Citation
Senior citizen housing project

Material Information

Title:
Senior citizen housing project
Creator:
Grady, Regina M.
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Environmental Design, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Regina M. Grady. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
SENIOR CITIZEN HOUSING PR 3JECT Date Du©
4 2.1

A Thesis Program .{ Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate University of Colorado at

—
School Denver —— ——j ! f
environmental design
auraria library
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Architecture
by
Regina M. Grady December 1978


TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
STATEMENT
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS GOAL
OBJECTIVES
PROGRAM
Project Description
<
Site Determinants
Site Analysis Considerations
Dwelling Units
Financing
Cost Analysis
Dwelling Unit Sizing
Outline Specifications
APPENDIX A- Barrier Free Design Data
Design Criteria Checklists Building Standards
APPENDIX B- Hudson Colorado
Statistics, Data and Maps
APPENDIX C- Hudson Area Survey Results


INTRODUCTION
The elderly comprise an ever increasing segment of todays' population. It is estimated that by the year 2000, there will be twenty nine million people over the age of sixtyfive. These people are living longer, and have developed specialized needs for survival and habitation. In order for them to maintain a high level of activity supporting health, their living environment must be designed and developed to cater to these specific needs. A direct and comprehensive response by the archetect to the physical, perceptual, psychological, and social needs of the elderly resident is imperative in developing an appropriate senior citizen housing design.
The critical test for any elderly housing project is how well the environment enables the residents to retain their independence as they age. The environment for the elderly must be arranged such that it enables them to enjoy a more satisfying life in their later years, creating a high degree of livability, and just basically making life easier.
A major problem facing the aged today is economic situation. Those who own their own homes often find the upkeep and maintenance becoming more costly and difficult with the years.
Great psychological adjustments have to be made when an elderly person is forced to give up his home, and relocate to better housing. This situation often separates them from friends, established living patterns, and community support provided by their old familiar neighborhood. Adjusting to the


new "leisurely" lifestyle of retirement after so many years of employment is difficult, but compounded by reduced income, limited mobility, a drastic change in living environment, fear of accidents, diminishing health, and eventually, death, it is an adjustment which may reduce ones life span by as much as ten years.
To discourage the tendency of the elderly to withdraw from society, and to encourage self-esteem and independence, a housing complex must provide a strong tie with the mainstream of the surrounding community. At the same time, it must create an environment where the senior citizen feels in command of his own life, both private and social aspects.
PROBLEM STATEMENT
DESCRIPTION: A senior citizen community, on a k.5 acre parcel, comprised of 30 housing units, and a community center is planned for the town of Hudson, Colorado. Adequate indoor and outdoor recreational activity areas, hobby, craft and assembly areas, laundry, some dining facilities, and a gerontological health care clinic, shall be integrated into the Hudson Community Center, both for economic reasons, and also to promote social interaction between the senior community, and the Hudson community.


BACKGROUND
Concerned residents of the town of Hudson had been investigating the feasibility of building a small rural housing complex to shelter their aged population. In the fall of 1977 a team of UCD MURP students conducted surveys to determine the needs and interests of the Hudson Community, to be analyzed and processed into a Comprehensive Plan for the town.
A definite need for senior citizen housing was indicated by this survey. Excerpts from the Comprehensive Plan, and copies of the survey have been inserted in this program to provide the background data on Hudson, Colorado.
PRIMARY CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SENIOR CITI1EN HOUSING
A. Choice of Housing Design is Dependent Upon Residents':
1. mobility status
2. health
3* degree of social interaction
4. desire for wervices 5* independent nature
B. Designs Differ and Must Be Adjusted According to:
1. residents' needs and desires
2. percentage of married couples 3* density allowance (per acre)
4. future land usage
5« percentage of ambulatory residents


6. wheel chairs
7- activity preferences
C. Choice of Housing, a Combination of the Following is Preferred
1. self maintained apartments for elderly
2. "domiciliary"housing units e.g. dining facilities, social services, programs, ect.
3. retirement community with emphasis on leisure activities and protected environment
meeting
working
competing
learning
worship
D. Spaces within Units Designed According to Archetypical
Behavior:
sleeping
mating and intimate conversation grooming nourishment excretion storing
passive activity (contemplating, planning, waiting, spying, watching, meditation...)
engaged activity (motor satisfaction, role testing, role changing, role breaking, exercising, fantasy, creation, discovery, dominance, ect...) locomotion (perimeter checking, territorial information,
place changing)


GOALS
1. "Maintain Small Town Atmosphere and Residential Character of Hudson".
2. Design for the Specific Needs of the Hudson Residents, an Atmosphere which Will Compliment Cultural Backgrounds, Nurture Self Image, and Provide for Privacy Needs.
3* Design Quality Housing Units, as a Completely "Barrier Free" Environment, where Daily Actions and Tasks are Facilitated by each Carefully Designed Space, "Design from the Inside, Out".
OVERALL OBJECTIVES
1. Design for flexibility in living spaces. Approximately one quarter of the units will be designed specifically for residents confined to a wheelchair.
2. Establish a sense of community and privacy. Carefully integrate the site, individual living units, common areas, shared services, and the surrounding neighborhood to form a sense of community.
3- Provide a safe and barrier free environment, both indoors and outdoors, so that residents can feel secure in their new environment.
4. Encourage and promote recreational activity, and continuation of established life styles.
5* Design specifically for the special needs of the elderly,


so that their new environment will function to help com-
pensate for their deteriorating senses.
a. Vision- transition from light to dark, and vice versa
b. Stability- texture and height of hardware, and surfaces and items essential to their ambulatory capabilities
c. Temperature sensitivity and response to climate
d. Anthropometric limitations
e. Changing psychological attitudes- cater to fears of aged. Whether imagined or real, these pose
a threat to their existance.
PROGRAM
TYPE: Independent elderly housing and community center NO. OF UNITS; 30 units
DENSITY; Each designed for one or two residents
SIZE; Approximately 650 sq. ft. per unit, 700 sq. ft. preferred
OUTDOOR AREA; 65 sq. ft. + per unit
Recreational and garden areas provided A central common plaza is recommended PARKING: One space per unit required SERVICES AND FACILITIES:
a. Laundry- one washer and dryer per 10 units
b. Individual storage of 12 sq. ft.+
c. Central dining provided, cafeteria style designed


as a coffee shop as opposed to institutional dining
d. Medical clinic- 2 rooms approx. lOft.xlOft. proposed for once a week visit by circulating physician
e. Transportation- sheltered drop off areas provided
f. Activities rooms- this is determined by the final budget allotted to the Housing Authority of Hudson, Colorado, by the Farmers Home Association. At present, rooms being designed for are; crafts, study groups, table games, television lounges, meeting rooms, exercise, green house for indoor planting.
UNITS: type- townhouses height- one story
Units must meet all interior and exterior design standards set by;
a. University of Michigan Gerontological Research Dept.
b. Syracuse University Gerontological Research Dept.
c. Colorado State Code
d. HUD Handicapped Regulations
SITE: Site selection is decided on basis of needs of elderly, location of site in community, proximity of shops and services, location in neighborhood, and physical site feasibilities. (See site plan)
a. Size- ^.5 acres
^50 to 500 feet frontage on Route 52,
Main Street for housing. Site enlarges to 7 acres including the Community Center.


o. Boundaries- South: Route 52
c.
Climate-

North: Open field at 4% slope to North (proposed town park)
West: Private house occupies SW
corner 140' x 140' (approx.)
East- Essentially a flat field Temperature: design for +3 to -10F winter 90F summer
Precipitation and Flood Hazard; ppt fairly insignificant, no flood hazard. Soil is dry loose clay.
Sun: 12 noon- 71*45 June 22
" " 48 March-Sept. 2^1
" " 24-55 December 22
Winds: N-NW Winter S-SW Summer Gusts up to 100 MPH Indoor Design Temp.: 70F+ Research by N.Y. State Urban Development Corporation recommends 80F
a. Hazards
Pollutants- Shifting winds in summer bring unpleasant odors down from the North-West, the source of which are chicken manure storage tanks.
Noise- Possible buffer needed to sep-erate proposed park noise (north) from Senior Community.


£ITE_ AUALYt\i>



Other- Unpaved walkways to the shopping center of Hudson, Colorado, must be paved.
These run along Route 52, the southern border of the site.
SITE ANALYSIS CONSIDERATIONS:
a. Proximity to services relationship
Walkway system - Adequetely paved walkways
well lighted and maintained Snow removal Delineated crossv/alks Slopes less than 10$
b. Site proximity:
Service Distance
Food Store 1500 feet
Drugstore 1500 feet
Bank 2000 feet
Medical services 2500 feet
Post office 3000 f eet
c. Site evaluation:
Proximity to elderly population
Proximity to public transportation
Proximity to services
Automobile accessibility
Existing land use
Impact of proposed use
Site in floodplain?
Zoning
Size
Site in floodway?
Fair
No public
transportatioi
Good
Very good Undeveloped Moderate No
Not yet zoned 4*5 acres No


Site currently available?
Yes
DWELLING UNITS USER:
Age - elderly Occupation - retired
Lifestyle - Previous farm owners, primarily females
Previously owners of small, one story, private houses
Previous housing - Hudson residents, moving from deteriorating
wooden one story structures
MARKET:
Sponsorship - Hudson Housing Authority. Elected posts occupied by four Hudson residents Ownership - FHA funded. Rental type subsidized rent up to \ of residents1 fixed income Competition - Keenesburg, Colorado has 18 one story
attached units for senior citizens. Demand is high and the waiting list is large.
Financing - Steps:
1. Create local housing authority
2. Choose site
3> Annex site into city (City must have title
to the site)
4. Needs determination - how many people are ready to move into the development NOW.
Need twice as many people willing and ready to move in as there are units available.


Waiting list - good for documentation to HUD.
Need Determination System and Documentation:
a. Number of low and moderate income elderly households in 1978.
b. Number of acceptable housing units occupied by the above households in 1978
c. Need for low and moderate income elderly housing in Hudson in 1978.
d. Number of same low and moderate income elderly households in 1985*
e. Number of acceptable housing units occupied by these people in 1978 which are still acceptable in 1985*
f. Number of elderly housing units constructed in Hudson 1978 through 1980.
g. Changes in non-elderly populations during 1978 through 1985.
h. Need for senior housing in 1985*
(Subtract results of steps "e" and "f" from step "d". This basic need is then slightly modified by the result of step "g")
5. Go to FHA - deal with local county supervisor.
Ask about Rural Rental Housing Program. It is best to couple a FHA program with a HUD program where HUD pays FHA. However, FHA has their own rental program with their own rental assistance. The town, however, must pay insurance fees.


HUD - Federal Government Loan will lend the total construction cost at 7% interest, and cover the rent and utilities over the amount (up to $230) the tenant cannot pay.
Section 202 - Designed for elderly and handicapped. Through this we can try to get HUD to be the sponsor (non-profit corporation with managing units) of Section 515 (FHA) where loan is 6fo interest with permanent financing. FHA goes to a lending institution (bank), borrows the money and can be covered by HUD. Insurance fees still must be paid.
106A HUD - For architectural planning fees and land act (fronting)
525 FHA - Housing, but few funds available. Feasibility Study:
This must be done before submitting the preliminary request to FHA to determine economic feasibility. Steps: Overall - Development and operating expenses to figure rent per unit.
1. Figure cost for total development and land purchase.
2. Figure cost of preliminary loan (financing construction).
3* Figure long term financing at 8^fo interest.
Add in taxes and insurance and operating
expenses.


5- Forecast these for the next 50 years. Submitting Proposals:
FKA - Package deal. Make application to FHA -permanent financing, and request Section 8 (HUD Rental Assistance). FHA will process necessary paperwork through HUD.
Application Materials:
1. Preliminary application
2. .Architects' plans, evaluations, materials costs and management arrangements. (Possibilities for management are difficult. Could hire a fulltime manager or contract out a management service or a church association.)
Cost - Eallpark Figures For Row or Townhouses
A. Masonry Structure (hot water, forced air, good fenestration, carpet, good plaster) $30.4 sq/ft @ 750 sq/ft (~Sfo common walls) = $20,976
B. Masonary (average) $25-21 sq/ft @ 750 sq/ft = $17,395-5
Cost figures do not include balconies, pordhes or basements.
HUD rates Senior Citizen Housing at approx. $24.-$27- sq/ft @ $24,000 per unit.
C. The following materials help meet HUD's cost ceiling
V


COST ANALYSIS
(multiply sum total by 43*7% for '7?° prices)
Above
Service Avg. Construction Avg. Construction
Excavation (ft^) $.09 $-13
675.OO 975-00
total (30 units)
20,250.00 29,259.00
Fill • 99 .11
675-00 825.00
Site Prep (ft^) • 5-- -9 .8 -.11
37-5 - 67.5 60. - 82.5
Concrete Foundations (ft^) .47 .58
352.50 435.OO
Frame:
Bearing Walls (Wood) •25 •31
Floor Structure: Wood joists and
sheathing 1.58 I.87
insulation -17 .22
Floor Covers
Carpet and pad 1.10 1.50
Rubber tile (bath) 1.08 1.23
Ceiling:
Gypsum Board .44 .49
Insulation .14 •17
Interior Construction
Frame Int. partition 3 - 80 4.28
Row houses
Plumbing 1.46 1.99
Heating Cooling and Vent.
Elec, wall heaters -38 .43
Forced air .82 1.06
A.c. - hot and chilled
water 3.45 4.20
Elec, and Lighting
Av. # outlets .95 to 1.01 1.41
Ext. Wall
Wood frame- common brick 4.33 5.00
Bearing walls-


concrete block 12" 4.39 4.95
8" 4.10 4.64
Insulation .13 .16
Basement
Waterproofing .18 .23
Gone. Block
(reinforc.) 12" 2.81 3-22
Roof Structure
Wood rafters and sheathing 1.41 1.62
Insulation .25 -.33
Wall Ornament
Stucco on masonry .50 .56
Erick- common 2.05 2.38
Built iln
Range and oven 350.00
Refrig. 300.00
Dishwaher 300.00
Intercom, base system 180.00
VISUAL CONDITIONS:
A. Buildings:
Neighborhood buildings are mostly one story, brick or wood ranch style. The older buildings mostly all have front porches with columns. "Eclectic-Western" style.
B. Panorama:
Magnificent view of Rocky Mountains from the
VISUAL CONDITIONS: A. Buildings:
"Eclectic-Western" style. B. Panorama:
North West corner of the site.
INDIVIDUAL UNIT: DESIGN CRITERIA


A. ORIENTATION:
1. Entrance walks open to south for faster snow melt.
2. Windbreak- Use conifer trees on north side and northwest side. Gusts could easily throw senior citizens off balance on winter ice. Use deciduous for summer shade, route summer breezes.
B. BUILDING SURFACES:
Brick- Low winter sun will heat up surface, causing thermal lag that will help heat at night.
C. NATURAL VENTILATION:
1. Windows that open at both ends of unit (cross ventilation)
2. Approximately U ft. overhang on south if
porch is included with unit. .r*’-.
DWELLING UNIT SIZING
A. Combined living-dining 240sq.ft.
B. Combined dining kitchen 1^5 sq. ft.
C. Bedroom- 115*5 sq, ft.
D. Bathroom- 55 sq. ft- minimum
E. Storage- provide at least 12 sq. ft., plus display room
F. Entry- Entry closet included/12 sq. ft.
G. Exterior Space- Balconies or porches 60 sq. ft.
H. Exterior Laundry Room- 90 sq. ft. (3 dryers, 3 washers


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OUTLINE SPECIFICATIONS:
A. SITEWORK:
1. Minimal grading used to 4# slope of land.
2. Parking lot- 30 cars plus 5 visitor spots. Paving of 2" asphalt on 4" general base.
3* Pedestrian walks- 4" thick concrete, no curbs or planters on sides.
4. Landscaping- Allow residents to landscape their own areas. Ering in some trees for breaking winter winds and plant on N-NW. Basically plant trees that require little maintenance.
B. FOUNDATIONS:
1. Provide foundation walls to 3' below grade on spread footing with 4" concrete slabs on grade.
C. ARCHITECTURAL
1. Keeping the flavor of the town, the base of the units will be 6" thru-the-wall brick with 4"x 12" face. Wooden porches and trim are being considered, pending budget approval.
2. pitched roofs, decking not exposed..
3* Carpeting throughout, except bathrooms. Non-slip asbestos tile used in bathroom and kitchen.
4. All doors giving outward from the room from which one. is exiting.
5« Each unit will have one smoke detector.
6. Grab bars, seated shower units and all necessary handicapped accissories shall be provided in each
bathroom.


7* Lighting- overhead lighting provided in each room. However, residents are encouraged to also have task lighting appliances.
COMMUNITY SPACES
A. Activities Office- 225 sq.ft.
B. Meeting Rooms- 2 @ 600 sq.ft. = 1200 sq.ft.
C. Lounge, Game, T.V. Areas- 1925 sq. ft.
THIS PROGRAM IS SUPPLEMENTED BY ARCHITECTURAL ILLUSTRATIONS, CHARTS, AND SPECIALTY ITEMS BROCHURES, BUILDING STANDARDS FOR HANDICAPPED, AND A BARRIER-FREE DESIGN DATA INDEX


APPENDIX A
Barrier Free Design Data, Design Criteria Checklists, and Euilding Standards


to add it to the test methods in this standard. In the meantime, it is intended that the determination of casual contact sharp edges shall be made by feeling the grab bar with the hand and by common sense judgement regarding what feels sharp enough to cause lacerations. The prohibition against sharp edges is not intended to address the hazards that arise when a bather in the course of a fall impacts against a protruding grab bar. Although such an injury is a theoretical possibility and could be quite severe if it occurred, the task force has not been able to find a single record of such an injury occurring.
While investigating the possibility of specifying a minimum radius for all edges on grab bars, this task force became aware of an automotive research study which indicated that metal edges with radii less than 5/16" are more hazardous than those with greater radii when impacted by the human skull in a fall situation. However, upon surveying currently available grab bars it was found that many of them have radii less than 5/16". Because of the great retooling costs these firms would incur if they were to redesign their grab bars to radii greater than 5/16", because the redesigned grab bars might cost more to make, and because there was not a single record of such an accident occurring, the task force decided that at this time this theoretical hazard is not substantial enough to warrant addressing in this standard. If, at some later date, evidence turns up which indicates that such accidents are occurring frequently, then at that time it will be appropriate to reconsider this decision.
Section 4.3 - The task force debated at length the question of what items in the bathing area other than grab bars should be required to meet the 250 pound test. The task force agreed that accessory items such as towel bars and shelves in the bathing area should be required to hold 250 pounds because a falling bather might grab them in hopes of breaking the fall, lowever, the task force also recognized that there are some items in the bathing area (such as some partially recessed soap dishes) which do not project far snough from the wall and are not shaped so that a person can grasp them.
The task force attempted to develop a simple test which could be ased to decide which projections are graspable and which are not. One suggestion vas an L-shaped piece of wood which a tester would attempt to hang from all projections in the bathing area--if the piece of wood could hang by itself from a projection then that projection would be required to support 250 pounds. Iowever, the task force decided against such a test; 1) because of the wide /ariations among people in the ability to grasp projections; 2) because of the Large variety of sizes and shapes of projections which would have to be built ind tested before the L-shaped piece of wood could be designed; and 3) because jf the feeling that a common sense judgement could adequately address the sroblem.
'DOT HS-801 002 Breaking Strength of the Human Skull vs Impact Surface Curvature
-G 56-


Section 4.6 - The task force decided that a bar that is free to turn within its fittings would not always provide a solid gripping surface. Members of the group experimented with round bars that were free to rotate. In some cases if the bar was not gripped a certain way, the hand would slip down and off of the bar before a solid hold had been achieved. It was therefore felt that this type of installation could actually be a cause of a fall in some situations.
5. LOCATION REQUIREMENTS
These requirements were developed from data in "Architectural Graphic Standards," "The Bathroom; Criteria for Design," task force experimentation and industry expertise.
Sections 5.1.1, 5.1.2, and 5.2.1 - there was considerable discussion concerning horizontal grab bars as opposed to vertical grab bars. After weighing the arguments for each style it was decided that where only one bar was to be used, the horizontal bar offered more advantages. In falling and grabbing situations, in pulling to get up or holding to get down, the horizontal bar offered more positive support than the vertical bar. Dr. Timothy Nugent, a noted expert in the field of aids for the handicapped, espouses the use of horizontal bars as compared to vertical. In falling and pulling situations the hands more naturally relate to a horizontal gripping surface. The use of a vertical grab bar for exit or entry was desired by many, primarily on the service or nonservice walls. * The task force was not opposed to the use of vertical bars in these areas. It was felt the horizontal bar on the service or nonservice wall could fulfill the need for support during exit or entry and provide a better support in a falling situation than a vertical bar. However, since a horizontal bar is available on the back wall to aid in a falling situation a vertical bar was determined to be more desirable for strictly exit and entry purposes. Dr. Kira, author of "The Bathroom" considers the vertical bar more advantageous for the entrance area. Realizing that there were good arguments for either a horizontal or vertical bar it was felt that the option should be available.
The fact that some bathers enter at the service end and others at the nonservice end, it was decided that either wall would be suitable for grab bar support. Personal preference would dictate which wall the grab bar is installed on.
Those bathers wanting the advantages of a horizontal and vertical bar could use an angle bar that combines both into one.
Through analyzing data in the "Architectural Graphic Standards" the task force determined that on the back wall of a tub or tub shower area, a bar or bars long enough to cover one third of the critical support area would provide support within reach of any average adult. For example, a 5 foot bathtub area could measure about 59 inches after finishing. Subtracting the eight inch dimension on each end, the critical support area would measure 43 inches in length. One third of this would dictate a bar minimum of 14 + inches long. A person standing anywhere within the 43 inch area of the tub would be able to reach the grab bar considering the average adult reach is 31 inches. A bar longer than 14 + inches is recommended but the basic safety need could be met with the minimum.
In many retrofit situations a 16 inch grab bar would be very appropriate in order to mount on existing studding in the walls. Personal preference for amount of grab bar support desired and wall condition will often determine the length of
-G 58-


Though accident data indicated fewer incidents in shower stalls than tubs it was felt the presence of one grab bar would be beneficial for support while moving within the shower stall. In most situations the bar would be used for aid in exit and entry also. The bar could be placed on either the service wall, back wall, or nonservice wall. The bar is to be centered approximately to provide maximum accessability and a 9 inch minimum gripping surface is specified.
INSTRUCTIONS AND WARNINGS
Instructions and warnings were established by discussion of the task force to ensure effective compliance with the standard. Installation information was given great importance.
7. TESTING METHODS
Testing methods were developed by researching existing codes and standards and task force discussion, particularly concerning human figure data.
Section 7.2 - The task force decided that the 250 lb. static load should be applied over a 3H inch section of the grab bar because of some human factors data showing that 3h inches is the average breadth of an adult man's hand.
The task force decided that the load should be applied to the grab bar midway between supports because that would present its most vulnerable condition. Through experience in static load testing by some of the grab bar manufacturers it was determined that if a grab bar failure was to occur it would normally happen within a 5 minute period. Existing test procedures in other codes and standards also reached this conclusion. The Task Force decided that manufacturers of products other than grab bars would have to design their own procedure for applying the 250 lb. weight.
SOURCE DOCUMENTS:
HUD-RT-17 January 1972, Guideline 1, "A Design Guide for Home Safety,"
"The Bathroom; Criteria for Design" by Alexander Kira
ANSI A17.1 - 1961 (R1971) "Specifications for Making Building and Facilities Usuable by the Physically Handicapped"
"Architectural Graphic Standards" by Ramsey § Sleeper, specifically pages 2 and 3, "Dimensions of the Human Figure"
WW-P-541/8A Federal Specification
HUD-Minimum Property Standards - For Elderly-Single Family, Elderly-1 and 2 Family and Care Institutions
-G 60-


HANDICAPPED LAWS - BUILDING STANDARDS
Mrs. Melba R. Rugg Chairperson
Mayor's Committee On Employment of the Handicapped
City and County of Denver
1368 South Fairfax
Denver, Colorado 80222
756-8687
Legislation to Make Buildings and Facilities Accessible to and Usable by the Physically Handicapped.
1. Definition of "Physically Handicapped".
The term "physically handicapped", as used in accessibility legislation includes persons in the following categories:
(a) . Non-ambulatroy disabilities - those which confine the individual to
a wheelchair.
(b) . Seni-pmbulatory disabilities - those which allow the individual to
walk with difficulty, perhaps with the aid of braces or crutches.
This may include amputees,arthritics,victims of stroke and partial paralysis,cardiac and pulmonary patients, and the grossly over-weight
(c) . Disabilities of incoordination.
(d) . Sight disabilities - blindness or impaired visual ability to perceive
signals or dangerous situations.
(e) . Hearing disabilities - deafness or impaired ability to hear warning
signals or communicate.
(f) . General disabilities due to aging.
(g) . Temporary disabilities due to broken limbs, sprains, illness,
pregnancy, etc.
2. Federal Legislation
Public Law 93-112 of 1973: sets up an Architectural & Transportation
Barriers Compliance Board having substantial powers and responsibilities in investigation and enforcing compliance with
Public Law 90-480,(Architectural Barriers Act of 1968) amended by Public Law 91-205 of 1970, the basis of which is
American National Standards Institute Standard A117.1-1961 (R1971) entitled "American Standard Specifications for Making Buildings and Facilities Accessible to, and Usable by the Physically Handicapped".
Public Law 93-516 (Affirmative Action Obligations of Contractors and Sub-Contractors for Handicapped Workers) Section 741.5 (c)l. Physical Access to the Placement Office and Job Site.
3. Colorado Legislation
Title 9- Article 5- Colorado Revised Statutes 1975
Concerning Public Building Construction Requirements, and Extending Such Requirements to Certain Privately Funded Public Buildings.
4. Special Needs
Areas of concern which are at present not covered by building standard legislation - residential housing and recreational facilities.


APPENDIX: WHEELCHAIR CRITERIA
The wheelchair is the basic vehicle for the nonambulatory person. Its specifications establish the fundamental design requirements for making facilities accessible to and usable by the handicapped. Most crutch or brace-supported semi-ambulatory persons arc able to maneuver within tlic limits prescribed for wheelchairs.
I. Wheelchair Dimensions
The most commonly used wheelchair is the collapsible model with tubular metal frame and plastic upholstery on scat and back. The standard model of all manufacturers falls within the following ranges of dimensions:
a. Length: 33.5 to 48 inches. Mode:
42 inches. (NOTE: does not include shoes or feet - add 6 inches).
b. Width open: 18.5 to 32.5 inches.
Mode: 26 inches (NOTE: does not include hands and arms, which extend beyond wheels when pushing).
c. Width coUapsed: 9 to 14.5 inches.
Mode: 11 inches.
d. Seat height above floor, 19.5 inches
(standard).
e. Ann height: 19.5 to 33.5 inches.
Mode: 29.5 inches.
f. Overall height: 33 to 53.5 inches.
Mode: 37 inches.
2. Wheelchair Operation (based on modal dimen-
sions listed above).
a. Turning space required: 60 x 60 inches, or 63 x 56 inches (preferred), or 54 inch wide corridor with two open ends.
b. Minimum aisle width for passing of two wheelchairs: 60 inches. (63 inches preferred). •
3. Average Reach of an Adult Wheelchair
Occupant
a. Unilateral vertical reach: 60 inches. Range: 54 to 78 inches.
b. Horizontal reach, table height:
30.8 inches. Range 28.5 to 33.5 inches.
c. Bilateral horizontal reach: 64.5 inches Range: 54 to 71 inches.
d. Diagonal reach to object on wall:
48 inches above floor.
It should be noted that the above are averages for an adult using a standard wheelchair. The very small adult, the child, the unusually weak individual, the user of a wheelchair with detachable arms or with a leg extended forward, these would fall outside the above ranges and must be considered.
OTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION:
Commission on the Disabled 619 South Broadway Denver, Colorado 80209 297-3056
Governor's Advisory Council on the Handicapped
2480 West 26th Avenue Suite 300 B Denver, Colorado 80211 458-8000 X238
Ron Rinker, Chairman Architectural Barriers Committee Colorado Central Chapter American Institute of Architects 1825 Lawrence Street Denver, Colorado 80202 825-8123


A. Design Review Questions
FURNISHABILITY Are alternative arrangements possible for furni-
ture in the living room and bedroom?
Are circulation paths direct and unobstructed when the unit is furnished?
Are spaces provided for special furniture such as dining room hutch, work table for hobbies, and TV-stereo console?
Are windows, doors, and closets located to maximize the number of fumishable corners in each room?
Are there places to put a TV in the bedroom and living room other than in front of the window?
Are there at least two walls against which a couch can be placed in the living room?
Is it possible to furnish double occupancy units with two twin beds and single occupancy units with a double bed?
OPTIONS FOR EATING Is there a place in kitchens for residents to eat?
Is there a place near the kitchen for a dining room table for entertaining guests?
Is there a view from the eating area to the outside?
Is the more formal dining area visually separated from the kitchen?
CONTROL OF BACKSTAGE Is there a direct route from bedroom to bath-
room with door swings in the direction of travel for residents getting up at night?
Is it possible for guests to use the bathroom without having to walk through the bedroom?
Is there privacy for the bedroom and bathroom from the living room and kitchen?
Is the bathroom located so that the door can be left open without giving direct views into it from the entry, living room, and kitchen?


Is the unit organized so that residents and guests do not have to pass through the kitchen when entering or moving from room to room?
Is the unit designed so that doors to bedroom and bathroom can remain open without obstructing circulation?
STORAGE AND DISPLAY Are there walls in the entry and other rooms for
display of personal objects?
Are walls constructed so that residents can hang objects on them safely and without permanent damage?
Are windows designed with sills wide enough for plants and knick-knacks?
Is there enough space around and above windows for residents to hang draperies?
Is there storage space for large objects such as foldaway beds, snow tires, and outdoor furniture?
Is outside storage provided for lawn chairs and gardening tools?
Are shelves in storage areas and kitchen cabinets easily accessible without use of a step stool?
Are storage spaces located near the area where stored items are used?
ENTERING Is there a place outside for residents to put
down packages while opening the front door?
Is the entry vestibule large enough for greeting guests and putting on coats and boots?
Is space provided outside the front door for residents to personalize and identify their unit?
Is there a window or peephole through which residents can see who is at their door?
Is the unit designed so that visitors at the front door cannot see into the rest of the apartment0
Is the coat closet located at the entry where it will be most convenient for residents and their guests?
114 Appendix A


OUTDOOR TERRITORY
Does each ground floor unit have a porch or patio?
Do upper floor units have balconies or slidng glass doors with railings?
Is the territory belonging to each unit easily identifiable for residents and their neighbors?
Are porches and patios designed so that residents can watch outdoor activity from them while sitting down?
Are balconies designed so that the view from inside is not obstructed by railings or walls?
Are outdoor extensions designed so that they can be used comfortably at different times of the day and during different seasons?
WINDOWS TO THE WORLD Is there a window in the kitchen, dining or living
area beside which residents can sit in a comfortable chair and watch community activities?
Are bedroom windows designed so that furniture can be placed in front of them without obstruction and so that bedridden residents can see out?
Are windows sufficiently separate from outdoor public areas to ensure that resident privacy is not invaded?
Is it possible for residents to see outside while eating in the kitchen?
Are second storey living room windows low enough for residents to see ground level activity?
INDOOR SHARED PLACES Are corners and walls available in shared hall-
ways and entries for residents to personalize and decorate?
Are stair landings in front of unit entries large enough for personal display and items such as wet boots?
Is there a storage area in common entries where residents can store outdoor equipment such as lawn chairs?
Appendix A 115


Are screen doors with locks provided on front doors so that residents can he neighborly without reducing sense of security?
Is space available in shared entries for residents to sit and socialize?
OUTDOOR SHARED PLACES Are places provided for residents to sit outside
near their units without being in a main circulation path?
Are outdoor sitting areas in front of units large enough so that several people may use them without conflict?
Are outdoor shared areas located to avoid visual and auditory invasion of nearby units?
Are outdoor areas between units clearly defined in terms of shared spaces and private territory?
CLUSTERING Are units arranged in identifiable clusters so that
residents have a sense of being part of a smaller group within the larger project?
Are the clusters designed so that each is identifiable as a group, different in some way from the rest?
Are pathways in the cluster organized to be visible from unit windows so that residents can watch activity?
Are pathways in the cluster designed so that people walking on them do not invade the privacy of residents in units?
Are pathways in the cluster adequately separate from those for the entire project so that clustered units have a defined territory?
Are pathways organized to maximize chance encounters among residents?
Is parking close enough to each cluster to minimize walking distance and to clearly indicate to which cluster it belongs?
116 Appendix A


COMMUNITY SPACE LOCATION
Are both indoor and outdoor community spaces organized to create a focal point of activity on the site?
Are community spaces located at the focus of pedestrian movement on and off the site?
Are community spaces located near frequently used services like laundry and mail to increase the likelihood of residents dropping in on activities?
Are community spaces located to minimize walking distance from units, exposure to bad weather, and physical barriers such as steep slopes and stairs?
Are community spaces within view of a maximum number of units?
INDOOR COMMUNITY SPACES Is there at least one space which residents can
use as a common informal “living room”?
Is there a space where all residents in the community can gather at one time for meetings and games?
Is there a space with kitchen facilities which residents can use for private parties of 12 to 16 people?
Are there places which men can claim apart from others using indoor community spaces?
Is there space adjacent to but separate from the laundry where residents can wait and socialize?
Is there space adjacent and visible to mailboxes where residents can wait for mail to be delivered?
Are management offices accessible to residents as well as private enough for management to get their work done?
OUTDOOR COMMUNITY SPACES Are garden areas available for residents’ use and
located where they can be enjoyed from units and pathways?
Are there places for clothes drying lines near to and visible from apartment units?
Appendix A 117


Are outdoor eating, picnic, and barbecue areas located near enough to inside community space to make use of kitchen and bathroom facilities?
Are community activities such as games located where there is a place for an audience to sit in the shade and where equipment can be stored close by?
Are facilities provided for games and sports which are locally popular?
PATHWAYS AS ACTIVITY GENERATORS Is there one major pathway which connects
most units with major on- and off-site activities?
Are sitting areas provided at intervals along the major pathway so that residents can sit and watch activity?
Are pathway intersections designed to accommodate a greater concentration of traffic and socializing?
Are sitting areas located close enough to pathways for residents to recognize passersby and in places where they are likely to be used?
Are community activities such as games located along pathways to encourage casual participation?
Are pathways and sitting areas located to maximize sun in winter and shade in summer?
PATHFINDING Is the site organized to provide clear unit
addresses within the conventional address systems of streets, entries, and units?
Is it easy for residents to describe to friends how to find where they live?
Are units and clusters designed and located so that it is easy for residents and visitors to orient themselves?
Is there a clear and consistent distinction between front door and back door of units?
Are natural and built landmarks utilized to help give individual identity to different clusters and different parts of large sites?
118 Appendix A


RETREATS
Are there places for people to walk to on the site, removed from community activities, where residents can get away from it all?
Are natural features of the site, like ponds and tree groves utilized as pleasant places for residents to walk to?
If no natural features exist, are built retreats such as duck ponds and picnic areas provided?
Are pathways to retreats easily accessible from residents’ units?
Are natural or planned pathways organized to provide different degrees of challenge to residents with a wide range of physical energy?
CARS Is parking located so that parked cars do not
dominate views from units?
Is parking located in small areas around the site as convenient as possible to each unit?
Are there convenient drop-off places near residents’ units for getting in and out of cars?
Are roadways and parking areas located so that they do not interfere with natural pedestrian pathways?
Are drop-off and pick-up areas easy to find and located where residents can wait comfortably and conveniently?
Are vehicular drop-off places visible from community spaces and units so that residents can watch the activity?
GETTING ON AND OFF THE SITE Is there a natural or built “gateway” at the
entrance to the project on sites where the housing is separate and distinct from the surrounding neighborhood?
Are site planning and addresses similar to surrounding streets on sites where the housing is intended to be a continuation of an existing neighborhood?
Is the site organized so that there is a convenient and direct pedestrian pathway on and off the site for residents going into town?
Appendix A 119


Are bus stops located in places convenient to residents?
ON-SITE FACILITIES FOR CHILDREN If indoor day-care facilities for children are
provided, do they have a separate entrance so that children do not disturb residents using community spaces?
Are children’s outdoor play areas visible from sitting areas from which residents can watch?
Are children’s play areas physically separated from resident community spaces to minimize possible unwanted physical encounters?
Are children’s outdoor play areas acoustically separated from dwelling units?
Are children’s play areas designed to discourage children from wandering into other parts of the community?
ON-SITE NEIGHBORHOOD FACILITIES Is the community center accessible to outsiders
FOR ADULTS for large functions without invading residential
areas like mail room and laundry?
Are community spaces easy to find by outsiders when entering the site?
Are entrances to neighborhood-wide spaces easily controlled by residents?
Are facilities intended for neighborhood use located in such a way that outsiders are not forced to walk through the site to get to them?
120 Appendix A


INDIVIDUAL UNITS
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Liebman, Joseph E. Brown, and A. Edwin Wolf. New York: New York State Urban Develop-
ment Corp., unpublished paper, pages 11 and 81.
71


COMMUNITY FACILITIES
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supportive public services
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ment Corp., unpublished paper, pages 11 and 81.


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Matrix, activities, and characteristics adapted from "Housing Design Criteria" by Theodore
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Corp., unpublished paper, pages 11 and 81.
51


Recommendations for Seating, Furnishings, and Beds
Contoured Inward (or Shoulder Roll Support
2 1\2”Max. Deflection Asymptotic under a 200-Pounu Loud
\
12 — 16” Undetlected Seat Trim Height

Lumbar Region t , / â– 
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5 from Seat
Trim \\ V
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ANTHROPOMETRIC CONSIDERATIONS
RELAIEU TO GERIATRIC SEATING
9" Max. Arm Rest to Seat Trim
I Arm Rost Leading Edge
n___' ^ on Parallel Plane with
I T | Leading Edge of Seat
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v l Hor.-
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“7$
60 Percent of Body Weight Supported i p
over Ischial Tuberosities ' “
FIGURE 64
Anthropometric and body position criteria.
3” Min Kick Space
Head Support (Lateral)
Optional Head Support Shim
32 1.\2”Min. Backrest Height
Peak Lumbar Roll
at 3 1n2
1 K2” Min. 45° Slanted------s
Gap for Cleaning A
11 1\2 Head upport Area
LOUNGE SEATING CONFIGURATION
AMD CONTOURING
20” Min. Seat Width
- Graspable Form Beyond Leading Edge ol Seal
6 Lumbar Support Area

17 Max. Height
-4 Seat Reference Plane
'Roll Away Leading Edge to Prevent Circulation Constriction
-Back Legs on Plane with Snubber to Curb Wall Abrasion
V


<7
ANTHROI OMtrniCS OF TWO AGE GROUPS Loft .Column is 5th. f’c< enliie, Right is 55tli. Percentile
0-nonoion:; in inches 3 5 -/ Yrr>. 75-73 Yrs. Sex
Erect Standing I'gt. . 4. 2 ihi. 61-3 69.5 Men
59.6 no. 6 55.3 04.5 Women
Weight 13 4 207 107 191 Men
I ' 103 _10:1 170 Women
Croct fitting l!gt. 3°.J 37.7 36.1 Men
31.5 35.6 ro.1 34.0 Women
formal Sitting Hgt. 31.9 36.0 29.0 35.2 Men
31). 1 34.3 27.1 32.0 Women
[Cnee Mgt. IP. C ??-3. 19.0 32.2 Men
10.0 21.0 17.3 20.7 Women
! Elbow Mgt. ~T* i.:‘3 ^6.5 CNi c Men
7.5 io.n 6.4 9.0 Women
! 1 high Clearance Hgt. 4.6 6.0 4.1 6.1 Mon
f 4.2 6 7 4.0 6.1 Women
' Upper Leg Length •1. j 24.0 21.0 24.4 Men
30.5 24.0 19.9 23.5 Women
F’oplitcal Lengtli 17.4 21.1 17.0 20.0 Men
1 17.1 20.7 17.0 19.9 V'omen
! Popliteal Height 15.6 10.0 15.2 17.9 Men
! il.O 17.0 13.5 16.9 Women
1 Li 1 bow to Elbow 14. ! 19.2 14.0 10 7 Men
12.5 10.2 13.1 18.1 Women
Seal Width 12. i 15.6 12.1 14.9 Men
12.4 16.5 12.2 16.5 Women
Data Fxtractcd Fmm: Weight. Height, A Selected Body Dimensions ol Adults-1960-62 (U.S. Public Health Service)
FIGURE 2
Anthropometries of two age groups. This chart is a comparison of cross-scctional data on two age group.. It portrays distinct differences that must be accounted for in the design process. Generalized "averages" or percentile "ranges" are ineffective data when a specific age group is the user population of a given facility or product.


“THE AGE-LOSS CONTINUUM”
*LOSSES:
AGE 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Separation of children
Death of peers
Loss of spouse
Motor output deterioration
Sensory acuity losses
Age related health problems
Reduced physical mobility
c. -a
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«- A
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‘The losses for each specific individual, of course, would not happen as precisely indicated for each age category. This is an abstraction used for analytical purposes only.
Source: L. Pastalan, “Privacy as an Expression of Human Territoriality.’’
In L. Pastalan and D. Carson (eds.), Spatial Behavior of Older People (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1970), page 98. Used with permission of the author.


BUILDING PROG HAM
1. Ht U:Nu. ventilating, and air conditioning
a. Kiel for heating: gas, oil, coal. or electricity?
b. Central or individual apartment heating p!arit(s)?
c. F.\posuie control: quantity of fenestration; ordinary or insulating?
d. Insulation in walls and roof; importance of initial versus operating cost.
e. Is humidification wanted?
f. Is cooling wanted? If so, by central or individual residence plant(s)? The owner should understand thoroughly the possibilities and implications of heating and cooling controls, which range from manual, through simple overall building, to sophisticated room-by-room. The latter may be a prestigious point in rentals or sales but may also add substantially to maintenance costs and problems. In some types of all-eiectrical system, however, rcom-by-room controls may be a normal part of the equipment. Thus it behooves the owner to acquire a fair understanding of the many alternatives available. If cooling is desired, what should the inside temperature be’ A straight 75 degrees for optimum comfort (or even lower?), or 10 to 12 degrees below the maximum outdoor temperature for minimum installation and operating costs?
g. Energy source for cooling. If natural fuel is used, the owner should be made aware of the possibilities of absorption refrigeration, using the same fuel. If electricity is used for heating, the potentialities of the heat pump should be made clear to the owner.
h. Will the owner, the individual occupant, or an organization of occupants pay fuel and energy costs for heating and/or cooling?
i. If individual heating and/or cooling systems are used, who will be responsible for their maintenance and replacement?
j. Ventilation for bathrooms and/or kitchens: central, individual, or a combination of individual control and central collection?
2. PLUMBING
a. Water centrally metered or individually metered?
b. Domestic water heating to be central or individual? Who will pay for the energy?
c. Water closets to be flush valve or tank operated?
d. Details of other sanitary fixtures; for example, lavatories to be free standing or cabinet type; kitchen sinks to be china or stainless steel; tub in every bathroom or shower only in some, quality of tub (cast iron or steel)?
e. Laundry facilities: central or individual? If central, will there be a concessionaire, or will the owner operate the facility?
f. Fire protection: should this be the minimum required by governing codes or does the owner want extra protection in the form of additional standpipes, fire extinguishers, and/or sprinklers? Will insurance charge reductions justify such additional costs?
3. ELECTRICAL
a. Iv, an owner-operated “total energy" plant feasible, in which the owner provides all his own electricity, heat, arid Cooling for the entire project? i; If purchased electricity from a utility company is opted, the owner should i;n.hir-d tt-»- |»o«siT>il.»'«*s o? varimis rates tor d-ffereut intensities of use ,;r ; ft;(. rv/i r.iii c-i iri.iti mst Ji ti'Ui -lift operation for ill alternatives. Any j ir i-!)..-• oth-r'•<; '■, / tie* utility companies should ho included in the con-
A i ■ j > • • : 111) r;


DATA GATHER!
c. Will purchased electrical energy be individually or centrally metered and paid for? (The latter option is not available in Illinois, for example.)
d. Are the heating and cooling systems to be electrically powered? The same question applies to domestic water heating.
e. Quality of specialties such as switches and receptacles. The usual decision, low installation cost combined with higher maintenance and replacement costs for minimum quality specialties or the converse?
f. Who will furnish and install lighting fixtures in the residential areas?
g. Electrical or gas ranges?
h. The range of choices of auxiliary electrical systems is broad:
Front (and rear) door bell signals.
Voice communication with remote entrance doors.
Closed circuit television surveillance of entrances.
Central television antenna system.
Intercommunication systems of varying inclusiveness.
Burglar alarm and similar security systems.
Emergency alarm for persons in trouble in their apartments (particularly applicable in housing for the elderly).
Panic alarm for elevators.
Smoke and fire alarm systems.
Should any or all of these features be combined with the public telephone system?
i. Emergency light and power. Should this be the minimum required by code or should such possibly noncovered uses as elevators, domestic water pressure pumps, heating boilers, and pumps be provided with standby power?
LOCATION DATA
The decision to discuss the building program before location data is arbitrary, and it can be fairly argued that location is probably the major contribution to the success or failure of any project.
The stigma attached to public housing in the United States is in no small measure due to location. Built in the most deteriorated parts of the urban ghetto, in areas in which delinquency and crime are rampant, these projects are doomed to fail even if all other conditions—proper tenant selection and education, concerned management, and well designed buildings—are properly met.
To realize the importance of location in the private sector of housing one only has to remember the often quoted statement by the developer who, when asked the secret of a successful apartment project, replied:
' 'The secret lies in three factors. The first is location, the second is location, and the third is location."
A successful development starts out with the search for land. Whether the site is urban or exurban, the astute developer has to know a great deal about tne property, not only its physical and environmental conditions but also the stability of the area. This should be determined by scientific projection. Often it is by looking through a crystal ball.
For the architect the physical and environmental characteristics ol the site become generators of design which, like the building program data, will narrow the choices arid lead to a solution.


HLA1 INC. AND All! CONDI IION1NG
For ' -ii >' cent.-nl an unit-... Such us uurrnlor supply or induction primary uir sup-ir‘. the disposable, permanent, washable or electrostatic filters describe'! above are upf i .. it’le. I lie favorite, probably, is still another type. This is a roil of fiber-glass or s• i.ilar filtering material that is motor driven to move slowly through the air stream. When the entire roll has unwound itself, it is discarded and a new one installed. 1 no maintenance is much easier than is required to change a large number of biter cells.
VENTILATION SPACE REQUIREMENTS.
Crucial in the planning of multistory residential buildings is the space that must be allocated to duct and pipe risers, lost space in the architect’s view, but nonetheless necessary. Varying code and load requirements in different localities make it impossible to set hard and fast rules, but a few principles can be supplied, and an example or two may help to show how to apply them.
1. For each apartment bathroom air should be exhausted at a rate of 10 to 15 air changes per hour; that is, the volume of air exhausted in an hour should be 10 to 15 times the room volume. Assuming that the room height of 3 ft, this translates to an exhaust rate of 1.33 to 2.0 cubic feet of air per minute (cfm) for each square foot of floor area.
2. For each kitchen allow 12 to 18 changes per hour. On the 8-ft ceiling height basis, this equals 1.6 to 2.4 cfm per square foot of floor area.
3. For individual exhaust systems these quantities set the sizes of the small exhaust fans. For central systems the total of all bathroom quantities defines the required capacity of the bathroom exhaust fan (and the same for the kitchen), whereas the subtotals of the various tiers and collections of tiers determine the duct sizes to serve those subdivisions. The main ducts of the combined systems are sized like the central system ducts, except that use factors may be assumed because all apartments will certainly not be exhausted at any one time.
4. Duct sizes are determined by a simple formula:
Area (in square feet) is the air volume (cfm) divided by air velocity in feet per minute (fpm).
The smaller the air quantity, the lower the permissible velocity. This is a physical truth based on friction and noise levels, and, to avoid a lengthy excursion into physics, should be accepted on faith in this treatise. To be specific, for basic central systems the following rules can be used to give first approximations of duct s;zes for a designer’s layout assistance.
Air quantities up to 1500 cfm, velocity up to 1000 fpm.
A;r quantity from 1500 to 2800 cfm, velocity up to 1100 fpm; from 2300 to 4000 cfm, velocity to 1200 fpm; from 4000 to 7000 cfm, velocity to 1350 fpm.
7finO r^r>i i/r ! r ■ /*• I f» r 1^00 f r~\ r-n
Having proposed some guiding rules, let us immediately list the exceptions. First, exhaust outlets whose dosipn incorporates built in acoustical treatment which -’fectivoiy dampens air flow noise in ductwork have been developed. The outlets tr.&mse1 /es are comparatively expensive but they save at least part of their cost by permiffmg higher riser air velocities and thus smaller duct sizes. They also save space If ineze outlets are used, the recommended riser velocities may he increased ! 0%. i>c.>nd. if the- combined exhaust system is used, risers and collector m.-jir . !-.j,.!■! i,.. su-’t-d t rak<- advantage at their diversity at nnv given t ■ te.
1.17


FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE SELECTION OF THE STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
[Factors to \ be considered \ Structural SXstem — —
1. Usage of structure (housing, storage, etc.)
2. Structure area
3. Number of stories
4. Applicable local codes
5. Soil conditions
6. a. Are heavy dead loads problem?
b. Is soil of variable type requiring rigid or flexible structure ?
c. Water table elevations 1. Are basements problem?
2. Construction difficulties?
Site conditions
7. a. Rolling site — are structures stable to resist one sided soil surcharges?
b. Are soil washouts possible?
Construction phase
8. a. Availability of structural materials?
b. Availability of skilled labor?
c. Speed and ease of construction
d. Initial construction cost
e. Interface with other construction materials
f. Interface with other systems
Service phase
9. a. Anticipated useful life
b. Fire resistance 1. Code requirements
2. Judgement
c. Insect and rot resistance
d. Resistance to thermal stresses
e. Resistance to shrinkage
f. Resistance to vibration
g. Resistance to sound
h. Maintenance costs
i. Insurance rates
Structural red lights
10. a. Has progressive collapse been considered ?
b. Has snowdrift in roof valleys and at adjacent roof elevations been considered?
c. Have stresses at all stages of construction been accounted for ?
Other specific factors
a.
b.
c.
d.


Material, color, texture, quality of: floor walls cei I iruj lighting
Visual and acoustic requirements Heating and ventilation requirements natural ventilation requirements Type of exposure to exterior Natural lighting requirements Hours of direct sunlight into space Views to outdoors
near and/or distant Access- to outdoor space type of outdoor space directness of access Views to interior spaces
furniture and equipment
Inventory of specific types and quantities of furniture, equipment, mechanical and electrical fixtures required Fixed or movable j
Flexibi I i ty
Anthropometric considerations
STORAGE
Supportive storage requirements size, shape, capacity
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fixtures should be located for easy access in changing a bulb; rheostat controls for lighting flexibility;
Apartments shall be acoustically separate from each other and from adjacent common spaces, including the corridor; apartments must have some method of cross ventilation with ability to simultaneously stay out of a draft; heating system must eliminate cold air convection from windows; responsive controls for each space; natural ventilation: windows should have easily operable but heavy weathertight sash; deep sills to accommodate plants; each unit should receive direct sunlight into it for several hours each day with the ability to filter direct rays if desired; views to outdoors shall be provided fro i silting and lying in bed positions; direct extension of dwelling space out to private outdoor space is required - large enough to seat A persons; outdoor space should include planter box; exterior lighting.
All movable furniture is supplied by occupant; kitchen counters and Cabinets should be at lower than usual heights; electrically operated zone valves are easier to install and maintain than pneumatic valves - provide shut-off valves at each end of baseboard pipes in each unit, also provide unions to allow local drainage prior to repair; movable storage units or partitions as standard equipment; see attached list for additional equipment included in apartment unit; 10V, of all units shall be designed and equipped to accommodate a handicapped (wheelchair) occupant; higher ley-lock location on door for easy visibility;
Adequate storage space required includes: storage for luggage and bulky items; coat closet; clothes closet; space for cleaning equipment; all closets should have -.1 id i ng doors .
poi tain space in t ne oui i u i ng to each resilient.
It should provide security not only from the outside world but also from the deterioration of faculties in old age. Thu unit should consider non-slip floor surfaces, reduced bending and reaching, direct circulation patterns, controlled glare and lighting levels, loss of visual acuity, personal privacy, low tolerance to drafts, etc. to promote a healthier, safer, more controllable environment for the resident, resulting in reduced apprehension and increased self-confidence.
The elderly respond positively to design elements that would extend their own "territory" to the outdoors, i.e., balconys, gardens, etc.
Outdoor private spaces should not present additional security problems either physically or psycho log icaIly.
Storage directly relates to the preoccupation with order in an elderly person's life. For example, lack of sufficient storage may deter a person from initiating a new project or personal activity since it may lead to a cluttered apartment. Similarly, insufficient storage of unsightly but necessary possessions may result in an inhibition to inviting friends over to one's apartment. Sliding doors are less prone to accidental injury and psychologically take up les5 space.
SPACE RELATIONSHIPS
Outdoor private space.


E OF SPACE
pes of activity
equency of use
proximate t imes of use
rmal anticipated occupant load -
pacity occupant load
FINITION OF SPACE
nctional and perceptual designation: public or private community or resident focal'or supportive large or smaI I open or closed flexible or fixed subdivided
CESS AND CIRCULATION cess control requirements ceptable methods of access control quired access to other spaces quired circulation within the space
CURITY
:curity from whom or what Hential problems to be alleviated xeptable methods of providing security actical expectations
JPERVI S I ON
jpervision of whom or what r whom
nr what purpose
:ceptable supervision techniques
AINTENAHCE
aintained by whom and when
equireroents for maintenance equipment
ppropriate finishes
AFETY
pecial safety measures required
General strolling by residents at public areas; table games; sitting; horse-shoes; croquet, vegetable and flower gardening.
Open landscaping for low maintenance and good surveillance at public areas; closed, intimate landscaping at private outdoor spaces; plant materials sliould reinforce the open public/closed private contrast.
Landscaping may best subdivide exterior private spaces into smaI I group sitting or activity areas.
Discourage use of landscaping areas as public park, otherwise senior citizens will be reluctant to go there;
Free circulation at public areas and some private spaces for group activity; controlled circulation on hard surface through subdivided landscaping.
Good surveillance around and through public landscaping; Security against mugging and vandalism; equipment theft (sprinkler heads); light, open planting; placed to prevent dark shadows from area lighting.
Supervision against intruders and loitering; by resident and resident caretaker; safety, reduced vandalism, enjoyment of landscaping; all unsecured spaces must be observabIe.
flowing, trimming, pruning, fertilizing, etc. by central maintenance crew; sprinkling and watering is responsibility of resident caretaker; indigenous, low maintenance plant materials to make up bulk of landscaping.
No grade change at interface of paved areas and Iandscap i ng.
Replaces significance of private laws areas for those residents who used to live in single family dweI 1 i ngs .
Variety of pleasant spaces where residents can go or sit or stroll - and can identify as their own.
Gardening might be done by residents if spaces were secured against vandalism. Eliminate frustration of efforts lost to vandals. Roof gardens are a possible solution.
Caretaker tasks should not be made difficult due to inadequate hose bibbs, etc. The easier his job, the more diligent the performance.


USE OF SPACE
Types of activity
Frequency of use
Approximate times of use
Normal anticipated occupant load
Capacity occupant load
Wash and dry, folding, rinsing prior to washing, ironing; Highly used common space, could lead to social Used throughout the day irregularly; interaction.
Host often used by 1 or 2 residents at a time.
DEFINITION OF SPACE
Functional and perceptual designation: public or private community or resident focal‘or supportive large or sma11 open or closed flexible or fixed subdivided
Private to residents;
Supportive;
Enclosed separate space;
Central location to all residents;
Most efficient as one single facility for entire building
ACCESS AND CIRCULATION Access control requirements Acceptable methods of access control Required access to other spaces Required circulation within the space
Free access to all residents, no control required.sinee inside of building security points;
Equipment layout should allow several people to be washing and drying their laundry without conflict.
SECURITY
Security from whom or what Potential problems to be alleviated Acceptable methods of providing security Practical expectations
None required since public access is denied.
SUPERVISION
Supervision of whom or what By whom
For what purpose
Acceptable supervision techniques
Laundry detergent, etc. needs to be supervised;
Observation - user occupant will supervise against possible in-house theft or mis-use.
MAINTENANCE
Maintained by whom and when Requirements for maIntenance equipment Appropriate finishes
Maintained by building maintenance staff; should have floor drain for clean-up as well as for emergency overflow.
Non-slip tile or carpet flooring, vinyl wall covering or enamel paint.
C I can
SAFETY
Special safety measures required
Flooring should provide visual (psychological) as well as physical non-slip properties to reduce fear of siipping.


STATISTICAL NOTES
From the National Clearinghouse on Aging
No. 1 February 1978
STATISTICAL NOTES - A NEW INFORMATION SERVICE
Statistical Notes is a new publication issued by the National Clearinghouse on Aging. The goal of this occasional newsletter is to provide information about statistical programs and publications of interest to the National Network on Aging and the many other persons and organizations who work in the field of aging. Questions, suggestions, or contributions are welcome and should be sent to: Statistical Notes, National Clearinghouse on Aging, Administration on Aging, Washington, DC 20201.
1976 COSTS OF THREE BUDGETS FOR RETIRED COUPLES
The following table shows the updated three hypothetical annual budgets for a retired couple for Autumn 1976 and the percent change from Autumn 1975. As can be seen from the table, the largest year-to-year increases in the components occurred in transportation. The cost of this component increased by 9.6% for the higher, 9.0% for the intermediate, and 8.4% for the lower budget. Housing, which increased by the same rate for each budget (6.5%), represented the largest share of the total budget—slightly over 33% for each budget.
Food, which accounted for the second largest share of each budget, experienced the smallest increase'.
These budgets represent the Autumn (September, October, November) 1976 prices of three hypothetical lists of goods and services specified in the mid-1960's. The budgets were updated by applying the change in the Consumer Price Index between Autumn 1975 and Autumn 1976 for individual areas to the Autumn 1975 budget costs for each main class of goods and services. A retired couple is defined as a husband aged 65 and his wife. They are presumed to be in good health, self-supporting, and living in an urban area.
This information is contained in a U.S. Department of Labor release, "Three Budgets for a Retired Couple, Autumn 1976." The release contains tables which show the annual costs and indexes of comparative costs for each component in each of the three budgets for 39 selected metropolitan areas, 4 nonmetropolitan regions, and Anchorage, Alaska. This release (USDL 77-690) may be obtained from any Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Office or by writing to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212.
ADMINISTRATION ON AGING • OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. EDUCATION. AND WELFARE


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SUMMARY OF ANNUAL BUDGETS FOR A RETIRED COUPLE AT THREE LEVELS OF LIVING, URBAN UNITED STATES: AUTUMN 1976
Component Lower budget Intermediate budget Higher budget
COST
Total budget $4,695 $6,738 $10,048
Total family consumption... 4,493 6,333 9,281
Food 1,443 1,914 2,402
Housing 1,613 2,334 3,653
Transportation 322 629 1,161
Clothing 206 347 535
Personal care 138 202 296
Medical care 571(P) 574(P) 579(P)
Other family consumption. 200 332 657
Other items 202 405 767
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION
Total budget 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total family consumption... 95.7 94.0 92.4
Food 30.7 28.4 23.9
Housing. 34.4 34.6 36.4
Transportation 6.9 9.3 11.6
Clothing 4.4 5.1 5.3
Personal care 2.9 3.0 2.9
Medical care 12.2 8.5 5.8
Other family consumption. 4.3 4.9 6.5
Other items..... 4.3 6.0 7.6
PERCENT CHANGE, AUTUMN 1975 TO 1976
Total budget 4.3 4.2 4.7
Total family consumption... 4.3 4.2 4.7
Food 1.1 0.1 0.2
Housing 6.5 6.5 6-. 5
Transportation.- 8.4 9.0 9.6
Clothing 4.0 3.9 4.1
Personal care 7.8 7.4 7.6
Medical care 3.4 3.4 3.6
Other family consumption. 4.7 4.7 4.6
Other items 4.1 4.1 4.2
(P) Preliminary estimate.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. SOURCE: U.S. Dept, of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Release 77-690.


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HEALTH STATUS AND NEEDS OF THE RURAL ELDERLY
The Agricultural Experiment Station at the University of Kentucky recently issued the first results from a study of the characteristics and needs of persons 60 years old and over residing in Powell County, Kentucky. This study, conducted jointly with the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1975, consisted of personal interviews with 399 of the county's estimated 1,300 residents 60+ years old. Two-fifths of the county's population lived in two towns of less than 2,500 population, and the balance lived on farms and in open country.
The first report from this study, entitled Health Status and Needs: A Study of Older People in Powell County, Kentucky, was written by E. Grant Youmans and Donald K. Larson of the Economic Development Division, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. This report focuses on the respondent's views of their health status and needs. Some of the highlights of the report are:
1
1. Presented with a list of 10 common chronic conditions and impairments, the respondents indicated they were bothered by an average of 2.8 ailments per person. The most common ailments were arthritis and rheumatism (66%) , abnormal blood pressure (55%), breathing difficulties (34%), ear or hearing problems (30%), heart trouble (29%), and digestive problems (28%). There were few differences by age or sex.
2. Each respondent was asked to rate his or her overall health as excellent, good, fair, or poor. Only one-fourth rated their health as excellent (5%) or good (19%). Three-fourths rated their health as fair (35%) or poor (41%). As with the incidence of specific ailments, the self-ratings of health did not vary by sex or age.
3. In response to questions regarding the respondent's ability to get around, about one-fifth indicated that they had some difficulty getting around the house (17%) or spent most of the day in a chair or bed (2%). In general, there were no significant differences between the sexes in their ability to get around the house, but the proportion having difficulty getting around was much higher for persons 75+ years old than for the younger (60-74) respondents.
4. Most respondents (93%) used eyeglasses or other sight aids. Smaller proportions used health aids for walking (17%), hearing aids (3%), or wheelchairs (1%). Men were more likely than women to use walking aids such as walkers, canes, or crutches (24% vs. 13%). Similarly, higher proportions of persons 75+ years old used walking aids (55% for men, 23% for women) than the younger respondents.
5. Four-fifths (82%) of the sample population were not hospitalized during 1974. The proportion that spent some time in a hospital
was higher for men (25%) than for women (13%). There was no difference in this proportion between the younger and older age groups.


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6. Each respondent was asked whether he or she had experienced any of several common difficulties in getting health services. They reported an average of 1.4 such difficulties per person. The most commonly reported were getting to a doctor (31%), getting to a hospital (21%), paying medical bills (21%), getting medicine (16%), and getting eyeglasses (15%). Only slight differences by age and sex were reported.
7. Three-fourths of the respondents indicated either a strong interest (33%) or a moderate interest (42%) in the establishment of a special facility for the aged in the county. Out of 11 potential needs that might be filled by such a facility, the sample reported an average of 5.3 needs per person. The most commonly reported needs were medical in nature and included "getting on feet" after an illness (80%); getting a medical checkup (79%); getting eyeglasses, hearing aids, or dentures (68%); help in taking medicine (68%); and getting a walking aid or wheelchair (45%). Between 20% and 44% named other needs such as legal assistance, meals, and social activities. There were few differences by age or sex in the frequency of expressed needs or in the interest of the respondents in the establishment of a special facility.
Single copies of Health Status and Needs: A Study of Older People in Powell County, Kentucky may be obtained without charge by writing to: Statistical Notes, National Clearinghouse on Aging, Administration on Aging, Washington, DC 20201.
1976 ESTIMATES OF ELDERLY POPULATION FOR U.S.
The Bureau of the Census recently released a report containing estimates of the U.S. population by age, sex, and race as of July 1, 1976. These estimates were prepared by updating 1970 census counts using data on births, deaths, and immigration that have occurred between 1970 and 1976. Estimates for three population groups are shown in the report: 1) resident population, which includes the civilian resident populations of the 50 States and the District of Columbia plus members of the Armed Forces stationed in these jurisdictions,
2) total population including Armed Forces overseas, which includes members of Armed Forces stationed in foreign countries, Puerto Rico, and the outlying areas under United States sovereignty or jurisdiction, and 3) civilian population, which includes the resident population less members of the Armed Forces stationed in the United States. "Resident population" is the population most frequently used by the Bureau of the Census in its annual estimates of the population for States and local areas, as well as reports from the 1970 Census of Population. At age 55 and above, estimates based on these three definitions a^re similar (particularly if the figures are rounded to the nearest thousand) because very few persons in these ages are actively serving in the Armed Forces.
(continued on page 6)


ESTIMATES OF THE RESIDENT POPULATION OF SELECTED AGE GROUPS BY SEX AND RACE: JULY 1, 1976
(1976 data are as of July 1. Percent change since 1970 was computed with census counts for April, 1970)
All races— White Black 7 r.'
Age Both sexes Male Female Both sexes Male Female Both sexes Male Female
NUMBER
(in thousands)
Total, all ages.. .214,649 104,472 110,177 186,225 90,909 95,315 24,763 11,787 12,976
Selected age groups:
40 to 64 54,840 26,349 28,491 48,871 23,597 25,273 5,214 2,399 2,815
55+ 60+ 42,998 32,244 18,851 13,719 24,149 18,527 38,963 29,260 17,052 12,409 21,910 16,850 3,607 2,670 1,579 1,145 2,028 1,525
62+ 28,402 11,902 16,500 25,770 10,756 '15,014 2,354 1,001 1,353
65+ 22,934 9,364 13,571 20,829 8,457 12,372 . 1,876 787 1,089
75+ 8,741 3,197 5,544 7,994 2,895 5,099 645 253 392
85+ PERCENT 1,966 629 1,337 1,777 561 1,216 165 56 109
DISTRIBUTION
Total, all ages.. 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Selected age groups:
25.5 20.0 25.2 18.0 25.9 21.9 26.2 20.9 26.0 18.8 26.5 23.0 21.1 14.6 20.4 13.4 21.7 15.6
55+
60+ 15.0 13.1 16.8 15.7 13.6 17.7 10.8 9.7 11.8
62+ 13.2 11.4 15.0 13.8 11.8 15.8 9.5 8.5 10.4
65+ 10.7 9.0 12.3 11.2 9.3 13.0 7.6 6.7 8.4
75+ 4.1 3.1 5.0 4.3 3.2 5.3 2.6 2.1 3.0
85+ 0.9 0.6 1.2 1.0 0.6 1.3 0.7 0.5 0.8
PERCENT CHANGE,
1970 TO 1976
Total, all ages.. 5.6 5.6 5.6 4.6 4.6 4.5 9.7 9.7 9.7
Selected age groups:
1.9 2.0 1.8 12.8 1.1 1.3 0.8 12.2 6.0 6.0 5.9
55+ 11.5 9.8 11.0 9.4 14.4 12.1 16.2
60+ 12.8 10.7 14.4 12.2 10.1 13.7 17.2 14.0 19.5
62+ 14.0 11.6 15.8 13.3 10.9 15.0 19.8 16.5 22.3
65+ 14.8 11.9 16.9 14.0 11.1 16.1 21.5 17.6 24.3
75+ 16.1 9.3 20.4 14.6 7.6 19.1 28.7 •21.6 33.8
85+ 39.6 28.6 45.5 37.4 26.6 43.1 61.8 43.6 73.0
\J Includes races other than White or Black (e.g., American Indian, Chinese, Japanese) which are not shown separately.
SOURCE: Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 643, "Estimates of the Population of the United States, By Age, Sex, and Race: July 1, 1974 to 1976," Tables 2 and 5.


-6-
The estimates in this report are subdivided by single years of age (from less than 1 year to 84 years of age, followed by a total for 85 years and over) anc are further cross-classified by sex and race: total, white, black and other races (combined), and black. The data for single years of age are aggregated into subtotals for 5-year age groups, and additional subtotals for selected age groups (e.g., 16+ and 65+) are also shown.
National Clearinghouse on Aging staff has prepared a summary table from this report which presents estimates of the resident population by sex and race for persons of all ages and seven age groups. These age groups were selected because of the numerous requests that are received regarding them and because they represent the target populations for a variety of Federal programs. The table shows the number of persons in each age, sex, and race group, followed by a percent distribution of each sex-race subgroup by age, and the percent change between 1970 and 1976 for each group.
The full name of the report is shown at the bottom of the table. Copies of the report are available for 65 cents at any U.S. Department of Commerce district office or can be ordered from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.
CURRENT STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS FROM NCA
The following is a list of current statistical publications from the Statistical Analysis Staff of the National Clearinghouse on Aging. Please note that the series entitled Statistical Memo and an earlier series entitled Facts and Figures on Older Americans have been discontinued and are being replaced by Statistical Reports on Older Americans and this newsletter, Statistical Notes. Copies of the publications listed below may be obtained by writing to: Statistical Notes, National Clearinghouse on Aging, Administration on Aging, Washington, DC 20201.
1. Statistical Reports on Older Americans, No. 4, "Social, Economic, and Health Characteristics of Older American Indians (Part 2 of 2)," DHEW Publication No. (OHDS) 78-20289. *
Discusses 1970 census data on a variety of topics, including marital status, household composition, labor force, income, poverty, and education. Also includes more current information on Supplemental Security Income and health. Includes statistical tables.
2. Statistical Reports on Older Americans, No. 3, "Some Prospects for the Future Elderly Population," DHEW Publication No. (OHDS) 78-20288.
Describes the most recent Census Bureau projections of the population to the year 2035 by age, sex, and race. Discusses some of the implications for such characteristics as living arrangements, health, marital status, education, language difficulty, occupational history, income, and poverty. Includes statistical tables.


-7-
3. Statistical Reports on Older Americans, No. 2, "Income and Poverty Among the Elderly: 1975," DHEW Publication No. (OHDS) 77-20286.
Describes the economic status of the elderly population, based on current and historical data from Census Bureau surveys. Includes statistical tables.
4. Statistical Reports on Older Americans, No. 1, "American Indian Population 55 Years of Age and Older: Geographic Distribution,
1970 (Part 1 of 2)," DHEW Publication No. (OHDS) 77-20285.
Presents 1970 census data on the distribution of older Indians by State, region, urban-rural residence, and reservation. Includes statistical tables.
5. Statistical Memo, No. 34, "BLS Retired Couple's Budgets: Autumn 1975," DHEW Publication No. (OHDS) 77-20016.
Describes three hypothetical budgets for urban retired couples. Presents 1975 data on the cost of these budgets by type of expenditure. Includes statistical tables.
6. Statistical Memo, No. 33, "Elderly Widows," DHEW Publication No. (OHDS) 77-20015.
Discusses causes for the large number of elderly widows, and presents data on a wide variety of characteristics, including age, race, living arrangements, income, housing, and transportation. Includes statistical tables.
7. Statistical Memo, No. 32, "Lack of Complete Kitchen Facilities Among the. Elderly: 1970," DHEW Publication No. (OHDS) 76-20012.
Describes data from a special tabulation of 1970 census data on the presence or lack of complete kitchen facilities in households with elderly members. Data are presented by age of household head, urban-rural residence, and size of household. Includes statistical tables.
8. Statistical Memo, No. 31, "Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Older Population in 1974 and Projections to the Year 2000," DHEW Publication No. (OHDS) 75-20013.
Discusses historical trends in fertility, mortality, and immigration that have shaped the age, sex, and race structure of the current and future elderly population. Includes statistical tables.


-8-
9. Facts About Older Americans: 1977, DHEW Publication No. (OHDS) 78-20006.
This handy brochure presents statistics on the elderly population for a wide variety of characteristics, such as geographic distribution, projections, life expectancy, health costs, living arrangements, marital status, education, consumption expenditures, income, poverty, labor force, health status, and health care utilization. Includes charts, maps, and statistical tables.
10. Estimates of the 60+ and 65+ Populations for Counties and PSA’s: 1975, DHEW Publication No. (OHDS) 77-20085.
Describes the methodology for preparing estimates of the number of elderly for each county in the United States as of July 1, 1975. Statistical tables (separate attachments) for each State also provide estimates for Planning and Service Areas (PSA's), the target areas for State and Area Agencies on Aging, as well as for the metropolitan and nonmetropolitan populations of each State.
DEPARTMENT OP
HEALTH. EDUCATION. AND WELFARE WASHINGTON. D.C. 20201
OFFICIAL. BUSINESS
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID U.S. DEPARTMENT OF H.E.W.
HEW—391
SHEW Publication No. (0EDS) 78-2OOI4O


APPENDIX B
Hudson, Colorado
Data Compiled from Comprehensive Plan, 1977


BARRIER-FREE DESIGN DATA INDEX
The following form is provided as a review guide and data index for a self-instructional learning module--Barrier. Free Design for the Elderly and the Pisabled. Complete it by filling in the blanks with the workbook as a reference. Indicate page numbers for further reference. Use thumbnail sketches in the margin to illustrate solutions if you need them for clarity and ease of reference.
HUMAN FACTORS
item
1. Anthropometries
Ambulant Standing Women: ages
a. vertical reach ......................
b. oblique vertical reach ..............
c. eye level ...........................
d. forward reach .......................
e. toe projection ......................
f. head height .........................
g. shoulder height .....................
h. elbow height ........................
Ambulant Sitting Women
a. vertical forward reach ..............
b. eye level ...........................
c. forward reach .......................
d. thigh level .........................
e. knee level ..........................
f. seat height .........................
g. head height .........................
Disabled, Chair-Bound
a. vertical reach ......................
b. oblique vertical reach ..............
c. forward vertical reach ..............
d. eye level ...........................
e. knee height .........................
f. toe projection ......................
g. elbow height ........................
h. head height .........................
18-30
60+
dT1-7V‘
r- (o^
5'- t
4-1 -
5.1.-.,3y
MAN
. it
...2. - 7^
im
i
i1- ir r- 2sl r- s' ,.±.‘
WOMAN

page
T
o?
7
i-i


A
Item
2.
B
i, i
IE*l-F tEE DE/IC D VT I DEI.
page
Wheelchairs
Dimensions, ANSI Standard
a. height .........................;....... 3 -
b. seat height ............................ / *- "
c. arm height ............................. 2 '- “
d. width .................................. 2 fT "
e. seat depth ............................. m-C. .
f. length ................................. af z. -
g. foot rest width ........................ m. q, .
Operations ,
a. minimum door width 32, ' . \
b. doorway area must be 3Z-a (4Luo»u>t/*Jl ^^7 *+*({«* )
c. threshold height ~ 2^. “v p^K
d. door closing aids zu*-»L . hook-
e. factors affecting clear doorway space: 1)A,r 2|____1!____ Aoqy'
3) door JtjLfibCm___ 1
f. two methods used to provide counter reach: , . . ri’•
1 Impart.He. I_t» jailer
O \ <»p« ►* ±>«.l»oJ
^ (_!_CaLun-ilA’_______
g. factors concerning control placement: L+y frprZtaJ diiftCAltn*
2) ■* » *'
3) pray* r y h. ramps: * I r
1) maximum slope // Z-
2) horizontal run between landings 3<^>1______________
3) level areas mu^t be orovided at:
a) rwf.iA i^ 'pvnA d-rdaeY"?
b) Jin__C6n*f
c) <*£.#r''Asn
A) width Jpf tflrttArhlJ*' .saw â–  C^*fect)
i. turning: 1 '
1) dimensions for small chair through 3-point turn:
a) I'
2) turning cTrcle^of standard chair ~5~2V-
3) minimum space, small wheelchair through 90° turn
a) width of path 3'-dV ,
b) width of area needed to complete turn 4~ ~ ~7 -rt>j-(s>
c) length of area needed to complete turn 3> *- ’*
j. wheelchair transfer methods:
1) 2J gn-fcr i'r> , Yvxnu^d
3) ^C /Z
13
14-
/4*
1
//
©Copyright 1975, Syracuse University and Gerontological Society
1-2


k k
IE -F "E de. icn d * t inde:.
Walking Aids Dimensions:
a. crutches ........................... 3 3 ___________
b. walker ................................../ ^ /34
c. cane/handrail ...................... ^
Operations:
a. critical handrail factors for crutch
users ...........................1) 2) '
b. crutch user needs stair handrail as .. .1) _______
2 IPudr -h? lt*nontorPl)4h
c. needs ramp handrail as: .........1) _______
d. on ramps, a sLvirp_____________will prevent crutch from slipping off
e. inadequate floor space in toilet poses threat to b f. two types of crutches: 1) undos t%Ym________________
2) fare a.rm _ ___ or
, , t-efs+rAn cj__________T__
g. walkers offer 1) tnmT ^uuooaA mJKiu. .but require
2) Z JlucJio n a (. hdyrxd *>' » 3) hurt frr wc_____
and restrict use of 4) _________
h. people with walkers do not benefit from r£jJir\A____
i. walkers may be used on ramps of fjrA-duaJ
Senses
a. major disabilities of vision ....1) lo^b />< t/At/tf a/jUa^i,
2) » » " VitAA 7 .
\ j ; â– ; UMfCKi-h'Qibi
s locctfjjntj of
c a'fat- n+ ofCArnfA-
b. to counteract non-total vision loss use: ' 1
1) ffr/iyiOCL ________________
2nXKZFrL MA.iFnAj-.
3) aSwr.ir- <&kyc!k&r t/i 'v/wau nZE&II&
c. to Counteract severe loss us#: .
Hearing
a. common loss of older people 'font-tL/win* [pty, , ,
b. indirect problems dMudhi hAurinA ^e} ^fait*****
nni^t If.utls? -Prohltrsi^ Ui ! 'StP^cc* •
must be minimufnized by , r
c. redundant cuing might 1 nvolye ASsnldt^Js fo
and uje. /if 7ht ha^y-y\o^i^~
‘ 0
rnn«n'nh+ 107*1 ^vrarnco llm'yprcifv snH Rprnnfnlnm’ra 1 ^nn'pfv


IE -F EE DE. *IC D ‘ T. I.’DEI.
ltcc
page
Touch a b

Ch / •
. impairment by ffrr'A AiAttfz
. to counter: » . /
1) /M>r tcxturf 5 m
2) - to i-*rL/& 5 rbr CAn-far/*? ensure'protection fromr <
1)_____
2) <* V-tyrm
Motion a
unt.
slower speeds necessitated by ..........1 )<*kujhf*i*7 in rfjJ'ivu L
V A/X-eM* udfan*
61 iLM'fiL/i # y- 1r>'Ln//7vLtLto 4. ) /si+iC-t A'/’ a X •

c.
d.
to counter .................................I )^W< ttau-hmi eft#?.
r-gfol
to counter .................................1) b> h*>\d(
3 Li i/it
balance and position disabilities may result in r^AL-zL. ^
2 j r (1 >i; n#A»i«. gf Vljp h*z*r|gfc 3) etofAninuf as# JtYtr.f* ion of ' ^
e. arthritis, rheumatism may restrict motion of t-s
and • /Require designs using JrJxS
fat* -fa fatnip(Ja7b Ven/u *zifnr?/e . differ )ws>l/r&{tir v 3ras /7$
f. inability to exert force ijray require: ^ ‘ 1
hs _________
/•" £4Um? • Crrftrt U
1) QptY*Jp/t. rtfQu+'bruh >7
2) pn/f'/jItCmnjJi^ Ah.i / WtCdf.
T
Zo
z^a


SITE CONSIDERATIONS
1. Parking
Requires:
a. i uJiaw\
Y\o ocwb
b.
c.
d.
mi
/iVirs d-e yrK linimum number of parking spaces for ‘ disabled people ^ or 2-" % of units in housing
Curb Cuts (sketch best solution) . ,
a. cues for the blind should be-f/iA-h'k
b. curb cuts should not move people Trvft>
TV frid-dlt at /lm t'nJtytteJifiyi___________
Entries
a. should be:
D
2)
b.
should entry to a
jjtiSEL tf.A'Jk/lL- ..
/not provide
building’
from weather
to origin or destination
toutnrtLt^ as the only accessible
1-4
©Copyright 1975, Syracuse University and Gerontological Society


i. i
IE -F lEE DE. IC D..T
item
STAIRS
1. Corridor
a. step relation and handrail:
1) handrails at ^>i cld S
2) setback steps / * from corridor
3) handrail has lf extension
2. Step Profile
a. critical factors for safe use ............
of steps
b. solutions
.1)
2)
3) found no'ain
su/r A*

rt
Riser Height
a. if too high or low the stairs may be
or t/dv^__________
i nh +■ “'7 •*
1) '/jffenJ*
2) m? r\-r> ers
3) -fa, 6 cf^rdt>________
4) _
b. maximum height
c. minimum height
_2_
RAMPS (see also wheelchair operations)
1. Slope
a. J:/ 3- less steep slopes become b. length of run under 3 1 between* rest areas
c. level rest area 1 by p>
2. Handrail Height
a. recommended compromise ,2.- g? "
b. modifying factors are .......................1) elcAair
2) lavor/a.yyy\o u \ Ant
c. when used by children, provide loujer duu^iUtur^ r*JX_________________
3. Handrail Clearance for use by person in wheelchair:
a. maximum clearance 3 1 - 3- *'
b. minimum clearance Z-1 - ! d~> "
4. Ramp Surfaces . , « , . • ,
a. quality must be /7, w/JncHoflAJ rdSi^VLnd^
:y must be finn-Altr? , vy Jr\cMc>ruJ r*$i*>VLn^e~ but
D^I
P»*e
4-0

4-2.
So
5-/
5^
©Copyright 1975, Syracuse University and Gerontological Society
1-5


B * , IE -F EE DESIG D VT * I DEX
item page
ELEVATORS - ~\D Jt
1. Cab Dimensions (see wheelchair operations)
a. minimum width .......................................................
b. minimum length ..................................................
c. these dimensions allow a _____________________in a wheelchair ______________
2. Doors
a. minimum width ...........................
b. critical elevator timing concern
c. Elevator doors should have or
__________ . Either system should detect high or low
penetration of the doorway, _____
3. Control Type and Arrangement
a. a _________________arrangement is generally best.
b. numbers should be _____________________________________________
c. floor and emergency buttons should differ in
d. heat sensitive buttons are ____________________________________
4. Control Panel Height
a. best height is ____________ which is a compromise between
ancl
HALLWAY PROBLEMS
Factors „ ,
a • //.untied rtsw* e. b. U/a) ' ceii'i/cz.A &or\ CtvC/*?
c. /ties
d- fate rf yrLfp ^ la.*/*
Dimensions ,
a. width .......................................... u?
7o
iz~
Handrail ought to be provided: •
a. -b?) tu/J (1/ ^Lru,// lajid ar M/cer/t
Grip ought to be: 'i/. / <7
Grip ought to be:
a- ____6/_____________
b. distance from wall
with a grip width of
___ZJl'
tr
a
Alarm box ought to be ______________from floor and include a
-..^UstL.CdrrJ 'Hlijt O'/boIt, -h fCpor-
RESIDENTIAL ENTRYWAYS
1. Door Knobs (sketch acceptable type)
a. acceptable height ' — D "
b. round knobs may naT IhUr}/ 77 ^
^rLf) d&jZZL hj
tint—

©Copyright 1975, Syracuse University and Gerontological Society


b.\ l ie i*f iEE desig:: data i::dex
item
P» *«
Peep Hole
a. acceptable height

b. better solution is a _______6id£_ L46j H~[~
3.
Threshold
a. height ________
b. a light should
A,
on each side
a i i yni. bnuu i u , i
1) IIImahjLyuTl ViSL-nrt faces*_____________________ , ,
2/______'c_L__(? „ hn.rr\ uh4ivirir>_*• / LLutrlr^t-^ l (H%1\ «H c>cK-
KITCHEN DESIGN
1. Cabinet Height/Knob Height
a. minimum I -(0“^ to avoid lotnalLnfi and 6Trticln'/uj
2. Base Cabinet Clearance . J. j \
a. wid^h of counter clearance must at least account for zonrnm^ QiqmefiV
(7\- Hr, 5-kn/g^d tiklt/chur- . which is V'-"
which is

3. Toe Clearance — „
a. („ " in depth by & ^ in height
4. Range Controls
a. should be placed
______rr^oj/,_____~ ____
b. a burn hazard exists when knobs
Uf 4-rg/t/ and t

ar£ placed ' 'jxhinJT
to ensure ease of
or i/nr
tkL
â– jv
5. Oven
a. oven should be at
b. door should be ___________
c. pull out board a 11 ows
aim & 'rf'rt- it c4t£££.
d. li'a Ur
level
La'hi'o w\c>r hinged
Counter Cabinet Arrangement
a. acceptable counter height _______
b. under counter cabinets should be
c. over counter cabinets should be
in oven to aid vision

£ Umina/^ e-ia d
generally calls for cabinet shelves at or below
______ which
f f0 *
7. Sink Height
a. prime consideration is
fo(» ■ htff dtXML/iCC______ which
calls for a clear height of 2. ^ *__,
of sink
b. accidental injury may be avoided by inSu/jJjyuh rtirCA pra.ydp/. (j/Cet/wihjs • t
to bottom and
O
!^>3>
SQ
\3^
©Copyright 1975, Syracuse University and Gerontological Society
1-7


i i
IER-F EE DE/IC D T I DELI
item
BATHROOM DESIGN
1. Door Operation and Width ( ,<
a. acceptable width ~~
b. door ODening
blocked doorway in case of fall
avoids
Sink Height and Mirror ( ,,
a. sink height must provide mL*\ « ^ _____clearance for
knees in order to also insure conrfor^able level for use of sink.
b. the mirrors should be ________5above the sink height of
$T -b ^ 3 11 using a 6" deep sink.
c. pwZ' and^mvi/jL,UHrurt^ on fittings under sink.
Clearance Between Water Closet and Sink ( t,
a. space between WC and sink must be at least *3 - (p ______________to
account for rJiudv'
Bathtub Grab Bar,
a. a ______
the tub
dor

should be provided on the access side of
bos on wall side Quid Be 0 sU,k>___________
b. bathtub rail edge should be idCfi^
c. provide a JlorLynJjJ askb b^r
d. tub bottom should Be ______0 fin-
Water Closet Grab Bars (see also wheelchair operations)
a. diagonal bars on both sidesof stalls may be adequate only for
b. best solution is faiti utand fo*ri'.7^rnjhJ( bars on both sides or stall
page
f (P
6. Shower Seat Height
a. should be same as
b. acceptable height ________________
c. optimally, the shower seat should
be large enough to ________
showers are Mdrf. ~ accei
curbs in showers should
i*) ItjefcJUvr SUjf /recjfct
d.
e.
ceptable
lan
2EZ
tub
and the entrance

maximum
WINDOWS
1. For a non-ambulant person to enjoy street activity, the window sill height preferred is ^ 4"" , although up to Z ^ r is
acceptable depending on the floor level.
2.
A
a) '
b) .
c)
d) .
£uLlcLlI7 mi A
rJUAAf
i di.H fj window is preferable because of:
fog'hrPtoCH/ebrtttt’
—■—“■ /■ rtiLrtutj j
rL#j L to (_ CJ^ntL aj- p'bUS) hOMjZS
IO&
©Copyright 1975, Syracuse University and Gerontological Society
1-8


L lIE: -F EE DEflG:: D‘T_ I DEJ
item
FURNITURE SELECTIONS
1. Tables ought to provide sufficient:
aj SKifl,_____frit*' Z't-
b)___i^CiQr? £<^b^2(L__ll.idM-,
2. Chairs ouqht to approximate the height of __________J1" ___, but
be high enough to allow easy use by arthritics. An acceptable height is / V
Lamos and electric appliances are more easily operated if jPuth 'b&Jfah
3
Drawers should allow for.:
a)
b)
<2f>frAr£.L4p___fr/\
FURNITURE ARRANGEMENT
1. Space must be provided to allow approach to windows, an acceptable width is ________________C? ''
2. Beds should be placed to.allow or constructed to
provide for bfrJc . An acceptable width
between wall and bed is v^1--*
3. Tables should allow passage by wheelchair behind ^»pU_
baJo / . An acceptable width is 3’ - '' •
PUBLIC ENTRIES
3. In public facilities, where large wheelchairs may be used, a door width
of ______3f— O r is necessary. Such a width requires the wheel -
chair to move back opt* rJc^y'. For large wheelchairs, the vestibule must be /„ '-.cj deep.
TRANSIT VEHICLES \£~
1. Entry
a) risers of steps into buses for ambulant persons should be ____________.
b) lifts are satisfactory for____________________but may impede
____________________ if used alone.
c) the ootimal solution would____________________________________________
page
IP
H+
lt&
I
L
©Copyright 1975, Syracuse University and Gerontological Society
T-q


.* . IE -F EE DE!~IG D.-.T.*. I
Item 2. Aisle Seat Relationship a. for non-ambulant riders, buses ought to
for , and have to
prevent toppling, b. ambulant sitting can be improved by *
although this cuts down on total capacity.
3. Aisle Width a. to allow passage for non aisle width should be -ambulant riders, yet not waste space, the . This situation can
be avoided if near the
for wheelchairs.
4. Passenger Assists a. a hanging assist ought to incorporate
with a diameter of .
b. additional aids are: 1)
2)
TRANSPORT TERMINAL FACILITIES
1. Admittance gate should be: a. for wheelchairs
b. but should be restricted to dis-
c. coin slots should
2.
3. An
cueing should be used to mark routes of travel, is best for vertical travel.
4. Excessive in-terminal distances can be countered by use of which are preferred over
Shelters should be protective but allow
a.
b.
for
and
page
6. Boarding platforms should be
with the vehicle floor
©Copyright 1975, Syracuse University and Gerontological Society
1-10


r
i Race Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103
WORKING DOCUMENT FOR ASTM COMMITTEE USE ONLY. NOT FOR PUBLICATION EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY APPROVED BY THE CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMITTEE, OR THE MANAGING DIRECTOR OF THE SOCIETY.
COMMITTEE F-15 on CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY
T.G. F15.03 on SAFETY STANDARDS FOR BATHTUB AND SHOWER STRUCTURES June 7, 1976
SUBJECT: Rationale for the Criteria in F-446, Proposed Standard Consumer Safety
Specification for Grab Bars and Accessories Installed in the Bathing Area
INTRODUCTION
Slips and falls have been identified as the most frequent type of bathing area accident. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) estimates that over 100,000 falls occur in the bathing area each year. These slips and falls frequently occur while entering or leaving the bathing area, while changing between a standing and sitting position and while moving around the bathing area. The problem is identified and discussed in the Executive Summary and Final Report of Abt Associates, Inc. study which was conducted under contract to the Consumer Product Safety Commission. In that report, Abt Associates identified the reduction of injuries due to slips and falls as an issue of high priority.
After careful review of the Abt Associates report, supported by data from the CPSC National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), other source documents and long discussions by task force members, the ASTM Task Group F-15.03 finds that proper placement and anchoring of grab bars and accessories can reduce the hazards of slips and falls. Therefore, the task group recommends a grab bar(s) be installed in every bathing facility.
Given the recommendations of the Abt Report, supported by data from NEISS, and based on our own conclusions, the Task Group F-15.03 produced a document:
(1) F-446 Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Grab Bars and Accessories Installed in the Bathing Area.
1. SCOPE
The task force defined the scope with guidance from consumers, industry personnel, CPSC staff, the Abt Associates, Inc.'s report and NEISS data.
Further, the task force has expanded on the Abt Associates, Inc.'s recommendation of the use of grab bars to include other accessory items installed in the bathing area.
-G 54-


4930.1
401-4__________________KITCHENS, BATHS, LAUNDRIES________________________
BATHROOM FOR THE ELDERLY Design Features of the Illustrated Bathroom Outswinging bathroom door with flush threshold.
Diagonal grab bar mounted forward of wc on side wall. All grab bars 1 1/2" o.d. by 2'-0" long and 1 1/2" clear of wall.
Lavatory with lever type faucets and front edge capable of withstanding 250 lb load.
Recessed medicine cabinet with unbreakable shelves.
Bathtub with vertical grab bar near faucets to facilitate vertical entry and another running diagonally across the center of the back wall to aid in rising and in showering. If shower is provided, a second soap dish might be mounted at 4'-6" to obviate some stooping.
ELEVATION B
MAP


^iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii)iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii)iiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiniiin[iiiiniiiiiiiiii»ni»iniimtit,t City of Hudson


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IE
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HUDSON
m a
REGIONAL

TYING
tsa^K.i A t
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\ f vt ’iX. 4 ySr I Qf V *1 * " BocLMVbw It vT“ T
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ry VnCoijiriS
LARIMER k„ I )\ i jlif-tV
FOREST cv3
Masotiviile '
"Puicell& ^ 23 _* I
... - _ . -y f tl;
p-rv^v \ \ --
Ar. •*'■’>r“A!J (-Oy'elaiSd
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J{* ^*v K. .. --------*•- r
7 j i'"1* A V._
I * BtijRsdite J „ \
J " © 1 j ‘ ....................",
~ H 1 Buckingham j|'
\ )j
J.._______________1
\* / /fiarnesvi
-tail j
. •fl'jIV.'W" (ZS7) KoifOUfi flSiflcr. >ei tr——.
WELD
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f “.Ml) If I 5 ‘W< Y X
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Snyder
'|'V~k i i
1a;x cIm/. j^ x


History
During its history, the town of Hudson has gone through four stages of growth. This chapter attempts to describe the four stages based on some diversified sources. The most detailed source is a story of Hudson in "Fifty Years and More", a 1976 Bicentennial project by a group of Weld Central High students.
Also used are articles from Denver and Greeley newspapers, Hudson plat maps on file with Weld County and assorted documents available at the Colorado Historical Society and the Western History Department of the Denver Public Library.
I. __1882-1887: Water Stop
In 1882, the Burlington and Missouri Railroad completed a line from Denver to Eckley, Colorado. Passenger service began on June 26, 1882. Hudson began as a water stop along this line. The purpose of the stop was to provide the steam locomotives of the day with water and coal. Nothing existed at the present site of Hudson until the Burlington built a section house and a depot in 1883. However, before 1890, there simply wasn't much in the area to entice many people to stay.
II. 1887-1893:_The Land Boom
Hudson was founded on November 2, 1887. John M. Lapp has purchased some land from the owner of the Union Pacific Railroad, Jay Gould, and on that date he platted approximately 1,360 lots in an area west of the railroad tracks and north of the depot. (See Plat #1 - Appendix.)
On September 21, 1889, the Hudson City Land and Improvement Company filed a plat with the county which set boundaries for almost 3,000 additional lots (See Plat #2 - Appendix). The main intention of both Lapp and the company was to engage in land speculation and promotion of the area. The Colorado Exchange Journal of December 29, 1888 describes Hudson as "a bright and booming new town" with a ten acre park, a school house, a post office and 7,000 lots for sale.
During this period of the land boom, the Burlington continued to use the settlement as a water stop, but it also brought many visiting land speculators out from Denver to survey the land for investment purposes. In addition, the railroad served as the area's lifeline to Denver, bringing in coal for fuel, lumber, construction materials and household items as well as a few new residents.
III. 1892-1970: Agricultural Area Commercial Stop
The opening of the first store in Hudson in 1893 marked the beginning of a long period in the town's history. Hudson gained in population and came to serve as the couniercial trade center for the area east of Ft. Lupton. Some of the types of businesses which flourished in Hudson during this 77 year period were a bank, four newspapers, a confectionary and several blacksmiths, hotels, barbers and doctors.
In 1970 Albert M. Kearns, a Hudson resident and an employee of a real estate agency-, replatted the town giving it the street pattern and street names that it has today. On December 16, 1907, Kearns


filed his plat with the county. It contained approximately 2,680 lots and Kearns was listed as the owner of the entire area (See Plat #3-Appendix).
Of the 2,680 lots, 688 of them, as well as the dedicated public rights-of-way, were north of the present town limits. Today, it is not certain whether those rights-of-ways still exist, whether they were vacated when the town became incorporated, or whether they have ceased to be rights-of-way due to lack of public use. Additional legal research should be conducted on this matter.
The first concerted effort at agricultural and community development took place during this period. Water was a scarce commodity in the area until the Henrylyn Irrigation District, formed in 1907, completed the construction of a canal system from the South Platte River in 1913. This provided a tremendous impetus to farming. In March of 1913, fifty farmers from Oklahoma arrived in Hudson to establish new farms.
On April 2, 1914, the town residents voted to incorporate and they elected the first mayor and board of trustees. Apparently, a town government was felt to be needed as the vote was 71 in favor of incorporation and only 3 against.
As Denver continued to grow, it attracted jobseekers from rural areas.. A migration to the cities began, farms got larger and more mechanized and job opportunities decreased. In spite of these trends, Hudson grew steadily - but slowly. Slow growth and
t
easier transportation to Denver caused the retail/ conwercial sector of Hudson's economy to shrink. As early as the 1940's residents began to shop elsewhere for goods and services. These trends prepared Hudson for its present stage of development.
IV.__1970-Present: Bedroom Community
in the early seventies, Hudson experienced a residential building "boom". With few job opportunities available in Hudson, most of the new residents were employed in Denver or Brighton. Thus, Hudson acquired the status of a residential or "bedroom community", almost totally dependent on outside (out of town) income for survival.
With increasing population pressures, the town was faced with the need to upgrade its water supply system. In 1977, a moratorium was placed on the issuance of water taps, stopping almost all new construe ti on.
This is the historical setting in which the town is now trying to deal with its water and growth related problems - while maintaining and improving a quality of life and small town atmosphere which is responsible for attracting many of the town's present residents.


Population
The purpose of this population study is to estimate the current population of Hudson, to provide an analysis of the composition of the present population of Hudson, and, by looking at past trends, to make some projections of future population. This information can then be used to help determine the level of demand for facilities, services and housing. This, in turn, will indicate some of the possible effects of population growth on land use and the natural environment in the Hudson area.
Population Trends: 1920 - Present
According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the population of Hudson has shown moderate but steady growth since 1940, increasing from 295 to 518 in 1970 (Figure 1).
The population trend in Hudson since 1970 is shown in Figure 2. The 1973 and 1975 figures are between census estimates published by the Bureau of the Census.
The 1977 population estimate of 750 was determined by the building permit method. The town's building permit records indicate that 58 permits for the construction of new residences were issued between 1970 and 1977 (Table 1).
According to a land use survey conducted by team members, there was also an increase of eleven mobile homes in Hudson since the 1970 census. Therefore, the total number of residences in Hudson in 1977
2
O
I-
<
_i
ID
a
O
0.
800
700
600
500
400
FIGURE 2
9


TABLE 2
POPULATION DATA FOR COMMUNITIES IN OR NEAR SOUTHEAST WELD COUNTY
% AVG. ANNUAL CHANGE,
COMMUNITY COUNTY 1950 I960 1970 1975 1970 - 1975
Hudson Weld 365 430 518 683 6.4
Ft. Lupton Weld 1,907 2,194 2,489 3,041 4.4
Keenesburg Weld 432 409 427 505 3.7
Lochbuie Weld - - 934 1 ,038 2.2 '
Gilerest Weld 429 357 382 451 3.6
Platteville Weld 570 582 683 1 ,024 10.0
Brighton Adams 4,336 7,055 8,309 11 ,132 6.8
Greeley Weld Weld 20,354 26,314 38,902 47,362 4.3
County 67,504 72,344 89,297 107,365 4.05
The Hudson survey showed that 7.71 of the population are 65 years of age and over, down from 13.9% in 1970 (Table 4). This is lower than the 1970 national average of 9%. The 1977 data in Table 4 may be less reliable than the 1970 Census data since the returned surveys (from 160 households) do not represent a statistical sampling of the total population. The surveys were self-administered and went to every household. Therefore, a drop in the number of persons over 65 may be due to a smaller percentage of that group filling out the survey. Likewise, the apparent increase in the percentage of people in the 25 - 34 age group may be the result of a higher proportion of this age group answering the questionnaire Despite the lack of complete accuracy, the data presented here is useful for general planning purposes .
TABLE 3
DETAILED AGE DISTRIBUTION, 1977
NUMBER % OF
AGE OF PERSONS POPULATION
0-4 81 10.8
5-9 78 10.4
10-14 81 10.8
0-14 240 32.0
15-19 65 8.6
20-24 50 6.7
25-34 122 16.3
35-44 77 10.2
45-54 63 8.4
55-64 75 10.0
15-64 452 60.2
65+ 58 7.7


TABLE 4
AGE AND SEX DISTRIBUTION, 1970 AND 1977
AGE MALES FEMALES 1970* TOTAL % OF TOTAL MALES FEMALES 1977** TOTAL % OF TOTAL NET TOTAL # CHANGE % OF T0TAI
0-4 26 28 54 10.4 46 35 81 10.8 +27 + .4
5-19 71 + 74+ 145+ 28.0+ 104 120 224 29.8 +79 + 1.8
20-24 15++ 18++ 33++ 6.4++ 20 30 50 6.7 +17 + . 3
25-64 104 no 214 41.3 166 171 337 45.0 +123 + 3.7
65+ 38 34 72 13.9 31 27 58 7.7 -14 -6.2
* Source: 1970 Census of Population, Bureau of the Census ** Source: 1977 Hudson Community Survey + Data for Ages 5-18
Data for Ages 19 - 24______________________________________
The 1977 income pattern for Hudson is a typical one, close to national averages (figure 3)., The median family income is between $12,000 and $13,000. At the upper end of the income spectrum, 18.6% of Hudson families earn $20,000 or more, and on the lower end, 15.7% earn $5,000 or less.
Population Projections
Population projections for Hudson are not very reliable. The number of persons migrating to small towns like Hudson is often unpredictable and risky. The future population of Hudson will be determined by the complex interaction of many factors such as the availability of water in the Denver metropolitan area, the price of new housing and the price of gasoline, Also, one new employment center or housing development could produce a large percentage increase in Hudson's population in a relatively short time. Therefore, the projections presented here simply show what might happen if past trends continue.
They are not predictions.
figure 4 compares four different population projections. The lowest line assumed Hudson's growth to be in proportion to Weld County's. Therefore,
0.6% of Weld County's projected growth, based on 1977 projections by the Larimer-Weld Council of Government was used to project Hudson's growth. The straight-line projection by Holgan and 01 hausen was included in their November 1977 study of Hudson's water systeir The highest line extending out to the year 2000 is based on Hudson's average annual growth rate from 1970 to 1977 of 6.4%.
19


FIGURE 3
INCOME DISTRIBUTION, 1977
OVER $25,000 $20,000 - $24,999
$15,000 - $19,999 $10,000 - $14,999
$7,000 - $9,999 $ 5,000 - $6,999 $2,000 - $4,999 UNDER $2,000
1 1 â–¡
"—) 1 J i i 4 ——1 m Lj
â–  . i U 1 â– i
_ ;j 1 " □j r i "'”i \
^ - r 1 i L ... 1 lJi
n 11
■ —i i ] ~—1 —J 1 j r* .. i y
___j
1
—^ i
. ' ' '* j 3
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Number of households


Housing
An important part of a plan for a comnunity is to provide for its citizens a selection of types of housing and areas in which to live. These should be suited to varying familys1 and individuals' life styles and incomes. Options should include units for both purchase and rental. The types and price ranges should be tied to socio-economic characteristics of the coimiunity's population.
The need for new production of housing will result from an increase in the number of households in a comnunity, the replacement of substandard units, and the recognition of the needs of special groups like the elderly or low income. A "vacancy reservoir" should be present so that those seeking new residences will have a selection from which to choose.
Housing Types, Conditions, Needs
Dwelling units in Hudson consist of the following types:
213 single-family units 4 duplex units (2 buildings)
25_mobile homes
242 total
In addition, there are 11 single-family units near the city limits.
There is also a two-building, twenty-unit housing area for migrant farmers, located northeast of town. Occupied from May through frost by approxi-
mately 100 people, the units have central bath houses and a water well and septic tank not considered sufficient for that number of people.
The single-family units were rated by the Weld County Planning Department as to condition as follows:
Standard condition 85%
Rehabilitatable 12%
Dilapidated 3%
These ratings were based on the following criteria:
Standard - The unit is larger than 600 square feet with central heat throughout and necessary plumbing components.
Rehabi1itatable - It would cost less than 50% of the present unit's value to bring it up to standard. Dilapidated - It would cost more than 50% of the present unit's value to bring it up to standard.
Most homes in Hudson are in the $20,000 - $45,000 price range. There are approximately 750 people within the city limits on about 43 acres of residential land. The community survey data shows that approximately 12% of the respondents were renting their housing.
Approximately 19 acres that could be used for residential development are vacant within the town. At the present rate of 5 dwelling units per acre, at 3.1 people per household, this land could accommodate about 295 more people.


Senior Citizens
"Da ta fi roni 1 ihe conn in =1 ty C U X' vey shows that
ap pro ;:i ms tely 10% of iludco ri re si de nts are anp S5 or
ol der , wi th a! JOUt 7.7 bei ng c ye iars or o’! der . A
v a r i e ty o f Sc’ rv i c£ :s e::ist for se ni or ci si zens, bi it
n ( ny of t hsse a re in surra ur. di ng £ on-.'. uni ties. A n
senior citizen coordinator, funded by the Fanners Union Green Thumb Program, works with the towns of Hudson and Keenesburg. She is in Hudson at least once a week.
Aide, funded th ment. Tiiis ai; errands, meal si idi ng seale
me ilia ker/Heal th
ludson recently acquired a
ihrough the Weld County Health Depart-helps seniors wi th ho u sework, preparation, and medical care. A fee is charged. The Timberwood Senior Center in Keenesburg is the location for an "oldster once a month. Plans are being made senior citizen residence and center
clinic", held for a si mi lar in Hudson.
!r~ r
£ O
Weld Information and Referral Services for the Aging (WIRS), a United Way Agency, puts out a directory of community resources for senior citizens of Weld County. This includes information on recreation,' housing, finances, organizations, and services available in the county. RSVP, Retired Seniors Volunteer Program, is planning bus transportation for seniors in the Roggen, Keenesburg, Hudson, and Greeley areas, for shopping, health care, etc. RSVP in Brighton conducts outings to events in Denver and other areas.
Many senior citizens in Hudson are active in church groups or garden clubs. Some attend "The King's Table", held in Ft. Lupton once a week and consisting of lunch served free or for a small fee,
depending on need.
The main problem for Hudson senior residents are a lack of knowledge of programs available locally and a lack of transportation to services out of town (although there is a mini-bus service which lias just become available to Hudson seniors once a week).
There is no senior nutrition program in Hudson, no medical care, and no specific place for seniors to gather. On the community survey, 80% responded that medical aid for seniors was important, and 41% that senior housing should be built.
Sccia 1_Ssrvices and Human Resources
The Social Services Office in Greeley serves all of Weld County. A branch office in Ft. Lupton was closed two years ago due to lack of use. The Social Services Office now claimed that 5% of its clients come from Erie, Frederick, and Hudson.


Climatology
Hudson, located about fifty (50) miles east of the Continental Divide, has an elevation of approximately 5000 feet. It is located in the mid-latitudes in the interior of the North American continent and for this reason, experiences large temperature changes from summer to winter and rapid changes in weather due to storms travelling from west to east through the region. The mountains to the west effectively block atmospheric moisture which originates over the Pacific Ocean. This leaves the Hudson area dependent on inconsistent moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Consequently, the region has low relative humidity with low amounts of precipitation which are quite variable throughout the year. This low precipitation is, however, accompanies by about 70% of possible sunshine, and also large temperature changes from day to night.
Large temperature changes are observed around Hudson during the year where the monthly averages vary from 23.8 degrees in January to 73.8 degrees in July. The mean maximum varies from 39.7 degrees in January to 90.6 degrees in July while the mean minimum varies from 7.9 degrees in January to 56.7 degrees in July. The difference between maximum and minimum is 32 degrees in January and 34 degrees in July which in indicative of the large day to night temperature change. Each year is not an average year and the wide variation experienced in the area is seen in the warmest and coldest monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures. For example, the warmest January minimum was 16.8 degrees while the coldest January minimum was -10.5 degrees. This large variation during the winter months changes to a much smaller variation in summer.
Freeze and growing season data are dependent upon minimum temperatures which can vary considerably over short distances. This is caused from cold air flowing down to low spots. Consequently, growing seasons may be many days shorter in areas where cold air is trapped.
Average annual precipitation is 11.96 inches. Reporting stations in the area show a distinct maximum in early summer with a minimum during the winter. The winter minimum is dramatic evidence of the infrequent occurrence of a southerly wind to bring Gulf moisture to the region coupled with a storm which can effectively use the moisture. Spring and summer bring much more solar radiation to produce convective showers.
The maximum and minimum monthly precipitation show the extreme variation of precipitation.
Since such a large portion of precipitation falls during summertime convective storms, even the areal distribution can be quite variable. Average precipitation values are made up of many low precipitation years, and a few heavy years, since most years are below the average. Hail producing convective storms are a problem in the area. Average snowfall measurements in the region vary between 30 and 38 inches per year. Even to a greater extent than the total precipitation, a few large snow storms dominate snowfall averages with most years below average.
Natural Resources
1. Petroleum
Hudson is located in a region that contains favorable horizons from the Upper Cretaceous Pierre to the Pennsylvania Fountain formation. Present


bocEai services and
Community FaciEities
Community Center Complex
Goal: To provide facilities for community meetings
and a gathering place for citizens of all ages.
Policies:
1. Depending on funding, one area shall be planned to include an expanded library, town hall, senior citizen residences, a parking area, and a park.
2. The town hall building shall include at least one large meeting room.
3. If funds allow, space shall be included in the complex for future offices (i.e. police, recreation director).
Education
Goal: To provide a range of educational facilities and program for citizens of all ages in cooperation with the school district.
Policies:
1. Future school sites shall be planned for and acquired in advance of need to insure optimum location and distribution of facilities.
2. New subdivisions shall be required to provide a percentage of land or funds for the purpose
of acquisition of land for school sites.
3. Communication, coordination, and cooperation .. Between various schools in the district shall
be encouraged, resulting in the sharing of facilities and programs and maximizing their use by Hudson residents, especially in the area of recreation.
Police Protection and Crime Prevention
Goal: To improve the protection and safety of citizens within the community.
Policies:
1. The town of Hudson and the Ft. Lupton Sheriff's Substation shall work together with increasing cooperation in the planning and development
of goals and methods of police protection and crime prevention for the community.
2. As the population of Hudson grows, a study shall be undertaken to determine the need for a police department and city court within the town.
Health and Medical Services
Goal: To increase the accessibility and ease the cost of medical services and supplies to all citizens of Hudson.


Pol i cies:
1. Facilities for an "oldster clinic" shall be included as part of the senior citizen residential complex.
2. Some type of transportation to existing outlying health services shall be explored.
3. A study shall be undertaken to determine;
a) if a need exists for some type of medical service and facilities in Hudson, and b) • what type of facility would best serve this need, such as a mobile clinic, satellite clinic, visiting nurse, etc.
Social Services and Human Resources
Goal: To increase the accessibility of social and
human services to the town of Hudson.
Pol icies:
1. Town officials shall keep abreast of new programs in these areas, especially those which deal with rural areas (e.g. the governor's proposal to develop cooperative partnerships in human services between local
and state government, under the Human Services Policy Council).
2. The town of Hudson shall work in cooperation with the Social Services Office in Greeley and the Human Resources Office in Ft. Lupton and be aware of services and resources available.
3. Further study shall be undertaken to determine transportation needs to offices in Greeley and Ft. Lupton.
Parks and Recreation
Goal: To provide an adequate amount of recreational and open space for use by all age groups, including equipment and facilities which encourage use by individuals, groups and families.
Policies:
1. Area adjacent to the present elementary school as well as future school sites (while vacant) shall be used for recreational purposes.
2. Railroad rights-of-way shall be considered as greenbelt.
3. Methods and procedures for the acquisition, financing, and maintenance of parks and open space shall be developed.
4. The acquisition of adequate park area shall be encouraged as a part of residential development.
5. A park shall be included as part of the community center complex.
Recreation
Goal: To provide a variety of outdoor and indoor recreational activities, facilities, and equipment and to increase their accessibility to citizens of all ages.


Existing Street

\7jOr£7J7jC7jr£7jr. CLOSED
3 CZ3 C2J CZJ HU O DIRT
3ZZ7JZ7 £=r tzrzzzn PAVED
OILED
â–  D STOP SIGN
SCALE IN FEET
0 400
35


Exjstinq Land Us©
te§ Singlo Family Public a Quasi Public
i.-tt: Multi -Family ft Paries a Recreation
Commorclel [H Agriculturo
== Industrial EH Sorvlco
]_ 1 ~
A

SCALE IN FEET
-3
0 400



AVcKUc
'mmmk
J ; S 4 9 j *3 £ 0 ; I 4 j'p t 0 0 00) f f J V?i j J 5 J 0 j j I 3 6 • S 8 J 3 . 3 ^ J 3 J J » J * r C 0 -. H J 3 J J J • J i 8 .l"-' 3 ? » 0 J : 0 3 JQ f 0 J J T: J 8 J I ; jV
ill
III ill!
*ri H
|!l|i II !S
Hi; â– 
i liiiii'iiiitiiiuii
—
z1

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— 1
L_
4 4 y-\. \
m L
Sf$; hi

p PI
1 ?(• v
j -i‘X'
~'V'
1A1
|'.-= Slnglo Family c; rj Public & r 1 Quaul Public
Multi - Family WJ\ „ ‘Y>V| Pnr^° & Hocrootion
-i i • Commercial §§S:j Agriculture
Industrial | Vacant
==z
— —— - -


APPENDIX C
Hudson Surveys


ASEO'bhi 234- RZTUZKS.
Z'WHBRE fiPPZQZIMG, A/. 2. = KIO RESPONSE
HUDSON AREA SURVEY
INSTRUCTIONS:
The questionnaire you are about to fill out is a residence (household) survey. Every residential unit in the Hudson area has received one copy to be completed by an adult member of the household.
Please respond to the questions by either circling the number provided or by filling in the appropriate blanks. Some questions ask for one answer and other questions need multiple responses. Unless a multiple response is ask- ' ed for in a question* circle only one answer. Read each question carefully. Note all of the choices before you make a selection. Additional statements regarding your views on issues pertaining to che Hudson area will be greatly appreciated. Space has been provided at the end of the questionnaire for this purpose.
REMEMBER, DO NOT SIGN YOUR NAME TO THIS QUESTIONNAIRE!
PART I: YOUR VIEW OF HUDSON
“| What are the best aspects of day-to-day life in Hudson for you? (You may circle one or more of the following answers).
1) Location //A SO Vo
2) SlZ6 ••• * • • • * • * 21 35
3) Climate - • . 34 /5
4) Economic aspects 14 (a
5) Friends 4 neighbors . . . 70 30
6) A11 of the above 47 ZO
7) Other (specify) 13 A
2 How do you rate Hudson as a place to live? (circle one number only)
1) Excellent 3i 13 % 2) Good 12-7 54 %
3) Fair LI 4) Poor 10 4 % Aft-5 2%
3 Would you use bus service to the Denver metro area during the day if it were provided?
1) Yes 54 21% 2) Ko 99 42% 3) Maybe 7*7 33 % H.ff- 4
4 Would you approve of substantial growth:
1) If your taxes were not raised?
2) If it required a moderate increase in taxes?
3) If taxes were raised substantially?
YES NO
izr* 54% 20%
35 . 29J1
Z. ioa_ -j£7%
H. i
iZ J 72
its


0 If substantial growth is inevitable, which would you prefer? (circle one answer)
1) Mostly residential growth 9 IB %
2) Mostly business/commercial growth 23 _J2_
3) Mostly industrial growth (jobs) 24 10
4) An even amount of all of the above Zfo.Q_ -Jsl^
2 3
0 Do you feel adequately informed about what is happening in Hudson?
1) YesJOL_M3t% 2) No//7 5Q% 3) Don't care_ S ZX NRr n 5%
7 Are you aware that-any citizen can attend town board and planning commission meetings and are encouraged to do so?
1) res m 7f% 2) No 55 24% U.R.-4 2%
3 Thinking of the problems in the Hudson area that are important to you, do you think your town officials are responsive to the needs of the community?
1) On most problems us 22% 3) On no problems Z[ 9%
2) On some problems 98 42% 4) No opinion_ 40 fix JO 4%
0 Thinking of the problems in the Hudson area that are important to you, do you think your county officials are responsive to the needs of the community?
1) On most problems 3.9 12% 3) On no problems 79 34 %
2) On some problems BO 34% 4) No opinion_ 4/ (8% Ate- s 2%
10 In your opinion, what should be the limit of the population within the present town limits of Hudson by the year 1990?
1) As is (approx. 750) IS 6% 5) 1 .400-1 .600 /5" fo%
2) 750- •1,000 5*4 23 6) 1 .600-2,000 /4 6
3) 1,000- •1,200 44 / 9 7) 2,000-2,500J30 J1
4) 1,200- •1,400 4J_ _L3 N. ft- 2/ 3
At the recent community meeting, the issues listed below were discussed.
How important to you are each of these issues ? (circle one number for each
issue.) very Important Important Not Important N.J
Sidewalk, curb and gutter improvements 59 25 va .2I_ 33% 73 31% 2S 1
Maintaining community character • • • 6S 22 LOT _*fo 23 JO 39 r
Dog Control LIZ _4.a . 19L_ _£ 19
Water system improvements 160 fog 44 14 9 4 ?l
Sewer system improvements iax_ S3 . fog.. 23 .... . 5" 20
Pavina of streets 8$ 37 57 24 2S 2fo
Improved police protection llo _3S_ 31a 22 3 . 17
Starting a crime watch 53“ 24 102. 44 IQ 32
Investiaate state & federal grants . . 97- 41 JB 33 - 32
Start a sales tax -5.3 . 14 fo.g_ . IM. _44_ 35 ,


Very Not
Important- Important Important
Enforcement of zoning & building codes A policy of controlled growth Mnrp industry. . . ~ 84 36% 22 32% 3/ /3% 3/
3*7 R2 32 2-7 72 _13
74 3a 36 47 _E9
More housing 25 90 .. 32 54 33 3Z
More rental housing S2_ 23 1A_ 32 73_ .27 _23
Increased town maintenance . 83 35 103 44 23 ./P. 25
Vacant lot clean-up, weeds . ..... Build a community center Senior citizens apartments .tOb 45 25 36 27 (Z
. 51 22 71 30 8/ 35 3/
. 74 32 94 40 4? /fi 24
Business district improvement . &i_ 35 102 -46__ 15_ 8 26
New city hall and library 14 29 94 oo 26
Hudson's impact on nearby communities lo 11 . li_ .32 71 30 vr
Traffic noise at night -• Iarcp truck? in town 3o (3 69 29 /06 45 29
23 )0 46 20 /P8 55 37
Activities for the youth Railroad crossing guards More park areas IOS 45 . 77 33 23 /o 29
120 31_ 57 _J3 qd 29 37 7S 13L // _3£_ 22 37
Odor from chicken manure processing IZ 52 52 <82 3£_ _/6._ 25
Upgrade cemetery Home mail delivery 46 20 90 32 64 r>7 34
50 2/ 47 20 /// 47 26
Maintain high standards in schools . ■ /SSL __£i_ 4/ 1? // r 23
Tmorcv^d trash nirk-uD 83 3S 9* 79 32 /4 27
Trains blocking traffic II9 _S7 52_ 24 2i_ _J3_ £7
Medical aide for senior citizens „ ICO 4$ 87 37 22 9 25
More stores J£L. 29 86 37 49_ 3JL _32
More community meetings and involvement 66 26 loo -43, 25L IS _J9
Using the above list, Please indicate the five most important
issues that concern you. 1) WftTEft 99_____________42 %
2) SEWER 66 £S% 3rMffltJ. 5COL
sunups. 6 g %4) pouee ppcTScyoU.. Ztz____________________
5;gDO/? FftCtf OaSE Mfih'URZ_____.£2____


PART II: SOME ECONOMIC ISSUES
*what retail shops or services
Grocery stores ...............
Entertainment establishments .
Medical services ............ .
Specialty stores ............ .
Clothing stores ............. .
Restaurants...................
Fast-food restaurants.........
Motels/Hotels.................
Gasoline stations.............
Drug store ...................
Bank..........................
Barber shop...................
do
think are needed j.n.Hudson?
Much Needed Needed Not Needed
33— n% 64 27% 90 oc 4/ H
3e Ik - 55- 6.g, 2.9 43 18
/ftft S3 69 £9 I3_ 24 10
-13- 3 63._ —2,1 33-.. 5-3 23
_£o_ 81 _3l7 6Q - 26 4/ 18
3k- IS 11 3o 3/ 3<9 56 IS
3J3_ -Ik ..... 62.... ft9 £SL_ — 36_ 43 IB
47 24 83 35" 24 32 Ik
33 14 S3 23 4S 42 /a
ictr 4 74 59 25 64- 2-1 37 /6
63 Z1 11_ 4ft 40— O- 32 /4
13 Where do you usually shop for the following goods and services?
Hudson Ft! Lupton Keenesburq Greeley Brighton j Denver
Auto accessories. . 10 s 4$-% 2.7 /2 V® /o 4% 7 37fj 56 24% 133 /67
Gas HI 47 28 /ft 14 6 ft. / 6 / 26 ) 3/ /3
Hardware 110 57 II 5 z / 4 2 63 27 /7
Food 9? 40 10 4 ft 1 12. s- /42 6/ ill S'
Drugs ft 1 Z2 JZ 2-7 /ft 22- 9 131 5G 31 Ik
Clothing 3 1 5 2 4 2 62. 26 77 33 j/25- S3
Housewares Z2. 9 8 3 1 6 2.S* // 73 3/ • /O0 43
Appliances Z2. 9 II S' ft. 1 8 67 29 J/3 48
Furniture 1 0 7 3 0 0 ft/ 9 S3 23 7.34 57
Lumber 104 44 5 2 0 0 7 ,3 30 /3 78 33
Medical services. . 1 0 30 13 11 7 STD ft/ 83 35* 1J .30
Dental services . . o 0 34 IS 0 0 17 7 120 Sf SO 2/
Entertainment . . . 4 z 4 2 2. l 26 II 34 IS /26
Restaurants .... 41 2.0 18 8 2, 1 ,34. IS 59 25" :/ Farm/Ranch supplies 13- 6 2 7 3 28 _Jft_ .33.- vfi CM 7
14 Where do you usually do your banking?
Keenesburq j Ft. Lupton ! Briqhton Greeley i Denver
Checking. . 96 4/36! 34 IS % 166 38% S' 2%!2S" //%
Savings . . 28 i Z4 /n !73 3/ 10 4 !3/ 13
Loans . . . _s&_ J3- 8 1^-fe 20 1 ..S—4-L- _i£_


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Only "clean" industries should be encouraged to come to Hudson . . . .
Industries & business which will employ mainly Hudson residents should be encouraged to locate here • • •
Local government should spend money to attract new business and industry to Hudson .....................
Local government should spend money to aid local business expansion rather than to attract new industry.
Hudson's ecoaomy is adequate now; no effort is needed. .
fo,loii ng statements? rOnqTy Don' t
Agree Agree Disagree Care
JZZ 5ZVo 75 3Z% 9 4% 9 4%
US 49 67 2? // II 5
54 Z3 89 38 $4 •2.3 10 4
Ho IS 59 2? 94 1 1 40 IS
.IQ_ *! 30 13 i 154 i 66! JO 4
/S’ 6
2J IZ
30
30
13
13
iQ Do you think that commercial activity should be limited to the downtown area in Hudson?
i) Yes 9.5 36% 2) No m 51% m- /s
Should a sales tax be started to provide a fund for capital improvements in Hudson?
i) Yes 101 43% 2) No !o4 47% N.R.-24 /6%
â– ^0 Which of the following do you think are the best ways for town services and J needs to be financed? (Circle no more than two numbers).
1) Sales tax 9 o 38%
2) Mill levy increase 3o /3 %
3) Paid for by new development (water tap fees, etc.) III 4>7 %
4) Voluntary contributions 1A________
5) User service fee ££ za%
6) Fund raising activities 24%
7) Tax district JA______43* .
8) Other (specify) 5" 2.%.____________________________________________
PART III: COMMUNITY SERVICES
19 Do you think there is a need for new park and recreation areas in Hudson?
1) Ye; 93 40% 2) No 67 29 % 3) Uncertain 65 28%
hi.I?. - 9 4%
20 -7°u Think there is a need for a community center in Hudson?
1) Yes til56 % 2) No 82 959%


21 How would you rate your present trash pick-up service?
1) Excellent 7 ~ 3% 2) Good £2 %■£>%
3) Fair 4S" 22% 4) Poor SS____________2S% N.R.— 4-2 !8%
22 Assuming the local government had sufficient funds, what recreational facilities would you like to see in Hudson?
Athletic fields. . (baseball, softball football, soccer) Playgrounds. . . Picnic Areas . . Swimming pool Tennis courts. . Basketball courts
Highly Somewhat Not No
Desirable Desirable Desirable Opinion â– 
42 29% IS 32% IS 4 % 32 16 Vo
24 73 31 /8 2 Z7 12
65 28 74 32 22 9 2.7 12
35 42 24 23 JO 3/ 13
61 28 6 8 29 2.7 12 31 13
5! 22 14 32 21 . 12 32- 16
N.Q
3?
36
.44
_34>
4/
.45
16
(5
19
IS
18
19
23 In your opinion, what should be done about the cemetery in Hudson?
1) Present owner should be requested to upgrade maintenance. it it> %
2) Hudson should consider purchasing and maintaining cemetery. So 39 °/o
3) No action is needed. __________3 °/o
4) Other (specify) 5_________ 2 °/t>
5) Do not know. 78 L%
tf.R. - IS 6%
PART IV: HOUSING
What is your present housing situation? (circle only one number)
1) 2) Renting 2.7 12% 3) Own (fully paid) "7S 32%
Buying //3 48j% 4) Other (specify) *7 3%
N. R. - /2 s%
If you are renting or buying , what is your monthly payment? (circle only
one i number)
1) Less than S50.( DO' / 5) $201.00-5250.00 //
2) $51.00-5100.00 IS 6 6) $251.00-5300.00 /o
3) $101.00-3150.00 37 16 n More than S300.00 77 7
4} $151.00-S200.00 33 16
In what type of residence do you 1 ive?
1) Single family t louse J99 *s% 4) Room / 4%
0 \ Duplex 4 2% 5) Mobile Home /S’ S’ %
3) Apartment f 0 % 6) Other 4 2*/o
N.R, - 7 3 %


27 What would you estimate the present value of the building you are now living in?
1) Less than $5000.00 2 3 % 6)
2) $ 5000.00-510,000.00 23 IO 7)
3) $10000.00-515,000.00 / 8 8 8)
4) $15000.00-520,000.00 /.9 8 9)
5) $20000.00-$30,000.00' -13
$30,000.00-$35,000.00 34 IS
$35,000.00-545,000.00 30 13
$45,000.00-560,000.00 Z1 9
over $60,000.00 12. S*
A/./?. - 23 IO
28
Do you use a water softener in your home?
1) Yes 99 42% 2) No 128 SS%
N.Z-7

29 ^
1)
2) 3)
you use a water softener, how much do you estimate it costs per month?
$ 0-$5.00 2A II %
$ 6-310.00 34____________
SI 1 -SI 5.00 2.3 10
4) S16.00-S20.QQ 13 4%
5) $21.00-525.00 7 3
6. More than S25.QO 2. /
30 9o You know of someone who desires to live in Hudson, but cannot do so due to a lack of housing?
i) Yes 76 32% 2) No 744 62 (>%
What kinds of new housing do you think should be built in the Hudson area? (circle no more than two numbers).
None __________H% - a.
Low income housing complexes 3/________15 /o
Single family houses IZL________
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
Middle income housing complexes Higher rent apartment complexes Townhouses/Condomini urns 8 Mobile home parks JSL______£34.
sa 2S% 2%
32£
Senior citizen apartments -ay_______4L%>
How old is the home you are living in?
1) Less than 2 years 4 2% 6) 21-25 years JO 4 %
2} 2-5 years. 41 -18 %> 7) 26-30 years JJ— J
3) 6^-10 years 33 14 8) 31-40 years 13 (&
4) 11-15 years 24 /o 9) Over 40 years SS Z4
5) 15-20 years /£__ —1 U.t?. - J8 $
Wh< at is the source of heating for your home?.-
1) Coal 0 4) Natural Gas /44 42%
2) Wood S 2 5) Oil 2 /%
3) Electric 8 3 6} Propane 23%
7) None O D
N.R.- 7 3%


34 How well does your present home suit your needs?
1) Very well //£ - 48% 4) Poorly /4 C*%
2) Well 'Sk 15% 5) Inadequately 4
3) Fairly wen 24% Al.R. - 12.
PART V: SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT YOU AND YOUR FAMILY
/p vmi 1 i vpH in Hnrknn?

I
1
in ** £
7* <1 1$
How long do you intend to stay in the H udson area? N. 1-2 23
3~£ 31
1) Less than one year 9> 3 % 6.1-/O 10 4%\ ZC
2) Longer than one year 4 2 % OVER/O 4! j8fy \ 7-9 18
3) 1-3 years 2.^ all my /o / 'N, JO-/* ZZ
4) 3.1-6 years 14 6 d/» Li PE JZJ 527o \ /P-/a ?2
N.R.- 30 13% \ 20+ 62
If you are employed, where do you work? X H.K. 13
1) On your farm 29 12% 6) Brighton /9 8 %
2) In Hudson 39 11 7) Commerce City /q .4. %
3) Near Hudson 11 7 8) Boulder / Oa/0
4) Keenesourg 8 3 9) Denver S~8 2S %
5) Ft. Lupton 8 3_ 10) Other (specify) /g X %
S3 If your spouse is employed, where does he/she work?
1) 2) On your farm In Hudson 27 6% /2 6) 7)
3) Near Hudson 7 3 8)
4) Keenesburq 4 2 9)
5) Ft. Lupton ± 10)
Brighton n_________i%_
Commerce City £ L~J~ q Boulder £ q
Denver ~^0
Other (speciryj_ ZuSL_____?J%. "
00 If you are employed, how do you get to work?
1) Drive your own motor vehicle (by yourself) J4f 62%
2) Carpool / 3_______£>%
3) Walk ___H______fgfe
A) Bicycle O____________O
5) Motorcycle _Q________O
6) Other (specify) rj_________3%
40 How many of the following types of motor vehicles does your family have?
Car 2.£Tg
Pick-Up /7/__________
Truck S’ Z_________
Mo to rcy c 1 e ________
Other.(specify) /Q_____________


PART VI: PERSONAL INFORMATION
41 Mark the highest level of education you
1) Elementary 2-0______9 %
2) Some High School 34 /S' 4o
3) High School graduate /OO 43 %>
4) Some col 1 eqe 44 /9 %
have completed (circle one).
5) Four year college graduate /2_____%
6) Master's level graduate 5~_______2 %
7) Ph.D _________O
N'R.- /t *%
42 If
1)
2)
3)
4)
married, indicate your spouse's highest level of education completed.
Elementary %2) 9 °/0
Some High Scnooi 35*
High School graduate gg Some college 32_____14%
1

5)
6)
7)
Four year college graduate
Master's level graduate ___[_
Ph D. O O
A/./?. - 39 tl 7o
9
6
43
What is your marital status?
1) Married /94 2ZS&, 4)
2) Sinale 3 _J .. 5)
3) Divorced â–  7 3
Widowed /9 2%
Other (specify) 0 O
N.R. - // s-%
**^1 In the box below, please indicate the number of males and the number of females in your household in each of the age categories listed below, including yourself.
MALE FEMALE
i } 0-4 years 4/ /8% l 3/ !3°/o
9 l — / 5-9 years 3$ l(* L37 16
3) 10-14 vears 18 | 39 17
4) 15-19 years 34 IS J 44 18
0) 20-24 years Z( 9 1 2,7 !2
6} 25-34 years 24 i 60 2.6
7 i 35-^4 years 46 zo 4E 18
3) 45-54 years 1 3<6 IS 37 18 !
9) 55-64 years 1 49 ll 37
0) 55 and over j Z5 // L 20 9 ;
Tot al number in your household, including yourself:
wha t is your primary source of inco me? (circle cne number only)
1) Salary 139 S"9% 4) Public Assistance O 0
2) Sel f-empioved 39 /7% 5) Independent income (rents, stocks,
3) Social security ________15°/* . interest, etc.)
6) Other (specify) /o 4- %
N. R. - 5~ Z%
What do y 0 u think your d ombi ned family i ncome wi11 be this year?
• ' ! t-ss the in $2,000.00 4 z% 5) $10,000 .00-S11,999. 00 24 10 %
5 \ -c — / 2.000. .00-54,999.00 19 _ 8 6) SI 2,000 .00-514,999. 00 3?. /4
9 *• r / •',000. ,00-56,999.00 13.. 6 7) $15,000 .00-$'“,999. r\r\ 24
4) :,000. .00-59,999.00 22 3) » 5* r\ p p r. ^ — %•' 1 .go-5: Jl
9) $25,000 .00 and over 28... __g. ...
N. R. - 4-9 Z!%


RENTAL HOUSING SURVEY

A rental housirg project is being planned for this community. The project would provide comfortable living at reasonable rental rates.
Your opinion on the following will help us to determine whether such -a project is practical. This information does not obligate you in any way.
,1. What age group are you in? 62 or over (5v*) 50-62 ((7) Under 50 (4j)
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
3.
3.
10.
11.
12.
Marital status: Married (fy) Single man (7) Single woman (/6)
Number of persons in your household:
/
Annual income: Under $2, COO ( 7) $2,000-$3,999 ( Over 35,000 (42) ^ •+
Does your income include old age assistance (y) Social Security (?r) Veteran Pension ((,) Other (^) If other, specify_________________
Do you own (*7f) or rent (/£} present residence?
Do you live in house (i«°) Apartment (2-) Room (l) On a farm (2.)
In town (h?) io~)
Is your present housing modem (?fc) Not modern, but adequate (it) Inadequate (L) If so, in what respect? _________________________
What arrangement do you prefer?
Efficiency apartment (*/)
One bedroom, kitchen, bath, living'room (I?)
Two bedrooms, kitchen, bath, living room (s°)
Three Bedrooms, kitchen, bath, living room (ti)
What amount of rent would you be willing to pay if rent included water, but not electricity and ^eat?
$50-60 (zS) $50-70 (i 1) $70-80 p«) Over $80 (l6)
Would you want to maintain own yard? (rv) Flower garden? (**’)
xV/ould you be willing to move in if apartment was available_____________
19_______? Yes (*$* No (to) i
Name
Address


EIELIOGRAFHY
Most Frequently Used Sources
Aging. U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare, Administration on Aging, p. 21.
Green, Isaac. Housing for the Elderly, The Development and Design Process. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, NY: 1975
Koncelik, Joseph A. Designing the Open Nursing Home. Hutchison and Ross Inc.: Strausburg, PA. 1976
Low Rise Housing For Older People. U.S. Dept, of HUD: Zlisel Research, Cambridge, Mass. Sept. 1977*
McMurray, Joseph,?. How to Provide Housing Which the Elderly Can Afford. N.Y. Slate Division of Housing: Dec. 1958.
Newcome, Robert J.,and Byerts, Thomas 0. Community Planning for an Aging Society. Ed. by M. Powell Lawton.
Research News. Gerontology Research, Univ. of Michigan: Nov./Dec.
1975 vol.XXXI, Nos.5/6.


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American Lna t.i :;u0. - • i. -L tl'.cv.I C. , l j G.'V
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working con fa ! 1 r C 3 uonenreti by â–  . :
of ' Architcc.. ■., A3 0 • - u l •.. L uJ >. i L" / ». o.i It-- • • i 4 - 1 ’ ■ O 1
ment Relations , G oiro I V..O 1 O' J JL G .a 1 For ,.cy. ilcii i
Association .in dViii i 3 7k; oar “-•yt ••• 7 -
Becker, Frank],; a •- ... :.,n ;or .
of Multi-Fa:-i i / r ; n "TfT.'.-?- . .. Urban. Davelo,-..ian; f-;r. :• .. .in: merit Rer:arc'; 7.a.:.. tin:.---.-:
Beyer, Glen ii. c-.n , .. -1 .•
Hoc.i inn, Qul.it. y.in Q bj , ii.. ......
Economics-. vi -. : i 1 Univa-:-.- .
Pctv- • it
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and E:v ire an;." .n. .. . . ••
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Cathedra I Foundai..; , .. risen. ; ... •... . Activities cor dar Person^,, ? ; at
Demons c; . ;i. n Pr 1' ... j : .. â–  _ .
Cornell Dar.verc’ c .. . ■•• , • c< 7
Reoruir; ntr ::
Cornel] U.-J .. .
Gerontdlogical Be : Ll
Environment_____for_ .1.. f: dariy, Conic
Resell red Util; ?. v i 1 m it LP.'.a,'-'.', Puerto Rico-.. , ik-.-.l.
Gerontological . r t . 1 . i 1. *'
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Citizens Coon ernti .0; Cm tens 5.ol Agriculture ....a "ire. .. . Uasoir vr Connecticut, l.-orra , •" .nnact i.rr :
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Full Text

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IIIBiiiiliiillmJ U18701 8788272 SENIO R CITIZE N HOUSING PR pJECT Da e 4-J-7 :oM! A Thesis Program r Presented to ! t the Faculty of the Graduate School University of Colorado at Denver ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Architecture by Regina M . Grady December 1978

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INTRODUCTION STATEMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS . DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS GOAL OBJECTIVES PROGRAM Project Description Site Determinants Site Analysis Considerations Dwelling Units Financing Cost Analysis Dwelling Unit Sizing Outline Specifications APPENDIX A-Barrier Pree 0ata Design Criteria Checklists Building Standards APPENDIX BHudson Colorado Statistics, Data and Maps APPENDIX CHudson Area Survey Results

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INTRODUCTION The elderly comprise an ever increasing segment of todays' population. It is estimated that by the year 2000, there will be twenty nine million people over the age of sixtyfive. Thes e people are living longer, and have developed specialized needs for survival and habitation. In order for them to maintain a high level of activity supporting health, their living environment must be designed and developed to cater to these specific needs. A direct and comprehensive response by the archetect to the physical, perceptual, psychological, and social needs of the elderly resident is imperative in developing an appropriate senior citizen housing design. The critical test for any elderly housing project is how well the environment enables the residents to retain their independence as they age. The environment for the elderly must be arranged such that it enables them to enjoy a more satisfying life in their later years, creating a high degree of livability, and just basically making life easier. A major problem facing the aged today is economic situation. Those who own their own homes often find the upkeep and maintenance becoming more costly and difficult with the years. Great psychological adjustments have to be made when an elderly person is forced to give up his home, and relocate to better housing. This situation often separates them from friends, established living patterns, and community support provided by their old familiar neighborhood. Adjusting to the

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new ''leisurely" lifestyle of retirement after so many years of employment is difficult, but compounded by reduced income, limited mobility, a drastic change in living environment, fear of accidents, diminishing health, and eventually, death, it is an adjustment which may reduce ones life span by as much as ten years. To discourage the tendency of the elderly to withdraw from society, and to encourage self-esteem and independence, a housing complex must provide a strong tie with the mainstream of the surrounding community. At the same time, it must create an environment where the senior citizen feels in command of his own life, both private and social aspects. PROBLEM STATEMENT DESCRIPTION: A senior citizen community, on a 4.5 acre parcel, comprised of JO housing units, and a community center is planned for the town of Hudson, Colorado. Adequate indoor and outdoor recreational activity areas, hobby, craft and assembly areas, laundry, some dining facilities, and a gerontological health care clinic, shall be integrated into the Hudson Community Center, both for economic reasons, and also to promote social interaction between the senior community, and the Hudson community.

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BACKGROUND Conc erned residents of the town of. Hudson had been investigating the feasibility of building a small rural housing complex to shelter their aged population. In the fall of 1977 a team of UCD M URP students conducted surveys t o determine the needs and interests of the Hudson Community, to be analyzed and processed into a Comprehensive Plan for the town. A definite need for senior citizen housing was indicated by this survey. Excerpt s from the Comprehensive Plan, and copies of the survey have been inserted in this program to provide the background dat a on Hudson, Colorado. PRIMARY CONSIDERATION S I N DESIG N CRITERIA FOR SENIOR HOUSING A. Choice of Eousing Jesign is Vependent U p on Residents': 1. mobility status 2. healt h 3 degree of social interaction 4. desire for wervices 5. independent nature B. Designs Differ and Must Be Adjusted According to: 1. residents• needs and desires 2. percentage of married couples J. density allowance (per acre) 4. future land usage 5 percentage of ambulatory residents

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6. wheel chairs 7 activity preferences c. Choice of Housing, a Combination of the Following is Preferred: 1. self maintained apartments for elderly 2. "domiciliary"housing units e.g. dining facilities, social services, programs, ect. J. retirement community with emphasis on leisure activities and protected environment D. Spaces wit hin Units Designed According to Archetypical Behavior: sleeping mating and intimate conversation grooming nourishment meeting working competing learnin g excretion worship storing passive activity (contemplating, planning, waiting, spying, watching, meditation ... ) engaged activity (motor satisfaction, role testing, role changing, role breaking, exercising, fantasy, creation, discovery, dominance, ect ... ) locomotion (perimeter checking, territorial information, place changing)

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GOALS 1. " Maintain Small Town Atmosphere and Residential Character of Hudson". 2. Design for the Specific Needs of the Hudson Residents, an Atmosphere which Will Compliment Cultural Backgrounds, Nurture Self Image, and Provide for Privacy Needs. J. Design Quality Housing Units, as a Completely "Barrier Free" Environment, where Daily Actions and Tasks are Facilitated by each Carefully Designed Space, "Design from the Inside, Out". OVERALL OBJECTIVES 1. Design for flexibility in living spaces. Approximately one quarter of the units will be designed specifically for residents confined to a wheelchair. 2. Establish a sense of community and privacy. Carefully integrate the site, individual living units, common areas, shared services, and the surrounding neighborhood to form a sense of community. J. Provide a safe and barrier free environment, both indoors and outdoors, so that residents can feel secure in their new environment. 4. Encourage and promote recreational activity, and continuation of established life styles. 5 Design specifically for the special needs of the elderly,

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PROGRAM so that their new environment will function to help compensate for their deteriorating senses. a. Vision-transition from light to dark, and vice versa b. Stability-texture and height of hardware, and surfaces and items essential to their ambulatory capabilities c. Temperature sensitivity and response to climate d. Anthropometric limitations e. Changing psychological attitudes-cater to fears of aged. Whether imagine d or real, these pose a threat to their existance. TYPE: Independent elderly housing and community center NO. OF UNITS: 30 units DENSITY: Each designed for one or two residents SIZE: Approximately 650 sq. ft. per unit, 700 sq. ft. preferred OUTDOOR AREA: 65 sq. ft. + per unit Recreational and garden areas provided A central common plaza is recommended PARKING: One space per unit required SERVICES AND FACILITIES: a. Laundry-one washer and dryer per 10 units b. Individual storage of 12 sq. ft.+ c. Central dining provided, cafeteria style designed

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as a coffee shop as opposed to institutional dining d. Medical clinic-2 rooms approx. 10ft.x10ft, proposed for once a week visit by circulating physician e. Transportation-sheltered drop off areas provided f, Activities rooms-this is determined by the final budget allotted to the Housing Authority of Hudson, Colorado, by the Farmers Home Association. At present, rooms being designed for are; crafts, study groups, table games, television lounges, meeting rooms, exercise, green house for indoor planting. UNITS: type-townhouses height-one story Units must meet all interior and exterior design standards set by; a. University of MiQhigan Gerontological Research 0ept. b. Syracuse University Gerontological Research Dept. c. Colorado State Code d. HUD Handicapped Regulations SITE: Site selection is decided on basis of needs of elderly, location of site in community, proximity of shops and services, location in neighborhood, and physical site feasibilities. (See site plan) a. Size-4.5 acres 450 to 500 feet frontage on Route 52, Main Street for housing. Site enlarges to 7 acres including the Community Center.

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o . Boundaries-South: Route 52 North: Open field at 4% slope to North (proposed town park) West: Private house occupies s w corner 140' X 140• (approx.) East-Essentially a flat field c. Climate-Temperature: design for +3 to -10F winter 90F summer d . Hazards Precipitation and Flood Hazard: ppt fairly insignificant, no flood hazard. Soil is dry loose clay. Sun: 12 noon-71.45 June 22 " II 48 ..o(IJ.SC' March-Sept. '2/10 .. " 24.55 December 22 Winds: N-NW Winter S-SW Summer Gusts up to 100 MPH Indoor _Design Temp.: 70F+ Research by N.Y. State Urban Development Corporation recommends 80F Pollutants-Shifting winds in summer bring unpleasant odors down from the North-West, the source of which are chicken manure storage tanks. Noise-Possible buffer needed to seperate proposed park noise (north) from Senior Community.

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0 • let: fZO •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . . \ .. . ... N •••••••••• • • • •••• .O. II •• •• •• • •• • • •• .. o7 •• • • • • •• • • .. !200 . • • • • . 96 .l • • • • • ,,., • • • • • • • • • • • • • ... 6o,.. • .4:"'' .. 2$ •• ...... o-"' '1 •• /0 •• •••• • • •

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Other-Unpaved w alkways to the shopping center of Hudson, Colorado, must be paved. These run a l ong Route 52 , the s outhern borde r of the site. SITE ANALYSIS CONSIDERATIONS: a. Proximity to services relationship b . Walkway system -Adequetely paved walkw ays well lighted and maintained Snow removal Delineated crosswalks Slopes less than 10% Site proximity: Service Distance F oo d Store 1500 feet Drugstore 1500 feet Bank 2000 feet Medical services 2500 feet Post office JOOO feet c . Site evaluation: Proximity to elderly population -Fair Proximity to public transportation N o public transportatior Proximity to services Good Automobile a ccessibility -Very good Existing land use Undeveloped Impa c t o f proposed use Moderat e Site in floodplain? N o Zoning Not yet zoned Size 4 . 5 acres Site in floodway? N o

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DWELLING UNITS USER: Site currently available? Yes Age -elderly Occupation -retired Lifestyle -Previous farm owners, primarily females Previously owners of small, one story, private houses Previous housing-Hudson residents, moving from deteriorating wooden one story structures MARKET: Sponsorship Hudson Housing Authority. Elected posts occupied by four Hudson residents Ownership -FHA funded. Rental type subsidized rent up t o t of fixed income Competition -Keenesburg, Colorado has 18 one story attached units for senior citizens. Demand is high and the waiting list is large. Financing-Steps: 1. Create local housing authority 2. Choose sit e 3. Annex site into city (City must have title to the site) 4. Needs determination -how many people are ready to move into the development NOW. Need twice as many people willing and ready to move in as there are units available.

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Waiting list -good for documentation to H UD. Need Determination System and Documentation: a. Number of low and moderate income elderly households in 1978. b. N umber of acceptable housing units occupied by the above households in 1978 c. Need for low and moderate income elderly housing in Hudson in 1978. d. N umber of same low and moderat e incom e elderly households in 1985. e. N umber of acceptable housing units occupied by these people in 1978 which are s till acceptable in 1985. f, N umber of e lderly housing units constructed i n Hudson 1978 through 1980. g. Changes in non-elderly populations during 1978 through 1985. h . Need for senior housing in 1985. (Subtract results of s t e p s "e" and " f " f rom s t e p "d". This basic need is then slightly modified by the result of step "g") 5. Go to F H A with local county supervisor. Ask about Rural Rental Housing Program. It is best to couple a F H A program with a HUD program w here HUD pays F HA. However, F H A has their own rental program with thei r own rental assistance. The town, however, must pay insurance fees.

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HUD -Federal Government Loan will lend the total construction cost a t 7% interest, and cover the rent and utilities over the amount (up to $230) the tenant cannot pay. Section 202 -Designed for elderly and handicapped. Through this we can try to get H U D to be the sponsor (non-profit corporation with managing units) of Section 515 (FHA) where loan is 6% interest with permanent financing. FHA goes to a lending institution (bank), borrows the money and can be covered by HUD. Insurance fees s till must be paid. 106A HUD -For architectural planning fees and land act (fronting) 525 FHA Housing, but few funds available. Feasibility Study: This must be done before submitting the request to F H A to determine economic feasibility. Steps: Overall -Development and operating expenses to figure rent per unit. 1. Figure cost for total development and land purchase. 2. Figure cost of preliminary loan (financing construction). J. Figure long term financing at St % interest. 4. Add in taxes and insurance and operating expenses.

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5 Forecast these for the next 50 years. Submitting Proposals: FHA -Package deal. Make application to FHA -permanent financing, and request Section 8 (HUD Rental Assistance). FHA will process necessary paperwork through HUD. Application Materials: 1. Preliminary application 2. Architects• plans, evaluations, materials costs and management arrangements. (Possibilities for management are difficult. Could hire a fulltime manager or contract out a management service or a church association.) Cost -Ballpark Figures For Row or Townhouses A. Masonry Structure (hot water, forced air, good fenestration, carpet, good plaster) $J0.4 sq/ft @ 750 sq/ft (-8% common walls) = $20,976 B. Masonary (average) $25.21 sq/ft@ 7 50 sq/ft = $17,395 Cost figures do not include balconies, pordhes or basements. HUD rates Senior Citizen Housing at approx. $24.-$27 sq/ft @ $24,ooo per unit. c. The following materials help meet HUD's cost ceiling

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COST ANALYSIS (multiply sum total by 43.7% for '7% prices) Service Avg. Construction Excavation (ft3) $.09 675.00 total (30 units) 20,250.00 Fill Site Prep (ft2) 37 Concrete Foundations (ft2) Frame: Bearing Walls (Wood) Floor Structure: Wood joists and sheathing insulation Floor Cover: Carpet and pad Rubber tile (bath) Ceiling: Gypsum Board Insulation Interior Construction Frame Int. partition Row houses Plumbing Heating Cooling and Vent. Elec. wall heaters Forced air A.c. -hot and chilled water 675.00 • 5 -. 9 67 .47 352.50 . 25 1.58 . . 17 1.10 1.08 .44 .14 3.80 1. 46 .82 3 Elec. and Lighting Av. # outlets . 95 to 1. 01 Ext. Wall Wood frame-common brick Bearing walls4.33 A bove Avg. Construction $.13 975.00 29,259.00 .11 825.00 .8 -.11 60. -82.5 435.00 . 31 1.87 1. 50 1.23 .49 .17 4.28 1.99 .43 1. 06 4.20 1. 41 5.00

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concrete block 12" 8" Insulation Basement Waterproofing Cone . Block 12" Roof Structure Wood rafters and sheathing Insulation Wall Ornament Stucco on masonry Brick-common Built'.In Range and oven Refrig. Dishwaher Intercom, base system VISUAL CONDITIONS: A. Buildings: 4.J9 4.10 .1J .18 2. 81 1. 41 . 25 .so 2.05 350.00 300.00 JOO.OO 180.00 4.95 4.64 . 16 .2J J.22 1.62 . . JJ . 56 2.J8 Neighborhood buildings are mostly one story, brick or wood ranch style. The older buildings mostly all have front porches with columns. "Eclectic-Western" style. B. Panorama: Magnificent view of Rocky Mountains from the North West corner of the site . . INDIviDUAL UNIT: DESIGN CRITERIA

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16 A. ORIENTATION: 1. Entrance walks open to south for faster snow melt. 2. WindbreakUse conifer trees on north side and northwest side. Gusts could easily throw senior citizens off balance on winter ice. Use deciduous for summer shade, route summer -breezes. B. BUILDI N G SURFACES: Brick-Low wi nter sun will heat up surface, causing thermal lag that will help heat at night. C. NATURAL VEN TILA TION: 1. W indows that open at both ends of unit (cross ventilation) 2. Approximately 4 ft. overhang on south if porch is included with unit. D WELLING U N IT SIZING A. Combined living-dining 240sq.ft, B. Combined dining kitchen 145 sq. ft. c. Bedroom115.5 sq, ft. B. Bathroom-55 sq. ft. m inimum E. Storageprovide at least 12 sq. ft./ plus display room F. Entry-Entry closet included112 sq. ft. G. Exterior SpaceBalconies or porches 60 sq. ft. H. Exterior Laundry Room90 sq. ft. (J dryers, J washers

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• -

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OUTLINE SPECIFICATIONS: A. SITEWORK: l.Minimal grading used to 4% slope of land. 2. Parking lotJO cars plus 5 visitor spots. Paving of 2" asphalt on 4" general base. J. Pedestrian walks4" thick concrete, no curbs or planters on sides. 4. Landscaping-Allow residents to landscape their own areas. Bring i n some trees for breaking winter winds and plant on N-NW. Basically plant trees that require little maintenance. B. FOUNDATIONS: 1. Provide foundation walls to J' below grade on spread footing with 4" concrete slabs on grade. C. ARCHITECTURAL 1. Keeping the flavor of the town, the base of the units will be 6" thru-the-wall brick with 4"x 12" face. Wooden porches and trim are being considered, pending budget approval. 2. fi tched roofs, decking not. exposed . . J. Carpeting throughout, except bathrooms. Non-slip asbestos tile used in bathroom and kitchen. 4. All doors giving outward from the room from which is exiting. 5 Each unit will have one smoke detector. 6. Grab bars, seated shower units and all necessary handicapped accissories shall be provided in each bathroom.

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7 Lighting-overhead lighting provided in each room. However, residents are encouraged to also have task lighting appliances. COMMUNITY SPACES A. Activities Office-225 sq,ft. B. Meeting Rooms2 @ 600 sq.ft, = 1200 sq.ft, c. Lounge, Game, T.V. Areassq. ft. THIS PROGRAM IS SUPPLEMENTED BY ARCHITECTURAL ILLUSTRATIONS, CHARTS, AND SPECIALTY ITE M S BROCHUREf>, BUILDING STANDARDS FOR HANDICAPPED, AND A BARRIER-FREE DESIGN DATA INDEX

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APPENDIX A Barrier Free Design Data, Criteria Checklists, and Building Standards

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to add it to the test methods in this standard. In the meantime, it is intended that the determination of casual contact sharp edges shall be made by feeling the grab bar with the hand and by -common sense judgement regarding what feels sharp enough to cause lacerations. The prohibition against sharp edges is not intended to address the hazards that arise when a bather in the course of a fall impacts against a protruding grab bar. Although such an injury is a theoretical possibility and could be quite severe if it occurred, the task force has not been able to find a single record of such an injury occurring. While investigating the possibility of specifying a minimum radius for all2 edges on grab bars, this task force became aware of an automotive research study which indicated that metal edges with radii less than 5/16" are more hazardous than those with greater radii when impacted by the human skull in a fall situation. However, upon surveying currently available grab bars it was found that many of them have radii less than 5/16". Because of the great retooling costs these firms would incur if they were to redesign their grab bars to radii greater than 5/16", because the redesigned grab bars might cost more to make, and because there was not a single record of such an occurring, the task force decided that at this time this theoretical hazard is not substantial enough to warrant addressing in this standard. If, at some later date, evidence turns up which indicates-that such accidents are occurring frequently, at that time it will be appropriate to reconsider this decision. Section 4.3 -The task force debated at length the question of what items in the bathing area other than grab bars should be required to meet the 250 pound test. The task force agreed that accessory items such as towel bars and -shelves in the bathing area should be required to hold 250 pounds because a falling bather might grab them in hopes of breaking the fall. qowever, the task force also recognized that there are some items in the bathing 1rea (such as some partially recessed soap which do not project far from the wall and are not shaped so that a person can grasp them . . The task force attempted to develop a simple test which could be 1sed to decide which projections are graspable and which are not. One suggestion an L-shaped piece of wood which a tester would attempt to hang from all projections in the bathing area--if the piece of wood could hang by itself from a projection then that projection would be required to support 250 pounds. qowever, the task force decided against such a test; 1) because of the wide among people in the ability to grasp projections; 2) because of the large variety of sizes and shapes of projections which would have to be built 1nd tested before the L-shaped piece of wood could be designed; and 3) because )f the feeling that a common sense judgement could adequately address the 'roblem. ' noT HS-801 002 Breaking Strength of the Human Skull vs Impact Surface Curvature -G 56-

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Section 4.6 The task force decided that a bar that is free to turn within its fittings would not always provide a solid gripping surface. Members of the group experimented with round bars that were free to rotate. In some cases if the bar was not gripped a certain way, the hand would slip down and off of the bar before a solid hold had been achieved. It was therefore felt that this type of installation could actually be a cause of a fall in some situations. 5. LOCATION REQUIREMENTS These requirements were developed from data in "Architectural Graphic Standards," "The Bathroom; Criteria for Design," task force experimentation and industry expertise. Sections 5.1.1, 5.1.2, and 5.2.1 -there was considerable discussion concerning horizontal grab bars as opposed to vertical grab bars. After weighing the arguments for each style it was decided that where only one bar was to be used, the horizontal bar offered more advantages. In falling and grabbing situations, in pulling to get up or holding to get down, the horizontal bar offered more positive support than the vertical bar. Dr. Timothy Nugent, a noted expert in the field of aids for the handicapped, espouses the use of horizontal bars as compared to vertical. In.falling and pulling situations the hands more naturally relate to a horizontal gripping surface. The use of a vertical grab bar for exit or entry was desired by many, primarily on the service or nonservice walls. The task force was not opposed to the use of vertical bars i n these areas. It was felt the horizontal bar on the service or nonservice wall could fulfill the need for support during exit or entry and provide a better support in a falling situation than a vertical bar. However, since a horizontal bar i s available on the back wall to aid in a falling situation a vertical bar was determined to be more desirable for strictly exit and entry purposes. Dr. Kira, author of "The Bathroom" considers the vertical bar more advantageous for the entrance area. Realizing that there were good arguments for either a horizontal or vertical bar it was felt that the option should be available. The fact that some bathers enter at the service end and others at the nonservice end, it was decided that either wall would be suitable for grab bar support. Personal preference would dictate which wall the grab bar is install ed on. Those bathers wanting the advantages of a horizontal and vertical bar could use an angle bar that combines both into one. Through analyzing data in the "Architectural Graphic Standards" the task force determined that on the back wall of a tub or tub shower area, a bar or bars long enough to cover one third of the critical support area would provide support within reach of any average adult. For example, a 5 foot bathtub area could measure about 59 inches after finishing. Subtracting the eight inch dimension on each end, the critical support area would measure 43 inches in length. One third of this would dictate a bar minimum of 14 + inches long. A person standing anywhere within the 43 inch area of the tub would be able to reach the grab bar considering the average adult reach is 31 inches. A bar longer than 14 + inches is recommended but the basic safety need could be met with the minimum. In many retrofit situations a 16 inch grab bar would be very appropriate in order to mount on existing studding in the walls. Personal preference for amount of grab bar support desired and wall condition will often determine the length of -G 58-

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Though accident data indicated fewer incidents in shower stalls than tubs it was felt the presence of one grab bar would be beneficial for support while moving within the shower stall. In most situations the bar would be used for aid in exit and entry also. The bar could be placed on either the service wall, back wall, or nonservice wall. The bar is to be centered approximately to provide maximum accessability and a 9 inch minimum gripping surface is specified. INSTRUCTIONS AND WARNINGS Instructions and warnings were established by discussion of the task force to ensure effective compliance with the standard. Installation information was given great importance. 7. TESTING METHODS Testing methods were developed by researching existing codes and standards and task force discussion, particularly concerning human figure data. Section 7.2 -The task force decided that the 250 lb. static load should be applied over a inch section of the grab bar 'because of some human factors data showing that inches is the average breadth of an adult man's hand. The task force decided that the load should be applied to the grab bar midway between supports because that would present its most vu .lnerable condition. Through experience in static load testing by some of the grab bar manufacturers it was determined that if a grab bar failure was to occur it would normally happen within a 5 minute period. Existing test procedures in other codes and standards also reached this conclusion. The Task Force decided that products other than grab bars would have to design their own procedure for applying the 250 lb. weight. SOURCE DOCUMENTS: HUD-RT-17 January 1972, Guideline 1, "A Design Guide for Home Safety," "The Bathroom; Criteria for Design" by Alexander Kira ANSI Al7 .1 1961 (Rl971) "Specifications for Making Building and Facilities Usuable by the Physically Handicapped" "Architectural Graphic Standards" by Ramsey & Sleeper, specifically pages 2 and 3, "Dimensions of the Human Figure" WW-P-541/SA Federal Specification HUD-Minimum Property Standards For Elderly-Single Family, Elderly-! and 2 Family and Care Institutions -G 60-

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HANDICAPPED LAWS BUILDING STANDARDS Mrs. Melba R. Rugg Chairperson Mayor's Committee On Employment of the Handicapped City and County of Denver 1368 South Fairfax Denver, Colorado 80222 756-8687 Legislation to Make Buildings and Facilities Accessible to and Usable by the Physically Handicapped. 1. Definition of "Physically Handicapped". The term "physically handicapped", as used in accessibility legislation includes persons in the following categories: (a). Non-ambulatroy disabilities-those which confine the individual to a wheelchair. (b). (c) • (d). (e) • (f) . . (g) • Set1i-(lmbulatory disabilities -those which allow the individual to walk with difficulty , perhaps w ith the aid of braces or crutches . .. This may include amputees,arthritics,victims of strok e and partial paralysis,cardiac and pulmonary patients, and the grossly over-weight. Disabilities of incoordination. Sight disabilities -blindness O L impaired visual ability to perceive signals or dangerous situations. Hearing disabilities -deafness or impaired ability to hear warning signals or communicate. General disabilities due to aging. Temporary disabilities due to broken limbs, sprains, illness, pregnancy, etc. 2. Federai Legislation Public .Law 93-112 of 1973: sets up an Architectural & Transportation Barriers Compliance Board having substantial powers and responsibilities in investigation and enforcing compliance with Public Law 90-480,(Architectural Barriers Act of 1968) amended by Public Law 91-205 of 1970 , the basis of which is American National Standards Institute Standard All7.1-1961 (Rl971) entitled "American Standard Specifications for Making Buildings and Facilities Accessible to, and Usable by the Physically Handicapped". Public Law 93-516 (Affirmative Action Obligations of Contractors and Sub Contractors for Handicapped Workers) Section 741.5 (c)l. Physical Access to the Placement Office and Job Site. 3. Colorado Legislation Title 9-Article 5-Colorado Revised Statutes 1975 Concerning Public Building Construction Requirements, and Extending Such Requirements to Certain Privately Funded Public Buildings. 4. Special Needs , Areas of concern which are at present not covered by building standard legislation resider-tial housing and recreational facilities.

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APPENDIX: WHEELCHAIR CRITERIA 1l1e wheekhair is the basic vehide for the non ambulatory person. Its specifkations establish the fund:unental design requirements for making fadi t Ill and usa ble by the handi capped. '"rutd1 or semi ambulatory J WrSl'ns arc ahlc to maneuver within the limits .. rihcd for whcckhairs. 1. Whcekhair Dimensions The most commonly used wheelchair is t he model with tubular metal frame anc.l pl:lstk uplwlsll:ry nn scat and The st a ndard model o f all manu facturcrs falls within the following ranges of dimensions : a. Length: 33.5 to 48 inches. Mode: 42 (NOTE: does not indude shoes or feet • add 6 inches) . b. Width open: I 8 . 5 to 32.5 inches. Mode : 26 inches (NOTE: does not include hands a nd arms, which extend beyond wheels when pushing). c. Width collapsed: g to i4". 5 inches . Mode: 11 inches. d. Seat height above floor , 19.5 inches (standard). e. Arm height: 19.5 to 33.5 inches. Mode: 29.5 inches. f. Overall height: 33 to 53.5 inches. Mode: 37 inches. O!HER SOURCES OF INFORHATION: Commission on the Disabled 619 South Broadway Denver, Colorado 80209 297-3056 Ron Rinker, Chairman Architectural Barriers Committee Colorado Central Chapter American Institute of Architects 1825 Lawrence Street Denver, Colorado 80202 825-8123 2. Wheelchair Operation (based on modal dimen sions listed above). a. Turning space required: 60 x 60 inches, or 63 x 56 inches (preferred), or 54 inch wide corr idor with two open ends. b. Minimum aisle width for passing of two wheelchairs: 60 inches. (63 inches preferred). • 3. Average Reach of an Adult Wheelchair Occupant a. Unilateral vertical reach : 60 inches. Range: 54 to 78 inches . b. Horizontal reach , tahle height : 30. 8 inches. Range 28.5 to 33.5 inches. c. Bilateral horiz onta l re a c h : 64.5 inches Range: 54 to 71 i nches. d. Diagonal r e a c h to ob j ect on wall : 48 inches above floor . It should be noted that t h e a hove are averages for an adult using a standard wheelchair. The very small adult, the child, the unusually weak individual, the user of a wheelchair with detachable arms or with a leg extended forward, these would fall outsid e t h e above ranges and must be considered. Governor's Advisory Council on the Handicapped 2480 West 26th Avenue Suite 300 B Denver, Colorado 80211 458-8000 X238

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A. FURNISHABILITY OPTIONS FOR EATING CONTROL OF BACKSTAGE Are alternative arrangements possible for furni ture in the living room and bedroom? Are circulation paths direct and unobstructed when Lhe unit is furnished? Are spaces provided for special furniture such as dining room hutch, work table for hobbies, and TV-stereo console? Are windows, doors, and closets located to ma.ximize the number of furnishable corners in each room? Are there places to put a TV in the bedroom and living room other than in front of the window? Are there at least two walls against which a couch can be placed in the living room? Is it possible to furnish double occupancy units with two twin beds and single occupancy units with a double bed? Is there a place in kitchens for residents to eat? Is the re a place near the kitchen for a dining room table for entertaining guests? I s there a view from the eating area to the outside? Is the more formal dining area visually separated from the kitchen? Is there a direct route from bedroom to bath room with door swings in the direction of travel for residents getting up at night? Is it possible for guests to use the bathroom without having to walk through the bedroom? Is there privacy for the bedroom and bathroom from the living room and kitchen? Is the bathroom located so that the door can be left ope n without giving direct views into it from the entry, living room, and kitchen? A----...1: •• A 11'>

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STORAGE AND DISPLAY ENTERING 114 Appendix A Is the unit organized so that residents and guests do not have to pass through the kitchen when entering or moving from room to room? Is the unit designed so that doors to bedroom and bathroom can remain open without obstructing circulation? Are there walls in the entry and other rooms for display of personal objects? Are walls constructed so that residents can hang objects on them safely and without permanent damage? Are windows designed with sills wide enough for plants and knick-knacks? Is there enough space around and above windows for residents to hang draperies? Is there storage space for large objects such as foldaway beds, snow tires, and outdoor furniture? Is outside storage provided for lawn chairs and gardening tools? Are shelves in storage areas and kitchen cabinets easily accessib l e without us e of a step stool? Are storage spaces located near the area whe r e stored items are used? Is there a place outside for residents to put down packages while opening the front door? Is the entry vestibule large enough for greeting guests and putting on coats and boots? Is space provided outside the front door for r esidents to personalize and identify their unit ? Is there a . window or peephole through which residents can see who is at their door? Is the unit designed so that visitors at the front door cannot see into the rest of the apartment? Is the coat closet located at the entry where i t will be most convenient for residents and their guests? I I I !

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OUTDOOR TERRITORY r WINDOWS TO THE WORLD INDOOR SHARED PLACES Does each ground floor unit have a porch or patio? Do upper floo r units have balconies or slidng glass doors with railings? • Is the territory belonging to each unit easily identifiable for residents and their neighbors? Are porches and patios designed so that resi dents can watch outdoor activity from them while sitting down? Are balconies designed so that the view from inside is not obstructed by railings or walls? Are outdoor extensions designed so that they can be used comfortably at different times of the day and during different seasons? Is there a window in the kitchen, dining or living area beside which residents can sit in a comfortable chair and watch community activities? Are bedroom windows designed so that furniture can be placed in front of them without obstruction and s o that bedridden residents can see out? Are windows sufficiently separate from outdoor public areas to ensure that resident privacy is not invaded? Is it possible for residents to see outside while eating in the kitchen? Are second storey livin g room windows low enou gh for residents to se e ground level activity? Are corners and walls availab le in shared hall ways and entries for residents t o personalize and decorate? Are stair landings in front of unit entries large enough for personal display and items such as wet boots? Is there a storage area in common entries where residents can store outdoor equipment such as lawn chairs? Appendix A 115

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OUTDOOR SHARED PLACES CLUSTERING 116 Appendix A Are screen doors with locks provided on front doors so that resident s can be neighborl y with aut r ed ucing sense of security? Is space available in shared entries for r esidents to sit and socialize? Are places provided for residents to sit outsidE> near their units without being in a main circu lation path? Are outdoor sitting areas in front of units large enough so that seve ral p e ople may u se them without conflict? Are outdoor shared areas located to avoid visual and auditory invasion of nearby units? Are outdoor areas between units clearly defined in terms of shared spaces and private territory ? Are units arranged in identifiable clusters so tha t residents have a sense of being prut of a small e r group within the larger project? Are the clusters designed so that each is identi fiable as a group, different in some way from the rest? Are pathways in the cluster organized t o be visible from unit windows so that resid ents can watch activity? Are pathways in the cluster designed so that people walking on them do not invad e thE> privacy of residents in units? Are pathways in the cluster adequately separate from those for the entire project so that clu ste red units have a defined territory? Are pathways organized to maximize chance encounters among residents? Is parking close enough to each cluster to mini mize walking distance and to clearly indicat e to which cluster it belongs?

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COMMUNITY SPACE LOCATION INDOOR COMMUNITY SPACES OUTDOOR COMMUNITY SPACES A re both indoor and outdoor community spaces organized t o create a focal point of activ ity on the site? Are community spaces located at the focus of pedestrian movement on and off the si te? Are community spaces located near frequently used services like laundry and mail to increa s e the lik e lihood of residents dropping in on activities? Are community spaces located to minimize wa lkin g distance from units, exposu r e to bad weather, and physical barriers such as stee p slopes and stairs? Are community spaces within view of a maximum number of units? Is there at least one space which residents c an use as a conuuon 111formal "living room"? Is there a space where all resid ents in the community can gather at one time for meetings and ga m es? Is there a space with kitchen facilities whi ch residents can use for private parties of 12 to 16 people? Are there places which men can claim apart from others using indoor community spaces? Is there space adjacent to but separate from the l aundry where residents can wait and socialize? Is there space adjacent and visible to mailboxes where residents can wait for m ail to be delivered? Are management offices accessible to residents as well as private en ough for management t o get their work done? Are garden areas available for residents' use and located where they can be enjoyed from units and pathways? Are there places for clothes drying lines near to and visible from apartment units? Appendix A 117

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PATHWAYS AS ACTIVITY GENERATORS PATHFINDING 118 Appendix A A r e outdoor eati ng, picnic , and barbecue areas located near enough to inside community space to make use of kitchen and bathroom facilities? Are community activities such as games located where there is a place for an audience to sit in the shade and where equipment can be stored close by? Are facilities provided for games and sports which are locally popular? Is there one major pathway which connects most units with major on-and off-site a ctivities? Are sitting areas provided at intervals along the major pathway so that residents can sit and watch activity? Are pathway intersections designed to accommodate a great e r concentration of traffic and socializing? Are sitting areas located close enough to path ways for residents to recognize pa ssersby and in places where they are likely to b e us e d? Are community activities such as games located along pathways to encourage casual participation? Are pathways and sitti ng areas located to maxi mize su n in winter and shade in summer? Is the site organized to provide cl ea r unit addresses within the conventional address systems of str eets, entries, and units? Is it easy for residents to describe to friends how to find wh e re they live? Are units and clusters d esigned and located so that it is e asy for residents and visitors to orient t h e mselv es? Is there a clear and consistent distinction between front door and back door of units? Are natural and built landmarks utilized to help give individual identity to differen t clusters and different pmts o f lar ge sites?

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RETREATS CARS GE'ITING ON AND OFF THE SITE / Are there places for people to walk to on the site, removed from community activities, where residents ca n get away from it all? Are natural features of the site, like ponds and tree groves utilized as pleasant places for residents to walk to? If no natural features exist, are built retreats such as duck ponds an d picnic areas provided? Are pathways to retreats easily accessible from residents' units? A re natural or planned pathways organized to provide different degrees of challenge to residents with a wide range of physical energy? Is parking located so that parked cars do not dominate views from units? Is parking located in small areas around the site as c onvenient as possible t o each unit? Are thereconvenient drop-off places near r esi dents' units for getting in and out of cars? Are roadways and parking areas located so that they do not interfere with natural pedestrian pathways? Are drop-off and pick-up areas easy to find and located where resid ents can wait comfortably and conveniently? Are vehicular drop-off places visible from community space s and units so that residents can watch the acti vity? Is there a natural or built "gateway" at the entrance to the project on sites where the housing is separate and distinct from the surrounding neighborhood? Are site planning and addresses similar to surrounding streets on sites where the housing is intended to be a continuation of an existing neighborhood? Is the site organiz ed so that there is a convenient and direct pedestrian pathway on and off the site for r esidents going into town? Appendix A 119

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ON-SITE FACILITIES FOR CHILDREN ON-SITE NEIGHBORHOOD FACILITIES FOR ADULTS 120 Appendix A Are bus stops located in places convenient to residents? If indoor day-care facilities for children are provid ed, do they have a separate entrance so that c hildren do not disturb resident s u sing community spa c es? Are children's outdoor play areas visible from sitting areas from which residents can watch? Are children's play areas physically separated from resident community spaces to minimize pos s ible unwanted physical encounters? Are children's outdoor play areas acoustically separated from dwelling units? Are children's play areas designed to dis courag e children from wandering into other parts of the community? Is the community center accessible to outsiders for large functions without invading residential areas like mail room and laundry? Are community spaces easy to find by out3iders when entering the site? Are entrances to neighborhood-wide spaces easily controlled by residents? Are facilities intended for neighborhood use located in such a way that outsiders are not forced to walk through the site to get to t hem?

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------------INDIVIDUAL UNITS (f) "'0 u c >, co +J I-(f) co .0 ::::J (f) 0: w (f) U J > (1) I-(.) u -0 co co <( (.) 0: 0 <( (f) :>.. "'0 I .r:: ::::J ACTIVITIES u Q. co entry e x it food preparation dining living ,. sleeping dressing t '.) ) personal hygiene private outdoor storage utility ... ,. *IMPORTANT 0 DEPENDENT i I ... L . I . I (/) 0 +J (/) "'0 1... 0 c <1> +J co +J Q) 0 >. ctl Q) +J 1... E c -rn 0 .0 c .r:: ::::J (1) ro (.) +J 0 ctl ..c E > +J (f) Q. ctl c -+J Q) c ::::J co E 1... rr n. 1... :J 0 4-Q) (f) "'0 , I > ( -:.: ) Matrix , activities, and characteristics adapted from " Ho u sing Desig n C riteria " by Theodore Liebma n , Joseph E. Brown, and A . Edwin Wolf. New York: New York State Urban Develop ment Corp., unpublished paper, pages 11 and 81. 71

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COMMUNITY FACILITIES ACTIVITIES building entry exit management laundry mail package delivery trash disposal (J) u (J) a: w u (l) u u ro cu u 0 (f) >-"'0 .!:: :J o. ro r , . t. . ! \ . ) r I l .'''. I l I • • l . ' f. i ... r, ,.-, t i . l I \ .,. , I. ,...-( n , ' . ' •.. l ( ... : ,.-.._ ..... \ I _..,.. \ t :. ) \ .. .,... L ( ' ft; \ .. , . ..... .., ' :::,..., +-' lo.... :J u (l) (f) ( . . ' •:ro ,. f . ' . " l ( c 0 lo.... 0 l i (o) . . r) I I Matrix, activitie s , and characteristics adapted from " H o using Design Cri teria " by T heodore Li e bman, J oseph E . Brown, and A . Edwin Wolf. New Yo r k : New York State Urban D e velop ment Corp., unpublished paper, pa ge s 11 and 81. +-' ..0 c ro m .!:: E (f) Q_ c :J lo.... 0" .2 (l) r;k, (i) ...... en .8 u (}) E Q_ (f) "'0 57

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SHARED SERVICES (/) u ._ (/) a: w ._ u <{ a: <{ I ACTIVITIES u site entry exit arrival court parking service recreation -I) CRITICAL * IMPORTANT 0 DEPENDENT C\5 :J (/) > "'0 c C\5 C\5 (.) (/) >-..c 0.. t L I L '->-...... c ..0 (/) 0 >-...... ...... C\5 (/) Q) (.) I... ...... c :J (]) (.) (.) Q) I... C\5 (/) 0 l ; . l . . ..... ( ,-"' ,, , ( -' ... _. .. . t:t ;-;:) \ ' .. J •' I' _..,...-...... ) \ •wt f .. . .... ,-. j-, I I r . //1 7 7 / (/) (.) ...... (.) Q) ...... (/) Q) "'0 I... O'l c (1) C\5 C\5 ...... c (.) >-C\5 0> ...... I... (/) ...... C\5 ..0 c ..c -Q) C\5 (.) 0 ..c E > (/) 0.. C\5 -c E I... :J co :J cr n.. Q) (/) "'0 ., ,..-;-... ! .. ., ... ' .... \1., J -1 ' R) (>(I \ ; -/ G) p-) I _... /_", ( .. , ... ) ( ... , ... I -1'>_. "''"' ' (;k') 0) --I ' -/)i I ' // Matrix, activities, and characteristics adapted from "Housing Design Criteria" by Theodore Li e bman , Jose ph E . Brown, and A . Edwin Wolf. New York: New York State Urban Dev elopment Corp., unpublished paper, pages 11 and 81. 51

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Contoured Inward for ShouldP.r tloll Support Lumbar R egion' Firm Support s tron1 Scat Tri m /:. :--... l / Q ;( . '\\ /.' \l _ _ _ J ( I ;1 \ \\ I \, I \ . \ I \ Rf.'c ommD n rlations fo r SKJting , Furnishings, and R Dcls CONSIDERATIONS RELIITf.U T O GEHIATRIC 9 "Max. Arm Rest to Seat frim I ,, • ' , k / I \.t, ...... 2 ,, 2 " M a x . Deflection J\symptotic under a 200 Pouoni L0.1d '." l ;'l\ :c . /Arm nest Leading on P arallel P lupport Shim 11 1 \:2" S uf)p ort r u e:l , , . --i\ 1 1 Thor:o cic Support A rC' a v LOUNGE SEATING CONFIGURATION M ID C0N T OU rliN G 2 0 " Min. Se a t Width Oack on Plane wilh Stlloilher t o Curb Wall 1\brilsion

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' ----l h 0 \'1 11!]1. -----------1 hi gil Clc< H
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46 "THE AGE-LOSS CONTINUUM" *LOSSES: Separation of children Death of peers Loss of spouse AGE Motor output deterioration Sensory acuity losses Age related health problems Reduced physical mobility 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 *Th e losses for each specific individual , of course, would not happen as pre c i sely indicated for each age category . This is an abstraction used for analytical purposes only. Source : L . Pastalan , " Privacy as an Expression of Human Territoriality." In L. Pastalan and D . Carson (eds.) , Spatial Behavior of Older People (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press , 1970) , page 98. Used with per mission of the author .

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BUILDINC. PROGHAM .\. ..._ ... t J ' • I\.. -'\ i... L DlriONI (1 ,). f.:c:>! f u r 0 il. lectrici y? t. or i nd1 i,ltr-1 1 he:tting p lar1t(s) 1 c . F.\j.J.'Si 11, qu,111tit ) o f ft:l:estratiorr; ordin u r y u r i ns ulotir1g7 ll. l: : s :idtio:J in \ d ll s ::!nd roo f: importance o f initial v ers u s ope ra t in g co st. e. !:; hun:1 " :f1c<1t10n \':an t ed? f. Is .::ool in g If so, b y c entral or indi\ •iduai residence plant(s)? T he owner should unders t and thorou0hly t he poss i b ili ie s and impl ica t io ns o f h e at i n g and cooling controls. which r a nge from manual, through simpl e o v e r al l bu i!d1ng . t o sophisticated room-by-room. T h e latter may be a prestigious point in r en t al s or sale s but may al so ;:;dd substantially to maintenance co sts and pr.:::b!ems. I n some types of a !l-eiectrical system, how e v er , roomb y -room con trols may be a normal part of the equipment. T hu s it behoo es the owner t o acquire a fai r understand in g of th e man/ alternati ves ava ilable. If co Jiing i s desired. what should the inside temperatur e be7 A stra igh 75 degrees for op timum comfort (or ev en lo wer?), or lU •o 12 degrees be low t h e maximum outdoor temperature fo r minimum installation and operating costs? g. Energy source for cooling. If na t ura: f ue l i s u sed. the owner s h o u ld be made aware of the poss i bilities of absorp t i on refrigeration, us in g t h e same fuel. I f electri c ity is used for heati n g , t he potentialities of the heat pump should be made c lear to the owner. h. W il l the owner, the individual occupant. or an organization of occupants pa y fuel and energy costs for heating and/or cooling? i . If individual heating and/or coo ling s ystem s are used, who will be respon-sible for their maintenance and replacement? j. Ventilation for bathrooms and/or kitchens: central, individual, or a com bination c f individual control and central collection? 2 . PLUMBING a. Water centrally metered or i nd ividually metered? b. Domestic water heating to be central or individual? Wh o •;ill pa y for the energy? c. Water closets to be fl u sh valve or tank ope rated7 d . Deta il s of other san itary fixtures; for example. l avator ies o be free sta nd ing or cabinet type; kitchen sinks to be china or staini ess steel: tub in ev ery bath r oo m o r shower on ly i n some, quali t y of tub (cast i r on or steel)7 e. Laundry facilitie s : central o r individual? I cen tra l , will there be a conces sionaire, o r wi ll th e owne r operate the fac i lity ? f. Fi r<: protection: shoul d t hi s b e the minimum requi red b y governing cod es or rJoe<; t " e ovmer w:1nt e xtra pro ec ion in t he form o f additio nal -standpi pes . f i r •:: et-tinguishe•s.
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DATA c. Ill purchased electricol energy be indivioually or centrally m etered an d paid fo r ? (The la . t ter option I S not available i n Illinois, fo r exa m ple.) d. Are he healmg and co ol1ng s_ s e m s t o be electrically powered? T he same question applies to domestiC w a ter heating. e. Quality of specialtie s s uch a s switches and receptacles . The u s ual decis io n, low installation cost combined wi th higher maintena nce and r ep l a cement costs fo r m i n imum quality spec i a l t ies o r the con v ers e ? f . Who will f urn i sh and i nstall lighti ng f ixtures in the re s idential a reas ? g . E le ctrical o r gas range s ? h . T he range of cho i ce s o f auxiliary el e c trical s y s tems i s broa d : Fro n t (an d rear) door b ell si g na l s. Voice communication with remote entrance doors. C lo s ed c i rcu i t te l e vi s i on s urveillance of entrances. Central t e l evi s ion antenna s y s t e m . Intercommun ica t io n s y stems o f varying inc l us iv ene ss . Burglar alarm and s imil a r securi t y s ystems. Emergency ala r m fo r persons in trouble i n th e i r a partments ( particularly ap pl icable i n housing for the e l d erly). Panic alarm for el e v ator s . Smo k e an d f i re alarm s ystem s. Shou l d an y or all o f these feature s b e com bi n e d with t he pu blic telephone system? i. Emergency light and po wer. S hou l d thi s be t he minimum required by code or should such poss i b ly n oncove red u se s as el e vators, domesti c water pressure pumps, heating boilers , and pu m ps b e pro v i d ed w i th standby power? LOCATION DATA T h e de c i s i o n to disc u ss th e b u i l d ing program befor e l o cati on d a ta i s arbitra ry, and it can be fairly a r g ue d that l oc ation i s probably the major contribution to the s uc cess or f a i lure of a ny pro j ect. The stigma attac he d to public hou s ing in the United States i s in no small measure due t o location . B u ilt in the mos t deterior ated parts of the u r b an ghetto, i n area s i n which d elinquency and c r ime are rampant, thes e projects a re doomed to fail eve n i f all other co ndit ions-proper tenant selection and e d uca t io n , conce rne d manage m ent, and well de signed bu ildings-are p r operly m et. To realize the i mportance of locati on in the priv a t e sector of housing one on!y has to remember t he often quoted statement by the developer who, w hen a s ked the secret o f a successful apartment project, replied: ' ' The secret lie s in three factors. T he first is locati on, the seco nd is lo cation. a n d t he third i s location . " A successful devel opment starts out w i th th e sea r ch for l a n d. Whether t he si t e 1surhan o r e xu rban . the a s ute devel o pe r has t o k now a grcilt de31 t ne p ro p-8 r ;. nrJt o n I; its phy sicrJI ancl environmenl< il C 011ditio ns !Jut illso tlw s tability tlf th(' ;,r 8'.1. H115 should h e rJeter rninP.d h•t s cientific projf'clHifl . Oflt-11 1l i:s ! • v a r r;sti.ol hall. Fr,r lh<: : ; r chilr:r . t t h8 ph y:SI':;-d < mel "'IIVIr!Jnrnr• fll
  • it,, [lp . ':'Jn-!8 r 1 f d"!:.i1.11 ..vlli clt. I1Lr1: h llil.tinro d , d ,l. will rl.t rr, : v , tile r.fv,,rr• > ' llt•l lr:...,rf In . 1 -:;,,1,, lllll.

    PAGE 45

    H EAliNG AND /\ill f-,11 t . . :, <' Lt." ll:.ll c l l l •. >;!11.:1 1 ciS tuJrlti U I :_;,q;pl y o r i l ltlild :
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    FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE SELECTION OF THE S TRUCTURAL SYSTEM Factors to be considered Structural S ystem 1. Usage of structure (housing , storage, etc. ) 2. Structure area 3. Number of stories 4. Applicable local codes 5 Soil conditions a . Arc heavy dead loads problem? b. Is soil of variable type rcejuiring rigid or flcxi -ble struc lure? c. Wat e r table elevations 1. Are basements problem? 2. Construction difficulties? 6. Site conditions a . Rolling site are structures stable to resist one sided soil surcharges? b. Are sail washouts possible? 7. Construction phose a. Availability of structural materials? b. A•;ailability o f skilled labor? c. Speed and ease of construction d. Initial construction cost e. Interface with other construction materials f. Interface with othe r systems 8. Service phase a. Anticipated useful life b . Fire resistance 1. Code requirements 2. Judgement c . Insect and ro t resistance d . Resistance to the. rma I stresses e . Resistance to shrinkage f. Resistance to vibrat ion g. Resistance to sound h. Maintenance costs i . Insurance rates 9. Structural red lights a. Has progressive collapse been considered? b. Has snowdrift in roof valleys a nd ot adjacent roof elevations been considered? c . Have stresse s at all stages of construction been accounted for? 10. Other speci fie factors a. b. c. d .

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    Material, c olor, texture , q u ality of: floor walls cei I ing I ighting Visua l and acoustic requirements H'!ating and v cnti l atio n requirements llatura l v eroti l atio n requiro::m ents Type o f exposure t o ext e rior t latura l lighting r e q uirements ! tours of ditect sun I into space Views to outdoors near and/or 1\cccss to outdoor S!><• c e type o f . outdoor space directnes s o f access V i ews t o interior AUD EQUIPMEUT lnvt:nt o r y . o f types and quantities o f furniture, equipme nt; mcchnnlcal a n d e l e ctrica l f i x t u res required F ixed or F I"" i u i I it y . j \nthropom etric consider ations STORf,GE ;upportive storage rc<]uirements s ize, shape, REL ATIONSHIPS ( ---, -----------":J ' ...... , ,... ........ .......... : , ....... be fur i n .J bull.; control s fur f l c z i!Jility; 1\pi.lrtuten t > uc scpar.:.tt e fro111 each other and fro111 a djacent cuu •.,o n spaces, inclndin!J the corridor ; apartutcn l!.. 111uSt have m e thod of v ent i I a t i o n "ith a l,ility to stay oul o f a d r a f t ; lteat ing >y>tem c l ir n inat e cold air convect i o n from •linrlOI"t> ; responsive con trol s fur each space; natural v..:11ti lat iun: vtindOItS > houltl ltavc l y uperwbl e uu l lll:avy v1c thcrtight sa>h; deep sills t o each unit receive direct >unliglll into i t f o r severa l h our> each day 1 1i th t he aui I i t y t o fi l rc.:r direct if v ievtS t o outdno r s s lr.:.tll be provided fn, 1 :.i .:.nd l y ing i n bed d irec t of d11..: I I i II!J spa<.e out t o pr i v te out doo r i s require d lar!Jc t•nouoJi t to >t::dt /1 outdour s pac.e otld i n c ludc p lwnt e r box; ext e;r ior liq lt t ing. All lloovaL i e furniture i s supplic:d by occotpant; kitc lt ..:ll ,,, J c"IJinet s Slt ootiJ be .:11 lo11er than lu.:i i n cuch unit, a l'.o provide unions t o ul101 1 loc ... l ur.:.in.Jge pri o r t u r.:puir; noeov::tbl e or p ... r titiOloS wS S t u n ol..lld <"quiprn,•n t ; >ec ult.lclte d lis t f o r auditionul equiplllc:n t inc l ud d in unit; 1 0:(. uf ull uni I'> s itu I I h..: d.::. i 9rted ,\nd I:IJII i pped 10 iiO:CUII\IuOd .. lte d ha11d i C.Jppe d (11hc:.::l<.lt ir) occup.1nt; higher l.cy-lock locatio n 011 doo r for c:;,sy v i sil, ility ; 1\tl..:qua t e >race ro!quirt::. Outdour priv<•te t•ut ''"'"' >pace 1n tne ou t r otng t o eacn restoent. It >hould p rovi de sec11r i t y not onl y fron1 t he out > ide 110r l d bu t a l > o fro m t he deterio r ation o f faculties i n o l d age. The un i t shoul d consider f loor >urfaces, r educed bending and reaching, direct c irculatio n patte rns, controlle d g lare and lighting level s , loss o f v i s u a l acuity, person a l privacy, l o w t o lerance t o d r afts, e re. t o promot e a health i e r , saf e r , r.rore controllabl e environme n t f o r the resident, rP.sulting i n reduced appr e hensi o n a n d increased self-confidence. The e lderl y po>itive;l y t t n tit<.! prt.:0(LU!'-'llion " i tit order in < •n e lderly life. F o r •.:>arttp l e . l . • c h o f suffic i..:nt > t orage """Y .3 pe;r.,un fnun initia ting a Of.!1 1 project o r pers roal .:Jcti;ity >ince it may lead t o a c l utto.:red ap.Jrtment. Simii;Jrly, insuffic ient s wp;Jrtt.t
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    E OF SPACE pes of actIvity equency of use proximate 1 imes of use anticipated occupant load . pacity ocr.upant load Of SPACE nctional and perceptua i designati o n : public or private connunity or resident focal or supportive I arge or sma I I open or c losed flexible or fixed subdivide d CESS AND CIRCULATION cess control requi r cwents ceptallle metho d s of access contro l quired access t o othe r s pa ces qui r ed circul ation within the space . i . CURITY :curi ty fro m who m o r >tcntia l pro b lems t o lle allev i a t e d : c e p talll e methods o f providinO d llan.:c
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    USE OF SPACE Type s of activity Fr eque ncy of u s e Approx imate time s of use Normal anticipated o c cup ant l o ad C a p acity occupant load OF SPACE Fun ctional and p erce ptua l desi gnation: public or private community or resident focal 'or s upp ortive I a r g e or sma II o pen or closed flexible or fix ed s ubdivided ACC E S S AND C IRCULATIO N Access contro l requi rements Accept able met h o d s o f access c ontro l R eq ui r e d acc ess t o other spa ces Require d circ ul ation within t h e space S ECt.;R ITY Sec u rity fro m w h o m o r w h a t Pot ential prob lems t o be a l l cviate d A c c e p tabl e m e t h ods o f p r o v i d ing security Practical eKpe c t atio n s SUPERVISION ' Supervisio n o f who m o r By who m For what purpos e Acce p t ab l e sup ervi s i o n tech n i q u e s MA IIHENANCE by a nd when Requirem e nts f o r mainten a n c e e quipment Appr opria t e fini shes SAFETY S pecial safe t y measure s r equire d and d r y , fo l d ing, r ;rio r t o .. , a s hing, i r on i n g ; lhed through o u t t h e d ay i r r e•Ju lilrly; often used lly I o r 2 r e s i dents ill a time. Pr ivilt e t o resi de n t s ; S urportiv e ; E nc l osed scrur a t e s race; C e n t r a I l ocal i o n t o a II resi d ents ; Most effic i ent a s o n e f a cility f o r e ntir e b uild i n
    PAGE 50

    L ' 1 0 From the National Clearinghouse on Aging No.. 1 February 1978 .' . ' Statistical Notes is a new publication .issued by National 'on Aging. The goal of this occasional newsletter is to provide information about statistical. programs and publications of interest to the National Network Aging and ihe many'other persons and organizations who work in the . field of aging.. Questions, suggestions , or contributions are welcome and should be' sent to: Statistical Notes, National-Clearinghouse onAging, Admini stratio. n on. Aging,.' Washington, DC. 20201 . . ., ' t •. • ...: ;: .... • ..r... •• - • . /'. The .following, table shows the updated three hypothetical annual budgets for. -,; a retired couple for Autumn 1976 and the percent change from Autumn 1975. As be seen from the. table,.. the largest 'year-to-year increases in the camponentsThe. cost o f this component increased by 9.6% for the higher, 9.01-for the' and. 8.4:t' for the lower budget.: Housing, which.. _increased.oy the same rate for each budget (6.5%), represented the largest share of the total budget--slightly over 33% for each budget. ' Food, . which accounted for .the second largest share. o each budget, experienced the. smallest .... . .. -. -.... ". .. .. : . These budgets represent the Autumn (Sept'ember, November) 1976 prices . of three lists of goods and services specified in the mid-1960's. The budgets were updated by applying the change in the Consumer Price Index between Autumn 1975 and Autumn 1976 for individual. areas to t;he Autumn 1975 budget costs for each main class of goods and services. A retired couple is defined as a husband aged 65 and his wife. They are presumed to be in good health, and. living in an urban area. .t'' This information is contained in a U.S. Department o . f Labor release , "Three Budgets for a Retired Couple, Autwim 1976." The release contains tables which show the costs and indexes of comparative costs for each component in each of the three budgets .. for 39 selected metropolitan areas,. 4 nonmetropolitan regions, and Anchorage, Alaska. This (USDL 77-690) may be obtained from any Bureau of. Labo ' r Statistics Regional Office or by writing to the Bureau of'. Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212. . ADMINlSTRATION ON AGING •OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES U .S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. EDUCATION. AND WELFARE

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    j l ' ' -2-. ' ' OF. ANNUAL: BUDGETS FOR A RETIRED COUPLE AT THREE LEVELS OF LIVING; .URBAN UNITED STATES: AUTUMN 1976 Component ?: Housing ... : ...... • .... . .•. ;. rransportation-.; ••• . ' •• ' Clc:;>thing • • , • • .. • • • ... • . ....... . _ PersonaL care •••• : •• ---Medi:cal care: ••• : : ••• Other family consumption. Ot.her items ... ............ . ... , . . . Lower -". budget 4,493. 1,443 1,613 322. 206 . 138 571 (P) 200 202 100.0 . 95-.7 . : 30.7 ' : 34' .. 4 6.9 • 4 '. 4 -2.9 .i Medical care .......... : .. 12. 2. family. consumption ' t 4. 3 4-. 3 " .. ' . ' ,, . 'PERCENT CHANGE, AUTUMN 1975 . TO 19-76 ( •. Total. budget ....... • • . • - • .,. 4.3 . , ... Total family '4.3 Food ••••• ............ ..... -1.1 Housing. ..... , .... : . . 6.5 .. Transportation ••••••••• • • • Clothing .... •..... . . . 4.0 ..Personal ......... : . .,. 7.8 Medical care .............. 3.4 Other family consumpti()n 4.7 Other i telDS'" •................. 4.1 Inte-rmediate budget 6,333 1,914 629 347 202 574(P) 332 405 100.0 94.0 2S:.4 3 4:69.3 5.1 3.0 8.5 4 .. 9 6.0 4.2 4.2' 0.1 9.0 3.9 7 .4 3.4 4.T 4.1 Higher budget $10,048 9,281 2,402 3,653 1,161 535 296 579(P) 657 767 100.0 92.4 23.9 r36.4 11.6 5.3 2.9 5.8 6.5 7.6 4.7 4.7 0.2 &.. 5 9.6 4.1 7.6 3.6 4.6 4.2 (P) Preliminary estimate. NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual: itemS may not equal totals. SOURCE: U.S. Dept. Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Release 77-690.

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    • . The Agric-ultural Experiment: Station at the University of Kentucky recently issued the .first results from a study of the' characteristics and needs o f . years-old and over. residing iil Powell County, Kentucky. This .. conducted jointly with.. the U • . S ... Department of Agriculture .in 1975, t ::'cOn.sisted. of personal inter:Views with J99 o f the county's estimated 1, 300 . resid_ents 60+_ yearso old. l'WO-fifths, of the county's population lived in :_,.two towns of less: than 2' ,.500, ;popularion, and. the balance lived on farms and in open country.. . , .. ;:.' . , • .•' 0 -, •' ..... 1 ;-. .t , . .. , ,. t. ". .r. -1 1 -;t •.', .. i' r' Tha first report from. this s tudy,, entit'led Health Status and Needs:' A Study of Older:'"People in Powell County, Kentucky, was written by E. Grant Youmans . .. and-. Donald. K • . tarson of the Economic Development Division, Economic Research • Service,. U'. S. Department.. of This report focuses on the respond .. ,: ent '8. of. their ne-alth. s:tatus and ..}le.eds. some of the highlights of the • • • • • .. < ".. :Sit !' , ..!,l'.,-l.' •W' • .f_,.../•,.tt)• • • ._ "• }: ... .... ... .. /i "' ;:. , .t-. "' .. ,':.1,. • .... • •; , ,. • -, . "!' :. ..-. • .,_ • . ::.. .. Each respondent-was'asked'to:-rate his. or'ner overall health as • • ••• .>,excellent,_good,..-fafr,. or poO'r. -only one-fourth rated their health . . ' .. -,, :(' , asexcellent or good (19%). Three-fourths rated their healt h .. .(35%.) or (4-1%). As with _the incidence of specific ail ./'<; <' ,:.._• self-ratings. of health did not vary by sex or age.' • • ( ',. "l _ 1 ' ,, /' : ., "' • l 0 .:. ,i _,. ' :.. • • . 3 . response to questions regarding the respondent's ability to get . "" • '11: r about one-fifth indicated that they had some difficulty • .1-_ • '" Jgettlng around the house (17%) or spent most of the day in a chair , ' ,..r or bed (2%) • . In general," there. were no significant differences between. the: sexes irr their ability to get around the house, but the proportion having difficult'y getting around was much -higher for per. :sons 75+ years oldthari foi the younger (60-74) respondents. '. ( .... -.. • • ....'!i ......... . .: . ' ) .. .. respondents (93%)used eyeglasses or other sight aids. Smaller _ . . used aids walking ( 17%) , hearing aids (3%) , :.':':. :or wheelchairs (1%} •.. Men were more likely than women to use walk. aids such as walkers, canes, or crutches (24% vs. 13%). Simi-:"><-'larly, higher proportions of persons 75+ years old used walking aids . (55% foi:. men, 23% f .or women) than the younger respondents. . :-.. ,; : :-0 ... .. • t • .... • • Four-fifths (82%) of the sample population were. not hospitalized dur1.ng 1974. The proportion that spent some time in a hospital was higher for men (25%) than for women (13%). There was no difference in this prop-ortion b 'etween the younger and older age groups.

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    ' Each respondent was asked whether he or she had experienced any of severaL common getting health services. They an average of I.4. such difficulties per person. Tha most reported were getting to a doctor (31%), g_etting to a hospital . (21%), paying medical bills (21%), getting medicine (16%), -ana getting eyeglasses (15%) . Only slight by age and sex were reported. i(.; .:;,, 'i, ;:.: A' J • ; ' ... . ' . . Three-fourths of respondents indicated either a strong interest ""(33%) : or a moderate interest (42%) in the establishment of a special facility for the aged in.'the county. Out of 11 potential needs that f. . be by such a facility, . the sample reported an average ,;/ of S. 3 needs per person. The mos t commonly reported needs were , :.: _ medical in nature and_ inc-luded "getting on feet" after an illness .. t-• _-(80%'); getting a medical checkup (79%); getting eyeglasses, hearing ,:"•.... aids , . or dentures (68%) ; . help in taking medicine (68%); and getting . a walking aid or wheelchair ( 45%) • Between 20% and 44% named other needs such as legal assistance,. meals, and social activities. There wera few differences by age or sex in the frequency of expressed ..... .,.needs or in the interest or the respondents in the establishment of • .,.. a_ special facility. . . . . . .1-.f.";'. , • • ; " ...... ->. -s. :( ... Single: copies of Health Status. :A Study of Older People in Powell County, Kentucky may be obtained charge by writing to: Statistical Notes, National Clearinghouse on .. Aging, Administration on. Aging, Washington, DC-20201.,-: . , . . . . . • :. -: .lt . I .• .__,.• • • .... ,..,.'.•" :"J.._.. • . .,., ' • •• :l ;,--..... "' .. "' t [I ; !. .. ; ' ..;.;• 't ;..;: . . :r . . t •. . : •• : .-.,. 1976 ESTIMATES OF ELDERLY POPULATION FOR U.S. ,. ! .• '1 I The Bureau o the Census recently released a . report containing estimates of the. U.S. population by-age, sex, and race as of July 1, 1976. These estimates were prepared by updating 1970 census counts using data on births, deaths, and immigration that_ have-occurred between 1970 and 1976. Estimates for three population groups are shown in the.report: 1) resident population, which includes the civilian resident populations of the 50 States and the District of Columbia plus members of the Armed Forces stationed in these jurisdictions, 2) total population including Armed Forces overseas, which includes members of Armed Forces stationed in foreign countries, Puerto Rico, and the outlying areas under U nited States sovereignty or jurisdiction, and 3) civilian population, which includes the resident population less members of the Armed Forces stationed in the United States. "Resident population" is the population most frequentlyused by the Bureau of the Census in its annual estimates of the pqpulation for States and local areas, as well as reports from the 1970 Census of-Population. At age 55 and above, estimates based on these three definitions similar (particularly if the figures are rounded to the nearest thousand) because very few persons in these ages are actively serving in the At'iiled Forces. . _(continued on page 6)

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    -5ESTIMATES OF THE RESIDENT -POPULATION OF SELECTED AGE GROUPS BY' SEX AND RACE: JULY 1, 1976 . ' "' 1976 data are as of Jul 1. Percent chan e since 1970 was com uted with census counts for A ril 1 970) 'All racesl/ White Black Age ; Fe1!14le . Total, all ages . • 110,177 't"' . .. .. Selected age groups: _;. ,_., 40 'to 64-•••••••••••• 54,.840 26,349 28,491 55+, • • o o • • • ro 42, , . 998 24,149 60+ ••••••••••• • , •••• 32,244 13-,719 '18,527 62+ ••••• •••• 28,402 11,902 16,500 65+. • • • • • • • • ' • • • • , 22.9349,364 13,57L. 75+ ................ 8,741• 3.197 . 5 ,.544 85+. o o o o , o M o oo o o • . 0 o 0 1,, 966 629 '• 1,337 PERCENT DISTRIBUTION Tot al, all. age&> • "' .... Selected age ! 25 -.9 , _' > 4Q:c to, 64 . • • • • • • o • • • • • 25.5 55+ ••.•••••••• ••• : )o.o 60+. o o • o •• •• • • • roo u 15.0 16-.8 . ' 62:r •••• • ........... 13.2 15.0 ! . 65+ • ••••••••••• ••••. • 10.7 12.3 75+ •• •••••. • •• :. : • • 1 ' ... 5.0 . 85+ ••• : •••••••••• -. o . 91.2 ! CHANGE, 1970 TO 1976 Total, all ages. 5.6 Selected age groups: .; 40 to 64 • . • •••••••••• L9 2.0 1.8 55+ •••• •••.•••••••• 1!.5 9.8 12.8 60+. •••••••••••••••••• 12.8 10. 7 14.4 62+ •••• ••••• •••• 14.0 11.6 15.8 65+ ••••••••••••••••• 14.8 11.9 16.9 75+. . _ ••• ; ........... 16.1 9.3 20.4 85+ ••••••••••••••••• • 39.6 28.6 45.5 li Includes races other th1m White or Black (e.g.' shown separately. Both sexes 186,225 48,871 38,963 29,260 25,770 20,829 7,994 1, 777 100.0 26.2 20.9 15.7 13.8 11 • . 2 4 . 3 1.0 4.6 1.1 11.0 12.2 13.3 14.0 14.6 37.4 American 90,909 23,597 17,052 12,409 10,756 8,457 2,895 561 100.0 26.0 18.8 13.6 u.s 9.3 3'. 2 0.6 4.6 1.3 9.4 10.1 10.9 11. 1 7 . 6 26.6 Indian , Female 95,315 25,273 21,910 16,850 115,014 12,372 5,099 1,216 100.0 26.5 23.0 17.7 15.8 13.0 5 . • 3 1.3 4.5 0.8 12.2 13.7 15.0 16.1 19.1 43.1 Chinese, SOURCE: Bureau of. the. Census, Current Po[!ulation Re(!orts, Series P-25, No. lation of the United States, By Age, Sex, and Race: July 1, 1974 to Both sexes 24: 763 5,214 3,607 2,670 2,354 1,876' 645 165 100.0 21. 1 14.6 10.8 9.5 7.6 2.6 0.7 9.1 6.0 14.4 17.2 19.8 21.5 28.7 61 • . 8 Japanese) Male Femal e 11,787 12,976 2,399 2,815 1,579 2,028 1,145 1,52 5 1,001 1,353 787 1,089 253 392 56 1 09 100.0 100.0 20.4 21.7 13.4 15.6 9.7 11. 8 8.5 10.4 6 . 7 8.4 2.1 3.0 0.5 0.8 9.7 9 . 7 6.0 5.9 12.1 16.2 14.0 19.5 16.5 22.3 17.6 24.3 '21.6 33.8 43.6 73.0 which are not 643, "Estimates of the Popu-1976," Tables 2 and 5.

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    .• • " .. . ... \.-.; •-t ...... 4 .: II>., ..,. ...... .J> .1 \[!." ..... -I " ... ' I' • The estimates in this report. are subd.ivided by single years of age (from less than L year-to 84 years. of age,' followed by a total for 85 years and over) anc are furtqer cross-classified by sex, .and race: total, white, black and other races (combined), and The data for single years of age 'are aggregated -into subtotals for 5:...year age groups , and additional subtotals for selected age groups 16+ and 65+). also shown. . : , ',., ,""" .. " ... ;. •• .. ... ,•#--. ...r ,.. .. -., National on. Aging staff has prepared a summary table from this present&.-.-estimates of the resident population by sex and race . f 'or of all ages and seven age groups. These age groups were selected . :_ (.) l < .because: of' the numerous re'quests that are received' regard.ing them andbecaus. e :'they represent the target : a variety of' Federal programs. The '' table shows the number of persons in each age, sex, and race group, followed :'bya percent:'distr'ibution ofeach sex-race subgroup by age, and the percent change;between 1970 and 1976 for each g.roup. :.., :s;r .. .... :'.... • -r" The 'ilatne' of the report' is. shown; at: t}:ui bottom of' the table. Copies of the rep-ort are: available for 65 cents at.. any u . S. Department of. Connnerce \<. office: _or can. be ordered from. the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. , . .Government Printi'ng. Office,.. .Washington, DC 20402 . . -< ..• .. •.. .. . ;._ ... .. r_"il•_:.l .. r .. "-;\ ..... ... ""(:1. j-... • .... :-t ... tc -"'' Er.. .. _;. , ... .. •, ..... :;: ': ,;. .. ... -:.. r _ . ... .The, f'qllowing is a list' statistical publications from the Statisti-: . . • • Staff of. the N'atfona: l Clearinghouse on. Aging. Please note that .tha series' entitled Statisd:cal Memo. and an earlier series entitled Facts and . . . . :•, .. Flgures .. on Older Americans have and .are _being replaced by Statistical Reports on Older Americans and this newsletter , Statistical Notes . . . :Copies. of the. publications listed below may be obtained by writing to: , Statisticcil. Notes,. National Clearinghouse on Aging, Administration Aging,. WaShington, DC 20201. :, . . , -... .. ... ;a. ... ,. : .. •• :..... , • .. w1-b '-; ; >i, il F-. . •. ! ... .,J • ""! . t:.< .. Statistical' Reports on Older Americans, No. 4, . "Social,. Economic, ,; and Health Characteristics of Older American Indians (Part. 2 of DHEW Publication No. (OHDS) 78--20289. • ... .... "t;-• ••• ...., , : • \... • . . _ . . :.; .Discusses 1970 census data on a variecy of topics, including mari .; .. ' " status, household composition, labor force, income, poverty, , . ' and education Also includes. more current information on Supple mental Security Income and health. Includes statistical tables • .:. ....... \ ... Repor'ts on Older .Americans, No. 3, "Some ,; "'!':;the Future Elderly Population," DHEW Publication No. , 20288. ' . ' ... • J 1 .... ,., . .,:.,:;, . •. . Prospects for (OHDS) 78.. ,1' • • .i .J . , .f " , t:'. • ,!""\-. • ..... ' .. r , Describes the most recent Census Bureau projections of the popula.;' .. tion to the year 2035 by age, sex, and race-Discusses some of "' "..."l:.. '"the implications for such characteristics as living arrangements, health, marital status, education, language difficulty, occupational history, income, and poverty. Includes statfstical tables.

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    3. Statistical Reports on Older_Americans, No. 2, "Income and Poverty the Elderly: 1975," DHEW Publication No. (OliDS) 77-20286. . . Describes the economic status of the elderly population, current . and historical . from. Census . Bureau surveys. statistical . ,. , based on Includes ( . ,{" -Statistical Reports on Older Americans, No. 1, "American Indian ... Population 55 Years of Age and Older: -Geographic Distribution; . ' .. 19-70 (Pa -rt. 1 of 2) ," DHEW No. (OHDS) 77-z.Q285. : ' Presents 1970 census data on distribution of older Indians by State,:region, urban-rural residence, and reservation. Includes ,_ .. _ .. . ,_ : . :!. " . II ""1.; .. . . ,.. -c • 5. . Statistical Memo, No. 34 "BLS Retired Couple's Budg _ets: Autumn DHEW Publication (qHDS) 77-20016. .. Describes for urban r.etired couples. Presents 1975 data on the cost of these budgets by type of rncludes statistical tables. -: ' ..... ; "' "' I ' : .; j, • .. _.. • • : o. • ' • ,. • ":_... .A . ...' . ... 6 Statistical ,: 33; "Elderly' Widows, •r DHEW Publication No. .• \;-:; (OHDS) 77-20015 .. # • ': • • . . . . • _"':>-. ,.:;. . ... : .. -... :. -: "' _.\L , : , . . } J?iscusses causes for the large number of elderly widows, and pre• •• ' 1 -.:.:, sents data on. a wide variety of characteristics, including age, ..: .. :race , iiving-arrangements, income, housing, and transportation • .. ;: statistical tables. •• ..... , Statistical Memo, No. 32 . , "Lack of Complet e Kitchen Facilities Among the. Elderly:.. 1970,.'' DHEW Publication No. (OHDS). 76-20012. ; t.: . .. . :: "L..::. •• -Describes data from a speciai tabulation of 1970 census data on the presence. or. lack of complete kitchen facilities in ho useholds with elderly members. Data are presented by age of household head, urban-rural and size .of household. Includes , statistical tables • . ( 8. Statistical Memo, No. 31, "Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Older Population in 1974 and Projections to the Year 2000," DHEW'Publication No. (OHDS) 75-20013. • j. • .. Discusses historical t'rends in fertility, mortality, and immigration that have shaped the age, sex, and race structure of the future population. Includes statistical tables.

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    About Older Americans: 1977, DHEW Publication No. (OHDS) . 78-20006. ' < Tfiis handy brochure presents statistics on the elderly population ::.: , .for a w;tde variety of characteristics, such as geographic distri. bution,. projections, life expectancy, health costs, living arrange ments, marital education, consumption expenditures, income, poverty, labor force, health:status, and health care utilization. Includes charts, maps, and. statistical tables. . r .. \ • 10. Estimates of the 60+ and 65+ Populations for Countiesand PSA's: ' _1975, DREW Publication No. (OHDS') 77-20085 f \ .,. .. ,.. ....... ' r " :, .. Describes the methodology for preparing estimates. of the number of ...... ';,.:. for each county in the United States as of July 1, 197 5. Statistical tables (separate attachments.) for each State also provide estimates forPlanning and Service Areas (PSA's), the target areas for State and Area Agencies on Aging, as well as for the metropolitan and 'nonmetropolitan populations of each State. ' POSTAGE AND FEES PAID U ',S, DEPARTMENT OF H.E.W. HEW-a91 DHEW Publication No. (OHDS) 78-20040

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    APPENDIX B Hudson, Colorado Data Compiled from Comprehensive Plan, 1977

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    BARRIERFREE DESIGN DATA INDEX The following form is provided as a review guide and index for a self-instructional learning module--Barrier Free Design for the Elderly and the Disabled. Complete it by filling in the blanks with the workbook as a reference. Indicate page numbers for further reference. Use thumbnail sketches in the margin to illustrate solutions if you need them for clarity and ease of reference. HUMAN FACTORS Item 1. Anthropometries Ambulant Standing Women: ages 18-30 60+ k'-1'' a :-vert i ca 1 reach ...................... . ----b. oblique vertical reach .............. . 5 '-7Jz.." c. eye level ............................ ___ _ 4 '.-B"7'+'' d. forward reach ....................... . e. toe projection .....•............ : ... . f. head height ......................... . l I / . .,. '' -lQ "k s-;;." 5 ,_ l'' g. shoulder height ...................... ___ _ 4:'; z.-1.-" oh. e 1 bow height ........................ . Ambulant Sitting Women a. vertical forward reach .............. . b. eye 1 eve 1 ........................... . c. forward reach ....................... . d. thigh level ......................... . e. knee 1 eve 1 .......................... . f. seat height ......................... . g. head height ......................... . Disabled, Chair-Bound a. verti ca 1 reach ...................... . b. oblique vertical reach .............. . c. forward vertical reach .............. . d. eye 1 evel ........................... . e. knee height ......................... . f. toe projection ...................... . g. elbow heiqht ........................ . h. head height ......................... . 4-'-laf/z.." , ,_ 7'1+" /'(p{.. .. I I-II .. /'-$" I'-5 • 4 '-"4-,, WOMAN I ,_ ,, I II 5 7 "l= .5 ?-5'-%( 4'4 ,_ 4-.-3 .. 4'-f.J-" ;;. " I '-f y?; '1. '-4*'' 1 pace 7 I-1

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    B. lteaa I' ,, 2. Wheelchairs Dimensions, ANSI Standard a. height ........................ : ..... . b. seat height ......................... . c. arm height .......................... . d. width ............................... . e. seat depth .......................... . f. 1 ength .............................. . q. foot rest width ..................... . 3 'o 11 I'7Yz... I( zt. s '' 2 -s= II N Y]. 42.." N -<4 Operations a. minimum door width '' \ b. doorway area must be 32." J c. threshold height a-..Y;z.. •• P"ll d. door closing aids 1lfa .de"r= h,JJe.. or hook.. e. factors affecting cear doorway space: 1 L,/rrcd. an af#orc4ub. 2) '' " daor= S.wj(1l 3) dat> c ;:t f2'= f. two methods used to provide counter reach j_:,":\ 1 ) Clc I tc 2) ""c. ..... g. factors concerning control placement: 1 2 ) , .. 1 6.?( wAl • 3 )pr?za("" vPch'W,., f4ctet.J I I c Co vri ht 197 S r iv d G r 1 i 14-9 /0 II I-2

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    B. I ' " DE. D .... T . . 3. Walking Aids Dimensions: a. crutches 3 3 ,, b. walker.................................. _ !:...i! c . cane/hand r a i 1 ••.•.•..••.•.••..•.•.•...•• _ ______ _ Operations: a. critical handrail factors for crutch p. I& users ................................. 1) 2) b. crutch user needs stair handrail as ... 1) ?veporJ 2) /e!ltv1ftJ rvlL c. needs ramp handrail as: d. on ramps, a c.urb will prevent crut;lifrom slipping off e. inadequate f1 oar space in toilet poses threat to he. I a. n <...<::-. f. two types of crutches: 1 2) or 4. Senses Vision a. major disabilities of vision .......... l)!P 2 3 4 5) b. to counteract non-tota 1 vision 1 ass use: l) c. to 2) ___________________________ I •

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    ,. . . Touch a. impairment by , rU:fnrit/"':J b. to counter: l l 1:; <;Z c. ensure prate 1 n from: 1) a,bnt?Lan 2) Gt:tr:rm e b. to counter c. d. e. SITE CONSIDERATIONS 2. Curb Cuts (sketch best solution) a. cues for the blind should be b. curb cuts sho:ld not.move peop 1be piddle 4ln taiW? 3. Entries a. b. entry to a building from weather to origin or destination e?dn-nc(< as the only accessible 1975, Syracuse University and Gerontological Society • ••• z.o 3 2. I-4

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    ,. I , '' DE .. . D..T. . 1: ' D . -.;.: • ••• STAIRS 1. Corri dar a. step relation and handrail: 1 ) handra i 1 s at _ of steps 2) setback steps 1 ' from corridor 3) handrail has t' extension 2. Step Profi 1 e I' A-I a. critical factors for safe use ............• 1) mart swrf?.tt.. 2) nq,., s I 01 e -sv..-ft.c. e.. 3) ;bvntl Pi .. b. solutions ................................. 1) fiSUS -rfytuteAiff'f.;,JtAI(YS 2) no ri'5 3 ) -b 4) s uiL <6Yrh 3. Riser Height a. if too high or low the stairs may be ____ _ or -otrGttvtlt/? b. maximum height 7 c. minimum height RAMPS (see also wheelchair operations) 1. Slope 1 a. /.'I 2-less steep slopes become and t{CA"tltiS b. length of run under 3 o 1 between' rest areas c. 1 evel rest area ce ' by INI dth qf-r-4-..m p 2. Handrail Height a. recommended camp rami se Z t;2 h b. modifying factors are ..................... 1) 2) /,we,v)a.mla u /g,bt c. when used by children, provide lower rw< 3. Handrail Clearance for use by person in wheelchair: a. maximum clearance .3 1 -z_. 11 b. minimum clearance z 1 -1 {? 1 ' 4. Ramp Surfaces . f . 0 a. quality must be f1'1!f.; { :/j1:M.J but not -slz'1 (A ___ L _ ___, _J __ ____ 1975, Syracuse University and Gerontological Society I-5

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    a..: DESJG : . D .•. T.. 1 : 'DEX Item ELEVATORS NON TO l. Cab Dimensions (see wheelchair operations) a. minimum width .............................. -------b. minimum 1 ength ............................. ---r---,----.r--r--.-c. these dimensions allow a in a wheelchair -----------2. Doors a. mini mum width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ----------b. critical elevator timing concern c. Elevator doors should have ______ o_r ______ _ ----:----:--r---• Either system should detect high or 1 ow penetrat1on of the doorway. 3. Control Type and Arrangement a. a arrangement is generally best. b . numbers s hou 1 d be c. floor and emergency buttons should differ in --------d. heat sensitive buttons are ---------------4. Control Panel Height a. best height is which is a compromise between and -----------------------,...-----HALLWAY PROBLEMS l . l t v.L '{t';A.. It on . hU?-4 . 2. Dimensions a. width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cf; 1 RESIDENTIAL ENTRYWAYS 1. Door Knobs (sketch acceptable type) a. acceptable height 1 '' b. round knobs may . -h; , 1975, Syracuse University and Gerontological Society D D D 7o I 72-

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    B.. : •F: DESIG:: DATA t::oEX 2. Peep Hole a. acceptable height ___ ...... 0"'-_,, _ b. better solution is a .... 3. Threshold ,, a. height 4 on each side b. a light should 1) . 2) he. p;;!2'_,4tvs:.n KITCHEN DESIGN 1. Cabinet Height/Knob Height D a. minimum 1'-cP ' ' h to avoid and sirt.fdzt'n'? 2. Base Cabinet Clearance d a. of counter clearance myst at 1 east account for ivrninJ wlttt-lclza.ir , which is s'-0 / ( 3. Toe Clearance , , a . (; . '1 i n depth by .-1,___ i n he i g h t 4. Range Controls 5. a. s h ou 1 d be p 1 aced _ b. a burn qfzfta r:tm1(5 6. Counter Cabinet Arrangement 1 , a. acceptable counter height u ' b. under counter cabinets should be c. over counter cabinets should be which generally calls for cabinet shelves at or below t H 7. Sink Height a. prime consideration is m1n. bzte which calls for a clear height of 2 •, to bottom of sink . b. acci denta may be by inst.du't.nf rca (4tJtttf?; 5 FJ and 1975, Syracuse University and Gerontological Society 81 n . I I I !S3j I ! bJ

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    B. Item I " BE .. 1<-: . D .. T .. 1: BATHROOM DESIGN 1. Door Operation and Width c ,. a. acceptable width 2.-2. 3. 4. b. door ooeni ng avoids blocked doorway in case of fall Sink Height and Mirror . , ,, a. sink height must provide mu1 . Z -2.. clearance for knees in order to also insure comfortable level for use of sink. b. the mirrors should be above the sink height of t;/'' using a deep sink. . c. f'f& and(-!lrit4=U'rk'-"J4h fittings under sink. Clearance Between Water Closet and Sink ,..:z. I_ I-11 a. space between WC and sink must be at least tv to account for fl).f.,!e/ duc;v: Bathtub Grab should a. a rj_!/r & the tub b. bathtub rail edge should c. provide a d. tub bottom shou d e b. best solution bars on both be provided on the access side of on wa 11 side 6. Shower Seat Height should be same as b. acceptab 1 e height c. optimally, the shower be 1 a rge enough to d . showers are lr} t1tl'. e. curbs in showers should WINDOWS 1. For a non-ambulant person to enjoy street activity, the window sill height preferred is Z. '1;'' , a 1 though up to c '1'' is acceptable depending on the oar level. 2. i: is preferable because of: -=.,-0F d) l

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    DErJG:: D. 1 : 'DEl lte111 FURNITURE SELECTIONS l. Tables ought to provide sufficient: •. a) .J!liA. f:;n=.e, b) 2. Chairs ouqht to approximate the height of ...... 1,__'_' --:-'T'""''"'"--.--' but be high enough!o allow easy use b . '( arthritics. An acceptable height i s I '/1 ' t-HJ6tdt-./p.,ir Sfd-) 3. Lamps and electric appliances are more easily operated if I FURNITURE ARRANGEMENT l. Space must be provided to allow approach to windows, an acceptable widt h is 3 'C2 '' . !I I 2. Beds should be placed to .allow or constructed to //4-provide for #T . An acceptable width between wall and is '(p_ 11 • 3. Tables should allow passage by wheelchair behind 1:;,_.k [.e... . An acceptable width is .51-3 •' . PUBLIC ENTRIES l. Thresholds should not 1. ;,'1w f:lztfa? -'=-II k is best since i t is: and rj """4:/ . 3. In public where large wheelchairs may be used, a door widt h of is necessary. Such a width requires the wheelchair to move For large wheelchairs, the vesti-bule must be TRANSIT VEHICLES l. Entry a ) risers of steps into buses for ambulant persons should be b ) lifts are satisfactory for but may imped_e __ _ if used alone. c ) -:-t'he_o_o t-:-i::-m-a"=""l -s-o..,l-u wou l d ---------------------1975, Syracuse University and Gerontological Society /If;

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    ... : DEriG: . oT 1 . . . . . Item 2. Aisle Seat Relationship a. for non-ambulant riders, buses ought to for , and h ave _-:_-:_:_-:_-:_-:_-:_:_-:_-:_-:_-:_-:_-:_-:_-:_-:_-:_-:_-=._--.-t-o toppling. b. ambulant sitting can be improved by -r=---___;.------although this cuts down on total capac1ty. 3. Aisle Width . a. to allow passage for non-ambulant riders, yet not waste space, the aisle width should be This situation can be avoided if ----------near the for wheelchairs. -----4. Passenger Assists a. a hanging assist ought to incorporate -----------with a diameter of b. additional aids are_: ______ _ 1 ) __________ _ 2) __________ _ TRANSPORT TERMINAL FACILITIES Af'F'L-1 ct-..su::_ 1. Admittance gate should be: 2. a. b. for wheelchairs --------------but should be restricted to dis-abled. c. coin slots should -----------------------------cueing should be used to mark routes of travel. 3. An is best for vertical travel. 4. Excessive in-terminal distances can be countered by use of which are preferred over ------------------5. Shelters should be protectiv e but allow for a. ----------....,....--and b. 'DEll pace [ 6. Boarding platforms should be ---------with the vehicle floor'---1975, Syracuse University and Gerontological Society I-10

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    i Race Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103 WORKING DOCUMENT FOR ASTM COMMITTEE USE ONLY. NOT FOR PUBLICATION EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY APPROVED BY THE CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMITTEE, OR THE MANAGING DIRECTOR OF THE SOCIETY. COMMITTEE F-15 on CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY T.G. Fl5.03 on SAFETY STANDARDS FOR BATHTUB AND SHOWER STRUCTURES June 7, 1976 SUBJECT: Rationale for the Criteria in F-446, Proposed Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Grab Bars and Accessories Installed in the Bathing Area INTRODUCTION Slips and falls have been identified as the most frequent type of bathing area accident . . Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) estimates that over 100,000 falls occur in the bathing area each year. These slips and falls frequently occur while entering or leaving the bathing area, while changing between a standing and sitting position and while moving around the bathing area. The problem is identified and discussed in the Executive Summary and Final Report of Abt Associates, Inc. study which was conducted under contract to the Consumer Product Safety Commission. In that report, Abt Associates identified the reduction of injuries due to slips and falls as an issue of high priority. After careful review of the Abt Associates report, supported by data from the CPSC National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), other source documents and long discussions by task force members, the ASTM Task Group F-15.03 finds that proper placement and anchoring of grab bars and accessories can reduce the hazards of slips and falls. Therefore, the task group recommends a grab bar(s) be installed in every bathing facility. Given the recommendations of the Abt Report, supported by data from NEISS, and based on our own conclusions, the Task Group F-15.03 produced a document: 1. (1) F-446 Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Grab Bars and Accessories Installed in the Bathing Area. SCOPE The task force defined the scope with guidance from consumers, industry personnel, CPSC staff, the Abt Associates, Inc.'s report and NEISS data. Further, the task force has expanded on the Abt Associates, Inc.'s recommendation of the use of grab bars to include other accessory items installed in the bathing area. -G 54-

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    4930.1 401-4 KITCHENS, BATHS, LAUNDRIES BATHROOM FOR THE ELDERLY Design Features of the Illustrated Bathroom Outswinging bathroom door with flush threshold. Diagonal grab bar mounted forward of we on side wall. All grab bars 1 1/2" o.d. by 2'-0" long and 1 1/2" clear of wall. Lavatory with lever type faucets and front edge capable of withstanding 250 lb load. Recessed medicine cabinet with unbreakable shelves. Bathtub with vertical grab bar near faucets to facilitate vertical entry and another running diagonally across the center of the back wall to aid in rising and in showering. If shower is provided, a second soap dish. 111ight be mounted at 4 '-6" to obviate some stooping. / ELEVATION A MAP 0 I / F==a ELEVATION B t _. M.C. PLAN

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    City of Hudson

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    I HoJ/?JfJ0 ?lTe Jill[[ WMMLHJITY 5t"fE' ( MO?ll-I' I i.Jf-IN'

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    I I I I , , I "' l SETT -ijG

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    During its history, the of Hudson has 90ne through four stages of grov.1th. This chapter attempts to describe the four stages based on some diversified sources . The most detailed source is a story of Hudson in "Fifty Years and a 1976 B ic entenn i a l project by a group of Weld Central Hig h students. Also used are articles from Denver and Greeley news papers, Hudson p 'lat maps on file with County and assorted documents availab l e at the Colorado Historical Society and the Western History Department of the Denver Publi c L'i bra ry. I. Stop_ In 1882, the Burlington and Missouri Railroad compl eted a line from Denver to Eckl ey, Colorado . Passenger service began on June 26, 1882. Hudson ber.Jan as a \ 'later stop along this line. The purpos e of th( : stop was to provid e the steam l ocomotives of the day \'lith \tJater and coal . Nothing e xisted at the present site of Hudson until the B url i btri l t a section house and a depot in 1883. However, before 1890, there s imply wasn't much in the area to entice many people to stay. II. lB87-l893: The Land Boom Hudson was founded on 2 , 1887 . John 1 1. Lapp has purchased some land from the O\'lller of the Union Pacific Railroad , Jay Gould, and on that date he platted appro x imately 1,360 lots in an area west of the railroad tracks and north of the depot . (See Plat # l -Appendix.) On September 2 1, 1 889, the Hudson City Land and Improvement Company filed a plat th the county which set boundaries for a lmost 3,000 additiona l lots (See P lat #2-Appendix). The main intention of both Lapp and the company was to engage in land speculation and promotion of the area. The Colorado Exchange Journal of December 29, 1888 describes Hudson as "a brigh . t and booming nev.1 tmvn" with a t e n acre park, a school house, a post office and 7,000 lots for sa l e. During this period of the land boom, the Burlington continued to use the settlement as a water stop, but it also brought many visiting land speculators out from Denver to survey the land for invest ment purposes . In addition, the railroad served as the area's lifeline to Denver, br in g in g in coal for fuel, lu mber, construction materia l s and househol d items as 1t1ell .as a few nevJ residents. III. 1892-1970: Agricultura l Area Commercial Stop The opening of the first store in lludson i n 1 893 marked the beginning of a lon g period in the tmvn's history. Hudson gained in population and came to serve as the com11ercial trade center for th e area east of Ft. Lupton. Some of the types of businesses which flourished in Hudson durin g this 77 year per iod were a . bank, four newspapers, a confect i onary and severa l b l acksmiths, hotels , barbers and doctors . In 1970 A lbert M . Kearns, a Hudson resident and an employee of a rea l estate agency, replatted the town giving it the street pattern and street names that i t has today. On December 1 6 , 1907, Kearns . I 5

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    c 'U filed his plat with the county. It contained approximately 2,680 lots and Kearns was listed as the owner of the entire area (See Plat #3-Appendix). Of the 2,680 lots, 688 of them, as well as the dedicated public rights-of-way, were north of the present t01vn limits. Today, it is not certain whether those rights-of-ways still exist, whether they were vacated when the town became incorporated, or vJhether they have ceased to be rights-of-vJay due to lack of public use. Additional legal research should be conducted on this matter. The first concerted effort at agricultural and COfllmunity development took pla c e during this period. vJas a scarce conunodity in the area unti 1 the Henrylyn Irrigat ion District, formed in 1907, comp l eted the construction of a canal system from the South Platte River in 1913. This prov ided a tremendous i111petus to fanning. In of 1913, fifty f armers fro111 Oklahoma arrived in Hudson to establish nei'J farms. On April 2, 1914, the town residents voted to incor porate and they elected the first mayor and board of trustees. Apparently, a town government was felt to be needed as the vote was 71 in favor of incorporation and only 3 against. As Denver continued to grow, it attracted job seekers from rural areas . . A migration to the began, farms got larger and more mechanized and job opportunities decreased. In spite of these trends, Hudson grew steadily-but slowly. S low growth and easier transportation to Denver caused the retail/ comnerci a 1 sector of Hudson • s economy to shrink. As early as the 1940's residents began to shop elsewhere for goods and services. These trends prepared Kudson for its present stage of development. IV. 1970-Present: Bedroom Community In the early seventies, Hudson experienced a res i denti a 1 bui 1 ding "boom". vJith few job opportunities available in Hudson, most of the new residents were employed in Denver or Brighton. Thus, Hudson acquired the status of a residential or "bedroom community", nlmost totally dependent on outside (out of town) income for survival. With increasing population pressures, the town was faced 1-vith the need to up9rade its vJater supply system . In 1977, a moratorium was placed on the i ssuance of water taps , stopping almost all new con struction. This is the historical setting in which the town is now to deal with its water and growth related p roblems maintaining and improving a qua 1 i ty of 1 i fe and sma 11 town a tmos ph ere vJhi ch is responsib l e for attracting many of the town's present residents.

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    POIJUiation T he p u rpose of t hi s population study i s to esti mate the current populat i o n o f lludson , to pro v i de a n ana lysis of the co1npo sition of the present population of Hudson, and, by looking at past trends, to make some projections o f future populatio n. This informa tion can then be used to h e l p d e termine t h e l eve l of demand for fa c i lHies , servi ces and housing . Thi s , in turn, v1ill indicate some of t h e possibl e effects of population grm 1th o n l and use and the natural environment i n the Hudson area. Population Tr nds: 1920-Present ---1 \ccorcHng -to the U . S . Bureau of the Census, the p opulation of Hudson has shmvn moderate but steady growth s in ce 1 940, increasing from 295 to 5 1 8 i n 1970 ( Fi qure 1 ) . The population trend in Hudso n s i nce 1970 i s slim m in F i g ur e 2 . The 1973 and 1975 figures are IJeh !een census estimates published by the Bureau of the Census . T h e 1977 population of 750 was deter llrined by the bui l ding permit method . The t mm's bui l ding pennit records indicate tha t 5 8 permits fo r the construction of new resi d ences were issued betwee n 1970 and 1977 (Tabl e 1 ) . Accord ing to a l and u se s u rvey conducte d by team members, there vJas a l so a n increase of eleven mobile homes i n Hudson since the 1970 census . Therefore, the total number of resi dences i n Hudson i n 1977 z 0 1-
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    ------------TABL E 2 POPULATION DATA FOR COMMUNITIES NEAR SOUTHEAST WEL D COUNTY COMMUNITY COUNTY 1950 1960 197 0 Hudson W e ld 365 430 5i8 Ft. Lupton Wel d 1 '907 2,194 2,489 Keenesburg Wel d 432 409 42"7 Lochbuie Held 934 Gilcrest \.Je 1 d 429 357 382 P latteville \ •le 1 d 5"70 582 683 Brighton Adams 4,336 7 ,055 8 ,309 Greeley 1 d 20,354 26,314 W e l d County 67,504 72 '344 ---------. -----------The Hudson survey shov1ed lila t l . 7''/o or the popu lation are 65 years of age and over, dmv n from 1 3 . 9 % i n 1970 (Tabl e 4). is than the 1970 ' nationa l average of 9 % . The 1977 data i n Tabl e 4 may be les. s reliabl e than th e 1970 Census data s ince the returned surveys (from 160 h ouseho 1 d s ) do not represent a statistical sampling of the total popu38,902 89,297 1 ation. The surveys self-admi n istered and went to every househol d . Theref o re, a drop i n th e number of persons over 65 may be due to a smaller percentage of that group filling out th e survey. Like\vise, the a pparent i ncrease in the percentage of people i n the 25 -34 age gr oup may be the resu l t of a higher pro portio n of th i s age group answer ing the quest ionn a ire. D espite the lac k of complete accuracy, t h e data presented here is useful for general planning pur poses. 1 9 7 5 683 3 ,041 505 1 ,038 451 1 ,024 11 , l 32 47,362 107,365 IN OR % AVG. ANNUAL CHANGE, 1 9"70 -1975 6. 4 4 . 4 3. 7 2 . 2 3 . 6 1 0 . 0 6 . 8 4 . 3 4.05 ---------------------TABL E 3 DETAILED AGE D ISTRI8UTION, 1977 % O F AGE OF PERSONS POPULATION 0-4 8 1 1 0.8 5 9 7 8 10.4 10-14 8 1 10. 8 0-14 240 32. 0 1 51 9 65 8.6 20-24 50 6.7 25-34 122 16. 3 35-44 77 10.2 4 5 -54 63 8. 4 55-64 75 1 0.0 15-64 452 60. 2 I 65+ 5 8 7 . 7

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    TABLE 4 AGE AND SEX DISTRIBUTION, 1970 AND 1977 1970* AGE TOTAL % OF TOTAL t 1ALES -0-4 26 28 54 10.4 46 S -19 71 + 74+ 145+ 28.0+ 104 20-24 15++ 1 8++ 33++ 6.4++ 20 25-6 4 104 110 214 41 . 3 166 65+ 38 34 72 13.9 31 * Source : 1970 Census of Population, Bureau of the ** Source : 1977 Hudson Communi ty S urvey + Data for Ages 5 1 8 ++ Data for Ages 19 -24 Tile 1977 incon:e pattern for Hudson is a typical 011e, close to national averages ( F i gure 3) . . The tnedian family income is between $ 12,0 0 0 and $ 13,000. At the upper end of the income spectrum , 18.6 % of Hudson families earn $20,000 or more, and on the lower end, 15.7 % earn $5,000 or less. Population Projections Population projections for Hudson are not very r eliable. The number of persons migrating to small tovms like Hudson is often unpredictable and risky . The future population of Hudson will be determined by the complex interaction of many factors such as the availability of \ •later in the Denver metropolitan area, the price of new housing and the price of gasoline , A l so, one ne\-.J employment center , or housing development could produce a l arge percentage increase in Hudson's population in a relative ly short time. Therefore, the projections pres e nted h e re simply show v1ha t m i ght happen if past trends c ontinue. They are not pred ictions. 1977** NET CHANGE FEHALES TOTAL % OF TOTAL TOTAL # % OF TOTAl 35 8 1 10.8 +27 + . A 120 224 29. 8 +79 +1.8 30 50 6.7 +17 + .3 1 71 337 45.0 +123 +3. 7 Census 27 7.7 -14 -6.2 ----Fisute 4 compares four different population projections. The lowest line assumed Hudson' s to be in proportion to Weld County's. Therefpre, 0.6% of l Jeld County's projected growth , base d on 1977 projections by the Council of Government was u se d to project Hudson's g rowth. The straightline projection by Holgan and O lhau se n was included in their November 1977 study of Hudson's water systerr The high es t line extend in g out to the year 2000 is based on Hudson's average annual growth rate from 1970 to 1977 of 6.4% .

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    FIGURE 3 INCOME DISTRIBUTION, 1977 OVER $25,000 D D $20,000 _ $24.999 o . .. o . ... J 0 , ... t II ..., ... u $15,000 _ $19.999 D D ["': ; J D I i I . ., I . • . I ;"o.,.o ... ,CJ. J c:ili.:. o DQ $10,000$14,999 .... • _........... . . . . . '. ',:::t:.r}ii. ' $7.000 _ $9.999 CD [ J $5.000 _ $6,999 r ; D 1 $2.000 _ $4.999 D D D UNDER $2,000 [j ____ -----------------20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Number of households

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    An i mporta nt part of a p l an for a comnunity is to prov i d e for its citizens a selection of types of housin g and areas in whi ch to live . These shou l d be suited to varying familys' and individual s ' life styl es and incomes. Options sh o uld include units for both p urchase and rental. The types and price ran g e s sh ould be tied to so c i o-economic characteris t-ics of the COI!IIunity's populati on. The need for new prod uction o f h ousing will result from an j ncrease in the number of househo lds in a conmunity, the replacement of substandard units, and the recognition o f th e needs of spec i a l g roups like the e l der l y or lo1v income. A " vacancy reservoir" should be present so that those seeking nevi resi dences will h ave a selection from vlhich to choose . Cond i t ion s , Needs DJe'lling units in Hudson consist of the follm-1i ng types : 2 1 3 single-family units 4 dupl ex units (2 buildings) 25 mobile homes "2'"42total In addition, there are 11 single-family units near the city limits . There is a l so a two-building, twenty-unit hous in g area fo r migrant farmers , located northeast of tovm. Occupied from through frost by appro xi-mately 100 peop l e , the units h ave central bath houses and a water well and septic t ank not considered sufficient for that num ber of people. The sing l e-fami l y units were rated by the Weld County Planning Department as to condition as follows: Standard condition 85% R ehabilitatable 1 2 % Dilapidated 3 % These ratings were based on the following criteria: Standard -The unit i s larger than 600 square feet with central heat throughout and necessary plumbing components. Rehabilitatabl e -It would cost less than 50% of the present uni t's value to bring it up to sta ndard. Dilapidated I t woul d cost more than 50% of th e present unit's valu e to bring it up to standard. t 1ost homes in Hudson are in the $20,000-$45,00 0 price range. There are approximate l y 750 people witlrin the city limits on about 43 acres of residential l and . The community survey data shows that approx i mate l y 1 2 % of the respondents were renting their h ousing. Approximate l y 1 9 acres that cou l d be used for residential d eve l opment are vacant within th e town. At the p r esen t rate of 5 dwelling u nits per acre, at 3.1 people per household , this land could accommodate about 295 more p eople.

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    ... Sc1ri o r Ci zens -------U?t '1!-i:J th:: CIJ:;;!I' ! 'ti ty t!Jat o f .':.:side11ts cr;: G.'Je 55 o r o l c: r , v! i t h :i lJ :J u t 7 . 7 ! J :: -: ! : :J 6 G 2 2 r s o r o l de r . A '.'i.ii'i2ty ''f s-=ri ic:o:s 2::ist fat !Jut :Jf 2-re in /\ su1 i o r cccdi! ':utCJr, f u 1:-j:::::i by tr-.2 F al '1:1e!'S Un ion Thum!J •.-1Hh the to•.-1:1S of 1-lu::Json an::J S!1e i s i n l ! t!dSOJl at lec.st onc e a \ l eek . Hudson re.:e ntly acqu i t2d a l:oi:1E:ll12.l:,er/l!eolth fu:1de:J th1oug h t'•e \Jel d Heo.l th Oep3rt m e n t . T h i s a ice h e l p s sen i Jl'S 1 1ith house::ork , errand s , 111eal preparation, a:1d medi:::al care. A sliding s ca l e f ee is The Timber\IOOd Senior Cente1' i n Keer;es burg is the locati o n for a11 "oldster clinic " , ilel u once a 111onth . Plans are being nade for a s i111il r sen ior c i t i zen r es i der,ce and cente r i n H udson. l !e 1 d Info rniati on and Referra 1 Service s for the Aging (HIRS), a United l Jay Agency, puts out a directo ry of community r esource s for senior c i t i zen s of County . This includes information on recreation; h ous i n g , finances, organizations, a n d services availabl e in the coun t y . RSVP, Ret i red Sen i ors V olun t e e r P r o 9 r a Ill , i s p 1 a n n i n g b us t r a n s p o r t a t i o f o r sen iors in the Roggen, Keenesburg , and Gree l ey a i 'e?.s , f o r sl10:)ping, health c are, etc. RSV P in Bri 9 ilt o n conducts o utings to e•Jents i n D e nver and otl:el' 2reo.s . r ;c.;ny citizens i n Hudson c:re active in cilttr:::h gtoups o r garde:-1 cl L!bs . Some c:'Ltend "The l • ._.. .._, J . o ,. '-V l o L,. • o • T! ere i s l;n sen ior nl!tritio n p r cgram i n Huc!son, no 111ed ical care, no specific: p l ace f o r seniors t o On the sur".rey, !'es: .::Jnc!e d that 111edical a i d f o r sen iot s 1as important, a!;d that s t: :i i or I o us i n s h o u l d be b u 11 t. Serv i ce s and Human Resources ----The So c i a 1 Services Off i ce in Gree ley serves all of H eld County. A branch office i n Ft . Lup ton 1 : as cl osed t yea rs a s o due to l ack of use. The Soc i a l Serv i c s Off i ce n o w c l aimed that of its c l i cnts come from Er i e , Freder i ck, and Hudson.

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    Cl i mato l oq_y Hudson, located about fifty (50) miles east of the Continental Divide, has an elevation of upproximately 5000 feet. It is located in the midlatitudes in the interior of the North American continent and for this reason, experiences large temperature cllanges from summer to winter and rapid changes in weather due to storms travelling from \vest to east through the region. The mountains to tile effectiv e ly block atmospheric moisture v1hich originates over the Pacific Ocean. This l eaves the Hudson area dependent on inconsistent moisture from the Gulf of t :lex ico. Consequently, the tegion has lov1 r elative humidity with lo w amounts of precip-it ation v1hich are quite variable throughout the year. This low precipitation is, hov 1ever, accompanie s b y about 70% of possible sunshine, and also l arge t e11qJerature changes from day to n i ght . L arge temperature changes are obse1 ved u.round lludson during the year v1here th e monthl y averages vary from 23. 8 degrees in January to 73.8 de0rees in July. The mean rna x i mum varies from 3 9 . 7 degrees in January to 90.6 degre e s in July vlhi le the mean mini rnulll varies from 7.9 degrees in January to 56. 7 degrees in July . The difference betv1een maxin1um and minimwn is 32 d egrees in January and 34 degrees i n July v1hich in indic ative of the l arge day to night temperature change. Each year is not an average year and the wide variation experienced in the area is seen in the warmest and coldest monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures . For example, the v1annest January minimum v1as 16.8 degre e s while the coldest January minimum v1as -10.5 degre es . This large var iation during the vlinter months changes to a much smaller variation in SUilllller. Freeze and growing season data are dependent upon minimum temperature s which can vary considerably over short distances. This is caused from cold air f lowing dow n to low spots. Consequently, growing seasons may be many days shorter in areas where cold air is trapped. Average annual precipitation is 11.96 in ches . Report ing stations in the area show a distinct maximum in early summer with a minimum during the winter. The winter minimum is d r amatic evidence of the infrequent occurrence of a southerly wind to bring Gulf moisture to the region couple d a storm which can effectively u se the moisture . Spring and summer bring much more solar radiation to produce convective showers . The ma. x imum and minimum monthly preci pi tat ion shov1 the extreme variation of precipitation. Since a l arge portion of precipitation falls during summertime convective storms, even the areal distribution'can be quite variable. Average precipitation values are made up of many low precipitation years, and a few heavy years, since most years are be 1 ovJ the average. Hail producing convective storms are a problem in the area. Average snowfall measure in the region vary between 30 and 38 inches per year. Even to a greater extent than the total precipitation, a few l arge snow storms dominate s nowfall averages with most years below average . Natural Resources 1. Petroleum Hudson is l ocated in a region that contains favorable horizons from the Upper Cretaceous Pierre to the Pennsylv ania Fountain formation. Present 59

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    e and Con BTIUr oty Facir es Community Center Complex Goal: To pro vi de faciliti es for community meetings and a gathering place for citizens of all ages. Po 1 i ci es: 1. Depending on funding, one area shall be p l anne d to in c lude an expanded library , town hall, senior citize n residences , a park in g area , and a park. 2 . The town hall b uilding shall in c lude at least one large meetin g room. 3. If funds allow, space shall be in cluded in the complex for future offices (i . e . police, recreation director). Education Goal: To provide a range of educatiotla l facilit ies and progr a m fo r citizens of all ages in cooperatio n I'Jith the school district. Policies : 1. Future schoo l sites shall be p lanned for and acquired in advance of need to in sure optimum lo cation and distrib ution of facilities. 2. New subdivisions shall be required to provide a percentage of land or funds for the purp ose of acquisition of land for school sites. 3 . . . Communicati on, coordin ation, and cooperation .:;_ .. betvJeen various schools in the district s hall be enco uraged, result ing in the sha ring of facilities and programs and maxi m i z in g their use by Hudson residents, espe ci ally in the area of recreati on. Police Protection and Crime Goal: To improve tile p r o tee t'i on and saFety of cit i zen s v ii th in the community. Policies: 1. The town o f Hudson and the Ft . Lupton Sheriff's Substation shall \Jork together v1ith i n crects in g cooperat ion in tile planning and development of goal s and methods of police protecti o n and crime prevent i o n the community. 2 . As the population of Hudson grmr.Js, a s tudy shall be undertake n to determine the need f o r a police department and city court lr.Jithin the t m m. Health and Medical Serv ic es Goal: To inc rease the accessibility and ease t h e cost of medical serv i ces and s upplies to all citizens of Hudson. 1 I } . f ' I I l

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    Po 1 i ci es: l. Facilities for an 110ldster clinic11 shall be included a s part of the senior citizen residential compfex. 2. 3. Some type of transportation to exist ing outlying health services shall be explored. A study shall be undertaken to determine; a ) if a need exists for some type of medical service and facilities in Hudson, and b) what type of facility 1 v ould best serve this need, such as a mobile clinic, satellite clinic, visiting nurse, etc. Social Serv i ces and Human Resources Goal: To i ncrease the access i bility of social and human serv i ces t o the town of Hudson. Po 1 i c i es: l. 2. Town s hall keep abreast of new programs in th ese areas , especially t hose which deal w i th rura l areas (e . g . th e gover nor 1 S proposa l to develop cooperative partnersh ips in human serv i ces between local and state government, under the Human Serv i ces Policy Council). The town of Hudson shall 1vork in cooperation w i th the Social Services Office in Greeley and the Human Resources Office in Ft. Lupton and be aware of s ervices and resources a va i 1 abl e . 3. Further study shall be undertaken to determine transportation needs t o offices in Greeley and Ft . Lupton. Par k s and Recreation Goal: To provide a n adequate amount of recreational and open space for use by all age groups , includ ing equipment and facilitie s whi c h encourage use by individuals, groups and families. Policies: 1. Area adjacent to the present e l ementar y school as well a s future schoo l s ites (while vacant ) shall be u se d for recreational purposes . 2 . 3. 4. R ailroad r i ghts-o f-way shall be considered as greenbelt. 1 1 etilods and procedures for the acqu isiti on, financ i ng, and maintenance of parks and open space shall be developed. The acquisition of adequate park area shall be encouraged as a par t of residential deve lopment. 5 . A park shall be included as part of the community f center complex. Recreation Goal: To provide a variety of outdoor and ind oor recreational activities, facilities, and equipment and to increase their accessibility to citizens of all ages . r J

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    .:>====a DIRT =='=-= P1\VED OIL D 0 STOP SIGN --.SCAlE IN FEET y --, 0 400

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    u r L 5CALE IN H!T 0 d O O

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    S l n glo FomiiiJ :::::::: @j r.1ultl -Family : .=-J Comme rci a l ' lnduotrlo l [-r l Agriculture D Vacant SCALE I N FEET

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    APPENDIX C Hudson Surveys

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    ... -.. -. ----. ----SASED o .ki 2342.WHERE APPE.AfZ.fNG1 N.F<. -A/0 RESPONSE HUDSON AREA SURVEY HlSTP.UCTIOiiS: The questionnaire you are about to fill out is a res1aence ( household ) survey. Every residential u nit in the Hudson area has received one copy to be complet 'ed by an adult member of the household. Please respond to t h e questions by either circling the number provided or by fillinq in the appropriate blanks. Some questions ask for one answer and other quest ions need m u ltipl e responses. U nless a multiple response is asked for in a circle only one answer. Read each question careful l y. Note all of the choices before you make a selection. Additional statements regarding your views OA issues pertaining to the Hudson will be greatl y appreciated. Space h as been provided at the end of the quest i onnaire for this purpose. REMEMBER , DO NOT SIGN YOUR NAME TOTHIS QUESTIONNAIRE! PART I: YOUR VIEW OF HUDSON 1 What are the best aspects of day-to-day life in Hudson for you? (You may circle one or more of the following answers). 1) Location ...........• II' SO •to 2) Size .•••••• • •• il 35 3) Cl.;mate ..•••• •• 34 15' 4) Economic aspects. • • • • 141 '5) Friends & neighbors • • • 1'0 30 6.) A 11 of the above •••••• 41 20 7) Other (specify) J3 b 2 How do you rate Hudson a . s a place to live? (circle one number only) 1) Excellent 31 /3/4 2) Good /17 ......;_ __ _..;......._:.__ 3) Fair'' :U0.4 4) Poor/0 4/o .2% :3 Would you use bus service to the Denver metro area during the day if it were provided? 1) Yes 5'4 2.3% 2) No 99 4-2/o 3) Maybe 7'1 33% N.H.4 -2% 4 Would you approve of substantial growth: 1) If y our taxes were n o t raised? 2) If' i t require d a m oderate increase in taxes? 3) If taxes were raised substantially? YES 126 S4% 9$' 41/b 7 3%

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    5 If substantial growth is inevitable, v1hich would you prefer? (circle one answer) 1 ) s t 1 y res i dent i a 1 g rm ; t h _:...,-/8-:---.:01<-Zo 2) busin ess /commercial growth ....,2 ..... 3::--__..,/.-;0_ 3) 1ostly industrial growth (jobs) 4) An even amount of a 11 of the above N.R.-g 3 6 Do you feel adequately informed about is happening in Hudson? 1) Yes /0/ 2) N o /17 S(2% 3) Don It care 2% N.H.-II so" . --j7 Are you aware that.any citizen can attend town board and planning commission meetings and are encouraged to do so? l) Yes /75" 2) No 55 24% AJ.t.4 2/• 8 Thinking of the problems in the Hudson area that are important to y ou, do you thin k you. r town officials are responsive t o the n eeds of the community? l) On most problems bS" :(g% 3) On no problems 21 9% 2) On some problems 9S 4Zo/o 4) No opinion 40 17% N.f?.-JO 4% 9 Thinking of the problems in the Hudson area that are important to y ou, do you think your county officials are responsive to the needs of the comm-unity? l ) On m ost problems 2.9 /2% 3) On no problems Z9 34% 2) On some prob 1 ems B 0 34% 4) No opinion 4/ !9% -JJ.f-2% -10 In your opinion, what should be the limit of the population within th e present town limits of Hudson by the year 1990? 1) As is (approx. 2) 750-1,000 3) 1 '000-1 '200 4) 1,200-1,400 7 50)......:... /---==:,5-..,...6==------o/oz:.... 5"4 23 44 /9 4-1 IB 5 ) 1 '4001 , 60 0 ........ 6) 1 ,600-2,000 7) 2,000-2,500 30.:..-__..1-""'3 __ N. Fl.2/ 3 11 At the recent community meeting, the issues listed below were discu ssed. How important to you are each of these issues? (circle one number for each issue.) Very Not Important Important. Important N.l Sidewalk, curb and gutter improvements Maintaining community character Dog Control Water syste m improve ments Sewer system improvements Pavina of streets ..... Improved police protection . Start1ng a crime watch .. state & federal Start a sales tax ....... . 59 25 ,D 11 '33/o 73 3/0/o 2'Sl Ea S" 2 g I 0 1 46 2.3 I 0 39 I' J t= 84 I 9 B ....... l 44 19 9 4 21 ' 131 sg bS' as 12. s 2o ss 24_ l1L2. 44 j :32 97 4 I 18 33 32 I 33 L4_ 62 26 I 35

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    Enforcement of zoning & building codes A policy of contro1led _ growth .. More industry ... -: More housing .... . More r ental housing ... . Increased town maintenance . Vacant lot weeds • Build a community center .. Senior citizens apartments . . Business district improvement . . . . . New city hall and library . Hudson• s impact on nearby communities ..... Traffic noise at night . Large trucks in town .... Activiti es for the youth .. Railroad crossing guards .. M ore par k areas ...... . Odor from c h icken manure processing ..... . U pgrade cemetery . . . . . . Home mail delivery ..... Maintain high standards in schools ... Improved trash pick-up . Trains bloc k ing traffic M edica l a ide for senior citizens. . . .. ro re stores . . . r 1 o re communit y m2eti ngs . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ' . . . . . and involvement ....•. Very Important @4 3b 0/o
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    PART II: SOME ECONOMIC ISSUES 12 What retail shops or services do you think are needed in .Hudson? Much Needed Needed NotNeeded Grocery stores . . . . . . :39 [J 0la 27% 90 '38%. 41 1'6 29 43 18 Entertainment establishments Medical services Specialty stores Clothing stores . . . Restaurants. . . . . . Fast-food restaurants. s/Hotel s. . . Gasoline stations. Drug store . Bank . . . . Barber shop. Auto accessories. Gas .... Hardware .. Food ... Drugs . . . Cl oth1 ng. . Housewares. Appliances. Furniture . Lumber. . . Medical services. . Dental services . Entertainment .. Restaurants . . . . Farm/Ranch supplies . . . . . . . . . 3B l9. 46 39 33 'M 63 85 3(., 52.. 29 8 63 2.] 99 42 '20 81 '31 26 IS' 7l 3o 9/ 39 [/.:, bg a9 3b 24 63 3s-S6 24 l4 2.3 L(Jb 45:..._ R3 2S u 32.. S:9 2.S: 2.1 a1 42. 40 11 and services? 14 \I here do you usually do your banking? Checki'1g. Savings . Loans . . Keenesbura : Ft. ,{ ! l6 ea 2.4-5S ZS" 19 Lupton : Brighton Gree 1 ey j Denver IQ :73 31 i/0 4 /3 8 14b 20 I/Z S '41 JB Z4 10 S3 23 4/ -JB /S IS '3g /6 42. 18 21 37 32 14

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    1f)If the decision is made to expand Hudson's business and industrial activities, how would you respond to the fo110'''ing sTatements? 5 r ng y . Don ' t Agree Disagree Care ----1) Only 11Clean11 industries should be encouraged to come to Hudson . . • . . 122 .2%1 7S" 3Z% 9 4% 9 4% 2) Industries & business which will employ mainly Hudson residents should be encouraged to locate here 3) Local government should spend money to attract new business and industry to Hudson . . . . . . . . . 15" 16 Do you think that commercial activity in Hudson'! 1) Yes gs 3(, o/o 2) N o }3/ 49 67 29 .u II II 5' I I .2.3 ,89 3& ;54 /0 4 I ! I ' should be limited to the downtown N.R.-18 8% '17 Should a sales tax be started to provide a fund for capital improvements Hudson? 1 ) Y es lOl 43% 2) No L09 1/.R.-24 /tJ. % 18 \>Jhi ch of the fo 11 owing do you think are the best ways for town services needs to be financed? (Circle no more than t\-10 numbers) . 1) Sa 1 es ta x 90 2) Mi 11 1 evy increase 30 /3 o/o etc.) /// 4-Z% 3) Paid for by new development (water tap fees, 4) Voluntary contributions '% 5) User service f ee 66 ZB% 6) Fund .raising activities 24-% 7) Tax district • 8) Other (specify) 5 • PART III: COMMUNITY SERVICES area in and 19 Do you think there is a need for ne•,., park and recreation area s in Hudson? 1) '13 40 ro 2) No , 7 29% 3) Uncertain '5 281; N. R. 9 . 4 :2{) Do you think there is a need for a community center in Hudson? 1) Y , s 131 5"6% 2) No gz 35% N. R. 21 9% N.R. 19 8% 2.1 12. 30 /3 30 /3

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    21 How would you rate your present trash pick-up service? 1) Excellent 7 3rq 2) Good '2 26% 3) Fair '5'" 28% 4) Poor 5f ZS"% }/.R,-4-2 18% 22 Assuming the local government had sufficient funds, what recreational fac-ilities would you like to see in Hudson? Athletic fields ... ( baseba 11 , softba 11 , Highly Somewhat Desirable Desirable 29% 75' Not Desirable No Opinion football, soccer) Playgrounds. . . . Picnic Areas ... S\dmmi ng poo 1 Tennis courts. . . Basketball courts. N. R 3f /' 36 IS 44 19 IS 18 /9 In your opinion, what should be done about the cemetery in Hudson? 1) Present owner should be requested to upgrade maintenance. 2) Hudson should consider purchasing and iiiaintaining ce metery ..... 3) N o action is needed . 1 3c:..1a 4) Other (specify) s= 2. "• 5) Do not know. 7fi -'3% 11. ((. IS" 6% PART IV: HOUSING 24 tlhat is your present housing (circle only one number) situation? 1) Renting 1..7 12 % 3) Own (fully paid) 7S 32% 4) Other (specify) 2) Buyi r.g //3 48 % N. R. IZ s-% . 25 If you are renting or buying,\Jhat is your monthly payment? (circle only one number) _ _ _ .--1 ) Less than $50.00 I t>% 5) $201.00-$250.00 IL 2) S51 .00-$100.00 15'" 6 6) 5251 .00-$300.00 LD 4 3) Sl01.00-Sl50.00 31 liD 7) than $300.00 17 7 4) $151 .C0-520 0 .00 3,.q 26 In llhi1t typ e of residence do you live? 1) S i ngi e family house /99 B5% 2 ) J(i'"\ 1 '":: \ 4 2. o/. 3) 1 0% • 4) Room I 0 cy • . 5) Mobile Horr:e LE 2% 6) Other N.R. -7 3% -

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    would you the present value of the building you are now living in? 1 ) Less than $5000.00 i 3% 6r $30,000.00-$35,000.00 3& 2) $ 5000.00-$10,000.00 23 /.0 7) $35,000.00-$45,000.00 30 3) $10D00.00-$15,000.00 1 8 B 8) $45,ooo.oo-S6o,ooo.oo z I 4) $15000.00-$20,000.00 B 9) over $60,000.00 L2. 5) $20000.00-$30,000.00 l9 N.H. Z.3 Do you use a water softener in your home? 1) Yes 99 42.% 2) No /28 s-s% fl./?.-7 3 If you use a water softener, how much do you estimate it costs per month? 1) $ 0-$5.oo U II% 4) $16.00-$20.00 13 b% 2) $ 6-$10.00 15L 3) $11-$15.00 2.3 /0 5) $21.00-$25.00 7 3 6. More than $25.00 Z I 30 Do you know of someone who desires to live in Hudson, but cannot do so due to a lack of housing? 31 \,J6. "'"" 1) Yes 1b 3Z.% 2) No /44 62% IV./?. -/4 What kinds of new housing do you think should be built in the Hudson area? ( ci rcl"e no rnore than two numbers). 1) Nor.e 2b II % 0 2) LG'.-J i ncorne no using camp 1 exes 3/ /3 % 3) Sino1e fami1_y houses LZI sey. 4) income h ous ing complexes s-8 2S%. 5) Higher rent apartment complexes 6 2% 6) Townhouses/Condomi ni urns 8 3% 7) 1 e home parks /; 6% 8) Senior citizen How old i s the home you are living in? . 1) Less than 2 years ' Z% 6) 21-25 years 2) 2-5 years. 4L L8 7) 26-30 years 3) 6 0 years 23 14 8) 31-40 years "L3 b 4) 11-1 5 years lO 9) Over 40 years 5"S: 5) 1.5-20 years li!J 7 w.R. JB g the source of : 1eati ng for your .-1 ) Coi!1 a Oo/o 4) Gas 14' 'Z% 2) :JO' jd 2 " 5) Oil 2 /% 3) Eiectri c s 3 6 ) Propane 28% 7) None 0 0 N.R.7 3% IS% {3 .9 S" /0

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    well does your present home suit your needs? 1) Very well 112.-48% 4) Poorly 14 '% 2) Well 15"% 5) Inadequately 4 2.% 3) Fairly v1e1l $"' 24% N.R. IZ . 5""% PART V: SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT YOU AND YOUR FAMILY !3E5 How long do you jntend to stay in the Hudson area? 1) Less than one year {,.[-/0 2) Longer than one year 4 Z ovER /0 3) 1-3 years b 2.% ALL MY 4) 3 . 1 -6 years /4 6 /o N.R.37 If you are employed, do you work? 1 ) On your farm 29 IZ% 6) Brighton 19 8% 2) in riudson '39 lJ 7) Commerce C1 ty 10 =f% 3 ) Near Hudson l1 1 8) Boulder 1 0% 4) Keenesourg B 3 9) Denver 25 5) Ft. Lupton A 3 1 0) Other (sp ec1fy ) /9 81:, 38 If spouse is employed, where does he/she work? 1 ) On your farm L4 6) Brighton 11 7% 2) In Hudson 2.1. {2 7) Commerce C1ty () 0 3) Near H udson 7 8) Boulder 0 0 4) Keenesbu rg ! t 9) Denver :2..0 9-N_ 5) Ft. Lupton 10) Other ( specnyJ i'-% 39 If you are employed, how do you get to work? 1) Drive your own motor vehicle (by yourse 1 f) /4 62% 2) Carpool /3 6% 3) Wa 1 k // 4) . Bicycle 0 0 . . 5) 1 otorcycle 0 0 6) Other ...... ..... .... 40 How many of the foll01ing types of motor vehicles does your family have? CJr 2.5"8 p i c: k up ._J/1._.71..-/'=--Truck SZ 1o to rcyc 1 e Othe r . ( sc 2 : i fy -za 3/ zo 7-9 /8

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    I • 41 42 PART VI: PERSONAL INFORMATION Mark the highest level of education you have completed (circle one). 1) Ele mentary 2D 9% 2) Som e High Sch ool '34 J5' o/., 3) High School graduate /00 43% 4) Some college 44 19% 5 ) F o u r year co 11 eg e graduate /;-2._;.__--=s---:::=7,%...;::;,. 6) Master's level graduate __ ---=2=--<-9:,_ 7) Ph.D t 0 N.R.-IK' If married, indicate your spouse's highest level of education completed. 1) Elementary 2.tJ 9% 2 ) Som e H igh Scnool 3) High Schoo 1 gradua e 98 4:2. 4) Some co 11 ege 32. 14-o/a ' ' 5) Four year co 11 ege graduate -=g:....__ _ 6) Master's level graduate 7) Ph D. 0 0 /J.R.-39 17% 43 is your marital status? 44 4.5 1 ) Married /94 S'3% 4) W idm'led /9 i% 5 ) Other ( s_p_e_:;c ;.,-,if=-y....,...) -----=o= 0 2 ) Single 3 I 3) Divorced -7 3 N.l?. I I . I n the box below, please indicate the number of males and the number of f emaies in your household in each of the age categories listed below, incl u ding yourself . ., \ years i I ? \ 5 9 ... , 3 ) 10-"14 vears 4! 1:3-i9 vears "Jj 20-24 vears 6 ; v e ars 7 d) 9 \ ' SS-64 vears 10 J 65 -1nd over Total number in your household, inclu ding yourself: ----i s your primary source o f in come ? 1 ) Sal 2ry 139 59o/o 4) 2) Self-emplo yed /7% 5 ) 3) Social security 3CD IS"% 6 ) you think your com bined fa mily : ) L._:; s s h .1 n S 2 , 000 . 00 2 ) : .80Q. O O -S4, 999 .CO 3 i '" OvO. 00 56 , 999 . 00 _ __,Go__._ 4) _._I___.]..___--L1 __ (circl e one Public Assistance t' 0 I ndependent inco m e (rents, s tocks, interest , etc.) !) Other (specify) /0 4 % ru. f?. s-z % income will be this year? 5) $10,000.00-$11 , 9Sl9.CO 24 /0% 6) s12 . ooo . oo -S14. 999. 7)) -:::1j.O:J_ 32. _1_4:_ ___ . 8 20, GOO. . . :. :< 9) 5 2 5 , 000.00 a n d over /8 B N. R. 4-9 ZJ%

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    RENTAL HOuSIN G St.iRVEY A rental housirg project is being planned for this community. The project would provid e comfortable living at reasonable rental rates. Your opinion on the fo llovvin'J Will help us to determine whether such . a proj ect is practical . T his information does not obligate you i n ( any w ay. ,1. What age '1f0Up are you in? 62 _ or over 50-62 (l7) Under 50 ('I) 2. Marital status: Married (i't) Single man (7) Single woman (/6) 3. N umber of persons i n your household: I 4. Annual i:.come: U n der$2,000 (7) $2,000-$3,999 (t?) $4,000-$6,000 (IS) O ver $6, 00 0 (0) ?S. s. 5. --+-Doesyour i ncom e include old age assistance ('f) S -ocial Security (j>f VeterD.n Pension ( (,) Other (87) If other, specify---------5. Do you c w:1 (qr) or rent (Is} present residence? 6. Do you liv e in 1-touse Apartment C1-) Room ( t) On a farm (l.} In tow n (\f?) h-(,) 7. Is y o u r pn;s ent housing modern ('1b) Not modern, but adequate (1%.} I n ac!eq uate (1.) If so, in what respect?-------------8. V'hat arrc.r;ge ment do you prefer? 9. E ffi c i ency a_partmen t . ('f) One l:cdro cm , kitc hen, bath, living' room (lcr) T w o bedroom s I kitchen, bath I living roo in (5-c) T h r8 e Bedrooms, kitche:1, bath' living room ('u} . -----V/hat a m ccnt of r 2nt would you be willing to pay if rent included water I bt..:t not e l ectrici t y and heat? $5060 ( 1.r ) $ 60 70 (l) 10. V I o 1 l d y':)u ' N0nt t.o rna int a in own yard? (N) Flower garden? ll. V/ould. be w:!lir.? to move in if apartment was available------19 ? Yes N o (5-c) . 12. Name ________________________ __ ( _.

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    BIBLIOGRAPHY Most Frequently Used Sources Aging. U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare, Admini on Aging. p. 21. Green, Isaac. Housing for the Elderly, The Development and Design Process. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, NY: 1975 Koncelik, Joseph A. Designing the Open Nursing Horne. Hutchison and Ross Inc.: Strausburg, PA. 1976 Low Rise Housing For Older People. u.s. Dept. of HUD: Zlisel Research, Cambridge, Mass. Sept. 1977 M c Murray, Joseph,P. How to Provide Housing Which the Elderly Can Afford. N .Y. STate Division of Housing: Dec. 1958. Newcome, Robert J, ,and Byerts, Thoma s o. Community Planning for an Aging Society. Ed. by M . Powell Lawton. Research News. Gerontology Research, Univ. of Michigan: Nov./Dec. 1975 vol.XXXI, Nos.5/6.

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    , .... \l"' I L.. for fiC..d.l:-; Horkir:g c:::nf .. : . c Ar clli t , ;....: ' , , ment A.ss ocia ',_ ::;l • .1 ,..J .t. S ; }.. t . i_ .. : .. t ; t j : ' . 1 .. ' ! . . ..!: : . '. . : . n ..: 0 f l ! ' l l t F ) : ' t j j_ . ' . _: I : I • . ,. _ :: . lit• _)2,!1 :•" o I ' ' . --. . ment !)_:::r: ( . j_ !--_:l J Ecc1r s , -• , ; • L! ' . ' . • ' . l !. t . ( t :: -__________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ..... __ --.-----: .:, c.:. .l .l • . " . . . . r J..,. , 1 . ... ': t ' , ! : J ' .... , ... ---------r. ... -::. • ' , -. L ; i .. :.. l:.f! I.!.. • • • . o:. i. _ r _ , i .. \ ;.: ,'! ....... ..... r i : . s ) . : 1 .,. ;-;_ ton, . ' I _ • ' I Har:tl_.::y, _l 'Tl ,, c i ti z-er1s / :._:: ... l .. _ l\:grict !l .. t u r< ; _ :_,l ; : .. Cor':.rl2C t i c.! t. "..., L. _; ' --------c !.: .-: i .... . L . . . . . \ --' ----_:: . . . : :.:. I. : : ! '. ( l . . . . :: : ' \ i :.,:; \ 1 . , __ _ L}\... ., .:.. : . \.. ; .-! ... .i. ! • --t i.l J .... :: _.) '7 3 . • J .. _ .. \) L

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    HcGui.:s, C" Tr ins C...:J:.:t f :: for the Eld.erl:.: .• ' ; 1 : _;_ Ot f!Ol1Sir . .. 1: ! Ul:d.L Des iqninq for ' l d t> l e , Off ice.J . S .. --Ninistry o f l!L' , .L-+=or Olrl Deonl -' . • ' . :-;... ----,..._ . ------"-1 ..:. _ ----___ Stationery o.:::.>:-_ ,, . Hinis try o.E ri..:,:_lsi.-. .!. , .. ;:,! H ome , Her raj_ . . >.-::.. L . Hchiga:: H C..' l -:: . : :; . 1 :-1 J. L ' .•. ..l . :: ' L • • 'J • . . : :' : l) f Life Thru tesiqn, in Housi.s D . C . , 1972. S c.=_. :. -... --:. :. c_ i .. , e!-=' .. I , . • .Ln. ,-:.:: . . . " ..... -------I ...... I _ .. _:: .. 197-1 . N a tionc.l Co•_j,n -:i J L f1 : : . I ' Jer::e..:_:-i H'J..Li:.?.n C: .. ._.,. .. Hous i !e•' . . . __ ;. \... I • • -, New Human . 'for E / : .: :; _i_ :. c:A it v .. f ' . l . ::. o ::-1: .. Digf1Lt ___ .. ,0 !-'L: ' . : : :: "l ._:._.!.-. r:. :-:: l .... \ --. ' . . . ; ]_ i! ... York 1'irr.es, . . ; . . :i Narch 6 , l974 . Norwegian _ , i ni!o: t:c::.. ... :.\..• _. .l : . ..-:-; _ , _ on t h:: ::> :-Ei ic:;r J c -.-. tee • s Rec:o:-;1Iil en-:i.c. -:io!.=> :... ,,_:;.-, ::.. , Persons, Os -l\J .:--j:I;);-_-;:--------------0 ;_; • . l':: I I _ , l_ .._ :J ; _ _ .. : . :-: .l. !... ' . . I I • I :; "'-:: () : ;j_,_., .!. . : ' .l: '\ . . . . ! _ _ i J \.-Olson, r 1_; 2: Adults, Chi.::::?.<;;o: S yracuse Ti; : . '.'-2::-sL':: ::::...:r.::'. 0 1i tilE I (_i:.=.l I mPrO'l r.cr ... october l 'J 7 l . ,-....-,_.I_ . / , ,

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    _ ,. U . • :...:1 • Puo . L i <..: : L .... . --y t . Ji1 1 [..1. ( . . \ ' ' . . ! .. . i. t e c t 1 s C heck L i s t , ________ ________________ -e_ r..r. s . Con q:::-r-::ss r s . . ,_; c: i. 2. l :.: u "c: l i. t c ::: ,.: -:; : . c; i n q , l\ B a r L..h : . . l.':L::CL\. the F2•4L-7 .: . U.S. Congress , te 1 .: , : . , -:iitt:e:.:: nr . . A<.Jing, Fou::inc; for the .-... SLtus o . : . , !I01S_ . .. l .... Nashir.gto"'' u C., :i. :1:J.l. n n u s i n -:-: h ? l ci ,: ] . , -