Citation
Afternoon delight

Material Information

Title:
Afternoon delight
Creator:
Brown, Helene Richards
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Helene Richards Brown. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
design
"LIRARIA LIBRARY
1


Date Due
4'X1



!
1204
027
01
environmental design
auraria library
"LITTLE DARLING ...
I FEEL THE ICE IS SLOWLY MELTING.
LITTLE DARLING ...
IT SEEMS LIKE YEARS SINCE ITS BEEN HERE. HERE COMES THE SUN.
HERE COMES THE SUN.
AND IT'S ALL RIGHT."
GEORGE HARRISON 1969


A MASTERS THESIS PROJECT
BY HELENE RICHARDS BROWN UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, DENVER
SPRING 1978


THE WHITE HAT AWARDS
MANY PEOPLE HAVE HELPED MAKE THIS PROJECT POSSIBLE, I WOULD LIKE TO THANK G. K. VETTER, ALVARO MALO AND GARY LONG, MY STUDIO DESIGN ADVISORS, AND BOB UTZINGER FOR SECURING MY COMPUTER TIME. ALSO, BOB, KATIE, DAN, JENNIFER, CRAIG, KELVIN AND ALL OF THE ADVISORS IN THE COMPUTER CENTER, ALONG WITH DEE, AND LASTLY MY HUSBAND DICK ... WHO HAS BECOME A VERY GOOD COOK.
THE BLACK HAT AWARD
TO THE GENTLEMAN WHO DROPPED MY STACK OF 35^9 UNPRINTED COMPUTER CARDS ONTO THE COMPUTER CENTER FLOOR.




6
IN THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING AN ENERGY CONSCIOUS RESIDENCE MANY VARIABLES MUST BE CONSIDERED. DIFFERENT BUILDING MATERIALS OR COMBINATION OF MATERIALS GIVE VARYING RESISTANCE FACTORS, A THERMALLY EFFICIENT WALL COULD BE CONSTRUCTED WITH A 2x6 FRAME WITH 5" OF INSULATION, A 2x'» FRAME WITH 3" OF INSULATION OR A CINDER BLOCK WALL FILLED WITH VERM ICULITE, TO NAME A FEW. THE AMOUNT OF GLASS AND ITS LOCATION AND THE EXPANSE OF EXTERIOR WALLS AND THEIR ORIENTATION ARE OTHER FACTORS WHICH CONCERN THE DESIGNER,
THE FIRST OBJECTIVE OF THIS THESIS IS TO DESIGN A COLORADO MOUNTAIN RESIDENCE OF APPROXIMATELY 1500-2000 S.F.,
FOR A PARTICULAR SITE. IT WOULD INCORPORATE SOFT TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS, SUCH AS A GREENHOUSE, WOOD STOVE, MASS WALLS AND FLOORS AND ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDING MATERIALS AND METHODS.
THE SECOND OBJECTIVE OF THIS THESIS IS TO DEVELOP A METHOD WHEREBY THE DESIGNER COULD KNOW THE THERMAL RESULTS OF THE DESIGN DECISIONS BEFORE BUILDING THE STRUCTURE, UTILIZING THE COMPUTER AS AN ANALYSIS AND DESIGN TOOL.


9
SINCE MAN'S FIRST APPEARANCE ON THIS PLANET,
HE HAS DEPENDED ON THE SUN FOR HIS EXISTENCE.
IT HAS GIVEN LIFE TO HIS FOOD AND WARMED HIS SHELTER. HIS HOMES HAVE RESPONDED TO THE CLIMATE OUT OF THE NECESSITY FOR COMFORT,
WITH PROTECTION FROM THE COLD AND EXPOSURE TO WINTER SUN FOR WARMTH. IN THE SUMMER, THE HOME ALLOWED COOL BREEZES TO ENTER WHILE PROTECTING THE INTERIOR FROM THE DIRECT RAYS OF THE SUN. THIS SOLAR TEMPERING OF THE ENVIRONMENT IS REFERRED TO AS A PASSIVE ENERGY SYSTEM OR A SOFT TECHNOLOGY APPROACH.
"MODERN TECHNOLOGY HAS, IN MANY WAYS, AFFORDED BUILDERS THE LUXURY OF DISREGARDING THE EARTH-SUN RELATIONSHIP. RECENTLY, THE ECONOMY OF MEANS HAS EMERGED AS A DESIGN FORCE BECAUSE OF THE HUMAN REALIZATION THAT THE EARTH IS FINITE IN ITS ABUNDANCE, MAKING IT NECESSARY TO CONSIDEI AGAIN WHAT NATURE PROVIDES - NOT TO DESTROY WHAT HAS BEEN DONE, BUT TO MAKE A NEW PATHWAY,
A SYNTHESIS OF TECHNOLOGY AND NATURE."




energy
basics
* WARM AIR RISES.
* HEAT FLOWS TO EQUALIZE TEMPERATURES THUS ENERGY TRAVELS FROM A WARM MASS TO A COOL MASS.
* HEAT TRAVELS BY CONDUCTION, CONVECTION AND RADIATION.
* WHEN AIR PASSES THROUGH A NARROW OPENING IT INCREASES IN VELOCITY.
* THE SUN EMITS SHORT WAVE RADIATION WHICH CHANGES TO LONG WAVE HEAT ENERGY. THIS LONG WAVE ENERGY IS TRAPPED BY THE GLASS WALL AND IS ABSORBED BY THE MASS OF A MASONRY WALL.


SITE FACTORS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO CLIMATE CAN BE USED AS DETERMINANTS IN SITE SELECTION. AN OPPORTUNITY FOR PROTECTING THE BUILDING, BY SITING, RESTS IN THE SLIGHT SOUTH FACING BOWL WHICH IS PROTECTED ON THE NORTH BY A LARGE ROCK OUTCROPPING AND TALL STANDS OF CONIFER TREES.
climate


$
weather data : evergreen
COLO.
ALTITUDE : 7000' AVERAGES OF THE SEVEN YEARS ON RECORD
MONTH HIGH TEMP LOW TEMP SNOW ON GROUND
JAN 43 8 10"
FEB 46 12 41"
MAR 48 17 15"
APR 53 24 21"
MAY 64 33 3"
JUNE 76 40 -
JULY 81 45 -
AUG 80 43 -
SEPT 68 36 1"
OCT 62 27 10"
NOV 49 16 16"
DEC 44 10 8"


location
c
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ENERGY CONSERVATION IS NOT ONLY LIMITED TO THE BUILDING BUT INCLUDES LAND USE AND SITE PLANNING WHICH ARE ALSO IMPORTANT. THE NATURAL ELEMENTS ARE USED AS AIDS IN THE HEATING AND COOLING OF THE HOME. SITE FEATURES SUCH AS THE PROTECTIVE BOWL, ROCK OUTCROPPINGS AND THE CONIFER TREES PROTECT THE WELL SITED HOME FROM NORTH WINTER WINDS AND SNOW.
THE HOUSE IS LOCATED WITH THE DECIDUOUS ASPEN TREES TO THE SOUTH TO AID IN SUMMER COOLING BY PROVIDING SHADE, WHILE IN THE WINTER WHEN THE LEAVES ARE GONE, THE SUN’S RAYS PENETRATE THE HOUSE.
THE LAND SHOULD PROVIDE A WAY OF LIVING FOR THE FAMILY WITH A PLACE FOR GROWING VEGETABLES, RAISING LIVESTOCK AND ENJOYING THE SITE.
TO BE INCLUDED ON THE SITE ARE:
* HOUSING FOR A FAMILY OF FOUR.
* GARDEN SPACE FOR THE FAMILY.
* A PLACE FOR GROWING SEEDLINGS (A NECESSITY BECAUSE OF THE SHORT GROWING SEASON IN THE MOUNTAINS).
* ACCESS FOR CARS AND PEOPLE.
* A PLACE TO STALK A SUNTAN.
* A SITE FOR A FUTURE BARN TO SHELTER HORSES
AND COWS
I
site


THE MOST FEASIBLE WIND ENERGY SYSTEM FOR THIS SITE IS THE ELECTRO FROM WINTERTHUR SWITZERLAND.
IT CAN CHANGE POSITION TO ACCOMODATE DIRECTIONAL WINDS AND OPERATES WITH WIND SPEEDS FROM 10-40 MPH WHEN LOCATED AO FEET ABOVE THE GROUND. SINCE WIND IS NOT CONSTANT ENOUGH TO PRODUCE AC CURRENT THE ELECTRICITY PRODUCED IS DC WHICH CAN SUPPLY RESISTANCE APPLIANCES SUCH AS INCANDESCENT LIGHT BULBS, HAIR DRYERS, RADIOS, CLOCKS AND A RADIANT CABLE BACK-UP HEATING SYSTEM. THE ENERGY IS STORED IN BATTERIES WHEN NOT NEEDED, AND CAN BE STORED FOR UP TO FIVE DAYS. THE 12'0 DIAMETER (TIP TO TIP) MODEL HAS THREE BLADES AND CAN PRODUCE 115 VOLTS, 2500 WATTS WITH 23 MPH WINDS. THE COST IS $6500.00 NOT INCLUDING THE TOWER OR INSTALLATION.
generator
wind


HOUSE FOR A FAMILY
* THE PARENTS BEDROOM SEPARATE FROM THE CHILDREN'S.
* SEPARATE REALMS: CHILDREN, PARENTS, COMMON.
ENTRY TRANSITION.
* MATERIALS CHANGES.
* VISUAL VARIETY.
* LEVEL CHANGES.
* PROTECTION FROM THE NORTH.
* A SPECIAL ENTRANCE ROOM.
* AN ENTRY PORCH.
* A COAT CLOSET.
SITTING CIRCLE
* AWAY FROM THE KITCHEN.
* NOT IN A CIRCULATION PATH.
* NEAR THE FIRE.
FIRE
* COMMON AREA FOR ENJOYMENT BY ALL.
* A SECONDARY HEAT SOURCE.
* A WOOD STOVE RATHER THAN A FIREPLACE.
I
concepts
SUNSHINE SEATS
* WATER DRUMS WHICH STORE THE SUN’S ENERGY FOR RERADIATION, ALSO IS SEATING.
FARMHOUSE KITCHEN
* CONNECTION TO THE OUTSIDE,
* SOUTH AND EAST EXPOSURE.
* ROOM FOR PEOPLE TO SIT AND TALK.
* 12'0 OF COUNTER SPACE.
* STOVE IN THE MIDDLE ISLAND TO RADIATE HEAT. GREENHOUSE
* A PLACE TO START SEEDS.
* ACCESSIBLE FROM THE HOUSE AND GARDEN.
* RAIN WATER COLLECTION SYSTEM.
* SOUTH EXPOSURE.
GARDEN
* USE COLLECTED RAIN WATER FOR WATERING.
SOUTH FACING OUTDOORS
* ALL PORCHES FACING SOUTH.
* GARDEN ON THE SOUTH.


CANVAS ROOFS
* BRIGHT COLORS OVER THE PORCHES.
* AWNINGS OVER THE WINDOWS ON THE WEST FOR SUMMER SHADING.
SPECIAL PLACE
* FOR ENJOYING THE VIEW.
ORIENTATION
* LIVING SPACES ORIENTED TO THE SOUTH.
* EAST OPTIMUM FOR MORNING ACTIVITIES.
* WEST OPTIMUM FOR EVENING ACTIVITIES (SUNSET).
* NORTH SIDE FOR BUFFER SPACE.
ORIENTATION______________________________________________N E S
SLEEPING (WAKE UP TO SUN, WARMTH DURING
DAY). X X
SOCIAL (WARMTH DURING DAY, VIEW OF
SUNSET). X
FOOD (WARMTH DURING DAY, SUNRISE AT
BREAKFAST). X X
DINING (WARMTH DURING DAY). X
BATHING (BUFFER SPACE). X
STORAGE (BUFFER SPACE). X
GREENHOUSE (EARLY SUN, SOUTH SUN). X X
UTILITY (BUFFER SPACE). X
STORAGE
* ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THE HOUSE TO ACT AS A BUFFER AGAINST THE COLD.
BATHING
* LOCATE ON THE NORTH BUFFER ZONE AND PROVIDE SEPARATE SPACE HEATING FOR WARMTH.
* UTILIZE A COMMON PLUMBING WALL.
ROOF TOP DECK
* A SPECIAL PLACE.
* SOUTH FACING OUTDOORS.
* PROTECTION FROM THE NORTH,


COLD WINDS
common space
COLD WINDS
parents realm
COLD WINDS

-...4
special space
childrens realm






FLOOR ONE
* SOUTH FACING PROTECTED ENTRY.
* ENTRY TRANSITION THROUGH LEVELS AND MATERIALS.
* THREE STORY GREENROOM.
* TWO STORY GREENHOUSE FOR STARTING SEEDS.
* MINIMAL NORTH WINDOWS.
* UTILITY ROOM AND KITCHEN ON NORTH AS BUFFER.
* STOVE IN AN ISLAND TO RADIATE EXCESS HEAT.
* SITTING CIRCLE WITH FIRE.
* WOOD STOVE AS A BACK-UP HEAT SOURCE.
* THREE STORY MASS WALL COLLECTS SUN'S ENERGY AND EXCESS HEAT FROM WOOD STOVE.
* WATER BARRELS IN GREENHOUSE COLLECT SUN'S ENERGY.
* SUNSHINE SEATS IN GREENROOM COLLECT SUN'S ENERGY.
* BARRELS IN GREENHOUSE COLLECT RAIN WATER FROM ROOF RUN-OFF.
* SOUTH FACING PORCH OFF KITCHEN WITH CANVAS ROOF FOR SUMMER SHADING.
* GREENROOM AND GREENHOUSE COLLECT SUN'S ENERGY.
* CANVAS AWNINGS FOR SHADING WEST WINDOWS.
* INSULATING DOOR TO SHUT OFF STAIR TOWER.
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NORTH
2
FLOOR TWO
* CLOSETS AND BATHROOM ON NORTH AS A BUFFER.
* MINIMAL NORTH WINDOWS.
* FLUE FROM WOOD STOVE EXPOSED TO RADIATE HEAT.
* INSULATING SHUTTERS ON SOUTH SIDE OF BEDROOMS LET IN THE SUN'S ENERGY WHEN OPEN, AND ELIMINATE COLD WHEN CLOSED.
* MASS WALL RADIATES HEAT AT NIGHT.
* THREE STORY GREENROOM COLLECTS SUN'S ENERGY.
* CANVAS AWNINGS FOR SHADING WEST WINDOWS.
* INSULATING DOOR TO SHUT OFF STAIR TOWER.


FLOOR THREE
* CLOSETS AND BATHROOM ON NORTH AS A BUFFER.
* MINIMAL NORTH WINDOWS.
* HOT AIR FROM GREENROOM RISES TO HEAT MASS WALL.
* MASS WALL RADIATES HEAT DIRECTLY INTO BEDROOM.
* SOUTH FACING OUTDOORS WITH CANVAS ROOF FOR SUMMER SHADE.
* INSULATING DOOR TO SHUT OFF STAIR TOWER.
/N
NORTH
0
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CROWS NEST
* SPECIAL PLACE
i


* SUN SHINES THROUGH THE GREENROOM AND GREENHOUSE GLASS.
* SUNSHINE SEATS IN THE GREENROOM AND THE WATER BARRELS IN THE GREENHOUSE STORE THE SUN'S ENERGY.
* BRICK MASS WALL ALSO STORES THE SUN'S ENERGY.
* HOT AIR RISES AND CIRCULATES THROUGH THE VENTS IN THE UPSTAIRS BEDROOMS AND BACK DOWN THE DUCTS IN THE NORTH WALL. IT FLOWS THROUGH THE INSULATED FOUNDATION WHICH IS FILLED WITH ROCKS. THE AIR IS THEN RECIRCULATED UP THROUGH THE GREENHOUSE AND GREENROOM.
* THERMAL SHUTTERS IN THE BEDROOMS ARE OPENED TO LET RISING WARM AIR IN, AND ALSO LET IN DIRECT SUN RAYS.
* SUN SHINES ON THE COLLECTOR WHICH PREHEATS THE HOT WATER. WATER IS STORED IN THE ATTIC SPACE


WINTER NIGHT
* BEAD WALL IS BLOWN INTO THE 2" SPACE BETWEEN THE DOUBLE INSULATED GLASS IN THE GREENROOM AND GREENHOUSE TO INHIBIT HEAT LOSS.
* THERMAL SHUTTERS IN THE BEDROOMS ARE CLOSED.
* THE MASS WALL RADIATES STORED HEAT FROM THE SUN'S ENERGY FOR ALL THREE FLOORS.
* SUNSHINE SEATS IN THE GREENROOM AND WATER BARRELS IN THE GREENHOUSE RADIATE HEAT TO THE FIRST FLOOR.
* WOOD STOVE USED AS A SECONDARY HEAT SOURCE, EXCESS HEAT STORED IN THE MASS WALL.
* COOKING STOVE IN THE KITCHEN RADIATES HEAT.
* HOT AIR RISES AND IS RETURNED THROUGH VENTS IN THE BEDROOMS BY FANS.
* ON VERY COLD NIGHTS OR LONG PERIODS OF CLOUDY DAYS, THE CEILING RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM IS USED.
* STORED HOT WATER FROM THE ROOF IS USED AS PREHEATED WATER FOR THE HOT WATER TANK.


SUMMER DAY
* BEAD WALL IS USED IN THE GREENROOM AND GREENHOUSE TO INHIBIT SUN'S RAYS FROM ENTERING THE GLASS.
* COOL AIR FROM NORTH IS DRAWN IN THROUGH THE VENTS AND CIRCULATED THROUGH THE HOUSE.
* TURBINE IS ACTIVATED BY HOT AIR RISING AND LEAVING THROUGH THE ROOF CAUSING NORTH AIR TO RF. DRAWN TN FOR COOLING.
* WINDOWS ARE OPENED FOR VENTILATION WHEN THE SUN IS NOT SHINNING ON THEM,
* CANVAS ROOFS OVER THE PORCHES FOR SHADE AND CANVAS AWNINGS OPENED OVER WEST WINDOWS.
* HOT WATER PREHEAT SYSTEM IS COLLECTING AND STORING SUN’S ENERGY, DURING THE DAY WATER CAN BE USED DIRECTLY FROM ROOF STORAGE.
* EXCESS HEAT IS BEING STORED IN THE MASS WALL.


I
SUMMER NIGHT
* BEAD WALL IS REMOVED IN THE GREENHOUSE AND GREENROOM GLASS AND HEAT IS ALLOWED TO ESCAPE TO THE OUTSIDE FROM THE ROOMS AND THE MASS WALL.
* NATURAL VENTILATION COOLS BY CONVECTION THROUGH OPEN WINDOWS AND VENTS.
* SOLAR PREHEATED WATER IS USED FOR DISHES AND SHOWERS.
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HEAT LOSS
HEAT LOSS IS REDUCED IN THE WINDOWS AND FRENCH DOORS BY USING A DOUBLE INSULATED GLASS WITH STORM WINDOWS WHICH ACT AS TRIPLE INSULATION. (IF A PELLA UNIT IS USED THE STORM WINDOW PANEL IS REMOVED IN THE SUMMER AND REPLACED WITH A SCREEN). THE WINDOWS AND DOORS ARE WOOD SASH CASEMENT INSURING A TIGHT FIT.
AT NIGHT INSULATING STYROFOAM PANELS CAN BE PLACED OVER THE WINDOWS TO REDUCE EXCESSIVE HEAT LOSS (NOT INCLUDED IN HEAT LOSS CALCULATIONS - SEE APPENDIX).
THE BEAD WALL IN THE GREENHOUSE AND GREENROOM IS OPERATED BY SENSORS WHICH BLOW IN BEADS OF POLYSTYRENE IN THE 2" SPACE BETWEEN THE GLASS PANELS ADDING EXTRA INSULATION.
WINDOW OPENINGS ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THE HOUSE,
WHICH RECEIVES NO SUN, ARE MINIMIZED.
HEAT GAIN
WINTER
THE EAST AND SOUTH GLASS EXPOSURES ARE MAXIMIZED TO ALLOW THE SUN'S ENERGY TO ENTER THE GLASS AND HEAT UP THE MASS WALL.
SUMMER
THE BEAD WALL IS USED TO REDUCE THE HEAT GAIN IN THE GREENROOM AND GREENHOUSE. CANVAS AWNINGS ARE OPENED OVER THE WEST WINDOWS TO ELIMINATE THE INTENSE WESTERN SUN.


west elevation
north elevation


east elevation
south elevation




MASS WALL
MASS RETAINS HEAT OVER LONG PERIODS OF TIME. THE
CONCRETE MASS WALL SUPPORTS THE FLOOR JOISTS AND THUS
BECOMES A STRUCTURAL AS WELL AS AN ENERGY FEATURE. THE SUN SHINES THROUGH THE SOUTH FACING GLASS AND IS STORED IN THE WALL. IT RADIATES HEAT INTO THE ROOMS AFTER THE SUN GOES DOWN.
THE MASS WALL ALSO STORES ANY EXCESS HEAT FROM THE WOOD STOVE.
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WARM AND COOL MASSES TEND TO EQUALIZE THEIR TEMPERATURES THUS HEAT FROM A WARM WALL IS TRANSFERED TO A COOL ROOM.
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walls
FRAME WALL
A WELL DESIGNED WALL RETAINS HEAT INSIDE THE HOUSE DURING THE WINTER AND INHIBITS SOLAR HEAT GAIN IN THE SUMMER.
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THE ROOF IS PITCHED AT A 45 DEGREE ANGLE FOR THE HOT WATER SOLAR COLLECTOR. THE ANGLE ALSO MAKES THE FUTURE ADDITION OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR SPACE HEATING, POSSIBLE.
THE SLOPE OF THE ROOF DIRECTS THE NATURAL CONVECTION OF RISING HOT AIR, ALLOWING IT TO BE VENTED TO THE OUTSIDE IN THE SUMMER OR RECIRCULATED THROUGH THE HOUSE IN THE WINTER.
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WINDOWS AND FRENCH DOORS
INSTEAD OF A TYPICAL SLIDING GLASS DOOR, FRENCH DOORS TORE CHOSEN WITH DOUBLE INSULATED GLASS AND A REMOVABLE STORM DOOR. THIS PROVIDES THE SAME GLASS AREA OF A SLIDING DOOR BUT DOUBLES THE VENTILATION AREA FOR THE SUMMER SINCE BOTH DOORS OPEN.
THE WINDOWS ARE DOUBLE INSULATED ALSO, WITH THE REMOVABLE STORM WINDOW WHICH IS REPLACED WITH A SCREEN IN THE SUMMER. THEY ARE CASEMENT WITH A WOOD SASH FOR A TIGHT FIT.
THE WINDOWS AND DOORS ARE LOCATED TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF LIGHT DIRECTION AND TO PROVIDE A CONTINUITY WITH THE OUTSIDE.
LARGE OPENINGS ALLOW THE CROSS CURRENT OF AIR FROM SUMMER BREEZES. THE STORM WINDOW IS REMOVED AND REPLACED WITH THE SCREEN PANEL IN THE SUMMER.
WITH THE WIND TURBINE, OPENED VENTS AND WINDOWS, COOL AIR IS PULLED THROUGH THE HOUSE. THE VENTS ARE PLACED ON THE LOWER NORTH WALL TO ALLOW MAXIMUM COOLING.
GREENROOM
THE GREENROOM OR LIVING ROOM TAKES ADVANTAGE OF THE SPACE NEEDED FOR PASSIVE ENERGY COLLECTION BY USING IT AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE HOME TO BE ENJOYED BY EVERYONE.
FROM THIS SPACE IT IS POSSIBLE TO VISUALIZE THE "MECHANICAL" WORKINGS OF THE BUILDING. IT IS OPENED TO ALL THREE STORIES AND ALSO TO THE GREENHOUSE.
IT COLLECTS AND STORES THE SUN’S ENERGY IN THE SAME WAY AS THE GREENHOUSE. BUT IN THIS SPACE THE WATER BARRELS ARE STORED ON END AND A WOODEN FRAME ALLOWS THEM TO BE USED AS BENCHES. THE SUNSHINE SEATS COLLECT THE ENERGY AND WITH MANIPULATION OF A 1" STYROFOAM PANEL, THEY RADIATE THEIR COLLECTED HEAT AT NIGHT.


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GREENHOUSE
THE POLYSTYRENE BEAD WALL IS STORED WHEN NOT IN USE, ALONG THE SOUTH PERIMETER OF THE GLASS WALL UNDER THE FOUNDATION. THIS SOURCE FEEDS THE VERTICAL GLASS WALL AND IS BLOWN UP INTO PLACE WHEN NEEDED. THE STORAGE FOR THE SLOPED GLASS WALL IS IN THE ROOF AND IS BLOWN DOWN INTO PLACE WHEN NEEDED. THIS ALLOWS SEPARATE OPERATION OF THE BEAD WALL IN THE SUMMER TO ALLOW SOME SUNSHINE TO ENTER FOR THE PLANTS.
BARRELS FILLED WITH WATER ARE PAINTED BLACK TO ABSORB THE SUN'S ENERGY AND ARE USED AS SHELVES FOR FLATS OF PLANTS.
RAIN WATER IS COLLECTED IN BARRELS FROM THE DOWNSPOUT ON THE ROOF. IT CAN BE USED FROM THE GREENHOUSE OR THE GARDEN AND HAS AN OVERFLOW VALVE IF TOO MUCH WATER IS COLLECTED.
THE FLOOR OF THE GREENHOUSE IS A WELL INSULATED CONCRETE SLAB WITH A DRAIN FOR EASY MAINTENANCE.
IT IS A MASS FLOOR WHICH STORES ENERGY FROM THE SUN AND RADIATES IT AT NIGHT. GROWING LIGHTS ARE USED FOR SEEDLINGS TO PROVIDE EXTRA WARMTH IN THE WINTER WIEN THE HOUSE TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATES.
VENTS FROM THE CRAWL SPACE ARE LOCATED ON THE LOWER PORTION OF THE MASS WALL FOR AIR RECIRCULATION,


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FAUCETS ARE FITTED WITH FLOW CONTROL VALVES ALLOWING h GALLONS PER MINUTE AND lH GALLONS PER MINUTE FOR THE SHOWER. THE WATER CLOSETS USE 2\ GALLONS OF WATER PER FLUSH BY UTILIZING COMPRESSED
4
AIR. THE SYSTEM IS MANUFACTURED BY WATER CONTROL PRODUCTS.
THE SOLAR HOT WATER PREHEAT SYSTEM USES THE SUN'S ENERGY TO WARM THE COLD INCOMING WATER. A HOT WATER HEATER IS LOCATED IN THE UTILITY ROOM, AND THE SOLAR HOT WATER SYSTEM IS LOCATED DIRECTLY ABOVE IT IN THE ROOF UTILIZING ONE PLUMBING WALL FOR ALL THE PIPING. THERE IS A STORAGE TANK IN THE ROOF TO COLLECT THE PREHEATED WATER, ALLOWING IT TO BE USED DIRECTLY FROM THAT TANK DURING THE DAY. THE SYSTEM UTILIZES COPPER PIPE WITH THE POTABLE WATER FLOWING THROUGH THE PIPES ELIMINATING THE NEED FOR A HEAT EXCHANGER. IN THE WINTER, A SENSOR VALVE ALLOWS THE WATER IN THE ROOF TANK TO FLOW BY GRAVITY INTO THE HOT WATER TANK IN THE UTILITY ROOM, WHEN IT COOLS TO A CERTAIN TEMPERTURE (WHEN IT GETS CLOUDY OR THE SUN GOES DOWN). THIS KEEPS THE SYSTEM FROM FREEZING AT NIGHT.
FOUNDATION
THE FOUNDATION IS FOUR COURSES OF CONCRETE BLOCK FILLED WITH VERMICULITE, A FREE FLOWING, WATER REPELLENT INSULATION. POLYSTYRENE ON BOTH THE INSIDE AND THE OUTSIDE IS CARRIED BELOW THE FROSTLINE TO THE FOOTINGS, FOR ADDED INSULATION.
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FUELS
WOOD
WOOD IS ONE OF OUR RENEWABLE RESOURCES WHICH BURNS CLEANLY, LEAVING, ASH WHICH IS A GOOD GARDEN FERTILIZER.
SINCE MOST OPEN FIREPLACES ARE INEFFICIENT THEY SHOULD NOT BE USED AS A MAJOR HEAT SOURCE. BUT SOME WOOD STOVES SUCH AS A FRANKLIN, ARE GOOD HEAT SOURCES AND ALSO ARE A VISUAL ENJOYMENT WITH SPECIAL DOORS WHICH OPEN. THESE STOVES CAN OPERATE WITH AN EFFICIENCY OF 50-60 % RATHER THAN THE 10 % EFFICIENCY OF A FIREPLACE.
ELECTRICITY
ELECTRICITY IS A GOOD BACK-UP SYSTEM FOR HEATING SINCE INSTALLATION IS RELATIVELY EASY AND INEXPENSIVE. RADIANT CABLES INSTALLED IN THE CEILING ARE CLEAN AND FLEXIBLE PROVIDING DRY HEAT (PLANTS CAN ADD MOISTURE AS WELL AS RECYCLED BATHROOM STEAM). SINCE THE ELECTRICITY USED IN THE CABLES IS DC CURRENT IT COULD BE POWERED BY A WIND GENERATOR. AT SOME FUTURE TIME THE EXCESS WIND ENERGY WHICH WAS PRODUCED MIGHT BE CREDITED BY THE POWER COMPANIES.
A FROSTFREF. REFRIGERATOR IS USED RESULTING IN A
APPLIANCES
A LINE MUST BE DRAWN BETWEEN THE NEED FOR CONVENIENCE AND THE DESIRE TO BE SELF-SUFFICIENT. MANY APPLIANCES ARE WASTEFUL, NO MATTER WHAT ENERGY SOURCE IS BEING USED. FOR THIS REASON DISHWASHERS, DISPOSALS, TRASH COMPACTORS, MICROWAVE OVENS, AND ELECTRIC CLOTHES DRYERS ARE NOT BEING CONSIDERED,
THE ENERGY FROM A WIND GENERATOR CAN OPERATE SMALL APPLIANCES BUT NOT REFRIGERATORS, STOVES OR OTHER LARGE ITEMS.
THE ELECTRIC STOVE IS IN AN ISLAND TO RADIATE ITS HEAT TO THE ROOM AND THE RANGE HOOD IS DUCTLESS TO PREVENT HEAT FROM BEING VENTED OUTSIDE.
THE WASTE HEAT FROM THE REFRIGERATOR IS VENTED TO
TRF TMf?Tr»F TM TUI? T.TTM'rr’D A tm TUB ramptnn T»t


AIR CONDITIONING
WITH PROPER VENTILATION, DEHUMIDIFICATION OF THE AIR, AND RESTRICTIVE SUMMER HEAT GAIN, AIR CONDITIONING IS NOT NEEDED EVEN IN HOT, HUMID CLIMATES. A GRAVITY TURBINE, WHICH INDUCES NATURAL CONVECTION, CAN REDUCE COOLING NEEDS BY 10-40 %.
LIGHTING
THE OVERALL LIGHT LEVEL IS KEPT LOW WITH TASK LIGHTING WHERE NEEDED. INCANDESCENT LIGHTS ARE USED FOR SPECIFIC TASKS USING THE LOWEST WATTAGE POSSIBLE (IT PRODUCES THE LEAST AMOUNT OF HEAT).
A THERMISTER HEAT SENSOR ON THE LIGHT BULBS PREVENTS HEAT SURGES AND INCREASES THE BULB LIFE THREE TIMES. INTERIOR WALLS ARE PAINTED LIGHT COLORS TO REFLECT AS MUCH LIGHT AS POSSIBLE.
IN GENERAL
* FRAME CONSTRUCTION IS USED WITH 2X6 STUDS 24"
ON CENTER FOR MAXIMUM INSULATION.
* THE ROOF AND FOUNDATION ARE ALSO HEAVILY INSULATED TO REDUCE HEAT LOSSES.
* ALL PIPES AND DUCTS /RE INSULATED TO KEEP THE METALS FROM STEALING HEAT FROM ADJACENT ROOMS.
* THERE IS ONE COMMON PLUMBING WALL TO HELP CUT CONSTRUCTION COSTS.
* THE EXPOSED WOOD STOVE FLUE RADIATES EXTRA HEAT


CONSTRUCTION PHASING
PHASE ONE
IN PHASE ONE, THE ENTIRE HOUSE IS FRAMED IN, AND FLOORS ONE AND TWO ARE COMPLETED. THE PLUMBING FOR THE THIRD FLOOR IS ROUGHED IN.
PHASE TWO
AT A FUTURE TIME, THIS PHASE ALLOWS THE OWNERS THE OPTION OF PARTICIPATING IN BUILDING A PORTION OF THEIR OWN HOME. THE STRUCTURAL SYSTEM IS ALREADY BUILT AND THE PLUMBING IS ROUGHED IN.
THE PLANS SPECIFY A MASTER SUITE WITH BATH AND ROOF TOP DECK BUT THIS THIRD FLOOR COULD EASILY BECOME TWO EXTRA BEDROOMS FOR A LARGE FAMILY.
THE CROWS NEST COULD ALSO BE COMPLETED, IF DESIRED OR ELIMINATED IF NOT WANTED. IF CONSTRUCTED, IT PROVIDES A SPECIAL PLACE FOR A SITE WITH A VIEW,
IN ANY DIRECTION.
THE PHASING OF CONSTRUCTION ALLOWS THE HOME OWNER TO HAVE A COMPLETED HOUSE WITH CURRENT BUILDING COSTS AND ALSO THE ADVANTAGE OF ENLARGING THE HOME IN THE FUTURE. THE ADDITION WOULD NOT NEED A FOUNDATION, EXTERIOR FRAMING OR ROOF,KEEPING THE ADDITIONAL BUILDING COSTS DOWN. IT COULD BE COMPLETED LEISURELY BECAUSE THE MATERIALS WOULD BE PROTECTED FROM BAD WEATHER CONDITIONS.
IN A NUTSHELL
THE SHAPE OF THE HOUSE MINIMIZES HEAT LOSS DURING THE WINTER AND AIDS NATURAL VENTILATION IN THE SUMMER WITH THE SHAPE OF THE ROOF.
IN THE WINTER, THE HEAT FROM THE SUN IS TRAPPED BY THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND STORED IN THE MASS WALL AND WATER BARRELS, TO BE RERADIATED AT NIGHT.
THE WARM AIR IS CIRCULATED THROUGH THE HOUSE THROUGH VENTS AND DUCTS WARMING ALL OF THE ROOMS.
IN THE SUMMER, COOL AIR IS DRAWN IN FROM THE NORTH SIDE THROUGH VENTS AND WINDOWS AND CONVECTED THROUGH THE HOUSE (BY THE NATURAL FLOW OF HOT AIR RISING) THROUGH THE TURBINE IN THE ROOF.
SUNLIGHT IS ALLOWED TO ENTER IN THE WINTER BUT IN THE SUMMER, CANVAS AWNINGS AND A GREENROOM BEAD WALL PREVENT OVERHEATING.
WINDOWS AND FRENCH DOORS ARE DOUBLE INSULATED WITH AN EXTRA STORM WINDOW WHICH ACTS AS A TRIPLE PANE.
A WOOD FRAME REDUCES HEAT TRANSFER AND CAULKING AND WEATHERSTRIPPING REDUCE INFILTRATION.
THERE ARE TWO AUXILARY HEAT SOURCES, A WOOD STOVE AND AN ELECTRIC RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM IN THE CEILING.




MY ORIGINAL INTENTION WAS TO USE THE NBSLD PROGRAM (THERMAL EFFICIENCY WITH RELATION TO MATERIAL DENSITY), WHICH IS IN FORTRAN. I KNEW ABSOLUTELY NOTHING ABOUT COMPUTER SCIENCE, LET ALONE PROGRAMMING BEFORE THIS SEMESTER. THUS I FELT THE EASIEST APPROACH, WAS TO USE AN EXISTING PROGRAM WITH MY OWN DATA. BUT I WAS WRONG. THE NBSLD PROGRAM WAS TOO COMPLEX FOR A SMALL SCALE BUILDING AND IT COULD NOT BE RUN IN SUBROUTINES. SO I DECIDED TO RELEARN ANOTHER LANGUAGE, BASIC, AND WRITE MY OWN PROGRAM,
THE PROGRAM I DEVELOPED, CAN BE USED BY ANYONE. I FELT THAT AFTER MY EXPERIENCES, THE PROGRAM USER SHOULD NOT NEED A COMPUTER SCIENCE DEGREE TO RUN A PROGRAM. TO RUN "SOLAR" THE USER NEEDS TO ONLY BE ABLE TO TYPE (ONE FINGER WILL DO). THE PROGRAM WILL DO THE REST.
"SOLAR" WAS ADAPTED FROM "THE RULES OF THUMB FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING IN NORTHERN NEW MEXICO" BY J. DOUGLAS BALCOMB OF LOS ALAMOS SCIENTIFIC LABORATORIES. THESE "RULES OF THUMB" WERE DERIVED BY EXHAUSTIVE EXPERIMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF EXISTING RESIDENCES HEATED BY THE SUN.
THE PROGRAM CALCULATES:
^PERFORMANCE OF A PASSIVE SOLAR HEATED RESIDENCE (CAN ALSO BE USED FOR GENERALIZATIONS AND "BALL PARK" ANALYSIS OF LARGER BUILDINGS).
*THE CONDUCTANCE THROUGH THE WINDOWS, OPAQUE WALLS, ROOF AND FOUNDATION (IN BTUH/F),
*THE TOTAL CONDUCTANCE FOR THE BUILDING (IN BTUH/F).
■•THE INFILTRATION OF A BUILDING (IN BTUH/F).
*THE SOUTH GLAZING AREA NEEDED TO SUPPLY 80% SOLAR HEATING (IN S.F.).
*THE PERCENTAGE OF SOLAR HEATING, GIVEN THE ACTUAL SOUTH GLAZING AREA.


'’'TOTAL THERMAL LOAD (IN BTUH/F).
*SOLAR TRANSMISSION FOR 8 HOURS (IN BTU) .
*HEAT LOSS IN THE DAY FOR 8 HOURS (IN BTU).
'-HEAT TO BE STORED FROM DAYTIME GAIN (IN BTU).
*THE WATER STORAGE NEEDED TO SUPPLY 80% SOLAR HEATING (IN LBS.).
*THE PERCENTAGE OF SOLAR HEATING GIVEN THE ACTUAL WATER STORAGE.
*THE MASONRY STORAGE NEEDED TO SUPPLY 80% SOLAR HEATING (IN LBS.).
*THE PERCENTAGE OF SOLAR HEATING GIVEN THE ACTUAL MASONRY STORAGE.
*THE PERCENTAGE OF SOLAR HEATING SUPPLIED BY ALL THE STORAGE.
THIS IS THE DATA NEEDED BY THE USER TO "RUN" THE PROGRAM (THESE MAY BE ESTIMATES, AS IN THE CASE OF DESIGN DEVELOPMENT) :
*U VALUES FOR THE OPAQUE WALLS, WINDOWS, ROOF AND FOUNDATION.
*AREAS IN S.F. FOR THE OPAQUE WALLS, WINDOWS, ROOF AND THE BUILDING PERIMETER, (OMITTING THE SOUTH GLAZING AREA WHICH WILL BE USE LATER).
-'VOLUME OF THE BUILDING, IN C.F.
-'ACTUAL SOUTH GLAZING AREA, IN S.F.
*DAYTI ME TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE (BETWEEN THE AVERAGE INSIDE TEMPERATURE AND THE AVERAGE OUTSIDE TEMPERATURE, IN F.). *NIGTTIME TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE (BETWEEN THE AVERAGE INSIDE TEMPERATURE AND THE AVERAGE OUTSIDE TEMPERATURE, IN F.). '-ACTUAL WATER STORAGE IN THE DIRECT SUN, IN LBS. (DIRECT SUN IS ANY STORAGE AREA WHICH THE SUNS RAYS STRIKE, SUCH AS A WATER DRUM WALL).
'"'ACTUAL WATER STORAGE NOT IN THE DIRECT SUN, IN LBS.
'’'ACTUAL MASONRY STORAGE IN THE DIRECT SUN, IN LBS.
^ACTUAL MASONRY STORAGE NOT IN THE DIRECT SUN, IN LBS.


the program
6000 SYSTEM UP
73/05/11. 13-39.33 . CU2C USE?. 1D:R732
PASSWORD
muniii
PROJECT :PDBC TERMINAL! 131/TTY
RECOVER /SYSTEM!33AASSIICC ,
OLD OR MEW- FILE: READY.
' hhaallff
READY. \
OLD/ SOLAR
• '■ • • ’ I
READY.
LNH
AS PRINT
50 PRINT "HELLO" ,
51 PRINT
55 PRINT' "PROOP.AM FOP. PASSI VE-SOLAR BUILDINGS."
56 PRINT
60 PRINT "THIS PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED BY HELENE RICHARDS BROWN
61 PRINT
65 PRINT "DIRECTIONS : ENTER DATA AFTER ? . PRESS RETURN" -
66 PRINT,
67 PRINT "USE MO COMMAS IN NUMBERS” !
70 PRINT ‘I
100 PRINT "U1 = U FACTOR FOR WINDOWS"
1C5 INPUT Ut ' '
110 PRINT ”A1 = AREA FOR WINDOVS/ S.F."
MS INPUT AI
120 LET Cl =* U1 * AI
125 PRINT "CONDUCTANCE FOP.' WINDOWS •=" J Cl I "BTUH PER DEGREE"
106 PRINT
130 PRINT "U2 » U FACT OR POP. WALLS"
13 5 INPUT U2
IA0 PRINT "A2 - = AREA FOP. OPACUE WALLS/ S'. R."
IA5' INPUT A2
150 LET C2 = U2 » A2
155 PRINT '’CONDUCTANCE FOR' WALLS =” J C2 J "37Un PER DEGREE"
156 PRINT <
160 PRINT ”U3 = U FACTOR FOR ROOF”
. 165 INPUT U 3 '
170 PRINT "A3 = AREA OF ROOF/ S.F."
175 INPUT A3 !
•130 LET C3 = U3 * A3
135 PRINT "CONDUCTANCE FOR ROOF = "I C3 J "BTUH PER DEGREE"
13 6 PRINT
190 PRINT "UA = U FACTOR FOR FOUNDATION"
19 5 INPUT U A
200 PRINT "AA - PERIMETER AREA/ S.F."
£0 5 INPUT AA •, •'.
' 210 LET CA = UA «AA ,
215 PRINT "CONDUCTANCE FOR PERIMETER «"{CAJ "BTUH PER DEGREE”
216 PRINT ,
?20 LET-C5 = Cl + C2 + C3+-CA
225 PRINT '.'TOTAL CONDUCTANCE '»"/ C5I "BTUH PEP. DEGREE"
230 PRINT
23 5 PRINT "V = VOLUME OF BUILDING/ C. r • "
2A3 rtlPUT ”
2A5 LET I = V « .01A * .5"
250 PRINT "INFILTRATION ="; IJ "BTUH PER DEGREE"
255 LET L = I ♦ C5 '
265 PRINT
270 PRINT "N = NIGHTTIME TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE/ F."
27 5 INPUT N
230 LET 0 » L * N
290 PRINT
300 LET 0 3 2 *L
305 PRINT "SOUTH GLAZING AREA NEEDED »"JG/'"S.F. "
310 PRINT "S = ACTUAL SOUTH GLAZING AREA/ S.F."
315 INPUT S
320 LET PI = 30 * CS/G)
325 PRINT "PERCENT SOLAP. HEATING SUPPLI ED =”;?!
330 PRINT
33 5 LET T » C5 ♦ f ♦ ‘
340 PRINT "TOTAL THERMAL LOAD «"l TJ "BTUH PER DEGREE"
3A5 LET X = 1A00 * S
350 PRINT "SOLAR TRANSMISSION FOR 8 HR =";.X/ "ETU"
355 PRINT "D = DAYTIME TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE/ F.”
360 INPUT D
365 LET Y = D * L « 3
370 PRINT, "HEAT LOSS PER DAY FOR 3 HP. =";-YS "BTU"
375 LET E‘ = X-Y
330 PRINT "HEAT TO BE STORED ="; El "BTU"
33 5 RRI NT , _ ,
AC0 LET Z = M * T * 16
AO5 PRINT "HEAT LOSS AT Ml CUT FOP. 16 HR = "J Z1 "BTU"
A10 PRINT
415 LET VI = 30 ” G
A20 PRINT "WATER STORAGE NEEDED/ DIRECT SUM ="JWI!"LBS."
AOS PRINT "N2 = ACTUAL WATER STORAGE IN. DIRECT SUN- BBS."
A30 input-wa •. _
A35 LET PS m 80'* 6W2/Wn : 7-
AAO PRINT "PERCENT HEATING SUPPLI ED BY THIS WATER MASS »"JP2 AA5 PRINT
A50 LET V3 * A * 30 * G
ASS PRINT "WATER STORAGE NEEDED/ NOT IN SUN ="; W3/'"LBS."
460 PRINT "WA = ACTUAL WATER STORAGE/ NOT IN SUN/ LES."
A65 INPUT WA
A70 LET P3 - 30 * CWA/W3)
ATS PRINT ."PEF.CENT HEATING SUPPLI ED BY THIS WATER MASS »"JP3 A30 PRINT /
A65 LET HI = 150 * G
490 PRINT 'MASONRY STORAGE NEEDED/' DIRECT SUN a "J Rl / "LBS. "
A95 PRINT "R2 » ACTUAL MASONRY STORAGE/ DIRECT SUN/ LBS."
500 INPUT R2
50 5 LET PA = 30 * C R2/F1 )
510 PRINT "PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED BY THIS MASONRY MASS ="J PA 515 PRINT
520 LET F3 = 150 *0*4
525 PRINT "MASOIP.Y STORAGE NEEDED NOT IN SUN »"I R3I "LBS."
53 0 PRINT "PA = ACTUAL MASONRY STORAGE/ MOT IN( SUN/ LBS."
53 5 INPUT P.A
540 LET ?5 = 30 * CRA/R3)
54 5 FRINT "PERCENT HEATING SUPPLI ED BY THIS MASONRY MASS ="JP5 SEC PRINT
555 LET P6 = P2 + P3 ♦ PA * P5
56E PRINT "PERCENT HEATING SUPPLI ED BY ALL MASSES = "; F6 565 PRINT
600 PRINT 'THIS IS THE END OF THE PROGRAM"
6C5 PRINT
610 PRINT "MAY YOUR LIFE BE FILLED WITH $ UK SHINE."
615 STOP 620 END READY.


DATA USED IN THE PROGRAM
u VALUE FOR WINDOWS = .36 AREA FOR WINDOWS =-: ^58 S.F
u VALUE FOR WALLS AREA FOR WALLS = 172*1 S.F
2x*4 CONSTRUCTION = .0*»9
2x6 CONSTRUCTION = .031
LOG CONSTRUCTION 8" = .10
u VALUE FOR ROOF = .025 AREA FOR ROOF = 1080 S.F
u VALUE FOR FOUNDATION WALL = .071 AREA OF PERIMETER = 936 S.F
VOLUME OF THE BUILDING = 180**0 C.F.
ACTUAL SOUTH GLAZING AREA = 828 S.E.
WATER STORAGE IN THE DIRECT SUN (WATER BARRELS) = 5**72 LBS.
MASS STORAGE IN THE DIRECT SUN (INTERIOR MASS WALL AND FLOOR SLAB IN GREENHOUSE) = *45000 LBS. MASS STORAGE NOT IN THE DIRECT SUN (ROCK STORAGE IN CRAWL SPACE) = 133920 LBS.
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES (AVERAGES FOR OUTSIDE TAKEN FROM CLIMATE DATA FOR EVERGREEN).
JUNE DAYTIME (ASSUME INDOOR OF 78 F.) = 2 F.
JUNE NIGHTTIME (ASSUME INDOOR OF 65 F.) = 25 F.
DECEMBER DAYTIME (ASSUME INDOOR OF 65 F.) = 21 F.
DECEMBER NIGHTTIME (ASSUME INDOOR OF 65 F.) = 55 F.


RESULTS OF SIX COMPUTER RUNS OF "SOLAR"
TOTAL THERMAL LOAD (BTUH/F.) 2x*l CONSTRUCTION 767 2x6 CONSTRUCTION 737 LOG CONSTRUCT 855
t HEATING SUPPLIED BY GLASS AREA 70 75 59
HEAT LOSS FOR 8 HR. DAY (BTU) 7505 7009 8912
HEAT LOSS FOR 16 HR. NIGHT (BTU) 306869 29** **56 3**2038
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED BY STORAGE MASSES 60 6** 51
DECEMBER
TOTAL THERMAL LOAD (BTUH/F.) 767 737 855
% HEATING SUPPLIED BY GLASS AREA 70 75 59
HEAT LOSS FOR 8 HR. DAY (BTU) 78808 7359** 93579
HEAT LOSS FOR 16 HR. NIGHT (BTU) 675111 6^7803 752484
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED BY STORAGE MASSES 60 64 51


THIS PROGRAM WAS DESIGNED FOR USEAGE WITH PASSIVE RESIDENCES, BUT IT CAN ALSO BE USED AS A ROUGH ESTIMATE FOR LARGER BUILDINGS. IT CAN BE USED FOR ANALYSIS OF A DESIGNED BUILDING OR AS A DESIGN TOOL, WITH PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES AS DATA.
EVERYTHING THIS PROGRAM CALCULATES CAN BE CALCULATED BY HAND, THE COMPUTER JUST DOES IT FASTER. THAT MAKES IT EASIER TO MODIFY AREAS, CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND MASS OR WATER STORAGE AREAS WITHOUT HOURS OF COMPUTATIONS.
THE AVERAGE "RUN" COSTS 25* SO IT BECOMES AFFORDABLE TO COMPARE SUCH THINGS AS 2x6, 2xA, OR LOG WALL CONSTRUCTION. THE AFFECTS OF DOUBLE VERSUS TRIPLE PANE WINDOWS CAN ALSO BE EASILY OBTAINED.
THIS PROGRAM IS ONLY A TOOL, FOR THE DESIGNER TO LESSEN CALCULATION TIME AND ENABLE MORE TIME FOR APPROPRIATE DESIGN.




Z 2X4 CONSTRUCTION EGAL COMMAND.
ENH
HELLO
PROGRAM POP. PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS.
THIS PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED 3Y HELENE’RICHARDS BROWN
DIRECTIONS : ENTER DATA AFTER ? > PRESS RETURN
USE NO COMMAS IN NUMBERS
U! = U FACTOR FOR WINDOWS ?. -36 . .. . . .
A1 = AREA FOR WINDOWS* S.F.
7 453 . . ....... .. .. •
CONDUCTANCE FOR WINDOWS = 164.S3 3TUH PER DEGREE
U2 = U FACTOR FOR WALLS
?_.049_ . .. ... ..........
A2..«..AREA FOR OPAQUE WALLS*' S.F.
? 1724 .
CONDUCTANCE FOR WALLS = 34.476 3TUH PER DEGREE
U3 = .U FACTOR FOR ROOF ?..325 . . . _ . .
A3..= AREA OF ROOF* S.F.
? 1033 ............
CONDUCTANCE FOR ROOF = 27 3TUH PER DEGREE
U4 = J3 FACTOR FOR FOUNDATION
? -371 ................. ~
A4 = PERIMETER AREA* S.F.
7936 . . .. ... ..
CONDUCTANCE FOR PERIMETER = 66.456 3TUH PER DEGREE
TOTAL CONDUCTANCE * 342.312 3TUH PER DEGREE
V = VOLUME Ojf BUILDING* C.F.
? 13342 . ‘.....'
INFILTRATION = 126.23 3TUH PER DEGREE
N = NIGHTTIME TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE* F.
? 23 -
SOUTH GLAZING.AREA. NEEDED = 933 .Vs4 S.F.
S = ACTUAL SOUTH GLAZING AREA* S.F.
? 328 ..................... ... .. .
PERCENT SOLAR HEATING SUPPLIED = 70.6045
TOTAL THERMAL.LOAD = 767.172 3TUH PER DEGREE SOLAR TRANSMISSION FOR 3 HR =.1159200 3TU 0 = DAYTIME TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE* F.
? 2 . . _. ._ ..... .. 1 . -
HEAT LOSS PER DAY FOR 3 HR = 7503.47 3TU HEAT TO BE STORED = 1.1S169E+6 3TU
HEAT LOSS AT NIGHT FOR 16 HP. = 306869. 3TU
WATER STORAGE NEEDED* .DIRECT SUN = 23145.5 L3S.
W2 =.ACTUAL WATER STORAGE IN DIRECT SUN* L3S.
? 5472 . ... ... ....
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y THIS WATER MASS = 13.3535
WATER STORAGE NEEDED* NOT IN SUN =.112532. LBS.
W4 = ACTUAL WATER STORAGE* NOT IN SUN* LBS.
7 3 .. . . ....
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y THIS WATER MASS = 0
MASONRY STORAGE NEEDED* .DIRECT SUN :=.1407 23 . LBS.
R2 = ACTUAL MASONRY STORAGE* DIRECT SUN* LBS.
7 45303 .... ... . ...
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y THIS MASONRY MASS = 25.331
MASONRY STORAGE'NEEDED NOT IN SUN = 362913..L3S.
R4.=.ACTUAL MASONRY STORAGE* NOT IN SUN* LBS.
7 133923
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED BY THIS MASONRY MASS = 19.332 PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y ALL MASSES = 60.1673 THIS IS THE END OF THE PROGRAM MAY YOUR LIFE BE FILLED WITH SUNSHINE.
C? 0.457 SECS.
FUN COMPLETE.


DSC 2; X 4 CONSTRUCT!ON ILLEGAL COMMAND.
RNH.
HELLO
PROGRAM FOR PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS.
THIS PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED BY HELENE RICHARDS BROUN DIRECTIONS : ENTER DATA AFTER 7 * PRESS RETURN
USE NO COMMAS IN NUMBERS
yi = U FACTOR FOP. WINDOWS
7.. .36 .. . ...
AI = AREA FOR WINDOWS* S.F.
? ass............ ...
CONDUCTANCE FOR WINDOWS. = I6A.33 3TUH PER DEGREE
U2 = U FACTOR FOR WALLS
?_ .049. . . .. ..........
A2..= . AREA FOR OPAQUE WALLS* S.F.
? 1724 . ...........
CONDUCTANCE FOR WALLS = 34.476 3TUH PER DEGREE
U3 = .U FACTOR FOR ROOF
7.. 325 ... .. . .
A3.> AREA OF ROOF* S.F.
7 1383 . . .................
CONDUCTANCE FOR ROOF = 27 3TUH PER DEGREE
U4 =.U FACTOR FOR FOUNDATION 7 .371
A4 = PERIMETER AREA* S.F.
? 936 . \
CONDUCTANCE FOR PERIMETER = 66.456 3TUH PER DEGREE
TOTAL CONDUCTANCE = 342.312 3TUH PER DEGREE
. / •
V = VOLUME OF BUILDING* C.F.
7 13343 . ......
INFILTRATION = 126.23 3TUH PER DEGREE
N = NIGHTTIME TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE* F.
7 55
SOUTH GLAZING.AREA. NEEDED = 933.134 S.F.
S a ACTUAL.SOUTH GLAZING AREA* S.F.
7 323 ... . . ....
PERCENT SOLAR HEATING SUPPLIED = 73.5045
TOTAL THERMAL.LOAD = 767.172 .3TUH PER DEGREE SOLAR TRANSMISSION FOP. 3 HR = 1159233 3TU D =..DAYTIME TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE* F.
7 21.
HEAT LOSS PER DAY FOR 3 HR = 73337.S 3TU HEAT TO 3E STORED = 1.33339E+6 3TU
HEAT LOSS AT MIGHT FORT 16 HR = 675111. 3TU
WATER STORAGE NEEDED* DIRECT SUN = 23145.5 LBS.
W2 =.ACTUAL WATER STORAGE IN DIRECT SUN* L3S.
7 5472 ... ...
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y THIS WATER MASS = 15.5335
WATER STORAGE NEEDED* NOT IN SUN = 112532, L3S.
W4 = ACTUAL WATER STORAGE* MOT IN SUN* LBS.
7 3 . .................. - . ..
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y THIS WATER MASS = 3
MASONRY .ST.OR AGE NEEDED* DIRECT SUN =.143723 . L3S.
H2 = ACTUAL MASONRY STORAGE* DIRECT SUM* LBS.
7 45333 .
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED BY* THIS MASONRY MASS = 25.3313
MASONRY STORAGE NEEDED MOT IN SUM = 562913. LBS.
54. .= .ACTUAL‘MASONRY STORAGE* NOT IN SUN* LBS.
7 133923
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED BY THIS MASONRY MASS = 19.3325 PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y ALL MASSES = 63.1673 THIS IS THE END OF THE PROGRAM'
MAY YOUR LIFE 3E FILLED WITH SUNSHINE.
CP 3.431 SECS.
HUN COMPLETE.
BYE.
J03' COST .R732134 PD3C/P.732 73/35/33 22. 13.55 S 1.33
PF ACCUMULATION RATE PER DAY 5 3.32
ACCOUNT BALANCE • 3 135.15
(NORMAL)


JU?IS 2X6 CONSTRUCTION ILLEGAL COMMAND.
3jjjl
HELLO
PROGRAM FOR PASSIVE SOLAR 3UILDIMG3.
THI3 PROGRAM MAS DEVELOPED 3Y HELENS RICHARDS 3P.OWN
DIRECTIONS : ENTER DATA AFTER ? * PRESS RETURN
USE NO COMMAS IN NUM3ERS
Ut - U FACTOR FOR WINDOWS ?..«36 . .. _ ....
A1 = AREA FOR WINDOWS* S.F.
? 453 . . . ..... .. . '
CONDUCTANCE FOR HINDOOS * 164.33 3TUH PER DEGREE
U2 = .U FACTOR FOR WALLS ? . .331.. .. _ ._ .... . .
A2..= AREA FOR OPAOUE WALLS* S.F.
? 1724 . . ...........
CONDUCTANCE FOR WALLS = 53-444 3TUH PER DEGREE
U3 = U FACTOR FOR ROOF ?. *225..
A3..= AREA OF ROOF. S.F.
? 133 3 . . ... ... ......
CONDUCTANCE FOR ROOF = 27 3TUH PER DEGREE
U4 = .U FACTOR FOR FOUNDATION
? .071 . _ ____ ...
A4 = PERIMETER AREA* S.F.
? 936 ... ........ .. ...
CONDUCTANCE FOR PERIMETER = 66.456 3TUH PER DEGREE
TOTAL CONDUCTANCE * 311.73 3TUH PER DEGREE
V » VOLUME OF 3UILDING* C.F.
? 13040 . .. .....
INFILTRATION = 126*23 3TUH PER DEGREE
N = NIGHTTIME TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE* F.
? 25
SOUTH GLAZING.AREA. NEEDED = 376*12 S.F.
S =.ACTUAL SOUTH GLAZING AREA* S.F.
? 323 .... ...
PERCENT SOLAR HEATING SUPPLIED = 75.6061
TOTAL THERMAL.LOAD = 736.14 3TUH PER DEGREE SOLAR TRANSMISSION FOR 3 HR.= 1159230 BTU Q = DAYTIME TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE* F.
? 2
HEAT LOSS PER DAY FOR 3 HR = 7003.96 3TU HEAT TO 3E STORED = 1.15219E+6 3TU
HEAT LOSS AT NIGHT FOR 16 HR = 294456. 3TU
WATER.STORAGE NEEDED* DIRECT SUN = 26233.6 LBS.
‘■72 = ..ACTUAL WATER STORAGE IN DIRECT SUN* LBS.
7 5472 .............. . ... .....
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y THIS WATER MASS = 16.6353
WATER STORAGE NEEDED* NOT IN SUN =135134. LBS.
74.-.* ACTUAL WATER STORAGE* NOT IN SUN* L3S.
73 .... ...
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y THIS WATER MASS = 0
MASONRY STORAGE NEEDED* DIRECT SUN .= . 131413 . LBS.
R2 = ACTUAL MASONRY STORAGE* DIRECT SUN* LBS.
? 45330 ... .... . ...
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y THIS MASONRY MASS = 27.393S
MASONRY STORAGE NEEDED MOT IN SUN = 525672. L3S •
P.4. = . ACTUAL MASONRY STORAGE* NOT IN SUN* L3S.
? 133923 ....
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y THIS MASONRY MASS = 23.3333
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y ALL MASSES = 64.4295
THI-5 IS THE END OF THE PROGRAM ..... \
MAY YOUR LIFE 3E FILLED WITH SUNSHINE.
C? 3.453 SECS.
RUN COMPLETE.


IDLE. ... ...
DECEMBER 3X6 CONSTRUCTION ILLEGAL COMMAND.
RNH
HELLO
PROGRAM FOR PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS.
THIS PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED BY HELENE RICHARDS 3ROVN
DIRECTIONS : ENTER DATA AFTER ? * PRESS RETURN
USE NO COMMAS IN NUMBERS
UI * U FACTOR FOR WINDOWS
7...36 ...
A1 3 AREA FOR WINDOWS. S.F.
7 453 ......
CONDUCTANCE FOR WINDOWS =• 164.33 3TUH PER DEGREE
U2 3 . .U FACTOR FOR WALLS
7 .331 . . . . V
A2..3 AREA FOR OPAQUE WALLS# S.F.
7 1724 . ..............
CONDUCTANCE FOR WALLS 3 S3.444 3TUH PER DEGREE U3 =U FACTOR FOR ROOF
?. *025...
A3..3 AREA OF ROOF# S.F.
? 1033 . . . . ... ..
CONDUCTANCE FOR ROOF = 27 3TUH PER DEGREE
U4 = .U FACTOR FOR FOUNDATION ? .071 ..
A4 = PERIMETER AREA* S.F.
? 936 . . ............
CONDUCTANCE FOR PERIMETER 3 66.456 3TUH PER DEGREE
TOTAL CONDUCTANCE = 311.73 BTUH PER DEGREE
V 3 VOLUME OF 3UILDING* C.F.
7 13040 . .... . ..
INFILTRATION 3 126.23' BTUH PER DEGREE
i
N 3 NIGHTTIME TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE* F.
7 55
SOUTH GLAZING.AREA. NEEDED 3 376.12 S.F.
S 3 ACTUAL SOUTH GLAZING AREA* S.F.
7 323 .....
PERCENT SOLAR HEATING SUPPLIED = 75.6061
TOTAL THERMAL LOAD = 736.14 BTUH PER DEGREE SCLAR TRANSMISSION FOR 3 HR.3 1159230 3TU 3 DAYTIME TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE* F.
7 21... ._ ... ...
HEAT LOSS PER DAY FOR 3 HR, - 73594* 1 3TU HEAT TO 33 STORED 3 I.08S61E+6 BTU
HEAT LOSS AT MIGHT FOR 16 HR = 647303. BTU
WATER STORAGE NEEDED* DIRECT SUN = 26233.6 L3S.
W2 =.ACTUAL WATER STORAGE IN DIRECT SUN* LBS.
7 5472 ............... . .....
PERCENT HEATING' SUPPLIED BY THIS WATER MASS 3 16.6553
WATER STORAGE NEEDED* NOT IN SUN 3 105134. L3S.
74 = ACTUAL WATER STORAGE* MOT IN SUN* LBS.
? 0 . .... . .
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED SY THIS WATER MASS 3 3
MASONRY .STORAGE NEEDED* DIRECT SUN = ,131413. LBS.
R2 = ACTUAL MASONRY STORAGE* DIRECT SUN* L3S.
7 45000 . ... ... ..................
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED BY THIS MASONRY MASS = 27.3935
MASONRY .STORAGE NEEDED NOT IN SUM 3 S2S672. LBS.
R4 3. ACTUAL MASONRY STORAGE* NOT IN SUN* LBS.
7 133920 ....
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y THIS MASONRY MASS 3 20.3333 PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y ALL MASSES 3 64.4295 THIS IS THE END OF THE PROGRAM MAY YOUR LIFE 3E FILLED WITH SUNSHINE.
C? 3.465 SECS.
RUN COMPLETE.


JUNE LOG CONSTRUCTION ILLEGAL COMMAND.
FNH
HELLO
PROGRAM FOR PASSIVE. SOLAR BUILDINGS.
..THIS PROGRAM ’.’AS DEVELOPED BY HELENE RICHARDS BROWN DIRECTIONS : ENTER DATA AFTER ? * PRESS RETURN USE NO COMMAS IN NUMBERS "
Ul- = U FACTOR FOR WINDOWS
? • 3 6
A1 = AREA FOP. WINDOWS* S . F.
7 453 . .
CONDUCTANCE FOR VIMDOVS = 164.33 '3TUH PER DEGREE
IE = U FACTOR FOR NALLS ? • 10 -A2 = AREA FOP. OPAQUE WALLS* 3. F. '
7 1724
CONDUCTANCE FOP. WALLS = i72.4 3TUH PER DEGREE
UU-= U, FACTOR FOP. P.OOF ? .025
A3 = AREA OF ROOF* S . r.
? 1 03 C
CONDUCTANCE FOR ROOF = 2 7 3TUK PER DEGREE
U4 = U FACTOR FOR FOUNDATION ? .07 1
.44 = PERIMETER AREA* S. F.
? 936
CONDUCTANCE FOP. PERIMETER = 6 6.45 6 5TUH PER DECREE
TOTAL CONDUCTANCE = 430.736 3TUH PER DEGREE
V = '-CLUM E OF BUILDING* C . F.
7 13 04C
INFILTRATION = 126-23 3TUH PER-DEGREE
M = NIGHTTIME TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE* F.
7 25 ' . ‘
' SOUTH' GLAZING AREA NEEDED = 1114.03' S-F.
S = ACTUAL S OUTH GLAZING AREA* S • F.
7 3 23
PERCENT SOLAR HEATING SUPPLIED = 59.4597
TOTAL THERMAL LOAD =355.396 3TUK PER DEGREE SOLAR TRANSMISSION FOP. 3 HP. = 1 1 59 2 0 2,3TU D = DAYTIME TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE* F.
7 2 - »
HEAT LOSS FER DAY FOR 3 HP. = 39 12.26 3TU HEAT TO 3E STORED = U15029E+6 3TU
HEAT LOSS AT NI GHT FOP. 16. HP. = 342033. 3TU
s'
WATER STORAGE NEEDED* DIRECT SUM = 33421. LBS •
W2 = ACTUAL WATER STORAGE IN DIRECT SUN* LBS.
7 5472
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y THIS WATER MASS = 13*2934
WATER STORAGE NEEDED* NOT IN SUN = 133634. LBS.
U4 = ACTUAL WATER STORAGE* NOT IN SUM* LBS.
7 C
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y THIS WATER MASS = 3
MASONRY STORAGE NEEDED* DIRECT SUN = 167125. LBS. -R2 = ACTUAL MASONRY STORAGE* DIRECT SUM* LBS.
7 45330
PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED BY THIS MASONRY NASS = 01.-5^34
MASONRY STORAGE NEEDED NOT IN -SUN = 6634 1?., LBS.
P.4 = ACTUAL MASONRY STORAGE* NOT IN SUN* LBS.
7 133923
PERCENT HEATING â– SUPPLIED BY THIS MASONRY MASS = 16.C2j3 PS?CENT HEATING SUPPLIED BY ALL 'MASSES = 53.67 THIS IS THE END 0 F THE PROGRAM MAY YOUR LIFE 3E FILLED WITH SUNSHINE.
CP _ 3.52? SECS.
HUM COMPLETE.
3*r
J03 COST R722131 PD3C/R732 "3/35/1! 13- 59.23 a C. 60
PF ACCUMULATION RATE PER DAY I 3.02
ACCOUNT BALANCE I IN..42
t m n v
(. normal;


DEC -uu
program fop. passive solar buildimgs.
“•ilS FF.03P.AM VAS DEVELOPED 3Y HELS1E RICHARDS 3R0VM
DIRECT I OHS : emteh data AFTER ? . PRESS RETD'?.::
DEE. MO COMMAS IM MU’TEERS
"1 = U FACTOR FOP. WINDOWS ? .36
A! * AREA FOP. VIII DO VS . S'. F. -7 A 53
COM DUCT AM CE FOR MI MOO VS * 1 64 .33 ETCH PEP. DEGREE
US = U FACTOR, FOR WALLS 7.10
A2 =- AREA FOP. OP AGUE '.’ALLS . S . F-7 1724
CQMDUCTAMCE FOP WALLS = 172.4 3TUH ,?ER DEGREE
U3 = U FACTOR FOR ROOF 7 .025
A2 = AREA OF ROOF. 3. F-7 103 0
COM DUCT AM C E FOR POOF - 2 7 ETUR. PEP DEGREE
U4 = ;J FACTOR FOR FOUMDAT ION,
7 -371
A4 = PERIMETER AREA. 3 . F-7 536
CCMDUCTAMCE FOP. PERIMETER = 56-456 3TUT PER DEGREE
TOTAL CONDUCTANCE = 430.736 3TVH PER' DEGREE
V = VOLUME OF BUILDING. C. r.
7 13040
IM FILTPATIOM = 12 6.23 STUH PEP. DEGREE
M = MIGHTTIME-TEMPERATURE- DIFFERENCE. F.
7 55
SOUTH GLAZING AREA MEEDED = 1114.33 S*F.
,S — ACTUAL SOUTH GLAZIMG AREA. S» F.
7 3 23 '
PEPCEMT SOLAR HEATIMG SUPPLIED = 59 .459 7
TOTAL THERMAL LOAD = 355..756 STtIH PER DEGREE SOLAR TPAMSMISSIOM FOR 3 HP. = 1133233 5TU D = DAYTIME TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE. F*
7 21 *
HEAT LOSS PEP DAY FOR 3 HR = 93573.7 37U HEAT TO 3E STORED * 1 .2 65 62E’- 6_ 3TU
HEAT LOSS AT MIGHT FOR 16 HR = 752434. 3TU
T *** TTO C T IT MEEDED. DIRECT S'
V2 = ACTUAL V 7 34 T2 ATS?. s-TORAOS ::: r n
PEPCEMT heat:: Mu'SUPPLIED 3Y TH
WATER STORAGE WEEDED. MOT IM SUM = 133634. LSS •
”4 « ACTUAL WATER STORAGE. MOT IM SUM. L3S•
7 0 ^ ^
MASONRY STORAGE MEEDED. DIRECT SUM = 1 67 135. LSS. R2 “ ACTUAL MAS OWSY STORA.GE. DIRECT SUM. LSS •
-> -icn.


THIS MASOMRY MASS = 21•5-
‘ T ~ -1 ‘ • T 'S
STORAGE MEEDED MOT IM SUM = 6 63.;'
7.4 = ACTUAL. MASONRY STORAGE. MOT IM SUM. LSS*
7 I 3 3 9 2 3
PEPCEMT HEAT IMG SUPPLIED 3Y THIS MASOMRY MASS = t6.023 PEPCEMT HEATIMG SUPPLIED 3Y ALL MASSES = SO.67
MAY YOUR LI FE 3E TILLED "1TH SUMSHIME.
CP 0 • 495 S ECS •
i




HEAT LOSS CALCULATIONS U FACTORS
WALL (FRAME) .031 FOUNDATION .071
WALL (BRICK) . 100 GLASS (WINDOWS, DOORS) .360
ROOF .025 WOOD DOOR .180
GREENHOUSE WITH INSULATION .092 SKYLIGHT .700
ROOM BTUH LOSS
GREENROOM (LIVING) 3572
GREENHOUSE 2624
DINING 1136
KITCHEN 906
UTILITY 756
BEDROOM 1 884
BEDROOM 2 1669
BATHROOM 209
BEDROOM 3 2289
BATHROOM 531
TOTAL 14,576
TOWER
TOTAL 9,265
0 DEGREES OUTSIDE TEMPERATURE
65 DEGREES INSIDE TEMPERATURE
T - 65


JL JL v/L'i
vvLiumj a
■L A. iWIO — Ll>ir i\-/LX
ROOM INFILTRATION
GREENROOM (LIVING) 4781
GREENHOUSE 2109
DINING 1462
KITCHEN 1647
UTILITY 1132
BEDROOM 1 1348
BEDROOM 2 2059
BATHROOM 657
BEDROOM 3 2376
BATHROOM 657
18,228
TOWER
2,958
SINCE THE TOWER CAN BE THERMALLY SHUT OFF FROM THE HOUSE USE h THE VALUE FOR HEAT LOSS AND INFILTRATION.
TOTALS HOUSE TOWER (h)
HEAT LOSS 14,576 4632
INFILTATION 18,228 1479
TOTAL
32,804
6111


HOT WATER PREHEAT SYSTEM
H = DAILY HOT WATER HEAT DEMAND.(BTU/DAY)
D = DAILY HOT WATER DEMAND-(GALLONS/DAY)
EACH PERSON USES 15G/D (SO A FAMILY OF 4 USES 60 G/D)
T = DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE HOT TAP WATER AND THE COLD INTAKE WATER.(F) WELL WATER IS 40 DEGREES F, HOT TAP WATER IS 120 DEGREES F.
EQUATION : H - 8.34 x D x T
H = 8.34 x 60 x (120 - 40) = 40,032 BTU/D
C = COLLECTOR SIZE NEEDED (FT2)
I = AVERAGE DAY INSOLATION (BTU/FT2/D)
(WITH 45 DEGREE SOUTH FACING SLOPE ON ROOF, 40 DEGREE NORTH LATITUDE, 2060 AVERAGE DAY INSOLATION FOR DECEMBER WITH 70% POSSIBLE SUNSHINE ,., I = 1442) E « COLLECTOR EFFICIENCY (%)
HOT WATER FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR (45%)
EQUATION : C = 100 x H I x E
C = 100 x 40,032 = 62 FT2 TWO MODULES OF 4' x 8' = 64 FT2 1442 x .45




BUILDING CONSTRUCTION: MATERIALS AND TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION, HUNTINGTON AND MICKADEIT,
JOHN WILEY & SONS, 1975.
COMPUTING. FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS, BOOTH & CHIEN, HAMILTON PUBL. CO., 1974.
DESIGN WITH CLIMATE, VICTOR OLGYAY, PRINCETON UNIV. PRESS, 1963.
DESIGN WITH NATURE, IAN MCHARG, DOUBLEDAY & CO., N.Y., 1969.
DESIGN WITH WOOD, WESTERN WOOD PRODUCTS ASSOCIATION.
ENERGY AND THE BUILDER, PROFESSIONAL BUILDER, CAHNERS PUBLISHING CO., 1977.
FORTRAN: A SIMPLIFIED GUIDE TO PROGRAMMING. DANIEL MCCRACKEN, JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC,1974
HERE COMES THE SUN, 1981, JOINT VENTURE AND FRIENDS, BOULDER COLORADO, 1975.
HOME HEATING - SYSTEMS, FUELS, CONTROLS, USDA 02235,1975.
IN THE BANK OR UP THE CHIMNEY, HUD,1974.
LOW COST ENERGY EFFICIENT SHELTER FOR THE OWNER AND BUILDER. ED. EUGENE ECCLI, RODALE PRESS, 1976.
MASS THICKNESS MANUAL FOR WALLS, FLOORS, AND ROOFS, DEFENSE CIVIL PREPAREDNESS AGENCY, U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1973, 0-500-926.
MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDINGS, MCGUINESS AND STEIN, JOHN WILEY & SONS 1971.
NBSLD, THE COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR HEATING AND COOLING LOADS IN BUILDINGS, KUSUDA, HUD,
DEPT. OF COMMERCE, 1976.
OTHER HOMES AND GARBAGE, DESIGNS FOR SELF SUFFICIENT LIVING, LECKIE, MASTERS, WHITEHOUSE AND YOUNG, SIERRA CLUB BOOKS, 1975.


PATIOS, TERRACES, DECKS AND ROOF GARDENS, ALICE SMITH, HAWTHORNE BOOKS, 1969.
PATTERN LANGUAGE, ALEXANDER, ISHIKAWA, SILVERSTEING, OXFORD UNIV. PRESS, 1977.
RADICAL TECHNOLOGY, ED. BOYLE AND HARPER, PANTHEON BOOKS, 1976.
ROCKY MOUNTAIN HORTICULTURE, GEORGE KELLY, PRUETT PUBLISHING CO., 1967.
SOLAR DESIGNING, JAMES LAMBETH, U.S.A., 1977.
THE COMPLETE BOOK OF HEATING WITH WOOD, LARRY GAY, GARDEN WAY BOOKS, 1975.
THE ENERGY PRIMER, SOLAR, WATER, WIND AND BIOFUELS, PORTOLA INSTITUTE, 1974.
THE HAYDEN MEDICAL FACILITY, BUSCH, MOULTON, RICHARDS, CCDD, 1976.
THE NEW YORK TIMES BOOK OF VEGETABLE GARDENING. JOAN LEE FAUST, QUADRANGLE, 1975.
THE OWNER BUILT HOME, KEN KERN, KEN KERN DRAFTING, 1961.
THE SOLAR HOME BOOK, BRUCE ANDERSON, CHESIRE BOOKS, 1976.
THE SUN EARTH BOOK, RICHARD L. CROWTHER, A. B. HIRSCHFIELD, 1976.
THE WOODBURNERS ENCYCLOPEDIA, JAY SHELTON AND ANDREW SHAPIRO, VERMONT CROSSROADS PRESS, 1977.
YOUR ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSE, ANTHONY ADAMS, GARDEN WAY PUBLISHING, 1975


"THE LIFE THAT SHALL FLOURISH WILL BE THE LIFE THAT ADAPTS TO THE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS CHANGES,
NOT THE ONE THAT TRIES TO MAKE THE WORLD CONFORM TO ITS NEEDS AND SETS OUT TO REDESIGN THE UNIVERSE IN ONE GRAND GESTURE.
NO ONE THING SHALL OVERWHELM THE EARTH ... FOR THE MIRACLE OF THE UNIVERSE KEEPS ALL THINGS ...
IN BALANCE."


Full Text

PAGE 1

, AURARIA DESIGN RARY

PAGE 2

r I Date Due 4--:27 .... l • . ' i l i "LITTLE ... 1 1111111111111111111 1 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 3 1204 00270 7801 ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY I FEEL THE ICE IS SLOWLY MELTING. LITTLE DARLING... IT SEEMS LIKE YEARS SINCE ITS BEEN HERE. HERE COMES THE SUN. HERE COMES THE SUN. AND IT'S ALL RIGHT." GEORGE HARRISON 1969

PAGE 3

A MASTERS THESIS PROJECT BY HELENE RICHARDS BROWN UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, DENVER SPRING 1978

PAGE 4

THE WHITE HAT AWARDS MANY PEOPLE HAVE HELPED MAKE THIS POSSIBLE, I WOULD LIKE TO THANK G. K. VETTER, ALVARO MALO AND GARY LONG, MY STUDIO DESIGN ADVISORS, AND BOB UTZINGER FOR SECURING MY COMPUTER TIME . ALSO, BOB, KATIE, DAN, JENNIFER, CRAIG, KELVIN AND ALL OF THE ADVISORS IN THE COMPUTER CENTER, ALONG WITH DEE, AND LASTLY MY HUSBAND DICK ... WHO HAS BECOME A VERY GOOD COOK. THE BLACK HAT AWARD TO THE GENTLEMAN WHO DROPPED MY STACK OF 3549 UNPRINTED COMPUTER CARDS ONTO THE COMPUTER CENTER FLOOR.

PAGE 5

. .

PAGE 6

IN THE PROCESS OF AN ENERGY CONSCIOUS RESIDENCE MANY VARIABLES MUST BE CONSIDERED, DIFFERENT BUILDING MATERIALS OR COMBINATION OF MATERIALS GIVE VARYING RESISTANCE FACTORS, A THERMALLY EFFICIENT WALL COULD BE CONSTRUCTED WITH A 2x6 FRAME WITH 5'' QF INSULATION, A 2x4 FRAME WITH 3'' OF INSULATION OR A CINDER BLOCK WALL FILLED WITH VERMlCULITE, TO NAME A FEW. THE AMOUNT OF GLASS AND ITS LOCATION AND THE EXPANSE OF EXTERIOR WALLS AND THEIR ORIENTATION ARE OTHER FACTORS WHlCH CONCERN THE DESIGNER, THE FlRST OBJECTIVE OF THIS THESIS IS TO DESIGN A COLORADO MOUNTAIN RESIDENCE OF APPROXIMATELY 1500-2000 S.F., FOR A PARTICULAR SITE. IT WOULD INCORPORATE SOFT TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS, SUCH AS A GREENHOUSE, WOOD STOVE, MASS WALLS AND FLOORS AND ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDING MATERIALS AND METHODS. THE SECOND OBJECTIVE OF THIS THESIS IS TO DEVELOP A METHOD WHEREBY THE DESIGNER COULD KNOW THE THERMAL RESULTS OF THE DESIGN DECISIONS BEFORE BUILDING THE STRUCTURE, UTILIZING THE COMPUTER AS AN ANALYSIS AND DESIGN TOOL.

PAGE 7

SINCE MAN'S FIRST APPEARANCE ON THIS PLANET, HE HAS DEPENDED ON THE SUN FOR HIS EXISTENCE. IT HAS GIVEN LIFE TO HIS FOOD AND WARMED HIS SHELTER. HIS HOMES HAVE RESPONDED TO THE CLIMATE OUT OF THE NECESSITY FOR COMFORT, WITH PROTECTION FROM THE COLD AND EXPOSURE TO WINTER SUN FOR WARMTH. IN THE SUMMER, THE HOME ALLOWED COOL BREEZES TO ENTER \VHILE PROTECTING THE INTERIOR FROM THE DIRECT RAYS OF THE SUN. THIS SOLAR TEMPERING OF THE ENVIR ONMENT IS REFERRED':TO . . AS A PA.SSIVE -ENERGY SYSTEM OR A SOFT TECHNOLOGY APPROACH. "MODERN TECHNOLOGY HAS, IN MANY WAYS, AFFORDED BUILDERS THE LUXURY OF DISREGARDING THE EARTH SUN RELATIONSHIP. RECENTLY, THE ECONOMY OF MEANS HAS EMERGED AS A DESIGN FORCE BECAUSE OF THE HUMAN REALIZATION THAT THE EARTH IS FINITE IN ITS ABUNDANCE, MAKING IT NECESSARY TO CONSIDEI AGAIN t.JHAT NATURE PROVIDES -NOT TO DESTROY WFAT HAS BEEN DONE, BUT TO MAKE A NEW PATHWAY, A SYNTHESIS OF TECHNOLOGY AND NATURE."

PAGE 9

energy basics * WARM AIR RISES. * HEAT FLOWS TO EQUALIZE TEMPERATURES THUS ENERGY TRAVELS FROM A \vARM MASS TO A COOL MASS. * HEAT TRAVELS BY CONDUCTION, CONVECTION AND RADIATION. * WHEN AIR PASSES THROUGH A NARROW OPENING IT INCREASES IN VELOCITY. * THE SUN EMITS SHORT WAVE RADIATION WHICH CHANGES TO LONG WAVE HEAT ENERGY. THIS LONG WAVE ENERGY IS TRAPPED BY THE GLASS WALL AND IS ABSORBED BY THE MASS OF A MASONRY WALL.

PAGE 10

SITE FACTORS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO CLIMATE CAN BE USED AS DETERMINANTS IN SITE SELECTION. AN OPPORTUNITY FOR PROTECTING THE BUILDING, BY SITING, RESTS IN THE SLIGHT SOUTH FACING BOWL WHICH IS PROTECTED ON THE NORTH BY A LARGE ROCK OUTCROPPING AND TALL STANDS OF CONIFER TREES. I .

PAGE 11

ALTITUDE 7000' MONTH HIGH TEMP JAN 43 FEB 46 MAR 48 APR 53 MAY 64 JUNE 76 JULY 81 AUG RO SEPT 68 OCT 62 NOV 49 DEC 44 weather data • • EVERGREEN COLO. AVERAGES OF THE SEVEN YEARS ON RECORD LOW TEMP SNOW ON GROUND 8 10" 12 41" 17 15" 24 21" 33 3" 40 45 43 36 1" 27 10" 16 16" 10 8"

PAGE 12

location

PAGE 13

ENERGY CONSERVATION IS NOT ONLY LIMITED TO THE BUILDING BUT INCLUDES LAND USE AND SITE PLAN NING WHICH ARE ALSO IMPORTANT. THE NATURAL ELEMENTS ARE USED AS AIDS IN THE HEATING AND COOLING OF THE HOME. SITE FEATURES SUCH AS THE PROTECTIVE BOWL, ROCK OUTCROPPINGS AND THE CONIFER TREES PROTECT THE WELL SITED HOME FROM NORTH WINTER WINDS AND SNOW. THE HOUSE IS LOCATED WITH THE DECIDUOUS ASPEN TREES TO THE SOUTH TO AID IN SUMMER COOLING BY PROVIDING SHADE, tffliLE IN THE tVINTER WHEN THE LEAVES ARE GONE, THE SUN'S RAYS PENETRATE THE HOUSE. THE LAND SHOULD PROVIDE A WAY OF LIVING FOR THE FAMILY WITH A PLACE FOR GROWING RAISING LIVESTOCK AND ENJOYING THE SITE. TO BE INCLUDED ON THE SITE ARE: * HOUSING FOR A FAMILY OF FOUR. * GARDEN SPACE FOR THE FAMILY. *A PLACE FOR GROWING SEEDLINGS '(A NECESSITY BECAUSE OF THE SHORT GROWING SEASON IN THE MOUNTAINS). * ACCESS FOR CARS AND PEOPLE. * A PLACE TO STALK A SUNTAN. * A SITE FOR A FUTURE BARN TO SHELTER HORSES AND COWS. site

PAGE 14

THE MOST FEASIBLE WIND ENERGY SYSTEM FOR THIS SITE IS THE ELECTRO FROM WINTERTHUR SWITZERLAND. IT CAN ClLANGE POSITION TO ACCOMODATE DIRECTIONAL WINDS AND OPERATES WITH WIND SPEEDS FROM 10-40 MPH WHEN LOCATED 40 FEET ABOVE THE GROUND. SINCE WIND IS NOT CONSTANT ENOUGH TO PRODUCE AC CURRENT THE ELECTRICITY PRODUCED IS DC WHICH CAN SUPPLY RESISTANCE APPLIANCES SUCH AS INCANDESCENT LIGHT BULBS, HAIR DRYERS, RADIOS, CLOCKS AND A RADIANT CABLE BACK-UP HEATING SYSTEM. THE ENERGY IS STORED IN BATTERIES WHEN NOT NEEDED, AND CAN BE STORED FOR UP TO FIVE DAYS. THE 1210 DIAMETER (TIP TO TIP) MODEL HAS THREE BLADES AND CAN PRODUCE 115 .VOLTS, 2500 WATTS WITH 23 MPH WINDS. THE COST IS $6500.00 NOT INCLUDING THE TOWER OR INSTALLATION. generafor wind j .J .. garden

PAGE 15

EQUSE FOR A FAMILY i * THE PARENTS BEDROOM SEPARATE FROM THE CHILDREN'S. * SEPARATE REALMS: CHILDREN, PARENTS, COMMON. ENTRY TRANSITION *MATERIALS CHANGES. *VISUAL VARIETY. * LEVEL CHANGES. * PROTECTION FROM THE NORTH. * A SPECIAL ENTRANCE ROOM. * AN ENTRY PORCH. * A COAT CLOSET. SITTING CIRCLE * AWAY FROM THE KITCHEN. * NOT IN A CIRCULATION PATH. * NEAR THE FIRE. FIRE * COMMON AREA FOR ENJOYMENT BY ALL. * A SECONDARY HEAT SOURCE. * A WOOD STOVE RATHER THAN A FIREPLACE. concepts SUNSHINE SEATS * WATER DRUMS STORE THE SUN'S ENERGY FOR RERADIATION, ALSO IS SEATING. FARMHOUSE KITCHEN * CONNECTION TO THE OUTSIDE, * SOUTH AND EAST EXPOSURE. * ROOM FOR PEOPLE TO SIT AND TALK. * 12'0 OF COUNTER SPACE. * STOVE IN THE MIDDLE ISLAND TO RADIATE HEAT. GREENHOUSE * A PLACE TO START SEEDS. * ACCESSIBLE FROM THE HOUSE AND GARDEN. * RAIN \.fATER COLLECTION SYSTEM. * SOUTH EXPOSURE. GARDEN * USE COLLECTED RAIN WATER FOR l-lATERING. SOUTH FACING OUTDOORS * ALL PORCHES FACING SOUTH. * GARDEN ON THE SOUTH.

PAGE 16

CANVAS ROOFS * BRIGHT COLORS OVER THE PORCHES. * AWNINGS OVER THE WINDOWS ON THE WEST FOR SUMMER SHADING. SPECIAL PLACE * FOR ENJOYING THE VIEW. ORIENTATION * LIVING SPACES ORIENTED TO THE SOUTH. * EAST OPTIMUM FOR MORNING ACTIVITIES. *WEST OPTIMUM FOR EVENING ACTIVITIES (SUNSET). * NORTH SIDE FOR BUFFER SPACE. ORIENTATION SLEEPING (WAKE UP TO SUN, WARMTH DURING DAY). SOCIAL (WARMTH DURING DAY, VIEW OF SUNSET). FOOD (WARMTH l)URING DAY, SUNRISE AT BREAKFAST) . DINING (WARMTH DURING DAY). BATHING (BUFFER SPACE). STORAGE (BUFFER SPACE). GREENHOUSE (EARLY SUN, SOUTH SUN). UTILITY (BUFFER SPACE). N X X X E s w X X X X X X X X X STORAGE * ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THE HOUSE TO ACT AS A BUFFER AGAINST THE COLD. BATHING * LOCATE ON THE NORTH BUFFER ZONE AND PROVIDE SEPARATE SPACE HEATING FOR WARMTH. * UTILIZE A COMMON PLUMBING WALL. ROOF TOP DECK * A SPECIAL PLACE. * SOUTH FACING OUTDOORS. * PROTECTION FROM THE NORTH,

PAGE 17

COLD WINDS GREENHOUSE GARDEN 1 common space WINDS CHILDREN 2 "iews childrens realm COLD WINDS PARENTS w=----s parents realm 4 special space

PAGE 20

FLOOR ONE * SOUTH FACING PROTECTED ENTRY. * ENTRY TRANSITION THROUGH LEVELS AND MATERIALS. * THREE STORY GREENROOM. * TWO STORY GREENHOUSE FOR STARTING SEEDS. * MINIMAL NORTH WINDOWS. * UTILITY ROOM AND KITCHEN ON NORTH AS BUFFER. * STOVE I N AN ISLAND TO RADIATE EXCESS HEAT. * SITTING CIRCLE 'UTH FIRE. * WOOD STOVE AS A BACK-UP HEAT SOURCE. * THREE STORY MASS WALL COLLECTS SUN'S ENERGY AND EXCESS HEAT FROM WOOD STOVE. * WATER BARRELS IN GREENHOUSE COLLECT SUN'S ENERGY. *SUNSHINE SEATS IN GREENROOM COLLECT SUN'S ENERGY. * BARRELS IN GREENHOUSE COLLECT RAIN WATER FROM ROOF RUN-OFF. * SOUTH FACING PORCH OFF KITCHEN WITH CANVAS ROOF FOR SUMMER SHADING. *GREENROOM AND GREENHOUSE COLLECT SUN'S ENERGY. * CANVAS AWNINGS FOR SHADING WEST WINDmolS. * INSULATING DOOR TO SHUT OFF STAIR TOWER. 1 '-'>--------11 s.f. 1014 0 8 24 •

PAGE 21

0 I open greenroom 0 MASS WALL s.f. 582 8 2 FLOOR TWO * CLOSETS AND BATHROOM ON NORTH AS A BUFFER. * MINIMAL NORTH WINDOWS. * FLUE FROM WOOD STOVE EXPOSED TO RADIATE HEAT. * INSULATING SHUTTERS ON SOUTH SIDE OF BEDROOMS LET IN THE SUN'S ENERGY WHEN OPEN, AND ELIMINATE COLD WHEN CLOSED. *MASS WALL RADIATES HEAT AT NIGHT. * THREE STORY GREENROOM COLLECTS SUN'S ENERGY. * CANVAS AWNINGS FOR SHADING WEST WINDOl>IS. * INSULATING DOOR TO SHUT OFF STAIR TOWER.

PAGE 22

FLOOR THREE *CLOSETS AND BATHROOM ON NORTH AS. A BUFFER. * MINIMAL NORTH WINDOWS. * HOT-AIR FROM GREENROOM RISES TO HEAT MASS WALL. 1 * MASS WALL RADIATES HEAT DIRECTLY INTO BEDROOM. * SOUTH FACING OUTDOORS WITH CANVAS ROOF FOR SUMMER SHADE. * INSULATING DOOR TO SHUT OFF STAIR TOWER. tiORT H 0 8 24 CROWS NEST * SPECIAL PLACE. 3 MASS WALL OPEN s.f. 414 4

PAGE 23

WINTER DAY * SUN SHINES THROUGH THE GREENROOM AND GREENHOUSE GLASS. * SUNSHINE SEATS IN THE GREENROOM AND THE WATER BARRELS IN THE GREENHOUSE STORE THE SUN'S ENERGY. *BRICK MASS WALL ALSO STORES THE SUN'S ENERGY. * HOT AIR RISES AND CIRCULATES THROUGH THE VENTS IN THE UPSTAIRS BEDROOMS AND BACK DOWN THE DUCTS IN THE NORTH WALL. IT FLOWS THROUGH THE INSUL ATED FOUNDATION WHICH IS FILLED WITH ROCKS. THE AIR IS THEN RECIRCULATED UP THROUGH THE GREEN HOUSE AND GREENROOM. * THERMAL SHUTTERS IN THE BEDROOMS ARE OPENED TO LET RISING WARM AIR IN, AND ALSO LET IN DIRECT SUN RAYS. * SUN SHINES ON THE COLLECTOR WHICH PREHEATS THE HOT WATER. WATER IS STORED IN THE ATTIC SPACE

PAGE 24

tVINTER NIGHT * BEAD WALL IS BLOWN INTO THE 2" SPACE BETtffiEN THE DOUBLE INSULATED GLASS IN THE GREENROOM AND GREENHOUSE TO INHIBIT HEAT LOSS. * THERMAL SHUTTERS IN THE BEDROOMS ARE CLOSED. * THE MASS WALL RADIATES STORED HEAT FROM THE SUN'S ENERGY FOR ALL THREE FLOORS. * SUNSHINE SEATS IN THE GREENROOM AND WATER BARRELS IN THE GREENHOUSE RADIATE HEAT TO THE FIRST FLOOR. * WOOD STOVE USED AS A SECONDARY HEAT SOURCE, EXCESS HEAT STORED IN THE MASS WALL. * COOKING STOVE IN THE KITCHEN RADIATES HEAT. * HOT AIR RISES AND IS RETURNED THROUGH VENTS IN THE BEDROOMS BY * ON VERY COLD NIGHTS OR LONG PERIODS OF CLOUDY DAYS, THE CEILING RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM IS USED. * STORED HOT WATER FROM THE ROOF IS USED AS PREHEATED l-IATER FOR THE HOT WATER TANK.

PAGE 25

SUMMER DAY * BEAD WALL IS USED IN THE GREENROOM AND GREEN HOUSE TO INHIBIT SUN'S RAYS FROM ENTERING THE GLASS. * COOL AIR FROM NORTH IS DRAWN IN THRPUGH THE VENTS AND CIRCm,ATED THROUGH THE HOUSE. * TURBINE IS ACTIVATED BY HOT AIR RISING AND LEAVING THROUGH THE ROOF CAUSING NORTH AIR TO RF. nRAWN TN FOR COOLING. * WINDOWS ARE OPENED FOR VENTILATION WHEN THE SUN IS NOT SHINNING ON THEM, * CANVAS ROOFS OVER THE PORCHES FOR SHADE AND CANVAS AWNINGS OPENED OVER WEST lHNDOWS. * HOT l.ZATER PREHEAT SYSTEM IS COLLECTING AND STORING SUN'S ENERGY, DURING THE DAY WATER CAN BE USED-DIRECTLY FROM ROOF STORAGE. * EXCESS HEAT IS BEING STORED IN THE MASS WALL.

PAGE 26

SUMMER NIGHT * BEAD WALL IS REMOVED IN THE GREENHOUSE AND GREEN ROOM GLASS AND HEAT IS ALLOWED TO ESCAPE TO THE OUTSIDE FROM THE ROOMS AND THE MASS lvALL. * NATURAL VENTILATION COOLS BY CONVECTION THROUGH OPEN WINDOWS ANn VENTS. * SOLAR PREHEATED WATER IS USED FOR DISHES AND

PAGE 27

HEAT LOSS HEAT LOSS IS REDUCED IN THE WINDOWS AND FRENCH DOORS BY USING A DOUBLE INSULATED GLASS WITH STORM WIN DOWS WHICH ACT AS TRIPLE INSULATION. (IF A PELLA UNIT IS USED THE STORM WINDO\v PANEL IS REl10VED IN THE SUMMER REPLACED WITH A SCREEN). THE AND DOORS ARE WOOD SASH CASEMENT INSURING A TIGHT FIT. AT NIGHT INSULATING STYROFOAM PANELS CAN BE PLACED OVER THE WINDOtvS TO REDUCE EXCESSIVE HEAT LOSS (NOT INCLUDED IN HEAT LOSS CALCULATIONS-SEE APPENDIX). THE BEAD WALL IN THE GREENHOUSE AND GREENROOM IS OPERATED BY SENSORS WHICH BLOW IN BEADS OF POLYSTYRENE IN THE 2" SPACE BETWEEN THE GLASS PANELS ADDING EXTRA INSULATION. WINDOW OPENINGS ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THE HOUSE, WHICH RECEIVES NO SUN, ARE MINIMIZED. HEAT GAIN WINTER THE EAST AND SOUTH GLASS EXPOSURES ARE MAXIMIZED TO ALLOW THE SUN'S ENERGY TO ENTER THE GLASS AND HEAT UP THE MASS WALL. SUMMER THE BEAD vlALL IS USED TO REDUCE THE HEAT GAIN IN THE GREENROOM AND GREENHOUSE. CANVAS AWNINGS ARE OPENED OVER THE WEST WINDO\-JS TO ELIMINATE THE IN TENSE WESTERN SUN.

PAGE 28

north elevation 0 west elevation

PAGE 29

0 []] D 0 \ east elevation south elevation

PAGE 31

MASS WALL MASS RETAINS HEAT OVER LONG PERIODS OF TIME. THE CONCRETE MASS WALL SUPPORTS THE FLOOR JOIS T S AND THUS BECOMES A STRUCTURAl. AS WELL AS AN ENERGY FEATURE. THE SUN SHINES THROUGH THE SOUTH FACING GLASS . AND IS STORED IN THE WALL. IT RADIATES HEAT INTO THE ROOMS AFTER THE SUN GOES DOWN. THE MASS WALL ALSO STORES ANY EXCESS HEAT FROM THE WOOD STOVE. WARM AND COOL MASSES TEND TO EQUALIZE THEIR TEMPERATURES THUS HEAT FROM A WARM WALL IS TRANSFERED TO A COOL ROOM. r\ n._\1 oO 0 0 0 () 0 0 •. oo 0 () oO .. . • ; ! : ... . I IIRfi lli .l:l -% .. !5' f t'1.40 II, l!l0Jt-l ) 1,4• &--C A.f'}. .(.2 F'I:(WorV t!l..l ,.-f'\l '9 .. Ro . 3:2.01 U.:: Y12. -.o3t FRA..J.ffi WALL A WELL DESIGNED WALL RETAINS HEAT INSIDE THE HOUSE DURING THE WINTER AND INHIBITS SOLAR HEAT GAIN IN THE S lJMMER. 12.!.' t:.ONC..JZEre fit.UP Wntt Vf;tft\IWul walls

PAGE 32

THE ROOF IS PITCHED AT A 45 DEGREE ANGLE FOR THE HOT WATER SOLAR COLLECTOR. THE ANGLE ALSO THE FUTURE AUDitiON OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR SPACE HEATING, POSSIBLE. THE SLOPE OF THE ROOF DIRECTS THE NATURAL CONVECTION OF RISING HOT AIR, ALLOWING IT TO BE VENTED TO THE OUTSIDE IN THE SUMMER OR RECIRCULATED THROUGH THE HOUSE IN THE WINTER. 2 xiO om .. r Jof!:;f . . ... • .. : roof l.;ft-1At:r JJ' UO( I" (.-:<. APA J'bfWooP 3 1" tN-st.V.nt:N W. ,17 .44 S .I?G:. 1.2"1 3.00 R=34.ss U= YR = ,025

PAGE 33

WINDOWS AND FRENCH DOORS INSTEAD OF A TYPICAL SLIDING GLASS DOOR, FRENCH DOORS l-TERE CHOSEN WITH DOUBLE INSULATED GLASS AND A REMOVABLE STORM DOOR. THIS PROVIDES THE SAME GLASS AREA OF A SLIDING DOOR BUT DOUBLES THE VENTILATION AREA FOR THE SUMMER SINCE BOTH DOORS OPEN. THE WINDOHS ARE DOUBLE INSULATED ALSO, WITH THE REMOVABLE STORM WINDOW WHICH IS REPLACED WITH A SCREEN IN THE SUMMER. THEY ARE CASEMENT lHTH A WOOD SASH FOR A TIGHT FIT. THE WINDOWS AND DOORS ARE LOCATED TO TAKE OF LIGHT DIRECTION AND TO PROVIDE A CONTINUITY WITH THE OUTSIDE. LARGE OPENINGS ALLOW THE CROSS CURRENT OF AIR FROM SUMMER BREEZES. THE STORM WINDOW IS REMOVED AND REPLACED WITH THE SCREEN PANEL IN THE SUMMER. WITH THE WIND TURBINE, OPENED VENTS AND WINDOlolS, COOL AIR IS PULLED THROUGH THE HOUSE. THE VENTS ARE PLACED ON THE LOWER NORTH WALL TO ALLOW MAXIMUM COOLING. GREENROOM THE GREENROOM OR LIVING ROOM TAKES ADVANTAGE OF THE SPACE NEEDED FOR PASSIVE ENERGY COLLECTION BY USING AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE HOME TO BE ENJOYED BY EVERYONE. FROM THIS SPACE IT IS POSSIBLE TO VISUALIZE THE "MECHANICAL" WORKINGS OF THE BUILDING. IT IS OPENED TO ALL THREE STORIES AND ALSO TO THE GREENHOUSE. IT COLLECTS AND STORES THE SUN'S ENERGY IN THE SAME WAY AS THE GREENHOUSE. BUT IN THIS SPACE THE WATER BARRELS ARE STORED ON END AND A WOODEN FRAME ALLOWS THEM TO BE USED AS BENCHES. THE SUNSHINE SEATS COLLECT THE ENERGY AND lVITH MANIPULATION OF A 1" STYROFOAM PANEL, THEY RADIATE THEIR COLLECTED HEAT AT NIGHT.

PAGE 34

,.GREENHOUSE THE POLYSTYRENE BEAD WALL IS STORED WHEN NOT IN USE, ALONG THE SOUTH PERIMETER OF THE GLASS WALL UNDER THE FOUNDATION. THIS SOURCE FEEDS THE VERTICAL GLASS WALL AND IS BLOWN UP INTO PLACE WHEN NEEDED. THE STORAGE FOR THE SLOPED GLASS WALL IS IN THE ROOF AND IS BLOWN DOWN INTO PLACE WHEN NEEDED. THIS ALLOWS SEPARATE OPERATION OF THE BEAD WALL IN THE SUMMER TO ALLOW SOME SUNSHINE TO ENTER FOR THE PLANTS. BARRELS FILLED WITH WATER ARE PAINTED BLACK TO ABSORB THE SUN'S ENERGY AND ARE USED AS SHELVES FOR FLATS OF PLANTS. RAIN WATER IS COLLECTED IN BARRELS FROM THE DOWNSPOUT ON THE ROOF. IT CAN BE USED FROM THE GREENHOUSE OR THE GARDEN AND HAS AN OVERFLOW VALVE IF TOO MUCH WATER IS COLLECTED. THE FLOOR OF THE GREENHOUSE IS A WELL INSULATED CONCRETE SLAB WITH A DRAIN FOR EASY MAINTENANCE. IT IS A HASS FLOOR WHICH STORES ENERGY FROM THE SUN AND RADIATES IT AT NIGHT. GROWING LIGHTS ARE USED FOR SEEDLINGS TO PROVIDE EXTRA WARMTH IN THE WINTER l.JllEN THE HOUSE TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATES. VENTS FROM THE CRAWL SPACE ARE LOCATED ON THE LOWER PORTION OF THE MASS \-TALL FOR AIR RECIRCULATION,

PAGE 35

1.• F!'-1 111VJ COR!!) . , •• ---t+-----------------------------------!tc&------------I'' "5tt}./, flU.. 1'1 .•.. 0 ..... . P. o o . c . 0 . o_. . . . 0 () 0 • D '()o' . 0. • • D. c . . . o ... " o a: . . . " ... . greenhouse lo.e4

PAGE 36

FAUCETS ARE FITTED WITH FLOW CONTROL VALVES ALLOWING GALLONS PER MINUTE AND GALLONS PER MINUTE FOR THE SHOWER. THE WATER CLOSETS USE GALLONS OF WA1ER PER FLUSH BY UTILIZING COMPRESSED AIR. THE SYSTEM IS MANUFACTURED BY WATER CONTROL PRODUCTS. THE SOLAR HOT WATER PREHEAT SYSTEM USES THE SUN'S ENERGY TO WARM THE COLD INCOMING WATER. A HOT WATER HEATER IS LOCATED IN THE UTILITY ROOM, AND THE SOLAR HOT WATER SYSTEM IS LOCATED DIRECTLY ABOVE IT IN THE ROOF UTILIZING ONE PLUMBING WALL FOR ALL THE PIPING. THERE IS A STORAGE TANK IN THE ROOF TO COLLECT THE PREHEATED WATER, ALLOWING IT TO BE USED DIRECTLY FROM THAT TANK DURING THE DAY. THE SYSTEM UTILIZES COPPER PIPE WITH THE POTABLE WATER FLOWING THROUGH THE PIPES ELIMINATING THE NEED FOR A HEAT EXCHANGER. IN THE WINTER, A SENSOR VALVE ALLot-IS THE WATER IN THE ROOF TANK TO FLOW BY GRAVITY INTO THE HOT WATER IN THE UTILITY ROOM, WHEN IT COOLS TO A CERTAIN TEMPERTURE (WHEN IT GETS CLOUDY OR THE SUN GOES DOWN). THIS KEEPS THE SYSTEM FROM FREEZING AT NIGHT. FOUNDATION THE FOUNDATION IS FOUR COURSES OF CONCRETE BLOCK FILLED lVITH VERMICULITE, A FREE FLOWING, WATER REPELLENT INSULATION. POLYSTYRENE ON BOTH THE INSIDE AND THE OUTSIDE IS CARRIED BELOtv THE FROST-0 NGS FOR ADDED INSULATION. ; •f\•t\ • • • • o' • . . . " • . •. ..•. . . (l . . • • • . • ot>. • ... o O;,.., . . t> . . • • • . o .. . •• 0 • • •••• (). 0 •• oc, . • . .

PAGE 37

FUELS WOOD WOOD IS ONE OF OUR RENEWABLE RESOURCES WHICH BURNS CLEANLY, LEAVING, ASH WHICH IS A GOOD GARDEN FERTILIZER. SINCE MOST OPEN FIREPLACES ARE INEFFICIENT THEY SHOULD NOT BE USED AS A MAJOR HEAT SOURCE. BUT SOME WOOD STOVES SUCH AS A FRANKLIN, ARE GOOD HEAT SOURCES AND ALSO ARE A VISUAL ENJOYMENT WITH SPECIAL DOORS WHICH OPEN. THESE STOVES CAN OPERATE WITH AN EFFICIENCY OF 50-60 % RATHER THAN THE 10 % EFFICIENCY OF A FIREPLACE. ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY IS A GOOD BACK-UP SYSTEM FOR HEATING SINCE INSTALLATION IS RELATIVELY EASY AND INEXPENSIVE. RADIANT CABLES INSTALLED IN THE CEILING ARE CLEAN AND FLEXIBLE PROVIDING DRY HEAT (PLANTS CAN ADD MOISTURE AS WELL AS RECYCLED BATHROOM STEAM). SINCE THE ELECTRICITY USED IN THE CABLES IS DC CURRENT IT COULD BE POWERED BY A WIND GENERATOR. AT SOME FUTURE TIME THE EXCESS WIND ENERGY WHICH WAS PRODUCED MIGHT BE CREDITED BY THE POWER A FROSTFREE REFRIGERATOR IS USED RESULTING IN A APPLIANCES A LINE MUST BE DRAWN BETWEEN THE NEED FOR IENCE AND THE DESIRE TO BE SELF-SUFFICIENT. MANY APPLIANCES ARE WASTEFUL, NO MATTER WHAT ENERGY SOURCE IS BEING USED. FOR THIS REASON DISHWASHERS DISPOSALS, TRASH COMPACTORS, MICROWAVE OVENS, AND ELECTRIC CLOTHES DRYERS ARE NOT BEING CONSIDERED, THE ENERGY FROM A WIND GENERATOR CAN OPERATE SMALL APPLIANCES BUT NOT STOVES OR OTHER LARGE ITEMS . THE ELECTRIC STOVE IS IN AN ISLAND TO RADIATE ITS HEAT TO THE ROOM AND THE RANGE HOOD IS DUCTLESS TO PREVENT HEAT FROM BEING VENTED OUTSIDE. THE WASTE HEAT FROM THE REFRIGERATOR IS VENTED TO ,

PAGE 38

AIR CONDITIONING WITH PROPER VENTILATION, DEHUMIDIFICATION OF THE AIR, AND RESTRICTIVE SUMMER HEAT GAIN, AIR CONUITIONHlG IS . NOT NEEDED EVEN IH HOT, HUMID CLIMATES. A GRAVITY TURBINE, t.JHICH INDUCES NATURAL CmlVECTION, CAN REDUCE COOLING NEEDS BY 10-40 %. LIGHTING THE OVERALL LIGHT LEVEL IS KEPT LOW tHTH TASK LIGHTING WHERE NEEDED. INC:ANDESCEtJT LIGHTS ARE USED FOR SPECIFIC TASKS USING THE LOWEST WATTAGE POSSIBLE (IT PRODUCES THE LEAST OF HEAT). A THERMISTER HEAT SENSOR ON THE LIGHT BULBS PREVENTS HEAT SURGES AliD INCREASES THE BULB LIFE THREE TIMES. INTERIOR HALLS ARE PAINTED LIGHT COLORS TO REFLECT AS MUCH LIGHT AS POSSIBLE. IN GENERAL * FRAME CONSTRUCTION IS USED WITH 2 X 6 STUDS 24" ON CENTER FOR MAXIMUM INSULATION. * THE ROOF AND FOUNDATION ARE ALS O HEAVILY INSULATED TO REDUCE HEAT LOSSES. * ALL PIPES AliD DUCTS .f.RE INSULATED TO K EEP THE METALS FROM STEALING HEAT'FROM ADJACENT ROOMS. * THERE IS ONE COMMON PLUMBING tolALL TO HELP CUT CONSTRUCTION COSTS. * THE EXPOSED WOOD STOVE FLUE RADIATES E XTRA HEAT

PAGE 39

CONSTRUCTION PHASE ONE IN PHASE ONE, THE ENTIRE HOUSE IS IN, AJID FLOORS ONE AND TWO ARE COMPLETED. THE PLUMBING FOR THE THIRD FLOOR IS ROUGHED IN. PHASE TlolO AT A FUTURE TIME, THIS PHASE ALLOWS THE OWNERS THE oPriON OF PARTICIPATING IN BUILDING A PORTION OF THEIR OWN HOME. THE STRUCTURAL SYSTEM IS ALREADY BUILT AIDJ THE PLUMBING IS ROUGHED IN. THE PLANS SPECIFY A MASTER SUITE HITH BATH AND ROOF TOP DECK BUT THIS THIRD FLOOR COULD EASILY BECOME EXTRA BEDROOMS FOR A LARGE FAMILY. THE CROWS NEST COULD ALSO BE COMPLETED, IF DESIRED OR ELIMINATED IF NOT WANTED. IF CONSTRUCTED, IT PROVIDES A SPECIAL PLACE FOR A SITE l.JITH A VIE\ol, IN ANY DIRECTION. THE PHASING OF CONSTRUCTION ALLOWS THE HOME OHNER TO HAVE A COMPLETED HOUSE WITH CURRENT BUILDING COSTS AND ALSO THE AnVANTAGE OF ENLARGING THE HOME IN TilE FUTURE. THE ADDITION \olOULD NOT NEED A FOUNDATION, EXTERIOR FRAMING OR ROOF1KEEPING THE ADDITIONAL BUILDING COSTS DOWN. IT COULD BE COMPLETED LEISURELY BECAUSE THE MATERIALS WOULD BE PROTECTED FROM BAD WEATHER CONDITIONS. IN A NUTSHELL THE SHAPE OF THE HOUSE MINIMIZES HEAT LOSS DURING THE tHNTER AND AIDS NATURAL VENTILATION IN THE SUMMER WITH THE SHAPE OF THE ROOF. IN THE WINTER, THE HEAT FROM THE SUN IS TRAPPED BY THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND STORED IN THE WALL AND WATER BARRELS, TO BE AT NIGHT. THE WARM AIR IS CIRCULATED THROUGH THE HOUSE VENTS AND DUCTS ALL OF THE ROOMS. IN THE SUMMER, COOL AIR IS DRAWN IN FROM THE NORTH SIDE THROUGH VENTS AND 1oliNDO\.JS AND CONVECTED THROUGH THE HOUSE (BY THE NATURAL FLOW OF HOT AIR RISING) THROUGH THE TURBINE IN THE ROOF. SUNLIGHT IS ALLOWED TO ENTER IN THE WINTER BUT IN THE SUMMER, CANVAS AtolNINGS AND A GREENROOM BEAD to/ALL PREVENT OVERHEATING. WDTDO\olS AND FRENCH DOORS ARE DOUBLE INSULATED \-liTH AN EXTRA STORM WINDOW WHICH ACTS AS A TRIPLE PANE. A WOOD FRAME REDUCES HEAT TRANSFER AND CAULKING AND WEATHERSTRIPPING REDUCE INFILTRATION. THERE ARE TWO AUXILARY HEAT SOURCES, A WOOD STOVE AND AN ELECTRIC RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM IN THE CEILING.

PAGE 41

MY ORIGINAL INTENTION WAS TO USE THE NBSLD PROGRAM (THERMAL EFFICIENCY WITH RELATION TO MATERIAL DENSITY), WHICH IS IN FORTRAN. I KNEW ABSOLUTELY NOTHING ABOUT COMPUTER SCIENCE, LET ALONE PROGRAMMING BEFORE THIS SEMESTER. THUS I FELT THE EASIEST APPROACH, WAS TO USE AN EXISTING PROGRAM WITH MY OWN DATA. BUT I WAS WRONG. THE NBSLD PROGRAM WAS TOO COMPLEX FOR A SMALL SCALE BUILDING AND IT COULD BE RUN IN SUBROUTINES. SO I DECIDED TO RELEARN ANOTHER LANGUAGE, BASIC, AND WRJTE MY OWN PROGRAM, THE PROGRAM I DEVELOPED, CAN BE USED BY ANYONE. I FELT THAT AFTER MY EXPERIENCES, THE PROGRAM USER SHOULD NOT NEED A COMPUTER SCIENCE DEGREE TO RUN A PROGRAM. TO RUN "SOLAR" THE USER NEEDS TO ONLY BE ABLE TO TYPE (ONE FINGER WILL DO). THE PROGRAM WILL DO THE REST. "SOLAR" WAS ADAPTED FROM "THE RULES OF FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING IN NORTHERN NEW HEX I CO" BY J. DOUGLAS BALCOt'.B OF LOS ALAMOS SCIENTIFIC LABORATORIES. THESE "RULES OF THUMB" WERE DERIVED BY EXHAUSTIVE EXPERIMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF EXISTING RESIDENCES HEATED BY THE SUN. THE PROGRAM CALCULATES: OF A PASSIVE SOLAR HEATED RESIDENCE (CAN ALSO BE USED FOR GENERAL! ZAT IONS AND "BALL PARK" ANALYSIS OF LARGER BUILDINGS). *THE CONDUCTANCE THROUGH THE WINDOWS, OPAQUE WALLS, ROOF AND FOUNDATION (IN BTUH/F), *THE TOTAL CONDUCTANCE FOR THE BUILDING (IN BTUH/F). *THE INFILTRATION OF A BUILDING (IN BTUH/F). *THE SOUTH GLAZING AREA NEEDED TO SUPPLY 80% SOLAR HEATING (IN S.F .). *THE PERCENTAGE OF SOLAR HEATING, GIVE N THE ACTUAL SOUTH GLAZING AREA.

PAGE 42

*TOTAL THERMAL LOAD (IN BTUH/F). *SOLAR TRANSMISSION FOR 8 HOURS (IN BTU). *HEAT LOSS IN THE DAY FOR 8 HOURS (IN BTU). *HEAT TO BE STORED FROM DAYTIME GAIN (IN BTU). 7:THE WATER STORAGE NEEDED TO SUPPLY 80% SOLAR HEATING (IN LBS.). *THE PERCENTAGE OF SOLAR HEATING GIVEN THE ACTUAL WATER STORAGE. *THE MASONRY STORAGE NEEDED TO SUPPLY 80% SOLAR HEATING (IN LBS.). *THE PERCENTAGE OF SOLAR HEATING GIVEN THE ACTUAL MASONRY STORAGE. *THE PERCENTAGE OF SOLAR HEATING SUPPLIED BY ALL THE STORAGE. THIS IS THE DATA NEEDED BY THE USER TO "RUN" THE PROGRAM (THESE MAY BE ESTIMATES, AS IN THE CASE OF DESIGN DEVELOP MENT) : >'
PAGE 43

the program B1!00 SYSTE.:'I UP 7'3105111 139 33 CU2C ?A SS' IOR O 'llmiiiWUIIa PROJECT: ?OBC TE?.l1l :-111.L: I J I, Ti':' RECOVER CLO OR i •IE'b FIL:;: P.:':I\DY tC-lAA!..L FF READY • OLD, S O LAR !".EAD Y t;JH l t S . "HELLO", 51' ?P.I:1T ' -'SE?. I D: P.7J2 So Pf'.I ; JT ' "PROt;?.P-.'1 FO.'". PASS I \'E SOLAR o ' I LDI :IG S •" 56 . ' ' t0 ?Rii1T "THIS ?ROGM:' I 'lAS D E V ELOPED o'f HELE:IE ?.I C : {s\RDS ili'.O'..r!l" c l . P.WT 65 ?P.I:JT "DIRECT'I ONS : E:.JTER DATA AFTEi't t6 t 7 f'RI:>IT "t!SE NJ' CO: !'IAS I N NUi43E.RS " 7C PRI NT 10 0 ??.I NT " U 1 11:5 U l Ill ?P. l i1i . " A I 11 5 t:-:?UT A 1 I U FAG'!' OR FOR w i i JDO r;i's" AREr, FOR SF" 12 LET C 1 " U 1 * !'.l 1 2 5 P?. I ;JT " COlJDL' C TAI'ICE .FJR 'J!NDO•..:s =•:; C1; "5TUH FER :;:c:G?.!:.E " • tJe .. l'2 = \U ffl _C!OR WALLS" 1 3 5 I NPIJ T U2 14 0 ?".!NT " A 2 •2 AREA FOR O?ACUE ;J. CO:JDt:CTA tiCE ,. .. ; C5; "!HUH ?ER DEGREE" 23!:' PRI!1T 235 PRI1 1T "'.1 = \'O!..U< JE OF 3lJ!!..Dl1-1G, C f . " 243 ftl?!JT ;, 2ll5 :...ET = \ ' ..
  • r. p:;I i I T JZZ LET G 30.5 l :JG :JSE:LE.D :";G; " S • f" 31 0 f'P.!ilT " S = ACT!Jr.J.. SOU TH G:..AZ:!!!'" t\!\S ' ' ' s . f," 3 1 5 ! : 1!''_: : 32 Z !...!PI= • (5/G) 325 ?P: I:-JT "PE:lCE:IT SOLAR HU Jl:Z "TO TP.L T :iE?.:1AL LOI \ D ="; T ; " B T L d PER uEuEEE" 345 !...ET ; : : '= 1403 • S , JS: ??.I:it TR.P.:IS: 1 ISS1C: J ::JR 8 HP: " C !:.:" 355 ?RI : ,JT " D = C AYT 1 :1E C l F"FC:?..SiCE.-F • ., 3' " I :IP'.'T D 5 !.. ET ':' = D " L * B 37C: PRINT, "HiAT LOSS PE?. DAY FOR 3 : H'! =";.','; " 8 T U " 3 7 !.. ET E ' = '!: JSe, PP.INT TO 3E STO!={ED :"; E; " S":"LT" 335 ?nt: IT l.ET Z = N "' T 40!: ?PliiT " :!Et\T LOSS l\T 0-!T F:J?. I (; = ; l.i "l:.!U .. 41 PP.I:JT 4 ! 5 L ST \11 = JZ .. G 1 1 2 0 PP.t:IT " 'JATE:1 STORAGE NEEDED, D!R'C:CT =";!Jt; ":..:;s." 425 PP.WT = ACTUAL. Ur,TEH STORAGE DI;:EC T $;);;, -:..> 430 I 'J2 ; • _ ll3 5 LET P2 = 8 e . ,. < < 12/'Jl > 44Z. PRDIT "PEF.GE:IT' HEI\TIJ.JG SU??!..l ED 3Y T H I S .-::.TE R ="i?2 44 5 P::ti : • T STOnF,IJE r-:E::.DE.D , !JOT 1 : 1 .. LES" 4Hl ?!1I:-JT "\-14 = .'ICTUr.J. STORAGE-1 : 1 SU: ; , :..cs." I 11?U T ..; 4 !..ET ?3 = ae "' c ' •141'13> 475 ."?ERCE.:JT HC.'\T tn:J S UF?Ll E.D 5':' T :!! S = .. ; !='J j. l6 5 LET R I = 15 -t G tn2 ?RI!JT S::P..;GE : J :OE[;D, D!RE:C'!' St. n 2";n i ; " :..US " 495 ??.HIT "?.2 = A CTL' AL STORAGE, DlilECT 5T::J , :..bS" !:C:l DJPIJT ?2 :CS LET Plt = 'HJ " CP.2 1?.1 > P!=!.t;r; ''?=:?.CE: J T SU?PLIE.D aY : !,;SON?.Y 1-!ASS c";P4 P?.l:I T LE: ?.3;;:: tse ?F.t : • J T : r:H1J\GE :iESDEC, :.;or I:J S U"";) ="i RJ; "LBS . •• SJ: ?P.I:1T ''!'<4 = t,CT UI\ L S7JRAGE:, ; ; i1 SUi J , L3S" SJ S 1:1?'JT ?.4 :A\J L E T ?5 = 3 2 C ?.It/?. 3 l ?115 F"lliiT "PE?.CE:JT i-!E ATI:iG S t:?!':...I EL: 8 Y T i!l S t IAS O : JP.Y ="J PS . ?FU ; . ; r 555 !.. ET P 6 = ?2 + ?3 + ?ll • P 5 5!'e P?.t:-IT "?ERC2JT HU\TI:Oi G SU?;:>:..!ED 3':' A!..L :l ASSES:"; P6 5!5 ?RI ' I':' ffl('J FP.n1T "TH I S I S T:iE E:
    PAGE 44

    DATA USED IN THE PROGRAM U VALUE FOR WINDOWS U VALUE FOR WALLS 2x4 CONSTRUCTION = 2x6 CONSTRUCTION LOG CONSTRUCTION 8" u VALUE FOR ROOF = u VALUE FOR FOUNDATION WALL VOLUME OF THE BUILDING = 18040 C.F. ACTUAL SOUTH GLAZING AREA= 828 S.F. . 36 .049 .031 . 10 . 025 .071 WATER STORAGE IN THE DIRECT SUN (WATER BARRELS) = 5472 LBS. AREA FOR WINDOWS AREA FOR WALLS AREA FOR ROOF AREA OF PERIMETER MASS STORAGE IN THE DIRECT SUN (INTERIOR MASS WALL AND FLOOR SLAB IN GREENHOUSE) = 45000 LBS. MASS STORAGE NOT IN THE DIRECT SUN (ROCK STORAGE IN CRAWL SPACE) = 133920 LBS. TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES (AVERAGES FOR OUTSIDE TAKEN FROM CLIMATE DATA FOR EVERGREEN). JUNE DAYTIME (ASSUME INDOOR OF 78 F.) = 2 F. JUNE NIGHTTIME (ASSUME INDOOR OF 65 F.) = 25 F. DECEMBER DAYTIME (ASSUME INDOOR OF 65 F.) = 21 F. DECEMBER NIGHTTIME (ASSUME INDOOR OF 65 F.) = 55 F. = " 458 S.F . = 1724 S.F. 1080 S.F . 936 S.F.

    PAGE 45

    RESULTS OF SIX COMPUTER RUNS OF "SOLAR" JUNE 2x4 CONSTRUCTION TOTAL THERMAL LOAD (BTUH/F.) 767 % HEATING SUPPLIED BY GLASS AREA 70 HEAT LOSS FOR 8 HR. DAY (BTU) 7505 HEAT LOSS FOR 16 HR. NIGHT (BTU) 306869 PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED BY STORAGE MASSES 60 DECEMBER TOTAL THERMAL LOAD (BTUH/F.) 767 % HEATING SUPPLIED BY GLASS AREA 70 HEAT LOSS FOR 8 HR. DAY (BTU) 78808 HEAT LOSS FOR 16 HR. NIGHT (BTU) 6 75111 PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED BY STORAGE MASSES 60 2x6 CONSTRUCTION 737 75 7009 294456 64 737 75 73594 647803 64 LOG CONSTRUCTION 855 59 8912 34203H 51 855 59 93579 752484 51

    PAGE 46

    THIS PROGRAM WAS DESIGNED FOR USEAGE WITH PASSIVE RESIDENCES, BUT IT CAN ALSO BE USED AS A ROUGH ESTIMATE FOR LARGER BUILDINGS. IT CAN BE USED FOR ANALYSIS OF A DESIGNED BUILDING OR AS A DESIGN TOOL, WITH PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES AS DATA. EVERYTHING THIS PROGRAM CALCULATES CAN BE CALCULATED BY HAND, THE COMPUTER JUST DOES IT FASTER. THAT MAKES IT EASIER TO MODIFY AREAS, CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND MASS OR WATER STORAQE AREAS WITHOUT HOURS OF COMPUTATIONS. THE AVERAGE "RUN" COSTS 25 SO IT BECOMES AFFORDABLE TO COMPARE SUCH TH I f'.IGS AS 2x6, 2x4, OR LOG CONSTRUCT !"ON. THE AFFECTS OF DOUBLE VERSUS TRIPLE PANE WINDOWS CAN ALSO BE EASILY OBTAINED. THIS PROGRAM IS ONLY A TOOL, FOR THE DESIGNER TO LESSEN CALCULATION TIME AND ENABLE MORE TIME FOR APPROPRIATE DESIGN.

    PAGE 48

    'iUN 2 X 4 COUSTRlJCTI ON . c. LLEG.o,L C0 ! :!1 A ND. l'NH : -!EI..LO ?:!OGR4!1 PASSI'l! SOLAR 9UILPWGS. '!lHS ?ROGRAl1 ' :TAS 3Y H EI..ENE RICHA RDS DI?.EC'!'IO.JS : ENTER DATA AFTER ? , ??.ESS USE NO H I l]l "' . U FACT ll."f F'O?.: loTI NDOH S ? .. • 3 6 . :. AREA FOR i .rtNDOWS , s. F' ? 456 . ' . . . CONDUCTAliiCE FOR ::o 164.88 STu:! P!R iJ2 "' U FACTOR FOR \IALLS •. , . . '! .. AREA FOR OPAQUE WALLS, . S .F. ? 1724. CON DUCTANCE FOR WALLS = 64.476 9TUH PER DEGREE l] 3 = . U FACTOR F'OR ROOF' ? . l1l25 .. S3 .. = A?.:EA 0 F' ?.0 OF', S • F' • ? teHia . CONDUCTA N CE Ft00F' = 27 9Tirrl ?'!..'!t DEGREE 04 s _ U FACTOR FOR F'OUNDATION ? • 071 ,. PERIMETER AREA, S .F. ? 936 . CONDUCTANCE 66.456 9TUH DEGREE TOTAL CON DUCT.ANt:E ;, J42 .O".f2 Bi'.JH ?ER DEGREE V :=! VOLUME OF; BUILDIN G , c.F. ? 1 .8Z40 . ..... . . ' . • = 126 PER DEGREE 1-1 "' NIGHTTIME TEMPE?.ATVRE' DIFF'ER.E:>ICE.. F'• ? 25 SOU"!':! GLAZ1NG' _ AREA. N EEDED s 936 e!Slt s.r. S = _ ACTUAL SOUTH GLAZIN G AREA ... s.r . ? 326 . PERCENT' SOLAR HEATIN G SUPPLIED = 713 TOJ'AL lHERt'LIU. . LOAD ::a 767 .t 7 ' 2 . s : r.tiH PER DEGREE SOt.AR T?..ANS.MI: SS I J:OR 6 HR ,.. . I l 59 200 BTU 0 = DAYTIME TEMPERATURE DlFF'ERENCE.. F' • ? 2 . . .. -HEAT LOSS ?ER DAY F.OR a H R = BTU :-!EAT TO BE STORED s l"o 1 5169 E+6 BT U LOSS AT NIGHT FOR 16 HR = 306869• BT U .;TATER S . TORAGE N EEDED, _ D ! RECT SUN = 28' 145. 5 !..BS ! . f 2 = _ A CTUAL ; .;ATER STO:::\A GE ! N DIRECT SU N:.. !..BS ? 5 4 7 2 . F ERC::NT H :::ATI N G SUPP!.! ED 3Y T".r!! S ' . .fATER : 15 5535 S ) fEED ED, NOT I N SUN = . ll258 2 • LBS • '14 = ACTUAL '.oTATER STO R I\GE .. NOT Dl SUN, LBS. . ?'. 3 HEATIN G SU??LIED BY' THIS c TATER MASS::: 0 M.!ISQN?.Y . STOR A GE N EED!;:o, . DI:=tECT SU')! : = . t M J72S • LES = ACTUAL MASONRY DI R EC T SUN, !..3S. ? ! E ATING SUPPLIED 9Y 'l: i!S MASS 25 5 8 1:! :1A SONRY NOT I N SUN"' 562912l. _ LBS. ;:>. 4 . . ::: . A CTUP.L r 1 A S O N R'!' STO R AGE.. N O T IN SUN .. I..SS ? l33922l :!EATIN G SUPPLIED SY THIS MASONRY M ASS !9. 0325 ?::RC ENT SU?PL!ED BY Jl.LL !1ASSES ::: 6 0 1673 'IF. IS IS 'mE E N D OF THE PROGP.PJ1 MAY ' YOUR LI::"E 3E FILLED T:iiTH SUNS"rli N E .. C ? 0 . 457 S EC S .

    PAGE 49

    DEC . 2 : x 4 CONS7RUCTION ILLEGAL COMNAND• RNH: HELLO FOR ?.O.SSIVE SOLAR SU!LDDIGS. 1:-U S ??.OG?.AM vTAS DEV!:l. 3': i-iE!..ENC: ?.! CEA?.DS 3ROlr!-l DI::!ECTIONS : ::lATA AFT::?. ? ??.ESS "-Ei.JRN USE NO COMMAS !:-! NU11SSRS !J I _ = U FACTOR _FOR ? .. • 36 = AREA FOR v TI N DOHS ... So F• ? ' 458 CONDUCTANCE FOR = 164.83 BTUH PE3 DEGREE iJ2 U FACTOR FOR 1JA!..LS : _ .a49 . 8.2 . . =:. AREA FOR OPA QUE S.F• ? 1724CONDUCTANCE FOR !/ALLS = 84. STtrrl PER U3 FACTOR FOR ROOF ?_.1,325 A.."tEA OF ROOF• SF ? HJ8'21 _ CONDUCTANCE FOR ROOF = 27 ?ER DEGREE U4 = _ U FACTOR FO?. FOUNDATION ? S4 '! PERIMETE:'t .. SF' ? 936 . . . . . . . CONDUCTANCE Fott PSRIMSTER = -66 3TUH TOTAL CONDUCTANCE= 342 3TT...I:i P::::R-OEGREE I V VOLOHE OF B UILDING.> C•F• ? 1 . 304(:1 = 126.26 P::::R DEGREE = :-JIGHTTIME DIFFERENCE. ;:-. ? 55 SOUirl N EEDZD = s.;:-, S = ACTUAL : SOUTH GLAZING s.r. ? 62S . PERCENT. SOLAR HEATHIG SUP?T.. I ED = 7 6(:145 TOTAL = 767 PER SOLAR T?_O.NSt1!. SSI O N !':OR 6 :i?.. = . 1159200 31'U !) = .. DAYT!t1E TEi1PERATURE F• ? 2l . ' . LOSS ?ER DAY F.O?. 8 HR = 3TU HEAT TO 3E STORED= STU LOSS AT NIGHT FOX 16 HR 675!11 3TU \olATER S'!'OR.ME DI !". :::Ci' SUi\! : 25 145.5 !..3S. ,;2 = . ACTU.Ol. H A .TER STORAGE IN SUN , L.SS. ? 5472 . !"E!'l.C:::NT HEATING STJ??LI ED 3Y T:ii S :.rATER MASS =! 5 • 5535 i STOR.'-\GE NEEDED• NOT SUN = .112532. LBS \i4: ACTUAL i fATE."t STOP.AGE .. N OT IN-St.JN_, !..3S. H E.A.':"! N G SUPPL ' I:::D 3Y THIS 1l.A.T::::?. :-!ASS 0 !1ASQ N ? . Y .ST. O R AGE N EED:::D, DI RECT Stle! = .140723 !..3S. 32 = ACTUAL. STORAGE .. DI"ECT SID! , LBS • '? 4 5 000 0E::':CDlT ING SU?!"!..! -=:D 3 Y T HIS ! 1ASON:=!Y :-!ASS : 2 S • SS! 3 .ST.O?N3E c iE:::DED PI S'JN = 5629 ! 0 • !..35 • "84 . . '7. f!I.CTTJP.L-NOT I N St.r.-J_, LES • '? 13392:;) ?E?.C:::J T ?.EA"!"IN G S U??LIED 3Y r.-;IS 1 1ASON::tY 1 !.4SS = SU??LI E') 3Y ALL MASSES : 60 67 3 THIS IS T.-tE 0!" 1.-tE ?ROG?.A:-1' l".AY ':OUR !..IF::: B::: F"I!..I.ED St.r.--ISHINE. C? 0 SECS . ?.IJN C OMP!.. ::;T E, SY'E. J03" COS'!' _R.73212L: ?F ACCt.n-m LA7ION .. A CCOtr:'IT S 3 20oi6-SS 10 s 0 1 s s 1 .30 < NOR?1 Ar..)

    PAGE 50

    JUN:S . 2 X 6 CO.IST'?.UCT! ON !!.LEGAL CO:.lMAND. P?.OGRAH F"O?. PASSIVE St.JILDINGS. THIS ?ROGROJ1 : TAS DETJELOPED 3Y HELENE 3?.0\-TN DIRECTIONS : SNTE:R DATA AFTER ? , PRESS c:TUP.N USE NO COt1MAS IN NU!1BERS 1Jl :;: U FACT OR FOR :n NDOWS ? . . • :36 . = AREA FOR \HNDQWS, s. r• ? 458 . ' . .. CONDUCTANCE F"O!'t T:riND0':1S : 164 3TUH PER DEGREE: FACTOR FO!'t ? . • . F"OR OPAQUE S.F. ? 1 724 ' . ' ' . • '. CONDUCTANCE FOP. :a 53 STUH PER DEGREE . . .. ----1J3 = U FACTOR FOR ROOF ? :•a2s . . _ . ::S AREA OF ROOF, S • F' • 1 . . . . .. .• CONDUCTANCE FOR ROOF :a 27 BTUH PER DEGREE 1J4 FACTOR FOR FOUNDATION 1 • a11 . _ S4 :;: PERI M El'ER AREA, S • r • ? 936 . ' . . CONDUCTANCE FOR ?ERlMETER = 66 B'itJH PER TOTAL CONDUCTANCE :a 3 I 1 • 73 3TUH ?ER DEGREE -. --. -. . '! :"! VOLUME OF BUILDING, c.F .. ? H!040 . . . _ . • . INFILTRATION :a 126.26-BTUH PER DEGREE . . . . -:;: NIGHTTtME T=:M?EP.ATURE DIFFERENCE, F • ? 25 SOUTH GLAZ:ING.AREA. NEEDED"! 676,12 S = . ACTUAL ' SOUTH GLAZING AREA , S.F. ? .626 ... ?ERCENT. SCLAR HEATING SUPPLIED: 75 'l'OTAL . '!SER!1AL .LOAD 7. 736 '! ?ER DEG;;EE SOLAR TRkVSMtSSION F.OR 8 HR . = .1159200 BTU Q = DAYTIHE DIFFERENCE:. F• ? 2 . HEAT LOSS .PER DAY. a = 7308,96 STU TO BE STORED= 1.15219E+6 BTU LOSS AT NIGHT FOR 16 H?. = 294456 STU . --. . . . 1;TATE?., STORAGE NEEDED.> DIRECT SUN = 26283 LBS. ! 1j2 = _ ACTUAL !..TATER STORAGE !N DIRECT StJ'N, LES ? 5472. . . ' .. . PERCENT HEATING SUPPLIED 3Y THIS lo1ATER !'!ASS = 166553 WATER S'!OMGE . NOT IN SUN .,; .l35134• LBS. f!4. = ACTUAL \ JATER STORAGE, NOT IN SUN .. L35 • ? 0 ?ERCENT HEATIN G SUPPLIED BY THIS 11ASS = 0 t".:ASON:tY . STORAGE: NSEDED .. DI?.:SCT SUN . = .l31418• LES. = ACTUAL MAS m!P.Y STORAGE.. DIRECT SUN .. L3S. ? 450013 ?'S?.C'2NT SU?PLI:::D 3Y THIS M.ASONF'.Y t1ASS = 27 Si.OP.AG'S NEE!lED t.JO'!' I N Sml = 525672 L3S. .'7 . ACTUAL : 1ASO NRY .. NOT SUN .. L3S. ? t33920 ?ERCENT HE.l\.TING SUP?LI:!::D BY Ti-!IS MASO:-J?.Y !1ASS = 211! 38!33 . . THI-5 IS n!E OF 'i.{E \ MAY YOUR LIF:!:: 8E F!LLED tHT:{ C? SECS .

    PAGE 51

    IDLE• 2 X 6 CONS7RUCTI ON P.NH' HELL.O . !'P.OGl'tAM FOR PASSIVE SOLAR . . . -nus ?ROGP.AM T.oJ'AS DEVELOPED BY HELENE ?.I'CHA?.DS 3ROTIN -: DATA 'PRESS RETURN USE.NO COMMAS IN NUMBERS . . TJI U FACTOR FOR T.oJ'INDOVS ?..:36 .. 2 AREA FOR SF'• ? 456 . CONDUCTANCE FOR T.JINDOI'JS 164.88 ' BTtlH DEGREE TJ2 2 . JJ FACTOR FOR 1 .a:31 AREA FOR OPAQUE I{ALLS, S.F. ? 1724. .. -CONDUCTANCE FOR r.lALLS 2 53 • 444 3TUH PEP. DEGREE U3 = .. U FACTOR FOR ROOF ? . ... .. . S-1 .. 2 AREA OF S.F. ? 106 0 . . CONDUCTANCE 70R R OOF = 27 B'!'UH PJ::P. DEGRE?: Q 4 = . U FACTOR FOR ? • 371 --. -M S.F. ? 936 . . . -. .. FOP. PE!U:1ETER = 66 9TUH PER DEGREE --. -.. TOTAL CONDUC7ANCE = 311 BTUH PER DEGREE . . . -. '{ VOLU!1E OF BUILDING.. C • F • ? 15040 . INFI-LTP.ATION a 126.28' SiUH PER DEGREE t\1 = NIGHiiiME DI F'FEP..ENCE, F' ? 55 SO'I.JTH GI.AZ:I.lG . AREA . NEEDED ?' ::376 o12 SF• S = . ACTUAL SOUTH G LAZING Si"• ? .S25 . _ . ?E:qCENT SOLAR HEATING S UPPLIED= 75.6061 TOTAL = 736 snr...-t ?E:n.DEG3EE SOLAR 1'?.MJSH! SS I ON E'OP. 8 H?. . = 1 1 592!30 BTiJ !J .. DAYTI!1E DIFFEP.=:NCE, F. ? .2l . .. HEA'! LOSS PEP. DAY' 6 HR .. = 73594 3TU HEAT TO BE STORED= 1.08561E+6 STU HEAT LOSS AT NIITdT FOR 16 HR = 647803. STU S'lOP..AGE DIRECT SU N = .26283.6 L3S = _ ACTUAL . I •TAT'ER STO?.AGE IN DI ?.ECT SUN.. LBS. ? 5472 . . . . HEA.TUSG ' BY THIS VTATER MASS= 16.&553 . . . !•TATER !N SUN = .L05134 l.BS. 'J4 = ACiUA!. l vAT!:::t STORAGE .. NOT IN t.3S • ? fil HEATD!G SiJP?!.IED SY !:{IS \-iAT'SR > IP..SS = 3 :1AS ON::rf . STOP.AGC: DI?.ECT = .t3141S. !.aS. 32 = ACTUAL; o !ASON!rr STORAGE.. DIRECT St;"N, !.35 ? 45300 . ?::::CENT HEATHSG STJ?PLIED 9Y MASONRY :-!ASS = 27.3935 . -. . . -. STOP..AGE I N SUN = 525672 • !.BS • t1ASmJRY SiO?-O.GE , : lOT IN SC.JN, L9S • "! 133920 . PERCENT HEATING' 3Y '!i-I!S l IASONRY MASS = 2 0.333 8 PERCENT SU?P!..IED 3':" .'U.L :-!ASSES = 64.4295 I.--II S IS THE END OF T!-!'S L .IFE 8!: HIT:'i: StrrJSHINE: . C? 0 SECS. RUN Cm1PLETE.

    PAGE 52

    JL'NE: I.OG cm.;sT?.t:V.'!'IO!-I IL.l.EGA.Ic c:l : LO.? .JD. FNH . :-!E!.LO . PROG?.Al'! FO?. . .:..F. 3l'ILul:;Gs. _ "!!-!! S ??.0 ' .!P..S D =:1 . : ::::.. 2:: :-: S.J E ? . • c:.;;._?..:J S u r.: DI?.-ECTIQr>lS : E :ITE2 ? ' RETU?J>l U! = U ? ACT JR " : .'1:-II)O '.,:S ? • 3 6 AI = AREA F:JP. ":!I : J:0".' 5 , 5"2 ? 453 CONDUCTP1-J:::E rO?. c •."I:.JDos 1:4.oi3 37U?! DEGREE-U2 = U JR ' •TALi..$ ? • 1 z A2 = A."". EA FOR O PAC.UE : .;;..:.LSA 5 • ;:. ? .1724 CONDUCT!UlC E FOP. = i 72 4 9TU n PER DEG?.EE UJ. : U . FACTO?. ?0?. ?.OOr ? • 025 P.3 =AREA OF" S.F". ? 108 0" CONDUCTANCE F'JR ?.QO F" 27 3Tl'n ?ER DEGREE U4 = U FP.CTOP. FOR F:JU:lDriTIO:J ? • 07 I .A4 = ?E?.HlET E?. hP. ::A, S. F. ? 9 3 6 CQ:-;Jt!C7At JCE ?OR ? TCTAL C .O:•iDUCi'A1iCE = 4386 3TU:-: ?ERCEG?::::: V = t l O LL ' : I:: 0 F 31! i..CI:l G ; C . t• ? J -3e4c E:F!L'!':'LO.TIO : J ai!..:'i DEG?.E::. TE.1PE.qATUR E C_I FH.?. E1"CEi F ? 25 . sor;r..t Gi..P..ZI! l G AR:::f. : n::i:CED = 1114 3 3 . s. :. S " ACTUAL S ' OUTR GLP..Zl:lG A."!E:P-., S F . '? S2S ? E ? .CE': 7 SOi..AP. :-!EAT!: lG SLi??LlED = S9.L:597 ' TJ7AL T:-:E?; l!U . i...OAD = o55 .09 6 a-ru:-: Pt:R D E G? .EE S:O! ISS I F''JR 3 :-?.. = l l 5 ) 20 J , oTU C = DA'!'TI:--!E Dl ::i.':.?.::::. ;cs, f . ? 2 :tEA:' !. OSS FE?. DAY F'OR 3 !-!?. = 891226 .:iTt;' To 3!:: s:o'?.E:J = 1 1 SC29 :::: ... 6 ;;ru. 342CJ:i. 3 7':..' / : l EED=:r;, D ! RE:CT = 334 2 1 L.SS '.-'2 = A CT" JAL .-!A:'::?. STG?.AG E I:l Dl="ECT sr_r;i, ;_ss. ? 5472 SUP?-:.!ED lEEDE!:i , s:::; = !'67!Z5 . i...cS ?2 = P.C7!J A!.. :! . o .s 0 S T S I ? . E.C 7 S J... !...5 S • ? 4 2Y r:-:rs :-: . = L : = EC341; , , :...2.s . ?.4 = > I A S:"': J ?':' .:oT r:; s:::;, !..3 s . ? ! 33? 2
    PAGE 53

    :...oc: :-:::::.:. J " i J l = iJ ? :-":.C7 J 2 FU?. ' ! ! JD J r :TS ? • 3 6 = !:. f . ? l; 5'3 GO: J CL'C7 1\: l C E ?'J?. ' il:.JDJ '.15 = 1 64 .. g 3 3:" t::-: ? E:?. :..-:2 = L" o?. . . :o2 '? • Ie =.. :"':JP. S. r. ? I rS:-'. = 172. 4 3Tt:n j'EF. DE.G::
    PAGE 54

    \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I I \ ' • I \ ' . I \ '

    PAGE 55

    LOSS CALCULATIONS U FACTORS WALL (FRAME) WALL (BRICK) ROOF GREENHOUSE WITH INSULATION ROOM GREENROOM (LIVING) GREENHOUSE DINING KITCHEN UTILITY BETJROOM 1 BEDROOM 2 BATHROOM BEDROOM 3 BATHROOM TOWER .031 .100 .025 • 092 TOTAL TOTAL 0 DEGREES OUTSIDE TEMPERATURE FOUNDATION GLASS (WINDQ{.JS, DOORS) WOOD DOOR SKYLIGHT BTUH LOSS 3572 2624 1136 906 756 884 1669 209 2289 531 14,576 9,265 65 DEGREES INSIDE TEMPERATURE .071 .360 .180 .700 T = 65

    PAGE 56

    1:.'-
    PAGE 57

    HOT WATER PREHEAT SYSTEM H =DAILY HOT WATER HEAT DEMAND.(BTU/DAY) D =DAILY HOT WATER DEMAND.(GALLONS/DAY) EACH PERSON USES 15G/D (SO A FAMILY OF 4 USES 60 G/D) T =DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE HOT TAP WATER AND THE COLD INTAKE WATER.(F) WELL WATER IS 40 DEGREES F, HOT TAP WATER IS 120 DEGREES F, EQUATION • H = 8. 34 x D x T H = 8.34 x 60 x (120 40) 2 40,032 BTU/D 6 = COLLECTOR SIZE NEEDED (FT2) I = AVERAGE DAY INSOLATION (BTU/FT2 /D) (WITH 45 DEGREE SOUTH FACING SLOPE ON ROOF, 40 DEGREE NORTH LATITUDE, 2060 AVERAGE DAY INSOLATION FOR DECEMBER WITH 70% POSSIBLE SUNSHINE ••• I= 1442) E = COLLECTOR EFFICIENCY (%) HOT WATER FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR (45%) . EQUATION c = 100 X H I x E C = 100 x 40,032 = 62 FT2 1442 X .45 TWO MODULES OF 41 x 8' = 64 FT2

    PAGE 59

    BUILDING CONSTRUCTION: MATERIALS AND TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION, HUNTINGTON AND MICKADEIT, JOHN WILEY & SONS, 1975. COMPUTING, FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS, BOOTH & CHIEN, HAMILTON PUBL. CO., 1974. DESIGN WITH CLIMATE, VICTOR OLGYAY, PRINCETON UNIV. PRESS, 1963. DESIGN WITH NATURE, IAN MCHARG, DOUBLEDAY & CO., N.Y., 1969. DESIGN WITH WOOD, WESTERN WOOD PRODUCTS ASSOCIATION. ENERGY AND THE BUILDER, PROFESSIONAL BUILDER, CAHNERS PUBLISHING CO., 1977. FORTRAN: A SIMPLIFIED GUIDE TO PROGRAMMING, DANIEL MCCRACKEN, JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC,1974. HERE COMES THE SUN, 1981, JOINT VENTURE AND FRIENDS, BOULDER COLORADO, 1975. HOME HEATING SYSTEMS, FUELS, CONTROLS, USDA #2235,1975. IN THE BANK OR UP THE CHIMNEY, HUD,1974. LOW COST ENERGY EFFICIENT SHELTER FOR THE 0\VNER AND BUILDER, ED. EUGENE ECCLI, RODALE PRESS, 1976. MASS THICKNESS MANUAL FOR WALLS, FLOORS, AND ROOFS, DEFENSE CIVIL PREPAREDNESS AGENCY, U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1973, MECHANICAL. AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDINGS, MCGUINESS AND STEIN, JOHN WILEY & SONS, 1971. NBSLD, THE COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR HEATING AJID COOLING LOADS IN BUILDINGS, KUSUDA, HUD, DEPT. OF COMMERCE, 1976. OTHER HOMES AND GARBAGE, DESIGNS FOR SELF SUFFICIENT LIVING, LECKIE, MASTERS, WHITEHOUSE AND YOUNG, SIERRA CLUB BOOKS, 1975.

    PAGE 60

    PATIOS, TERRACES, DECKS AND ROOF GARDENS, ALICE SMITH, HAWTHORNE BOOKS, 1969. PATTERN LANGUAGE, ALEXANDER, ISHIKAWA, SILVERSTEING, OXFORD UNIV. PRESS, 1977. RADICAL TECHNOLOGY, ED. BOYLE AND HARPER, PANTHEON BOOKS, 1976. ROCKY MOUNTAIN HORTICULTURE, GEORGE KELLY, PRUETT PUBLISHING CO., 1967. SOLAR DESIGNING, JAMES LAMBETH, U.S.A., 1977. THE COMPLETE BOOK OF HEATING WITH WOOD, LARRY GAY, GARDEN BOOKS, 197 5. THE ENERGY PRIMER, SOLAR, WATER, WIND AND BIOFUELS, PORTOLA INSTITUTE, 1974. THE HAYDEN MEDICAL FACILITY, BUSCH, MOULTON, RICHARDS, CCDD, 1976. THE NEW YORK TIMES BOOK OF VEGETABLE GARDENING, JOAN LEE FAUST, QUADRANGLE, 1975. THE OWNER BUILT HOME, ](EN KERN, KEN KERN DRAFTING, 1961. THE SOLAR HOME BOOK, BRUCE ANDERSON, CHESIRE BOOKS, 1976. THE SUN EARTH BOOK, RICHARD L. CROWTHER, A. B. HIRSCHFIELD, 1976. THE WOODBURNERS ENCYCLOPEDIA, JAY SHELTON AND ANDREW SHAPIRO, VERMONT CROSSROADS PRESS, 1977, YOUR ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSE, ANTHONY ADAMS, GARDEN WAY PUBLISHING, 1975.

    PAGE 61

    "THE ll FE THAT SHALL FLOURISH WILL BE THE Ll FE THAT ADAPTS TO THE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS CHANGES, NOT THE ONE THAT TRIES TO MAKE THE WORLD CONFORM TO ITS NEEDS AND SETS OUT TO REDESIGN THE UNIVERSE IN ONE GRAND GESTURE. NO ONE THING SHALL OVERWHELM THE EARTH ... FOR THE MIRACLE OF THE UNIVERSE K EEPS ALL THINGS ... IN BALANCE."