenities would add to the park's distinction and character.
Source:
The sections entitled Principle One through Battery Place Park were exerpted in part and adapted from Battery Park City Draft Summary Report and 1979 Master Plan by Alexander Cooper Associates for the Battery Park City Authority.


9 EXISTING SITE CONDITIONS


Cooper, Frkstut Associates


Figure 5
Vacant Land
Chambers Street Corridor
Tribeca Residential Conversions
Regularized Street Grid
Subway Access (5 minute walk)
World Trade Center Complex
Liberty Street Corridor
Wall Street Corridor & Office Core Rector Street Corridor
Battery Tunnel Interchange
Broadway Street Wall
Battery Park Pedestrian and Tourist Activity
Summary of Adjacent Conditions
© I1
200 400 600 800
Battery Park City • 1979 Master Plan
Alexander Cooper Associates V '•
\
A


Open Space
destrian Circulation
reets and Blocks
ery Park City
ery Plac e Residential Area
Design Principles
iper, Ec kstut Associates
Fig. 3


SUBWAY ACCESS
lost places in Lower Manhattan are convenient to one or more sub' vay stations. The solid outline above shows a 1,000 Toot radios -• a four or five minute walk -- from the centers of those stations located on or south of Chambers Street. The additional irea that will be served by the Second Avenue line is indicated >y a dashed outline. However, the drawing is deceptive in that afferent stations provide convenient service to different parts >f the City.
7 AVE IRT - MANHATTAN - 1, 2, 3
From the north, the Seventh Avenue IRT provides convenient service to most parts of Lower Manhattan. South of Chambers Street, the local (1) runs 1n Greenwich Street serving the west side and the express (2 & 3) crosses City Hall Park and continues down William Street serving the east side. Only the Civic Center and a few buildings near the Battery are more than a five minute walk from one of the stations.
IMT - BROOKLYN - M,RR
om a single line crossing the East River from Brooklyn, the BMT vldes Into two branches. One extends up Whitehall Street, Trinity ace, and Broadway, the other runs 1n Broad, Nassau, and Center reets. This gives passengers a choice of routes, however, because th branches are relatively close to the center of Lower Manhattan ere are some areas, particularly along Water Street, that are more an a five minute walk from one of the stations.
FERRY
Passengers from the Staten Island ferry usually walk If their destination Is south of Fulton Street. The solid outline shows a 3,250 foot radius from the ferry terminal — a 13 to 15 minute walk. If the weather Is bad or 1f their destination 1s further north at the World Trade Center, or In the Civic Center, they are more likely to pay the additional fare to transfer to a subway or bus. •




50LAP All MUT(-: DIA 6 P-A M


View towards World Trade Center


Battery Park from South Cove


^ry Park Qty Esplanade


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DEVELOPMENT SITES
B BATTERY PARK CITY
M MANHATTAN LANDING (BROOKLYN BRIDGE S E. URBAN RENEWAL AREA) S BROOKLYN BRIDGE S.W. URBAN RENEWAL AREA T TWO BRIDGES URBAN RENEWAL AREA W WASHINGTON STREET URBAN RENEWAL AREA
-- PROPOSED SITE
--PROBABLE SITE


U ESTABLISHED DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR B.P.C.


Development Guidelines
1. Ground Level Land Use
In the Battery Place Residential Area a variety of uses are planned for the ground level. (Fig. 22, Preferred Ground Floor Uses). Retail and commercial uses are planned in conjunction with the arcades on the west side of the Avenues. Retail uses are generally not allowed within 50 feet of parkland except on the southern frontages of Block 10 and Block 14.
Restaurants and outdoor cafes are encouraged on these park frontages to provide an amenity and activity. Professional medical offices are encouraged at the ground floor along the east side of Battery Place, and on the south side of West Thames Street east of Battery Place. Lobby entrances are preferred at certain locations in order to provide activity and surveillance. (Fig. 23, Arcades and Preferred Lobby Locations).
2. Parking and Curb Cuts
A limited amount of on-street parking may be provided. In addition, subject to zoning, developers may build accessory parking spaces in their buildings. All parking must be enclosed, and no portion is allowed to be built to a height of more than 23 feet above curb level. Above-grade parking structures must be set back from the avenues and the side streets by 10 to 50 feet, as shown in Fig. 24, Curb Cut and Parking Structure Location Zone. Refer to page 33 for requirements concerning garage walls.


Hudson River
I restaurants & outdoor cafes 5 community facilities = retail
I professional offices
n
cry Kirk City
cry line Residential Area
per, Eckstut Associates
Preferred Ground Floor Uses
i in 22


•oper, Eckstut Associates


ery Park City
ery Place Residential Area
>per, Eckstut Associates
Curl) CuI and Parking Struc ture Location Zone 24


Curb cuts are prescribed within certain zones and are to be kept to a minimum size. No curb cuts will be allowed within 50' of a major street intersection, as shown in Fig. 24, (Curb Cut and Parking Structure Location Zone). No service/parking entry areas shall be more than 20 feet in width.
Bulk Controls
The bulk controls regulate the density of development and the configuration of the buildings on the parcels.
a. [Density
The maximum floor area that may be built on each parcel is listed in II E., Program and Guidelines by Parcel, and may be less than what is allowed by the Zoning Resolution. As required in Section 84-21 of the Zoning Resolution, "The minimum floor area contained within any dwelling shall not be less than 550 square feet."
b. Building Configuration: Streetwalls, Height and Setback
Bulk controls and regulations regarding streetwalls and tower locations define each building's placement and its coordination and compatibility with adjacent developments and the streets and parks. These controls are the most important tools for preventing any one building from dominating others.


Hudson River
Street walls required | 110-135' Wall i • 60-85' Wall
O IDO .'DO
60-1351 street wall required
tery Park City
tery Plate Residential Area
>per, Eckstut Assoc iates
St reel walls
i in 25


The streetwalls provide continuity and, at the same time, should have decorative touches and modest changes to guarantee individual expression and distinction to each building. A 60-85 foot streetwall is mandated along the eastern edges of Blocks 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14, along a portion of the northern edge of Block 10 and the northern edge of Block 11 and the westerly portion of the northern edge of Block 14, along the southern edges of Block 10 and 14, and along the western edge of Block 10. (Fig. 25, Streetwalls). Arcades are required along portions of these streetwalls as indicated on Fig. 23, Arcades and Preferred Lobby Locations.
A 60-135 foot streetwall is required along the northern edge of Block 14 frcm the eastern build-to line to a point 140 feet west of that line.
A 110-135 foot streetwall is mandated for the western edge of Blocks 1, 2, 3, and 4 and the southern edge of Block 1.
As required in the zoning, in most cases streetwalls must be returned at least 50 feet along narrow streets. On Block 14, the 60-135 foot streetwall may be returned onto the eastern build-to line. On the east side of the South Cove, streetwalls are kept low, and terraces are encouraged, to guarantee sunlight and a special character to the place.




The placement of towers on Blocks 1, 2, 3, 4 and 14 is directed towards maintaining views, providing adequate light and air, and reinforcing the patterns of avenues and streets. (Figs. 26,
27, 28; Tower Locations and Guidelines, Section along Battery Place Looking East, Maximum Building Heights). The towers on the east side of Battery Place are purposely stepped in height toward the south to create a dramatic skyline at the tip of Manhattan. (Fig. 27, Section along Battery Place Looking East). Each tower is also set back from the Avenue, and a different distance, in order to maintain a consistent north-south spacing between towers, to provide views of the Harbor for each parcel, and to reduce the building scale on the street. (Fig. 26, 28; Tower Locations and Guidelines, Maximum Building Heights).


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A MIXED USE COMPLEX FOR BATTERY PLACE PARK Date Due An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architectur e . Timothy L . Brewer Spring, 1986

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The Thesis of Timothy L. Brewer is approved. University of Colorado at Denver D ecembe r 6, 19SS R . Russell Seacat Mar k McCormick

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INTRODUCTION Thesis Proposal Thesis Statement Five ideas History of the Port of New York History of the site (Battery Park City ) PROGRAM Program Summary Adjacencies, qualitative and functional analysis of program spaces • EXISTING URBAN CONDITIONS--HASTER PLANNING EXISTING SITE CONDITIONS--ANALYSIS ESTABLISHED DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BATTERY PARK CITY • APPENDIX 1 Energy, Enviornment, and the Physically Challenged APPENDIX 2 Uniform Building Code Analysis APPENDIX 3 Geotechnical Conditions of Site Site Grading Site Utilities APPENDIX 4 Climatological Summar y

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WER MANHATTAN II INTRODUCTION _; \ ' ' '

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THESIS PROPOSAL: Manhattan, as a world port, is and has been the gateway to America. As a land mass, the city is part of the literal edge of the North American continent. The density of building and population which occurs on this point of land adds to its dynamism as a natural and man made edge. At the confluence of the East River, the Hudson River, and the land mass known as Manhattan began an incredible story of American quantitative and qualitative prosperity. Without the sea, a nations ability to trade and prosper is nonexistent. Manhattan, the symbol and center for American trade and prosperity, owes its success to national and international trade upon the hig h seas. M y architectural interest in this site centers around the phe nomenon o f Manhattan as edge, on the sea as a heritage, and on the people who were able to orchestrate, co-exist, and capitalize on these geographic phenomena. The site for this mixed-use complex of buildings is located in Battery Place Park in Battery Park City on the island of Manhattan in New York City , New York. The complex of buildings will house a maritime museum of approximately 51,000 square feet, leaseable shipwright space totaling approximately 32,000 square feet, and a residential tower with supporting retail uses totaling approximately 260,000 square feet.

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THESIS STATEMENT DRAFT 2 The Financial District of Lower Manhattan has emerged as the dominant financial h u b of the post industrial world. One phenomena, or metaphore if you will, \vhich is descriptive of the attitude that permeates the Financial District, is known as Battery Park City. In a deal between the city of New York and the state of Ne'v Y ork, an arrangement was made to expand both the physical boundries of the district and the sphere of influence that it has on world finance. The creation of Battery Park City would bolster the district's already heavy hitting lineup of financial super-stars and insure Manhattan's status as the world' s financial center into the 21st Century. The project would take twenty years, at a minimum, it would create an additional ninetytwo acres of real estate for the city (literally create the land), and, in time, produce "mind-boggling surpluses in city dollars". l. The island perimeter, particularly the seaward perimeter of the Financial District, makes no perceivable attempt to resolve itself alonf the water. There is no beach, obviously--that compelling zone of overlap where the land slips into the sea. Yet neither is the island' s edge a sea wall--a massive blockade which provides safety from rising waters for the land and its inhabitants. Somehow, all of the energies of Manhattan which come slamming up against the East and Hudson Rivers are expected to resolve themselves along a pencil line of curbing, sidewalk, and chain-link fence, all in a discouraging state of repair. It seems that the prevailing urban design attitude of Manhattan (until the very recent past) has no concern for its edges. One needs only to look as

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far as the World Trade Cent.er towers to experience the manifestation o f this attitude. Clearly , there is no regard for any scale transition be-tween the horizontal vastness o f New York Harbor arid the 100 story skyscrap-ers which mar k the Financial District of Manhattan. If the infamous Man-hattan real estate developer, Donald Trump, has his way, the transition from the harbor to the island will become all the more inhuman and obtrusive . A site located very near to The Battery has become available and contains the square-footage to support a new, worlds-tallest-skyscraper. Trump's proposal for his 150 story tower will become just that. The Battery Park City landfill, in its way , also seems to deny Manhattan's island-ness. The creation of the 92 acres of real estate can only in part (about t w o acres I'd say ) be attributed to the disposal of the earth ex-cavated from the World Trade Center site. While the massing of a few par-ticular building s within Battery Park City does oegin a scale shift down r? felt that it towards the water' s edge, the fact that e xpand it's most natural boundry is commentary on its unwillingness to deal with t h e re-alities of it's edge. Make more certain Manhattan's place in the future? Sure . Make more places for people to live and work? Sure. But make more land? Only in New York City. The creation of the land for Battery Park City , and the creation of a new city within a city may not, indeed, set the precedent for future devel-opment o f Manhattan or any world city . It does, however, describe the pre-vailing attitude of Manhattan and Manhattanites. From the standpoint o f urban design, Manhattan's geographies is one of its

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greatest opportunities. When Manhattan, particularly Lowe r Manhattan, recognizes that it is not a city built at the edge of a meadow or valley which it can expand into, the architecture of the city will reflect this fact. The architecture will respond in terms of form, scale, and expression. The architecture will resolve the edge. There is another reality of Manhattan's existance which it also seems to deny. It's history. Manhattan is, and began as, a great world port. There would be no Wall Street, indeed, no Financial District today if Manhattan wasn't first and foremost a port city. International trade via the Atlantic Ocean created Manhattan. Manhattan doesn't seem to care about it's roots or it's development. It seems to care only for the present and the future. Indeed, this may contribute to the vitality we feel when we're there. But, Manhattan's architecture could conceivably begin to add a layer of richness and understanding of it's past and be a better place because of it. Here again, when Manhattan chooses to acknowledg e it's undeniable maritime history , it' s architecture will reflect this. The architecture will respond not only in terms of form, scale, and expression, but in terms of use. Ultimately, this thesis will attempt to do one thing--to tell the story of a particular place, towards a greater understanding of that place. In telling this story, the architecture must endeavor to give definition and clarity to the seaward edges of Manhattan. The architecture must also strive to clarify Manhattan's seagoing heritage, its relationship with the East and Hudson Rivers, and with the great Atlantic beyond. Further, the architecture on this site will attempt to mediate and act as a transition piece

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between the natural, and historicall significant parcel of land which lies to the immediate southeast--the Marine Fire Station and Battery Park--and the man-made infill parcel of land known as Battery Park City, which lies to the immediate north of the site. The uses, form, scale, and language of this architecture will "care" for Manhattan's past. Through its existance, the architecture will pro-vide a greater awareness of Manhattan's past and in this way editorialize on Manhattan's and Manhattanites' "make more and never look back" attitude. An urban place should respond to two kinds of order; the order of the city, and the order of nature. The urban place must function as a bridge between these two determinants. 2. SCOPE OF THE ARCHITECTURE I am proposing a mixed-use complexin Battery Place on Manhattan Island. The complex will house a maritime museum and gallery space to memorialize Manhattan's heritage of the sea. The museum collection and complex of build-ings will concentrate on maritime commerce as a theme mainly, as opposed to fishing, pleasure, or sport marine activities. The complex will also provide leasable shipwright space, !Where restor-ation, design and construction of historical and modern sea-going vessels will take place. The provision for these spaces and activities will ensure their continuim into the 21st Century just as Battery Park City's World Financial Center is to provide Manhattan's Financial District's contin-uim into the 21st Century . Retail uses such as theatre, restaurants, and ship's chandlery will fix

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the project as current, in our time. Finally, this mixed-use complex will incorporate housing. To be realistic on this site, the housing will be of a high density . Transferre d development rights, which presumably would be purchased from the Marine Fire Sta tion, will be employed to increase and maximize the development potentials for this site. Housing is an integral part of the idealogical aspects of the project. It is imperative that people who reside in Lower Manhattan interact with the other proposed uses on the site.

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What follows, is a series of architectural ideas, which if successfully manipulated, will add to the over-all success of this thesis. Many of these ideas are directly applicable to this proposal, others only remotely. Some of the following ideas may in the end, have no influence on this thesis, but are non-the-less meaningful to me in the pursuit of the advancement of our art. I have no knowledge of architecture--indeed, would not qualify as an ameture--but I live in houses, worship in churches, attend events in auditoriums and sports arenas and,( finding myself in countries where I can neither speak nor read the language, I count much more on architecture than on any other means of communication to speak to me succinctly of the remote past, the immediate past, and the present aspiration of people to whom I can barely say, 'good morning'. 3. EDITORIALIZING IN ARCHITECTURE Architecture is a language, and can communicate. Just ask John Cheever. An important function of architecture is to fix a culture's attitudes and aspirations in time . In Cheever's words, " ... the visionary or spiritual aspects of our natures ... ". Historically, architectural style provides the proof. Roman aqueducts, arenas and houses, Greek temples, and Ren -niasance and Gothic cathedrals all speak with abundant clarity of their societies. Architecture provides the record, the time capsule if you will, of cultures past. I beleive that when the language of architecture is most legible, and there-fore best executed, it is a result of societal aspiration, timg, and geography (or as architects specify it, site).

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FIGURE GROUND / FIGURE GROlffiD REVERSAL Particularly in densly built and populated areas of the world (cities), the figure to ground relationships develpoed between building s and their surrounds are intrigueing to me. The relationships between open spaces (figural voids) and solid spaces (figural solids), at the level of urban fabric as well as within singular architectural pieces can become significant in this thesis problem in terms of analogy (see ANALOGY) and spatial generation. The modern movement in architecture seems th have demanded that a building read clearly and singularly as a three dimensional object in space. While that may be the reality of any one piece of architecture, when a series of these pieces are placed in a group,(a city) and compete to be appreciated as objects in space, then not only is the strength of the object diminished, but clearly, the legibility of the left over space is sacrificed. What needs to be explored and heightened as an experience in our cities is the spatial void, which can I believe, become an object.

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ANALOGY Analogy in literature is a device used for lending increased understanding of an unknown based upon some known . In architecture, analogy can also promote understanding, which, I believe, is directly related to beauty. There is an analogy which comes t o mind when I think of this complex located on, and attempting to give clarity to, Manhattan's seaward edge. Manhattan, when approached from the sea or air, or when viewed from Brooklyn or New Jersey, presents the viewer with a tall, solid, if somewhat articulated, barrier. It is understood, however, that there are particular places behind this "wall" that are void. One clearly does not perceive the island as a completely solid mass. Somehow, either through memory or through an anplanned expression on this "wall" we understand that there are void pockets of human activity which occur beyond. Le Corbusier, in particular at the Villa at Garches and in the facade of the Salvation Army Biulding is, in an architectural sense, trying to express and clarify the same sense of the presence of a spatial void which occur behind a planer, vertical datum. He spent most of his life exploring ways to express thin and deep space on basically two-dimensional plane. So did many painters. In a strange way, the "wall" around Manhattan seems to be doing the same thing. T his thesis reveals itself as a great opportunity to explore ways of cueing three-dimensional space on a primarily two-dimensional vertical plane.

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The possibility occurs to me that this complex of buildings, through their arrangement and expression could become an analogy for the phen-omena of Manhattan island and there-by provide a greater understanding of both the proposed complex and of the city . Maison Domino : The structure is not the primary issue. The vertical slot is left by virtue of the structure. The slot creates the opportunity to free the facade in order _to articulate either shallow or deep space behind. SALVATION ARMY BUILDING Le C orbusier and Pierre Jeanneret, architects. 1932 "Corbs abstract constructplane (vertical datum plane) is set within a very literal plane, its virtual sense being established in a frontal, and dematerialized vertical referent. From : I \ \ I "Real and English: The Destruction of the Box . I . " OPPOSITIO N S b y ; Peter Eisenman t \

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CLARITY OF EXPRESSION--FORM VS. CONTENT I believe that a building does not become architecture until it is beautiful, and meaningful. The key to beauty , I believe, is understanding . It follows then that, in order for architecture to be beautiful, it must be understood. The viewer/user must develop some intimate association or understanding of the architecture. When form is divorced from content (unintentionally) confusion usually results. Confusion is misunderstanding. Misunderstanding is ugly. A powerful example of unclear expression and form irrelevant to content can be seen in Klaus Herdeg' s The Decorated Diagram . His analysis of Le Corbusier's 1930 Errazuris House shows h o w the language of the butterfly roof form is clearly site generated, and serves as a metaphore for the landscape. It is clearly understood, and it is beautiful. Marcel Breuer' s Exhibition House of 1949, on the other hand, results in complete confusion, and in the end, ugliness. The forms and proportions are very similar to Corbs 1930 house, yet the experience is ugly. Breuer proposes his Exhibition House as a suburban prototype, to be built, built, and rebuilt in Anytown, U . S . A . without regard for either the landscape, or meaning o f form.

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BOTH / AND VS. EITHER / OR IN ARCHITECTURE Cubist painting and sculpture take on special meaning for me because of what I beleive has been the pursuit of both/and in expression. In an extreemly clear, if literal way, a super-positioning of the plan expression and the section expression lead to a fuller understanding of the whole. The fact that the experience of any bottle can never be as simultaneously complete as the representation of the same bottle (see diagram), has interesting architectural implications. In particular, the relationship of the experience of plan to the experience of section in architecture is important to me. This relationship too, must be clear and legible for the architecture to be beautiful. Both/and in architecture must work at another level in terms of successful architectural expression. Here again, I'm speaking of both the experience and the perception of the architecture. For architecture to work, to be understood, and to be beautiful, it must evoke a response in the viewer/user (I stress any viewer or user). The work must simultaneously appeal to the non-architecturally educated viewer/user viscerally (at an instinctive, rather than an intellectual level) and must satisfy rigorus analysis by the critic for formal structure, composition, meaning, order, logic, and clarity . What is by nature, extreemly complex, must b e at the same time, simple. If the architecture is not simultaneously both of these things, than it is limited in terms of who it can touch and bring joy to. Architecture

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must remain socially accountable to all--that it contain some level of association for all. The example at the right can be appreciated for either or both of two interpretations.Because it can b e understood one way, another way, or both ways, it is meaningful to a wider audience. Complexity ..• simplified. Is it a black bottle being hit with a strong light from the right? Or, is it a white bottle which is partially shaded? I would contend that it is either •.. or better yet, both .

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THE MARITIME HISTORY OF THE PORT OF NEW YORK The New York harbor was created when melting glaciers scoured out what is now known as the Hudson River Valley . The glacial river chiseled a rock-walled chasm nearly as deep (although not as wide) as the Grand 1 Canyon of Colorado. During the i ce ages, the level of the Atlantic Ocean was far lower than it is today . In fact, Manhattan would have been one hundred and fifty miles inland of the Atlantic. In geologically modern titnes, the level of the Atlantic began to rise, and Manhattan, once situated 3500 feet above sea level, became the low-lying island that it is today. Post-glacial man did inhabit the eastern s eaboard. Mongoloid tribes, who probably reached the continent from Asia by \vay of Alaska, were the areas first actual settlers, however. people were hunters and fishermen and lived in semi nomadic communities. Over time, these corn-rnunities became more stable, and developed agriculture. The indian nam e for the island was Manna-hata, which has been ed to mean "the island of the hills", and, "the place of surpassing beauty". It was the Dutch who first began to call the island, Manhattan. 2 Hunting, fishing and rudimentary agriculture dominated indian life through the 1400's. Primitive forms of trade did exist, however, with shells, buckskins, and eagle feathers as primary currency. In 1524, thirtytwo years after Columbus discovered America, Giovanni d e Verrazano, a Florentine navigator ernployeed by Francis I, king of France, dropped anchor in New York harbor. In 1525, Esteban Gomez, a

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Portuguese sailor for Charles V of Spain explored and charte d the mouth of the Hudson . Henry Hudson, w h o rounded Sandy Hook on September 3, 1609 \vas the first sailor to realize the commercial in the Port of New York. "This territory is the finest for cultivation that I ever in m y life set foot upon and the situation well adapted for shipping".3 During the winter of 1613-14, Captain Block (one of two Dutch capt-ains sent back to America after Hudson's return to Holland) was anchored near Manhattan Island. A disasterous fire broke out aboard Block's ship which, in the end would result in the genesis of a great industry. Block set his men straight to work in building another boat, a "long-yacht", and launched it the following spring . The shipyard, if one could call it that, that Block built this ship in, was probably located on the bank of a creek which still flows under the pavement of Broadway. In the spring of 1624 Cornelius Jacobsen M e y sailed from Amsterdam with the first Dutch colonists. The vessel carried 110 men, women, and children with farming implements, seeds, and trading goods. On the ship's return voyage to Holland she carried hundreds o f otter skins, and thousands of beaver skins. During the following summer, the Dutch West India Company ferried ove r 100 head of cattle into New York harbor, and the port of New York began its development a s a world port. In the spring o, Pieter Minuit was sent to replace Captain Block (who was recalle d to Holland) at the New York settlement. B y the fall of the same year, Minuit had consumated his famous real estate deal with the indians ... "the y bought the island Manhattes f rom the wild men

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1 II 4 for the value of sixty gu ilders, it is 1,000 mor gens in e xtent .... In 1674 the war between Holland and England came to an end and the treaty of Westminster signed the province of New York over to England. The new english governor, Edmond Andors, pushed ahead the potentials of the port of New York as s een b y Henry Hudson. Governor Andros ac-complished much in tne way of improvments to the port, including the Battery sea wall, a stone city dock, and Broad Street. Tne means for these improvments (very high duties) however, would begin to breed the port problems of smuggling and piracy. Before the year 1700 when Lord Bellmont substantially cleared the port of pirates, the New York harbor had its share of rouges , among them, Richard Glover, Jolin Evans, Thomas Wake, John Ireland, Edward Coates, and the infamous Captain hTilliam Kidd. Slave trade is also a part of the history of the port of New York. Some of New York's foremost families invested their capital and ships into this form of commerce. The merchant-ship owners transported thousands of blacks to southern colonial markets and the West Indies, and hundreds more stayed in Manhattan. B y 1763 the city's population had passes the 13000 mark. Shipbuilding bolstered trade with four large yards, with William Walton's as the most profitable. British taxation became the primary issue with the port's merchants, and soon commerc e had become the battle ground for power. Controversey centered around British Acts of Trade such as the Stamp Act, high tarrifs on China tea, suger duties, and taxes on molasses,which is integral in the production of rum. It is w ell known that Bostonians expressed their resentment throug h a tea party . It is not so well known

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that New York staged a tea party of its o"m on April 22, 1774. The port of New York also played a major role in aquiring independance for the United States during the Revolutionary Har. New York harbor witnessed the world's first submarine. The British frigate "Eagle" was not sunk or even damaged b y the submarine invented by the Yale classmate of Nathan Hale, David Bushnell, but did reflect the spirit of experiment and inginiuty in America. The history of New York is rich indeed. The port, to this day , holds one of America's oldest tresure ship mysteries. The British frigate H.M.S. "Hussar" foundered in Hell Gate on the East River and sank in seventyfive feet of water with four million dollars in gold alledgedly aboard. The ship went down in 1780, to date, any salvage operations have succeded only in amusing the public. If indeed this treasure did ever exist, it's still there today. Significant changes in the topography of the East River shoreline may preclude the recovery of the treasure forever. Through susequent embargos and blockades, the port continued to prosper. When Great Britain persuaded most world ports not to trad e with America, we developed shipping routes to the Far East and traded extensivel y with China. New York harbor continued to grow in physical size and in tonnage traded through the development of the steam ship, and led all American ports in volume of imports and exports until the 1950's. Misery , disease, and shameless exploitayion featured on e major branch of the port's history during the years b e tween 1817 and 1857.5 Along

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with the textiles and hardware brought westward accross the stormy Atlantic came millions of Irish, German, English and other European immi grants to seek their fortunes in the new \vorld. The early years of peace after 1815 gave New York its first real taste of wholesale immigration. The federal government did not begin to gather immigration statistics until 1819. The mayor o f New York stated that from March 1, 1818 to November 1,1819, 18930 immigrants had reported to his office. 6 The numbers of immigrants rose continually to about 30,000 in 1922. The largest immigration boom occured between 1R47 and 1854. During the first part of this period, the majority of immigrants cam e fron Ireland, where the great potatoe famine sent starving Irish overseas in tremendous numbers. It did not take business men long to see the profits which might follow the systematic organization of this flow of immigrants. "Houses" were established in Manhattan as places for the immigrants to stay while they adjusted to America. These houses would contract for the whole "tween-decks" cargo space of the westbound vessels. Twenty dollars was about the average steerage fare for the voyage and adjustment period. The grimmest part of the whole arduous migration was, by far, the crossing itself. The usual ship of the period had two decks; the immigrants were normally carried in the "tween-decks", between the upper and lower decks. The orlop, beneath the lower deck, was ordinarily used for heavy frieght, but occasionally even this musty space was used as passenger space for the immigrants. Frequently, there were less than sis feet of clear height in the tween-decks, and seldom were there any port holes; the only bentilation came through the hatches, which

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were normally battened down a gainst the foul weather. Space, indeed, was in short supply, but food too, was another of many sources of difficulty. The immigration ships (packets) carried cows for milk, sheep, pigs, and poultry, but those were only for the cabin passengers . The immigrant's passage money entitled them only to bread, some salt meat, and water. When adverse winds stretched the length of the passage beyond the usual five or six weeks, the ships would almost always run out of food, even though the law required them to varry provisions for ten weeks. Fire at sea, shipwreck, and contagious epidemics were common aboard the packets. A ship seldom carried more than four lifeboats, and often only two. In case of a disaster, this provided room only for the crew and cabin passengers. The immigrants were, in man y cases, doomed from the minute they boarded ship. Thousands and thousands of immigrants died at sea because of shipwreck or fire, but an even more appalling loss of life on these packets was due to disease. "All the world (our world) is going to America. The packet ship "Europe" sailed this morning for New York with 35 passengers", wrote Phillip Hone. His celebrated diary bares witness more than once to the swarm of travelers who kept cornrning from Europe.7 These imigrants left their homes to enter into an infinitely less confortable circumstance on their way to America where they would leave an indelible impression upon New York and upon nte nation.

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THE HISTORY OF THE PORT OF NEW YORK FOOTNOTES 1. A Maritime History of New York by; Work Projects Administration, City of New York. 1973. pp. 5-92 2. Ibid, p. 55 3. Ibid, pp. 40-63 4. Ibid, p. 140 5. The Rise of New York Port by; Robert Greenhalgh Albion, 1970 pp. 336-354 6. Ibid, p. 318 7. Ibid, p. 353

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HISTORY OF THE SITE (BATTERY PARK CITY, BATTERY PLACE PARK) Battery Park City ia a 92 acre landfill site located on the Hudson River at the southern most tip of Manhattan Island. Extendind northward from pier A ( which received historic designation in 1978) to Chambers Street. It is a planned mixed commercial and residential community with extensive parks and open spaces, harbor views, proximity to the Wall Street Financial District, mass transit, and the World Trade Center complex. The 6,000,000 square foot World Financial Center, designed by Cesar Pelli, is located in Battery Park City and is scheduled to open in 1986. The World Financial Center is comprised of four towers ranging in height from 33 to 51 stories, two 9 story gateway buildings, an 18,500 square foot winter garden, and a 3 1/2 public plaza. Over 30,000 people will be employed in the World Financial Center which was developed by Olympia and York. Battery Place Park, which is bounded on the south by pier A and The Battery, and to the north b y parcels 1 and 14, is the site for this thesis project. The site encompasses roughly 125,000 square feet.

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)l PROGRAM

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PROGRAM SUMMARY MARINER'S MUSEUM Exhibits / Galleries ....................................... 18, 350 Small boat gallery ................................ ..... 4,000 Traveling Exhibits ..................................... 1 ,500 Maritime Chapel Exhibit .................................. 9 00 Nautical Instruments (repairs, shipsmithing) ........... 1,500 Planetarium (navigational demonstration, daily skies) .... 900 Maritime art galler y ................................... 1 , 000 Rigging Loft ........................................... 2 , 000 Ropewalk ............................................... 1, 500 Sailmakers Loft ........................................ 1, 500 Figureheads gallery .................................... 1 ,ROO NY Yach t Club Station--America's Cup exhibit ........... 1,750 Preservation/Restoration Shipyard ........................ 12,500 • Theatre/Auditorium (fixed seating for 300) ................ 3,300 • Library ......................................... r. ... Rare collection .................................... 900 evf., ,"'-. . . . . . . . . . . ..... (po o . • • • • • • ••••••••••••••••••• • 3 'ef)Q Video collection ......................................... 500 • Administration ............................................ 3,100 ;""' Director's offic e ........................................ 225 Curator's office ......................................... 225 Assistant director ....................................... 200 Assistant curator ........................................ 2 00 / Restoration's curator .................................... 200

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PROGRAM SUMMARY (con t . ) • Administration (cont.) Secretarial pool ....................................... 900 Kitchen/ catering ....................................... 150 Supply/copy room ................. . ............. ........ 150 Conference room .•...................................... 350 Entrance/Lobby ... _ ......•................................ 2,700 Gift shop .•............................................ 625 Toilets ........•...•.•....•......................•..... 800 Orientatio n ............................................ 650 Exhibit storage ...•..•..•.........•..................... 3,625 Shipping/Receiving ....................... . .......•....... 1, 500 Security .................................................. 400 Exhibit Preparatio n ............................. L • •••••••• 1. son Exhibit Conservation ....... ............................... 900 l F lc.r pf'" f!! s .&. 52,275 NSF 62,730 GSF SHIPWRIGHT SPACE Loading (materials storage, i.e. lumher,finishes hardware, rigging, appliances, motors) . ......... 3,500 Milling Area ............................................ 4,80() lGlassing Area ................................. .......... 1,800 -Hulls and Decks (operations area) 7. hays ................ 5,600 Sail Loft ....................... ........................ 2,500 ..!-Rigging Area .............................................. 800 'l.. Paint/Finish Loft .................•....................... 900 f.L-.,b-

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PROGRAM SUMMARY (cont. ) SHIPWR IGHT SPACE (cont.) Toilets ................................................... 300 Offices (?.) •••.••••••••••.••••..•••••.••••.•...•.•••••••.. 400 Desig n Area .................•....•.. ...•.................. 475 Lunch Room .........•....•......................•.......... 225 First Aid ..•.....•....•.•........•..........•............. 100 \ 21,400 NSF 25,680 GSF RESTAURANT Receiving .•..........•....................... . . ............ 75 Storage ..............•......•...•...........•......•..•... 350 Dishwashing ••........•......•...............•..•.......... 200 Cooking/food preparation .......•.•.•...................... 650 Employee To ilets .....•..•...•...............•.....•....... 150 Public Toilets .........•..•..•.........•.................. 320 Office .•....••...•...........•............................ 100 ETiplo yee Dressing Areas .....•..•..•....................... 160 Dining Room ............•.•...........•.................. 2 ,500 Lounge/Bar ...••..•.............................•.•...... RESIDE N TIAL 5,480 NSF 6,576 GSF 140 Condominium units 800 to 1200 s.f .............. 140,000 Recreation Facitities .......•.......................... 10,975 Pool ................................................. 4, 000

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P,ROGRAM SUMMARY (cant.) Recreation Facilities (cont.) Filter/Equipment room ................................ 250 Loading .............................................. 150 Raquetball/Handball courts (2) ..................... 1,600 Squash courts (2) .................................. 1,600 Weightroom ......................................... 1 ,350 Locker rooms (2) ................................... 1 ,400 Lobby/Central control .............................. 1,000 Retail (residential support i.e. bakery , deli, newstand, convienence store) ..................... 2,750 SUMMARY: 153,725 NSF 184,470 GSF MARINER'S MUSEUM .................................. 52,275 SHIPWRIGHT SPACE .................................. 41,400 RESTAURANT ......................................... 5 ,4RO RESIDENTIAL ...................................... 153 , 725 252,880 NSF 303,456 GSF

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EXISTING URBAN CONDITIONS MASTER PLANNING

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SPACE: GALL t\Z\E-0 ADJACENCIES @2. • ACTIVITIES t> o f kWs fvt'/'N.. bott_f-s tv .J-v CHECKLIST ZONE Public • Semi-Public Re atrlcted FLEXIBILITY • Expendability Verutlllty None SUPERVISION • Required Moderate None VIEW OUT • Dealrable Optional None VIEW IN • Dealrable Optional None ILLUMINATION Bright • Moderate Special Flexible • Natural NOISE Required CONTROL • None VENTILATION/ H igh CLIMATE • Normal CONTROL Special NOTES I '5!:-E:ClG. HT. I<'P AREA PI<06AAW1 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS aU rMuSWM rM..L +n tt-e . n dLet s tAJl hl. The. ev-n of c.t'fe-ulM\CA.,.... it-t. h.e--cJ...wx tv tt--e F URNITURE/E QUI PMEN T C.ct.<.t4-, w

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SPACE: f!Lt St:-12-VAilo N 0H 1 PYAP-D CHECKLIST ADJACENCIES ACTIVITIES fZ_es-bratiCM-tW.eL of Rtw'f-sktf . MOSW M aM.bl r e .ptt.AI'vr vJt.,L! 1t ZONE FLEXIBILITY SUPERVISION VIEW OUT VIEW IN ILLUMINATION NOISE CONTROL VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL NOTES CLG. HT. • • • • e • • • • Public Semi-Public Reatrlc:ted Expendability Versatility None Required Moderate None Dealrable Optional None Dealrable Optional None Bright Moderate Special F lexible Natural Required None H i g h Normal Special A R E A l . C) OD DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS . poss.t.bte, oJ..-e l.Ul;U k hctMd. t-ools. cv-t Vaoui'rfit jte fa_c;[L Wll.R \u_ p1KfUVV'it viA. N wl itt CW\SeVtLpiM_ tweiA of wtU Ill. cpt'VI dw.-4 ti-e. fcUP tD 1k he-k..Gt f\1\vt-h (){ l).)0 -lolu eM5 FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT {).,).NL io61(6 [2-c S trAr tvhvv-\}.niV [c. ftA-i . bi llMet

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SPACE: AUP!10(21UM /THtA1J2E: ADJACENCIES ACTIVITIES 1N. tftlhw .MM I fvw-i c.v\Ml fiiWY\. rhe "1JML-wVL{ /l{.. vc;ed -Pw .tu .. tuv e c:evivr "'-'-bW\., FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT fXed stwt-CHECKLIST ZONE Public • Semi-Public Reatrlcted FLEXIBILITY Expandablllty Veraotlllty • None SUPERVISION Required • Moderate None VIEW OUT Oealrable Optloul • None VIEW IN Oealrable Optional • None ILLUMINATION Bright Moderate • Special Flexible Natural NOISE • Required CONTROL None VENTILATI ON / H igh CLIMATE • Normal CONTROL Spacial NOTES A U . 4'vVd1W r.(rl'r'OC. CLG. HT. AREA

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SPACE: L l fl. I ADJACENCIES ACTIVITIES Llbvt:Lv\ V'lM huv.At 0.. e.wculMw.l 0 collfvhcv-1A,... co\\et.,htM. o f bt>o IC-6 0 FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT IMo[Gs GaM4-rttd:--'7. f.x, 0 f. <; -he I c.<; d.ts(L s itl.UM -5 CHECKLIST ZONE • Public Semi-Public Reatrlcted FLEXIBILITY Ex pandablllty • Verutlllty None SUPERVISION Required • Moderate None VIEW OUT • Dealrable Optional None VIEW IN Dealrable • Optional None ILLUMINATION • Bright Moderate Special Fie xlble • Natural NOISE • Required CONTROL None VENTILATION/ High CLIMATE • Normal CONTROL Special NOTES A R.tv--e. ln>okh colleWWw u.A CLG. HT. AREA 4 4DD

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SPACE: Ml ?f:LUv 1 ADM IN lS1 P-AttO N CHECKLIST ADJACENCIES • ACTIVITIES . • • p vt '{ .u ZONE FLEXIBILITY SUPERVISION VIEW OUT VIEW IN ILLUMINATION NOISE CONTROL VENTILATION/ CLIMATE CONTROL NOTES • • • • • • • • Public Semi-Public Reatrlcted Expendability Verutlllty None Required Moderate None De air able Optional None Oealrable Optional None B right Moderate Special F lexible Natural Required None H igh Normal Special t.tvt-U.cd wc.v\LCLG. HT. '61 AREA DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS . A s-\Q VfY'vU.St b..e. vvkw. of 6bb'-U L1-U'tft!Al -b VY\uc;.-evw. , FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT fd.e ottfu I cor'\

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SPACE: c:-N\ P-A N c E: ) L o oP.JI ACTIVITIES irmwJ., hdLtt pwrc:-htt4 , C olv{ s. +wo.
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SPACE: 0iOP-A6E:' CHECKLIST ZONE Public Semi-Public ADJACENCIES • Reetrlcted FLEXIBILITY Expendability • Verutlllty None SUPERVISION • Required Moderate None VIEW OUT De elrable Optional • None VIEW IN Dealrable Optional • None ILLUMINATION Bright { • Moderate Special Flexibl e Natura I NOISE Required CONTROL • None VENTILATION/ High CLIMATE Normal CONTROL • Special ACTIVITIES NOTES 0r 'N\ CD ilt:dlM 5 ') t-.)or M -\vOtf t4 edu k-vfCLG. HT. !&' AREA 3l.c'2C? DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS covJvol pwivwwl FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT ro..cJ-<;,

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SPACE: LOAD!N6 I 01012-AGt ADJACENCIES ACTIVITIES s e-kuL . S-bc,IL 1) I Sty tb-tA.f, C:VV o f rdU5 n ft> MOL o DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS CHECKLIST ZONE Public Semi-Public • Reatrlcted FLEXIBILITY Expendability • Veraatlllty None SUPERVISION • Required Moderate None VIEW OUT Dealrable • Optional None VIEW IN • Dealrabl e Optional None ILLUMINATION Bright • Moderate Special Flexibl e Natural NOISE Required CONTROL • None VENTILATION/ High CLIMATE Normal CONTROL • Special NOTES 0 '-14 \uSV\ 4 I f[GVY CLG. HT. IU?' AREA ?,Soo L /) fJVo.l?A-yY\AL(.S t o JM-e.__ t>e tV! kf d.L 1, IN ()... 1-w.U. M-doc../'-rvM.A.ct FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT LIAHY'IW ra.cJ.c; ta..blo P-h c.v-t S"QM.J PelMd W.AJ LW'v't\b-tx d-e l ( i 4

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SPACE: MILLIN & AI2EA ADJACENCIES CHECKLIST ZONE Public Semi-Public • Reatrlcted FLEXIBILITY Expandablltty • Verutlllty None SUPERVISION Required • Moderate None VIEW OUT Dealrable • Optional None VIEW IN • Dealrable Optional None ILLUMINATION • Bright Moderate Special F lexible ,. Natural NOISE • Required CONTROL None VENTILATION/ • High CLIMATE Normal CONTROL Speci a l NOTES I tRu. yurr1 Nm-eMj ffw. CLG. HT. /&1 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS of e.u'Ft:Jt-o..v-hvl.A.&r Seth of du. V\Wth lA.$ e,vvfU.. wj {tc..tM k.{-V} Pv-VWl ()/\..f.t. W\MA. ; t k wW-f X-!tw.M <; • FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT pv.,.., rz_lMAvl.i>v'VVVI wl-u. P( f-SJ) \ 0.. b.t <;.e.u krm <;a..w Cio.-p

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SPACE: 6LAt;SIN6 AP-EA ADJACENCIES ACTIVITIES up reo t {lbrt'ftSS 1 .e. nea.M a.N4 (0"6)\11s. DVV\.C(_ of CHECKLIST ZONE Public Semi-Public • Reatrlcted FLEXIBILITY Expandablllty • Verutlllty None SUPERVISION Required Moderate • None VIEW OUT Dealrable Optional • None VIEW IN Dealrable • Optional None ILLUMINATION • Bright Moderate Special Flexible Natural NOISE ReQuired CONTROL • None VENTILATION/ • High CLIMATE Normal CONTROL • Special NOTES NM -v4 I trw M tUM f \Otl(. . C l G. H T. I U11 ARE A l 0 0 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS kveA..-ret. lrf-1-e'(., kuAQ{-& f fuMet; dust cyeo...tfd... FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT S tovCA.'f ra.ck<;, O.MLL fc:v up . . 6n.M.PJ .. 1 ho1s.f, ttf_ e edi.n 1

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SPACE: HULLS !IE:-C K 0 ADJACENCIES ACTIVITIES CVV\tt of tJ f Mil, d.e.c.k .. } 1 -eA-G, CHECKLIST ZONE Public Semi-Public • Reetrlcted FLEXIBILITY Expandablllty • Verutlllty None SUPERVISION • Required Moderate None VIEW OUT Dealrable • Optional None VIEW IN • Dealrable Optional None ILLUMINATION • Bright Moderate Speci a l Fie xlble -' • Natural NOISE Required CONTROL • None VENTILATION/ • High CLIMATE Normal CONTROL Special NOTES NOV\ -S4f f loa , ht1J. \X-L. CLG. HT. 28 AREA? {ROO DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS VV\UtSr b..t f.r(JW.. WC/IfL spCM.-e lu pvo"' clu<.. WoW lv.A1M... . h<)M-" oxhft-e-toJ.. FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT ca-Y41 oVf/f'-chaM... noids -h o f NuMeN!\.0 0--t-of (),ARJL, GhDp !aUJS, 5MV'7 • 0\1-(A 4d dO"Oit, .U D VJ I fAv\ 1.4 t cJ.eM"cv.u.il • • • • • • • > \/;

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SPACE: SAIL LDPT ADJACENCIES ACTIVITIES ta c f-O'A CIM+ral-r scuj DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS CHECKLIST ZONE Public Semi-Public • Reatrlcted FLEXIBILITY Expendability • Veraatlllty None SUPERVISION Required G Moderate None VIEW OUT Dealrable • Optional None VIEW IN • Dealrabl e Optional None ILLUMINATION • Bright Moderate Special Flexible • Natural NOISE Required CONTROL • None VENTILATION/ High CLIMATE • Normal CONTROL Special NOTES 9-N't'f-a.il CLG. HT. 8 tt AREA 15Do Ciu;v.r, 0 r, CfVYioatlt\ hOvi <;M-V bo..u1 tv-_ th-{) f FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT 1 moJ-eA-t.A rM.cJU.A'-4, rr.vf. t 'l ciwo.f c.u. tVM sMNlM/

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sPAcE: P.l6 b I A F-E: A-CHECKLIST ZONE Public Semi-Public ADJACENCIES • Reatrlcted FLEXIBILITY Expendability • Veraatlllty None SUPERVISION Required • Moderate None VIEW OUT Dealrable • Optional None VIEW IN • Dealrable Optional None ILLUMINATION Brl_a_h t • Moderate Special Flexible • Natural NOISE Required CONTROL • None VENTILATION/ High CLIMATE , Normal CONTROL Special ACTIVITIES /2-M aMt( r w e ptlNtvh " f ba,ve c; pcwc;, E-'< u i(U cU l-Ua..{-eA.-fYtNJf-.fc.v Mtu.t stepM c L G. H T. 1 u ' ARE A oo DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS auw-{).}.RA., 4 V'r FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT .SfON wffWf 'M,.rc,v,.-o.MA Ov.f/lv-r pole.

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SPACE: S U PPLI !2-00M CHECKLIST ZONE Public Semi-Public ADJACENCIES • Reatrlcted FLEXIBILITY Expendability Verutlllty • None SUPERVISION • Required Moderate None VIEW OUT • Dealrable Optional None VIEW IN • Dealrable Optional None ILLUMINATION Bright • Moderate Special Flexible Natural NOISE Required CONTROL • None VENTILATION/ High CLIMATE • Normal CONTROL Special ACTIVITIES NOTES Tools 1 prnMt , +o s t-A.ij> -h> ct Will-t\LU'VI w .! H-.. v (tws tv wr:v/L-CLG. HT. ID' AREA l'loo DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS v-oOWl 1c;, cl.oSUit fv V"015VY' !fu.-ff CL . w lu:l-k 0-tn.tb o f fvnc..hw. 1/,}--tv 'fi.t_. p-r-odu.c-f{v,.... rwoce<:;s. FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT s "'-t..j!..U-c eJ\, o.MeL w We.low . S N>1N for c;-fwa[t o f fo-o t'7 o.;v.,l S{A f

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SPACE: ADJACENCIES ACTIVITIES P,ec;uwc,t,_ 6f Aaff\w .. {vwl 1 , o./IJJL ( Uo.flli r-' te s.tqY\ D pRa-1. Pe.YSov-U li:WS I feup FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT CHECKLIST ZONE Public • Semi-Public Reatrlcted FLEXIBILITY Expandablllty • Veraatlllty None SUPERVISION Required • Moderate None VIEW OUT • Dealrable Optional None VIEW IN Dealrable • Optional None ILLUMINATION • Bright Moderate Special Flexible • Natural NOISE • Required CONTROL None VENTILATION/ HIJilh CLIMATE ., Normal CONTROL Special NOTES CLG. HT. Btrt AREA
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SPACE: P-E-STAUfZ.At--11 CHECKLIST ' ZONE • Public Semi-Public ADJACENCIES Reatrlcled FLEXIBILITY Expandablllty Verutlllty • None SUPERVISION Required Moderate • None VIEW OUT • De air able Optional None VIEW IN • Dealrable Optional None ILLUMINATION Bright • Moderate Special Flexibl e • Natural NOISE • Required CONTROL None VENTILATION/ High CLIMATE • Normal CONTROL Special ACTIVITIES NOTES f r e 11\1\Ael
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SPACE: \DE:N11AL ADJACENCIES ACTIVITIES . t 1 4 o C.rr..cl1 rruM-1 LNV\ VM-fs DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS wGu bL , , FURNITURE/EQUIPMENT A 0 CHECKLIST ' ZONE Public Semi-Public • Reatrlcted FLEXIBILITY Expendability Verutlllty • None SUPERVISION Required • Moderate None VIEW OUT • De air able Optional None VIEW IN Dealrable • Optional None ILLUMINATION Bright • Moderate Special Fie xlble • Natural NOISE , Required CONTROL None VENTILATION/ High CLIMATE • Normal CONTROL Special NOTES CLG. HT. AREAI5?,115 . . fr> M j h -(2cv

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THE 1979 MASTER PLAN FOR BATTERY PARK CITY The revised Master Plan takes as its theme an acceptance of all that is desirable about New York's basic pattern of development. Included are the City's system of streets and blocks, its prevelant building forms, its density, its mixed land use and its efficient transportation systems. The consultant's objective has been to refine and develop these familiar elements of the New York's environment and to adapt them to the unique opportunities presented b y a magnificant waterfront site. Eight organizing principles define the revised plan. They deal with the overall planning approach, the layout and orientation of the plan, the form of the project, the quality of its neighborhoods, pedestrian circulation, waterfront amenities, special design opportunities, and flexible development controls. PRINCIPLE ONE: Battery Park City should not be a self-contained new town-in-town, a part of Lower Manhattan. The revised plan recognizes the difficulties inherent in the new town-in-town approach to large scale urban development. The current plan follows this approach and lays out a series of superblocks with very little relation to the rest of Lower Manhattan. This arrangement contribute s to a sense of separateness, which is considered to be neither a desirable nor realistic strategy. The lessons learned from similar projects elsewhere suggest that Battery Park City should not turn its back on Lower Manhatten but instead respond to and build upon the strength and character of the adjacent neighborhoods. Lower Manhattan's assets are its office inventory, its subway services and its community facilities and services. The mixture of uses in the project's development program a firm basis upon which to proceed. The challenge is to find the proper layout, building forms, and amenities to express this potential. PRINCIPL E TWO: The layout and orientation of Battery Park City should be an extension of Lower Manhattan's system of streets and blocks. There are strong reasons for knitting Battery Park City into the existing grid system of Lower Manhattan. Street extensions can be very

PAGE 54

important in helping the project to overcome a potential s ense of isolation from the upland area. Utilizing a block s ystem of development can set a structur e for Battery Park City that will easily integrate its building forms with the adjacent area' s existing development. Creating conventional building lots can r e duce the hesitancy of the development communi t y about the project. The normal rules of site development elsewhere in Manhattan should also apply at Battery Park City (see figure 5). Bringing new development into a closer relationship with the upland area should also benefit Lower Manhattan. The financial c o r e will be able to expand more readily onto the project's reservoir of vacant land. Residents of the project will be b etter able to support Lower Manhattan's growing range of shops and services. The waterfront amenities at Battery Park City will be more accessible to the employee and r esident population o f the entire area south of Canal Street. All three of these advantages will be supportive of the goals of the Lower Manhattan Plan. PRINCIPLE THREE: Battery Park City should offer an active and varied set o f waterfront amenities. Opening up Lower Manhattan to the waterfront is a basic objective of the planning concept, just as it was o f the 1969 plan for Battery Park City. The revise d plan will recommend ways of improving the previous proposals for waterfront amenities so that they are more attractive, mor e useful, more accessible, and more safe. A wide variety o f spaces will be provided at the waterfront: Lunchtime sunning areas, an esplanadefor strolling along the river's edge, large gathering places for public events, and small, quiet interior courts. The waterfront will have access to and f rom subwa y stations, with minimal contact with vehicular traffic. The concept will also give attention to maintenance and safety o f the park spaces. PRINCIPLE FOUR: The design of Battery Park City should take a less idiosy n cratic, more recogn i zable, and m ore understandable form. The current plan for Battery Park City proposes 200 acres of land uses on a 92-acre site. T h e technique for a ccomplishing this seemingly impossible feat is to stack several uses on top of each other, the upper deck b eing utilized for open space over streets and public facilities. Analysis of the project'splanning program has shown that such a complicated decking schem e i s expensive and unnecessarily complex .

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Figure 5 Vacant Land Regularized Street Grid Subway kcess (5 minute walk) Wall Street Corridor & Office Core Rector Street Corridor Battery Tunnel Interchan ge Battery Park Tourist ktivity Summary of Adjacent Conditions EB l" sL aL Battery Park City 1979 Master Plan ' , -Alex ander Cooper Associates J

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Th e revised plan proposes an alternative to decking . Th e design image we have aimed for is an adaptation of New York: Streets with sidewalks, along which building s can be constructed b y individual developers, large and small. Public am entities would be the main governmental contribution to environmental quality . Guidelines for building development would allow for the creation of special places within the framework of conventional streets and blocks. This is the physical form and institutional arrangement which is the easiest and most familiar way of constructing new neighborhoods in New York. We feel strongly that it can be adapted to bring high quality environmental design to the project. PRINCIPLE FIVE: Circulation at Battery Park City should reemphasize the ground level. Over the past 20 years, planning for large-scale projects the world over has emphasized the isolation of functions from one another and the vertical separation of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. It has become clear in recent years that this concept, thoughtlessly applied, has hampered the success of many new projects rather than enhancing market acceptance. A more realistic concept would provide basic access at the ground level where it is most convenient. Only in the most congested areas are overhead or underground connections justified. They are most utilized where they lead to an important destination, like a shopping area or a transit station. At Battery Park City the objective is to provide comfortable street level circulation within the site and at those places where the site meets the existing City. Street level crossings will be emphasized instead o f underground or overhead walkway s . Only where pedestrian flows are demonstrably heavy , as between the project and the World Trade Center Plaza and transit stations, will offgrade connections be recommended. The revised plan balances pedestrian needs and vehicular requirements. As with the pedestrian routes, vehicular circulation will be mainly at the ground level. There is no g eneral policy of vehicular restraint; rather, w e have chosen to limit through-traffic by the layout of streets and access points into the project. Placing both vehicles and pedestrians

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on the ground level will simplify circulation generally and will allow for pedestrian ease o f access to busses, taxis, cars and deliveries. PRINCIPLE SIX: Battery Park City should reproduce and improve upon what is best about New York's neighborhoods. New York' s finest neighborhoods are the product o f incremental development over a long period of time. Their system of streets and blocks has been sufficiently adaptable to allow the replacement of obsolete building s while maintaining and upgrading buildings of value. The neighborhoods of greatest desirability are often those of the most intensive mixture of land uses and building types such as Greenwich Village, Brooklyn Heights, and the Upper East Side. The revised planning concept seeks to give Battery Park City a structure that will allow for similar growth and change, but in a more compressed time frame. The plan must suit the long-term construction of buildings, while also being capable of meeting the demands of an accelerated development program. The object in the layout for Battery Park City will be to foster the sequential small scale spaces that give New York its special character from block to block. The plan will provide for the intimate texture of residential areas that are vital to the livability of the City. PRINCIPLE SEVEN: Battery Park City's commercial center should become the central focus of the project. Instead of being located at one end of the project site as in the current plan, the commercial center o f Battery Park City should b e relocated to the center of the site. In that location, it would be closer t o major retail facilities and to the n eighboring World Trade Center, and this juxtapos ition can create a special type of community center able to compliment othe r Lower Manhattan sites and with locations in midtown. The compactness, amenities, and level of integration of this center with the Trade Center should determi n e its ability to succeed. Because attaining these objectives i s a planning and design issue, the layout and building arrangement of the commercial center is specified to a finer level of detail than any other part of the plan. This emphas i s i s warranted by the importance of the center to the overall ability of Battery Park City to move forward.

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Figure 6 )esign Prin c iples II\ II I I I 0 200 4 00 600 Battery Park Cit y 1 979 Mas ter Plan 1 1 ' Ale xander eooper Associates )

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PRINCIPLE EIGHT: Land use and development controls should be sufficiently flexible to allow adjustment to future market requirements. The land use designations in the current Battery Park City plan were fixed by their location on the linear spine and within its decking system. Subsequent changes in land use are difficult to make, because the entire scheme was dependant on the successful completion of each piece. The revised plan avoids the rigid character of the earlier plan. The street and block form of development allows land uses to be altered on certain sites if market requirements change--without constraining development on adjacent blocks. These eight principles, when taken together, form a statement of the planning concept for Battery Park City. They are not in themselves a complete master plan, but they set its basic structure. As such, they constitute the initial stage of the master planning process. Twelve weeks has not allowed the formulation of a complete master plan to the extent of detailing the location of future community facilities, specific densities for all building lots and estimates of the future employee and resident population block by block. These determinations must await the next stage of planning. The description which follows shows how the eight principles have been integrated into a plan. The overall pattern of land use is described, the street and block layout is explained, land use allocations are listed, the transportation systems outlined, the open space diagrammed and special places in the plan are illustrated. The area west of the World Trade Center is the heart of the project ( see figure 7) It can house all of the project's five to six million square feet of office space as well as most of its retail space. With its linkage to the World Trade Center Plaza, this Commercial Center will relate to the Financial District and to Battery Park City' s residential n eighborhoods to the north and south. The edges of the commercial center are d efined by two visual corridors. They are the rights-of-way of Liberty and Vesey Streets, which also form the southern and northern borders of the Trade Center. Each o f them will protect the views of the w ater from upland areas.

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Figure 7 North Area: Residential Central Area: Commercial South Area: Residential Waterfront Open Space Land Use Concept IIIII I I I 0 200 400 600 Battery Park City 1979 Master Plan Alexand e r Cooper Associat e s

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These two areas adjoining Battery Park City on either side of the World Trade Center are strongly contrasted in character. To the south, the site is bounded b y a transitional office area; t o the n orth is the changing area of Tribeca and the Washington Marke t Urban Renewal Project. These differences present constraints and opportunities for the development o f Battery Park City. Residential development south of the project's Commercial Center can be planned and marketed to cater to employees of the Financial District who want close walking access to their jobs. Most households will be small and densities can be high. Since there is no established adjacent residential neighborhood services and facilities to support this area can be orientated to these groups. The existence of the Tribeca community and the Urban Renewal Project north of the Commercial Center calls for more a complementary neighborhood within Battery Park City. Consequently, buildings will be lower and public spaces more generous. Households can be e xpected to be larger than in the southern neighborhood. Services for this area will be different in character and the potential e xists for integration with the retail and personal service facilities already developingwithin the Tribeca community . The waterfront is treated conceptually as the fourth major land use in the diagram. There are large spaces at the north and south ends o f the project and a major public plaza will be the focus of activities at the Commercial Center. Streets and Blocks By choosingto organize the revised plan around a s ystem of streets and blocks, the revised plan returns to the historic grid pattern of development that has served Manhattan since 1811 . I t has proven to be highly adaptable. At Battery Park City, utilization of a street grid will assist in establishing physical, visual and functional integration with the adjacent neighborhoods. Some streets will continue directly into the site and will provide direct access to nearby subway stations at Chambers, Liberty, and Rector Streets, as w ell as at Battery Place (see figure 8).

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The average block size follows the 200 ' x 400' size that is standard in New York. Over the years, this block dimension has suited buildings ranging in size from small brownstones to large mixed-use projects covering entire blocks. Studies of modern building sizes show that this dimension would ad equately serve a wide range of residential and commercial structures. Furthermore, the block size would mak e possible a parceling o f development sites that serve small and large developers alike and broaden the range o f developers able to participate in the building of Battery Park City. Three types of streets will carry traffic and pedestrians and organize development in the project. The principal streets will be two north/south avenues which serve the northern and southern residential neighborhoods. Each of these avenues will be the main focus o f activity. They will be both prestigious residential "addresses" and the center o f neighborhood shopping, community facilities and entertainment. Each avenue will have a 100 ' right o f way ; 40' of this right of way will be a linear park with landscaping and benches. Traffic will be one way and restricted to a 36 foot roadway. The side streets branching off the avenues will serve the ad jacent buildings and penetrate to the waterfront. These streets will be landscaped and specially treated at locations where they join the waterfront esplanade. In addition, there will be private service streets which will function like driveways, serving only a few properties. T ypically , they will be short, stub-ended streets connecting the avenues with interior development parcels. Traffic flows on such streets are expected to be light. Although they will be privately constructed and maintained, the streets will have public pedestrian rights o f way. The streets in the Commercial Center coul d also be private, but for a different reason: They would b e built to special design standards and may be restricted to certain classes o f traffic. As can be see n on the street and block plan1 (figure 8) the orientation of the stree t grid is an extension o f the grid that intersects with Broadway and is rotate d to focus on harbor views. This orientation will greatly enhance the visual quality of the main avenues and provide unparalleled views from the streets and the buildings. The

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Figure 8 Streets and Blocks IIII I I I I 0 200 400 600 Battery Park City 1979 Master Plan ... Alexand er Cooper Associates l )

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secondary streets of the grid system will benefit from this orientation too. All of them, with the exception of a special area in the northern neighborhood, will have views to the water. The orientation of the streets and the provision of arcades will protect pedestrians from winter winds while permitting summer breezes from the south to circulate along the avenues. The street and block system serves numerous purposes simultaneously. It sets the structure for a flexible parcelling system, it builds in amenities and activities at the street level, and it furnishes the linkages to upland areas that will help make the neighborhoods of Battery Park City organic extensions of Lower Manhattan. Land Use Allocation The proposed distribution of land uses throughout the site emphasizes residential neighborhoods and public open space. ( see The residential neighborhoods account for approximately 42 % of the total area and public open space for 30 % (See Tableiii). The residential neighborhoods will offer a wide range of development opportunities. The main avenues will provide sites for larger scale buildings. A zoning overlay will allow the development of retail and commercial facilities at street level along the avenue frontages. Community facilities will be distributed throughout the areas as the need emerges. The Commercial Center is located between the Liberty and Vesey Street corridors. Within that area the main bulk of the 6 million square feet of commercial development will be accomodated. Another 150,000 square feet of retail/entertainment development will be placed in the center related t o the major pedestrian movements. Although the entire 6 million square feet can be accomodated within the Commercial Center, the potential exists for locating some of it on the blocks immediately to the north and south of the Commercial Center adjacent to West Street. Furthermore, the waterfront blocks within the Commercial Center south of Vesey Street have the potential for outstanding hotel/residential developments.

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Figure 9 Resid e ntial c::::::J P erm1tte d R e t a il Ce nt e r Co m me r c ial/R e tail Cent e r P o tent i a l omme rcia l o r _. Residential Sites ) Land Use Allocation 0 b I Battery Park City 1979 Master Plan 1-.., Alexander Cooper Asso ciates \ )

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TABLE III Land Use 1.1 Residential Land* 1.2 Commercial Land 1.3 Public Open Space (Esplanade) (Park/Plaza) 1.4 Streets Total Master Plan LAND USE ALLOCATION Acres 38.1 8.7 28 . 0 (6. 1) (21.9) 17.8 92.6 % Of Total Average 42 % 9 % 30 % 19 % 100 % * Residential Land includes 50 % allowance for private open space. Source: Alexander Cooper Associates

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Finally, mixed use developments (residential/hotel/retail) are desirable possibilities for locations adjacent to the Commercial Center or to the major open spaces. No special land use category has been shown here but it is recommended that the mixed use proposals be considered favorably in appropriate locations. It would be unrealistic to set residential density targets at this time. Such targets would build inflexibility into the plan. Instead, the plan postulates the density range necessary to meet the general magnitude of housing units called for in the original planning program. The range is from a low of F.A.R. 9 to a high of F.A.R. 12. Ultimately the resolution of development density in Battery Park City's neighborhoods will depend upon balancing the Authority's financial needs with the City's housing policies. The nex t stage of the planning process will require such a resolution. The proposed plan provides for a range in the northern neighborhood of 5,900 units to 7,700 units. South of the Commercial Center, next to the Financial District, 6,500 and 8,500 units can be accommodated. The next stage of planning will also address the need for community facilities in these neighborhoods. Requirements will depend on the magnitude and demographic characteristics of the eventual population to be served. The street and block system allows for considerable flexibility in the choice of sites for future community facilities. Therefore, it is not necessary now to specify the number and location of such facilities. They can be located later within each neighborhood as the need emerges without significantly narrowing development opportunities for residential buildings. Vehicular Circulation Concentration of the bulk of Battery Park City's commercial office sites in one central location benefits both pedestrian and vehicular circulation. The provisions for both are far superior to those in the current plan. As can be seen from Tables IV-VI, by far the majority of person and vehicle trips are generated by the Commercial Center.

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TABLE' IV ' 1979 Master Plan Projected Person Trips Zon e Round-trips Per Day Commercial Center Employee trips Visitor trips Residential Zones Work trips School trips Social/Shopping Civic facilities (Employees) Local retail (Employees) Visitor trips Total Daily Trips Source: Vollmer Associates 40,000 48,000 16,800 9,600 32,000 3,375 400 8,000 158 > .17 5 Table V 1979 Master Plan Modal Split Commercial Center Mode Emplo yers Visitors Walk 2 % 4 % Subway/Ferry/PATH 92 % 7ff% Bus 2 % 3 % Auto 3 % 5 % Taxi 1 % 10% 100% 100% Source : Vollmer Associates

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TABLE V Projected Peak Hour Traffic Zone Residential Zones Residents Work Trips School Trips Social, Shopping, Etc. Civil Facilities Neighborhood Shopping Work Trips Deliveries Visitors Commercial Center Employees Visitors Deliveries Source: Vollmer Associates Sub-Total Sub-Total Total Daily Traffic With Origin Or Destination Outside Of Battery Park City 1 ,180 Autos and taxis 30 Buses 2,570 Autos and taxis 220 Autos and taxis 20 Autos and taxis 200 Trucks 1,080 Autos and taxis 5,300 2,520 Autos and taxis 11,200 Autos and taxis 640 Trucks 14,360 19,600 Vehicles Per Day

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Locating the Commercial Center opposite the World Trade Center provides for much improved access to the Lower Manhattan subway systems. Access to the subway stations and PATH in the World Trade Center is of the upmost importance since it is estimated that 92 % of all work trips will be made by public transportation. * Vehicular circulation is also improved by the relocation of the commercial zone. The auto, taxi, and delivery trips to the Commercial Center can be better distributed from the new location onto onto West Street, and onto the main crosstown streets, Vesey and Liberty. The street system of the revised plan is organized as a series of loops, each of which serves a specific part of the site (See Figure 10) . The loops utilize the grid of streets, but through the use of one way streets they avoid creating conditions that would vehicular traffic to pass through the residential neighborhoods. The Commercial Center is served from the perimeter b y high capacity streets--Vesey, West, and Liberty. All proposed development parcels have both lobby and service access from the streets. In addition,each parcel has the capacity to accommodate up to 100 on-site parking spaces. All buildings in the center will be serviced via internal loading docks. In the residential neighborhoods vehicular traffic is not expected to be heavy. Consequently, the layout of the main circulation system shows all buildings fronting onto a public street for access. Ser vicing buildings and access to parking may be achieved from service courts. Traffic analysis of the proposed system indicates that a number of minor modifications to the present design of intersections between Battery Park City streets and proposed West Street as shown in the Westway Plan are required. These modifications can be accomplished without negative impacts on the operation of proposed West Street and Westway . * A preliminary analysis of travel and traffic characteristics of the proposed plan has been carried out as part of this study. See Battery Park 1979 Master Plan: Traffic and Engineering Analysis, Vollmer Associates.

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Figure 10 Primary Circulation Secondary Circulation Vehicular Circulation Battery Park City 1979 Master Plan Al exande r Cooper Associates

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Traffic analysis has also been performed on the proposed system and the interim design for West Street (i.e. the conditions resulting from the demolition of the existing West Side Highway but before Westway is constructed) . The proposed system operates satisfactorily under these conditions. Finally the main vehicular circulation system has been designed to accommodat -ecity bus services, and it is recommended that existing routes be e xtended into the site. Pedestrian Circulation Pedestrian circulation systems ( see figure 11) have a number of different functions and characteristics. The major pedestrian movements in terms of volume will be those generated by the Commercial Center employees crossing onto the World Trade Center Plaza to gain access to the subway and PATH stations. The estimated evening peak hour flow is projected t o be 34 ,270 per hour. This level of pedestrian movement justifies the provision of a major elevated pedestrian link in order to cross West Street and Westway . The volume of pedestrian movement also justifies the provision, within the Commercial Center, of an elevated pedestrian circulation system. This system would link the pedestrian bridge to the World Trade Center with the lobbies of all major building. The elevation of the system would be at approximately +32 feet. Elsewhere in Battery Park City the projected pedestrian flows will be less and the provision of elevated pedestrian circulation systems are not warranted e xcept where crossing of Westway cannot be easily accomplished at-grade. Much lighter pedestrian movements will occur within the neighborhoods. Shopping, school, and social pedestrian trips will be handled primarily on the main avenues where two different design features are provided. The avenues have on one side an all weather arcade and on the other, a 40 foot wide linear park, thus providing for both winter and summer movements. The third set of pedestrian movements are those that are related to t h e waterfront, the esplanade and parks. These movements are

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Figure11 WTC Plaza Access Esplanade Primary P edestrian Route Battery Park Access Pedestrian Circulation Battery Park City . 1979 Master Plan Alexander Cooper Associates _______ _,

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for recreation purposes and include both north/south movements along the waterfront and movements through Battery Park City along east/west streets. Parking Parking at Battery Park City should be more simply provided for than in the current project plan. It is recommended that each project provide for its own parking. This would follow present practice in New York City. Each building parcel should be subject to parking requirements that reflect its nearness to main highways, its access to mass transit, the number of households to be housed there, the income mix, and other criteria. Parking standards, as evolved during the next stage of planning, should also be consistent with proposed regulations limiting parking as part of the Air Quality Control Plan for New York City. The effect of these regulations may be to reduce the number of spaces to be provided in Battery Park City. Open Space The most treasured public resource in high-density Manhattan is its open space. The revised Battery Park City Plan has given absolute priority to preserving most of the project site as open space. The Hudson River waterfront is Lower Manhattan's greatest potential recreational amenity. This plan shows how that potential can be turned into reality. The proposed open space plan is shown in Figure Virtually 70 % (65 acres) of the site has been allocated to open space. This is more than was provided for in the earlier plan. The following Table shows the breakdown of space devoted to public recreation, and public rights of way. Table VII 1979 Master Plan Summary Of Open Space Recommendations Type Public Open Space Private Open Space (Assuming building coverage of 50 % ) Public Rights of Way TOTAL OPEN SPACE Acres 28 . 0 19.0 17. 8 64.8 Source: Alexander Cooper Associates Percent of Total Site 30 . 2 % 20 . 5 % 19 . 2 % 69 . 9 %

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Parks, esplanades, and other types of public open space will cover 30 percent of the project's site. Building courtyards, resident parks, and other private open spaces will account for another 20.5 percent of the site. And streets, pedestrian ways, and other public rights of way will comprise the remaining 19.2 percent. Recreational activities along the waterfront will be the principal public amenity of Battery Park City. A broad esplanade will give the public access to the Lower Manhattan waterfront for the first time (see Figure 12). The esplanade will stretch the entire length of Battery Park City, linking a planned extension of Battery Park at the southern end to a new public park at the northern end. Unimpeded view of the harbor, and the Jersey shore will be available from the esplanade. Pedestrian walkways and sidewalks will link directly with the esplanade. The proposed overhead walkway from the plaza of the World Trade Center to the esplanade will make it possible for pedestrians to go from the transit stations at the World Trade Center to the farthest ends of the esplanade without once crossing a street. Other access points to the esplanade will follow the street system and pedestrian walkways. The grid alignment in the plan is based upon its orientation to the waterfront. Landscaping will be the second amenity at Battery Park City. Most of the park areas will be densely planted. Some will be as places for relaxing during lunch hours or for restful retreats from the fast pace of the nearby City. Others will be grassed areas for more active recreational pursuits. The open-space plan has been organized as a sequence of experiences. Most of them will be described as we summarize the plan's "special placesM in the following section. In brief, at the south end of the project will be the extension of Battery Park mentioned earlier. Farther north will be Rector Place, a large space that will link the upland area with the waterfront esplanade. The Commercial Center will be the site of a 4 . 2 acre plaza and a Winter Garden. At the end of Vesey Street will be another prominent open space. Finally, a large park will be defined by the curving building wall at the north end of the esplanade.

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Figure 12 Open Space EB J111Jol I I 400 600

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The design of the open-space system will take account of weather extremes. Planting pattern will vary by the season. T rees will be located in areas where they can break winter winds. And since the buildings along the inner streets and avenues will act as windbreakers on their own, these acres also will be planted so that they can act as attractive alternatives to the esplanade during the cold winter months.* Land use, streets and blocks, circulation, and open spaces--have all addressed the planning, design, and development possibilities of the Battery Park City site and its surroundings. The y form a unified plan (Figure13) and a cohesive strategy for project execution. The consultants believe that the plan offers public decison makers and private investors a marketable framework for achieving the important public objectives of Battery Park City. This framework is still preliminary and can only become a finished master plan after review a nd consultation by those who will turn the plan into reality. We see plan making and implementation as interrelated parts of the same process : city building. Special Places In The Plan successful The overall site plan for the project illustrates, in general, terms the d esign concepts described earlier in the report. Within this plan there are certain areas of special significance. These areas have locational primacy or particular desig n potentials that give them an imp ortant role in the realization of the plan. The way in which these "special places" are developed will be extremely important in determining the design quality of the project as a whole. The following describes the individual characteristics of each of seven special places. It also makes recommendations as to how their particular qualities may be realized in the development process. The location of the place is illustrated in Figure 14. The last of the special places is the Commercial Center and it is given mor e detailed consideration than the others. Project implementation will occur there first, and the early completion of its office and retail developments is vital to the overall resolution of the Authority' s financial problems. * For recommendations of planting and design concepts for esplanade and other open space areas, consult: Battery Park 1979 Master Plan: Open Spaces and Landscape Design Proposals, Zion and Breen, Inc.

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Figu r e 14 . J I Chambers Street Park I North Cove Plaza----+-Special Places EB Jo Battery Park City Master Plan Alexander Cooper Associates

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Battery Place Park At the southern end of the site, a large public park will be created, at the end of Battery Place, as an extension of Battery Park. The new park will be the most southerly open space in the project, and it will serve as the entry point for people from the existing park and from Battery Place (Figure 15). The park's size, attractiveness, and views will make it an important resource for Lower Manhattan and the City. It will be large enough to provide for activities that are metropolitan in scale. The dense planting and landscaping should give the park a quiet and shaded character. It will complLnent and enhance historic Pier A, which will be the combined focus of recreational and commercial activities. Views from the park will be the best at Battery Park City. Spec tacular panoramas of the harbor, the Statue of Liberty and the Narrows Bridge will be visible. The Battery Place Park will be the southern terminus of Battery Park City's own waterfront esplanade. A site could be designed within the park for eventual construction of an appropriate public institution--perhaps a museum or art gallery. No institution has yet been selected, but the presence in the park of a low-scaled, high quality building with public amenities would add to the park's distinctionand character. Source: The sections entitled Principle One through Battery Place Park were exerpted in part and adapted from Battery Park City Draft Summar y Report and 1979 Master Plan by Alexander Cooper Associates for the Battery Park City Authority.

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ll EXISTING SITE CONDITIONS

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New Jersey Battery Park City Battery Pla t e Res idential Area Cn()pc r , As ociates Battery Park City Overall Plan Fig . 1 Brooklyn -

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figure 5 Vacant Land Tribeca Residential Conversions Regularized Street Grid Sli>way tv::cess (5 mirute walk) Wall Street Corridor & Office Core Rector Street Corridor Battery Tunnel Interchange Summary of Adjacent Conditions EB Battery Park City Master Plan , Al f'xa nder Cooper A ssoc iates '-_)

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reets and Blocks Open Space jestrian Circulation Vehicular Circulation t:r y IJ,Hk City :t>r y PI.:H e Art>,l lf1C'r, Ec k s tut Design Principle s Fig. 3 II

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SUBWAY ACCESS pl•ces i n Lower • r e convenient to one or mor e t.ub d y stoltions. Hte soli d o..,tline •bon s h ows a 1,000 foot JS •• a four or f•ve .. ,lk --frQtl'l the c ente r s of those otuions on o r south o f Street. Th e •ddit ional tre• tholt w ill be \ erve d b y tt'l e S econd A\lenue t,ne i s )y • doiJ.h e d outlone Howe v e r , the d r•wing i\ d ec:epti v e i n t h • t l iffer ent stilt i ons p rovide convenie n t s ervi c e t o d i H e rent p a rts ) f the City. IMT BROOKLYN -M,RR 011 • single croutng the East Rhtr frOffl Brooklyn the BKT vldts tnto t\lfiO bra nches . One extends up Whtteh tll Trtntty Itt, and Bro1dwty. the other MJn s In Broad, Hasuu, and C enttr ,..ets. lhts gives passen9tr"S 1 choice of routes ; howev er, be ceuse th brt nches are relethely close to the center o f lower Manhattan ere a r e se-t a r .. s , parttcuhdy a long Water Street, that are ..,r e I n a fhe nute walk one of the stations. 7 AVE IRT -MANHATTAN -1, 2, 3 From the north, the Seventh Avenue IRT prov i des c."tnventent servtce to most parts o f Lower H.anhattan. South of Chamber s Street, the loc 1 l ( 1) runs t n Green wich Street serving the west side and the express ( 2 & 3) crosses City H all Par k and continues d own W111 t a11 S t reet serving t h e east stde. Only t he Ctvtc Cente r and 1 fe. buildi n g s near the Battery are mor e than a ftve minute walk frtVI'I one of the stations. FERRY Puungers frOI'I the Staten Jshnd ferry usually .,.n 1f thetr desttnatton h south of Fulton Street. The aoltd outltne shows 1 foot r adius fra-t he ferry •• 1 13 to lS atnute -.a, If the wather h bid or H thet r Nsttnatton h further north a t tM World l racH Center, or tn the Ctv t c C enter, they ..,rt ltt.el y t o pay the a6dttional fare to trtntfer to 1 sut:.M y 0'\" bus . ' \ ' \ '

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WALL STREET SOLAf2 r\NGLE DIAGf2.AM • _(29 """".......----. --

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"''"'h (f•,fo 'L:J .. . : -\,' ; ; . . , J,t.\, ' • 1 '1$ i I \ SOLAP. A""Z.IMU ,

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View towards World Trade Center mnutu urn IIIII IIIII H I /riUIIIIIIIIIIIIUllllllll I l df -I

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Battery Park from South Cove

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Park Oty Esplanade

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• 8 3 DEVELOPMENT SITES B BATTERY PARK CITY M MANHATIAN LANDING (BROOKLYN BRIDGE S .E. URBAN S BRCX)KLYN BRIDGE S.W. URBAN RENEWAL AREA T TOO BRIDGES URBAN RENEWAL AREA W WASI-IINGTON STREET URBAN RENEWAL AREA PROPOSED SITE PROBABLE SITE ,._ ' •• ,<' •"' 'RENEWAL AREA) J ...,.Kt" 1 I0'-11 U /(Hi_.. 1-ntn • u .. u ......... , 10 .. .. n U II . T C . lllltfl .. \J!o \ • . 1.(. ... .j ... ... -._;, .\ . \ ''" """ l tl.
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)I( ESTABLISHED DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR B.P.C.

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Development Guidelines 1. Ground Level Land Use In the Battery Place Residential Area a variety of uses are planned for the ground level. (Fig. 22, Preferred G round Floor Uses). Retail and commercial uses are planned in conjunction with the arcades on the west s ide of the Avenues . Retail uses are generally not allowed within 50 feet of parkland except on the southern frontages of Block 10 and Block 14. Restaurants and outdoor cafes are encouraged on these park frontages to provide an amenity and activity. Professional medical offices are encouraged at the ground floor along the east side of Battery Place, and on the south side of West Thames Street east of Battery Place. Lobby entrances are preferred at certain locations in order to provide activity and surveillance. (Fig. 23, Arcades and Preferred Lobby Locations) • A limited amount of on-street parking may be provided. In addition, subject to zoning, developers may build accessory parking spaces in their buildings. All parking must be enclosed, and no portion is allowed to be built to a height of more than 23 feet above curb level. Above-grade parking structures must be set back from the avenues and the side streets by 10 to 50 feet, as shown in Fig. 24, Curb Cut and Parking Structure Location Zone. Refer to page 33 for requirements concerning garage walls.

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Hudson River I r(•st,lurant> & o utdoor cafe, !1 ' o m muni t y iaciliti<'' :: r l'tail I I I ,, IIIII 10() P r y P a r k C i t y South Cov e 4 1HI ( ry PI, H t I Arl'a p e r , E c k tut iat s Pref<>rred Groun d Floor Uses I ig 2 2 I ' I I I

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Hudson River ) lohhy location Ill lot a t ion tt<.:ry P ark City South Cove I IIIII ltcry Piau' A re.1 oper , E c k s tut A ssoc i a tes A r cades and Preferred Lobby L ocations I ig . 23 1111

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H uds on River 1 1 50' allowable curb cut zone 20' m ax . c urb lUI per mitted ] allowable parking areas South Cov e I I I I I I U lOCI !UO 4tKI Pry Park it y Pry PI.K' Rt::>!-idC'ntiill Arl',1 >per, E k tut A ssoc i a t e Curb Cut and Parkin g Str u c tur e Location Zon e ltg. 24

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Curb cuts are prescribed within certain zones and are to be kept to a minimum size. No curb cuts will be allowed within 50' of a major street intersection, as shown in Fig. 24, ( Curb Cut and Parking Structure Location Zone) • No service/parking entry areas shall be more than 20 feet in width. 3. Bulk Controls The bulk controls regulate the density of development and the configuration of the buildings on the parcels. a . Density The maximum floor area that may be built on each parcel is listed in II E . , Program and Guidelines Parcel, and may be less than what is allowed by the Zoning Resolution. As required in Section 84-21 of the Zoning Resolution, "The minimum floor contained within any dwelling sha l l not be less than 550 square feet." b. Building Configuration: Streetwalls, Height and Setback Bulk controls and regulations regarding streetwalls and tower locations define each building's placement and its coordination and compatibility with adjacent developments and the streets and parks. These controls are the most important tools for preventing any one building from dominating others.

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Hudson R i ver South Cov e 60-135' street wall--+-+---+ required Str eet w a ll s requi red I 110-135 ' Wall I I 60 -85' l I II 100 }Ill I l t • ry P J rk C it y I ry Plclte Residentia l Arc,1 >pe r , Eck s tut Street walls 2 5 I II 'I I . I I 'J ' I / .. v: "' !: i ' ,/J I I ' i : R I :/I I l 11 : ; i q I . /ill ' 111; II: j I l Ill

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The streetwalls provide continuity and, at the same time, should have decorative touches and modest changes to guarantee individual expression and distinction to each building. A 60-85 foot streetwall is mandated along the eastern edges of Blocks 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14, along a portion of the northern edg e of Block 10 and the northern edge of Block 11 and the westerly portion of the northern edge of Block 14, along the southern edges of Block 10 and 14, and along the western edge of Block 10. (Fig. 25, Streetwalls). Arcades are required along portions of these streetwalls as indicated on Fig. 23, Arcades and Preferred Lobby Locations. A 60-135 foot streetwall is required along the northern edge of Block 14 from the eastern build-to line to a point 140 feet west of that line. A 110-135 foot streetwall is mandated for the western edge of Blocks 1, 2, 3 , and 4 and the southern edge of Block 1. As required in the zoning, in most cases streetwalls must be returned at least 50 feet along narrow streets. On Block 14, the 60-135 foot streetwall may be returned onto the eastern build-to line. On the east side of the South Cove, streetwalls are kept low, an d terraces are encouraged, to guarantee sunlight and a special character to the place.

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The placement of towers on Blocks 1, 2, 3, 4 and 14 is directed towards maintaining views, providing adequate light and air, and reinforcing the patterns of avenues and streets. (Figs. 26, 27, 28; Tower Locations and Guidelines, Section along Battery Place Looking East, Maxlinum Building Heig hts). The towers on the east side of Battery Place are purposely stepped in height toward the south to create a dramatic skyline at the tip of Manhattan. (Fig. 27, Section along Battery Place Looking East). Each tower is also set back fran the Avenue, and a different distance, in order to maintain a consistent north-south spacing between towers, to provide views of the Harbor for each parcel, and to reduce the building scale on the street. (Fig. 26, 28; Tower Locations and Guidelines, Maximum Building Heights).

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Hudson River South Cove Extension of Front Walls on East Side of Battery Place Extensi on of Front Walls on West S i de of Batter y Westward Extension of E x isting Battery Place Norther,., Street Wall Line Build-to Lme s above 135' (m i n imums) angles of towers are 90 EB ,1, liM I !tMI I 4 1l0 BiJller P a r k Cit y Bi:lt tery P l ace Are , 1 Coop e r , E k stut A ssoc ia te!> Tow e r Location s and Guidelin e lig.26 r I '/ 'I I /1 f I •

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..... 230' .----....L.--_.., 135' 110' 85' r----, ........ Bloc k 4 Ttwd P loce atte r y P a rk Cit y atte r y P l ace Resid e n t ial Area oope r , E c k s tut A soc i a l s ' ,......._.......,350' ---330' 280' Block 3 , , _1= P lace Block 2 F i r s t P lace Section along Battery Place Looking East Fig . 27 ,......._.......,400' 380' t----n-r-_r Block 1

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Huds o n R i ver South Co ve all bui l ding h eights are t o the top of the last occup ied floor 8 5 feet R 135 feet ;:;:;: : : tower ( m aximum h eigh t in feet , n o ted) I 4011 lig. 28 11 ' I Park Cit y l tt e r y Place Re!>id ntia l Area Dope r , Eckstut Associ a tes Maximum Building Heights

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Tower 110'135' maximum so'85' max i mum Battery Place l Hd d I ' , d. ( II \ ,., ,, , , i\n•,1 10' Private Landscape tiEasement Section throug h Battery Place and Parkl a nd looking South 29 H

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4. Architectural Features a. Introduction The design emphasis in the Battery Place Residential Area is on elements that reinforce a human scale and produce a New York character. Variety is purposely sought to avoid any appearance of a "project" look or super-blocks and instead provide the complexity and interest normally associated with older and more estab lished urban neighborhoods. No one building i s to dominate, except where a special effect is intended by these Guidelines. The architectural vocabulary is intended to acknowledge the base, middle, and tops of buildings. (Fig. 30, Section of Battery Place Looking South). The design review process will include consideration of adjacent and opposite buildings, to ensure both cohesiveness and variety in the entire residential area. b. Materials Traditional New York stone and brick building materials are required in order to provide continuity among the buildings. Building exteriors must be predominantly masonry. Curtainwall {metal and glass) and concrete exteriors are not permitted. l. Stone Bas e A two to three story stone base is required on the avenues but may be reduced to a single

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,•/• I ,I I I I ,I 0 '! ' I I I, I '' I I I I" -----,. , , 75'-as Expression Line Battery Place R U Section of Battery Place looking South F i g . 30 II

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c . Colors The building's masonry color or colors must be within a range of warm earth tones. An unusual amount of contrasting color is discouraged. However, sensitive arrangements of colors and materials are desired for decorative purposes in special locations, such as lobby entrances, as w ell as on the rooftops where they can be enjoyed from a distance. Brick colors used in a parcel are t o be compatable with b u t different from t he colors us ed on adjacent an d opposite parcels. The (...'Olors of metal elements , such a s window frames, railings and fences, etc. are t o be park-like, such a s the black or dark green colors typically found on metal work in York parks. d. ROoftops/Bulkheads Seen from the harbor, Battery Park City will complement the skyline of Lowe r The tower buildings will dominate and their roof-tops and upper floors should, therefore, be consciously designed t o create a special and interesting effect. The bulkheads both of towers and of l ower-rise buildings will be particularly visible and an irnp :xtant part of t he building's appearance. Although designed as separat e features, achieving a special effect , the bulkheads must relate t o the design of the buildin g ' s exterior treatment in materials and decorative s tyle. In additi on , terraces and setbacks steppin g up to the bulkheads are recommen ded .

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story height along the side streets. (Figs. 29, 30, Section through Battery Place and Parkland Looking South, Section of Battery Place Looking South) . A special articulation is required at lobby entrances. Polished stone i s discouraged. (See also p . 31, "Relief of Scale"). 2 . Brick The predominant material of the streetwall above the stone base must be standard 2 l/4" x 8" brick. The intent of the size limitation is to achieve a character similar to older residential buildings in New York . The streetwalls are to be relatively plain with intermediate expression lines of stone meant to reduce the scale of the streetwall. Larger brick may be used for decorative treatment, and on walls that are not prominently visible from publi c s treets and parks according to the sole judgm ent of BPCA. No exposed spandrels are allowed. Different brick colo r tones will be required for developments on adjacent or opposite parcels. 3. Glass and Fenestration Bronze window glass, as w ell as all highly reflective glass, is prohibited. However , a variety of window types is encouraged to add visual interes t to the streetwalls and tower s . Variation from the overall building fenestration is encouraged within the two-story stone base.

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/ / l!" ' . r._ --__] .. ' ,.__

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e. Design of Parapets An articulated roof line or cornice is to be designed as a major decorative feature, making use of stone or rusticated masonry, at or near the tops of all building walls. Expression lines, developed as lines or projections marked by a change in color, texture, material, or fenestration, are required on Blocks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 14 at the building height of 75-85 feet, to reduce the scale of the building wall, and relate to lower neighboring buildings. (Figs. 29, 30, Section through Battery Place and Parkland Looking South, Section of Battery Place Looking South). g. Arcades Pedestrian arcades, at least 12 feet deep with 20 feet of clear inside height, are required on the west side of South End Avenue and Battery Place, and along the north side of Block 11, and the south side of Block 14. The arcades provide both weather protection and access to retail and commercial facilities. The floor of the arcade is primarily an extension of the adjacent concrete sidewalk. The interior of the arcade (ceiling, walls, and interior face of columns) is to be an adaptation o f the architectural design on the base of the exterior of the building. Lighting must be compatible with the architecture and assure s afe,

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comfortable visibility without detracting from the pedestrian-oriented street lamps. The facade on the interior of the arcade shall have windows to encourage retail activity. In the interest of maintaining continuous retail frontage, mechanical rooms are discouraged immediately adjacent to the arcade. No venting is permitted onto the arcades. Articulation of the arcade to mark the lobby entrance is encouraged for Parcels 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14. h. Balconies Balconies, while not encouraged , can be provided to take advantage of the views and waterfront setting. In order that they do not dominate the street walls, balconies are not to occur at or within ten feet of a corner, nor below the sixth floor for buildings over 9 stories. Buildings west of Battery Place may have balconies or terraces facing on the South Cove at t he fourth floor or above. At least 60% of the balcony perimeter must be contained by the exterior walls of the building. Interior balcony walls adjoining the dwelling unit shall be at least 50% glazed. "French" balconies that use decorative metal work are encouraged, in order to give additional diversity to the fenestration pattern of the facade. Balconies are excluded from the floor area calculations. i. Relief o f Scale The intent of the Guid elines is that the streetwall be broken down to a smaller scale.

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Relief can be achieved by creating the appearance of parcelization through changes to the type, height and p attern of the stone base as well as changes to the streetwall itself in the midblock. Other devices include changes in fenestration, reveals, and/or other architectural expression. The Authority expects differentiation of architectural expression between the tower and the slab on parcels 1 , 2, 3, 4, and 14, in order to distinguish the two building types and, thereby, avoid excessively large massing on the streets. j. Roof Treatments The roofs of parking structures in the Battery Place Residential Area must be landscaped to provide a passive outdoor space for tenants' use, as well as to create a pleasant view from the apartment windows above. The rooftops of the mid-rise (6 to 9 story) buildings on the west side of Battery Place are highly visible from the adjacent towers. Roofs and rooftops must be designed with consideration to views from above. They do not have to be developed as usable area, but care must be taken to minimize attention to the roof. No highly reflective materials or contrasting colors may be used, and metal on roofs shall be painted. Al l obtrusive features are to be minimized. A Rooftop Plan must be included in the design review submission.

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k . Parking Garage Walls Parking must be enclosed and parking structures must be set back from property boundaries. Exterior walls of all parking structures are to be designed as part of the architectural form of the main residential building. The walls are to be designed to look like residential building walls, and seem an integral part of the residential building. The intent is to minimize the garage appearance through designs which conform to t he residential buildings' architectural features and requirements, and building design guidelines. Natural or mechanical ventilation may not be achieved through the use of metal grilles or large openings. Parkin g garage roofs must be landscaped. In accordance with the Special Battery Park City District text, no portion of any parking structure is allowed to be built at a height of more than 23 feet above the curb level. 1. Lighting The Authority will provide lighting for all streets and parks. The plan calls for a type of lamp used in New York City parks. Mditional lighting is n o t encouraged, except to highlight an d illuminate building entrances and landscape features. This lighting must be compatible with the street and park lighting.

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Signage can set the tone and quality of a development; for that reason the Battery Park City Authority reserves the right to approve all signage. No signage will be allowed to face the Esplanade. (l) Residential and Professional Only necessary informational and/or directional signs will be considered. (2) Parking Only directional signs will be considered (e.g. "Parking Entrance"). Such signs must be of minimum size, unobtrusive and contain no rate advertising, since the garages are for the use of residents and their guests only. (3) Retail -Retail stores and services may have signs within the arcade only. Letter size and location should be appropriately scaled and proportioned to the overall storefront design. tJo paper, cardboard, or moving signs will be permitted. n. Planters At the base of the buildings, planters are encouraged to provide a sense of privacy for the ground level apartments and to introduce characteristic elements of successful uptown streets such as Fifth Avenue.

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Planters must be surrounded by a concrete, stone, or masonry curb, 2-3 inches in height, on all sides except where they meet the building wall. The width of the curb must be 4-5 inches with a 16-18 inch traditional iron railing set into it. The railing color must be semi-gloss black or "Battery Park City Green" to match the Esplanade benches. The specific railing type must be submitted to BPCA for approval. The depth of the planter must be 3-4 feet from the building wall. Shrubbery, ground cover and flowering plants may be used in the planters. o. Esplanade Wall The Authority will build the Esplanade property wall, on Authority property adjacent to the western parcels. The current design of the wall (Fig. 10, Property Line Wall) may change, at the Authority's discretion. Developers must provide for the transition where the Esplanade property wall meets a building wall or parcel property wall. p. Fences All fences and railings are to be of the same type as those on the Esplanade or commonly found in New York City parks or residential neighborhoods. Canopies at the building entrance are to be relatively modest and unobtrusive, and traditional rounded canvas canopies are preferred.

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r. Parcel Property Wall Where no building wal l is located on the property line or on the predominant building line nearest to a public pedestrian easement, there is to be an articulated and /or perforated wall at least one story in height built of stone, masonry, or stone and ornamental iron or masonry and ornamental iron, generally following the property line. Design for the wall is subject to approval by the Authority. s. Exhausts No exhausts are allowed on the lower levels of street and park frontages, nor along the arcades. t. Heating and Cooling Units In order to minimize contrasts on a building facade and thereby bring special attention to any one building , incremental heating and cooling units should be designed to blend into the exterior wall, so as to minimize their appearance. However, the Authority strongly recommends the use of a centralized system for heating and cooling.

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Source: The secti o n s entitled __ 1.:'._eve1 tl1rough Jncremental Heating and Cooling w-n .. e-: rpted in part and adapted from; Batte r y PJace Residentia /\ rvn which \vas r reri'lrvd hv Cooper, Eckstut Associatls in assocL:1tion \ villi BntLC'ry i'
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Jl APPENDIX ' 1

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Energy, Environment, and the Physically Challenged and the Environment Developers are expected to adhere to the N .Y.C. Energy Conservation Code. Preference will be given to proposals which include: l. Incorporation of passive systems to maximize use of solar energy for heat and natural light (e.g. orientation, heat storage systems, sun shades or screens, etc.) 2. Adaptability of new energy technology (active systems). 3 . Consistency of proposed heating, cooling, etc., systems with systems chose n by Battery Park City Authority for Battery Park City as a whole . 4. Where possible, all energy consumption is to be provided through individual tenant meters. The Challe nged All buildings must meet New York City Building Code provisions for the physically challenged, including: Sections C 26-601.1 (d. building access) 604.4 (e. door opening width) 604.10 801.7 (a.l seating assenbly space) P-104.0 (plumbing fixtures) 104.1 plumbing requirements (c.d.)

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)I( APPENDIX 2

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BUTI.DDIG COOK C:SIX I!.TS'r P-::-oj Name BATTERY PLACE DEVELOPMENT .Project. So. Thesis Location Battery Place Park , Battery Park City, New York, New York Applicable Code Name UNIFORM BUILDING CODE Code Check 'by Brewer Date 11/29/85 SEC'l'!CS 1 • Fire Zone " Oc:-::up..U1cy Group A Division 2 601 ' . ?-::-i:1cipal Occupancy Museum / Theayre A 2 601 Ott.ers (Specify)-Shipbuilding B 2 7 0 1 Parking Garage B 3 7 01 (709 ) ------Residential R 3 1 201 Restaurant 701 3 • Occ ..;pa,;1cy Separation required A 2 to B 2 1 TBL SB .. Rours A 2 to B 3 1 TBL SB Hours ------A 2 to R 3 1 TBL SB "" Hours B 2 to B 3 "'" 1 TBL SB Hours t o R ours 4. Construction Type A 2----Typeii TBL 17A B 2----Typeii IBL 17 A B 3----Typeii TBL 17-A R 3----Typeii TBL 17-A

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( 5 • lNFORMA:l'IOM ( Cont • d) BUILDING OJD'K CliECXLI ST (Cent ' d) A 2 ----Typeii FR B 2 ----TypeV 1hr allowable Basic Floor B 3----Typeii N R 3----Type I FR 29,900 TBL SC 14,000 TBL SC 12,000 TBL S"C UnlimitedTBL SC If adjacent to ooen area on • increase from 1 1 I 4 % to 5 % per foot two or more sides: not to exceed 100% SEC 506a 1., 2 . , 3 . If over one story: two times value in TBL 5 C SEC 505 b If sprinklered: area of multi story double SEC 506 c 6. Maximum allowable height: ( Feet A2--Typeii FR--651 R3--Type I FR--Unlimited B2,3--Type V StoriesA2--Typeii FR--4 R3--Type I FR--Unlimited B2.3-Type V 1hr--3 7. Fire Resistance of wall (See Occupancy Type and Type) B3 Type II N 1 hr A2 Type II FR 4 hr B2 Type v 1hr 1 hr R3 T ype 1 FR 4 hr 8. O!Jenings in exterior wa.lls: (See Occupancy Type and Construction Type) B3 T ype II N See section 709 TBL 17 A TBL 17 A TBL 17 A TBL 17 A SEC 709 B2 Type V 1hr not permit.ted under 51 , protected under 101 TBL 5-A A2 Type II FR 1903(b) R3 T ype I FR See section 1803(b) SEC1903(b) S E C 1803(b) SEC so SEC 9. Windows required in rooms: Group A Sec 605 , Gronp B Sec 705 Group R Sec 1205(a) SECS 605 705 1205 Window area required: As above .As above 10. Enclosed or semienclosed courts -size required see SEC 504(c) For Group R , see SEC. 1206

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(Coat'd) mil'iG COOK nt!O I!.IS"r: (Cent. d) l1. Minimum ceiling height in rooms: "f{ 7 /.r 12. Minimum floor area of rooms: /?0 0 J( 70 r13. .. (?.., WYI'\ 1--: \\ t\2..14. Fire resistive require!Ilents: Exterior bearing walls Interior bearing walls --------------------------Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Permanent Vertical openings -------------------------------Floors Roofs Exterior doors /4-$\. (..tv.. 1 Hours A .... ,. /J 3 /.)' ExtP.rior windows. __ 11 L. r l" I! Inner court wa s ____ Hours Mezzanine floors (area Roof coverings Boiler room enclosure Hours Structur a1 requirements: /2.0/ {;) . c;.u I -----4----! _ 1110 '' . ' Fra::neYOrlt . j cw'h _IP...;_I_.:..__ Stairs Floors

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m J:liJC CXXJK nf!:t c 1.1 S"!': ( Con t' d) Roofs ---___ .Bour• Partitions ! f:' I ( k r {I 15. Exits: Occupancy loadbasis (square feet per occupant) 0 cc:uoa.ncy Type Basis Actual Load -r ;,. A /. 1 / f('f t;.e.f'<..t o . .. •,--, l 1 .t I 7 I I _____ ... _;...__ ______ I _C'_ c ___________ .Z._ i _ , __ Nu.=ber of exits required:. ,. ') ,... . ) M.i:1i.mum ...,idth of exits: (' II. 1 . L r c. ... t , Exit arrangement: i'•rJ,-( '/t .. .(t I J ' ': ' I II \ , 5 l t Exits Req'd. } ;; /.) \.•. t:-f ' I 'I ,
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DII'ORKH'IDII (Coat'4) miJG CX)Oia eso c.TS"f: (Cent' 4) I M&Xl!II\D allowable dist&nc:e to exit I 0 _ __;.,._...;,_ __ ' I ODl I With Allowable exit xit cs.oors: "l.. o )1. I., f' :f. t . ;-..} "'.V I • I I '){_r Required to have exit a.e each end ot corridorik I ' I Oeld end corridors al.loved1 )f? lenqth 1t SEX:':' ION (d) 3

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( STIIDIJII: ca::m cs c u.r sor (eon t' d > Wa.ll fire resistance required f k<-) //1./\, c)J. Coors and trames tire resistance required: 16. Sta.irs: Por Minimum vi dth _ occ. load ot >5o For occ. load ot z Por occ. lo&d ot z /C) i.!n um ri se r all owed [)\ ttx (,.._, !ti. n. i.::n=. tr e ad all owed 1)-V,........, ------------------------Are winders .UlO'to'ed? f2: ? 0 f-vv . tJ !.andi.ngs: size !'i...axi:nu:::1 distance between landings . vertical distance landings 2 B andr a.il s: A...( II ' R.e qui red at each side? _ _ 1 • rails required at o 11 st.U.rs L r vide./L1L_ Maximum vi d th bet ween int • r a.i.ls_ ...... 1 ______ ....._ __ !xc ept ion a applicable __ rz __ SEC'I'ION ??o5 C;r) ! 3 6 5{_A-) ? {b) 1 3306? (J.) 33 &> GJ) -;.,-""' ' I ' . . ( (--( , (.,<' ) . ? -,c& Cj) ;3 (l) 0& ( ,c) e:(J) 1 { I) l./ ,I

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mDIG c::oos nn:cn.IS"r: ( Cont • d) S EX:"l' IO H ' tl Height above nosing __ -:?::: t.r_ C J ) Balusters requi.red7 No td Intermediate rail requi.red7 + f s.l...rtcl..v. -;:;. •' Ma.xi.:n\.Jil post spacinq "iA Handrails return to vall at ends? i \JO--k-Randraiu exterd beyord stair (c11 { kHM I ..hi---+--J_ Stal.r t:.a oa.s ement r esu ict ions __ Vx.__ ___ _ vved Stair access to roof requi.red7_"'-/.==U----=5:;..:'-A6 - •;.,._...;.n.:..;/k'Y-;.,._.;...' __ _ fn)./ve w\ 1, M 1\ccess to roo! required7 :;tair encloaura required? A '2-'2. Hours II , , II Horizontal exit requirements ( i! applicable) '2, R..Dpe: ; , Y t c, \ ""' I '1. slo t:e to u• as exi. . ...;,-...:.A...:..... __ Bandraiu requi.r ed l • ; ( ' .. ( .; r . > I v; _ 1-S'" {) f.t> (jv ) ., (.g.)

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( ( " . -• _\ •' mx:.= cxoa .,,*' (Cont'd) Balcony ra.ils? P" {'Y :..-..uJ Where required? V-' kv.'\ NI-l vy" Height required l'"•l'it t't\., SEC'l'ION \ll/ /Ill-Bal. u.sters or intet"l'4ediate rails required (0 • o.c. ma., )l// 17. Penthouses: 18. Height limitation• '2f' m':'f . . tfc ."( t'nj ?{;ot /a) c r e > Use li.!ni!.a.tions Ntr1 f/119--n qh, w JhfJ/.--t el "(( ( '#:: ) 0 I /"•) ( . -' requ.i.renents JucJ,__j. (r:t! I r fl f O 6\f I {d) o f -11-'c)._tl(' '(c?vs a-: ?;I (ttlr. -(Y:l1 t ......... I ; l i-..r'"vftc t • f I I 0 Parapet \oli!J.lls: Whe::e required. a..ll. t y l----.J..r /{ t:.tit): '? 0 , , ' Height _______ _____ I 7 c) "I (o.._,) rv" (q_,) 19. Fire extinguishing systemas i :;; !> ;

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( (Coat'cl) c:a:J8
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INYORKATIOR (Coat'd) BD'"ILDI:NG CODE c::ms:cn..rs-r: ( Cont' d) 23. Use o! public property: Doors prohibited fran swinging into city Ma . tc I 1; • I -I ! rquees, canop1.es,. e .: • . c' rt.-l.-J. . ..{I)-;., Support from building? 1 J..J.: f } '.v .i.&'( ' I Materia1 restrictions (YI. -cr m if. (l\:R Distance above walk DDT ((44-W!-'t.1r Maximum distance of extension ave:: walk Maximum height I i-t * I Drainage clrj' -b d-o' 'l '. 1) I s EC::os f 0 7 . ,.... , . 1 .,0, (t) '{ D /b)_ 4f01 ( ) Other pr:oj ections: f .... _ 4 Minimum height above "ground" . <(,' A !'!axi.:nu:n allowable projection 4 f;t' 24. Fire alar.u: Requ.1.red baSl.S t' .I Type t It ( f iC 25. 26. Access doors required in exterior ""'''!llls without openings? . ' l .. I I

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Jl APPENDIX 3

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Site Conditions l. Geotechnical a. General Soil Conditions Approximately 4 0 to 60 feet of material overlies the bedrock in the Battery Place Residential Area. (Fig. ll, 12, General Soil Conditions an d Section of General Soil Conditions). There a r e two major soil conditions: In the area north of the cofferdam (Area A2 in Fig. ll, General Soi l Conditions), existing soft organic materials were buried under material excavated from the World Trade Center site. Due to the heterogeneous nature of this fill, roadways in this area are constructed over pile-supported platforms. Utilities are carried on these platforms or, where necessary, on pile-supported cradles. In the general vicinity o f the South Cove and Battery Place ( Area A-l o n Fig. 11, General Soil Conditions), the majority of organic soil deposits was removed by dredging and replace:] with a hydraulically placed sand fill.

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Hudson River •:•;•: rl'liE'vinf\ ar ::;:;: t>>piJn a dt • '-lt-'PI offcrd /\n-.1 op<'r, f:t k tut A ssoc. i a tC''> South Cove l l ll j General Soil Condition s I i g . 1 1 I I !/ " '/1 I I lr ., I (jj t ;;; .. 11 ! I I I' ! '! bJ I /1 I I : l I I I : . I ! if • I 1 I: I ; v-,; r ; l r l D a c I n II (

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..... Q) Q) lL c c 0 +-' Cil > Q) w I.Jttc r ( ity l ,ltlt'r PI, H l' Rl",idcn ti il l Art',1 _oopcr, Ecbtut : Pierhead Line I I I I 0 Approximate Proposed Ground Surface Ex1st ing Ground Surface Bedrock Surface 50 100 150 200 Section of General Soil Conditions Fig . 12

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Throughout the Battery Place Residential Area each structure, roadway, and utility will have to be investigated individually as to the proposed construction, existing subsurface conditions, and necessary foundation systems at that location. The relieving platform along the Esplanade has a width of 70 feet. Its inland edge is s upported by a bulkhead. Around the South Cove, the width of the relieving platform is 41'-S". The r elieving platform does not extend into any development parcel. b. Water Conditions Mean high water (MHW) at the Hudson River is at elevation 0.0. The 100 year storm elevation is at approximately elevation +8.6 feet. Variations in the water table within the fill are due to the rising and falling of the tides in the Hudson . Basement slabs in the fill area can be constructed at any elevation if designed to resist hydrostatic pressure (side pressure and uplift) and water penetration. All building structures are to be in accordance with Section C26-409.4 of the New York City Administration Code. All local laws governing construction in flood zone areas shall apply. 2. Circulation A system of streets has been mapped which serves all the blocks and connects Battery Park City with downtown Manhattan. (Fig. 13, Pedestrian and Vehicular Circulation). Vehicular access to the development from

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Hudson River 81 " It M I liM I • Curb Cut I I C ro s;wa lk = Parkin>\ Lane .,. TraffiC C ir c ul ati o n tcry Park C it y Pl,1ct' A rea oper, E c kstut Asso c iates South Cove Pedestrian and V ehic ular Circulation rig. 13 [

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t-larginal/West Street and the World Trade Center area to the north is at Liberty Street, Albany Street and West Thames Street, and in the south through Battery Place, First Place and Second Place. At-grade crossings for pedestrians are already established in the World Trade Center area at Liberty Street, and in the Battery Place Residential Area at Morris Street and Battery Place. An additional crossing is planned at West Thames Street. An elevated, covered pedestrian bridge over West Street, just south of Liberty Street, is now under construction and will open in 19 85 . Avenues and side streets constitute the vehicular circulation system. South End Avenue links Liberty Street, Albany Street and Rector Place to the north with West Thame s Street and the South Cove. (Fig. 14, Street Dimensions). Its 100 foot right-of-way contains a 60 foot two-way roadbed with two eight foot wide parking lanes, an arcade-lined 13 foot sidewalk to the west and a 27 foot tree-lined sidewalk on the east. The Avenue terminates in a cul-de-sac overlooking the South Cove. West Thames Street, connecting South End Avenue with Battery Place and Marginal/West Street, is a 100 foot wid e R.O .W. with a 70 foot two-w ay roadbed. Eleven foot parking lanes are included on each side. Sidewalks are 15 feet wide, and tree lined. West of South End Avenue, West Thames narrows to a 62 foot R.O.W. with a 38 foot two-way r oadbed including 8 foot parking lanes on each side. A cul-de-sac terminates West Thames Street at a small park adjacent to the Esplanade.

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Hudson River South Cove dimensions are approximate j I II I I I IIIII ' ( HI I -litH I • r y P ,1rk Cit y lt>ry Pl(l ce Rl'sidcnti.11 Are.1 opcr, Eck<;tut A s soc i a tes Street Dimension s I ig. 14 f; If 1 lli d 1,, !; ill !: i I I' I /, 11 I I I I I I I I /1 I I I ' I '

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Battery Place is an 85 foot wide avenue which extends the existing Battery Place from the northwest corner of Battery Park to West Thames Street. It is designed to provide eight foot parking lanes on each side within its 44 foot roadbed . A 13 foot arcade-lined sidewalk on the west is bordered by a single row of trees. On the east, a 28 foot wide sidewalk is lined with a double row of trees. Battery Place leads directly to Battery Park and Lower Manhattan. Three tree lined east-west side streets connect Battery Place with the Esplanade and two tie into Street. Their 62 foot R . O .W. includes a 38 foot roadway and 12 foo t sidewalks. Two eight foot parking lanes are provided in the roadway . For parcels with Battery Place frontage, curb cuts are permitted only on these side streets. A single continuous row of trees o n both sides of these streets extends from Marginal/West Street, past the avenue, to the Esplanade. Third Place, and Second Place west of Battery Place are mapped as private streets (with no accompanying development rights), but may be remapped as public streets. 3. Grading The avenues and streets have been graded to permit first floor building elevations to be set at a n elevation range of +10.0 to +12.0. The elevation of the western bulkhead at the Hudson River Esplanade is set at el. +7.5. The elevations of streets terminating at the South Cove and Esplanade

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Hudson Rive r South Cove :!I ' I I I ' I '-l/1 I lJ I I I I I I 0 lUll )Otl 41111 tery P
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vary from 9 .03 at First Place to 10 . 5 at South End Avenue and to 10.0 at West Thames Street. The elevations of streets joining to Marginal/West Street are compatible with the future elevations of the proposed Westw ay service road (el. 6.9 to 9 .3). Street grading is shown by spot elevation on Fig. 15, Street Grading. A more detailed grading is shown on prints of the Official City Street Map. 4 . Utilities The BPCA will cause utility systems to be installed in the public streets. The developer is responsible for tying-in and supporting its house connections to the main lines of utilities provided in the streets and s idewalks . The tree and street light locations have been established, and developers are required to locate utility connections so as not to disrupt the continuous pattern of trees and street lights. The private utilities will be maintained by the private utility companies, and the public utilities will be maintained by the City of New York. a. Water S ystem New York City water will be available to all blocks within the Battery Place Residential Area for both potable and fire fighting uses. (Fig. 16, Utilities, Water System) . An existin:J 20" main in

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Hudson River • e i;ting 11 propo,ed I II lUll l lt•r y Park it y .'I )II . • • • • . • • • • South Cove I 4 ,, tte>ry i>l,lt l' An•<1 ope r , E cbtut A sociatcs Utilities Wah>r System lig. 16 3 Q;' (f) 17. Q) S: If I' /: I II

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South End Avenue and west Thame s Stree t connects to a 12" line existing fran the Esplanade to Thames Street. A f urthe r 20" main will connect West Street to Battery Place and run south. A loop will be completed, linking the two mains at v lest Tham e s Street aoo Battery Place to the \-J2st Street line. Hydr a nts will be placed along all streets and landscaped areas as required. Connection s to the mains are subject t o the review and approval of the Authority and the New York City Department of Environmental Protection. b. Sanitary Sev-ers Sanitary sewag e from all developments in Battery Park City will be connected to the sewer line s of N e w York City. (Fig. 17, Utilities, Sanitary Se.-1er ) . Existing sanitary sewers in the bed of vJest T hame s Street connect to the City's 78 inch interceptor sewer in \'lest Street . A 24 inch line in Battery Place will connect to the i n terc eptor via the line in Vlest Th::;.mes Street. 'rho q:-;._•er lines are located so that all d evelopmen t b locks can connect to them at convenient manholes. i ls of these r::onnections are subjcc.:: t to the rev i e w a nd approval of the Authority ard N e w York City's D2p.'>rt -Jne n t of Protection. It 1nay not be possible to s ervice de-ep basements by gravi t y flow. bi'lsr:ments are pto .. -:>sed b e l o w the e levati o n o f the streets 1 j t 1nay be necessary t o p..liTlp the se•.-Jage i nto the se1v2 r 1 ine . R e r::?.use the existing N e w York City SC\vers . ' the urea P"ls t of Street are colle-cting sanitary cJJ"d storm wi:il1; r flolA>S, a n o vl!r flow h.:1s l:x ::en i nstaJled w ithin the T>_-l'.=L,ry P3rk City

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Hudson Rive r • exl>ling 11 propo>ed tun l tery P
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sanitary sewer system in orde r to protect the area fran back-up and flooding. c. Storm Water Drainag e Storm water from all sites, streets, and areas within the SOuth Residential Area will be collected via a system of c2tch basins and pipes and released into the Hudson River through outfalls placed in the bulkhead structure. (Fig. 18 , Utilities, Storm Sewer). An existing 18 inch/24 inch joined storm sewe r line in west Street connects through SOuth End Avenue to an existing 54 inch outfall line running in Rector Place and into the Hudson River. All storm water from just north of 3rd place to the south boundary will outlet through a 54 inch outfall which runs out through First Place into the Hudson River. Catch basins and manho les will be located and installed along the s ewer lines a s r e quired for connections and to drain the streets and park areas. 'The m2i ns .'"!re located so that all areas can connect into them a t any convenient manhole. Details of the connections are subject to the review and approval of the DeparL" n 8n t of Env Protect ion. All d e v e lopl t t ?nt blocks '3re by utility lines running in the r ights-of-,.;ay (R. O.W.). It will be the responsibility of each developer to arrange with U1e p r i v a t e utilities to bring service lo <:dch bu i J d i ng •

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Hudson River • Olll[llll 111 propmed 1 I " tter y Pilrk C it y .'UII ltl'ry PI
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Electric: Electric service will consist of multiple high and low voltage feeders to be installed by Consolidated Edison. The developer will be required to apply to Con Edison and meet its normal Developers will be required to coordinate the location of the transformer vaults with Con Edison so that they do not disrupt the established locations of the street lights and trees on the streets and avenues. (Fig. 19, Utilities, Electrical Service). Telephone: Each developer will provide a conduit raceway system from the telephone company manholes located in the R.O.\>J. to the building. Cabling will be provided by NYNEX. (Fig. 20, Utilities, Telephone) • Gas: A gas main will be provided in the public R.O.W. The developer will provide the extension and service entrance to the development in accordance with the requirements of the Consolidated Edison Company. (Fig . 21, Utilities, Gas) • Source: The sections entitled Geotechnical through Gas were exerpted in part and adapted from; Battery Place Residentaia Area which was prepared by Cooper, Eckstut Associates in association with Battery Park City Authority.

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Hudson River • exi>l ing 11 propo,ecl 1 I " \{1(1 l ery P.1rk C it y 100 :lc'r y Place i a I Area opc r , E c k<.lut A ssoc i a tes South Cove I 4tH I Utilitie s Electrical Servi ce I t g . 19 il .: il ; n a , 1 a 11 // a j/ ! r i / I I' Q; I . I "' •I I i rl

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Hudson River 1a111 propmed ffi I I I I f) IIIII 2 1M) B
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Hud son Rive r 11 propo;ed I I I II lUI llery l\1rk City .!OU ll<•ry PI,K<' nti a l Arl'cl op •r, Eck. tut As o iat s South Cove I Utilities Ga s I ig. 21

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Jl APPENDIX 4

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CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY The land area of New Y ork City exceeds 300 square miles. The city is located on the Atlantic coastal plain at the mouth of the Hudson River. All but one of the city's five bouroughs are situated on islands because of the great number of rivers and waterways that flow through the area. Elevations range from about 50 feet over most of Manhattan island to almost 300 feet in the Bronx, and over 400 feet o n Staten Island. Extensive suburban areas on Long Island and in Connecticut, Ne>v Jersey, and New York State, boarder the city on the east , north, and west. About 30 miles to the west and nortwest, hills rise to an elevation of almost 1500 feet and t o the north in upper County to 800 feet. To the southwest and to the east, are low-lying areas o f the New Jersey coastal plain and Long Island, whose southern border is the Atlantic Ocean. The New York Metropolitan area is close to the path of most frontal syst ems which move accross North America. Because of this, weather conditions which effect the city usually approach from a westerly direction. New York City can expect higher temperatures in summer and lower temteratures in winter than would otherwise be expected in a coastal area. However, the frequency of weather s ystems has its advantages in that it is a major factor in keeping periods of prolonged air stagnation to a minimum . Although the c on .tinental influence predominates, the oceanic influence also plays a major role in the city's weather-making. During the summer local sea breezes blowing on shore from the Atlantic, often moderate high afternoon temperatures. As one would expect, the sea breeze effect diminishes

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as one moves inland. On winter mornings, temperatures are often 10 to 20 degrees lower in the inland soburbs than in the immediate coastal areas. The relatively warm temperatures also delays the advent of winter and heavy snowfalls are rare anytime before late December. Conversely, the lag in warmin g of the Atlantic waters keeps springtime tenperatures reli-tively cool. A year round indication of the ocean' s influence is the small average daily variation in temperature. Another indication is the av-erage length of the frost-free season which is usually more than 200 days. Precipitation is moderate and is distributed fairly evenly throughout the year. The majority of rainfall between May and October comes through thunderstorms. Therefore, the rain is usuall of brief duration however in-tense. Heavy rains of longer duration are associated with tropical storms which occur typically during the late summer and fall. For the remaining months of the year, precipitation is likely to take the form of a day long rain or snowfall, or a combination o f both . The average annual precipitation amounts are uniform accross the city , but do begin to vary in the northern and western suburbs and on Lon g Island. The relative humidity remains at a constant value over most of the city, but is usually higher on Long Island because of its proximity to the ocean. Source: NOAA, Local Climatological Data; Annual Summar y with Comparative Data. Station: New York, New York John F. Kennedy Airport

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r-----------. ----?0 --1---4? v I I ----!-----L--i I ..--:AVG. :: 41.71 --I j i , I I I ' I z I I I I I ! I I ' ! I I I -t---I I i : I ! I I i I I ' I I I I , , I I [, I : ' /1 I ' ' ' ' ; ANN UA L P F2 t:CI PITAT !ON 151-1'180

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CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 60 Climate of New York TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES -New York State contains 49,576 square miles, inclusive of 1,637 square miles of inland water, but exclusive of the boundary-water areas of Long Island Sound, New York Harbor, Lake Ontario, and Lake Erie. The major portion o f the State lies generally between latitudes 42 and 45 Nand between longitudes 73 31' and 79 45' W. However, in the extreme southeast, a triangular portion extends southward to about latitude 40 30' N, while Long Island lies eastward to about longitude 72 W. The principal highland regions of the State are Adirondacks in the northeast and the Appalachian Plateau (Southern Plateau) in the south. The latter Plateau is subdivided by the deep channel of Seneca Lake, which extends from the Lake Plain o f Lake Ontario southward to the Chemung River Valley, into the Western and Eastern Plateaus. The former extends from the eastern Finger Lakes across the hills of southwestern New York to the narrow Lake Plain bordering Lake Erie; the latter extends from the eastern Finger Lakes to the Hudson River Valley and includes the Catskill Mountains. A minor highland region occurs in southeastern New York where the Hudson River has cut a valley between the Palisades on the west, near the New Jersey border, and the Taconic Mountains on the east, along the Connect icut and Massachusetts border. Just west o f the Adirondacks and the upper Black River Valley in Lewis County is another minor highland known as Tug Hill. Much of the eastern border of the State consists of a long, narrow lowland region which is occupied by Lake Champlain, Lake George and the middle and lower portions of the Hudson Valley. Another lowland region, the Great Lakes Plain, on the northern and western boundaries of the State adjoins the St. Lawrence River, Lake Ontario, and Lake Erie. This latter region is widest south of the eastern end of Lake Ontario, but narrows to a width of less than 5 miles in the western portion of the State. A third lowland region, which contains Lake Oneida and a deep valley cut by the Mohawk River, connects the Hudson Valley and the Great Lakes Plain. Lon g Island, which is a part of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, comprises the fourth lowland region of the State. Approximately 40 percent of New York State has an elevation of more than 1,000 feet above sea level. In northwestern E ssex County , confined to an area of 500 or 600 square miles, are a number of peaks with an elevation of between 4,000 to 5,000 feet. The highest point, Mount reaches a height of 5,344 feet above sea level. Nearby Mount Macintyre ranges to a height of 5,112 feet. With the exception of the Blue Ridge of North Carolina and the White Mountains of New Hampshire, these are the loftiest mountains in eastern North America. 530

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The Appalachian Plateau merges gradually into t he Great Lakes Plain of western New York. This plateau is penetrated by the v alleys o f the Finger Lakes which, resemblin8 the appearance of outstretched fingers on the hand, extend southward from the Great Lakes Plain. The major Finger Lakes going from west to east, are Canandaigua, Keuka , Seneca, Cayuga, and Skaneateles. Other prominent lakes in the State include Lak e George in the centra l part o f the eastern bound ary, Lak e Oneida in central New York between Syracuse and Rome, and Chautauqua Lake in the extreme southwest. Sacandaga and Pepacton Reservoirs are sizeable m anmade bodies of water in the eastern portion of the State. Innumerable smaller lakes and ponds dot the landscape , with mor e than 1,500 in the Adirondack region alone. Rivers of New York State may be divided into those that are tributary to the Great Lakes a nd St. Lawr ence River and those that flow in a general southward direction. The first group include s the Genesee, Oswego, Black, Oswegatchie, Grass, Raquette, Saranac, and Ausable. The Chemung, Su squehanna, Delaware, and Hudson River systems which are part of the Atlantic slope drainage and the Allegheny River which is p art of the Ohio Basin drainage comprise the second group. GENERAL CLIMATIC FEATURES The climate o f New York State is broadly representative of the humid continental type which prevails in the Northeastern United States, but its diversity is not usually encountered within an area of comparable size. The geographical position of the State and the usual course of air masses, governed by the large-scale patterns of atmos pheri c circulation, provide general climatic c ontrols. Difference s in latitude, character of the topography, and proximity to large bodies of water have pronounced effects on the climate. The planetary atmospheric circulation brings a great v ariety of air masses t o the State. Masses of cold, dry air frequently arrive f rom the northern interior o f the continent. Prevailing winds from the south and southwest transport w a rm, h umid air which has been modified by the Gulf of Mexico and adjacent subtropical w aters . These tw o air masses provide the dominant characteristics of the climate. The third great air mass flows inland from the North Atlantic Ocea n and produces cool, cloudy, and damp weather conditions. This maritime influ ence is imp ortant to New York' s climatic regime , especially in the s outheastern portion of the State, but it is secondary to that of the more prevalent air mass flow from the continent. Nearly all storm and frontal systems moving eastward across the continent pass through or in close proximity to New York State. Storm systems ofte n move northward along the Atlantic coast a nd have an impo rtant influence on the weather and climate of Lon g Island and the lower Hudson Valley. Frequently, areas d eep in the interior of the State feel the effects of such coastal storms. 531

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Lengthy periods of either abnormally cold or warm weather result from the movement of great high pressure (anticyclonic) systems into and through the Eastern United States. Cold temperatures prevail over New York whenever Arctic air masses, under high barometric pressure, flow southward from central Canada or from Hudson Bay. High pressure systems often move just off the Atlantic coast, b ecome more or less stagnant for several days, and then a persistent air flow from the southwest or south affects the State. This circulation brings the very warm, often humid weather of the summer season and the mild, m ore pleasant temperatures during the fall, winter, and spring seasons. TEMPERATURE Many atmospheric and physiographic controls on the climate result in a considerable variation of temperature over New York State. The average annual mean temperature ranges from about 40 F in the Adirondacks to near 55 in the New York City area. In January, the average mean temperature is approximately 16 in the Adirondacks and St. Lawrence Valley, but increases to about 26 along Lake Erie and in the lower Hudson Valley and to 31 F on Long Island. The winters are long and cold in the Plateau Divisions of the State. In most winter seasons, a temperature of -25 F or lower can be expected in the northern highlands (Northern Plateau) and -15 or colder in the southwestern and east-central highlands (Southern Plateau). The Adirondack region records from 35 to 45 days with below zero temperatures in normal to severe winters, with a somewhat fewer number of such days occurring near Lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence River. In the Southern Plateau and in the upper Hudson Valley Division, below zero minimums are observed on about 15 days in most winters and on more than 25 days in notably cold seasons. Winter temperatures are moderated considerably in the Great Lakes Plain of western New York. The moderating influence of Lakes Erie and Ontario is comparable to that produced by the Atlantic Ocean in the southern portion of the Hudson Valley. In both regions, the coldest temperature in most winters will range between and -10 F. Long Island and New York City experience below zero minimums in 2 or 3 winters out of 10, with the low temperature generally near -5 F. The summer climate is cool in the Adirondacks, Catskills, and higher elevations of the Southern Plateau. The New York City area and lower portions of the Hudson Valley have rather warm summers by comparison, with some periods of high, uncomfortable humidity. The remainder of New York State enjoys pleasantly warm summers, marred by only brief intervals of sultry conditions. Summer daytime temperatures usually range from the upp e r 70s to mid-80s over much of the State, producing an atmospheric environment favorable to many athletic, recreational, and other outdoor activities. Temperatures of 90 F or higher occur from late May to mid-September in all but the normally cooler portions of the State. The New York City 532

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area and most of the Hudson Valley record an average of from 18 to 25 days with such temperatures during the warm season, but in the Northern and Southern Plateaus the normal quota does not exceed 2 or 3 days. While temperatures of 100 are rare, many long-term w eather stations, especially in the southern one-half of the State, have recorded in the 100 to 105 F range on one or more occasions. Minimum, or nighttime, temperatures drop to the 40s and upper 30s with some fre quency during the summer season in the interior portions of the Plateau Divisions. It is not uncommon for temperatures to approach the freezing level in the Adirondacks and Southern Plateau during June and the latter one-half of August, but rarely in July. The moderating effect of Lakes Erie and Ontario on temperatures assumes practical importance during the spring and fall seasons. The lake waters warm slowly in the spring, the effect of which is to reduce the warming of the atmosphere over adjacent land areas. Plant growth is thereby retarded, allowing a great variety of freeze-sensitive crops, especially tree and vine fruits, to reach critical early stages of development when the risk of freeze injury is minimized or greatly reduced. In the fall season, the lake waters cool more slowly than the land areas and thus serve as a heat source. The cooling of the atmosphere at night is moderated or reduced, theoccurrence of freezing temperatures is delayed, and the growing season is lengthened for freeze-sensitive crops and vegetation. The average length of the freeze-free season in New York State varies from 100 to 120 days in the Adirondacks, Catskills, and higher elevations of the Western Plateau Division to 180 to 200 days on Long Island. The important fruit and truck crop areas in the Great Lakes Plain enjoy a frost-free growing season of from 150 to 1 80 days in duration. A freeze-free season of similar length also prevails in the Hudson Valley from Albany southward to Westchester and Orange Counties, another zone of valuable crop production. The Southern Plateau, St. Lawrence Valley, and Lake Champlain regions have an average duration of 1 20 to 150 days between the last spring and first fall freezes. PRECIPITATION -Moisture for precipitation in New York State is transported primarily from the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean through circulation patterns and storm systems of the atmosphere. Distribution of precipitation within the State is greatly influenced by topography and proximity to the Great Lakes or Atlantic Ocean. Average annual amounts in excess of 50 inches occur in the western Adirondacks, Tug Hill area, and the Catskills, while slightly less than that amount is noted in the higher elevations of the Western Plateau southeast of Lake Erie. Areas of least rainfall, with average accumulations of about 30 inches, occur near Lake Ontario in the extreme western counties, in the lower half of the Genesee River Valley, and in the vicinity of Lake Champlain. New York State has a fairly uniform distribution of precipitation during the year. There are no distinctly dry or wet seasons which are regularly 533

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repeated on an annua l bas i s . Minimum precipitation occurs in the winter season, with an average monthly accumulation ranging from about 3.5 inches on Long Island to 2.2 inches in the Finger Lakes and Lake Champlain regions. Maximum amounts are noted in the summer season throughout the State except along the Great Lakes where slight peaks of similar magnitude occur in both the spring and fall seasons. Average monthly amounts in the summer vary from 3 . 0 inches in the lowlands south of Lake Ontario (Great Lakes Division) to 4.0 inches in the Eastern Plateau, Hudson Valley, and Coastal Divisions. New York's precipitation tends to be distributed most uniformly over the year in counties along the coast and the Great Lakes. Variations in precipitation amounts from month to month or for the same month in different years can be wide for any individual area. Usually s uch variations range from near 1 inch to about 6 inches; in extreme cases, the variation is from less than 1 inch to 10 inches or more. Almost any calendar month has the potential of having the lightest, or heaviest, monthly accumulation of precipitation within a calendar year at a given location. The greatest monthly precipitation of record in New York State was a total of 25.27 inches at West Shokan (Ulster County) in October 1955. On the other hand, wide areas of the State measured less than 0.3 inch of rain in October 1963. Within relatively short distances, precipitation in the same month may be strikingly different. An extreme example occurred in August 1 971 with a total of 16 . 7 inches falling at New York City's Borough of Richmond (Staten Island), but only 2 . 9 inches at Riverhead, about 90 miles away in eastern Long Island. The amount and distribution of precipitation are normally sufficient for the maintenance of the State' s water resources for municipal and industrial supplies, transportation, and recreation. Rainfall is usually adequate during the growing season for economic crops, lawns, gardens, shrubs, forests, and woodlands. Severe droughts are rare, but deficiencies of precipitation may occur from time to time which cause at least temporary concern over declining water supplies and moisture stress in crops and other vegetation. In some years, a pronounced shortage of precipitation during the spring or fall months results in a serious fire hazard in the State' s woodlands. SNO\{FALL New York State receives abundant snowfall. With the exception of the Coastal Division, the State receives an average seasonal amount of 40 inches or more. The average snowfall is greater than 70 inches over some 60 percent of New York's area. The moderating influence of the Atlantic Ocean reduces the snow accumulation to 25 to 35 inches in the New York City area and on Lon g Island. About one-third of the winte r season precipitation in the Coastal Division occurs from storms w!Jl c h also yield at least 1 inch of snow . The great bulk of the winter precipitation in upstate New York comes as snow . Topography, elevation, and proximity to large bodies of water result in a great variation of snowfall in the State's interior, even within 534

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relatively short distances. Maximum seasonal snowfall, averaging more than 175 inches, occurs on the western and southwestern slopes of the Adirondacks and Tug Hill. A secondary maximum of 150 to 180 inches prevails in the southwestern highlands, some 10 to 30 miles inland from Lake Erie. Three separate areas of the Eastern Plateau record heavy snow accumulations, averaging from 100 to ]20 inches: the uplands of southeastern Onondaga County and adjoining counties; the Cherry Valley section of northern Otsego and southern Herkimer Countries; and the Catskill highlands in Ulster, Delaware, and Sullivan Counties. Minimum seasonal snowfall of 40 to 50 inches occurs upstate in the Chemung and mid-Genesee River Valleys of western New York, and near the Hudson River in Orange, Rockland, and Westchester Counties upstream to the southern portion of Albany County. In northern New York, the Adirondack region has an average seasonal snowfall in excess of 90 inches, but amounts decrease to 60 to 70 inches in the lowlands of the St. Lawrence Valley and to about 60 inches in the vicinity of Lake Champlain. Snow produced in the lee of Lakes Erie and Ontario is a prominent and very important aspect of New York's climate. As cold air crosses the lake waters, it is warmed in the lower layers, picks up moisture, and reaches the land in an unstable condition. Precipitation in the form of snow is released as the airstream moves inland over the gradually sloping higher terrain. Heavy snow squalls frequently occur, generating from 1 to 2 feet of snow and occasionally 4 feet or more. Snowfall produced by this "lake-effect" usually extends into the Mohawk Valley and often inland as far as the southern Finger Lakes and nearby southern tier of counties. Counties to the lee of Lake Erie are subject to heavy lake-effect snows in November and December, but as the lake surface gradually freezes by midwinter, they become less frequent. Areas near Lake Ontario, especially those to the southeast and east, are exposed to severe snow squalls w ell into February because the Lake generally retains considerable open water throughout the winter months. In the heavy snowbelts near Lake Erie and Ontario as well as in the plateau regions of eastern and northern New York, monthly snowfall amounts in excess of 24 inches are experienced in most winters; accumulations of more than 50 inches within two consecutive months are n o t uncommon. Monthly accumulations of between 3 to 10 inches usually occur in New York City and Long Island during the winter season, but occasionally the amounts may exceed 20 inches as a result o f recurring coastal storms (northeasters). A durable snow cover generally begins to develop in the Adirondacks and northern lowlands by late November and remains until sometime in April, depending upon late snowfall and early spring temperatures. The Southern Plateau, Great Lakes Plain in southern portions of western upstate New York, and the Hudson Valley experience a continuous snow .S35

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cover from about mid-December to mid-March, '"ith maximum depths usually occurring in February. Bare groun d m a y b e s een briefly in the lowe r elevations of these regions during some winters. From late December or early January through February, the Atlantic coastal region of the State experiences alternating periods of measurable snow cover and bare ground. FLOODS -Although major floods are relatively infrequent, appreciable damage usually occurs every year in one or more localities of New York State. Floods that arise from a variety o f causes have been recorded in all seasons. The greatest potential and frequency for floods occur in the early spring when substantial rains combine with rapid snow meldng to produce a heavy runoff. Since the turn of the century, several historic floods from this cause have occurred in the major river basins of southern and eastern New York. I n northern New York, the normally colder early s pring temperatures are conducive to a rate of snowmelt. In combination with other factors, major spring floods have been less frequent along streams draining int o the St. Lawrence River. Ice jams sometimes contribute to serious flooding in very localized areas. Damaging floods are caused at other times of the year b y prolonged periods of heavy rainfall. In C:)mbination with sho\\7ers and thundershowers, the rugged terrain of the Adirondacks and Southern Plateau is conducive to occasional severe flash floods on smaller streams. The metropolitan New York City area and other heavily urbanized areas of the State are becoming increasingly subject tn severe flooding of highways, streets, and low-lying ground. R2placement of the natural soil cover with cement, asphalt, and other impervious materials encoarages f looding f::-om rains that formerly were easily absorbed. The shores of Long Island, especially those facing the Atlantic Ocean, are subject to tidal flooding during storm surges. Winds generated b y hurricanes and great coastal storms may drive tidal waters well inland, causing extensive property damage and beach erosion. The great storm of November 1950, Hurricane Carol in August 1954, and the historic Atlantic storm of March 1962 are some examples of severe, but infrequent, occurranees of this type of flooding. WINDS AND STORMS -The prevailing wind is generally from the west in New York State. A southwest component becomes evident in winds during the warmer months while a northwest component is ch aracteristic o f the colder one-half of the year. Occasionally, well-developed storm syst ems moving across the continent or along the Atlantic coast are accompanied by very strong winds which cause considerable property damage over wide areas of the State. A unique effect of strong cyclonic winds from the southwest is the rise of water to abnormally high levels at the northeastern end of Lake Erie. Thunderstorms occur on an average of about 3 0 days in a year throughout the State. Destructive winds and lightning strikes in local areas are 536

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common with the more vigorous warm -season thunderstorms. Locally, hail occurs with the more severe thunderstorms, but extensive, crippling losses to property and crops are rare. Tornadoes are not common. About three or four of these storms strike limited, localized areas of New York State in most years. The paths of destruction, mostly in rural, semi-rural, or wooded areas, are usually short and narrow. Tornadoes occur generally between late May and late August. Storms of freezing rain occur on one or more occasions during the winter season and often affect a wide area of the State in any one incident. such storms are usually limited to a thin but dangerous coating of ice on highways, sidewalks, and exposed surfaces, crippling destruction of utility lines, transmission towers, and trees over ah extensive portion of the State may result on rare occasions. Such a destructive ice storm affected east-central and southeastern New York in December 1964. Hurricanes and tropical storms periodically cause serious and heavy losses in the vicinity of Long Island and adjacent areas. Only one such storm in recent years (October 1954) has brought serious damage to the interior portion of the State. The greatest storm hazard in terms of area and number of people affected is heavy snow . Coastal northeaster storms occur with some frequency in most winters. Snow yields of from 12 to 24 inches or more from such storms have fallen over the southeastern one-quarter of the State, including Long Island, and will often e xtend into western and northern interior New York . Snow squalls along the Great Lakes have been previously cited. These may persist over a period of a week or more, bringing snow amo unts in excess of 4 0 inches to local areas that lie to the east of Lakes Erie and Ontario. During heavy snow squalls, surface visibility is reduced to zero. Blizzard conditions of heavy snow, high winds, and rapidly falling temperature occur occasionally; but are much less characteristic of New York's climate than in the plains of midwestern United States. OTHER CLIMATIC ELEMENTS The climate of the State features much cloudy weather during the months of November, December, and January in upstate New York, especially those regions that adjoin the Great Lakes and Finger Lakes and include the southern tie r o f counties. From June through September, however, a bout 60 to 70 percen t of the possible sunshine hours is received. In the Atlantic coastal region, the sunshine hours increases from 50 percent of possible in the winter to about 65 percent of possible in the summer. The Atlantic Coastal Plain and lowe r Hudson Valley experience conditions of high temperature and high humidity with som e frequency 537

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during the summer. By comparison, such conditions occur less frequently in the broad interior of New York State where they are usually shortened by the arrival of cooler, drier air masses from the northwest. The occurrence of heavy, dense fog is variable over the State. The valleys and ridges of the Southern Plateau are most subject to periods of fog, with occurrences averaging about 50 days in a year. In the Great Lakes Plain and northern valleys, the frequency decreases to only 10 to 20 days annually. In those portions of the State with greater maritime influence on the climate, the frequency of dense fog in a year ranges from about 35 days on the south shore of Long Island to 25 days in the Hudson Valley. CLIMATE AND THE ECONOMYNew York State's diversified economy , involving agriculture, industry, commerce, and recreation, is greatly influenced by the climate. Human activities, whether in labor pursuits or recreation, are stimulated by an invigorating winter climate and a generally comfortable atmospheric environment during summer. The general climate as well as regional variations throughout New York State support diversified agriculture. Dairying is the largest, most widespread enterprise. Precipitation and temperature conditions favor the growth of alfalfa and grasses for hay and of corn for silage throughout rural New York, except where limitations are imposed by soils and topography. Corn for grain is produced on some 850,000 acres, mostly in the Great Lakes Plain, Southern Plateau, and Hudson Valley; climatic conditions couple with technology to realize an average statewide yield of 70 to 80 bushels per acre. The amount and distribution of rainfall, warm (rather than hot) daytime temperatures, and frequent cool nights in western and central New York are important environmental factors that aid in the growing of 450,000 acres of small grains. Dry beans, snap beans, and sugar beets are additional valuable crops which thrive well in New York's climate. A nationally important production area of apples and other tree fruits is found along Lake Ontario, largely the result of favorable climatic conditions induced by the nearby lake. The climate over the Great Lakes Plain is also benevolent for a wide variety of vegetable crops. New York is a leading producer of grapes, with sutiable weather conditions for viticulture existing in the western Great Lakes and on the sloping terrain along the Finger Lakes where good air drainage and moderating influence of lake waters produce a suitable temperature regime. The lower Hudson Valley has a climate which also supports important acreage of tree fruits and truck crops. The warmer climate of eastern Long Island permits a significant production of potatoe s for the early season market. Late -season potato varieties are grown in the cooler climate of the Southern Plateau and northeastern New York. The SJX

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uplands northwest of the Catskill Mountains have a cool climate suitable for cauliflower production . The sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) finds a climate optimum for growth in New York State. Thus, the production of syrup and other maple products constitutes a valuable segment of the agricultural and forestry economy. Ample precipitation, dependable runoff, and adequate ground water supplies contribute to vast water resources in the Empire State. These water resources have supported the growth of many large metropolitan areas, the establishment of diverse industries, and the development of waterways and impoundments for transportation, power, recreation, and municipal supplies. Though rigorous and somtimes severe, New York's winter climate is an asset to the economy. Abundant snowfall has made possible the development of skiing and snowmobiling into very important activities for winter sports and recreation. The climate at other times of the year is a prominent factor in attracting tourists and vacationers to the State. 539

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ERROR CAUGHT WHILE SAVING NEW DIGITAL RESOURCE TO SOLR INDEXES
5/13/2019 6:00:28 PM

Unable to connect to the remote server
at SolrNet.Impl.SolrConnection.PostStream(String relativeUrl, String contentType, Stream content, IEnumerable`1 parameters) in d:\BuildAgent-01\work\e4797f8bddc217f4\SolrNet\Impl\SolrConnection.cs:line 119
at SolrNet.Impl.SolrConnection.Post(String relativeUrl, String s) in d:\BuildAgent-01\work\e4797f8bddc217f4\SolrNet\Impl\SolrConnection.cs:line 84
at SolrNet.Impl.SolrBasicServer`1.SendAndParseHeader(ISolrCommand cmd) in d:\BuildAgent-01\work\e4797f8bddc217f4\SolrNet\Impl\SolrBasicServer.cs:line 112
at SobekCM.Engine_Library.Solr.v5.v5_Solr_Controller.Update_Index(String SolrDocumentUrl, String SolrPageUrl, SobekCM_Item Resource, Boolean Include_Text) in C:\GitRepository\SobekCM-Web-Application\SobekCM_Engine_Library\Solr\v5\v5_Solr_Controller.cs:line 59
at SobekCM.Engine_Library.Solr.Solr_Controller.Update_Index(String SolrDocumentUrl, String SolrPageUrl, SobekCM_Item Resource, Boolean Include_Text) in C:\GitRepository\SobekCM-Web-Application\SobekCM_Engine_Library\Solr\Solr_Controller.cs:line 33
at SobekCM.Library.MySobekViewer.New_Group_And_Item_MySobekViewer.complete_item_submission(SobekCM_Item Item_To_Complete, Custom_Tracer Tracer) in C:\GitRepository\SobekCM-Web-Application\SobekCM_Library\MySobekViewer\New_Group_And_Item_MySobekViewer.cs:line 857