Citation
A Critical review to the existing development master plan of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, South America

Material Information

Title:
A Critical review to the existing development master plan of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, South America
Creator:
Diaz-Posada, Juan P.
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of planning and community development)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Planning and community development

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Juan P. Diaz-Posada. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
A CRITICAL REVIEW TO THE EXISTING DEVELOPMENT MASTER PLAN OF CARTAGENA DE INDIAS, COLOMBIA,
' SOUTH AMERICA
A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING,
GRADUATE DIVISION,
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF PLANNING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMEN
BY
JUAN P. DIAZ-POSADA MAY, 1984


DEDICATION
In homage to Mercedes Posada de Diaz, my mother. To my father, Juan P. Diaz A., a brilliant man. To Tiavi. To Rochi and Luis, who have stood by me. To my brothers and sisters: Tulio, Alvaro, Juan Enrique, Anita, V. Mercedes, Cecilia, Rodrigo, Isabel, Clara Luz, Ramiro and Francisco. To my nieces and nephews and to my aunts, uncles and cousins. To my friends. And, to those who did not like my obnoxious behavior.
i


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
To Professor Herbert H. Smith, who patiently guided me through the preparation and completion of this thesis, and for his valuable expertise on the subject. To Dr. A. Kimboko, my faculty advisor and to my professors of the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, whose teaching and leadership has proved to be invaluable.
Special thanks to Cartagena's Mayor, Antonio M. Pretelt E., to the Municipal Planning Office and its staff and to the Municipal Finance Office for all their help.


TABLE OF CONTENTS (Volume I)
CHAPTER ONE ......................
CHAPTER TWO ......................
CHAPTER THREE ....................
CHAPTER FOUR......................
EXISTING MASTER PLAN OF CARTAGENA
Page
1
17
oo
Cl.
es
VOLUME II


TABLE OF FIGURES
THE AMERICAS MAP .............................................. 5A
COLOMBIA, BOLIVAR DEPARTMENT MAP ........................ 5B
CARTAGENA'S URBAN DEVELOPMENT THROUGH HISTORY ........... 15A
MAP OF CARTAGENA (1983) ................................. 21A
CARTAGENA'S SUGGESTED ROAD NETWORK MAP .................. 54A
CARTAGENA'S RURAL, SUBURBAN AND URBAN MAP ............... 70A
TIERRABOMBA ISLAND (SUBURBAN) MAP............................. 72A
ROSARIO ISLANDS (SUBURBAN) MAP ............................... 72B
CASTILLO GRANDE/BOCAGRANDE ZONING MAP (SUGGESTED) ....... 75A
HISTORIC DOWNTOWN/MANGA ISLAND SUGGESTED ZONING MAP .... 78A
PIE DE LA POPA/QUINTA SUGGESTED ZONING MAP .............. 81A
MARBELLA SUGGESTED ZONING MAP ........................... 82A
CARTAGENA'S SUGGESTED URBAN ZONING MAP .................. 91A
C
iv


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Since Humankind sensed the need of leadership, leaders have tried to organize the community according to their needs, culture, religion, habits and folklore. With time the role played by the leaders have varied. Some influenced by egotistical ambitions and power grew into kingdoms with some splashes of deity, believing they were personal representatives of God himself and probably His most entrusted advisor on earth or on such country or land.
They tried to control the people with threatening menaces of being punished by the rage of God if they disobeyed the King's mandate. A community being managed by the fear of God's fury. Kingdoms evolved around the original conception of leadership: Leader-priest, priest-leader or leaders under the influence of priests or somebody connected with God or gods.
God has always been a very important part, maybe the most, in the organizing of the community and the most influencing element in those who did it. The exploitation of Humankind in name of God has been widely used through ages and still is. The team State-Church or viceversa, have sometimes in the past brought benefits to the people. But most of the time when corruption and clienti-lism spread within the governing body, the people have been the most affected by maltreatment and apathy.


2
There may be mixed feelings about this, but, as time passes by, Humankind had grown apart from the feeling that God should be part of our governing body. Humankind is realizing that God belongs only in our spiritual life and not in our daily physical struggle for survival. A survival in which we all are engaged in order to keep the species going, and, at the same time trying to better our quality of life, so, every one can enjoy the pleasures of being alive. In our western civilization, Democracy has been tried earlier by the Greeks and Romans; they set forth the philosophy on which it, the modern concept of Democracy, is established. The original concept of people's government by the Greeks was based on a direct democracy, in which all citizens could speak and vote in assemblies of the town meetings. Representative government was unknown and unnecessary because of the small size of the city-states (no more than 10,000 citizens). That original concept was based on the city-state, a self-governed town; the very foundation of the later Greek confederation, a model of a democratic nation. The Romans tried the same, but religion was involved, and depotism ended with the Roman Republic. The Democratic concept was established in different free cities in Italy, Germany and Flauders, influenced by the spirit of Freedom of the Ancient Greek and Roman prinicples. During the Renaissance period the concepts of the political and social rights of all men were defined, and fostered the idea of Humanism. The foundation of this humanism concept comes from the Jews. The most influencial concept in our lives: Equal justice in society.
In 1642 the first popular rebellion against monarchy


occurred in England; it was the beginning of further political and revolutionary action against autocratic European governments and the establishment of democratic governments. The Colonial revolution in North America and the French Revolution produced documents that shape the modern democracy, which major features are the individual freedom; equality before law; universal suffrage and education; the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Countries around the world have used the concept of Democracy in different ways according to their needs and accomodations, and, in some other democratic nations, the leadership has created by manipulating the people, and the very sacred human rights, a new well established master: the State. The State has become what the Church was in the Renaissance period, the master that replaced or influenced the Kings, Courts, Barons, Dukes, etc. Now days, the state has become the entity that regulates, governs and decrees over our every daily life. It has acquired so much power that the people cannot control it any longer and anymore.
A democratic government should be based on the very original concept of democracy: Self-government cities/regions that can decide themselves for their own welfare, keeping track of their own needs, providing the essentials for the community, and the necessary protection and care for their citizens, keeping and upkeeping their education standards so they could be able to face the future; implementing their action plans and capital improvement programs; and developing neighborhood planning in
^State, meaning collective government


4
conjunction with a Master Plan accepted or adopted by the people.
In a democratic government, the policy makers should work close with the citizens so that the people can have more participation in the decision making process. Governmental bodies should be constituted with the objective of providing the people, who are the owners and share holders of an institution called Government, with the proper management and planning, and the dedication needed for improvement in the quality of life. In a true democracy, the government bodies should be agencies dedicated to serve the people, who are the ones paying for the government's operation. In these days, the State tends to forget who owns it--the State is an institution created by the people, to be paid by the people, for the sole purpose of providing freedom, equality and protection for all without discrimination; to make education and health care available for everyone; to make possible for everybody to have the opportunity of being elected or to elect someone else to office; to elaborate planning actions and to implement the necessary planning activities already approved by the people. By all means, it is an institution created to serve and to take care of the people. That is its business! And there's no better way of providing and caring for the better of humankind than dealing with current and future needs and problems with a proper planning activity.
Planning is the most logical reasoning toward dealing with our survival and betterment of quality of life.
"The broad object of planning is to further the
welfare of the people in the community by helping to


5
create an increasingly better, more healthful, convenient, efficient and attractive community environment.
The physical, as well as the social and economic community is a single organism, all features and activities of which are related and interdependent. These facts must be supplemented by the application of intelligent foresight and planned administrative and legal coordination if balance, harmony and order are to be insured. It's the task of planning to supply this foresight and this over-all coordination."
This is the definition of planning by Mary McLean in the book, "Local Planning Administration."
In Colombia1; planning plays a large role in the governmental decisions. Colombia has passed through a whole cycle of government types. From Viceroyalty to democratic governments. Christopher Columbus first touched Colombian land in 1502 in the Darien area (Northwestern coast on the Caribbean Sea) and in 1510, they (Spaniards) established the first settlement on the American mainland on the site of Santa Maria del Darien. Then Santa Marta in 1525, Cartagena in 1535 and Santa Fe' de Bogota' in 1538. In 1549 the former Chibcha empire was included in the Audencia of Nueva Granada. Between 1717 and 1739, the Audencia of Nueva Granada and the territories which later became Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama were included in the vice royalty of Nueva Granada. During this period, a Viceroy was the government head. The royalty and the Catholic Church were busy in exploiting the Colombian land and its natives so they could fight Holy wars on the European continent. The flow of capital out of Nueva Granada, which slowed down any economic progress, and the social and pol itical discrimination against native-born Nuevo Granadir.os caused intense hostility toward the Spanish rule. The American 2
Colombia, South America


FIG. 5A THE AMERICAS


r
DIRECTORIO INDUSTRIAL Y COMERC1AL DE BOLIVAR
atlantico
liliwvjrti
Whrtr.l':
CARTAGENA'


SUCRE
utjMp.-*
PiniNos
VENEZUELA
BOLIVAR
• BOGOTA
COLOMBIA
QEPARTAMENTO DE
MAGDALENA
n Fernando
FIG. 5B COLOMBIA AND THE DEPARTMENT 0F BOLIVAR


6
and French Revolutions had a great impact on the Nuevo Grana-dinos. They revolted against the Spanish Empire in the early 19th century.
Simon Bolivar was the military and political leader of South America in that period. Born in what is today Venezuela (Caracas), Bolivar found the necessary backing in the Nueva Granada. He organized the military campaign that gave the Nueva Granada their independence in 1819. The 20th of July of 1810 the Nuevo Granadinos proclaimed independence. From that date on there was a continuous struggle for independence. It was achieved with the military victory on the battle of Boyaca, the 7th of August of 1819. On December 17th of 1819, the Congress of Angostura proclaimed the formation of the State of La Gran Columbia which comprised the former Nueva Granada, including Panama and part of Central America (Mosquito Coast in Nicaragua included), Venezuela and Ecuador. Venezuela was liberated by Simon Bolivar's troops (Columbian army) in 1821; Ecuador in 1822.
In August 30th, 1821, the Congress of Cucuta adopted a constitution for the Gran Columbia, providing for a republican form of government, and elected Bolivar the republic's first president.
That republic did not last long. It was dissolved in 1831 after the death of Bolivar on December 17th, 1830. Bolivar liberated 5 countries: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Venezuela. Panama and the Colombian Central America territories were part of Colombia at that time.
Since that time two parties have governed Colcmbia:--the


7
liberates and the conservadores. Political and social issues were frequently complicated by bitter controversy involving the property, legal status, and, of course, the privileges of the Catholic Church. Slavery was abolished in Nueva Granada in 1851-52. A new constitution, adopted in 1853, provided for trial by jury, freedom of the press and other civil rights. In 1853 the Church and state were separated. In 1858 the provinces became Federal states and the name of the Republic was changed to Confederacion Granadina. Civil war broke out in 1861 between liberal elements, favoring greater sovereignty for the states and the conservative elements, fighting for a strong central government. Following the victory of the liberals, in 1863 the United States of Colombia was created under a new constitution which provided for a union of sovereign states. In 1886 a new constitution was adopted and a new name was" given to the territory: La Republica de Colombia. This new constitution was possible by the conservatives being in power since 1880. In 1885, liberal elements tried to revolt, but it was supressed. During the period of 1880 to 1930 the Conservative party policies predominated. The new Constitution of 1886 signed by Rafael Nunez (Cartagena born) abolished the Federal System and created the basic structures of today's government form. The Catholic Church became the official Church. With this constitution the reins of the country were given to the politician of the inner ranges (Bogota). Since then, the Bogota bureaucracy has led Colombia in a continuous loss of land:--the Mosquito Coast in today's Nicaragua, Panama in 1903,


8
to Peru and to Brazil and Venezuela in a series of treaties.
With the 1886 constitution, the provinces lost all their power and the Central Government in Bogota' did not have the enough power and political skills to keep the nation intact. U.S.A. acting as powerful empire took over Panama, as T. Roosevelt said: I took Panama. The bigger state preying on the weaker one. History was repeated again.
In 1930 the liberal party came to power again. Amendments to the constitution were adopted, giving the government power to regulate privately owned property in the national interest; establishing the rights of workers to strike, subject to legal regulation; disestablishing the Catholic Church; and secularizing public education. In 1944 a new labor code provided for minimum wage scales, paid vacations and holidays, accident and sickness benefits and the right to organize. Colombia signed the charter of the United Nations in June 1945, becoming one of 51 original members. Colombia was the site of the Ninth International Conference of American States, and was in session when the 1948 rebellion occurred. The draft of the Charter of the Organization of American States was completed, of which Colombia became a signatory on April 30th. In 1948, liberal Party leaders Jorge Eliecer Gaitan was assasinated in Bogota (9th of April). A national uprising against the conservative government produced street fighting and violence. The violence continued for many years afterward. It has been the most bloodiest period in the history of Colombia. That period is called the Violencia. Since


1950 guerrillas have been acting in different parts of the country, mainly in the inner lands. In 1953 General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla led a coup d'etat, becoming provisional president. He was ousted by the military in another coup d'etat in 1957. In 1958 constitutional government was again reinstated. A new president was elected in 1958. The people of Colombia decided by means of a referendum to share power among the two parties during the next sixteen years, and that Coalition was called the National Front, which came to an end in 1974. The liberal party was in power from 1974 to 1982 when a conservative government was elected.
The Constitution of 1886 and its subsequent amendments provide the basis for a highly centralized republican form of government.
Executive power is vested in a president elected by direct popular vote for a four-year term. Suffrage is universal for all men and women eighteen years of age and older. The president may not succeed himself directly. He appoints both a cabinet, which is responsible to the bicameral Congress, and all the governors of the departments (states) and all heads of other administrative subdivisions of the nation. There are 22 departments, 4 intendencies, 5 commissaries and one special district?
Legislative power is vested in a bicameral Congress composed of a House of Representatives and a Senate, both of which are elected directly for four-year terms (Senate) and
3
Departments are like states; intendencies and commissaries are like territories; special district is like the District of Columbia.


10
two year terms (Representatives, Assemblymen and Council men).
The Congress is required to meet at least 150 days each year.
The judicial function is vested in a Supreme Court of twenty members who are elected by Congress for five-year terms, and in Superior and Lower Courts. Capital punishment has been outlawed. The maximum sentence that may be imposed for any crime is 20 years imprisonment. No possibility of parole.
Colombia has a relatively free and open political system in which a number of parties participate. The two major parties have traditionally been the Conservative Party, favoring strong central government and close relation with the Catholic Church and the Liberal Party, favoring stronger local government and separation of church and state.
The racial make-up of the Colombian population is very diversified. About 58% of the people are Mestizo (Spanish-Indian ancestry), 20% are white, 14% are mulatto, 4% are Negro,
3% are Zambo (Negro-Indian ancestry) and 1% Indian (mainly Chibeha and Motilones). There's no data about how many native Indians live in the Jungles (Amazonian, Choco and others).
The land area is 455,355 square miles with a coast on both Oceans--Pacific and Atlantic. Now days, there's a tendency to decentralize the government power. To delegate more power to local governments so they can make decisions on their own future. Planning is involved in every governmental action. Unfortunately, it is too centralized and decisions made in Bogota do not have the right impact on other regions. Usually decisions


n
made by the Central Government do not take into account regional values needed to make the proper decision.
Colombia is still in the process of choosing the right system for its environment and people. There's a strong feeling by the people that amendments to the constitution, providing for direct election of city mayors, department governors and other officials should be adopted.
A more definite separation between the Catholic church and the State should be formulated. No religion should be considered as the country's official religion. Planning should continue in playing a major role but with more local participation in the decision making process.
I


12
Cartagena - The History of the Past
Cartagena de Indias, in Colombia, South America, was discovered by Don Rodrigo de Bastidas in 1501. But it was founded by Don Pedro de Heredia on June 1st, 1533. The city rapidly became a thriving commercial port, later referred to as the Queen of the Indies. Pirates sacked the city in 1544. In the first half of the early 17th century the city was second to Mexico City in commercial importance in the New World.
Its spectacular architecture of beautiful colonial buildings, is still intact, guarded by monumental military wall built to protect the city against the sieges of pirates and corsars in the 16th and 17th centuries. Impregnable fortresses, bastions and dungeons are strategically spread over a zone shaped by various interconnected isthmuses surrounded by lakes, bays and canals. Nationalist revolutionist, led by Simon Bolivar, in 1815 took the city from the Spanish, lost it the same year, and recaptured it in 1821. Its role in the independence movement was very important.
A Spanish general by the name Morillo sieged the City for a long period of time during the independence struggle. Due to that resistance the city was called the "Heroic City," and its independence day, the 11th of November, was declared a national holiday.
Cartagena was the temporary capital of the newly named Republica de Co-ombia in 1886 under the Cartagena born President Rafael Nunez administration.
During the Nunez administration, the commercial and industrial development of the City was good and steady. It continued like that until 1920, when Bananquilla, a city 60 miles northeast


13
from Cartagena, began to be a major commercial center in the Colombian Northern Coast. From 1920 to 1950, the City's economy became stagnant. From 1951, the City began a new industrial trend that kept going until late 1970's when it fell into a very slow growth after a rapid industrial surge.
Since the 1950's the urban explosion has been tremendous. During the period 1951-1964 the population doubled to 242,085 inhabitants. That population growth has not slowed down, the 1984 population is believed to be around 533,000 people, as per projections done by the Chamber of Commerce and other statistic gathering agencies.
Statistics and information for the geographic characteristics were taken from the Directorio Industrial y Commercial de Bolivar, by Ande and Fenalco.
Geographic, Climatic and Demographic Characteristics:
Cartagena, capital seat of the department of Bolivar, is situated in the northern part of the Republic of Colombia, South America, by the Caribbean Sea at 10°251 North latitude and 15°32' west longitude, Greenwich Meridian Time.
The city is located on the Cartagena bay, a natural harbor and one of the most secured ones in South America. The bay has a length of 12 kilometers and a width of 6 kilometers. The bay is linked to the Magdalena River, main river in Colombia, by the Canal del Dique, a 110 kilometers long canal.
Its climate is warm, especially during the midyear rainy season, but the.rest of the year is cooled by the alisios winds.


14
Very nice climate from December to March.
- Temperature
Mean maximum 31.9°C (August)
Mean minimum 22.5°C (January)
Monthly mean 27.2°C
- Prevailing winds
Monthly average 18 kilometers/hour N-NE Atmospheric pressure 755 centimeters Solar light 297 hours-min.
- Precipitation
Annual maximum 976.4 milimeters Monthly average 51.4 milimeters The rainy season goes from May to October.
- T i des
Mean high 0.109 meters Mean 0.012 meters
Mean low 0.118 meters
The population by the end of 1983 is calculated to be 512,000 inhabitants with an annual growth rate of 4%. 40% of its popula-
tion are less than 15 years old and 42% are men.
The illiteracy rate of the population is 15%. The percent of the population economically active is 26% and the employment rate of such percent is 85%.
The physical and demographic evolution process of the city
is divided into 7 periods.


15
1533-1800
Walled City, approximately 80 hectareas and 10,000 people. 1800-1905
The walled city continued to be the center of town. Some settlement along the rail tracks and higher income people in the island of Manga and in the Cabrero. City area of about 170 hectareas and a population of 55,000 persons.
1905-1938
City area of about 625 hectareas and a population of 84,937 inhabi tants.
1938-1951
City area of about 790 hectareas and a population of 128,877 people; a density of 163 persons per hectarea.
1951-1964
City area of about 1400 hectareas and a population of 242,085 people.
1964-1973
City area of about 2300 hectareas and a population of 348,961 persons.
1973-1983
Municipal land area of 7500 hectareas with an urban land area of 5000 hectareas and a population of 512,000 persons.
The City has two major arterial roads:


FIG. 15A CARTAGENA'S URBAN DEVELOPMENT THROUGH HISTORY


16
The Avenida Pedro de Heredia which connects the walled downtown and the mainland, and the Avenida Santander which runs alongside the sea shore from Bocagrande to Crespo.
Cartagena is the seat of the largest Colombian Naval Base on the Atlantic, the site of several universities and technical schools, the Colombian Naval Academy, Municipal seat and the capital of the department of Bolivar, Bolivar's cultural and educational center, the major employment center in the region, the largest port on the Caribbean sea, industrial center and the most important tourist resort in the Country.


17
MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT
There's an elected council (at large), which is the legislative body of the municipality. The executive branch is represented by the Mayor, who is appointed the Governor of the Department (state) of Bolivar.
The municipality if formed by the City of Cartagena and other towns within such territory. The municipal Government is the one responsible for the management and administration of the municipality. Under the Mayor's office, there are some administrative departments that help in governing the municipality.
Such departments are:
General Secretary Administrative office Finance & Taxation Department Planning Office Treasure
Comptroller (appointed by council)
Personero (appointed by council)
The fiscal year goes from January 1st to December 31st of same year.
The budget is presented by the Mayor's office to the council for approval. Upon approval it is sent to the Mayor to be signed by him/her.


CHAPTER II
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
During the last decade, Cartagena, Colombia, South America, has grown at a rapid pace. This growth has had a impact on the city's environment and has increased the needs of the most essential services and facilities.
The city's development has been directed toward heavy industrialization and tourism. Its population has increased sharply and the city has not been able to meet its most pressing needs. One of the most aggravating problems is the lack of essential services and facilities in several poor neighborhoods.
The city is plagued with problems derived from the lack of proper planning in dealing with the sudden growth. Fciny of these problems are such as the need for proper roads and maintenance; infested creeks and lagoons which are sources of disease; polluted bays and waterways; need of more and better schools; dedication of land for green areas/park/sport facilities. Cartagena was not prepared for such rapid growth. These problems affect the poor and disadvantaged groups more than the other groups with better income.
DISCUSSION OF PARTICULAR QUESTION AND HYPOTHESIS
There are some problems associated with the rapid, growth


19
that Cartagena has had in the last decade. The increase of popu-lation--mostly unskilled labor (peasants)—created a demand for housing, public services and employment. Among that new population there's a particular migrating force that occupy land within the city limits in an overnight fashion. This is called "invasion," and one is a very special social problem and very difficult to deal with.
The city has not been able to meet its needs as demanded by its rapid development. There was not a proper city planning effort to control or direct such growth. Therefore the city has fallen behind and is having rough times in trying to catch up. There are other elements which are by-products of those mentioned before such as increase in housing price; traffic congestion; developers trying to overdevelop land; people using creeks for sewerage, etc.
Overpopulation brings socio-economic problems to a city.
These problems multiply when the city does not have the necessary tax base nor the appropriate legislative regulations to deal with it. Under those conditions, it is not possible even to supply the most essential services and facilities.
An overcrowded city becomes a source of filth, disease and unemployment. It comes to be an unsanitary place to live--a center ripe for social disturbance.
EXPLANATION OF THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY
Colombia is a country where a planned economy plays a major role in the development of the whole country. It dictates


20
the growth and development of Cartagena. The state is the political force with the economic capabilities and regulatory policies to influence the direction of Cartagena's development.
Physical planning within a capital-oriented economy plays a major role in the social and territorial division in the labor and production process. Physical planning and the accumulation process are related by the fact that development has traditionally been concentrated in areas where investment capital identifies optimal conditions. One result is the polarized growth of a few healthy communities and the detrimental growth of surrounding communities with a generalized lack of public facilities and services. Land speculation and the resultant scarcity of land affect a healthy and equitable physical development of cities.
The governmental administration structure is a reproductive function in every step of the economic process. It manipulates public and private sectors in a society to a point that it regulates growth and development through public planning.
Through that concept an ideological structure has been created. A structure that transmits ideas and beliefs and the development of behavioral patterns to the socio-economic system. Ideological values shape the acceptance of certain forms of production, consumption, exchange, and management within society.
The methodology to be used throughout the analysis is compatible with the goal. Policies of the Cartagena master plan, its implementation, and its actual physical needs will indicate the performance of the regulatory norms in the capital-oriented


21
planned economy of Cartagena. The analysis will be at municipal level taking into consideration any influences coming from the national or regional level.
The time frame utilized for the analysis will be from 1970 to 1983. The selection of variables will include those in the master plan and its implementation policies.
Data will be obtained from information already gathered by governmental agencies.
Other needed supplementary information was collected by field work, interviews, questionnaires, and participatory observations. In the critique chapter, an analysis of the existing Master Plan and the environment is made, making it possible to make recommendations and guidelines for a betterment of Cartagena and its inhabitants and to be able to cope with the city's needs in
the future.


CHAPTER III
ANALYSIS OF THE PLANNING PRACTICE/MASTER PLAN
Since 1886 when the current Constitution was adopted and the federal system was abolished for a new centralized type of government, the states which made part of the Colombian territory lost all the power needed to make their own decisions. 1886 was the beginning of servility. The central government took over the decision making process. The states and local governments list the right to have initiative and creativity. That loss is an infringement of the freedom of choice and thinking. I believe that one of our most sacred rights is the one to make our own decisions, the right to think and evaluate our own needs and the right to manage our own local resources as we deem right to do it. An that's what the people of the State of Bolivar and the Municipality of Cartagena lost on that year, their own independence. They became the slave under the almighty power of the Bogota power seekers. They wanted to manage a nation without the proper knowledge of its territory, people and culture.
Based on that central power, the Bogota Government began making decisions for Cartagena and the Bolivar department without ever thinking of the impacts of such decision might have had. They began exploiting our natural resources leaving nothing for the resource generating regions. All the profit went to the nation.


23
The regions went poorer than ever before :--no investment, no resources. Oil wells went dry. Boom-town days were gone. Nothing left to repair damages caused by that exploitation: the Bogota government preying on Bolivar's resources to survive.
Year after year the Central Government has wounded Cargagena's environment with innerland-minded designs and policies. They make decisions without ever considering the environment, cultural and social aspects. It is the master making decisions for their proteges. For me, that is slavery. It is like being in chains without freedom to act. They make the people powerless to act and also take away their resources. It is a shameful, merciless, depraving, and exploiting action. People are born with the right to freedom of choice. The right of freedom of speech.
The right to make their own decisions and the right to administer their own resources. Home policies should be made at home. Cartagena's environment and resources belong to the people of Cartagena and the department of Bolivar. The people of Cartagena are the ones indicated by right in making their own decisions and choosing their own future.
Cartagena's environment has been at the mercy of outsiders' will since 1886. To make a decision about the cleaning of the waterways, the Mayor has to travel to Bogota to beg for action and funds in order to do so. That means that if the National government decides not to do a thing about it, the pollution will continue to prevail, harming even further the environment.
It's very important that the city strengthen its economic base,


24
raise the necessary income through taxation or other means, and impose the needed regulations to keep the city alive, full of vigor and willing and confident in taking its people into the future. A future for the next generation by the current one.
A future designed to better the quality of life; to increase people's participation in the decision-making process; to better living conditions; to provide proper education and health care and to promote equal justice in society.


25
Critique of the Existing Plan
The plan was put together after compiling a great deal of data. The data collection was good and very comprehensive and very surely it helped in determining the content of the Master Plan.
The people who put together the Plan are professionals of good standards. But, there's a lack of low-income people participation in the process. A lack that might have impacted the final outcome. There's no mention of public hearings, either, nor the community's reaction to such Plan. There were more than 120 professionals and 38 entities in studying and analyzing the data. These entities were both private and governmentals. There's not a single citizen's group or association among them. That means that the Plan was the outcome of Technical Teams, that deemed not necessary for people's participation.
The Plan lacks a logical organization which makes it hard to understand the content. It looks like every team did their job and then, somebody compiled that work without organization or coordination.
Goals are not defined in the Adopted Plan, even though they were mentioned in the proposal and in Ordinance 32/1977.
The objectives do not define their specific purposes. It is more of an orientation or generalized set of policies.
The Plan is supposed to be in effect from 1978 to 1990, and is divided in three documents:
City Planning Code


26
Construction Code
Capital Improvement Program
The City Planning Code actually is a zoning code, which establishes zones, sectors, reserve areas, urban boundaries, sanitary service boundaries, transportation and road system and plat regulations.
The reserve areas: agricultural, ecological and touristic are written as zones also. One denomination would have been enough. The designation of Reserve Touristic areas or zones is a complex one. It involves about 20 subareas. One of them, the touristic zone, is a commercial zone where hotels and motels can be built. There's not harmony and uniformity in the zoning design. That causes confusion. The use of different treatments in different locations for the same land use creates discrimination for the location and its inhabitants. Zoning should not discriminate in treatment for the same land use throughout the municipality.
Among the City Planning Code, there is a Zoning Statute.
That zoning statute has 22 zones including the reserve ones already discussed. One of those 22 zones is one named touristic zone.
That touristic zone is made up of 12 subzones, 5 of them from the 22 zones which form the statute. The historical zone is also subdivided in sectors. Some of those sectors are also subdivided in subzones, creating more complexity. The chapter which deals with the historical zone is also a construction code. A road system is also included in that historical zone. I think this is one of the most complex and confusing zoning chapters. The


27
residential zones areat the same time made up by 6 of the 22 original zones. Residential zones in Bocagrande and Manga have different requirements. Discrimination by land use surfaces again. Manga has been the oldest low density residential sector. Now it has been changed to medium high density. There is a different zoning treatment in lower income neighborhoods than in middle or upper-income neighborhoods. This existing Plan promotes discrimination because of income. There's not a unified road system design standards. Every sector has its own design. Chapter XIV is the "applied minimum norms residential zones." This zone is exclusively for low-income people: to group them, to can them. Chapter XV deals with the rehabilitation of the South-eastern zone of the urban area. This area is plagued by shanty-towns and needs a complete overhaul. This chapter deals with the definition of problems, the rehabilitation zone, relocation zone, renovation zone, road system, zoning regulations for the sectors involved in such rehabilitation and of course, Chapter XIV is applied in this zone. Commercial zones are the less complex one. The public market areas should fall in one of the commercial zones according to its size and not be a special zone. The industrial zone are well explained and easy to understand.
There is an institutional zones chapter, which should be among the permitted land uses of any of the other zoning zones.
There is not a need for a special zone. The same happens with the green zones (parks).
The ground transportation terminal should be within one of


28
the other zones and not by itself. The air terminal and the cargo terminal for vessels should be in special zones because of the large amount of land that it takes to operate one. The food supply center should be within a commercial zone and not by itself. The same for the free trade zone, which can be located within an industrial zone, as it is planned. The Commercial Free Trade zone should be located near the Industrial one, both complement each other.
Requirements on road designs should reflect the intended use for the next 20-25 years. The traffic control measures have a lot of sense, but I doubt about its implementation. The design of the sewer system and the water system is being done at undercapacity and they (designer) are not looking for the capacity demanded in the life of the infrastructure. In Boca-grande, an additional sewer line had to be placed due to the shortsightedness of the designer. This kind of mistake is more costly than the implementation of a proper design. Water mains should be at least 6 inches in diameter.
The team that put together the modular living unit to estimate density did not mention how they reached that conclusion. It is extremely important to know that procedure. In that case, we are dealing with human living conditions, in which a healthy, safe environment should be created. To put 7.2 persons in 3 bedrooms is to create an overcrowding condition unless the bedrooms are big enough to provide for each person's niche. During my inquiries I couldn't find out if a social study was done


29
to establish such criteria. Persons older than 10 years old and of different sex shall be accomodated in different rooms.
Plat and subdivision regulations are clear and understandable. Among these regulations are road design requirements again. There are also public service infrastructure design requirements once more.
There's not clear separation of the design standard requirements and the rest of the zoning code.
The island of Manga should preserve its original condition of low-density residential and not be down-graded to medium high density. This change will damage its traditional residential zoning classification. The expansion of the Maritime Cargo Terminal modified and damaged that island's residential environment. That should never have happened. The terminal should be transferred to the Mamonal Industrial zone where it can complement the land use of such zone. The land now being used by said terminal should be developed into a residential and sport complex, and be an alternative for a future site of the University of Cartagena if it cannot be sited on the terrains where the Colombian Naval Base is operating now.
The airport located in Crespo could be expanded in its present location. There's enough land to achieve such expansion. A parallel north-south runway east from the existing one, can be accomodated there. Lengthening of the actual runway can be done by landfill in the southern part into the Virgen Lake. Also, there's enough land within the airport property boundaries to


30
expand cargo and passenger terminals. The use of that land for air operations is beyond the 15 years called for by the Plan and the cost of expansion would be much less than relocation of the Airport to a new site where valuable agricultural and ranching land is vital for the food supply of the municipality.
The Naval Base should be transferred to Manzanillo. That land should be developed into the University of Cargagena's future site. The existing sport facilities should be left intact. Any excess land should be developed for faculty or student housing, or adding some more sport fields which are needed in that barrio. These sport facilities should be shared with the local community.
The Municipal government does not have a housing agency to take care of the housing problems of the city. Such agency should be created under the guidance of the Planning Office to undertake rental and ownership housing programs within the municipality (including other towns). Such programs would complement other national agencies' programs. By not doing so, the Municipal government is not paying attention on its own to, perhaps, the biggest problem that Cartagena has.
The Cartagena taxpayers are taxed for police protection. The only place where police offices are seen are in the airport, downtown and Bocagrande barrio. Anywhere else is very rare to see one of them. The City should provide for better police protection, if the Cartagena taxpayer are paying for it. The Municipal government has the right to ask the local Police


31
Commander for such protection or to devise ways to improve it.
From 1984 on, the economic tax base of the city should improve when the "Ley 14 of 1983" is in effect for the first time. Improvement and enforcement in tax collection is needed. The City has a computer-aided tax appraisal method. Even though, the city knows who are owing taxes, the city does not go out and enforce collection. A very discriminating measure.
The Municipal government should have a percent of the property tax dedicated solely to education facilities and school equipment. It is unbelievable that the municipality does not have a tax to fund school facilities but it does have a fund for a bullfighting facility which is just used once a year. What a primieval mentality.
The road use tax does not go to a road fund but to a Tourism Promoting Corporation, the Bullfighting Corp. and the Valuing Office. In 1983 the Bullfighting Corporation received twice as much as the University Hospital, which is in need of so much funds. The Empresas Publicas Municipales receives 80% of the city property tax. This said public service company should be making it on its own without any need of the property tax, which can be dedicated to other useful purposes such as education and infrastructure facilities. There was a need of 14,580+student chairs and other school furnishing during 1983.
The Municipal government has become so much tourism-minded that other fundamental needs are forgotten or by-passed.
The Empresas Publicas should not have the tree planting
+Source: Mayor's office


32
and park tax to go into its general funds. That fund should be a specific one to be implemented by the Engineering Department of the Planning office for that specific purpose.
The Fire Department's tax should not go to the Empresas Publicas' general funds either. The Fire Department should have its own funds and operate separately and report directly to the Mayor's Office.
The Empresas Publicas Municipales should be limited to the its primary functions of providing water and sanitary systems services, including the street cleaning and garbage collection and its disposal. Even though, it would more efficient to have a separate sanitary department to provide the street cleaning and garbage collection and its disposal. The Empresas Publicas Municipales is swallowing all the specific purpose taxes to feed its monstrous beaurocracy. This procedure should be stopped in order to bring order and organizetion and a sound fiscal management into the Municipal Government's public service operations and administration.
There are several governmental agencies doing planning and capital improvement programming in the Municipality. These functions should be brought under direct control of the Municipal Planning Office (MPO). Planning for the municipality and coordination of capital improvement programs should be the sole responsibi1ity of MPO. National and Departmental (Department of Bolivar) planning agencies should consult with the MPO for any planning action or capital improvement programming to be taken


33
in the Municipality by the National or Departmental governments.
The Municipal Planning Office should be organized as follows:
a. Planning department
b. Engineering department
c. Zoning and subdivision department
d. Environmental department
The planning department has to enforce the planning guidelines set forth by the Master Plan; to assess and evaluate the community's needs; to elaborate action and capital improvement programming; to coordinate other agencies planning efforts; and to forecast future demands and needs in the Municipality.
The engineering department as to enforce the engineering and technical standards required for the proper implementation of the Plan; to set norms and standards needed for such implementation; to organize, manage, operate and control the infrastructure system of the municipality (transportation, water and wastewater systems) and/or to be reported to by agencies administering and operating such systems; to organize control and operate the Municipality's traffic (all modes) and to manage and regulate the private transit system; to approve or disapprove any kind of construction work to be undertaken or being undertaken by the private or the governmental agency which do not conform to technical and/or engineering regulations; to design, maintain and repair schools, sport fields/complexes and community facilities; to design new or to rehabilitate old infrastructure facilities taking into account the projected or forecasted demand for such infrastructure during its lifetime.


34
The zoning and subdivision department hasto implement the Master Plan through the zoning and subdivision regulations; to enforce and administer such regulations; to set procedures needed for such enforcement; to approve or disapprove land developments and land uses which do not conform to such regulations.
The environmental department hasto enforce the environmental policies and to aasure implementation of them; to approve environmental conditions or its effects on the environment or any structure, faciltiy or land development before the issue of certificate of occupancy; to set guidelines and measures to improve the natural environment; to assure the accessability for enjoyment of any Municipal's park, scenic area or wildlife refuge; to manage, operate, maintain, preserve and improve all parks, scenic areas, wildlife refuges, sport fields under the office of parks and recreation; to coordinate with different sport and athletic leagues the use of sport fields; to seek for the establishment of zoological and botanical gardens and its management and operation afterwards: to manage, maintain, repair and preserve the municipally owned historical structures; to monitor preservation of historical conditions in historical designated zones and to monitor for environmental conditions in general throughout the municipality.
A municipality is a living organism which needs care, nourishment, attention to its needs and illness in order to keep it alive and full of vigor to accomplish its endeavor.
In the following Chapter, a set of guidelines, zoning and


35
subdivision regulations are recommended to be used as a model for the Development Master Plan of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.
Such recommended Master Plan model was put together using as a pattern different Master Plans and zoning and subdivision regulations of cities and counties of the State of Colorado, USA.


36
THE SUGGESTED MODEL FOR A COMPREHENSIVE MASTER
PLAN
In the preparation for a Master Plan for Cartagena it is necessary to analyze the municipality's growth and trend, identifying problems and concerns, setting appropriate goals, considering different ways in achieving it and looking for very realistic action plans.
Population has increased a 63.45% since 1973 (312,727) to 1983 (511,172). For the year 1980 there was expected to be a deficit of 19,658 housing units. Most of this deficit was within the low income people group. If this trend continues the municipality has to come up with a good program to try to decrease that deficit.
The increasing need of water and energy supply must be met by executing a capital improvement by the utility company
There's increasing awareness of the environment's condition and the need to rescue the ecosystem from the current shameful state.
The Master Plan must be based on fairness, equal justice in society; abolishing any discrimination because of religion, origin, race, income or political association.
The citizens at all levels should collaborate with the government in deciding the city's future.
The comprehensive planning process should have the following basic components: municipal wide plan, suburban plan, urban (city) plan, neighborhood (sector) plan and other comp!ementary plans.
Municipal Wide Plan
This plan should view the municipality as a whole. To


37
set plans leading to improvement in social, economic and political matters, taking into account the constraints and favorable factors that may affect the final outcome.
This plan should be part of a continuous effort in keeping the planning process updated and a vital part of the government decision process.
The plan should lead the municipality into the future having as a starting point the municipality's current state.
The plan should address current problems and foreseeable ones. Looking for solution alternatives that may be accepted by the community in general. Those alternatives have to be very realistic and feasible, with a broad base and scope.
Within the plan, a priority program should prevail in accordance to the municipality's goals and needs.
Suburban Plans
The suburban plans should follow the overall goals of the municipality. It should place emphasis on suburban needs and trends and also, in the future growth of the urban part and its impact on the suburban area. The suburban area should keep its image as much as possible without jeopardizing the growth of the urban part of the municipality. The suburban area holds much of the future of the municipality. Preservation and protection of the suburban environment is a most realistic objective.
Urban Plans
The urban plans are the most active ones. These plans, also, should follow the overall goals fo the municipality. They


38
should set the pace in which the whole municipality will be lead into the future. Most of the economic, social and administrative activity is done in the urban area, which impacts the whole municipal ity.
Neighborhood Plans
Neighborhood plans should allow for flexibility while preserving the neighborhood's image. These plans are the guide for integration under the overall municipal plan. The City Planning office should work together with the neighborhood to bring about action plans to achieve objectives. Within those objectives are those related to the basic needs of the community as well as those needed to bring the necessary stimulus and push into the community.
The neighborhood plans are the primary makers of the City Plans, and should have the most cooperation and collaboration from the citizens. It's here where the community is going to imprint its will and needs.
Policy Planning Approach
Policy planning is the identifier of abstract and idealistic goals, which are given form into more realistic objectives, and into policies and programs.
Goals and objectives will define the course of the policies and programs. These goals may be oriented toward improvement of physical and/or social and economic conditions. Usually goals are long-term aims. Long-term objectives are more specific than the goals and oriented toward land use-transportation, public facilities and the environment. Policies generally define course


39
of action for implementing long term objectives. Policies can be even more objective than long term objectives, such as housing, business, commercial areas, etc. Short term objectives are realistic and capable of being measured and evaluated as to the extent of their achievement. Those short term objectives are staged annually or bi-yearly as needed and will be evaluated and modified as needed.
Programs are the guidelines used to implement policies. Programs can be municipal, city or neighborhood wide. They are part of the continuing planning process.
Goals for Cartagena
To better the quality of life for all its inhabitants without social, income or belief discrimination.
To ensure enjoyment of life for each one of its inhabitants.
To make sure that each one of the inhabitants have the opportunity to succeed in life.
To create a planning and decision-making process to be used in achieving the above goals.
To make Cartagena a self-supporting municipality.
To enhance the Cartagena's environmental condition making it available for the community use and enjoyment.
To program for capital improvements needed to better community1s well being.
To provide each one in the community with the necessary


40
services and activities needed for a good social and economic interaction.
To provide each one in the community with the chance of serving the community and playing a role in the decision making process.
To strengthen the social , economic and physical assets of the municipality as a foundation on which to build the future.
MUNICIPAL WIDE PLAN Land Use Planning
Long Term Objectives
To balance the growth of urban, suburban and rural areas and the natural environment.
To control the growth of urban areas according to service availability.
To better the transportation and road system within the municipality.
To provide for equal development opportunities in all towns of the municipality, according to needs.
To provide for transition zones between areas.
To maintain and secure ecological balance in the suburban and rural areas, and especially in the urban designated areas.
To recover, rehabilitate and protect the damaged
ecosystems.


41
To enhance the natural environment.
To promote the necessary action plans to generate socio-economic interaction within the system.
To look for social-economic integration.
To diminish the disparity between villages/towns and the urban area.
To promote for zoning equality within the municipality.
General Land Use Planning
Development has occurred in the northwestern section of the municipality, mainly alongside the main inland road and alongside the coast. There are some other scattered towns in other parts and in the Islands but insignificant. Actual growth is happening in a fan out fashion and in a southerly direction.
Policy to follow. — The growth and development of the municipality of Cartagena should be in harmony with the ecology system, avoiding any damage or harm to the environment. It's necessary to keep the present percent of rural areas to maintain and develop the needed food supply.
The municipality of Cartagena has a total area of 60,600 hectareas, of which 29.970 hectareas form the rural area or roughly 50% of total municipality's land area.
Suburban plans. -- Land use planning. These plans should follow the goals for the whole municipality, the total suburban land area is of 23,302 hectareas or 38% of total municipality land area. It should continue with the present land use patterns,


42
paying special attention to the preservation of the natural environment.
Policies to follow. -- The suburban land should be a transition zone between the urban area and the rural area. Development should not happen in more than 30% of the total suburban land area, after the year 1990, or 20% after the year 1994 or 0.0% (zero percent) by the year 2000 and afterwards. That would give the municipality a maximum of additional developable land of 11,651 hectareas.
URBAN (CITY) WIDE PLAN Land Use Planning
Long Term Objectives
To ensure harmony between land use and the preservation of the natural environment.
To develop and wisely use current underdeveloped and/or undeveloped lots and/or land.
To provide humanly good and environmentally sound housing.
To rehabilitate or relocate physically and environmental unsound residential, shopping and employment areas.
To set guidelines for new development, redevelopment and rehabilitation in such a way that it will establish identity, harmony, unity, variety, quality and fairness in planning and design.
To recover, rehabilitate and preserve historic places
and structures.


43
To provide for integrated community centers (administrative, commercial/shopping, services, health and residential mixed complex) as a mode for multi-sector development; to set guidelines for such centers and their service area.
To set humanly good and fair guidelines for low-income housing; providing for safe, decent, affordable and attractive housing in all the types and styles for each one in the community.
To prevent deterioration of present sound housing and preserve and maintain current good conditions.
To plan and design for the necessary mixture of land uses as to provide for employment and community services and for needed social/economic interaction.
To preserve, update and maintain current infrastructure facilities and to plan for future ones to meet community's current and future needs.
To provide essential services to everyone within the urban (city) limits.
To provide the community with the needed sport facilities and green/recreational areas, and the necessary land for community social activities.
General Land Use Planning
The City/urban area occupies 7,328 hectareas (18,100 acres) or 12.1" of total municipality land area.
Industrial land uses are mainly located in the Mamonal and


44
El Bosque areas, alongside the Central El Bosque Road and the Mamonal Road.
Commercial land uses are grouped in the Walled City Downtown area and alongside the Pedro de Heredia Avenue and in the touristic areas of Bocagrande and El Laquito (San Martin Avenue).
The commercial patterns follows a linear fashion along major transportation routes.
Residential land uses are developed, also, in a linear fashion following the major transportation routes and sea and bay coast lines. The oldest and historic residential area is located within the walled city and also between the inner city wall and the outer wall. The multi-family housing is mostly conentrated in Bocagrande and El Laquito, wht Walled Downtown and some scattered in Manga; this type of housing is mainly for middle and upper income people. Single family housing is the predominant pattern all aroung the city, including government sponsored low income housing.
New developments are springing up, mostly, in the South and southeast part of town. The slum areas around the south shore of Cienega de la Virgen, and around La Popa Hill are the most critical areas of concern in the city.
The lack of adequate essential services is a constant reminder for improvement in this area. Solutions are being implemented lately. The slum areas are the most affected. These areas are in need of special treatment.
The tourism has brought increased demand for housing, hotel


45
rooms, services and entertainment. The economy has become more dynamic and demanding.
The goals, objectives and policies presented in this plan make emphasis on the development pace and growth control of the City until the year 2000. The municipality of Cartagena has an estimated population of 533,000 and a projected population of 681,250 by the year 1990 and 1,022,073 by the year 2000 at annual growth rate of 4.14%, as per my estimated forecast.
Policies
Cartagena growth should aim to full development within its current urban boundaries.
The City should continue to play its role as leader in the administration, arts, education, industrial and entertainment center of the Department and making stronger its position as national tourism center and military stronghold. The City should emphasize development of the vacant lots and land before attempting to go into the suburban areas. All these developments should take place in an orderly manner without affecting or damaging the natural environment.
The existing pattern should continue and the intensity in which it is carried out should be preserved, unless beneficial changes are necessary to better the overall conditions, and if that happens and neighborhood impacts ocaur, neighborhood residents should get involved in the decision-making process.
Residential Area Land Use Planning
Residential development in Cartagena started within the


46
walled citadel and expanded to the sector south of the wall but within the outer wall (Getsemani quarter).
Development continued along the sea and bay coast lines and along the major inland road. The Island of Manga developed into an elegant residential area, very close to downtown yet far enough to avoid the noise and disturbance of the walled citadel.
The city continued to expand in Bocagrande, Castillo Grande,
Drespo, Marbella, Pie de la Popa, Torices, el Bosque and along side the main inland road. Lately, El Laquito sprang up and other developments (low income) in the outskirt of the City. The middle and upper income people are concentrated alongside the sea and bay shores (Bocagrande, Castillo Grande, El Laquito, Manga, Pie de la Popa) and lately Crespo and a development near Turbaco.
Single family has been the predominant housing development. Since the '70s there's been an increase in multi-family development to satisfy housing demand for the middle and income group, and they have been located in Bocagrande, Castillo Grande and the Island of Manga. The Chambacu tugurio (slum) was torn down in the '60s and the people relocated to another area. The current tucurios are concentrated mainly in the southern part of Cienaga La Virgen, around the Popa Hill and the Juan Angola Waterway connecting with the Cienaga Virgen. These slum areas have become very disturbing and unhealthy areas and dangerously located as it happens with that one close to the airport runway.
Policies
The main concern should be in solving the tuqurios


47
(blight areas) problem. Providing for good, decent, affordable, undiscriminating housing. Housing that is properly designed for human being occupancy.
Density should relate to the type of structure and amount ot space to be occupied. The maximum number of detached singlefamily dwelling units should be 12 units per hectarea.
Minimum requirement and basic housing should be prohibited as per being inhumane (overcrowding conditions).
The urban renewal process in downtown should be strengthened and directed toward more residential land use.
Classification of medium, medium high or high density should rest on the amount of floors per structure, rather than units per hectareas, meaning that dwelling units have to go up to satisfy density requirement rather than horizontally overcrowding an hectarea with one-floor dwelling units.
Density on established neighborhoods should remain as it is. The Island of Manga should continue being a low-deni sty residential area.
Neighborhood shopping centers should be close to serve residential areas.
Residential areas should be separated by a transition zone to a different area, especially if industrial.
Avoidance of high volume traffic roads through neighborhoods should be emphasized.


48
Developers of new areas should provide for all the essential services infrastructures Mixed-density residential areas should be around the integrated centers.
All new high-density residential should have access to public transportation and to have employment centers located in the proximity as well as shopping centers.
All new residential development should give priority to environmental concerns and energy and resources conservation.
Housing Planning for Land Use
Cartagena has a mixture of very old housing through contemporary housing. The Downtown walled citadel has old historic housing. The Island of Manga is a quarter where mansion from the Republican period are sited next to contemporary housing. Bocagrande, Castillo and El Laquito are show places for modern and contemporary housing, so are other developments in the outskirts of the urban area.
Housing ages inward as the urban area spreads out along the coast lines and turns inward along the main inland road. Most of the housing is in good condition, except for the shacks of the blighted areas.
There's a strong need to provide good housing for low-income families. The current low-income housing is a shameful attempt at a solution. Improvement should be done at once. Most of these low-income developments are located in the southern urban area.
A shortage of 19,658 housing units was estimated in 1980


49
and a projected deficit of 29,978 units by the year 1990, and
+
around 40,000 units by the year 2000. Most of these new housing will be located on the outskirt of the city.
Policies
Conservation of old housing should be encouraged by tax incentive and through a neighborhood housing program. This effort should be emphasized in the Downtown area, San Diego, Getsemani, Manga.
Low-income housing solutions for the poeple living in the blighted areas should be first priority of the governmental effort.
The municipal government should initiate its own low-income and public housing program.
Betterment of housing quality for low-income projects. Abolishment of overcrowding conditions in current housing developments.
Set guidelines for density, if family size to be 5.9 persons/family, the dwelling space has to increase in order to better living conditions and improve social interaction.
Demand improved space availability per family from new developers, including governmental agencies.
Look for more citizen (community) participation in the housing design process.
New developments should be compatible with surrounding residential areas and should not increase economic
♦Source: Cartagena's existing Master Plan, Volume I.


50
or racial impaction.
Evaluation of neighborhoods and housing conditions should be made on a regular basis (every year). These evaluations should deal with the degree of success of current programs, identification of problems before they become critical and possible citizen's input in solving them.
Housing should be provided on a non-discriminatory basis without regard to income, race, color, religion, sex, origin or political association.
Business Land Use Planning
Business activities in Cartagena started within the walled citadel and since those early days in the 16th century, those activities have been kept in that sector and in the closeby harbor where the public food market was placed until the 1970's where it was transferred to Bazurto. Today that site is occupied by the Convention Center.
Business activities expanded to La Mantura and continued to


51
develop along the main inland road. Bocagrande and El Loquito attracted business activities along the San Martin Avenue. These activities in these areas were caused mainly by Tourism.
The Island of Manga got the Maritime Terminal, both for passenger and cargo. This terminal has been expanded during the ’60's and 701s.
In the 1980's there's been one additional business concentration, the Santa Lucia shopping center at the crossroad of Pedro de Heredia and the Old El Bosque Road.
Long Term Objectives
To develop Cartagena as a regional and national headquarters city.
To strengthen Cartagena's position as a center of tourism, conventions and entertainment.
To make Cartagena stronger as a regional retail center.
To establish integrated centers, which should be similar to the Downtown/Matuna sector but smaller in scale.
These centers should serve a population equal to 'the one served by Downtown.
To establish community and neighborhood commercial/ shopping centers.
Policies
Partial decentralization of retail activity from downtown. Development of land already zoned for commercial should be encouraged.
Business uses in residential areas should be allowed if that expansion contributes to stability and betterment of


52
the neighborhood.
New business area developments should provide and maintain the most pleasant and attractive environment. Food market and other essential services should be accessible to everyone and relatively close.
Food markets should dispense in the most hygienic conditions, especially the perishable essential items. Bazurto Market has to be upgraded to provide better and more hygienic services.
Industrial Land Use Planning
Cartagena started to develop its industry and manufacturing activities about 100 years ago. The first companies were established in the Downtown area and Manga, these in el Pie de la Popa. At the turn of the century, the nation was involved in the 1000 days Civil war. Cartagena, managed to come up in 1906 with a Sugar Cane mill and in 1914 the first Colombian petroleum refinery was established in Cartagena with a capacity of 1000 barrels/day. Toward the year 1920 Cartagena went into an industrial recession period and did not really come out that recession until 1957 when the Intercol Refinery was built. During 1957-1974 Cartagena grew industrially a great deal. The creation of the Industrial Zone in Mamonal was part of the industrial development that the city went through. The Basque Sector also was influenced by this development when many manufacturing companies were established in that sector. But since the late 1970s a halt in heavy industrial


53
growth has set in the City. No new companies have been established in Cartagena since late 1970's. The net industrial production grew from $1,060,090 in 1965 to $40,050,000 in 1980 and industrial employment grew from 4,771 employees in 1965 to 11,500 employees in 1980.
Policies The city government should develop an economic development program to attract more industries into the Mamonal-El Bosque Industrial area, to provide more job opportunities to the residents, to better the economic base of the city, to increase revenues for the city. To develop an adequate transportation system and to promote it. To ensure the availability of essential services to the industrial zones. To promote Cartagena as a transportation hub. To promote Cartagena as wholesale and distribution center. To promote Cartagena as a manufacturing center. To promote Cartagena as a center of skilled labor and labor training. To establish a business contact and service system. To become a center for training: and site for high-tech industries. To fully develop a shipbuilding industry. To keep and maintain in good conditions present industries To retool and upgrade old industries.


54
To keep and increase lobbying campaigns before Department and National governments.
To develop an agricultural machinery industry.
To manufacture tools and equipment needed in the electrical industry.
To establish an agricultural equipment assembly plant.
Maps -
Transportation Planning
Long-Term Objectives
To plan and implement a safe, efficient and integrated transportation system to move people, goods, and services, using different modes of transportation and providing accessability to each one of the barrios and areas of the city.
To plan for a transportation system which would enhance the physical environment and condition of the city.
To use the transportation system infrastructure to rescue blight areas and to induce rehabilitation of such areas.
To be a flexible energy consuming system. To be ready for changes as energy supplies dictate.
Transportation planning within the context of the City's comprehensive planning will locate, design, operate, manage and find the necessary funds for the transportation system infrastructure.


FIG. 54A CARTAGENA'S SUGGESTED ROAD NETWORK MAP


55
All transportation modes should be taken into account for the planning and designing of the system.
Cartagena does not have a regular rectangular street pattern. The physical configuration of Islands and the connecting mainland impedes the development of such system. Thus, the street system has to follow the terrain features and make the best out of it.
The city developed its secondary street system alongside the main two arterial avenues: The road along the coast line and the inland main road. The Island of Manga developed a rectangular street grid system around the Cal 1e Real de Manga.
The current street pattern is being redesigned and redeveloped so it can be an integrated one. The City is connected to the other cities by means of two main two-lane roads. One leading south to the interior lands and the other one leading east, alongs+4^ the coast.
The main transportation mode is the bus system which transports 250 thousand passengers per day, using 800 buses and 120 minibuses. This system is owned by a private concern. There is a lot of pedestrian movement. Sidewalks are a very essential element in the city's infrastructure.
Cartagena is the site of a river and sea going vessel terminal. During 1982, 588 ships docked in the terminal: 476 were freight ships, 86 were passenger (tourism), 7 were mixed use,
8 were grain cargo ships, 2 tankers and 9 containershipst The Canal del Dique flows in the southern part of the bay. That Canal connects the City with the Magdalena River, the main Colombian
+Source: Directorio Industrial y Commercial de Bolivar, Andi y Fenalco.


56
River which runs through most of the country from south to north.
The cargo movement through the terminal facilities were in 1982 of: 507,813 tons in 60,000 trucks and 95,482 in river barges.
There is an International Airport, with a 2600 mts (8,530 feet) long and 45 mts (148 feet) wide north-south lighted runway. The airport handled more than 600,000 passengers during
-Jr
1982, of which 10% were international travelers. This airport has a new passenger terminal and new airplane loading apron.
There was a railroad link between Calamar, a Magdalena river port, and Cartagena until the 1950's. The government closed the tracks, because of operating deficits, and lowef ridership.
Cartagena needs a good, sound, efficient, integrated and safe road system. There are only two major arterials, one along the coast line and the other one connecting with the mainland.
There's a need for multi-level intersection interchanges. Safety is a dream and the vehicle accident rate is increasing.
Policies
To plan for a complete all-mode, integrated transportation system. Lack of funds should not restrict the the city such planning. Funds from the national and departmental government may be available in the future, to design the system's infrastructure.
Development of an integrated street pattern that may smooth the flow of traffic throughout the City.
To develop two new north-south inland rapid traffic arterial streets.
+Source: Directorio Industrial y Comercial de Bolivar, Andi y Fenalco.


57
To organize the bus route system.
To get rid of the bus traffic on the Pedro de Heredia Avenue.
To control the truck traffic in lower Manga.
To improve bridge system.
To develop a mass water transportation system.
To develop a pedestrian and bike system.
To develop a street marking and an efficient and safety signs programs.
To improve accessability to each part of the city and to use the system's infrastructure to encourage land development.
To facilitate inter-modal transfer.
To design uniform street and freeway standards for the municipality.
To divide the road system into:
Freeways: R-O-W of 250-300' sole function to carry traffic # of Lanes: 6-8 lanes
Traffic Capacity: 78,000-105,000 vehicles/day Speed limits: 50-70 mph (80-112 kph)
Major Arterial Street: To provide access to abutting
property as secondary function. Primary function to carry traffic.
R-O-W of 120'
# lanes: 4-6 lanes separated by a median; 2-35' roadways
Traffic Capacity: 17,500-35,000 vehicles/day


58
Speed limits: 25-45 mph (40-72 kph)
Collector street - Residential, business and industrial
areas.
Function: Both equally to carry traffic and provide access
R-O-W: 70'
# of lanes: 2-4 lanes/44 roadway
Traffic capacity: 5,000-12,000 vehicles/day Speed limits: 25-30 mph (40-48 kph)
Local street - Multi-family residential, business and industrial areas
Function: To provide access to abutting property R-O-W: 60'
# of lanes: 2 lanes/441roadway Traffic capacity: 2,000 vehicles/day Speed limits: 25 mph (40 kph)
Local street - Single Family Function: to provide access R-O-W: 50'
# of lanes: 2 lanes/36' roadway Traffic capacity: 2000 per day Speed limits: 25 mph (40 kph)
To ask developers to provide for subdivision's infrastructure as per road system standards.
To organize and design traffic control measures to insure proper street and highway function as planned.


59
To rehabilitate, maintain and upgrade current infrastructure.
To set parking guidelines to assure proper parking in every sector of the City.
To provide for track routes to minimize nuisance in residential areas.
To assure that proper truck loading facilities and operations do not cause conflict and disruption.
To maintain airport infrastructure facilities and upgrade them as needed.
To plan for the projected growth of the transportation system in order to meet the future's needs.
Planning for Public Facilities
Cartagena's government has not had a proper attitude toward providing the necessary public facilities in the past. The lack of adequate schools, parks, recreational facilities, sport fields, fire protection and rescue service, library system, health facilties, water system facilities, police protection and well-designed food markets.
Old public facilities are deteriorating due to bad building maintance, or lack of it.
For the 450th year Foundation Celebration, efforts were made by the Government in restoring some public facilities and in building new ones. But, there's not a definite policy about


60
recreational facilities, schools rehabilitation, sport facilities or a library system.
Establishment of standards for recreational area, librarians, school sites and police stations is needed
Policies
To establish a set of guidelines for a comprehensive public facility policies based on the projected and planned development and growth of the municipality.
To establish a set of standards for recreational and sport areas, school sites and library system.
To restore, maintain and upgrade existing public facilities.
To develop a park with mixed pedestrian, bike way system in a linear fashion alongside the waterway system.
To make an inventory of existing park, recreational land and sport fields, and its current conditions in order to establish the city's needs.
To set park/green areas and recreational/sport field requirement for new developments, trying to conserve and improvement the natural environment.
To establish a wild life refuge in the Morros area including the Virgen Lake and its shore. That area is a natural breeding site for many seabirds like the pelican, sea gulls, egrets and herons.
To plan for a balanced development and restoration of


61
the waterway system for use and enjoyment of the community.
To establish a planting tree program all around the city using native plants, trees and shrubs.
To plan for new park, recreational land and sport fields as required by standards.
To share park, recreational land and sport fields with schools and other community facilities.
To provide the adequate fire protection and rescue service throughout the City by establishing the necessary stations and substations as required by the standards.
To provide the necessary hydrants throughout the City.
To provide an efficient health service by locating the necessary integrated health centers throughout the City in order to be able to serve and be accessible to everyone in the city.
To coordinate and plan with the Department+and the
1 ' A
National health programs.
Social services should be provided and located close to the persons needing those services.
To plan for a city-wide library system and to be located close to schools.
New libraries to be built as the need arises or the school system expanded.
To plan for Natural History and Arts Museums or to better existing ones.
♦Department of Bolivar.


62
To plan for Botanic and Zoological Gardens.
Public grammare schools should be located in each barrio.
Public junior and high schools should be located in each sector as needed.
School sites should be close to parks, libraries or
recreational facilities, so these facilities can be
used by the students. The sites should meet the school
standards and student walking distances.
To furnish and equip schools with the necessary tools
+
and furniture. There's a deficit of 14,580 student chairs.
To set recreational and sport fields requirements for private and public schools, establishments, including
i
higher education entities.
To set a property tax for public school funds only.
To improve teaching in general by establishing a Teacher's College in a local university or college, where teachers could go and better their knowledge and capabilities.
To expand enrollment in existing universities and colleges. The demand is so high that an expansion policy and program should be established.
To promote interschool sport competition.
To promote art and culture among students.
To plan for an art performing center or rehabilitate
+Source: Mayor's office.


63
and upgrade existing facilities.
To maintain and upgrade existing sport facilities.
To relocate existing educational facilities which are operating within the walled city area. To set a rigid and strict policy on this issue. An exception to this policy is a neighborhood public grammar school which has to meet the open space and sport area requirements.
To set a strict policy on tax being collected for tree planting, trash collection, lighting, police protection in order to have them used only v'r the intended purpose.
The Municipal Pub!ic "Enterprises should be reorganized in such a way as to become a self-supporting entity and to be able to free the property tax collection for capital improvement projects only.
To plan for expansion of the water and sewage system for the year 2000 and beyond. This expansion should provide these services to every resident as planned by the Municipal Planning Office.
Community Facilities Standards
School
site size School Type Elementary Junior/Senior High
Ha
Bldg. Student Capacity Walking radius site size 480/660/990 1.5 kmts 2/3/4
1 ,500/2,500 3.5 kmts 4.5/10.5


64
Park site size and population served
(ha) Kmt
Park Type ! Site size Pop. Served Service Radius Ha/000 persons
Playground 5-6.5 3,000/4,000 .5-.75 1.5-1.75
Playfield 12-14 15,000/20,000 1.5 .6-. 8
City-wide 40 40,000/50,000 City-wide .8-1.0
Green belts
Parkways NA NA NA .6-.8
Special use AN NA NA 1.5
(ha)
Library type Site size Pop. served Service Area Book Volumes
Ma i n varies City-wide City wide 2.5/3 per person
Regional .30-.40 100,000-150,1 3Q0 1 or more pig. comm. 50,000-60,000
Branch .26-.36 min. 15,000 1.5 to 2.4 kmt radius 20,000
Neighborhood .1 ha Comm. 1 neighborhood 2,000-5,000
facility
Police stations should be sited in each sector of the City and should be equipped for emergency response. Fire stations should have a service radius of 2.5 kmts in a residential area or 1.75 kmts of service radius in a non-residential or high hazard area.
A parkway should be located alongside the shores of the Virgen Lake.
Environmental Planning
Cartagena's natural environment has been under a constant onslaught in the past. The waterways, bays and lakes have become


65
so polluted that it has affected the ichthyology. The normal natural flow of the waters has been altered, creating an abnormal state which affects the surrounding environment. Shanty towns have appeared along the shores of the water bodies. This disorderly housing arrangement produces unpleasant conditions for both the citizens and the residents of those tugurios. In this area the children's death rate is very high and there are many kinds of contagious diseases among adults. The natural seashore environment has disappeared completely. The dunes and its native plants are gone. Chemical contamination in the bay is on the rise. The invasion of the La Popa Hill by tugurios has damaged its natural environment. Erosion is the main problem in that area.
The Municipal Government in coordination with National Agencies should emphasize recovering the natural environment to its original state. Water and air pollution control should be planned and implemented. Storm water should be controlled •as to avoid flood problems.
The City should expand its trash collecting service.
Better methods to eliminate the disposal should be found. Landfill disposal have created social problems at such sites. Continuation of such system is contributing to the degradation of human beings. 190 tons of trash are collected every day which are dumped on a piece of land.
Use of solar technology should be promoted. Preservation of historic places and structures should be encouraged.
Sign and billboard controls should be established to keep the city aesthetically sound.
+Source: Cartagena's existing Master Plan, Volume I.


66
Enhancement of the natural environment should constitute the backbone of the city's environmental policies.
Neighborhood Planning
Planning at the neighborhood level is where to start when putting together a city wide comprehensive plan. From the neighborhoods we can get the information needed to make the necessary inventory of community needs. This is the very heart of City planning. And this is the part where most citizen participation is required, because they are the ones who know about their needs.
The City should get the necessary information when planning the renewal or relocation of tugurios. Based on this information, housing, schools, and other community services should be planned. Blighted areas should have special consideration.
Neighborhood planning should include economic, social, environmental and physical planning. Neighborhood planning recommendations should be given special attention and be implemented as soon as funds are available. Each neighborhood determines its own needs and each neighborhood should be treated separately unless similar conditions appear in any other neighborhood.


67
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PLAN
There will be a written zoning ordinance and a zoning map that will indicate how the Plan should be implemented.
Planned unit development district and planned building group will follow density requirements as per zoning code.
Subdivision control measures to be followed as provided in the zoning regulations.
Waterway shores and sea, lake shores owned by the nation or municipality to be developed as parks. Housing regulations to be enforced without hesitation, as to maintain and keep health, safety and welfare standards that will enhance people's life.
The Municipal Planning Office will be the only governmental office to determine goals and policies, capital improvement programs and action plans that will affect the municipality.
The Municipal Planning Office will coordinate other agencies planning efforts and will direct them on specific tasks.
The Mayor's office will be required to look for funds for implementation of the Plan as required by the priorities set by the Planning Office.
Emphasis in citizens participation in the decision making process should have high priority. The planning office should evaluate the performance of the plan on a yearly basis.
The Planning office should have an advisory board, appointed by the Mayor. The Board will help the Planning office in setting goals and objectives. The Board should consist of 5 members of different professions, including a civil engineer and an architect. The board should meet at least once a month and being chaired by the Mayor or the Director of the Municipal Planning Office.


CHAPTER IV
MODEL ZONING CODE AND SUBDIVISION REGULATIONS
The next part of the Model Master Plan is the Zoning Code which is the implementation tool of the set of Goals, Policies and Objectives that delineate the essence of the Comprehensive Plane. The Zoning Code is the Master Plan becoming reality.


69
THE ZONING CODE
SECTION I
1.1 ENACTING CLAUSES
A resolution and map establishing zoning areas (zones) in the municipality of Cartagena de Indias, Department of Bolivar. The purpose of this enactment is to promote the health, education, safety, humanly decent living, order, prosperity and happiness of the present and future inhabitants of the Municipality of Cartagena de Indias, by: the reorganization of the road, waterway and traffic system; securing safety from fire and other dangers; providing good environmental conditions; safeguarding people's good living conditions; providing a good equipped school system; classification and regulation of land uses and guidance in the development of the land; protection and betterment of the municipality's tax base; fostering the municipality's agricultural and other industries; and the protection and enhancement of the natural environment and the urban and non-urban areas.
1.2 For the purpose of brevity, this Resolution shall hereafter be referred to as the Cartagena's Zoning Code or simply the Code.
1.3 The Code will regulate the use of buildings, structures and land; the location, height, bulk and size of buildings, and other structures; minimum lot width; minimum lot frontage; minimum yards and other open spaces; providing special


70
regulations for non-conforming uses and non-conforming buildings; the density and distribution of population; defining certain terms used herein; and penalties to be prescribed for the violation of these provisions; procedures for enforcement, admendment, variances, special permits, interpretation and administration of this Code.
1.4 Application of Code.
a. No structure or land shall hereafter be used or occupied and no structure or part thereof shall be erected, moved, or altered unless in conformity with the Regulations herein specified for the "zones"
in which it is located.
b. In order to carry out the provisions of this Code, the Municipality of Cartagena de Indias is divided
into the following zones:
A Agricultural (rural) zones III
SU Suburban zones IV
R-L Residential-Low density zones V A
R-M Residential-Medium density zones V B
R-H Residential-High density zones V C
R-S Residential- Special zones V D
H Historical zones VI
BC Business/Commercial zones VII
CBC Community/Busi ness/Commercial VIII A
NBC Neighborhood/Busi ness/Commercial VIII B
Light Industrial zones IX A


> "J r ** 'k*- â– >

FIG. 70A CARTAGENA'S RURAL, SUBURBAN AND URBAN MAP


71
Medium Industrial zones IX B
Heavy Industrial zones IX C
0 Open/Green zones X
F Forestry Reserve zones XI
EZ Especial zones XII
1.5 Incorporation of Maps
The location and boundaries of the zones established by this Code are shown upon the Official Zoning Map of the Municipality of Cartagena de Indias.
Zone boundaries shall lie on the center line of streets or be otherwise specified. Each zone shall have a legal description of its boundaries.
This zoning map, together with everything shown thereon, shall be as much part of the Code as if fully set forth and described herein. Changes to the Code can only be made by the Council of the Municipality.
SECTION II
The following schedule of permitted uses and of basic location and bulk regulations for the various zones are hereby adopted and declared to be part of this Code. Each item to be exclusive of each zone unless otherwise being specifically permitted in such other zone.
SECTION III
AGRICULTURAL (RURAL) ZONES
3.1 This zone is an area where conservation of agricultural and ranching resources is of vital economic importance and a main contribution to the food supply of the City.


72
3.2 Permitted Uses
These uses shall not damage the soil stability regarding agricultural, nor damage the ground water resources or affect the natural runoff characteristic of the terrain.
a. All agricultural uses
b. All ranching uses
c. Commercial poultry farms
d. Detached one-family or two-family dwelling
e. Public park or public recreation area
f. Roadside sales stands, provided:
Only products raised on the premises shall be sold in such stands.
g. Veterinary hospitals
h. Country club and golf course
i. Schools
j. Institutional (public) builldings
k. Oil drilling, quarries, mining, sand and gravel operations and similar extractive land uses, provided all such uses shall be located at least 2 kilometers from schools and dwellings on same or adjacent property.
l. Accessory buildings and uses; garages and shelters
3.3 Minimum lot area 5 ha
3.4 Minimum lot width 100 meters
3.5 Minimum lot frontage 100 meters
3.5 Minimum front yard 20 meters Minimum side yards 20 meters
3.7


FIG. 72A TIERRABOMBA ISLAND (SUBURBAN) MAP


ROSA*??© I2LM0S ISLA5 0EL ROS11 *
V
FIG.72B ROSARIO ISLANDS (SUBURBAN) MAP


73
3.8 Minimum rear yard 20 meters
3.9 Maximum building height 2 stories or 7 meters
SECTION IV SUBURBAN
4.1 Permitted uses
a. Detached single-family and two-family dwelling units
b. Schools and institutional buildings
c. Public parks and recreational areas
d. Golf courses and private clubs
e. Farming and ranching
f. Public utility mains, lines and other facilities necessary for the general public welfare
g. Children day care
4.2 Accessory uses
a. Accessory buildings and uses; garages and shelters
b. Name plate or sign not exceed one square foot
c. Billboard
4.3 Minimum lot area
a. On unsubdivided land: one (1) hectarea
b. On subdivided land where the essential services are provided by the City: 1600 square meters
4.4 Minimum lot width
a. On unsubdivided land: 80 meters
b. On subdivided land: 40 meters
4.5 Minimum lot frontage: 40 meters
4.6 Minimum front yard: 7.5 meters


74
4.7 Minimum side yard
a. Dwellings and accessory buildings: 5 meters
b. All other principal buildings: 5 meters
c. Lot line: 5 meters
4.8 Minimum back yard
a. Dwellings and accessory buildings: 5 meters
b. All other principal buildings: 7.5 meters
c. Lot 1ine: 7.5 meters
4.9 Maximum building height: 2 stories or 7 meters
4.10 Density
a. Subdivision: 6 dwelling units per hectarea
b. Unsubdivided land: One dwelling unit per hectarea.
4.11 Maximum buildable area
a. Subdivided land: 50% of total lot area
b. Other unsubdivided land: Depends on land use.
To be approved by Planning office
4.12 Maximum construction area
a. Subdivided land: 100% of total lot area
b. Other unsubdivided land: Depends on land use.
To be approved by Planning office
4.13 Subdivision development to follow Code Subdivision regulations
SECTION V - A
LOW DENSITY RESIDENTIAL
5.1 A Permitted uses
a. Single-family dwellings
b. Schools (elementary and high) and universities


75
c. Public parks, playgrounds and playfields
d. Community facilities, children day care
e. Public utility mains, lines and underground facilities
f. Garages and shelters
5.2A Accessory uses
a. Home occupations
b. Supporting home staff dwelling unit
c. Neighborhood retail stores (grocery stores, newstands, etc)
5.3A Minimum lot area: 1600 square meters
5.4A Minimum lot frontage: 40 meters
5.5A Minimum front yard: 7.5 meters
5.6A Minimum side yards (minimum distance of buildings from each side lot 1ine):
a. Dwellings and accessory buildings: 5 meters
b. All other principal buildings: 5 meters
5.7A Minimum rear yard (minimum distance of buildings from the rear lot 1ine):
a. Dwellings and accessory buildings: 7.5 meters
b. All other principal buildings: 7.5 meters
c. Supporting home staff dwelling unit can be built against rear wal1
5.8A Maximum building height: 2 floors or 7 meters
5.9A Maximum density: 6 dwelling units per hectarea
5.10A Maximum buildable area: 50% of total lot area
5.11A Maximum construction area: 100% of total lot area
5.12A Subdivision developments to follow Code Subdivision regula-
tions.



tw» aiSi
FIG. 75A CASTILLO GRANDE/BOCAGRANDE SUGGESTED ZONING MAP


76
SECTION V - B
MEDIUM DENSITY RESIDENTIAL 5.IB Uses permitted
a. Single and multi-family dwelling units
b. Elementary and high schools and universities
c. Public parks, playground and playfields
d. Public utility mains, lines and underground facilities
e. Garages and shelters
f. Community facilities, children day care 5.2B Accessory uses
a. Home occupation
b. Supporting home staff dwelling unit
c. Neighborhood retail stores (grocery store, newstand, etc) 5.3B Minimum lot area: 1600 square meters
5.4B Minimum lot frontage: 40 meters 5.5B Minimum front yard: 7.5 meters
5.6B Minimum side yard (minimum building setback from lot side line): 5 meters
5.7B Minimum back yard (minimum building setback from lot rear 1ine): 7.5 meters
5.8B Maximum building height: 4 floors or 14 meters
5.9B Maximum buildable area: 40% of lot area
5.1 OB Maximum construction area: 100% of lot area
5.11B Maximum allowed density: 66 dwelling units per hectarea
5.12B Subdivision developments to follow Code Subdivision regula-
tions.


77
SECTION V - C
HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL
5.1C Permitted uses
a. Single and multi-family dwelling units
b. Elementary and high schools and universities
c. Parks, playground and playfields
d. Public utility mains, lines and supporting facilities
e. Garages and shelters
f. Community facilities, children day care
5.2C Accessory uses
a. Home occupation
b. Neighborhood shopping center (grocery store, newstands)
5.3C Minimum lot area: 1600 square meters
5.4C Minimum lot frontage: 40 meters
5.5C Minimum front yard: 7.5 meters
5.6C Minimum side yards (minimum building set back from lot side line): 5 meters
5.7C Minimum back yard (minimum building set back from lot side line): 5 meters
5.8C Maximum building height: as per floor ratio calculation
5.9C Maximum buildable area: 50% of lot area
5.10C Maximum construction area: 300% of lot area 5.11C Maximum allowed density: 240 dwelling units per hectarea 5.12C Subdivision developments to follow Code Subdivision regula-
tions


78
SECTION V - D SPECIAL RESIDENTIAL 5.ID Permitted uses
a. Single and multi-family dwelling units in building groups
b. Parks, playgrounds and playfields
c. Elementary schools
d. Shopping center
e. Cinemas, restaurants, cafeterias, entertainment
f. Community facilties, children day care
g. Public utility mains, lines and supporting facilities
h. Parking lots, parking structures
i. Single and multi-family planned unit developments 5.2D Accessory uses
a. Home occupation
b. Office
c. Small business
5.3D Minimum lot area and open space requirement to be set by residential regulations
5.4D Maximum allowed density: more than 240 dwelling units/ hectarea
5.5D Building group developments to follow Code Subdivision regulations
5.6D Planned unit developments to follow Code Subdivision regulations
5.7D Maximum buildable area: 40% of total lot area
5.8D Maximum construction area: as per residential requirements


r
FIG. 78A HISTORIC DOWNTOWN/MANGA ISLAND SUGGESTED ZONING MAP


79
5.9D Maximum height: As required to fulfill density and buildable area requirements
5.10D Residential planned unit developments should comply with
the respective residential requirements after choosing the desired density.
5.11D Building groups should comply with the respective residential requirements after choosing the desired density 5.12D Residential planned unit developments and residential
building groups shall be approved by the Municipal Planning office
SECTION VI HISTORICAL ZONES
6.1 Permitted uses
a. Single and multi-family residential units
b. Institutional (administrative functions)
c. Elementary school, only to serve local neighboring student population
d. Motels, hotels, boarding and rooming houses
e. Restaurants, cafeterias, ice cream parlors, entertainment places
f. Theatres, cinemas
g. Museums, art galleries, art schools
h. Business and professional offices, medical and dental offices, antique shops and art shops, banks, book and stationary stores, barber shops and beauty parlors, clothing shops, department stores, drug stores, dry


80
good and variety stores, electrical and household appliance stores, florists, furniture stores, hardware stores, jewelry and craft shops, music, radio and television stores, office supply stores, optometrist shops, package liquor stores, paint stores, photographic studios, equipment and supply stores, shoe stores, sporting and athletic goods stores, toy stores, travel bureaus and watch repairing, bakery, grocery stores, medical/dental labs
i. Parks
j. Public utility mains, lines and supporting facilities
k. Community facilities, children day care
1. Printing shops
m. Convention center
n. Dock activities--touristic marina
Forbidden uses
a. Who!esale
b. Warehouses
c. Street vendors
d. Schools, universities, colleges or training schools
e. Factories
f. Chemical production facilities
g. Brewery or distillery plants
h. Parking structures
i. Merchant marine activities
Lot area
a. Lot area to preserved as it is


81
b. Not subdivision on existing lot areas
6.4 Architectural design to be preserved, maintaining original materials as much as possible unless safety is at stake.
6.5 Urban renewal to be carried out to preserve and maintain old structures in need of restoration
6.6 In need of new structure to replace old one because of unsafe conditions, new structure to resemble old one as much as possible, keeping intact main feature designs such as building height, lot width, lot frontage, buildable area, construction area, open space, inside gardens and architectural design.
6.7 Interior space design can be accomodated for contemporary use, preserving the historic architectural design.
6.8 Construction techniques to be used in these zone to follow the Construction Code.
SECTION VII - A COMMERCIAL/BUSINESS ZONE CB-1 7.1A Permitted uses
a. Hotels, motels, restaurants, cafeterias, entertainment and drinking places
b. Medical and dental clinics
c. Membership clubs
d. Mortuaries
e. Professional offices
f. Private technical schools (language, computer)
g. Public parks, playgrounds and playfields



LEGEND
a** ,r>i •re-i.;*.*.^
«*Cl*J* !****» D#*** CMS*.
FIG. 81A PIE DE LA POPA/QUINTA SUGGESTED ZONING MAP


82
h. Drug stores, newstands, book stores, stationary stores
i. Cinemas and theatres
j. Financial institutions
k. Governmental institutions/agencies
l. Photographic studios, equipment and supply stores
m. Department stores
n. Electrical and household appliance stores
o. Florists, furniture stores
p. Supermarket
q. Hardware stores
r. Jewelry and craft shops
s. Office supply stores, public utility collection offices
t. Shoe stores, sporting and athletic goods stores
u. Travel bureaus
v. Public utility mains, lines and supporting facilities
7.2A Minimum lot area: 250 square meters
7.3A Minimum lot frontage: 10 meters
7.4A Maximum buildable area: 85% of lot area
7.5A Minimum building set backs (from vertical property lines):
a. 15% open space in the two first floors
b. 45% open space from the third floor up
c. 5 meters from street/sidewalk line
7.6A Maximum construction area: 600% of lot area
7.7A Maximum building height: as required to satisfy maximum
construction area.


FIG. 82A MARBELLA SUGGESTED ZONING MAP


83
SECTION VII - B COMMERCIAL/BUS INESS ZONE CB-2 7. IB Permitted uses
a. Those permitted in Business zone B-l
b. Health centers, hospitals, clinics
c. Auto sales
d. TV and radio broadcasting stations
e. Passenger transportation terminal (ground)
7.2B Special approval
a. Gas stations on major arterial streets
b. Auto repairs at gas stations
c. Auto wash at gas stations or by itself 7.3B Minimum lot area: one (1) hectarea
7.4B Bui 1 dab!e area: 50% of lot area
7.5B Construction area: 600% of lot area
7.6B Business planned unit development and business building
groups should have preference over other type of development. 7.7B Business planned unit development and business building groups shall follow the Code Subdivision regulations 7.8B Business planned unit developments and business building groups shall be approved by the Planning office 7.9B Minimum building set backs:
a. Front: 10 meters
b. Rear: 10 meters
c. Sides: 10 meters


84
SECTION VIII - C
SPECIAL COMMERCIAL/BUS INESS CB-3 TRANSPORTATION TERMINALS 7.1C Permitted uses
a. Cargo transfer facilities
b. Cargo loading/unloading handling facilities
c. Docking facilities
d. Customs
e. Warehouses (non-explosives)
f. Administration and supporting facilities
g. Passenger terminal (air, marine)
h. Airstrips and air navigational aids
i. Fuel storage
k. Ship's supply facilities (water, food, essential services)
l. Food, drink and lodging services
m. Maintenance facilities
n. Ground transportation accessabi1 tty and services 7.2C No land requirements, except technical and operational
land use requirements.
SECTION VIII-A
COMMUNITY COMMERCIAL BUSINESS ZONES 8.1A Permitted uses
a. Supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores
b. Package liquor storage
c. Newstands, and magazine stands
d. Florists, video cassette rentals


Full Text

PAGE 1

, D 190 A78 984 152 ' . 1 A CRITICAL REVIEW TO THE EXISTING DEVELOPMENT MASTER PLAN OF CARTAGENA DE INDIAS, COLOMBIA, . SOUTH AMERICA A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE COLLEG E OF DESIGN AND PLANNING, GRADUATE DIVISION, UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PLANNING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BY JUAN P. DIAZ-POSADA MAY, 1984 111111111111 4089585

PAGE 2

DEDICATION In homage to Mercedes Posada de Diaz, my mother. To my father, Juan P. Diaz A., a brilliant man. To Tiavi. To Rochi and Luis, who have stood by me. To my brothers and sisters: Tulia, Alvaro, Juan Enrique, Anita, V. Mercedes, Cecilia, Rodrigo, Isabel, Clara Luz, Ramiro and Francisco. To my nieces and and to my aunts, uncles and cousins. To my friends. And, to those who did not like my obnoxious behavior. r ___ .............,._......_........_.._ ' .. .. D u f ! 1*""'---------t I . ---'

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT To Professor Herbert H. Smith, who patiently guided me through the preparation and completion of this thesis, and for his valuable expertise on the subject. To Dr. A. Kimboko, my faculty advisor and to my professors of the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, whose teaching and leadership has proved to be invaluable. Special thanks to Cartagena's Mayor, Antonio M. Pretelt E., to the Municipal Planning Office and its staff and to the Municipal Finance Office for all their help. i i

PAGE 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Volume I) CHAPTER ONE CHAPTER TWO CHAPTER THREE ............................................ . CHAPTER FOUR .................... EXISTING MASTER PLAN OF CARTAGENA ........................ . i i i Page 1 17 fS VOLUME II

PAGE 5

TABLE OF FIGURES THE AMERICAS MAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SA COLOMBIA, BOLIVAR DEPARTMENT MAP .......... ............. 58 CARTAGENA•s URBAN DEVELOPMENT THROUGH HISTORY .. .. .. .. .. 15A MAP OF CARTAGENA (1983) . .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. . 21A CARTAGENA•s SUGGESTED ROAD NETWORK MAP ... .... .. .. .. .... 54A CARTAGENA•s RURAL, SUBURBAN AND URBAN MAP . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 70A TIERRABOMBA ISLAND (SUBURBAN) .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 72A ROSARIO ISLANDS (SUBURBAN) MAP . .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 728 CASTILLO GRANDE/BOCAGRANDE ZONING MAP (SUGGESTED) . .. .. . 75A HISTORIC DOWNTOWN/MANGA ISLAND SUGGESTED ZONING MAP .. . . 78A PIE DE LA POPA/QUINTA SUGGESTED ZONING MAP ... .. .. ...... 81A MARSELLA SUGGESTED ZONING MAP ... .. .... .. .. .. .... .. ..... 82A CARTAGENA•s SUGGESTED URBAN ZONING MAP .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 91A iv

PAGE 6

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Since Humankind sensed the need of leadership, leaders have tried to organize the community according to their needs, culture, religion, habits and folklore. With time the role played by the leaders have varied. Some influenced by egotistical ambitions and power grew into kingdoms with some splashes of deity, believing they were personal representatives of God himself and probably His most entrusted advisor on earth or on such country or land. They tried to control the people with threatening menaces of being punished by the rage of God if they disobeyed the King's mandate. A community being managed by the fear of God's fury. Kingdoms evolved around the original conception of leadership: Leader-priest, priest-leader or leaders under the influence of priests or somebody connected with God or gods. God has always been a very important part, maybe the most, in the organizing of the community and the most influencing element in those who did it. The exploitation of Humankind in name of God has been widely used through ages and still is. The team State Church or viceversa, have sometimes in the past brought benefits to the people. But most of the time when corruption and clientilism spread within the governing body, the people have been the most affected by maltreatment and apathy.

PAGE 7

There may be mixed feelings about this, but, as time passes by, Humankind had grown apart from the feeling that God should be part of our governing body. Humankind is realizing that God belongs only in our spiritual life and not in our daily physical struggle for survival. A survival in which we all are engaged in order to keep the species going, and, at the same 2 time trying to better our quality of life, so, every one can enjoy the pleasures of being alive. In our western civilization, Democracy has been tried earlier by the Greeks and Romans; they set forth the philosophy on which it, the modern concept of Democracy, is established. The original concept of people1S government by the Greeks was based on a direct democracy, in which all citizens could speak and vote in assemblies of the town meetings. Representative government was unknown and unnecessary because of the small size of the city-states (no more than 10,000 citizens). That original concept was based on the city-state, a self-governed town; the very foundation of the later Greek confederation, a model of a democratic nation. The Romans tried the same, but religion was involved, and depotism ended with the Roman Republic. The Democratic concept was established in different free cities in Italy, Germany and Flauders, influenced by the spirit of Freedom of the Ancient Greek and Roman prinicples. During the Renaissance period the concepts of the political and social rights of all men were defined, and fostered the idea of Humanism. The foundation of this humanism concept comes from the Jews. The most influencial concept in our lives: Equal justice in society. In 1642 the first popular rebellion against monarchy

PAGE 8

occurred in England; it was the beginning of further political and revolutionary action against autocratic European governments and the establishment of democratic governments. The Colonial revolution in North America and the French Revolution produced documents that shape the modern democracy, which major features are the individual freedom; equality before law; universal suf-frage and education; the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Countries around the world have used the concept of Democracy in different ways according to their needs and acco m odations, and, in some other democratic nations, the leadership has created by manipulating the people, and the very sacred 3 human rights, a new well established master: the The State has become what the Church was in the Renaissance period, the master that replaced or influenced the Kings, Courts, Barons, Dukes, etc. Now days, the state has become the entity that regulates, governs and decrees over our every daily life. It has acquired so much power that the people cannot control it any longer and anymore. A democratic government should be based on the very original concept of democracy: Self-government cities/regions that can decide themselves for their own welfare, keeping track of their own needs, providing the essentials for the community, and the necessary protection and care for their citizens, keeping and upkeeping their education standards so they could be able to face the future; i m ple m enting their action plans and capital i m provement programs; and developing neighborhood planning in 1state, meaning collective govern m ent

PAGE 9

4 conjunction with a Master Plan accepted or adopted by the people. In a democratic government, the policy makers should work close with the citizens so that the people can have more participation in the decision making process. Governmental bodies should be constituted with the objective of providing the people, who are the owners and share holders of an institution called Government, with the proper management and planning, and the dedication needed for improvement in the quality of life. In a true democracy, the government bodies should be agencies dedicated to serve the people, who are the ones paying for the government's operation. In these days, the State tends to forget who owns it--the State is an institution created by the people, to be paid by the people, for the sole purpose of providing freedom, equality and protection for all without discrimination; to make education and health care available for everyone; to make possible for everybody to have the opportunity of being elected or to elect someone else to office; to elaborate planning actions and to implement the necessary planning activities already approved by the people. By all means, it is an institution created to serve and to take care of the people. That is its business! And there's no better way of providing and caring for the better of humankind than dealing with current and future needs and problems with a proper planning activity. Planning is the most logical reasoning toward dealing with our survival and betterment of quality of life. "The broad object of planning is to further the welfare of the people in the community by helping to

PAGE 10

create an increasingly better, more healthful, convenient, efficient and attractive community environment. The physical, as well as the social and economic community is a single organism, all features and activities of which are related and interdependent. These facts must be supplemented by the application of intelligent foresight and planned administrative and legal coordi nation if balance, harmony and order are to be insured. It•s the task of planning to supply this foresight and this over-all coordination.•• This is the definition of planning by Mary in the book, "Local Planning Administration.•• In planning plays a large role in the governm ental decisions. Colombia has passed through a whole cycle of government types. From Viceroyalty to democratic governments. Christopher Columbus first touched Colombian land in 1502 in the Darien area (Northwestern coast on the Caribbean Sea) and in 1510, they (Sparit ards) established the first settlement on the American mainland on the site of Santa Maria del Darien. Then Santa Marta in 1525, Cartagena in 1535 and Santa Fe• de Bogota• in 1538. In 1549 the former Chibcha empire was included in the Audencia of Nueva Granada. Between 1717 and 1739, the Audencia of Nueva Granada and the territories which later became Ecuador, Venezuela and Panam a were included in the vice royalty of Nueva Granada. During this period, a Viceroy was the government head. The royalty and the Catholic Church were busy in exploiting the Colombian land and its natives so they could fight Holy wars on the European continent. The flow of capital out of Nueva Granada, which slowed down any economic progress, and the social and political discrimination against native-born Nuevo Granadinos caused intense hostility toward the Spanish rule. The American 2 Colombia, South America 5

PAGE 11

FIG. SA THE AMERICAS

PAGE 12

DIRECfORIO INDUSTRIAL YCOMERCIAL DE BOLIVAR • BOGOTA DEPARTAM E NTO D E I ! BOLIVAR I ! MAGDALENA FIG. 5B COLOMBIA AND THE DEPARTMENT OF BOLIVAR

PAGE 13

and French Revolutions had a great impact on the Nuevo Grana dinos. They revolted against the Spanish Empire in the early 19th century. Simon Bolivar was the military and political leader of 6 South America in that period. Born in what is today Venezuela (Caracas), Bolivar found the necessary backing in the Nueva Granada. He organized the military campaign that gave the Nueva Granada their independence in 1819. The 20th of July of 1810 the Nuevo Granadinos proclaimed independence. From that date on there was a continuous struggle for independence. It was achieved with the military victory on the battle of Boyaca, the 7th of August of 1819. On December 17th of 1819, the Congress of Angostura proclaimed the formation of the State of La Gran Columbia which comprised the former Nueva Granada, including Panama and part of Central America (Mosquito Coast in Nicaragua included), Venezuela and Ecuador. Venezuela was liberated by Simon Bolivar's troops (Columbian army) in 1821; Ecuador in 1822. In August 30th, 1821, the Congress of Cucuta adopted a constitution for the Gran Columbia, providing for a republican form of government, and elected Bolivar the republic's first president. That republic did not last long. It was dissolved in 1831 after the death of Bolivar on December 17th, 1830. Bolivar liberated 5 countries: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Venezuela. Panama and the Colombian Central America territories were part of ColQmbia at that time. Since that tim e two parties have governed Colombia:--the

PAGE 14

liberates and the conservadores . Political and social issues were frequently complicated by bitter controversy involving the property, legal status, and, of course, the privileges of the Catholic Church. Slavery was abolished in Nueva Granada in 1851-52. A new constitution, adopted in 1853, provided for tria 1 by jury, freedom of the press and other c i vi 1 rights. In 1853 the Church and state were separated. In 1858 the provinces became Federal states and the name of the Republic was changed to Confederacion Granadina. Civil war broke out in 1861 between liberal elements, favoring greater sovereignty for the states 7 and the conservative elements, fighting for a strong central government. Following the victory of the liberals, in 1863 the United States of Colombia was created under a new constitution which provided for a union of sovereign states. In 1886 a new constitution was adopted and a new name wai given to the territory: La Republica de Colombia. This nev1 constitution was possible by the conservatives being in power since 1880. In 1885, liberal elements tried to revolt, but it was supressed. During the period of 1880 to 1930 the Conservative party policies predominated. The new Constitution of 1886 signed by Rafael Nunez ( Cartagena born) abolished the Federal System and created the basic structures of today's government form. The Catholic Church became the official Church. With this constitution the reins of the country were given to the politician of the inner ranges (Bogota). Since then, the Bogota bureaucracy has led Colombia in a continuous loss of land:--the 1 osquito Coast in today's licaragua, Panama in 1903,

PAGE 15

to Peru and to Brazil and Venezuela in a series of treaties. With the 1886 constitution, the provinces lost all their power and the Central Government in Bogota' did not have the enough power and political skills to keep the nation intact. U.S.A. acting as powerful empire took over Panama, as T. Roosevelt 8 said: I took Panama. The bigger state preying on the weaker one. History was repeated again. In 1930 the liberal party came to power again. Amendments to the constitution were adopted, giving the government power to regulate privately owned property in the national interest; establishing the rights of workers to strike, subject to legal regulation; disestablishing the Catholic Church; and secularizing public education. In 1944 a new labor code provided for minimum wage scales, paid vacations and holidays, accident and sickness benefits and the right to organize. Colombia signed the charter of the United Nations in June 1945, becoming one of 51 original members. Colombia was the site of the Ninth International Con ference of American States, and was in session when the 1948 rebellion occurred. The draft of the Charter of the Organization of American States was completed, of which Colombia became a signatory on April 30th. In 1948, liberal Party leaders Jorge Eliecer Gaitan was assasinated in Bogota (9th of April). A national uprising against the conservative government produced street fighting and violence. The violence continued for many years afterward. It has been the most bloodiest period in the history of Colombia. That period is called the Violencia. Since

PAGE 16

1950 guerrillas have been acting in different parts of the coun-try, mainly in the inner lands. In 1953 General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla led a coup d1etat, becoming provisional president. He was ousted by the military in another coup d1etat in 1957. In 1958 constitutional government was again reinstated. A new president was elected in 1958. The people of Colombia decided by means of a referendum to share power among the two parties during the next sixteen years, and that Coalition was called the National Front, which came to an end in 1974. The liberal party was in power from 1974 to 1982 when a conservative government was elected. The Constitution of 1886 and its subsequent amendments provide the basis for a highly centralized republican form of government. Executive power is vested in a president elected by direct popular vote for a four-year term. Suffrage is universal for all men and women eighteen years of age and older. The president may not succeed himself directly. He appoints both a cabinet, which is responsible to the bicameral Congress, and all the governors of the departments (states) and all heads of other administrative subdivisions of the nation. There are 22 departments, 4 intendencies, 5 commissaries and one special Legislative power is vested in a bicameral Congress composed of a House of Representatives and a Senate, both of which are elected directly for four-year terms (Senate) and 3 oepartments are like states; intendencies and commissaries are like territories; special district is like the District of Columbia. 9

PAGE 17

two year terms (Representatives, Assemblymen and Councilmen). The Congress is required to meet at least 150 days each year. The judicial function is vested in a Supreme Court of twenty members who are elected by Congress for five-year terms, and in Superior and Lower Courts. Capital punishment has been outlawed. The maximum sentence that may be imposed for any crime is 20 years imprisonment. No possibility of parole. 10 Colombia has a relatively free and open political system in which a number of parties participate. The two major parties have traditionally been the Conservative Party, favoring strong central government and close relation with the Catholic Church and the Liberal Party, favoring stronger local government and separation of church and state. The racial make-up of the Colombian population is very diversified. About 58% of the people are Mestizo (Spanish Indian ancestry), 20% are white, 14% are mulatto, 4 % are Negro, 3 % are Zambo (Negro-Indian ancestry) and 1 % Indian (mainly Chibeha and Motilones). There1S no data about how many native Indians live in the Jungles (Amazonian, Chaco and others). The land area is 455,355 square miles with a coast on both Oceans--Pacific and Atlantic. Now days, there1S a tendency to decentralize the government power. To delegate more power to local governments so they can make decisions on their own future. Planning is involved in every governmental action. Unfortunately, it is too centralized and decisions made in Bogota do not have the right impact on other regions. Usually decisions

PAGE 18

11 made by the Central Government do not take into account regional values needed to make the proper decision. Colombia is still in the process of choosing the right system for its environment and people. There's a strong feeling by the people that amendments to the constitution, providing for direct election of city mayors, department governors and other officials should be adopted. A more definite separation between the Catholic church and the State should be formulated. No religion should be considered as the country's official religion. Planning should continue in playing a major role but with more local participation in the decision making process.

PAGE 19

1 2 Carta gena -The H istory of t h e Past Cartagena de Indias, i n Colombia, South America, w as discovered by Don Rodrigo de Bastidas in 1501. But it was founded by Don Pedro de Heredia on June 1st, 1533. The city rap idly becam e a thriving commercial port, later referred t o as t h e Queen of the Indies. Pirates sacked the city in 1544. In the first half of the early 17th century the city was second to City in com mercial i m portance in the New World. Its spectacular architecture of beautiful colonial buildings, is still intact, guarded by monumental military wall built to protect the city a gainst the sieges of pirates and corsa r s in thelf.th and 17th centuries. I mpregnable fortresses, bastions and dungeons are strategically spread over a zone shaped by various interconnected isthmuses surrounded by lakes, bays and canals. Nationalist revolutionist, led by Simon Bolivar, in 1815 took the city f r o m the Spanish, lost it the sa m e year, and recaptured it in 1821. Its role in the independence movement was very i mportant. A spanish general by the name Morillo sieged the City for a long period of tim e during the i ndependence struggle. Due to t hat resistance the city was called the "Heroic City," and its indepen dence day, the 11th of November, was declared a national holiday. Cartagena was the tem porary capital of t h e newly named Republica de Co-om bia in 1886 under the Cartagena born President Rafael Nunez administration. During the Nunez administration, the commercial and i ndustrial developm ent o f the City was good and steady. It cont inued like that until 1920, when Bananquilla, a city 60 miles northeast

PAGE 20

13 from Cartagena, began to be a major commercial center in the Colombian Northern Coast. From 1920 to 1950, the City's economy became stagnant. From 1951, the City began a new industrial trend that kept going until late 1970's when it fell into a very slow growth after a rapid industrial surge. Since the 1950's the urban explosion has been tremendous. During the period 1951-1964 the population doubled to 242,085 inhabitants. That population growth has not slowed down, the 1984 population is believed to be around 533,000 people, as per projec tions done by the Chamber of Commerce and other statistic gathering agencies. Statistics and information for the geographic characteristics were taken from the Directorio Industrial y Commercial de Bolivar, by Ande and Fenalco. Geographic, Climatic and Demographic Characteristics: Cartagena, capital seat of the department of Bolivar, is situated in the northern part of the Republic of Colombia, South America, by the Caribbean Sea at 10' North latitude and 15' west longitude, Greenwich Meridian Time. The city is located on the Cartagena bay, a natural harbor and one of the most secured ones in South America. The bay has a length of 12 kilometers and a width of 6 kilometers. The bay is linked to the Magdalena River, main river in Colombia, by the Canal del Dique, a 110 kilometers long canal. Its climate is warm, especially during the midyear rainy season, but the .rest of the year is cooled by the alisios winds.

PAGE 21

14 Very nice climate from December to March. Temperature maximum 31 .9C (August) Mean minimum 22.5C (January) Man th l y mean 27.2C Prevailing winds Monthly average 18 kilometers/hour N-NE Atmospheric pressure 755 centimeters Solar light 297 hours-min. Precipitation Annua 1 maximum 976.4 milimeters Monthly average 51.4 milimeters The rainy season goes from to October. Tides Mean high 0.109 meters Mean 0.012 meters Mean low 0.118 meters The population by the end of 1983 is calculated to be 512,000 inhabitants with an annual growth rate of 4 % . 40% of its popula tion are less than 15 years old and 42% are men. The illiteracy rate of the population is 15% . The percent of the population economically active is 26% and the employment rate of such percent is 85% . The physical anddemographic evolution process of the city is divided into 7 periods.

PAGE 22

15 1533-1800 Walled City, approximately 80 hectareas and 10,000 people. 1800-1905 The walled city continued to be the center of town. Some settlement along the rail tracks and higher income people in the island of Manga and in the Cabrera. City area of about 170 hectareas and a population of 55,000 persons. 1905-1938 City area of about 625 hectareas and a population of 84,937 inhabitants. 1938-1951 City area of about 790 hectareas and a population of 128,877 people; a density of 163 persons per hectarea. 1951-1964 City area of about 1400 hectareas and a population of 242,085 people. 1964-1973 City area of about 2300 hectareas and a population of 348,961 persons. 1973-1983 Municipal land area of 7500 hectareas with an urban land area of 5000 hectareas and a population of 512,000 persons. The City has tv1o major arteria 1 roads:

PAGE 23

....... .. .....&::. --. * -FIG. 15A CARTAGENA'S URBAN DEVELOPMENT THROUGH HISTORY

PAGE 24

The Avenida Pedro de Heredia which connects the walled downtown and the mainland, and the Avenida Santander which runs alongside the sea shore from Bocagrande to Crespo. 16 Cartagena is the seat of the largest Colombian Naval Base on the Atlantic, the site of several universities and technical schools, the Colombian Naval Academ y, Municipal seat and the capital of the department of Bolivar, Bolivar1S cultural and educational center, the major employment center in the region, the largest port on the Caribbean sea, industrial center and the most important tourist resort in the Country.

PAGE 25

17 MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT There's an elected council (at large), which is the legis-lative body of the municipality. The executive branch is represented by the Mayor, who is appointed the Governor of the Department (state) of Bolivar. The municipality if formed by the City of Cartagena and other towns within such territory. The municipal Government is the one responsible for the management and administration of the municipality. Under the Mayor's office, there are some adminis-trative departments that help in governing the municipality. Such departments are: General Secretary Administrative office Finance & Taxation Department Planning Office Treasure Comptroller (appointed by council) Personero (appointed by council) The fiscal year goes from January lst to December 31st of same year. The budget is presented by the Mayor's office to the council for approval. Upon approval it is sent to the Mayor to be signed by him/her.

PAGE 26

CHAPTER II STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM During the last decade, Cartagena, Colombia, South America, has grown at a rapid pace. This growth has had a impact on the city1s environment and has increased the needs of the most essential services and facilities. The city1s development has been directed toward heavy industrialization and tourism. Its population has increased sharply and the city has not been able to meet its most pressing needs. One of the most aggravating problems is the lack of essential services and facilities in several poor nei g hborhoods . The city is plagued with problems derived from the lack of proper planning in dealing with the sudden growth. of these problems are such as the need for proper roads and maintenance; infested creeks and lagoons which are sources of disease; polluted bays and waterways; need of more and better schools ; dedication of land for green areas/park/sport facilities. Carta gena was not prepared for such rapid growth. These problem s affect the poor and disadvantaged groups more than the other groups with better income. DISCUSSION OF PARTICULAR QUESTION AND HYPOTHESIS There are som e proble m s associated with the rapid _ growth

PAGE 27

19 that Cartagena has had in the last decade. The increase of population--mostly unskilled labor (peasants)--created a demand for housing, public services and employment. Among that new population there's a particular migrating force that occupy land within the city limits in an overnight fashion . This is called 11invasion ,11 and one is a very special social problem and very difficult to deal with. The city has not been able to meet its needs as demanded by its rapid development. There was not a proper city planning effort to control or direct such growth. Therefore the city has fallen behind and is having rough times in trying to catch up. There are other elements which are by-products of those mentioned before such as increase in housing price; traffic congestion; developers trying to overdevelop land; people using creeksfor sewerage, etc. Overpopulation brings socio-economic problems to a city. These problems multiply when the city does not have the necessary tax base nor the appropriate legislative regulations to deal with it. Under those conditions, it is not possible even to supply the most essential services and facilities. An overcrowded city becomes a source of filth, disease and unemployment. It comes to be an unsanitary place to live--a center ripe for social disturbance. EXPLANATION OF THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY Colombia is a country where a planned economy plays a major role in the development of the whole country. It dictates

PAGE 28

2U growth and development of Cartagena. The state is the political force with the economic capabilities and regulatory policies to influence the direction of Cartagena1S development. Physical planning within a capital-oriented economy plays a major role in the social and territorial division in the labor and production process. Physical planning and the accumulation process are related by the fact that development has traditionally been concentrated in areas where investment capital identifies optimal conditions. One result is the polarized growth of a few healthy communities and the detrimental growth of surrounding communities with a generalized lack of public facilities and services. Land speculation and the resultant scarcity of land affect a healthy and equitable physical development of cities. The governmental administration structure is a reproductive function in every step of the economic process. It manipulates public and private sectors in a society to a point that it regulates growth and development through public planning. Through that concept an ideological structure has been created. A structure that transmits ideas and beliefs and the development of behavioral patterns to the socio-economic system. Ideological values shape the acceptance of certain forms of pro duction, consumption, exchange, and management within society. The methodology to be used throughout the analysis is compatible with the goal. Policies of the Cartagena master plan, its implementation, and its actual physical needs will indicate the performance of the regulatory norms in the capital-oriented

PAGE 29

21 planned economy of Cartagena. The analysis will be at municipal level taking into consideration any influences coming from the national or regional level. The time frame utilized for the analysis will be from 1970 to 1983. The selection of variables will include those in the master plan and its implementation policies. Data will be obtained from information already gathered by governmental agencies. Other needed supplementary information was collected by field work, interviews, questionnaires, and participatory observations. In the critique chapter, an analysis of the existing Master Plan and the environment is made, making it possible to make recommendations and guidelines for a betterment of Cartagena and its inhabitants and to be able to cope with the city1s needs in the future.

PAGE 30

CHAPTER III ANALYSIS OF. THE PLANNING PLAN Since 1886 when the current Constitution was adopted and the federal system was abolished for a new centralized type of government, the states which made part of the Colombian territory lost all the power needed to make their own decisions. 1886 was the beginning of servility. The central government took over the decision m aking process. The states and local governments list the right to have initiative and creativity. That loss is an infringement of the freedom of choice and thinking. I believe that one of our most sacred rights is the one to make our own decisions, the right to think and evaluate our own needs and the right to m anage our own local resources as we deem right to d o it. An that's what the people of the State of Bolivar and the Municipality of Cartagena lost on that year, their own independence. They becam e the slave under t h e almighty power of the Bogota power seekers. They wanted to manage a nation without the proper knowledge of its territory, people and culture. Based on that central power, the Bogota Government making decisions for Cartagena and the Bolivar department without ever thinking of the impacts of such decision might have had. They began exploiting our natural resources leaving nothing for th e resource generating regions. All the profit went to the nation.

PAGE 31

23 The regions went poorer than ever before :--no investment, no resources. Oil wells went dry. Boom-town days were gone. Nothing left to repair damages caused by that exploitation: the Bogota government preying on Bolivar's resources to survive. Year after year the Central Government has wounded Cargagena's environment with innerlandm inded designs and policies. They make decisions without ever considering the environment, cultural and social aspects. It is the master making decisions for their proteges. For me, that is slavery. It is like being in chains without freedom to act. They make the people powerless to act and a 1 so take away their resources. It is a shameful , merciless, depraving, and exploiting action. People are born with the right to freedom of choice. The right of freedom of speech. The right to make their own decisions and the right to administer their own resources. Home policies should be made at home. Cartagena's environment and resources belong to the people of Cartagena and the department of Bolivar. The people of Cartagena are the ones indicated by right in making their own decisions and choosing their own future. Cartagena's environment has been at the m ercy of outsiders' will since 1886. To make a decision about the cleaning of the waterways, the Mayor has to travel to Bogota to beg for action and funds in order to do so. That means that if the National government decides not to do a thing about it, the pollution will continue to prevail, harming even further the environ m ent. It's very important that the city strengthen its economic base,

PAGE 32

raise the necessary income through taxation or other means, and impose the needed regulations to keep the city alive, full of vigor and willing and confident in taking its people into the future. A future for the next generation by the current one. 24 A future designed to better the quality of life; to increase people1S participation in the decision-making process . ; to better living conditions; to provide proper education and health care and to promote equal justice in society.

PAGE 33

25 Critique of the Existing Plan The plan was put together after compiling a great deal of data. The data collection was good and very comprehensive and very surely it helped in determining the content of the Master Plan. The people who put together the Plan are professionals of good standards. But, there1s a lack of low-income people participation in the process. A lack that might have impacted the final outcome. There1s no mention of public hearings, either, nor the community1s reaction to such Plan. There were more than 120 professionals and 38 entities in studying and analyzing the data. These entities were both private and governmentals. There1S not a single citizen1S group or association among them. That means that the Plan was the outcome of Technical Teams, that deemed not necessary for people1S participation. The Plan lacks a logical organization which makes it hard to understand the content. It looks like every team did their job and then, somebody compiled that work without organization or coordination. Goals are not defined in the Adopted Plan, even though they were mentioned in the proposal and in Ordinance 32/1977. The objectives do not define their specific purposes. It is more of an orientation or generalized set of policies. The Plan is supposed to be in effect from 1978 to 1990, and is diVided in three documents: City Planning Code

PAGE 34

Construction Code Capital Improvement Program The City Planning Code actually is a zoning code, which establishes zones, sectors, reserve areas, urban boundaries, sanitary service boundaries, transportation and road system and plat regulations. 26 The reserve areas: agricultural, ecological and touristic are written as zones also. One denomination would have been enough. The designation of Reserve Touristic areas or zones is a complex one. It involves about 20 subareas. One of them, the touristic zone, is a commercial zone where hotels and motels can be built. There1S not harmony and uniformity in the zoning design. That causes confusion. The use of different treatmnts in different locations for the same land use creates discrimination for the location and its inhabitants. Zoning should not discrimi-nate in treatment for the same land use throughout the municipality. Among the City Planning Code, there is a Zoning Statute. That zoning statute has 22 zones including the reserve ones already discussed. One of those 22 zones is one named touristic zone. That touristic zone is made up of 12 subzones, 5 of them from the 22 zones which form the statute. The historical zone is also subdivided in sectors. Some of those sectors are also subdivided in subzones, creating more complexity. The chapter which deals with the historical zone is also a construction code. A road system is also included in that historical zone. I think this is one of the most complex and confusing zoning chapters. The

PAGE 35

residential zones areat the same time made up by 6 of the 22 original zones. Residential zones in Bocagrande and Manga have different requirements. Discrimination by land use surfaces again. Manga has been the oldest low density residential sector. Now it has been changed to medium high density. There is a different zoning treatment in lower income neighborhoods 27 than in middle or upper-income neighborhoods. This existing Plan promotes discrimination because of income. There's not a unified road system design standards. Every sector has its own design. Chapter XIV is the 11applied minimum norms residential zones.11 This zone is exclusively for low-income people: to group them, to can them. Chapter XV deals with the rehabilitation of the South-eastern zone of the urban area. This area is plagued by shanty-towns and needs a complete overhaul. This chapter deals with the definition of problems, the rehabilitation zone, relocation zone, renovation zone, road system, zoning regulations for the sectors involved in such rehabilitation and of course, Chapter XIV is applied in this zone. Commercial zones are the less complex one. The public market areas should fall in one of the commercial zones according to its size and not be a special zone. The industrial zone are well explained and easy to understand. There is an institutional zones chapter, which should be among the permitted land uses of any of the other zoning zones. There is not a need for a special zone. The same happens with the green zones (parks). The ground transportation terminal should be within one of

PAGE 36

28 the other zones and not by itself. The air terminal and the cargo terminal for vessels should be in special zones because of the large amount of land that it takes to operate one. The food supply center should be within a commercial zone and not by itself. The same for the free trade zone, which can be located within an industrial zone, as it is planned. The Commercial Free Trade zone should be located near the Industrial one, both complement each other. Requirements on road designs should reflect the intended use for the next 20-25 years. The traffic control measures have a lot of sense, but I doubt about its implementation. The design of the sewer system and the water system is being done at undercapacity and they (designer) are not looking for the capacity demanded in the life of the infrastructure. In Bocagrande, an additional sewer line had to be placed due to the shortsightedness of the designer. This kind of mistake is more costly than the implementation of a proper design. Water mains should be at least 6 inches in diameter. The team that put together the modular living unit to estimate density did not mention how they reached that conclusion. It is extremely important to know that procedure. In that case, we are dealing with human living conditions, in which a healthy, safe environment should be created. To put 7.2 persons in 3 bedrooms is to create an overcrowding condition unless the bedrooms are big enough to provide for each person1S niche. During my inquiries I couldn1t find out if a social study was done

PAGE 37

to establish such criteria. Persons older than 10 years old and of different sex shall be accomodated in different rooms. 29 Plat and subdivision regulations are clear and understandable. Among these regulations are road design requirements again. There are also public service infrastructure design requirements once more. There1S not clear separation of the design standard requirements and the rest of the zoning code. The island of Manga should preserve its original condition of low-density residential and not be down-graded to medium high density. This change will damage its traditional residential zoning classification. The expansion of the Maritime Cargo Terminal modified and damaged that island1S residential environment. That should never have happened. The terminal should be transferred to the Mamonal Industrial zone where it can complement the land use of such zone. The land now being used by said terminal should be developed into a residential and sport complex, and be an alternative for a future site of the University of Cartagena if it cannot be sited on the terrains where the Colombian Naval Base is operating now. The airport located in Crespo could be expanded in its present location. There1s enough land to achieve such expansion. A parallel north-south runway east from the existing one, can be accomodated there. Lengthening of the actual runway can be done by landfill in the southern part into the Virgen Lake. Also, there1s enough land within the airport property boundaries to

PAGE 38

30 expand cargo and passenger terminals. The use of that land for air operations is beyond the 15 years called for by the Plan and the cost of expansion would be much less than relocation of the Airport to a new site where valuable agricultural and ranching land is vital for the food supply of the municipality. The Naval Base should be transferred to Manzanillo. That land should be developed into the University of Cargagena•s future site. The existing sport facilities should be left intact. Any excess land should be developed for faculty or student housing, or adding some more sport fields which are needed in that barrio. These sport facilities should be shared with the local community. The Municipal government does not have a housing agency to take care of the housing problems of the city. Such agency should be created under the guidance of the Planning Office to undertake rental and ownership housing programs within the municipality (including other towns). Such programs would complement other national agencies• programs. By not doing so, the Municipal government is not paying attention on its own to,' perhaps f the biggest problem that Cartagena has. The Cartagena taxpayers are taxed for police protection. The only place where police offices are seen are in the airport, downtown and Bocagrande barrio. Anywhere else is very rare to see one of them. The City should provide for better police protection, if the Cartagena taxpayer are paying for it. The Municipal government has the right to ask the local Police

PAGE 39

Commander for such protection or to devise ways to improve it. From 1984 on, the economic tax base of the city should improve when the 11Ley 14 of 198311 is in effect for the first time. Improvement and enforcement in tax collection is needed. The City has a computer-aided tax appraisal method. Even though, the city knows who are owing taxes, the city does not go out and enforce collection. A very discriminating measure. The Municipal government should have a percent of the property tax deditated solely to education facilities and school equipment. It is unbelievable that the municipality does not have a tax to fund school facilities but it does have a fund for a bullfighting facility which is just used once a year. What a primieval mentality. The road use tax does not go to a road fund but to a Tourism Promoting Corporation, the Bullfighting Corp. and the Valuing Office. In 1983 the Bullfighting Corporation received twice as much as the University Hospital, which is in need of so much funds. The Empresas Publicas Municipales receives 80% of the city property tax. This said public service company should be making it on its own without any need of the property tax, which can be dedicated to other useful purposes such as education and infrastructure facilities. There was a need of 14,580+student chairs and other school furnishing during 1983. The Municipal government has become so much tourism-minded that other fundamental needs are fongotten or by-passed. The Empresas Publicas should not have the tree planting + Source: Mayor1S office 31

PAGE 40

and park tax to go into its general funds. That fund should be a specific one to be implemented by the Engineering Department of the Planning office for that specific purpose. 32 The Fire Department's tax should not go to the Empresas Publicas' general funds either. The Fire Department should have its own funds and operate separately and report directly to the Mayor's Office. The Empresas Publicas Municipales should be limited to the its primary functions of providing water and sanitary systems services, including the street cleaning and garbage collection and its disposal. Even though, it would more efficient to have a separate sanitary department to provide the street cleaning and garbage collection and its disposal. The Empresas Publicas Municipales is swallowing all the specific purpose taxes to feed its monstrous beaurocracy. This procedure should be stopped in order to bring order and organizetion and a sound fiscal management into the Municipal Government's public service operations and administration. There are several governmental agencies doing planning and capital improvement programming in the Municipality. These functions should be brought under direct control of the Municipal Planning Office (MPO). Planning for the municipality and coordi nation of capital improvement programs should be the sole responsibility of MPO. National and Departmental (Department of Bolivar) planning agencies should consult with the MPO for any planning action or capital improvement programming to be taken

PAGE 41

33 in the Municipality by the National or Departmental governments. The Municipal Planning Office should be organized as follows: a. Planning department b. Engineering department c. Zoning and subdivision department d. Environmental department The planning department has to enforce the planning guidelines set forth by the Master Plan; to assess and evaluate the community's needs; to elaborate action and capital improvement programming; to coordinate other agencies planning efforts; and to forecast future demands and needs in the Municipality. The engineering department as to enforce the engineering and technical standards required for the proper implementation of the Plan; to set norms and standards needed for such implementation; to organize, manage, operate and control the infrastructure system of the municipality (transportation, water and wastewater s y stems) and/or to be reported to by agencies administering and operating such systems; to organize control and operate the Municipality's traffic (all modes) and to manage and regulate the private transit system; to approve or disapprove any kind of construction work to be under taken or being undertaken by the private or the governmental agency which do not conform to technical and/or engineering regulations; to design, maintain and repair schools, sport fields/comple x es and community facilities; to design new or to rehabilitate old infrastructure facilities taking into account the projected or forecasted demand for such infrastructure during its lifetime.

PAGE 42

34 The zoning and subdivision department hasto implement the Master Plan through the zoning and subdivision regulations; to enforce and administer such regulations; to set procedures needed for such enforcement; to approve or disapprove land developments and land uses which do not conform to such regulations. The environmental department hasto enforce the environmental policies and to aasure implementation of them; to approve environmental conditions or its effects on the environment or any structure, faciltiy or land development before the issue of certificate of occupancy; to set guidelines and measures to improve the natural environment; to assure the accessability for enjoyment of any Municipal 1S park, scenic area or wildlife refuge; to manage, operate, maintain, preserve and improve all parks, scenic areas, wildlife refuges, sport fields under the office of parks and recreation; to coordinate with different sport and athletic leagues the use of sport fields; to seek for the establishment of zoological and botanical gardens and its management and operation afterwards: to manage, maintain, repair and preserve the municipally owned historical structures; to monitor preservation of historical conditions in historical designated zones and to monitor for enVironmental conditions in general throughout the municipality. A municipality is a living organism which needs care, nourishment, attention to its needs and illness in order to keep it alive and full of vigor to accomplish its endeavor. In the following Chapter, a set of guidelines, zoning and

PAGE 43

35 subdivision regulations are recommended to be used as a model for the Development Master Plan of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Such recommended Master Plan model was put together using as a pattern different Master Plans and zoMing and subdivision regulations of cities and counties of the State of Colorado, USA.

PAGE 44

THE SUGGESTED MODEL FOR A COMPREHENSIVE MASTER PLAN 36 In the preparation for a Master Plan for Cartagena it is necessary to analyze the municipality's growth and trend, identifying problems and concerns, setting appropriate goals, considering different ways in achieving it and looking for very realistic action plans. Population has increased a 63.45 % since 1973 (312,727) to 1983 (511 ,172). For the year 1980 there was e x pected to be a deficit of 19,658 housing units. Most of this deficit was within the low income people group. If this trend continues the municipality has to come up with a good program to try to decrease that deficit. The increasing need of water and energy supply must be met by executin9 a capital improvement by the utility company There's increasing awareness of the environment's condition and the need to rescue the ecosystem from the current shameful state. The Master Plan must be based on fairness, equal justice in society; abolishing any discrimination because of religion, origin, race, income or political a ssociation. The citizens at all levels should collaborate with the government in deciding the city's future. The comprehensive planning process should have the following basic components: municipal wide plan, suburban plan, urban (city) plan, neighborhood (sector) plan and other complementary plans. Municipal Wide Plan This plan should view the municipality as a whole. To

PAGE 45

37 set plans leading to improvement in social, economic and political matters, taking into account the constraints and favorable factors that may affect the final outcome. This plan should be part of a continuous effort in keeping the planning process updated and a vital part of the government decision process. The plan should lead the municipality into the future having as a starting point the municipality's current state. The plan should address current problems and foreseeable ones. Lookinq f or solution alternatives that may be accepted by the community in general. Those alternatives have to be very realistic and feasible, with a broad base and scope. Within the plan, a priority program should prevail in accordance to the municipality's goals and needs. Suburban Plans The suburban plans should follow the overall goals of the municipality. It should place emphasis on suburban needs and trends and also, in the future growth of the urban part and its impact on the suburban area. The suburban area should keep its image as much as possible without jeopardizing the growth of the urban part of the municipality. The suburban area holds much of the future of the municipality. Preservation and protection of the suburban environment is a most realistic objective. Urban Plans The urban plans are the most active ones. These plans, also, should follow the overall goals fo the municipality. They

PAGE 46

38 should set the pace in which the w hole municipality will be lead into the future. Most of the economic, social and administrative activity is done in the urban area, which municipality. Neighborhood Plans Neighborhood plans should allow for flexibility preserving the neighborhood1S image. These plans are the guide for integration under the overall municipal plan. The City Planning office should work together with the neighbor hood to bring about action plans to achieve objectives. Within those objectives are those related to the basic needs of the community as well as those needed to bring the necessary stimulus and push into the community. The neighborhood plans are the primary makers of the City Plans, and should have the most cooperation and collaboration fro m the citizens. It1s here where the community is going to imprint its will and needs. Policy Planning Approach Policy is the identifier of abstract and idealistic goals, which are given form into more realistic objectives, and into policies and programs. Goals and objectives will define the course of the policies and programs. These goals may be oriented toward improvement of physical and/or social and economic conditions. Usually goals are long-term ai ms. Long-ter m objectives are m ore specific than the goals and oriented toward land use-transportati on, public facilities and the environment. Policies generally define course

PAGE 47

39 of action for implementing long term objectives. Policies can be even more objective than long term objectives, such as housing, business, commercial areas, etc. Short term objectives are realistic and capable of being measured and evaluated as to the extent of their achievement. Those short term objectives are staged annually or bi-yearly as needed and will be evaluated and modified as needed. Programs are the guidelines used to implement policies. Programs can be municipal, city or neighborhood wide. They are part of the continuing planning process. Goals for Cartagena To better the quality of life for all its inhabitants without social, income or belief discrimination. To ensure enjoyment of life for each one of its inhabitants. To make sure that each one of the inhabitants have the opportunity to succeed in life. To create a planning and decision-making process to be used in achieving the above goals. To make Cartagena a self-supporting municipality. To enhance the Cartagena1S environmental condition making it available for the community use and enjoyment. To program for capital improvements needed to better community1s well being. To provide each one in the community with the necessary

PAGE 48

40 services and activities needed for a good social and economic interaction. To provide each one in the community with the chance of serving the community and playing a role in the decision making process. To strengthen the social, economic and physical assets of the municipality as a foundation on which to build the future . MUNICIPAL WIDE PLAN Land Use Planning Long Term Objectives To balance the growth of urban, suburban and rural areas and the natural environment. To control the growth of urban areas according to service availability. To better the transportation and road system within the municipality. To provide for equal development opportunities in all towns of the municipality, according to needs . To provide for transition zones between areas. To maintain and secure ecological balance in the suburban and rural areas, and especially in the urban designated areas. To recover, rehabilitate and protect the damaged ecosyste ms.

PAGE 49

To enhance the natural environment. To promote the necessary action plans to generate socio-economic interaction within the system. To look for social-economic integration. 41 To diminish the disparity between villages/towns and the urban area. To promotefor zoning equality within the municipality. General Land Use Planning Development has occurred in the northwestern section of the municipality, mainly alongside the main inland road and the coast. There are some other scattered towns in other parts and in the Islands but insignificant. Actual growth is happening in a fan out fashion and in a southerlY direction. Policy to follow. --The growth and development of the municipality of Cartagena should be in harmony with the ecology system, avoiding any damage or harm to the environment. It's necessary to keep the present percent of rural areas to maintain and develop the needed food supply. The municipality of Cartagena has a total area of 60,600 hectareas, of which 29.970 hectareas form the rural area or roughly 50% of total municipality's land area. Suburban plans. --Land use planning. These plans should follow the goals for the whole municipality. the total suburban land area is of 23,302 hectareas or 38% of total municipality land area. It should continue with the present land use patterns,

PAGE 50

paying special attention to the preservation of the natural environment. 42 Policies to follow. --The suburban land should be a transition zone beb1een the urban area and the rural area. Development should not happen in more than 30% of the total suburban land area, after the year 1990, or 20% after the year 1994 or 0.0 % (zero percent) by the year 2000 and afterwards. That would give the municipality a maximum of additional developable land of 11,651 hectareas. URBAN (CITY) WIDE PLAN Land Use Planning Long Term Objectives To ensure harmony between land use and the of the natural environment. To develop and wisely use current underdeveloped and/or undeveloped lots and/or land. To provide humanly good and environmentally sound housing. To rehabilitate or relocate physically and environmental unsound residential, shopping and employment To set guidelines for new development, redevelopment and rehabilitation in such a way that it will establish identity, harmony, unity, variety, quality and fairness in planning and design. To recover, rehabilitate and preserve historic places and structures.

PAGE 51

43 To provide for integrated community centers (administrative, commercial/shopping, services, health and residential mixed complex) as a mode for multi-sector development; to set guidelines for such centers and their service area. To set humanly good and fair guidelines for low-income housing; providing for safe, decent, affordable and attractive housing in all the types and styles for each one in the community. To prevent deterioration of present sound housing and preserve and maintain current good conditions. To plan and design for the necessary mixture of land uses as to provide for employment and community services and for needed social/economic interaction. To preserve, update and maintain current infrastructure facilities and to plan for future ones to meet community's current and future needs. To provide essential services to everyone within the urban (city) limits. To provide the community with the needed sport facilities and green/recreational areas, and the necessary land for community social activities. General Land Use Planning The City/urban area occupies 7,328 hectareas (18,100 acres) or 12.1% of total municipality land area. Industrial land uses are mainly located in the Mamonal and

PAGE 52

El Bosque areas, alongside the Central El Bosque Road and the Mamonal Road. 44 Commercial land uses are grouped in the Walled City Downtown area and alongside the Pedro de Heredia Avenue and in the touristic areas of Bocagrande and El. Laquito (San Martin Avenue). The commercial patterns follows a linear fashion along major transportation routes. Residential land uses are developed, also, in a linear fashion following the major transportation routes and sea and bay coast lines. The oldest and historic residential area is located within the walled city and also between the inner city wall and the outer wall. The multi-family housing is mostly conentrated in Bocagrande and El Laquito, wht Walled Downtown and som e scattered in Manga; this type of housing is mainly for middle and upper income people. Single family housing is the predominant pattern all aroung the city, including government sponsored low income housing. New developments are springing up, mostly, in the South and southeast part of town. The slum areas around the south shore of Cienega de la Virgen, and around La Papa Hill are the most critical areas of concern in the city. The lack of adequate essential services is a constant reminder for improvement in this area. Solutions are being implemented lately. The slum areas are the most affected. These areas are in need of special treatment. The tourism has brought increased demand for housing , hotel

PAGE 53

rooms, services and entertainment. The economy has become more dynamic and demanding. 45 The goals, objectives and policies presented in this plan make emphasis on the development pace and growth control of the City until the year 2000. The municipality of Cartagena has an estimated population of 533,000 and a projected population of 681,250 by the year 1990 and l ,022,073 by the year 2000 at annual growth rate of 4. 14% , as per my estimated forecast. Policies Cartagena growth should aim to full development within its current urban boundaries. The City should continue to play its role as leader in the administration, arts, education, industrial and entertainment center of the Department and making stronger its position as national tourism center and military stronghold. The City should emphasize development of the vacant lots and land before attempting to go into the suburban areas. All these developments should take place in an orderly manner without affecting or damaging the natural environment. The existing pattern should continue and the intensity in which it is carried out should be preserved, unless beneficial changes are necessary to better the overall conditions, and if that happens and neighborhood impacts occur, neighborhood residents should get involved in the decision-making process. Residential Area Land Use Planning Residential development in Cartagena started within the

PAGE 54

walled citadel and expanded to the sector south of the wall but within the outer wall (Getsemani quarter). 46 Development continued along the sea and bay coast lines and along the major inland road. The Island of Manga developed into an elegant residential area, very close to downtown yet far enough to avoid the noise and disturbance of the walled citadel. The city continued to expand in Bocagrande, Castillo Grande, Drespo, Marbella, Pie de la Papa, Torices, el Bosque and along side the main inland road. Lately, El Laquito sprang up and other developments (low income) in the outskirt of the City. The middle and upper income people are concentrated alongside the sea and bay shores (Bocagrande, Castillo Grande, El Laquito, Manga, Pie de la Papa) and lately Crespo and a development near Turbaco. Single family has been the predominant housing development. Since the '70s there's been an increase in multi-family development to satisfy housing demand for the middle and income group, and they have been located in Bocagrande, Castillo Grande and the Island of Manga. The Chambacu tu g urio (slum) was torn down in the '60s and the people relocated to another area. The current tugurios are concentrated mainly in the southern part of Cienaga La Virgen, around the Papa Hill and the Juan Angola Waterway connecting with the Cienaga Virgen. These slum areas have become very disturbing and unhealthy areas and dangerously located as it happens with that one close to the airport runway. Policies The main concern should be in solving the tuqurios

PAGE 55

47 (blight areas) problem. Providing for good, decent, affordable, undiscriminating housing. Housing that is properly designed for human being occupancy. Density should relate to the type of structure and amount ot space to be occupied. The maximum number of detached singlefamily dwelling units should be 12 units per hectarea. Minimum requirement and basic housing should be pro-hibited as per being inhumane (overcrowding conditions). The urban renewal process in downtown should be strengthened and directed toward more residential land use. Classification of medium, medium high or high density should rest on the amount of floors per structure, rather than units per hectareas, meaning that dwelling units have to go up to satisfy density requirement rather than horizontally overcrowding an hectarea with one-floor dwelling units. Density on established neighborhoods should remain as it is. The Island of Manga should continue being a low-denisty residential area. Neighborhood shopping centers should be close to serve residential areas. Residential areas should be separated by a transition zone to a different area, especially if industrial. Avoidance of high volume traffic roads through neighborhoods should be emphasized.

PAGE 56

48 Developers of new areas should provide for all the essential services infrastructures Mixed-density residential areas should be around the integrated centers. All new high-density residential should have access to public transportation and to have employment centers ' located in the proximity as well as shopping centers. All new residential development should give priority to environmental concerns and energy and resources conservation. Housing Planning for Land Use Cartagena has a mixture of very old housing through contemporary housing. The Downtown walled citadel has old historic housing. The Island of Manga is a quarter where mansion from the Republican period are sited next to contemporary h ousing. Bocagrande, Castillo and El Laquito are show places for modern and contemporary housing, so are other developments in the outskirts of the urban area. H ousing ages inward as the urban area spreads out along the coast lines and turns inward along the main inland road . r.lost of the housing is in good condition, except for the shacks of the blighted areas. There's a strong need to provide good housing for low-income families . The current low-income housing is a shameful attempt at a solution . Improvement should be done at once. of thes e low-income developments are located in the southern urban area. A shortage of 19,658 housing units was estimated in 1980

PAGE 57

and a projected deficit of 29,978 units by the year 1990, and + 49 around 40,000 units by the year 2000. Most of these new housing will be located on the outskirt of the city. Policies Conservation of housing should be encouraged by tax incentive and through a neighborhood housing program. This effort should be emphasized in the Down-town area, San Diego, Getsemani, Manga. Low-income housing solutions for the poeple living in the blighted areas should be first priority of the governmental effort. The municipal government should initiate its own low-income and public housing program. Betterment of housing quality for low-income projects. Abolishment of overcrowding conditions in current housing developments. Set guidelines for density, if family size to be 5.9 persons/family, the dwelling space has to increase in order to better living conditrions and improve social interaction. .. Demand improved space availability per family from new developers, including governmental agencies. Look for more citizen (community) participation in the housing design process. New developments should be compatible with surrounding residential areas and should not increase economic +Source: Cartagena1S existing Master Plan, Volume I.

PAGE 58

50 or racial impaction. Evaluat ion of neighborhoods and housing conditions shoul d be m ade on a regular basis ( ever y y ear ) . These evalua tions should deal with the degree of success of current programs, identification of before they become critical and possible citizen1s input in solving them. Housing should be provided on a non-discriminatory basis without regard to income, race, color, religion, sex, origin or political Business Land Use Planning Business activities in Cartagena started within the walled citadel and since those early days in the 16th century, those activities have been kept in that sector and i n the c l oseb y harbor where the public food market was placed unti l the l9701S where it was transferred to Bazurto. Today that site is occupied by the Convention Center. Business activities expanded to La M antura and c o ntinued to

PAGE 59

51 develop along the malin inland road. Bocagrande and El Loquito attracted business activities along the San Martin Avenue. These activities in these areas were caused mainly by Tourism . The Island of Manga got the Maritime Terminal, both for passenger and cargo. This terminal has been expanded during the 1601S and 701S. In the 19801S there1s been one additional business concentration, the Santa Lucia shopping center at the crossroad of Pedro de Heredia and the Old El Bosque Road. Long Term Objectives Policies To develop Cartagena as a regional and national head quarters city. To strengthen Cartagena 1S position as a center of tourism, conventions and entertainment. To make Cartagena stronger as a regional retail center. To establish integrated centers, which should be similar to the Downtown/Matuna sector but smaller in scale. These centers should serve a population equal to one served by Downtown. To establish community and neighborhood commercial/ shopping centers. Partial decentralization of retail activity from downtown. Development of land already zoned for commercial should be encouraged. Business uses in residential areas should be allowed if that expansion contributes to stability and betterment of

PAGE 60

52 the neighborhood. New business area developments should provide and maintain the most pleasant and attractive environment. Food market and other essential services should be accessible to everyone and relatively close. Food markets should dispense in the most hygienic conditions, especially the perishable essential items . Bazurto Market has to be upgraded to provide better and more hygienic services. Industrial Land Use Planning Cartagena started to develop its industry and manufacturing activities about 100 years ago. The first companies were established in the Downtown area and Manga, these in el Pie de la Papa. At the turn of the century, the nation was involved in the 1000 days Civil war. Cartagena, m anaged to come up in 1906 with a Sugar Cane mill and in 1914 the first Colombian petroleum refinery was established in Cartagena with a capacity of 1000 barrel$/day. Toward the year 1920 Cartagena went into an industrial recession period and did not really come out that recession until 1957 when the Intercol Refinery was built. During 1957-1974 Cartagena grew industrially a great deal. The creation of the Industrial Zone in Mamonal was part of the industrial development that the city went through. The Basque Sector also was influenced by this development when many manufacturing companies were established in that sector. But since the late 1970s a halt in heavy industrial

PAGE 61

53 growth has set in the City. No new companies have been established in Cartagena since late 1970's. The net industrial production grew from $1,060,090 in 1965 to $4'J,050,Cl00 in 1980 and industrial employment from 4,771 employees in 1965 to 11,500 employees in 1980. Po 1 i'c: i es The city govern m ent should develop an economic development program to attract more industries into the Mam onal-El Bosque Industrial area, to provide m ore job opportunities to the residents, to better the economic base of the city, to increase r evenues for the city. To develop an adequate transportation system and to promote it. To ensure the availability of essential services to the industrial zones. To promote Cartagena as a transportation hub. To promote Cartagena as w holesale and distri bution center. To promote Cartagena as a manufacnuring center. To promote Cartagena as a center of skilled labor and labor training. To establish a business contact and service s y stem. To become a center for training: and site for high tech industries. To fully develop a shipbuilding industry. To keep and maintain in good conditions present industr i es. To retool and upgrade old industri es.

PAGE 62

Maps To keep and increase lobbying campaigns before Department and National governments. To develop an agricultural machinery industry. To m anufacture tools and equipment needed in the electrical industry. To establish an agricultural equipment assembly plant. Transportation Planning 54 Long-Term Objectives To plan and implement a safe, efficient and integrated transportation system to move people, goods, and services, using different modes of transportation and providing accessability to each one of the barrios and areas of the city. To plan for a transportation system which would enhance the physical environment and condition of the city. To use the transportation system infrastructure to rescue blight areas and to induce rehabilitation of such areas. To be a flexible energy consuming system. To be ready for changes as energy supplies dictate. Transportation planning within the context of the City1s comprehensive planning will locate, design, operate, manage and find the necessary funds for the transportation system infrastructure.

PAGE 63

FIG. 54A CARTAGENA1S SUGGESTED ROAD NETWORK MAP

PAGE 64

55 All transportation modes should be taken into account for the planning and designing of the system. Cartagena does not have a regular rectangular street pattern. The physical configuration of Islands and the connecting mainland impedes the development of such system. Thus, the street -system has to follow the terrain features and make the best out of it. The city developed its secondary street system alongside the main two arterial avenues: The road along the coast line and the inland main road. The Island of Manga developed a rectangular street grid system around the Calle Real de M anga. The current street pattern is being redesigned and redeveloped so it can be an integrated one. The City is connected to the other cities by means of two main two-lane roads. One leading south to the interior lands and the other one leading east, the coast. The main transportation mode is the bus system which transports 250 thousand passengers per day, using 800 buses and 120 minibuses. This system is owned by a private concern. T here is a lot of pedestrian movement. Sidewalks are a very essential element in the city•s infrastructure. Cartagena is the site of a river and sea going vessel terminal. During 1982, 588 ships docked in the terminal; 476 were freight ships, 86 were passenger (tourism), 7 were mixed use, + 8 were grain cargo ships, 2 tankers and 9 containerships. The Canal del Dique flows i n the southern part of the bay. That Canal connects the City with the M agdalena River, the m ain Colom bian +Source: Directorio Industrial y Commercial de Bolivar, Andi y Fenalco.

PAGE 65

56 River which runs through most of the country from south to north. The cargo movement through the terminal facilities were in 1982 of: 507,813 tons in 60,000 trucks and 95,482 in river barges. There is an International Airport, with a 2600 mts (8,530 feet) long and 45 mts (148 feet) wide north-south lighted runway. The airport handled more than 600,000 passengers during 1982, of which 10% were international This airport has a new passenger terminal and new airplane loading apron. There was a railroad link between Calamar, a M agdalena river port, and Cartagena until the 19so•s. The government closed the tracks, b ecause of operating deficits, and lower ridership. Cartagena needs a good, sound, efficient, integrated and safe road system . There are only two major arterials, one along the coast line and the other one connecting with the mainland. There•s a need for multi-level intersection interchanges. Safety is a dream and the vehicle accident rate is increasing. Policies To plan for a complete all-mode, integrated transporta-tion system. Lack of funds should not restrict the the city such planning. Funds from the national and departmental government may be available in the future, to design the system•s infrastructure. Development of an integrated street pattern that may smooth the flow cb'f traffic throughout the City. To develop two new north-south inland rapid traffic arterial streets. +Source: Directorio Industrial y Comercial de Bolivar, Andi y Fenalco.

PAGE 66

57 To organize the bus route system. To get rid of the bus traffic on the Pedro de Heredia Avenue. To control the truck traffic in lower Manga. To improve bridge system. To develop a mass water tr-ansportation system. To develop a pedestrian and bike system. To develop a street marking and an efficient and safety signs programs. To improve accessability to each part of the city and to use the system's infrastructure to encourage land development. To facilitate inter-modal transfer. To design uniform street and freeway standards for the municipality. To divide the road system into: Freeways: R-0-W of 250-300' sole function to carry traffic #of Lanes: 6-8 lanes Traffic Capacity: 78,000-105,000 vehicles/day Speed limits: 50-70 mph (80-112 kph) Major Arterial Street: To provide access to abutting property as secondary function. Primary function to carry traffic. of 120' # lanes: 4-6 lanes separated by a median; 2-35' roadways Traffic Capacity: 17,500-35,000 vehicles/day

PAGE 67

58 Speed limits: 25-45 mph (40-72 kph) Collector street -Residential, business and industrial areas. Function: Both equally to carry traffi[ and provide access R-0-W: 70' #of lanes: 2-4 lanes/44 roadway Traffic capacity: 5,000-12,000 vehicles/day Speed limits: 25-30 mph (40-48 kph) Local street Multi-family residential, business and industrial areas Function: To provide access to abutting property R-0-W: 60' # of lanes: 2 Traffic capacity: 2,000 vehicles/day Speed limits: 25 mph (40 kph) Local street Single Family Function: to provide access R-0-W: 50' #of lanes: 2 lanes/36' roadway Traffic capacity: 2000 per day Speed limits: 25 mph (40 kph) To ask developers to provide for subdivision's infrastructure as per road system standards. To organize and design traffic control m easures to insure proper street and highway function as planned.

PAGE 68

59 To rehabilitate, maintain and upgrade current infrastructure. To set parking guidelines to assure proper parking in every sector of the City. To provide for track routes to minimize nuisance in residential areas. To assure that proper truck loading facilities and operations do not cause conflict and disruption. To maintain airport infrastructure facilities and upgrade them as needed. To plan for the projected growth of the transportation system in order to meet the future1s needs. Planning for Public Facilities Cartagena1s government has not had a proper attitude toward providing the necessary public facilities in the past. The lack of adequate schools, parks, recreational facilities, sport fields, fire protection and rescue service, library system, health facilties, water system facilities, police protection and well designed food markets. Old public facilities are deteriorating due to bad building maintance, or lack of it. For the 450th year Foundation Celebration, efforts were made by the Government in restoring some public facilities and in building new ones. But, there1S not a definite policy about

PAGE 69

60 recreational facilities, schools rehabilitation, sport facilities or a library system. Establishment of standards for recreational area, librarians, school sites and police stations is needed Po 1 i c i es To establish a set of guidelines for a comprehensive public facility policies based on the projected and planned development and growth of the municipality. To establish a set of standards for recreational and sport areas, school sites and library system . To maintain and upgrade existing public facilities. To develop a park with mixed pedestrian, bike way system in a linear fashion alongside the waterway system. To make an inventory of existing park, recreational land and sport fields, and its current conditions in order to establish the city's needs. To set park/green areas and recreational/sport field requirement for new developments, trying to conserve and improvement the natural environment. To establish a wild life refuge in the Morros area including the Virgen Lake and its shore. That area is a natural breeding site for many seabirds 1 ik e the pelican, sea gulls, egrets and herons. To plan for a balanced development and restoration of

PAGE 70

61 the waterway system for use and enjoyment of the community. To establish a planting tree program all around the city using native plants, trees and shrubs. To plan for new park, recreational land and sport fields as required by standards. To share park, recreational land and sport fields: with schools and other community facilities. To provide the adequate fire protection and rescue service throughout the City by establishing the necessary stations and substations as required by the standards. To provide the necessary hydrants throughout the City. To provide an efficient health service by locating the necessary integrated health centers throughout the City in order to be able to serve and be accessible to everyone in the city. + To coordinate and plan with the Department and the . I . health Social services should be provided and located close to the persons needing those services. To plan for a city-wide library system and to be located close to schools. New libraries to be built as the need arises or the school system expanded. To plan for Natural History and Arts Museums or to better existing ones. +Department of

PAGE 71

62 To plan for Botanic and Zoological Gardens. Public grammare schools should be located in each barrio. Public junior and high schools should be located in each as needed. School sites should be close to parks, libraries or recreational facilities, so these facilities can be used by the students. The sites should meet the school standards and student walking distances. To furnish and equip schools with the necessary tools + and furniture. There1S a deficit of 14,580 student chairs. To set recreat1onal and sport fields requirements for private and public schools, establishments, including , higher education entities. To set a property tax for public school funds only. To improve teaching in general by establishing a Teacher1S College in a local university or college, where teachers could go and better their knowledge and capabilities. To expand enrollment in existing universities and colleges. The demand is so high that an expansion policy and program should be established. To promote interschool sport competition. To promote art and culture among students. To plan for an art performing center or rehabilitate +Source: Mayor1S office.

PAGE 72

63 and upgrade existing facilities. To maintain and upgrade existing sport facilities. To relocate existing educational facilities which are operating within the walled city area. To set a rigid and strict policy on this issue. An exception to this policy is a neighborhood public grammar school which has to meet the open space and sport area require-ments. To set a strict policy on tax being collected for tree planting, trash collection, lighting, police protection in order to have them used only the intended purpose. The Public Enterprises should be reorganized in such a way as to become a self-supporting entity and to be able to free the property tax collection for capital improvement projects only. To plan for expansion of the water and sewage system for the year 2000 and beyond. This expansion should provide these services to every resident as planned by the Municipal Planning Office. Community Facilities Standards School site size H a School Type Bldg. Student Capacity Walking radius site siz.e Elementary 480/66 0/990 1.5 kmts 2 / 3 / 4 Junior/Senior High 1,500/2,500 3.5 kmts 4.5./10.5

PAGE 73

Park 64 site size and population served ( ha) Kmt Park Type Site size Pop. Served Service Radius Ha/000 persons Playground 5-6.5 3,000/4,000 .5-.75 l . 5-l . 75 Playfield 12-14 15,000/20,000 1.5 . 6-.8 Ci ty-vli de 40 40,000/50,000 City-wide . 8-l . 0 Green belts Parkways NA NA NA .6-.8 Special use /\N NA NA 1.5 (ha) Library type Site size Pop. served Service Area Book Vo 1 umes in varies City-wide City wide 2.5/3 per person Regional .30-.40 100,000-150,000 l or more plg. 50,000-60,000 comm. Branch .26-.36 min. Neighborhood . 1 ha Comm. facility l 5 '000 1.5 to 2.4 kmt 20,000 radius 1 neighbonhood 2,000-5,000 Police stations should be sited in each sector of the City and should be equipped for emergency response. Fire stations should have a service radius of 2.5 kmts in a residential area or 1.75 kmts of service radius in a non-residential or high hazard area. A parkway should be located alongside the shores of the Vir;gen Lake. Environmental Planning Cartagena•s natural environment has been under a constant onslaught in the past. The waterways, bays and lakes have becom e

PAGE 74

65 so polluted that it has affected the ichthyology. The normal natural flow of the waters has been altered, creating an abnormal state which affects the surrounding environment. Shanty towns have appeared along the shores of the water bodies. This disorderly housing arrange m ent produces unpleasant condit ions for both the citizens and the residents of those tugurios. In this area the children's death rate is very high and there are many kinds of contagious diseases among adults. The natural seashore environ-ment has disappeared completely. The dunes and its native plants are gone. Chemical contamination in the bay is on the rise. The invasion of the La Papa Hill by tugurios has damaged its natural environment. Erosion is the m ain problem in that area. The Municipal Government in coordination with National Agencies should emphasize recovering the natural environment to its original state. Water and air pollution control should be planned and implemented. S morm water should be controlled as to avoid flood problems. The City should expand its trash collecting service. Better methods to eliminate the disposal should be found. Landfill disposal have created social problems at such sites. Continuation of such system is contributing to the degradation of human beings. 190 tons of trash are collected every day which are dumped on a + piece of land. Use of solar technology should be promoted. Preservation of historic places and structures should be encouraged. Sign and billboard controls should be established to keep the city aesthetically sound. +Source: Cartagena's existing Master Plan, Volume I.

PAGE 75

66 Enhancement of the natural environment should constitute the backbone of the city1s environmental policies. Neighborhood Planning Planning at the neighborhood level is where to start when putting together a city wide comprehensive plan. From the neighborhoods we can get the information needed to make the necessary inventory of community needs. This is the very heart of City planning. And this is the part where most citizen participation is required, because they are the ones who knmJ about their needs. The City should get the necessary information when planning the rene\>Jal or relocation of tugurios. Based on this information, housing, schools, and other community services should be planned. Blighted should have special consideration. Neighborhood planning should include economic, social, environmental and physical planning. Neighborhood planning recommendations should be given special attention and be implemented as soon as funds are available. Each neighborhood determines its own needs and each neighborhood should be treated separately unless similar conditions appear in any other neighborhood.

PAGE 76

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PLAN There will be a written zoning ordinance and a zoning map that will indicate how the Plan should be implemented. Planned unit development district and planned building group will follow density requirements as per zoning code. Subdivision control measures to be followed as provided in the zoning regulations. 67 Waterway shores and sea, lake shores owned by the nation or municipality to be developed as parks. Housing regulations to be enforced without hesitation, as to maintain and keep health, safety and welfare standards that will enhance people's life. The Municipal Planning Office will be the only governmental office to determine goals and policies, capital improvement programs and action plans that will affect the municipality. The Municipal Planning Office will coordinate other agencies planning efforts and will direct them on specific tasks. The Mayor's office will be required to look for funds for implementation of the Plan as required by the priorities set by the Planning Office. Emphasis in citizens participation in the decision making process should have high priority. The planning office should evaluate the performance of the plan on a yearly basis. The Planning office should have an advisory board, appointed by the Mayor. The Board will help the Planning office in setting goals and objectives. The Board should consist of 5 members of different professions, including a civil engineer and an architect. The board should meet at least once a month and being chaired by the Mayor or the Director of the Municipal Planning Office.

PAGE 77

CHAPTER IV MODEL ZONING CODE AND SUBDIVISION REGULATIONS The next part of the Model Master Plan is the Zoning Code which is the implementation tool of the set of Goals, Policies and Objectives that delineate the essence of the Comprehensive Plane. The Zoning Code is the Master Plan becoming reality.

PAGE 78

69 THE ZONING CODE SECTiml I 1 . 1 E NACTING CLAUSES A resolution and map establishing zoning areas (zones) in the municipality of Cartagena de Indias, Department of Bolivar. The purpose of this enactment is to promote the health, education, safety, humanly decent living, order, prosperity and happiness of the present and future inhabitants of the Municipality of Cartagena de Indias, by: the reorganization of the road, waterway and traffic system; securing safety from fire and other dangers; p rov id ing good environmental conditions; safeguarding people1S good living conditions; providing a good equipped school system; classification and regulation of land uses and g uidance i n the development of the land; protection and betterment of the municipality1S tax base; fostering the municipality1S agricultural and other industries; and the protection and enhancement of the natural environment and the urban and non-urban areas. 1.2 For the purpose of brevity, this Resolution shall hereafter be 1t'eferred to as the Cartagena1S Zoning Code or simply the Code. 1.3 The Code will regulate the use of buildings, structures and land; the location, height, bulk and size of buildings, and other structures; m ini mum lot width; m ini mum lot frontage; minimum yards and other open spaces; p roviding special

PAGE 79

70 regulations for non-conforming uses and non-conforming buildings; the density and distribution of population; defining certain terms used herein; and penalties to be prescribed for the violation of these provisions; procedures for enforcement, admendment, variances, special permits, interpretation and administration of this Code. 1.4 Application of Code. a. No structure or land shall hereafter be used or occupied and no structure or part thereof shall be erected, moved, or altered unless in conformity with the Regulations herein specified for the "zones" in which it is located. b. In order to carry out the provisions of this Code, the Municipality of Cartagena de Indias is divided into the following zones: A Agricultural (rural) zones SU Suburban zones R-L Residential-Low density zones R-M Residential-Medium density zones R-H Residential-High density zones R-S Residential-Special zones H zones BC Business/Commercial zones CBC Community/Business/Commercial NBC N eighborhood/Business/Commercial Light I n .dus tria 1 zones III IV V A V B v c V D VI VII VIII A VI II B IX A

PAGE 80

i \ • i\ ------FIG. 70A CARTAGENA'S RURAL, SUBURBAN AND URBAN MAP

PAGE 81

71 Medium Industrial zones Heavy Industrial zones 0 Open/Green zones F Forestry Reserve zones EZ Especial zones 1.5 Incorporation of Maps The location and boundaries of the zones established by this Code are shown upon the Official Zoning Map of the Municipality of Cartagena de Indias. Zone boundaries shall lie on the center line of streets or be otherwise specified. Each zone shall have a legal description of its boundaries. This zoning map, together with shown thereon, shall be as much part of the Code as if fully set forth and described herein. Changes to the Code aan only be made by the Council of the Municipality. SECTION II IX B IX C X XI XII The following schedule of permitted uses and of basic location and bulk regulations for the various zones are hereby adopted and declared to be part of this Code. Each item to be exclusive of each zone unless otherwise being specifically permitted in such other zone. SECTION III AGRICULTURAL (RURAL) ZONES 3.1 This zone is an area where conservation of agricultural and ranching resources is of vital economic importance and a main contribution to the food supply of the City.

PAGE 82

72 3.2 Permitted Uses These uses shall not damage the soil stability regarding agricultural, nor damage the ground water resources or affect the natural runoff characteristic of the terrain. a. All agricultural uses b. All ranching uses c. Commercial poultry farms d. Detached one-family or two-family dwelling e. Public park or public recreation area f. Roadside sales stands, provided: Only products raised on the premises shall be sold in such stands. g. Veterinary hospitals h. Country club and golf course i. Schoo 1 s j. Institutional (public) buiill dings k. Oil drilling, quarries, mining, sand and gravel operations and similar extractive land uses, provided all such uses shall be located at least 2 kilometers from schools and dwellings on same or adjacent property. 1. Accessory buildings and uses; garages and shelters 3.3 Minimum lot area 5 ha 3.4 Minimum lot width 100 meters 3.5 Minimum lot frontage 100 meters 3.6 Minimum front yard 20 meters 3.7 Minimum side yards 20 meters

PAGE 83

c .. .. • f ••• -t. • • t ' • ' 4 •• ., • --. , _ , -........ --.-----... -. '. .. "" ___ _ FIG. 72A TIERRABOMBA ISLAND (SUBURBAN) MAP

PAGE 84

., \ ... .. ISLAS . GEL FIG.72B ROSARIO ISLANDS (SUBURBAN) MAP I ' l .. j • • • .

PAGE 85

3.8 Minimum rear yard 20 meters 3.9 Maximum building height 2 stories or 7 meters SECTION IV SUBURBAN 4. l Permitted uses 73 a. Detached and two-family dwelling units b. Schools and institutional buildings c. Public parks and recreational areas d. Golf courses and private clubs e. Farming and ranching f. Public utility mains, lines and other facilities necessary for the general public welfare g. Children day care 4.2 Accessory uses a. Accessory buildings and uses; garages and shelters b. Name plate or s ign not exceed one square foot c. Bi 11 board 4.3 Minimum lot area a. On unsubdivided land: one (l) hectarea b. On subdivided land where the essential services are provided by the City: 1600 square meters 4.4 Minimum lot width a . On unsubdivided land: 80 meters b. On subdivided land: 40 meters 4.5 Minimum lot frontage: 40 meters 4.6 Minimum front yard : 7.5 meters

PAGE 86

74 4. 7 Minimum side yard a. Dwellings and accessory buildings: 5 meters b. All other principal buildings: 5 meters c. Lot line: 5 meters 4.8 Minimum back yard a. Dwellings and accessory buildings: 5 meters b. All other principal buildings: 7.5 meters c. Lot line: 7.5 meters 4.9 Maximum building height: 2 stories or 7 meters 4. l 0 Density a. Subdivision: 6 dwelling units per hectarea b. Unsubdivided land: One dwelling unit per hectarea. 4. ll Maximum buildable area a. Subdivided land: 50% of total lot area b. Other unsubdivided land: Depends on land use. To be approved by Planning office 4.12 Maximum construction area a. Subdivided land: 100% of total lot area b. Other unsubdivided land: Depends on land use. T9 be approved by Planning office 4.13 Subdivision development to follow Code Subdivision regulations SECTION V -l\ LOW DENSITY RESIDENTIAL 5. lA Permitted uses a. Single-family dwellings b. Schools (elementary and high) and universities

PAGE 87

75 c. Public parks, playgrounds and playfields d. Community facilities, children day care e. Public utility mains, lines and underground facilities f. Garages and shelters 5.2A Accessory uses a. Home occupations b. Supporting home staff dwelling unit c. Neighborhood retail S tores (grocery stores, newstands, etc) 5.3A lot area: 1600 square meters 5.4A Minimum lot frontage: 40 meters 5.5A Minimum front yard: 7.5 meters 5.6A Minimum side yards (minimum distance of buildings from each side lot line): a. Dwellings and accessory buildings: 5 meters b. All other principal buildings: 5 meters 5.7A Minimum rear yard ( m ini mum distance of buildings from the rear lot line): a. Dwellings and accessory buildings: 7.5 meters b. All other principal buildings: 7.5 meters c. Supporting home staff dwelling unit can be built against rear wall 5.8A Maximum building height: 2 floors or 7 meters 5.9A Maximum density: 6 dwelling units per hectarea 5.10A Maximum buildable area: 50% of total lot area 5.11A Maximum construction area: 100% of total lot area 5.12A Subdivision developments to follow Code Subdivision regulations.

PAGE 88

. . . . . . E G t D FIG. 75A CASTILLO GRANDE/BOCAGRANDE SUGGESTED ZONING MAP ••• • ea <"A ""'••• .. C A.S l L L.o GRANOE Zo.t "VVoP --------

PAGE 89

76 SECTION V 8 MEDIUM DENSITY RESIDENTIAL 5.18 Uses permitted a. Single and multi-family dwelling units b. Elementary and high schools and universities c. Public parks, playground and playfields d. Public utility mains, lines and underground facilities e. Garages and shelters f. Community facilities, children day care 5.28 Accessory uses a. Home occupation b. Supporting home staff dwelling unit c. Neighborhood retail stores (grocery store, newstand, etc) 5.38 Minimum lot area: 1600 square meters 5.48 Minimum lot frontage: 40 meters 5.58 Minimum front yard: 7.5 meters 5.68 Minimum side yard (minimum building setback from lot side line): 5 meters 5.78 Minimum back yard (minimum building setback from lot rear line): 7.5 meters 5.88 Maximum building height: 4 floors or 14 meters 5.98 Maximum buildable area: 40% of lot area 5.108 Maximum construction area: 100% of lot area 5.118 Maximum allowed density: 66 dwelling units per hectarea 5.128 Subdivision developments to follow Code Subdivision regula-tions.

PAGE 90

77 SECTION V C HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL 5. lC Permitted uses a. Single and multi-family dwelling units b. Elementary and high schools and universities c. Parks, playground and playfields d. Public utility mains, lines and supporting facilities e. Garages and shelters f. Community facilities, children day care 5.2C Accessory uses a. Home occupation b. Neighborhood shopping center (grocery store, newstands) 5.3C Minimum lot area: 1600 square meters 5.4C Minimum lot frontage: 40 meters 5.5C Minimum front yard: 7.5 meters 5.6C Minimum side yards (minimum building set back from lot sideline): 5meters 5.7C Minimum back yard (minimum building set back from lot side 1 ine): 5 meters 5.8C Maximum buildi ng height: as per floor ratio calculation 5.9C Maximum buildable area: 50% of lot area 5.10C Maximum construction area: 300% of lot area 5. llC Maximum allowed density: 240 dwelling units per hectarea 5.12C Subdivision developments to follow Code Subdivision regula-tions

PAGE 91

SECTION V 0 SPECIAL RESIDENTIAL 5.10 Permitted uses 78 a. Single and multi-family dwelling units in building groups b. Parks, playgrounds and playfields c. Elementary schools d. Shopping center e. Cinemas, restaurants, cafeterias, entertainment f. Community facilties, children day care g. Public utility mains, lines and supporting facilities h. Parking lots, parking structures i. Single and multi-family planned unit developments 5.20 Accessory uses a. Home occupation b. Office c. Small business 5.30 Minimum lot area and open space requirement to be set by residential regulations 5.40 Maximum allowed density: more than 240 dwelling units/ hectarea 5.50 Building group developments to follow Code Subdivision regulations 5.60 Planned unit developments to follow Code Subdivision regulations 5.70 Maximum buildable area: 40% of total lot area 5.80 Maximum construction area: as per residential requirements

PAGE 92

/ FIG. 78A HISTORIC ISLAND SUGGESTED ZONING MAP

PAGE 93

5.90 Maximum height: As required to fulfill density and buildable area requirements 79 5.100 Residential planned unit developments should comply with the respective residential requirements after choosing the desired density. 5.110 Building groups should comply with the respective residential requirements after choosing the desired density 5.120 Residential planned unit developments and residential building groups shall be approved by the Municipal Planning office SECTION VI HISTORICAL ZONES 6.1 Permitted uses a. Single and multi-family residential units b. Institutional (administrative functions) c. Elementary school, only to serve local neighboring student population d. Motels, hotels, boarding and rooming houses e. Restaurants, cafeterias, ice cream parlors, entertainment places f. Theatres, cinemas g. Museums, art galleries, art schools h. Business and professional offices, medical and dental offices, antique shops and art shops, banks, book and stationary stores, barber shops and beauty parlors, clothing shops, department stores, drug stores, dry

PAGE 94

80 good and variety stores, electrical and household appliance stores, florists, furniture stores, hardware stores, jewelry and craft shops, music, radio and television stores, office supply stores, optometrist shops, package liquor stores, paint stores, photographic studios, equipment and supply stores, shoe stores, sporting and athletic goods stores, toy stores, travel bureaus and watch repairing, bakery, grocery stores, medical/dental labs i. Parks j. Public utility mains, lines and supporting facilities k. Community facilities, children day care 1. Printing shops m. Convention center n. Dock activities--touristic marina 6.2 Forbidden uses a. Wholesale b. Warehouses c. Street vendors d. Schools, universities, colleges or training schools e. Factories f. Chemical production facilities g. Brewery or distillery plants h. Parking structures i. Merchant marine activities 6.3 Lot area a. Lot area to preserved as it is

PAGE 95

81 b. Not subdivision on existing lot areas 6.4 Architectural design to be preserved, maintaining original materials as much as possible unless safety is at stake. 6.5 Urban renewal to be carried out to preserve and maintain old structures in need of restoration 6.6 In need of new structure to replace old one because of unsafe conditions, new structure to resemble old one as much as possible, keeping intact main feature designs such as building height, lot width, lot frontage, buildable area, construction area, open space, inside gardens and architectural design. 6.7 Interior space design can be accomodated for contemporary use, preserving the historic architectural design. 6.8 Construction techniques to be used in these zone to follow the Construction Code. SECTION VII -A COMMERCIAL/BUSINESS ZONE CB-1 7.1A Permitted uses a. Hotels, motels, restaurants, cafeterias, entertainment and drinking places b. Medical and dental clinics c. Membership clubs d. Mortuaries e. Professional offices f. Private technical schools (language, computer) g. Public parks, playgrounds and playfields

PAGE 96

,_.::;. ..... FIG. 81A PIE DE LA POPA/QUINTA SUGGESTED ZONING MAP / ' , "

PAGE 97

82 h. Drug stores, newstands, book stores, stationary stores i. Cinemas and theatres j. Financial institutions k. Governmental institutions/agencies l. Photographic studios, equipment and supply stores m. Department stores n. Electrical and household appliance stores o. Florists, furniture stores p. Supermarket q. Hardware stores r. Jewelry and craft shops s. Office supply stores, public utility collection offices t. Shoe stores, sporting and athletic goods stores u. Travel bureaus v. Public utility mains, lines and supporting facilities 7.2A Minimum lot area: 250 square meters 7.3A Minimum lot frontage: 10 meters 7.4A Maximum buildable area: 85% of lot area 7.5A Minimum building set backs (from vertical property lines) : a. 15% open space in the two first floors b. 45% open space from the third floor up c. 5 meters from street/sidewalk line 7.6A Maximum construction area: 600% of lot area 7.7A Maximum building height: as required to satisfy maximum construction area.

PAGE 98

\ . ' FIG. 82A MARBELLA SUGGESTED ZONING MAP -.. ... _ . . . ................ ----MA 5E _ _ :.. z c • . .. ,. .... l. ' . . •, ....

PAGE 99

SECTION VI I -B COMMERCIAL/BUSINESS ZONE CB-2 7. lB Permitted uses a. Those permitted in Business zone B-1 b. Health centers, hospitals, clinics c. Auto sales d. TV and radio broadcasting stations e. Passenger transportation termi na 1 (ground) 7.2B Special approval a. Gas stations on major arterial streets b. Auto repairs at gas stations c. Auto wash at gas stations or by itself 7.3B Minimum lot area: one (1) hectarea 7.4B Buildable area: 50% of lot area 7.5B Construction area: 600% of lot area 83 7.6B Business planned unit development and business building groups should have preference over other type of development. 7.7B Business planned unit development and business building groups shall follow the Code Subdivision regulations 7.8B Business planned unit developments and business building groups shall be approved by the Planning office 7.9B Minimum building set backs: a. Front: 10 meters b. Rear: 10 meters c. Sides : 1 0 meters

PAGE 100

SECTION VIII C SPECIAL COMMERCIAL/BUSINESS CB-3 TRANSPORTATION TERMINALS 7.1C Permitted uses a. Cargo transfer facilities b. Cargo loading/unloading handling facilities c. Docking facilities d. Customs e. Warehouses (non-explosives) f. Administration and supporting facilities g. Passenger terminal (air, marine) h. Airstrips and air navigational aids i. Fuel storage 84 k. Ship's supply facilities (water, food, essential services ) l. Food, drink and lodging services m. Maintenance facilities n. Ground transportation accessabilHy and services 7.2C No land requirements, except technical and operational land use requirements. SECTION VIII-A COMMUNITY COMMERCIAL BUSINESS ZONES 8. lA Permitted uses a. Supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores b. Package liquor storage c. Newstands, and magazine stands d. Florists, video cassette rentals

PAGE 101

85 e. Refrigerated meat, poultry and fish stores f. Bakery g. Restaurants, cafeterias, ice cream parlors, drugstores, beauty parlors, barber shops, home repair services, boutiques, clothing manufacturing (less than 10 workers), bank branches, community facilities and services, children day care h. Multi-family residential units i. Jewelry stores, clothing stores, photo studio, and photo labs, employment agency, cleaners, laundries, travel bureaus, medical, dental and professional offices, mail and cable offices, schools, cine mas, private clubs, antique shops, toy stores, sporting goods store, hardwares, art galleries, car sales, auto parts store, auto repairs shops (up to 5 tons vehicles), art and commercial schools, gyms, dancing schools, car rental, cabarets and mortuaries 8.2A Accessory uses a. Manufacturing establishments with no more than 10 employees b. Local retail sale of the manufacturing products c. Tire repair shops, motor repair shops d. Non-explosive items warehouses e. Moving companies f. Express mail g. Television and radio schools

PAGE 102

8.3A Minimum lot area: 1600 square meters 8.4A Minimum lot frontage: 40 meters 8.5A Maximum building height: 3 stories or 10.5 meters 8.6A Maximum buildable area: 40% of lot area 8.7A Maximum construction area: 100% of lot area 8.8A Maximum allowed residential density: 50 dwelling units per acre 8.9A Minimum front set back: 10 meters 8. lOA Minimum side setback: 5 meters 8.11A Minimum back set back: 10 meters SECTION VIII -B NEIGHBORHOOD COMMERCIAL BUSINESS ZONE 8.1B Permitted uses a. Grocery stores, convenience stores b. Newstands, magazine stands c. Package liquor store d. Florists e. Refrigerated meat, poultry and fish stores f. Bakery g. Video cassettes rentals 86 h. Restaurants, cafeterias, ice cream parlors, drugstores, beauty salons, barber shops, home repair services, cleaners, laundries, boutiques, tailor shop, sewing shops, bank branches, community facilities and services, children day care i. Single and multi family residential units

PAGE 103

87 j. Fire department facilities 8.28 Minimum lot area: 1600 square meters 8.38 Minimum lot frontage: 40 meters 8.48 Maximum building height: 2 story or 7 meters 8.58 Maximum buildable area: 40% of lot area 8.68 Maximum construction area: 80% of lot area 8.78 Maximum allowed residential density: 25 dwelling units per hectarea 8.88 Minimum front set back: 10 meters 8.98 Minimum side set back: 5 meters 8.108 Minimum rear set back: 10 meters SECTION IX A LIGHT INDUSTRIAL ZONE 9.1A Permitted uses a. Auto and truck repairs b. Gas stations and complementary services c. Bottling works d. Building materials e. Carpentry, including woodworking, and furniture making f. Dairies g. Drycleaning and dyeing establishments h. Electrical, heating, painting, plumbing, roofing and ventilating shops i. Laundries j. Machine shops k. Printing and publishing establishments

PAGE 104

1. Tire vulcanizing shops m. Warehourse n. Alcoholic products, distillation o. Concrete and concrete products p. Cinder blocks, bricks q. Repair, rental and servicing of any commodity the manuracture, fabrication, processing, warehousing, or sale of which is permitted in the zone. 88 r. Retail sale of any commodity manufactures, processed, fabricated or warehoused only on the premises: and equipment, supplies and materials designed especially for use in agricultural, mining, industry, business, transportation, building, shipbuilding and other construction. s. Wholesale sale or storage of any commodity, except live animals, commercial explosives or junk. t. Office u. Marine crafts repair v. Hospital, clinic w. Cargo handling facilities, cargo docks/terminals 9.2A Complementary uses like restaurants, bank branches, sport facilities 9.3A Minimum lot area: 1600 square meters 9.4A Minimum lot frontage: 40 meters 9.5A Minimum set backs a. Front: 10 meters

PAGE 105

89 b. Sides: 10 meters c. Back: 10 meters 9.6A Maximum buildable area: 40% of lot area 9.7A Maximum construction area: 80% of lot area 9.8A Maximum building height: 15 meters, unless a higher elevation is specifically required by land use 9.9A Closings: Minimum height of 3 meters SECT! ON IX -B MEDIUM INDUSTRY 9.18 Permitted uses a. Light indus try uses b. Food processing plants (no canned) c. Grain mills d. Candy, crackers and cookies m anuracturing e. Clothing manufacturing f. Coffee processing plants g. Cigarettes and cigar plants h. Winery, pop, sodas and beverages bottling i. Metal structure shops j. Precast concrete works plants k. Electric appliance manuracturing or assembly plants 1. Leather craft m. Cork and wood making items n. Complementary uses, like banks, restaurants, cafeterias and sport fields. o. Clothing manuracturing

PAGE 106

p. Chewing gum manufacturing q. Photographic products r. Quarries s. Offices t. Cargo handling equipment/facilities, cargo docks/ terminals 9.2B Minimum lot area: 1600 square meters 9.3B Minimum lot frontage: 40 meters 9.4B Minimum building set backs a. Front: 10 meters b. Sides: 1 0 meters c. Back: l 0 meters 9.5B Maximum buildable area: 40% of lot area 9.6B Maximum construction area: 120% of lot area 9.7B Maximum height: 15 meters 9.8B Closing: Minimum of 3 meters high SECTION IX C HEAVY INDUSTRY ZONE 9.1C Permitted uses a. Uses permitted in medium industry zone 90 b. ng, fabrication and/or processing of any commodity; breweries, frish processing plant, sugar mills, chloride production plants, oil by-products production, distelleries, dairy, soap and fat processing plants, leather processing, cleaners and laundries, cement production plants, slaughter houses, pesitcide

PAGE 107

91 production plants, vehicles assembly line plants, paint manufacturing plants, plastic and synthetic manufacturing plants, adhesive and glue m anufacturing, rubber and tier manufacturing, glass and glassm ade items manufacturing, aluminum processing plant, fertilizer manufacturing, steel processing plants, oil refineries, explosive manufacturing, coal-fired power plants, ship-building yards, coffee processing plant and pharmaceutical products c. Repair, rental or servicing of any com modity d. Retail sale of any commodity m anufactured, fabricated, or processed on the premises or of any commodity designed especially for the use in agriculture, mining, industry, business, transportation or construction. e. Wholesale, sale or storage of any article f. Quarries g. Sand pit, gravel pit h. Sewage processing plant i. Warehouse of non-explosive items j. Free commercial trade zones k. Cargo transportation terminals, industrial/commercial docks 9.2C Special permit uses a . Storage of liquified gas b . Fuel storage c. Explosive storage

PAGE 108

-,--.,. t _,..--.7-. .,FIG. 91A CARTAGENA'S SUGGESTED URBAN ZONING MAP -

PAGE 109

92 9.3C Minimum lot area: one hectarea 9.4C Minimum lot frontage: 100 meters 9.5C Maximum buildable area: 50% of lot area 9.6C Maximum construction area: 100% of lot area 9.7C Maximum building height: as required by specific industrial use. 9.8C Minimum building set backs: a. Front: 10 meters b. Sides: 10 meters c. Rear: 10 meters SECTION X OPEN SPACES, GREEN AREAS 10.1 Permitted uses a. Cemetaries b. Parks c. Playgrounds d. Playfields, stadiums e. Recreational facilities and supporting buildings f. Docking facilities, marinas g. Bikeways h. Pedestrian ways i. Outdoor theatre j. Overnight camp ground a. Administration building and service facilities b. Convenience shop/store c. Cafeterias k. Food and drinking places by special concession

PAGE 110

93 10.2 Land needed for parks should follow Master Plan's standards for required area. 10.3 Maximum building height: 7 meters SECTION XI FORESTRY RESERVE ZONE 11.1 Permitted uses a. Agricultural b. Ranching c. Supporting buildings d. Parks, playground, playfields 11.2 Criteria a. To conserve forest resources b. To protect the natural environment c. To preserve open space d. To stop urban development on specific piece of land e. To prevent that adverse conditions are created by a use of the land that may bring an unbalanced ecological state. SECTION XII SPECIAL AREAS WILDERNESS AND SCENIC LANDS 12.1 Criteria a. To conserve, protect and maintain the natural state of the physical environment b. To protect natural breeding sites for birds c. To protect natural habitat for wild ani mals d. To protect scenic and beautiful land areas

PAGE 111

e. To reserve those lands for the people•s enjoyment f. To use those lands as a pri m e feature to promote tourism g. To recover land in unsound state and to bring it to its natural sound conditions h. To enhance the looks of the municipality. 12.2 Designation a. Sea and water shores, waterways b. Islands in the suburban zones c . Native villages d. Cora 1 reefs e. Mangrove areas f. In 1 and hi 11 s 12.3 Permitted uses a. Beach areas for peoples • use b. Parks c. Bike and pedestrian ways d. Food and drinking places e. i ntena nee supporting facilities f. and docking facilities 12.4 Areas 94 a. Land that covers the shores of bodies of water owned by the Nation b . Municipal land c. Private land

PAGE 112

95 SECTION XIII SIGNS l 3. l Permitted uses in all zones a. Signs limited in content to name of occupant and address of premises; signs of danger or cautionary nature which are limited to wall and ground signs; two (2) for each dwelling unit or use byright; no more than 0.25 squre meters per sign in area; no more than 2.5 meters above ground. Could biluminated by a nonflashing concealed light. b. Signs in the nature of cornerstones, commemorative plaques and historical signs. These signs to be wall and ground signs and one (l) per zone lot and not more than 0.5 square meters per sign in area; not more or 2 meters above ground. c. Signs in display windows. One (l) sign per each one square meter of display window area. Sign area to be not more than 0.25 square meters; may be illuminated by concealed light which does not blink. d. Wall signs to advertise rent or sale. Not to be more than 0.5 square meters in area or 2 meters above ground. e. Political signs. To be removable and no more than one per each zone lot. Time of display to be set by Planning Office. f. Traffic and parking signs.

PAGE 113

13.2 Signs with permit a. Signs identifying home occupation where such home occupation is permitted by the Code. b. Signs displaying only the name and address of a subdivision; not more than 2 square meters of sign area; not more of 2 meters high above ground and to be wall or ground signs c. Signs on canopies or awnings located over public rights-of-ways or into any required front setback space; limited in content to name of building, business and address of premises; no more of one (1) square meters per sign area. 13.3 Non-conforming signs 96 a. Owner shall have one (1) year to make the change to a conforming sign b. Owner could appeal tor an extension in time to make the change. 13.4 Residential zones a. Permitted signs and contents 1 . Name and address of occupant 2. Home occupation and hours of operation, services 3. Identification by letter, numeral, symbol or design of the use by right b. Permitted sign types 1 . Wa 11 , window c. Permitted maximum number: One per each zone lot d. Permitted maximum sign area: not more than one (1) square

PAGE 114

meter e. Permitted maximum sign height: not more than 3.5 meters above ground for awnings or canopy signs; not more than 2 meters above ground for wall signs f. Permitted sign locations: on wall or windows. Projected signs are not allowed. g. Permitted illumination Non-flashing concealed light or standard entrance light or yard flood light h. No animation is permitted. 13.5 Business zones a. Permitted signs as per residential zones 97 b. Permitted contents: Identification by letter, numeral, symbol or design of the use by right by name, use, hours of operation, services and products offered, events and prices of products and services. c. Permitted sign types: Wall, windows, ground and arcade. d. Permitted maximum sign area 1. Wall, signs: 5 square meters of area 2. Ground signs: 2 square meters of area 3. Arcade signs: 2 squre meters of area e. Permitted maximum height above ground: 1. Wall and windows: Roof height 2 . Ground: 1 meter 3. Arcade: 30 meters

PAGE 115

98 f. Permitted illumination Non-flashing light. It may be direct illumination g. Signs shall not be animated 13.6 Industrial zones a. Signs permitted as per business zones b. Permitted maximum sign area 1. Wall: 15 square meters 2. Ground: 15 square meters c. Permitted maximum height 1. Wall: building's height 2. Ground: 6 meters above ground d. Permitted illumination light. It may be direct illumination e. Permitted content: as per permitted sign content in the business zones 13.7 Billboards a. Permitted content: general advertising b. Permitted maximum area No outdoor general advertising sign shall be m ore than 100 square feet in area c. Permitted maximum height 1. Not to exceed more than 15 meters above ground 2. When general advertising signs are within 50 meters of an elevated street, they can be as high as 15 meters above such viaduct's elevation d. Permitted locations

PAGE 116

99 1. No outdoor general advertising sign with an area of 5 square meters or more shall be located within the right-of-way of the road, which is intended to serve. 2. No outdoor general advertising sign or billboard shall be within 200 meters of a park property line 3. Outdoor general advertising signs should be placed at least 200 meters from each other. e. Permitted structures The structural members, bracing and frame should be constructed of non-combustible materials and shall not have more than two (2) vertical structural members or pole. f. Permitted illumination Non-flashing direct illumination is permitted g. No animation is allowed SECTION XIV PARKING 14.1 Off Street Parking a. Residential and business zones 1. Dwellings: 18 square meters of parking area for each dwelling unit 2. Community facilities: One square11meter of parking per every two square meters of total floor area 3. Hospital and clinics: one square meter of parking per every 5 square meters of total floor area

PAGE 117

100 4. Hotels, motels: 18 square meters of parking area for each guest room 5. Retail stores: 18 squre meters of parking area per 32 square meters of gross floor area 6. Office Building: 18 square meters of parking area per 25 square meters of gross floor area 7. Restaurant: 18 square meters of parking area per 4 seats 8. Shopping center: 18 square meters of parking area per 90 square meters of gross floor area 9. Schoo 1 s a. Grammar: 18 square meters of parking area per each class room b. Secondary: 18 square meters of parking area per each class room plus 18 square meters of parking for every 50 registered students c. University, Colleges, other technical schools: 18 square meters of parking area per every thirty (30) registered students 10. Parks: Parking should be supplied according to demand b. Industrial Zones 1 . Heavy manufacturing: 18 squre meters of parking area per every 83 square 1 : meters of gross floor area

PAGE 118

14.2 101 2. Medium manufacturing: 18 square meters of parking area per every 42 square meters of gross floor area 3. Light manufacturing: 18 square meters of parking area per every 25 square meters of gross floor area c. Transportation terminal zones On 1. Passenger terminals: as required by travel demand 2. Cargo Terminal a. Loading space should be 3 meters by 8 meters, with a height clearance of 4 meters b. When trailers are used the length of the space shall be at least 11 meters c. For warehousing and loading and unloading facilities Square meters of Required number Gross floor area of Spaces up to 1 ,400 None 1 ,400 to 4,650 One 4,651 to 18,600 Two 18,601 to 32,500 Three above 32 ,501 Four street parking a. It shall be allowed where it will not interfere with normal flow of traffic b. It should be offered as an alternative parking solution

PAGE 119

102 when off-street parking is not offered as demanded. c. It shall follow Code subdivision regulations d. Ample parking shall be offered on the streets bordering sea shores SECTION XV NON-CONFORMING USES 15.1 11Non-conforming use11 is any activity carried out either in a structure or on a tract of land which does not conform to the Code1S permitted uses. 15.2 Change of use The Office of Planning shall notify the non-conforming users as per when they have to change or move to a conforming use zone. It should be at least a 30 days notice. After that expiration date a final date shall be set. 15.3 Non-conforming use permit A special permit shall be allowed when there1S hardship in moving the use to a conforming use zone. This permit shall not be for more than one year. SECTION XVI ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF CODE 16.1 The Municipal Planning Office shall consist of a Planning Director, a supporting staff to manage, administer, enforce and supervise the Development Master Plan of the ity of Cartagena of Indias. a. The supporting departments shall consist of l. Planning department

PAGE 120

103 2. Zoning department 3. Engineering department 4. Environmental department b. Each of the supporting departments shall function according to its specific task in enforcing the Code. c. There shall be a Design review committee each week. This committee will be made of each department head, the Chief Fire department, the Electric Utility representative, the Water and sewage department head. d. The committee will review each on-going project in the City and will recommend future projects for approval or denial to the Planning Director 16.2 The Municipal Planning Office (MPO) will be the only office to coordinate and dictate planning efforts within t h e municipality. the MPO will direct and for mulate planning action programs to other municipal agencies. 16.3 There will be a Planning Advisory Board that will assist the t 1ayor in formulating planning policy. 16.4 Such board will consist of 5 members appointed by the Mayor. One of them will be the Planning Director. The other four will be representative of professional groups and citizens of the Municipality. An engineer, a lawyer and an architect should be part of that Board. The appointments shall be for a term of one year. 16.5 The Board shall meet once a month. The Planning depart m ent will coordinate meetings and shall support the Board with its staff.

PAGE 121

104 16.6 The heads of the four departments within the Planning Office shall form an evaluation committee that will review the periormance of the Plan every year. This same committee will review complaints and shall issue especial per mits due to hardships and non-conforming use. 16.7 Any amendments to the Plan or to the Code shall be made by the Council and be recommended to the Municipal Council for approval or denial by the Planning Director.

PAGE 122

105 SUBDIVISION REGULATIONS Subdivision regulations are another implementation tool of the Master Plan, designed to set subdivision requirements to maintain a harmonious urban development environment which will be a determining factor in the quality of health, safety and economy of the Municipality.

PAGE 123

106 SUBDIVISION REGULATIONS SECTION I 1.1 These norms shall be known as the Subdivision Regulations of the Municipality of Cartagena of Indias, and shall hereafter be referred for brevity as the "Subdivision Regulations." 1.2 The subdivision regulations shall provide for the necessary requirements needed when developing a tract of land for residential, commercial, industrial or recreational purposes. These regulations should enhance the quality of health, safety and welfare of the environment. 1.3 Subdivision regulations are intended, designed and should be administered in a manner to a. Implement the Comprehensive Plan b. Provide for adequate safe, reliable and efficient public utilities and improvements; and to provide for community facilities and public places. c. Provide for light, air, parks and other spaces for community or public uses. d. Provide for protection from fire, flood and other dangers e. Provide for proper design of streets, curbs and sidewalks. f. Proper design of drainage elements to handle rain runoff waters, prevent erosion and minimize formation of dust. g. Provide adequate s treet lighting facilities.

PAGE 124

107 h. Conservation of attractive natural landscape features; designing for a logical blend between the man-made structures and the natural environment. i. Provide that the costs of improvements which benefit the most the developing land be paid by both the community and developer, and the costs of improvements which are benefiting most the community be paid by the community. 1.4 These regulations shall apply to all land in the Municipality of Cartagena of Indias. 1.5 It shall be the duty of the Municipal Planning Office to enforce the Subdivision regulations. SECTION II 2.1 Subdivision developer should contact the Municipal Planning Office and gather all the information about subdivision and policies affecting it. 2.2 At the first review meeting the developer shall present a sketch plan. 2.3 At the second review, a preliminary plat shall be presented and shall meet the subdivision requirements. 2.4 At the third review meeting, a final plat shall be presented and shall meet all the subdivision requirements. 2.5 No two subdivisions shall bear the same name. 2.6 Approval of the subdivision shall be made by the Director upon final recommendation of the Municipal Planning Office's department heads and that the Design review committee does not object against the project's design.

PAGE 125

108 2.7 All the design aspects of the subdivision project should be filed with the Municipal Planning for approval. The project's submittals may be approved, conditional approved or disapproved. 2.8 Every subdivision project shall convey to the Municipality 20% of total project gross area for school site and community facilities. 2.9 Every subdivision project shall provide the needed area for utilities, streets, drainage and parks and shall dedicate this area to the Municipality upon construction of the facilities. 2.10 The land provided for school and community facilities shall be of best terrain usable conditions; in case such piece of land is not suitable for school site or community facility sites, the developer should pay in cash the fair market value of such 20% of total gross area. 2.11 Land and monies obtained through these provisions shall only be used for such specific purposes. No other use shall be attempted. SECTION III 3.1 Preliminary Plat a. Identification and Description 1. Title of subdivision 2 . Names and addresses of the developer and land surveyor 3. North Point --Top of each sheet shall be north whenever possible.

PAGE 126

4. A graphic scale of 1 em= 100 meters 5. Legal description of the subdivision boundary 6. Boundary lines of the subdivision in a heavy solid line 7. Environmental state report of the land to be developed. b. Site details 1. Total area in hectareas 2. Existing and proposed contours with intervals of one meter 3. Bench mark locations 109 4. Location, widths and other dimensions of proposed streets. 5. Layout numbers and appro x imate dimensions of proposed 1 ots 6. Delineation of proposed land use areas. 7. Significant natural features, water drainage, vegetation or wooded areas. 8. Utility mains, pipelines, underground facilities 9. Flood plain location, if any 10. Drainage pattern of adjacent land, developed or undeveloped. 11. , Water and sanitation service area c. Detailed vicinity map, showing the geographic and topographic relationship of the subdivision and the surrounding area. Major features to be shown such as

PAGE 127

110 major streets, public areas, commercial areas or major institutional structure. Scale to be 1 em= 500 meters. d. Approval. The Municipal Planning Office shall the preliminary plat1S consistency with the subdivision requirements. The plat can be approved or disapproved, or partially approved and recommendations made to the developer as needed. 3.2 Engineering site design data a. Engineering data 1. Storm drainage study 2. Sanitary drainage study 3. Mainline storm and sanitary sewer construction 4. Drawings 5. Street plan and profile 6. Street soil test data 7. Over lot grading plan 8. Main water line 9. Other public facilities easements. b. Installation of bench marks defining the subdivision boundaries 1. Engineering department shall check bench marks 2. Bench mark locations to be certified by a registered civil engineer. c. Engineering department shall approve the submitted design data for the subdivision or, send it back to the developer with recommendations for further design,

PAGE 128

or revision of design. Final approval of design should accompany final plat submitted. 3.3 Final plat 111 a. Final approval of the engineering site design data by the Engineering department is prerequisite for further subdivision approval. b. Final review of final plat by the design review committee is a requirement for recommendation for approval to the Director, who may approve or send it back for further specific revision. c. Utility companies and other agencies shall approve of supplying essential services in notarized written approval. d. Approved subdivision development plan to be notarized and to present such document to obtain construction permit fromtheMunicipal Planning Office. 3.4 All submittals shall be presented by registered Civil Engineers and Architects 3.5 Plat technical data requirement a. Name of subdivision b. Legal description of subdivision project c. Name of owner and developers, engineers and architects d. Graphic scale e . North point f. Location of streets, widths and names of all streets. Street to be named or numbered by Engineering depart m ent

PAGE 129

112 g. Radii, internal angles, point of curvature and lengths of arcs. h. Bench marks and boundary lines; lot boundary lines. i. All lot and block lines with accurate dimensions in meters and centimeters j. Lot numbers, block numbers, etc. k. Accurate outlines of any areas to be dedicated or reserved for public use with the indicated purpose. 1. Certification by engineers, architects, etc. 3.6 Improvement requirements a. Curbs and gutters b. Sidewalks c. Sanitary and storm sewers, culverts d. Street paving e. Pedestrian walks f. Bench marks g. Water lines h. Street light i. Street signs j. Necessary alterations to open drainage channels or water channels or streams k. Other items as agreed upon by the subdivider and the Municipal Planning Office. l. All improvements to be approved by Engineering depart m ent m. Items to be submitted for approval 1. Street plan and profile

PAGE 130

113 2. Street soil data 3. Engineering department to ask for approval of design data to utility companies regarding their services n. Plan and profile 1. Street alignment, stationing, curb location and type, sidewalks, medians, street name, etc. 2. Typical section of the street, pavement thickness, wearing surface, slopes, etc. 3. Soil test information and location of test holes 4. Location of curb cuts and driveways 5. Direction of run-off and drainage flow 6. Location of gutters and inlets 7. Over lot grading plan 8. Pedestrian walkways 9. Tree line profile of existing conditions showing center line and property lines 10. Proposed curb flow line grades. New grades must conform to any existing street grades. 11. Vertical curve data. Vertical scale 1 em: 5 meters 12. Minimum pavement section shall be based on design criteria for a full depth asphalt section. The Group Index of the soil will be used to determine the thickness of asphalt section . Minimum wearing surface will be (5) five centimeters. Tests m ust be made by a competent soils laboratory in accordance

PAGE 131

114 to AASHTO Specifications and certified for by a registered soils engineer. Full information of the soil analysis shall be provided.

PAGE 132

SECTION IV 4.1 Traffic engineering design regulations a . Street standards 1 . Local street Single fa mily residential zones The basic function is to provide direct access to abutting property. Design: 11 meters roadway on a 15 meters rightof-way for low density residential areas; 13.5 meters roadway on a 18 meter right-of-way for high density residential areas and commercial and industrial areas. Number of lanes: 2 Traffic design capacity: 2,000 vehicle/day 115 Speed limits: 40 kmts per hour (25 miles per hour) STANDARD LOCAL STREET SINGLE FAMI L Y RESID E NTIAL. AREAS I 2 . 5 ' • . 5 ' 2 ' 32' 2 ' ' 4 5 ' ' 2 . 5 ' I 1.5 i 0 5 . , I I I meters I I i .,. I r 2 J I 1 : .,. 36' ROADWAY * 11 50' R .O.W. 15 STANDARD LOCAL STREET . TIPLE-FAMIL.V R E S I D E NTIAL., BUSINESS, AND I NDUSTRIA L ARE AS 40' 12 I meters 8 ' 44' ROADWAY • 13.5 60' R . O . W . -18 . z ' . . . .... 3 . , . a 2.5 3 ' I

PAGE 133

I ) ' 116 2. Collector streets The function of this street is to provide access to abutting property and to carry traffic Geometric design: 13.5 meter roadway on a 21 meter right-of-way Number of lanes: 2 to 4 Traffic design capacity: 5,000-12,000 vehicles/day Speed limits: 40-48 kmts/hour STANDARD COLLECTOR STREET RESIDENTIAL, BUSINESS AND INDUSTRIAL AREAS 7 .!1' z I 40' meters 2.5 I "OAOW.&T • 1 3 ' 44' 13.5 4 70' I!. O . W . 21 meters 3. Major Arterial streets The primary function of this street is to carry traffic; providing access to abutting property is a secondary function. Geometric design: Two 10.5 meter roadways separated by a 4 meter median on a 36 meter right-of-way Number of lanes: 4 to 6 Traffic design capacity: 17,500 to 35,000 vehicles/day Speed limits: dO to 72 kmts/hr I I : I

PAGE 134

117 STANDARD MA'-'OR ARTERIAL STREET 1 2 ' 1 1, 11' l z 'l .•• , . ;3 1'"'1 ! ! .,. I . I SIX LANE DIVIDED I t ' 3 ROAO W A:..:,Y_" _ _ _..,o,l,,.__ __ ______ -p-;=-1 8 _ ' _ _ 4 1 4. Fre eways 12GIROW . 36 meters The sole function of the freeway is to carry traffic Geometric d e sign: a 75 to 100 meters rightof-way c o ntaining two roadways separated by a median. Dimen-s ions will v a ry according to specific d e sign require-ments. It is recommended that whene ver possible freeway facilities within th e urban are a be designed with a depr e ssed cross-section, or at grade i f rightof-way is suffic i ent t o a llow wide landscaped buff e r areas adjacent to the roadways Numbe r o f l anes: 6 8 within the urban a rea Traffic d e s ign capacity: 78,000-105 , 000 vehicles/day Speed limits: 80-115 kmts per hour TYPICAL FREEWAY J 6 ' S4 ' !6' 11 13.5 meter s 5 1 ' ,.. 16. 5 17 . 5 300' R . O . W . 0 1 I:; t , , . i

PAGE 135

118 5. Intersection of any two streets to be at 90 angle 6. Type of curb and gutter: Vertical, detached sidewalk 7. Cul-de-sac hall have a minimum curb diameter of 17 meters 8. Sidewalk width a. Single-family residential: l .5 meters b. Multifamily-Residential, Commercial/Business, Industrial: 2.5 meters 9. Minimum radii of curvature on center line (horizontal) a. Local streets: 30 meters b. Collector streets: 90 meters c. Arterial streets: 180 meters l 0. Curb radii a. Local streets: 8 meters b. Collector streets: 9 meters c. Arterial streets: 10 meters 11. Minimum length of vertical curves (as per AASHO) a. Local streets With an algebraic difference in grades ( % ) of 0-11, a minimum of 30-100 meters is required correspondingly. b. Collecter streets With an algebraic difference in grades ( % ) of

PAGE 136

0-ll, a minimum length of vertical curve of 60-180 meters is required correspondingly. c. Arterial streets 119 With an algebraic difference in grades ( % ) of 0-11, a minimum length of vertical curve of 60-275 meters is required correspondingly. 12. Street grades a. Local streets Minimum grade: 0.5 % Maximum grade: 8 % b. Collector streets Minimum grade: 0.5 % Maximum grade: 6 % c. Arterial streets Minimum grade: 0.5 % Maximum grade: 4 % 13. Access to Freeway will be totally controlled. Access to Arterial streets should be located at 500 meters interval. Abutting property should not faced on the roadway unless separated from it by a frontage road. Intersections at grade. Access to Collector streets will be controlled by traffic control devices. Intersections at grade. Local street intersections shall be at grade. 14. Curb cuts a. Less than 50 meters of street frontage: 2 curb cuts maximum per street

PAGE 137

120 b. Street frontage of 50 meters to 100 meters: 3 curb cuts maximum per street c. Street frontage of more than 100 meters: 4 curb cuts maximum per street d. Design of curb cuts as per Engineering department requirements 15. Pedestrian ramps New streets shall provide pedestrian ramps at all intersection corners 16. All street shall have street lighting. Spacing of such lighting as per Engineering departmen t requirements. b. Temporary use of the public right-of-way (by special permit) 1. For roadway repairs 2. When needed for construction support area or access area 3. No concrete mixing is allowed on roadway surface 4. No material storage on roadway 5. High visible signs indicating that part of the roadway is not in use. By night visible selfreflecting lights, or energy powered flashing lights (red or orange). This provision shall be complied with by every governmental agency, private concern or institutional entities. By saying governmental agency means governmenta l bodies at the national, departmental or municipal

PAGE 138

121 level. 6. Any use of public right-of-way other than its intended functions, has to be approved by the Municipal Planning office's Engineering department which has the right to deny it or approve it, or conditionally approve it. A special permit shall be issued in case of approval. 4.2 Transportation system management a. The Engineering department shall identify current and future transportation problems in: b. c. 1. transit 2. Traffic flow 3. Infrastructure facilities 4. Parking 5. Accident prone roads 6. Capacity and level of service The Engineering department shall look for alternative solutions in 1. Short term time 2. Medi urn range 3. Long range The Engineering department sha 11 analyze the alternative solutions and the impacts that those solutions may have on the 1. Environment 2. Social aspects 3. Economic base

PAGE 139

122 4. Government's finance d. Engineering department shall design implementation after analysis of and evaluation of solutions and impacts of solutions e. Engineering department shall recommend action plan after completion of the tactical planning process. 4.3 The engineering department shall direct and manage all traffic and transit activities in the Municipality. a. Proper use of the infrastructure b. Proper location of traffic control devices c. Control and management of traffic flows; avoidance of traffic congestions d. Control and management of public parking e. Maximize capacity of roads f. Minimize travel time g. Minimize accident prone situations and locations h. Proper signalization of roads i. Proper road regulatory, warning j. Guiding signs SECTION V 5.1 Fire Department Fire Protection Guidelines a. Roadways 1. Curb cuts at driveways shall be a minimum of eleven (11) meters at the flow line. 2. Private circulation drives shall be a minimum of eight (8) meters wide parking, except

PAGE 140

where water mains are laid then they shall be a minimum of nine (9) meters wide excluding parking. 123 3. The driveway in a parking lot must be a minimum of eight (8) meters wide excluding parking, except where water mains are laid, then they shall be a minimum of nine (9) wide excluding parking 4. Radius at 90 turns shall be a minimum of 8 meters at the inside curb line and 15.5 meters at the outside curb line. 5. Parking shall not be permitted within two (2) meters of a fire hydrant 6i Dead ends that exceed 45 meters shall be provided with an adequate turn around, being a minimum of 25 meters long and 5 meters wide, or a cul-de-sac with a 17 meters radius. b. Walkways that accomodate fire vehicles 1. Walkways that accomodate fire vehicles shall be used where no street is laid-out 2. Fire walkways must be a minimum of 4 meters wide and designed to withstand the weight of a fire vehicle. 3. Fire walkways shall be linked to the roadways by means of a curb cut and ramp to the elevations of any fire walk or drive. Grades on fire walkways or fire will not exceed five (5% ) percent.

PAGE 141

124 4. Provisions shall be made to ensure ease of access to the fire walkways through design. Eliminate any and all parking by posting signs and painting yellow lane leading to the fire walkways. c. Fire equipment limitations 1. A pumper carries 60 meters of one and a half (1-1/2") inch preconnected hose. Approximately twenty five (25% ) percent of the hose length is taken up maneuvering it about, around corners and up stairways. Consequently, the effective length of the preconnected hose is approximately 45 meters. 2. The aerial ladder truck carries ladders that operate mechanically to reach the fourth (4th) story of a building or higher. The aerial ladder truck must be able to use a roadway or fire walkway to drive broadside or directly forward to within a distance, no closer than 1.5 meters and further than 8 meters away from a building on fire. 3. The aerial ladder truck must provided with at least two clear means of access to a building four (4) stories or higher. One of these clear means of access should be along the long side of the building. In very long buildings, more access may be required. It should be noted that design can vary the access requirements. 4. Buildings four (4) stories or higher must be provided with water standpipe for fire hose connections.

PAGE 142

125 The proposed location of siamese connections shall be approved by the Fire department and the Engineering department. Clear access to siamese connections shall be provided and maintained. 5. Overhead obstructions at a roadway or fire walkway must be designed with a minimum of 4 meters clearance in order for a fire vehicle to pass safely underneath. 6. All premises where buildings or portions of buildings are hereafter constructed and located more than 45 meters from a public street which provides access to such premises shall be provided with approved fire hydrants as may be required by the Engineering department. Also it will be Engineering department policy that a fire hydrant will be placed a maximum of 75 meters from each building to be protected. 7. All hydrants shall be supplied by at least a six (6'') inch main, installed on a loop system. Fire hydrants and mains shall be installed, operated and maintained by the Empress Publicas Municipales (Public Municipal 8. No combustible construction shall start at a planned building group site until fire hydrants sufficient in number and locations, as determined by the Fire department, have been installed. 9. Fire hydrants in parking areas must be accessible and j!irotected. Hydrants must be accessible without

PAGE 143

126 obstructions. One access area 2.5 meters to 3 meters wide must be kept for the placement of the hydrant. The hydrants shall be located near the outer portion, within one (l) meter of the driveway. The hydrant shall be protected by a twenty (20) centimeter elevated concrete curbing. d. Fire protection of three and four story buildings 1. A most important fire protection consideration for building without interior fire standpipe, is that the pumper should have access to within 45 meters of every dwelling unit within the building. The aerial ladder truck requirements are not applicable here. 2. A most important fire protection consideration for buildings four (4) stories in height and higher is that the aerial ladder truck must be provided with at least two (2) clear means of access. More may be required depending on the total size of the structure, with at least one (l) broadside approach. The other approaches shall have access directly forward to within a distance of no closer than l .5 meters and no further than 8 meters from a building on fire. This include all buildings four (4) stories or buildings in excess of 14 meters to roof peak. e. Markings and indications on sketch plans l. Marking and indications to be placed on sketch plans and are to remain through the final plans that are

PAGE 144

approved. 2. A s mall scale drawing of the surrounding area (streets, etc.) shall be submitted. 127 3. Plans shall show existing streets, proposed streets and existing hydrants at their present location. 4. A s mall scale plan of the typical building side elevation, showing the ground to lane height, also exterior patios or areas of egress would help us to foresee any problems in exiting the building. The type of construction will also be helpful. The information described above m a y be submitted on a separate sheet of s maller s ize paper, m arked " Fire department use," if it is m ore desirable. Any fence or retaining walls must be shown on all plans. 5. The Fire depart m ent will require two (2) copies of submitted plans, and two (2) copies of the f i nal only.

PAGE 145

BIBLIOGRAPHY Andi, Fenalco. Directorio Industrial y Commercial de Bolivar, Publi caiones Cultural, 1983. Arapahoe County, Colorado. Regulations for the Subdivision of land for Arapahoe County, Colorado, 1972. Arapahoe County, Colorado. Zoning Ordinance for the County of Arapahoe, State of Colorado, 1972. Bair, Frederick H. Planning Advisory Service. Bauer, Catherine. Modern Housing, Arno Press, New York, 1974. Boulder County. Zoning Resolution. Cardona, Rami ro. La Lucha por u n Ensenanza de los Asentami entos Populares de Vivienda, Corporacion Centro Regional de Poblacion, Bog.ota , 1 omtfh . . City and County fo Denver. Progressive Zoning in a Growing Denver, 1959. City and County of Denver. Subdivision Ordinance, Rules and Regulations. City and County of Denver. Planning Toward the Future, Comprehensive Plan for Denver. County Council of Essex, G.B. A design guide for residential areas, Anchor Press, Tiptree, Essex, G.B., 1973. Great Britain Department of Environment. House Planning, Cahners Books, Boston, Mass., 1974. Greater London Council. Preferred Dwelling Plans, MacKays of Chatham, Limited, 1981. Hall, Edward T. The Hidden Dimension, Doubleday & Co., Garden City, N.J. INFONAVIT, Mexico. Proyectos realizados enel programa, 72-73, Mexico, 1974. Jackson, Richard H. Land use in America, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981.

PAGE 146

Keiser, Marjorie B. Housing an Environment for Living, MacMillan Publish ing Co., New York, 1978. Margold, Stella K. Housing Abroad to WWII, MIT, Cambridge, Mass, 1942. Rapoport, Amos. N.J., 1969. Smith, Herbert H. Association. House Form and Culture, Prentice Hall, Englewood, Cliffs, The Citizen's Guide to Planning, American Planning Planners Press, Chicago, 1979. Urban Land Institute, Developing a Local Housing Strategy, a guidebook for local government. Research Paper: Diaz, Juan P. Is there a need for legislation or regulation on housing occupancy and other related housing space standards?