Citation
Pagosa Springs primary school

Material Information

Title:
Pagosa Springs primary school
Creator:
Detlefsen, Daniel
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Daniel Detlefsen. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text




PAGOSA SPRINGS PRIMARY SCHOOL
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
By Daniel Detlefsen Fall 1985


The Thesis of Daniel Detlefsen____________ is approved.
Committee Chairman
Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver Date


A
I
III.
IV
Table of Contents
Project Description Introduction
Introduction/Thesis Statement
Site
Archuleta County Background
Location Maps
Description of Climate
Climatic Data
Climate Summary
Building Site Picture/Summary
Site Analysis
Program
Background
Enrollment Projections Program Summary Space Requirements Kindergarten
Classrooms (1-2)
Music
Physical Education Administration Cafeteria/Assembly Libary Clinic Footnotes
Codes
Uniform Building Code 1982 Colorado Handicapped Code Summary Colorado Energy Code Summary


V.
T
Table of Contents Con1d
Addendum
Pagosa Sun Article
Working Heights in Primary Schools
Classroom Reflectance
Classroom Acoustics Charts
Space Frame
Bibliography


PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The following booklet is an architectural program for a new school facility in Pagosa Springs, Colorado, school district 50. This primary school will serve approximately
300 students in grades kindergarten through second.


INTRODUCTION
Pagosa Springs Primary School
The Pagosa Springs Primary School will relieve acute overcrowding at the present elementary school (which will become an upper elementary school) and serve new students resulting from steady and potentially explosive growth in the area. By the year 1988 45% of all elementary (K-6) students will be in grades kindergarten through second.
Although a new school will inherently solve the physical problems of overcrowding in the district, the addition of a primary school into the school system offers the designer a special opportunity to enrich the lives of children in their most formative years. In the primary school years the child masters, or should master, the basic tools of learning essential to all his subsequent education. "Not only must the school teach the three R's, but must also endeavor to preserve and foster in the process, the childs natural curiosity, energy, and imagination."^
As programmed by the Superintendent of Schools for district 50, Terry Alley, the educational approach used is a self-contained one. That is to say students occupy the same room all day, with the same teacher. Exceptions are made for physical education, music, and of course lunch and recess. The school district has tried, at its present elementary school, an open-classroom approach with movable walls and team-teaching but feels a well equipped self-contained school is the best approach to a successful educational program.
In the design of a primary school it is my firm belief that the architecture can be a learning experience; that architectural space can become a sort of three dimensional textbook. Inherent in this belief is the basis that the location and physical properties of a school, especially a primary school, have a great effect on the education of its students.


To consider this thesis, one must first have an understanding of the learning process as it relates to primary school children in general and Pagosa Springs area children in particular.
In a rural, spread-out district like school district 50, the incoming primary student is probably going to be interacting with large numbers of children his own age for the first time. For most children it will be their first time away from the family for extended, regular periods. During these first years of schooling one of the major learning situations is the extension of a childs interest beyond his own intimate home enviroment and personal affairs into the larger social group that school provides. With this in mind the thesis will explore clustering common areas (first grade for example) with the intent of creating the opportunity for the increased interaction of students and teachers. The design will also strive to encourage social interaction by creating a comfortable and stimulating, informal environment that will enhance this learning situation.
The architecture of the school can also serve as a learning exrerience by incorporating learning opportunities into the physical components of the school.
Simple geometry can be discovered in geometrical shapes of equipment and structure.
A small greenhouse area could augment the science program and through its design could help teach children basic principles of solar energy, orientation, heat flow and storage. A simple ceiling fan could demonstrate effective methods of altering natural convection. The open display of electrical, mechanical, or structural Systems could help children be more aware of the framework which keeps the school operating. ' '<
Towards accomplishing these goals the thesis will take advantage of two facts: children of this age (5-8) are extremely naturally curious and respond well and are


attracted to bright colors. Therefore color will be used as a sort of magnet to draw interest and attention to an object or fenestration for which emphasis is desired.
CONTEXT
As Pagosa Springs continues to grow residents are becoming more critically aware of the architecture springing up around them. Large, monolithic buildings that are not sympathetic to the context of the area are widely criticized. The new (1983) concrete block, windowless high school has earned the appellation; "The Penitentiary" amongst area locals. Residents of the area are proud of the rural, remote, and rugged character of their enviroment. Many of the newer citizens have left more urban areas to pursue a different lifestyle.
I feel that the use of indigenous materials in a building, especially in a rural area, reinforces cultural identity and supports the local community. Materials indigenous to the immediate area include: gravel and river rock from nearby quarries on the San Juan river; concrete from area batching plants; and lumber cut on Wolf Creek Pass and sized at the local mill. In addition, the area around the site is littered with attractive lichen covered rock of workable size. Materials, of course, should not be limited to these. The architecture of the school should allow for the free and open expression of modern materials and technology but must do so while respecting the rich and special character of the area, .


FOOTNOTES
iRonald Gross and Judith Murphy, Educational Change and Architectural Consequences (New York: EFL, 1968), p.47.






ARCHULETA COUNTY Established 1885 County Seat: Pagosa Springs 1
Archuleta County, in southwestern Colorado, Is rectangular in outline, approximately 60 miles in length east and west, and 33 miles wide. New Mexico is to the south; the principal range of the Rocky Mountains to the east. Both climate and moisture vary greatly. While the surface in the north is mountainous, there are numerous comparatively level valleys in the southwest, where the soil is a deep fertile loam. Several mountain valleys form the central portion of the County. The San Juan River, with headwaters in the San Juan Mountains, and its tributaries comprise most of the water resources.
Archuleta County, of which Pagosa Springs is the seat, was organized from part of Conejos County in 1885. Nearly half,
47.9 percent, of the area of Archuleta County is devoted to the San Juan and Rio Grande National Forests, and another 14.3 percent is occupied by part of the Southern Ute Indian Reservation. The basic factors in the economy of the County are agriculture, mineral production, lumbering and recreational attractions.
There are 10 recreation regions in Colorado and ea,ch. of the 10 regions has unique characteristics, population densities and recreational facilities. Even so, they can be divided into three groups — eastern Colorado, the mountain chain north to south in west central Colorado, and counties along the western border.
Archuleta County is in Region 4, Four Corners — five counties, with cliff dwellings at Mesa Verde National Park; part of the San Juan Mountains, the Durango-to-Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad, the Navajo Trail and the Southern and Mountain Ute Indian reservations. Region characterized by dissected plateaus.


ARCHULETA COUNTY 2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION
1960 Population: 2,629 1972 Population: 2,699 Urban Population: No city over 2,500 Rural Population: 2,699 County Area: 1,364 sq. miles Terrain: Mountainous, mountain valleys Average Growing Season: 75 days Annual Mean Temperature: 42.1’ Average Annual Rainfall: 20.02 inches
Major Source Income: Agriculture, lumbering, tourism
1970 Assessed Valuation: $8,502,700 '
1971 Assessed Valuation: $8,633,810 1971 Average County Levy: 54.97 1971 Total Revenue: $474,610 1971 Retail Sales: $6,242,539
1971 Auto Registrations: 1,001
Land Ownership:
Private .....................305,525acres
Federal ......................554,193 acres
State................................ 3,560 acres
County and Municipal....... 224 acres
COUNTY SEAT: PAGOSA SPRINGS
1960 Population: 1,374 1972 Population: 1,375 Elevation: 7,079 feet City Area: 716 acres 1971 Bank Deposits: $2,936,527
1971 Retail Sales: $5,872,457 1971 Assessed Valuation: $1,501,050 1971 Municipal Levy: 9.20 City Government: Mayor, council Date Incorporated: 3-181891


LA PLATA COUNTY


fflm
/
u
v
VILL
i/,
/ -/Lake
// /r* fagosa\
n PARK
/

NORTH
I
AGOSA
V

LAKE ,
T—
( PAGOSA IN \ THE PINES ' UNIT
.AKE
•OREST
ESTATES
THE RANCH COMMUNTTY
si.
A
/ VA

r lakeviewn
ESTATES I
|---'' LAKEWOOD y
VILLAGE^
' \A / â„¢
“* \y
PAGOSA MJ ' THE PINES
STEVENS
AIRFIELD
jv, /A
'SOUTH VILLAGE / LAKE


mm PROJECT BOUNDARY D PAGOSA RESORT 0 GOLF PRO SHOP AND SNACK BAR H TENNIS PRO SHOP (51 CLUBHOUSES a SOLAR HEATED FIRE STATION 0 FUTURE RECREATIONAL CENTER m VILLAGE CENTER (FIRST PHASE)
0 CHURCH
0 COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL SUBDIVISION B SERVICE STATION
CENTRAL /PINOnU ^ CORE
WOLF CREEK PASS SKI AREA
TO
DENVER
PAGOSA
SPRINGS
__^7|
HOT
MfftCRAL
SPH1NCS
TREASURE
FALLS
EL

ALPHA

VISTA
;\ s$ --(—-
J VISTA—\ li

I
kv. S ^^v77


PINON
MOUKJAM
^oWivfoiott
PA6*35Ax M.ZADMO <&jbdiviGiov}
: !. rfT&roZBD ^SHcoL eiTE 2- Pf^r^E-D hC&Fl-TPL-/cUN\C€>llB .. 3. &0.j\. (^^EATION CeNTEfr


Description of Climate ^
Archuleta County is located in southwestern Colorado on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. The county is comprised mostly of low mountains and mesas with the eastern part of the county extending into the San Juan Mountains. Altitudes range from about 6000 feet to 13,150 feet.
Under both stormy and fair weather conditions topographic features exert strong influences on local climate. Mountains influence the flow of air over and around these barriers and valleys channel low level air movements. Under wintertime storm conditions, air forced to rise over mountains cools rapidly and precipitation is enhanced. On the lee side air descends resulting in reduced snowfall. In the summer, channeling of air can lead to preferred areas of shower development especially on the east side ridges. Cold air tends to flow downward and its motions are strongly controlled by topographic features. Cold air is trapped in canyons, valleys and other low spots and becomes colder than other air in nearby areas. The effect of topography in very strong climatic variations in the county so care must be exercised in extrapolating data taken at one location to estimate the climate at another location.
Large temperature changes are observed in Pagosa Springs where the monthly average varies from 19.8°F in January to 64.5°F in July. The mean maximum varies from 38.2°F in January to 83.5°F in July while the minimum varies from 1.3°F in January to 45.3°F in July. The difference between the average maximum and minimum is 37°F in January and 38°F in July which is indicative of the day to night temperature change. The warmest January average minimum was 12.1°F while the


coldest January minmum was -7.2°F. This large variation changes to a smaller variation in summer.
The maximum and minimum monthly precipitation show the extreme variability of precipitation. At Pagosa Springs, the largest October precipitation was 7.80 inches compared to 0.00 inches measured for the smallest October. Also, average precipitation values are made up of many years slightly smaller than normal and a few years above normal. Most years will be below average.
Average snowfall measurements are 104 inches per year at Pagosa Springs.
Even to a greater extent than the total precipitation, a few large snowstorms dominate snowfall averages with most years below average.


CLIMATIC DATA
Pagosa Springs, Colorado
ELEVATION: 7079'______________________________________
LATITUDE: 37° 16'____________________________________
TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS: Winter = -9 Degrees______________
Summer = 85 Degrees______________
HEATING & COOLING DEGREE DAYS: Heating Degree Days = 8230
Cooling Degree Days = 123
PRECIPITATION: Annual Snowfall is J05 in. (average)_______
Annual Rainfall is 18.7 in. (average)______
SOLAR ALTITUDES: Summer Solstice, June 21 = 76°__________
____Equinox, March 21 & September 21 = 52°
WinLer Solstice, December 21 = 29°______
May 21 & July 21 = 73°__________________
____April 21 & August 21 = 64°______________
____February 21 & October 21 = 41°__________
MEAN HOURS OF SUNSHINE: _______3095__________________________
MEAN AVERAGE TEMPERATURE: _______42!_________________________
MEAN AVERAGE MINIMUM TEMPERATURE: _______24!_________________
MEAN AVERAGE MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE: _______61°_________________


JAN
Average Snowfall 26.0
Average Rainfall 1.76
Greatest Depth of Sncw on Ground in. 35
Mean Max Temp 38.2
Mean Min Temp 1.3
Mean Average Temp 19.3
Degree Days (Base 65°) 1368
Ave. # Chys Max Taip Less or = 32° 6.3
(Total = 19.1)
FLB MAR APR MAY
18.7 14.3 6.0 .9
1.14 1.32 1.34 1.04
37 29 8 0
42.9 49.0 59.7 68.9
6.5 14.3 23.5 30.2
24.5 31.7 41.5 49.5
1135 1026 720 479
3.3 1.4 0 0
4‘
JUN JUL AUG SEP
0 0 0 .1
.93 1.59 2.34 1.77
0 0 0 0
78.7 83.5 81.3 75.1
36.3 45.3 44.3 36.4
57.5 64.5 62.8 55.7
221 53 82 290
0 0 0 0
CLIMATIC DATA
OCT NOV DEC
3.4 10.2 25.0
2.29 1.25 1.96
10 16 40
64.5 49.7 39.8
26.8 15.3 5.5
45.7 32.5 22.8
591 960 1304
0 1.2 6.8


I
mrrecr euffif
GALL. OUT , UlTtt COM
CLIMATE
Suiiniiary
School design in the Pagosa Springs area should take advantage of the plentiful winter sunshine and generally favorable solar conditions. South slopes should be sought out and taken advantage of and general building orientation should be southerly. Overhangs should be sized to allow for solar gain in the winter and shading in the summer.
The shedding and removal of snow and ice off roofs must be carefully planned. A covered area for bus loading and unloading may be appropriate. Entryways and outdoor courts and play areas should be sheltered from cold west winds.
The large number of heating degree days and substantial diurnal temperature variations all year long make high insulation values a must and earth berming (on north and west sides) a consideration.
Passive gain and daylighting design should consider the "snow on ground" data and evaluate its effect on ground reflectance. The concern here is for control of potentially excessive glare and heat gains on south elevations. Daylighting calculations must consider the snows effect on the "illumination from ground outside window" (Efactor. On a sunny spring day with snow on Lhe ground this factor may be as high as 1,000 footcandles.


BETS
Building Site Summary
Location: The site for the primary school is located within a vast (over 40,000 acres) residential, commercial, and resort development that was, until the early 70's, a sheep and cattle ranch. The area is called "Fairfield Pagosa". The immediate area surrounding the site is zoned for low density residential use and is currently undeveloped. Even in developed low density residential zones in Fairfield, the rural flavor of the area is maintained.
Ground Cover: The wooded portion of the site consists of a mix of Ponderosa Pine and Douglas Fir trees. The open areas contain native grasses which include Smooth Brome, Western Wheat, Crested Wheat, Perennial Rye and Clover.
In addition, lichen covered limestone rock is scattered throughout the site.


wm
6ITF AMAIY6I5
*â– 500'
UoRTH
SITE MEA= *-40 a*«>


'mm



SITE AHAI.Y5I5
*-•300'
HAJOft SHE, ASSET; .
- sodrH sloPikE OEMikli
V ,M06


VIEjJ WOO
LlNDEVEtoteo
TAK&J H&RE-
SITE AIJALY615
l-W
lJMDEV£LOPfeD
R£5I0ENTIAJL
LAUD*
720^
HoKtM
* ZOUeD POf^ sisioe FAMicf oefAcHfeD O045ITY


^Colorado Yearbook, 1978) p. GEN-2.
^Colorado Yearbook, 1978) p. GEN-1
â– ^Colorado Yearbook, 1978) p. CLM-2-4.

FOOTNOTES
Archuleta County (Fort Collins, Co.: Govt. Press, Archuleta County (Fort Collins, Co.: Govt. Press,
Archuleta County (Fort Collins, Co.: Govt. Press,




PROGRAM
BACKGROUND
Since the site for Pagosa Springs primary school is located in an undeveloped area approximately four miles outside of town, extensive busing of students will occur. Despite the fact that school District 50 encompasses a very large area and students are bussed in from remote ranches, there is only a 10 to 15 minute difference for student arrival times.
Classes start at 8:30. The first bus load of students arrive at approximately 8:10 while the last bus load arrives at about 8:20. Until 8:30 students congregate at the playground area under teacher supervision. In the event of inclement weather, upon their arrival students report directly to their homeroom.
School Curriculuin/Schedule
The academic curriculum includes studies in reading, math, spelling, writing, science, social studies, art, music, physical education, and health. The school day (including kindergarten) runs from 8:30 to 3:15 and is divided into periods. One period is typically equivalent to between 45 minutes and one hour. The subjects of reading, math and spelling or writing are scheduled in the morning when the students are fresh.
The lunch session lasts for one and one half hours and is divided into three 30 minute periods.
After lunch the more active subjects such as art, music, health and physical education
are studied. One period per week is devoted to library. Fifteen minute recess periods are
held daily at mid-morning and mid-afternoon. Kindergarten students are served a snack in
the classroom and have a rest period, on mats, of about 15 minutes each day.


In addition to the regular school year schedule, the facility will also be used during summers and nights. Students with special needs will use the school in the summer when remedial and accelerated programs are offered. Community use of the facility will occur during summers and nights for special programs and classes such as computer programming or real estate.


SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 50 JOINT ENROLLMENT PROJECTIONS
1984 19 89.:. 1986 1987 1988 â–  19 89
K 83 84 90 94 94 95
1 78 84 85 91 96 96
â– 2 68 78 84 85 91 96
3 63 69 79 85 86 - 92
4 71 67 73 84 90 92
5 79 77 72 79 91 97
6 77 82 79 74 82 94
Elem. Total 519 541 562 592 630 662
7 112 81 87 83 78 87
8 96 121 87 94 89 84
JH. Total 20 8 â–  202 174 177 167 171
9 96 95 119 86 93 88
10 93 98 97 121 87 95
11 61 83 87 86 10 8 77
12 60 54 74 77 76 96
HS Total 310 330 377 370 364 356
District Total 1, 037 1,073 1,113 1,139 1 ,161 1,189


PROGRAM SUMMARY
STAFF REQUIREMENTS
The staff requirements for the Pagosa Springs primary school serving approximately
400 students in grades kindergarten through 1 Principal 1 Secretary 1 Librarian
1 Physical education teacher SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Space_______________________________________
ACADEMIC CLASSROOMS to serve 367 students
Kindergarten First grade Second grade Third grade Music
TOTAL CLASSROOMS:
ADMINISTRATION
Principals office
General office/Secretarial
Clinic
Lounge/Conference w/restrooms
TOTAL ADMINISTRATION:
third are as follows:
15 Classroom teachers 1 Custodian 1 Music teacher
Unit Total Division
No. Area Area_______________Total
5 1000 5000
5 1000’ 5000
5 1000 5000
4 1000 4000
1 750 750
15,750
1 225 225
1 550 550
1 250 250
1 460 460
1,485


PROGRAM SUMMARY (Con'd)
Square Feet
Space_________________________________________No. fe1 PfetH°"
LIBRARY
Seating for 50 1 2500 2500
Workroom 1 150 150
Librarians office 1 200 200
Audio visual storage 1 100 100
TOTAL LIBRARY:
PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Gymnasium 1 4104 4104
Equipment room 1 275 275
Storage 1 150 150
Instructors office 1 150 150
TOTAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION:
CAFETORIUM
Seating 1 2000 2000
Stage area 1 550 550
Lobby 1 335 335
Kitchen 1 1000 1000
Storage 1 275 275
TOTAL CAFETORIUM: 4,160


PROGRAM SUMMARY (Con'd)
SUMMARY
Area Square Feet
Classrooms 15,750
Administration 1,485
Library 2,950
Physical Education 4,679
Cafetorium 4,160
TOTAL NET AREA: 29,024
ESTIMATED CROSS AREA: 41,463
NOTE: The total net area is 70 percent of the estimated gross area. The difference between net and estimated gross areas represents allowances for corridors, stairways, toilets,wall thicknesses, mechanical room, custodial facilities, and building storage.


PROGRAM
KINDERGARTEN
AREA
NUMBER REQUIRED:
5
1,000 sq. ft.
TOTAL
5,000 sq. ft.
ACTIVITIES
Kindergarteners attend a full day, 8:30 to 3:15.
Morning activities include writing, spelling, and reading. A 15 minute recess period is held at mid-morning. At mid-day the students will eat lunch in the school cafeteria. Thirty minutes is scheduled for lunch time. After lunch the students engage in the more active subjects like art, story-telling and games. A recess, snack and rest period (on mats) is held in mid-afternoon. In addition, students will leave the homeroom for physical education and music.
FURNISHINGS
Childrens coats, boots, and other personal items will be accomodated within the room, close to the entrance.
Each student will have a work station at a two - place table, 24 by 48 by 18 inches high and two stackable chairs at each table will be needed. A science table, 5 by 3 feet, with storage beneath should be provided. An area to grow plants should be provided.
Materials for artwork will require large paper storage, 24 inch deep shelves, storage for paints, clay, crayons, and walls for the display of the student work.
About six linear feet of bookshelving, including the display of books on sloping shelves are needed. Shelving should not be located above four feet in height.


KINDERGARTEN (Con'd)
A sink with cabinet, 4 by 2 feet by 25 inches high is needed in each room. A movable toy bin and a movable cubicle for blankets and mats should be included.
It is suggested that there be little or no built-in equipment, except for the sink counter. By means of equipment, the room should be capable of being subdivided into areas: classroom area with tables and chairs; story and rest area; work area for art and blocks; playhouse, store and other dramatic play apparatus; teachers area.
Teachers Area: Provision should be made for a teachers desk, two chairs, and a lockable cabinet, 4 by 2 by 7 feet to include: coat space, file cabinet, bookshelving, large drawers, area for personal items, and cabinet space.
LIGHTING
Use fluorescent cool white luminaires at 70 footcandles to augment natural daylighting. Lamps adjacent to daylight sources should be seperately switched.
MECHANICAL
Children will often be in direct horizontal contact with the floor. Use an electric radiant floor slab and forced air ventilation.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
- Investigate clustering
- Each cluster should have immediate access to toilet facilities specifically for kindergarten use


CLASSROOMS
AREA 1,000 sq. ft.
NUMBER REQUIRED:
5 @ First Grade 5,000
5 @ Second Grade 5,000
TOTAL 10,000 sq. ft.
ACTIVITIES
First and second grades. The self-contained homeroom serves all regular subjects except music and physical education. Major subjects studied are reading, math, and art. Minor classes include spelling, writing, social studies, and health (see Background).
Like the kindergarten program, the more academically intense subjects occur in the mornings; the more active in the afternoons.
FURNISHINGS
Student Seating: Trapezoidal desks with chairs of sizes adjusted to the students heights should be used for maximum flexability of seating arrangements. Storage: Clothes storage space will be needed in each room. In all classrooms a cubicle, 15 inches by 15 inches by 15 inches should be assigned to each student. Counter: A counter beneath the windows should


CLASSROOMS (Con'd)
be planned to contain plants, books, and perhaps drawers for storage. Counter height = 26 inches. Sinks: Each classroom should have a sink and counter. This work sink will be primarily used in the art and science programs. Height = 26 inches. Floors; For comfort and acoustical reasons all classrooms should be carpeted. Chaulkboard and Tackboard; About 20 feet of chaulkboard should be provided with a chaulkrail height of 25 inches and a map rail at the top of the chaulkboard at 80 inches. Tackboard in as large a quantity as possible should be provided. Teachers Area; Provision should be made for a teachers desk, two chairs, and a lockable cabinet, 4 by 2 by 7 feet, fixed to the wall, to include: coat space, file cabinet, bookshelving, map area, large drawers, locking area for personal items, and cabinet space.
LIGHTING
Use fluorescent cool white for a high efficacy lamp with good color acceptance that blends well with natural daylight. Illuminate classrooms to 70 footcandles using daylight to the maximum extent possible while minimizing veiling reflections and glare.
ACOUSTICS
Classroom acoustic design will involve:
a) Locating sound-absorbing treatment to reduce classroom noise levels.
b) Insuring adequate privacy between adjacent spaces.
c) Control of air-handling system noise.
d) Maintaining adequate separation between classrooms and noise generating activities.


CLASSROOMS (Con'd)
MECHANICAL
Electric radiant heat panels in ceiling and forced air ventilation.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Investigate clustering to enhance social and educational opportunities.
SPECIAL CODE APPLICATIONS
First and second grades are not allowed above the first story (802 c).


foeei&te seaw
MRAM6EHEUT61
iJ^l^TMPEZOlO TA6LES0
3 CUJSTE^e?
]
A5 UELL At? TFADITIOMAL LWEA& APMM6tMEMT6


CLvA56(\Otim
CAL CDI-16IU6, USESt
L- (iA'fMEA. l-CWfAKD A-'5SM I-BXIOSED S-CteWHOliSe,
IUL£6TlCATfe- CLUSTER -fft FklHAUCP. ‘SOCIAL AUP FDllCATIOUAL ^OfttllUlTIFjS
CLUSTER AtoUUD A COMt-ttl/siWEO AfcA
-COHMOU MSA COULD bt QliTDLOfL, IMDCDft, OfA SeMl-gWCLftSEO,
POSSIBLE, USES K)f\ COMmiMEA lULUJDfe.
*
OUTDCOft COHM0MAftgA£>S (CfEU/sEHI-EUClCEeD)
- CLAS6RCOM1
- PLAfAtAEA -CoUP^fMO
IUPOXA COMMCU AftFAft;
- CAEEUUoiteE,
~ HEAT *â–  iUjJHILAXE. eUMalUOlML OASSKOOKIL - EAPctrt science IA6 ,
-PlAWT CKMUb AHO S-nlDf -Apoti-rscnMe m a liMuiwfo sxPeftiAacE.
-f\EfOU fc£- CEUTEi^
-OPB4 CUiMCO^
- PUf AREA


MUSIC
AREA , 750 sq. ft.
NUMBER REQUIRED: 1
ACTIVITIES
Activities include general group singing^ vocal and rhythm excercises.
FURNISHINGS
Informal seating could take place in a amphitheater type sunken seating ring, carpeted.
More formal seating would be straight posture music chairs with folding tablet arm, approximately 16 inches in height.
Other furnishings include a mobile music folio cabinet about 281inches wide by 17 inches deep by 36 inches high and an easily moved piano and adjustable stool. Also include a chaulkboard with ruling, a bulletin board and shelving for a record player/tape recorder.
LIGHTING
Fluorescent cool white @ 70 footcandles.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
- Provide doors six feet wide so that a piano can be moved in and out
- Cluster with other noise generating areas


PHYSICAL EDUCATION
AREA: 54'x76' (2-station playroom) 4104 sq. ft.
NUMBER REQUIRED: 1
SUPPORT SPACES:
- Equipment Room 275 sq. ft.
- Storage 150 sq. ft.
- Instructors Office TOTAL 150 sq. ft. 4679 sq. ft.
ACTIVITIES
A 54 x 76 foot gym would allow a court area of 42 x 64 feet with the partition open, suitable for volleyball, badminton, and elementary basketball, as well as other elementary activities. The equipment room will house items for outdoor play and for this reason' should be accessable from the playground. Activities in the gym will generate substantial noise levls.
FURNISHINGS
Provisions should be considered for the following: - Swing-up basketball backstops - Climbing ropes and rope hoists - Mats, 6 xl2 feet, about two inches thick


PHYSICAL EDUCATION (Con'd)
- Mat truck
- Wall-mounted chinning bars
- Rings
- Bar rack mounted on wall
- Whelled cart similar to shopping cart for transporting game equipment
- Volleyball net standards with floor plates
- Middle partition for separation into two rooms
LIGHTING
High intensity discharge (HID) metal halide lamps @ 70 footcandles,offers good color, life, control, and efficiency.
Natural light of at least 20% of floor area located high and screened.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
- Considerable noise generation
- Ceiling height of 18 feet minimum
- No showers or seating required
- Direct access to outdoor play fields
- Equipment room should be accessible to indoor and outdoor playgrounds


IP1H©(§j[S^KS
PHYSICAL EDUCATION (Con'd)


ADMINISTRATION
FACULTY AND STAFF SPACE:
PRINCIPALS OFFICE 225 sq. ft.
SECRETARIAL SPACE 150 sq. ft.
STORAGE 100 sq. ft.
FACULTY LOUNGE / CONFERENCE 300 sq. ft.
WAITING AREA 300 sq. ft.
STAFF RESTROOMS (2 @ 80 sq. ft. each) 160 sq. ft.
TOTAL 1,175 sq. ft.
ACTIVITIES
- Reception
- Administration
- Discipline
- Clerical
- Lounge
- Conference
FURNISHINGS
Principals office: One desk @ 45 x-84 inches, one filing cabinet @ 15 x 30 x 60 inches,
and three chairs.


ADMINISTRATION (Con'd)
Secretary: One desk @ 55 x 84 inches, one filing cabinet @ 15 x 30 x 60 inches, and two chairs. Administrative counter @ 15 feet by 2 feet and two fireproof filing cabinets @ 15 x 30 x 60 inches.
LIGHTING
Fluorescent cool white iuminaires @ 100 footcandles.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
- Location should be adjacent to main entry
- Reception area should have view of main entry
- Principal^ office should have view


CAFETERIA/ASSEMBLY ROOM
AREA: 500 ultimate enrollment / 3 serving times x 12 sq.ft, /person
2,000 sq. f t.
NUMBER REQUIRED: _________1_______
SUPPORT SPACES:
- Stage, including backstage
- Lobby ( 167 persons x 2 sq. ft./ person)
- Kitchen including food storage
- Storage
TOTAL
550 sq. ft. 335 sq. ft. 1,000 sq. ft.
275 sq. ft. 4,160 sq. ft.
ACTIVITIES
- Dining
- Plays
- Recitals ( musical, speech )
- Motion pictures
- Forums / meetings
- Assemblies
FURNISHINGS
Cafeteria seating must be easily moveable so the room can be changed for different use. A cafeteria seating prototype is a folding portable dining table with bench; on casters;


CAFETERIA/ ASSEMBLY ROOM (Con'd)
seating approximately 15 children; table height, 22 inches; bench height, 13 inches; occupying approximately eight square feet of floor space when folded.
Stackable adult sized and child sized chairs should be used for assembly type usage.
SPECIAL DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS
Stage: The stage should be raised about 42 inches above the assembly floor for good viewing. It is important that the last row of seats be closer to the stage than might normally be suggested for an auditorium with a sloping floor. Forty- five feet from the rear row to the stage is the approximate limit.
The ceiling above the stage should be raised. Size, shape, and construction material are important factors in planning for good sound control. Nonparallel walls or splayed walls and ceilings should be considered.
LIGHTING
The varied activities in this room makes flexible lighting imperative. The stage area should be served by incandescent track lighting. All lights should be controlled from a separate panel and should have dimming ability. Exit lights must be on a separate circuit from the main switch.
A stage switchboard should be located at the rear of the seating area, on a control platform three feet above the last row of seats. The platform will be used for motion picture machines as wel] as for the switchboard. An adequate number of stage floor plugs should be installed to provide for stage and prop lighting.
Dining and kitchen areas should be illuminated to 20 to 30 footcandles with fluorescent luminaires. For assembly this can be augmented by architectural elements along walls.


CAFETERIA/ASSEMBLY ROOM (Con'd)
MECHANICAL
The mechanically operated ventilating system shall be capable of supplying a minium of five cubic feet per minute of outside air with a total circulated of not less than 15 cubic feet per minute per occupant (sect. 605) .
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
- Community use
- Storage area beneath stage
- Toilet facilities off lobby
- Will be used while the rest of the school is closed
- Kitchen storage adjacent to exterior loading dock
QUllLT
- OPPOSITE- U065Y
- POc6IDLE. £ACK^TA6&-
6>Yn COMUECTIOM
- UD65Y ^ P065l&La Tf\AM6ITl0SyOJPFEA 6PAce&£TU£fel4 M0l5f AWD QLllET 7AN&3


LIBRARY
AREA: Up to 50 students @ 50 sq. ft.
NUMBER REQUIRED: 1______
SUPPORT SPACES:
- Workroom
- Office
- Audio visual storage
2,500 sq. ft.
150 sq. ft. 200 sq. ft. 100 sq. ft. TOTAL 2,950 sq. ft.
ACTIVITIES
The libary will be used for reading, independent study, group reading and story-telling, group study, and computer study. It will be available for community use during the summers and evenings.
The activities of the workroom will include cataloguing, mending, sorting supplies and preparing displays and exhibits.
The office is for maintaining records, ordering materials and serves as a private space for the librarian.
Emphasis will be on instructional uses as opposed to a storage area for vast numbers of books.
FURNISHINGS
Seating for about 50 students is needed.


LIBRARY (Con'd)
At least half of the seating should be discussion type arrangement for group use, whereas the rest of the seating should be for quiet study remote from the discussion space. Half of this seating will be individual study carrels. A carrel of 48 inches by 36 inches with a worktable 24 inches deep and 22 inches high is sufficient.
The reading aloud and discussion area should be informal, perhaps in a sunken seating ring or on movable boxes and thickly carpeted.
Shelving for approximately 2,000 volumes of books and magazines is needed at a height of 50 inches. Most of these should be on movable carts.
The office should provide for a desk, file cabinets and a typewriter.
The workroom should be provided with bookshelves, a large worktable, a counter and possibly a sink.
Four or five computer terminals should be located near the quiet area.
LIGHTING
General lighting levels should approach 60 to 80 footcandles. Bookstack areas can be reduced to 30 footcandles. Cool white fluorescent should be used.
Natural lighting wherever possible but avoid direct sunlight on book storage.
MECHANICAL
Since floor space will be used as a work surface, radiant floor slab should be used, especially in the group discussion area.


LIBRARY (Con'd)
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Direct sunlight is damaging to books.
The library will be open for summer and night classes, some open to the community. Therefore, it should have a seperate entrance and be able to function independent of the rest of the school.
There should be ample display space in the circulation area outside the library.
At least one wall, should be an exterior one and an outdoor reading area is desirable. All the deliveries for the library will come into the workroom.
Generous window space oriented for views is desirable.


CLINIC
AREA 250 sq. ft.
ACTIVITIES
The clinic serves mainly as a holding and resting room for a child who gets ill during the day until the parents are contacted and can come pick up the child. In the event of a cut or minor injury, first-aid will be administered.
The school district is served by a part time nurse who rotates among the three schools.
FURNISHINGS
- Desk, 60 by 30 by 29 inches high
- Rest cot
- Clothes and storage case
- Examination lamp
LIGHTING
Resting area should have incandescent lighting of 100 footcandles with dimming ability. Windows are not necessary.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Should be located near the administration area


FOOTNOTES
1Educational Facilities Laboratory, Experimental Schools (New York EFL, 1972), p. 49.




CODES


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd) SECTION
4. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE BASIC FLOOR AREA: 20,200 sq.ft. Table 5-C
IF ADJACENT TO AN OPEN AREA ON
TWO SIDES: 1i% per ft. beyond 20' but not over 50% 506 a 1
THREE SIDES: 25% per ft. beyond 20' but not over 100% 506 a 2
ALL SIDES: 5% per ft. beyond 20' but not over 100% 506 a .3
IF SPRINKLERED: Area of 1 story build, can be tripled 506 c
•Multi-story build, can be doubled 506 c
5. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE HEIGHT:
FEET Type III and IV== 65 feet Table 5-D
STORIES Type III and IV = 2 Table 5-D
6. FIRE RESISTANCE OF EXTERIOR WALL (See Occupancy Type and Construction Type)
Bearing and Nonbearing: 4 Hours Table 17-A
(see exceptions) 2003 a
7. OPENINGS IN EXTERIOR WALLS:
2103 b 2103 b
45 min, rating when less than 20' from adj. PL or CL of street, otherwise no applicable restrictions______


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd)
8. FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS:
F.XTF.RTOR BEARING WALLS (see 2003a. 2103aI 4 Hours Table 17-A
INTERIOR BEARING WALLS 1 Hours Table 17-A
EXTERIOR NON-BEARING WALLS (see 2003a. 2103a) 4 Hours Table 17-A
STRUCTURAL FRAME 1 or Heavv Timber Hours Table 17-A
PERMANENT PARTITIONS 1 Hours Table 17-A
SHAFT ENCLOSURES 1 Hours Table 17-A
FLOORS 1 or H.T. Hours Table 17-A
ROOFS 1 or H.T. Hours Table 17-A
EXTERIOR DOORS 3/4 if less than 20' setback Hours 2003 b
EXTERIOR WINDOWS 3/4 if less than 20' setback Hours 2003 b
STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS:
FRAMEWORK Steel, concrete, masonry, or wood, lor H.T. .Hours _21Q2_
STAIRS H.T.: Treads and risers 2" thick, stringers Hours 21Q6_ J—
3x10 min. Tvoe III: Any materials permitted 2004
FLOORS (see Code) 2106 Q S.


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd)
10. EXITS:
OCCUPANCY LOAD*- BASIS (square feet per occupant)
USE____________________________BASIS___________________ACTUAL LOAD
Classrooms 20
Libraries & Reading rooms 50
Auditorium w/out fixed seats 7
Dining 7
Gymnasiums 15

* Occupant _ Floor Area ^oad SF/Occupant
NUMBER OF EXITS REQUIRED: min. of TWO exits when occ. load is
at least: EXITS REQ'D.
Library Reading Room 50 2
Dining and Auditorium 50 2
Classrooms 50 1
Offices 30 1
Gymnasiums 50 2


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd)
EXITS (Con'd)
WIDTH OF EXITS:
Total width of exits in ft. shall be at least the total__________ 3303 d
occupant load divided by 50, and divided equally among___________
seperate exits.__________________________________________________
EXIT SEPERATION-ARRANGEMENT:
The distance apart must equal at least h the overall diagonal 3303 c
dimension of the area served. (See exception)____________________
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE TRAVEL DISTANCE TO EXIT: 150' ‘ 3319 c 2
WITH SMOKE DETECTORS 175' 3319 c 2
WITH SPRINKLERS 225' . 3319 c 2
MINIMUM WIDTH ALLOWED: Sufficient for occupant load served 3319 h
MAXIMUM LEAF WIDTH ALLOWED: 4 feet 3304 f
PANIC HARDWARE: On doors serving rooms & corridors of 50 or more. 3319 i
EXIT CORRIDORS
MINIMUM ALLOWABLE WIDTH: 44 in. (3'-8") 3305 b


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd)
10. EXITS (Con'd)
WALL AND CEILING FIRE RESISTANCE REQUIRED: 1 Hour______________ 3319 e
EXCEPTIONS: When each classroom has an exit to ground level
ext, and assembly rooms have ^ req. exits to exterior.__________
ground level.__________________________________________________
DOOR AND FRAME FIRE RESISTANCE REQUIRED:________20 min.____________ 3305 h
STAIRS MINIMUM WIDTH 44 in. FOR OCC. LOAD OF 50+ 3306 b
36 in. FOR OCC. LOAD OF 49-
MAXIMUM RISER ALLOWED 7.5 in. 3306 c
MINIMUM RISER ALLOWED 4 in. 3306 c
MINIMUM TREAD ALLOWED 10 in. 3306 c
LANDINGS:
MINIMUM SIZE Dimension measured in direction of travel = 3306 g
width of stairway.
MAXIMUM SIZE REQUIRED 4 '-0" wiLh a straight run 3306 g
MAXIMUM VERTICAL DISTANCE BETWEEN LANDINGS 12'-0" 3306 i
REQUIRED HEIGHT OF RAILS


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd)
STAIRS (Con'd)
HANDRAILS:
REQUIRED AT EACH SIDE?_____________Yes___________________________ 3306 i
INTERMEDIATE RAILS REQUIRED AT STAIRS Yes WIDE 83"_______________ 3306 1
MAXIMUM WIDTH BETWEEN INT. RAILS Equal spacing__________________________ 3306 j
HEIGHT ABOVE NOSING________________30"-34"________________________________ 3306 1
MINIMUM HEADROOM____________________6’-6"__________________________________ 3306 p
HANDRAILS EXTEND BEYOND STAIR 6" (at least one handrail at 3306 f
top and bottom)______________________________________________
ACCESS TO ROOF REQUIRED?______________No______________;____________ 3306 o
RAMPS:
MAXIMUM SLOPE TO USE AS AN EXIT 1:12 (Others 1:8)________________ 3307 c
HANDRAILS REQUIRED On slopes greater than 1:15 as required 3307 e
for stairways._____________________________________j;___________
LANDINGS REQUIRED for steaper than 1:15 For each 5' rise_________ 3307 d
top and int. *= 5', bottom = 6'________________________________


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd)
EXIT SIGNS REQUIRED? Yes, at every required exit door with_________
occupant load of +50.____________________________________________
12. FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS:
, SPRINKLERS REQUIRED In basements larger than 1500 sq. ft. and
in enclosed usable space helow or over a stairway, (see 3309 f)
DRY STANDPIPES REQUIRED__________________No _______________________
LOCATION_________________________________________________________
NUMBER REQUIRED__________________________________________________
NUMBER OUTLETS REQUIRED__________________________________________
WET STANDPIPES REQUIRED___________________No________________________
NUMBER REQUIRED__________________________________________________
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS REQUIRED______________________________________
13. TOILET ROOM REQUIREMENTS:
FIXTURE COUNT REQUIREMENTS:
MEN___________________________BASIS_________________ACTUAL
LAVATORIES 1:60
WATER CLOSETS 1:100
URINALS 1:30
3314
3802 e
805


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd)
13.
14.
15.
TOILET ROOM REQUIREMENTS (Con'd)
WOMEN: BASIS ACTUAL
LAVATORIES_____________________1:70___________________________
WATER CLOSETS__________________U35____________________________
DRINKING FOUNTAIN REQUIREMENTS 1 per floor__________________
FIRE ALARM:
REQUIRED BASIS All rooms with occupant loads of 50+. The__________
operation of the sprinkler system shall automatically activate
the school fire alarm system, which shall include an alarm______
mounted on the exterior of the building.__________
EMERGENCY LIGHTS OR POWER REQUIRED; The stair shaft and vestibule
shall be provided with emergency lighting. For standby__________
power see section 3310 r 7._____________________________________


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd)
-M1SC. APPLICABLE CODES:
SEPERATE EXIT SYSTEMS REQUIRED: Every room with an occupant load of more than 300 shall have one of its exits into a seperate exit system. When 3 or more exits are required in a room, no more tnan 2 required exits
shall enter into the same exit system.___________________________________
GROUP E SPECIAL PROVISIONS: Rooms used for kindergarten, first or__________
second grade pupils shall not be located above the first story.__________
SNOW LOAD, ARCHULETA COUNTY:______________60^/sq. ft.________
SECTION 3319 b
802 c


COLORADO HANDICAPPED CODE SUMMARY
In 1975 the Colorado Legislature passed a law which extended the application of the 1973 "handicapped law" to the construction of privately funded buildings. The law states in part, "The governmental unit responsible for the enforcement of this article shall grant exceptions or modify any particular standard or specification when it is determined that it is impractical and would create an unusual hardship or would unreasonably complicate the construction, alteration or repair in question. Any such exception or modification of the provisions of this Article shall be made in writing as a matter of Public Record." It is the intent of the law to make all buildings accessible to and functional for the physically handicapped to, through, and within their doors without loss of function, space or facility where the general public is concerned.
TOPIC
REQUIREMENT
Entrances
Public Walks
Parking Spaces Ramps
Handrail (at least one) Risers
Toilet Stalls
At least one primary entrance to each building shall be useable by those in wheelchairs
48" minimum width, 5% maximum slpoe, S'xS' level platform, extend 1' beyond each side of door
12' minimum width
Maximum slope of 1 in 12, level at 30' intervals minimum
Extend 18" beyond top and bottom steps, extend 12" beyond top and bottom of ramp
If possible not exceeding 7" in height
One handicapped stall in each toilet room


Lavatories Useable by individuals in wheelchairs
Mirrors No more than 40" above floor
Urinals Appropriate number mounted 19" above floor or at floor
Towel Racks and Disposers Mounted no more than 40" above floor
Water Fountains Accesible to the handicapped
Telephones Accessible to the handicapped (wheelchairs) Appropriate number equipped for those with hearing disabilities
Doors Minimum clear opening 32", level floor 5* each side
Elevators Opening on same level as entrance Accessible by disabled Identify control buttons
Utility Switches Within reach of those in wheelchairs
Graphics Raised letters and identify devices mounted between 4'-6 and 5'-6" above floor Minimum height 7'-0" when suspended from ceilings
Doors Not intended for use and potentially dangerous to the blind Shall have knurled knobs
Warning Systems Audible signals shall be accompanied by simultaneous visual signal Visual signals shall be accompanied by simultaneous audible signal


COLORADO ENERGY CODE SUMMARY 1
The Colorado Energy code for non-residential buildings, which became effective July 1, 1978, has the following effect on this project:
Mechanical Ventilation
Standard RS-3 (ASHRAE 62-73, Standards for Natural and Mechanical Ventilation).
For general office space, this states that there will be a minimum of 15 cfm of outdoor air per person based on 10 people per 1000 SF.
Building Envelope Requirements
All buildings that are heated or mechanically cooled shall be constructed so as to provide the required thermal performance of the various components.
A building that is designed to be both heated and cooled shall meet the more stringent of the heating or cooling requirements of the exterior envelope differ.
Heating and Cooling Calculations
Heating and design loads for the purpose of sizing HVAC systems shall be determined in accordance with 1972 ASHRAE handbook of fundamentals or an equivalent computation procedure.
Design of Mechanical Systems Energy Recovery
Consideration shall be given to the use of recovery systems which will conserve energy provided the amount expended is less than the amount recovered when the energy transfers potential and the operating hours are considered.
Controls
Temperature Control:
Each HVAC system shall be provided with at least one thermostat for the regulation of temperature. Each thermostat shall be limited as follows:
- Where used to control heating only, a minimum temperature of 75 F.
- Where used to control cooling only, a minimum temperature of 75 F.


Where used to control both heating and cooling, it shall have a maximum high temperature setting of 85 F. and a minimum of a low temperature setting of 55 F. and shall be capable of operating the system heating cooling in sequence. It shall be adjustable to provide a temperature range up to 10 F. between full heating and full cooling.
Zoning for Temperature Control in Nonresidential Buildings: Each Seperate HVAC System
Each seperate zone. As a minimum each floor of a building shall be considered as a seperate zone. In a multi-story building where the perimeter system offsets only the transmission losses of the exterior wall, an entire side of uniform exposure may be zoned seperately. A readily accessible manual of automatic means shall be provided to partially restrict or shut off the heating and cooling input to each floor.
Control Setback and Shut-off in Nonresidential Buildings
Each HVAC system shall be equipped with a readily accessible means of shutting off or reducing the energy used for HVAC during period of non-use or alternate uses of the building spaces or zones served by the system.
Cooling with Outdoor Air (Economizer Cycle)
Each fan system shall be designed to use up to and including 100 percent of the fan system capacity for cooling with outdoor air automatically whenever its use will result in lower usage of new energy.
Combustion Heating Equipment
All gas and oil fired comfort heating equipment shall show a minimum efficiency of 75 percent at maximum rated output.
Electrically Operated Systems Components, Cooling Mode
HVAC system components, whose energy input is entirely electric, shall show a coefficient of performance (COP) cooling not less than the values shown in the energy code tables for the specific components.
Insulation of HVAC Systems
Air handling duct systems, plenums and enclosures installed in or on buildings shall be thermally insulated.


Duct Construction
All duct work shall be constructed and erected in accordance with ASHRAE and SMACNA standards.
Conservation of Hot Water
Showers used for other than safety reasons shall be equipped with flow control devices to limit total flow to a maximum of 3 gpm per shower head.
*


FOOTNOTES
^Ford, Alan, "Unpublished Masters Thesis" (UCD, 1980)




Additional school facilities may be needed by 1988 if growth continues
Dy John Mottcr
An additional school could be needed by 1988 if the present county growth rate continues. School Superintendent Terry Alley told the Archuleta County Commissioners Sept. 14.
Alley emphasized the need for a new school building could arrive sooner if the growth rate accelerates.
"Most counties in Colorado have a plan where the schools are getting something through subdivision regulations to help with growth,” Alley told The SUN Monday.
A proposal endorsed by the school board for financing future school buildings was presented by Alley to the commissioners.
Money for future school buildings would be raised by adding a fifteen-cents-per-square-foot charge to county building permit fees, under terms of the proposal. The money would then be placed in a separate account until a need is shown by the school district to purchase land or build facilities.’' •
No money or land has been set aside specifically for expanding school facilities at this time. Alley pointed outv
Archuleta county does require subdivision developers to provide five-percent of the subdivision value (valued before it is subdivided) to the county for public needs. The five percent can be cither land or cash. During the early years of subdivision in the county, the commissioners usually accepted land. Recently, they have required cash.
Some of the land has been dedicated for specific purposes, such as the land for the medical facilities proposed at the Sawmill subdivision. .When cash is accepted, it is put in a separate account. The decisions to spend it, and for what, are made by the county'commissioners. To date, this special account totals about $30,000. The five-percent is usually collected when the subdivider sells a lot, not at the time of subdivision.
According to Alley, 332 building units were erected in Archuleta county in 1983. The fifteen-cents-per-square-foot charge proposed by the school ttfb$rd would have raised $53,175. ’
Thc^toYmrilssibners promised to • consider Alley's proposal and also-to look for other methods of financing growth-related school building requirements.
The Pagosa Springs Sun, Sept. 20 1984


WORKING HEIGHTS*-ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
ITEM KINDERGARTEN GRADES 1-3 GRADES 4 -6
Minimum Optimum Maximum Minimum Optimum Maximum Minimum Optimum Maximum
Cabinet, display (top) 54 56 66
Cabinet, display (bottom) 26 29 34
Cabinet, pupil use (top) 50 56 65
Chairs and bench 10 11 11 10 12 13 12 14 16.
Chalkboard (top) 80 82 80 82 80 82
Chalkboard (bottom and chalkrail) 20 22 25 24 25 26 28 29 30
Counter, cafeteria 21 27 32 25 31 34 29 36 39
Counter, classroom work (standing) 20 24 26 24 26 29 28 30 34
Counter, general office 20 27 32 24 31 34 28 36 39
Desk and table, classroom 17 18 19 18 20 22 21 23 25
( Door knob 19 27 32 24 31 35 28 36 40
Drinking fountain 20 24 27 24 27 29 28 32 34
Fire extinguisher (tank) RECESSED AT BASEBOARD HEIGHT
Hook, coat 32 36 48 38 41 51 47 48 ' 58
Lavatory and sink 20 23 25 24 26 27 28 29 31
Light switch 27 27 46 31 35 49 36 40 56
Mirror, lower edge 35 38 > 43
Mirror, upper edge 46 56 65
Panic bar 21 27 32 25 31 34 29 36 39
Pencil sharpener 20 27 33 25 31 . 35 28 36 40
Rail, hand and directional 20 21 32 24 24 34 28 2? 39


Shelf, hat and books 41 48 46 51 54 . 58
Soap dispenser 20 27 33 25 31 35 28 36 40
Stool, drawing 19 21 26
Table, drawing 26 29 34 .
Table and bench, work (standing) 25 26 28 26 29 32 30 34 38
Tackboard (top) 72 84 72 84 72 84
Tackboard (bottom) 20 22 25 24 25 26 28 29 30
Telephone, wall mounted 35 37 43
Toilet stall, top of partition 44 44 52 52 61 61
Towel dispenser 23 27 46 28 31 49 33 36 56
Urinal (bottom) 3 3-15 17 3 3-17 20
Wainscotting 54 54 • 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
Water closet (seat) 10 1034 12 11 1134 12 13 1334 14
Window ledge 29 30 34
*In inches
Englehardt,Nickolaus, Complete Guide for Planning New Schools (West Nyack.Ny: Parker Co., 1970) p.163.


ILLUMINATION
McGuiness, William, et al., Heating and Electrical Equipment for Buildings (New York: John Wiley, 1980) p.760.
Fig. 18.47 Recommended reflectances for surfaces and furnishings in the classroom. (Note control media used at windoivs to reduce exterior brightness so that they are in balance with interior brightness.) Courtesy of the IES.


ACOUSTICS
Table 27.12 Recommended STC lor Partitions; Specific Occupancies
Wall, Partition or Panel Between . Sound Isolation Requirement (Background level - ■ in room •'
Type of Room being ..iri being considered)
Occupancy considered Adjacent area Quiet Normal
Normal school Classrooms Adjacent classrooms STC 42 STC 40
buildings without Laboratories STC 42 STC 40
extraordinary Corridor or public areas STC 40 STC 38
or unusual Kitchen and dining areas STC 50 STC 47
activities Shops , - t â–  STC 50 STC 47
or requirements Recreation areas STC 45 STC 42
Music rooms Mechanical equipment STC 55 STC 50
rooms STC 50 STC 45
Toilet areas STC 45 STC 42
, . Large music or Adjacent music or •»..
drama areas drama rooms ... STC 50 STC 45 }
Corridor or public areas STC 45 STC 42
Practice rooms Shops STC 50 STC 50 STC 45 STC 45
Recreational areas STC 50 STC 45
Laboratories STC 45 STC 42
Toilet areas STC 45 STC 42
Mechanical equipment L , • • • ' T . -V
rooms • i b. STC 50 STC 48
Exterior of building â–  STC 45 STC 42
Music practice Adjacent practice rooms ' STC 55 STC 50
rooms Corridor and public areas STC 45 STC 42
•• : Language Same as for theaters, concert halls, . . • ’! Af!
laboratories auditorium, etc. ' ; • • . t .’* •
Counseling Same as for executive offices
offices
McGuiness.William, et al., Heating and Electrical Equipment for Buildings (New York: John Wiley, 1980) p.1260.


Educational Facilities Laboratory, Experimental Schools (New York: EFL, 1972), p. 59.


m
e
©
•CO
â– 3^
©
©

Ut.IJ
If3
r-i-j

^5 t D
m c
ao,




AF£A






a
Rp-
w
■—^k?' .... ;*was?v* *
mm
%WKKmmm

«^3BWW
mmmmm
library
V







Full Text

PAGE 2

•, l "' ... t "') -"] .... .... , X ... -< " .. -

PAGE 3

SPRINGS PRIMARY SCHOOL An Architec ura Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture By Danel Detlefsen Fall 1985 I n

PAGE 4

The Thesis of Daniel D etlefsen is approved. Chairman Principal Advisor University of Colorado at Denver Date

PAGE 5

Table of Contents A. Project Description I. Introduction Introduction/Thesis Statement Site Archuleta County Background Location Maps Description of Climate Climatic Data Climate Summary Building Site Picture/Summary Site Analysis III. Program Background Enrollment Projections Program Summary Space Requiremenls Kindergarten Classrooms (1-2) Music Physical Education Administration Cafeteria/Assembly Libary Clinic Footnotes IV. Codes Uniform Building Code 1982 Colorado Handicapped Code Summary Colorado Energy Code

PAGE 6

Table of Contents Con'd V. Addendum Pagosa Sun Article Working Heights in Primary Schools Classroom Reflectance Classroom Acoustics Charts Space Frame Bibliography

PAGE 7

PROJECT DESCRIPTION The following booklet is an architectural program for a new school facility in Pagosa Springs, Colorado, school district 50. This primary school will serve approximately 300 students in grades kindergarten through second.

PAGE 8

INTRO DUCT ION Pagosa Springs Primary School The Pagosa Springs Primary School will relieve acute overcrowding at the present elementary school (which will become an upper elementary school) and serve new students resulting from steady and potentially explosive growth in the area. By the year 1988 45% of all elementary (K-6) students will be in grades kindergarten through second. Although a new school will inherently solve the _physical problems of overcrowding in the district, the addition of a primary school into the school system offers the designer a special opportunity to enrich the lives of children in their most formative years. In the primary school years the child masters, or should master, t he basic tools of learning essential to all his subsequent education. "Not only m ust the school teach the three R 's, but must also endeavor to preserve and foster in the process, the childs natural c u riosity, energy, and imagination: " 1 As programmed by the Superintendent of Schools for d lstrict SO, Terry Alley, the educational approach used is a self-contained one. That is to say students occupy the same room all day , with the same teacher. Exceptions are made for physical education, music, and of course lunch and recess. The school district has tried, its present elementary school, an open-classroom approach with movable walls and team-teaching but feels a well equipped self--contained school is the best approach a successful educational program. In the design of a primary school it is my firm belief that the architecture can be a learning experience; that architectural space can become a sort of three dimensional textbook. Inherent i n this belief is the basis that the location and physical properties of a school, especially a primary school, have a great effect on the education of its students. , I

PAGE 9

To consider this thesis, one must first have an understanding of the learning process as it relates to primary school children in general and Pagosa Springs area children in particular. In a rural, spread-out district like school district SO, the incoming primary student is probably going to be interacting with large numbers of children his own age for the first time. For most cl1ildren it will be their first time away from the family for extended, regular periods. During these first years of schooling one of the major learning situations is the extension of a childs interest beyond his own intimate home enviroment and personal affairs into the larger social group that school provides. With this in mind the thesis will explore clustering conm10n areas (first grade for example) with the intent of creating the opportunity for the increased interaction of students and teachers. The design uill also strive to encourage social interaction by creating a comfortable and stimulating, informal environment that will enhance this learning situation. The of the school can also serve a learning exrerience by incorporating learning opportunities into the physical of the school. Simple geometry can be discovered in geometrical of equipment and structure. A small greenhouse area could augment the science program and through ils design could help teach .children basic principles of solar energy, orientation, heat flow. and sforage. A simple.ceiling fan could demonstrate effective methods, of altering natutal The open display of electrical, mecl1anlcal, or structural systems c6uld help children be more aware of tl1e framework which keeps the school operating. t Towards accomplishing these goals the thesis will take advantage of two facts: children of this.age (5-8) are extremely naturally curious and respond well and are

PAGE 10

. I attracted to bright colors. Therefore color will be used as a sort of magnet to draw interest and attention.:to an bbject :or. fenestration 'for which CONTEXT As Pagosa Springs continues to grow residents are becoming more critically aware of the architecture springing up around them. Large, monolithic buildings that are not sympathetic to the context of the area are widely criticized. The new (1983) concrete block, windowless high school has earned the appellation; "The area locals. Residents of the area are proud of the rural, remote, and rugged character of their envirome11t. Many of the newer citizens have left more urban areas to pursue a different lifestyle. I feel that the use of indigenous materials in a building, especially'in a .rural area, reinforces cultural identity and supports the local community. Materials indigenous to the immediate area include: gravel and river rock from nearby quarries on the San Juan river; concrete from area hatching plants; and lumber cut on Wolf Creek Pass and sized at the local mill. In addition, the area around the site is littered with attractive lichen covered rock of workable size. Materials, of course, should not be limited to these. The architeclure of the school should allow for the free and open expression of modern materials and technology but must do so while respecting the rich and special character of the area .

PAGE 11

FOOTNOTES lRonald Gross and Judith Murphy , Educational Change and Architectural Consequences (New York : EFL, 1968) , p . 47 .

PAGE 13

SITE NTOYAs c 1 m m

PAGE 14

ARCHULETA COUNTY Established 1885 1 . County Seat: Pagosa Springs-Archuleta County, in southwestern Colorado, is rectangular in outline, approximately 60 miles in length east and west, and 33 miles wide. New Mexico is to the south; the principal range of the Rocky Mountains to the east. Both climate and moisture vary greatly. While the surface in the north is mountainous, there are numerous comparatively level valleys in the southwest, where the soil is a deep fertile loam. Several mountain valleys form the central portion of the County. The San Juan River, with headwaters in the San Juan Mountains, and its tributaries comprise most of the water resources. Archuleta County, of which Pagosa Springs is the seat, was organized from part of Conejos County in 1885. Nearly half, 47.9 percent, of the area of Archuleta County is devoted to the San Juan and Rio Grande National Forests, and another 14.3 percent is occupied by part of the Southern Ute Indian Reservation. The basic factors in the economy of the County are agriculture, mineral production, lumbering and recreational attractions. There are 10 regipns in of the 10 regions has unique characteristics, populatiQ. n densi:.tiea recreational facilities. Even so, they can be divided into three groups --eastern Colorado, the mountain chain north to south in west central Colorado, and counties along the western border. Archuleta County is in Region 4, Four Corners --five counties, with cliff dwellings at Mesa Verde National Park; part of the San Juan Mountains, the Durango-to-Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad, the Navajo Trail a nd the Southern and Mountain Ute Indian reservations. Region characterized by dissected plateaus.

PAGE 15

ARCHULETA COUNTY 2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION 1960 Population: 2,629 1972 Population: 2,699 Urban Population: No city over 2,500 Rural Population: 2,699 County Area: 1 ,364 sq. miles Terra in: Mountainous, mountain valleys Avmge Growing Season: 75 days Annual Mean Temperature: 42.1• A mage Annual Rainfall: 20.02 inches Major Source Income: Agriculture, lumbering, tourism COUNTY SEAT: PAGOSA SPRINGS 1960 Population: 1 ,374 1972 Population: 1 ,375 Elevation: 7 ,079 feet City Area: 716 acres 1971 Bank Deposits: $2,936,527 1970 Assessed Valuation: $8,502,700 1971 Assessed Valuation: $8,633,810 1971 Average County levy: 54.97 1971 Total Revenue: $474,610 1971 Retail Sales: $6,242,539 1971 Auto Registrations: 1,001 land Ownership: Private . . . ............... 305,525 aues Federal ........ .... .. .. .. . 554,193 aues State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,560 aaes County and Municipal . . . . . . . . 224 aues 1971 Retail Sales: $5,872,457 1971 Assessed Valuation: $1,501,050 1971 Municipal levy: 9 .20 C ity Government: Mayor, council Date Incorporated: 3 -181891

PAGE 16

...... ---... ... _ ... , I I MAP , I , I t I ' I , / ' / I I , ----..J.-'L----1

PAGE 17

LEGEND PROJECT BOUNDARY [) PAGOsA RESORT 121 GOLF PRO SHOP AND SNACK BAR [3) TENNIS PRO SHOP i @] CLUB HOUSES [5] SOLAR HEATED FIRE STATION [2] FUTURE RECREATIONAL CENTER 111 VILLAGE CENTER (FIRST PHASE) 1m CHURCH [ID COMMERCIAL/INDUSffiiAL SUBDMSION J rl ) j NORTH jJ ......... ., ..... !D SERVICE WOLF CREEK PASS SKI AREA ALPHA [ A_. 7 1\ /\ '

PAGE 18

• • \vic.,\ OV) I . . 0l-rE .. . . . . P.o.f\.

PAGE 19

Description of Climate 3 Archuleta County is located in southwestern Colorado on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. The county is comprised mostly of low mountains and mesas with the eastern part of the county extending into the San Juan Mountains. Altitudes range from about 6000 feet to 13,150 feet. Under both stormy and fair weather conditions topographic features exert strong influences on local climate. Mountains influence the flow of air over and around these barriers and valleys channel low level air movements. Under wintertime storm conditions, air forced to rise over mountains cools rapidly and precipitation is enhanced. On the lee side air descends resulting in reduced snowfall. In the summer, channeling of air can lead to preferred areas of shower development especially on the east side ridges. Cold air tends to flow downward and its motions are strongly controlled by topographic features. Cold air is trapped in canyons, valleys and other low spots and becomes colder than other air in nearby areas. The effect of topography in very strong climatic variations in the county so care must be exercised in extrapolating data taken at one location to estimate the climate at another location. Large temperature changes are observed in Pagosa Springs where the monthly average varies from 19.8F in January to 64.5F in July. The mean maximum varies from 38.2F in January to 83.5F in July while the minimum varies from 1.3F in January to 45.3F in July. The difference between the average maximum and minimum is 37F in January and 38F in July which is indicative of the day to night temperature change. The warmest January average minimum was 12.1F while the

PAGE 20

coldest January minmum was -7.2F. This large variation changes to a smaller variation in summer. The maximum and minimum monthly precipitation show the extreme variability of precipitation. At Pagosa Springs, the largest October precipitation was 7,80 inches compared to 0 . 00 inches measured for the smallest October. Also, average precipitation values are made up of many years slightly smaller than normal and a few years above normal. Most years will be below average. Average snowfall measurements are 104 inches per year at Pagosa Springs. Even to a greater extent than the total precipitation, a few large snowstorms dominate snowfall averages with most years below average.

PAGE 21

CLIMATIC DATA Pagosa Springs, Colorado ELEVATION: 7079' LATITUDE: TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS: Winter -9 Degrees Summer 85 Degrees HEATING & COOLING DEGREE DAYS: _;..:.II.::::.:ea:::..t:::.. i:.:.n:.Lg>-...::D..:::e.c.g.::...re:::..e::;__:D:.=a:..Ly..:::s_=_8:::..2:::..3:::..0:..._ __ Cooling Degree Days 123 PRECIPITATION: _ Annual Rainfall is 18.7 in. (average) SOLAK ALTITUDES : _ ___:S::..;u:::.:.n:.:::ln::.::le:..:.r......:::S.:::o.:::;l s::..;L::.:l::..;. C::.::e:..!•......:::J.:::u::.n e:::__:2::.;:1::__=__:.7.:::.6_0 Equinox, March 21 & September 21 52 WinLer Solstice, December 21 = 29 May 21 & July 21 = 73 April 21 & August 21 = 64 February 21 & O c Lober 21 = 41 MEAN I -lOURS OF SUNSHINE: __ ____:::.30::::..9::..::5:...___-,-________ ____;: MEAN AVERAGE TEMPERATURE: __ ___________ _ MEAN AVERAGE MINIMUM TEMPERATURE: __ ____::2.::!_4_0 ---------MEAN AVERAGE MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE: ________ _

PAGE 22

'I CLIMATIC DATA JAN FH3 MAR APR MAY JllN JUL ALC SEP ocr tm Average Snowfall 26.0 18.7 14.3 6.0 .9 0 0 0 .1 3.4 10.2 25.0 Average Rainfall 1.76 1.14 1.32 1.34 1.0'. .93 1.59 2.34 1.77 2.29 1.25 1.% Greatest fuplh of Snow on Ground in. 35 37 29 8 0 0 0 0 0 10 16 40 r-bx Tanp 38.2 42.9 49.0 59.7 68.9 78.7 83.5 81.3 75.1 64.5 49.7 39.8 Tanp 1.3 6.5 14.3 23.5 X>.2 36.3 45.3 44.3 36.4 26.8 15.3 5.5 Tanp 19.3 24.5 31.7 41.5 49.5 57.5 64.5 62.8 55.7 45.7 32.5 22.8 lliys 1368 1135 1026 720 479 221 5 3 82 29) 591 l:D'. (fure 65) Ave. # lliys r-bx 6.3 3.3 1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.2 6.8 Tanp Less or = 32 (Total = 19.1)

PAGE 23

CAll__ oUT W lift CLIMATE Sum1na r y School design in the Pagosa Springs area should take advantage of the plentiful winter sunshine and generally fovoraule solar conditions. South slopes should be sought out and take1i advantage of and general IJuilding orientation should be southerly. Overhangs should be sJzed to allow for solar gain in the winter and shading in the summer. The sheddJng and removal of snow and ice off roofs must IJe carefully. planned. A covered area for bus loading and unloading may be approp r i ate. Entryways and outdoor courts and play areas should be sheltered from cold west winds. The large numiJer of h eating degree days and substantial diurnal temperature variations all year long make high insulation values a must and earth benning (on north and west sides) a consideration. Passive gain and daylighting design should consider the "snow on ground" duta and evaluate its effect on gro und reflect ance. The concern here is for con trol of potentially excessive glare and heal gains on south elevations. IJaylighting calculations must consider the snows effec t on the " illumination from ground outside window" (Eig) foct or. On a sunny spring day with snow on the ground this factor may be as high as 1,000 footcandles .

PAGE 24

. ' Building Site Summary Location: The site for tl1e primary school is located within a vast (over 40,000 acres) residential, commercial, and resort development that was, until the early 70's, a sheep and cattle ranch. The area is called "Fairfield Pagosa". The area surrounding the site is zoned for low density residential use and is currently undeveloped. Even in developed low density residential zones in Fairfield, the rural flavor of the area is maintained. Ground Cover: The wooded portion of the site consists of a mix of Ponderosa Pine and Douglas Fir trees. The open areas contain native grasses which include Smooth Brame, Western Wheat, Crested Wheat, Perennial Rye and Clover. In addition, lichen covered limestone rock is scattered throughout the site.

PAGE 25

_ __;__ ____

PAGE 26

' \ 51T( ANALJ5I5. . tv\JQf\ Slfe 1 Af\eA i oLOPEb

PAGE 27

' ' sm: N!&'(51.s l''a3QO'

PAGE 28

SITE.. tl TAKEJJ HCP. 1101 SITE NJAL'f6/5 1"'=300' f\c:SIOE.NTIAL

PAGE 29

FOOTNOTES 1colorado Yearbook , Archuleta County (Fort Collins, Co.: Govt. Press, 1978) p . GEN-2. 2colorado Yearbook , Archuleta County (Fort Collins, Co.: Govt . Press, 1978) p . GEN-1 3colorado Yearbook , Archuleta County (Fort Collins, Co.: Gov t . Press, 1978) p . CLM-2-4 .

PAGE 31

PROGRAM BACKGROUND Since the site for Pagosa Springs primary school is located in.an undeveloped area approximately four miles outside of town, extensive busi11g of students will occur. Despite the fact that school 'District SO encompasses a very large area and students are bussed in from remote ranches, there is only a 10 to 15 minute dlffere11ce for student arrival times. Classes start at 8:30. The first bus load of students arrive at approximately 8:10 while the last bus load arrives at about 8:20. Until 8:30 students congregate at the playground area under teacher supervision. In the event of inclement weather, upon their arrival students report directly to their homeroom. School Curriculum/Schedule The academic curriculum includes studies in reading, malh, spelling, writing, science, social studies, art, music, physical education, and health. The school day (including kindergarten) runs from 8:30 to 3:15 and is divided into periods. One period is typically equivalent to between4S minutes and one hour. The subjects of reading, math and spelling or writlng_are scheduled in the morning when Lhe students are fresh. The lunch session lasts for one and one half hours and is divided into three 30 minute periods. After lunch the more active subjects such as art, music, health and physical education are studied. One period per week is devoted to library. Fifteen minute recess periods are held dally at mid-morning and mid-afternoon. Kindergarten students are served a snack in the classroom and have a rest period, on mats, of about 15 minutes each day.

PAGE 32

In addition to the regular school year schedule, the facility will also be used during summers and nights. SLudents with special needs will use the school in the summer when remedial and accelerated programs are offered. Community use o( the facility will occur during summers and nighLs for special programs and classes such as computer programming or real estate.

PAGE 33

Irill@@illIM1 SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. SO JOINT ENROLLMENT PROJECTIONS . 1984 . 1986 . . 1987 . 0 1988 0 :1989 K 83 84 90 94 94 95 1 78 84 85 91 96 96 0 2 68 78 84 85 91 96 3 63 69 79 85 86 -92 4 71 67 73 84 90 92 5 79 77 72 79 91 97 6 77 82 79 74 82 94 Elem. Total 519 541 562 5 92 630 662 7 112 81 87 83 78 87 8 96 121 87 94 89 84 JH. Total 208 174 177 167 171 9 96 95 119 86 93 88 10 93 98 97 121 87 95 11 61 83 87 86 108 77 12 _&Q 54 _1! ...J..1. 76 96 HS Total 310 330 3Tl 370 364 356 District Total 1,037 1,073 1,113 1,139 1 ,161 1,189

PAGE 34

PROGRAM SUMMARY STAFF REQUIREMENTS The staff require ments for the Pagosa Springs primary school serving approximately 400 students in grade s kindergarten through third are as follows: 1 Principal 15 Classroom teachers 1 Secretary 1 Librarian 1 Physical education teacher SPACE REQUIREMENTS Space ACADEMIC CLASSROOMS to serve 367 students Kindergarten First grade Second grade Third grade Music TOTAL CLASSROOMS; ADMINISTRATION office General office/Secretarial Clinic Lounge/Conference w/restrooms TOTAL ADMINISTRATION: No. 5 5 5 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 Custodian 1 Music teacher Unit Area 1000 1000 " 1000 1000 750 225 550 250 460 Total Area 5000 5000 5000 4000 750 225 550 250 460 Division Total 15,750 "1,485

PAGE 35

PROGRAM SUMMARY (Con'd) Square Feet Dfvision Space No. Total rea Area ota LIBRARY Seating for 50 1 2500 2500 Workroom 1 150 150 Librarians office 1 200 200 Audio visual storage 1 100 100 TOTAL LIBRARY: 2,950 PHYSICAL EDUCATION Gymnasium 1 4104 4104 Equipment room 1 275 275 Storage 1 150 150 Instructors office 1 150 150 TOTAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION: 4,679 CAFETORIUM Seating 1 2000 2000 Stage area 1 550 550 Lobby 1 335 335 Kitchen 1000 1000 Storage 1 275 275 TOTAL CAFETORIUM: 4,160

PAGE 36

PROGRAM SUMMARY (Con'd) SUMMARY Are a Square Feet Classrooms 15,750 Administration 1,485 Library 2,950 Physical Education 4,679 Cafetorium 4,160 TOTAL NET AREA: 29,024 ESTIMATED CROSS AREA: 41,463 NOTE: The total net area is 70 percent of the estimated gross area. The difference between net and estimated gross areas represents allowances for corridors, stairways, toilets,wall thicknesses, mechanical room, custodial facilities, and building storage.

PAGE 37

PROGRAM KINDERGARTEN AREA 1,000 sq. ft. NUMBER REQUIRED: 5 TOTAL 5,000 sq. ft. ACTIVITIES Kindergarteners attend a full day, 8:30 to 3:15. Morning activities include writing, spelling, and reading. A 15 minute recess period is held at mid-morning. At mid-day the students will eat lunch in the school cafeteria. Thirty minutes is scheduled for lunc h time. After lunch the students engage in the more active subjects like art, story-telling and games. A recess, snack and rest period (on mats) is held in mid-afternoon. In addiLion, students will leave the homeroom for physical education and music. FURNISHINGS Childrens coats, boots, and other personal items will be accomodated within the room, close to the entrance. Each student will have a work station at a two -place table, 24 by 48 by 18 inches. high and two stackable chairs at each table will be needed. A science table, 5 by 3 feet, with storage beneath should be provided. An area to grow plants should be provided. Materials for artwork will require large paper storage, 24 inch deep shelves, storage for paints, clay, crayons, and walls for the display of the student work. About six linear feet of bookshelving, including the display of books on sloping shelves are needed. Shelving should not be located above four feet in height.

PAGE 38

KINDERGARTEN (Con 'd) A sink with cabinet, 4 by 2 feet by 25 inches high is needed j _ n each room . A movable toy bin and a movable cubicle for blankets and mats should be included. It is suggested that there be little or no built-in equipment, except for the sink counter. By means of equipment, the room should be capable of being subdivided into areas: classroom area with tables and chairs; story and rest area; work area for art and blocks; playhouse, store and other dramatic play apparatus; teachers area. Teachers Area : Provision should be made for a teachers desk, two chairs, and a lockable cabinet, 4 by 2 by 7 feet to include: coat space, file cabinet, bookshelving, large drawers, area for personal items, and cabinet space. LIGHTING Use fluorescent cool white luminaires at 70 footcandles to augment natural daylighting. Lamps adjacent to daylight sources should be seperately switched. MECHANICAL Children will often be in direct horizontal contact with the floor. Use an electric radiant floor slab and forced air ventilation. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS -Investigate clustering Each cluster should have immediate access to toilet facilities specifically for kindergarten use

PAGE 39

AREA NUMBER REQUIRED: 5 @ First Grade 5 @ Second Grade ACTIVITIES 5,000 5 , 000 CLASSROOMS 1 , 000 sq. ft. TOTAL 10,000 sq. ft. First and second grades. The self-contained homeroom serves all regular subjects except music and physical education. Major subjects studied are reading, math , and art. Minor classes include spelling, writing, socia l studies, and health (see Background). Like the kindergarten program, the more academically intense subjects occur in the mornings; the more activ e in the afternoons. FURNISHINGS Student Seating: Trapezoidal desks with chairs of sizes adjusted to the students heights should be used for maximum flexability of seating arrangements. Storage: Clothes storage space will be needed in each room . In all classrooms a cubicle, 15 inches by 15 inches by 15 inches should be assigned to each student. Counter: A counter beneath the windows should

PAGE 40

CLASSROOMS (Con'd) be planned to contain plants, books , and perhaps drawers for storage. Counter height = 26 inches. Sinks: Each classroom should have a sink and counter. This work sink will be primarily used in the art and science programs. Height = 26 inches. Floors: For comfort and acoustical reasons all classrooms should be carpeted. Chaulkboard and Tackboard: About 20 feet of chaulkboard should be provided with a chaulkrail height of 25 i nches and a map rail at the top of the chaulkboard at 80 inches. Tackboard in as large a quantity as possible should be provided. Teachers Area: Provision should be made for a teachers desk, two chairs, and a lockable cabinet, 4 by 2 by 7 feet, fixed to the wall, to include: coat space, file cabinet, bookshelving, map area, large drawers, locking area for personal items, and cabinet space. LIGHTING Use fluorescent cool white for a high efficacy lamp with good color acceptance that blends well with natural daylight. Illuminate classrooms to 70 footcandles using daylight to the maximum extent possible while minimizing veiling reflections and glare. ACOUSTICS Classroom acoustic design will involve: a) Locating sound-absorbing treatment to reduce classroom noise levels. b) Insuring adequate privacy between adjacent spaces. c) Control of air-handling system noise. d) Maintaining adequate separation between classrooms and noise generating activities.

PAGE 41

CLASSROOMS (Con'd) MECHANICAL Electric radiant heat panels in ceiling and forced air ventilation. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS Investigate clustering to enhance social and educational opportunities. SPECIAL CODE APPLICATIONS First and second grades are not allowed above the first story (802 c).

PAGE 42

:l)ME.

PAGE 43

cwr2w:t 0(XJAL AfJtJ_UCAT\OlJAL _ A Al\t:A CDMMDW M'f2A couLD l)t::, e)lJ\IXt>f\, OP-. t='Of\ C.OMM)WM'EA OlJTDDJf\ WMM01--l ( -PLAt Af\'E:A C..OUt2\ll M 0 *=A1 +1LWMI\JA1E.. eJ...A<::61\COM6 lA6 ' ? l.NJ1 6f2oWIUto N-lD -? 1L1 Di M A {\E:.:XJUPGS ml\C!\ -OPB--\ . -PLA\ M'EA

PAGE 44

MUSIC AREA 750 sq. ft. NUMBER REQUIRED: 1 ACTIVITIES Activities include general group singing, vocal and rhythm excercises. FURNISHINGS Informal seating could take place in a amphitheater type sunken seating ring, carpeted. More formal seating would be straight posture music chairs with folding tablet arm, approximately 16 inches in height. Other furnishings include a mobile music folio cabinet about 28 inches wide by 17 inches deep by 36 inches high and an easily moved piano and adjustable stool. Also include a chaulkboard with ruling, a bulletin board and sl1elving for a record player/tape recorder. LIGHTING Fluorescent cool white @ 70 footcandles. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS Provide doors feet wide so that a piano can be moved in and out -Cluster with noise generating areas

PAGE 45

PHYSICAL EDUCATION AREA: 54'x76' (2-station pla yroom) 4104 sq. ft. NUMBER REQUIRED: __ ..::.1 __ _ SUPPORT SPACES: Equipment Room 275 sq. ft. -Storage 150 sq. ft. -Instructors Office 150 sq. ft. TOTAL 4679 sq. ft. ACTIVITIES -----A 54 x 76 foot gym would allow a court area of 42 x 64 feet with the partition open, suitable for volleyball, badminton, and elementary basketball, as well as other elementary activities. The room will house items for outdoor and :for this should be accessable from the playground. Activities in the gym will generate substantial noise levls. FURNISHINGS Provisions should be considered for the following: -Swing-up basketball backstops -Climbing ropes and rope hoists -Mats, 6 x12 feet, about two inches thick

PAGE 46

PHYSICAL EDUCATION (Con 'd) Mat truck -Wall-mounted chinning bars -Rings Bar rack mounted on wall Whelled cart similar to shopping cart for transporting game equipment Volleyball net standards with floor plates -Middle partition for separation into two rooms LIGHTING High intensity discharge (HID) metal halide lamps @ 70 footcandles,offers good color, life, control, and efficiency. Natural light of at least 20% of floor area located high and screened. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS -Considerable noise generation -Ceiling height of 18 feet minimum -No showers .. or seating required -Direct access to outdoor play fields Equipment room should be accessible to indoor and outdoor playgrounds

PAGE 47

(oEOM'E..Ir\\ PIIYSlCAL EDU C ATION (Con' d ) 5HWLO Be. AfX..t. TO 11-\E. t::POH 11-\E. CUlSIER cPEJJ12.AAIIUCo

PAGE 48

ADMINISTRATION FACULTY AND STAFF SPACE: I PRINCIPALS OFFICE 225 sq. ft. SECRETARIAL SPACE 150 sq. ft. STORAGE 100 sq. ft. FACULTY LOUNGE / CONFERENCE 300 sq. ft. WAITING AREA 300 sq. ft. STAFF RESTROOMS (2 @ 80 sq. ft. each) 160 sq ... ft. TOTAL 1,175 sq. ft. ACTIVITIES Reception -Administration -Discipline -Clerical -Lounge Conference FURNISHINGS office: One desk @ 45 inches, one filing cabinet @ 15 x 30 x 60 inches, and three chairs.

PAGE 49

ADMINISTRATION (Con'd) Secretary: One desk @ 55 x 84 inches, one filittg cabinet @ 15 x 30 x 60 inches, and two chairs. Administrative counter @ 15 feet by 2 feet and two fireproof filing cabinets @ 15 x 30 x 60 inches. LIGHTING Fluorescent cool whJte luminaires@ 100 footcandles. SPECIAL Location should be adjacent to main entry -Reception area should have view of main entry Principal's office should have view

PAGE 50

CAFETERIA/ASSEMBLY ROOM AREA: 500 ultimate enrollment / 3 serving times x 12 sq.ft. /person = 2 , 000 sq . ft. NUMBER REQUIRED: l SUPPORT SPACES: Stage, iticluding 550 sq. ft. Lobby ( 167 persons x 2 sq . ft. / person) 335 sq. ft. -Kitchen including food storage 1,000 sq. ft. Storage 275 sg . ft. TOTAL 4,160 sq . ft. ACTIVITIES -Dining Plays -Recitals ( musi cal, speech ) Motion pictures Forums / meetings -Assemblies FURNISHINGS Cafeteria seating must be easily moveabl e so the room can be changed for different use. A cafeteria seating prototype is a folding portable dining table with bench; on casters;

PAGE 51

CAFETERIA/ ASSEMBLY ROOM (Con 'd) seating approximately 15 children; table height, 22 inches; bench heigh t , 13 inches; occupying approximately eight square feet of floor space when folded. Stackable adult sized and child sized chairs should be used for assembly t y pe usage. SPECIAL DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS Stage: The stage should be raised about 42 inches abo v e the assembly floor for good viewing. It is important that the last row of seats be closer to t h e stage than might normally be s uggested for an auditorium with a sloping floor. Forty-five feet from the rear row to the stage is the approximate limit. The ceiling above the stage should be raised. Size, shape, and construction material are important factors in planning for good sound control. Nonparallel walls or splayed walls and ceilings should be considered. LIGHTING The varied activities in this room makes flexible lighting imperativ e . The stage area should be served by incandescent track lighting. All lights should be controlled from a separate panel and should have dimming ability. Exit lights must be on a separate circuit from the main switch. A stage switchboard should be located at the rear of the seating area, on a control platform three feet above the last row of seats. The platform will be used for motion picture machines as well as for the switchboard. An adequate number of stage floor plugs should be installed to provide for stage aud prop lighting. Dining and kitchen areas should be illuminated to 20 to 30 footcandles with fluorescent luminaires. For assembly this can be augmented by architectural elements along walls. 1'

PAGE 52

CAFETERIA/ASSEMBLY ROOM (Con'd) HECIIANICAL The mechanically operated ventilating system shall be capable of supplying a minium of five cubic feet per minute of outside air with a total circulated of not less than 15 cubic feet per minute per occupant (sect. 605) . SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS Community use -Storage area beneath stage -Toilet facilities off lobby W.ill be used whlle the rest of the school is closed -Kitchen storage adjacent to exterior loading dock La'J.)'( POX>!tJLS Bl\CKJTAt'of:...-U(M Lo56( P6 WfFE.f\

PAGE 53

AREA: Up to 50 students @ 50 sq. ft. NUMBER REQUIRED: __ ..::.1 __ _ SUPPORT SPACES: -Workroom Office Audio visual storage ACTIVITIES TOTAL LIBRARY 2 , 500 sq . ft. 150 sq. ft. 200 sq. ft. 100 sg. ft. 2,950 sq. ft. The libary will be used for reading, independent study, group reading and story-telling, group study, and computer study. It will be available for community use during the summers and evenings. The activities of the workroom will include cataloguing, mending, sorting supplies and preparing displays and exhibits. The office is for maintaining records, ordering materials and serves as a private space for the librarian. Emphasis will be on instructional uses as opposed to a storage area for vast numbers of books. FURNISHINGS Seating for about 50 students is needed.

PAGE 54

LIBRARY (Con ' d ) At least half of the seating should be discussion type arrangement for group use, whereas the rest of the seating should be for quiet study remote from the discussion space. Half of this seating will be individual study carrels. A carrel of 48 inches by 36 inches with a worktable 24 inches deep and 22 inches high is sufficient. The reading aloud and discussion area should be informal, perhaps i n a s u nke n seating ring or on movable boxes and thickly carpeted. Shelving for approximately 2,000 volumes of books and magazines is needed at a height of 50 inches. Most of these should be on movable carts. The office should provide for a desk, file cabinets and a typewriter. The workroom should be provided with bookshelves, a large worktable, a counter and possibly a sink. Four or five computer terminals should be located near the quiet area. LIGHTING General lighting levels should approach 60 to 80 footcandles. Bookstack areas can be reduced to 30 footcandles. Cool white fluorescent should be used. Natural lighting wherever possible but avoid direct sunlight on book storage. MECHANICAL Since floor space will be used as a work surface, radiant floor slab should be used, especially in the group discussion area.

PAGE 55

LIBRARY (Con'd) SPECIAL CONSlDERATlONS Direct sunlight is damaging to books. The library will be open for summer and night classes, some open to the conununity. Therefore, it should have a seperate entrance and be able to function independent of the rest of the school. There should be ample dispJay space in the circulation area outside the library. At least one wan should be an exterior one and an outdoor reading area is desirable. All the deliveries for the library will come into the workroom. Generous window space oriented for views is desirable.

PAGE 56

CLINIC AREA 250 sq. ft. ACTIVITIES The clinic serves mainly as a holding and resting room for a child who gets ill during the day until the parents are contacted and can come pick up the child. In the e vent of a cut or minor injury, first-aid will be administered. The school district is served by a part time nurse who rotates among the three schools. FURNISHINGS Desk , 60 by 30 by 29 inches high -Rest cot -Clothes and storage case -Examination lamp LIGHTING Resting area have incandescent lighting of 100 footcandles with dimming abi ity. Windows are not necessary. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS Should be located near the administration area

PAGE 57

FOOTNOTES 1Educational Facilities Laboratory, Experimental Schools (New York: EFL, 1972) , p . 49 .

PAGE 59

BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST PROJECT NAME _ LOCAT I ON School District 50 APPLICABLE CO DE NAME _ _,_. U:::.:n:.:..:1:...:. 1=-. l:...:d::.:i::..:. n:..c::g>---=C=-od;::..e:::..___-=1-=:.9.:::.8=-21 • OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION __ G::;r:....:o:::..:u::..t:p:__::E:.L,-=-J):::..i V;:_;;1::.::. s::..::i:..::o:.:.:n__:_l __ _ PRINCIPLE OCCUPANCY ---OTHERS Cafeteria, A 2 Auditorium, A-2 2. OCCUPANCY SEPERATION REQUIRED E1 to A2 _ __:;.:=.._ _ N !lours _ _;_:,_ __ ____ to _______ ____cllours 3. CONSTRUCTION TYPE _ ____ _ CODES SECTION 801 801 601 601 Table 5-B Table 5 C

PAGE 60

BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd) 4. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE BASIC FLOOR AREA :_--=2:..::0..L, ___ _ IF ADJACENT TO AN OPEN AREA ON TWO SIDES: 1}% per ft. beyond 20' but not over 50% THREE SIDES: 2!% per ft. beyond 20' but not over 100% ALL SIDES: 5% per ft. beyond 20' but over 100% IF SPRINKLERED: Area of 1 story build. can be tripled Multi-story build. can be doubled 5. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE HEIGII] : FEET Type III and IV= = 65 feet STORIES Type III and IV = 2 FIRE RESISTANCE OF.EXTERIOR WALL (See Occupancy Type and Construction Type) B earing and Nonbearing: 4 Hours (see exceptions) OPENINGS IN EXTERIOR WALLS: 45 min. rating when less than 20' from adj. PL or eL of st:reet, otherwise no applicable restrictions SECTION Table 5-C . 506 a 1 506 a 2 506 a _ 3 506 c 506 c Table 5-D Table 5-D Table 17-A 2003 a 2103 b 2103 b

PAGE 61

BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd) 8. FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS: EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS (see 2003a , 2103a) 4 Hours INTERIOR BEARING WALLS EXTERIOR NON-BEARING WALLS (see 2003a , 2103a) 4 Hours STRUCTURAL FRAME _______ lJ..__J,o.!..lr.__.ullll
PAGE 62

10. BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd) EXITS: OCCUPANCY LOAD*BASIS (square USE Classrooms Libraries & Reading rooms Auditorium w/out fjxed seats Din in Gymnasiums * Occupant Load Floor Area SF/Occupant feet per occupant) BASIS ACTUAL LOAD 20 50 7 7 15 NUMBER OF EXITS REQUIRED: min. of TWO exits when occ. load is at least: EXITS REQ'D. Library Reading Room 50 2 Dining and Auditorium 50 2 Classrooms 50 1 Offices 30 1 Gymnasiums 50 2 Table 33-A

PAGE 63

BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con' d) 10. EXITS (Con'd) WIDTH OF EXITS: Total width of exits in ft. shall be at least the total 3303 d occupant .load divided by 50, and divided equally among ' seperate exits. EXIT SEPERATION .ARRANGEMENT: The distance apart must equal at least ! the overall diagonal 3303 c dimension of the area served. (See MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE TRAVEL DISTANCE TO EXIT:_--.-::.1.::::.50:::...'----=---3319 c 2 WITH SMOKE DETECTORS 175' 3319 c 2 WITH SPRINKLERS ________________________ __________ ___ 3319 c 2 MINIMUM WIDTH ALLOWED: Sufficient for occupant load served 3319 h MAXIMUM LEAF WIDTH ALLOWED: 4 feet . 3304 f PANIC HARDWARE: .On doors serving rooms & corridors of 50 or more. 3319 j EXIT CORRIDORS MINIMUM ALLOWABLE WI DTII : _____ 4_.:4--=.i :.:..n .:....• ----.:.(..::3_' _-8::..'__..' )::__ ______________ _ 3305 b

PAGE 64

BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd) 10. EXITS (Con'd) WALL AND CEILING FIRE RESISTANCE REQUIRED: __ ....:;1-=Ho=u::..:r _____ _ EXCEPTIONS: each classroom has an exit to ground level ext. and assembly rooms have! reg. exits to ground level. DOOR AND FRAME FIRE RESISTANCE REQUIRED: ___ -----11. STAIRS MINIMUM WIDTH. __ ___.:.4..:..4--=i;;.;_n'""".------'FOR OCC. LOAD OF __ ___;;:_S..::...0+-'----__ _..:::.3.::..6--=j::...:.n::...:.. ___ .FOR OCC. LOAD OF __ __.:.4.::...9___ _ MAXIMUM RISER ALLOWED __ -:--------=-7 :..::• S:......;:;.i.:..:..n .:...• _____ ____::_ __ MINIMUM RISER ALLOWED. ________ MINIMUM TREAD {\LLOWED _______ ----=.1..::.0-'1::;.:. n.:..:--------LANDINGS: MINIMUM SIZE Dimension measured in direction of travel = width of stairway. MAXIMUM SIZE REQUIRED 4'-0" with a straight run MAXIMUM VERTICAL DISTANCE BETWEEN LANDINGS. _ __::1c.:2_' -....:0:::...."----REQUIRED HEIGHT OF RAILS. _______________ _ 3319 e 3305 h 3306 b 3306 c 3306 c 3306 c 3306 g 3306 g 3306 i

PAGE 65

BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd) 11. STAIRS (Con'd) HANDRAILS: REQUIRED AT EACH SIDE? ____ ___.::Y..:::e.=.s __________ _ INTERMEDIATE REQUIRED AT STAIRS_,;;;...;Ye=s'--__ WIDE 83" MAXIMUM WIDTH BETWEEN INT. RAILS Equal spacing HEIGHT ABOVE NOSING 30"-34" MINIMUM HEADROOM 6'-6" HANDRAILS EXTEND BEYOND STAIR 6" (at least one handrail at top and bottom) ACCESS TO ROOF REQUIRED? ___ ___;___;N:..:...:o:o__________ -, RAMPS: MAXIMUM SLOPE TO USE AS AN EXIT _ LANDINGS REQUIRED for steaper than 1:15 For each 5' rise top and int. = 5', bottom = 6' _Jl06 j 3306 j 3306 j 3306 j 3306 p 3306 j 3306 0 3307 c 3307 e 3307 d

PAGE 66

BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd) EXIT SIGNS REQUIRED?' Yes, at every required exit doo r with 3314 occupant load of +50. 12. FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS: SPRINKLERS In basements larger than 1500 sq. ft. and 3802 e in enclosed usable space below or over a stairway. (see 3309 f) I DRY STANDPIPES _______ ::..:.;No::;__ ____ ---:----LOCATION _____________________ ___ NUMBER REQUIRED. ___________________ _ NUMBER OUTLETS REQUIRED. _______________ ___ WET STANDPIPES REQUIRED. _______ NUMBER REQUIRED. __________________ _ FIRE EXTINGUISHERS REQUIRED. _____________ .;___ 13. TOILET ROOM REQUIREMENTS: 805 FIXTURE COUNT REQUIREMENTS: MEN BASIS ACTUAL LAVATORIES. _________ ________________ _ WATER CLOSETS _____ .....::1:...::..:..1.:::..00::;__ ___________ _ URINALS. _________ ___________ _

PAGE 67

BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd) 13. TOILET ROOM REQUIREMENTS (Con'd) WOMEN: BASIS ACTUAL LAVATORIES _________________ WATER CLOSETS ______________ =.-1 :::...::3=5 ___________________ _ DRINKING FOUNTAIN REQUIREMENTS ____ -=..! _______ _ 14. FIRE ALARM: REQUIRED BASIS All rooms with occupant loads of 50+. The operation of the sprinkler system shall automatically activate the school fire alarm system, which shall include an alarm mounted on the exterior of the building. 15. EMERGENCY LIGHTS OR POWER REQUIRED The stair shaft and vestibule shall be provided with emergency lighting. For standby power see section 3310 g 7. 805 809 3310 g 9

PAGE 68

BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST (Con'd) -MISC. APPLICABLE CODES: SECTION SEPERATE EXIT SYSTEMS REQUIRED: Every room with an occupant load of more than 300 shall have one of its exits into a seperate exit system. When 3 or more exits are required in a room, no more tnan 2 required exits shall enter into the same exit system. GROUP E SPECIAL PROVISIONS: Rooms used for kindergarten, first or second grade pupils shall not be located above the first story. SNOW LOAD, ARCHULETA COUNTY:. _____ ---------3319 b 802 c

PAGE 69

COLORADO HANDICAPPED CODE SUMMARY In 1975 the Colorado Legislature passed a law which extended the application of the 1973 "handicapped law" to the construction of privately funded buildings. The law states in part, ''The governmental unit responsible for the enforcement of this article shall grant exceptions or modify any particular standard or specification when it is determined that it is impractical and would create an unusual hardship or would unreasonably complicate the construction, alteration or repair in question. Any such exception or modification of the provisions of this Article shall be made in writing as a matter of Public Record." It is the intent of the law to make all buildings accessible to and functional for the physically handicapped to, through, and within their doors without loss of function, space or facility where the general public is concerned. TOPIC Entrances Public Walks Parking Spaces Ramps Handrail (at least one) Risers Toilet Stalls REQUIREMENT At least one primary entrance to each building shall be useable by those in wheelchairs 48" minimum width, 5% maximum slpoe, 5'x5' level platform, extend 1' beyond each side of door 12' minimum width Maximum slope of 1 in 12, level at 30' intervals minimum Extend 18" beyond top and bottom steps, extend 12" beyond top and bottom of ramp If possible not exceeding 7" in height One handicapped stall in each toilet room

PAGE 70

Lavatories Mirrors Urinals Towel Racks and Disposers Water Fountains Telephones Doors Elevators Utility Switches Graphics Doors Warning Systems Useable by individuals in wheelchairs No more than 40" above floor Appropriate number mounted 19" above floor or at floor Mounted no more than 40 " above floor Accesible to the handicapped Accessible to the handicapped (wheelchairs) Appropriate number equipped for those with hearing disabilities Minimum clear opening 32", level floor 5' each side Opening on same level as entrance Accessible by disabled Identify control buttons Within reach of those in wheelchairs Raised letters and identify devices mounted between 4'-6" and 5 '-6" above floor Minimum height 7'-0" when suspended from ceilings Not intended for use and potentially dangerous to the ' blind Shall have knurled knobs Audible signals shall be accompanied by simultaneous visual signal Visual signals shall be accompanied by simultaneous audible signal

PAGE 71

COLORADO ENERGY CODE SUMMARY l The Colorado Energy code for non-residential buildings, which became effective July 1, 1978, has the following effect on this project: Mechanical Ventilation Standard RS-3 (ASHRAE 62-73, Standards for Natural and Mechanical Ventilation). For general office space, this states tha t there will be a minimum of 15 cfm of outdoor air per person based on 10 people per 1000 SF. Building Envelope Requirements All buildings that are heated or mechanically cooled shall be constructed so as to provide the required thermal performance of the various components. A building that is designed to be both heated and cooled shall meet the more stringent of the heating or cooling requirements of the exterior envelope differ. Heating and Cooling Calculations Heating and design loads for the purpose of s1z1ng HVAC systems shall be determined in accordance with 1972 ASHRAE handbook of fundamentals or an equivalent computation procedure. Design of Mechanical Systems Energy Recovery Consideration shall be given to the use of recovery systems which will conserve energy provided the amount expended is less than the amount recovered when the energy transfers potential and the operating hours are considered. Controls Temperature Control: Each HVAC system shall be provided with at least one thermostat for the regulation of temperature. Each thermostat shall be limited as follows: Where used to control heating only, a m1n1mum temperature of 75 F. Where used to control cooling only, a minimum temperature of 75 F.

PAGE 72

Where used to control both heating and cooling, it shall have a maximum high temperature setting of 85 F. and a minimum of a low temperature setting of 55 F. and shall be capable of operating the system heating cooling in sequence. It shall be adjustable to provide a temperature range up to 10 F . between full heating and full cooling. Zoning for Temperature Control in Nonresidential Buildings: Each Seperate HVAC System Each seperate zone. As a minimum each floor of a building shall be considered as a seperate zone . In a multi-story building where the perimeter system offsets only the transmission losses of the exterior wall, an entire side of uniform exposure may be zoned seperately. A readily accessible manual of automatic means shall be provided to partially restrict or shut off the heating and cooling inpu t to each floor. Control Setback and Shut-off in Nonresidential Buildings Each HVAC system shall be equipped with a readily accessible means of s hutting off or reducing the energy used for HVAC during period of no n-use or alternate uses of the building spaces or zones served by the system. Cooling with Outdoor Air (Economizer Cycle) Each fan system shall be designed to use up to and including 100 percent of the fan system capacity for cooling with outdoor air automatically whenever its use will result in lower usage of new energy. Combustion Heating Equipment All gas and oil fired comfort heating equipment shall show a minimum efficiency of 75 percent at maximum rated output. Electrically Operated Systems Components , Cool1ng Mode HVAC system components, whose energy input is entirely electric, shall show a coefficient of performance (COP) cooling not less than the values shown in the energy code tables for the specific components. Insulation of HVAC Systems Air handling duct systems, plenums and enclosures installed in or on buildings shall be thermally insulated.

PAGE 73

Duct Construction : All duct work shall be constructed and erected in accordance with ASHRAE and SMACNA standards. Conservation of Hot Water Showers used for other than safety reasons shall be equipped with flow control devices to limit total flow to a maximum of 3 gpm per shower head. t

PAGE 74

FOOTNOTES 1Ford, Alan, "Unpublished Masters Thesis" (UCD, 1980)

PAGE 75

•. / I

PAGE 76

Additional school facilities n:-aay be needed by 1988 if grQwth continues Dy John Motter Au additional s c hool could be n eeded by 1988 if the pre s ent county growth rate c o ntinues . Sch oo l Sup er intendent Terry Alley t o ld the Ar chuleta County C ommissioners S e pt. 14. Alley e mphasized the need for a new school building could arrive sooner if the growth rate accelerates . "Mo st counties in C o lorado have a pla n wh e re the s chools are gening s omething through subdivision regulati o ns to help with growth," Alle y told The SUN Monday . A endors ed by the school b oard for financing future school buildings was present e d by Alley to the commissioners. Archuleta county does require subd i vision de v elopers to provide five percent of the subdivision value (valued before it is subdivided) to the county for public needs. The five percent can be either land or cash. buring the years or subdivision in the county, the commissioners usually accepted land . Recently, they have required cash. Some of the land has been fur specific purposes, such as the land for the medical facilities proposed at the Sawmill subdivision. . When cash is accepted, it Is put in a . separate account. The decisions to s pend it, and for what, are made by . the county ' commissioners. To date , this special account totals about $30 , 000 . The fh e-perccnt is usually Mone y for future school buildings collected when the subdivider sells a would be raised by adding a fifteen lot, not at the time of subdivision . cents-per-square-foot charge t o According to Alley . 332 building co unty building permit fees, und e r units were erected in Archuleta terms of the proposaL The money county in 1983 . . The fifteen -cents-per w o uld th e n be pla ced in a separate square-foot charge proposed by the a cc ou n t until a n ee d is sh o wn by the school . have. raised sc h oo l distri c t t o purc hase land or SSJ,I7S.' " • ( ' : : • . llufld 'fhe:u•CtJmm1sslo'iiers promii'cd--to N o m o ney o r land has b e en set ... consider Alley1s ' proposal -and also to-a side specifically f o r expanding look for other methods of financing s c h oo l facilitie s at this time . Alle y growth-related school building p o int e d o ut. , requirements. The Pagosa Sun , Sept. 20 198 4

PAGE 77

WORKING HEIGHTS._ ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS KINDERGARTEN ITEM GRAD E S 1 3 GRADES46 M i nimum Optimum Maximum Minimum Optimum Maximum Minimum Optimum M a ximum Cabinet, dis play (top) 54 56 66 Cabinet, d i splay (bottom) 26 29 34 Cabinet, pupil use (top) 50 56 65 Chairs and bench 10 11 11 10 12 13 12 14 16 . Chalkboard (top) 80 82 80 82 80 82 Chalkboard (bottom and chalk.rail) 20 2 2 25 24 25 26 28 29 30 Counter, cafeteria 21 27 32 25 31 34 29 36 39 Counter, classroom work (standing) 20 24 26 24 26 29 28 30 34 Counter, gen e ral office 20 27 32 24 31 34 28 36 39 Desk and table, classroom 17 18 19 18 20 22 21 23 25 knob 27 32 24 31 35 Drinking fountain 24 27 24 27 29 Fire extinguisher ( t a nk) REC ESSE D AT BASEBOARD HEIGHT l!ook, coat 32 36 48 38 41 51 47 48 58 Lavatory a nd sink 20 23 25 24 26 27 28 29 31 . Light s wi tch 27 27 46 31 35 49 36 40 56 Mirror, lower edge 35 38 43 Mirror , upper edge 46 56 65 Panic bar 21 27 32 25 31 34 29 36 39 Pencil sharpener 20 27 33 25 31 35 28 36 40 Rail, hand and directional 20 21 32 24 24 34 28 . 2? 39

PAGE 78

Englehardt,Nickolaus, Complete Guide for Planning New Schools (West Nyack,Ny: Parker Co., 1970) p .l63.

PAGE 79

ILLUMINATION Fig. 18.47 Recvmmended reflectances for surfaces and furni shings in the classrovm. (Note cvntrol media used at windvws to r educe exterior brightness so that th e y are in balance with Interior brightness.) Courtesy of the lES. McGuiness, William, et al., Heating and Electrical Equipment for Buildings (New York : John Wiley, 1980) p.760.

PAGE 80

ACOUSTICS Table 27 . 12 Recommended STC lor Partitions; Specific Occupancies Type of ... O ccupancy Normal school buildings w ithout extraord i n a ry or unusual act i v i ties or requirements . Sound Isolation Requirement (B ackground level Wall , Part itio n or Panel Between in room : Room be ing AND being considered) considered Adjacent area Quiet Normal Classrooms .. _, ... Larg e m usic or drama areas Music practi ce rooms La n gu a ge laborat o r ies C o unseling offices Adjacent classrooms Laboratories Corridor or p ublic areas Kitchen and dining areas Shops ._; _ Recreation areas .. Music rooms Mechanical equipment rooms Toil e t areas Adjacent music or drama rooms ; .; ; ;. .; Corridor or public areas Practice rooms Shops Recreational areas Laboratori-es Toilet ateas STC 42 STC 42 STC 40 STC 50 STC 50 STC 45 STC 55 STC 50 STC 45 STC 50 STC 45 STC 50 STC 50 STC 50 STC 45 STC 45 Mechanical equipment ' : •l •• rooms Exterior of building 'j 1 STC 50 STC 45 Adjacent practice rooms . STC 55 Corridor and public areas STC 45 S a me as for the a ters , concert halls, auditorium, etc . ' Same as for executi ve offices STC 40 STC 40 STC 38 . STC 47 STC 47 STC 42 STC 50 STC 45 STC 4 2 . . STC 45 STC 42 STC 45 STC 45 STC 45 STC 42 'src 42 ., ' .. '' STC 48 STC 42 STC 50 STC 42 ., ,1)' I .. c : . . McGuiness,William, et al., Heating a n d Electrical Equ ipme n t for Buildings (New York : John Wiley , 1980) p.l260.

PAGE 81

Educational Facilities Laboratory, Experimental Schools (New York: EFL, 1972), p. 59. .,

PAGE 82

south l west

PAGE 83

r t----------------------------------. -----north east

PAGE 84

PLA'f f>lb LooP PLAI AI\EA

PAGE 85

t-----------------------------------eection a section b

PAGE 88

I