Citation
Program for redevelopment of Highland Place

Material Information

Title:
Program for redevelopment of Highland Place
Creator:
Evans, David
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright David Evans. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
PROGRAM FOR REDEVELOPMENT OF
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ARCHIVES
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1190
A72
1983
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DAVID EVANS


TABLE OF CONTENTS
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I SITE AND'NEIGHBORHOOD ............................................. 1
II TRAFFIC CIRCULATION.................................................6
III CONSTRUCTED SITE FEATURES..........................................8
IV NATURAL SITE FEATURES............................................11
V MARKETING STUDY FOR SITE DEVELOPMENT.............................17
VI APPLICABLE CODES AND REQUIREMENTS ............................... 20
VII ANALYSIS OF HISTORIC STRUCTURE......................... 21
VTELFROGRAM FOR RENOVATION OF UNION HALL.............................27
A. ZONING RESTRICTIONS FOR RENOVATION .......................... 28
B. BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR RENOVATION.....................29
C. PROGRAM.......................................................30
D. STATEMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL INTENT.........................32
IX FRCGRAM FOR NEW HOUSING j
3
A. MARKETING STUDY . 32
B. BUILDING CODE.................................................37
C. ZONING REQUIREMENTS ......................................... 35
D. ENERGY CODE ..................................................38
E. GENERAL RESEARCH ON HOUSING ................................. 38
F. SITE PLANNING..................... .........................40
G. UNIT DESIGN: ARCHITECTURAL INTENT.........................42
H. UNIT DESIGN: SEQUENTIAL ARRANGEMENT...........................43
I. PROGRAM SUMMARY...............................................47
X BIBLIOGRAPHY
49


SITE AND NEIGHBORHOOD
Highlands place is a proposed mixed-use development near downtown Denver currently being planned by a number of design firms, and being developed by a partnership of prominent Denver developers. The development is on a parcel of two blocks of land, surrounded by Boulder Street, Sixteenth Street, Central Street, W. 28^ Avenue and Umatilla Street.
This study is concerned with the smaller of the two blocks, the triangular site.
Highlands Place gets its name from an early settlement in the areas
Highlands Park, one of the oldest neighborhoods in Denver. Most of the
land in the area was purchased and organized by General William J. Palmer
and Dr, William Bell in 1875. Four years later, the town was platted and
incorporated and took its place beside Auraria and Denver in competition
for predominance. Before Highlands Park was a town, though, there was
*
already a significant amount of development. A cemetary which had been placed on a nearby site in 1866 had to be moved in 1873 to made room for more vital development. Across the corner of 15^ Street and Central Street, a one-room frame schoolhouse was built in 1872, but had to be replaced in 1880. Construction of the commercial structures along 15th Street, between Central Street and Eoulder Street began in 1872 and was finished by 1900. The scale and quality of the old buildings speak of the importance that the neighborhood once had.(111.1,2,3,4)
The demise of the neighborhood happened when automobiles replaced street cars, thereby isolating Highlands from downtown and making the suburbs an attractive alternative to in-town living. Construction of the Valley Highway visually isolated the neighborhood and physically fenced it off from downtown. Being protected from development interests by its unattractiveness, the neighborhood has kept most of its original build-


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ings, making it unique in Denver, in terms of texture and scale. The neighborhood architecture has an intersting blend of styles. Commercial buildings are predominantly turn-of-the-century Victorian: brick, with cast iron and glass store-front facades and ornate sheet metal cornices,
(111. 1,2,3,*0
In domestic architecture, there are three styles: the most recent houses are 1920's California bungalows. There are only a few examples on the site, and none in the area surrounding (ILL.5) . The two older styles include a Queen Anne type Victorian with steeply pitched roofs, light gingerbread trim, and brick walls.(111,. 6) The most prominent houses-the ones in the best condition, and the most likely to be saved are the brownstone Romanesque row houses There are several next to the site along W, 28^Ave (111,7). The most remarkable features of these houses, are the heavy stone finishes, with intricate foliated carvings,(111. 8)and stained
glass windows. The walls of the buildings differentiate each unit through the use of bay windows, different wall textures and gable shapes atop


5
illustration 5


6
the wall (even though the roof itself is flat).
The brownstones are all being renovated, and must therefore, be considered as permanant forms in the landscape. Finally, the landmark of the neighborhood, which is visible from far across downtown, is the Asbury Methodist Church (HI.12?). The church also is a fine example of Romanesque revival, having a massive rusticated stone structure with round-arched openings. The building echoes the triangular gables found in the brownstones, but has pitched roofs behind as well. The neighborhood therefore already has an indigenous style of architecture. This architecture is particularly valid as a modern prototype, because it has a way of distinguishing between building types, that is simple and clear. Domestic architecture generally has simple closed volumetric forms: square plan, minimal roof projections, heavy masonry walis and punched-out window openings. Most of the houses have attached porches, and gable forms in the walls and sometimes in the roof. Commercial architecture, on the other hand is differentiated by its emphasis on frame construction: light, glassed-in ground floors punctuated by columns, beneath masonry walls which articulate the column lines by means of projecting pilasters.
On top, the buildings are capped with deeply projecting, heavy-appearing cornices. This prototype of open, articulated frames for commercial structures and closed, tight volumes for residences seems valid for new development, both to maintain the existing fabric and to state welcomness ajqd honesty in business and privacy and protection in houses.
CIRCULATION
Circulation around the neighborhood is confusing, with streets of downtown orientation meeting the grid of avenues, as well as a few streets


7
CIRCULATION
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remaining from old Auraria and Highlands patterns. Generally, automobile traffic flows between downtown and the northwest suburbs across the Speer Blvd. viaduct southeast of the site. Speer also provides a good corridor to the southeast part of the city. Of lesser importance, but providing an important route between the site and downtown, are the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Street viaducts. Central Street acts as a highway frontage road bringing traffic from the freeway to the downtown viaducts. The site therefore, has excellent vehicle access to downtown and to the freeway, but lacks exposure to primary traffic arteries. Pedestrian traffic around the site, at present, is minor, and seems to circulate primarily across 15thSt. between the old commercial structures. Some local pedestrian traffic originates in the fouses along Umatilla, but most pedestrians arrive by car, parking along 15^St. for short stops at the stores.
CONSTRUCTED SITE FEATURES
On the site itself, there are several old buildings. The most important is the Inverness Apartment Building (HI, 9),which has some
1


PHYSICAL FEATURES




11
small retail shops on the ground level, and a few dilapidated apartments on the second floor. The building was constructed in 1886 and originally was called Union Hall. The history of the building and the meaning of its original name is unknown, but there was a subdivision called "union" nearby which may have been the source of the name. The building is now a recognized part of a state historical landmark district, which makes it qualified for tax benefits under preservation guidelines.
Next to the Inverness building is the Highlands bar, a non-historic structure. Further down 15^1St,, at Central St., where there is now only an empty lot, there was once a large three-story brick bank building (111. 10), called the North Denver Bank. It was only recently destroyed by fire, although the bank had been out of business since the sil ver panic of 1893*
Along Umatilla St, and W. 28^Ave, there are a few houses on the site. The architecture of the houses is typical of early 20^ century suburban ill. 10
houses. The houses arenot particularly noteworthy either historically or architecturally, but are good, salvagable structures.
NATURAL FEATURES
From the corner of 15^ and Umatilla, the ground slopes evenly, about


/


13
20 feet down the site to Central St,, sloping at approximately one foot per 20 feet. There are no major drainagechannels on the site, so water will flow across the site as shown on the site plan, towards the south and east. On the perimeter there are several good trees: a tall silver maple along umatilla and a large cottonwood on 15^St,There are also a few small trees along Central St.
The only panoramic view from the site is to the southeast, and encompasses all of the downtown towers and the Platte River, (111. 11)
ill. 11
The other views are short, but not unpleasant. To the west are views of the handsome old houses. To the northwest, the site looks towards the old Victorian commercial buildings (111. 1),
Soils in the area are uncertain, as there have been no recent tests
nearby, but Denver soils engineer Hapworth of Chen & Associates, suggests that they are probably granular soils overlying bedrock, or possibly clays over bedrock. The soils visible in the basement of Union Hall appear to


be granular in composition. Furthermore, the building sits on masonry spread footings which have shown little noticable settlement over its ninety-three year period. No rock outcroppings were visible on the site, nor was any water standing on the site. The basement of the old building was dry in the spring and showed no signs of ever having been flooded.
The soils therefore appear very well suited for shallow, low-cost spread footings. Basements will probably be useable for habitable space without any extraordinary efforts,
Denver's climate can be best described as a somewhat arid, moderately cool continental climate. Summers are generally pleasantly dry and cool, but temperatures can reach 100°F. or more. Winters are dry and can be severe, but normally have only light snowfall and moderate temperatures. Spring and early summer are usually the wettest seasons, while winter is the driest season. Winds in Denver usually prevail fron the south and southwest, but the fastest winds come from west and northwest. However, one could expect the fastest winds to be somewhat abated at the site by the hills rising towards the west. Unfortunately, the coolest months,in the winter and spring, are typically the windiest, and also have the greatest cloud coverage. Nevertheless, there enough good days in every season that will create a demand for usable recreation space outdoors, particu-larily if they are sunny spaces. There is seme need for protection from winter winds from the south, and considerable need for protection from west and northwest winds. Protection from southern wind however, will block beneficial summer wind.
Sunlight in Denver is very usable for supplemental heating. Large glass areas facing south with horizontal shading against summer sun is


16
NOISE
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desireable. The sun is intense though, and can create undesireable glare. This should be controlled with interior curtains, and by breaking the glass area into small, well distributed windows. Light sources from other directions can also be used to balance the light.
The worst feature of the site is the horrendous ammount of noise from the freeway to the south of the site. This should strongly influence design, because the noise is unacceptable and must be controlled. Unfortunately, the south direction is the best orientation for exposure to sun, wind and views. Some compromise will be necessary. As shown on the noise contour, noise tapers from about 70-80 d3A on the south, to 60-70 dBA. These levels are considered to be loud to very loud. It nr, ay be possible to achieve some relief by building a wall along Central Street in the freeway right-of-way. This would require a revocal permit from the city and state dept, of highways. Even if this can be built, the housing should take on the characteristics of a masonry wall: heavy, unbroken and impenetrable .
SITE DEVELOPMENT: MARKETING STUDY
T.H.K. Associates of Denver made extensive studies of the development potential for the site this year. The study investigated supply and demand characteristics for housing, office and retail space in Denver. Among housing projects in the Denver area, the study found a very favourable market. The condominium segment of the market is very active, particularly among expensive units. Typically, the residents of condominiums are single or couples over thirty years old, and have high incomes and no children. The average new project in the central area of Denver had


18
the following characteristics:
unit size $ of project area cost
1 bedroom 42.1$ 1059 s.f. $62853
2 bedrooms 50.6$ 1570 s.f. $144083
3 bedrooms 7.3$ 2797 s.f. $238551
The rental market is more favorable than the condominium market.
There is now a very low vacancy rate: 2.3$, which means very little com-petition. Residents of typical rental units are somewhat different from those in corresponding condominiums. The residents are a mixture of single working adults, couples over 25 years old, or retired senior citizens.
Most of the rental units don't allow children. The profile of the average rental project is as follows:
Unit Size $ of project Area Rent
1 bedroom 45# 810s.f. $265
2 bedroom 45$ 1000s.f. $375
3 bedroom 10$ 1800 s.f. $620
Based on existing and proposed housing in Denver, the market study concludes that there is excessive competition among high-priced condominiums (over $60000) and that the most competitive price range is between $40000 and $67200. In this price range, there is expected to be a demand for 340 units per year in the central area, and 55 units per year on the site, THK's profile for a condominium development on this site would
Unit Size $ £f project Area Cost
1 bedroom 45$ 650-750s.f. $75/s.f.
2 bedroom 45$ 850-950s.f. $70/s.f.
3 bedroom 10$ 1000-1200S.f. $70/s.f.


19
The study recommends that no studio units be built, because of the inherent low efficienct and low demand. Furthermore, THK suggests that the development should offer as ammenities: parking, security, balconies, fireplaces, swimming pool, and tennis and/or racquetball courts.
Because of the greater demand for rental units, the study suggests a project that would start out as a rental project, and be converted to condominiums five years later, if the market appears more favorable then. They conclude that there is an annual demand for 3720 units in Denver, with 230 units being the probable capture of the site. A successful rental project would need the same ammenities as those of a condominium
project above, but would have a different profile s
Unit Size of project Area cost
1 bedroom 60$ 650 s.f. $300
2 bedroom 40$ 850 s.f. $380
The units suggested by the study for the site are smaller than its typical competitors, in order to gain greater site use efficiency.
Commercial space for the project was considered because of the 4 existing historic structures. The market study concludes that there is demand both for retail and office space, but a greater demand for office space. Downtown Denver has a low office vacancy rate- 9.6$, in spite of a very active market. There is now almost no office space in the Highlands area, and very little has been constructed in recent years Consequently, vacancy rate is only 1.2$ in the neighborhood, lower even than downtown. Considering the current market, THK concludes that renovated office space can draw about 8$ of the Denver demand, requiring a 2,7 year absorption time for the space on the site, 3ased on current and projected rental


20
costs, renovated office space should lease for $8/ s,f.
Retail commercial space has a lesser demand in the area, largely -because of its proximity to downtown, and lack of good exposure to traffic arteries. Stores that have the greatest probability for success are mostly essential type markets; grocery, drug, liquor and restaurant. All of these stores have a recommended size which is smaller than average. Recommended stores are: combination apparel 300 s.f. GLA, specialty food 500s,f. GLA, general food 4500 s.f. GLA, liquor 850 s.f, GLA, drug 990 s.f, GLA, barber-beauty 320 s.f. GLA, gift-book-jewelry 600 s.f. GLA, restaurant 3^00 s.f. GLA, furniture-design 3200 s.f. GLA, and miscelaneous 1500 s.f. GLA. A restaurant has already been proposed in one of the buildings across the street from the site. Because of a concern for the success of the retail, THK suggests placing all retail shops at ground level. Present exposure of retail space at the pedestrian level is poor, so an interior mall is recommended by the study. This concept would work best in the buildings actoss the street, where the mall could continue from one building to another. Furthermore, up to 6800 s.f, of the ground floor commercial space could be used for office space, as the total ground floor area of all the buildings is greater than that needed for retail space. 5900 s.f, of this space could be accommodated in the building on my site,
CODES & REQUIREMENTS
All development proposed for the site is to be financed by private money, for purely speculative purposes, so there are no client requirements outside of the marketing study recommendations. Furthermore, FHA


21
and HUD building requirements are not enforceable here. The codes and requirements which do apply, are the Denver Zoning Ordinance and the 1976 Denver Building Code. In addition, the new structures must meet the Colorado Energy Code. Since the old structure is a designated historic landmark, it is exempt from the energy code requirements. But, the old structure must meet section 212^ of the 1976 Tax Reform Act, which outlines rehabilitation standards to qualify for tax incentives.
The standards however are guidelines and do not constitute a code; each building is subject to individual review to receive tax benefits.
HISTORIC STRUCTURE
The Inverness Apartment Building is in good condition and very sal-vagable. All of the exterior architectural details appear to be intact and even windows are still in place. The structural system is brick bearing wall, with cast-iron columns along the front, lower story. Internally, the structure is divided into 8- 20foot bays running perpendicular to the front facade. Above grade, the bay divisions are wood stud walls which support wood joists. In the basement, all walls are masonry and the bay width is further subdivided by large wooden beams which carry 2"x8” joists on 16" centers. Because the highest ceiling height in the basement is only 6'-6", the space is uninhabitable, but useable for storage, Also, much of the basement is inaccessible, so it is impossible to completely assure the condition of the substructure. The project engineer recommends drilling test holes beside some of the footings to determine their condition; soft brick may have been used, in which case erosion from rotting may have seriously weakened their strength and require rebuilding.


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The ground floor bays are full twenty-foot widths, with no columnar divisions. Ceiling height is 17’-4", which will allow mezzanine floors. One mezannine has already been added in the second bay from the southeast end. Support for this mezzanine is inadequate and will have to be replaced, as it is shaky and poorly designed. This bay will almost certainly need to have a new loft, because several small windows were cut out of the back wall, when the floor was added, which are completely incongruent with the high ceilinged space. At the northwest end of the building, two bays have been combined by replacing a dividing wall with a beam made of 7- 2"x*s. Unfortunately, there is almost no support for the beam over the front curtain wall; this also will certainly have to be rebuilt.
There are two ways to enter the second floor. The main entrance is
/
off 15l'^Street on the northeast side and up two flights of stairs to the hall landing. Above this entry there is a stained glass window which has been painted over, which gives the name "Inverness Apartment Building". The stairs are unpleasantly long and steep, and the landings are too short. Redesign and replacement of the stairs will be necessary to make the second floor usefull. Entering from the back side of the building is even worse * coming up a wooden stair, with badly warped wooden treads. These stairs are outdoors for half the story height, then turn inside for the remainder, to the second floor corridor.
Along the second floor corridor, the long southwest wall may be a bearing wall. Location of the walls in the southern half of the floor, is uncertain, and these may therefor^ not carry loads which their counterparts on the other side of the hall carry. Interior partitions made


26
it difficult to understand the structural system. It was also impossible to see the roof structure, to verify suspected spanning directions.
The structure of the second level seems to be in as good condition as the rest of the building. Along the corridor, however, there a*e some wall stains, which may indicate a leaky roof. This could mean some rotten timbers as well, but the problem is not extensive. Also, there is a buldge in part of the corridor floor, which may oe related to the same problem.
The masonry all around the outside of the building has recently been painted an off-white color. It needs repainting, but it would more desireable to remove the paint, if the masonry can weather the exposuas. Paint removal techniques should be investigated carefully, as abrasive removal will likely strip the bricks of their hardest outside layer. There are clear waterproof and water resistant surface sealants available for masonry which should be investigated for use after the surfaces are stripped. Above several of the windows there are large cracks, which need repairing. Two of the largest cracks appear in the wall above the shop where a bearing wall was removed(Ill. 12); settlement from this


27
alteration may have caused the problem. Most of the mortar, though is in very good condition and needs no repointing.
None of the interior finish is either particularly remarkable or in especially good condition,And, since the plethora of partitions on the second floor prevents efficient space use, they need to be removed. Bearing walls, however should be retained, but their studs stripped of plaster and refinished. Likewise, all of the floors are good and useable expect..for the small part of the second floor where the floor buldges. Here, the flooring should be removed. The structure beneath should be inspected for damage, and be replaced too, if need be. Replacement of all glass and sash is advisable, although not necessary. The condition is fine, but modern units will operate better, and be better insulating. Similarly, a new mechanical system, as well as new plumbing and wiring are needed to bring the building in line with the competition in commercial space.
RENOVATION OF UNION HALL
Renovation of the old building must be done in accordance with the guidelines published by the Dept, of the Interior. These guidelines are set to assure preservation of the building, and retention of the original architecture. Renovation cannot be for the purpose of rehabilitating rental housing. Consequently, the second floor may no longer be used for housing. In order to retain the turn-of-the-century character of the neighborhood, the guidelines suggest a property use compatible with the structure. There should be minimal alteration of the building, its structure, site and environment. Naturally, architectural features should


28
be repaired rather than replaced, but replacements should attempt to match, as closely as possible, the original parts.
Additions and alterations to the building are allowed, but the guidelines say that these should be compatible in terms of color, texture, scale and material with the building. Also, any additions or alterations should be built so that they can be removed later, without substantially changing the form or structure of the building. Before tax benefits can be received, a complete description of renovation plans must be filed and approved by the Department of the Interior.
ZONING
Union Ball stands on the part of the site zoned for 3-3 use. This zone permits most types of retail and office use by right, and accessory uses up to 10$ of the gross floor area. Most of the regulations apply only to new construction, which in this case would apply to additions.
All outside stairsj porches and accessories must be set in 5* from front and rear property lines and 3' from the side. Fences and walls are permitted to heights of ^2" along the front of the site, and up to 72" along any other property line. Canopies may project into setbacks any distance. For office space in the building, one off-street parking space must be provided for each 500 square feet of gross floor ares^ and retail space requires a parking space for each 200 square feet. One off-street loading berth will be required for the building.
Signage permitted on the building may be of two types: identification of the name and number of the building, and identification of name, use, services, hours, products, events and prices available in the building.


29
Of the first type, there may be up to ^ signs, each of whose area is less than 20 square feet, and are placed no more than 12 feet above grade. These signs may only be placed on the ground, or directly on the wall of the building. The second type of sign is less restrictive; there can be as many as five signs for the building or two signs for each use. Total sign area may be as- great as 600 square feet.
BUILDING CODE
Union Hall is in fire zone 3 under the Denver Building Code and its occupancy is F-2. There is a minimum of tyre III, cne-hour construction based on the building type and floor area. This means that interior bearing walls, structural frame, partitions, floors, roofs and vertical opening enclosures must be of.at least one-hour fire rating, exterior walls must be ^-hour. Any material may be used for structural, floor, roof and stair construction provided that they are protected as above. From the outside of the building, emergency vehicle access must be maintained.
F-2 occupancy is defined to have a density of 100 square feet per person. This means that the second floor will have an occupant load of 60. This gives a total building occvipancy of 120, assuming no basement usage. Four water closet fixtures, four lavatories, one service sink and one drinking fountain are required as minimal plumbing fixtures on each floor. Hand drying equipment is also required for lavatories. In addition, there must be at least one water closet and a lavatory provided with minimal clearance for handicapped persons. There also must be hand drying equipment and mirrors that are within ^0" of the floor of all


30
toilets accessible to handicapped persons.
Two exits are required from the building at each floor level. The exit doors must be seperated by 25*, and cannot be further than 150' from any point, or 200* if the building is equiped with sprinklers. Required exitways must be at least 44" wide, and exit doors must swing in the direction of travel, opening 90° with minimum dimensions of 3,-0"x 6*-8". The building must also have at least one exit useable by handicapped people. Ramps may be used to achieve elevation changes, and must be used for variations less than 12". All ramps must also have a slope no more than 1:12, with landings at least every 5'-0" of rise.
Stair exits from the second floor must have a minimum width of 44" with a landing the same width as the stair. If the second floor is equiped with an elevator, the stair shaft must have a wheelchair niche at least 25,,x42" on the top stair landing.
RENOVATION PROGRAM
Based on conclusions of the market study, and the location of Union Hall relative to the other old buildings on the site, the mall concept may be of value for this building and it is appropriate for the present structure, because it has a central stair-corridor, which will need to be redesigned; the space could be used for a mall instead. The most obvious way to use the ground floor of Union Hall is to segregate each structural bay into offices of about 1000 s.f. each. Some or all of these bays could have lockable accessways between them, so that they could optionally be comoined into larger units. The spaces would still be available to lease for retail use if there is enough demand for this building, All ground floor spaces are therefore very small and may not make


usable or flexible spaces.Mezaanine levels should be designed for the bsck of most or all bays. Ways of combining these spaces with parts of the second floor should be explored. Each space must have a toilet room accessible to it. These toilets should optimally be minimal units, and used exclusively by the tenant of one space. Handicapped entries should be given to all spaces, but this may be difficult in the units whose floors are stepped up above the sidewalk. At any rate, units which have handicapped access must also have bathrooms with equipment provided for handicapped people.
Access to the second floor should be maintained at the building's
central stair corridor, since both walls next to it are load bearing,
*
and offer clear space to the second ceiling. The stairway, however is insufficient and must be redesigned. Also, the two exits are not seper-ated by enough distance to meet building code requirements. The central corridor could provide a location for one stair, but another stair must be located elsewhere. An elevator should be provided for the second floor to provide access for the handicapped and increase the desireability of office space on that flopr. This elevator would be incompatible with the building, and should be placed in an auxilliary structure - either an addition, or by using the old carriage house. If the carriage house is used, there will have to be an addition to allow people to walk to the building on the second level.
Conceivably, the entire second floor could be occupied by one large tenant, but this seems unlikely, judging by current tenants in renovated Denver buildings. The second level will probably have to be subdivided along bearing walls, but again, flexibility needs to be considered so


32
that large spaces as well as small rooms can be rented.
ARCHITECTURAL INTENT
Creating interiors which are compatible with the old building will be an important aspect of the design. Since the present finish is not worth salvaging, and since the techniques and materials to recreate the old finish are no longer avaible, a contrasting modern interior is suggested. To contrast best with the highly textured, ornamented exterior, the interior should be of smooth surfaces, with simple harmonic colors. Brick walls, oak floors and the old columns along the storefront can be left exposed inside to bring in a sense of the outside structure to play against the smooth, modern surfaces. Likewise, the additions at the rear of the building should oe clearly from a different age, and this also requires some contrast. The guidelines, however suggest retaining the same texture, color and scale of the building. Conceptually, the architectural character of this addition would be a massive, vertical element, in response to the elevator function inside. To keep the addition seperate to satisfy the renovation guidelines and to intensify the contrast of old and new, the elevator should be linked to the building by a light, enclosed bridge.
HOUSING; MARKETING STUDY
Excluding Union Hall and the required set-backs on the site, there is approximately 49000 square feet left for residential construction, A _ significant portion of the southern part of the site will be used for street improvments. There/ apparantly no easements on the site, except for an alley which was vacated in 1888, with no provision for reinstating it. The marketing for the site, developed for the site by THK Associates,


33




35
suggests that there should be between 40 and 45 units of housing. Because of the density involved, it will not be possible to use the old houses on the site. It may be possible to move them to a new site rather than destroy them; this needs to be investigated still. The study recommends that the housing should be rented for a five year period, then converted to condominiums if the market is right. It is assumed therefore that the units should be designed as condominiums rather than as apartments. This means a greater proportion of larger units and more children. The housing profile for the development therefore will follow THK’s proposal for a condominium development:
Unit Tyjoe Number Size Cost
1 bedroom
2 bedroom
3 bedroom
18-20 650-750 s.f. $75/s.f.
18-20 850-950 s.f. $70/s.f.
4-5____ 1000-1200 s.f. $70/s.f.
40-45
ZONING
Although most of the site area available for redevelopment is not zoned for housing, it is assumed that zoning can be changed from B-3 down to R-3, or that the site can be developed under a rUD. Requirements in an R-3 district permit single and multiple family dwellings, as well aa recreation facilities and accessory uses provided for the convenience of the tenants. There is no maximum density restriction, but there is a maximum building/site area ratio of 3/l. This allows up to 147000 square feet of housing. There is also an open space requirement for the site. These require 20$ of the site, for 1-3 story buildings and 30$ of the site for more than 3 story buildings to be left open and landscaped or used for recreation. This space may not be used for off-street


SITE PLAN .
HIWp£-^muomieg
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37
parking. This constitutes between 9800 s.f. and 14700 s.f, lj parking
spaces must be provided Tor each dwelling- a total of 60.
Setbacks, as shown on the site plan, are 10’ at the front, 7*-6"
in the side and 20’ on the rear. Various building parts such as eaves
and chinmies can project onto the setbacks various amounts. Below grade
structures may extend as far as the property line. Walls and fences up
to 72" high may be built on any part of the site, behind the front set-%
back and up to 48" high in front of the front setback. The height of the structures on the site is limited by bulk planes. Bulk planes are imaginary surfaces that extend at an angle from the street centerline up over the site. For an R-3 zone, the planes begin 20' above the street and extend at a 2:1 pitch for 30’, then rise vertically. The building may not penetrate the bulk plane. This gives a maximum building height of 86’ at the setback line.
BUILDING CODE
Housing units will be classified H-3 occupancy- townhouses and row-houses. In order to attain sufficient density, construction type will have to be I, II, IIT-1 hr., IV- lhr., or type V-l hr. This will permit 3 stories, at between 50' and 75’ (depending on construction type), except that type I construction may be built to any height.
Emergency vehicles must have access to every building on the site. Vehicle exit ramps from inside buildings must occur at least 20* inside the property line.
Among the requirements for the housing units, there are several particularly cogent requirements. Complete handicapped access must be


38
provided to at least l/7 of the units. Each habitable room must have windows which open onto a court, yard or street. Bedrooms must also have doors or windows opening outdoors which have a 5.7 s.f. minimum opening that is 24" high, and no more than 44” above the floor. Each H-3 unit must have seperate sewer, water, heating, electrical and plumbing systems from the other units, and be physically isolated by a 2-horn* fire seper-jtion. Each unit must have less than a 50" travel distance to an exit with no more than one flight of stairs. Ou^ide the unit, an entrance must be found within 100* or 150’ if sprinkled.
ENERGY CODE
3ecause the housing is all new construction, the Colorado Energy Code must strictly adhered to. Health and safety laws, however take precedence whenever they are in conflict with the Energy Code. The code is an outline of minimum performance standards based on insulation values;
1. Walls must have a "U" value less than 0.20 3TUH
2. Slab on grade:
Heated slab: R greater than 4.6 Unheated slab: R greater than 6.7
3. Floors over unheated spaces: U less than 0.80
4. Roofs: U less than 0,05
Individual building components need not comply, so long as the entire
building envelope U-value is less than the totals above, where the total
is defined: U -S(U)(Area)
° 3^] Area~~
HOUSING RESEARCH
Statistics show that in the U.S., 20$ of the population moves each year and 50$ moves every 6 years. Perhaps more significant than this though, is the fact that 60$ of the movers move within five miles of


their old homes. Consequently, most moves are for the purpose of changing houses, not because work locations have changed drastically. Moves can be motivated by changing family sizes, dissatisfaction with the present dwelling, or a desire to "move up", as well as from outside pressures such as job changes, Eric Moore in Mobility In The_ City defines four types of lifestyles which generate different types of moves. The first group Is oriented towards consumption as a way of life. Typically these people are moderately affluent singles or couples without children or older suburban couples whose children are grown who are are drawn to apartments or condominiums near the ammenities of the C.3.D.
The other lifestyles tend to move to other locales, and include the social/prestige oriented types who prefer exclusive country-club type suburbs; family oriented groups, who prefer suburbs as the "right" environment for raising children; finally, the community oriented people especially senior citizens who live together in retirement communities.
These groupings of people lead one to general prioritizing about the required qualities of the housing. For movers out from the central city, the dwelling charactericticss size, space and outdoor area are most important. Conversly, movers to the central areas are more concerned with accessibility and quality of ammenities around the unit. Yet, to most people, the single-family detached house is the ideal house, and apartments or condominiums represent only one step on the "way up" to a house.
The qualities identified by most movers as important values motivating their moves ares physical condition, size, accessibility and qual-


40
ity of the environment. Accessibility is not a significant factor in most people’s moves except among those who live more than 40 minutes from where they work. Thus, the central location of the Highlands will likely attract many of those who now live in distant suburbs.
SITE PLANNING
Within the housing development, there are three primary areas of concern which shall generate the housing in this design. They are: privacy, territoriality and convenience. Frivacy and territoriality both work together to generate a home’s sovereignty. Both require a sequence of strictly defined transitional spaces to work: from the most public areas outdoors, to the most private zones inside. To create territoriality, the streets and the site must work together to deal effectively with strangers. Street and unit must be unambiguously seperated. Outdoor areas under the control of the tenant must be physically seperated from the sidewalk, and demarcated by familiar symbols of domain, such as fences, steps, sidewalk lights and different walking surfaces. Units must face the street, so that the sidewalk can be easily seen and so that strangers on the sidewalk will be aware of their visibility. The tremendous noise levels along Central Street may force a compromise on this point however, because doors and windows are weak accoustical barriers.Finally, the sidewalks should encourage constant use by the provision of adequate housing density and sufficiently diverse use. Thus, there needs to be both a positive relationship between housing units and street, and between housing and commercial activities that encourages pedestrian traffic.
This relationship can be best served by creating row housing around the


41
perimeter of the site with house entrances on the streets and private outdoor spaces to the inside of the lot. Houses must sit back from the property line anyway, and this can be exploited to create a transition from the street to the house. The transition should be articulated by a change of sidewalk surface and an elevation change, preferably up, to make the entrance more visible and important. Other forms such as walls, fences and plantings should also be used wherever privacy is required, Last, privacy and territoriality must be created between the units,through the articulation of the individual units, and physical and visual separation of outdoor spaces.
Within the center of the site, an area will be reserved for recreation activities as spelled out by the marketing study. A swimming pool has already been located on the site across 15 .Street, One or two ten-
nis courts should be placed on this site. Although the marketing study does not recommend play space for children, it seems realistic to expect very young children in many of the larger units. Total estimated recreation
space is as follows:
Children
Unit si ze_ number per unit No_, of units Total children
2 bedroom 1 18 18
3 bedroom 2 4 __8
26
There should be at least 20 square feet of outdoor play space for each child, or 520 s.f, A minimal 1500s.f. tot-lot should be provided.
Adults need about 100 square feet of outdoor recreation space for each adult, or 8000 s.f. total. Thus, the required outdoor space for recreation is 9500 s.f, , which constitutes most of the open space on the site required by zoning.


42
The marketing study calls for garage parking. The volume of this parking necessitates underground parking -which will of necessity have to go below the housing. This could be most efficiently accomodated by combining both commercial parking and residential parking in the same garage and sharing the same ramps. 3ut public use of commercial parking will necessitate a seperation of the two, both to maintain security for the tenants' cars an^ to provide convenience for the tenants in always having a parking space, and always in the same place. 60 parking places is needed for the housing and 110-125 parking places for the commercial building, giving a total of 170-185 parking spaces, Fedestrian access between the housing and the garage should be kept separate from commercial access. The stairs also should be equally convenient to all tenants of the site.' Handicapped access from the garage to Union Hall is needed by elevator , and likewise either ground level parking, or elevator access from the garage to handicapped housing unitsis also needed
ARCHITECTURAL INTENT
The house is the ultimate place of refuge for every family, and the base for each person's activities. Thus, the house is a place for each person to restore his self esteem and personal identity. Each unit of housing in the development must therefore be articulated in some way, as a thing separate from the other units. The housing should continue in the neighborhood traditional house-form as a closed volume of masonry walls with small punched-out windows and gable forms. The height of the houses and materials of construction must be compatible with the neighboring buildings- especially Union Hall. Since the function of the housing and the commercial structure is different, there needs to be a different massing used; the housing could be broken into individual units,


43
thereby contrasting with the unified form of the old building. 3ecause the housing units will need to be grouped in rows, or masses to gain efficiency, and may even need to be stacked, articulation will have to occur vertically and longitudinally between the units. Stacking should be minimized to maintain clearly seperate entries, so it is suggested that the houses be 2 or 3 stories, except for the handicapped units,
SEQUENTIAL ARRANGEMENT
Location of both the recreation facilities and stair access to the parking garage in the center of the housing development, implies a need for unit entries to occur both from the street, for visitors, and from the inside of the site, for the family. This is also a desireable place to put private outdoor space, protected from the freeway noise, wind and outside views into the site. This is the entry where groceries would come into the house, so it is desireable to locate the kitchen at the back of the unit. Since the public entry is at the other side of the house, the only possible hierarchy of privacy "hich can be established iss 1. Public (street)to 2. Semi-public (entry), to 3» Semi-private(kitchen) . But there is also a need for completely private areas for each person. Diagramatically, the ideal hierarchy is:
The ideal arrangement based on the impact of the site is:
/ STREET \ __n/pub|lic tjoAc-cY fakely V (PARKING \
l j n &TRY H0M ENTRY J' i GARAGE )
X


44
By combining these two, privacy could be put above the more public areas:
Entry to private areas would be more satisfactory when taken from the semi-private zone,
To take up the flow through the interior of the house again, the semi-public space can be defined as the area in which any member of the family and any invited visitor can be. Typically these spaces include the living room, formal dining room and outdoor areas to duplicate indoor activities in good weather. In addition, there needs to be an entry space where family members can evaluate visitors before admiting them. More specifically, the entry should provide outdoor protection for the guest, a view of the guest from inside, a place to store coats and umbrellas, and a barrier between the entry and house to cut out wind and views into more private zones. The rest of the semi-public area needs to have the flexibility to handle large crowds,or intimate family groups, even individuals, and to provide for casual entertainment for this range of social groups. In general the entertainment includes conversation, parlor games, music listening and performance, television, reading and dining- a broad range of activities, of which almost all can involve one person or many.
Farts of the next zone- the semi-private zone, need to be related directly to the semi-public area, but others must relate positively to private areas, and are unacceptable next to semi-public areas. Primarily,


45
VTE \
l ) 1 GARAGE


46
the semi-private space is defined as a zone of functions which service the other zones and is accessible to all family members. These include the kitchen, serving the semi-public dining area, and serving an informal semi-private dining room, and the laundry which mainly serves private spaces: bedrooms and bathrooms. It is undesireable to have the laundry room adjacent to other areas. Also needed in this zone is a play space for children which is visible from most parts of the house. The play space should be designed so as to be usable by families without children. Ideally, the work spaces, and other spaces frequently occupied, should have views of outdoor play spaces and entries. Finally, there is a need for semi-public area for car repairing and gardening. Indoors, there is also a need for semi-private areafor similar hobbies.
The final zone of the house needs to be visually and accoustically remote from the rest of the house. Bedrooms, dressing rooms and toilet rooms are the components of this zone. There is a need to physically visually and accoustically seperate the private zone into subzones for adults and children, and extra subzones for each person. There needs to be direct access from all points of the house to the toilets, and a lesser need for direct access to bedrooms. Bedrooms however need to be near toilets and bathrooms. Following is a detailed sequential arrangement of
soaces:


47
In conclusion, here is a specific summary of design reouireznents
for the housing units:
Unit type 1 bedroom 2 bedroom 3 bedroom least i
floor area 650-750s.f. 850-950s.f. 1000-1200
living room 160 s.f. l60s.f. 170 s.f. ll'-O"
dining room 100s.f. 100 s.f. 110 s.f. 8«-4»
master bedroom 120 s.f. 120 s.f. 120 s.f. 9*-4"
bedroom - 80 s.f. 80 s.f. 8'-0"
foyer 25 S.f. 25 s.f. 25 s.f. 4»-0"
balcony 70 s.f. 70 s.f. 70 s.f. 6»-0"
terrace 120 s.f. 120 s.f. 120 s.f. 8*-0"
Other Requirements
Mtchen Recuirements
sink 2k" 2k" 32"
sink counter 18" 21" 2k"
(ea, side)
range 21” 2k" 30"
counter 18" 21" 2k"
(one side)
refrigerator 30" 36" 36"
counter 15" 15" 15"
(one side)
mixing counter 30" 36" 36"
shelving 30s.f. 38 s.f. kks,f.
6s ,f.
8 s.f.
10 s.f.
drawers


Closets
Entry 2'-3"x Utility 2'-0"x 2*-0"
Fantry 8*-10"x ^*-0"
Linen 11—6”x 2’-6"
Master bedroom 2'-3"x lO’-O" Bedroom 2*-3,,x 8*-0"
General storage 2'-0"x 4*-0M


BIBLIOGRAPHY
49
Alexander, Christopher, et. al. A Pattern LanguageT New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1976
Chermayeff, serge and Christopher Alexander. Community and Privacy. Garden City, N.Y.s Doubleday & Co., I965.
Colorado Office of Energy Conservation. Energy Conservation Standards: Denvers 1979.
Cooper, Clare. "The House as symbol".Design and Environment v.3 #3. New Yorks R.C. Publications, Fall 1972.
Davis, Sam. The Form of Housing. New Yorks Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.,
1977.
DeChiarra, Joseph and Lee Kopelman. Manual of Housing...Englewood Cliffs, N.J.s Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975.
Denver City and County Government. Denver Building Code. 1976.
______. Denver Zoning Ordinance, 1979.
Denver Planning Office. Denver Inventory .of ja Ban. for Historic Preservation. .. Appendix vol.I, 1977.
Denver Tribune Republican. Jan, 1, I885, p. 9.
Diamond, Jack."Residential Density and Housing Form." Journal of Architectural Education, v. XXIX #3. Assoc, of collegiate Schools of Architecture, Wash.,9.C., Feb. 1976
Doelle, Leslie. Environmental Accoustics. New Yorks McGraw-Hill, 1972.
Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service. Historic Preservation and
the Tax Reform Act of 1976. Wash., D.C.s U.S. Dept, of Interior, 1978.
Jacobs, Jane. Death and Life of Great American Cities. New Yorks Random House, 1961.
Macsai, John, et, al. Housing. New Yorks John Wiley and Sons, 1976.
Moore, Charles, at, al. The Place of Houses. New Yorks Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 197^.
Moore, Eric G. Mobility in the City. Wash., D.C.s Assoc, of American Geographers, 1972.
Newman, Oscar. Defensible Space. New Yorks MacMillan Co., 1972.
THK Associates, Inc, Preliminary Highland Place Market Analysis of Redevelopment Potentials Denver, April,1979.
U.S. Dept, of Housing and Urban Development and U.S, Dept of the interior. Guidlines Xcr Rehabilitating Cld Buildings. Wash.,D,C.,1977.
Wiberg, Ruth Eloise. Rediscovering Northwest Denver. Boulder, Co,5 Fruett Fub. Co., 1976.


PROJECT
HOUSING
SITE AREA 1.02 A.
A 3 BEDROOM 1507 s.f. 4
B 2 BEDROOM 1080s.f. 19
C 1 BEDROOM 692 s.f. 3
D 1 BEDROOM 708s f. 10
D HANDICAPPED 708s.f. 6
E 1 BEDROOM 811 s.f. 6 42
DENSITY« 41 UNITS / ACRE 63 PARKING SPACES
SUMMARY
COMMERCIAL
TOTAL FLOOR AREA
BASEMENT 5880 s.f.
1st FLOOR 6642 s.f.
2nd FLOOR 6096 s.f.
18618 s.f.
LEASEABLE AREA
RETAIL 1960 s.f.
1st FLR. OFF. 4445 s.f.
2nd FLR. OFF. 4587 s.f.
10992 s.f.
30 PARKING SPACES
DAVID J. EVANS


PARKING LEVEL
SCALE' 1/20”s 1*-0"
DAVID EVANS


UMATILLA ST.
PLAZA LEVEL
SCALE* 1/20”- 1’0’
DAVID EVANS


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PLAZA LEVEL
NEW BRIDGE ON EXPOSED BAP JOISTS
LEVEL
PARKING
STAIRS
/N STRUCTURAL
SCALE' 1/32" -1*. 0*
DAVID EVANS


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under floor supply duct
SECOND FLOOR
FIRST
FLOOR
\ UNION HALL
TYPICAL UNIT
MECHANICAL BUILDING
MECH
/\ MECHANICAL
TOWER
SCALE- l/IO’M'-O"
DAVID EVANS


PATIO
UNIT A
1507 S.F.
1088 SF.
UNIT B


I
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PATIO
UNIT C
692 S.F.
I
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UNIT D
708 S.F
UNIT E


\
RECEPTION / T MANAGEMENT----
skylight
skylight
OFFICE 736 s.f.
‘skylight
Skylight
a j 1 V 1
OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE
580 s.f. § 580s.f. 664 s.f.
1 1 | s I i i
skylight ^ WALL skylight
O

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â–  a
TRASH
OFFICE 1SOO s.(.
RETAIL
980 s.f.
RETAIL
980 s.f.
OFFICE
965 s.f.
OFFICE 1090 s.f.
DAVID EVANS


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Full Text

PAGE 1

PROGRAM FOR REDEVELOPMENT OF ARCHIVES DAVID EVANS LD 1190 A72 1983 E81

PAGE 2

fjrcA-. TABLE OF CONTENTS )/{ i --------------I SITE ANDNEIGHBORHOOD • • • 1 II TRAFFIC CIRCULAT ION. • • • • • • • • • • 6 III C ONSTRUCTED SITE FEATURES • • • • • • • • • • 8 IV NATURAL SITE FEATURES • • • • • • • • 11 V MARKETING STUDY F C R SITE DEVELOPMENT • • • • • 17 VI APPLICABLE CODES AND REQUIREMENTS • • • • • • • • 20 VII ANALYSIS OF HISTORIC STRUCTURE • • • • • 21 VII[ PROGRAM F O R RENOVAT ION O F UNION HALL. • • • • • • • 27 A. Z ONING RESTRICT I ONS FOR RENOVAT I O N • • • • • • • • 28 B.BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR RENOVATION • • • 29 C. P R OGRAM • • • • • • • • • • • • 30 D • . STATEMENT O F ARCHITECTURAL INTENT • • • • • 32 IX P R OGRAM FCR NEW HOUSING 1 : A. MARKETING S TUDY • • • • • • • • • • 32 B. BUILDING C ODE • • • • • • • • • 37 c. Z ONING REQUIREMENTS • • • • • • • 35 D. ENERGY C ODE • • • • • • • • 38 E. GENERAL RESEARCH O N HODSD! G • • • • • • • 38 F. SITE PLANNING • • • • • • • • • • • 40 G. UNIT DESIGN : ARCHITECTURAL INTENT • • • • • • • • • 42 H . UNIT DESIGN: SEQUENTIAL ARRANGEMENT • • • 43 I. P R OGRAM SUMMARY • • • • • • 47 X BIBLI OGRAPHY • • • • • • • • 49

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t SITE AND NEIGHBORHOOD --Highlands Place-is a proposed mixed-use development near downtown Denver currently being planned by a number of design firms, and being developed by a partnership of prominent Denver developers. The develop-ment is on a parcel of two blocks of land, surrounded by Boulder Street, Sixteenth Street, Central Street, w. 28th Avenue and Umatilla Street. This study is concerned with the smaller of the two blocks, the triang-ular site. Highlands Place gets its from an early settlement in the area: Highlands ?ark, one of the oldest neighborhoods in Denver. Most of the land in the area was purchased and organized by General William J. Falmer and Dr. William Bell in 1875. Four years later, the town was platted and incorporated and took its place beside Auraria and Denver in competition for predominance. Before Highlands Park was a town, though, there was already a significant amount of development. A cemetary which had been placed on a nearby site in 1866 had to be moved in 1873 to made room for more vital development. Across the corner of 15th Street and Central Street, a one-room frame schoolhouse was built in 1872, but had to be replaced in 1880. Construction of the commercial structures along 15th Street, between Central Street and Boulder Street began in 1872 and was finished by 1900. The scale and quality of the buildings speak of the importance that the neighborhood once had.(Ill. 1,2,3,4) The demise of the neighborhood happened when automobiles replaced street cars, thereby isolating Highlands from downtown and making the suburbs an attractive alternative to in-town living. Construction of the Valley Highway visually isolated the neighborhood and physically fenced it off from downtown. Being protected from development interests by its unattractiveness, the neighborhood has kept most of its original build-

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2 VIEWS AROUND SITE --

PAGE 5

_ illustratration . 1 2 3 4

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4 ings, making it unique in Denver, in terms of texture and scale. The neighborhood architecture has an intersting blend of styles. Commercial buildings are predominantly turn-of-the-century Victorian: brick, with cast iron and glass store-front facades and ornate sheet metal cornices. (Ill. 1,2,),4) In domestic architecture, there are three styles: the most recent houses are 1920's California bungalows. There are only a few examples on the site, and none in the area surrounding (ILL.5 ) • The two older styles include a Queen Anne type Victorian with steeply pitched roofs, light gingerbread trim, and brick walls.(Illr 6) The most prominent houses-the ones in the best condition, and the most likely to be saved are the brownstone Romanesque row houses There are several next to the site along th w. 28 Ave most remarkable features of these houses, are the heavy stone finishes, with stained iII. 8 glass windows. The walls of the buildings differentiate each unit through the use of bay windows, different wall textures and gable shapes atop

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i I lust rat ion 5 6 13 . 7

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the wall (even though the roof itself is flat). The brownstones are all being renovated, and must therefore, be considered as permanant forms in the landscape. Finally, the landmark of the neighborhood, which is visible from far across downtown, is the Asbury Methodist The church also is a fine example of Romanesque revival, having a massive rusticated stone structure with round-arched openings. The building echoes the triangular gables found in the but has pitched roofs behind as well. The neighborhood therefore already has an indigenous style of architecture. This architecture is particularly valid as a modern prototype, because it 6 has a way of distinguishing between building types, that is simple and clear. Domestic architecture generally has simple closed volumetric forms: plan, minimal roof projections, heavy masonry walis and punchedout window openings. Most of the houses have attached porches, and gable forms in the walls and sometimes in the roof. Commercial architecture, on the other hand is differentiated by its emphasis on frame construction: light, glassed-in ground floors punctuated by columns, beneath masonry walls which articulate the column lines by means of projecting pilasters. O n top, the buildings are capped with deeply projecting, heavy-appearing cornices. This prototype of open, articulated frames for commercial structures and closed, tight volumes for residences seems valid for new de velopment, both to maintain the existing fabric and to state welcomness _and honesty in business and privacy and protection in houses. CIRCULATION Circulation around the neighborhood is confusing, with streets of downtown orientation meeting the grid of avenues, as well as a few streets

PAGE 9

CIRCULATION ? o -__ I \)\ I * Pf

PAGE 10

I I remaining from old Auraria and Highlands Generally, automobile traffic flows between downtown and the northwest suburbs across the Speer Blvd. viaduct southeast of the site. Speer also provides a good corridor to the southeast part of the city. O f lesser importance, but providing an important route between the site and downtown, are the Fifteenth and SiXteenth Street viaducts. Central Street acts as a highway frontage road bringing traffic from the freeway to the downtown viaducts. T he site therefore, has excellent vehicle access to downtown and to the freeway, but lacks exposure to primary traffic arteries. Pedestrian traffic around the site, at present, is minor, and seems to circulate primarily across 15thSt. between the old commercial structures. Some local pedestrian traffic originates in the fouses along Umatilla, but most pedestrians th arrive by car, Earking along 15 St. for short stops at the stores. CONSTRUCTED SITE FEATURES On the site itself, there are several old buildings. The most im-portant is the Inverness Apartment 3uilding (Ill. 9),which has some _ iII. 9 --' • .

PAGE 11

_ I?HYSICAL ___ F -EATURES _ 1/w 9

PAGE 12

________ ) ''I ') I I !, : I ; ! I j.. . I I I I I \ N : !\ I I I J J. I I I : I I I I .J.. I I I _ 1 1011 .. __ -----S3tlt1tln

PAGE 13

11 small retail shops on the ground level, and a few dilapidated apartments < on the second floor. The building was constructed in 1886 and originally was called Union Hall. The history of the building and the meaning of its original name is unknown, but there was a subdivision called "union" nearby which may have been the source of the name. The building is a recognized part of a state .historical landmark district, which makes it qualified for tax benefits under preservation guidelines. Next to the Inverness building is the Highlands bar, a non-historic structure. Further down 15thSt., at Central St., where there is now only an empty lot, there was once a large three-story brick bank building (Ill. 10), called the North Denver Bank. It was only recently destroyed by fire, although the bank had been out of business since the ver panic of 189J. Along Umatilla th St. and W. 28 Ave. there are a few houses on the site. The arch-is typical of early 20th century suburban ill. 10 houses. The houses arenot particularly noteworthy either historically or architecturally, but are good, salvagable structures. NATURAL FEATURES From the corner of 15th and Umatilla, the ground slopes evenly, about

PAGE 14

\. TOPOGRAPHY . --P \(.. \ \ " I I \ /" / ./\------... v --/" / _../ / / I I \ / / ./ -_../ / / ./ -/ / / / I / / ./ ./ -/ \ / .......... -"20 ./ .(,L - • / "'J > ./ / / J \ I \ I '--1V -./ '-I .... i ; _ / -f.'-'-I ..... -t?--"" \. I ...... / / ..... \ ' / -1.--' ..... / .... _ 0 / I

PAGE 15

20 feet down the site to Central St,, sloping at approximately one foot per 20 feet, There are no major drainagechannels on the site, so water will flow across the site as shown on the site plan, towards the south and east, On the perimeter there are several good trees: a tall silver maple along umatilla and a large cottonwood on 15thst,There are also a few small trees along Central St. The only panoramic view from the site is to the southeast, and encompasses all of the downtown towersand the Platte River, (Ill. 11) ill. 11 The other views are short, but not unpleasant, To the west are views of the handsome old houses, To the northwest, t h e site looks towards the old victorian commercial buildings (Ill. 1), 13 Soils in the area are uncertain, as there have been no recent tests nearby, but Denver soils engineer H apworth o f Chen & Associates, suggests that they are probably granular s oils overlying bedrock, or possibly clays over bedrock, The soils visible in the basement of Union Hall a ppear to

PAGE 16

I I I 14 be granular in composition. Furthermore, the building sits on masonry spread footings which have shown little noticable settlement over its ninety-three year period. No rock outcroppings were visible on the site, nor was any water standing on the site. The basement of the old building was dry in the spring and showed no signs of ever having been flooded. The soils therefore appear very well suited for shallow, low-cost spread footings. B asements will probably be useable for hab itable space without any extraordinary efforts. Denver's climate can be best describ ed as a somewhat arid, moderately cool continental climate. Summers are generally pleasantly dry and cool, but temperatures can reach 100F. or more. Winters are dry and can be severe, but normally have only light snowfall and moderate temperatures. Spring and early summer are usually the wettest seasons, while winter is the driest season. Winds in Denver usually prevail fran the south and southwest, but the fastest winds come from west and northwest. However, one could expect the fastest winds to be somewhat abated at the site by the hills rising towards the west. Unfortunately, the coolest months,in the winter and spring, are typically the windiest, and also have the greatest cloud coverage. Nevertheless, enough good days in every season that will create a demand for usable recreation space outdoors, particularily if they are sunny spaces. There is some need for protectio n from winter winds from the south, and considerable need for protection fro m west and northwest winds. Protection from southern wind h owever, Will block benefidal summer wind. Sunlight in Denver is very usable f o r supplemental heating. Large glass areas facing south with horizontal shading against summer sun is

PAGE 17

v ' .->< I / I---,z___ 16 , , w ---10?--dfA.t.s)' ; H Ww -TI\1 _j

PAGE 18

desireable. The sun is intense though, and can create undesireable glare. This should be controlled with interior curtains, and by breaking the glass area into small, well distributed windows. Light sources from other directions can also be used to balance light. The worst feature of the site is the horrendous ammount of noise . from the freeway to the south of the site. This should strongly influence design, because the noise is unacceptable and must be controlled. Unfor tunately, the south direction is the best orientation for exposure to 17 sun, wind and views. Some compromise will be necessary. As shown on the noise contour, noise tapers from about 70-80 d3A on the south, to 60-70 d.BA. These levels are considered to be loud to very loud. Ith"1ay be possible to achieve some relief by building a wall along Central Street in the freeway right-of-way. This. would require a revocal permit from the city and state dept. of highways. Even if this can be built, the housing should take on the characteristics of a masonry wall: heavy, unbroken and impenetrable. SITE DEVELOPMENT= MARKETING STUDY T.H .K. Associates of Denver made extensive studies of the development potential for the site this year. The study investigated supply and demand characteristics for housing, office and retail space in Denver. Among housing projects in the Denver area, study found a very favourable market. T:!le condominium segment o f t h e market is very active, particularly among expensive units. Typically, the residents of condominiums are single or couples over thirty years old, and have high incomes and no children. The average new project in t h e central area of Denver had

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18 the following characteristics: unit of m:.cU.e_ct't cost 1 bedroom 42.1% 1059 s.f. $62853 2 bedrooms 50.6% 1570 s.f. $144083 3 bedrooms 7.3% 2797 s.f. $238551 The rental market is more favorable than the condominium market. There is now a very low vacancy rate: 2.3%, which means very little com-petition. Residents of typical rental units are somewhat different from those in corresponding condominiums. The residents are a mixture of single working adults, couples over 25 years old, or retired senior citizens. Most of the rental units don't allow children. The profile of the aver-age rental project is as follows: Unit Ero je_c_t_ Area Rent 1 bedroom 45% 810s.f. $265 2 bedroom 45% 1000s.f. $375 3 bedroom 10% 1800 s.f. $620 Based on existing and proposed housing in Denver, the market study concludes that there is excessive competition among high-priced condominiums (over $60000) and that the most competitive price range is between $40000 and $67200. In this price range, there is expected to b e a demand for )40 units per year in the central area, and 55 units per year on the site. THK's profile for a condominium development on this site would be: Unit 2. Cost 1 bedroom 45% 650-750s.f. $75/s.f. 2 bedroom 45% 850-950s.f. $70/s.f. 3 bedroom 10% 1000-1200s.f. $70/s.f.

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19 . The study recommends that no studio units be built, because of the in-herent low efficienct and low demand. Furthermore, THK suggests that the development should offer as ammenities: parking, security, balconies, fireplaces, swimming pool, and tennis and/or racquetball courts. Because of the greater demand for rental units, the study suggests a project that would start out as a rental project, and be converted to condominiums five years later, if the market appears more favorable then. They conclude that there is an annual demand for J720 units in Denver, with 2JO units being the probable capture of the site. A successful ren-tal project would need the same ammenities as those of a condominium project above, but would have a different profile: Unit Size _.1:_ E!:e ct Area cost --1 bedroom 6CJI, 650 s.f. $)00 2 bedroom 40% 850 s.f. $)80 The units suggested by the study for the site are smaller than its typ-ical competitors, in order to gain greater site use efficiency. Commercial space for the project was considered because of the 4 existing historic structures. The market study concludes that there is demand both for retail and office space, but a greater demand for office space. Downtown Denver has a low office vacancy rate9.6%, in spite of a very active market. There is now almost no office space in the Highlands area, and very little has been constructed in recent years Consequently, vacancy rate is only 1.2% in the neighborhood, lower even than downtown. Considering the current market, THK concludes that renovated office space can draw about of the Denver danand, requiring a 2.7 year absorption time for the space on the site. aased on current and projected rental /

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20 costs, renovated office space should lease for $8/ s.f. Retail commercial space has a lesser demand in the area, largely because of its proximity to downtown, and lack of good exposure to traffic arteries. Stores that have the greatest probability for success are mostly essential type markets: grocery, drug, liquor and restaurant. All of these stores have a recommended size which is smaller than average. Recommended stores are: combination apparel 300 s.f. GLA, specialty food 500s.f. GLA, general food 4500 s.f. GLA, liquor 850 s.f. GLA, drug 990 s.f. GLA, barber-beauty 320 s.f. GLA, gift-book-jewelry 600 s.f. GLA, restaurant 3600 s.f. GLA, furniture-design 3200 s.f. GLA, and miscelaneous 1500 s.f. GLA. A restaurant has already been proposed in one of the build ings across the street from the site. 3ecause of a concern for the suc-cess of the retail, THK suggests placing all retail shops at ground level. Present exposure of retail space at the pedestrian level is poor, so an interior mall is recommended by the study. This concept would work best in the buildings actoss the street, where the mall could continue from one building to another. Furthermore, up to 6800 s.f. of the ground floor commercial space could be used for office space, as the total ground floor area of all the buildings is greater than that needed for retail space. 5900 s.f. of this space could be accommodated in the building on my site. CODES & REQUIREMENTS All development proposed for the site is to be financed by private money, for purely speculative purposes, so there are no client requirements outside of the marketing study recommendations. Furthermore, FHA

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21 and HUD building requirements are not enforceable here. The codes and requirements which do apply, are the Denver Zoning Ordinance and the 1976 Denver Building Code. In addition, the new structures must meet the Colorado Energy Code. Since the old structure is a designated his-toric landmark, it is exempt from the energy code requirements. But, the old structure must meet section 2124 of the 1976 Tax Reform Act, which outlines rehabilitation standards to qualify for tax incentives. The standards however are guidelines and do not constitutea code; each building is subject to individual review to receive tax benefits. HISTORIC STRUCTURE -. The Inverness Apartment Building is in good condition and very sal-vagable. All of the exterior architectural details appear to be intact and even windows are still in place. The structural system is brick bear-ing wall, with cast-iron columns along the front, lower story. Internally, the structure is divided into 820foot bays running perpendicular to the front facade. Above grade, the bay divisions are wood stud walls which support wood joists. In the basement, all walls are masonry and the bay width is :f'urther subdivided by large wooden beams which carry 211x811 joists on _ 1611 centers. Because the highest ceiling height in the basement is only 61-611, the space is uninhabitable, but useable for star-age. Also, much of the basement is inaccessible, so it is impossible to completely assure the condition of the substructure. T . he project engin-eer recommends drilling test holes beside some of the footings to de-termine their condition; soft brick may have been used, in which case erosion from rotting may have seriously weakened their strength and re-quire rebuilding.

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PAGE 24

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25 The ground floor bays are full twenty-foot widths, with no columnar divisions, Ceiling height is 17'-4", which will allow mezzanine floors. One mezannine has already been added in the second bay from the southeast end. Support for this mezzanine is inadequate and will have to be replaced, as it is shaky and poorly designed. This bay will almost certainly need to . have a new loft, because several small windows were cut out of the back wall, when the floor was added, which are completely incongruent with the high ceilinged space. At the nor.thwest end of the building, two bays have been combined by replacing a dividing wall with a beam made of 72"x's. Unfortunately, there is almost no sup port for the beam over the front curtain walli this also will certainly h ave to be rebuilt. There are two ways to enter the second floor. The main entrance is off 15thStreet on the northeast side and up two flights of stairs to the hall landing. Above this entry there is a stained glass window which has been painted over, which gives the name "Inverness Apartment Build ing". The stairs are unpleasantly long and steep, and the landings are too short. Redesign and replacement of the stairs will be necessary to the second floor usefull. Entering from the back side of the building is even worse; coming up a wooden stair, with badly warped wooden treads. These stairs are outdoors for half the story height, t hen turn inside for t h e remainder, to the second floor corridor. Along t h e second floor corridor, t h e long southwest wall may be a bearing wall. Location of the walls in the southern half of t h e floor, is uncertain, and these may not carry loads which t h e i r c ounterparts on the other side of the hall carry. Interio r partitions made

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26 it difficult to understand the structural system. It was also impossible to see the roof structure, to verify suspected spanning directions. The structure of the second level seems to be in as good condition as the rest of the building. Along the corridor, however, some wall stains, which may indicate a leaky roof. This could mean some rot-ten timbers as well, but the problem is not extensive. Also, there is a buldge in part of the corridor which may b e related to the same problem. The masonry all around the outside of the building has recently been painted an off-white color. It needs repainting, but it would more desireable to remove the paint, if the masonry can weather the Paint removal techniques should be investigated carefully, as abrasive removal will likely strip the bricks of their hardest outside layer. There are clear waterproof and water resistant surface sealants avail-able for masonry which should be investigated for use after the surfaces are stripped. Above several of the windows there are large crac.ks, which need repairing. Two of the largest cracks appear in the wall above the shop where a bearing wall was removed(Ill. 12) ; . settlement from this ill. 12

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alteration may have caused the problem. Most of the mortar, though is in very good condition and needs no repainting. 27 None of the interior finish is either particularly remarkable or in especially good condition.And, since the plethora of partitions on the second floor prevents efficient space use, they need to be removed. Bearing walls, however should be retained, but their studs stripped of plaster and refinished. Likewise, all of the floors are good and useable expect.. for the small part of the second floor where the tloor buldges. Here, flooring should be removed. The structure beneath s hould be inspected for damage, and be replaced too, if need be. Replacement of all glass and sash is advisable, although not necessary. The condition is fine, but modern units will operate better, and be better insulating. Similarly, a new mechanical system, as well as new plumbing and wiring are needed to bring the building in line with the competition in commercial space. RENOVATION OF UNION . HALL Renovation of the old building must be done in accordance with. the guidelines published by the Dept. of the Interior. These guidelines are set to assure preservation of the building, and retention of t h e original architecture. Renovation cannot be for the purpose of rehabilitating rental housing. Consequently, t h e second floor may no longer be used for housing. In order to retain turn-of-the-century character of the neighborhood, t h e guidelines suggest a property use compatible with the structure. There should be minimal alteration of the building, its structure, site and environment. Naturally, features should

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be repaired rather than replaced, but replacements should attempt to match, as closely as possible, the original parts. 28 Additions and alterations to the building are allowed, but the guidelines say that these should be compatible in terms of texture, scale and material with t h e building. Also, any additions o r alterations should be built so that they can be removed later, without substantially changing t h e form or structure of the building. 3efore tax benefits can be received, a complete description of renovation plans must be filed and approved by the Department of the Interior. ZONING. Union 3all stands on the part of the site zoned for B -3 use. This zone permits most types of retail and office use by right, and accessory uses up to 10% of the gross floor area. Most of the regulations apply only to new construction, which in this case would apply to additions. All outside porches and accessories must be set in 5' from front and rear property lines and 3' from the side. Fences and walls are permitted to heights of 4211 along the front of the site, and up to 72" along any other property line. Canopies may project into setbacks any distance. For office space in the building, one off-street parking space must be provided for each 500 square feet of gross floor and retail space requires a parking space for each 200 square feet. O ne off-street loading berth will be required for the building. Signage permitted on the building may b e of two types: identificatio n of the name and number o f t h e building, and identification of name, use, services, hours, products, events and prices available in the building.

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29 Of the first type, there may be up to 4 signs, of whose area is less than 20 square feet, and are placed no m ore t h an 12 feet a b ove grade. These signs may only be placed o n t h e ground, o r directly o n t h e wall of the building. T h e second type of sign is less restrictive; there can be as many as five signs for the building or two signs for each use. may be a& great as 600 square feet. BUILDING CODE Union Hall is in fire zone 3 under t h e Denver Building C ode and its occupancy is F-2. There is a minimum of type III, one-hour c onstruction based on the building type and floor area. This means interio r bearing walls, structural frame, partitions, floors, roofs and vertical opening enclosures must be of.at least one-hour fire rati ng, exterio r walls must b e 4-hour. Any material may b e used f o r structural, floor, r oof and stair c onstructio n provided that t hey are p r ::>tected as above. From the outside o f t h e building, emergency vehicle access must b e mai n tained. F-2 occupancy is defined to h ave a density o f 1 0 0 s quare feet pe r person. This means t hat t h e second floor will h ave an occupant load o f 60. This gives a total building occupancy o f 120, assuming n o b asement usage. Four water closet fixtures, four lavatories, one service sink and one drinking fountain are required as minimal plum bing fixtures o n each floor. ' and dryin g equip ment is also required f o r lavatories. I n addition, there must b e at least o ne water closet and a lavatory p r ovided with minimal clearance f o r handicap ped persons. also must b e h and drying equipment and mirrors t hat are within 4011 o f t h e floor o f all

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30 toilots accessible to handicapped persons. Two exits are required from the building at each floor level. The exit doors must be separated by 251 , and cannot be further t han 1501 from any point, or 2001 if the building is equiped with sprinklers. Required exitways must be at least 4411 Wide, and exit doors must swing in the direction of travel, opening 90 with minimum of 31 -O"x 61-8". The building must also have at least one exit useable by handicapped people. Ramps may be used to achieve elevation and must be used for variations less than 12". All ramps must also have a slope no m ore than 1:12, with landings at least every 5'-0" of rise. Stair exits from the second floor must have a minimum width of 4411 with a . landing the same width as the stair. If the second floor is equiped with an elevator, the stair shaft must have a wheelchair niche at least 25"x42" on the top stair landing. RENOVATION PROGRAM Based on conclusions of the market study, and the location o f Union Hall relative to the other old buildings o n site, the mall concept may be of value for this building and it is appropriate for the present structure, because it has a central stair-corridor, which will need to be redesigned; the space could be used for a mall instead. The m ost obvious way t o use the grou nd floo r of Uni o n qall is to segregate structural bay into offices of ah: lUt 1000 s .f. each. S ome o r all o f bays could h ave lockable accessways between them, so that they c ould optionally be into larger units. spaces would still available to lease for retail use if is eno ug h demand f o r this building. All grou nd floo r s paces are t herefore very small and n J t make

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31 usable or flexible spaces.Mezaanine levels b e designed for t h e bsck of most o r all bays. Ways of combining t hese spaces with parts of the eecond floor should be explored. Each space must h ave a t oilet room accessible to it. These t oilets s hould optimally be minimal units, and used exclusively by tenant o f one space. ]andicapped entries sh ould be given to all spaces, but this may be difficult in t h e units whose floors are stepped u p a bo ve the sidewalk. At any rate, units which h ave access must also h ave bathrooms with equipment provided for people. Access t o t h e second floo r sh ould b e maintained at t h e building's central stair corridor, since both walls next to it are load bearing, and offer clear space to t h e seco nd ceiling. T he stairway, however is insufficient and must b e redesigned. Also, two exits are n o t separated b y enough distance to meet building code requirements. central corridor could p r ovide a l ocation f o r o ne stair, but an o t her stair must be l ocated elsewhere. An elevato r sh ould b e provided for t h e seco nd flo o r to provide access f o r the handicap ped and increase t h e desireability o f o f fice space o n floor. This elevator w ould b e incompatible with t h e building, and s hould b e placed in an auxilliary structure -either an addition, o r b y using t h e old carriage h ouse. If t h e carriage house is used, there will have to be an addition t o allo w p e ople t o wal k to t h e building on t h e second level. Conceivably, t h e entire second floor c ould b e occupied b y o ne large tenant, but seems unlikely, j udging b y current tenants i n renovated Denver buildings. The seco nd level will p r ob a bly h ave t o b e subdivided alo ng beari ng walls, but again, flexibility needs t o b e c onsidered s o

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32 t hat large spaces as well as small rooms can b e rented. ARCHITECTURAL INTENT . -. Creating interiors which are c ompatible with the old building will b e an imp ortant aspect of the design. Since t h e present finish is n o t w orth salvaging, and since the techniques and materials t o recreate t h e old finish are n o l onger avaible, a c ontrasting m odern interio r is sug -gested. To contrast best with the highly textured, rnamented exterior, t h e interior should b e o f smoot h surfaces, with sim ple h arm onic c o l ors. orick walls, o ak floors and the old c o lumns al:1ng t h e storefr:mt can b e left exposed inside t o bring in a sense o f outside structure t o play against t h e smo o t h , m odern surfaces. Likewise, t h e additions at t h e rear o f the building should b e clearly a different age, and t his also requires s ome c ontrast. The guidelines, however suggest retaining t h e same texture, colo r and scale o f t h e building. C onceptually, t h e architectural c haracter of this additio n WO)Uld b e a massive, vertical element, in response t o the elevato r functi o n inside. T o kee p addition separate to satisfy t h e renovatio n guidelin13s and t .-, intensify t h e c ontrast o f old and n ew, the elevato r should b e lin ked t o t h e building b y a light, enclosed bridge. HOUSING: MARKETING STUDY Excluding Union Hall and t h e required set-backs on t h e s ite, t here is approximately 49000 square feet left for residential c onstructi:1n, A _ significant port i o n o f t h e southern part o f t h e sit e will b e used f o r AtEstreet improvments. There/ ,apparantly n o easements o n t h e site, exce p t f o r an alley which was vacated i n 1888, with n o pr0vision f o r reinstating it. _The marketing f o r t h e site, developed f o r the site b y THK Associates,

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_ & _ _ _ _ _ / 1'-o _ > / . \# ' / 0 / 33 'r ! r-1 I /

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ZONING , -,;8" 110,,-< / / / / / / J / '} / / / (/) 34 ______________________ __/

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35 suggests that there should be between 40 and 45 units of housing. Because of the density involved, it will not b e p ossible t o use the old houses on t h e site. It may be possible t o mov e them to a new site t h an destroy t hem; this needs to be investigated still. The study recommends t hat t h e housing s hould be rented for a five year period, then c onverted t o c ond o miniums if t h e market is right. It is assumed therefore that the units should designed as cond o miniums rather than as a partments. This means a greater proportio n of larger units and children. The hous-ing profile f o r t h e d evelo p ment therefore will f ollo w THK's p r oposal f o r a cond o minium develop ment: Number Size. C ost 1 bedroom 18 20 650-750 s . f . 2 bedroo m 18 20 850-950 s.f. $70/s.f. J b edroo m 4 -.5 1000-1200 s .f. $70/s.f. 40-45 . ZONING Although most of t h e site area available for redevelop ment is not zoned for housina, it is assumed t hat zoning can b e changed fro m B-J ..; down to R J , or that the site can b e developed under a PUD. Requirements in an R J district permit single and multiple family dwellings, as well aa recreation facilities and a ccessory uses provided for the c onvenience o f t h e tenants. There is no maximum density restriction, but t here i s a maximum building/site area ratio o f J/1. This allows u p t o 147000 square feet of housing. There is also an open space requirement f o r the site. These require 20% of the site, for 1-J story buildings and Jo% of t h e site for more t h an J story buildings to be left open and land-scaped or used f o r recreation. This s pace may not b e used f o r off-street

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SITE PLAN ? / ' / / ljet\ _ : 1 1. 1 \ -'Z: _ ='f:ie*::: f .'?Z-1\ I . M;.i . RJ -{f?Cjt'Otll:1. ,ZI\. 1m . \{\ ..J J I -• I bddo i --I I /

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parking. This constitutes betWeen 9800 s.f. and 14700 s.f. 1t parking spaces must be provided each dwellinga total of 60. Setbacks, as shown on the site plan, are 101 at the front, 71-611 in the siae and 201 on the rear. Various building parts such as eaves and chimnies can project onto the setbacks various amounts. 3elow grade structures may extend as far as the property line. Walls and fences up ' to 72" high may be built on any part of the-site, behind the front set • 37 back and up to 4811 high infront of the front setback. The height of the structures o n the site is limited by bulk planes. Bulk planes are imaginary surfaces that extend at an angle from the street centerline up over the site. For an R-3 zone, the planes begin 201 above the stree_ t and extend at a 2:1 pitch for 301 , then rise vertically. The building may not penetrate the bulk plane. This gives a maximum building height of 861 at the setback line. BUILDING CODE Housing units will be classified J-3 occupancy-townhouses and r o w-houses. In order to attain sufficient density, constructio n type will have t o be I, II, III-1 hr., IV-1hr., or type V -1 hr. This will permit 3 stories, between 50' arid 75'. (depending on construction type), ex-cept that type I may be built to any height. Emergency vehicles must have access to every on the site. Vehicle exit ramps fro m inside buildings must occur at least 201 inside the property line. Among t h e requirements for the h ousing units, t here are several particularly cogent requirements. Complete handicapped access must be

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38 provided t o at least 1/7 of the units. Each habitable room must have windows which open onto a court, yard or street, B edrooms must also have doors :Jr wind ows opening outdoors which have a .5. 7 s ,f. minimum opening that is 2411 high, and no more than 4411 ab ove the floor. Each :I-3 unit must have separate eewer, water, heating, electrical and plumb i ng systems from the other units, and be physically isolated by a 2-hour fire seperEac h unit must have less than a .5011 travel distance to an exit with no m ore t h an one flight of stairs. t h e unit, an entrance must be fou nd within 1001 or 1.501 if sprinkled, . ENERGY CQPE 3ecause the housing is all new c onstruction, t h e C o l orado Energy Code must strictiy adhered t o . Health and safety laws, ho wever take pre-cadence they are in conflict with the Energy C ode, T he c o de is an outline o f minimum performance standards based o n insulatio n values: 1, Walls must h ave a "U'' value less t h an 0.20 3TUH 2. Slab o n grade : Heated slab: R greater than 4.6 Unheated slab : R greater than 6.7 3. Floors over s paces: U less than 0,80 4, Roofs: U less t han 0,0.5 Individual building components need not comply, . s o long as entire building envelop e U-valu e is less t h an totals a bove, where t h e t otal is defined: HOUSING RESEARCH Statistics show in t h e u.s., 20 % o f populatio n m oves each year and .50% moves every 6 years, more significant t h an this is t h e fact 60 % of t h e movers m o ve within five miles o f

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39 old homes. Consequently, most moves are for t h e purpose of changing houses, not because work locations have changed drastically. Moves can be motivated by c hanging family sizes, dissatisfactio n with the present dwelling, or a desire to "move up", as well as from outside pressures such as job changes. Eric Moore in ll!. T_h_ e _ defines four types of lifestyles which generate different types of moves. The first group oriented t o wards consum ptio n as a way of l ife. Typically these people are m oderately affluent singles o r couples children, or older suburban c ouples whose children are grown W.'lo are are drawn to apartments or cond o miniums near t h e ammenities of t h e C.3.D. The other lifestyles tend t o m ove t o l ocales, and include the s ocial/prestige oriented types prefer exclusive country-club type suburbs; family oriented groups, who prefer suburb s as t h e 11r.ig ht" environment for raising c hildren; finally, community oriented pe ople, especially senior citizens who live together in retirement c ommunities. These groupings of people lead o ne to general prioritizing ab out the required qualities of t h e housing. For movers out fro m t h e central city, dwelling c haracterictics: size, space and outdoo r area are m ost important. Conversly, movers t o the central areas are m ore c oncerned with accessibility and quality of ammenities around t h e unit. Yet, to most people, single-family detached is t h e ideal and apartments o r c o nd o miniums represent only o ne step o n "way up" t o a The qualities identified by m ost m overs as imp ortant values m otivating their m oves are: co ndition, size, accessibility and qual-

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ity of the environment. Accessibility is n o t a significant factor in most pe ople's m oves excep t amo ng those who live m ore t h an 40 minutes from where work. Thus, t h e central l ocatio n o f t h e ]ighlands will likely attract many o f t hose who n o w live in distant suburbs. ' SITE PLANNING 40 Within t h e h ousing development, are t hree primary areas o f concern whic h s hall generate t h e housing in t his design. They are: privacy, territorialit y and c onvenie nce. Frivacy and territoriality bo t h w o r k t ogether t o generate a h ome's s overeignty. B o t h require a sequ ence o f strictly defined transitional s p ac e s t o w ork: f r o m t h e most public areas outdoors, t o t h e m ost private z ones inside. T o create territo r iality, streets and t h e site must w ork t ogether t o deal effectivel y with strangers, S treet and u nit must b e unam b i guously separated. Outdoor area s under the c ontro l of the tenant must b e physically Seferated fro m t h e sidewalk, and demarcated b y familiar symbols o f d omain, as fences, steps, sidewalk lights and different walkin g surfaces. Units must face t h e street, s o t hat the sidewalk can b e easily seen a n d s o t h a t s trangers o n t h e s idewalk will b e aware of t heir visibility. The tremendous n oise levels alo ng Central Street may f orce _ a c o m p r o mise o n t his point however, because doors and wind ows are weak accoustical barriers,Finally, the sid ewal k s s hould enco urage c onstant use b y t h e p r ovisio n o f ade quate h ousing de n sity and sufficiently d iverse use. Thus, t here nee d s t o b e both a pos i t ive b etween housing units an d street, and betwe e n hou s i n g and c ommercial activities t hat e n c ourages pedestrian traffic. This can b e best served by creating r w housing ar0 un d t h e

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41 perimeter of t h e site with house entrances on the streets and private outdoor spaces to inside of t h e lot. must sit back from the property line anyway, and t his can b e exploited to create a transition from the street to the house. The transitio n should be articulated by a change of sidewalk surface and an elevatio n change, preferably up, to make the entrance m ore visible and imp ortant. forms such as walls, fences and plantings should also b e used wherever privacy is re-quired. Last, privacy and territoriality must be created between t h e units,through t h e articulation o f t h e individual units, and physical and visual separatio n of outdQor spaces. Wit hin t h e center of t h e site, an area will b e reserved for recre-atio n activities as spelled out b y the marketing study. A swimming pQol has already been located on t h e site across o r two ten-nis courts s hould be placed o n t his site. Altho ugh t h e marketing study d oes not recommend play space f o r children, it seems realistic t o expect very young c hildren in many of the larger units. Total estimated recreation space is as f ollows: Children number N_o_. of units 18 Total children 2 bedroom 1 3 bedroom 2 4 18 8 26 There should b e at least 20 square feet of outdoor play space for each child, o r )20 s.f. A minimal 1)00s.f. tot-lo t s h ould b e p r ovided. Adults need ab out 100 square feet o f outdoor recreation s pace f o r each adult, or 8000 s.f. t otal. Thus, required outdoo r s pace recreatio n is 9 500 s.f. , which constitutes most o f the open s pace on t h e site required b y z oning.

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42 The marketing study calls for garage parking. The volume of t his parking necessitates underground parking will of necessity t o go below could be most efficiently acco m odated by c o m bining c ommercial parking and residential parking in same garage and s harin g t h e same ram ps. But public use of c o mmercial parking will necessitate a separation 0 f two, both t o maintain security f o r t h e tenants• cars anrl to provide c onvenience for t h e tenants in always having a parking s pace, and always in t h e same place. 60 parking places is needed f o r t h e housing and 110-125 parking places for t h e c ommercial building, giving a t otal o f 170-185 parking spaces. Pedestrian access between t h e housing and t h e garage s hould b e ke p t separate fro m cial access. The stairs also s hould b e equally qonvenient t o all tenants o f t h e site; access fro m the garage t o Unio n Hall i s needed by elevator , and likewise either gro und level parking, o r elevator access fro m the garage to handicapped housing unitsis also needed ARCHITECTURAL INTENT The h ouse is t h e ultimate place of refuge f o r every .family, and t h e base f o r each person's activities. Thus, h ouse i s a place for each perso n to restore his self esteem and personal identity. Eac h unit o f housing in t h e develop ment must t herefore b e articulated in s ome way, as a t hing fro m o t her units. h ousing s hould c ontinue in t h e tradit i onal house-form as a closed v o lume ")f masonry walls small p unc hed-out and gavle f orms. The heig t of t h e houses and materials o f c onstruction must b e c o m patible with t h e boring buildings-especially Uni o n Hall. Since t h e f unc tion o f t h e housing and t h e c o mmercial structure i s different, t here needs t o b e a different massing used; t h e h ousing c ould b e b r o ken i n t o individual units,

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43 thereby contrasting with the unified form of the old building. 3ecause housing units will need to be grouped in r o ws, or masses t o gain efficiency, and may even need to be stacked, articulation will have to occur vertically and longitudinally between the units. Stacking should be minimized to maintain clearly separate entries, so it is suggested that the houses be 2 or 3 stories, except for the handicapped units. SEQUENTIAL ARRANGEMENT Location of both the recreation facilities and stair access to the parking garage in the center of the housing development, im plies a need for unit entries to occur both from the street, for visitors, and from the inside of the site, for the family. This is also a desireable place to put private outdoor s pace, protected-fro m the freeway noise, wind and outside views into the site. This is the entry where groceries w ould come into the house, s o it is desireable to locate t h e kitchen at the back of the unit. Since the public entry is at the other side of the house, the only possible hierarchy of privacy can be established is: 1. Public (street)to 2. Semi-public (entry), to 3, Semi-private(kitchen). But there is also a need for completely private areas for each person. Diagramatically, the ideal hierarchy is: The ideal arrangement based on the im pact of the site is:

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44 By combining these two, privacy could be put above the more public areas: Entry to private areas would be more satisfactory when taken from the semi-private zone. To take up the flow through the interior of the house again, the semi-public space can be defined as the area in which any member of the family and any invited visitor can be. Typically these spaces include the living room, formal dining room and outdoor areas to duplicate indoor in good weather. In addition, there needs to be an entry space Where family members can evaluate visitors before admiting them. More specifically, the entry should provide outdoor protectbn for the a view of the guest from inside, a place to store coats and umbrellas, and a barrier between the entry and house to cut out wind and views into more private zones• The rest of the semi-public area needs to have the flexibility to handle large crowds,or intimate family groups, even individuals, and to provide for casual entertainment for this range of social groups. In general the entertainment includes conversation, parlor games, music listening and performance, television, reading and dining-a broad range of activities, of which almost all can involve one person or many. Parts of the next zone-t h e semi-private zone, need to be related directly to the semi-public area, but others must relate positively t o private areas, and are unacceptable next to semi-public areas. ?rimarily,

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45

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I I I I I I I I I I 46 the semi-private space is defined as a zone of functions which service the other zones and is accessible to all family members. These include the kitchen, serving the semi-public dining area, and serving an informal semi-private dining room, and the laundry which mainly serves private spaces: bedrooms and bathrooms. It i s undesireable to have laundry room adjacent to other areas. Also needed in t his zone is a play s pace for children whic h is visible from most parts o f the house. T he play space s hould be designed so as to be usable by families without children. Ideally, the work spaces, and other s paces frequently occupied, should have views of outdoo r play s paces and entries. Finally, there is a need for area for car repairing and gardening. Indoors, there is also a need for semi-private areafor similar h obbies. The final zone of the h ouse needs t o b e visually and accoustically remote from the rest o f the house. Bedro oms, dressing.rooms and t oilet rooms are the components of this zone. There is a need to visually and accoustically separate the private zone into subzones f o r adults and children, and extra subzones for each person. There needs to be direct access from all points of the h ouse t o the toilets, and a lesser need for direct t o bedrooms. 3edrooms h o wever need to b e near toilets and bathrooms. Follo wing is a detailed seguential arrangement of s paces:

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In conclusion, here is a s pecific summary of design requirements for the housing units: 47 Unit type 1 bedroom 2 bedroom 3 bedroom least dimen. floor area living room dining room master bedroo m bedroom f oyer balco ny terrace 650 750s .f. 160 s.f. 100s.f. 120 s . f . 25 s . f . 70 s.f. 120 s .f. Other Requirements sink 2411 sink counter 1811 (ea. side) range 2111 counter 1811 (one side) refrigerator )011 counter 15" -(one side) mixing counter )0" shelving )Os.f. drawers 6s .f. 850-950s.f. 160s .f. 100 s.f. 120 s .f. 80 . s . f . 25 s .f. 70 s.f. 120 s .f. 2411 2111 2411 2111 )611 . 1511 )611 )8 s .f. 8 s .f. 1000-1200 170 s.f. 11 ' 011 110 s.f. 8•-411 120 s.f. 9' -411 80 s.f. 81011 25 s.f. 4' 011 70 s.f. 61011 120 s.f. 81011 )2" 2411 )011 2411 )611 1511 )611 44s.f. 10 s.f.

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Closets Entry 2'3"x 4' -5" Utility 21-0"x 21-011 Pantry 81-1011x 4'-0" Linen 11-611x 21-611 Master bedroom 2'-)"x 101-011 Bedroom 2'-3"x 81-011 General storage 21.-0"x 4'-0" 48

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I I I I I I I I I I I BIBLIOGRAPHY 49 Alexander, Christopher, ! Pattern Language? New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1976 Chermayeff, serge and Christopher Alexander. Community and Privacy. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1965. Colorado Office of Energy Conservation. Energy Standards: Denver: 1979. Cooper, Clare. "The House as symbol11.Design and Environment v.3 #3. New York: R.C. Publications, Fall 1972. Davis, Sam. The Form of Housing. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1977. DeChiarra, Joseph and Lee Kopelman. Manual of Housing ••• Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, .Inc., 1975. Denver City and County Government. Denver Building Code. 1976. ------• Denver Zoning Ordinance. 1979. Denver Planning Office. Denver Inventory ..of. .a Elan. fQr Historic Preservation ••• Appendix vol.I, 1977. Denver Tribune Republican, Jan. 1, 1885, p. 9. Diamond, Jack.11Residential Density and Housing Form." Journal of Architectural Education. v. XXIX #3. Assoc. of collegiate Schools of Architecture, Feb. 1976 Doelle, Leslie. Accoustics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972. Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service. Historic Preservation and the Tax Reform Act Wash., D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Interior, 1978. Jacobs, Jane. Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House, 1961. Macsai, John, et. Housing. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1976. Moore, Charles, et. Place of Houses. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974. Moore, Eric G. Mobility in the City. Wash., D.C.: Assoc. of American Geographers, 1972. Newman, Oscar. Defensible Space. New York: MacMillan Co., 1972. THK Associates, Inc. Preliminary Highland Place Market Re development Potential: Denver, April,1979. -u.s. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development and u .s. Dept of the interior. Guidlines Old Buildings. Wash.,D.C.,1977. Wrberg, Ruth Eloise. Rediscovering Northwest Denver. Boulder, Co.: Pruett Pub. Co., 1976.

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PROJECT SUMMARY HOUSING S I TE AREA 1.02 A . A 3 BEDROOM 1507 s.l . B 2 BEDROOM 10BOs . l. c 1 BEDROOM 6928.1 . 0 1 BEDROOM 708s. t 0 HANDICAPPED 708s. l . E 1 B EDROOM 811 s . l. DENSITY • 41 UNI TS / ACRE 63 PARKING SPACES ([) LOCAl 4 19 3 1 0 6 6 4 2 COMMERCIAL T O TAL FLOOR AREA BASEME N T 5880 s .l. FLOOR 6642 s . f . 2nd FLOOR 18618 s . f . L EASE ABLE AREA RETAI L 1960 s.f . 1 s t FLR. O FF . 4445 s . f . 2nd FLR. OFF . 10992 s . f . 30 P ARKI N G SPACES MAP HIGH LA PLACE DAVID J. EVANS

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j i UNION HALL PARKING LEVEL SCALE• 1 /20" 1 ' 0 " DAVID EVANS / / \ \ ) )

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I ) PLAZA LEVEL SCALE • 1 /20" • 1' 0 " DAVID EVANS

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B B B A A 8 B B B . .a>' ' " ' ' . ' J; , ' _ ..... ,:, " " ' •. ' ' ' ' • ,.J • • '' "-• " • -' ' .. .! ..... ••. ,.\i,..,,. • , ,, , , , , . , • . 1 1• 1 . • • ' 01 ,I,' I. • I' a a bb 9 UNIT B D UNIT :.\ cc SECTIONS SCALE • 1 /20" • 1 ' 0 " DAVID EVANS

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I I I I I NEW IIIIIOGEIOH !XPOSEO IWI JOISTS PLAZA LEVEL PARKING LEVEL STRUCTURAL SCALE• 1/32" 1 '" DAVID EVANS " \

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I SECOND FLOOR FIRST FLDOR TYPICAL UNIT B B EJ EJ BASEMENT GROtMo FLOOR TOWE R MECHANICAL BUILD ING SCALE• 1110• . 1'-0"' '-------------MECHANICAL DAVID EVANS

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I I I I I I I I I I I I i I ' II . I r . I 1 i I 2 UNIT A 1507 S .F . 2 1088 S.F. UNIT B 1 LIVING PATIO ) . I ......

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I I I I P A TIO UNIT C 692 S . F . .. J s r 3 r UNIT "' IT I e\IC'f t l .. IITC: UNIT D 708 S .F. LIVING .. r:;;;y r . ; ._e, I . ..., ....___ r_ __ 2 ._. UP U P 0 IES 0 I l_ c r-' I BEDROOM E

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' ' ' ' / OFFICE 736 s .t. r---' ' lk)'fight 1 I '---..J OFFICE 262 s .f. OFFICE: 580 s.t. -----,rf / / OFFICE 1500s.t . LOFTABQVE.J\-, OFFICE 280 s . l. OFFICE 580s.t. r-.., okyligh t I I L--...J ' / / "'-SERVICE "' .. :j :i g z "' ' ,--1 ... _ p OFFICE 580s.t. OFFICE 664s.t. r---.., I L __ .J RETAIL 980 s.t . OFFICE 965 s.t . ALL DAVID EVANS OFFICE 905 s .t. r--, I 1lilyllght L __ .J OFFICE 890s.t.