Citation
ArtWest

Material Information

Title:
ArtWest
Creator:
Gerken, Eric
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Eric Gerken. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
A Report by
Eric Gerken
Presented to the
University of Colorado at Denver In Partial Fulfillment For a
Master's Degree in Architecture. May 18,1984.
;:i i.V:V
,D
AURARIA LIBRARY
U1A7D1 8735434


til ye
i
i
i


The ArtWest Idea
Art is the conscious production- or arrangement of sounds,; colors, forms, movements or other elements in a manner that affects our sense of beauty, and attains its intrinsic value through its enjoyment by humans. Our art becomes the artifacts that mark the achievements of our culture and it is the goal of ArtWest to celebrate that achievement through promoting public involvement in the arts.
ArtWest is to be a publicly-funded park dedicated to promoting all aspects of the arts and to create a link between the public and the arts. ArtWest will feature a multitude of performances and events, by visiting and local musicians, storytellers, poets, sculptors, dancers, theatre companies and crafts-artists.
The artists will work on on-going projects while in residence at ArtWest allowing, the public to view the creation' of a work of art and to experience art as a process that is alive and not just a finished-museum object. The public will be encouraged to watch a work of art evolve toward completion by having artists stay at ArtWest for three month periods and working on a single or series of projects during their stay. Finally, through classroom/workshops the visiting artists will conduct classes open-to the public so that everyone might get to try..
A - 1


f
Project Description
To meet the goals of allowing the public to appreciate art by: experiencing, it, ArtWest incorporates a complete program for the exhibition of all types of art. The Artists-in-Residence program will focus on the creation of select works in painting, ceramics, pottery, etc. which upon completion shall be housed in the exhibition spaces of the ArtWest Gallery. The Performing Arts Center shall present local and travelling productions in dancing, drama and music. The program will also put an equal emphasis on education and "hands on" experience through its class-room/workshop activities.
ArtWest is therefore comprised of four components which attempt when combined together to offer a total picture of the arts.
Center for the Performing Arts Gallery for the Exhibition of the Visual Arts Artists-in-Residence to demontrate and to create art. Classroom/Workshops where people can "do it themselves."
ArtWest is seen as a new type of concept in the Arts, one in which both the artist and the public can feel free to express and experience art.
A - 2


t
The Idea


THE THEME - ARTMARKET
The traditional open-air market has. always been the celebration of people being with other people. People enjoy the excitement that comes from a mix of social, cultural and entertainment activities - all happening in one place at the same time.
In the design of ArtWest, I hope to capture the festive spirit of the open-air market by creating an exciting and diverse environmr through the careful manipulation of the site and its activities.
"In the successful marketplace it is spirit as much as it is planning, in fact, to be really successful, it should hardly 'seem' planned at all. M 1
Excitement comes through diversity of choice. In an open-air
market one is continually being confronted by a great variety of
* _ ' merchandise, and it is a common experience to come home with everything but what you originally set out for; and herein lies the way to attract the non-theatre goer.
The typical visitor to the Garden of the Gods park is interested in seeing something new, having:a fun time and to send or carry.: something home to remember the experience by. Why: limit them to buying Colorado souvenirs that are made in Taiwan? Tourists really don't always want to buy such trappings as spears and tomahawks, it is that there is no diversity of choice.
^ Walter F. Wagner, Jr., editor, "Planning the Urban MarketplaceArchitectural Record, October 1980, p. 90.
A -4


ArtWest will give them that choice. By incorporating a full range of mixed-use services into the park, the art experience may approach the excitement of a shopping spree. Restaurants, retail shops, cafes and ther 'select' commercial ventures will become integral in forming the festive environment that goes to make a marketplace. These shops and restaurants will increase the economic support base for the artistic functions without detracting from the overall intent of the facility - to expose the public to art.
In fact these activities will benefit the facility by making it more lively and encouraging the visitors to stay longer as they won't have to go back to town for dinner. If they stay around for dinner, who knows, they might stay for the show!
These supporting activities will be addressed in the design-only to give an indication of the spirit which they are to impart to the overall design' of the project. Their detailed design will not be a part of this project as their design would be contracted out to others to do within the general-design guidelines of the park.




THE ARIS ARE BIG BUSINESS
A nonprofit institution that attracts one hundred visitors a day to a city brings in the same income to that city as does a new business with a payroll of $500,000. Those one hundred visitors would generate $78,000 in taxes; a $144,000 increase in bank deposits and an increase in retail sales of $1.2 million. In addition, the facility would also create 111 new industry-related jobs in such areas as printing, publishing, public relations, advertising, graphic arts, food services, insurance, security, construction and many others . â– 
As a business, the arts in America are a multi-billion dollar industry. After the initial expense of designing, building and promoting the facility, the economic impact it will have on the local economy will be felt in the following areas:
* The total arts budget which will include expenditures within the locality on furnishings, equipment and supplies. These will range from all the supplies and labor to build the facility, to maintain it and to support the routine but constant needs of the program.
* The effect on upgrading taxes and real estate values on adjoining properties. In the case of ArtWest, these effects would be felt on a more broad area and would benefit the entire area.
* The number of people it will employ directly and indirectly.
1
Luisa Kreisberg, Local Government and the Arts, (Washington
D.C.: American Council for the Arts, 1979) p. 24.
B - 1


* The number of tourists it will attract and the subsequent money they will put into the local economy for goods and services.
It becomes immediately apparent that once the arts facility goes into full operation, it will not only add to the quality of life of the city but also substantially to its economy as well.
Too often cultural institutions are built on a harrow base of monetary support, a general bond issue, revenue bonds or possibly: philanthropic donations that leave the institution penniless to pay its operating expenses twenty years hence due to the toll inflation has had on its fixed spending income. The situation in which a deflated operating budget becomes the tail that wags the cultural dog arises as a result of poor economic planning. In most instances the approach to planning the economic foundations of a cultural institution is to insulate it from the economy in which it is to op-
.1 - .
erate and to avoid the investiture of its assets in all but the most conservative of investments.
The key to providing a financial base independent of inflation
to meet the operating expenses of a nonprofit institution- is, through mixed-use development. Economic opportunities are available to cultural institutions who participate and benfit from commercial development on their own property. If carefully planned and managed -mixed-use development of cultural property can lead to increased profit sharing while providing a service to the institution itself.
Luisa Kreisberg, p. 24.
B - 2
2


In many cases the impact of financial planning for mixed-use development is only evident in the continual income it provides for the institution. In the case of Lincoln Center (New York) the increase in real estate values around the facility since its construction is over $30 million. This means that the city of New York receives taxes on an additional $30 million of real estate value
above what it was receiving on those properties prior to the build-
3
ing of Lincoln Center.
Had those who had planned Lincoln Center taken advantage of the increased value of the surrounding property for their own use, they could have a permanent inflation-protected investment in the future. If they had created a special district around Lincoln Center and had arranged to receive ten percent of ..the incremental: taxes
levied for the purpose of funding;, the facility 's operating, deficit
, ... • ' they would have been a far more prosperous institution today.
ArtWest can not take a direct income from any increased value of adjoining properties due to the immensity of the site and the more broad scale affect the facility would have on the local economy. It can however attempt to take a share of the money spent due to its influence above what it would otherwise get for admission tickets alone. People who attend a cultural event may spend an additional 80 percent more than the cost of the tickets on ancillary services such as restaurants, taxis and parking.^
3 Richard4 S. Weinstein, "Creative Financing,"1 The City as a Stage,Kevin W. Green, editor, (Washington D.C.:Partners for Livable Places, 1983), p. 45.
4 Luisa Kreisberg, p. 25.


This means that for each person that spends ten dollars on a ticket for an evening performance there will be another eight dollars spent on ancillary services. The task then is for the institution to either provide these services or to receive a commission from: whoever does. The idea is to lease space to; supporting or tertiary interests, who will provide a service to the visitors of the facility and will pay for that privilege.
This mixed-use idea, as done at the Yale Center for British Art (Louis Kahn) creates a synergistic relationship that is mutually beneficial to all. ^ The way this idea would work at ArtWest is as follows: ArtWest would pay Colorado Springs the equivalent property tax on all retail space that houses profit-making activities. The store owners, and restaurateurs pay rent to ArtWest and then ArtWest, (or more likely a holding company for ArtWest)- would pay all federal income tax on all rental incomes even though ArtWest is itself exempt from federal taxation. The rental rate would be set to offset the property tax, federal tax and administrative operating costs and provide a modest profit to the institution. The indirect profit gained through this- cooperative effort would be in the additional people these activities will draw to ArtWest.
" In a sense, most nonprofit museums and performing arts centers are already mixed-use facilities. Bookshops, restaurants, and parking lots- are provided- for the same reason they are included in private office and hotel complexes - they make the institutions more attractive to the potential clientele and encourage people
who visit to linger longer." ^
- Robert A. Peck, Issues in Supporting the Arts, edited by Caroline Violette & RachelleTaqqu, (Cornell:Cornell University Press,, 1982) p. 46.
* *â– 
Robert A. Peck, p.47.
' • TV - L


What makes the whole issue complicated is how does the IRS view the idea of a nonprofit institution trying to support itself by making money? After all how can a nonprofit organization earn a profit? Nonprofit organizations are permitted to derive income from profit-making sources, and to some extent to engage in business activities, but there is a point beyond which the organization may not venture without jeopardizing its own exemption. This is a very grey area in the Internal Revenue Code and it is generally left up to the Internal Revenue Service to determine when an organization qualifies for, or is disqualified from the granting of a nonprofit status. To paraphrase that distinction, the line is drawn when it appears the institution's primary concern.is no longer clearly a. nonprofit one.
Specifically, a nonprofit organization _is taxed on:
" the gross income derived from any unrelated trade or business . . . regularly carried on. " 1
The intent is to make sure that: nonprofit organizations do not engage in-nor are used as a stibterfug;^ to . engage, in business;.-tha^fe ' would not compete fairly with regular tax-paying businesses.
For those activities at ArtWest that are clearly tertiary or 'unrelated1 they would be subject to the normal taxation laws as would any. business and would simply pay a rental fee to ArtWest as though it were a landlord.. Provided.that rent wasn't .exorbitant
7.
Internal Revenue Service Regulations, Sections 1.511-1.514.
B - 5


there would be no conflict. However, for all other uses, what is "unrelated" or when is something "regularly carried on"?
If an art museum book shop sells art books, then the income from that shop is not taxed. While the books do not have to relate to the current exhibition, sales of non-art books or souvenirs would be taxed. Restaurants and parking lots provided for the convenience of the visitors and employees do not generate "unrelated income," unless that parking lot caters to profit activities or if the museum attempts to become more than a 'museum restaurant.' That is to say, if the restaurant has either direct access to the street or attempts to advertise its availability to the general public, it would then fall into this "unrelated" category.
Therefore commercial ventures may operate on the premises and accrue additional' untaxed revenue for the institution in the form of investments yielding dividends, interest, royalties and/or capital gains , provided : they are "related", they maintain the overall theme of the project (no McDonald's Golden Arches) and maintain a 'back-door' access. Within both the restrictions imposed by the IRS and an urban environment, not having access to the street would never permit lucrative commercial development. In the Garden of the Gods Park, this should not pose such a hindrance for the street is not so significant when access throughout the site is on foot. Therefore a prominent location or direct advertising will not be necessary to keep the retail businesses alive. People will be attracted to
B - 6


the facility and will then find the restaurants. If they then go back to visit the restaurants on their own merit, this will be acceptable as all that enter the site must pay a nominal fee to get in and. so they are ’visiting ArtWest.'
ArtWest will not operate any 'related' or 'unrelated' business directly, but will rent out space to business people who will then run the shop in their own best interest within the general guidelines of the institution. The tenant must be completely separate and independent from the- institution and must not act as a subsidiary of ArtWest or it way jeopardize the institution's tax-exempt status. In cases in which the nonprofit organization wishes to lease a substantial amount of space to commercial tenants, the IRS does recognize the use of an exempt holding corporation organized exclusively to hold title to property and collect income from it. By creating this type of subsidiary, the exempt institution is left divulged of the responsibility of controlling such a large-scale leasing operation and can instead pursue its primary cultural' interests for which it receives tax-exempt status. This type of intermediary: was developed by the Museum of Modern Art, New York in
an attempt to protect itself in its dealings with private developers
8
to?.whom/ it was leasing land for large-scale development purposes.
Although mixed-use as an idea is. popular with developers, planners and much of the public, it can generate great controversy
® Richard S. Weinstein, p. 48.
B - 7


when specific projects are proposed for specific locations. ArtWest, being in such a beautiful and natural setting would certainly meet stiff opposition if any usurpation of its open space for a commercial building project were proposed. If the project dealt with the issue of mixed-use development in a sensitive and capable manner,, it would be necessary to convince both the general public and the lending institutions of this; assuming the city of Colorado Springs is already convinced. It is absolutely necessary to get the support of the community if you are going to try to use a private sector
strategy to help a cultural institution. Without that support, the
o
government would never respond in a favorable way.
To create a cultural institution that can stand on its own feet, it is necessary for it to become a business organization that can promote itself as a business to the extent allowable by the IRS. If prior to building a facility a careful financial analysis of the project is undertaken , it is possible to foresee what the economic impact this project will have on the local economy. This projection-will allow it to take advantage of the future growth it will itself promote so thst the institution might make itself financially independent .
Richard S. Weinstein, p. 46.
B - 8


Program


Preface
The idea for this project arose as a spontaneous response to the site, climate and local character of the area. Upon viewing the site, a magnificent panorama of great sandstone outcroppings surrounding a peaceful "desert garden", I realized that this area has a great potential as a "people space". Further, upon repeated visits. to the site, I became increasingly aware of the great draw the Garden of the Gods has on visiting tourists and at the same time is terribly under-used. The site is so beautiful it is a shame that most do little more than visit the souvenir shop if they get out of their cars at all! The majority of visitors experience the park by driving past on the scenic drive.
It is the intent of this project to create an interplay between man and nature by adapting the environment to* make it more inviting, to people without compromising its natural beauty .
1


Program Description
To eventually promote ArtWest as a cultural center it will be necessary to establish the area's artistic reputation, the idea being to set the stage before you build one. Therefore, the first phase of ArtWest shall be to create an "artist’s colony", with the design and construction of ten Artists-in-Residence units similar to the artists colonies currently under consideration by the Colorado Council on the Arts and Humanities. The difference between the two art colonies being that ArtWest is aimed at the public's experiencing art as well as the artist.
The Residences*will be incorporated within an overall Master Plan which will include in this phase crafts areas, refreshments and other activities. Phase II shall include the building of educational clas sroom/workshop areas and the Art Gallery, which will house the growing collection of works produced?by the Artists-in-Residence Program. ArtWest will become fully operational with the completion of the Performing- Arts Center and? the final addition to the Art Gallery.
ArtWest will create an exciting 'open-air market' feel to the park by; combining a diversity of activities and then linking them together by walkways around? each turn new surprises, abound.
. ■ - ... . ' ' .... • ; v *
c - 2


V,-,\V" , \(i ... V'/V‘'vA> V‘\r . '., v, .-hi; v ;
PP
r^S-^gr.
I
1$


!*?
PARKING'
.s:


tsandstone]
I CENTER FOR {THE PERFORMS ARTS
COOK-OUT
Sr*M 9*
^GyAfEl^/j
r.
0//w,qrkshqp<\ â–  sandstoneW^
- ^ ^A\ OUTCROPPING u
*
,0
i ApTISTS-IN-
[residence
F3*
%
• I /

lV. 1
m
[ PARKING
W —/(
■•ryr^
MASTER PLAN
L' £*2stzl feh-Jf 35 _ r;graes;vg:l
_ _ y"
Map prepared by Colorado Dept, of Natural Resources
*• -v-
I*. 300'
««\V%


Summary of Spaces
Performance Center
Theatre
Ft2
Auditorium (600 seat) 6,000
Stage 700
Lobby 3,000
Ticket Booth 300
Coat Check 300
Bar 200
Restrooms 600
11,100 sq.ft
Backstage/Support
Kitchen (performer's) 300
Loading Dock 400
Scene Shop 2,000
Prop Storage. 500
Scene Storage 2,000
Paint Shop 500
Dressing Rooms 1,500
Make-up 500
Costume Shop 500
Costume Storage 500:-
Laundry 200
Greenroom. (Reception): 500
Vomitorium(s) 600;
Rehearsal Space 2,500
Sound/Light Booth 500
Mechanical’ Room 400
Instrument Storage 600
General Storage 1,000
15,000
C - 4


Summary of Spaces (con't.) Performance Center
Management
Administration 350
Secretary 150
Copy/File Room 100
Conference Room 400
Tickets/Vault 200
Lounge 300
Technician's Office 150
Electrician's Office 150
Rest Rooms 200
2000
Visual Arts
Creative and Educational Areas: Ft2

Pottery and Ceramics (20) 1200
Kiln Room 200
Sculpture & 3-Diraensional (20) 1000
Storage 200
Drawing, Painting, Print/ (40) 1200
Glass Blowing (10) 500
Photography (25) 500
Film Loading 65
B & W Film Processing 600
Color Film Processing 200
Storage 100 5765
C - 5


S-ummary of Spaces (con't.) Visual Arts
Artists-in-Residence Ten Units
Studio/Living Spaces Ft2
Bedroom 130
Living Room/Dining 200
Kitchen 70
Bathroom 35
Studio Space 350
Storage 100
Closets 20
905 sq.ft.
Support
Entry/ Assembly Area (outside) 1000
Reception Area/Foyer 500
Bookstore/Giftshop 300
Restrooms 300
Shipping and Receiving 1000
Storage: Long Term 200
Short Term 400
Workshop: Exhibit Preparation Area 500
4200 sq.ft.
Gallery 2500 sq.ft.
Total:
Theatre 11,100
Backstage/Support 15,000
Management 2,000
Creative and Educational 5,765
Studio/Living 10,000
Support 4,200
Gallery 2,500
50,565
* Guidelines Used to produce this data :
^ Catherine R. Brown, William B. Fleissig, William R. Morrish-j Building for the Arts(Santa Fe,-. N.M. : Western States. Arts Foundation, 1984):, p. 97-151.
^ Uniform Building. Code, 1979.
C_- 6


Design Criteria


Audience and Administrative Support
Design Criteria: Lobby Public Areas
Entry: The entry must be clearly identifiable, and access to the entry must be direct. The drop-off point where car passengers disembark should be protected from the elements by a canopy of some sort and there should be adequate signage to inform the visit--or as to directions, location of parking and any information regarding performances and schedules...
Lobby: A vestibule or airlock should separate the lobby from the outside both for cold air infiltration and noise.The lobby is a place for socializing, and relaxing both before the performance begins and for the enjoyment of refreshments during intermission. Clear and tasteful signs must direct people to all support facilities. The lobby should also be separated from the theatre by noiseless, quiet double doors which can effectively eliminate the transfer of sound from the lobby into the hall when they are closed.
OUTSIDE
x-
o
o
audience y services
box V offic^
THEATRE


Diagramatic Flow Chart
REHEARSAL SPACE
HOUSE 0F^ConceMion8
Service
Function*! Diagram oi a Large Performing Arts Facility
» " ■* 1
.? :.j. »
• • !U:>
•' •• • 4 jit:
Public Entry
Off-Hour Entry to Administration
Brown, Fleissig, Morrish, p. 131.
C - 8


X
The Stage: Types
Proscenium Stage
The proscenium stage is by far the most common type of stage and is characterized as a room in which the fourth wall is missing through-which the audience sees the action. It offers great flexibility and allows for a greater sense of intimacy between the actors and the audience. The proscenium stage is generally equipped with a flyloft, wings and a backstage facility and it ' usually contains sophisticated equipment for quick scene changes.
Thrust Stage
The thrust stage creates a greater sense of intimacy between the actors and the audience as the audience surrounds the action on three sides. The thrust stage is generally less expensive than the proscenium stage as it requires less machinery, less scenery, and less stage support space. However, it is usually a bad choice for touring companies as the production must be suited for multidirectional acting.
Theatre-in-the-Round
In this type of theatre, also called the Arena, the audience' completely surrounds the stage, requiring the performance to be multi-directional and specially, adapted for this type of presentation. While this form has the-advantage of putting the greatest number of people closest to the stage it has several large drawbacks. Among them are:
* It provides a bad medium- for the presntation of dance as most dance is choreographed to be presented in a frontal manner.
* It limits the use of backstage drops and scenery
* In a dramatic performance, the actors always to-some part of the audience
* No clear manner to discreetly enter or leave the stage
4
Tyrone Guthrie, "Theatre in^ Minneapolis, " Actor and-Architect Stephen Joseph,, editor. (Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1964);.
C - 9


Proscenium Stage
Thru9t with Stage Extension
Sscttan ol a Large Proscenium Stage
Rr-oT.-m ffloioeio' Mnrri cK rv_ 102 .



Site Lines
Plan of On»-fto« VMcn
Brown, Fleissig, Morrish, p. 116.
r. - 11


Site Lines
Row C is low enough so Seats in row B,are otiset row A can see over lor clear line of vision to
heads in row C
stage by seats in row A

§
m
•mw


Two-Row Vision
Requires the Lowest Angie Rake
Horizontal SightUnes
Brown, Fleissig,, Morrish, p. 117.
r*
1 O
m cn


Visual Considerations
To obtain an optimum view of the stage throughout the house depends on the following three factors' vV Slope of the house floor
* Staggering of the seats
* Elevation of the stage
Slope (rake) of the house floor
Most auditorium floors slope gently up to the back of the house to permit people to see over the person in front of them.
If the floor is ramped, it may not exceed a slope of 10 percent, if a steeper slope is required, to allow, more people to sit closer to the stage, the floor must be stepped. Provision for wheelchairs must be considered in either case. .
Staggering of seats
By staggering the seats, so that the person in front of you is somewhat off to one side or the other, a better unobstructed view may be afforded be looking between the seats in front of one.
Elevation of the stage
While the stage should always be below the seated eye level of the first row, the stage should be elevated to better allow for people further back. The ideal height of the stage is between 2'-6" and 3'-6" above the floor level of the first row.
C - 13


Acoustical Considerations
The quality of the sound that reaches the audience from the stage is a combination of direct sound and that reflected from all of the surfaces in the hall. The object is to balance these two sound qualities by eliminating as many sources of distortion as possible and distributing the sound evenly throughout the hall.
Factors which might affect acoustic quality:
* Shape of the theatre
* The width, depth and heigth of the auditorium and stage
* The presence of a balcony and that balcony's size
* The number of seats and the size of the audience in relation to the size of the room.
* The size, shape and location of all reflecting surfaces
* Seat materials, walls, ceilings and floor coverings
* Location of technical equipment, ie. catwalks.
Calculating Sound
. ‘ l - ' ‘ .
In the design of any hall for the performing arts, proper acoustics is vital to a successful production. It is generally recognized that the trained speaking voice can be reliably heard at distances of approximately 75 feet to the front of the speaker,, 50 feet to either side, and much less to his rear. It is the acoustical qualities of the space that will either extend this range or lessen it , and with fewer performers coming; from the old school,, with fewer "trained'' speakers, it is becoming increasingly important that the hall enhance the speaker or performer 's natural ability.
Background Noise: The unaided voice has a relatively limited volume, and for a performer to attempt to be heard in a hall containing 800-1000 people, it is absolutely essential that background; noise levels be kept to a minimum. To assure adequate intelligibility of speech, the background must be at least 10 decibels lower and preferably 20 decibels lower than the speech level. As speech is most easily understood at a level of 65^70 decibels and that at certain times it will be necessary for the audience to be able to strain to hear a whisper,, the hall should allow the listener to hear a 50 decibel level comfortably.
8
® Howard C. Roberts, Acousticks,(1983) p. 32.
C - 14


,Acoustical Considerations (con't.)
Noise and Vibration Control
To successfully design an acoustically sensitive space, attention must also be given to eliminating any unwanted noise „ and-so it;.is the acoustical engineer's and the architect's responsibility to ensure an absolutely quiet concert hall. Therefore the following areas should: be considered:
* Location of mechanical equipment rooms
* Sound buffer zones between noisy and quiet areas
* Proper design of heating, ventilation and cooling systems.
* Sealing; outside noise out
The ability of a floor, ceiling or wall partition to limit the transfer of airborne sound waves is referred to as it's STC coefficient or Sound Transmission Class, Of particular interest in ceiling construction (when that ceiling also forms an upper floor) is that partitions ability to resist transferring vibration into the room in the form of unwanted noise. This characteristic is referred to as the IIC coeficient or Impact Insulation Class of the partition.
In the case of either the Performing Arts Center or the Art Qallery the need for absolute minimum levels of background noise necessitate high STC and IIC coefficients and the construction of these two facilities should reflect that requirement. In the case of the Educational11 and Creative Workshops, background noise is not a crucial factor accept in as far as their contribution to the overall backgroung noise levels. Areas such as the Kiln Rooms should either be set off from other activities or in some-way shielded due to^the higher levels of noise they might emit.
For typical STC and IIC values for various construction-systems refer to Appendix.


Acoustical Considerations (con*t.)
To allow a 50 decibel sound to be clearly audible to the aud-i-ience, the background’noise levels throughout the hall must be kept at 35 decibels or below. In the case of misical performances these values become even more crucial as the dynamic range of the sound produced will be greater,, usually around 75-80 decibels.
As the threshold of pain for most persons is 120 decibels, the maximum noise levels on the lower end must be 40 dB. Allowing for a 10 decibel margin, the background noise level of the auditorium (occupied) during a performance must be only 30 dB or else the performance will result in discomfort for the listeners.
Reverberation:
An important aspect of the acoustical qualities of a space is reverberation. Reverberation is the sound that the listener hears that is reflected off an object and arrives a certain amount of time after the direct sound wave. That time lag is may add (or subtract) more from the natural character of the sound than anything else, and classifies a hall as "lively", "dead" or unuseable.
Through the placement of absorptive materials and reflecting surfaces, and through the careful manipulation of direct and reflected sound travel distances, the designer may create a room with the given aeoutical characteristics he desires for a certain type of performance.
Limiting„ the reverberation time to between 10-30 milliseconds , the listener hears the sound as one quick pulse as- there is little time lapse between how the sound was originally; perceived in its direct wave and how it arrived on its reflection. This type of situation is particularly useful for the performer who needs instant feedback of the sound in order to allow him to adjust as necessary. As the reverberation time lengthens, it reaches an optimum level for musical'performances at about 25-30 milliseconds at which point it provides a sense of fullness as the reflection is complimenting: the direct wave. At reverberant times of 60+ milliseconds, the reflection is perceived as an echo and becomes very annoying. This situation must be. avoided and is usually accomplished-by limiting the listeners distance from the performer. ■
In an auditorium with a ceiling, it must be remembered that as one proceeds farther back the direct sound decreases, however the reflected- sound:increases and- can* become almost as great as the direct sound in the first row. The effect of this depends on the time lag in which it arrives for it might no longer appear to-be realistic but instead seem more like a badly dubbed: foreign film.
Q
Howard C. Roberts, Acousticks, (1983),p. 33.
C - 16


Performance Criterea: The Seat
Criterea for comfortable seat selections:
* Seats should not be too narrow; 21 inches is standard
* Adequate padding on the seat, back, and armrests
* Easy maintenance of the seat material
* Seat colors should not be distracting
* Allow ,for adequate leg room; 30" from the back of one chair to the back of the one behind it is standard
C - 17


Performance Support
Dressing Rooms, Toilets and Showers:
All facilities for the performers must be completely separ” ated from the public and should be located as close as possible to the stage, preferably on stage level so as to avoid the use of stairs. There should be two large dressing rooms, one for the male cast and one for the female, with a minimum of 16 sq. ft. per person(30). In addition, two smaller "star" dressing rooms sjiall also be required.
Each Dressing Room should have adequate wash basins w/hot and cold water and enough toilets and showers to meet the needs of the cast. Generally one toilet should be allotted for every six performers and one wash basin for every four performers. Each 'station' should have a table or counter, a chair and incandescent lighting similar to that of the stage lights along with an individual light switch and electrical outlet(s). The Dressing Room should also have a full-length mirror and adequate hanging and storage space for street clothes, about 24 inches of hanging space per person.
Green Room (Performer's Lounge):
The Performer's Lounge need not be near the stage and is usually separated in an out of the way location. It should be a pleasant space where the performers can relax and may meet guests and the press. Vending machines should be provided, along with a small kitchen and should preferably be daylit.
Rehearsal Space:
The Rehearsal Room should be approximately 50 feet by 50 feet, and of a height and character similar to that of the stage. The room should be daylit, with a floor surface similar to that of the stage and provision should be made to eliminate any sound penetration into the room.
10
Brown, Fleissig, Morrish, p. 119-120.
C - 18


Design Criteria: Audience Services
Restrooms:
Restroom requirements shall be as determined by code, however it must be kept in mind when determining the location and size of the bathrooms that during a two or three hour performance only 10 to 15 minutes is alloted for intermissions and therefore restrooms, water fountains, and telephones should be located in such a manner as to minimize delay. Enough facilities should be provided to minimize lines, particularly so that they never back up outside the restroom itself. The "Design Guide for Music and Drama Centers’* recommends 350 sq. ft. per bathroom for a 650 seat auditorium.
Box Office:
While the Box Office must be easily identifiable and its access direct, the ticket window must be kept away from areas of main traffic flow, the street entrance, ramps, and stairs. The Box Office must be large enough to accomodate the number of personnel required to run it (3), along with the telephones, ticket racks, safes and any automated equipment to be used.
Coat Check:
Fifty square feet per 100 patrons is recommended to provide adequate coat storage space, in this case, 300 sq. ft.
A long counter out of the way of the main traffic flow will accomodate more attendants and speed the process up, as well as self-service coat rooms which may suffice in less crowded s ituations.
Food and Beverage Service:
The Refreshment Bar should be located adjacent to or within the lobby, out of the main flow of traffic. The Refreshment Bar should have adequate, lockable storage space and direct circulation (out of the way) should be provided for the supply of food, liquor and other essentials to the Refreshment Bar. In the case of island bars, it should be remembered that these require more personnel to attend them than do bars set against the wall. Food service will be limited to snacks and convenience-type meals and as such there will be no separate provision for either a sit-down restaurant or kitchen.
C - 19


Design Criteria:
Administrative Spaces
Staff Offices:
Office space must be provided to assure the proper operation of the complex. The office space must be adequate in size, comfortable and pleasant as they will receive a lot of use. Provision must also be made for the anticipation of future expansion regarding both office space and adequate storage space. It is advisable to locate the offices in a central position, possibly near the public entrance though care must be taken to completely contain any sounds produced by the offices and their related equipment.
Mailroom, Duplication and Supplies:
Either in separate rooms or all in one, the following operations must be considered:
* Sorting and sending out mail
* Copying
* Storage of supplies
* Filing
* Postage and Duplicating Machines
* Computer terminal
Conference Room: â– 
The facility will require a room which can comfortably accomodate 12 people, for meetings of the staff, the board of directors and executive committees. The Conference Room should also contain a small library.
C - 20


Technical Facilities and Equipment
Lighting Systems
House Lights:
Purpose: To provide suitable light to allow the audience to find their seats and read their program comfortably. Incandescent light should be on a dimmer control circuit separate from the stage lighting. Aisle and exit lights should be on another, nondimming circuit.
Work Lights:
Purpose: To illuminate the house and stage for rehearsals, maintenance, and show preparation. Requirements: They should provide maximum visibility without a great deal of electricity and can be controlled by switches separate from the stage lighting board. House work lights and stage work lights should be placed on separate circuits as they will not always be used simultaneously.
Stage Lights:
Purpose: To illuminate the performance itself. Requirements: All fixtures must be adjustable and moveable, and should in no way interfere with sightlines or the acoustics of the theatre. Stage lights should be controlled from a 'lighting control room', a glassed-in, soundproof room in the rear of the auditorium where the lighting operator may achieve an unrestricted and undi.stort-ed view of the entire performance area.
Types: Auditorium lighting positions for a proscenium stage consists of 'ceiling slots and wall slots.' The location of the slots is determined by stage size, but there are usually one or two of each 15 and 30 feet from the proscenium. Access to these positions is by catwalks (lighting bridges) and ladders.'Follow-spot positions' at the rear or sides of the hall house the spotlights that cast members around the stage.
C - 21


Electric Lighting
In designing the lighting system for the exhibition spaces it is extremely important to buy the very best lighting system available. The fixtures should preferably be mounted on tracks to attain maximum flexibility and should be lamped with low-voltage ultra-violet filtered lamps set on a dimmer on/off control switch. Adequate electrical outlets should be provided so as to provide for greater flexibility.
* Lights should be at least 36 inches from the wall to be illuminated.
* The lights should not dissipate any heat onto the art.
* Uniformity of fixtures generally provides a better appearance.
* Position lights so as to avoid either casting shadows onto the exhibits from either the picture frames or from the viewer, or creating a glare off the object.H
Support Areas Shipping and Receiving
The receiving dock should allow for a truck that is delivering a collection or a piece of art to back directly up to the receiving area so that no intermediary carrying is required.
The dock floor should be approximately 44-55 inches above the drive and should be at least 12 feet wide with 100 feet for the truck to back up to the dock.12 The receiving area must be large for the old exhibit is frequently waiting in the receiving area to go out when the new exhibit arrives. All doors from this point on should provide the necessary clearance to allow the largr est works to be brought from the receiving area to the exhibition space, generally 10-12 feet is more than adequate. A secure storage area should be provided at this area to hold works in transit.
Storage
Any exhibition space requires significant amounts of storage, and this area must be secure, of adequate size and: with the inside padded to protect any object placed within from breakage.
1T
Brown, Fleissig, Morrish, p-. 142.
12
F.W.. Dodge Corporation, Time-Saver Standards,(New York, N.Y.: F.W. Dodge Corporation, 1946), p. 238-239.
C - 22


Lighting Requirements fay Use
Dance Productions:
Primary light must come from the sides of the stage, usually from spotlight trees that sidelight the performers from a low angle. Cable connections must be designed into the stage area, and wings must be deep enough to accomodate these lighting fixtures.
Concerts:
Primary light is beamed from directly above the stage 3nd must be bright enough to allow the musicians to read their music without producing glare.'Outlets for music stand lights must also be provided.
Dramatic Productions:
Dramatic productions require the greatest flexibility in lighting and consequently lighting positions such that moods of different plays can be captured through different lighting techniques. Usually lighting is directed from a frontal position,illuminating the actor's face from both sides.
See diagram. 13


Sound Systems
In addition to the acoustically designed configuration and surfacing of the hall, most auditoriums include sound 'enhancers' that reinforce the sound quality, intensify (louden) the room, and create theatrical sound effects when needed.
The purpose of an approach that is sensitive to acoustical considerations is to minimize the reliance on these devices so as to provide a 'natural' sound quality. Even so, to ignore these devices is to only limit the hall 's performance later and so careful consideration must be given to the utilization of sound enhancement equipment. It is to the benefit of the facility to purchase quality equipment and not to skimp in these areas as it will surely show up to plague later performances. Also, consideration must be given to future needs and adequate electrical provision should be provided to meets those needs.
Electro-acoustical enhancement
This type of sound equipment is particularly useful when a hall is used for different types of performances which have differant sound needs, and must have the reverberation time of the hall altered to accept its different needs. This allows the hall to be "fine-tuned" as needed.
Sound Reinforcement
This type of sound equipment amplifies and selectively balances direct sound, and, if properly designed, will yield a nearly natural sound quality. While speakers are generally located to either side of the proscenium opening; allowing the system to be flexible and moveable might prove of great value particularly if the types of performances vary to any extent. In this case, the hall may be further "fine-tuned" with regard to the placement of speakers as determined by sound checks in rehearsals prior to the performance. All sound equipment should be controlled from a sound control booth located in the rear of the auditorium so that the operator might hear the production the way the audience does and can therefore adjust it accordingly. While the sound control booth may be located near the lighting control booth, it should remain separate, at least acoustically.
Theatrical Sound Effects System
This system is separate from those already mentioned and is used to create special effects and directional sound.
C - 24


(


Visual Arts
Gallery and Exhibition Areas
The purpose of this area is to display the works produced principally on the premesis for the enjoyment of the public.
The worx will be displayed upon its completion for the duration of the season and will be taken down and given back to the artist at the discretion of the director or shall be housed^ as a permanent exhibition. Provision must also be made to accept touring art shows on a limited basis. While the main stay of artistic work shall mostly be paintings, prints, drawings and photography, the space must be flexible enough to aocomodate large scale 3-dimensional sculptures and other unusual pieces requiring specialized equipment, etc.
Unlike the performing arts, the visual arts requires the visitor to move around to view the objects on display and to do this, the exhibition space must be designed to help the viewer to organize the experience of looking at and considering the sequence of objects.
Upon entry into the building, the visitor should be easily directed to the galleries whereupon the spaces should unfold in a loop that draws the visitor through it while offering him choices and variety. The following are critefea for designing the gallery circulation: ^
Viewers should be able to move through the exhibits, see everything on display, without having to pass over objects which they have already seen.
There must be adequate space to allow the visitors to move at the pace they may choose without holding up traffic.
Viewers tend to be more comfortable with moving through a space in a counter-clockwise manner.
Allow the visitors to survey the room upon entering, it to allow them to know what is on display so they might choose if they wish to see it.
' Provide 'quiet1 areas where visitors might relax and contemplate the work in an environment of a different nature than that of the exhibits.
^ BrownF.leissig, Morrish, p. 137.
C - 25


Functional Diagram of a Small Visual Arts Facility
iLLERY >w Chart
Sarvica
Msjor Circulation â–  Routs
Brown, Fleissig, Morrish, p. 137.


Solar Angles
South 12 Noon
Natural Light in th« Gallery
Position of the sun changes during the day.
Direct Light Noon June 21 at
As seasons change, the height of the sun in the sky changes from low in winter to high in summer.
16
Brown, Fleissig, Morrish, p. 141.
C - 27


16 -20' Maximum

•Jr'\ ”
GALLERY: Critical Dimensions
Critical Dimensions for a Visual Arts Facility
17
Brown^ Fleissig, Morrish,. p . 138;
C - 28


Physical Characteristics
Walls
t
Walls are perhaps the greatest determinant of circulation and at the same time must be flexible enough to be taken down with each new exhibit as required to complement the artwork. The walls are the backdrop for the art and therefore must in no way compete with it in the viewer's eye. The wall's finish must be able to withstand constant rehanging without showing signs of abuse.
Ceilings
In exhibition spaces, the ceilings are used to house and distribute the various mechanical and electrical systems, ie. lighting, heating and cooling, and these systems should be incorporated in such a way so as not to distract the viewer's attention. Ceiling height is generally suggested at between fourteen and sixteen feet to allow for larger works to be at a proper distance from the lights so that the artwork is not exposed to excess heat or light and also has a feeling of 'loftiness'.. Ceiling colors and textures should be neutral so as not to distract the viewer.
Floors
Flooring must be strong, durable, easy to maintain and not draw attention to itself.
Lighting
It is this author's opinion that the use of daylight in public spaces is always welcome, though in exhibition spaces for art that is itself usually light sensitive, care must be taken to protect the artwork.
Aperatures providing direct illumination must have ultra-violet or must otherwise be reflected.
The daily and yearly path of the sun must be considered in the placement of displays, as well as the location of aperatures.
Despite the use of daylighting, artificial lighting shall be required to maintain a constant illumination level of between 100 + footcandles as calculated by the point or split flux method except as otherwise dictated by the specific requirements of the artwork to be illuminated.
The introduction of natural light into the room will raise the temperature and lower the relative humidity and care must be taken to maintain a constant balance of $0% relative humidity and 65-75*F.
Brown, Fleissig, Morrish, p. 139.
IQ
William J. McGuiness & Benjamin Stein, Table 18.4, p. 733.


Other Considerations
Temperature and Humidity Control
It is essential when displaying works of art to maintain a constant humidity and temperature level, 24 hours a day for as long as their is art housed within the facility. Optimum humidity levels are 50%, and every effort should be made to attain this level. Artwork should never be directly exposed to hot or cold air from mechanical systems and dust should be filtered out of the air prior to its release into the gallery.
Security
Any facility designed to house and display art must be protected from theft at all times, day and night. As most theft and tampering occurs during business hours, it is important to maximize protection and minimize security requirements by limiting to only one point of entry and egress into an exhibition space except fire exits as required which shall sound alarms upon being opened. An electronic security system is a standard requirement in any museum or gallery and its inclusion is mandatory.
Sonic alarms must be placed within the interior of the gallery space and video monitors should be positioned at all points of entry or egress. The use of trained security guards is also a must in any gallery space and the configuration of the room can either help surveillance and minimize his presence or can
hamper his efforts.
Fire Protection
In order to both lower the facilities fire-insurance rates and to attract travelling exhibits, a suitable fire protection system must be incorporated into the design. Fine art can not be exposed to water, particularly at high pressures and therefore it is the design of the building itself that plays the greatest role in limiting the potential for fire. The following are guidelines for assuring fire protection:
Fire-retardant materials in the exhibition area.
Heat and smoke detector systems, usually in the ductwork
Fire Alarms both within the facility and at the firehouse
Hand fire extinguishers
Carbon dioxide systems
Separating the building off with fire walls
C - 30


Creative and Educational Workshops
Drawing, Painting and Printmaking
All surfaces and finishes in this space should be easily cleanable and resistant to solvents and acids. Lighting should be from the north if daylit and otherwise electric lighting, which should of course be provided anyway, should be of warm spectrums and should not produce unwanted shadows. Adequate ventilation must be provided, as toxic chemicals will be used.
Equipment: Drawing tables
Work tables for cutting Easels
Stools and chairs Sinks
Paper cutters
Printing presses and print drying racks
Sculpture
Same requirements as above.
Equipment: Workbenches and stools
Floor and table sculpture stands
Pottery and Ceramics
This room must be designed with easy cleaning in mind with all finishes being non-porous, floors to be sloped with floor drains provided. Storage must be provided near the door for large containers of clay, and a dust filtering system is recommended for the clay room. A separate storage area should be provided for the storage of fragile pottery. Kilns must be separated from the main work area due to the heat produced.
quipment: Work tables w/metal tops and stools Potters wheels Sinks
Glaze spray booths
Glass Blowing
Due to the great amount of heat put off in this process, it is recommended that this activity be set up outdoors or in a semi-enclosed area. All exposed surfaces should be masonry or concrete. Equipment: Melting (pot) furnace
Annealing (firing) oven
Heavy-duty counters w/asbestos tops
Plenty of shelves and storage space for tools.
C - 31


Creative and Educational Workshops (con't.)
Photography
A workable photographic studio requires three distinct areas: a classroom; a photo lab for film processing; and a finishing area where prints are dried, trimmed and mounted. The classroom; space must be flexible enough to be used for multiple uses and should be equipped: with a chaulkboard, a mobile rear projector, film and slide projectors, desk space and chairs.
The darkroom space may be either arranged as one large space where many people can work simultaneously or as smaller work areas where one to three people may work. In either case, color work is --generally separated from the Black and White work areas and generally requires fewer work stations than does the Black and White darkroom. The darkrooms must be light-proof with light trapping entries.
The print finishing area has few special requirements, other than a need for space and can often be combined with other activities
Equipment(Darkroom): Enlargers
Contact Printers Developing Sinks Film-Drying Cabinets Print Washers Safelights and Timers:
Metal-lined cabinets Papercutters
Refrigerator (for film storage)
Stainless steel sinks w/ hot & cold water
(Print Finishing)
Copy Camera Print Dryer Print-Drying Cabinets.
Dry-mounting, presses
Work tables and storage cabinets
Papercutters
20 Department of the Army, Office of the Chief of Engineers. Design Guide Arts and Crafts Centers, ( OCE Publications Depot: 890 South Pickett Street, Alexandria, Virginia) # DG 1110-3-124.
C - 32




Site Description
The Site, Garden of the Gods, is located approximately five miles west of the Colorado Springs Central Business District and approximately two miles north of Old Colorado City in El Paso County, Colorado.
The Site is a designated Park and Recreation Area of the city of Colorado Springs and while it is actually surrounded by the city it enjoys relative seclusion with Pike National Forest adjacent to the western boundary of the Site.
The Site is approached from the south via Garden Drive off U.S. Route 24 upon entering Manitou Springs or via Gateway Road which is accessed off Interstate 25 via the "Garden of the Gods" exit to 30th St. from the east. *
See Loc at ion Map
D - 1




Site Inventory
Garden of the Gods Park, a 640 acre recreation park belonging to the City of Colorado Springs, has long been a popular tourist resort for both local and long distance travelers. The park is encircled by a scenic car drive from which one may survey the great sandstone formations which rise as much as 300 feet above the surrounding terrain, a favorite of both tourists and rock climbers alike. Within the "Garden" itself, a one-way drive takes visitors to a souvenir shop from where one may buy curios and obtain a spectacular view of the "Garden" from an observation platform on the top floor of the shop. The vista as seen from this vantage point,
( see #1-Views) shows the pedestrian loop that strolls through the "garden" surrounded by. the colossal formations. The store is currently served with water/sewer and electric lines which run along the scenic drive out of the park. There is no gas service. There is one main parking lot, packed dirt,, located north of the1 store behind1 a large outcropping within easy walking distance of the "Garden"'. A large cook-out area lies between the parking lot and the scenic drive. ^
For the purposes of this project, it was. deemed necessary to remove the existing, paved road and? parking; lot within the "Garden" along with the souvenir shop in order to-create an appropriate environment for ArtWest.
D - 3


Map prepared from base
SITE TOPOGRAPHIC MAP i-ooo' s^ey.“'S' Geol°sical


' Map prepared by Colorado Dept, of Natural Resources
SITE PLAN - existing conditions
r- 3oo'


SITE PLAN-initial modifications 71=300"


BB


VIEWS
ONE
TWO




Introduction
Climatic data for the area is collected at the Weather Service Office at the Colorado Springs Municipal Airport.
The airport is located approximately ten miles east-southeast of the Site in the Mountain Time Zone at:
Latitude: 38*-48'
Longitude: 104*-42'
Elevation: 6171 feet above sea level
Site Elevation: approx. 6400 feet above sea level
1 •
I
All climate data was prepared by thb National Weather Service/ National Climatic Data Center Asheville, N.C. except for data on solar radiation values which was obtained from The Passive Solar Book, Edward Mazria.
E - 1


Geographic Influences
The relative pristeen condition!of the Site lies in part
i
due to its remote setting, while still within the city, limits a rather inhospitable terrain as well as a general concern for the area by the city and its people due to the Site's unique qualities and history.
The topography around the Garden of the Gods Site is exciting and diverse with its many mountains, canyons and
great sandstone outcroppings. See Appendix. This complex
. - r V â– ' â– 
topography results in substantial variationis in precipitation, winds and temperatures within the general area and creates a microclimate unique to that particular site. These great temperature variations caused by the topography can no better be seen than in the differences* between the city and the summit of Pikes Peak only 12 miles away, which would provide a similar comparison to Iceland!


General Climate Summary
" In Colorado Springs itself, precipitation is relatively light and over 80 percent of it falls between April 1 and September 30-much of it as heavy downpours accompanying summer thunderstorms. Temperatures are relatively mild with uncomfortable extremes, in either summer or winter, are comparatively rare. Relative humidity is normally low and the wind movement is moderately high." 1
" The growing season varies considerably in length, from a recorded shortest of 110 days, to a longest of 194 days.
The average is 149 days, from about May 8 to about Oct. 4."
Summer
Summer (June, July, Aug.) weather in Colorado Springs is pleasant and temperate with summer normal maximum temperatures typically in the low to mid eighties and normal minimum temperatures are in the mid fifties. The summer diurnal range averages 25 degrees and there are 17 average annual number of days with maximum temperatures reaching at least 90*F.Temperatures rarely exceed 90 F.,the record high
^ The National Weather Service, Local Climatological Data, "Climate Description."
E - 3


Summer Climate Summary (con't.)
temperatures were 100*F.(June & July 1954).
The combination of moderate temperatures and low- moisture result in relatively low humidities, causing very pleasant conditions. Thunderstorms are fairly common during, the summer and characteristically-occur most frequently during the-afternoon and early evening hours. Wind speeds remain fairly constant, averaging 9-10 rn.p.h. throughout the year. Similar to the winter wind directions, most of the winds are from the north.
Winter
Winter (Dec., Jan., Feb.) weather is changeable, with frequent fronts accompanied by alternating cold and warm air masses, and changes in wind direction, wind speed, precipitation, temperature, and in other metereological conditions. The average number of days with minimum temperatures as low as O'F is just seven per year (29 year period, 1941-1970):. During the same period, temperatures fell as low as freezing (32*F) for almost one half the year! The record low
E - 4


Winter Climate Summary (con't.)
temperature was -27’F (Feb. 1951). Normal minimum temperatures are in the high teens and normal maximum temperatures are in the low forties.
Snowfall is quite variable from year to year. For the 34 year period (1948-1982), three seasons have had less than 20 inches of total snowfall while six other seasons have had winter snow falls in excess of 60 inches. In the winter season 1956-57, over 89 inches of snow were recorded fallen! In more than half of the winters, snowfall amounts of at least 30 inches were recorded. Ice storms and freezing rain are also not uncommon for Colorado Springs (see Table). In spite of the inclement weather associated with winter frontal passages , the incidence of severe weather is actually greatest in Spring, March & April (see Tables).
Winter wind directions vary from the north through north-northeast, with associated wind speeds averaging ten m.p.h.
Wind speeds and directions are, of course, affected by topography, and therefore vary from:place to place.
â–  i -
•k .
Inches of snowfall as recorded equivalent inches of moisture
E
5


Solar Radiation
The Colorado Springs area receives an average of 1600 Btu/S.F.-Day solar radiation on an annual basis. The maximum solar radiation, as measured on a horizontal surface,, occurs from-April through September, with values- ranging between 1760 Btu/S.F.-Day - 2370 Btu/S.F.-Day, reaching its highest in June.
Late summer (July, Aug., Sept., Oct.) is the season with the maximum number of clear days (15 per month average) and with the greatest amounts of precipitation occurring in June, July & August. It of course follows that most of this rain comes in brief but regular thunderstorms.
Winds
The annual prevailing winds at the Colorado Springs Airport are from the north and northeast and average 10.2 m.p.h. however,, regarding our Site, this is not totally accurate. During the winter months, the winds occasionally shift, bringing, cold? mountain air from the north-northwest. This wind shift accounts for extreme temperature drops in December & January.
E - 6


Precipitation
Precipitation in the Colorado Springs area is variable from season to season and year to year. Annual precipitation averages 16 inches (1941-1970 period). The highest monthly average occurs during the summer; July has the highest monthly amount (3.1 inches) , largely due to thunderstorms. Minimum precipitation amounts occur in December (.27 inches).
Annual precipitation amounts have varied as much as 17 inches-between 1943 and 1982, the annual minimum was 8.6 in. in 1964 and the maximum was 25.4 inches' in 1965. As much as 8 inches of rain has fallen in a single month (June 1975) and as much as 3.73 inches in a single 24 hour period (Aug. 1976).
Hail, freezing rain, and ice storms are also not uncommon for Colorado Springs (see Tables). Measurable snowfall may occur before October with snowfall amounts being quite steady from November through February, averaging 150 inches per month. The greatest accumulations of snow occur in March and April, with the March? snowfall usually doubling.that of January. Blizzards are least likely to occur in January and February and most likely to occur in March and April. The record snowfall, 43 inches, occurred in April 1957 resulting, from the greatest blizzard-, 18 inches- in 24 hours. Another blizzard
E - 7


Precipitation (con't.)
deposited 17 inches in September, 1959.
A cummulative total of approximately 43 inches of snow falls, annually:; however it is the author's opinion in the two years he has resided in Colorado, that there is nothing predictable regarding snow in Colorado. Large blizzards will deposit huge quantities of snow overnight,, and when you would least expect it. However, provided good solar access is provided the designer may take advantage of Colorado's other great resource, solar radiation, and minimize any potential problems associated with long term snow build-up.


Solar Angles
40° NL
Edward* Mazria , The Passive Solar Energy Book,,. (Emmaus, Pa.:. Rodale Press,. 1979) p. 283.
E. - 9


Climatic Analysis
The site microclimate plays a large role in determining the physical form of this program. It is this author's belief that good'design must be responsive to it's climate and that this should be evident through, it's form.
. Due to the unique qualities of the site and its great
solar access, all facilities shall be daylit to whatever degree is best suited to it!s use. For all facilities except the gallery space, the opening of the structures to the out-of-doors presents enormous possibilities. Strolling through art shows is always nice when outside, and due to the site’s very impressive natural beauty, it demands, that the arts, and- crafts activities be an open-air-market.
As in all open-air-markets, to be successful and to obtain optimum use of the facility throughout the year, steps must be taken to attempt to minimize the' unwanted? aspects of the weather:
Sun - while the sun presents many attributes, during the: peak summer months, without shading of both the building's windows and Skylights and and all processional areas for the public, the site will become unuseable.
Wind - For further summer cooling all outdoor spaces should' take advantage of summer breezes from the south and southeast for ventilation’ and? cooling. Structures should be sited-whenever possible to block the north and northwest winds inherent in cold fronts.
E - 10


Climatic Analysis
Rain - As was shown in the precipitation data, during the peak summer months daily downpours are quite commonplace and should be anticipated. If the Performance Center is to be outside, the stage should be permanently covered to protect the scenery and to not hinder or bother the actors if an unexpected thunderstorm comes in during a performance. Provision should be made to quickly and quietly cover the audience in some manner so as not to interrupt the performance. If the Performance. Center is an enclosed space then this will not be such a critical issue; evaluating the feasibility of such a scheme will determine the best approach to be taken. Regarding all arts and crafts areas,. the artist should have at least one section of his area as enclosed space so that he may protect his work from the elements.
The Solution to this problem becomes even more difficult when one considers heavy sculptures that can't easily be moved around.
Snow - The snowfall character is ically. determines the length of the season in any outdoor facility and it will be the use of the site's solar access that will allow for fast snow melting, and-enable the facility to stay open to its projected date each season despite untimely snowfalls.
E - 11




Zoning/Development Plan
As all city parks are designated to belong to the R-1 6000 - Single Family Residential category, with permitted conditional uses being only schools and religous institutions ; the feasibility of this project will depend upon its acceptance by the City Planning Commission and the City Council, for the granting of a Special Permit. The need for a Special Permit was of course necessitated by the zoning of the Site, and these organizations would be-willing to grant such a status provided the standard procedures are followed with the submittal of a Development Plan which satisfies all the following performance criterea. For the purposes of this thesis project, one aspect of the six week review will be for the jury to put themselves in the place
of a zoning review committee to determine if the Development Plan (and the design) will be acceptable.
F -
1


Zoning - Submittal Requirements
A. Indication of scale '(l"-!00') and a bar scale
B. North Arrow
C. The location, exterior horizontal dimensions and proposed'height of alT buildings with reference to property lines and; public rights of way.
D. All public and private easements,.
E. All existing and/or proposed entrance and-exit curb cuts, deceleration and acceleration lanes, traffic island and other devices.
F. All existing buildings or portions of buildings, parking lots, etc. that will remain.
G. Proposed demolition of any existing structures, parking lots, etc.
H. All pedestrian walkways or sidewalks (existing or proposed).
I. Location of fences and signs, with appropriate dimensional information.
J. Location and dimensions of all parking areas, number of parking stalls and all driving or maneuvering lanes, parking formula used, ( typical parking stalls may be indicated-to eliminate repetition of all stalls).
K. General use of all buildings.
L. Vicinity map (does not need to be to scale).
M. Landscaping Plan.
N. Indicate adjoining properties, as to significant buildings,, parking, access drives, vacant, zoning.
O. Show any adjoining public improvements, existing or proposed, rights of way, easements and drainageways.
P'. Legend? indicating appropriate; information, on the plan, ie., density,. G.L.A., etc.
Q. Existing and proposed contours at five foot intervals.
R. Lighting Standards, location and height.
S. Anticipated future expansions, if known.
F -
2


Zoning - Criteria for Review
A. Does the proposed development have a detrimental effect upon the general health, welfare, safety and convenience of persons residing or working in the neighborhood of the proposed development?
B. Does the proposed development provide for adequate light and' air both on and off the site?
C. Are the height, area, setbacks and bulk of the structures plus the landscaping apprOpriateto the development, the neighborhood and the community?
D. Are the ingress/egresspoints, the internal traffic circulation, off-street parking facilities, loading and service areas- and pedestrian ways designed so as to promote safety, convenience and ease of traffic flow both
â–  on and off the site?
E. Does the proposed development overburden the .capacities of existing streets,utilites, parks, schools and other public facilities?
F. Does the proposed development promote the conservation of the existing property values of adjacent areas and the stabilization of surrounding residential neighborhoods?
G. Does the development plan show how any potentially poor use relationships (commercial use adjacent to singlefamily homes) will be mitigated?
H. Is the proposed development plan- in conformance*;-with all elements of the City's Comprehensive Plan?
F - 3


Radio
Towflf

the Wii
[ration
Iron -Mountain
ZONING LEGEND
PUO P
A Agncultutal
it Estate-Sinqle
R-l Single-Family
R-\ Sinqie-Famtiy
R-2 Two - Family
R-4 tight - Family
R-5 Multi - Family
MHP Mobile Home
MHS Mobile Home
0 R Office- Residentiai
0 C Office Complex
PBC Planned Bus.Cntr.
C-5 intermediate Bus.
C-6 General Business
PIP Planned Ind. Park
M-l Light Industrial
M-2 Heavy Industrial
4P0 Airport
s u Special Use
RVP Recreational
U V • Use Variance
C U * Conditional Use




f**« —*» 0 *•••" - -
- «*• Am /•*»
- «*»'••" /»*•

A (ITT PUINMIW l»P»l«rM*M W — —- —— —. —. ——
(.^U. L'i | IMSIT 41
F - 4




Occupancy Group (Table 5A)
Group A- 2
Allowable Floor Area
Description
Assembly building of less than 1000
(Table 5C)
with an occupant load and a stage.
Occupany
Type
A-2
Types of Construction
I_______II__________III________IV_________V
F.R. F.R. 1 Hr. 1 Hr. H.T. 1 Hr 1 Hr.
Unlimited 29,900 13500 13500 13500 10500
F.R. Fire Resistive H.T. Heavy Timber
The above analysis leads to the conclusion that provided the building should be less thnn 13,500 gross sq.ft., great flexibility may be had by building in any type of construction except Type V.
Maximum Height of Buildings (Table 5D)
Allowable Stories Unlimited (except by zoning)
Allowable Height Unlimited (except by zoning)
Requirements for Group A Occupancies (Chapter 6)
Location on Property - Buildings housing 'Group A' occupancies
shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20 feet in width. The access to the public street shall be a minimum 20 foot wide right -of-way, unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street. The main entrance to the building shall be located on a public street or access way.
All code information from : Uniform Building Code, 1982
G - 1


Fire Resistive Construction Requirements:
(Table 17-a)
Exterior Bearing Walls Interior Bearing Walls Structural Frame Permanent Partitions Shaft Enclosures Floors Roofs
Occupancy Unit Live Loads (Sec
Occupancy or Use Assembly
Theatre
Lobby
Theatre stages, gridirons, fly galleries
Corridors/Stairs
Storage
Light
Heavy
Offices
Restrooms
Type I II III IV
4 4 4 4 hour
3 2 1 1 -L hour
3 2 1 1 or H.T
1 1 1 1 or H.T
2 1 1 1
2 1 1 1 or H.T
2 1 1 1 or H.T
ion 23; Table 23 -A)
Live Loads/Sq . Ft.
60
100
125
100
125
250 (not less than) 50 100
G - 2


Fire Resistive Protection of Exterior Walls and Openings as Determined by Location on Property - Fire resistance of exterior walls = 4 hour. Openings in exterior walls - for a setback of less than 20 feet from the property line, must have a 3/4 hour rating.
Light, Ventilation and Sanitation
All portions of the buildings used by human occupants shall be provided with natural or artificial light. The mechanically operated ventilating system shall be capable of supplying a minimum 5 CFM outside air with a total circulated of not less than 15 CFM per occupant during occupied times.
Type I, II, III Construction
General (Section 1801)
The structural elements in Type I, II & III buildings shall be of steel, concrete or masonry. Walls and partitions shall be noncombustible fire-resistive construction except that interior non-bearing partitions of one hour or two fire-resistive construction, which are not part of a vertical enclosure, may have fire retardant treated wood within the rated assembly.
Structural Framework (Section 1802)
Structural framework shall be of structural steel, reinforced concrete or masonry.
Exterior Walls and Openings (Section 1803)
Exterior Walls: Exterior Walls and all structural members therein shall comply with the requirements specified in Table 17-A. Exceptions:
1. Nonbearing walls fronting on streets or yards having a width of at least 40 feet may be of unprotected noncombustible construction.
2. Exterior nonbearing walls may be of one hour fire resistive noncombustible construction where unprotected openings are permitted and 2 hour fire resistive noncombustible construction where fire protection of openings is required.
G - 3


Floors (Section 1804)
(a) Floor Construction: Floor assemblies shall be of noncombustible fire resistive construction except that wood flooring may be applied over a concrete floor slab.
(b) Mezzanine Floors: Mezzanine floors shall be constructed of one-hour fire resistive construction and materials.
Stairs (Section 1805)
Stairs and landings shall be constructed of reinforced concrete or structural steel.
Type IV Construction
Columns (Section 2106)
Wood columns may be of sawn timber or structural glued-laminated timber not less than 8 inches in any dimension when supporting roof or floor loads except as noted.
Floor Framing
Beams and girders may be of sawn timber or structural glued-laminated timber and shall not be less than 6 inches in width and not less than 10 inches in depth. Framed sawn timber or glu-larn arches which spring from the floor line and support floor loads, shall not be less than 8 inches in any dimension. Framed lumber or glu-lam trusses supporting floor loads shall not be less than 8 inches in any dimension.
Roof Framing
Framed sawn timber or glu-lam arches which do not support floor loads shall be not less than 6 inches in any dimension.
When protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system under the roof deck, framing members shall not be less than 3 inches in thickness.
Floors
Floors shall be of planks, splined or tongue and groove without concealed spaces, of not less than 3 inches in thickness covered with 1 inch tongue and groove flooring laid crosswise or V'plywood.
G - 4


Exits
Use as defined by Program Ft2 Occupant Load
Theatre 10,000 600
Lobby 5,000 ' 600
Storage and Support Facilities 15,000 100
Offices 600 6
Art Gallery 2,000 150
Dance Studio 1,500 30
Stage 5,000 35
Total 39,100 1521
Exit Requirements
Use Occupant Load No. of Exits
Theatre 600 4
Lobby 600 6
Offices 6 1
Art Gallery 200 2
Dance Studio 30 1
Stage 35 1
Multiple Storey Exit Determination
Occupant load of that storey plus a percent of occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration.
A. 507, of occupant load of storey above and below.
B. 257, of occupant load in stories immediately above and below the first adjacent storey.
Arrangement and Distance to Exits
Maximum travel distance to exit 150 feet
(no automatic fire sprinkler system)
Maximum travel distance to exit 200 feet
(w/ automatic fire sprinkler system)
Minimum distance between exits 25 feet
G - 5


Side Exits
Exit width must equal occupant load served and must open directly to a public way, exit court, exit stairway, or exterior stairway. Must be accessible from a cross aisle.
Corridor and Exterior Exit Balconies
Width 44" minimum Height 7'-0" min.
Maximum dead end = 20 feet.
Stage Exits (Section 3907)
At least one continuous exit, not less than 36 inches in width shall be provided from each side of the stage, opening directly or by means of a passageway to a street or exit court.
(a) Width: An exit stair at least 2'-6" wide, shall be provided for egress from each fly gallery.
(b) Egress: Each group or vertical tier of dressing rooms shall be provided with at least two means of egress, and each shall be at least 2*-6" in width.
(c) Enclosure: Stairs required in this section need not be enclosed.
Stairways (Section 3306)
Width
44" min
36" min
30" min
50 or more occupants 49 or less occupants 10 or less occupants
Rise 4" min. 7V max.
Run 10" min.
Landings 4‘ min. (straight run)
12' max. vertical distance between landings equal to width of stairway Head Room : 6'-6" min.
Aisles (Section 3313)
Standard Seating: Minimum width 3'-0" One side only
3'-6" Both sides
Add IV width for each 5 feet in length from the farthest distance to an exit.
Continental Seating : 44" minimum width.
G - 6


Seating (Section 3314)
Standard seating: 12 inches from the back of one seat to the front of the most forward projection of the seat behind.
Continental Seating:
Clear Width (Aisle) Number of seats in a row
18 inches 18 or less
20 inches 35 or less
21 inches 45 or less
22 inches 46 or more
Stages and Platforms
Gridirons (Section 3903)
Gridirons, fly galleries, and pinrails shall be constructed of noncombustible materials, but protection of steel and iron members may be omitted. Gridirons and fly galleries shall be designed to support the live loads as indicated in Chapter 23.
(a) Loft Blocks. Each loft block well shall be designed to support 250 pounds per lineal foot, and the head block well shall be designed to support the aggregate weight of all the loft block wells served. The head block well shall be provided with a strongback or lateral brace to offset torque.
(b) Sheaves. The main counterweight sheave beam shall be designed to support a horizontal and vertical uniformly distributed live load, sufficient to accomodate the weight imposed by the total number of loft blocks in the gridiron. The sheave blocks shall be designed to accomodate the maximum load of the loft blocks served with a safety factor of 5.
Rooms accessory to Stages (Section 3904)
Rooms accessory to a stage shall be separated from each other and from the stage by at least a one-hour non-combustible fire separation.
G - 7


Proscenium Walls (Section 3905)
(a) Construction: Stages shall be completely separated from the auditorium by a proscenium wall of at least one-hour non-combustible construction. The proscenium wall shall extend to the underside of the roof deck over the auditorium .
(b) Openings: All openings, other than proscenium openings, shall be protected with fire dampers as required in Ch.52.
Stage Floors (Section 3906)
(a) Construction: All portions of stage floors shall be built in accordance with the requirements of this Building Code, and shall be constructed of materials no less fire-resistant than the building or structure housing the stage, and in no case shall the construction be less than one-hour fire-resistive non-combustible construction. Wood coverings may be installed, providing such wood covering shall be of at least 2 inch nominal thickness. Where wood sleepers are used for the laying of wood floors, the space between the floor slab and the underside of the wood covering shall be filled with non-combustible material or firestopped, so that there will be no open spaces under the flooring which will exceed 100 square feet in area. See Chapter 38 for fire sprinklers under stages.
(b) Openings: Openings through stage floors shall be equipped with tight fitting trap doors of wood at least 2 inches in nominal thickness.
Platforms (Section 2907)
(a) Construction: Walls and ceilings of an enclosed platform in an assembly room shall be of at least one-hour fire-resistive construction.
(b) Accessory Rooms: Rooms accessory to a platform shall be separated from each other by at least a one-hour fire-resistive separation.
Fire Sprinkler Systems Required
1) Where floor area exceeds
a. at proscenium arch
b. under gridiron
c. under stage floor
d. in tie 6c fly galleries
e. storerooms, carpenter shops, etc.
G - 8




Performing Arts Facility
Part Two: capital Construction Cost Estimates and Funding Sources
Task 6. Estimate Capital Construction Costs, Performing Arts
“Hard” Costs
Site acquisition $
Site preparation $
Utility extensions $
Demolition $
Building Construction $
__________-Room type,
_________Number of square feet, @
_________Cost per square foot = $
_______—Room type,
_________Number of square feet, @
__________Cost per square foot = $
(and so on for additional rooms)
Site construction (parking, landscaping, etc.) $ â– 
Equipment $
Movable furniture $
“Soft" Costs
Permit fees $
Real estate and legal fees $
Architects and building consultant design fees $
Insurance during construction $
Interim taxes $
Construction financing $
Contingency fund (15 percent or higher of subtotal) $
fM -•'m 'f1 ■»t■ ■* m■ i ^f-iuwem vn1 ,j i
)TAL ESTIMATED CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION COSTS current dollar amounts and note date of estimate),
Hints
b “Hard” costs include “bricks and mortar" expenses to build the building and the necessary equipment to run the facility. These costs typically make up between 66-75 percent of the total project cost. b “Soft” costs include such items as design and legal fees, insurance and taxes during construction, and construction financing. These costs typically make up between 25-33 percent of the total project costs. b At this stage of the planning process, rough “ball park” estimates are close enough, with a margin of error between 20-25 percent of actual costs. Later on, you will make more detailed estimates.


Task 7. Estimate Current Assets on Hand Available for Capital Construction and Potential Funds from Public and Private Sources, Performing Arts
Current assets available for capital construction $ •
Local Funding Sources (City or county)
Bond revenues (general obligation, revenue, other) . $
General tax funds (generally a one-time allocation $ .
for planning or construction)
Special tax funds (% for art, hotel/motel, $
coal/oil, utility, etc.)
Categorical grants $
State Government Funding Sources
Special programs and grants $
State arts council grants $
State historical society $
Federal Government Funding Sources
Department of Commerce (Economic Development $ ; â– 
Administration)
Department of Energy $
Department of Housing and Urban Development $
(Community block grants, urban development action grants) x\
National Endowment for the Arts $
(planning grants, challenge grants)
National Endowment for the Humanities • $
National Trust for Historic Preservation $
Other programs $
Private Contributions and Grants
Individual contributions $
Corporate and business contributions $
Fundraising events $
Donated services, materials, and facilities $
Foundation grants and contributions $
\ • ■ . Private Investment
Insurance and bank loans $
Special low interest loans $
Other Funding Sources Specific to Situation $
(developer's contribution, student fees, matching funds, sale of air rights, etc.) *
* Catherine R. Brown, William B. Fleissig, William Building for the Arts, (Santa Fe,. N.M.: Western States ation, 1984), p.189-190.
:. Morrish, Arts Found-




Appendix 1
1 A N I

LOCATION MAP


Appendix 1
PARK PLAN-current use
1= woon
Prepared by Colorado Dept. a£ Natural Resources


Appendix 1
TOPOGRAPHIC MAP Areoo*
U.S. Geological Survey Map


rMr|!&>|
Appendix 2
NORMAL TEMPERATURE
I OC>
e>o
(so
4o
to
o
2o
ftge>. tw-. Apfui M^f JuKle. JUut
j|~"
...—i l
'fEAPL
ma^ exr^
Me
Nofif-W- MW-.
â– fltffMAL pA4L-f'MihT
MK fe^TTmcie
RELATIVE HUMIDITY


HcU ' G59d9 sV9Lj
Appendix 2
WIND SPEED & DIRECTION
SNOW ACCUMULATIONS
^ ot* e‘ \'~ 1^4^- hr>2 .


Appendix 2
DEGREE DAYS
W F=gg>- Ma^. AfWL M/OCf Jur4g. JULY Al)<3- g^T- Hc^' Peg
'CAR
2oc
loop
ioo
d*e»
4cc>
200
loo

-
m
-Qfii
a
NopunAi 555!! cSg»p££ cvcfs ^ B*se
CLOUD COVER
JanI. psfo. MAg- Af^L tlAf JUH& Jikt Atkfr. sen* <^-T- i4c^- £*5^ TfeAft.
20
15
1
PB
1
it
cLeap-
f^Ti.'j'

Appendix 2
PRECIPITATION
JasI. F=eg». Mai2- ApziL may JU^e -liiur. Aikfr. ±>apT pec.. Ye^P-
J-
&
4

a


—
n


1

1 . „ .. 1
1

..
â– 
■ — *
- p 1 1

Jj=.l -JZ.. ,—rl 1
rioM-p-ll'f Hopn^l - 2^0 IM 24-M2i.
PRECIPITATION DAYS
- a>«PeAP.« K1A>c-*k1oiJ In) z4-M£6
n
Pp&ilf’iT^^- «°i irtoJ 0P* idoU- l.o iHa^ op- ^oftg
TUU^cep^Ki^
T**l


Appendix 2
SOLAR RADIATION
Jvl. F£g» MAP. JU^£ JULY -sepT gc-T>
l%oo Zfxx.
l<*se
|4ce>
I2c&
1,00©
2xao
7^50
-£tflAf2. p^|A*poH VaLUSA NjZ-a. M6A^ D£xjl~f >/aU16* <=f fcrpsl tfgtfl'b|*d&pJC. -6H'pL ^Up-pAAe. p>>o&o 1^-jcO.
', i^ioKaI ^caHic. ^ A^iHitrp**sp©M - u^o <^l©papc> *&.pp.n4cS|±»^


Appendix 3
Vail Constructions and Their STC's.
Masonry Walls . lb/ft2 STC
1. •£" plaster, 4" brick, •£" plaster 43 40+
2. piaster} 4$" brick, ■£" plaster 55 42
3. •&" plastary 10" brick, ■£" plaster, 100 52
4* £” plaster, 4i" "brick, 2" cavity with wire ties, £4" brisk, plaster 100 49
5* same as Vo. 4* but without wire ties 100 54
6. 4" plaster, 24" atone (mortared), 4" plaster 280 56
frame Walls.
7* 4" gypsum hoard, 2 x 4 wood studs, â– g" gypsum hoard 4-2 33
8. same as Vo. 7, with 2" rockwool blanket 4.3 36
9* â– &" plaster, 3/6" gypsum board, resilient clips, 2 x 4 wood studs, resilient clips, 3/8" gypsum board, 4*' plaster 13 51
Floor Constructions and their STC *8.
Concrete Floors. lbs/ft2 STC IIC
1. 4" poured-in-plaoe slab 53 44 25
2. same as Vo. 1, with 1/8" vinyl tile 54 44 28
3. same as Vo. 1, except with carpet 54 44 80
4. precast concrete slabs, topped with 3/4" mortar ' 28 42 32
Wood-joist Floors. 5. 7/6" wood, T & 0, 2 x 8 joists, 3/8" gypsum board 7 34 32
6. carpet end pad, 14" lightweight concrete, 5/8" plywood, 2 x 8 joists, 5/8 " gypsum board 18.5 47 66
7. carpet and pad, 5/8" plywood sub- floor, 2" airspace (on sleepers),. ■£" oane board, 4" plywood. 2x8 wood joists, 3" rockwool blanket, resilient support, 5/8" gypsum board 11.7 51 78




Full Text

PAGE 1

CHIVES D 190 72 984 47 A Report by Eric Gerken Presented to the University of Colorado at Denver In Partial Fulfillment For a Master's Degree in Architecture ; May 18,1984 . AURARIA LIBRAR Y U18701 9735434

PAGE 2

Introduction _,: ARrWEsr

PAGE 3

i . The ArtWest Idea . Ar. t is: conscious . . or arrangement of sounds, , colors. , movements or other in a that affects our sense of_beauty, and attains its intrinsic through its enjoyment bY:bumans.Our .art becomes the a;rtifacts that mark the . . . achievements of . .ind it is. the goal of ArtWest to c el ebrate that achievement through promoting public involvement in the arts. ArtWest is to be a public:ly-funded park dedicated to promoting all aspects of the arts and to create a link between the public and the arts. ArtWest. will feature a multitude of performances and' events, by visiting and local musicians, , storytellers. ,,.. -poets, sculptors, dancers, theatre companies and• .. . . . ' ... , ...... The artists will work on on-going pr_oject: s ... tesidence . . ' : ,. at ArtWest allowing. the public tov-iew the of a of: ' ' . . . . ' ; . •, . . . ' ' art and to experience art as. a ' that is alive:ii:nd-:, not. Just a finished museum: object. The public will be encouraged'::to-watch':. a work of art by..: having artis. t:s:-stay ,.at ,:._ ,.. , •, , . . . . ' : ,' . . :. . ArtWest for three month and, working; ona single :or series :-: :/-.;:. of projects-during. their stay;. __ classr.oom/workshops. the visiting. artists will conduct .OpEm-SO that . everyone might get to. try .. A -1

PAGE 4

Project. Description To meet the goals.of allow-ing the public to appreciate art by: experiencing_ it, ArtWest incorporates a:. complete program for the exhibition of all types of art. The Artists-in-Residence program will focus. on. the creation. of select works in painting,. ceramics' pottery: , etc • . which lipori completion shall be housed: in. the exhibition spaces. of theArtWest Gallery. The .Arts Center shall present local and travelling productions in dancing, drama and music. The program will also.put an equal . . . . . emphasis on .education and ''hands on" experience through its classactivities . • ArtWest istherefore cmnprised of four c .otnponents which attempt when combined.together to,offer a total pictureof.the arts • . Center for the Performing_Arts Galiery, for the Exhibition of Visual Arts. Artists-in-Residence todemoritrateand to create art. Classroom/Workshops . . where people cart , !'do; it tJ:temsi:dves . • " ArtWest is seen as. a new type of concept in the Arts, one :in •;qhich -both the artist and the public can feel free. to and" ' experience art. A2

PAGE 5

. l The Idea I . . . . . . . . , .: .. , . : . t . ':;. . \

PAGE 6

',• .. : . . . THE THEME -ARTMARKET The traditional open-air market. has.always been the eelebration of people being with other people. People enjoy. the ex..: citement that comes from a mix of sociaL, cultural and entertainment activities. -all.happening in one place at.the same time. In the design of ArtWest, I bope to captl..lre the festiv. e spirit of the open-air market by creating an exciting and. diverse environmr through the careful manipulation of the site and its activities. " In successful marketplace it is spirit as much . . as it is planning, in fact, tobe really successful, it should hardly 'seem' . planned at all. 1 .Excitement comes . through diversity. ofchoice.In an open-air market one is continually being confronted by a great variety of . . '.,and it is a common experience to come home with.ev• . . ery:thing hut_ . what you set out. the to.' attract the non-theatre goer. The visitor to the Garden of the Gods park :l.s • • r • . ested in .. seeing new;. a fun time and to send; . or . . carry: somethinghome to remember the. experience by. limit . . . . . . them-to_buying Colorado: souvenirs -that are made : in Taiwan? Tour-ists d .on'. t . a,lways. want: . . to"_pliy ' suchtrappings. as spears. and-' tomahawks,. it is that thereis no diversity. of choice.... , . ; . l ..Walter. F. Wagner, Jr.,. editor, "Planning the Urban Marketplace , . " Architectural Record , . October 1980, p. 90. A-4

PAGE 7

. . '' ArtWest will give them that choice. By incorporating a full range of mixed.;,use services into the park, the art experiem(:e .may approach the excitement. of a shopping spree. Res!=aurants retail shops, cafes and ther 'select' commercial ventures will become . integral in forming. the festive: environment that goes tomake a These. shops. anctr -estaurants will increase the economic support base for the.artistic functions without detracting. from theoverall intent of the facilityto-expose the public to art. rn fact these activities will benefit the facility by making it more lively and encouraging the visitors to stay longeras they . . . . . . : won't. have. to go back to town for If they stay around for . dinner; who knows , they might stay. for . show! These supporting activities wili be addressed in the design, onlyto give an indication of the spirit which-they are to impart . . . --. . . . : . to the 9veral1 design of project. Their detailed design: will . not be a part. of this . . as_ t1teir would contracted.' I out to others to, do w :ithiri the g .eneral; . design guidelines. of. the _park • A 5 -

PAGE 8

. . . . . . . . . : : . . . . .. . . . " .. . . . . . . . . . ( . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ .... . ; ., . . . . . . ' . ' . .. . . . . . . . Hypothesis >. • ... . . . . . .. . .. .. .• . . . . • i . ' . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . • . : : . i .. . • • • . . • . . . . ' . ' . . . . -. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • • • • • • 0 . • • : • . : . . . . . _' . I • . . . . . .' : . .. . . . . . . . • _ . . . . . .. . : . . .' : . : • . . . . : : • -.. _. -: • -. ' . . . . . . . . . . . . :. . .. . . . . . . . . . -: . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : _ .. . , . • 0 • • • • • • •• ' • ' • ' ' • • • • • • • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . • • , 0 . • • • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . " • . ; ; . .-. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . :• . . . . . . .. . -. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . -. . : . . ... . ... . . ...•. . . . . • . . . ..•..... .. • . . .. ARTWEST . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

PAGE 9

r : .; : -:y• ,-tJ:f ARIS ARE BIG BUSINESS A nop.profit that attracts one hundred visitors a day to a city brings in the same income to that city as does a. new business with a payroll of $500,000. Those erie hundred visitors would generate $78,000 in taxes; increase in bank de-posits and an increase in retail sales of $1.2 million. In addition, the facility would also create 111 new industry-related jobs in such areas as printing, publishing,public relations, advertising, graphic arts, food services, insurance, security, construction and many others • . 1 As a business, the arts. in America are a multi-billion dollar . industry. After the initial expense of designing, building and pro-. moting the facility , the economic impact it will have on : the local economy w:i,.ll be felt in the following areas: * The total arts budget which will include expenditures within the locality on furnishings, equipment and supplies. These will range from all the.supplies and labor to build the fac:i.lity, to maintain it and t(.) support the routine but constant needs the program. * The effect on upgrading taxes and real estate values on adjoining properties. In the case of ArtWest, these effects wou1dbe .felt on a more broad' area and would benef:i,t ' the entire ax;ea. * The number of people it will employ directly and indirectly. 1 Luisa Local Government and the Arts, (Washington D.C.: American Council for the Arts, 1979) p. 24. B -1

PAGE 10

. . .. . :: , . '' . ... *The. number of tourists it will attract and the subsequent 2 money they will put. into the . lo.cal economy -for . goods and services • It becomes apparent that once arts facility goes into full operation, it will-not only add to the quality of life of the city but also substantially to its economy: as we11. Too cultural institutions are built on a narrow base . . . -support' a general bond issue'. revenue bonds or possibly: philanthropic. donations .that theinstitution penniless. to pay . its operatingexpenses twentyyears. hence due totoll inflatiort has had on its-fixed spending income. The situation in which a deflated operating budget becomes the .. tail that wags the cultural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .dog arises as a result of. poor economic planning • . rn most instances the approach to planning the: economic.foundations of a . cultural instit;ution is to insulate it. from the economy in.: which it is . . to op erate and tp. avoid' the investiture of its assets in all but the most conserVative of • . . .. The key.: to providfug a base. of infhition . . . . . . . to meet the operating expenses of a nonprofit institution is. through. mixed-use development. Economic opportunities-are available. tocultural institutions who participate and. benfi,t from, cominercial de-_ velopment on their own property. If. carefuliy planried_ and . of cultural property can-lead to .. ' incre.ased '. ' . . profit _sharing _while. providing: a:. seryice to the. institution, itself. 2 Luisa . Kreisberg,_ p • . 24. . , . B

PAGE 11

In many cases the impact ot" financial planning for mi..'"'Ced-use de-. velopment is _only evident in the continual income it for the: institution. In. the case of lincoln Center . (New York). the increase in, real estate values around the facility. sjnce its constr-uctionis over $30 million. This means that the city of New York receives: taxes on an additional $30 million of real estate value above. what it was receiving on those properties prior to-t:he build.:. ing: of Linc.oln Ceriter. 3 . Had those who had plari.necl' Linc.oln .Center taken . advantage of the : mcreased. c>f .. the. property. for their own use, . _ they: _could have a . permanent. .investment in: the. If had created a spec:i.al district aroUnd Lin'coln Center ,. ' . . . . ' . and .had; arranged to receive .te'!l of ,the incremental; taxes levied for the of funding:. th,:e : facilit-y's operating. deficit the-y. would have been a far. more: prosperous institution' today..• -. . . . -ArtWest can not takea , direct income from any value of-adjoining properties ciue to the.iminensityof: the-site and the _more broad scale :affect . the faci-lity would: have on the local econIt can howev.er to. take share ol the money spent due . .. to: its: -influence it: . . would> otherwise. get for: admis' sio'n-. tickets alone. Peoplewho atten&a> event may { spend'' an ' . . . •' . . . itional 80: percent more thano : the: cost of the on .. ancillary, services _such, as restaurap.ts,. taxis anct parking. 4 3::. Richard\ S. Weinstein, "Creative Financing,"' The City. as-aStage,, Kevin W. Green, edi,tor , , (Washington. D . C. :Partners for Liv.;. able Places, p. 4 Luisa Kreisberg, p. 25. / .

PAGE 12

-. . ' ,. :_,:. _;: __ --:.; ' . -.. ... .. . This means that for each person that spends ten dollars on a ticket . . for an evening performance will be another eight dollars spent. on ancillary services. The task then is for the institution to either provide these services or to receive a commission. froiQ :whoever does. The idea is to lease space to; supporting or tertiary: interests• . . . . ' . wh,ci will prov:ide a service to the visitors of the facility and will pay .for. that privilege. This mixed-use.idea,:as done/"at the.Yale Center for British . . . . ' . . ' . . . -. . Art (Louis. Kahn): creates a synergistic .re1ationship;.that is beneficial to . all. S The way. this idea would work at ArtWes t is 'as follows: ArtWes t would. pay Cqlorado. the equivalent pro.perty on all retail space that houses: profit:.makitig activities. The store owners. and restaurateurs pay: : rent. tO Art:West and .then ArtWest, Cot: _mare. likely: a holqing company or ArtWest} would pay all. federal . -... . . . . . . . tax :on .all rental incomes even. though ArtWest is i-tself exempt fromfederal: taxation • . The .rental'' rate would beset t:o offset _ ' _ -.-. , : .. . . . . . ;. .. .-. . . . . ' . ' . • • :r, ' A • • . the property federal tax and:. administrative operating costs .. . . -.. provide a -modest profit to,. the institution. The indir.ect profit gained: : :thro':lgh-this. cooperative effort would_ : in the additional . . people. t:hes. e activities-. will: draw ArtWest. . . . . . 11 In a serise; most ancL performing arts centers are already.-: mixed-use facilities . . Bookshops, restaurants, and park. ing, lots:-are for the: same reason they: are .. included!: in.,. private office hotel complexes -they make the institutions. more attractive to.:. the potential clientele and encourage people who: visit to. linger-longer. 11' 6 s , Robert A. Peck, Issues-in Supporting the Arts,. edited,;by Caroline Violette & Rachelle .Taqqu, (Cornell-:Cornell: University: . Press,, _ 1982) p. 46- • 6 . Robert A. Peck, p.47 .

PAGE 13

. . What makes the whole issue complicated is how does the IRS view the ideaof a nonprofit iristitut'ion trying to support itself by making money? After all how can a nonprofit organization (aant a profit? Nonprofit organizat.ions are permitted. to-derive income from profit•making sources, .and to son;1e extent to engage-in business activities, but . . t .here -iS a pomt })eyond which the. organizatiOil may not venture its own exemption. This is a very grey in Internal Revenue. ? Code and it is generally left up . to the Inte.rnal Revenue Service to determine when an organization qualifies. for, or is disqualified from. the. granting of a nonprofit . . . ' . . . status . . . paraphrase that distinction, the . . li.Ite 'is drawn when it appears the _institution is primary .no_ longer clearly a. . a nonprofit organization is taxed.'on: . . .. . . ti . the :income derived from (lny unrelated .. trade o_r business ..... regularly carried " 7 .. . The is. to: make sure that lionprofit organizations do not . engage nor . are used, as. a to::eng4ge:-in businessLth&t:: . : . . ' . . would not . compete fairly; with tax-paying businesses •. For those act:i.vitiesat)ArtWest.that a.re;clearly tertiary or . , . . . 'unredated ' they would be the normal laws .as. . . . . . -. . . would;any: and' would: simply pay, a rental fee to ArtWest as though it were Prov-idado:. that . ' . . . . --7 ; Internai' Revenue Service Regulations, Sections: . B . /

PAGE 14

:; .. . , •; .. \' : "-there would be no However,• forail other uses, what is "Unrelated" or when is something '"regularly carried on"? If an. art. museuht . book shop sells art books, then the income from that shop is not taxed . • While the books do not have to relate . . . . . . to the cur:rent exhibition' sales of nori-art booksor souvenirs. . . :would be taxed. Restaurants and parking. lots provided for the con. venience .of the visitors . and employees do. not generate ''unrelated ' in.come, '' unless that parking .. lot 'caters profit activities or if the museum attempts. to become more .than a 'museum restaurant. 1 That -is to if the restaurant has eitherdirect access to the Street or attempts to. advertise its availabili.ty the general public, it would then fall. into this ''unrelatedlt' category • . . Therefore commercial ventures. may . operate on the premises. and: accrue additional untaxed revenue fqr -the in the form; . . . of investments.yieldingdividends, interest, royalties. and/or capgains. , they. a:re . "related",' they: maintain the' overall . . of the project (no. McDonald:fs Golden-Arches) and: maintain a : 'back-door'. Within. both the restrictions. imposed by the IRS . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . and::. an urban en:Vironment ,_.not having: .. access to. the st:reet would: never permit lucrative commercial .. In the Garden\. of the .Gods . this should no. t pose such: a hindrance for the street is not when access. throughout th,e. site is on foot. There fore. a prominent location or direct advertising will not be necessary: to. keep the retail:. businesses. alive. People will be attracted to . B 6

PAGE 15

the facility and will then find the restaurants. If they then go back to visit the restaurants on their own merit, this will be acceptable as all that enter the site ;must pay a nominal fee to get in and. , so they are 'visiting ArtWest.' ArtWest will not operate any 'related' or 'unrelated' business. directly, but will rent out space to bus-iness people who will then run the shop .. in their own best interest within the general guidelines of the institution. The tenant must be completely.se-parate and independent from. theinstitution and must not act as a subsidiary of.ArtWest or it way jeopardize the institution-'s tax-exempt status. In cases in which the nonpr:ofit organization wishes to lease a substantial amount of space to commerc .ial tenants, the IRS does recognize the use of an exempt holding corporation organ-ized.exclusively to holcititle to property and cpllect income from it. By creating this type of subsidiary, the exempt institution is. left divulged' of the responsibility of controlling, such a largescale leasing_ operation and, can instead pursue its primary culturalinterests for which it receives. tax-exempt .status. This type of in-termediary, was developed:: by the Museum of Modern Art, New York in an attempt .to protect itself, in its dealings with private. developers 8 ' to::.whomiit was leasing land for large-scale development purposes 0 . Although mixed-use as: an idea ispopular with developers, plannersand: rnuch of the public, it can generate great controversy Richard S. Weinstein, p. 48. B -7

PAGE 16

... ,;c. . . . . when specific projects are proposed for specific locations. ArtWest, being in such a beautiful and natural set.ting would. certainly Q}.eet .. stiff opposition i'f any usurpation of its open space for a commer-cial building project were proposed. If the project dealt with the issue-of mixed;..use development in a sensitive and capable manner , 0 it-would be to-convinceboth.the general publicandthe lending-institutions of this; the ci-ty of Colorado Springs . . is .already;convinced. !tis necessary to get the support _of the cominunity if you-are going to.' try to use a--private sector strategy to help a institution; Without that suppor-t, the . . . . . . . . government would :respond in a favorable . To create a .cultural institution. that can stand on its own _ .feet, it is. necessary for it to. become a _ business organization that can promote itself as a business-to the extent allowable-by the _If prior to:, building : . a facility: a careful;.financial analysis of. the . . . . . . project is.undertaken , it is possible to foresee what the economic impact project will have . on the economy. This . will allow it to take;. advantage-of the future growth .it willitself promote so thst the institution might make itself financially: independent. , . . .. . . B -8

PAGE 17

. . . . Program . . . . . . . ARrWEsr.

PAGE 18

Preface The idea for this project arose as a spontaneous response to. the site,. climate and local character of the area. Upon view ing_ the site, a magnificent panorama of great sandstone outcroppings surrounding a peaceful "desert garden", I realized that this area has a . great potential as a "people Further, upon repeated visits. to the site, I became increasingly aware of the great draw the Garden of the Gods has on visiting: tourists and at the same .time is-terribly under-used. The site is so beautiful it is a shame that most do little more than visit the souvenir shop if they get out of their cars at all! The majority of visitors experience the park by driving past on-the scenic drive. It is the intent of this project to-create an interplay between man and nature by adapting the environment to•make it. more inviting_ to without compromising its natural beauty. G -1

PAGE 19

... , . Program-Description To . eventually pJ;"6mote ArtWest as a -cultural center. it will . . . . . : be necessary to estab1ishthe area isartistic reputation,_ the . idea being to set the before you build one . Theref<:>re, the -. first phase of ArtWest shall be to create an, "artist ' s. colony" , with-the:design andconstruction of ten Artists-in-Residence units similar tothe artists colonies currently under --. iort by the Co-lorado Council on the Arts and Humanities. The dif.;; feremce betw.een the two art colorlies being that ArtWest is'aimed . . • at-the public's ar_ t as well as the artist. -The will be incorporatedwithin an-ovet"all' Master Plan which will include in this . phase crafts. areas, . . freshments a.nd, other activities . Phase It shall include-the build. . . _ ing of classroom/workshop areas and the Art. Gallery., . . which will house_ -the. growing_ collection of, worksby-the-. . . Artists-in-Residence Program • . ArtWest will become fully operational with-the completion-af the Performing: Arts Center and' the final. addition tothe Art Gallery: . • ArtWest will create: an exciting 'open-air market' feel to . the park by: combining;. a diversity: of activities_. and then linking. them together by.walkways. each turn new surprises; abound\ . . c . -2

PAGE 20

.. .. . . ::. .. : .. ; : . . ....... . .. --- • --., .. .• ........ . :(: ;• • .... . .. ... ;_. 0 • • • • • -::.:-. . ' . Map prepared by Colorado Dept. of 1"1 . * . . • . PLAN . . I a .-.-.. -__ ... .... .. , -:::...: .... --::.::: .... ... /, . . ,, IJ .. I I \' \\ ,, ,, ,, \ . / ; Natural Resources

PAGE 21

Summary of Spaces Performance Center -TheatreAuditorium-' (600 seat) Stage Lobby Ticket Booth Coat Check Bar . Restrooms Backstage/Support _ Kitchen (performer's) Loading Dock Scene-Shep-Prop Storage .. Scene_ Storage Paint Shop _Di-essing: Rooms Make-up Cos tt.une Shop Costume Storage Laundry: Greenroom, (Reception); Vomitorium.(s}; Rehearsal Space Sound/Light Booth -Mechanical Room Instrument Storage _ General St:orage c 4 '000 700 3,000 300 300 200 _ 600 11, 100-sq. ft. 300•. 400 2 000 ' 500 2 ,000 500 .. 1,500 . 500. 500. 500:. 200 500'. . 600> 2,500 500 400• 600> 1,000 15 , 000 . s q. ft •

PAGE 22

Summary of Spaces (con' t.) . Performance Center Management . Visual Arts Administration Secretary Copy /File Room Conference Room Tickets/Vault Lounge Technician's Office Electrician • s Office Rest Rooms Creative and Educational Areas: Pottery and , Ceramics Kiln Room Sculpture & 3-Dimensional (20) (20) Storage Drawing, Painting, Glass Blowing Photography (40) (10) . (25) Film Loading B & W Film Processing Color Film Processing. Storage c 5. 350 150 100 , 400 200 300 150 150 200 2000 1200 200 1000 200 1200 500 500 65 600 200 100--5765

PAGE 23

S..ummary of Spaces (con't.) Visual Arts Artists-in-Residence Ten Units Studio/Living Spaces Bedroom Living Room/Dining .-Kitchen Bathroom Studio Space Storage Closets Support Entry/ Assembly Area (outside) Re.ception AreaiFoyer Bo6kstore/Giftshop Restrooms Shipping and Receiving Storage: Long Term Short Term Workshop: Exhibit PreparationArea Gallery Total: Theatre Backstage/Support Management . Creative and' Educational Studio/Living Support Gallery * Guidelines used to produce thisd ata 130 200. 70 : 35 350 1oo 20 905 sq.ft. 1000 500 300 300 1000 200 400. sao 4200. sq. ft. 2500 sq.ft. ll,l00--15,000 2,000 5' 765< 10,000 4,20Q; 2 ,500 50,565sq.f.t. 1 Catherine R. Brown, . William. B. Fleissig:, William R. Morrish-; Building for the Arts,, (Santa Fe ,.. Western, States. Arts Found:.. . ation, 1984):-, P ' 9T-151: . 2 Uniform Building. Code, 1979 : . c_6 -

PAGE 24

Design . . Criteria . . Performing . Arts . . ; ART WE

PAGE 25

, _,,J / Audience and Administrative . Support Criteria-: Lobby , _ Public Areas UTSJDE Entry: The be clearly: identifiable, and' access to the entry must be direct. The drop-.off point where car passengers disembark should be protected froiDthe elements by a canopy of some sort and. Lobby. : there should be adequate signage to inform. the visitor as to directions, location. of parking and any informati.on.regarding performances and schedules. A vestibule or airlock should separate the lobby from. the outside both for cold air. infiltration and noise . The .lobby is a place: for socializing, and relaxing both-before the performance begins. and. for the enjoyment of refreshments. during" in.termission. Clear and tasteful s:i,gns must direct people to all support facilities. lobby should. also be -separated from the theatre by: noiseless, quiet double doors which can effectively, eliminate the -transfer of sound from the lobby into, the. hall when they are closed. LOBBY s-a ft? per seats aud ieri.ce \ services .:' THEATRE box. ' office' • . c 7

PAGE 26

., ' ., : .. , .. _''. Diagramatic Flow Chart 3 , FRONT OF t1QUSE . REHEARSAL SPACE . (depending on ' : : . artistic requirements) Rehearsal Small Performances Extra Scenery ' Preparation -r.r =--=----; > .__.,. __ I /./ A . . Jl . v /-1 . . I I . v u BACKSTAGE SUPPORT Scenery Preparation &Shops . Seating ... . .......... : .. ;:..'=.:,/'•',• .. ' .:. . . . . . (Tickets) .. , . . • , . . ,• ... . r r:; Administration l J FuncUcMI Dlogram of • urge Perfomtlnel Ar1D Facility Public Entry Off-Hour Entry to . Administration Brown , Fleissig, Morrish, p. 131. c8 . .

PAGE 27

. .. . . . ,-The Stage: Types ' . Proscenium Stage The proscenium-stage is by far the most common type of stage and. ' is: characterized: asa room in which the fourth-, wallis missing: through"which the aud-ience sees the It offers . . great flexibility and allows for a .greater' sense of ih:timacy between:. the actors andi the audience . . The proscen-ium i:s -generally equipped with a flyloft' wings and backstage facility and. it -'usually' contains sophistic_ated equipment for quick scene changes. Thrust Stage The thrust stage creates a greater sense of intimacy bet-ween the actors and the audience as the audience the action on three sides. The thrust stage is generally less expensive than the proscenium stage as it requires less. machinery, •tess scenery, . and. less s .tage support spac.e. However, it is usually a bad choice for touring companieSas the production must be suited for multi directional acting. Theatre-in-the-Round In this.type of theatre, also calledc. the Arena, the audiencecompletely surrounds the stage' requiring the performance to be multi-directional and specially.-adapted for this_type of present . at ion. White this form-theadvantage of putting thegreatest number of people closest. to: the stage it has .. several large draw-backs . .t1.mong are: * It provides. a badmedium far. the presntation of dance asmost-dance is choreographed too be presented in a frontal manner. * It .limits. the use of backstage drops. andscenery * In a. dramatic performance, .. the actors. always some part of; the audience *No clear manner to discreetly. enter or leave-the stage 4 Tyrone Guthrie, "Theatre: Minneapolis-," Actor and; Architect,. Stephen-Joseph , . editor. (Manchester, England-': Univers-ity Press: , 1964)!. c 9

PAGE 28

Proscenium,. Stage . . . . . . . S.CIIon ol a lMge Praeconlum StaGe 5Mn,...,.; l::h . n.-_ I I I I I v I I \ . : .I: . , _ , ' .. •.

PAGE 29

-: : .. !,'::: :':;,._,,, . . . . _ .... -Site Lines • . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -. . -. . . . .. .. . . . . . . ... . . c .... 6 ;Brow,. F1eissig, Morrish, p. 116. r. -11 Ratte of floor is steep enougn lor row A to see over heada .ot row a I

PAGE 30

, ' Site Lines ( . . Srege TwO-Row VIUon :...:...._ .. --...: Stage . . . . . . . . . : : . . . . . . . Horfzanll! SlghUIMO . . ' . .. . . ..' Row C is. low enough so row A can see over heads in row C Seats i n row B.are offset lor clear line of vision to stage by seats in row A Requires the Lowest Angle Rake . . . . ' • . c : : . ... ' I . • • . ... . • . . 1 _10' Discern large motions .7Brown, Fleissig,;._ Morrish., ,.. , ,

PAGE 31

Visual Considerations To obtain an optimum view of the stage throughout the house depends on the following three factors: * Slope of the house floor ._., Staggering of the seats * Elevation of the stage Slope (rake) of the house floor Most auditorium floors gently up to the back of the house to permit people to see over the person in front of them. If the floor is ramped, it may not exceed a slope of 10 percent, a steeper slope is required, to allow more people to sit closer to the stage, the floor must be stepped. Provision for wheelchairs must be considered in either case. Staggering of seats By staggering the seats, so that the person in front of you is somewhat off to one side or the other, a better unobstructed view may be afforded be looking betv-1een the seats in front of one. Elevation of the stage While the stage should always be below the seated eye level of the first row, the stage should be elevated to better allow for people further back. The ideal height of the stage is between 2'-6" and 3'-6" above the floor level of the first row. G 13

PAGE 32

) ! ... .•. , _ ; • • • . . • ' • • i. : Acoustical Considerations The quality of the sound that reaches the audience from the stage is a combination of direct sound and. that reflected from all. of the .surfaces in the hall. The object is to balance these tWO SOund qualities by' eliminating. as many sources. of• . distortion. as p ossible and distributing. the sound evenly throughout the hall • . Factors which might affect acoustic quality: * Shape of the: theatl;'e * The width, depth and-' heigth of the and: stage. * The presence of a balcony and that balcony's size * The number of seats. and the size of the audience iil/ relation to the size of the room. *The size, shape and location.ofall reflecting surfaces * Seat_materials; walls; ceilings andfloorcoveririgs *Location of techhical equipment, ie. catwalks. Cat'culating . Sound> -In the design. of any hall for the performing arts, proper acoustics. is vital to a successful production. It is generally recognized: that the trained' speaking voice can-be reliably heard. . .. . at .'distances of approximately 75 feet to the ':front of the speaker,, 50 .feet .to either side, andmuch -less' to. his rear. It is the acoustical' qrialit.ies of the 'space that will either extend' this, or lessen it;. and with fewer performers .coining: from. the 'old school,, with fewer "trained'' it is, increasingly important that the hall enhance the speaker orperformer "s natural ability. Background'" Noise: The . unaided•• has. a , relatively limited., .volume, and'foi a performer to. attempt to, be heard: in: a . halt con. taining. 800-1000. peqple, it is absolutely .essential that background;; noise. levels be . . toa minimum. To . assure adequate intelligibility of _speech, the background must be at teast 10 decibels-lower and' preferably .. decibels.lower than the speech As ; is most . . easily understood at a level of 70 : decibels that at certain times, it will be necessary for the audience to be abte to, , strain to:. heat a whisper,. the hall should, allow: the listener to' hear a SO decibel; level comfortably. . 8 .. 8:_ Roberts, Acousticks, (1983). p. 32 ' . c 14 . .

PAGE 33

• '< . . ,.' . .. . I; ., •, • • '' ' . _.Acoustical Considerations (can't.)_ Noise and Vibration Control To . successfully design an acoustically sensitive space,. att ention .. must also be given to-eliminating any unwanted noise,,. so it : .is the acoustical: engineer 1 s and the architect 1 s resppns ibility to ensure an absolutely quiet concert hall. Thereforethe followirtg areas be * Locationof, mechanical equipment rooms-Sound buffer between noisy and: quiet areas * Proper design of heating, ventilation and--coo1.irig systems> *Sealing: outside noise out The ability of a floor; c;:eiling'orwall partition to limit the transfer of airborne sound waves is referredto as it's sTC coefficien. t or Sound Transmission Class. Of -partic'-1-lar interest in ceiling construction (when that ceiling also forms an upper floor) is that partitions ability to resist transferring vibrat ion into the room in the form of unwanted noise. This-characteristic is referred' to as. the IIC coeficient: or Impact Insulation Class. of the partition. . . . In the case of either the Arts Center or the Art need. for absolute minimum levels of .background noise necessitate high STC and IIG coefficients and the construction of these two.facilitiesshould reflect -that requirement. Inthe case of the Educational' and Creative Workshops, background noise is .not a crucial"factor accept __ inas far as . . th.eir contribution:to the overall' backgroung. noise levels: . Areas. : such as_, the Kiln' Rooms should) either be set: off -from ... otheractivities-or in some way shielded-due to, the higher levels. of noise .they-might emit. For typical STG and,: IIC va:lues: for various. construction; systems. refer to: Appendix. : . . c -15 .

PAGE 34

Acousticai' Constderations . (con't.) .. . To allow a 50 decibel sound to be clearly audible to the aud::.-iertce, the noise levels throughout -the: .halT must oe _ kept at 35 decibels or below. In the case of misical performances these values become even more cru(:ial as the dynamic range of _the sound' produced' will be greater,_ usually around 75-80. d ecibels • • As-. the threshold" of pa-in for most persons-is: 120 " decibels. , the _ maxiDi.um noise levels on-the lower end must be 40>dB. Allowing for a 10 decibel margiD. , the background noise level o.f the aud itorium (occupied) during a performance must be only 30 dB' or -else the performance will result in discoinfor. t for the listeners. Reverberation: Animportant aspect of the-acoust-ical qualities . . of-a space-is . . reverberation. Reverberation-is the soundthat the listener hears that is reflected. off an object .and arrives a certain amount of _ time_ after the direct sound wave. That time rag is ma:y: add (or -subtract) more froni the natural character of the sound than _any-thing else' 'and classifies a hall as ''dead''. or unuseable_ • . Through the p1acement. of absorptive materials and reflecting surfaces, and through the -careful manipulation of. and_ reflectedsouil.d travel. distances, the designer may -create a . room, . with the: given acoutical characteristics he desires for a certain . . -_ type of performance • _ _ Linliting_ the reverberation time tO be.tween 10-30: milliseconds, the listener heal:-s . the.-.souridc as. one quick pulse as, . there is littie -tiine-lapse-between_ how the sound was. originally: perceived in its direct_ wave-and::how. it on its reflection . . This .. ty.peof -_ si:tuation is paz:ticularlyfor the performer who needs. in.. stant:' feedb'ack of ' the' sound• 'in ordel,7 to allow him to adjust :as nee-: _ essary. As the rever_beration time lengthens,. it optimum . -level musical'. performances. at about25 : 30' mil'liseconds at __ _ . __ which-_ point it, provides. a sense of fullness. as the reflectipn: is. -complimenting: . the direct wave. At reverberant times of 60+ milliseconds .. the-reflectionis. -perceived;, as an•. echo; __ andr becomes very .Thi s. situationmust be. avoided--and:: is usually accomplish _ed,by-lilniting the listeners distance fromthe pen:for.mer. 9.--. -_ . . fu. 'an auditorium: with . it mus-t be remembered: that . as .one proceeds, farther . back the direct sound decreases , however the re'ilected' sound' increases and': can, become almos_ t as. g .reat as. the in the' first row . The effect of this depend s . on the time lag: inwhich, it. arrives for it might no._longer appear to: _ be realistic but instead_. seem-more like a badly dubbed; foreign filni, . 9 ' Roberts, Acousticks, _c 16.:.

PAGE 35

Performance Criterea: The Seat Criterea for comfortable seat selections: k Seats should not be too narrow; 21 inches is st8ndard k Adequate padding on the seat, back, and armrests Easy maintenance of the seat material * Seat colors should not be distracting '" Allow ,for adequate leg room; 30" from the back of one chair to the back of the one behind it is standard c -17

PAGE 36

Performance Support Dressing Rooms, Toilets and Showers: All facilities for the performers-must be completelt separated from the public and should be located as close as possible to the stage, preferably on stage level so as to avoid the use of stairs. There should be two large dressing rooms, one for the male cast and one for the female, with a minimum of 16 sq. ft. per person(30). In addition, two smaller "star" dressing rooms s\lall also be required. Each Dressing Room should have adequate wash basins w/hot and cold water and enough-toilets and showers to meet the needs of the cast. Generally one toilet should be allotted for every six performers and one wash basin for every four performers. Each 'station' shol:J.ld have a .table or counter, a chair and incandescent , . lighting similar to that of the stage lights along with an in dividual light switch and electrical outlet(s). The Dressing Room should also have a . fulllength mirror and adequate hanging and storage space for street clothes, about 24 inches of hanging space per person. 10 Green Room (Performer's Lounge): The-Performer's Lounge need not be near the stage and is usually separated in an out of the way location. It should he a pleasant space where the performers can relax and may meet guests and the press. Vending machines should be provided, along with a small kitchen and should preferably be daylit. Rehearsal Space: The Rehearsal Room should be approximately 50 feet by 50 feet, and of a height and character similar to that of the stage. The room should be daylit, with a floor surface similar to that of-the stage and provision should be made to eliminate any sound penetration into the room. 10 Brown; Fleissig, Morrish, p. 119-120. c 18

PAGE 37

Design Criteria: Audience Services Restrooms: Restroom requirements shall be as determined by code, however it must be kept in mind when determining the location and size of the bathrooms that during a two or three hour performance only 10 to 15 minutes is alloted for intermissions and therefore restrooms, water fountains, and telephones should be located in such a manner as to minimize delay. Enough facilities should be provided to minimize lines, particularly so that they never back up outside the restroom itself. The "Design Guide for Music and Dr a m a Centers11 recommends 350 sq. f t . per bathroom for a 650 s eat auditorium. Box Office: the Box Office must be easily identifiable and its access direct, the ticket window must be kept away from areas of main traffic flow , the street entrance, ramps, and stairs. The Box Office must he l arge enough to accomodate the number of personnel required to run it (3), along with the telephones, ticket racks, safes and any automated equipment to be used. Coat Check: Fifty square feet per 100 patrons is recommended to provide adequate coat storage space, in this case, 300 sq. ft. A long counter out of the way of the main traffic flow will accomodate more attendants and speed the process up, as well as self-service coat rooms which may suffice in less crowded situations. Food and Beverage Service: The Refreshment Bar should be located adjacent to or within the lobby, out of the main flow of traffic. The Refreshment Bar should have adequate, lockable storage space and direct circulation (out of the way) should be provided for the supply of food, liquor and other essentials to the Refreshment Bar. In the case of island bars, it should be remember ed that these require more personnel to attend them than do oars set against the wall. Food service will be limited to snacks and convenience-type meals and as such there will be no separate provision for either a sit-down restaurant or kitchen. c -1 9

PAGE 38

Design Criteria: Administrative Staff Offices: Office space must be provided to assure the proper operation of the complex. The office space must be adequate in size, comfortable and pleasant as they will receive a lot of use. Provision must also be made for the anticipation of future expansion regarding both office space and adequate storage space. It is advisable to locate the offices in a central position, possibly near the public entrance though care must be taken to completely contain any sounds produced by the offices and their related equipment. Mailroom, Duplication and Supplies: Either in separate rooms or all in one, the following operations must be considered: j'\ Sorting and sending out mail k Copying * Storage of supplies Filing Postage and Duplicating Machines Computer term ina 1 Conference Room: The facility will require a room which can comfortably accomodate 12 people, for meetings of the staff, the board of directors and executive committees. Conference Room should also contain a small library. c 20

PAGE 39

Technical Facilities and Equipment Lighting Systems House Lights: Work Lights: Purpose; To provide suitable light to allow the audience to find their seats and read their program comfortably. Incandescent light should be on a dimmer control circuit separate from the stage lighting. Aisle and exit lights should be on another, nondimming circuit. Purpose: To illuminate the house and stage for rehearsals, maintenance, and show preparation. Requirements: They should provide maximum visibility without a great deal of electricity and can be controlled by switches separate from the stage lighting board. House work lights and stage work lights should be placed on separate circuits as they will not always be used simultaneously. Stage Lights: Purpose: To illuminate the performance itself. Requirements: All fixtures must be adjustable and moveable, and should in no interfere with sightlines or the acoustics of the theatre. Stage lights should be controlled from a 'lighting control room', a glassed-in, soundproof room in the rear of the auditorium where the lighting operator may achieve an unrestricted and undi.storted view of the entire performance area. Types: Auditorium lighting positions for a proscenium stage consists of 'ceiling slots and wall slots.' The location of the slots is determined by stage size, but there are usually one or two of each 15 and 30 feet from the proscenium. Access to these positions is by catwalks (lighting bridges) and ladders.'Follow-spot positions' at the rear or sides of the hall house the spotlights that cast members around the stage. c -21

PAGE 40

. . ..... --•: -,; -: ; : . ,; ... •, Electric Lighting . In-designing the lighting system for the exhibition spaces .it is extremely important to buy the very best lightingsystem. available • . The fixtures should preferably be mounted on tracks to attain maximum flexibility and 'should -be lamped with low--. voltage ultra-violet . filtered lamps . -set on . a dimmer on/off control. switch. Adequate electrical outlets should' be provided-.. as to .. provide for greater flexibility. . . . . * sho_uld not.dissipate any heat onto. -the art. . * Uniformity of fiXtures generally provides . . a better appea+ance. * Posit.ion lights so as to avoid' either casting. shadows onto-. exhibits from either the picture or from the viewer, or. creating a glare o _ff .the object. 11 support .Areas Shipping arid -Receiving The rece'ivlll.gdock should allow for a truck that is deliver . ing. a collection or a piece of art. to :back directly up tothe receiving_ area so . that no intermediary _ is required: . . The dock floor should be approximately 44-55, inches. above the drlve and should-be at least 12-feet wide with lQQ,-feet. for . the truck to back up -to. the dock.i2The receiving-area must be' for :the old: exhibit isfrequently. wait.irig in the -area. to go out when the new : exhibi. t atr:ives . • . All, doors from this . point onshould. provide the necessary, . clearance to allaw theest works to be brought from the-receiving area'to,the_exhibition. space , 'generally 10 feet is-more than. adequate . A sec1.1re storage" . ar'eashould. be provided at this' area-tohold works . m ' trans.it. • • ., ••. > . • ' • • < . : ... • :_. ; . '.-Storage-' : . ; < < . . . . . : Any :.exhibition space-requires' significant amounts of. storage, . .": . and: this:. area must besecure, .. of adequate size and, , with the insidepadded' to' protect any object. placed;, within from breakage. 11 B:i:own , : Morrish,. p . : .. . 12'. . -F .W •. Dodge Corporation, Time":' Saver. Standards, (New York, Y. -.. F .w. Dodge Corporation, 1946),p. 238-239. c 22 .

PAGE 41

Lighting Reguiremf:mts by UsE! / Dance Productions: Primary light must come from the sides of the. stage, from-spo_tlight trees that sidelight the perfotmers . froma low angle. Cable connections must. be designed into tite stage area, a nd wings: must be deepenough to accomodate 'thes, e Concerts:. Primary light is beamed from-directly above the stage and . must be bright enough to allow the musicians. to. read their . . music. without producing outlets for music stand. lights must also be provided,. .Dramatic Productions:_ Dramatic productions require thegreatestflexibility in. lighting and-consequently lighting positions such that-moods . of different plays can: be captured different lighting. techniques. Usually is directed from: a frontal position, illuminating_ the ac.tor' s . from both sid.es. See diagram. 13 QpUmum MQII• for UghUrig the Actor'a Face : . . ' . . .:. .-. . .... ' Brown, MorrisJ:l, p-. 137-.

PAGE 42

Sound Systems In addition to the acoustically designed configuration and surfacing of the hall, most auditoriums include sound 'enhancers' that reinforce the sound quality, intensify (louden) tbe room, and create theatrical sound effects when needed. The purpose of an approach that is sensitive to acoustical considerations is to minimize the reliance on these devices so as to provide a 'natural' sound quality. Even so, to ignore these devices is to only limit the hall's performance later and so careful consideration must be given to the utilization of sound enhancement equipment. It is to the benefit of the facility to purchase quality equipment and not to skimp in these areas as it will surely show up to plague later performances. Also, consideration must be given to future needs and adequate electrical provision should be provided to meets those needs. Electro-acoustical enhancement This type of sound equipment is particularly useful when a hall is used for different types of performances which have differ=nt sound needs, and must have the reverberation time of the hall altered to accept its Qifferent needs. This allows the hall to be "fine-tuned" as needed. Sound Reinforcement This type of sound equipment amplifies and selectively balances direct sound, and, if properly designed, will yield a nearly natural sound quality. vJhile speakers are generally located to either side of the proscenium opening; allowing the system to be flexible and moveable might prove of great value particularly if the types of performances vary to any extent. In this case, the hall may be further 11fine-tuned" with regard to the placement of speakers as determined by sound checks in rehearsals prior to the performance. All sound equipment should be controlled from a sound control booth located in the rear of the auditorium so that the operator might hear the production the way the audience does and can therefore adjust it accordingly. \.Vhile the sound control booth may be located near the lighting control booth, it should remain separate, at least acoustically. Theatrical Sound Effects System This system is separate from those already mentioned and is used to create special effects and directional sound. c -24

PAGE 43

. ' . ' :,_ [ o o OJ o 0 o • ! • ' • • • •.•• . ( . . . ; . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -. .. . . . . --. . . . . . . . . . Design . • Criter io . . . . . . . . . . . . . -. ' . . . ' . . . . . . • > .. Visual Arts , . • . . ; ' . ' . . . -. . . . -. . . . . . . . : . . . . . . ,_ . ... _. . . . . . -• • • ' • • • • • • • • • 0 • .. _ _. .. • • • • • . . . . -. . . . . . . . . . ; _ . . . . . . . . ' •• • ••• _7 • • : . • • • • • • • • • . . ... . . . . . . . . , . . . . . ' . . . . . . . -. . .. . . . . . . . . . _. . . . ._ . . . . . o . ' . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' : . . _. : " ;. . ... : . . _..... . . • • _ • • •• •• __ • , • • 0 . . . . ' . . . . . ' .• . . -. . . . .. _,__ .-. . -. . . ' . -. . . . . . . .-_ . . . . .. _. . ... -.. . _: -_ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 • • • . . , . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . .. . . . :. . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . _-. ' . . . . . . . . . ' . '. . . ... _. :' . .' . . . ' . . . . . . . : .. :-: . . . _. . . . ,. . ._ . . -. . ' _ . _ . . . -. . . . . .. . . . . • • 0 • • • • • •• ; ••• .' : • -. • ... •• -:; •• • • • ' • • • .-. • • 0. • • • .-. ; •• • • : .. ,. 0 • • • .. -!., • . •. . . . . .. . -:_ : . . . . .-. . . --.:. : : . . . . _ .' . _ .-. . . . . ' ' ' • '• _. • • • : . . • ' ' ' ' ' . . ' I •. .--.: . • • • ' . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . • " • ' • • 0. • . _. . . . . . ' . . : . . . . . . . . . . • . ARTWEsr .

PAGE 44

Visual Arts -.-. ' . Gallery_ and Exhibition Areas The p\Jrpose of this area is to display the works produced principally on the premesisfor.theenjoyment of-the public. The worK w;i.lJ.be displayedupon its completion for the duration of the season-and will be taken down and given back to the artist at the discretion of the dir_ector or shallbe housed: asa perm anent exhibition. Provision must also be made to accept touring art shows on a limi:ted basis. While the main stay of artistic shall mostly be paintings, .prints, drawings .and photography, . space must be flexible enough-tolarge scale 3-dimensional sculptUres and other-unusual pieces requiring spec ialized equipment,. etc. -_ Unlikethe performing arts, the visual arts requires the visitor to move around to view the objects on display and to do this, l:he exhibition space must be designed to help: the viewer to organize the experience of looking at and the se. . . . . . . . . , . . '.. . . . of objects • . __ .. . . _ . . , . . . _ Upon entry into. the the_ visitorshould be :easily di'rected to the galleries whereupon the . spaces should unfold-in a loop that draws the visitor through it while offering him _ cholces _ and variety.:. _The following critetea for designing the gallery circ\llation: 14.. ., Viewers_ should be able to move throughthe e$ib-its , , . see . . everything ondisplay,_ : without having. to pas_ s ; over objects. which they different nature than that. of the:exhibits • . 14' . Brown, , : F .leissig,. Morrish,. 1:37-: c 25

PAGE 45

)W Chart ' . : . ; ., . . . Funcllanll EHigrlm ol e Smell Vlluel Alta Feclllty . :-. :::: EJ Service 15 Brown, Fleissig, Morrish, p. GALLERY . . (Prepll!'aciqn AIM)

PAGE 46

,. !'" •.• ... Solar Angles N&IIUrll Light In the Gallery . Direct Light . Noon June 21at Direct Light N90n December 21st , . , . . . South A5 sea&ons change. the . height of . the sun in the sky changes frorn low in winter to high in summer. . . •• Retl8c:ted . • • "'. • • • Light frOm . . • •• .••.•.. • North . . . . . . Pa1niings pl8ced out of . direct . naturallight. North 16 BroWn., . Fieissig; :Morrish, , , p . 141 . c -27 ' Position of the sun chango$ during the day.

PAGE 47

. .. ' . .-;; ' .. CALLERY: Critical Dimensions Enough spaca : to allow easy movement for e
PAGE 48

. : . •.i•' ' ' •.[' ' . . Physical Characteristics < Walls . Walls are perhaps the greatest determinant of circulation and at the same time must be flexible enough to be taken down with each new exhibit as required to complement the artwork. The walls are the backdrop for the art and therefore must in no way compete with it in the viewer's eye. The wall's finish must be able to withstand constant rehanging without showing signs of abuse. Ceilings In spaces. , the ceilings are used to house and . distribute the various mechanical and electrical systems, ie. lighting, heating and cooling, and . these systems should be incorporated in such a way so as not to distract the viewer's. atten.tion • . Ceilingheight is generally suggested at between fourteen and sixteen feet to-allow for larger works to be at a proper from the lights.so that the artwork is not exposed to excess heat or light and also has a feeling of 'loftiness' •• Ceiling colors and texturesshould be neutral so as not to distract-the viewer. Floors Flooring must. be strong,_ durable, easy tomaintain and not draw attention t-o itself. Lighting It is. this author's opinion that the use of daylight in-public spaces is always welcome, though in-exhibition spaces for art that is itself usually light sensitive, care must be taken to protect the artwork. Aperatures providing. direct illumination must have ultra-violet or must otherwise.-be reflected. The daily and yearly, path of the Slnl must be considered in the placement of displays, as well as the location of aperatures. Despite the use-of daylighting, artificial lighting shall be required to maintain a constant illumination level of between 100 + footcandles as calculated by the p"oint or split flux method except as otherwise dictated by the specific requirements of the artwork to be illuminated. The introduction of natural light into the room , will-raise the temperature and , lower the relative humidity and care must be , taken to maintain a constant balance of SO% relative-humidity and : 65-75 F. 18: Brown, Fleissig, Morrish,. p. 139. 19 William J. McGuiness & Benjamin Stein,. Table p. 733 .

PAGE 49

Other Considerations Temperature and Humidity Control It is essential when displaying works of art to maintain a constant hum idity and temperature level, hours a day for as long as thei r i s art housed within the facility. Optimum humidity levels are 50%, and every effort sr.ould be made to attain thi s level. Artwork should never be d irectly exposed to hot or cold a i r from mechanical systems and dust should be filtered out of the air prior to its release into the gallery . Security Any facility designed to house and display a r t must be protected from theft at all times, day and night. As most theft and tampering occurs during business hours, it is important to max imize protection and n1inimize security requirements by limiting to only one point of entry and egress into an exhibition space except fire exits as required which shall Clla-r .ms upon being opened. An electronic security systent is a standar d requirement i n any rnuseum or gallery and its inclusion is mandatory. Soni c alarms must be placed withi n the interior of the gallery space and video won itors should be positioned at all points of entry or egress. The use of trained security guards i s also a must in any gallery space and the configuration of the room can either help surveillance and minimize h i s presence or can hamper his efforts. Fire Protection In order to bott1 lower the facilities fire-insurance rates and to attract travelling exhibits, a suitable fire protection system must be incorporated into the design. Fine art can not be exposed to water, particularly at high pressures and therefore it i s the design of the building itself that plays the greatest role in limiting the potential for fire. The following are guidelines for assuring fire protection: Fire-retardant materials i n the exhibition area. Heat and smoke detector systems, usually i n the ductwork .Fire Alarms both within the facility and at the firehouse Hand f ire extinguishers Carbon dioxide systems Separati.ng the building off w ith fire walls c 3 0

PAGE 50

Creative and Educational Workshops Drawing, Painting and Printmaking All surfaces and finishes in this space should be easily cleanable and resistant to solvents and acids. Lighting should be from the north if daylit and otherwise electric lighting, which should of course be provided anyway, should be of warm spectrums and should not produce unwanted shadows. Adequate ventilation must be provided, as toxic chemicals will be used. Equipment: Drawing tables Sculpture Work tables for cutting Easels Stools and chairs Sinks Paper cutters Printing presses and print drying racks Same requirements as above. Equipment: Workbenches and stools Floor and table sculpture stands Pottery and Ceramics This room must be designed with easy cleaning in mind with all finishes being non-porous, floors to be sloped with floor drains provided. Storage must be provided near the door for large containers of clay, and a dust filtering system is recommended for the clay room. A separate storage area should be provided for the storage of fragile pottery. Kilns must be separated from the main work area due to the heat produced. quipment: Work tables w/metal tops and stools Potters wheels Sinks Glaze spray booths Glass Blowing Due to the great amount of .heat put off in this process, it is recommended that this activity be set up outdoors or in a semienclosed area. All exposed surfaces should be masonry or concrete. Equipment: Melting (pot) furnace Annealing (firing) oven Heavy-duty counters w/asbestos tops Plenty of shelves and storage space for tools. c -31

PAGE 51

...... . , .. . ' ,Creative and Educa:tional Workshops (con 't.) Photography A workable photographic studio_requires three distinct areas: a ' c1assroom; a : photo lab for film processing; .and a finishing area where prints are dried, . trimmed and mounted. The classroom, space must be flexible enough. to be used: for multiple uses and should be . equipped: witha : chaulkboard! , a:.mobile rear projector, film andslide: projectors, desk space and chairs. The darkroom space may be-either as one large. space where many people cart work simultaneously or as: smaller. work areas. where: one to three may work. In either case, _color work is, . generally-separated from the Black and-White work areas and gener ally requires fewer work stat.ions than does the-Black and White darkroom. The darkroomsm.ust be: light-proof with light trapping entries. _. _. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . The print finishing_ areahas few special requirements, other than a need for space and can often be combined with other activities. . : Equipment (Darkroom) : . (Print Finishing):: Enlargers -Contact Printers Developing Sinks Film-Drying Cabinets. Print Washers Safelights andTimers: Metal-linedcabinets Paper cutters Refrigerator (for film storage). Stainless. -steel, sinks w I hot & , cold-watler Copy -Camera Print Dryer Print-Drying, Capinets. Dry-mounting. presses. Work . tablesand' storage cabinets . 20 Department of the' Army, Office of the Chief of Engineers. Design-: Guide Arts and Crafts. Centers, OCE Publications Depot: 890South Pickett Street, Alexandria, Virginia); 4f: DG 1110-3-124. c . 32

PAGE 52

. . . . . . . . • ' • 0 • ,. . . i • Slte . . . • . ' . . ': . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' I : ' ' • • .... . . . . . -. . . . . . . . . . . . I . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. -. . . ' ' . . . . . ' • ,:. . .. . • . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ' ' . . . . , . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . '\. , . . . . . '• . . . .. . . -. . . . . . . . . .. ; . . . . . . . . .. . . ' . . . > . . . ARTWEsr.

PAGE 53

:. _:. Site Description The Site, Garden of the Gods, is located approximately five miles. west of the Colorado. Springs CentralBusiness. District and approximately: two miles north of Old Colorado City in El Paso County, Colorado. The Site .is a designated Park and -Recreation Area of the city of Colorado Springs and while it. is actually sur-rounded by the city it enjoys relative seclusion with Pike National Forest adjacent to .the western_ boundary of the Site. The Site is approached from the south via Garden Drive off U : ;.S. Route 24 upon-entering Manitou Springs. or via Gate-way Road which is accessed off Interstate 25 via the "G. d f h G d " . 30 h S f the * ar en o t e o s ex1t to t t. rom east • .. _ ..... . : ... * . .: _ <--,_ .. See EocationMap D -1

PAGE 54

SITE CONTEXT MAP _, . . . . . aoo.. D 2 . , ... '(.;if' )lc W $/1-'it: I'S('J.Qlilf' .. . . . . .,. _ ' : .... ...... . . " . II . -' .. . .

PAGE 55

Site Inventory Garden of the Gods Park, a 640 acre recreation park belong-ing to. the City of Colorad o Springs, has long been a popular tourist . resort for both local and long distance travelers. The park is ellcircled by a scenic car drive from which one may survey the great sandstone formations whichrise as much as 300 feet'above the sur-rounding terrain, a favorite of both tourists and rock climbers. alike. Within the ''Garden" itself, . a one-way drive takes visitors to a souvenir shop from where one may buy curios and obtain a spec-tacular view of the "Garden" from an observation platform on the top floor of the shop. The vista as seen from-this vantage point, ( see ffl-Views) shows the. pedestrian loop that strolls through-the "garden" surrounded by the colossal formations. The store is cur-rently served with water I sewer and electric lines which run. along: the scenic drive out of the park. There is no gas service. There is one main parking lot,_ dirt,, located:\ north-of the store behind: a large outcroppingwithin easy-walking distance of the . A large cook-out area lies .. between" the parking lot and-the scenic drive. For the purposes of. this. project, it was. deemed necessary to remove: the existing, paved road: an& parking; lot within the "Garden" along with the souvenir shopinc order to create an. appropriate environment foE ArtWest. D 3 -

PAGE 56

SITE TOPOGRAPHIC MAP ,._ Joo' Map prepared from base map by U.S. Geological --Survey.

PAGE 57

. . ---' .. :: ::-.:l:::. ...... . ,.,.,. .. . . ....... . \ , .,'....... \ .:=. .--. __ .. . -.. , -;;:..: , . . . ,, ,, ,. I t \I \\ ,, ,, ,, \ Map prepared by Colorado Dept. of Natural Resources SITE PLAN existing conditions , •• 3001 . •

PAGE 58

' , , . ... . -Eliminate: Souvenir Shop Scenic Drive Add: Additional •51.r.E_P•l•A•N- • \ .. . ----" . . . ,. It It ' ( \ J \\ ,, ........... ,, \

PAGE 59

,. -::is.. VIEWS .... ,-_;;._-;3. _ __. ... . . _...--.---, -:::::..-.---------.,..-

PAGE 60

VIEWS ONE TWO

PAGE 61

. . . . • o' • 0 . I . . . . . . i '. .... o • I . ' • • . • 1' . . i . . . ; . . . . Climate . ... . . . 0 ' ! . . ' . 0 • • • l . . . I I • • 0 I I . I . I I . I . _ I . . I I . . I '. I I I . I . ' ' . I .ARTWEsr

PAGE 62

Introduction Climatic data for the area is collected at the Weather Service Office at the Colorado Springs Municipal-Airport. The airport is located approximately ten miles east-so.uth-east of the Site in the Mountain Time Zone at: Latitude: Longitude: 104"-42' -Elevation: Site Elevation: approx. 617l:feet above sea .level 6400 feet above sea level All climate-datawas prepared by the NationalWeatherServicei National Climatic Data Center Asheville, N.C. except for data on solar radiation values which was ; obtained from The Passive Solar Book, Edward Mazria. E -1

PAGE 63

.. Geographic Influences I The relativepristeen condition]of the Site liesin part : i due to its remote setting, while still within the city limits,< a rather inhospitable terrain as well as a general concern . . fot: . the area by the. c -ity and its people due. to the Site Is. -unique qualities andhistory •.. The topography. around : the of the Gods.: Site is: e]Cciting and diverse itsmany mountains, canyons. and I ' .. . . 1 . . . great sands tone outcroppings. See Appep.dix. This complex . . . . . . . I ' topography results. in. substantial vaiiatiotis in precipitat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . ... I . . . . ion, winds, and. temperatures within generai and . creates. a microclimate unique to particular. site. These great tempera. t\;lre variations caused' by the topography can no better be seen, than . in the differencJs. between the'city a:Jid • . th. summit of Peak only 12 away, which would' . . provide a , siriiilar comparison to, . Iceland!' E .:. 2

PAGE 64

General Climate Summary " In Colorado Springs itself, precipitation is relat-ively light and over 80 percent of it falls between April 1 and September 30-much of it as heavy downpours accompanying summer thunderstorms. Temperatures are relatively mild with uncomfortable extremes, in either summer or winter, are comparatively rare. Relative humidity is normally low and the wind movement is moderately high." 1 " The growing season varies considerably in length, from a recorded shortest of 110 days, to a longest of 194 days. The average is 149 days, from about May 8 to about Oct. 4." Summer Summer (June, July, Aug.) weather in Colorado Springs is pleasant and temperate with summer normal maximum temp-eratures typically in the low to mid eighties and normal minimum temperatures are in the mid fifties. The summer diurnal range averages 25 degrees and there are 17 'average annual number of days with maximum temperatures reaching at least 90"F.Temperatures rarely exceed 90"F.,the record high 1 The National Weather Service, Local Climatological Data, "Climate Description." E -3

PAGE 65

. . ' . . Summer Climate Summary (con't.) . temperatures .were 100F. (June & July 1954}. The combination-of moderate temperatures and low, moisture" result inrelatively low-humidities, causing.very pleasant I • . conditions. Thunderstorms are :fairly common during: tfie sum-mer an d . characteris-ticallyoccur inost frequently during the • ! • • . afternoon and early eyening: hours. Wind speeds remain . fairly: . . constant, averaging, 9-10 m.p.h. throughout the year. Similar to. the. winter wind most of the. winds. are fromthe Winter . ' . . . ; . -. Jan., Feb.}: we.ather is . . changeable, with . . accompanied_by_ alternating. coUi . . ' . . . air mas ses. , . and changes inwind; direction, . . wind; speed: , precipitation, temperature, and: : in other metereological condit' .. ions . . average number 'of with minimum . temperatures. as low. as, O"F is. just seven per ::year .(29 year period, 1941:_ 1970)f . During the sa(ne period,. temperatures. fe1'J.:. as. low:• as freezing: (32-"F):: for almost one: half the year!-The record: low E-4

PAGE 66

Winter Climate Summary (can't.) temperature was -27"F (Feb. 1951). Normal minimum temperatures are in the high teens and normal maximum temperatures are in-the low forties. Snowfall is quite variable from .year to year. For the 34 year period (1948-1982), three s -easons have had less than20 inches of total snowfall while six other seasons have had winter snow falls inexcess of 60 In the winter season 1956-57, over 89 inches of snow were recorded fallen! In more than half of the wint.ers, snowfall amounts of at le.ast 30 inches were recorded. Ice storms and freezing rain are alsonotuncommon for Colorado Springs (see Table). Inspite of the inciement weather associated with winter frontal passages' the incidence of severe weather is actually greatest in -. . . . . . Spring, March & April (see Tables). Winter wind directions vary from the north through-north-northeast, with associated. wind -speedsaveraging ten m.p.h. Wind speeds and directions-of .course, affected' by topography; and therefore vary from;. place to place • . . * Inches of snowfall as recorded: equivalent inches of moisture" . .

PAGE 67

Solar . Radiation The Colorado Springs area receives an average of 1600 Btu/S .F.-Day sob!"r radiation oil annual basis . . The maximum solar radiation,. as measured on a horizontal surface,, occurs from•: Aprilthrough-September,: with-. ranging: between. 2370:Btu/S.F.-Day,reaching its highest in June • . Late summer (July, Aug., Sept., Oct.) is the season with, the maximum number of clear days. (15 per month average) and \ with. the greatest amounts pre.cipitation occurring in. June, July' & August. It of course foll.ows that most of this rain . comes inbrief but regular thunderstorms . . winds .•. The annual ' prevail-ing .. wind' s . a . t the Colorado. Springs port are' from the nor.th and' northeast and average 10.2 , . . . . . . . . , . . . however,_ . regarding: . our Site, this: is-. not totally accurate . t .he winter months. , the winds occasionally. shift, ing, coJdl: mountain air fromthe north-northwest. This wind accounts.for extreme .. temperature drops in December & January' . E-6

PAGE 68

. .. . . ' . .. ; !' . .-:;/ . ! . • . . Precipitation . . . Precipitation in the Colorado Springs. areais variable from season to season and. year to year. Annual precipitation averages.16 inches; (1941-19.70 period}. _The highest monthly average occurs-: during. the summer; July has the highest' . . . .. monthly amount: (3 i largely due. to thunderstorms. . . . . . . . . ' -. Minimum precipitation in December. (. 27 inches) • . Annual precipitation amounts have variedas much as 17 . . 1943 and 1982, the annual minimum was 8.6 in . . in 1964 _and the maximU[\1 was 25.4 inches j.n 1965 • . As. much as a : inches of rain. has fallen. in a single month (June 1975) and . . . . as much .as 3:. 73 . inches in a e single 24 hol:lr . period, (Aug. 1976}. Hall, free.zingrain, and.; ice storms are also not uncommon for Coloi::ado Springs. (see: Tables) • Measurable snowfall may : occur before October'with> snbwfall amounts: being: qu'ite steady . . . .' . . . . . . . . from November through February, ave.raging. 150:• inches per month . The greatest. accumulations of sn.ow occur in March. arid April, . . with Ma.rch,. snowfall usually. doubling;. that of January . . Blizzards are least likely to occur in January and:, February and. most likely to. occur inMarch and April. The record snow-. ' fall, 43':: inches, occurred, iri April 195 T resulting. from greatest 18 inches-. in 24 Another. blizzard•' . E 7'

PAGE 69

Precipitation (con't.) .deposited 17 inches in September, 1959. A cummulative totab of approximately. 43 inches of snow . ' fa-lls. annual'ty: ; however it is the _ author 1 s opinion in ' the two -years-he' has resided:. ih Colorado, that there_ is. nothing. . . . . . :. predi'ctable regarding snow : in Colorado . • blizzards. will . . . deposit .huge : quantlties. of snow overnight,. and when you would ieast expect. it • . However, provided good solar access is pro. . v:i.ded the designer may 'take of Colorado Is other, great. solar radiation' and m:Lnimize any. p 'otential . problemS. . associ.ated with long term snow build-up . ',. :. . : . . , : ._ . . . : ; . . : .. . , ' ' ... .. . . ... . .• '' ' . .. ' . . ' . . . . . ..; ... . . . . . . • E---s

PAGE 70

. . . -,) Solar Angles J * Edward'i. Mazria, The Passive Solar Energy Book,_ (Emmaus, Pa. : . Rodale-Press,. 19"79).' p • .283. E . g -..

PAGE 71

' • : , I ''.', • •.•.";i '$.•.' Climatic Analysis The site microclimate plays a large role in determining the form-of this= program . • It. is:. this" author' s belief. ' • ' that good:: design must be responsive to it's. -climate and: that . . . . . . :Due: tothe unique qualities, of the site and its. great solar all facilities .. shall: be daylit to whatever degree _ . is best suited• to For all facilities except :the. ' , space, the opening. of the structures to the out-of-doors presents. : . : . . .. • S _trolling ehrough art shows. is. always nice when d1,1e to. the site ' s . very impressive . . . . . . . . . . . . -. beauty ; it demands: that the arts . . and, crafts, activities. be an ., . . . -. . : .: ...... : ., . . {n: ; all: ppen-air-:mar}tets. , . . to . . be and to obtain . . . _use Of the throughout. the s .teps must be _ to•-at.tempt. to, minimizethe' aspects. of the weattier: ',-. . : " . . . : . . . . . . . . . Sun:while: the . many ; attributes, during. the: peak ' slunnier months-without; shading: of 'boeh" the: build-ing ' s . : windows' and.-skylights. and.• andi a :ll proc_e.ssionaL are:as for. the public , : '' ... the site' will. become unuseable. ' ' ' ' ' . Wind::-For. further . summer cooling; , all outdoor spaces .: take. advantage of_ summer fromthe south and" southeast for structures should\: be-sited' whenever possible .to; block the' north< and: northwest winds: inherent in . . • cold\. frohts.

PAGE 72

. _,. . . , . . J:i •-. Climatic _ Analysis Rain-As was shown _in the precipitation-data,-during the . peak summer months daily downpours are quite coriunonplace and-should' : be If-the. Performance is to be out side-, the stage should: be permanently covered to protect the . and tp not hindcar . Ol:' bother the. actors if an unexpected thunderst:or'm c omes--_in _during_ a performance . should bemade to quickly and quietly:: cover the audience in some manner so, as not to int.errupt the.' performance . . If the Perforlllance: Cent_er : is an enclosedspace then this will' not be such. a critical issue; evaluating the feasibility of' such : a scheme .. will-determine the _ best approach tobe taken. Regarciing_ all arts and crafts areas,_ the artist .should have at least onesection of his area as en -closed space so that he may protect his from the . The solution. to this problem becomes =_evert-. more difficult when one considers: heavy .sculptur_es-that can't eas:i,ly be mqved around' . " ' . Snow -The snowfall characteriSically. determines the length df. 1:he. -season in any outdoor facility and_ it will be the use _ _ of the site's solar. ac9ess _ . . will allowfor fastsnow melting_ . enable the fac:ility: to stay. open to its projected date each -season despite untimely snowfalls . . '.-, .. . .. . . . ' . _. .. . .. . ... . ... . . < .. -: ' . . : -.

PAGE 73

• . Zoning .. • ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARTWEST .

PAGE 74

Zoning/ Development Plan. Asallcity parks are designated to belong to the R-1 6000 .. Single Family Residentiat cat.egory, with pe.rmitted conditio.nal uses:beirtg only schools and religou,s instit'-lt . ions; the of this. project will depend" upon its . . . acceptance by the City Planning_Commission-and the_City Council, for the.granti:rig of a Special The need . . . for a Special Permit was of course ne.cessitated by the. of the Site, and these organizations _ wou .ld wiliing. . . . . . . -. . . . to grant such a . . provide. d the . standard procedures are . followed with -the submittal of a Development Plan which .. satisfies all the following performance .. criterea. For the purposes: . of project, one aspect pf the six week . reviewc wili be for . . the. jur. y . to put themselves: in 'the place ... a : zoning to. determine if Development .•. Plan (and> the design) be acceptable. . ' . -;_ . . F l

PAGE 75

' • .. 1 ..... • • • ... . ': . ..... . l ' • .. . . . : Zoning Submittal Requirements A. Indication of scale (1"=100') and. a bar scale .North Arrow C. The location, . exterior horizontal dimensions and . proposed' height of all bui-ldings with reference to property lines and' public rights. of way. D. All publ,ic and private. easements. . . . . E All: ex:Lsting. andi/o:t .Proposed, entrance and'-exit curb-cuts , deceleration and-acceleration lanes, traffic island: and other devices • . F. All existing buildings . . or portions of buildings. , parkirtg.lots, etc. that .will remain • . G . Proposed demolition of any existing. structures. , .. parking lots , etc. . . H. All pedes.trian walkways or sidewalks (existing or proposed). . . . . l. Locationof fences and signs, withappropriate dimensional information.. • : and ions. of areas, . • . i:iu1mb'e• r of parking-stalls arid all driving. or maneuvering.lanes, parking formula . .used, ('typical . . . parking. st:ails. may be indicated-to' eliminate rep-itition: of all stalls). K. Genera l u se o . f all L • . Vicin;ity map (does. not ta be to scale-).. M. Landscaping.Plan. Indicate adjoiniJ:lg as . . to,. sign'ificant . buildings. , , parking, :access drives, vacant, zoning. Show -any:adjoiiting: .existing:. or. proposed: , . :rights: _ o:fway;' and•: . • Legend: indicating. information, on plan; . ie ," density. : ; . G.L .Aq etc. . . . . . . . • . . Existing and proposed. contours at. intervals. Lighting::.Standards , . . and> height._ s . . . . . fut'ure if known. F 2

PAGE 76

.. .... : ,. . . .. . '. '.;;. . .'; . ' . Zoning Criteria for Review A. D oes the proposed development have a detrimental effect upon the general health, welfare, safety and convenienc e of persons residing or working in theneighborhood of the proposed: development? B. Does the proposed development provide for adequate light and,: air botb' on and off the site? D. Are the height,. area,_ setbacks and hulk of the structures. : plus the 1c:mdscaping appropriat:etothe the neighborhood' and the .community?' . . . . Are. the ingress /egresspoints. , the internal tl;:'affic cir culation, off-street parkl.rig facilities, loading and ser vice and pedestrian ways. designed. so as to promote safety, convenience-and ease. oftraffic flow both on and off the site? ' E. Doe s the proposed development overburden the. capacities of existing streets,utilites, parks, o .ther publi9 facilit:hes.?" . . : . . . . . ._ Does the proposed' development. promote: the. conservation of the existing_ property values o.f adjacent .areas and' . stabilization of sutrour1:di.rtg resddertti.al neighbor.;. . . ' G .. Does the plan show how any potentially _poor use relationships use adjacent singlefamily homes) .. wilt. : be mitigated ? . . H . Is the proposed: . developmen: t plan, in all elements of theCity:.' s . Comprehensive Plan? : . .... .. : ,,, , . :::. '' . : . . . . : : ... . F -J :

PAGE 77

• ZONING MAP 0 .. ,. F -4 ;.. ,:.,..: . ' I I i I • . /,.-, 1:

PAGE 78

... co.des .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ARTWEST

PAGE 79

Occupancy Group (Table SA) Group Description A-2 Assembly building with an occupant load of less than 1000 and a stage. Allowable Floor Area (Table SC) Types of Construction Occupany I II III IV Type F.R. F.R. 1 Hr. 1 Hr. H. T. 1 Hr A-2 Unlimited 29,900 13500 13500 13500 F.R. Fire Resistive Heavy Timber v 1 Hr. 10500 The above analysis leads to the conclusion that provided the building should be less th1 n 13,500 gross sq.ft., great flexibility may be had by building in any type of construction except Type V. Maximum Height of Buildings Allowable Stories Allowable Height (Table SD) Unlimited (except by zoning) Unlimited (except by zoning) Requirements for Group A Occupancies (Chapter 6) Location on Property -Buildings housing 'Group A' occupancies shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20 feet in width. The access to the public street shall be a minimum 20 foot wide righ t -ofway, unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street. The main entrance to the building shall be located on a public street or access way. * All code information from : Uniform Building Code, 1982 G 1

PAGE 80

Fire Resistive Construction Requirements: (Table 17-a) Type I II III Exterior Bearing Walls I+ 4 4 Interior Bearing Walls 3 2 1 Structural Frame 3 2 1 Permanent Partitions 1 1 1 Shaft Enclosures 2 1 1 Floors 2 1 1 Roofs 2 1 1 Occupancy Unit Live Loads (Section 23; Table 23-A) Occupancy or Use Live Loads/Sq. Ft. Assembly Theatre Lobby Theatre stages, gridirons, fly galleries Corridors/Stairs Storage Light 60 100 125 100 125 IV 4 1 ..L 1 1 1 1 1 Heavy 250 (not less than) Offices so Restrooms 100 G 2 hour hour or H.T. or H.T. or H.T. or H.T.

PAGE 81

Fire Resistive Protection of Exterior Walls and Openings as Determined by Location on Property -Fire resistance of exterior walls = Lt. hour. Openings in exterior \".valls -for a setback of less than 20 feet from the property line, must have a 3/4 hour rating. Light, Ventilation and Sanitation All portions of the buildings used by human occupants shall be provided with natural or artificial light. The mech anically operated ventilating system shall be capable of supplying a mlnlmum 5 CFM outside 3ir with a total circulated of not less than 15 CFM per occupant during occupied times. Type I, II, III Construction General (Section 1801) The structural elements in Type I, II & III buildings shall be of steel, concrete or masonry. Walls and partitions shall be noncombustible fire-resistive construction except that interior non-bearing partitions of one hour or two fire-resistive construction, which are not part of a vertical enclosure, may have fire retardant treated wood within the rated assembly. Structural Framework (Section 1802) Structural framework shall be of structural steel, reinforced concrete or masonry. Exterior Walls and Openings (Section 1803) Exterior Walls: Exterior Walls and all structural members therein shall comply with the requirements specified in Table 17-A. Exceptions: 1. Nonbearing walls fronting on streets or yards having a width of at least 40 feet may be of unprotected noncombustible construction. 2. Exterior nonbearing walls may be of one hour fire resistive noncombustible construction where unprotected openings are permitted and 2 hour fire resistive noncombustible construction where fire protection of openings is required. G 3

PAGE 82

Floors (Section 1804) (a) Floor Construction: Floor assemblies shall be of noncombustible fire resistive construction except that wood flooring may be applied over a concrete floor slab. (b) Mezzanine Floors: Mezzanine floors shall be constructed of one-hour f-.Lre resistive construction and materL>ls. Stairs (Section 1805) Stairs and landings shall be constructed of reinforced concrete or structura l steel. lYP.e IV Construction Columns (Section 2106) Wood columns may be of sawn timber or structural gluedlaminated timber not less than 8 inches in any dimension when supporting roof or floor loads except as noted. Floor Framing Beams and girders may be of sawn timber or structural gluedlaminated timber and shall not be less than 6 inches in width and not less than 10 inches in depth. Framed saw n timber or glu-lam arches which spring from the floor line and support floor loads, shall not be less than 8 inches in any dimension. Framed lumber or glu-lam trusses supporting floor loads shall not be less than 8 inches in any dimension. Roof Framing Framed sawn timber or glu-lam arches which do not support floor loads shall be not less than 6 inches in any dimension. When protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system under the roof deck, framing members shall not be less than 3 inches in thickness. Floors Floors shall be of planks, splined or tongue and groove without concealed spaces, of not less than 3 inches in thickness covered with 1 inch tongue and groove flooring laid crosswise or G -4

PAGE 83

Exits Use as defined by Program Theatre Lobby Storage and Support Facilities Offices Art Gallery Dance Studio Stage Total Use Theatre Lobby Offices Art Gallery Dance Studio Stage Multiple ?torey Exit Ft2 Occupant Load 10,000 5) 000 I 15,000 600 2,000 1,500 39,100 Occupant Load 600 600 6 200 30 35 600 600 100 6 1.50 30 35 1521 No. of 4 6 1 2 1 1 Exits Occupant load of that storey plus a percent of occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration. A. 50% of occupant load of storey above and below. B. 25% of occupant load in stories immediately above and below the first adjacent storey. Arrangement and Distance to Exits Maximum travel distance to exit 150 feet (no automatic fire sprinkler system) Maximum travel distance to exit 200 feet (w/ automatic fire sprinkler system) Minimum distance between exits 25 feet G -5

PAGE 84

Side Exits Exit width must equal occupant load served must open directly to a public way, exit court, exit stairway, or exterior stairway. Must be accessible from a cross aisle. Corridor and Exterior Exit Balconies Width 44'' minimum Height 7'-0" min. Maximum dead end 20 feet. Stage Exits (Section 3907) At least one continuous exit, not less than 36 inches in width shall be provided from each side of the stage, opening directly or by means of a passageway to a street or exi t court. (a) Width: An exit stair at least 2' -611 wide, shall be provided for egress from each fly gallery. (b) Egress: Each group or vertical t ier of dressing rooms shall be provided with at least two means of egress, and each shall be at least 2'-6" in width. (c) Enclosure: Stairs required in this section need not be enclosed. Stairways (Section 3306) Width 44'' min. 36" min. 30" min. Rise Run Landings 4" min. 1011 min. f:. I min. 50 or 49 or 10 or 71.11 ' 2 max. (straight run) more occupants less occupants less occupants 12' max. vertical distance between landings equal to width of stairway Head Room : 6'-6" min. Aisles (Section 3313) Standard Seating: Minimum width 3' -0" One side only 3'-6" Both sides Add width for each 5 feet in length from the farthest distance to an.exit. Continental Seating : minimum idth. G 6

PAGE 85

Seating (Section 3314) Standard seating: 12 inches f rom the back of one seat to the front of the most forward projection of the seat behind. Continental Seating: Clear th (Aisle) Number of seats in 18 inches 18 or less 20 inches 35 or less 21 inches 45 or less 22 inches 46 or more Stages and Platforms Gridirons (Section 3903) a row Gridirons, fly galleries, and pinrails shall be constructed of noncombustible materials, but protection of steel and iron members may be omitted. Gridirons and fly galleries shall be designed to support the live loads as indicated in Chapter 23. (a) Loft Blocks. Each loft block well shall be designed to support 250 pounds per lineal foot, and the head block well shall be designed to support the aggregate weight of all the loft block wells served. The head block well shall be provided with a strongback or lateral brace to offset torque. (b) Sheaves. The main counter .. sheave beam shall be designed to support a horizontal and vertical uniformly distributed live load, sufficient to accomodate the t-7eight imposed by the total number of loft blocks in the gridiron. The sheave blocks shall be designed to accomodate the maximum load of the loft blocks served with a safety factor of 5. Rooms accessory to Stages (Section 3904) Rooms accessory to a stage shall be separated from each other and from the stage by at least a one-hour non-combustible fire separation. G -7

PAGE 86

Proscenium Walls (Section 3905) (a) Construction: Stages shall be completely separated f rom the auditorium by a proscenium wall of at least one-hour non-combustible construction. The proscenium wall shall extend to the underside of the roof deck over the auditorium. (b) Openings: All openings, other than proscenium openings, shall be protected with fire dampers as required in Ch.52. Stage Floors (Section 3906) (a) Construction: All portions of stage floors shall be built in accordance with the requirements of this Building Code, and shall be constructed of materials no less fire-resistant than the building or structure housing the stage, and in no case shall the construction be less than one-hour fireresistive non-combustible construction. Wood coverings may be instal1ed, providing such wood covering shall be of at least 2 inch nominal thickness. wood sleepers are used for the laying of wood floors, the space between the floor slab and the underside of the wood covering shall be filled with non-combustible material or firestopped, so that there will be no open spaces under the flooring which will exceed 100 square feet in area. See Chapter 38 for fire sprinklers under stages. (b) Openings: Openings through stage floors shall be equipped with tight fitting trap doors of wood at least 2 inches in nominal thickness. Platforms (Section 2907) (a) Construction: Walls and ceilings of an enclosed platform in an assembly room shall be of at least one-hour fire-resistive construction. (b) Accessory Rooms: Rooms accessory to a platform shall be separated from each other by at least a one-hour fire-resistive separation. Fire Sprinkler Systems Required 1) Where floor area exceeds a. at proscenium arch b. under gridiron c. under stage floor d. in tie & fly galleries e. storerooms, carpenter shops, etc. G -8

PAGE 87

. . . ' . . . . . ' . . . . . .. . . . ' . . . . . .. ' . . . ARTWEsr.

PAGE 88

Performing Arts Fadlity . . . P•lt two: C.,...l Construction Cost litiiUtes end Funclint Sources . . . . . Tak . e.tlmate C.pllal ConstrucUon eoata , Perfonnlng Arts "Hard'' Costs Site acquisition Site preparation Utility_ extensions oemoljtion Building Construction ---Room tYpe, . ----Number of square feet, @ ------Cost per square foot = . type, ---Number of square feet,@ ----Cost per square foot = . (and so on for additional rooms) . Site construction (parking, landscaping, etc.) Movable furniture .. Soft" Costs Permit fees . Real estate and legal fees Architects and building consultant design fees Insurance during construction . Interim taxes . . . Construction financing Contingencyfund: (15 percent or higtlerof subtotal_) : ... . : . Hints • . $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ . .. $ $ . $ 11 .. Hard'; costs include"bricks and mortar" expenses to build the building-. and the necessary . equipment-to run the facility. These costs typically make up between 66-75 percent .ofthe totarproject cost. 11 "Soft'' costs include such items as design . and . legal fees, insurance and .. . . . taxes during construction; and . construction , financing: These costs . . tYpically make up 25-33 percent of the total pr9ject costs; . 11 At this stage of the planning process. rough "ball estimates are close enough, with a margin of error between 20-25 percent ot.ac::tualcosts. Later on; you will make more detailed estimates. '

PAGE 89

' \.-. :>'!.' '. Talk 7 . EsUmate Current. Assets on Hand Available for Capital ConstrucUon and Potential Fund• from Public and Private SoUrc.S, Performing Arts . Current assets available for capital construction ' Local Funding Sources (city or county) .Bond revenues (general obligation, revenue, other) . Generaf.tax funds: (generally a on&-time allocation,. for planning or construction) . tax funds (o/o for art, . coaVoil, etc:}; . Categorical grants State Government Funding : Sources Special programs and grants State arts council grants State historical society Federal Government Funding Sources . Department of Commerce (Economic Administration) . Department of Energy Department of Housing and Urban Development (Community block deve!opment . action grants) .. National Endowment for the Arts. . . . . . ' ' . . . (plannang grants; challenge grants) ; National Endowment for the • National Trust for Historic .Pr•rvation Other programs Private Contributions and Grants Individual contributions Corporate and business contributions . Fundraising events Donated services, materials, and facilities . Foundation . grants and coi1tributions ' . Private Investment insurance and bank loans . Special low interest loans : . Other Funding Sources Specific to Situation (developer's contribution, student tees, matching funds, sale of air rights, etc.) $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ . $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ , $ $ $ $ $ $ $ . . . * Catherine • Brown , Wil-liam B.o Fleissig , , . William R. Morrish, , , . Building for the Arts, (Santa Fe,. N''.M.: Western States. Arts Fpund . 1984) .. , , p.l89-190 .

PAGE 90

Appendix ... . . . . ' I . . . . . . ARTWE

PAGE 91

Appendix 1 • 0 IAN I T-0-u-• S P R IN LOCATION MAP •. ., .• I . ) . 22 (j A 'l D .. OF T 26 . +

PAGE 92

Appendix 1 , ' I I I , , , ,.----------I r-• ' PARK PLANcurrent use 1'= 16oo" • --------------------u.-Prepared by Colorado Dept. of. Na tura l Resources

PAGE 93

Appendix 1 TOPOGRAPHIC MAP • U . S . Geological Survey Map

PAGE 94

Appendix 2 NORMAL TEMPERATURE RELATIVE HUMIDITY 11+. tf!Z-1 L.. MAl' JJL: r ac..:r . o-./. 96:::.L" :r t>O r: li 11 1'4 11 "'4 14 t1 rt 14 11 r1 .J l"t ,., P1 -;:r t1 I ; -r -. -. . . -. . ---.. . ---(,o r l -z.o t . -. --. . .. .. -: lJ vi'\ . -ll -v .. . ... r.. . -II'" . . ' ' n I J v --1 ) II' 'I -, _ . . ---" I J 1\ I J I J 1\ 1...1 l. l.l "" t-Il 1\.U -!'..,. ri . . . ---. . .. -.. ---. -... . 1---+ --0

PAGE 95

A pp endix 2 WIND SPEED & DIRECTION J . Fee.. f1A.a_, Af12.t L MA( Jut4E. JtJL::( a<:-..1: (>.../ • ge,c., fe.AP-Nt-jC:. ri rlrle I'! He. r--f-1 -----t-r-r-. . -----t-t --r-0 -SNOW ACCUMULATIONS 1 ::0 loc 0

PAGE 96

Appendix 2 DEGREE DAYS CLOUD COVER . L JI.Jt-16. ..J _,. 5ePr a::.[. . J;E.G--------------------,.. ... ... P"' t-1--P"' P"' 1-1-1'1" r... 1-1-.. 1-1 : 1-1-I-!-11-1-+-1-.. ..... I • ' ....... _ ......... ..

PAGE 97

2 Appendix 2 PRECIPITATION J MAJ:Z.. Af'F21 L MA"( JUNE .1 t..lL 1' c:;x...T No-1 pee., '(E.AfC. 1--------. -.... ,.... 1 --------------------Cl ... .__ ---------1----1-----f--------f--f----. --1----------' 1--1 t---j---1----1------. f----1 ---1 -----1 ---t---r---1-------------------I 1-1-t------' 1t --t -t-r=" I-I---1 --1 --,_ r--,..... 1---: -f---f----1--1--lrf i f I 1--r.-;:r Ld r-r .......... -e-• 11'-1 '2.4 PRECIPITATION DAYS ,OJ J . o P1Cif&8

PAGE 98

Appendix 2 SOLAR RADIATION ----.. -------t---+--+----1-----'l_lcx::.. ---+----1-----------------1---1----+---t-----11----+-+--------------------+----+------l---t---'-r----1---c---1----:---1 r-----+-+--+--1-1---t--l--11--1-. -I etx>t-----+---t-----11-t---t-+--t--+-i-t--f-+-1---r---+---+----1--------1----+---t----..,.---,1--1---f1 t--+-+1 --------1-------it-=----1-luoc --------. ----1-+-; --------t----1----'-.. ---1--lf-t--1--t-t. . . . 1 --f----1,......._.-+--+---1----.---t---!tlw -----+----'----+-+---t--t--11---1-f--1-r------1 --------1---+--_ , __ r-----'---1----1--1-1-1---t---t--t--f--t-1---1--11-1-------------t---...-.tl--1-1 l'lCV ,...._ ---1--1--1-1 ---1--. . .. .. --. .. . . . ---1---+-----lt--f---t-t -t-il --1-----. --1 i --l-+-1 -l--+-t---1-t-1--+-t-+--+-+----it-t---11-t 1-t---1-+--1---11--i--l--l-ll---i-l-t--t-t -.. iZI"'IA"floH ME:.At-1 OOJL 1 Cf fl.P.-oiA-"f'OH (0112-6C-T OiffU"'JE:.) ot-l A f!>.l"eEO 1 9L\-I-1,10 ). ( . NA11 at4.-t4. 4 -Lc..o

PAGE 99

. . . . : . . : .. Appendix 3 Wall Constructions and Their STC's. l{aaoney W a.lla • . l. 1'• plaster, 4" brick, 1'' pla.ater 2. i" plaster 1 41" brick, jn plaater 3' r plaster; 10" ' brick, t piaster, 4 1" plaater, 2" caviv _. vire li'' brick, t• plaater 5 ailma. aa B'o. 41 bUt without viro tiea . 6. t• plaator, atoae 1" plaster Frame Walla. 7 • . . ta' f!P•um _ board, 2 Z: 4 atuda, t" 'board. . .. . 8. aame a.a llo .7, _. W:i th 2" rockwool bla.Dket 9 t• plaater, 3/8" g.ypaum board, resilient clips, 2 4 wood studs, resilient clipe, 3/811-maum board, i'' plaster ll>/tt2 43 55 100 100 100 280 13 i'loor mel their STC • a. Ccmorete . . . . . 1. -4" poured-in-place slab . 2-. ........ N'o. l, with 1/8" til• )'. c•• &a No. l,. except with carpet . 4• _ topped. with _ 3/ 4" mortar -Wood.-joiat J'loora. 5 7/8" wood',-T & a, 2 joiate, : 3/8" . QP_aWA board --. .6. . azld ' pad, li" liptweigh t . . 5/811 pl3'woocl, 2 ' x 8 joiets , , 5/8 . it &J'P8\UD board: 7 ' . 'carpet and pad, .. 5/8" sub-_ .. floor,_ 2'' airspace (on sleepers) , _ . ju cane 'board, t plywood: 2 % a wood: joists, l'' rockwool ' blaukat, eupport, 5/8" s;ypaum board;: lbe/ft2 53 54 54 28 l ll.l STC 40+ 42 52' 49 54 56• 33 36 . 51 STC IIC 44 25 44 28 44 so .. 42 32 34 . 32 51 78

PAGE 100

' . ' I .. ' . . . . ' . . . . . .. . . . . Bibliography . . . . . .. . . : . ... . , ,, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -. -. ... . . . . . . . . . . . ' ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • .. o • ' o • ' ' • • I '•' , : :•, ' . . . : _ . . .. . . . . . . . . . • 0 . . . ' 0 . . . . ,, .. : .. . . ARTWES(

PAGE 101

. Bibliography ; . Catherine R., Fleissig William B., & William B Building for theArts . . Santa Fe, New Mexico: Westem States Art' s Foundation, 19.84. City. of Colorado .. Springs' Plarinirig: Office,. Zoning Ordinance: , 1984-. . . . . Departrnfmt theArmy, Office of. the Chief. of Be sign Guide for Crafts Centers. Alexandria, Virginia, No . . DG 1110-3-124 . . . :F.w. Corporation, Time-Saver Standards.. New York:. F .w' . Dodge 1946. > .Green, ._Kev .in, .W.,. The Theatre as a Stage. D Pa,rtners 1983. , . . . ' . . . .... . Guthrie-, Tyrone, at Actor and Architect, .. Stephen Joseph,. editor. ManchesteJ:'., _ .. England: Manchester UniversityPr.ess , 1964. . . :, ' . of. Build;it1-g Ofi:i.cials pnfforin::Buildirig . 'Whit' tl.er; : ca:liforriia,: ,1979. . . ,'. . , .. Sean , . "The Shape .of the Theatre,''' Actor and,, : Architect,_ .stephen Joseph,. editor . . Manchester,. Englc:tnd: Manchester . Unive:rsity. Press , ... 1964 • . . . .. . . . . _. . Kreisberg: ,., Luisa: , . the Arts. washington. American Co.uticil.,for: the Ar.ts,,;:l9}9; .:,• ' McGuiness., Stein,. Electricat EqUipment for Buildings. New• York: John, Wiley._ & Sons, ,. 1980"; . -, : ... Mi.elziner . J(, . & . Clarkson-N., The Shapes .of Our Theat:re . . : __ New_;_>Yor k.;_-: -._ . . ... " .. __ . _ .. _., .... . ... ".'' -. . ': , . . • -.' .. . . . _ . -. ,.

PAGE 102

. ; . . . NationalWeather Service,."LocalClimatalogicalnat.a," Colorado Springs, Cqlorado ; . 19.84. Peck, Robert A., Issues in Supporting the Arts, Caroline Violette & Rachelle Taqqu,. editors. Cornell University: Cornell Uni:versity, Press, 1982. Roberts: , . Howc:Lrd C., Acousticks, Silverman, MaxWell,. Contemporary Theatre Architecture. , AnIltustra,ted: Survey. New York, NewYork: New York Public Library 1965. Southern; Richard, !'Unusual Forms of Stage," Actor and Architect,. Stephen Joseph; editor.Marichester, England: Manchester .University Press, Wagner, Walter F.. , Jr. , . editor, ''Planning the. Urban. Marketplace ,-" . . Architectural 1980 . _,;

PAGE 103

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I / I I I / I I I J / / / / ( I I ' ... / .... .....__--/ I I I I I I I / I I I .... / / I I ! / / I ,.... r" ( / / \ ' \ \ ) \ I I I I I I \ I J I ) I I / (-... I '....) I I I I I I \ \ I 1 I I Location Map / ( \ I I I I I I I I ....... ' ) ' ' I r ' I ' , I \ \ ' '\ '\ \ I I I I I I I I I I I \ \ ' \ ' ,_ \ \ \ ' ' \ \ \ ' \ ARTWEST I < L -

PAGE 104

N C) Axonometric View V'•'i.&

PAGE 105

I Plaza Level Plan V16•t ARTWEST

PAGE 106

View to North

PAGE 107

. . View to Northeast

PAGE 108

East Elevation Residences South Elevation VB-1-0' Upper Level VB'-1:..& .Section A A ve••'-OJ Section BB ve• .. F & N C) Lower Level ARTWEST

PAGE 109

Entry Mainstage Auditoreum I I I I I I II I I I I l lJ r-r I.JJ L ..r I 1-=J Section thru Theatre VB-1-0 ARTWEST

PAGE 110

S hippiogi Rec eMng 0 Se<:r e r arial 0 R ehea r s a l R oo m 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Scene Shop 0 0 Pa in t Shop 0 G ene t a l SIOt"age Outd oor Art s & Crells Area Lower Level Plan 1/ -1'-0'" ARTWEST