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Burnham Hoyt : a documentation and preliminary assessment of the life, works, and philosophy of a native Denver architect

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Title:
Burnham Hoyt : a documentation and preliminary assessment of the life, works, and philosophy of a native Denver architect
Creator:
Ertl, Ted Alexander
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Environmental Design, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Committee Chair:
Carlson, DeVon M.
Committee Members:
Utzinger, Robert C.
Bell, Ervin J.

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Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Ted Alexander Ertl. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
BURNHAM HOYTi
♦
i
A DOCUMENTATION AND PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE LIFE, WORKS AND PHILOSOPHY OF A NATIVE DENVER ARCHITECT (1887-1960)
B. Arch., University of Colorado, 1969
A Thesis Submitted To The Faculty Of The Graduate School Of The University Of Colorado In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The Degree Of Master Of Architecture College Of Environmental Design
By
Ted Alexander Ertl
1975


This Thesis For The Degree Of Master Of Architecture By Ted Alexander Ertl Has Been Approved For The College Of Environmental Design By
DeVon M. Carlson, Committee Chairman
Robert C. Utzinger, Committee Member
Ervin J, Bell, Committee Member
Date
ii


Ertl, Ted Alexander (B. Arch., Architecture)
BURNHAM HOYTj A DOCUMENTATION AND PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE LIFE, WORKS AND PHILOSOPHY OF A NATIVE DENVER ARCHITECT (l88?-1960).
Thesis Directed By Professor DeVon M. Carlson
This Thesis investigated the life of Burnham Hoyt and the sources of influence in his architectural development and analyzed his major architectural achievement and philosophy toward architecture. It explored his importance as a Denver architect during the transitional period from eclectic to modem architecture. It relied upon oral interview and correspondence with his close associates as a primary source of information supplemented with written secondary sources a-bout the man and the architect. It concluded that Burnham Hoyt was a significant architect with relevance to Denver architecture because of his consistant approach to design committed to human and environmental considerations.
•
This Abstract is approved as to form and content.
Signed ____________________________________
DeVon M, Carlson
iii


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I have learned these two lessons: first, that the more one engages in research the more there is to research; and second, that the most difficult task of research is to make the breach between the research process and the research product. Here lies the test to discover whether there is something valid to come from the research.
I am indebted to my Committee Chairman, Mr. DeVon M. Carlson, who provided invaluable direction and criticism, and to my Graduate Program Chairman and Committee Member, Mr. Robert C, Utzinger, who provided both freedom and guidence for my own intellectual development, and to my Committee Member, Mr. Ervin J. Bell, who introduced me to new concepts and continually challenged me to think critically,
I am especially grateful to Mrs, fcarl Arndt, Mrs. Burnham Hoyt and Mrs. John Reeve for granting personal interviews and providing many insights into Burnham Hoyt's life and personality, as well as to the myriads of’ others who have aided my research.
And finally I am appreciative of my patient wife who gave invaluable encouragement and criticism and contributed greatly as reviewer and editor.
Ted Alexander Ertl Lincoln, Nebraska


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
Page
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS .................................vi
1 INTRODUCTION .........................................1
Footnotes
2 BIOGRAPHY ............................................8
Heritage
Apprenticeship (190^-1919)
Partnership (1919-1926)
Maturation (1926-1933)
Culmination (1933-1955)
Honors
Footnotes
3 ARCHITECTURE ..........................................59
M.H. Hoyt and B. Hoyt (1919-1933)
Burnham Hoyt, Architect' (1933-1956)
Footnotes
•
• ARCHITECTURAL PHILOSOPHY..........'....................104
Environmental Aspects Building Aspects Human Aspects Footnotes
5 SUMMARY AIK) CONCLUSIONS ..............................11?
BIBLIOGRAPHY .........................................125
APPENDIX A: BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ........................132
APPENDIX B: OFFICE WORK OF MERRILL H. HOYT
AND BURNHAM HOYT, ARCHITECTS
(1915-1933) ..............................136
APPENDIX Ci OFFICE WORK OF BURNHAM HOYT,
ARCHITECT (1933-1955) ....................1^5
v


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1 Burnham Hoyt (c. 19*4-0)...............................7
2 1913 Paris Prize, First Place (Grant M, Simon)..........21
3 1913 Paris Prize, Second Place (Burnham Hoyt)...........21
*4- Northside Christian Science Church (1920)...............6l
5 Park Hill Branch Library (1920)....................... 6l
6 Highlands Masonic Temple (1921).,,^.....................63
7 Colorado National Bank (192*0...........................63
8 Lake Junior High School (1926)..........................65
9 Denver Sewer Pipe and Clay Co. (c. 1928)................65
10 St. Martin's Chapel (1927)..............................67
11 Steele School (1929)....................................67
12 Children's Hospital (1936)..............................71
13 Children's Hospital, Plans..............................72
1*4- Alfred *J. Bromfield Residence (1937).................7*4-
15 Alfred J. Bromfield Residence, Plans....................75
16 Industrial Federal Savings and Loan (1938)..............78
17 Albany Hotel (1938).....................................78
18 Charles Boettcher School (19*4-0).......................81
19 Charles Boettcher School, Plans.........................82
20 Colorado Springs High School (19*4-0)...................85
21 Red Rocks Theater (19*4-1)..............................85
22 Red Rocks Theater, Plan.................................86
23 Broadmoor Swimming Pool (19*4-8)........................89
2*4- Denver Public Library (1956).......................... 89
25 Denver Sewage Disposal Plant (c.1936)...................93
vi


Figure Page
26 Speer Memorial (1936)................................ 93
27 John Barrows Residence (1938).....................96
28 John Barrows Residence, Plans..........................96
29 Burnham Hoyt Residence (19^+8)................... 99
vii


Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
History has always had an important place in the lives of man; it has touched his environment, his system of beliefs, his government, his family life, his work, and his art. It has been from the examples of the past that man has learned to adapt to the future.
This has been true in the study of architectural history and its architects, and yet many periods of this history have been practically ignored and many of its architects left unknown to the present generation. In the history of Denver architecture there have been many ignored periods and forgotten architects.
Statement of the Problem
At the inception of this architectural thesis the main purpose was to study a native-born Denver architect. Upon completion of initial research it was found that there were many that fit this general description so in order to narrow the potential field of study, four limitations were established.
The first limitation was generation. The architect should be of the recent past because there would still exist many primary sources from which to obtain first-hand information. His practice should also span the transition from eclectic to modern architecture and be highly evident in the 1930's, since this was a pivotal time in architecture and one of interest to the author.
The second limitation was objectivity. The architect should be deceased so that a more definitive study would be possible and not open to a continuing practice which could perhaps alter the substance
1


2
and conclusions of this research, since a man is always in the process of being until his death.
The third limitation was location. The architect should be a native of Denver, thus exhibiting and partaking of a local heritage in his youth. This limitation would hopefully yield someone representative of "native" Denver architecture. It was hypothesized that the influence of native environment would strongly influence one's world view and approach to visualizing and identifying architectural determinants and tasks.
The fourth limitation was significance. The architect should have made an important contribution to architecture. This was established by the criteria ofi length of office practice (necessarily over several decades), thus exhibiting a major contribution in terms of quantity to the built environment; and the respect and recognition from fellow architects and others, as evidenced by design awards, and publication in architectural press.
With each limitation the long list was narrowed and finally Burnham Hoyt was selected. (Fig. l) Mr. Hoyt was of the recent past with some of his most important architectural works being in the 1930's and early 19^0's, He died in I960, so this study could approach his contribution as a whole without even the existence of an architectural firm continuing his work. He was one of the first Denver-born and raised architects. His adult life spanned from the practice of the earliest Colorado architect, Robert S* Roeschlaub, to that of the current, William Muchow, thus covering most of the major architecture in Denver's history. His production of architecture went from his association with his brother, Merrill Hoyt, in


3
1919 to his final commission in 1956, 37 years. His architecture has received numerous national and international acclaim, most notably Red Rocks theater, and his professional honors included election to fellow of the American Institute of Architects and to associate of the National Acadamy of Design.
Thus, the purpose could now be stated in the more precise termss to document the life, words, and philosophy of Burnham Hoyt and to present a preliminary assessment of this architect. The intention of this study was not to make a final statement of an architect but rather to make an exploratory and preliminary documentation and assessment of a little-known, yet significant, architect.
Assumptions
Certain assumptions have been made in this study:
1. There is a native Denver architectural tradition. The concept of "native" has reference to the cultural products (architecture) of immediate origin or adaptation to a specific geographic area without eliminating the possibility of foreign origin at an earlier date.. This concept of native is opposed to the concept of indigenous which goes further in eliminating external influences. This concept
of native recognizes cross-cultural influences which goes beyond the indigenous phase of architecture created by the Indians to include the influences of the pioneers and later generations and their adaptations to the local scene.
2. An outstanding architect would have an impact on the architectural tradition of the place in which he practiced and thus would have a place within that tradition.


4
Objectives
The dimensions of the research problem may be seen in the objectives that follow:
1. To discover the sources of influence in Burnham Hoyt's architectural design.
2. To identify and subjectively analysize the elements and totality of Burnham Hoyt’s architectural design by looking at his major works.
3. To explore Burnham Hoyt's philosophy toward architectural issues and determinants.
4. To present Burnham Hoyt's place in the tradition of Denver's architecture and his relevance.
5. To identify the factors that enabled Hoyt to make the transition from eclectic architecture to modern architecture.
Justification of the Study
A need has existed for research involving unrecorded primary sources of knowledge which are in danger of being lost to future generations. An example of this occurred in the author's research when he wrote a letter to Samuel McMurtrie, one very knowledgeable about Mr. Hoyt's office practice, only to find out that he had died just ten days before.
A need also has existed for the development of background materials that are essential to the development of preservation guidelines: identification of significant architectural contributions of significant architects based on research into the past of factual,
historial knowledge long before the issue of the preservation of a
(2)
particular building arises. v ' At this crisis point it has usually been too late to save a building without having the knowledge of its


5
importance long beforehand. An example of this was the remodeling of the Industrial Federal Savings and Loan building designed by Burnham Hoyt; a remodeling that destroyed its character and yet there was no protest.


6
Footnotes
(1) Many Denver architects were considered for this thesis and there is a need for research of each. These architects were classified by generation. The first generation of Denver architects included those who began practice from 1869 to 1893s Frank E.
Edbrooke; Robert S. Roeschlaub; E. Philip Varian; Franklin E. Kidder; Frederick G. Sterner; Emmet Anthony; William Quayle; Frederick C. Eberly. The second generation, from 189^ to 1918, included: Albert J. Norton; William N. Bowman; William E. Fisher; Arthur A. Fisher; Jacques J.B. Benedict; Glen W. Huntington; H.W. and V.E. Baerresen, Aaron M. Gove; Willis E. Marean. The third generation architects, from 1919 to 19^3, included: Robert K. Fuller; G. Meredith Musick;
W. Gordon Jamieson; Temple H. Buell; Harry J. Manning; Roland L.
Linder; G. Francis Pillsbury. The fourth generation architects included those who have been in practice since 19^+4 and will be important in the history of Colorado architectures Victor Hornbein; William Muchow; James Sudler.
(2) The Historic Landmark Commission, Historic Denver and other groups are doing this research but the task is enormous and in need of help in researching.


7


Or
Chapter 2 BIOGRAPHY
The life of Burnham Hoyt (Fig. l) has been divided into six phases in order to better study, and thus understand the man as an architect in various stages of development and as a whole, unique personality.
The phases were: first, his heritage and early youth; next, the years of his apprenticeship, training and eat-ly development of architectural thought; then, the period of architectural practice with his brother; followed by a period of introspection and firming up of architectural philosophy; then, came his major architectural production which exhibited a full maturity of design; and finally, a period of honor in his infirm last years.
Many facts about Burnham Hoyt's life and words were found from news and magazine articles, interviews with family and friends, and from books. And the idea that a man is a product of his heredity and environment as a causal agent and not merely as a passive receptor was considered in the analysis of these facts leading to educated assumptions and theories in some areas where no precise facts were available. The greatest care was taken to make this account as historically correct as possible with the limited resources available.
HERITAGE
Little could be found about Burnham Hoyt's ancestry except that "the blood (was) English and the family came from New Brunswick." ^^
8


9
His father, Wallace A. Hoyt, was born in New Brunswick, Canada, on
March 27, 1847, and "traveled all over the world" ^^ before
finally settling in Denver at about the age of thirty, soon after
(4)
Colorado became a State and Denver began to grow rapidly. ' ' Wallace
could first be placed in Denver in 1879 when he was a boarder in the
Merchants Hotel at 336 Blake St, Having established himself he
sent to New Burnswick for his bride-to-be, Lydia Jane Tompkins,
(7)
and they were married in Denver in 1879# ' ' Lydia was born August
21, 1851, in New Brunswick, Canada, the twelfth of thirteen (9)
children. ' ,
They had three sons and one daughter. Merrill H. Hoyt was born on May 18, 1881, The next son was Hoy Hoyt who died at seven of
(H)
spinal meningitus. November 4, 1884,
(12)
The third child, Velma B. Hoyt, was born Burnham Hoyt was born on February 3* 1887.
The family was raised in a two-story brick house (2849 W, 23rd) which faced south overlooking a park and with a view of Pike's Peak
beyond, (^)
Wallace Hoyt was a blacksmith and carriagemaker, moderately suc-
(14)
cessful although there was "not much money in Bernie's family." ' '
He worked for Albert C. Lighthall at 433 Blake Street until I883 when he established the firm of Hoyt & Savage, carriagemakers, at 347 Holladay with his partner Henry Savage, also a carriagemaker and blacksmith, which lasted for over fifteen years. For one year only, in 1891, the partnership was expanded to include James Moffat. From 1892 on, Wallace Hoyt was listed as the president and proprietor. In 1899 when his interests apparently turned to automobiles, Wallace worked for Woeber Carriage Company, wagon and carriage manufacturers and car builders. Later he worked for a number of different employers


10
until in 1920 when he retired. He died in 1926.
Youth
There was nothing paricularly unusual about Burnham Hoyt's
youth. "Burnham and his big brother, Merrill, were just ordinary
boys as they grew up, a bit more industrious than some of the other
youngsters. They sold The Rocky Mountain News all year round and
picked berries on nearby farms during the summer."
"He had the unique ability to work very hard and play very (17)
hard." ' He was very ingenious in his playmaking, being fond of puppet shows and other creative interaction with friends. He loved
"intellectual games, particularly word games and he doted on
„ (18) puns." '
These qualities and interests remained with him in his adult
life for he was known for his pungent humor with word and pen. He
was a cartoon critic and always drew pictures that were topical humor
(19)
and often critical of other architects. ' He was quick-witted with a knack for penning limericks.
Personality
Wallace Hoyt was a relaxed and outgoing man and a true free spiriti independent, uninhibited, explorative and gregarious, somewhat prone to restlessness and with a great love for people. These
(21)
were all qualities that Burnham also exhibited. ' '
Lydia Hoyt was a different personalityi tight and rigid in her ideas and "straight*-laced," like a "New-Englander" in the way she thought. She was a good, sensible person, simple and somewhat austere with an excellent ability to reason and with a strong sense of
determination. Burnham had a similar systematic mind-being especi-
(22)
ally fond of mathematical and musical manipulations. ' His strong


11
sense of determination was evident in one anecdote of his later life when one day he decided to find out if he or cigarettes were stronger. After years of smoking incessantly in all that he did, he quit from that moment on.
It was this blending of two distinctly different personalities
that lead to an observation of Hoyt later in his life: "He may some-
times appear a formalist, but he has a strong Bohemian strain." ' '
The dichotomy could be seen in his relations with others. He
was a very popular person whom "everybody adored because he was
creative and he was a critical person, in the sense that he didn't
(25)
fall for everything." ' ' As a person he was "the most dynamic,
the most rewarding person to know. One could never be bored a moment / 26 \
in his presence. ' ' And yet there was part of his mother in him; "his face can be quiet and stern in reserve, and if he does not want to talk he'll shut up tighter than a storm window. But with a group of friends, his fg.ce grows bright with animation, and his conversa-! tion is fast and witty."
Talent
/ pQ \
Wallace Hoyt, a carriage "designer", ' had talent and as a
designer and workman "could do anything." Merrill and Burnham both
acquired their talent and drawing ability from him, with Merrill more
inclined to the technical and Burnham more to the design.
Lydia Hoyt, although not artistic hereself, was refined and knew
her sons' abilities and encouraged their artistic talent and insisted
that her sons go into architecture because they could draw very (29)
well. ' ' Burnham was further encouraged to develop his talent by
his brother, Merrill, who readily acknowledged his artistic ability. "Ever since he could hold a pencil, Burnham had been drawing -


12
starting out with sketches of trains only he could recognize. It never occurred to him that he would be anything but an architect like his older brother.”
Besides being the most artistic in the family, Burnham also appreciated art more, being especially fond of the old masters. His artistic ability extended into many art forms - from architecture to
(31)
painting, ' drawing and watercolor, to sculpture and music. His music ability was demonstrated in his youth, and, when his parents were unable to afford a violin, a musician, George Hanney, gave him one. As a youth he played at the Boulevard Methodist Church and later (1920's) occasionally with the Denver Symphony. He would often entertain internationally known violinists in his home and play with them. <32>
During his life Burnham Hoyt's favorite painters were Braque,
Picasso, Bonard and all impressionists, as well as the masters, while
his favorite composers were Bach, Vivaldi, Beethovan, Brahms and (33)
Gershwin, His most respected architects were Louis Sullivan, as
an historic figure, and B. Goodhue, and Fisher & Fisher as contemporaries, as well as Victor Hombein and James Sudler of the next gener (3M
ation, ' His taste ranged from the greats of history and of contemporary life.
APPRENTICESHIP (1904-1919)
The architectural training of Burnham Hoyt seemed to be filled with a mixture of growth and frustration - both used to his benefit as he searched and discovered the meaning of architecture for himself in each new office or situation. From each experience he discovered


13
and. adapted bits and pieces that were to remain evident in his work throughout his life.
His training began with Kidder and Wieger where he gained a strong technical background. In Post's office, Hoyt gained a professional attitude for his work. With his Beaux-Arts training he developed his design ability. In Goodhue's office he found encouragement in his evolving design approach. From his World War I experience Hoyt became aware of both the Gothic and Vernacular architecture of France.
Kidder and Wieger (1904-1908)
Upon graduating North Side High School in 1904, Burnham Hoyt ap-
(35)
prenticed with the firm of Kidder and Wieger, ' ' with offices at
628 14th Street in Denver. Two reasons could be hypothesized for this choice. First Kidder was the architect of Boulevard Congregational Methodist Church at W. 26th and Federal where the Hoyt family attended, (36) an£ *secon{it Kidder was a noted architect and civil engineer having written. Kidder's Architect's and Builders' Handbook in 1884; a book that eventually went through eighteen editions up to
1944 and in later years was known as Kidder-Parker Architects' and
(37)
Builders' Handbook. w '
Kidder worked as a consulting architect as well as practicing; his specialty was church design, although he also sectored commercial and residential commissions.
In the office of Franklin E. Kidder, Burnham Hoyt received excellent training in the technical skills necessary as an architect. Kidder attempted to be "stylistically flexible and suit his building to the demand or desires of his client," stressing the practical as-


14
pects of the building more than the "effects" or styles. He was an
architect concerned with "good, solid and intelligent architecture," but it was not very exciting. Hoyt worked as a draftsman, begin-
ning at five dollars a month. Even though he gained the knowledge of fundamentals and the necessary technical background, he was not growing as a designer since the work done in the office was "not up
to snuff or up-to-date." After Kidder's death in October 1905»
(40)
T. Robert Wieger took on the architect Albert A. Baerresen ' 7 as a
partner for a short time in 1906 but thereafter continued the office practice as T. Robert Wieger, architect.
At this time, Burnham's brother, Merrill, married and working for William E. Fisher, encouraged Burnham to further develop his artistic ability* "I always meant to do more studying, but I never seemed to find the time. But I want you to take the time right now.
(4l)
I hope you'll go to New York and get all the learning you can." v '
Taking his brother's advice, Burnham Hoyt left for New York City in
1908 with two companions, one a painter, in search of new experi-
(^2)
ences. to offer.
Denver had become too small while New York had everything
(^3)
George B. Post (1908-1915)
Upon his arrival in New York, Burnham Hoyt joined the firm of George Browne Post and Sons. It has not been established whether he joined the firm because of its size, being about the largest archi-tectual practice at that time; because of its reputation, being an extensive commercial practice with Post receiving many national honors; or because of some other reason. Whatever the reason, it proved to be a valuable experience for the next seven years.


15
At this time George Post was a "prominant New York architect and
a noted architect of large city hotels, business and commercial struc-
(44)
tures",., ' and was still active in his office though in his seventies. In 1904 Post had taken on his two sons, William Stone and James Otis Post in partnership and practiced under the name of George B. Post and Sons. His sons were both trained in the Beaux-Arts tradition, with J. Otis having graduated from the Ecole des Beaux Arts of Paris and later being appointed to the committee on Education
of the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, with Raymond Hood as chair-(45)
man. v ' The Post office did numerous commercial buildings as Mr.
Post was a pioneer in high rise commercial architecture. His work was from "before the innovation of 'skeleton' construction, but in an era that (might) be called 'transitional' when the passenger elevator was the only new factor in buildings." He was more involved in
the developments of the modern skyscraper than any of his contemporaries outside the^ Chicago School. During this time the firm did work on such buildings ast the Cleveland Trust Company (1907-08) in a Classical style} 344 Fourth Avenue (New York, 1910-11) in a Sullivan-esque style; and the Williamson Building (Cleveland, 1912) in a Renaissance style. The firm was also noted for the development of modern hotel planning, as exemplified by: the Pontiac (Detroit, 1911-
12); the Statler (Cleveland, 1912); the numerous other Statler hotels
(47)
in several cities. v '
Post was "known as 'a great planner,' his success in architecture
...attributed largely to his firm belief in the importance of sound
construction, and an honest effort to meet the requirements of his (48)
clients." ' ' This success was evident in winning entries of two
national competitions: City College of New York (1900); and the


16
Wisconsin State Capital (190*4-), and also in his "being selected by
Burnham and Root to design the Liberal Arts Building at the World's
Columbian Exposition in Chicago (1893) because he was representative
(*4-9)
of the best architectural talent in America.
Post's favorite style was the French Renaissance, but in
his later practice there was exhibited a strong leaning to classical form due in part to the spirit of the times eminating from the classic expression of the Columbian Exposition and reinforced by the Post's sons' Beaux-Arts training.
Only a few facts could be found concerning Burnham's Hoyt's experiences in New York at this time. He lived in an apartment with two or three other young men from the Post's office. The fact that he was naive at first could be seen from the story of an event that occurred shortly after his arrival: Burnham Hoyt went to an office dinner which Mr, Post gave for his employees. Burnham went to the formal dinner with patches on his trousers, "sitting next to Mr. Post and being without proper etiquette,"
In spite of, or perhaps because of, this slow start, Mr. Post
(52)
liked Burnham very much, and there was a strong mutual admiration.
It would be safe to assume that George Post's example of professional service had an effect on the young Hoyt. Post was a fellow of the American Institute of Architects (president in 1896-97, Gold Medal recipient in 1911), an elected associate of the National Academy of Design (academician in 1907), an appointed member of the Permanent Committee of the International Congress of Architects (1908), a Presidential (Roosevelt) appointee to the Commission of Fine Arts, an honorary member of the Royal Institute of British Architects, and a recipient of the French government's Chevalier de la Legion d'Honour


17
(1901). (53)
From Mr. Post's example, Burnham Hoyt began to form an image of an architect as one who was cultured and respected within his profession, extending beyond even to a total way of life - a lifestyle of quiet, simple elegance.
The work attributed to Burnham Hoyt in the Posts' office con-sisted of: "drawing the plans for the Wisconsin State Capital;" v ' and working on the Statler Hotels, and other commercial projects
with varying degrees of increasing responsibility.
Through Post's pioneering work with highrise commercial buildings
i
Hoyt became familiar with the latest technological and constructional innovations of the day. Hoyt probably also became familiar with the work and philosophy of Louis Sullivan since George Post was acquainted with the work of Sullivan in skyscraper development and in the Columbian Exposition. The building at 3^ Fourth Avenue, New York City strongly resembled Sullivan's Wainwright Building, St. Louis, and the Guarenty Sank Building, Buffalo, New York. Also the firm of Post and Sons was noted'for making "an honest effort to meet the re-quirements of....clients." - a statement strongly reminiscent of
I
!
Sullivan's philosophy of "form follows function." This concept of
â– 
an organic architecture, first fulfilling the needs of the client and growing out of these needs, was one that Hoyt continued to develop in his later architecture.
i The Beaux-Arts Institute of Design (1909-1915)
The office of Post and Sons probably encouraged Hoyt to begin studies at the Society of Beaux-Arts Architects since J. Otis Post took a strong interest in the design education of young architects


18
and several employees were already involved. "In many cases drafts-
(“57
men could attend some night atelier and thus improve his position."
Here was the opportunity for Burnham Hoyt to systematically develop and refine his philosophy of design in a structured process of design problems and competitions. He had never considered going to an architectural school which he felt "tended to be too academic and spoilers of creativity." ' He began his study in the Society of Beaux-Arts Architects (-*9) ^909 and entered the Atelier Ware
while still working for Post and Sons. Hoyt^was probably introduced to Ware by Post who knew him as a fellow student in Richard Morris Hunt's Atelier. Hoyt probably chose the Ware Atelier because of Ware's predominance in architectural education (established the architect-ual schools at M.I.T, in 1866 and at Columbia in 1881.)
The first year or two were spent in Class B design problems, accumulating points necessary to move on to Class A work and competitions, This was the time for developing drawing skills and ex-
ploring the possibilities of design. From the year 1911 and on, his list of accomplishments- at the Society were beginning to become impressive. In 1911 Hoyt won the first medal in the Warren Prize competition. From 1911—12 he won two first medals (Pupin Prize and Emerson Prize) and a third medal, as well as taking a second in the Paris Prize Competition, ' ^ ' In 1912-13 he again took a first medal for the Pupin Prize and a third medal as well as again taking a second in the Paris Prize.
In 1913-14 he competed for the Paris Prize again only to take second for the third time in a row. This repeated "failure" to capture first in the Paris Prize was a tremendous disappointment in his
(64)
life, and an experience about which he never said much. v ' Yet "a


19
man (had) to be good to place second In the Paris Prize Competition three times in succession as did Burnham Hoyt," (^5) According to age limits (28) he had one more chance to achieve a first, but the competition in 191^-15 was not held because of the war in Europe.
What Hoyt had considered a setback in his life (always second-never first) might be seen as a blessing from three standpoints: first, he was not submitted to the classicism of the Ecole and was thus free from its dominating influence; second, because of his determinism (he was "a never-weary student") Jhe was propelled to greater efforts in his developing design ability - continually striving to do better and never being totally satisfied; and third, it opened up the opportunity for his working with Bertram Goodhue.
To summarize Burnham Hoyt’s achievements, he was awarded the Pupin Prize (Twice), the Emerson Prize, the Warren Prize, a second in the LeBrun Prize and, for three consecutive years, a second in the Paris Prize, as well as several third place medals. The Warren Prize
9
was given for a plan competition, while the Emerson and Pupin Prizes were for decorative competitions. The LeBrun Prize was a traveling scholarship.
Most of the Beaux-Arts problems were "plan problems": the essential requirement of these problems was the formation of a scheme or "parti* and its clear expression. Each of these problems called for an elevation and many also required a section. Yet the scale of these presentations were so small that the study was only in the arrangement of the big elements of the composition.
The decorative problems were issued as "primarily studies in composition, in elevation or section - studies in the use and combina-tion of motives, in ornament, in character and personality." ' '


20
This was presented with a plain, but the problem was primarily one of arrangement of parts and detail - the composition of architectural forms.
Burnham Hoyt did well in plan problems, where he exhibited a strong scheme or concept, as well as in decorative problems where he concentrated on detail and refinement. His projects showed strong ideas with unity of concept and a daring explorative nature and were thoroughly thought out in proportion and detailing.
An example of the type of work he did would be the 1913 Paris Prize submission which was won by Grant M. Simon. The winner's design for "The Monumental Treatment of The End of Manhatten Island" (Fig. 2) was logical and conservative, but the jury "expressed the one regret that his work was perhaps lacking in imagination". This was a strong criticism and further called attention to the "brillant show in the drawings of Hoyt." ' ' Hoyt's design (Fig. 3) was evaluated in 1926
as "the most imaginative drawing ever submitted in a student competi-
9
tion in America." In contrast to Simon's presentation the jury praised Hoyt's presentation for "its great imaginative quality...it was a most daring conception, showing much thought, feeling and artistic ability." Hoyt's conception was based on the quote of Langwell;
"New York, the crucible, where the great alchemist melts and fuses with his purging flame the Gelt, Saxon, Slav and Teuton, Latin, Greek, Syrian and Jew into a new race, rising Phoenix - like from the fire." Hoyt's design exhibited a rising Phoenix - like quality
of expressionist mood that was totally alien to the more visual classical style of Simon. The entry was similar in style to that of Sullivan's National Farmers Bank, Owatonna, Minnesota (1906-08). The sculptural forms showed a distinct abstract modernism similar to that seen in


21
(Fig.3.) Paris Prize, Second Place (Burnham Hoyt)


22
Goodhue's work.
Another example of Hoyt's work was the 1911 Warren Prize, "A Conclave Building for the Election of a Sovereign Pontiff;" this was considered "one of the best in the history of that competition."
"In this competition documents and criticisms (could) be used, and it (was) interesting to recognize in this plan the recall of various documents which.,,inspired it. The individual habitations for the prelates, surrounding the big classical court, (were) just such as those at the churches of S.M. Degli Angeli - the loggia at the front (had) something of the character of the loggia of the Villa Madama," His Warren Prize drawing was considered a good example of a well presented sketch problem.
"His talents were so manifest that patron Ware appointed him as
(71)
his assistant." ' This was a normal practice for the top students in an atelier to serve as the chief critic of design, and this position. The direct influence of Ware in the atelier was probably small at the time that*Hoyt was there, since he had retired as Dean of the
School of Architecture -of Columbia University and lived in Milton,
(72)
Massachusetts, where he died June 9» 1915. It was at about this
time that Hoyt ceased his study at the Society of Beaux-Arts Archi-
(73)
tects and the Atelier Ware. v '
Bertram G. Goodhue (1915-1917)
A number of circumstances brought Hoyt to a position as a designer in the firm of Bertram Grosevenor Goodhue, Architect. First, George Post died on November 28, 1913» and the subsequent work of the office under the direction of his sons was becoming increasingly classic in its orientation while Hoyt was moving in the new direction


23
of abstraction, with expression and simplicity in his design which was similar to the style becoming evident in the work of Goodhue. Second, the death of William Ware on June 9» 1915> and the close of the Ware Atelier, along with the elimination of the Paris Prize for 1915* concluded Hoyt's association with the Society of Beaux-Arts Architects as a student. And finally, Bertram Goodhue had opened his own office in New York late in 191^ to pursue his own philosophy of architecture that had departed from the Gothic style of his former partner, Ralph Gram. Within the work of Goodhue was the germ of an architecture that was sympathetic to Hoyt's at this particular moment
(74)
of time. "Hoyt had a tremendous respect for Goodhue." ' /
In 1915 Goodhue's works exhibited the following features which
would have appealed to Hoyt: (l) an unerring eye for picturesque
composition; (2) an interesting grouping of parts, i.e., the San
Diego Exposition; (3) a joy in perfecting and making interesting the
(75)
smallest detail; ' J (4) an ability to abstract the spirit of a style (i.e. Gothic), rather than repeating its archeological form, in order to express cultural ideas and ideals. His works were
(76)
"purely creative and Goodhue believed them to be truly American." '
"He believed that a new era should be clothed with a new garment and that the genius of America demanded a more vital expression than Gothic."
Goodhue was against academicism in architectural training, believing that "a good architect is a poet," born and not made. His office practice was founded upon the principle that "there should be no head draftsman..." ^' ' Of the men in his office that Goodhue held in high esteem it was said that "he had a great deal to do with making each of them, and took pride in their success in measuring up to his
I


zb
standards and expectations. He afforded opportunity and encouraged
(79)
initiative on their part." v ' And Goodhue's office did attract many talented men in the profession including Clarence S, Stein (1911-18). Stein later became a foremost planner in housing and town planning, including Radbum, New Jersey.
Hoyt and Goodhue had a very open relationship; Hoyt "worked for
/ Ql \
and with Bertram Goodhue," ^ ' and was appreciated for his design
talent. It was at this time that Hoyt won the 1917 Poster Competition sponsored by the Art Alliance of America for. the design of the Second Liberty Loan Campaign, which had received submissions from more than 150 prominent American artists and designers, "The winning of this contest placed (him) in rank with the foremost designers in this
/ Op\
country." ' Of specific work that Hoyt did in the office, it was
only known that he detailed the interior carvings in St. Bartholomew's
(88 ^
Church in New York. ' ' Yet Hoyt's later work showed a close resem-
blence to some of Goodhue's work in Hawaii, California and Tyrone,
New Mexico that was done in "a Spanish colonial style of a fine imaginative effect."
This association was prematurely cut short by the United States entrance into World Ware I and Hoyt's enlistment in the Army.
World War I (1917-1919)
In the summer of 1917 Burnham Hoyt enlisted in the newly created camouflage corps with twelve other noted New York Architects, "in order that the government would have full benefit of his abili-
/ O c \
ties," ' He served with distinction for eighteen months with the 2^5th, Company A, 40th Engineers, Rainbow division in France and Brussels rising to the rank of Top Sargent. The camouflage corps,


25
consisting of architects and painters, designed huge canvases to
place over hospitals, roads and fortifications in order to "deceive
(86)
hostile aviators." ' 'It was while Hoyt was working on the screening
of heavy artillery guns in July, 1918, that he was wounded by
shrapnel in his leg. He continued to wear "a little lump of shrapnel
on the back of his hand under the skin, like a peculiar 'knuckle-
(87)
ring' for the rest of his life." ' '' He recovered in time to be in the Argonne when the Armistic came. During 1918 he also contracted the flu which was given as a probable cause of the Parkinson's disease which later wasted his physical strength when he was at the height of his career.
While in France Hoyt did a lot of sketching and was impressed with the Gothic cathedrals and even more with the simple, indigenous, anonymous architecture, A few of his watercolors did remain in his family, but most were given away by Hoyt to friends.
Little was known about this period because Hoyt would not talk about his war experience, for it made him "terribly upset." He
was reluctant to talk about any of his past experiences; during one interview in his later life, when questioned about his early experiences, he said with an impatient gesture, "But I don't want to talk
about these personal things, nobody cares about them." Thus, most
(91)
of his personal experiences and feelings went unrecorded. ' '
PARTNERSHIP (1919-1926)
The next seven years were a period of two major activities which intensely engrossed Burnham Hoyt upon his return to Denver from military service in 1919. First, the firm of M.H, Hoyt and B. Hoyt was


26
formally established, and rapidly became recognized as a major design firm, first locally and then nationally. Second, the Atelier Denver was organized with Burnham Hoyt as patron and chief creative force for local students of architecture.
Atelier Denver (1919-1926)
On September 10, 1919, at the Fishers' office, the Atelier
Denver was organized so that, as Gordon D, White, the first massier
(student manager) put it, "all architectural draftsmen in the city
(would have) an opportunity to study and execute the current problems
issued by the Institute and to foster cordial relations among the men
interested in the profession. This organization is a student affair,
(92)
run by them, and depends on their interest for its support," v '
Some professionals who were involved at the organization were:
Arthur A, Fisher who was correspondent with Lloyd Warren, the director
of the Beaux^Arts Institute of Design in New York; Lester Varian who
was an Ecole-des-*3eaux-Arts man; Burnham Hoyt and P. Savin who were
patrons of architecture; W.E. Musk who was patron of mural painting;
R. Garrison who was patron of sculpture; and J.W. Rennell who was
patron of industrial design, "It was Mr, Fisher’s vision of the
Atelier which (was) now becoming a reality," (93) phis was -the only
such Beaux-Arts Atelier in the entire West except for the west
(9Z4.)
coast, ' ' The Atelier fulfilled a real need "to instruct for the
minimum cost, to give members criticism from artists in active practice, and to carry students into the application and practice of the (95)
arts." ' ' Quarters were found in the old Cactus Club Building at
Colfax and Pennsylvania, (9&) anip each Tuesday and Saturday evening
(97)
criticisms by the patrons were given on the work being done.


27
As patron of the Atelier, the chief professional critic of design, Burnham Hoyt's strong influence was evident by the many prizes won by students of the Atelier. In the first year alone, two first prizes were takem the H.W. Jacobs prize by Arthur 0. Ahlberg and the Warren Prize by Gordon White; in addition: Mr. Ahlberg won two third medals; Charles Kellogg, a first mention; and Roland Linder and G. Meredith Musick, mentions for their work. Again in 192^-
25 first medals were won by Linder and two by W.H. Speer for Class A projects; in addition there were seventeen olther mentions on various designs. In 1925-26 Speer won a second medal. This was an im-
pressive record for a new atelier which was competing on a national scale with the best students of universities and ateliers. This record was reflective, not only of the talent exhibited by the students and the spirit of cooperation within the atelier, but also of the strength of criticism and direction with which Burnham Hoyt exhibited his influence. After Hoyt left the Atelier there were only two second medals* won: one by G. Charles Jaka in 1926-27 who
had been under the influence of Hoyt in previous years; and one by Robert Morris in 1931-32.
In analyzing the first medal winners of 192^-25, Burnham Hoyt's influence could be seen. "A Crematory" by Linder showed a strong simplicity in plan and elevation, being classic in design with some resemblence to Hoyt's 1921 design for the Highland's Masonic Temple. "A Crematory" by Speer resembled in plan and elevation the Nebraska State Capitol by Goodhue, but with a lower dome being very simplified in its form and sculpture. The other first medal project by
Speer, "An office building", was more Gothic in design, showing again a Hoyt-Goodhue influence.


28
The Atelier Denver was indeed, the center of creative effort in
the early 1920's, Burnham Hoyt had a large following there with
forty to fifty people actively engaged at any one time. With his
energy and ingeneous creativity Hoyt was the driving force of the
Atelier, In addition to providing criticisms he produced annual
theater productions at the Atelier, a practice that had proven very
(104)
successful in building comraderie in Goodhue's office. ' '
As part of the Atelier's being the center of creativity in Denver, besides the normal Beaux-Arts program, they also sponsored art classes, one of which was a life drawing class. It was through some mutual friends in this class that Mildred Fuller, the future Mrs. Hoyt, was introduced to the Atelier and to Burnham Hoyt in the
1920's. was a most popular bachelor, and thus had no in-
clination to seriously consider marriage at this time.
Hoyt's association with the Atelier was in his own words, "a very pleasant occupation. The students worked very hard every night, and once a year we put on our yearly party and pageant. But the organization finally got to be too social, and we dropped it."
The Atelier died in spirit after he left in 1926,
M.H. Hoyt and 3. Hoyt (1919-1926)
Upon Burnham Hoyt's return to Denver from the service in 1919, the firm of M.H. Hoyt and B. Hoyt was formally established, even though in actuality Burnham Hoyt had been doing the design work for Merrill's independent practice from its inception in 1915. In fact, Burnham Hoyt had maintained an office at 201 Colorado National Bank, next-door to his brother's office, since 1916.
Their*s was a very friendly association, for they brought to


29
the partnership complementary skills and a tremendous respect for each other's competences. Merrill had the strongest regard for Burnham's design ability while Burnham respected Merrill for his ability to coordinate and supervise the business. "Merrill's
gifts were to the practical side, while Burnham's were more to the imaginative and artistic side." "Together they designed a
number of Denver buildings and residential show places." The
only employees of the firm that have been identified were: Charles H. Kellogg, Earl C. Morris and Charles H. Overholt.
The firm was practicing during the time when Denver architects
j
were coming into their own, "evolving a Denver style." The Denver style was the result of a search for an architecture that would be reflective of the city's georgraphic and climatic conditions. The search looked for precedent within Denver's geographic region and within regions similar to Denver. Two major styles were seen as "expressing a real feeling for this climate;" first was the southwestern or Spanish, drawing its image from the indigenous pueblo styles and the Spanish colonial styles which respected a hot, arid climate "in its vaultings and in the depth of its reveals;" second was the style from the Lombard region in Italy which was the
style most reflective of direct regional influence, both in its
â– 
mossing and in its use of brick. The stated local feeling of architects in the 1920's was that "the most consistent form of architecture for Denver and Colorado would be the use of Spanish and North Italian styles."
This "Denver-style" can be seen in the early works of the Hoyts in two of their early commissions (1920); Park Hill Branch Library with the Spanish colonial influence and the North Side Christian


30
Science Church in a modified. Italian style. Thus, we might see an early interest on the part of the Hoyts in developing a style reflective of Denver - an interest which was well among the earliest in Denver. This interest could have been in part, a reflection of Goodhue's interest in a native American style based on the Southwest architecture.
Even though they were concerned about the developing Denver style, the Hoyts were adept in designing in any style, depending upon the symbolic requirements of the project; thqs an addition to Colorado National Bank was almost pure Greek classic historcism with great integrity showing no compromise to modern tendencies. The Highland Masonic Temple was of renaissance classicism in proportion and detail, showing a mannerist tendency with open pediments enclosed by window moldings (the classic style abstracted with great power).
Saint Martin's Chapel, a simple honest and elegant tiny chapel, was an addition to the complex at St. Jawes Cathedral done in the Gothic style in harmony with the spirit of the grouping and also in harmony with existing buildings-in the environment. Lake Junior High School was in the English Tudor style which was a more domestic style than the collegiate Gothic, yet maintaining the academic context as well as the brick Denver image,
Burnham Hoyt was very facile in his use of different styles, understanding their basic principles in order to use them for their symbolic intention in expressing a particular sense of experience, often simplifying to the point of abstraction. His work showed an integrity to his client, a desire for simplifying rather than embellishing design, and a strong sense of site (i.e,, Masonic Temple,
Lake Junior High School).


31
In 1926 the firm was at its height of productivity with 118 projects in various stages. (^5) But despite this success Burnham Hoyt was beginning to feel restless, to feel that he was "not getting ahead." His "feeling the need for greater scope in design"
could have been indicative of his growing lack of satisfaction with his eclectic design. He was probably beginning to be aware of a radical new wave of architecture in Europe and was anxious to travel there, so he left the firm and went to Europe. Other factors that could have contributed to his restlessness were his father's death in 1926 and the change to a social emphasis of The Atelier Denver.
Maturation (1926-1933)
These next few years in New York were filled with events that dramatically brought together many ideas and experiences which Hoyt had been developing through the years into a philosophy and approach to architecture which was clearly exhibited in his mature design after his return to Denver. The experiences in New York did not create a totally new attitude to architecture for Hoyt, but they reconfirmed that which had already begun to develop within him.
"Tired of Denver and of work after six years, Mr. Hoyt went to Europe, visiting France, Italy and Spain." His study in Europe
was again never without pencil and paper, although again few drawings have remained in his family. Again his interest was with the
logical integrity of Gothic architecture and the character and simplicity of vernacular architecture.
Whether Hoyt intended to return to Denver or to stay in New York after his travels in Europe was not really known. The deciding factor in his decision to stay in New York must have been the man,


32
Harry Emerson Fosdick. Returning from Europe, Hoyt "met Dr.
Harry Emerson Fosdick on the boat, and that ended up in four years of work on the design of the interior of the Riverside Baptist Church." Dr. Fosdick was an extraordinary personality and a
progressive reformer of Christianity - more concerned with the results of Christianity then dogma (the change it produced in one's life rather than its strict theology). He felt that Christianity should enter the world and grapple with problems therein. "Fosdick urges us to abandon antiquated forms and theologies which cannot be applied
to our modem problems. He invites us to make our spiritual life a
(122)
great adventure." v ' Within this philosophy Hoyt found an expression of his own architectural ideals, and a mutual friendship developed
(123)
even though Hoyt himself was not a particularly religious man. '
Felton, Allen and Collens (1926-1930)
Of this association with Fosdick, Burnham Hoyt modestly said,
"Dr. Fosdick knew I was an architect and he may have had something to
0
do with my work on the Riverside Baptist Church in New York. I don't
know. Through other friends I was introduced to Pelton, Allen and
(124)
Collens, ' ' the firm designing the church, I was employed by
them to do the interiors of the building,"
His major effort was in the design of the reredos and doorway which kept him busy full-time for the next four years with minor work on the interiors that kept him occupied off and on for two more years after it was opened to the public in October, 1930. "Feeling
that he needed to know more about stone reredos in order to design for the church, Hoyt made another trip to France and England to
(12'
study. When he returned, he completed his work on the church,


33
and often worked closely with the client. "Mr, Hoyt remembers John D. Rockefeller, Jr., one of the church committee members, as a hard-working man who always came to meetings on the church, his briefcase bulging with work to do. But in spite of his many other interests, he always had a complete grasp of the church project."
It was likely that this association with clients, like Rockefeller and Fosdick, was the main attraction for Hoyt as opposed to any architectural merits of the firm, since he really disliked the church design. He was so dissatisfied with the way that architecture was being practiced in general and with the Riverside Church in particular, that he stated, "I hate architecture."
This crucial turning point in his life stemmed from his attitude of never being satisfied with what he had done whether at the Society of Beaux-Arts Architects or with his brother or here at Riverside or even in his later work. This attitude enabled him to grow and advance from one achievement to the next and might very well be the clue to his adaptability to the great transition architecture was making. "Any new concept he was interested in he had to explore it, and he would jump off from there." This inquisitiveness and
sense of adventure with architecture, which had always existed in his work, took a strong hold at this time as a reaction against Riverside Church and helped, along with other developments in this last New York stay, to form his mature philosophy toward architecture.
In 1931» the American Architect magazine published a criticism of the Riverside Church as well as a rebuttal to that criticism.
Many of the major concepts of the criticism were so in tune with Hoyt's thinking that he incorporated them into his later stated philosophy. The criticism by Walter Taylor, A.I.A., lecturer in


34
history of architecture at Columbia University, in reproving the incongruous use of making a steel building conform illogically to the profile of Gothic architecture, stated that "Gothic architecture is the dramatization and embellishment of a method of construction."
The underlined portion of that quote was later given by Hoyt as his philosophy of architecture. The article went on to discuss the virtues of Gothic architecture in which "every part and every motif of this style,.,had a structural function or significance." This was also later incorporated by Hoyt as he used the structural system as the decorative system in congruity as his style evolved. The criticism continued by extolling the Gothic builders who pushed engineering to the limit, "guided by fundamental principles of esthetic design... the proven design formula for creative architecture and not the process of imposing archeological forms." This was Hoyt's formula for design also. Taylor concluded by calling for an architecture as progressive and great as Fosdick, the man. The preacher of this church warns us repeatedly of the danger of being so absorbed in formalism and details that we lose sight of great and fundamental principles." This was another major guiding principle of Hoyt's
The rebuttal by Charles Crane, of the office of Henry Pelton, was weak in comparison. He rationalized that Gothic was an appropriate style for the church, being equated with Christianity, and yet taking advantage of all the modern developments of engineering. This approach, where style was more important than substance, was not in agreement with Fosdick's theology. Crane tried to show that since "the history of architecture shows a gradual evolution and a blending of one style with another" that Gothic can blend with modern steel construction. He concluded with the short-sighted


35
statement that "...up to the present time no definite characteristics of this new style not subject to controversy amongst the 'modernists' themselves have developed..." The weakness of this argument
became more apparent as time passed. In contrast Hoyt had awareness of the continuity of universal principles of the past that remained valid for this new modem architecture.
During this time Burnham Hoyt continued to design long distance
(133)
for his brother Merrill, ' ' although the depression had decreased
tremendously the offices' workload. When Burnham came back from Europe in 1928 he began at the same time to teach at New York University. "Both jobs meant he was working at least twelve hours every day."
New York University (1928-1933)
Architecture was established at New York University in 1926 as a course in the Department of Fine Arts. It was organized under the direction of Edward. Raymond Bossange, who had previously been
head of the school at Princeton University. The course was arranged in conjunction with the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, with an entrance requirement of five years of office practice, and lead to a diploma. Special efforts were made to provide a program that was very flexible for the convenience of students who worked in offices; thus they had an extensive night school, A program leading to a Bachelor of Architecture degree was added in 1928 within the new Department of Architecture in the College of Fine Arts. In 1930 Bossange was appointed the Dean of the College and Director of the Department. The graduate degree of Master of Architecture was first offered in 1932. Finally in 1935 the College of Fine Arts was made
|


36
an independent School of Architecture with Bossange as Dean,
Burnham Hoyt was first listed in the faculty directory for the
second term of 1928-29 as an instructor in design; by the school
year 1931-32, as an instructor in architecture; and from 1933 until
his final entry in 1935-36 he carried the title of assistant pro-
(137)
fessor of design. ' ' In 1930 he might well have been in charge as
(138)
head of design.
atelier system of the Beaux-Arts.
After the completion of Riverside Church. Hoyt's work for Pelton,
He organized and ran the studios around the
(139)
Allen and Collens was minimal. He was teaching at New York Univer-
(iho)
sity nights because he needed the money. v ' The depression was having its effect on the work at Merrill's office as evidence by his associating himself with the Allied Architects on the Denver City Hall. Burnham Hoyt might have been trying to develop a modest independent practice because at this time he designed a weekend re-
(1M)
sidence in Londonderry, Vermont using an old bam as material. v
0
The New York University Bulletin stated that he was a practicing architect, although this might have only indicated his partnership with Merrill. He was also affiliated with the Architectural League of New York having been elected to membership in 1926.
The architectural design produced at New York University in 1930 was some of the most modem in its austerity of any work submitted to the Beaux Arts Institute of Design from any university or atelier;
New York University students were gaining many medals and first men-tions on projects. ' ' This advanced design undoubtedly reflected
the philosophy of design critics at the school.
While on the faculty, Hoyt had the opportunity of working with


37
some of the most important leaders of modern American Architecture.
On the Board of Directors of the Department of Architecture was
Raymond Hood, "the symbol of an era unexampled alike for its brevity
and brillance." During this time Hood was searching for an honest
expression of the American skyscraper. "Adventurously, he never
pursued the same path twice;" as an illustration he produced two
examples of utter simplification! the vertical, or Gothic, exphasis
of the New York Daily News Building in 1930, and the horizontal, or
International, McGraw Hill Building in 1931•- Hood died at the height
of his career in 193^ after revolutionizing the architecture of the
skyscraper from the Chicago Tribune Tower (1922) to the Rockefeller
Center (193^)« In 1929-30, Ely Jacques Kahn taught at New York
University; his architecture had a rectilinear cubal look with equal
(1^5)
emphasis upon horizontal and vertical structure, ' ' In 1930-31
Henry Wright was a special lecturer in city planning. In 1932-33 William E. Lescaze was also on the faculty, as a visiting critic in design, bringing a first-hand European mind to the school. His noted work of this period was-the very advanced, European modern, functionalist expression of the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society Building (1931) done in association with George Howe. Lescaze*s
philosophy of functionalism had as its basis Sullivan's "form follows (1^7)
function." ' These, as well as other architects, made Hoyt's New York University teaching experience a tremendous intellectually stimulating adventure of prime importance in refining his philosopy of architecture.
Museum of Modern Art (1932)
In 1932 The Museum of Modern Art presented an international ex-


38
hibition on "Modern Architecture" which was "virtually the first
presentation of modern architecture to the American public and to
(1^8)
American architects." ' Here in one grand exhibit were presented
the works and ideas of many modern architects working independently
and then brought together as a cohesive force of international unity
of the modern movement in architecture. This exhibition identified
a commonly accepted discipline and vocabulary with esthetic principles
"based primarily upon the nature of materials and structure and upon
modern requirements in planning;" these werej (l) a conception of
building in terms of volume or space enclosed by plane and surface
as opposed to mass and solidity; (2) regularity or vertical and
horizontal repetition as the basis of composition as opposed to
central axis; (3) flexibility as expressed in the building plan; and
(4) technical expression and detail perfection and fineness of pro-
(149)
portions as a substitute for applied ornament. ' 7 Hoyt saw and
appreciated and understood the International Style Exhibit.
Since 1925 £here had been only isolated articles in American architectural journals -and only a few books (Vers une Architecture by LeCorbusier, English edition in 1928, and Modern Architecture by Henry - Russell Hitchcock in 1929) available to arouse interest.
But here at the exhibition was "the revelation of a challenging new world which had an immediate and extremely important influence on students but only the most open-minded of the older architects were at all convinced." The museum noticed "a tendency toward the confluence of the seemingly irreconcilable architectural idioms of Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier." These ideas of Wright, with out-reaching houses, warm materials and an affinity with the earth, seemingly had little to do with the closed forms, cool austerities


39
and. weightlessness of the international style yet they shared the basic principles identified by the exhibit. "The positive influence of Wright upon the development of new theories was carefully traced" by the Museum.
Some process of humanization was necessary before the new
architecture could be whole-heartedly accepted by Americans;
"the new European architecture opened our eyes, stimulated our minds and finally did materialize as an important influence on the American scene, but in conjunction with two other factors: first, a strong, new interest in Frank Lloyd Wright.,.,; and second, a revaluation of...traditional vernacular buildings. Architects looked again at the stone and wood barns of Pennsylvania, the white clapboard walls of New England....They were not interested in the picturesque details of these buildings, but in their straight forward use of material and their subtle adaptation to climate and topagraphy." (152)
The Museum followed up this exhibit with others with which Burnham was undoubtedly familiar: In 1933» an exhibition of "American
Architecture", and "early Modern Architecture, Chicago 1870-1910" which researched the history of the skyscraper and the work of mid-western architect’s; in 1935» when Hoyt was still commuting between New York and Denver, "Recent Work of Le Corbusier" which was prepared to supplement lectures made by Le Corbusier during his visit to New York. ^53) humanizing principles of modern architecture became strongly evident in the work of Burnham Hoyt as he commenced his own practice.
In the early 1930’s, Burnham Hoyt's interests were becoming more contemporary not only in architecture but also in his other interests of painting and music; these other art forms reinforced his con-
(154)
cems about architecture. x ' He had several groups of friends, each within their own interests: one group of architects; one of
painters; one of musicians.


40
Especially prominent in painting at this time was the regionist school of Hopper and Benton which chose to emphasize naturalism and express regional qualities in painting - ignoring European influence and adopting a provincialism. (^^5) was the same time that Hoyt
began to gain a renewed interest in Southwest Spanish colonial and pueblo architecture which had remained dormant for a decade.
In 1931 following the death of their mother, his sister, Velma Reeve, visited him for three months. Among the sights that he showed her, which obviously excited him, were the Cloisters and the Chrysler Building, as well as his residence in Vermont. ^ere were ex-
pressions of the old and the new, as well as the new within the old, the reconciliation of "either-or" with "both."
Culmination (1933-1955)
On February 11, 1933» Merrill Hoyt unexpectedly died of a heart attack at the age* of 51« Merrill's death meant that Burnham Hoyt needed to return to finish his brother's commitments; "for a time he virtually commuted between New York and Denver by air to fill his obligations in each place." ^-57) p^g commuting continued until 1936, when he finally settled in Denver to head his own firm, because he was still on the faculty at New York University, probably as a visiting critic for the last three years. There were probably two reasons for the termination of this dual responsibility! (l) the new independent commissions that Hoyt was beginning to obtain in Denver (i.e. The Denver Sewage Plant); and (2) his marriage to Mildred Fuller in New York in 1936. They had long been the best of friends, each other's confidant, and had delayed marriage believing


41
that it "would ruin a good thing." (^8) They lived 1050 Sherman
until he built their own residence at 3130 East Exposition in 1948.
Hoyt's Denver office practice, 400 Colorado National Bank
Building, was for the most part a one-man office. For nearly twenty
years from 193? to 1955 he had one constant employee, Samuel McMurtrie,
who was Hoyt's alter ego, a very close and constant companion in his (159)
work. v Mildred Hoyt was often involved in the office practice as interior designer, doing the color schemes of many of his residences. Others who worked in Hoyt's office included Earl C.
Morris, Charles H. Overholt, Oscar G. Stronquist, Edward 0. Holien, and Arthur V, Hoyer. The office remained small with often no
more than a detail designer, chief draftsman, one or two draftsmen, building inspector and secretary. Hoyt was a very demanding employer; "things had to be just so.. .demanding excellence of others."
Although Burnham Hoyt achieved national recognition for his institutional work, he "derived his greatest satisfaction from designing residences" because of the more demanding and intricate
functional requirements. Because of his interest in designing residences and because of the economic depression, a large portion of Hoyt's work in-the 1930's and 1940*s were residences, either as new buildings or as additions and alterations. He designed houses for many of his friends, and many of his residential clients were also his clients for his commercial and institutional architecture.
The one residence that Hoyt was most satisfied with was the Walter V. Struby Residence (1935). "I think the best house I ever
made was the Walter Struby place...a home that I consider practically
(164)
perfect. I can't say the same for everything I've designed." ' '


hi
Hoyt's general attitude towards the buildings he designed was one of relative dissatisfaction, always with the idea that he could improve it if he had the opportunity to redesign it. "He never finished anything that he wouldn't have done it differently."
This dissatisfaction was one key to his continual growth. Hoyt said, "some (buildings) stand up well-those of the simplest design. Others I have done seem increasingly like a good idea at the time but a poor one later."
Two of Hoyt designed residences, the Brumfield residence (1937) and the Barrows residence (19^2), were remarkably similar in their functional layout, having almost exact functional diagrams and site plans, although being quite different in their architectural expression. This could indicate that his architectural philosophy, relating to functional and environmental concerns, was quite fixed by this time, while the physical expression of these residences was not. The differences could also be partly an expression of the client's personal perferences. Thus, Hoyt in his mature work showed a stronger reliance on a formulated architectural ethic or philosophy rather than on an architectural aesthetic. Hoyt designed many institutional
and commercial buildings and additions too. Both Boettcher School for Crippled Children (19^0) and the hydro-therapy unit of Children's Hospital (1936) were institutional examples of Hoyt's expression of functionalism as a determinant of form. He regarded the Boettcher School as "the cleanest building" he had designed.
It was also the building that best expressed his theory of designi "architecture is the dramatization of a system of construction."
Here the structural system was exposed and articulated, creating a sense of occassion, of excitment and joy, similar in concept to the


43
Gothic ideal.
In red Rocks Theater (1940) Hoyt created a masterpiece of architectural and natural environment integrity, while the Denver Public Library (1956) just as admirably reflected the man-made environment of the Civic Center and Voorhies Memorial in both scale and theme. Hoyt's more urban works: the Albany Hotel and Industrial Federal Savings and Loan, both of 1938, seemed less successful on the crowded urban sites, being relatively unarticulated masses. The Albany Hotel design did resolve the problem of how to handle the corner of a building on a comer site by using a round comer.
Burnham Hoyt was able to "make city officials or homeowners happy with the buildings he designed for them "because he was a thorough individualist" who was concerned with solving his clients' problems. Often during the initial consultation with a client, as
they would discuss their particular problems and needs, Burnham Hoyt would start drawing what usually ended up as the accepted final design. This ’skill was a product of the Beaux-Arts system of es-
quisse, in which the initial scheme would be developed in a short sketch problem.
Hoyt's interest in indigenous culture could best be seen in his work on the Spanish colonial churches near Santa Fe, New Mexico. In the early 1930's he supervised the restoration of many of these churches, including Acoma Church, probably through a Federal program of the Depression era. In his work he emphasized exact restoration of materials and methods of construction. "He tried to get the Indians to rebuild the churches with branches and roots instead of
(173)
corrugated metal."


44
In another restoration project of the 1930's, Hoyt restored the
(174)
Teller House and Opera House in Central City, ' The Opera House was designed in 1874 by Denver's first professional architect, Robert Roeschlaub, Again he showed a sensitivity and understanding of the past.
This native interest could be seen in his other work, not in the sense of copying detail or constructional methods as done in restoration work, but in catching the spirit of early architecture that was an honest expression using materials on hand, of function, construction, environment and the period. In this sense Hoyt worked within the tradition of Denver architecture. In his design for Children's Hospital he most nearly approached a visual aesthetic reminiscent of the massing of the pueblos, or for that matter, of the mountains and valleys of Colorado in an abstract and internalized way of expressing native emotions and associations rather than in a stylistic manner of form-making.
In the 1940's Burnham Hoyt was again involved in the education of architects. He prepared architectural design programs for the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design. These programs were for buildings dealing with contemporary problems, often modifications of actual buildings on which he had been working! a hospital (1941); a convention center (1943); and a community swimming pool (1946). (^5)
Burnham Hoyt continued to be active in his professional committments, In 1939 and 40, he was chosen a judge "of architecture and landscape ideas embodied in designs submitted from all over the country in the $10,000 housing contest organized by the Productive Homes Architectural Competition" in New York. "Contest designs were for dwellings built to improve the standard of family living within


i+5
commuting distance of a city job." Hoyt was chosen because of his
activities with the American Institute of Architects and with New
York University and because of "his grasp of low cost housing pro-( 1 76 ^
blems." ' ' In 19^1 he served on the Advisory Architectural Com-
mittee of the U.S. Housing Authority. In 19^6 he served on the United Nations Center Committee of the American Institute of Architecture.
HONORS
Around 19^2 Burnham Hoyt began to feel a weakness in his left
(17R ^
arm and hand - a weakness that eventually led to paralysis. ' '
It took several years before the definitive diagnosis of Parkinson's
disease was finally made and by then he was frail and thin and greatly
showing the effects of his illness. He continued to have an active,
clear mind while his body was succumbing to physical and nervous
(179)
deterioration. v 'He maintained his office practice until 1955 when he finally retired. During the last years of his practice he would often have to be carried between office, car and home. Although not frustrated in these final years, he once in a while would be in "black despair."
In these later years he was considered "the Dean of Colorado Architects," and he began to receive the honor and recognition
he deserved. But he received them modestly, as evidenced by his informal remark when elected to the National Academy of Design; "Think nothing of it, for you are not invited until you are no longer a threat to the young architects."
Hoyt's recognitions began in 1937 when he received a fine arts


46
award from the City Club of Denver, presumably for his first
place winning entry for the Speer Memorial, done in collaboration with Williamj£orach.
Many of the honors he received were based solely on his design for Red Rocks Theater. In 1941 Red Rocks was selected by the Magazine of Art as being "one of the only two modem monumental buildings in America." in May, 1944, Red Rocks was selected by the Museum of
Modem Art as one of "Fifty Outstanding Examples of American Architecture since 1932," both an exhibition and a publication. In 1947 Red Rocks was included in the VI Pan American Congress of Architects Exhibition as representative of contemporary American architecture. This exhibition was assembled through thejoint efforts of the Department of State, the American Institute of Architects, and the American Institute of Planners. In a letter from the A.I.A., to Burnham Hoyt concerning his inclusion in this exhibition, it was stated, "May we take this occasion to congratulate you on your ability and record, which helped make’ it possible to assemble an exhibition of contemporary American architecture of which this country may well be proud." (^-5) in addition, Red Rocks Theater has received countless other national and international acclaim.
Red Rocks Theater also drew the admiration of many distinguished fellow professionals, including Walter Gropius who came to visit, and Frank Lloyd Wright who wrote to Hoyt, "you and I are the only architects that count..." His work at Red Rocks was thus re-
cognized and acclaimed by two architects who espoused opposite views in the modem movement of architecture because it incorporated the ideology of each.
The most pretigeous professional recognition was being elected


b?
a fellow of the American Institute of Architects for his "notable contribution to the advancement of the profession because of his achievement in design." In advancing him to Fellowship, the
Institute commended him as "an artist, sensitive to balance, form and color. He has revealed in his architectural conceptions unerring judgment in the skillful welding of building to site. It may be truly said, whatever he touches he ornaments." was Fenow
at the Institute's 81st annual convention in Houston, Texas, March, 19^9i along with twenty-seven other distinguished American architects. (191^
On August 26, 19^9t an honorary degree of Doctor of Fine Arts
from the University of Denver was conferred upon Burnham Hoyt by Dr.
Alfred G. Nelson, chancellor. He was cited for his contribution "to
the culture of the Rocky Mountain Region as designer of the Red Rocks
(192)
Theater and other major buildings," v ' On a copy of the program, probably used by one of the administration seated on the platform, was the following' penciled note to a colleagues "Dan, you might hold Hoyt's right arm so we won't cause him to lose his balance when we put on the hood," indicating the condition of his health at this time, d93)
On April 8, 1953» Burnham Hoyt was elected to the National Academy of Design as an associate member. "He was one of twenty American artists, sculptors and architects elected to membership by the Academy ...according to Laurence Grant White, Academy president. Such membership (was) one of the highest honors that (could) be paid to men of
(19b)
the arts professions." v 1
In 1957 Regis College established the "Givis Princeps" or "First Citizen" title to be conferred upon those who had contributed to the


48
development of Colorado, and at this time paid tribute to seventeen distinguished citizens of the State "who have signalized themselves in their respective fields." Burnham Hoyt was recognized as "the Dean of Colorado architects." (^5)
On Wednesday night, April 6, I960, Burnham Hoyt died quietly at his home (3130 East Exposition Avenue) at the age of 73. Funeral services were held that Friday at noon in St. Martin's Chapel at St. John's Cathedral and cremation followed at Fairmount Cementery. He was survived by his wife, Mrs. Mildred Hoyt,wand his sister, Mrs. Velma Reeve. (â– ^6)
A final honor was paid Burnham Hoyt in a memorial service, April 20, I960, held at St. Martin's Chapel which he designed in 1926.
(For thirty years from 1925-1955 Hoyt had served as cathedral architect for St, John's Episcopal Church.) In the program was an appropriate epitaph, "Burnahm Hoyt practiced in the great tradition of architects whose buildings express the highest aspirations of men and women." ^ '*


!
49
Footnotes
(1) Rocky Mountain News. June 30, 1941.
(2) Letter from Mrs, John Reeve, sister of Burnham Hoyt.
(3) Interview with Mrs. John Reeve.
(1+) Denver's population in 18?0 was 4,700; in 1880 it was 35*600.
(5) Denver City Directory 1879. Wallace Hoyt was not recorded in the 1878 Directory, leading to the assumption that he came in the latter half of 1878.
(6) Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947.
(7) Interview with Mrs. Reeve.
(8) Letter from Mrs. Reeve.
(9) Interview with Mrs. Reeve.
(10) Letter from Mrs. Reeve. See Appendix A for short personal biography.
(11) Interview with Mrs. Reeve,
(12) She married John G. Reeve, an electrician on December 20, 1905, and had one daughter, Janet. They live at 1035 Emerson St., Denver.
(13) This orientation (looking toward the mountains) can be seen in many of Burnham Hoyt's residential designs.
(14) Interview with Mrs. Burnham Hoyt, May, 1974.
(15) Denver City Directories 1879-1920.
(16) .Rocky Mountain News. August 31, 1947.
(17) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt,
(18) Ibid.
(19) Interviews with Mrs. Hoyt and Mrs. Reeve.
(20) Rocky Mountain News. May 13, 1943.
(21) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt.
(22) Interviews with Mrs, Hoyt and Mrs. Carl Arndt, who
was a close family friend from the 1930's on. "He had a brillant mathematical mind, a mind that was very musical in the way he thought." Hoyt


50
used, musical patterns and intervals as the source for some of his designs including the stairwell of the Churchill Owens residence which was based on a theme by Edward Grieg.
(23) Rocky Mountain News, June 30, 1941.
(24) Rocky Mountain News, May 14, 1943.
(25) Interview with Mrs. Reeve,
(26) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt.
(27) Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947.
(28) Rocky Mountain News, June 30, 1941.
(29) Interview with Mrs. Reeve.
(30) Rocky Mountain News. August 31, 1947.
(31) Interview with Mrs. Reeve.
(32) Interview with Mrs, Hoyt.
(33) Rocky Mountain News, June 30, 1941; and interviews with Mrs. Hoyt and Mrs. Arndt.
(34) Interview with Mrs. Arndt.
(35) See Appendix A for short biographical note.
(36) Interview with Mrs. Reeve.
(37) H.F. and E.R, Whitey, Biographical Dictionary of American Architects (Deceased) (Los Angeles: New Age Publishing Co.,
1956), prw.
(38) Interview with Mrs. Reeve.
(39) Richard R. Brettell, Historic Denver 1858-1893 (Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1973), pp. 135~l40.
(40) See Appendix A for biographical note.
(41) Burnham Hoyt quoting Merrill Hoyt in Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947.
(42) Interview with Mrs. Reeve.
(43) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt.
(44) Whitey, op, cit., p. 482; See Appendix A for short biographical note.


51
(45) James P. Noffsinger, Influence of the Ecole des Beaux Arts on the Architects of the U.S. (Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1955), p. 40.
(46) Whitey, op, cit,, p. 483.
(47) Ibid.
(1*8) Ibid.
(1*9) Thomas E. Tallmage, The Story of Architecture in America (New Yorkj Norton and Co., 1936), p. 199.
(50) Whitey, op. cit,, p. 482.
(51) Interview with Mrs. Reeve,
(52) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt,
(53) Whitey, op, cit,, p. 484.
(54) The Denver Times, September 12, 1917.
(55) Rocky Mountain News, August 31> 1947.
(56) Whitey, op, cit,, p, 483.
(57) Noffsinger, op, cit., p. 4.
(58) Interview with Mrs. Arndt,
(59) The Society of Beaux-Arts Architects was founded in 1893 by 72 American former students of the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris with the purpose of fostering friendship within the group and promoting architectural- education in the U.S. based on the principles of the Ecole, with a system of ateliers. In 1916 the name was changed to the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design and much later to the National Institute of Architectural Education.
(60) .The Colorado Chapter of the A.I.A. letter of recommendation for B. Hoyt's fellowship.
(61) Noffsinger, op. cit.. p. 12.
(62) A student in the Beaux-Arts program competed in Class B work accumulating sufficient points to proceed on to Class A work where he could compete for medals and prizes.
(63) The Paris Prize was awarded from 1904 on as a scholarship to study for two years in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. To be eligible, students had to have gained sufficient points in class A design and be less than 28 years old (Weatherhead, p, 78).
(64) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt.


52
(65) (New Yorks The John F. Haberson, The Study of Architectural Design Pencil Points Press, Inc,, 1926), p. 289.
(66) Rocky Mountain News, May 14, 1943.
(67) Haberson, op, cit,, p. 225.
(68) Ibid., p. 289.
(69) Ibid,, p. 229.
(70) Ibid., p, 266.
(71) mendation for B, The Colorado Chapter of the A.I.A. letter of recom-, Hoyt's fellowship.
(72) See Appendix A for short biographical note.
(73) The Rocky Mountain News (April 8, i960) indicated
that Hoyt graduated from the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design in New York, inferring that he received a certificate or diploma at this
| time. There has been no evidence to date to support this statement, and it was likely that certificates of completion were not awarded until after the Institute was incorporated in 1916.
(74) Interview with Mrs. Arndt.
(75) "Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, "Brick Builder, 24 (April, 1915), P. 102.
(76) Tallmage, op. cit,, p. 262.
(77) G.M. Price, "The Chapel of the Intercession, N.Y., "Architectural Review", 35 (June, 1914), p. 543.
(78) "Twelfth-Night in Mr. Goodhue's Office, "Pencil Points, February, 1922, p. 23.
i i
(79) Pencil Points, April, 1924, p. 42.
(80) Elizabeth Mock (ed.), Built In U.S.A. Since 1932 (New Yorks The Museum of Modem Art, 1945), p. 122.
(81) Rocky Mountain News, June 30, 1941.
(82) The Denver Times, September 15, 1917.
(83) Rocky Mountain News, June 30, 1941.
(84) Fiske Kimball, American Architecture (New Yorks Bobbs-Merrill Go., 1928), p. 131.
(85) The Colorado Chapter A.I.A. Letter of recommendation for B. Hoyt fellowship.


53
(86) The Denver Times, September 15. 1917.
(87) Rocky Mountain News, June 30, 1941.
(88) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt.
(89) Interview with Mrs. Arndt,
(90) Interview with Mrs. Reeve.
(91) Rocky Mountain News, August 31. 1947.
(92) Rocky Mountain News, September 14, 1919.
(93) Rocky Mountain News, September 21, 1919.
(9*0 Thorson, Garlson, Jackson, op. cit., p. 20.
(95) Rocky Mountain News, September 14, 1919.
(96) The Cactus Club would be a fascinating topic for future
research. Burnham Hoyt and other architects of Denver were affiliated with the Club, and it seemed to have been a major social organization for these men and others,
(97) Rocky Mountain News, November 26, 1919.
(93) Rocky Mountain News, June 20, 1920; December 7,
1919; February 1, 1920,
(99) 1. Bulletin of the Beaux Arts Institute of Design, vol.
(100) Bulletin of the B.A.I.D., July, 1927, P. 15. 21,
(101) Bulletin of the B.A.I.D., November, 1931. P. 5.
(102) Bulletin of the B.A.I.D, , December, 1924, p. 4.
(103) . Interview with Mrs. Hoyt.
(104) "Twelfth-Night in Mr. Goodhue's Office, "Pencil Points,"
February, 1922, pp, 22-26.
(105) See Appendix A.
(106) Interview with Mrs. Reeve.
(107) Rocky Mountain News, August 31. 1947.
(108) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt,
(109) Interview with Mrs. Arndt.
(110) Letter from Mrs. Reeve.


5^
(111) The Denver Post, February 13, 1933*
(112) Charles Henry Kellogg was draftsman and building inspector from 1925-29. He was born in Davenport, Iowa, in 1895 and educated at Kansas State (1913-1^) and the Atelier Denver (1919-22). Oscar G. Stronquist was a draftsman with Fisher and Fisher from 1912 until he went to work for Hoyt and Hoyt and later for Burnham Hoyt.
He was amongst the first students of the Atelier Denver. Earl Chester Morris was a detail designer from 1929-35 continuing many of Burnham Hoyt's designs through design development when he was in New York, He was born in Denver in 1902 and educated at the University
of Colorado (1919-20) and Columbia University (1920-25). Upon leaving Burnham Hoyt's office he established the partnership of Fremen & Morris and served as critic and director of the Atelier Denver (1935-39). Charles H. Overholt was a draftsman from 1930-37. He was bom in Denver in 1905 and educated at the Atelier Denver (1926-32). He married Merrill Hoyt's daughter, Grace Helene, in 1937. (George S. Koyl, ed., American Architects Directory, New York: R.R. Bowker Co., 1962)
(113) Thorson, Carlson, and Jackson, op. cit,, pp, 12-20,
(114) Interview with Mrs. Arndt.
(115) Ibid.
(116) Interview with Mrs. Reeve.
(117) The Colorado Chapter A.I.A. letter recommending 3.
Hoyt to fellow.
(118) Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947.
(119) fnterview with Mrs. Hoyt.
(120) See Appendix A.
(121) Rocky Mountain News, June 30, 1941.
(122) Warren Taylor, "A Criticism of the Riverside Church," American Architect, 139 (June, 1931), p. 72.
(123) Interview with Mrs. Reeves.
(124) See Appendix A for short biographical note.
(125) Rocky Mountain News. August 31, 1947.
(126) The New York Times, April 8, i960.
(127) Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947.
(128) Ibid.
(129) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt.


Ibid.
55
(130)
(131) Taylor, op. cit., p. 70.
(132) Charles Crane, "An Answer to Criticism1 Why We Made It Gothic," American Architect. 1^-0 (July, 1931). P. 26.
(133) Interview with Mrs, Reeves.
(13^) Rocky Mountain News, August 31. 19^7.
(135) See Appendix A.
(136) A.C. Weatherhead, The History of Collegiate Education in Architecture in the United States (Los Angeles: A.C. Weatherhead, 19^1), p. 240.
(137) Letter from Helen Sheehan of The Archieve’s Office of N.Y.U. She stated that there was "no evidence that Mr. Hoyt ever served as dean," This seems to dispel the myth about Hoyt that "he was dean of the school of architecture of New York University" as printed in the Rocky Mountain News (^-8-60) and in the Denver Post (4-7-6 0).
(138) The Colorado Chapter A.I.A. letter of recommendation of B. Hoyt to fellow.
(139) Interview with Mrs. Arndt.
(140) Interview with Mrs. Reeves. This supported the idea that Hoyt was not fully employed by Pelton, Allen, and Collens, if indeed at all. It may be that he had some association from 1930-33 with the associated architects working on Rockefeller Center. This is supported by the fact that Edward 0. Holien, Burnham's roommate
in New York who worked with Pelton, Allen & Collens from 1926-30, was also lecturer and critic at N.Y.U. from 1926-32 and was with the associated architects working on Radio City at Rockefeller Center, before becoming Burnham Hoyt's chief draftsman from 1934-42. (George S. Koyl, ed. American Architects Directory New York: R.R. Bowker Co., 1962, p. 32Q)Besides Holien, Hoyt shared the penthouse at 415 Lexington Avenue with three other companions who also worked for him as draftsmen at Pelton, Allen & Collens: Gresley Elton, a Canadian from Toronto; Carl Bieler, a former student of the Atelier Denver; and John Wahlquist.
(141) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt.
(142) Yearbook of the Architectural League of New York,
1930.
(143) Bulletin of B.A.I.D. , Vol. 6.
(144) Tallmadge, op, cit,, p. 298.


56
(145) Sheldon Cheney. The New World Architecture (New York: Tudor Publishing Co., 1935) > P. 41.
(146) Ibid.
(147) Tallmadge , op. cit., p. 215.
(llt8) Mock, op. cit., p. 14.
(149) Ibid., p. 10.
(150) Interview with Mrs. Reeves,
(151) Mock, op. cit., p. 13.
(152) Ibid., p. 14.
(153) Ibid., p. 124, Whether Hoyt personally knew Le
Corbusier is unknown, but it is likely that they had met by this time - either in Europe or later when Hoyt served on the U.N. Committee of the A.I.A. in 1946.
(154) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt%
(155) Sam Hunter, American Art of the 20th Century (New York: Harry Abrams, Inc,, 1973), p. 230.
(156) Interview with Mrs. Reeves.
(157) Rocky Mountain News, June 30, 1941.
(158) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt.
(159) Letter from Samuel McMurtrie, Jr., January 13, 1975* His father died, on December 20, 197^+. "Sam McMurtrie was (Hoyt's) second in command for many years and did many of Burnham's working drawings as well as seeing to it that Burnham's things were carried on." (Letter from James Sudler)
(160) The Bromfield residence interior may be attributed to Mrs. Hoyt, (interview with Mrs, Arndt.)
(161) Earl C. Morris, Charles H. Overholt and Oscar G. Stronquist had all worked in the office of Merrill Hoyt and Burnham Hoyt and continued on after Merrill's death. Morris left the office in 1935, Overholt in 1937 and Stronquist sometime in the 1940's. (Conversation with Charles H. Overholt,) Edward Obert (Bung) Holien was chief draftsman from 1934-42. He was born in St. Paul, Minn,, in 1902 and educated at the University of Minnesota (1919-23) and M.I.T. (1923-26) being a Paris Prize finalist in 1926 before meeting Burnham in the office of Pelton, Allen & Collens and becoming roommates in 1926. Arthur V. Hoyer was a product of Atelier Denver, (George S. Koyl, ed. American Architects Directory New York: R.R. Bowker Co.,
1962, p. 3207)


I
57
(162) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt
(163) Rocky Mountain News. August 31» 1947.
(164) Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947.
(165) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt.
(166) Rocky Mountain News. August 31, 1947.
(167) See Reynor Banham's New Brutalism for a discussion of architectural ethic vs. esthetic.
(168) Rocky Mountain News, August 31» 1947.
(169) "Portfolio of Recent Work by Burnham Hoyt," The Architectural Forum, 74 (February, 1941), p. J.13.
(170) Rocky Mountain News, August 31. 1947.
(171) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt.
(172) John F. Harbeson, op. cit., p, 121.
(173) Interview with Mrs. Reeves.
(174) Interview with Mrs. Reeves.
(175) Bulletin of B.A.I.D.. Vols. 17, 19, 22.
(176) The Denver Domocrat, March 18, 1939.
(177) The Colorado Chapter of A.I.A. letter of recommendation for B. Hoyt's fellow.
(178) Interviews with Mrs. Arndt and Mrs. Hoyt.
(179) Interview with Mrs. Arndt.
(180) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt.
(181) Conversation with Langdon Morris.
(182) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt.
(183) Program from "Civis Princeps Awards" for 1957 from Regis College.
(184) Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947.
(185) Letter from Edmund Purves, Director of public and professional relations of the A.I.A. to B. Hoyt, October 15, 1947.


58
(186) Red Rocks has been published in the following foreign architectural journals: Architects Journal, 102, Dept, 6, 19^5> Revista de Arquitectura, 33» June, 19^8; L*Architecture D'Aujourd'hui, 20, May, 19^9.
(187) Letter from Walter Gropius to B. Hoyt and photo of them together are in the possession of Mrs. Hoyt.
(188) Letter from Frank L. Wright to B. Hoyt, in the possession of Mrs, Hoyt.
(189) The Colorado Chapter of the A.I.A. letter of recommendation for B. Hoyt's fellow,
(190) A.I.A. Journal, 11 (April, 19^9)» p. 166.
(191) The Denver Post, March 18, 15^9.
(192) Letter from George Synder, curator of the archives, University of Denver, February 2^, 1975. "Also receiving an honory degree at this time was Mr. Saul Caston, Director of the Denver Symphony Orchestra. Both were cited for their contribution to the culture of the Rocky Mountain region,"
(193) Ibid.
(19^) Rocky Mountain News, April 12, 1953.
(195) Program from "Civis Princips Awards" for 1957» Regis
College.
(196) Denver Post, April 7» I960; Rocky Mountain News, April 7, i960; New York* Times, April 8, i960,
(197) Memorial program for services of April 20, i960, at St. Martin's Chapel of St. John's Cathedral - a copy is in Mrs. Hoyt's possession.


60
(Fourth) North Side Christian Science Church (1920)
3101 West 31st Avenue
The first major work of Hoyt and Hoyt was the North Side Christian Science Church which was built on a wedge-shaped lot at 31st and Speer Boulevard (Fig. *f), The difficult site required an imaginative design solution that exhibited Burnham Hoyt's concern with the building - environment interface that was to continue to develop until it reached its zenith at Red Rocks.
The building's stylistic source was North Italian Renaissance (Lombard) in flush joint textured brick masonry. This was felt to be appropriate because of the strong similarity in climate and geography between Denver and the Lombard region of Italy. This region also used brick as the chief building material as Denver did. Because of these similarities it was felt to be an appropriate stylistic source for a "Denver style,"
The side elevations displayed five arched bays, with two-story coupled pilasters and entrances at the outer bays. The church was terminated at the apex of the triangular site in a pedimented front surmounting a projecting semicircular rotunda. The orders and details have been extremely refined and simplified, being hardly more than a highly articulated rhythm along the facade.
This building established that Hoyt and Hoyt could "create a
(2)
real work of art," ' '
Park Hill Branch Library (1920)
Montview Blvd, and Dexter St.
The eighth branch library in Denver (Fig. 5) was built in Park
(3")
Hill with "certain reservations by the library board." K ' These reservations probably resulted from the building's Spanish colonial


61
(Fig.5.) Park Hill Branch Library (1920)
i
j
r
i
i
-
1
(Fig.4.) Northside Christian Science Church (1920)


style which was a new imagery in the "beautiful Park Hill region."
The building had buff stucco walls and was capped with a harmonizing
red tile roof. It was built at a cost of $30,000. The design showed
a definite resemblence to some of Goodhue's work in California and
Hawaii that was done at the time that Hoyt worked there (i.e. a house
and museum of art in Honolulu in 1917 ).
This building again resulted from Burnham Hoyt's search for a
Denver style. Probably due in part to the reservations and contro-
versy over the use of this style in a public building and partly be-
-
cause the style was more suited to a hotter climate, Hoyt did not
repeat this style on a public building, although he did use the
pueblo and Spanish colonial styles on numerous residences, including
one for Francis Hendricks, ^57 Williams (1922).
In 196^ an addition, by Smith and Thorson was added to the
(5)
library which altered the simplicity of the entrance.
I
Highlands Masonio Temple (1921)
3550 Federal Blvd.
Besides being concerned about an architectural style that would be expressive of the region, Hoyt also designed in styles that would be appropriate for the functions of the buildings. The Highlands Masonic Temple used a classic vocabulary to symbolize the functioning and meaning of a Masonic Temple (Fig. 6). Again Hoyt rendered his design in characteristic simplicity with his sensitivity to balance, symmetry and quiet refinement. One innovation can be seen in the windows where a traceried pediment is contained completely within the window frame. The basement story is in brick with horizontal rusticated joints, a design feature used on several of Hoyt's designs.


63
(Fig.7.) Colorado National Bank (1924)
i


64
Colorado National Bank, Addition (1924)
17th and Champa
The bank was designed by W.E. and A.A. Fisher in 1914 in a classic Ionic style (Fig. ?)• Hoyt was commissioned to remodel the interior. The resultant building showed Hoyt's ability to design within strong environmental restraints and to design with complete harmony, accuracy and sensitivity to the existing building.
Lake Junior High School (1926)
1820 Lowell Blvd,
Lake Junior High School was the most important building designed by Hoyt and Hoyt (Fig. 8). Lake Junior High was located on the most beautiful site of any of the Denver Public Schools on a small slope overlooking Sloan's Lake with a magnificent panoramic view of the Rocky Mountains. This was the first of several buildings that Hoyt designed with a strong relationship to the mountains. The Hoyts were selected as architects in 1924 and Burnham Hoyt was leaving for Europe in 1926, the year it was completed.
9
The school showed a departure in Hoyt's design in symmetry and style. It was an unsymmetrical building, being composed on both functional and picturesque lines, rather than by strict formalism with similar functions, (i.e., classrooms, industrial arts, physical education, etc,) having been grouped together and expressed in a plan free from formal constraints. This separation of functions was a principle seen the year before in the Bauhaus at Dessau, Germany by Walter Gropius. Hoyt had long been concerned with the visual expression of his buildings and thus the choice was at least somewhat based upon visual associations.
Lake Junior High was a departure in style, being late English


65
(Fig,9.) Denver Sewer Pipe and Clay Go. (c.1928)


66
Tudor. This style was particularly appropriate for several reasons: (l) it was a brick architecture and brick was Denver's indigenous building material; (2) it was chiefly a domestic architecture, thus showing less formality and rigidity. It was flexible and informal, fitting the western lifestyle; (3) it was a transitional style that signaled a breaking away from the principles of English Gothic and thus had a symbolic intention, heralding the close of a great eclectic period; (^) it was an adaptable style; and (5) it was picturesque.
Hoyt used the style with great freedom and exquisite detailing in masonry. Thus Tudor style is again seen in the Denver Sewer Pipe and Clay Company (Fig. 9) building at 2185 Broadway done about 1928, which received national recognition as well as numerous residences in the late 1920’s,
St. Martin's Chapel (1927)
1^-th Avenue and Clarkson Street
Burnham Hoyt designed a small Gothic chapel (Fig. 10) as part of
St. John's Episco’pal Cathedral designed in a late English Gothic
(7)
style in 1911 by Tracy and Swarthout. 7 The Gothic chapel was of an intimate scale and simplicity which stood as counterpoint to the magnificant cathedral, not competing with it but rather, helping to create a grouping of structures not unsimilar to the groupings of English Gothic nomastic cathedrals.
A probably source of inspiration for the design came from Goodhue's Christ Church, in Cranbrook, Michigan, on which Hoyt supposedly worked on when in Goodhue's office.
Burnham Hoyt's meticulous attention to detail could be seen in an incident that took place during the design. He rented a large loft space so that he could draw some detail work at full scale, a


6?
(Fig.11.) Steele School (1929)


68
practice similar to that done by a Gothic master mason.
Steele School, Addition (1929)
320 South Marion Parkway
The Steele School (Fig. 11) was a major addition to the existing school done by D.W. Dryden in 1913. The original structure
of eleven rooms, cost, with equipment and ground, $116,000 and served kindergarten through eighth grade until 1920 when Byers Junior High was built and Steele School reverted to the typical kindergarten through sixth grade. It originally had 232 joupils and six teachers. The addition in 1929 cost, for building and equipment and a seperate house for custodian, (since demolished) $173»000 and now had eighteen classrooms, a library, auditorium/gym, and kindergarten room. This doubled the original size of the building for 535 pupils and fifteen teachers.
The new design retained the original rusticated brick basement, but the stucco upper stories were attributed to Hoyt. The original masonry walls were covered with a stucco-surface, rendering the building as a plain off-white mass with deeply recessed openings.
The whole simplicity of this composition was Spanish Colonial in its imagery. It was crowned with towers roofed in mosaics, giving a more Byzantine-Muslim impression. This combination of Spanish-Byzantine, evident in Goodhue-designed buildings at the Pam Pacific Exposition in San Diego (1915)* was now interpreted in an Art-Deco style.
C i
The interior had murals painted in 1929 by Allen True, v ' a noted Denver Artist, and indicated an integration of the arts and collaboration with artists of the Hoyts,
Owing somewhat to the fact that it was an addition, Steele


69
School was again informal in its balance,
BURNHAM HOYT, ARCHITECT (1933-1956)
During his individual practice of architecture, Hoyt's work showed an integrity of design principles which was now fully matured. His major architectural production was in the 1930's and early 19^0's before W.W.II, with his illness greatly reducing the amount of work that he could handle after the war.
The following buildings were chosen for analysis because they made up the portfolio which was submitted as Hoyt's contribution in design at the time of his nomination for Fellowship in the American Institute of Architects. To this list were added four other works which showed important development and continuity within his work as discussed in the preceding Biography chapter» an industrial building, a civic memorial project that was never built, and two more residences,
Walter V, Struby Residence (1935)
Morrison Road
"I think the best house I ever made was the Walter Struby place,,,," Burnham Hoyt stated. Here was a building that best expressed Hoyt's concern with adapting the building to the individual behavioral needs of its occupants. "Fitting the members of a family, their individual ideas and personalities and the illustrations they have clipped from household magazines into a home that is both functional and beautiful (had) an appeal for him like the intricate Chinese puzzles he (loved) to work,"
There was a mystery involved in researching this house involving


70
a statement Hoyt made concerning a major source for the residence's design; he stated that "the building itself (incorporates) many ideas of Galista Kern..." It could not be determined who or what Galista Kern was and it has been speculated that this person "might have been an Eastern architect" or more likely the wife of another client, Mrs. August Kern. Walter Struby, president of the
Missouri Southern R.R., died in March, 1936, and the house was then sold to the McClintock family.
Hydro-Therapy Unit at Children's Hospital (1936)
18th and Downing Street
This southern wing of the Children's Hospital was the first major work of Hoyt's independent practice to be published in a national architectural journal because of its "possessing outstanding architectural merit." The unit was a gift of Mrs. H.H, Tammen,
(19)
with an unlimited budget, ' ' as an addition to the existing Tammen
Wing of the Children's Hospital (Figs. 12-13). It was planned to in-
9
crease existing ward space, to house recreation and school rooms, and to provide for hydrotherapeutical units. It was noted that the building had "a character quite unlike that of anything previously built in the U.S. and (had) a consistency of scale which (was) due chiefly to the use of projected type windows." And also that it was "as valid a piece of modern architecture as has been produced in this country." With this building Hoyt established himself as an
\ architect's architect, as a leader in modern architecture doing work that was totally unique.
Two factors were responsible for the building's distinctive appearances "the need for maximum light and controlled ventilation
led to the use of stock sash and the effectiveness of solar radiation


71


(Fig.13.) Children's Hospital, Plans
SECOND FLOOR
FIRST FLOOR


73
at Denver's altitude made the placing of sun terraces on each level
(2l)
a most desirable feature." v ' This again demonstrated Hoyt's approach to architecture as an expression of client needs and Denver environment.
In order to solve the specific problems of the Hospital, Burnham Hoyt did a great deal of study and even developed entirely new devices where needed. One example of his ingenuity was the use of hydraulic lifts in the therapeutic pools. "We found the children were frightened by noisy overhead trolleys which lowered them into the
(22)
water, and we thought we could avoid this with hydraulic lifts." ' '
Another result of his careful and thorough study could be seen in the placing of the structural members; these members of steel and concrete with a special glazed brick exterior wall were placed in relation to bed spacing, and not vice versa. These and other refine-
(23)
ments produced a work of "remarkable finish and decisiveness,"
This was not Hoyt's first venture with hospital design; he earlier designed the Curse's Home at Children's Hospital, in 1926, on the southwest corner of- 19th and Downing,
Alfred J. Bromfield Residence (1937)
*4-975 3. University Blvd,
The Bromfield Residence (Figs. 1*4—15) was the closest that Hoyt came to the visual imagery of the international style and this was probably because of the desires of the client who stated, "it had been our idea for years to use modern because modern gave us what we wanted most without the restrictions of traditional." As with the Struby residence Hoyt sought client-imput into his design through their collection of pictures and ideas. This made Hoyt's task as architect one of shifting through the ideas and determining the ones


74
(Fig.14.) Alfred J. Bromfield Residence (1937)

i
i
'


75

I
(Fig.15.) Alfred J, Bromfield Residence, Plans


76
that best fit the needs of the client; as Hoyt put its "the owners (were) modem-minded and lived for years with all the reproductions of modern jobs they could find. I simply helped them weed out this collect." Like most of Hoyt's mature work, "the house was planned entirely from the inside out - starting first with the furniture arrangement; windows were located with the furniture and view carefully considered,"
The house was located on a westerly sloping hill in the country
south of Denver and commanded a superb panoramic view of the
Colorado Rockies. The entrance was designed on a westerly axis with
Mt. Evans, which is seen through the garden door as one enters the
house. The circular dining room was also designed to offer vistas
of the three most important mountain peaks in that part of the Rockies
- Long's Peak, Mt. Evans, and Pike's Peak. The owner felt that "mod-
(25)
em conformed to Colorado topography." ' '
The exterior walls were brick painted a cool, light gray with a slate-blue comibe of wood lapsiding. Color was thought out to the smallest detail with the joints in the glass block painted gray-green. This gray-green-blue color scheme was continued throughout the house with yellow accents. The decorator for the project was Burnham Hoyt's brother-in-law, Thornton Fuller.
The client could only find one point of the design that was not perfect. "The only way in which the house has proved at all unsatisfactory is in respect to the windows; on the basis of our experience we would say it is advisable to have eaves as a protection against snow and rain, especially in bedrooms where ventilation is a requirement,"
In 195^i a subsequent owner commissioned architect Donald 0.


77
Weese to enclose the terrace because it leaked, extend some bedrooms over the garage and add a gable roof to the house as well as other alterations.
As with several of Hoyt's clients, A.J. Bromfield was an influential patron. He helped to secure other commissions for Hoyt from his position as officer of the Industrial Federal Savings and Loan Association, including their office building, as well as several residences of relative and friends.
Industrial Savings and Loan Association (1938)
1630 Stout Street
The Industrial Savings and Loan Association's building program
was to mould an old two-story structure into one that would meet the
requirements of the Association (Fig. 16). This was his first build-
(27)
ing to receive international publication.
The building, commissioned by Hr. Bromfield, an officer for the Association, was a small, severe, two-story building in which the ground floor and mezzanine were occupied by the Savings and Loan Association and the upper-floor was used as rental space and possible future expansion. The exterior was precast concrete panels, later used more successfully on the Boettcher School, and was extremely formal and symmetrical in its facade even with its overscaled tabernacle entrance of stripped down classic imagery. Yet it was a character which was considered in accord with the institution. The
interior was streamlined-modern with its curved walls and bright aluminum in contrast to a dark linoleum flooring which continued up the wall about seven feet.
The design, being a remodel, was obviously difficult as seen in its proportions and was one of Hoyt's poorest mature work. It showed


78
(Fig.16
) Industrial Federal Savings and Loan (1938)
(Fig.17.) Albany Hotel (1938)


79
less freedom of thought in adapting his design to an existing high density urban environment than to a more natural setting. The building was reminiscent of the facade of the Masonic Temple.
This building has since been remodeled beyond any recognition of Hoyt's work which would indicate the need to consider preservation, not only of buildings built a century ago, but also of buildings less than forty years old which might be subject to pressures of development and change, just as Hoyt's design was a response to similar pressures.
Albany Hotel (1938)
17th Street and Stout Street
The Albany Hotel (Fig. 17) replaced an older hotel built on the same site in 188^, and adjoined a later addition by J.J.B. Benedict which was still in use. The Hotel was another urban building on a confined site. It was treated by Hoyt as a surface block with the only relief being the curved corner, probably derived from the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society building by Howe and Lesceze or more likely from the Brown Palace Hotel in Denver by Frank E. Edbrooke or maybe even from the rounded bay window of the original hotel.
Hoyt made other architectural references to the replaced hotel whose facade had a vertical composition of window groupings and bay windows and an independent ground floor base with a strong horizontal band above it. Even the metal rail at the roof had allusions to the thin cornice of the old building. The materials used with warm feeling were brick, travertine, and glass block which were sensitively detailed and used to emphasize the vertical with the building being terminated weakly with an aluminum railing at the roof. The exterior was "an outstanding example of the architect's approach.


80
with its emphasis on sober, workmanlike analysis of a particular problem and construction method, rather than reliance on any of the established design cliches - modem or traditional - which masquerade
(29)
under the name of style." '
The public interiors, "while not so original as the exterior, (were) admirably suited to a medium-sized hotel building-and outstanding in a field where bizarre taste is the rule rather than an exception."
Charles Boettcher School for Crippled Children (19^-0)
19th and Downing Street
The Boettcher School better than any of Hoyt's other work exhibited the clarity of his design philosophy (Figs. 18-19). Hoyt re-garded this school as "the cleanest building he (had) designed." ' '
Burnham Hoyt was "doing as much as any other American to bring about the renaissance of institutional architecture...His school for
crippled children...unquestionably (set) a new high for the articula-
• (32 ^
tion of design and structure in educational buildings." '
Boettcher School was built on a long, narrow plot, that faced a traffic street, close to The Denver Children's Hospital. This modern school for "conditioned" children (blind, crippled, deaf, etc.) had all of its classrooms on one floor at the back of the building, away from the noise of the street. A small library was at one end, a kitchen and cafeteria at the other end. The rooms, such as the auditorium and playroom, which did not require large windows or quiet, were located in the front. A ramp and elevator connected the main floor with a basement tunnel to the Hospital and extended upward to resting rooms that were also used in conjunction with the Hospital's hydrotherapy pools and provided with generous sun terraces. Because


81
(Fig.18.) Charles
Boettcher School (19^0)


REST ROOMS
82
(Fig.19.) Charles Boettcher School, Plans
FEET


83
of an alleyway flanking the hack of the building, classrooms were arranged in separate pairs, divided by light courts which could also be used as outdoor classrooms, and the back wall of the building was built solid. These courts also admitted an abundance of light to the main corridor, the end wall, as well as the sides, built entirely of glass. The interfloor ramp, necessitated by the special function of the school, added an extremely attractive design feature to the main corridor, while its open construction gave an effect of spaciousness at the point where it was most needed.
The school was constructed throughout of reinforced concrete and faced with exposed aggregate, precast-concrete slabs. Both interior and exterior design emphasized the structural system; round concrete columns and exposed roof and floor beams afforded the basic decorative note in all parts of the building. The columns in the corridor at the windows to the court were further articulated with a semicircular window and seat and added emphasis to the dramatization of the system of construction.
"Hoyt's problem was a building almost utilitarian as a factory;
its one function, that of caring for and educating crippled children,
in the simplest, easiest and most comfortable manner for them. His
material was utilitarians concrete; yet he designed a building that
has attracted nationwide notice, simple to the point of severity,
(33)
yet sheerly lovely." ' In the areas of human needs and structural dramatization Boettcher School fully expressed Hoyt's philosophy and ideals.
An addition to the building at the north side in 1957 by Ed Francis, although retaining the same design vocabulary, lacked the sensitivity and fineness in detail which Hoyt exhibited, as well as


84
his conceptual clarity.
Colorado Springs (Lewis Palmer) High School (19^-0)
Colorado Springs. Colorado
The Colorado Springs High School, now Lewis Palmer High School, was a new huilding, which replaced the old one built in 1889, and connected with two other recent existing buildings (Fig, 20). The project was done in association with the architect Edward L, Bunts but was clearly the design of Burnham Hoyt.
The plan was in the form of an "L" similar to the upper stories of the Albany Hotel and even included a rounded corner. The materials were brick, steel and concrete. The windows of this two-story school were horizontally grouped and framed with terracotta, as contrasted to the Albany Hotel's vertical window groupings framed in travertine.
The building contained a classroom wing and a main body which contained administration offices, the auditorium, the cafeteria and the library and was a connecting link to the other buildings which contained music and specialized classrooms.
The windowless auditorium, seating 1500, displayed Hoyt's emphasis on the dramatization of structure, "Trusses (were) supported
by a double row of columns, the inner row on each side being exposed
(34)
for decorative effect." ' Here too the multi-use flexibility seen in many of Hoyt's plans was evident where the balcony level of the auditorium could be closed off for smaller functions.
Another of Hoyt's concerns, that of the building's relationship to the mountains, could be seen in the design of the cafeteria. The cafeteria was located on top of the auditorium which afforded an excellent view of the neighboring mountains and provided accommodations


85
(Fig.21.) Red Rocks Theater (19^1)


86
(Fig.22.)
Red Rocks Theater, Plan


87
for outdoor eating in good weather. For this purpose a sunken roof terrace, on the level with the cafeteria floor, was provided. This terrace was surrounded on four sides by glass for protection from the wind, yet still was opened to the sky, and was useable for the greater part of the year. A similar terrace was also used at Children’s Hospital.
Red Rocks Theater (19^-1)
Morrison, Colorado
At Red Rocks (Figs, 21-22), Burnham Hoyt designed "an outdoor
theater which in sheer dramatic structure is unrivaled in the (35)
world." ' ' The idea for the Red Rocks project began in 1902 and
was finally realized when George Cranmer became manager of the Parks Department in 1935 and was able to solicit the efforts of the Civilian Conservation Corps. Cranmer commissioned Hoyt to design the seating and structures and put Hoyt on the city payroll with a small retainer from 1935-19^. Cranmer expressed the difficulty he had in keeping Hoyt beca’use of the controversy over the Speer Memorial Competition.
It was admittedly a fantastic natural site with hugh, intense
red sandstone monoliths. With this supurb site, Hoyt used admirable
restraint on his design, preserving the site’s original majesty, a
restraint which acknowledged mature as a full collaborator in design.
Between two of the largest sandstone monoliths 200-300 feet high,
laid a rough natural amphitheater with good acoustics. "With full
realization that the best architecture would be in this case the
least architecture, reshaping and new construction were reduced to a
minimum and so successfully subordinated to the setting that one is
(37)
scarcely aware of conscious design." ' ' The natural shape of the


88
ground allowed sufficient distance between rows of benches for circulation, with radiating aisles only at the side and these aisles were separated from the seating by a buffer strip of planters with native juniper shrubs. Storage and dressing rooms were (designed) inconspiciously beneath the stage, and the parking areas were designed far out of sight and earshot of the audience. From the parking areas one approaches the theater along a carefully designed parth that creates a deliberate interaction with the environment on an intimate scale before entering the awesome theater.
The beauty of the site, coupled with its unique dramatic assets, made it imperative that the theater built there truly merge with its surroundings. For this reason native stone which closely approximated the red color and rough texture of the monolithic rocks was used throughout, and the entire design was held to extreme simplicity. "With a minimum of architecture per se, Red Rocks Amphi-
(38)
theater is unquestionably an architectural triumph." v ' "He made
the whole thing to be natural and to be a setting for great events;
(39)
not and end and a spectacle in itself." '
In i960, the Parks Department added two flanking towers to the
stage because "the stage (was) too open so that a little wind carried
the sound away...there was no place for a performer to enter from or
exit to...(and) lights needed to be placed high for good stage (4o)
lighting." v These overpowering towers weakened the design concept and quite upset Hoyt.
Broadmoor Swimming Pool (19^3)
Colorado Springs, Colorado
As with Red Rocks Theater, the Broadmoor Swimming Pool (Fig. 23)
(41)
was designed "with nature as the architect's chief collaborator."


89
(Fig.24.) Denver Public Library (1956)


90
Outdoor areas were converted into an architectural environment with a minimum use of structure. The glass windbreak between the pool and lake was "a daring-and successful attempt to use the concept of transparency to unite the needed enclosure with its environment.
The total effect (was) a spaciousness which reflected the mountains and the sky and (suggested) the power of architecture to make nature available to the spectator while, in a sense, shielding him from it."
Hoyt's basic idea was to bend his design to the landscape. The sweeping contour of the lake shoreline was carried through by bowing the sides of the pool and was further elaborated in the curved lines of the refreshment areas. It was an extremely simple solution with great harmony which depended strongly upon details such as the diving tower with its clean sharp lines and the fluorescent lighting integrated as a linear motif into the top of the screen enclosure.
The cafe and locker area was kept well back from the pool, allowing plenty of space between sides and spectator's section and thus separating the. swimming- and relaxation functions of the pool and a-voiding crowding.
Denver Main Public Library (1956)
1357 Broadway
The Denver Library (Fig, 2^) was awarded to 3umham Hoyt in 19^8
and he worked on it in association with the firm of Fisher and Fisher,
a departure from his usual independence and probably due to his de-
(l± 3)
dining health. Hoyt was the designer of the library v ' which was still under construction when he retired in 1955.
The library was located on a curved site that looked across a broad street to the part of the Civic Center that was wooded and con-


91
tained the Voorhies memorial. The Voorhies Memorial was built in 1922 and designed by Fisher and Fisher in a classic Greek style,
Hoyt at that time produced a watercolor rendering of the memorial for the Fishers. The Library was designed to be reflective of its site by the placing of a grove of trees on the corner next to the park, by the curved lobby reflecting the curve of l^th Avenue and the Voorhies Memorial, and by the subtle proportions of the facade which alluded to the Voorhies Memorial directly and the classic architecture of the Civic Center in general without being a historic building.
The two-story columned facade with entablature and glass infill expressed the necessary monumentality and visually expressed the open stacks inside. The columns were beveled inward toward the center, a device first seen in the Industrial Federal Savings and Loan building and alluding to the Beaux-Arts penchant for coupled columns, seen in The North Side Christian Church. Above the two-story facade was an "attic story" with small window openings that completed the illusion.'
Visually the building was a duality with the two-story native
stone and glass public areas and the service and support functions
within a more massive and irregular form in brick expressing these
functions to the south. The "scale, massing and color recalled classify)
cal design of the Civic Center toward which the building faced." ' '
This Library building demonstrated the ability of Hoyt who was at the point in his career of being afraid to recognize the historic determinants of the environment upon design without having to compromise the principles of modern design.


92
Other Significant Work
The following four projects were also important in Hoyt's work and were included in this thesis as other significant work beyond his basic portfolio. The Denver Sewage Disposal Plant was Hoyt's first opportunity to apply his design ideals to a purely utilitarian building and became a forerunner of other buildings, most notably the Children's Hospital wing. The Speer Memorial, although an abortive winning design in a national competition, exhibited a unique civic monumentality and became a forerunner of the Red Rock's theater. The highly publicized John Barrows' residence reconfirmed the continuity of design principles seen in the Broomfield house. The fourth project, Burnham Hoyt's own residence, was a place where he could express his ideas freely.
Denver Sewage Disposal Plant (c, 1936)
5100 Marion Street
The Denver Sewage Disposal Plant (Fig. 25) was an important project for Burnham Hoyt because it convinced him to stay in Denver in a (Z4.5)
private practice. v ' -It was a major utilitarian building in which he could express his ideas of simplicity and functionalism. It was Hoyt's expression in crisp, functional lines of a careful engineering study. It was the type of functional, utilitarian, no-fills architecture toward which Hoyt was sympathetic.
It was built in masonry of buff brick with a contrast of a darker brick to accent detailing in a manner quite similar to the concurrent Children's Hospital addition. This was a project which did not have to look like anything other than what it was and thus an ideal building-type for early modem "functionist" architecture; one that was engineered and not affected by "style" or decoration.


93
(Fig,2.6.) Speer Memorial (1936)


9^
Speer Memorial (1936)
Denver Civic Center
The Speer Memorial (Fig. 26) was the most controversial work of Hoyt, not so much for its design as for the politics involved, His design was done in close collaboration with the sculptor William Zorach and demonstrated again Hoyt's sense of integrity and harmony in the arts. Controversy over the project emerged when the Denver Art Commission unanimously selected the Hoyt and Zorach submission to the design commission while the Mayor's advisory committee selected a submission by Denver sculptor Arnold Ronnebeck. Each group refused the other group's selection, and after lengthy controversy, which included accusations of conflicts of interest within the Mayor's committee selection, the Civic Center Memorial was never built. The bitterness that remained caused Mayor Stapleton to try very hard to remove Hoyt as the designer of Red Rocks Theater.
The design gave to the Speer Memorial "an extraordinary drama
without throwing-it out of key with the plan of the Civic Center as
a whole. Its simplicity (made) it a suitable memorial to a noted (^6) '
public servant." ' ' One of the important problems that had been
solved was the maintaining of a perfect vista between the City and County Building.and the State Capital without interruption by a centrally-placed monument.
The Memorial consisted of two figures facing each other on a series of three descending terraces. The figures were symbolic of Mayor Robert Speer's qualities: his vision, with the quote, "without vision the people perish;" and his achievement, with the quote, "faith without works is dead." The terraces were symbolic of the thr.ee phases of Denver's development: the Indian, the Pioneer, and


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BURNHAM HOYT 1 1 I A DOCUMENTATION AND PRELH1INARY ASSESSMENT OF THE LIFE, WORKS AND PHILOSOPHY OF A NATIVE DENVER ARCHITECT (1887-1960) B y Ted Alexander Ertl B . Arch., University of Colorado, 1969 A Thesis Submitted To The Faculty Of The Graduate School Of T ae University Of Colorado In Partial Fulfillment O f The Requirements For The Degree Of Master Of Architecture Colleg e Of Environmental Design 1975

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This Thesis For The D e gree O f Master Of Arcnitecture B y Ted Al exa n der Ertl Has Been Approved For The Colleg e Of E nvironment a l D e s i g n B y DeVon I 'i . Carlson, Committee Chairman Robert C. Utzinger, Committee Member • Ervin J. Bell, Committee H ember Date -----------------------------------ii

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Ertl, Ted Alexander ( B , Arch,, Architecture) BURNHAN HOYT1 A DOCUMENTATION AND PRELH1INARY ASSESSMENT OF THE. LIFE, vlORKS AND PHILOSOPHY OF A NATIVE DENVER ARCHITECT (1887-1960), Thesis Directed By Professor DeVon Jl1, Carlson This Thesis investigated the life of Burnham Hoyt and the sources of influence in his architectural development and analyzed his major architectural achievement and philosophy toward architecture, It ex-plored his importance as a Denver architect during the transitional period from eclectic to modern architecture, It relied upon oral in-terview and correspondence with his close associates as a primary source of information supplemented with written secondary sources a-bout the man and the architect, It concluded that Burnham Hoyt was a significant architect with relevance to Denver architecture because of his consistant approach to design committed to human and environ-mental considerations, This Abstract is approved as to form and content, Signed DeVon !1, Carlson 1ii

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ACKNO\'/LEDGEHENTS I have learned these two lessons1 first, that the more one en-gages in research the more there is to research; and second, that the most difficult task of research is to make the breach between the re-search process and the research product. Here lies the test to discov e r whether there is something v alid to come from the research. I am indebted to my Committee Chairman, !1r. DeVon M . Carlson , who provided invaluable d irection and criticism , and to my Graduate Prog ram Chairman and Committee Nember, Hr. Robert c . . Utzinger, who provided both f reedom and guid en c e for my own intellectual development , and to my Committee Member, Mr. Ervin J. Bell, who introduced me to new concepts and continually challenged me to think critically. I am especially grateful to Hrs. tarl Arndt, 11rs • .i3urnham Hoyt and flrrs . John Reeve for granting personal intervieHs and providing many insights into B urnham Hoyt ' s life and personality, as well as to the myriad s o!others who have aided my research, And finally I am a.ppreciaUve of my patient wife who gave invalu-able e n courage m ent and criticism and contrib uted greatly as reviewer and editor, T ed Alexander Ertl Lincoln, N e braska iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page LIST . OF ILLUSTRATIONS •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• vi 1 INTRODUCTION •••••••••••••• , •••••••••••••••• ••••••••• 1 Footnotes 2 Bicx:::;RAPHY • , •• , , •• , •• , , , • , • , , • , • , •• , • , , • , ••• , •• , •• , , • , 8 Heritage Apprenticeship (1904-1919) Partnership (1919-1926) Naturation (1926-1933) Culmination (1933-1955) Honors Footnotes 3 ARCHITECTURE ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 59 M .H. Hoyt and B . Hoyt (1919-1933) B urnham Hoyt , Archite ct' (1933-1956) Footnotes • 4 ARCHITECTURAL PHILOSOPHY ••••••• ; ••••••••••••••••••••• 104 Environmental Aspects Building Aspects Human Aspects Footnotes 5 SUMHARY AND CONCLUSIONS •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 117 BI BLio::iRAPHY , • , • , ••• , • , • , •• , , . , , • , , • , , •• , •• , , •• , •• , , , 125 APPENDIX A s BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES •••••••••••••••••••••32 . . APPENDIX B s OFFICE HORK OF MERRILL H. HOYT AND BURNHAi"i HOYT, ARCHITECTS (1915-1933) •••••••.•..•••••••••.•••••••• 136 APPENDIX C s OFFICE WORK OF BURNHAH HOYT, ARCHITECT (1933-1955) ••••••••••••••••••5 v

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1 B urnham Hoyt ( c .1940) ••.••••••••• ••••••••••• , ••••••••• 7 2 1913 Paris Prize, First Place (Grant !1, S imon) ••• ••••• 21 3 1913 Paris Prize, Se cond Place ( B urnham Hoyt) •••••••.• 21 4 Northside Christian S cience Chur c h (1920), •••••••••••• 61 5 Park Hill Branch Library (1 920 ) ••••••••••••••••••••••• 61 6 Highlands Masonic Temple ( 1921) •• '..! ••••• .•••••••••••••• 63 7 Colorado National B ank ( 1924) •••••••••••• ••••••••••••• 63 8 Lake Junior High School (19 26) .••••••••.•••••••••••••• 65 9 Denver Sewer Pipe and Clay Co. (c. 1928) •••••••••••••• 65 10 St. Martin's Chapel (1927) ............................ 67 11 Steele School ( 1929) •••••••••••••••••••••••••• , ••••••. 67 12 Children's Hospital (1936) ••••••••••••••••.••••••••••• 71 13 Children' s Hospital, Plans •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 72 14 Alfred J, Bromfield Residence (1937) •••••••••••••••••• 74 15 Alfred J . Bromfield Residence , Plans,,,,,,,,,;, ••••.•• 75 16 Industrial Federal Saving s and Loan (1938) •••••.••••.• 78 17 Albany Hotel (1938).,., •• ,., ••• ,., ••••••••.• ,,, .•••.•• 78 18 Charles Boettcher School ( 1940) ....................... 81 19 Charles Boettcher School, Plans.,.,., •••••••••. , • • , . , • 82 20 Colorado Spring s Hig h School (1940) •••••••••••••••••.. 85 21 Red Rocks Theater ( 1941) •••• , • , ••.• , • , ••• , ••••• , •••••• 8 5 22 Red R ocks Theater, Plan. , ••• , •• , , •••••• , •••••••••••••• 86 23 B roadmoor Swimming Pool (1948) •••••••••••••••••••••••• 89 24 Denver Public Library (1 956) •••••••••••••••••••••••••• 89 25 Denver Sewage Disposal Plant (c.1936) •••••.••••••••••• 93 vi

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Figure 26 Pa g e Spee r Memorial ( 1936) •••.••.••••••.•..••.•••••.•••.••• 93 27 John Barrows Res i den c e (1938) •••••.••••..••••••••.•••• 96 28 John Barrows Residenc e , Plans ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 96 29 B urnham Hoyt Residenc e (1948 ) ••..••.•••••.•••••••••••. 99 • vii

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Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION History has always had an important place in the lives of man; it has touched his environment, his system of beliefs, his govern-ment, his family life, his work, and his art, It has been from the examples of the past that man has learned to adapt to the future, This has been true in the study of history and its architects, and yet many periods of this history have been practi-cally ignored and many of its architects left unknown to the present generation, In the history of Denver architecture there have been many ignored periods and forgotten architects, Statement of the Problem At the inception of this architectural thesis the main purpose was to study a native-born Denver architect. Upon completion of ini-tial research it was found that there were many that fit this general description ( 1 ) so in order to narrow the potential field of study, four limitations were established, The first limitation was generation, The architect should be of the recent past because there would still exist many primary sources from which to obtain first-hand information. His practice should al-so span the transition from eclectic to modern architecture and be highly evident in the 1930's, since this was a pivotal time in archi-tecture and one of interest to the author, The second limitation was objectivity. The architect should be deceased so that a more definitive study would be possible and not open to a continuing practice which could perhaps alter the substance 1

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and conclusions of this research, since a man is always in the process of being until his death, 2 The third limitation was location, The architect should be a native of Denver, thus exhibiting and partaking of a local heritage in his youth, This limitation would hopefully yield someone representative of "native" Denver architecture, It was hypothesized that the influence of native environment would strongly influence one's world view and approach to visualizing and identifying architectural determinants and tasks, The fourth limitation was significance. The architect should have made an important contribution to architecture, This was established by the criteria ofa length of office practice (necessarily over several decades), thus exhibiting a major contribution in terms of quantity to the built environment; and the respect and recognition from fellow architects and others, as evidenced by design awards, and publication in architectural press, With each llmitation the long list was narrowed and finally Burnham Hoyt was selected, (Fig, 1) Mr. Hoyt was of the recent past with some of his most important architectural works being in the 1930's and early 1940's. He died in 1960, so this study could approach his contribution as a whole without even the existence of an architectural firm continuing his work, He was one of the first Denver-born and raised architects. His adult life spanned from the practice of the earliest Colorado architect, Robert s. Roeschlaub, to that of the current, William Muchow, thus covering most of the major architecture in Denver's history. His production of architecture went from his association with his brother, Merrill Hoyt, in

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3 1919 to his final commission in 1956, 37 years. His architecture has received numerous national and international acclaim, most notably Red Rocks theater, and his professional honors included election to fellow of the American Institute of Architects and to associate of the National Acadamy of Design . Thus , the purpose could now be stated in the more precise terms: to document the life, words, and philosophy of Burnham Hoyt and to present a preliminary assessment of this architect. The intention of this study was not to make a final of an architect but rather to make an exploratory and preliminary documentation and as-sessment of a little-known, yet significant, architect. Assumptions Certain assumptions have been made in this study: 1. There is a native Denver architectural tradition. The con-cept of "native" has reference to the cultural products (architecture) of immediate origin or adaptation to a specific geographic area without eliminating the possibility of foreig n origin at an earlier date. . This concept of native is opposed to the concept of indigenous which goes further in eliminating external influences. This concept of native recognizes cross-cultural influences which goes beyond the indigenous phase of architecture created by the indians to include the influences of the pioneers and later generations and their adaptations to the local scene. 2. An outstanding architect would have an impact on the archi-tectural tradition of the place in which he practiced and thus would have a place within that tradition.

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Objectives The dimensions of the research problem may be seen in the objec-tives that follows 1. To discover the sources of influence in Burnham Hoyt's archi-tectural design. 2. To identify and subjectively analysize the elements and totality of Burnham Hoyt's architectural design by looking at his major works. 3. To explore Burnham Hoyt's toward architectural issues and determinants. 4. To present Burnham Hoyt's place in the tradition of Denver's architecture and his relevance. 5. To identify the factors that enabled Hoyt to make the transi-tion from eclectic architecture to modern architecture. Justification of the Study A need has existed for research involving unrecorded primary sources of knowledge which are in dan ger of being lost to future gen-erations. An example o f this occurred in the author's research when he wrote a letter to Samuel McMurtrie , one very knowledgeable about Mr. Hoyt's office practice, only to find out that he had died just ten days before. A need also has existed for the development of background rna-terials that are essential to the development of preservation guidelines& identification of significant architectural contributions o f significant architects based on research into the past of factual, historial knowledge long before the issue of the preservation of a particular building arises, (Z) At this crisis point it has usually been too late to save a building without having the knowledge of its

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5 importance long beforehand. An example of this was the remodeling of the Industrial Federal Savings and Loan building designed by Burnham Hoyt; a remodeling that destroyed its character and yet there was no protest. •

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6 Footnotes (1) Many Denv e r architects were considered for this thesis a nd there is a need for research o f each, These architects were classified by generation, The first generation of Denver architects included those who be gan practice from 1 869 to 1893: Frank E. Edbrooke ; Robert S . Roeschlaub; E , Philip Varian; Franklin E . Kidder; Frederic k G . Sterner; Emmet Anthony; Hilliam F rederic k C , Eberly. T h e seco nd generation, from 1894 to 1918 , included : Albert J , Norton; William N . Bowma n; William E . F i sher; Arthur A. F isher; Jacques J.B . Benedict; Glen 11. Huntington; H . H . and V . E . Baerresen, A aron H . Gove ; Willis E . Harean, The third generation architects, from 1919 to 1 9 4 3 , includ ed: Robert K , Fuller; G • . Neredith Nusick; W , G ordon Jamieson; Temple H. Buell; Harry J , 1 1anning; Roland L . Linder; C , Francis Pillsbury, The fourth generation architects included those who have been in practice since 1944 and will be important in the history of Colorado architecture-. Victor Hornbein; Hilliam Muchow; James Sudler. (2) The Historic Landmark Commission , Historic Denver and other groups are doing this research but the task is enormous and in need of help in researching • •

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7 (Fig . 1 . ) B urnham Hoyt (c.1940)

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Chapter 2 BICGRAPHY The life of Burnham Hoyt (Fig. 1) has been divided into six phases in order to better study, and thus understand the man as an architect in various stages of development and as a whole, unique personality. The phases were: first, his heritage and early youth; next, the years of his app+enticeship, training and development o f archi-tectural thought; then, the period o f architectural practice with his brother; followed by a period of introspection and firming up of architectural philosophy; then, came his major architectural produc-tion which exhibited a full maturity of design; and finally, a period of honor in his infirm last years. Many facts about Burnham Hoyt's life and words were found from news and articles, interviews with family and friends, and from books. And the idea that a man is a product of his heredity and environment as a causal agent and not merely as a passive recep-tor was considered in the analysis of these facts leading to educated assumptions and theories in some areas where no precise facts were available. The greatest care was taken to make this account as his-torically correct as possible with the limited resources available. HERITAGE Little could be found about Burnham Hoyt's ancestry except that "the blood (was) English and the family came from Brunswick." ( 1 ) 8

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His father, Hallace A. Hoyt, was born in New Brunswick, Canada , on March 27, 1847, ( 2 ) and "traveled all over the world" (3) be fore 9 finally settling in Denver at about the age of thirty, soon after Colorado became a State and Denver be g an to g row rapidly. ( 4 ) Wallace could first be placed in Denver in 1879 when he was a boarder in the Merchants Hotel at 336 Blake St. (5) Having established himself he sent to New Burnswick for his bride-to-be, Lydia Jane Tompkins , (6 ) and they were married in Denver in 1 879 . (7) Lydia was born August 21, 1851, in New Brunswick, Canada , ( 8 ) the twelfth of thirteen children. (9) They had three sons and one daughter. Merrill H. Hoyt was born on May 18, 1881 . ( 10) The next son was Roy Hoyt who died at seven of spinal meningitus. (11) The third child, Velma B . Hoyt, was born N ovember 4 , 1 884 . ( 12 ) B urnham Hoyt was born on February 3 , 1887. The family was raised in a two-story brick house (2849 w. 23rd) which faced south overlooking a park and with a view of Pike's Peak • beyond . ( 13) Hoyt Has a blacksmith and carriagemaker, moderately successful although there was "not much money in Bernie's family." ( 14.) He worked for Albert c. Lighthall at 433 Blake Street until 1 88 3 when he established the firm of Hoyt & Sa va ge , carriag emakers, at 347 Holladay with his partner Henry Savage , also a carriagemaker and blacksmith, which lasted for over fifteen years. For one year only, in 1891, the partnership was expanded to include James Moffat. From 1892 on, Wallace Hoyt was listed as the president and proprietor. In 1899 when his interests apparently turned to automobiles, Wallace worked for Woeber Carriage Company, wagon and carriage manufacturers and car builders. Later he worked for a number of different employers

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10 until in 1920 when he retired, ( 15) He died in 1926. Youth --There was nothing paricularly unusual about Burnham Hoyt's youth. "Burnham and his big brother, Merrill, were just ordinary boys as they grew up, a bit more industrious than some of the other youngsters. They sold The Rocky Mountain News all year round and picked berries on nearby farms during the summer." (16) "He had the unique ability to work very hard and play very hard." (l?) He was very ingenious in his playmaking, being fond of puppet shows . and other creative interaction with friends, He loved "intellectual games, particularly word games and he doted on puns." (18) These qualities and interests remained with him in his adult life for he was known for his pungent humor with word and pen, He was a cartoon critic and always drew pictures that were topical humor and often critical of other architects. ( 19) He was quick-witted with " a knack for penning limericks. ( 20) Personality Wallace Hoyt was a relaxed and outgoing man and a true free spirita independent, uninhibited, explorative and gregarious, somewhat prone to restlessness and with a great love for people, These were all qualities that Burnham also exhibited. (21) Lydia Hoyt was a different personalitya tight and rigid in her ideas and "straight--laced," like a "New-Englander" in the way she thought. She was a good, sensible person, simple and somewhat aus-tere with an excellent ability to reason and with a strong sense of determination. Burnham had a similar systematic mind-being especially fond of mathematical and musical manipulations. (22) His strong

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11 sense of determination was evident in one anecdote of his later life when one day he decided to find out if he or cigarettes were stronger. After years of smoking incessantly in all that he did, he quit from that moment on. ( 23) It was this blending of two distinctly different personalities that lead to an observation of Hoyt later in his lifes "He may some-times appear a formalist, but he has a strong Bohemian strain." (24) The dichotomy could be seen in his relations with others. He was a very popular person whom "everybody adored because he was creative and he was a critical person, in the sense that he didn't fall for everything." (25) As a person he was "the most dynamic, the most rewarding person to know. One could never be bored a moment in his presence. ( 26) And yet there was part of his mother in him; "his face can be quiet and stern in reserve, and if he does not want to talk he'll shut up tighter than a storm window. But with a group of friends, his grows bright with animation, and his conversa-tion is fast and witty." (27). Talent Wallace Hoyt, a carriage "designer", ( 2B) had talent and as a designer and workman "could do anything." Merrill and Burnham both acquired their talent and drawing ability from him, with Merrill more inclined to the technical and Burnham more to the design. Lydia Hoyt, although not artisti.c hereself, was refined and knew her sons' abilities and encouraged their artistic talent and insisted that her sons go into architecture because they could draw very well. (29) Burnham was further encouraged to develop his talent by his brother, Merrill, who readily acknowledged his artistic ability. "Ever since he could hold a pencil, Burnham had been drawing -

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starting out with sketches of trains only he could recognize. It never occurred to him that he would be anything but an architect like his older brother." (30) 12 Besides being the most artistic in the family, Burnham also ap-preciated art more, being especially fond of the old masters. His artistic ability extended into many art forms from architecture to painting, (31 ) drawing and watercolor, to sculpture and music. His music ability was demonstrated in his youth, and, when his parents were unable to afford a violin, a musician, George Hanney, ga ve him one. As a yo.uth he played at the Boulevard Methodist Church and later (1920's) occasionally with the Denver Symphony. He would often entertain internationally known violinists in his home and play with them. (32 ) During his life Burnham Hoyt's favorite painters were Braque , Picasso, Bonard and all impressionists, as well as the masters, while his favorite composers were Bach, Vivaldi, Beethovan, Brahms and . Gershwin. (33) His most respected architects were Louis Sullivan, as an historic figure, and B . Goodhue , and Fisher & Fisher as contempor-aries, as well as Victor Hornbein and James Sudler of the next generation. ( 34 ) His taste ranged from the greats of history and o f con-temporary life. APPRENTICESHIP (1904-1919) The architectural training of Burnham Hoyt seemed to be filled with a mixture of growth and frustration -both used to his benefit as he searched and discovered the meaning of architecture for himself in each new office or situation. From each experience he discovered

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13 and adapted bits and pieces that were to remain evident in his work throughout his life. His training began with Kidder and Wieger where . he gained a strong technical background. In P ost's office, Hoyt gained a pro-fessional attitude for his Hork. i{ith his Beaux-Arts training he developed his design ability. In Goodhue's office he found encourage-ment in his evolving design approach. From his World War I experi-ence Hoyt became aware o f both the Gothic and Vernacular architecture of France. Kidder and Hieger (1 904 -1 908) Upon graduating North Side High School in 19o4, Burnham Hoyt apprenticed with the firm of Kidder and Wieger, (3 5) with offices at 628 14th Street in Denver . Two reasons could be hypothesized for this choice. First Kidder was the architect of Boulevard Congregational Methodist Church at W . 26th and Federal where the Hoyt family attended, (36 ) and.second, Kidder was a noted architect and civil engineer having writteTh Kidder's Architect's and Builders' Handbook in 1884; a book that eventually vrent through eighteen editions up to 1944 and in later years was known as Kidder-Parker Architects' and Builders' Handbook . (J?) Kidder worked as a consulting architect as well as practicin g ; his specialty was church design, although he also secured commercial and residential commission s . In the office of Franklin E. Kidder, Burnham Hoyt received ex-cellent training in the technical skills necessary as an architect. attempted to be "stylistically flexible and suit his building to the demand or desires of his client," stressing the practical as-

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14 pects of the building more than the "effects" or styles. He was an architect concerned with "good, solid and intelligent architecture," but it was not very exciting. (38 ) Hoyt worked as a draftsman,_ begin-ning at five dollars a month. Even though he gained the knowledge of fundamentals and the necessary technical background, he was not growing as a designer since the work done in the office was "not up to snuff or up-to-date." (39) After Kidder's death in October 1905, T. Robert Wieger took on the architect Albert A. Baerresen ( 4 0) as a .... partner for a short time in 1906 but thereafter continued the office practice as T. Robert Wieger, architect. At this time, Burnham's brother, Merrill, married and working for William E. Fisher, encouraged Burnham to further develop his artistic ability& "I always meant to do more studying, but I never seemed to find the time. But I want you to take the time right now. I hope you'll go to New York and get all the learning you can." (41) Taking his advice, Burnham Hoyt left for York City in 1908 with two companions, one a painter, in search of new experiences. <42 ) Denver had become too small while New York had everything to offer. (4 3) George B. Post (1908-1915) Upon his arrival in New York, Burnham Hoyt joined the firm of George Browne Post and Sons. It has not been established whether he joined the firm because of its size, being about the largest archi-tectual practice at that time; because of its reputation, being an extensive commercial practice with Post receiving many national honors; or because of some other reason. Whatever the reason, it proved to be a valuable experience for the next seven years.

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15 At this time George Post was a "prominant New York architect an d a noted architect of large city hotels, business and commercial struc and was still active in his office though in his seventies, In 1904 Post had taken on his two sons, William Stone and James Otis Post in partnershipand practiced under the name of Geor g e B. Post and Sons, His sons were both trained in the Beaux-Arts tradition, with J, Otis having graduated from the Ecole des Beaux Arts of Paris and later being app ointed to the committee on Education -. o f the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, with Raymond Hood as chair-man. (45) The Post office did numerous c o mmercial building s as Mr. Post was a pioneer in high rise c o mmercial architecture, His work was fro m "before the innovation of 'skeleton' construction, but in an era that (might) be called 'transitional' when the passenger elevator was the only new factor in buildings. " (4-6) He w a s more involved in the developments of the modern skyscraper than any of his contempor-aries outside Chic ag o School, During this time the f irm did work on such buildings as& the Cleveland Trust Company (1907-08) in a Cl assical style; 344 Fourth Avenue ( New York, 1910-11) in a Sullivanesque style; and the Williamson Building (Cleveland , 1912) in a Renaissance style, The firm w a s also noted for the develop ment of modern hotel planning , as exemplified by& the Pontiac (Detroit, 1911-12); the Statler (Cleveland, 1912); the numerous other Statler hotels in several cities, ( 47) P ost was "known as 'a great planner,' his success in architecture • • • attributed largely to his firm belief in the importance of sound construction, and an honest effort to meet the requirements of his clients, " ( 48 ) This success was evident in winnin g entries of two national competitions& City College of New York (1900); and the

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16 Wisconsin State Capital (1904), and also in his being selected by Burnham and Root to design the Liberal Arts Building at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago (1893) because he was representative of the best architectural talent in America. ( 49) Post's favorite style was the French Renaissance, (50) but in his later practice there was exhibited a strong leaning to classical form due in part to the spirit of the times aminating from the sic expression o f the Columbian Exposition and reinforced by the Post's sons' Beaux-Arts training. Only a few facts could be found concerning Burnham's Hoyt's experiences in New York at this time. He lived in an apartment with two or three other young men from .the Post's office. The fact that he was naive at first could be seen from the story of an event that occurred shortly after his arrival& Burnham Hoyt went to an office dinner which Mr. Post gave for his employees. Burnham went to the formal dinner wi:th patches on his trousers, "sitting next to Mr. Post and being without proper etiquette." (5l) In spite of, or perhaps because of, this slow start, Mr. Post liked B urnham very much, and there was a strong mutual admiration.(5Z) It would be safe to assume that George Post's example of professional service had an effect on the youn g Hoyt, Post was a fellow of the American Institute of Architects (president in 1896-97, Gold Medal recipient in 1911), an elected associate of the National Academy of Design (academician in 1907), an appointed member of the Permanent Committee of the International Congress of Architects (1908), a Presidential (Roosevelt) appointee t o the Commission of Fine Arts, an honorary member of the Royal Institute of British Architects, and a recipient of the French government's Chevalier de la Legion d'Honour

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17 ( 1901). (53) From Mr. Post's example, Burnham Hoyt began to form an image o f an architect as one who was cultured and respected within his profes-sion, extending beyond even to a total way of life -a lifestyle o f quiet, simple elegance. The work attributed to Burnham Hoyt in the Posts' office consisted ofa "drawing the plans for the Wisconsin State Capital;" (5 4 ) and working on the Statler Hotels, (55) and other commercial projects with varying degrees o f increasing Through Post's pioneering work with highrise commercial buildings Hoyt became familiar with the latest technological and constructional innovations of the day. Hoyt probably also became familiar with the work and philosophy of Louis Sullivan since George Post was acquainted with the work of Sullivan in skyscraper development and in the Columbian Exposition. The building at 344 Fourth Avenue, New York City strongly resembled Sullivan's Hainwright Building, St. Louis, and the Guarenty Bank Building, Buffalo, New York. Also the firm of Post and S ons was noted-for making "an honest effort to meet the requirements of •••• clients." (5 6 )_ a statement strongly reminiscent of Sullivan's philosophy of "form f ollo;.rs function." This concept of an organic architecture, first fulfilling the needs o f the client and growing out of these needs, was one that Hoyt continued to develop in his later architecture. The Beaux-Arts Institute of Design (1909-1915) The office of Post and Sons probably encouraged Hoyt to begin studies at the Society of Beaux-Arts Architects since J. Otis Post took a strong interest in the design education of young architects

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18 and several employees were already involved. "In many cases draftsmen could attend some night atelier and thus improve his position," (57) Here was the opportunity for Burnham Hoyt to systematically de-velop and refine his philosophy of design in a structured process of design problems and competitions. He had never considered going to an architectural school which he felt "tended to be too academic and spoilers of creativity." (5B) He began his study in the Society of Beaux-Arts Architects (59) in 1909 and entered the Atelier Ware (60) while still working for Post and Sons. Hoyt..,Has probably introduced to Hare by Post who knew him as a fellow student inRichard l1orris Hunt's Atelier. Hoyt probably chose the \olare Atelier because of Hare's predominance in architectural education (established the architectual schools at f1, I. T, in 1866 and at Columbia in 1881.) ( 61) The first year or two were spent in Class B desig n problems , accumulating points necessary to move on to Class A work and competitions. (6Z) This was the time for developing drawing skills and exploring the possibilities of design. From the year 1911 and on, his list of accomplishments at the Society were beginning to become im-pressive. In 1911 Hoyt won the first medal in the Warren Prize com-petition. From 1911-12 he won two first medals (Pupin Prize and Emerson Prize) and a third medal, as well as taking a second in the Paris Prize Competition, (6 3) In 1912-13 he again took a first medal for the Pupin Prize and a third medal as well as again taking a second in the Paris Prize. In 1913-14 he competed for the Paris Prize again only to take second for the third time in a row, This repeated "failure" to cap-ture first in the Paris Prize was a tremendous disappointment in his life, and an experience about which he never said much, (64) Yet "a

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19 man (had) to be good to place second in the Paris Prize Competition three times in succession as did Burnham Hoyt." (6 5) According to age limits (28 ) he had one more chance to achieve a first, but the competition in 1914-15 was not held because of the war in Europe. What Hoyt had considered a setback in his life (always second-never first) might be seen as a blessing from three standpoints: first, he was not submitted to the classicism of the Ecole and was thus free from its dominating influence; second, because of his determinism (he was "a never-weary student") (66) was propelled to greater efforts in his developing desig n ability -continually striv-ing to do better and never being totally satisfied; and third, it opened up the opportunity for his workin g with Bertram Goodhue. To summarize B urnham Hoyt's achievements, he was awarded the Pupin Priz e (Twice), the Emerson Prize, the Warren Prize, a second in the LeBrun Prize and, for three consecutive years, a second in the Paris Prize, as well as several third place m edals. The Harren Prize was given for a pian competition, while the Emerso n and Pupin Prizes were for decorative competitions. The LeBrun Priz e was a traveling scholarship. Most of the Beaux-Arts prob lems were "plan problems": the es-sential requirement of these problems Has the formation of a scheme or "parti' and its clear expression. Each of these problems called for an elevation and many also required a section. Yet the scale of these presentations were so small that the study was only in the ar-rangement of the big elements of the composition. The decorative problems were issued as "primarily studies in composition, in elevation or section -studies in the use and combination of motives, in ornament, in character and personality." (6 7)

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20 This was presented with a plan, but the problem was primarily one of arrangement of parts and detail -the composition of architectural forms. Burnham Hoyt did well in plan problems, where he exhibited a strong scheme or concept, as well as in decorative p roblems where he concentrated on detail and refinement. His projects showed strong ideas with unity of concept and a daring explorative nature and wer e thoroughly thought out in proportion and detailing. An example of the type o f work he did would be the 1 9 13 Paris Prize submission which was won by Grant 1 1 . Simon. The winner's design for "The H onumental Treatment of The E nd of Manhatten Island" (Fig. 2 ) was logical and conservative, but the jury "expressed the one regret tha t his work was perhaps lacking in ima gination". This was a strong criticism and further called attention to the "brillant show in the drawin g s of Hoyt." (68) Hoyt's desig n ( F i g . 3) was evaluated in 192 6 as "the most ima ginative drawing ever submitted in a student competi• tion in America." In contrast to Simon's presentation the jury praised Hoyt's presentation for "its great ima ginative quality ••• it w a s a most d aring conc eption, showin g much thought, feeling and artis -tic ability." Hoyt's conception was based on the quote of Lan gwell; "New York, the crucible, where the great alchemist melts and fuses with his purging flame the Celt, Saxon, Slav and Teuton, Latin, Gree k , Syrian and Jew into a new race, rising Phoenix -like from the fire." (69) Hoyt's desig n exhibited a rising Phoenix -like quality of expressionist mood that was totally alien to the more visual classi-cal style of Simon. The entry was similar in style to that of Sullivan's National Farmers Bank, Owatonna, Minnesota (1906-08). The sculp-tural forms showed a distinct abstract modernism similar to that seen in

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21 (Fig . 2 . ) Paris Prize, First Place (Grant M . Simon) (Fig. J.) Paris Prize, Se con d Plac e ( Burnham Hoyt)

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22 Goodhue's work. Another example of Hoyt's work was the 1911 Warren Prize, "A Conclave Building for the Election of a Sovereign Pontiff;" this was considered "one of the best in the history of that competition." "In this competition documents and criticisms (could) be used, and it (was) interesting to recognize in this plan the recall of vari-ous documents which ••• inspired it. The individual habitations for the prelates, surrounding the big classical court, (were) just such as those at the churches o f S.H. Degli Angeli -the loggia at the front (had) something of the character of the loggia o f the Villa Hadama." His Warren Prize drawing was considered a good example of a well presented sketch problem. (70) "His talents were so manifest that patron Ware appointed him as his assistant." (71) This was a normal practice for the top students in an atelier to serve as the chief critic of design, and this posi-tion. The direct influence of Ware in the atelier was probably small at the time that Hoyt was there, since he had retired as Dean of the School of Architecture "'f Columbia University and lived in Hilton, Massachusetts, where he died June 9, 1915. ( 72 ) It was at about this time that Hoyt ceased his stud y at the Society of Beaux-Arts Architects and the A .telier Ware. (73) Bertram G. Goodhue (1915-1917) A number o f circumstances brought Hoyt to a position as a de -signer in the firm of Bertram Grosevenor Goodhue, Architect. First, George Post died on November 28, 1913, and the subsequent work of the office under the direction of his sons was becoming increasingly classic in its orientation while Hoyt was moving in the new direction

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23 of abstraction, with expression and simplicity in his design Hhich was similar to the style becoming evident in the Hork of Goodhue. Second, the death of William Ware on June 9, 1915, and the close of the Ware Atelier, along with the elimination of the Paris Prize for 1915, concluded Hoyt's association with the Society o f Beaux-Arts Architects as a student. And finally, Bertram Goodhue had o pened his own office in New York late in 1914 to pursue his own philosophy of architecture that had departed from the Gothic style of his former partner, Ralph Cram. Within the work o f was the germ o f an architecture that was sympathetic to Hoyt's at this particular moment o f time. "Hoyt had a tremendous respect for Goodhue." (7 4 ) In 1915 Goodhue's works exhibited the following features which would have appealed to Hoyt1 (1) an unerring eye for picturesque composition; ( 2) an interesting grouping of parts, i.e., the San Diego Exposition; (3) a joy in perfecting and making interesting the smallest detail; (7 5) (4) an ability to abstract the spirit of a style (i.e. Gothi;), rather than repeating its archeological f orm, in order to express cultural ideas and ideals. His works were "purely creative and Goodhue believed them to be truly American." (76) "He believed that a new era should be clothed with a new garment and that the genius o f America demanded a more vital expression than Gothic." (77) Goodhue was against academicism in architectural training, be-lieving that "a g ood architect is a poet," born and not made. His office practice was founded upon the principle that "there should be no head draftsman ••• " (7B ) Of the men in his office that G oodhue held in high esteem it was said that "he had a great deal to do with making each o f them, and took pride in their success in measuring up to his

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24 standards and expectations. He afforded opportunity and encouraged initiative on their part." . (79) And Goodhue's office did attract many talented men in the profession including Clarence s. Stein (1911-t8). Stein later became a foremost planner in housing and town planning, including Radburn, New Jersey. ( 8 0 ) Hoyt and Goodhue had a very o p en relationship; Hoyt "worked for and with Bertram Goodhue," ( 8 1 ) and was appreciated for his design talent. It was at this time that Hoyt won the 1917 Poster Competition sponsored by the Art Alliance of America the design of the Second Liberty Loan Campaign, which had received submissions from more than 150 prominent American artists and designers. "The winning o f this contest placed (him) in rank with the foremost designers in this country." ( 82 ) Of specific work that Hoyt did in the office, it was only known that he detailed the interior carving s in St. Bartholomew's Church in New Y ork. ( 83) Yet Hoyt's later work showed a close resem-blence to some o f Goodhue's work in Hawaii, California and Tyrone , New Mexico that done in "a Spanish colonial style of a fine imagi-native effect." ( 84) This association was prematurely cut short by the United States entrance into World Ware I and Hoyt's enlistment in the Army. \vorld Har I (1917-1919) In the summer of 1917 Burnham Hoyt enlisted in the newly created camouflage corps with twelve other noted New York Architects, "in order that the g overnment would have full benefit of his abilities." ( 85) He served with distinction for eighteen months with the 245th, Company A, 40th Engineers, Rainbow division in France and Brussels rising to the rank of Top Sargent. The camouflage corps,

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25 consisting of architects and painters, designed huge canvases to place over hospitals, roads and fortifications in order to "deceive hostile aviators." (86) It was while Hoyt was working on the screening of heavy artillery guns in July, 1918, that he was wounded by shrapnel in his leg . He continued to wear "a little lump of shrapnel on the back of his hand under the skin, like a peculiar 'knucklering' for the rest of his life," ( 8?) He recovered in time to be in the Argonne when the Armistic came, During 1918 he also contracted the flu which was given as a probable cause Qf the Parkinson's dis-ease which later wasted his physical strength when he was at the height of career. (88) While in France Hoyt did a lot of sketching and was impressed with the Gothic cathedrals and even more with the simple, indigenous, anonymous architecture, A few of his watercolors did remain in his family, but most were given away by Hoyt to friends. (89) Little was known about this period because Hoyt would not talk about his war experience, for it made him "terribly upset," (9o) He was reluctant to talk any of his past experiences; during one interview in his later life, when questioned about his early experi-ences, he said with an impatient gesture, "But I don't want to talk about these personal things, nobody cares about them." Thus, most of his personal experiences and feelings went unrecorded. (91 ) PARTNERSHIP (1919-1926) The next seven years were a period of two major activities which intensely engrossed Burnham Hoyt upon his return to Denver from mili-tary service in 1919. First, the firm of M,H. Hoyt and B. Hoyt was

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26 formally established and rapidly became recognized as a major design firm, first locally and then nationally, Second, the Atelier Denver was organized with Burnham Hoyt as patron and chief creative force for local students of architecture, Atelier Denver (1 919 -192 6 ) On September 10, 1919, at the Fishers' office, the Atelier Denver was organized so that, as Gordon D . White, the first massier (student manager) put it, "all architectural draftsmen in the city (would have) an opportunity to study and execute the current problems issued by the Institute and to foster cordial relations among the men interested in the profession. This organization is a student affair, run by them, and depends on their interest for its support," ( 92 ) Some professionals who were involved at the organization were: Arthur A. Fisher who was correspondent with Lloyd Warren, the director of the Beaux ... Arts Institute of Design in New York; Lester Varian wl).o was an man; B urnham Hoyt and P. Savin who were patrons of architecture; W , E , Musk who was patron of mural painting; R. Garrison who was patron of sculpture; and J,H, Rennell who was patron of industrial design, "It was Mr. Fisher's vision of the Atelier which (was) now becoming a reality," (9J) This was the only such Beaux-Arts Atelier in the entire vlest except for the west coast, (9Lt) The Atelier fulfilled a real nee d "to instruct for the minimum cost, to give members criticism from artists in active prac-tice, and to carry students into the application and practice of the arts," (95) Quarters were found in the old Cactus Club Building at Colfax and Pennsylvania, (9 6 ) and each Tuesday and Saturday evening criticisms by the patrons were given on the work being done, (97)

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27 As patron of the Atelier, the chief professional criti c of de-sign, Burnham Hoyt's strong influence was evident by the many prizes won by students of the Atelier. In the first year alone, two first prizes were taken: the H,W, Jacobs prize by Arthur 0. Ahlberg and the Warren Prize by Gordon White; in addition: Mr. Ahlberg won two third medals; Charles Kellogg, a first mention; and Roland Linder and G. Heredith Musick, mentions for their work. (9B) Again in 1 92425 first medals were won by Linder and two by W,H, Speer for Class A projects; in addition there were seventeen mentions on various designs. (99) In 1925-26 Speer won a second medal. This was an im-pressive record for a new atelier which was competing on a national scale with the best students of universities and ateliers. This re-cord was reflective, not only of the talent exhibited by the students and the spirit of cooperation within the atelier, but also of the strength of criticism and direction with which Burnham Hoyt ex-hibited his influence. After Hoyt left the Atelier there were only two second medals won: one by G . Charles Jaka in 1926-27 ( 100) who had been under the influence of Hoyt in previous years; and one by Robert Horris in 1931-32. (101) In analyzing the first medal winners of 1924-25, Burnham Hoyt ' s influence could be seen, "A Crematory" by Linder showed a strong simplicity in plan and elevation, being classic in design with some resemblence to Hoyt's 1921 design for the Highland's Masonic Temple. "A Crematory" by Speer resembled in plan and elevation the Nebraska State Capitol by Goodhue, but with a lower dome being very simplified in its form and sculpture. (102 ) The other first medal project by Speer, "An office building", was more Gothic in design, showing a gain a Hoyt-Goodhue influence.

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28 The Atelier Denver was indeed the center of creative in the early 1920's. Burnham Hoyt had a large fellowing there with forty to people actively engaged at any one time. With his energy and ingeneous creativity Hoyt was the driving force of the Atelier. (l03) In addition to providi-ng criticisms he produced annual theater productions at the Atelier, a practice that had proven very successful in building comraderie in Goodhue's office. ( 104 ) As part of the Atelier's being the center of creativity in Denver, besides the normal Beaux-Arts program, _ they also sponsored art classes, one of which was a life drawing class. It was through some mutual friends in this class that Mildred Fuller, the future Mrs. Hoyt, was introduced to the Atelier and to Burnham Hoyt in the • 1920's. ( 1 05) Hoyt was a most popular bachelor, and thus had no in-clination to seriously consider marriage at this time. ( 106 ) Hoyt's association with the Atelier was in his own words, "a very pleasant occupation. The students worked very hard every night, and once a year we put on our yearly party and pageant, But the organization finally got to be too social, and we dropped it." ( 1 07) The Atelier died in spirit after he left in 1926. ( 108 ) M.H. Hoyt and B. Hoyt (1919-1926) Upon Burnham Hoyt's return to Denver from the service in 1919, the firm of_ M .H. Hoyt and B . Hoyt was formally established, even though in actuality Burnham Hoyt had been doing the design work for Merrill's independent practice from its inception in 1915. In fact, Burnham Hoyt had maintained an office at 201 Colorado National Bank, next-door to his brother's office, since 1916. Their's was a very friendly association, for they brought to

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the partnership complementary skills and a tremendous respect for each other's competences . Merrill had the strongest regard for Burnham's design ability while Burnham respected Merrill for his ability to coordinate and supervise the business. (l09 ) "Merrill's 29 gifts were to the practical side, while Burnham's were more to the ima ginative and artistic side.,; ( 110 ) "Together they desig ned a number of Denver buildings and residential show places." (ill) The only employees of the firm that have been identified were: Charles ( 112) H . Kellogg, Earl c. Morris and Charles H. The firm was practicing during the time when Denver architects were comin g into their OHn, "evolving a Denver style." The Denver style was the result of a search for an architecture that would be reflective of the city's georgraphic and climatic conditions. The search looked for precedent within Denver's geographic region and within regions similar to Denver, Two major styles were seen as "expressing a real feeling for this climate:" first was the south-western or Spanish, drawing its ima g e from the indigenous pueblo styles and the Spanish colonial styles which respected a hot, arid climate "in its vaultings and in the depth of its reveals;" (113) second was the style from the Lombard region in Italy which was the style most reflective of direct regional influence, both in its mossing and in its use of brick. The stated local feeling of archi-tects in the 1920's was that "the most consistent form of architecture for Denver and Colorado would be the use of Spanish and North Italian ( 114) styles." . This "Denver-style" can be seen in the early works of the Hoyts in two of their early commissions (1920): Park Hill Branch Library with the Spanish colonial influence and the North Side Christian

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30 Science Church in a modified Italian style. Thus, we might see an early interest on the part of the Hoyts in developing a style re-flective of Denver an interest which was well among the earliest in Denver. This interest could have been in part, a reflection of Goodhue's interest in a native American style based on the Southwest architecture. Even though they were concerned about the developing Denver style, the Hoyts Here adept in designing in any style, depending upon the symbolic requirements of the project; an addition to Colorado National Bank Has almost pure Greek classic historcism Hith great integrity showing no compromise to modern tendencies. The Highland Masonic Temple was of renaissance classicism in proportion and de-tail, showing a mannerist tendency with open pediments enclosed by window moldings (the classic style abstracted with great power). Saint Martin's Chapel, a simple honest and elegant tiny chapel, was ll'h \-\1 l an addition to the complex at St. Cathedral done in the Gothic style in harmony with the spirit of the grouping and also in harmony with existing buildings,in the environment. Lake Junior Hig h School was in the English Tudor style which was a more domestic style than the collegiate Gothic, yet maintaining the academic context as well as the brick Denver image. Burnham Hoyt was very facile in his use of different styles, understanding their basic principles in order to use them for their symbolic intention in expressing a particular sense of experience, often simplifying to the point of abstraction. His work showed an integrity to his client, a desire for simplifying rather than embel-lishing design, and a strong sense of site (i.e., Masonic Temple, Lake Junior High School).

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31 In 1926 the firm was at its height of productivity with 118 projects in various stages. ( 1l5) But despite this success Burnham Hoyt . was beginning to feel restless, to feel that he was "not getting ahead." ( 116 ) His "feeling the need for greater scope in design" (11?) could have been indicative of his growing lack of satisfaction with his eclectic design. He was probably beginning to be aware of a radical new wave of architecture in Europe and was anxious to travel there, so he left the firm and went to Europe . Other factors that could have contributed to his restlessness his father's death in 1926 and the chan ge to a social emphasis of The Atelier Denver. t1aturation (1926-1933) These next few years in New York were filled with events that dramatically brought together many ideas and experiences which Hoyt had been developing through the years into a philosophy and approach to architecture which was clearly exhibited in his mature design after his return to Denver. The experiences in New York did not create a totally new attitude to architecture for Hoyt, but they re-confirmed that which ha d already begun to develop within him. "Tired of Denver and of work after six years, I1r. Hoyt went to Europe, visiting France, Italy and Spain." (118 ) His study in Europe was again never without pencil and paper, although again few drawings have remained in his family. (119) A gain his interest was with the logical integrity of Gothic architecture and the character and simplicity of vernacular architecture. Whether Hoyt intended to return to Denver or to stay in New York after his travels in Europe was not really known. The deciding fac-tor in his decision to stay in New York must have been the man,

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Harry Emerson Fosdick, ( 120 ) Returning from Europe, Hoyt "met Dr. Harry Emerson Fosdick on the boat, and that ended up in four years of work on the design of the interior of the Riverside Baptist Church," ( 121 ) Dr. Fosdick was an extraordinary personality and a 32 progressive reformer of Christianity more concerned with the results of Christianity then dogma (the change it produced in on e's life rather than its strict theology). He felt that Christianity should enter the world and grapple with problems therein. "Fosdick urges us to abandon antiquated forms and which cannot be applied to our modern problems. He invites us to make our spiritual life a . (122) great adventure." Within this philosophy Hoyt found an expres-sion of his own architectural ideals, and a mutual friendship developed even though Hoyt himself was not a particularly religious man. ( 123) Pelton, Allen and Callens (1926-1930) Of this association with Fosdick, Burnham Hoyt modestly said, "Dr. Fosdick knew I was an architect and he may have had something to • do with my work on the Riverside Baptist Church in New York. I don't know. Throu g h other friends I was introd uced to Pelton, Allen and Callens, ( 124 ) the firm designing the church, I was employed by them to do the interiors of the building," ( 125) His major effort was in the desig n of the reredos and doorway which kept him busy full-time for the next four years with minor work on the interiors that kept him occupied off and on for two more years after it was opened to the public in October, 1930. ( 126 ) "Feeling that he needed to know more about stone reredos in order to design for the church, Hoyt made another trip to France and England to . study, When he returned, he completed his work on the church, ( 127 )

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33 and often worked closely with the client. "Mr. Hoyt remembers John D. Rockefeller, Jr., one of the church committee members, as a hard-working man who always came to meetings on the church, his briefcase bulging with work to do. But in spite of his many other fnterests, he always had a complete grasp of the church project." ( 12 8 ) It was likely that this association with clients, like Rockefeller and Fosdick, was the main attraction for Hoyt as opposed to any archi-tectural merits of the firm, since he really disliked the church de-sign. He was so dissatisfied with the way that architecture was being practiced in general and with the Riverside Church in particular, that he stated, "I hate architecture." (l29) This crucial turning point in his stemmed from his attitude of never being satisfied with what he had done whether at the Society of Beaux-Arts Architects or with his brother or here at Riverside or even in his later work. This attitude enabled him to grow and ad-vance from one achievement to the next and might very well be the clue to his adaptability to the great transition architecture was making. "Any new concept he was interested inhe had to explore it, and he would jump off from there." (130) This inquisitiveness and sense of adventure with architecture, which had always existed in his work, took a strong hold at this time as a reaction against Riverside Church and helped, along with other developments in this last New York stay, to form his mature philosophy toward architecture. In 1931, the American Architect magazine published a criticism of the Riverside Church as well as a rebuttal to that criticism. Hany of the major concepts of the criticism were so in tune with Hoytis thinking that he incorporated them into his later stated philosophy. The critic ism by v l alter Taylor, A. I. A. , lecturer in

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history of architecture at Columbia University, in reproving the incongruous use o f making a steel building conform illogically to the profile of Gothic architecture, stated that "Gothic architecture is the dramatization and embellishment of.:. method of construction." The underlined portion of that quote was later given by Hoyt as his philosophy of architecture. The article went on to discuss the vir-tues of Gothic architecture in vthich "every part and every motif of this style, •• had a structura l function or significance." This was also later incorporated by Hoyt as he used the structural system as the decorative system in congruity as his style evolved. The critic-ism continued by extolling the Gothi? builders who pushed engineering to the limit, " guided by fund.emental principles of esthetic design ••• the proven design formula for creative architecture and not the pro-cess of imposing archeological forms." This was Hoyt ' s formula for design also. Taylor concluded by calling for an architecture as progressive and great as Fosdick, the man. The preacher of this church warns us repeatedly of the danger of being so absorbed in formalism and details that we lose sight of great and fundamental principles." ( 131 ) This was another major guiding principle o f Hoyt's. T he rebuttal by Charles Crane, of the office of Henry Pelton, was weak in comparison. He rationalized that Gothic was an appro-priate style for the church, being equated with christianity, and yet taking advantage of all the modern developments of engineering. This approach, where style was more important than substance, was not in agreement with Fosdick' s theology. Crane tried to show that since "the history o f architecture shows a gradual evolution and a blending of one style with another" that Gothic can blend with modern steel construction. He concluded with the short-sighted

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35 statement that " ••• up to the present time no definite characteristics of this new style not subject to controversy amongst the 'modernists' t h emsel ves have de velo ped ••• " ( 132 ) The weakness of this argument became more apparent as time passed. In contrast Hoyt had awareness of the continuity of universal principles of the past that remained valid for this new modern architecture. During this time Burnham Hoyt continued to design long distance f o r his brother Merrill, ( 133) although the depression had decreased tremendously the offices' workload . \>lhen Burnham came back from Europe in 1928 he began at the same time to teach at New York Univer-sity. "Both jobs meant he was working at least twelve hours every day . " (134) New York University (1928-1933 ) Architecture was established at New York University in 1926 as a course in the Department of Fine Arts. It was organized under the direction of Edward Raymond Bossange, ( 135) who had previously been head of the school at Princeton University. The course was arranged in conjunction with the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, with an en-trance requirement of five years of office practice, and lead to a diploma . Special efforts were made to provide a program that was very flexible for the convenience of students who worked in offices; thus they had an extensiv e night school. A program leading to a Bachelor of Architecture degree added in 1928 within the new De-partment of Architecture in the College of Fine Arts. In 1930 B ossange was appointed the Dean of the College and Director o f the Department . The graduate degree of Master o f Architecture was first offered in 1932. Finally in 1935 the College of Fine Arts was made

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36 an independent School of Architecture with Bossange as Dean, (136) Burnham Hoyt was first listed in the faculty directory for the second term of 1928-29 as an instructor in design; by the school year 1931-32, as an instructor in architecture; and from 1933 until his final entry in 1935-36 he carried the title of assistant professor of design, (1 3?) In 1930 he might well have been in charge as head of design. ( 138 ) He organized and ran the studios around the atelier system of the Beaux-Arts. ( 139) After the completion of Riverside ChurcQ Hoyt's work for Pelton, Allen and Collens was minimal, He was teaching at New York Univer sity nights because he needed the money, (140) The depression was having its effect on the work at Merrill's office as evidence by his associating himself with the Allied Architects on the Denver City Hall. Burnham Hoyt might have been trying to develop a modest in-dependent practice because at this time he designed a week end residence in Londonderry, Vermont using an old barn as material, (141) . The New York University Bulletin stated that he was a practicing architect, although this might have only indicated his partnership with Merrill, He was also affiliated with the Architectural League of New York having been elected to membership in 1926. (142) The architectural design produced at New York University in 1930 was some of the most modern in its austerity of any work submitted to the Beaux Arts Institute of Design from any university or atelier; New York University students were gaining many medals and first mentions on projects. (143) This advanced design undoubtedly reflected the philosophy of design critics at the school. While on the faculty, Hoyt had the opportunity of working with

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37 some of the most important leaders of modern American Architecture. On the Board o f Directors of the Department of Architecture was Raymond Hood, "the symbol of an era unexampled alike for its brevity and brillance." During this time Hood was searching for an honest expression of the American skyscraper. "Adventurously, he never pursued the same path twice;" as an illustration he produced two examples of utter simplification' the vertical, or Gothic, exphasis of the New York Daily News Building in 1930, and the horizontal, or International, McGraw Hill Building in Hood died at the height of his career in 1934 after revolutionizing the architecture of the skyscraper from the Chicago Tribune Tower (1922) to the Rockefeller Center (1934). (144) In 1929-30, Ely Jacques Kahn taught at New York University; his architecture had a rectilinear cubal look with equal emphasis upon horizontal and vertical structure. (145) In 1930-31 Henry wright was a special lecturer in city planning. In 1932-33 William E. Lescaze was also on the faculty, as a visiting critic in design, bringing first-hand European mind to the school, His noted work of this period was'the very advanced, European modern, func-tionalist expression of the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society Building (1931) done in association with George Howe. (146) Lescaze's philosophy o f functionalism had as its basis Sullivan's "form follows function." (147) These , as well as other architects, made Hoyt's New York University teaching experience a tremendous intellectually stimulating adventure of prime importance in refining his philosopy of architecture. Museum of Modern Art (1932) In 1932 The Museum of Modern Art presented an international ex-

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38 hibition on "Modern Architecture" which was "virtually the first presentation o f modern architecture to the American public and to American architects." (14 8 ) Here in one grand exhibit were presented the works and ideas of many modern architects working independently and then brought together as a cohesive forc e of international unity of the modern movement in architecture. This exhibition identified a commonly accepted discipline and vocabulary with esthetic principles "based primarily upon the nature of materials and structure and upon modern requirements in planning;" these were_1 ( 1) a conception of building in terms of volume or space enclosed by plane and surface as opposed to mass and solidity; (2) regularity or vertical and horizontal repetition as the basis of composition as opposed to central axis; (3) flexibility as expressed in the build.ing plan; an d (4) technical expression and detail perfection and fineness of proportions as a substitute for applied ornament. (149) Hoyt saw and appreciated and understoo d the International Style Exhibit. (150) Since 1925 had been only isolated articles in American architectural only a few b o oks (Vers by LeCorbusier, English edition in 1928, and Modern Architecture by Henry -Russell Hitchcock in 1929) available to arouse interest. But here at the exhibition was "the revelation o f a challenging new world which had an immediate and extremely important influence on students but only the most open-minded of the older architects were at all convinced." The museum noticed "a tendency torrard the con-:fluence of the seemingly irreconcilable architectural idioms of Frank Lloyd ivright and Le Corbusier." These ideas of Wright, with out-reaching houses, warm materials and an affinity with the earth, seemingly had little to do with the closed f orms, cool austerities

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and weightlessness of the international style yet they shared the basic principles identified by the exhibit. " The positive influ-ence of Wright upon the development of new theories was carefully traced" by the Museum. ( 1 5 1 ) Some process of humanization was necessary before the new architecture could be whole -heartedly accepted by Americans ; 39 "the new European architecture opened our eyes, stimulated our minds and finally did as an important influence on the American scene, but in conjunction Hi th two other factorss first, a strong , new interest in F r a nk Lloyd Hrie;ht •••• ; and second, a rev-luation o f,,,traditional vernacula r buildings, Architects looked a gain at the stone and wood barns of Pennsylvania, the white clapboard w alls o f New E n gland,,,,They were not interested in the picturesque details of these building s , but in their straight forward use of material and their subtle adaptation to climate and topagraphy," (152) The Huseum followed up this exhibit with others with which Burn-ham was undoubtedly familiars In 1933, an exhibition of "American Architecture", and "early Nodern Architecture, Chicago 1870-1910" which researched the history of the skyscraper and the work of mid-western in 1935, when Hoyt was still commutin g between New York and Denver, "Re cent Hark of Le Corbusier" which was prepared to supplement lectures made by Le Corbusier during his visit to New York. (l53) The humanizing principles of modern architecture became strongly evident in the work of Burnham Hoyt as he commenced his own practice. In the early 1930's, B urnham Hoyt's interests were becomin g more contemporary not only in architecture but also in his other inter-ests of painting and music; these other art forms reinforced his concerns about architecture. (l54 ) He had several groups of friends, each within their own interestss one group o f architects; one of painters; one of musicians,

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40 Especially prominent in painting at this time was the regionist school of Hopper and Benton which chose to emphasize naturalism and express regional qualities in painting -ignoring European influence and adopting a provincialism. (l55) This was the same time that Hoyt began to gain a renewed interest in Southwest Spanish colonial and pueblo architecture which had remained dormant for a decade. In 1931 following the death of their mother, his sister, Velma Reeve, visited him for three months . Among the sights that he showed her, which obviously excited him, were the C!oisters and the Chrysler Building, as well as his residence in Vermont. ( 15 6 ) Here were ex-pressions of the old and the new, as well as the new within the old, the reconciliation of "either-or" with "both." Culmination (1933-1955) On February 11, 1933, Merrill Hoyt unexpectedly died of a heart attack at the age of 51. Merrill's death meant that Burnham Hoyt needed to return to fin-ish his brother's commitments; "for a time he virtually commuted between New York and Denver by air to fill his obligations in each place." (l5?) This commutin g continued until 1936, when he finally settled in Denver to head his own firm, because he was still on the faculty at New York University, probably as a visiting critic for the last three years. There were probably two reasons for the termination o f this dual responsibilitys (1) the new independent commissions that Hoyt was beginning to obtain in Denver (i.e. The Denver Sewage Plant); and (2) his marriage to Mildred Fuller in New York in 1936. They had long been the best of friends, each other's confidant, and had delayed marriage believing

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41 that it "would ruin a good thing." ( 1 5 8 ) They lived at 1050 S herman until he built their own residence at 3130 E ast Exposition in 1948. Hoyt's Denver office practice, 400 Colorado National Bank Building, was for the most part a one-man office. For nearly twenty years from 1937 to 1955 he had one constant employee, Samuel McMurtrie, who was Hoyt ' s alter e go, a very close and constant companion in his work. ( 1 5 9 ) Mildred Hoyt was often involved in the office practice as interior designer, doing the color schemes of many of his residences. ( 160 ) Others who worked in Hoyt's office included E arl C. 1'1orris, Charles H. Overholt, Oscar G. Stronquist, Edward 0 . Holien, and Arthur v. Hoyer , (161) The office remained small with often no more than a detail designer, chief draf tsm a n , one or two draftsmen, building inspector and secretary, Hoyt was a very demandin g employer; "things had to be jus t so,,,demanding excellence of others," (162) Althou g h B urnham Hoyt achieved nationa l recognition for his in-stitutional work, he "derived his greatest satisfaction from designing residences" ( 163) because of the more demandin g and intricate functional requirements. Because of his interest in designing re-sidences and because of the economic depression, a large portion of Hoyt ' s work 19 30's and 1940's were residences, either as new building s or as additions and alterations, He desig ned houses for many of his friends, and many of his residential clients were also his clients for his commercial and institutional architecture. The one residence that Hoyt was most satisfied Hith Has the Walter V . Struby Residence (1935). "I think the best house I ever made was the ltfalter Struby place ••• a home that I consider practically perfect. I can't say the same for everything I've desig ned." (l64)

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42 Hoyt's general attitude torrards the buildings he desig ned was one of relative dissatisfaction, always with the idea that he could improve it if he had the opportunity to redesi gn it. " H e never finished anything that he wouldn't have done it differently." (165) This dissatisfaction was one key to his continual growth, Hoyt said, " some (buildings) stand up well-those of the simplest design, Others I have done s ee m increasingly like a g ood idea at the time but a poor one later," (166 ) Two of Hoyt designed residences, the BrQmfield reside nce (1937) and the Barrows residence (1942), were remarkably simila r in their functional layout, having almost exact functional diagrams and site plans, althoug h being quite different in their architectural e xpres sion, This could indicate that his architectural philosophy, re-lating to functional and environmental conc erns, was quite fixed by this time, while the physical expression o f these res i de nces was not, The difference s could also be partly an expression of the client's personal perferences, Thus , Hoyt in his mature work showed a stronger r eliance on a formulated architectural ethic or philosophy r ather than on an architectural aesthetic, (167) Hoyt desig ne d many institutional and commercial buildings and additions too. Both Boettcher School for Crippled Children (1940) and the hydro-therapy unit o f Children's Hospital (1936) were institutional examples of Hoyt ' s ex-pression of functionalism as a determinant of form , He regarded the Boettcher School as "the cleanest building " he had designed , (168) It was also the building that best expressed his theory of designs "architecture is the dramatization of a system of construction," ( 1 69) Here the structural system was exposed and articulated, creating a sense of occassion, of excitment and joy, similar in concept to the

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4J Gothic ideal, In red Rocks Theater (1940) Hoyt created a masterpiece of archi-tectural and natural environment integrity, while the Denver Public Library (19 56) just as admirably reflected the man-made environment of the Civic Center and Voorhies Memorial in both scale and theme, Hoyt's more urban worksa the Albany Hotel and Industrial Federal Savings and Loan , both of 1938, seemed less successful on the crowded urban sites, being relatively unarticulated masses. The Albany Hotel design did resolve the problem of how to the corner of a building on a corner site by using a round corner. Burnham Hoyt was able to "make city officials or homeowners hap-py with the building s he designed for them "because he was a thoroug h individualist" who was concerned with solving his clients' pro blems, (l7 0) Often during the initial consultation with a client, as they would discuss their particular problems and needs, Burnham Hoyt would start drawing what usually ended up as the accepted final d e sign, (l71 ) This skill was a product of the Beaux-Arts system of es-quisse, in Hhich the initial scheme would be developed in a short sketch problem . (l7Z) Hoyt ' s interest in indigenous culture could best be seen in his work on the Spanish colonial churches near Santa Fe , New Hexico, I n the early 1930's he supervised the restoration of many of these churches, including Acoma Church, probably through a Federal pro g ram of the Depression era, In his work he emphasized exact restoration of materials and methods of construction, "He tried to get the Indians to rebuild the churches with branches and roots instead of corrugated metal," (173)

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44 In another restoration project of the 1930's, Hoyt restored the Teller House and Opera House in Central City. ( 174 ) The Opera House was designed in 1874 by Denver's first professional architect, Robert Roeschlaub. Again he showed a sensitivity and understanding of the past. This native interest could be seen in his other work, not in the sense of copyin g detail or constructional methods as done in restora-tion work , but in catching the spirit of early architecture that was an honest expression using materials on hand. of function, construe-tion, environment and the period. In this sense Hoyt worked within the tradition of Denver architecture. In his design for Children's Hospital he most nearly approached a visual aesthetic reminiscent o f the massing of the pueblos, or for that matter, of the mountains and valleys of Colorado in an abstract and internalized way of expressing native emotions and associations rather than in a stylistic manner of form-making . In the Burnham Hoyt was again involved in the education of architects. He prepared architectural design programs for the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design. These programs were for buildings dealing with contemporary problems, often modifications o f actual builq.ings on which he had been Horkings a hospital (1941); a convention center (1943); and a community swimming pool (1946). ( 1 75) B urnham Hoyt continued to be active in his professional com-mittments. In 1939 and 40 , he was chosen a judge "of architecture and landscape ideas embodied in designs submitted from all over the country.in the $10,000 housing contest organized by the Productive Homes Architectural Competition" in New York. "Contest designs were for dwellings built to improve the standard of family living within

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commuting distance of a city job." Hoyt was chosen because of his activities with the American Institute of Architects and rrith New York University and because of "his grasp of low cost housing pro blems." ( 17 6 ) In 1941 he served on the Advisory Architectural Committee of the U.S. Housin g Authority. In 1946 he served on the 45 United Nations Center Committee of the American Institute of Architecture. (177) HONORS Around 1942 B urnham Hoyt began to feel a weakness in his left arm and hand a weakness that eventually led to paralysis. ( 178 ) It took several years before the definitive diagnosis of Parkinson's disease was finally made and by then he was frail and thin and greatly showing the effects of his illness. He continued to have an active, clear mind while his body was succumbin g to physical and nervous deterioration, He maintained his office practice until 1955 when he finally retired, During the last years of his practice he would often have to be carried between office, car and home, Al-thoug h not frustrated in these final years, he once in a while would . (1 80) be in "black despair," In these later years he was considered "the D ean of Colorado Architects," ( 181 ) and he b eg an to receive the honor and recognition he deserved, But he received them modestly, as evidenced by his in-formal remark when elected to the National Academy of Design ; "Think nothing of it, for you are not invited until you are no longer a threat to the youn g architects," ( 182 ) Hoyt's recognitions began in 1937 when he received a fine arts

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46 award from the City Club of Denver, (183) presumably for his first place winning entry for the Spee r Nemorial , d one in collaboration with r1any of the honors he received were based solely on his design for Red Rocks Theater, In 1941 R e d Rocks was selected by the Hagazin e of Art as being "one of the only two mode.rn monumental buildings in America," (184) In May, 1944, Red Rocks was selected by the Museum o f Modern Art as one of "Fifty Outstanding Examples of American Archi-tecture since 1932," both an exhibition and publication, In 1947 Red Rocks was included in the VI Pan American Congress o f Architects Exhibition as representative of contemporary American architecture, This exhibition was assembled throug h thejoint efforts o f the Depart-ment of State, the American Institute of Architects , and the Americ an Institute of Planners, In a letter from the A.I.A., to B urnham Hoyt concerning his inclusion in this exhibition, it was stated, "May we take this occasion to con gratulate you on your ability and record, which helped make it possible to assemble an exhibition of contem-porary American architecture of which this country may well be proud," (185) In addition, Red Rocks Theater has received countless other national and international acclaim, (1 8 6 ) Red Rocks Theater also drew the admiration of many distinguished fellow professionals, including Walter Gropius who came to visit, and Frank Lloyd Vlright who wrote to Hoyt, "you and I are the only architects that count,,," (lB8 ) His work at Red Rocks was thus re-(18 7) cognized and acclaimed by two architects who espoused opposite view s in the modern movement of architecture because it incorporated the ideology o f each, The most pretigeous professional recognition was being elected

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a fellow of the American Institute of Architects for his "notable contribution to the adv ancement of the profession b ecause of his achievement in design," ( 189 ) In advancing him to Fellowship, the Institute commended him as "an artist, sensitive to balance, form 47 and color. He has revealed in his architectural conceptions unerring judgment in the skillful welding of to site. It may be truly said, whatever he touches he ornaments," ( 190 ) He was Fellow at the Institute's 81st annual convention in Houston, Texas , March, 1949, along with twenty-seven other American architects. ( 191 ) On August 26, 1949, an honorary degree of Doctor o f Fine Arts from the University of Denver was conferred upon Burnham Hoyt by Dr . Alfred C. Nelson, chancellor. He was cited for his contribution "to the culture of the Rocky r1ountain Region as designer of the Red Rocks Theater and other major buildings," ( 1 9 2 ) On a copy of the program, probably used by one of the administration seated on the platform, was the following penciled note to a colleague: "Dan, you might hold Hoyt's right arm so we cause him to lose his balance when we put on the hood," indicating the condition o f his health at this time. ( 193) On April 8 , 1953, Burnham Hoyt was elected to the National Aca-demy of Design as an associate member. "He rras one o f twenty American artists, sculptors and architects elected to membership by the Academy ••• according to Laurence Grant \Vhite , Academy president, Such member-ship (was) one of the highest honors that (could) be paid to men of the arts professions," ( 1 9 4 ) In 1957 Regis College established the "Civis Princeps" or "First Citizen" title to be conferred upon those who had contributed to the

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4 8 development of Colorado, and at this time paid tribute to seventeen distinguished citizens of the State "who have signalized themselves in their respective fields." Burnham Hoyt was recognized as "the Dean of Colorado architects." (195) On Hednesday night, April 6, 1960, Burnham Hoyt died quietly at his home (J1JO East Exposition Avenue) at the a g e of 7J. Funeral services were held that Friday at noon in St, Martin's Chapel at St. John's Cathedral and cremation followed at Fairmount Cementery. He was survived by his wife, Hrs . t1ildred Hoyt , _and his sister, Hrs . Velma Reeve , (196) A final honor was paid B urnham Hoyt in a memorial service, April 20, 1960, held at St. Hartin' s Chapel which he designed in 1926, (For thirty years from 1925-1955 Hoyt had served as cathedral archi-teet for St. John's Episcopal Church • . ) In the program was an appro-priate epitaph, "Burnahm Hoyt practiced in the great .tradition of architects whose buildings express the highest aspirations of men and (197) • women."

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49 Footnotes Rocky l 'lountain News, June 30, 1941. ( 1) (2) (J) (4) Letter from John Reeve, sister of Burnham Hoyt. Interview with Mrs. John Reeve. Denver's population in 1870 was 4 ,700; in 1880 it was 35,600. (5) Denver City Directory 1879 . Vlallace Hoyt was not recorded in the 1 8 78 Directory, ieading to the assumption that he came in the latter half of 1878. (6) Rocky Jvlountain News, August 31, 1947 . (7) Interview with Hrs . Reeve. (8) Letter from Mrs. Reeve. (9) Interview with Mrs. Reeve. (10) Letter from Mrs . Reeve. See Appendix A for short personal biography. (11) Interview with Mrs. Reeve. (12) She married John G . Reeve, an electrician on December 20, 1905, and had one daughter, Janet. They live at 1035 Emers on St., Denver . be seen (13) in many (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) ( 21) This. orientation (looking toward the mountains) can of Burnham Hoyt's residential designs. Interview with Hrs . Burnham Hoyt, May, 1974. Denver City Directories 1 8 79-1920. . Rocky Hountain News, August 31, 1947. Interview with Mrs. Hoyt. Ibid . Interviews with Mrs. Hoyt and Mrs. Reeve . Rocky Mountain News, May 13, 1943. Interview with Hoyt. (22) Interviews with Mrs. Hoyt and Mrs. Carl Arndt, who lias a close family friend from the 1930's on. "He had a brillant mathematical mind , a mind that Has very musical in the way he thought." Hoyt

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used musical patterns and intervals as the source for some of his designs including the stairwell of the Churchill Owens residence which was based on a theme by Edward Grieg. (23) (24) (25) (26) ( 27) (28) (29) (Jo) (31) (32) (33) with f>1rs. Hoyt (34) (35) (36) Rocky Mountain News, June 30, 1941. Rocky Mountain News, 11ay 14, 1943. Interview with Mrs. Reeve. Interview with J1rs. Hoyt . Rocky Nountain News, August 31, 1947. R oc k y Hountain News, June 30, 1941. IntervieH with t1rs . Reeve . Rocky Hountain News, August 31, 1947. Interview with l1rs. Reeve. Interview with 11rs. Hoyt. Roc ky N ountain N ews, June 30, 1941; and interviews and Hrs. Arndt. Interview with 11rs. Arndt. See Appendix A for short biographical note. Interview Hith Mrs, Reeve, • 50 (3?) H . F . and E .R. Whitey , B'iographical Dictionary of American Architects (Deceased ) (Los Angeles: New Age Publishing Co,, 1956), p. 341. (38) Interview with Mrs, Reeve. (39) . Richard R. Brettell, Historic Denver 1858-1893 (Denvers Historic Denver, Inc., 1973), pp. 135-140, (40) See Appendix A for biographical note. (41) Burnham Hoyt quoting Herrill Hoyt in Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947. (42) Interview with Mrs. Reeve, (43) Interview with Mrs, Hoyt. (44) \vhitey, .2.!.. cit., p. 482; See Appendix A for short biographical note.

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51 (45) James P . Noffsinger, Influence of the Ecole des B eaux Arts the Architects of the u.s. The Catholic University of America Press, 1955), p . 40. ( 46) Whitey , .2.E.!.. cit. , p . 483. (47) Ibid. ( 48) Ibid. (49) Thomas E . Tallma g e , The )tory of Architecture in America (New York z Norton and Co., 1936, p . 199. --(50) cit., p . 482. (51) Interview with Mrs. Reeve, (52) Interview with Mrs, Hoyt . (53) Whitey, .2.E.!.. cit,, p . 484. ( 54) The Denver Times , September 12, 1917. (55) Roc ky Mountain News, August 31, 1947. (56) cit,, p. 4 8 3 . (57) cit., p , 4, (58) Interview with Arndt. (59) The Society o f Beaux•Arts Architects was founded in 1893 by 72 Ameridan former students of the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris with the purpose of fostering friendship within the group and promotin g architectural edu cation in the U . S . bas ed on the principles of the Ecole, with a system of ateliers, In 1916 the name was chan g ed to the Beaux-Arts Institute of Des i g n and much later to the National Institute of Architectural Education. ( 60) . The Colorado Chapter of the A,I,A, letter of recom mendation for B . Hoyt's fellowship. ( 61) Noffsinger, cit., p . 12, (62) A student in the Beaux-Arts pro g ram compet e d in Class B rrork accumulating s ufficient points to proceed on t o Class A work where he could co mpete f o r medals and prizes, ( 63) The Paris Prize was a warded from 1904 on as a scholarship to study for two years in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, To be eligible, students had to have gained sufficient points in class A design and be less than 28 years old (Weatherhead, p, 7 8 ). (64) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt .

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52 (65) John F , Haberson , The Study of Architectural Design (New Yorks The Pencil Points Press, Inc,, 1926), p , 289, (66) Rocky N oun .tain News, Nay 14, i943. ( 67) Haberson , .2.!. cit, , p . 225 • (68) Ibid,, p. 289. ( 69) Ibid,, p. 229 • . (70) Ibid, , p . 266, (71) The Colorado Chapter of the A,I.A. letter of recom mendation for B , Hoyt's fellowship, . (72) See A ppendix A for short biographical note, (73) The Rocky Jl!ountain News (April 8 , 1960) indicated that Hoyt graduated from the Institute of Desig n in New York, inferring that he received a certificate or diploma at this time. There has been no evidence to date to support this statement, and it was likely that certificates of co mpletion were not awarded until after the Institute was incorporated in 1916, (74) Interview with Nrs . Arndt, (75) "Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue , "Brick Builder, 24 (April, 1915), p . 102, (76) Tallmage , .2!_ cit,, p, 262 • . (77) C,M, Price, "The Chapel of the Intercession, N.Y., "Architectural Review" , 35 (June, 1914), p, .543. ( 78) in I1r, Goodhue ' s Office, "Pencil Points, February, 1922, p , 23. (79) Pencil Points, April, 1924, p , 42. (80) Elizabeth Moc k (ed,), Built In U . S .A, (New Yor k : The .tvluseum of Modern Art, 1945), p. 122. (81) Rocky !1ountain News, June 30, 1941. (82) The Denver Times, September 15, 1917. (83) Rocky Mountain News, June 30, 1941, (84) Fiske Kimball , American Architecture (New York s Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1928), p. 131, ( 85) The Colorado Chapter A.I.A. Letter of recom mendati on for B , Hoyt fellowship.

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(86) The Denver Times , September 15, 1917. (87) Rocky Mountain News, June 30, 1941. (88) Interview with Nrs . Hoyt . (89) Interview with Mrs. Arndt, (90) Interview with Reeve . (91) Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947. (92) Rocky Mountain News, September 14, 1919. (93) Rocky f1ountain News, September 21, 1919. (94) Thorson , Carlson, cit., p . 20. (95) Rocky Jvlountain News, September 14, 1919. 53 (96) The Cactus Club would be a fascinating topic for future research. Burnham Hoyt and other architects of Denver were affiliated with the Club, and it seemed to have been a major social organization for these men and others. (97) Rocky Mountain News, November 26, 1919. (98) Rocky Mountain N e w s , June 20, 1920; D ecember 7 , 1919; February 1, 1920. (99) Bulletin of the Beaux Arts Institute of Design , vol. 1. • (100) Bulletin of the B.A.I.D., July' 1927, p. 15, 21. (101) Bulletin of the B,A,I,D., N ovember, 1931, p . 5 . (102) Bulletin o f the B . A .I.D,, D ecember , 1924, p . 4 . (103) . Interview with Hrs . Hoyt . (104) "Twelfth-Night in l1r. Goodhue ' s Office, "Pencil Points," February, 1922, pp . 22-26. (105 ) See Appendix A. (106) Interview with Mrs. Reeve . ( 107) Rocky News, August 31, 1947. (108) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt . (109) Interview with Mrs. Arndt . (110) Letter from tvrrs. Reeve ,

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(111) The Denver Post, February 13, 1933. (112) Charles Henry Kello gg was draftsman and building inspector from 1 925-29. He was born in Davenport , Iow a , in 1895 and educated at Kansas State (1913-14) and the Atelier Denver (1919-22). Oscar G . Stronquist was a draftsman with Fisher and Fisher from 1912 until he went to work f o r Hoyt and Hoyt and later for Burnham Hoyt . He was amongst the first students of the Atelier Denver. Earl Chester Morris was a detail designer from 1929-35 continuing many of B urnham Hoyt ' s designs through.desig n development when he was in New York. He was born in Denver in 1 902 and educated at the University of Colorado (1919-20) and Columbia University (1920-25). Upon leaving Burnham Hoyt ' s office he established the partnership o f F remen & Morris and served as critic and director of the Atelier Denver (1935-39) . Charles H . Over holt was a draftsman from 1930-37. He was born in Denver in 1905 and educated at the Atelier Denver (1926-32) . He married Merrill Hoyt's daughter, Grace Helene, in 1937. ( George s . Koyl, ed . , American Architects Directory, New Yorkl R.R. B owker Co., 1962) (113) Thorson , Carlson, and cit. , pp . 12-20. (114) Interview with Mrs. Arndt . ( 115) Ibid. (116) Interview with Mrs. Reeve . ( 117) The Colorado Chapter A .I.A. letter recommending B . Hoyt to fellow . ( 118) Rocky I 1ountain News, August 31, 1947. (119) interview with Mrs. Hoyt . (120) Se e Appendix A. ( 121) Roc ky l ' lountain News, June 30, 1941. (12 2 ) \olarren Taylor, "A Criticism of the Riverside Church," American Archit.ect, 139 (June, 1931), p . 72. (123) Interview with Mrs. Reeves . (124) See Appendix A f o r short biographical note. (125) Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947. ( 126) The New York Times, April 8 , 1960. ----(127) Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947. (128) Ibid. ( 129) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt .

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I i I 55 ( 130) Ibid. (131) cit., p. 70. (132) Charles Crane, "An Answer to Criticisms \vhy We Made It Gothic," American Architect, 140 (July, 1931), p. 26. (133) Interview with Mrs. Reeves. (134) Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947. (135) See Appendix A. (136) A.C. Weatherhead, The History of Collegiate Education in Architecture in the United States (Los Angeless A.C. Weatherhead, 1941), p. 240. (137) Letter from Helen Sheehan of The Archieve's Office of N.Y. U. She stated that there was "no ev5.dence that Mr. Hoyt . ever served as dean." This seems to dispel the myth about Hoyt that "he was dean of the school of architecture of New York University" as printed in the Rocky Hountain NeHs (4-8-60) and in the Denver Post (4-7-60). ----• (138) The Colorado Chapter A.I.A, letter of recommendation of B . Hoyt to fellow. (139) Interview with Mrs, Arndt. (140) Interview with fvlrs. Reeves. This supported the idea that Hoyt was not fully employed by Pelton, Allen, and Qollens, if indeed at all. It may be that he had some association from 1930-33 with the associated architects working on Rockefeller Center, This is supported by the fact that Edward 0. Holien, Burnham's roommate in New York who worked with Pelton, Allen & Callens from 1926-30, was also lecturer and critic at N .Y.U. from -1926-32 and was with the associated architects working on Radio City at Rockefeller Center, before becoming Burnham Hoyt's chief draftsman from 1934-42. (George s. Koyl, ed. American Architects Directory New York: R,R. Bowker Co., 1962, p. 320.) Besides Holien, Hoyt shared the penthouse at 415 Lexington Avenue with three other companions who also worked for him as draftsmen at Pelton, Allen & Collenss Gresley Elton, a Canadian from Toronto; Carl Bieler, a former student of the Atelier Denver; and John vlahlquist. (141) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt . (142) Yearbook of the Architectural League of New York, -1930. . ( 143) Bulletin of B.A. I. D., Vol. 6. (144) cit., p, 298.

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(1 45) Sheldon Cheney. The Nevr 'tlorld Architecture (New York: Tudor Publishing Co., 1 935) , p . 41. (1 46 ) Ibid. (147) Tallmadge, • cit., p. 215 . (1 48) Hoc k , • cit., p . 14. (1 49) Ibid., p . 10. (150) Interview with Mrs. Reeves. (1 51) H oc k , • cit., p . 13. (152) Ibid., p. 14. ( 153) Ibid., p . 124. \Vhether H oyt personally knel'f Le Corbusier is unknown, but it is likely that they had met by this time -either in E urope or later when Hoyt served on the U.N. Committee of the A.I.A. in 1946 . ( 154) Interview with H r s . Hoyt • • (155) Sam Hunter. Americ an Art of the 20th Century (New York s Harry Abrams , Inc., 1973), p . 23o:----(15 6) Interview Hith !1rs. Reeves . (157) Hocky H ountain News, June 30 , 1941. (1 58) Interview 1dth Mrs. Hoyt. (159) Letter from Samuel HcMurtrie , Jr., January 13, 1975. His father died on December 20, 1974. "Sam Jl1cHurtrie was (Hoyt's) second in command for many years and did many of B urnham ' s working drawings as well as seeing to it that Burnham' s thing s were carried on." (Letter !rom James Sudler) (160) The Bromfield residence interior may be attributed to Mrs. Hoyt. (IntervieH with Mrs. Arndt.) (1 61) Earl c. Morris, Charles H . Overhol t and Osca r G . Stronquist had all worked in the office o f Ivlerrill Hoyt and Burnha m Hoyt and continued on after Herrill' s death. }1orris left the office i n 19 35 , Overholt in 1937 and Stronquist sometime in the 1940's. (Conversation with Charles H . Overholt.) EdHard Obert ( B ung) Holien Has chief draftsman from 1934 42 . He was born in St. Paul, Minn., in 1902 and educated a t the University of Hin nesota (1 919 23) and H.I.T. (1 923 -26) being a Paris Prize finalist in 1 926 before meeting Burnham in the office of Pelton, Allen & Callens and becoming roommates in 1 926 . Arthur V. Hoyer was a product of Atelier Denver. (George S . Koyl , ed . American Architects Directory NeH York : R . R . B ovrker Co,, 1962 , p . 320.)

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(162) Interview Hoyt (163) Rocky fi!ountain N ews, August 31, 1947. (164) Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947. (165) Interview with Nrs. Hoyt. (166) Rocky lvJountain N errs, August 31, 1947. (167) See Reynor Banham's New Brutalism for a discussion of architectural ethic vs. esthetic. (168) Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947. ( 169) "Portfolio of Recent Work by B urnham Hoyt," The Architectural Forum , 74 (February, 1941), p. _113. (170) Rocky Mountain Nerrs, August 31, 1947. ( 171) Interview with Jv!rs. Hoyt. (172) John F. Harbeson, p. 121. (173) Interview with Mrs. Reeves. (174) I nterview with J'llr s . Reeves. (175) Bulletin of B.A.I.D., Vols. 17, 19, 22. (176) The Denver Domocrat, Nar ch 1 8 , 1939. 57 (177) The Colorado Chapter of A.I.A.. letter o f recommendation for B . Hoyt's fellorr. (1 78) Intervierrs with Mrs. Arndt and Mrs. Hoyt. (179) Interview with Mrs. Arndt. (180) .Interview with Mrs. Hoyt. ( 181) Conversation with Lan gdon (182) Interview with Mrs. Hoyt. (183) Program from "Civis Princeps A wards " for 1957 from Regis College. (184) Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947. (185) Letter from Edmund Purves, Director of public an d professional relations of the A.I.A. to B. Hoyt, October 15, 1947.

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5 8 (186) Red Rocks has been pu blished in the following foreig n architectural journals: Architects Journa l , 102 , Dept. 6 , 1945; Revista d e Arquitectura, 33, June , 1948; L 'Architecture D'Aujourd. ' hui, 20, l • Jay, 1949. (18 7 ) Letter from H alter Gropius to B . Hoyt and photo o f them together are in the possession of Mrs. Hoyt. (188) L e t ter from Frank L. Wright to B . Hoyt , in the possession of Mrs. Hoyt . (189) The Colorado Chapter o f the A.I.A. letter o f r ecommendation for B . Hoyt ' s fellow . (190) A.I.A. Journal, 11 (April, 1949), p . 166. (191) The Denver Post, March 1 8 , 1249 . (192 ) Letter from Syn der, curator o f the archives, University o f D en ver, F ebruary 2 4 , 1975. " Al s o receivine; an honory degree at this time was M r . Saul Caston, Director o f the D env e r S y m phony Orchestra. Both were cited for their contribution to the culture o f the R oc ky Mountain region." (193) Ibid , (194) Rocky Mountain New s , A pril 12, 1 9 5 3 . (195) Prog ram from " Ci vis Princips Award s " for 1 957, R e g i s Colleg e . (196) Denver P ost, April 7 , 1960; Rocky r 1ountain News, April 7, 1960; New York • Times , April 8, 196 0 . (197) !"iemoria.J.. prog r a m for services of A pril 20, 1 960, a t St. Martin' s Chapel of St. John's Cathedral a co p y is in rrrs. Hoyt's possession.

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l?ourth) North Side Christian Scienc e Church (1920) )101 lilest 31st Avenue 60 The first major work of Hoyt and Hoyt was the North Side Chris-tian S cience Church Hhich was built on a Hedge-shaped lot at Jist and Speer Boulevard (Fie . 4). The difficult site required an ima ginative design solution that exhibited. B urnham Hoyt ' s concern with the building -environment interface that was to continue to develop un-til it reached its zenith at Red Rocks , The building ' s stylistic source was North Italian Renaissance (Lombard) in flush joint textured brick masonry. This was felt to be a ppropriate because of the strong similarity in climate and ge o graphy between Denver and the Lombard region of Italy. This region also used brick as the chief building material as Denver did. Because of these similarities it was felt to be an appropriate stylistic source for a "Denver style." The side elevations displayed five arched bays , Hith tHo-story coupled pilasters and entrances at the outer bays. The church was • terminated at the apex of the triangular site in a pedimented front surmounting a projecting semicircular rotunda. The orders and de-tails have been extremely refined and simplified, being hardly more than a highly articulated rhythm along the facade. This building established that Hoyt and Hoyt could "create a real w ork of art." ( 2) Park Hill Bra n c h Library (1920) l•lontview Blvd . and Dexter St. The eighth branch library in Denver (Fig. 5) was built in Park Hill with "certain reservations by the llbrary board. " (J) These re-servations probably resulted from the building ' s Spanish colonial

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61 (Fig . 4 . ) Northside Christian Church (1920) (Fig . 5 . ) Park Hill Branch Library (1920)

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62 style which was a new imagery in the "beautiful Park Hill region, " The building had buff stucco walls and was capped with a harmonizing red tile roof, It was built at a cost of $30,000, The design showed a definite resemblence to some of Goodhue's work in California and Hawaii that was done at the time that Hoyt worked there (i,e. a house and museum of art in Honolulu in 1917 ( 4)), This building again resulted from Burnham Hoyt's search for a Denver style. Probably due in part to the reservations and contro-versy over the use of this style in a public an d partly because the style was more suited to a hotter climate,. Hoyt did not repeat this style on a public building, althoug h he did use the pueblo and Spanish colonial styles on numerous residences, including one for Francis Hendricks, 457 Nilliams (1922), In 1964 an addition, by Smith and Thorson was added to the library which altered the simplicity of the entrance, (5) Highlands Masonio Temple (1921) 3250 Federal Blvd; Besides being concerned about an architectural style that would be expressive of the region, Hoyt also designed in styles that would be appropriate for the functions of the buildings, The Highlands Masonic Temple used a classic vocabulary to symbolize the func-tioning and meaning of a Masonic Temple (Fig, 6). Again Hoyt rend-ered his desig n in characteristic simplicity with his sensitivity to balance, symmetry and quiet refinement, One innovation can be seen in the windows where a traceried pediment is contained completely within the window frame, The basement story is in brick with hori-zontal rusticated joints, a design feature used on several of Hoyt's designs.

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63 (Fig.6. ) Highlands Masonic Temple (1921) (Fig. ? . ) Colorado National Bank (1924)

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Colorado fational B ank , Additlon (1924-) 17th and Champa 64The bank was designed by and A.A. Fisher in 1914in a classic Ionic style (Fig . ?). Hoyt was commissioned to remodel the in-terior, The resultant building showed Hoyt ' s ability to design with-in strong environmental restraints and to design with complete har-many, accuracy and sensitivity to the existing building, Lake Junior Hig h School (1926) 1 820 Lowell Blvd. Lake Junior High School was the most important building desig ned b y Hoyt and Hoyt (Fig . 8). Lake Junior Hig h was located on the mos t beautiful site of any of the Denver Public Schools on a small slope overlooking Sloan's Lake with a magnificent panoramic view of the Rocky Nountains, This was the first of several building s that Hoyt desig ned with a strong relationship to the mountains . The Hoyts were selected as architects in 1924 and B urnham Hoyt was leaving for Euro p e in 1926, the year it was completed. The school showed a departure in Hoyt ' s desig n in symmetry and style. It was an unsynwetrical building , being composed on both functional and picturesque lines, rather tha n by strict formalism with similar functions, (i.e., class rooms, industrial arts, physical education, etc.) having been grou ped togethe r and expressed in a plan free from formal constraints. This separation of functions w a s a principle seen the year before in the Bauhaus at Dessau , Germany by i.J'al ter Gropius. Hoyt had long been concerned with the visual ex-pression of his buildings and thus the choice was at least somewhat based upon visual associations. Lake Junior High was a departure in style, being late English

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(Fig , 8 , ) Lake Junior Hi g h School (1926) ( F i g , 9 . ) Denver Sewer P i p e an d Clay Co, (c, 1928)

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66 Tudor . This style was particularly appropriate for several reasons: (1) it was a brick architecture and brick Denver ' s indige nous building material; (2) it was chiefly a domestic architecture, thus showing less formality and rigidity. It was flexible and informal, fitting the western lifestyle; (3) it was a transitiona l style that signaled a breaking aHay from the principles of English Gothic and thus had a symbolic intention, heralding the close of a great eclectic period; (4) it was an adaptable style; and (5) it was picturesque. Hoyt used the style with great freedom and detailing in masonry . Thus Tudor style is again seen in the Denver Sewer Pipe and Clay C ompany (Fig . 9) building at 2185 B roadway done a bout 1928, which received national recognition (6 ) as well as numerous residences in the late 1920 ' s . St. Hartin's Chapel (1927) 14th Avenue and Clarkson Street B urnham Hoyt designed a small Gothic chapel (Fig. 10) as part of St. John ' s Episcopal Cathedral desig ned in a lqte English Gothic style in 1911 by Tracy and Swarthout. (7) The Gothic chapel was o f an intimate scale and simplicity which stood as counterpoint to the magnificant cathedral, not competin g with it but rather, helping to create a grouping of structures not unsimilar to the grouping s of English Gothic nomastic cathedrals. A pro bably source o f inspiration for the design came from Goo d hue ' s Christ Church, in Cranbroo k , Michigan , on which Hoyt supposedly worked on when in Goodhue ' s offic e . ( 8 ) B urnham Hoyt ' s meticulous attention to detail could be seen in an incident that took place during t he design. He rented a larg e loft space so that he could draw some detail work at full scale, a

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6? (Fig . 10 . ) St. Martin' s Chapel (1927) (Fig ,11. ) Steele School (1929)

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practice similar to that done by a Gothic master mason. ( 9 ) Steele School, Addition (1929) )20 South Harion Parkway 68 The Steele School (Fig . 11) was a major addition to the existing school done by D.W. Dryden ( 1 0) in 1913. (11) The original structure of eleven rooms, cost, with equipment and ground, $116 ,000 and ser-ved kindergarten through eighth grade until 1920 when Byers Junior High was built and Steele School reverted to the typical kindergarten throug h sixth grade. It originally had and six teachers. The addition in 1929 cost, for building and equipment and a seperate house forcustodian , (since demolished) $173 ,000 and now had eighteen classrooms, a library, auditorium/gym, and kindergarten room. This doubled the original size of the building for 535 pupils and fifteen teachers. The new design retained the original rusticated brick basement, but the stucco upper stories were attributed to Hoyt. The original masonry walls were covered with a stucco-surface, rendering the building as a plain off--white mass with deeply recessed openings. The whole simplicity of this composition was Spanish Colonial in its imagery. It was crowned with towers roofed in m o .saics, giving a more Byzantinel1uslim impression. This combination of Spanish-Byzantine, evident in Goodhue-designed buildings at the Pam Pacific Exposition in San Diego (1915), was now interpreted in an Art-Deco style. The interior had murals painted in 1929 by Allen True, ( 12 ) a noted Denver Artist, and indicated an integration of the arts and collaboration vd th artists of the Hoyts. Owing somewhat to the fact that it was an addition, Steele

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School was again informal in its balance, BURNHAM HOYT, ARCHITECT (1933-1956) During his individual practice of architecture, Hoyt ' s work showed an integrity of design principles which was now fully matured, His major architectural production was in the 1930's and early 1940's before W .W.II, with his illness greatly reducing the amount of work that he could handle after the war . T he followine building s were chosen for analysis because they made up the portfolio which was submitted as Hoyt's contribution in design at the time o f his nomination for Fellowship in the American Institute of Architects. To this list were added four other works which showed important development and continuity within his work as discussed in the preceding Biography chapters an industrial building, a civic memorial project that was never built, and two more residences, Halter V. Struby Residence (O) (19J5) Norrison Road "I think the best house I ever made was the Walter Struby place,,.," Burnha m Hoyt stated. Here was a building that best expres-s ed Hoyt's concern with adapting the building to the individual be-havioral needs o f its occupants. "Fitting the members o f a family, their individual ideas and and the illustrations they have clipped from household magazines into a home that is both func-tional and beautiful (had) an appeal for him like the intricate Chinese puzzles he (loved ) to work," ( 14 ) There was a mystery involved in researching this house involving

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70 a statement Hoyt made concerning a major source for the residence's design; he stated that "the building itself (incorporates) many ideas of Calista Kern ••• " It could not be determined who or what Calista Kern was and it has been speculated that this person " might have been an Eastern architect" (l5) or more likely the wife of an-other client , 11rs. August Kern . (16) \val ter Struby, president of the 11issouri Southern R.R., died in Narch , 1936, and the house was then sold to the 11cClintock family. Hydro-Therapy Unit at Children's Hospital (1 936 ) 1 8th and Downing Street This southern wing of the Children's Hospital was the first major work of Hoyt's independent practice to be published in a national architectural journal because of its "possessing outstanding architectural merit." (i7 ) The unit Has a gift of Mrs. H .H. Tammen, (lS ) with an unlimited budget, (l9) as an addition to the existing Tammen Hing of the Children's Hospital (Figs. 12 -13). It was planned to in• crease existing ward space, to house recreation and school rooms, and to provide for hydrotherapeutical units. It was noted that the building had "a character quite unlike that of anything previously built in the u . s . and (had) a consistency of scale which (was) due chiefly to the use of projected type windows." And also that it was "as valid a piece of modern architecture as has been produced in this country." ( 2 o) With this building Hoyt established himself as an architect' s architect, as a leader in modern architecture doing work that was totally unique. Two factors were responsible for the building's distinctive ap-pearance: "the need for maximum light and controlled ventilation led to the use of stock sash and the effectiveness of solar radiation

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I I (Fig.12. ) Children' s Hospital (1936) 71

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.,.-.. 'xj f-'Oll ....... '--'-' .......... 0 ::r 1-' I-' p.
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73 at altitude made the placing of sun terraces on each level a most desirable feature. " ( 2l) This again demonstrated Hoyt' s ap-proach to architecture as an expression of client needs and Denver environment . In order to solve the specific problems of the Hospital, Burnham Hoyt did a great deal of study and even developed entirely new de-vices where needed. One example of his ingenuity was the use of hy-draulic lifts in the therapeutic pools. "Yle found the children were frightened by noisy overhead trolleys which them into the water, and we though t we could avoid this with hydraulic lifts," (22) Another result o f his careful and thoroug h study could be see n in the placing of the structural members ; these members of steel and con-crete with a special glazed brick exterior vTall were placed in re-lation t o bed spacing, and not vice versa. These and other refinements produced a work of "remarkable finish and decisiveness, " ( 23) This was not Hoyt's first venture with hospital design; he earl-ier designed the Home at Children' s Hospital, in 1926 , on the southwest corner 19th an d D ownin g . Alfred J . Bromfield Residence (1937) 4975 s . University Blvd. The Bromfield Residence (Figs. i/.J.-15) was the closest that Hoyt came to the visual imagery of the international style and this was pro-bably because of the desires of the client who stated, "it had been our idea for years to use modern be cause modern gave us what we wanted most without the restrictions o f traditional." As with the Struby residence Hoyt sou ght clientimput into his design through their collection of pictures and i deas. This made Hoyt ' s task as architec t one of shifting thro ugh the ideas and determining the ones

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74 I I ' Alfred J . Bromfield Residence (1937)

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75 FIRST FLOOR ..... . . . . . (Fig.15.) Alfred J, Bromfield Residence, Plans I I

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76 that best fit the needs of the client; as Hoyt put it: "the owners (were) modem minded and lived for years with all the reproductions of modern jobs they could find. I simply helped them wee d out this collect." Like most of Hoyt's mature work, "the house was planned entirely from the-inside out-starting first with the furniture ar-rangement; windows were located with the furniture and view carefully considered." (24) The house was located on a westerly sloping hill in the country south of Denver and commanded a superb view of the Colorado Rockies. The entrance was designed on a westerly axis with Mt. Evans , which is seen throug h the garden door as one enters the house. The circular dining room was also desig ned to offer vistas of the three most important mountain peaks in that part of the Rockies -Long's Peak , Mt. Evans, and Pike's Peak . The owner felt that "modern conformed to Colorado topography." ( 25) The exterior walls were brick painted a cool, light gray with a slate-blue cornice of wood lapsiding. Color was thought out to the smallest detail with the joints in the glass block pa inted gray-green. This gray-green-blue color scheme was continue d throughout the house with yellow The decorator for the project Has B urnham Hoyt's brother-in-law, Thornton Fuller. The client could only find one point of the desig n that w a s not perfect. "The only way in which the house has proved at all unsat-isfactory is in respect to the windows; on the basis of our experi-ence we would say it is advisable to have eaves as a protection against snow and rain, especially in bedrooms where ventilation i s a requirement." (26) In 1954, a subsequent owner commissioned architect Donald 0.

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77 Weese to enclose the terrace because it leaked, extend some bedrooms over the garage and add a gable roof to the house as well as other alterations. As with several of Hoyt ' s clients, A.J. Bromfield was an influ-entia! patron. He helped to secure other commissions for Hoyt from his position as officer of the Industrial Federal Savings and Loan Association, including their office building, as well as several re-sidences of relative and friends. Industrial Saving s and Loan Association (19JB) 1630 Stout Street The Industrial Saving s and Loan Association's building prog ram was to mould an old two-story structure into one that would meet the requirements of the Association (Fig . 16) . This was his first building to receive international publication. ( 27) The building , commissioned by Hr. Bromfield, an officer for the Association, was a small, severe, two-story building in which the ground floor and mezzanine were occupied by the Savings and Loan As-sociation and the upperfloor was used as rental space and possible future expansion. The exterior was precast concrete p anels, later used more successfully on the Boettcher School, and was extremely formal and symmetrical in its facade even with its taber-nacle entrance of stripped down classic imagery. Yet it was a character which was considered in accord with the institution. (28) The interior was streamlined-modern with its curved walls and bright aluminum in contrast to a dark linoleum flooring which continued u p the wall about seven feet. The design, being a remodel, was obviously difficult as seen in its proportions and was one of Hoyt's poorest mature work . It showed

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78 (Fig.16.) Industrial F'ederal Savings and Loan ( 193 8 ) (Fig. 17 . ) Albany Hotel (1938)

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79 less freedom of thought in adapting his design to an existing hig h density urban environment than to a more natural setting , T he building was reminiscent of the facade of the Masonic T emple , This building has sinc e been remodeled beyond any recognition of Hoyt's work which would indicate the need to consider preserva-tion, not only of building s built a century a go, but also of build -ing s less than forty years old which might be subject to pressures of development and chan ge, just as Hoyt ' s design was a response to similar pressures, Al ba ny Hot e l . (1 93 8 ) 17th Street a nd Stout Street The Albany Hotel (Fig , 17) replaced an older hotel built on the s a m e site in 1 884, an d adjoined a later addition by J . J . B . Benedict which was still in use, The Hotel was another urban building on a con fined site, It was treated by Hoyt as a surface block with the only being the curved corner, probably derived from the Philadelphia S a vings Fund Society building by Howe and Lesceze or more likely from the B rown Palace Hotel in Denver b y Frank E . E dbrook e or mayb e even from the rounded bay window of the origina l hotel. Hoyt mad e other architectural reference s to the replaced hotel whose facade ha d a vertical composition o f window grouping s and bay windows and an independent ground floor base with a strong horizon-tal b a nd above it, E ven the metal rail at the roof had allusions to the thin cornice of the old building, The materials used with warm f e eling were brick, travertine, and glass block which were sensitive-ly detailed and used to emphasize the vertical with the building being terminated weakly with an aluminum railing at the roof, The exterior was "an outstanding example of the architect' s a pproach,

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80 with its emphasis on sober, workmanlike analysis o f a particular pro-blem ' and construction method, rather than reliance on any of the es-tablished design cliches modern or traditional which masquerade under the name of style." ( 29) The public interiors, "while not so original as the exterior, (were) admirably suited to a medium-sized hotel building-and out-standing in a field where bizarre taste is the rule rather than an exception." (3o) Charles Boettcher School for Crippled Children (1940) 19th and Downing Street The Boettcher School better than any of Hoyt ' s other work ex -hibited the clarity of his desig n philosophy (Figs, 18-19). Hoyt regarded this school as "the cleanest building he (had) designed," (3l) Burnham Hoyt was "doing as much as any other American to bring about the renaissance of institutional architecture •• ,His school for crippled children ••• unquestionably (set) a new high for the articula-tion of desig n and structure in educational buildings." (32) Boettcher School was built on a long , narrow plot, that faced a traffic street, close to The Denver Children's Hospital. This modern school for "conditioned" children (blind, crippled, deaf, etc,) had all of its classrooms on one floor at the back o f the building, away from the noise of the street. A small library was at one end, a kitchen and cafeteria at the other end, The rooms, such as the auditorium and playroom , which did not require large win dows or quiet, located in the front. A ramp and elevator connected the main floor with a basement tunnel to the Hospital and extended upHard to resting rooms that Here also used in conjunction Hith the Hospital' s hydrotherapy pools and provided with generous sun terraces. Because

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81 (Fig .1 8 . ) Charles Boettcher School (1940)

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(Fig,19,) w .. 0 c 0 c 0 .... ... 0 z 0 0 w ---.. :1 0 z Charles Boettcher School, Plans = = . . . \'l' "' .. o . .. .. . 0 0 .... .. .. . . . .. .. . ,,. .: I .. . . ... • . . I .. . . . . . ;', . . . . . ' 0 • .. . . ; 0 .. .. . . : .. .. .. .. ... 82

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8J of an alleyway flanking the back of the building, classrooms were arranged in separate pairs, divided by light courts which could also be used as outdoor classrooms , and the back wall of the building was built solid, These courts also admitted an abundance of light to the main corridor, the end wall, as well as the sides, built entirely of glass. The interfloor ramp, necessitated by the special function of the school, added an extremely attractive design feature to the main corridor, while its open construction gave an effect of spacious-ness at the point where it was most needed, _ The school was constructed throughout of reinforced concrete and faced rTith exposed aggregate, precast-concrete slabs, Both interior and exterior design emphasized the structural system; round concrete columns and exposed roof and floor beams afforded the basic decora-tive note in all parts of the building , The columns in the corridor at the windows to the court were further articulated with a semi -circular window and seat and added emphasis to the dramatization of the system of construction. "Hoyt's problem was a building almost utilitarian as a factory; its one function, that of caring for and educating crippled children, in the simplest, easiest and most comfortable manner for them, His material was utilitarian: concrete; yet he desig ned a building that has attracted nationwide notice, simple to the point of severity, yet sheerly lovely," (JJ) In the areas of humanneeds and structural dramatization Boettcher S chool fully expressed Hoyt's philosophy and ideals. An addition to the building at the north side in 1957 by Ed Francis, although retaining the same design vocabulary, lacked the sensitivity and fineness in detail which Hoyt exhibited, as well as

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84 his conceptual clarity, Colorado Srings (Lewis PalmerL High School (1940) Colorado Springs, Colorado The Colorado Springs High School, now Lewis Palmer High School, was a new building , which replaced the old one built in 18 89 , and connected with two other recent existing buildings (Fig, 20). The project was done in association with the architect Edward L, Bunts but was clearly the design of Burnham Hoyt, The plan was in the form of an "L" simi).,ar to the up pe r stories of the Albany Hotel and even included a rounded corner, The materi-als were brick, steel and concrete, The windows of this two-story school were horizontally grouped and framed with terracotta, as con-trasted to the Albany Hotel's vertical window groupings framed in travertine, The building a classroom wing and a main body which contained administration offices, the auditorium, the cafeteria and the library and was a connecting link to the other building s which contained music and specialized classrooms, The windowless auditorium, seating 1500, displayed Hoyt's em-phasis on the dramatization of structure, "Trusses (were) supported by a double row of columns, the inner row on each side being exposed for decorative effect," (3 4 ) Here too the multi-use flexibility seen in many of Hoyt's plans was evident where the balcony level of the. auditorium could be closed off for smaller functions. Another of Hoyt's concerns, that of the building's relationship to the mountains, could be seen in the design ofthe cafeteria, The cafeteria was located on top of the auditorium which afforded an ex-cellent view of the neighboring mountains and provided accommodations

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85 (Fig.20.) Colorado Springs High School (1940) (Fig.21. ) Red Rocks Thea ter (1941)

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I I (Fig .22.) Red Rocks Theater, Plan 86

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87 for outdoor eating in good weather. For this purpose a sunken roof terrace, on the level with the cafeteria floor, was provided. This terrace was surrounded on four sides by glass for protection from the wind, yet still was opened to the sky, and was useable for the greater part of the year. A similar terrace was also used at Children's Hospital. Red Rocks Theater (1941) Morrison, Colorado At Red Rocks (Figs, 21-22), Burnham designed "an outdoor theater which in sheer dramatic structure is unrivaled in the world," (35) . The idea for the Red Rocks project began in 1902 and was finally realized when George Cranmer became manager of the Parks Department in 1935 and rras able to solicit the efforts of the Civilian Conservation Corps. Cranmer commissioned Hoyt to design the seating and structures and put Hoyt on the city payroll with a small re-tainer from 1935-1944. Cranmer expressed the difficulty he had in keeping Hoyt because of the controversy over the Speer Memorial Competition. 06 ) I It was admittedly a fantastic natural site with hugh, intense red sandstone monoliths. Vlith this supurb site, Hoyt used admirable restraint on his design, preserving the site's original majesty, a restraint which acknorrledged mature as a full collaborator in design. Between two of the largest sandstone monoliths 200 300 feet high, laid a roug h natural amphitheater with good acoustics. " liith full realization that the best architecture would be in this case the least architecture, reshaping and new construction were reduced to a minimum and so successfully subordinated to the setting that one is scarcely aware o f conscious design," (3?) The natural shape of the

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88 ground allowed sufficient distance between rows of benches for cir-culation, with radiating aisles only at the side and these aisles were separated from the seating by a buffer strip o f planters with native juniper shrubs. Storage and dressing rooms were (designed) inconspiciously beneath the stage, and the parking areas Here de signed far out of sight and earshot of the audience. From the parking areas one approaches the theater along a carefully designed parth that creates a deliberate interaction Hith the environment on an intimate scale before entering the aHesome theater, The beauty o f the site, coupled Hith its unique dramatic assets, made it imperative that the theater built there truly merge Hith its surroundings. For this reason native stone Hhich closely approxi-mated the red color and roug h texture of the monolithic rock s was used throughout, and the entire desig n Has held to extreme simpli-city. " \ Vith a minimum of architecture per se, Red Rocks Amphitheater is unquestionably an architectural triumph." (3 8 ) "He made the Hhole thing to be natural and to be a setting for great events; not and end and a spectacle in itself." (39) In 1960, the Parks Department added tHo flanking towers to the stag e because "the stage (was) too open s o that a little. Hind carried the sound array ••• there Has no place for a performer to enter from o r exit to,,.(and) lights neede d to be placed hig h for g ood stag e lighting," (40) These overpoHering toHers weaken ed the design concep t and quite upset Hoyt, B roadmoor Swimming Pool (1948) Colorad o Springs, Col orado As with Red Rocks Theater, the B roadmoor Swimming Pool (Fig , 23) was designed "with nature as the architect's chief collaborator." <41)

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8 9 (Fig .23.) B roadmoor Swimming Pool (194 8 ) ( Fig. 2 4 . ) Denver Public Library (1956)

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90 Outdoor areas were converted into an architectural environment with a minimum use of structure. The glass windbreak between the pool and lake was "a daring-and successful attempt to use the concept of transparency to unite the needed enclosure with its environment, The total effect (Has) a spaciousness which reflected the mountains and the sky and (suggested) the power of architecture to make nature available to the spectator while, in a sense, shielding him from it." (42) Hoyt's basic idea was to bend his design to the landscape, The sweepin g contour of the lake shoreline was carried through by bowin g the sides of the pool and was further elaborated in the curved lines of the refreshment areas. It was an extremely simple solution with great harmony which depended strongly upon details such as the diving tower with its clean sharp lines and the fluorescent lighting inte-grated as a linear motif into the top of the scree n enclosure. The cafe and locker area was kept well back from the pool, allowing plenty of space between sides and spectator's section and thus separating the. and relaxation functions of the pool and a-voiding crowdine. Denver Public Library (1956 ) 1357 BroadHay The Denver Library (Fig, 24) was awarded to B urnham Hoyt in 194 8 and he worked on it in association with the firm o f Fisher and Fisher, a departure from his usual independence and probably due to his declining health, Hoyt was the designer of the library ( 4 3) which was still under construction when he retired in 1955. The library was located on a curved site that looked across a broad street to the part of the Civic Center that Has wooded and con-

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91 tained the Voorhies memorial. The Voorhies Memorial was built in 1922 and designed by Fisher and Fisher in a classic Greek style. Hoyt at that time produced a watercolor rendering of the memorial for the Fishers. The Library was designed to be reflective of its site by the placing of a grove of trees on the corner next to the park, by the curved lobby reflecting the curve of 14th Avenue and the Voorhies Memorial, and by the subtle proportions of the facade which alluded to the Voorhies Memorial directly and the classic archi-tecture of the Civic Center in general without being a historic building . The two-story columned facade with entablature. and glass infill expressed the necessary monumentality and visually expressed the open stacks inside. The columns were beveled inward toward the center, a device first seen in the Industrial Federal Savings and Loan building and alluding to the Beaux-Arts penchant for coupled columns, seen in The North Side Christian Church. Above the twostory facade was "attic story" with small window opening s that completed the illusion. Visually the building was a duality with the two-story native stone and glass public areas and the service and support functions within a more massive and irregular form in brick expressin g these functions to the south. The "scale, massing and color recalled classical desig n of the Civic Center toward which the building faced." ( 44 ) This Library building demonstrated the ability of Hoyt who was at the point in his career of being afraid to recognize the historic determinants of the environment upon design without having to compromise the principles of modern design.

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92 Other Significant Work The following four projects were also important in Hoyt's work and were included in this thesis as other significant work beyond his basic portfolio. The Denver Sewage Visposal Plant was Hoyt's first opportunity to apply his desig n ideals to a purely utilitarian building and became a forerunner of other buildings, most notably the Children's Hospital win g . The Speer Memorial, althoug h an abor-tive winnin g desig n in a national competition, exhibited a unique civic monumentality and becam e a forerunner q_f the Red.Rock's theater. The highly publiciz ed John Barrows' resid ence reconf irmed the conti-nuity of desig n principles seen in the Broomfield house. The fourth project, B urnham Hoyt's own residence, was a place where he could e x -press his ideas freely. D enver Sewage Disposal Plant (c. 1936) 5100 Harion Street The Denver Sewa g e Disposal Plant (Fig . 25) was an important pro-ject for Burnham Hoyt because it convinced him to stay in Denver in a private practice. ( 45) {t was a m ajor utilitaria n building in which he could e xpress his ideas of simplicity and functionalism. It Has Hoyt's e xpression in crisp, functional lines of a careful e n gineering study. It w a s the type of functional, utilitarian, no-fills archi-tecture toward which Hoyt was sympathetic. It was built in masonry of buff brick with a contrast of a darker brick to accent detailing in a manner quite simila r to.the concurrent Children's Hospital a ddition. This was a project which did not have to look like anything other than what it was and thus an ideal building-type for early modern "functionist" architecture; one that was en gineere d and not affected by "style" or decoration.

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93 (Fig.25. ) Denver Sewage Disposal Plant (c.1936 ) (Fig .26. ) Speer Memorial (1936)

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Speer Memorial (1936) Denver Civic Center 94 The Speer Memorial (Fig. 26) was the most controversial work of Hoyt, not so much for its design as for the politics involved. His design was done in close collaboration with the sculptor William Zorach and demonstrated again Hoyt's sense of integrity and harmony in the arts. Controversy over the project emer g ed when the Denver Art Commission unanimously selected the Hoyt and Zorach submission to the design commission while the l'!ayor's advisory committee selected a submission by Denver sculptor Arnold Ronnebeck. Each group refused the other group's selection, and after lengthy controversy, which included accusations of conflicts of interest within the I1ayor's com-mittee selection, the Civic Center Memorial was never built. The bitterness that remained caused Mayor Stapleton to try very hard to remove Hoyt as the designer of Red Rocks Theater. The design gave to the Speer Memorial "an extraordinary drama without throwing-it out of key with the plan o f the Civic Center as • a whole. Its simplicity (made) it a suitable memorial to a noted ( 46) ' public servant." One of the important problems that had been solved was the maintaining of a perfect vista between the City and County Building . and the State Capital without interruption by a centrally-placed monument. The li'J.emorial consisted of two figures facing .each other on a series of three descending terraces. The figures were symbolic of Mayor Robert Speer's qualities1 his vision, with the quote, "without vision the people perish;" and his achievement, with the quote, "faith without works is dead." The terraces were symbolic of the phases of Denver's development1 the Indian, the Pioneer, and

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95 the Jvlodern. This project showed Hoyt's sympathy for and sensitivity to Den-ver's heritage in its symbolic content and showed his reverence for the existing environment in facilitating existing relationships while at the same time creating a monument in the midst of the Civic Center. Compositionally the Speer Memorial was a representation of the Red Rocks Theater which Hoyt was concurrently working on and thus, an attempt to associate Speer and Denver with the Rocky Mountains, Zorach's sculptures achieved much the same effect as the sandstone monoliths flanking the rows of seating which was comparable to the descending terraces of the Speer Hemorial, John Barrows Residence (193 8 ) 4000 South Gilpin Street Althoug h much smaller than the Bromfield residence, the Barrow s . ' residence was analytically in plan almost identical, indicating that this was Hoyt's ideal type of residence in relationship to the Rocky 11ountains in plan arrang ement. (Fig. 27-28) The site orientat1on o f the house was dictated by the access road to the north and the view to the west, The focal point o f this view was Mt, Evans, and the entrance door and large dining room win-dow were on an axis with the mountain. The plan was somewha t compromised as the dining room served also as a circulation link between the living room and the rest of the house. "The design composition of the whole building (had) a deliberately inf ormal character, which a t ii.mes (seemed) almost accidental." (47 ) This informality was accentu-ated by the exterior vertical redwood boards and batters. One of the principles o f design evident in the Barrows residence was its good orientation to the environment because "more people

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. 96 • (Fig .27. ) John Barrows Residence (1 938) IJ-6 .12 0 BfJl RM r. . -10 •6 '0' "' ---.. • • I , . p R C H .. . -= :::t= L u SECOND FLOOR 0;;1 :;.. SERVICE YAP.D 0.... 1 0 20 2 5 (Fig .28.) John Barrows Residence, Plans

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'}/ (realized) that houses should be located where they benefit by pre-vailing winds, sun (both in summer and winter), and such natural attributes a view," (48 ) Other principles utilized were: designing for privacy and quiet with the main rooms facing away from the street; desisning multipurpose rooms, the combination hall and dining room; designing a variety of outdoor spaces, including an open roof deck, a covered roof deck, and a room-like screened-in porch; (49) designing more and larger windoHs, located becuase of interior furniture placements, Nine neH ideas were seen in the residence: (1) Service areas faced the street, thus alloHing the more lived-in rooms to benefit from nicer vieHs and more quiet; (2) Outdoor living areas were de-signed for maximum sun, makin g it possible to enjoy outdoor living for a longer period; the deck had sun all day, yet was protected from the north wind by the house; (3) A variety of proches for various out-door activities were designed, i,e, sleeping, sunbathing , barbecues; (4) Sleeping quarters were separated from the rest of the bedroom, Sliding glass doors were used to divide these two functions, thus keeping the dressing part warm without lessening g ood light; (5) Sleeping space for beds only was desig ned with big windows on three sides for fresh air; (6) A dining room with multiple uses could be used full time serving as a dining room, library and hall; (7) A more open floor plan with rooms flowing into each other created the optical illusion of larger rooms, The dining room and living room o p ened into each other when the louvered doors were folded back; ( 8 ) A hallway, and stairs that were designed as more than just a passageway afforded easy circulation to the dining room, kitchen, second floor, and basement as well as serving as an acceptable

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i . 9 8 library; (9) the hallway and dining room were designed as a unit to capitalize on the view that could be seen throug h the dining window u pon entering the house, To get a feeling of separation without partitions the dining was down three steps, (50) The terrace was later enclosed for Dr, Samuel B . Childs, the subsequent owner, by Sam Mcl1urtrie in 1959, in order to a dd more be d room space to the hm bedroom house and because the second story ter-race rras seldom used, B vrnh a m Hoyt R esid ence (1948 ) 3130 East E xposition Hoyt desig ne d and built two residences for him self . The firpt was in Vermont around 1930 in which he took two barns and reconstructed one by using materials from the other, (5i) During his indepen-dent practice in Denver Hoyt desig ned s everal houses for himself, but never built one until 1949 "because hou ses are too much work," He further eleborated upon the house he would build as being "a great barn of a place, two stories and as simple as possible, Don't you know architects alHays build poor hou ses for themselves?" (52) When it was eventually built the residence (Fig , 29) was described as "one of the most attractive new society homes in term , •• the exter-ior of the Hoyt's house (was) one of striking modern simplicity; the interior (was) a tasteful blending of modern furnishings, antique pieces and imported art objects," (53) Mrs, Hoyt supervised all of the interior decorating, The public upper story o f the brick house was nearly one large space with a tall sloped ceiling throughout, be-ing closed to the street with an urban courtyard for a front yard, while the garden-side of the house opened almost totally outward and included a screened-in porch, A master bedroom suite and kitchen

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99 (Fig.29.) B urnham Hoyt Residence (194 8 )

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flanked the main living area while the more private quarters were on a semi-basement level below. 100

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101 Footnotes (1) Rocky Hountain News, June 30, 1941. (2) Rocky Mountain News, August 21, 1919, (3) Rocky Mountain News, September 26, 1919. ( 4) C. H. taker ( ed,), Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue -Architect and Master of Many Arts (New York: A.I.A. Press, Inc,, 1925), pp . XLIV, ex. ---(5) G, Thorson, D . Carlson, and 0, Jackson, Architecture/ Colorado (Denver: Colorado Chapter A,I.A,, 1966), p. 36. (6) "The Denver Sewer and Clay Co, Building," The Archi-tectural Record, 66 (August, 1929), pp. 153-55. --(7) G. Thorson , D . Carlson, and 0. cit,, p, 31. (8) Statement by Mrs. Arndt, personal interview, (9) Ibid, (10) Dryden appears in the City.Directory as an architect/ partner of Thomas, Dryden, & Thomas in 1901, He does not appear later as an Architect in Denver . (11) Letter from Robert L. Hedley of the Denver Public Schools, January 20, 1975. (12) Allen True also did murals at Colorado Central Bank, State Capital Building, The B rown Palace, and the Telephone Co, Building , He died in 1955. (13) Little is known about the Struby house by this author; it was one of Hoyt's building s that was never published, and thus not seen by this author, (14) Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947. (15) Letter from Evelyn Collobert, librarian of The Rocky Mountain News, (16) Letter from Eleaner M, Gehres, Western History Department, Denver Public May 27, 1975. "Burnham Hoyt had designed a house for the Kern family at 2500 S , Sheridan Boulevard, That house was sold to the McClint ock family in 1946 by August Kern," The Struby-McClintock-Kern association seems to strengthen latter speculation, ( 17). "Children's Hospital, Denver, Colorado," The Arc hitectural Form , 65 (October, 1936), p, 354.

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102 ( 18) Hoyt did a numbe r of other projects for 11rs , Tammen, most notably a mountain residence (1931) near Nt, Evans , a totally rustic log house, (19) Costs were reasonable with a total cost o f $201,893 and a volume including decks o f 198,034 cu. ft. for a cost per cubic foo.t at $ 1. 0 2 , (20) "Children's Hospital, Denver, Colo.," The Architectural Forum, 65 (December, 1936), p . 511. (21) Ibid., p . 512. (22) The Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947. ( 23) Ibid, ( 24) " Modern Houses in America," The Architectural F orum, 71 (July, 1939), p . 57. . -( 25) Ibid, ( 26) Ibid, ( 27) "Industrial Federal Savings and Loan Association," Nuestra Arguitectura, 1 (January 1, 1940), pp, 458-59. ( 28) Ibid, (29) "Portfolio o f Recent Work B y B urnham Hoyt," The Architectural Forum , 74 (February, 1941), p. 123-26, (Jo) Ibid. (31) Rocky Mountain N ews, August 31, 1947. (32) "Portfolio of Recent Work B y B urnham Hoyt," .• cit,, pp. 113-18 . (33) . Ibid, (34) 05) Forum , 82 (May, (36) (37) ( New York a The (38) (39 ) Ibid,, p. 122. "Red Rocks Amphitheater, Colorado," The Architectural 1945), p. 97. Letter from Georg e Cr a nmer, Janu ary 10, 1975. Elizabeth Hock , (Ed,), Built In the U.S .A, Since Museum of Modern Art, 1945), P. 8 7, "Re d Rocks Amphitheater, Colorado," .:• cit,, p , 107, Rocky Hountain N ews, June 30, 194 1. .

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. I 103 (40) Cranmer, cit. (41) "Broadmoor Hotel," The Architectural Forum, 91 (July, 1949)' p. 98. (42) Ibid., p. 99. (43) Conversation with Alan Fisher. (44) G. Thorson, D. Carlson, and 0. Jackson. Architecture/ Colorado. (Denver: Colorado Chapter A.I.A., 1966), p. )0. (45) Interview with Mrs. Carl Arndt. (46) "The Speer Memorial," The Magazine of Art, )0 ( l1arch, 1937)' p . 172. (47) in Denver, Colo.," The Architectural Forum , 79 (November, 1943), p . 84. (4 8 ) "Home Planner's Study Course," House Beautiful, N ovember, 1944, p . 105. (49) A New England custom evident in the Gropius residence of 19) 8 . (50) "Home Planner's Study Course," p . 105. (51) Interview with 11rs. Reeve. (52) Rocky Mountain News, August 31, 1947. (53) Rocky l'lountain News, April ), 1949.

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Chapter 4 ARCHITECTURAL PHILOSOPHY The philosophical basis for an architect's approach to design could be defined as the set of internalized principles which governed his design process and found visual expression in his architecture. Often this has been in the form of nonverbal communication, archi-tecture, rather than in the form of the spoken word. Thus, an analy-sis and interpretation of a man's could often be a clear statement of his architectural philosophy , with any verbally stated philosophic approach to design being of a supportive value. Philoso-phy has thus been defined as the regulating theory or principles of architectural desig n used in the process of desig n to order and or-ganize the determinants, influences, and issues of design brou ght to bear on an architectural problem. The consistency of these principles in the architect's approach to design could be seen to reinforce the strength of his philosophy whether it was conscious or unconscious. In the case of Burnham Hoyt little of his philosophy was stated because he "was reticant and never liked to talk about himself" ( 1 ) or his architecture since he was an innately humble man. But the consistency of his architecture has e xhibited many fundamental principles of his architectural philosophy. In order to analyze the philosophy of Burnham Hoyt as demon-strated visually in his architecture, the construct of Goeffrey Broadbent, "the Interrelation of Systems in Building Design," was used. Broadbent has identified three interrelated systems that are involved in the design of architecture, with each system divided in104

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105 to quantitative and qualitative components, The major systems and components of Broadbent's construct were' The environmental aspects (physical and cultural contexts); the building aspects (building technology and ambience); and human aspects (user needs and client objectives). ( 2 ) This construct was chosen because it was applicable to a logical analysis of the basis of design and was suitable to an analysis of the broad philosophic position of Burnham Hoyt. ASPECTS Burnham Hoyt's great concern with a building's relation to its environment was one area of his philosophy that could be easily re-co gnized , His architecture responded directly to the environment and was in harmony with it; whether the environment was natural or manmade, This harmonic interaction was evidenced in most of Hoyt's rna-ture work. • Physical Context Within the physical context of the environment Burnham Hoyt ex-hibited a strong approach to the environmental influences, not just by acknowledging their presence but also by using them as a positive element in his design. He used these environmental determinants to shape the paramenters of his design problem and to generate unique responses to the environment. This was clearly evidenced in the areas o f climate, site and regional influences within his architecture. Climate Hoyt maximized climatic conditions' beneficial qualities while he minimized their undesirable qualities within each of his designs.

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106 Denver' s moderate climate and solar radiation helped determine the use of outdoor roof terraces on the south side of building s (Children's Hospital, Boettcher School, Barrows Residence), while prevailing cold winds were rebuffed by glass screen walls (Children's Hospital, Colorado Springs Hi g h School, B roadmoor Pool), Site Hoyt exhibited a sympathy for the existing site whether it 11as in the form of a small irregular site that determined the basic form of the building ( North Side Christian Science Church, Denver 3 ewer and Clay Pip e Co,) or whether it was in the topography o f existing site contours and land forms that determined the building's orientation on the site ( Bromfield Residence, Red Rocks Theater), Hoyt exploited the irresularities of the site in his planning and desig ned the building s as if they integrally belong ed to the site, He achie ved a unity with nature in the na tural environment that 1-ras strongly organic ( B roadmoor Pool, Red Rocks Theater, Bromfield House), Region Hoyt constantly to6k advantag e of existing vierts and vistas to visually extend his buildings beyond the confines of the site to the distant mountains (Lake Junior High, Bromfield Residence, Colorado Spring s Hig h S chool), His building s thus becam e p art of the r egional experience rather than entities by themselves, They Here buildings on the ed g e of the Great Plains region, at the interface rtith the Rocky Mountain region, interacting rtith both, h aving a horizontal emphasis and a n irregular massing ( Boettcher School, Children's Hospital, Lake Junior High),

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107 Cultural Context iH thin the cultural context Hoyt became selective in his choice of determinants, depending on their suitability to the design problem. His architecture shm-red an uncompromising sensitivity to the context of the problem, avoiding an undiscriminating mixture of modern or eclectic idioms. He remained true to the idiom he saw as appropriate to the architectural problem whether it stemmed from determinants o f the built environment or historic preced.ent. Built Environment Within the dense urban environment Hoyt responded with a smoothshinned building (Industrial Federal Savings and Loan, Albany Hotel) rather than with the relief of massing on a more open site (Child ren's Hospital). Buildings that were designed as a part of an existing complex (st. 1 •1artin' s Chapel, Denver Public Library, Central City Opera House) attempted to complete and augment the grouping, instead of introducing elements of a completely foreign nature. Historic Precedent Hoyt approached his designs for restoration work from a position o f historical authenticity in order to retain the integrity of the original work. He did not apply modern principles to preservation but rather built, if not infact, at least in the spirit of the original work (Acoma Church, Central City Opera House and Tabor House). At times building programs would call for a particular histori cal association from which Hoyt would choose an appropriate architectural idiom that was seen in his earlier work in his search for a "Denver style" based upon the transplantation of an appropriate style from a similar geographic region (Park Hill Library, Steele

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108 School, North Side Christian Science Church) or an appropriate archi-tectural expression of the function based on historic associations (Highland Masonic Temple, St. Martin's Chapel, Colorado National Bank). Here again Hoyt worked within the spirit of the style. As his major work evolved he further-abstracted historic principles of design and applied them to modern architecture (Indus-trial Federal Savings & Loan, Denver Public Library) without a re-production of the historical form. BUILDING ASPECTS Burnham Hoyt's most verbally concise philosophy of architecture concerned the expression of a building and how it fit together and worked as a whole. Architecture was"the dramatization of a system of construction." (J) To Hoyt this was the timeless way of designing, not based on styles, but on the honest use of materials and methods of and the articulating and dramatizing o f them as the essential decorative motif. Building Technology Hoyt used the building's technology as the major system of ex-pression for his dramatization of architecture. Structure, founded on functional requirements, became the basis for the elaboration of architecture, Constructional methods were often expressed and building aspects also contributed to the design. Structure. The structural system in Hoyt's work was the generating system of the architectural experience. Round columns became a trademark,

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reflecting their structural efficiency (Albany Hotel, Industrial Federal Savings & Loan , Denver Public Library) and were expressed 109 as free-standing columns, a structural system which was separate from the wall system (Boettcher School, Colorado Springs High School). The structural systems were exposed an d expressive o f the underlying logic of the design requirements which produced an orde r within which functional and environmental determinants could be expressed. The ex pression of the structural frame often could be seen on the exterior also (Red Rocks Theater, S choo l , Denver Public Library). System The whole set of interrelated systems of structure, surface, space, detail, etc., worked to one unified whole in the dramatization of a system of con struction. This was epitomized in the Boettche r School where round columns were articulated at the window wall system with a baying of the wall. The ceiling system was ex p osed, illustrating its method of constructi on and further dramatizin g the structural system. Thi..s Has further articulated by mechanical and lighting systems as well as by the planning of genesis functional groups all workin g together to reinforce this d ram atization. The Boettcher School was an example of a building Hhich in many ways was t he forerunner of a systems approach to architecture in which all systems were at onc e independent y e t reinforced the total experience , the dramatization of the system of construction, Building Ambience It Has within the buildings' ambient quality that Hoyt showed his sensitivity as an artist who had empathy with pe ople as well as

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110 skill in handling formal architectural concerns of form, space, sur-face and movement. His architecture was a four-dimensional creation concerned with the esthetic and psychological response of people. Form Exterior massing was varied and blocky, reflecting internal and external requirements (Children's Hospital, Boettcher School, Lake Junior High). There was also a strong association in his work to the massing of the Pueblo Indian groupings or the variegated mas-sing of the Rocky Mountains (Denver Public Library, Barrows Resi-dence, Children's Hospital, Red Rocks Theater) . Yet there was still a strong horizontal emphasis in all but his most urban work which reflected man's natural horizontal movement as well as the horizon-tality of the Great Plains (Bromfield Residence, Boettcher School. Colorado Springs High School). Hoyt exhibited an artistic sensitivity to proportion, balance, form and color, ( 4 ) (st. Martin's Chapel, Hoyt Residence). This sensitivity grew out of his Beaux-Arts training, yet his mature work showed a strong simplicity of design, that is, a lack of applied ornamentation. "Ornament detracts from the fundamental design." (5) Form-wise , Hoyt moved aHay from his relatively simple, symmetrical early work (Park Hill Branch Library, North Side Christian Science Church, Highland Hasoni c Temple) to a more complex massing, reflecting the complexity and contradiction of the building program ( Boettcher School, Denver Public Library, Barrows Residence, Denver Sewage Dis-posal Plant). Space "There is always spaciousness and beautiful proportions in his work." (6 ) Vlithin the interior of his buildings, Hoyt exploited

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111 space vertically at the point of vertical circulation (Denver Public Library, Albany Hotel, Boettcher School), Horizontal space was often kept free flowing and open (Hoyt Residence, Denver Public Library, Park Hill Library, North Side Christian Science Church) with functions defined by rralls only where necessary and often by glazing (Barrows Residence, Albany Hotel, Broadmoor Pool), Interior space was often multi-functional with moveable partitions used to create privacy (Barrows Residence, Colorado Springs High) , Spa ce also created a stron g indoor-outdoor rela tio nshi R ( Boettcher School, Bromfield Residence, Children' s Hospital). Hoyt was further concerned with a spatial flow through his architecture, rising the architecture to strengthen a spatial direction to views beyond rather than limiting it (Speer I1emorial, Bromfield Residence, Broadmoor Pool), S patial development was often used to augment the circulation within the building ( Boettcher School, Albany Hotel, Red Rocks Theater), Surface Hoyt chose to express local building materials, often using brick ( North Side Christian Science Church , Lake Junior High , Child ren' s Hospital, Albany Hotel, Hoyt Residence). T o achieve a more rusticated, natural character a roug h native stone was used (Red Rocks Theater, Denver Public Library), Hoyt also experimented with the use of a textured precast concrete in order to achieve the feeling of stone masonry units (Industrial Federal Savings and Loan , Boettcher School), Thus, the exterior surfaces were usually highly tactile, humanly scaled and having a local character, Interior surfaces tended to be smooth and to reflect a cleanli--ness and an efficience associated with the international style, This reached its extreme in polished alumimum surfaces (Industrial Federal

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112 Savings and Loan, B roadmoor Pool) and in curved surfaces ( Bromfield Residence, Broadmoor Pool, Albany Hotel, Industrial Federal Savings and Loan) which were occassionally continued on the exterior (Denver Public Library, Albany Hotel, Colorado Springs High School). Novement Circulation systems became the basis for organizing space with-in Hoyt's designs (Albany Hotel, Boettcher School, Colorado Springs High School). Circulation was clearly stated with genesis types o f service and served functions logically ordered and organized off this space. "Hoyt had an empathy with how people moved throug h space and how it was used." (7) Movement was faciUtated by the use of sweeping curved (Red Rocks Theater, Broadmoor Pool) and spatial penetration on ' the horizontal plane (Boettcher School, Bromfield Residence) and through ramps on the vertical (Children's Hospital, Boettcher School, Red Rocks Theater) • • HUf1AN ASPECTS A fundamental part of Burnham Hoyt's philosophic system of archi-tecture was the fulfillment of human needs. A building's performance was the measure of its beauty. "The beauty of a building , as of any functional creation, springs from perfect adaptation to its function." (B) Thus, Hoyt believed that architecture created an organic relationship rti th its user, a fitness between form and function. The chief aim of architecture was to fulfill human needs. User Needs For Hoyt, fulfillment of human needs, both physical and

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113 psychological, was more important than any formal considerations. His work reflected Frank Lloyd Wright's conc ern that " form and func-tion are one;" that there was an inseparable integrity between the user and the building, This could be seen in Hoyt's approach to both the organization of functional requirements and to their arrangement in plan relationship to each other. Function Hoyt looked to the behavioral requirements of user needs as a generator of space and form. Buildings "entirely from the inside out" (9) starting with functional considerations of in-dividual needs as the basis for interior spaces and their relation-ship to the exterior (Struby Residence, Bromfield Residence, Hoyt Residence). The function and use of a space was especially critical in residences where user needs became of paramoun ' t importance, Hoyt took personal pleasure in designing residences to fit people's wants and needs. Planning Not only was the fulfillment of functional requirements impor -tant in Hoyt ' s architecture , but the hierarchal arrangement of these functions produ c ed an important effect on the planning. Hoyt differ-entiated the functional requirements into "service" and "served" spaces and used the "service support" functions as a buffer between the public street and the more private living functions ( Bromfield Residence, Barrows Residence, Boettcher School) or brought them to-gether at a central location with other functions generating out from these support (service, administration) functions (Colorad o Springs High School, Lake Junior High, Denver Public Library). Hoyt's mature work was more concerned with open-ended planning

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114 (Boettcher School, Lake Junior High, D Enver Public Library) rather then with pure closed forms seen in his early work (St, Martin' s Chapel , North Side Christian Science Church), This chan g e was pro-bably due to the number of additions and alterations he was invol-ved with in his practice, Circulation became the important element in both the open-ended planning and hierarchal organization in providing the functional structure and freedom, Client Objectives Hoyt was concerned with achieving in his architecture the per-ceived image and objectives of his client, He saw his role as one who discovered and developed his client' s image of what the client wanted , This ima g e consisted often of a combination of individual ideas, personality and even magazine pictures, He sought to express the appropriate nobility or eccentricity of his client' s lifestyle, From the many pictures the client collected . from magazines, Hoyt saw himself as the one who "simply helped them weed out this collection." ( 10 ) Image Hoyt had the ability to design buildings that were suitable to the public image of his client, stemmin g from a Beaux-Arts concern for the appropriate image , A literal ima gery was seen in his early work through the diversity of styles used, from classic ( H i ghland Maxonic Temple) to Gothic (St. -Martin' s Chapel), This was also seen in his ability to do restoration work (Acoma Central City) which maintained the established ima g e of these historic buildings, The sense of image was at the root of his search for and involvement

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115 in the "Denver Style" of indig enous Spanish Colonial (Park Hill Lib-rary, Steel School) or transplanted Italian Piedmont (North Side Christian Science Church). Later work showed a more abstract ima gery used to express a ut-ilitarian ima ge (Denver Sewage Disposal Plant), classic monumentality (Denver Sewage Disposal Plant), the modernist spirit ( Bromfield Re-sidence), a rustic imagery (Red Rocks Theater, Barrows Residence, Tammen Mountain Residence), an urban imagery (Albany Hotel, Hoyt Re-sidence), or functional efficiency ( Boettcher School). Hoyt ' s con-cern was not for a stylized or picturesque building ; but rather for one that was . a simple, honest expression of the client. (li) Life Style of Hoyt ' s mature work exhibited a warm informality in plan-ning (Lake Junior High , Children's Hospital, 3arrow's Residence) which was also characteristic of a regional life style in its hospitality, informality, and friendliness. Terraces and indoor-outdoor relationships contributed to the expression of this regional life style (Children's Hospital, Barrows Residence, Bromfield Re-sidence, B roadmoor Pool). Burnha m Hoyt ' s architecture was accommo-dating, rather than exclusive, inferring and allowing diversity, rather than prescribing an ideal or pure life style. This philosophy was reinforced by his use of variegated rather than pure form, by his use of open-ended planning rather than a statement of finality.

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116 Footnotes (1) Interview with Hrs. Hoyt. (2) Goeffrey Broadbent. Design In Architecture (New York : John Wiley & Sons , 1973). (3) " Portfolio of Recent ivork of Burnham Hoyt," Archi t ectural Forum (February, 1941), p . 113. (4) The Colorado Chapter of A.I.A, letter recommendin g B . Hoyt to fellow, ( 5) (6) (7) ( 8 ) (9) ( July, 1939)' (10) ( 11) Rocky Mountain News. August 31, 1947. Ibid, Interview with Mrs. Arndt , Rocky H ountain News, August 31, 1947. " Hodern Houses in America" Architectural F orum, 71 p . 56. Ibid, . R oc k y Mountain News, August 31, 1947 • •

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Chapter 5 SUt-11ARY AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of this thesis was to do preliminary research in documenting the life and major works and philo sophy o f B urnham Hoyt, a Denver architect, and to present a preliminary assessment. It was hoped that this thesis woul d not only help to preserve a part of history but Hould also be a stimulus that would generate more research. N uch was discovered about Burnha m Hoyt and work but much still needs to be explored. Summary of Research Techniques Since this was the preliminary study of Burnham Hoyt, the research effort stressed the use of interviews o f the people still living who had been intimately acquainted with Hoyt. The interview technique proved extremely valuable in obtaining facts that a ugmented the sketchy fragments of facts that had been published about him. An informal interview o f general open-ended questions, followed by very specific questions, was used . Notes were taken of all responses, but a tape recorder might have been more accurate, though some people are not as o pen when one is used. As the research progressed and more questions were raised, follow-up letters were sent to those interviewed with very specific questions. These did not prove very satisfactory and little information Has obtained this way. However,letters to places, such as N.Y.U., did yield some information. Broadbent's construct proved to be a useful device in analyzing Hoyt's work as a whole and in helping to deduce Hoyt's architectural 117

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118 philosophy. This construc t vrould have been too awkvmrd to use in analyzing each separate building on a comparative basis, Such a comp rehensive device for the comparative analysis and evaluation of many individual buildings needs to be developed, Summary of Limitations The finding s and conclusions should be considered within the basic limitations of this study, 1, The analysis o f work was limited to only the most major works of H oyt which are only a small portion__ of his total architectural production , 2 . T he analysis o f Hoyt ' s work was subjective, done only by the author, The validity o f the analysis woul d ha v e be en impro v ed if the author would have been able to experience extensively all of the buildings firsthand , inside and out; and if others who are currently interacting vrith Hoyt's architecture were asked for their analysis, J , Deducing philosophy from the work of Hoyt Has also very subjective, The interpretation was based upon the architectural interests of today and n o t necessarily upon H oy t's intent. It is difficult to knoH if this presentday framework invaUdates the original intention of Hoyt ' s outlook. 4 . Of necessity, close personal associates of Burnham Hoyt were chosen for interview because. of their g reater knoHled g e of factual data, but this may have resulted in a strongly biased thesis, Summary of Finding s Se veral objectives were used to guide this initial research, Objective 1 discovered the sources o f influenc e in B urnham Hoyt ' s architectural design , This study confirmed what Hrs , Hoyt said about her husband : "he learned from everything," Every experience was a

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119 learning opportunity. From these experiences in different offices, in regions, and with different people Burnham Hoyt created his own unique philosophy of architecture. Hoyt's.philosophy toward architecture was developed from many sources, but it became unique in its adaptation to his personality and his heritage and his environment. And it was this philosophy that influenced his design rather than any form vocabulary. Objective 2 looked at the major works of Burnham Hoyt in an attempt to identify and subjectively the elements and totality of his design. As the partner-designer in the firm of Hoyt and Hoyt, he used experimental and simplified eclectic styles in a search for an idiom that would reflect environmental and functional determinants. As an individual architect in his own office, his work show ed a freedom from stylistic dependency and an integrity of design principles that was no w fully matured. His architectural work was characterized by a concern for: the building-environment interface, a simplified facade (lack of ornamentation), a conc ern detail, expressing a client's needs, expressing the Denver environment, and expressing the structural system. Objective 3 explored Burnham Hoyt's philosophy toward architectural issues and determinants. Broadbent's construct was subjectively used in order to analyze the philosophy of B urnham Hoyt as demonstrated visually in his architecture, supported by the few statements of philosophy that Hoyt made. Burnham Hoyt was concerned that his architecture respond directly to the environment and be in harmony with it, whether the environment was natural or manmade. He designed with structure, founded on functional requirements, as the basis for the elaboration

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120 of architecture. He felt that the "beauty of a building, as of any functional creation, springs from perfect adaptation to its function." Architecture created an organic relationship with its user, a fitness between form and function. The chief aim of architecture was to fulfill human needs. Object 4 presented Burnham Hoyt's place in the tradition of Denver's architecture and his relevance with it. B urnham Hoyt was a significantly important architect in Denver during the transitional period of architecture from the 1920's the 1940's as evidenced by his role as educator (the Denver Atelier) by his role as architect (Children's Hospital, Boettcher School, Albany Hotel, Red Rocks Theater, etc.), and by his numerous awards and recognitions b y fellow architects (F.A.I.A., National Academy of Design). Hoyt was a native Denver architect not only by virtue of his birth and later adoption of Denver as a place to practice but more importantly in his effort to adapt universal concerns in architecture to local conditions and to express these determinants in his design, His relevance for today-could be seen in his approach to architecture. His position was clear and comprehensive, based upon principles of ethic rather than upon any particular esthetic vocabulary. His concern was to create architecture based on fundamental principles of desig n rather than upon any current vogue, Objective 5 sought to identify the factors that enabled Hoyt to make the transition from eclectic architecture to modern architecture. At first it was believed that the period from 1926 to 1933 when Hoyt was in New York was of the most importance in changing his architectural direction, especially when one contrasted his eclectic architecture of the 1920's with h .is modern work o f the 19 30's, But

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121 further research indicated that Hoyt was in fact searching for alternatives to the existing eclecticism as early as 1913, as seen in his Beaux-Arts work, and later his work with Goodhue put him in the forefront of the modern architecture movement. Why then all the eclectic Hork during the 1920's? One could speculate that it was due to the influence of Merrill Hoyt who was more conservative or to the "spirit o f the times." The answer is not known. Yet within this early work Burnham Hoyt showed a continuous experimentation and innovativeness, indicating his constant search for the appropriate architectural expression of his ideals. Conclusions Conclusions are difficult to make in a thesis that is concerned with preliminary research and assessment. But some conclusions c an be made based upon the research done• Burnham Hoyt was a significant architect. He was an architect who was constantly evolving, learning and adapting. He was never satisfied with his completed work, but every new work challenged him to continually improve. Hoyt constantly g rew, learning from every experience. Burnham Hoyt has remained relatively obscure because he is a difficult architect to categorize. He is not the epitome of a polar point of view, but rather he exhibits the unusual ability to extract principles from such divergent sources as the Beaux-Arts, the organic, and the International and to accommodate them into his architecture. He never fervently espoused any particular architectural ideology. His ability to synthesize polar issues into one building design, though displaying great talent, makes it difficult to identify him with a particular school of thought. Hoyt is not dogmatic although his definition of architecture, as

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122 the dramatization of a system of construction, appears t o be so, Yet this proves to be more o f a conceptual framework u pon which human and environmental requirements can be expressed rather than excluded, His architecture is humane and accommodating, Hoyt Has not a theorist but an innovator, adapting philosophies that were suitable for his oHn interpretation of time and place, B urnham Hoyt's architecture does not lend itself easily to simplistic analysis and much more needs to be done , But even a preliminary assessment enables one to learn him, Within his architecture it is difficult to find a visual consistancy of form vocabu lary, Hoyt discovers Hithin each new problem a particularly unique essence, The consistancy and continuity within his architecture lies in his high standard of quality and concern for design concept and de tail, His work is visually diverse and founded upon broadly based principles. It is difficult to realiz e that the same architect designed the Children's Hospital; Boettcher School, Red Rocks Theater or Denver Public'Library by considering only the f ormal elements o f architecture. And one can easily realize that Hoyt had much to offer in his role as an educator too, He Has an architect's arch itect receiving immense respect from his students and peers, Yet he dev eloped no particular "school" or following based upon a visual level of recog nition. This could be due to the fact that he was not concerned with a strongly constant visual idiom that is characteristic of easily classifiable architects, To him architecture was the setting for human interaction rather than an object in itself , S u ggestions for Future Research This was only a be ginning in the research needed, More research needs to be done in order to correct misinformation, eliminate myths,

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123 and to preserve information that could be lost forever. Hany of the sources used tended to perpetuate certain myths about B urnham Hoyt. Hoyt was repeatedly presented as a man Hho was above others of normal capabilities. This lead to repeated exa g geration and some misinformation, An example o f this was the fact that Hoyt was repeatedly credited with having been Dean of the Col leg e of Architecture at N .Y. U . while in reality he only acquired the post of assistant professor o f design. There exists a real danger of much infoxmation being lost forever. Memories fade and confuse the past, especially in relation to time. M any independent events that were separated by a d ecade's span were sometimes recalled as having occurred simultaneously. (This was especially true of events that occurred over fifty years a go.) Sometimes invaluable sources o primary i nformation were lost forever through death before being recorded. Even files of correspondence of Hoyt ' s were destroyed because it was felt that they were too personal and be of no interest to anyone . Research produces almost as many questions as it doe s answers. There is a self-perpetuating nature to research: the obtaining of facts, their verification, then an interpretation which raises other questions that need to be answered. The major emphasis of this thesis was upon the first step of getting the basic facts right. Yet this research produced many questions that need to be an s wered and helped to indicate other areas that need to be investigated. The following are some suggestions for future research: 1. To explore the extent of Burnham Hoyt's impact upon his own generation and upon his students.

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124 2 . To explore the nature of the "Denver style" in the 1920 ' s and 1930's. 3 . To further explore the influence of Merrill H. Hoyt in the partnership of M .H. Hoyt and B . Hoyt. 4 . To explore the nature and extent of other architecture in the 1930's and 1940's in Denver, such as the Spanish Colonial, Modernistic, or International style. 5. To develop definitions of native Denver or Colorado architecture in terms of specific qualities of Deover and the Colorado Piedmont within the unique nature of the Great Plains or Rocky r1ountain region. 6, To analyze Hoyt's minor works to see if the finding s verify those made by the analysis of the major works. ?. To expand the assessment o f Hoyt's architecture to include input from both the original client and the present user. 8. To explore how contemporary professionals and students of Hoyt's era viewed his work. 9 . T o do a com para ti ve analysis of Hoyt ' s work 1-1i th the arc hitecture done in Denver, the Great Plains and Rocky Hountain regions, and the United States--to note similarities and differences.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY B ooks Allso pp , Bruce. The Study of Architectural History. New York 1 Praeger, 1970 . 125 Architects', Contractors', an d Material Dealers' Directory For The State o f Colorado,W92. B r oadbent, Goeffrey, Design In Architecture. New York : John \-Iiley & Sons , 1973 . Brettell, Richard R , Historic Denver 1 858 1893 . Denver: Historic Denver , Inc,, 1973. Cheney, Sheldo n . The Nevr World Architecture, New York: Tudor Publishing Co., 1935 . Collins, Peter. London 1 Changing Ideals in Hodern Architecture 1750 1950 . Faber and Faber, 1965 . Denver City Directories, assorted volumes from 1 8 7 3 -1960 . Fletcher, Baniste r . of Architecture!!_ the Comparative Method, New Y ork1 Charles Scribner' s S ons , 1967, Frankel, Paul. Principles of Architectural History. Cambrid ge 1 M . I . T . Press, 196 8--. Gideon , Sigfried;. Space , Time and Architecture. Cambrid ge 1 Harvard University Press,-r967. Gutheim, Frederick, 1 8511 957 One Hundred Years of Architecture in America . New York 1 Reinhold Publishing-corp., 1957 . Hafen , Leroy R . Colorado and its ?eonle, Vol. 3, New York: Lewis Publishing Company, Inc., 194 8 . Harbeson , John F . The Study o f Architectural Design , New York 1 The Pencil Points Press, Inc., 1926 . Hitchcock, Henry-Russell. Architecture ! Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, B a ltimore: Pe n guin Books , 1963.---Hitchcock, Henry -Russell and Philip Johnson . The International Style. NeH York 1 \{. W . Norton and Co. :-1966 . Hunter, Sam, American Art of the 20th Century. NeH York1 Harry Abrams , Inc., 1973 . Kaufman , Jr., Edgar. The Rise of .:.!:!.Americ an Architecture , HeH York: Praeger, 1 970.

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Kimball , Fiske, American Architecture, New York : B obb s Merrill Co,, 1928 , Koyl, GeorgeS, (ed, ) , American Architects Directory, New York: R , R , B owker Co,, 1962. 12 6 Hock, Elizabeth (ed, ) , Built In U . S .A, Since 1 932 . New York : The i '1useum of Nodern Art,l945. Noffsinger, James P . Influence of the Ecoledes Bea ux the A r chitects of the U . S , Hashington, D . C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1955 , Representative Men of Colorad o. 1 902 . Scully, Vincent, American Architecture a nd Ur banism , New York : Praege r , 1969 . Society o f Beaux-Arts Architects, Hinning Designs 1904-1927 Pa ck Prize in Architecture, New York : . The Pencil Points Press, 192 8 . Tallmade ge , Thomas E . The Study o f Architecture i n America. New York a Norton and Co,, 1936 . Thorson , G., Carlson , D., and Jackson , 0 . Architecture/Colorad o, Denver: Colorado Chapter 1 966 , vleatherhead , Arthur C . The History of Colleg iate Educatio n in Architecture i n the United Jtates. Los Angeles: A,C , Weatherhead , 1 941.Whiffen , Harcus, American Architecture Since 1780 , Cambridge : M ,I,T, Press, 1969, Whitaker, C,H, (ed,), Bertram Grosvenor G ood hue -Architect and Master o f !'!any Arts. New Yor k : A.I.A. Press, Inc,, 1925 , --Whitey , H . F . and E . R . Biographic a l Dictionary o f American Architects (Dec ea9ed) . Los Angeles : New A g e Publishing Co,, 1956. Who' s Who In Colorado. The Colorado Press Association, Inc,, 193 8 . W . P .A. Writers' Program . Colorad o: A Guide to the Highest S t ate, New York: Hasting House , 1941. Persona l Corres pon de nce From Brelesf ord, Aubrey S , A r chitect, JOO E . Ham pden Avenue, Denver, January 3 , 1975 . Cloverstrom , Carl A . Architect, 3905 East Exposition Avenue , Denver, January 10 , 1975 .

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127 Collobert, Evelyn, Librarian for Rocky t1ountain News, P . O . Box 719 , Denver, February 26, 1975 . Cranmer, George , 1077 Race Street, Apt, 1501, Denver, January 10, 1 9 75. Denver Public Library, 1357 B roadway, Denver, April 10, 1975. Gehres, Eleanor M., Head Western History Department , Denver Public Library, 1357 B roadway, Denver , Hay 27, 1975. Hedley , Hobert L, Dept. of Facilities Planning , Denver Public S chools, 414 14th St,, Denver , January 20, 1975. Linder, Roland L , Architect, 1901 E . 13th Avenue, Apt, 1 A , Denver, Marc h 10, 1975 . -Mcr1urtrie, Jr., Samuel. 35 Hawthorn R o ad , Brookline, Mass,, January 13, 197 5 . Mistrik, Mari on. Assistant Librarian of the A . I . A,, 173 5 New York Avenue, N . W . Washington, D.C., January 9 , 1975. Overholt, Charles H . Architect, 2509 West 36th Avenue, Denver, January 13 , 1975. Ree v e , Velma B . 1035 Emerson St., Denver, February 5, 197 5 . Regis College, West 50th and Lowell Blvd,, Denver , January 21, 1 975 . Sheeham , Helen , Archives Offic e , New Yor k University, Hashington Square, N , Y, , Jun e 4 , 1974 , Snyder, Geor g e A . Curator, Archives Special Collections, University Libraries, Unive rsity of Denver , Denver, February 24, 1975, -----, January 15 , 19 75 . Sudler, James . Architect, 200 Cable Building, Denver, April 22, 1 975. Tselo s , Dimitri, 1494 Branston Street, St, Paul, Minnesota, February 22 , 1 975 . Letters From The Colorado Chapter A.I,A, (Henry J . Von Wyle, President, Charles Overholt, Secretary) Letter of "nomination for fellowship by Chapter" to the A.I.A., \Vashington, D,C., S eptember 24, 194 8 . Gropius , Vlalter to B urnham Hoyt (in possession of Mrs, Burnham Hoyt), Purves, Edward R., Director o f Public and Professional Relations, A,I.A., to Burnham Hoyt, October 1947.

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Richards, John Noble , President of A,I,A., to Mrs, Mildred Fuller Hoyt , April 8 , 1960, 128 \.fright, Frank Lloyd to B urnham Hoyt (in possession of I•Jrs, Burnham Hoyt) . Interviews Arndt, Hrs. Carl. 860 Vine , Denver, f1ay 10, 1974, Hoyt; I1rs . B urnham, 975 Pennsylvania, Denver, Hay 1 8 , 1974, Nay 26, 1974. Reeve , Hrs, John, 1035 Emerson , Denver , August 8 , 1974, Conversations Childress, Robert G , January, 1974, Fisher, Alan. April, 1974, Hornbein, Victor, Hay, 1974, Morris, Langdon , July, 1974, Overholt, Charles, May, 1975, Unpublished Material M cCready, Eric Scott, The Nebraska State Capital: Its Des i gn / Backgroun d and Influence, (Unpublished doctoral thesis, Univer sity of Delaware, 1973), Articles A.I,A, Journal, 11 (April, 1949), pp , 166-168, "Amphitheater at Red Rocks , Colorado," Architect's Journal, 102 ( Sep tember 6 , 1945), pp. 173-74, "Amphitheatre de Red Rocks, Colorado," L'Architecture D'Aujuord' hui, 20 (Hay, 1949), p . 8 -11, "Anfiteatros Al Aire Libre Red Rocks , Colorado," Revista D e Arguitec . tura, 33 (June, 1948), pp . 183-87. "Architecture In Denver, Colorado, 1950-51," Progressive Architecture, 32 (March, 1951), pp, 71-82, " Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue," Brick Builder, 24 (April, 1915), pp . 102,

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129 " B roadmoor Hotel," The Architectural Forum, 91 (July, 1949) , pp. 60, 98 -101. Bulletin of The Beaux Arts Institute of Design , volume 1-16. Bulletin! New University, volume from 1 926 -19 34. "Children' s H o s pital, Denver , Colorado," T he Architectural Forum , 6.5 (October, 1936) , pp . 3.54-.5.5. "Children ' s H ospital, Denver , Colorado," The Architectural Forum, 6.5 (December , 1936) , pp • .511-16 . "Community Swimming Pool," Bulletin of The B eaux Arts Institute o f Design , 22 ( Sep tember, 1 946}, pp . 1.5-17.--"Conventio n Center," Bulletin of The Beaux Arts Institute of Design, 19 ( Narch, 194 3 ) , p p .14-17. --Crane , Charles. "An Answer to Criticism," American Architect, 140 (July, 1932), p . 26ff. The Denver Democrat , April 7, 1960 . , March 18 , 1939. -----The Denver Post, February 13, 1933 , p . 9 . March 1 8 , 1 949 , p . 1.5 • . , April 7 , 1960, p . 23. -----'_____ , _ June 8 , 1971, p . 31. "The Denver Sewer and Clay Company Building," The Architectural Record, 66 (August, 1929), pp. 1.53-.55. The Denver Times , Sep tember 25, 1917. " E mergency Hospital," Bulletin of The B eaux Arts Institute of Design, 17 (April, pp . 2-4. "Geor g e B . Post," Architectural Record, 31 (February, 1912), p . 187 ; " George B . Post 18 3 7-1913," Architectural R ecord, 35 (January, 1914), pp. 94-96 . "Home Planner' s Study Course," H ous e Beautiful, November , 1944 , pp. 102-4 . " House for 194X," The Architectural Forum, 77 ( September, 194 2), p , 135. " House For Hrs , H . M , Thorp, Denver, Colorado," Architectural Record, 86 ( November, 1939) , pp , 9 8 9 .

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130 " House in Denver , Colorado," The Architectural Forum , 79 (November, 1943), pp . 84-85. -"Industrial Federal Savings and Loan Association," Nuestra Arquitectura, 1 (January 1, 1940), pp, 458-9. "Modern Houses in America," The Architectural Forum, 71 (July, 1939), pp . 1-62. -New York Times, April 8 , 1960, p . 31. "One Finger Pulls," The Architectural l<"'orum, 76 (June, 1942), p , 27. Pencil Points, April, 1924, pp . 42-64, "Portfolio of Recent Work By B urnham Hoyt," The Archi'tectural Forum, 74 (February, 1941), pp, 113-26, Price, C,M. "The Chapel of The Intercession, N,Y,," Architectural Record , 35 (June, 1914), p p , 526-43. Progressive Architecture, 32 (Harch,' 1951), pp, 71-82, "Red Rocks Amphitheater, Colorado , " The Architectural Forum, 82 (Hay, 1945) pp, 97-10 2 , -"Residence of vl. R . Owen, Esq., Denver, Colorado," The Architectural Record , 62 (October, 1927), p , 397. The Rock;:t: Mountain News, June 8 . 1971. , April 8 , 1960. , April 12, 1953. , April 3 , 1949. August 31, 1947, , May 14, 1943. June 30, 1941. , February 13, 1933. , June 20, 1920. , April 4, 1920. , February 22, 1920. , February 1, 1920. , December 7 , 1919. , October 26, 1919.

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131 ---------' October 12, 1919. October 5, 1919. ---------' September 21, 1919. ---------' Septembe r 14, 1919. "Rocky Hountains " House and Gardens, 74 (December 1938), pp, 56-58. "Ronnebeck and Zorach Storm Centers in Tempest Over Statue," T he Art Digest, 10 (September 1, 1936), pp. 8-9. -" Selected Details," Progressive Architecture, 30 (November, 1949), p. 89. "Society of Beaux-Arts Architects," American Architect, 95 (March 24, 1909), pp. 101-2. "The Speer Memorial," Magazine of Arts, 30 (March, 1937), pp . 172-3. Taylor, W ,A, "A Criticism of The Church, New York," American Architect, 139 (June, 1931), p , 32ff, "Twelfth-Night in Goodhue's Office," Pehcil Points, February, 1922, pp. 226 . \Hnston, "The Commercial Architecture of George B . Post," Journal of The Society of Architectural Historians, 31 (october--, 1972), pp . 17b=201, "Workshop of Geor g e B . Post," Architectural Record, 10 (July, 1900), p. 76.

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132 APPENDIX A Biographical Notes Francis ( 1843-1931 ) At the age of 33 he decided t o make architecture his life work and in 1 8 76 be ga n professional study at H . I. T . for two years and continued for two more years at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. He first formed a partnership Hith Arthur Kenway; then from 1890 he practiced independently until 1904 when the firm o f Allen and Callens Has organized with Charles Callens. Allen maintained a larg e and successful practice until his retirement in 1924 . He was actice in the Boston Society of Architects and was ad v anced to Fellorr in 1895 ( Whitey , p . 15). Albert Baerresen Little could be found about Albert Baerresen except that he had an indepe ndent practice from 1903 1905 . It could be assumed that he Has the son of Vig o E . (1 858 -1940) or Harold (1 846 -191 8 ) Baerresen who practiced from 1 88 7 as the Baerresen Brothers and in the 1910 ' s as Baerresen Brothers and Son , and afterwards as only V. E . Baerrese n until the late 1920 ' s ( Whitey, p . 30). Edward Bossange (1 8 71-1947) Edrrard Bossange Has born in 1871 in France and Has brought to the United States as a child. He graduated from Columbia University in 1843 and continued his education in Beaux Arts Ateliers in New York City and in travel and study abroad. Returning to NeH York City, he apprenticed rrith a number of firms and from 1905 1912 he practiced with various associates. In 1913 he accepted the post of professor of architecture at Cornell University, and in 1915 be came director of the College o f Fine Arts at the Carne gie Institute of Tec hnolo g y , Littsburg . At Nerr York University from 1926-1941 he served as of the Department of Architecture and later served as Dean of the School of Architecture. The program was discontinued in 1941 upon his retirement to San Anselmo , California ( Whitey, p . 67) . Charles Callens (1 8731956) Little was knoHn o f Charles C allens. His work as a partner in Allen & Callens included: Union Theolo g i cal Seminary , New York , 1906 ; Library at Teacher' s College , Columbia University, . 1904 ; Lindsay Memorial Chape l at Emmanuel Church , Boston, 1925 . He Has . still living in the late 1950's (Whitey , p . 15) . vlilliam Ellsworth Fisher (1871 1937) Hilliam Fisher Has the most dominant architectural figure in Denver throug h the first third of the 20th century. He was born in

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133 Ontario, Canada and took his early training in New York with C, Powell Karr as a draftsman and came to Denver, being involved with the Denver Architectural Sketch Club in the early 1890's, He was practicing architecture as an individual by 1894 when he was 23 years old, After spending a year of study in Europe , he joined, in 1901, Daniel R. Huntington in partnership until 1905 whe n he opene d the firm of W.E. and A.A. Fisher with his brother, Arthur Addison Fisher. Their •mrks included: Colorado National Bank, 1914; Presbyterian Hospital, 1921; lv!orey Junior High, 1921; Voorkies Hem erial, 1922; Colorado General Hospital, 1924; South Hi gh School, 1924; and many others of major importance (\vhitey, p. 211). Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue (1 869-1924) Ber tram Goodhue was a native of Pomfret, Connecticut and educated at Russell's College in New Haven, At the age of 15 he started his training at the office of James Renwick New York, In 1891 he began his association with Ralph Cram. During this period Cram and Goodhue revolutionized ecclesiastical architecture, bringing the Gothic revival into a period o f great popularity, In 1903 the office of Cram, Goodhue and Ferguson opened an office in New York, with Goodhue in charge, The partnership continued for ten years although the two offices acquired an almost independent existence in the matter of design. He died at the zenith of his career while his two greatest works, the Nebraska State Capital and the National Academy of Sciences H ere both under_ construction ( \ vhi t ey , p. 250), Amoryg Goodhue's architecture Here St. Bartholomew Church (New York, 1913 ) , Fine Arts Building and California State Building at the Pan-California Exposition (San Diego , .1915), Tyrone New Mexico new town (1917), and the Gillespie House (Nontecito, California), the Physics Building at the California Institute of Technolo g y (Pasadena , California), Oaho College and KaveRhaneha School (Honolulu, Hawaii) all between 1915 and 19 20 ( \vhi taker) • Herril1 lL._ Hoyt ( 1881-1933) Merrill Hoyt was born May 18, 18 81, of l1errill and Lydia Hoyt in Denver, Colorado, He graduated from North Side Hig h School in 1 898 , and then took his early architectural training with E,R, Rice rrorking as a draftsman,. then in about 1903 for Fisher and Huntington also as a draftsman and with H.E. Fisher and A.A. Fisher as a draftsman and a superintendent of their work from 1905 until 1915. In 1915 he opened an office with his brother, Burnham and was active in the profession until his death by heart attack on 11 February, 1933. He married his wife Ethel in Butte, Hontana on October 4,. 1906, and made their home at 2509 W, 36 Avenue in Denver. She was born on February 11, 1 878 , in New Rochelle, NeH York, and later moved to Denver with her parents, graduatine; from North Side High School in 1898. S he died in Denver on June 5, 1971. They had one daughter, Grace Helene, who married the architect Charles H. Overholt. Nerrill Hoyt was prominent in Denver business, social and artistic circles, He had been president and vice president of the Colorado Chapter of the A.I.A,, president, secretary and member o f the board of directors of the Allied Architects Association, vice president of the Denver Building and Loan Association, and at one

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. I 134 time manager of the National Better Homes Competition in Denver, He loved sports of all kinds and was a member of t he Denver Athletic Club and Lakewood Country Club, He was interested in art and literature and prominant in 1'-lassoni c work. He was also a member of the Denver Art H useum (Rocky Hountain News, February 13, 1933). Mildred Fuller Hoyt (1891) Hildren Fulle r was born about 1891, in Kalamazoo , Hichigan, Her father, being a great mining man, came to Denver, S he served as a nurse in E n gland in Horld \{ar I and later became thoroughly interested in art, After B urnham Hoyt vrent to New York , she did also to .study art and later became a decorator in the antique de partment o f Lord and Taylor. She later established a fashion aesign business, Smith-Fuller (Rocky Mountain News, June 30, 1941) Ely Jacques K a hn (188 4-1972) Ely Kahn was born in 1884, in Nevr York City, In 1 903, he g r aduated with a B .A. from Columbia University; in 1907 he graduated with a B , of Architecture; in 1911 he graduated from the Ecole des Bea u x Arts in Paris. He was a professor of desig n a t Cornell University in 1915. He worked in the partnership of B uckman & Kahn from 1917-30 and from 1930-40 he had his own office in New York, In 1932 he returned to academic life as an instructor in desig n at New York Uni versity ( Mock, 1945). Kidd e r Franklin E . Kidder, a native of Bangor, Maine, was educated a t t he State University and Corn ell University's School o f Architecture and in 1880 he g r aduated in Engineering from H.I.T . H e o pe ned an office in Boston practice, but due to he moved to Denver about 1888, ahd carried on wor k in Denver , associated for a short time until 1 891 with John J, Humphreys p, 341), Hilliam E . Lescaz e (1896-1969) Hilliam Lescaze was born in 1 896 in Geneva Switzerland and r e c eived his education in Zurich, In 1920 he came to the United States and in 1923-29 he had his own office in New York City, Then for a brief time, 1929-34, he Has i n partnership with Georg e Howe before returning to his own independent practice ( M oc k , p , 120), Pelton (1868-1935) Pelton was a graduate in architecture from Columbi a Uni versity in 1889 . He had a private p r actice i n New Yor k City for a long period, He later was an associate with the B o ston firm of Allen & Callens in d esigning several churches including Park Avenu e Baptist Church and the Rockefeller Church on Riv .erside Drive (Whitey, p. 465), Georce B rowne Post (1837-1913) George Post was a native of New York, was given a military edu-

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135 cation, .but on completion of his .training decided to follow a pro career. He studied civil en gineering from the Scientific Sc . hoo . l at New York University, and from 1858-60 he studied in Rich ard Morris Hunt's Atelier in New York. In 1860 he formed a partnership with a fellow student, Charles D. Gambrill, but at. the outbreak of the Civil War, they closed their office. In 1867 lie -re s u m ed practic e under his own name and became noted for the de signof many cominerc'ial buiiding $. He was k nown a s a great planner, with his succe.ss being attributed largely to his belief in the importa nce of sound construction and a n honest effort to meet the require m ents o f .his clients. After a long and active c areer he died at his country home at Bernardsville, Jers ey at 7 6 years o f ag e p. 482). Eug ene Remick Rice E ug ene Rice was a Denver architect of enou g h note to be considered a representative man o f Colorado in 1902. He probably b e ga n his Denver practice i n the lat e 1 880's ( B alcomb an d Rice ) an d a n indivi du a l practice from about 1 89 7 to 1903 when h e joined Charles Quayle in the short-lived f irm of Quayle and Rice (190 4-05). A f t e r this h e c e ased to practice architecture in D env e r as a principle (Representa tive M en o f Colorado, 1902). • Hilliam Robert Hare (1832-1915) \'lilliam Hare was a native of Cambrid ge, Massachusetts and was educated at Harv ard. From 1 86 0-1 88 1 he practiced architecture in Boston with Henry Brunt and Has Dean and Profe s sor of Architecture at M. I. T.. In fact, he organized the first school of architecture in the u.s. at l 1.I.T •• In 1 881, he accepted the responsibility of establishing the school of architecture at Columbia Univ ersity and remaine d there until 1903 when he retired. He designed Harvard Nemorial Hall and the American School of Classic Studies in Athens. He also wrote1 Modern Perspective, The American Vignola and Architectural Shades and S hadows p . 6 32). Thielman . Robert \Heger ( 1878-c.1929) ' Thielman was a native of Cincinnati, Ohio, and moved to Denver in his youth. He studied architecture in the office of Frank Kidder, and after his training became a member of the firm of Kidder & Wieger. He had a successful individual practice in Denver from 1906, b eing architect for T emple Emmanuel, Col u mbian School, America n Furniture Company Building , and the Stanly Hotel in Estes Park. His later o ffice was located i n the Chamber of Commerce Building in D enver (\{hitey, p. 657).

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136 APPENDIX B OFFICE WORK OF MERRILL H. HOYT & BURNHAM HOYT, ARCHITECTS.(1915-19JJ) The following is a listing of the work from the office of M.H. Hoyt and B urnham Hoyt as recorded in the "Plan Book" which is in the possession of Mrs. Hoyt. The projects listed were an inventory of the plan files at the time that Burnham Hoyt closed his office in 1955 and thus represented the most complete source of their work. Many projects were completed buildings, some were additions and alterations and some were proposed projects while a few were plans of other architects work to which the made modifications. The type of work has been noted if known although no attempt was made to verify the nature of all the work. It is presented here as in the plan book with minor editing of the list of drawings done for each client. L.L. Aitken Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternity, Boulder Associated Realty Corporation Beck Art Store (alterations) Fred Ber ger Merrian B. Berger H illiam B. Berger Bernard Apts (proposed) (Fisher & Fisher, proposed prints) Berthoud National Bank ; Berthoud, Colorado Blackmer Stable Myron Blackmer Residence (revisions to library) Blickensderfer Bldg. (Calif, Bldg.) (Edbrooke & Marean, architects)

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Louis Bondy (alterations to garage) Louis Bonnie (alterations to residence) Arthur Bosworth Residence (Marean & Norton, architects) Broadway Dept , Store Sidney L, Brock Residence Jeanette D, Brooks Donald Bromfield Residence (177 Race, alterations, 1937) A, Bruehne Buckingham School; B uckingham, Colorado Burtlock Towers (Apartments) California Building (addition) Capitol Meat Live Stock (packing (alterations) Dr, P,V, Carlin Central Savings Bank Delos Chappell (garden room bay) Cherry Hills Country Club ( Stable) (future additions) Cherry Hills Home Co, (plot plan) Church of the Redeemer City Hall (sketches) Coffin Packing and Prov, Co, (alterations and additions) Collbran Villa Colliers Magazine House 137 Colorado Fuel and Iron Co, (1616 Stout, alterations and additions) Colorado National Bank (additions and alterations) (originals, Fisher & Fisher, architects) Colorado Utah Coal Co, H.C, Cones Residence H,C, Cones & Co, ( B roadway & West Archer Pl,) (Fisher & Fisher, architects)

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J,M, Cones Residence J,R, Contee (2747 Welt on St,) Continental Oil (Cactus Club) A.E, Cook Residence (alterations and additions) Adolph Coors (sketches) J, Cordano (20th & Broadway) G,l 1 , Cordes (alterations and addition) H,J, Cover Richard I-1, Crane 138 Geor ge Cranmer (mt. cabin) (art museum) (auditorium) (residence, alterations and additions) Cresent Laundry Curtis St, Theater (Robert iHllison, archit.ect) 0,1. Davis Residence Delta Delta Delta Sorority Delta National Bank ; Delta, Colorado Denver Bread Company Denver Dry Goods Co. (alterations) (original plans, F.E. architect) Denver Orphans Home Association Denver Press Clvb Denver Sewer Pipe & Clay Co, Denver Wrecking & Construction Co, (preliminary sketches) Dieter Bookbinding Co, T , S , Dines Dr. L,H, Drown (alteration) W,H, Enderly;Thermopolis, Wyo. Estes Park Church (proposed) Evergreen School (sketches)

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John A . Ferguson (sketches) Filling Statio n , Powerine Co, (sketches) First National Bank; Hot chkiss, Colo, First Presbyterian Church ; Casper, Wyo, (original plans) (alterations and additions) vl,E. Foran; Oope, Colo, Foster Building Farth Church of Christ Science (3101 \v, 31st Ave, , 1920) K, Friedman Residence M,W, Gano, Jr. Residence Goodharts Laundry David G , Gorden Residence Nrs, James B . Grant .. Mrs. Lucius Hallett (alterations and addition) E,C . Hanley (private garage) Fred Hart (office. windo'w) H,H, Heiser Building (15th & Wynkoop) (7th & B roadway) H , H , Heiser Residence (7th & York) Hendrie & Bolthoff (alteration and addition) Francis Hendriks Residence Highlands Hasonic Temple (3550 Federal Blvd, , 1921) A . B . Hirshfield Press A , Hobson P,H , Holme Residence M . H . Hoyt ( garag e a n d additions) (office partition) C,J, Hughes Memorial L. Hughes. (proposed stable) International Trust Co, E,C , Jones (preliminary)

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Junior Lea g ue (sketches and plans) E,S , Kassler, Jr. Residence Emily Keene (stable and house) Charles E . Keeper (terrace) EdHard H . Kent Residence (addition) Roy S . Kent Residenc e (alterations and addition) Klink Building; Thermopolis, Wye, Klink Residence (alterations and addition) Knight Campbell Music Co, (show Hindows) Edward Knowtes Residence ( 426 Gilpin) 140 Harold Kountze Residence (alterations and additions) (two story house) (country house) ( gate) J ,! 1 , :Kuykendall , Esq , Residence (7th and Ogden) ( Fisher & Fisher office copy) Lake Junior Hi g h School (1 82 0 LoHell Blvd,, 1 926) Lamont (sketch) (rendering) E,J, Lindquist, Residence Jud g e Ben Lindsey Lippitt Residence ( McClintock, 1946) R . E . Hadison Inv, Co. Gara g e ( Wazee between 16th & 17th) i'lrs. T . Hannen; Thermopolis, Wyo. L.M. Maitland Residence (mountain house) Geo. Mayer Hardware Co. F . M . Mayfield Residence Paul T, Mayo (mountain residence) Edgar t1cComb Residence M cLean (1 859 Pontiac) W .O. Herryweather Minchin (preliminary plans)

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141 Mining Exchange Bldg . (alterations to Lyons & Johnson) John W. Morey Residence (original plans) (alterations an d additions) (entrance gate) E,C, Morris Ruben J. Morris (25th Ave. between Federal & Elliott) S,D, Horrison Gara g e (220 8 California) Bradish t • !ors e (aiterations to entrance) Mortuary; Casper, W yo. Olinger Hortuary M ountview Presbyterian Church J.P . N urphy (Vine between 8th & 9th) National Jewish Hospital, Childrens Building National Jewish Hospital, Friedman Nurses Residence, Childrens Hospital s. Sergent Newbury (11th & Olive) Sidney Osmer Churchill Owen (original house) James Owen (720 Emerson) (alterations) Myran 0Hen R. Owen Resid ence (original plans) Park Entra nce ( p ropo s ed sketches) Park Hill Branch Library ( M ontview Blvd, and Dexter St., 1920) G,P , Parkerson Residence C.L. Patterson R a y Phebu s Residence; Thermo polis, W yo. (alterations and a dditions) Phi Delta Theta Fraternity House; Boulder, Colo, Major Paul E. Rabor g (Diamond Ranch) Railway E xchan g e Bl dg .

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H.V. Randolph Service Station (Glenarm & 20th) V,Z, Reed, Jr. (Residence, Stable, Garage, Gardner's House) V,Z, Reed, Sr. Residence (alterations and additions) Regis College (sketch) H.B. Riedeburg (corner 8th & Gaylord) Halstead Ritter (apartment house) Frank E . Rogers (lst Ave. & O g den) James G , Rogers (1322 E , Bayaud Ave,) St, Barnabas' Church (reredos) St, Luke's Nurses Bldg, St. Hark's Church (alterations and addition) St. Martin's Chapel (Clarkson between 1Jth & 14th, 1927) • Chas M, Salit Fred Schmidt (sketches) Scheel; Cope, Colo. Miss Julia Schutte Harry Shaw; Broomfield, Colo. (garage) Sigma -Nu Fraternity; Golden , Colo, Alex Simpson Jr. Skyward Hanors ,(sketches) Herritt Smith Residence (preliminary) Miss Carrie Spiess (for the Colo. Realty Inv. Co,) F . \v. S tandart Steele School (J20 S , I1arion Parkway , 1929) (addition) L.R. Steele Co. Bldg , Stevens (preliminary) Harvey Neal Stronack; Cherey, Hash , Hrs, Sam L. Strong Residence; Phoenix, Arix, 142

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143 Amos Sudler Residence (original plans) Sumner Residence Sunflower School; Scottsbluff, Neb. T.B. Sutton (alteration) Mr. R.P. Swan; Bri ghton, Colo. (proposed store bldg.) Hrs . H.H. Tammen (alterations and additions to guest house) (1061 Humboldt) (mountain Residence) (summer house) ( mountain guest house) (town house) (building , 17th & Larimer) (store front, alterations) (mountain house 1931) (mountain hous e and alterations to 10 6 1 Humboldt ) (portecochere & steps, 1061 Humboldt St. ) Mrs, F.M. Taylor; Dover, N . Y . J.L. Taylor (House, garage, stable) Daniel Thomas (double house) Sewal Thomas Residence Tramway Co. Denver Office Bldg , Trinity Parish House; Davenport , Iowa (original plans) F . B . Varnum (residen ce & garage) Frank M . Vaug hn Veterans Burea u :I;. ke ton Residence (sketches) StanleyC. Harner (alterations & addition) H .V. Haterman {fireplace) A g nes C, Webb J , F . Welborn (original plans) Richard Hensley Office Bldg . (alterations) vlest Coast Wood (prize house) Western Market Co. (alteration and additions) Western Securities A.J. Whistleman (alterations to residence)

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!vir, C . B . lvhi tehead Residence Wickershamm (prints, Huntington, architect) Earl Wil co x Henry Wilcox & Son Henry A . \-linter W . A . W ogan; S an Acacia, Colo . Julius Wolf Residence (sketches) W omens Athletic Club (sketches) J.S. Worthin gton J . E . Young (duplex house) ( garag e , broadway between 12th & 13th) Will. A . Young .. 144

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145 APPENDIX C OFFICE vl9RK OF BURNHAM HOYT, ARCHITECT ( 1933-5 5 ) The follmfing is a listing of the work from the office o f B urnham Hoyt as recorded i n thEl "Plan B ook " as an inventory of the plan files at t he time that B urnham Hoyt closed h i s office in 195 5 . It i s presented here Hith minor editing o f t he list of drawing s done for each client. Acoma Church; New Mexico Albany Hotel (17th & Stout St., 1938) (alterations to P i n e Room and Ranch Room) ( prints of bldg., Benedict, architect) Andrew Anderson (floor plans 1 936 38) (swimmin g pool) ( dormitory) Architectural Leag ue of N . Y . Exhibition (19J8) Arndt, Dr . Karl (fence) A scension Church ( alterations t o Ascension Church ; Pueblo, Colo . (1 941) Aug ustane Lut h e r an Church (alterations , 1 940 -41) B arnum C ommunity Center John B arrows Residen c e ( 4000 S . Gi lper; 1938) Charles Bayly Res i de nce (2901 E . Exposition Ave.) B ayly Mfg. Co. (elevator) !"lay B onfils Benyman Residence (addition) (proposed boat house ) G . B . Ber ger Elizabeth Blanc (1016 Lafayette) (proposed a lteration) Francis B lossom Residen ce Boulevard Cong regational Church (proposed alteration) Braniff Air Ways (1 945 -46) H . E . Brewbaker Residence; Long mont , Colo . (alterations and additions, (1 94 1 )

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Colorado State Hospital; Pueblo, Colo. (1934) Congregational Church; Longmont,-Colo. (proposed chan ges) Continental Air Lines (proposed offices) Henri A. DeCompiegne (residence and stable) Dr . Douglas Deeds (proposed store room, Dec., 1943) Denar g o Marke t (proposed alterations, 1945) Denver Art J'l!useum Denver Civic Symp hony (proposed platform) Denver Country Club (proposed changes, 1940) (alterations to card room) Denver Medical Society (proposed alterations to Campion House) Richard M . Deris (alterations # 75 Cherry) Eugene Dines (alterations) Doctor's Building (17th & Humbolt) M ontgomery Dorsey (proposed alterations to Polo Club ) Canon Douglas (cross) Eric Douglas (alterations to 130 Vine St.) Mis s Anne E vans (mountain house} (alterations) John E . Evans (alterations to residence) First Plymouth Congregational Church (proposed alterations) Fitzsimmons General Hospital (500 bed expansion, 1942) Jl'!rs. Helen K. Fowler (alterations to residence) Samuel E. Fox (see P.S. Irwin) Garden Club-Denver (temporary partitions, 1939) John Gater (alterations to residence) John Gatus (residence 1940-41) Dr. G.H. Glenn (alterations to house and office) 147 Glockner Hospital; Colorado Springs, Colo. ( Primrose Pavilion 1940 -41 ) ( alterations)

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Grant St. Apartments (sketches) Greeley Hospital (proposed additions, 1936) L.H. Guldman Residence J,C, Hall; Grand Lake, Colorado Joe Hare (mountain house) C,L. Harrington; Grand Lake, Colorado (original house) Highlands Lutheran Church (proposed, 1945) Hotel Greeters of America ( proposed home) 148 B urnham Hoyt Residence (3130 East Exposition, 1948) (prop osed resi-de nc e) (model hous e ) (Palm e r Lake) (ofr"ice alterations) Indu strial Federal Savings and Loan Association (1630 Stout St., 1938) Philip S t anley Irwin Reside nce (1939) A,E, Johnson (original house plans) • C,A, Johnson; Sedalia, Colorado (alterations to studio, 1936) C,A, Johnson Building (1940) C,A, Johnson Properties (original plans, H, Aronis, architect) (resid ence) (guest house) (C,A, Johnson Building) C,A, Johnson Residence (230 Vine St,) (alterations and a dditions) (dressing room, 1942) Asa Jones Residence (alterations) Fosdick Jones Residence ( proposed residence, 1939) Jones Residence Mrs. August Ker n Residence (2500 S , S h eridan Blvd,) (caretaker' s house) Erlu 0, Kistler (1212 Grant St,) Kountze (proposed alteration, 1941) Las Casitas Housin g Project (proposed housing project, Hoyt , Linder & Horris) Robert E , Lewis Hemorial (Fairmount Cemetery, 1945) 1'1rs. John G , Low e (135 Humbold t St.) (alterations to res i de nce)

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Lmrry Field (platforms and screens) C.M. Maitland Residenc e ; Estes Park, Colo . (1935) Florence Martin Residence (alterations to old house ) Hayo Day Nursery (alterations and additions) I . !1rs . Freda L. Haytag (alterations to residence, Col orado Springs, 1942-43) T . E . McClintock Ida Kruse f.lcFarlane ( Memorial at Central City) 149 R . S . Mcilvain e (proposed alteratio ns to residence, 760 Clarkson St. ) Mexican Churche s Mrs. Hel en Hiller Residence ( alterations) Haunt E vans Laboratory ( S ummit House) Mulnix Sound Studio • Municipal Airport ( prop osed alterations) Mrs. James Nelson ( prop osed resi dence , St. Loui s ) New York 1lorld' s Fair ("America at Home" exhibition) James Q . Newton Ranch House, Littleton (pro p osed residence, 1937) ( proposed alterations, 801 Yor k , 1939) ( proposed alteration to fish hatchery) Jud ge Owen ( prop osed apartment building) Pari s Prize Elevatio n Park Lane Hotel (propos ed alteration to cocktail lounge) Mrs. Spencer Penrose (proposed apartment in Broad moor Hotel) Penrose Pavilion , Glockner Hospital; Colorado Springs, Colo . (1940-41) Penrose Radiation Inst. Plymouth Congregational Church (proposed alterations, 1938) Productive Home Competition (1939) Red Rocks Park; Morrison, Colorado ( amphitheater, 1935-41) fvl. E . Rees (proposed residence, 1944-45)

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Janet Reeve (lamp) John Reeve (proposed alterations to 2900 W. 26th) Walker Von Riper John c. Roberts (proposed residence, 1937) Forrest Rutherford (proposed memorial) St. John's Cathedral (parish house) St. l >lartin's Chapel (alterations to dining hall, 1937) B,F, Salzer (proposed alterations to 137 High St.) Sherman Saunders (fireplace) Dr. R. J, Savage Residence (new porch) School for Crippled Children (19th Downing, 1940) Sewage Disposal Plant (5100 Ha:rion St.) Ski Cabin for New York Horld's Fair (1940) Small Church (tracings) Speer Memorial (1936) Sportland Beach 150 State Home for Dependent Children (alterations to residence, 1940) State Hospital; Pueblo, Colorado Sterne (proposed residence, 1941) (front porch) Halter Struby Residence ( Horrison Rd,, 1935) Stuart Smith (alterations) Barry M. Sullivan Residence (545 Circle Drive, 1941) (alterations) Ivlrs. H.H. Tammen (1061 Humboldt St., alterations, Dec., 1941) (monument 1935-36) (dining room addition and dining shelter, 1936) (sun terrace; Genesee, 1939-40) Teller House (alterations) Oscar Temple (addition) Dr. Atha Thomas (details) Hiss Edith Thomas (main entrance)

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Mrs. H.M. Thorpe Mr. R.J. Tipton (alterations .to residence) Union Pacific (preliminary floor plans) Union Station (proposed alterations) u.s. Federal Housing "Helton St. S cheme" U.S. Post Office Competition; Burlingame, California University of Denver (proposed chan ges to library) (proposed law school) (proposed girl's dorm) Jan VanHouten (alterations and additions, 1941-43) Halker VanRiper (alterations to residen-ce, 1934) Van Schaach & Co. (proposed alteration to 1201 Logan) Hr. George Verhoulst (front porch) Dr. Vesploez Clinic Building (proposed) • Olive Irene Halker; Greeley, Colo. (alterations to residence) 151 Mrs. J.J. (alterations to residence) ( playhouse) ( greenhouse) Mrs. Francis \-layne (alterations) Welton St. Housing Project West Denver High School (proposed) Foster Why; Long mont, Colorado Ileen Hilliams; Key \Vest, Florida (memorial cross) R.E . (residence) Mrs. Howard \Hlson (proposed shop) Hilson-Bonfils Airschool (1941-42)