Citation
Capitol Hill community center

Material Information

Title:
Capitol Hill community center
Creator:
Gross, Suzanne E.
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Committee Chair:
Kronewitter, Robert
Committee Members:
Miller, Conrad
Kish, Roger

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Suzanne E. Gross. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
auraria library
Capitol Hill Community Center


An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master
of Architecture
Suzanne E. Gross
Fall 1985


The Thesis of
Suzanne Elizabeth Gross is approved.
Mr. Robert Kronewitter
Mr. Conrad Miller
University of Colorado at Denver
December 20, 1985


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Personal Goals
Introduction
The Process Project Description The Scenario The Thesis
Site
Neighborhood Analysis
Climate & Energy
Zoning
Maps
Code Search
Bulk Plane Diagrams
Life Safety Code
Economics
Introduction
Market Survey Analysis
Conclusions
Programming
The Process
Survey of Existing Center Spatial Surveys Community Center Area Summary Housing Area Summary Parking Requirements Elevator Requirements
Appendices
Precedents
Capitol Hill Neighborhood Plan Bibliography


The Design
Photographs of Drawings & Model Conclusion


PERSONAL GOALS


PERSONAL GOALS
1. Reach a level where I can more succinctly express my own philosophy
on what constitutes good design------understanding what it is I truly
like, what I don't and try to create the former.
2. Derive an understanding of how economics work in the development of a project, particularly involving urban housing.
3. Exhibit the capability of generating a design package from schematics through design development.


INTRODUCTION


THE PROCESS
At the outset of this project, my ideas revolved around creating a multi-use center that would help one group, in particular, to improve the quality of their lives in this city. I had made observations that disabled people living in the Capitol Hill area had needs which could be better met by a center where those needs would be specifically addressed.
I have gotten to know two physically handicapped people who live in my apartment building, and have assisted them at various times. In talking with them, and observing the ways in which their living spaces make their lives more difficult, I felt that more housing is needed that is truly adaptable for a disabled person's needs. Therefore, I proposed a multi-unit residential complex that would be open to everyone, but would be completely adaptable to the needs of handicapped people.
I have also been affected by witnessing how disabled people get around the city. It is not uncommon to see a wheelchair-bound person stuck in a rut or at a curb. One snowy afternoon, I was walking down the alley near my building, and found my handicapped neighbor stuck in a pothole. She had been trying to get to her job which is about four blocks from our building. I ended up pushing her on to her work, and came to the realization of the effort required for this person to get to her job just a few short blocks away under conditions that are not uncommon in winter. From riding the buses, I have witnessed some of the problems the disabled have riding the buses. Often, the rider must wait through several buses until one arrives that has an operable lift. The real answer is to have lifts that work, but it would seem such aggravations could be reduced by centralizing housing and other important aspects of their lives: in the case of my project a training and educational center.
I have worked in a school for people with cerebral palsy, and each day as the students arrived by bus and car, the lengthly process of unloading would proceed (with the reverse occurring at the day's end).
It seemed this time could have been better spent. It would have been beneficial to have the students live near their learning facility, which serves them throughout their lives. Although all such instances are


unavoidable at times, I felt that a number of handicapped people might prefer to live in very close proximity to their place of education or employment. In trying to establish the potential needs for such a facility, I contacted an advocacy group that represents a large segment of the disabled population, architects that have worked on projects related to these issues, and my disabled acquaintances. I came to realize that the overall concept was opposed to the philosophy of independent living.~~The combination of housing with a learning center would inevitably be viewed as an institutional complex even though the housing would be open to everyone. My ideas, although well intended, were counter to the premise of assisting people to achieve a mainstream lifestyle.
From my research, I came to realize that the needs of the disabled community are not any different than the needs of the community at large.
In an interview with the director of HAIL, I asked whether she felt a new building for their programs would be desirable. Her feeling was that the money for such a project could be much better used in other areas of service. She would consider a new facility for their of other similar organizations to be a very low priority. Others I spoke with at HAIL expressed the feeling that the building they were currently using (a typical office building renovated as needed) suited their programs quite adequately. A monograph completed as part of the "Model Approaches-. Program," discussed the "edifice complex" that government and other agencies suffer from in their attempts to provide services to the handicapped. Instead of spending limited funds on buildings, the money could
2
be much better utilized in direct service delivery to the consumer. I came to realize that my center should more generally address'-the needs~of the community at large, and in so doing encompass the needs of the disabled who are really just one of many special interest groups that comprise the people of Capitol Hill.
Although those who choose to live in urban settings such as Capitol Hill, rather than suburban or rural ones, do so for many different reasons, I feel that two primary reasons involve!
l) their preference for proximity of their living, play and work
environments


2) their preference for the diversity of people, lifestyles, spaces and activities
The essence of the Capitol Hill area is in its melting pot quality. It is home to professionals, blue collar workers, students, and the elderly. As Bernie Jones, a former president of the area's largest neighborhood group stated:
The most significant contrast on the Hill is class----at one
end of the scale are the down and out. At the other end are
the people who live in $300,000 condos, and in the meantime,
there is every kind of person in between.3
The 1973 maps on the following pages can still be used to generally describe existing land use conditions. These maps indicate the multiuse, multi-density patterns existing throughout much of the area. The
clusters of random retail and public activities in the midst of residen-
tial uses enrich the urban context. These interwoven activities reinforce each other by collectively supporting the everyday life of those in the neighborhood. By choosing a mixed-use project, I hope to promote further neighborhood diversity, and create a place where the integration of uses allows for a more satisfying environment than could otherwise occur if each use were isolated.
One primary issue involves the increasing cost of housing in the area. The vast majority of people in the area are renters. The introduction of condominiums into the area over the last decade has reduced this dominance very little (from approximately 90% t0 85%^). The city's 1981 report on housing found "there is an inadequate number of rental units in the city."^ My own later findings supported this report. As part of my economic analysis for the housing part of this project, I found the vacancy rate in the area to be only J.^% for moderately priced rental units (see section on Economics). Typically, an 8.0% vacancy rate is considered normal. Such shortages tend to drive rental levels up due to excess demand. The Denver Planning Office's 1973 neighborhood plans found that:
While the neighborhood still has a representative sampling of rental units in all categories, the shift to a higher rental structure has been significant. Unless action is taken to insure that a mix is retained, the next ten to twenty years could see the elimination of lower prices units.6


EXISTING CONDITIONS January 1973
LAND USE
RESIDENTIAL
SINGLE UNIT
I I LOW DENSITY I 1 HIGH DENSITY MULTI UNIT
I I LOW DENSITY I I MEDIUM DENSITY â– H HIGH DENSITY
BUSINESS
r '*"1 PARKING I OFFICE RETAIL
CIRCULATION
STREETS AND HIGHWAYS
ammm ARTERIAL — COLLECTOR
---- LOCAL
ONE WAY
TRANSPORTATION
NETWORKS
IIIIIMII
RTD CORRIDOR (GENERALIZED ALIGNMENT) *
----BUS ROUTE
----BIKE ROUTE
INDUSTRIAL
I I LIGHT INDUSTRIAL
PUBLIC AND SEMI PUBLIC
P"* SCHOOLS HOSPITALS CHURCHES ETC
OPEN SPACE
I I VACANT m PUBLIC ACCESS PARKS AND RECREATION
FACILITIES
+ LANDMARK
• RTD STATION
(GENERALIZED LOCATION)*
jjNORTHlk.
â– 
0 500 1000
# Based on preliminary RTD studies
SCALE


7
An updated study in 1976 found this trend to be continuing. In 1981, the director of the Capitol Hill Community Center stated:
We've become a victim of our own (the community's) success.
The problem has changed from, how to get rid of the deadbeats
to how to keep the area from becoming entirely affluent.8
Given these housing needs, my own interest in the design of urban dwellings and their compatibility with other uses, one aspect of the project will involve housing.
While the Capitol Hill area seems to have improved steadily over the last decade in economic terms, it does not seem to have well developed community facilities for such a large and diverse population.
In assessing the existing facilities, I found that while the community center seeks to address a broad range of goals, it has limited physical facilities from which to offer a continuum of services. The center serves an area encompassing several neighborhoods, and is estimated to include 80,000 people. The only other community facility is the city's recreational center housed in an elementary school, whose programs are geared extensively for youth.
The existing community center has only been in existence for eight years, and I feel its existence represents a symbol of the direction residents are taking to improve their community resources. As the area continues to progress, a more extensive community center would likely be seen as necessary in better serving the people of the area.
As Alison and Peter Smithson express:
Community facilities are the raw material for the building of
tangible stopping places, for places where things can happen.
Can be seen to be about to happen. Can cause things to happen!"*
In attempting to resolve issues of providing for these community based needs and urban dwellings, that balance the need for personal privacy and desired social interaction, I plan to experiment in a mixed use combination that celebrates living within a particular city.


PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The Capitol Hill area has an established, community center located on the north-eastern rim of Cheesman Park in the Tears McFarlane Mansion, a designated historic landmark. The center's goal is to provide the "people in its area with educational, social, recreational, and cultural activities'.'^ Given the physical constraints of its present facility, the center is limited in the services it can offer directly, and acts primarily as an informational and referral center for services occurring within the
community. This project proposes to create an expanded center adjacent to the existing facility, where a broader range of community needs can be met. In addition to the community center, the project will include sixty multi-family apartments.


THE SCENARIO
Considering the current municipal, state, and federal financial constraints and uncertainties, it is highly unlikely that a new community center could he built through public means. In order for such a project to be realized, it would need to be developed through a predominately private effort. For the purposes of this project, I am assuming that the existing neighborhood organization (Capitol Hill United Neighborhoods, CHUN) has formed an association with the intent of developing a complex that would house this expanded community center for the neighborhood and provide moderately priced rental housing. There is a need for such housing in the area, and the organization felt that private developers were unlikely to provide such housing, as most recently built projects have been high-rise condominiums priced between $200,000-600,000.
In order to be financially realistic and provide for this needed reasonably priced housing, the site's location within Capitol Hill demands fairly intensive use. The project will reflect, however, the local residents expressed desires, that the current 3*1 FAR be reduced to a ratio closer to 2s1. This is one of the recommendations in the 1973 Neighborhood Plan. The concept behind this scenario is that it allows this project to develop beyond the idea that the land, as a private commodity, must be exploited to its maximum market value. CHUN has an existing economic development program, which it hopes will become involved in its own economic ventures, where community interests get priority over financial returns.


THE THESIS
We must learn to look upon ourseles as part of a greater community and develop a hierachy of loyalties extending from our family to our own community to the greater community of all mankind.
J. Royce, American Philosopher
It seems as though the call for stimulating and deepening the "sense of community" is so often heard throughout our society. As Gene and Barbara Sternberg ask in their study of communal centers in America:
If the lack of a sense of community is a central problem of our cities, what kind of new arrangements in living conditions are we trying? What kinds of centers to foster community feelings are we building?H
This question underlies my belief that urban communities need new public facilities that embody citizen participation by providing a forum for community decision making and problem solving, life long learning, social interaction, and physical well being. The key to designing for public participation lies in setting the proper stage. This stage involves the architectural, functional, and social settings of the building. I have conceptulized these themes as The Expression, The Fit, and The Peoplescape.
A mixed-use community service/housing center will provide the fabric with which to communicate these ideas.
The Expression
This theme concerns the building's image and its relation to its urban context. These external demands will be equally important as the internal demands. The building must portray its role through an appropriate architectural language that communicates its public purposes at its base, while respecting its residential character above. Therefore, the building as a public discourse should seek a broad level of comprehension that implies a strong recognition of its public role within theneighborhood.
Most importantly, the building should convey a feeling of welcome. Forms, materials and color will be used as the primary elements in realizing this goal.


The participatory nature of the building should be reinforced by its participation with its neighborhood context. The design should seek.. a referential relationship to its surroundings while formally expressing a "new spirit". The infill projects of Aldo van Eyck in Amsterdam elucidate this concept of a similar, but contemporary, architectural vocabulary.
It is evident that the starting point for Van Eyck's design lay in the nature of the existing townscape. The humane, intimate scale of the old is recaptured in his sympathetic essays of modern housing.^
The Fit
The functional concerns of the project involve, onq the appropriate fit of the building within its community, and two, the fit of the internal and external spaces to the user activities they are supposed to serve.
In the first case, the easily accessed location of the center in connection with recognized focuses of community life will increase its potential use.
Secondly, the spaces of the center must allow for the changing needs of dynamic user groups. The increased mobility and changing social structures of our society, will cause the directions of community interests to vary with time. Therefore, the community center should be,to the greatest possible extent, an adaptable framework that allows for a wide variety of conditions and uses. The building that best exemplifies this concept in my mind is the Pompidou Center in Paris. Although, obviously, quite different in many regards to my project, I am fansinated by the wonderful way in which the building provides a background for such a plethora of varied, constantly changing activities. While Charles Jenks may label the building as a failure in terms of its "supermarket atmosphere" of cultural activities, my experiences of the building found it to be one of the most exciting, uplifting contempoary , architectural environments I have ever been in. The building is an inspiration for the type of public, community use buildings that are possible. The Pompidou center also exemplifies the idea of peoplescape as a place where all sorts of people engage simaltaneously in the myriad of activities.


The Peoplescape
The essence of public life involves peoples' varied needs for interaction with other people. As a mixed-use concept, the goal of this building will be to provide the background as a support environment for such social interactions to occur. This belief is based on the pluralism of uses that will bring all types of people together for different reasons at different times. Places seeking to embody the vitality of their community are enhanced by the presence of people engaged in varied activities, even though they may not personally interact with one another. I feel these needs are especially important for many people living within urban settings.
Today there is an increasing need to design for contact as family sizes dwindle and more and more people live alone. Urbanites no longer live in the neighborhoods of their parents and grandparents. No longer are they surrounded by established networks of friends, relatives,stores, and generally familiar settings providing continuity from one generation to another. Instead families and individuals are mobile,in search of opportunities which take them to distant places. Everytime one moves, they must make new friends and re-establish social ties.l^
This project presents my personal vision of a structure that could provide a rich and viable setting for community life.


FOOTNOTES
1. Holistic Approaches to Independent Living, 1247 E. Colfax Avenue #107, Denver; Colorado.
2. Preda, Theresa, Final Report Model Approaches Program for Improved Delivery Independent Living Programs, 10-81 to 9-84.
3. Jones, Bernie, The Denver Post, July 1983*
4. The Denver Planning Office, The Capitol Hill Cheesman Park Update and Analysis, 1976, and US Bureau of the Census, Neighborhood Statistics Program, 1980.
5. The Denver Post, November 8, 1981, p. 36.
6. The Denver Planning Office, 1973 Neighborhood Plans, Capitol Hill and Cheesman Park, p. 3*
7. The Denver Planning Office, The Capitol Hill Cheesman Park Update and Analysis, 1976, p. 5»
8. YJolfson, Morey, The Denver Post, November 8, 1981, p36.
9. Smithson, Peter and Alison, Ordinariness and Light, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1970. p. 182.
10. The Capitol Hill Community Center Brochure
11.Sternberg, Barbara and Eugene, Community Centers and Student Unions, Van Nostrand and Reinhold Co., N.Y., 1971, p. 11.
12. Taylor, Jennifer, The Dutch Casbahs, Progressive Architecture,
March 1981, p 91.
13. Jenks, Charles, Architecture Today, Harry Abrams Inc.N.Y., 1982, p. 46.
14. Mehrabian, Albert, Public Places and Private Spaces, Basic Books, Inc., N.Y., 1976, p 106-7.


SITE


METROPOLITAN DENVER LOCATION
A


TE VICINITY


The city of Denver owns the land and buildings housing several of the community centers located in Denver. There are a variety of other centers, which are run through churches or other non-profit groups. The city's Planning Office has divided the city into districts to which each community center is addressed. Under the Capitol Hill Center's present arrangement, its district encompasses the area between 1st and 22nd Avenue, and between Broadway and Colorado Blvd. The area is shown on the map below. The center represents the only public community center facility within this area. This is a large area encompassing the parts of nine different neighborhoods, as specified by the neighborhood plan of the city's Planning Office, and approximately 80,000 residents* (1980 Census)
The map on the following page shows the different neighborhood boundaries.
Since the proposed new center would no longer be directly affli-ated with the city, I feel that a target area including the Capitol Hill, Cheesman Park, and Congress Park neighborhoods would be much more appropriate. (40,000 residents, 1980 Census)




The Center' Location
A Community center's location can promote participation by its close relation to an established neighborhood amenity, a central location within the neighborhood, and easy accessibility through various transportation modes. Within the area served by the Capitol Hill Community Center, Cheesman Park is the most recognized community resource. The existing building, located at the corner of Williams and 13th Avenue on the northern rim of the Park, has an excellent location in terms of the above criteria. In choosing a site, I felt it would be highly desirable to locate the new center in close conjunction with the existing one. Given the fully developed urban location, it was necessary to choose a site that had an existing structure for the purposes of this project. The site I choose for the new complex will be located directly to the east of the existing center on 13th Avenue between Williams and Race Street. (See Scenario Description in next section)
LOCATION
The Center is two miles east of the State Capitol on the north edge of Cheesman Park on the comer of Williams Street and 13th Avenue.


The Center's location is very accessible by bus, bike, and the park's footpath jogging system.
RTD BUS ROUTES


BICYCLE ROUTES
-----Legend:---------
Good Bicycling Streets: Streets With More Traffic:
Good Bike Paths:
Secondary Bike Paths:
/HOUNWIN BICtCUSTS’ /CBOCINTON
Prepared by:
Mountain Bicyclists’ Association, Inc.
1290 Williams Street, Denver, Colorado 80218


The only drawback to the location is the present one-way street designation for 13th Avenue. As former CHUN president, Mike Henry describes:
One ways are noisy, dirty, dangerous and derisive. What we are trying to say to the mayor and city council is that preserving neighborhoods in Denver is just as important as the smooth, convenient flow of traffic.
Cars travel at speeds of approximately kO mph as they pass the site if the taffic lights are green. There is a fairly good chance that at some future date this street will be returned to a two way "normal" neighborhood street, as a alternate solution will be found for bringing suburbanites into downtown. Neighborhood groups have been applying steady pressure on the city concerning this issue.


SCENARIO
As stated previously, I feel it would be extremely desirable to locate the proposed center as close to the existing Community Center as possible. Given the fully developed urban location (vacant land accounts for less than 2% of toal acreage in neighborhood), there is only one existing vacant lot in the immediate area, and it is five blocks from the existing center, and does not face the park. The site neighboring the community center to the east is currently slated for development as a 30 story luxury condominium project. The project has undergone a lengthly and unusual planning process to this point. A developer owns the land on either side of High Street (See map on following page). Although neighborhood sentiment, as chiefly expressed through the Capitol Hill United Neighborhood organization (a 1,000 member group), rallies against the construction of more high rises, the developer was able to convince all concerned parties to go along with the proposal.
Under current zoning laws, the developer would be able to build two 15 story blocks on each parcel, thereby walling in the park and blocking the maximum amount of sunshine for neighbors to the north. Instead, the developer proposed that High Street be abandoned between 13th Avenue and the park, and that he be allowed to build a single narrow builing on what is now the street. As a concession to the city for approving the proposal, the developer has agreed to make both sides of the project greenspace and allow public access to the park. The city owns the two buildings on the site, and plans to move the older portion of the Cheesman Academy building to a new site. Plans for the second building are unknown at this time. The proposal has passed all necessary approval processes and is currently seeking financial backing. Due to the slow sales of the high priced units in the area (Ref. Denver Post Article 1-30-84), it would seem that actual development of this project is unlikely in the near futute. A neighboring luxury condominium project is currently being auctioned as a means of selling units that have been on the market for two years.
I am assuming that a similar agreement regarding the closing of the street can be accomodated with the city.


ALLEY




\7- att
x
vx
foot—fftlk


i ijv
9*
13 TH STREET IONE WAY) • MAJd^
j ---3 Jz=m •£-----3
TK^f=Pj»C JA^TBCY* HBAVie*5T U«AM.
>
£

L«>! tf«f
NOK>£
m<4
~IIA
#
VI ew^ TO .CAPITAL-i . % VI ?HN1t*4h4 PFCKl
UfTP^ fO£>f^
*Wf.
Vlfe ^ fO W &UtZK£I?
Hl£ H- F*^-
"~N
W-
• • • • • i
LUr
cheeSman park
HtKh^
Tt> T5\p4c.
s
1 0
4> fl
X*L


'T

J«

/Af^A




««
>*\T **4£

/WHALT
POOHCJU^
^HM>1 fFCM.
Ic'AWVbz.
(Awf
>rr
e**ii
\\lz>-
4v*F£te-
J^ID.
ro
ao
<3iU I
io
s
-fO
SITE ANALYSIS


View to Southeast from site. 2
View "Looking to the East from center of the site.
(Shows large decid. trees to the south of site) 1
View looking directly South from east side of site. 3


View looking directly South from west side of site. 4
View looking toward site from the center of the park.


102.75’
/
\
y
\
S89°42’58”
338.35’
Data:
Zone R-3 IF.A.R 3:11 Lot Area - 34,427 sq ft .79 acre
ZONING PLAN
t
100.7C


-OE
© Manhole <3 Water Valve
UTILITIES
—gg -
n


THE PARK
Cheesman Park already serves the community as a popular place for recreational and leisure activities. On any warm, sunny day the park is filled with sunbathers, joggers, bicyclists, kite flyers, volley ball players, and picnicers. In general, the park is used in an informal manner. The pituresque layout of the park promotes such activities with its large open grass expanses and clusters of large old shade trees. There is little in the way of man-made structures within the park: a few picnic tables scattered throughout the park, a picnic enclosure pictured below, a childrens' playground, the Memorial, and a few well used benches.
The park has a different ambiance than some of the other larger city parks in Denver. As compared to Washington or City Park, there are no softball fields, tennis courts, swimming pools or the like. Cheesman is a passive setting, which allows people to use it in an informal, casual manner. The community center could serve a great function to the neighborhood be supporting and enhancing these activity patterns.




PARK VISTAS
Towards the Mountains
Towards
Downtown
Denver


NEIGHBORHOOD ANALYSIS


The Capitol Hill United Neighborhood organization has published the following colorful, anecdotal description of Capitol Hill's history, resources, and unique character. This piece gives a sense of the enthusiasm that many members hold for their community.
In the 1880's, henry c. brown donated the brow of a hill
OVERLOOKING GROWING DENVER FOR THE STATE CAPITOL. SOON THE HIGH PRAIRIE ABOVE THE CAPITOL SITE WAS PLATTED AND IT BECAME THE" FASHIONABLE AREA WHERE THE WEALTHY BUILT THEIR MANSIONS. THE AREA BECAME KNOWN AS CAPITOL HILL . THE EXTRAVAGANT ARCHITECTURE IN ITS ECLECTIC STYLES RANGING FROM CLASSICAL REVIVAL, TO ROMANESQUE, TO VICTORIAN REFLECT THE UNORDINARY LIVES OF THEIR INHABITANTS AND THE UNORDINARY LIFE OF EARLY DENVER.
Today another change appears to be taking place; yet,
IN actuality it is merely an extension of almost a century of stubborn stability, young families, professional people and ex-suburbanites are moving back into the city and joining
THOSE WHO NEVER LEFT, IN A RESURGENCE OF THE IDEAL THAT URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS CAN PRESENT THE BEST POSSIBLE LIVING ENVIRONMENT.
Most people living together in capitol hill share the
COMMITMENT TO AN URBAN LIFE STYLE. THE PROXIMITY OF SERVICES, AIDED BY THE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM AND THE WIDE VARIETY OF OPTIONS AVAILABLE ENCOURAGE PEOPLE TO LIVE HERE BY CHOICE.
The RESURGENCE OF ACTIVITY, INCLUDING RENOVATION AS WELL AS NEW CONSTRUCTION, AND A GROWING SENSE OF COMMUNITY, EXEMPLIFY THE CHANGE OF ATTITUDE OF MANY NEWCOMERS TO CAPITOL HILL AS WELL AS THE LONG TIME RESIDENTS. THE FEARS OF THE 60 S THAT THE INNER CITIES WERE DEAD OR DYING WERE, AS MARK TWAIN ONCE COMMENTED ON REPORTS OF HIS OWN DEATH, "GREATLY EXAGGERATED .
The CAPITOL HILL area has the potential of becoming the
IDEAL URBAN COMMUNITY, IMMEDIATELY ADJACENT TO DOWNTOWN DENVER, WHICH HARBORS THE CULTURAL, SHOPPING, BUSINESS AND ENTERTAINMENT CENTERS OF THE REGION, CAPITOL HILL HAS MAINTAINED A RESIDENTIAL ATMOSPHERE. CONTAINING THE GREATEST ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS OF DENVER S UNIQUE AND GRANDEUR PAST—THE AREA S HIGH DENSITY AND CULTURAL MIX OFFERS AN ENRICHED ATMOSPHERE.


While urban life in capitol hill includes the swiwing POOLS AND nearby golf courses, as in the suburbs, THE CAPITOL HILL RESIDENT MAY SPEND AN AFTERNOON EXPLORING TROPICAL PLANT SPECIES AT THE BOTANICAL GARDENS, OR TAKE A VISITING FRIEND THROUGH THE MOLLY BROWN HOUSE. OR, HE MIGHT SPEND SOME TIME AT THE DENVER ART MUSEUM OR BROWSE THROUGH THE PUBLIC LIBRARY.
While he may take a short trip downtown for its varied
NIGHT LIFE, HE DOESN'T NEED TO LEAVE HIS NEIGHBORHOOD TO ENJOY THE EVENING AT A CONCERT AT THE FOLKLORE CENTER, ATTEND A PLAY AT BONFILS THEATRE, EXPLORE THE BAWDY NIGHT ACTIVITY ALONG THE COLFAX STRIP, OR HAVE A LEISURELY DINNER AT ONE OF THE AREAS FAMOUS RESTAURANTS.
The PEOPLE OF CAPITOL HILL CAN ENJOY A SUNDAY AFTERNOON BIKE RIDE TO CITY PARK TO TAKE THE CHILDREN TO THE ZOO OR MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. THEY MAY PLAY VOLLEY BALL AT CHESSMAN PARK, RELAX IN THE SUN AT GOVERNOR S PARK OR GET OUT OF THE OFFICE TO EAT A SACK LUNCH ON THE CIVIC CENTER GROUNDS.
Shopping in capitol hill areas can also be an adventure-
groceries AT THE SUPERMARKET..NEIGHBORHOOD BOOK STORES AND PLANT SHOPS..FAMILY OWNED MEAT MARKETS OR HARDWARE STORES.. GERMAN BAKERIES OR AN ICE CREAM SHOP..A BEER AT THE LOCAL TAVERN..A TREASURE HUNT IN THE ARTISAN SHOPS SPRINKLED THROUGH THE AREA..OR TAKE A SHORT BUS RIDE DOWNTOWN.
Ongoing education is important to the people of capitol
HILL. THEY HAVE BATTLED TO KEEP THEIR INNER CITY SCHOOLS OPEN AND THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION HIGH. PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN THE AREA ARE EAST HIGH SCHOOL, MOREY AND GOVE JR. HIGH, EMERSON, WYMAN, STEVENS, TELLER, SHERMAN AND BROWELL ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
Parents in the area have established the Denver cooperative
PRESCHOOL AND THE CAPITOL HILL CHILD CARE ASSOCIATION IS ACTIVELY WORKING TO ESTABLISH QUALITY DAY CARE. EDUCATION DOES NOT STOP WITH THE CHILDREN. HIGHER EDUCATION FACILITIES SURROUND CAPITOL HILL AND MANY STUDENTS LIVE IN THE AREA.
ALSO, THOSE WHO WANT TO FURTHER THEIR EDUCATION OR JUST LEARN SOMETHING THEY VE ALWAYS WANTED TO KNOW, CAN TAKE A COURSE AT THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE OR DENVER FREE UNIVERSITY.
In 1971, CAPITOL HILL UNITED NEIGHBORHOODS, INC. WAS FOUNDED AS A VEHICLE AND VOICE FOR THE RESIDENTS AND BUSINESSES IN THE GENERAL AREA REFERRED TO AS CAPITOL HILL. THE MEMBERS OF CHUN ATTEMPT TO IDENTIFY THE ASPERATIONS AND POTENTIAL, AS WELL AS THE PROBLEMS OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD, AND ACTIVELY WORK FOR THE PRESERVATION AND ENRICHMENT OF THEIR URBAN ENVIRONMENT.


PUBLIC & RETAIL FACILITIES NEAR SITE
1. Existing Capitol Hill Community Center
2. Retail Cluster-Including mom & pop grocery, pasta shop, card shop, and ice creamery
3. Church
k. Botanic Gardens-Entry off York Street-Facility includes communal garden were local residents tend their plots
5. Cheesman Memorial-Gathering spot, provides vista of mountains
6. Childrens Payground
7. Picnic Enclosure-Small gathering spot
8. Warren Single Mothers Housing & Day Care with large childrens' play area
9. Gilpin Grammar School- includes recycling center


10. Church
11. Colfax Avenue-Retail/Commercial uses
12. Retail Cluster-Includes flower shop, video store, and bar
13. Retail Development-Inludes large grocery store, ice creamery, card shop, bank, hardware, pizza, etc.
14. Morey Junior High School-Includes City recreation program for youths
Church-Sunday
Afternoon
Retail Cluster (2)-Very popular gathering place on nice afternoons-Particularly weekends
Space provides chairs covered tables, bikeracks etc


CHEESMAN PARK NEIGHBORHOOD
The eclectic nature of the neighborhood is characterized by a mixture of older single family detached homes and multi-unit housing structures of various configurations that have been built within the last 30 years.(Some older apartment buildings have been around since the ^O's) The homes vary in both size and styles. They range from the large mansion-type homes, located generally on the southern rim of Cheesman Park and along Humboldt Street to the west, to the modest row houses. Many of the fine old buildings retain their stately elegance along the lines of the Tears MacFarlane Mansion which houses the existing community center. As the sketches of these neighborhood streets convey, these homes lend quite a bit of character to their environment. In order to save these worthy structures and help average home owners to retain their dwelling, the preservation movement has worked to attain beneficial zoning measures and expanded borrowing opportunities for rehabilitation. As the first paragraph of the CHUN description states, most dwelling in the area incorporate a wide range of stylistic types. Streets lined with such residences have a rich pedestrian atmosphere. The common threads attributable to such structures are their pitched roofs, the composition and intricate detailing of the facade, their use of modular building materials such as brick, stone, and wood shingles, their colors, their scalar relationship of forms that is related to human dimensions, and their positive dialogue with their surroundings.


The areas north and east of the park are designated for high growth in the future thru their R-3 zoning designation (FAR 3*1)•
The southern end of the park is protected through its R-0 designation.
In addition to the zoning, the city has established view and sun path corridors, that are designed to protect the park from any further high-rise construction to the west.
The north and eastern area provide the immediate context for this project. As the zoning implies many of the multi-unit complexes are located in this vicinity. These buildings range in size from small unit grouping to 100+ unit complexes. Most of these larger complexes can can best be described as "dumb" blocks. Charles Moore uses this term in describing banal buildings such as these that have nothing to say.
Some are squat square masses as in picture below, which tend generally to be apartments. The taller spine-like structures are almost all condiminium complexs, which are usually expensive, luxury-type projects. Two are pictured on the next page.
High rises such as these alienate their surroundings by offering nothing to the srtreetscape. Most have sterile, unfriendly entries that speak of the extreme emphasis placed on security within these structures. In my opinion and the opinion of other neighborhood spokesmen


Two high rise condominium complexes located in immediate context of the site
Barren, lifeless base of high rise-designed purely for auto's use-foreign to environment of traditional neighborhood streets


quoted in the newspapers, all the modern buildings within the neighborhood have characters which are alien to the existing built fabric and to people. New buildings need to be infused into the area that reverse this trend and return to the idea of interconnectedness between neighborhood elements. As Charles Koore has stated:
One of the oldest traditions in architecture is
tradition itself-the use of understood and proven precedents
which are partly repeated, partly modified to make a new building.
From Dimensions
Such transformation processes canlead to a much more expressive architectural language that replaces the generic, meaningless forms that have so stigmatized the idea of new buildings within this neighborhood.
>bn in a word, has no nature; what he has is ... .history. Expressed differently: what nature is to things, history, is to man.
The only radical difference between human history and 'natural' history is that the former can never begin agpin... .the chimpanzee and oraggutan are distinguished from man not by what is known strictly speaking as intelligence, but because they have far less memory. Every morning the poor beasts have to face almost total oblivion of what they lived through the day before, and their intellect has to work with a minimum fund of experience. Similarly the tiger of today is identical with that of sex thousand years ago, each one having to begin his life as a tiger fran the beginning as if none had existed before him.... Breaking the continuity with the past, is a lowering of man and a plagiarism of the orangtan. Jose' Qrtegp. Y Gasset
Fran Collage City
The designers of contemporary structures in the Cheesman Park neighborhood have made a decisive break with precedents, and thus far the results have been to the detriment of the urban context.


CLIMATE & ENERGY


Month Daily Maximum Daily Minins ur Monthly Mean Record High Record Low Normal Degree Days Base 65"F Mean Nunl.iT of D
90°F and above 32°F end below
(Heating) (Cooling)
Jan A3.5 16.2 29.9 72 -25 1089 0 0 30
Feh 46.2 19.4 32.8 76 -30 002 0 0 27
Mar 50.1 23.8 37.0 84 -11 868 0 0 27
Apr 61.0 33.0 47.5 85 - 2 525 0 0 13
Mav 70.3 43.6 57.0 96 22 253 0 * 2
Jun 80.] 53.9 66.0 ]0Z, 30 80 110 5 0
Jul 87.4 58.6 73.0 104 43 n ?4R 15 0 I
Aug 85.8 57.4 71.6 101 41 0 208 9 0 i
Ser 77.7 47.8 62.8 97 20 120 54 2 1
Oct 66.8 37.2 52.0 88 3 408 5 0 9
Nov 53.3 25.4 39.4 79 1 - 8 <768 0 n 25
Bee 46.2 18.9 32.6 74 -18 1004 0 0 29
Annual 64.0 36.2 50.1 in l -30 6016 625 32 162
# Leas than one half.
DENVER TEMPERATURE DATA
Month i Total Precipitation Mean Number a of Davs with Precipitation >, ,01 inch Snow Mean Number a j of Days with Snow 1.0 inch
Mean Monthly Maximum Monthly Minimum Maximum 24-hour Monthly Mean Maximum Monthly
Jan .61 1.44 n.ni 1.02 6 8.4 23.7 2
Feb .67 1.66 0.01 1.01 6 8.0 18.3 2
Mar 1.21 2.89 0.13 1.48 8 12.6 29.2 4
Aor 1.93 4.17 0.03 3.25 9 9.6 28.3 3
May 2.64 7.31 0.06 3.55 10 1.5 13.6 #b
Jun 1.93 4.69 0.10 3.16 9 T 0.1 0
Jul 1.78 6.41 0.17 2.42 9 0.0 0.0 0
Aug 1.29 4.47 0.06 3.43 8 0.0 o.o 0
Sep 1.13 4.67 T 2.44 6 1 .» 21.3 *
Oct 1.13 4.17 0.05 1.71 5 3.8 31.2 1
Nov 0.76 2.97 0.0] 1.29 5 7.6 39.1 2
Dec 0.43 2.84 0.03 1.18 5 6.5 30.8 2 !
Total 15.51 7.M T 3.55 89 59.9 19.1 18 |
• Monthly totals are rounded to the nearest whole dav.
b.Denote* lees then one-half. SOURCE: U. S. Department of Cotmnerce, 1977
DENVER PRECIPITATION DATA


250
>
t
>
J
J
c
DEGREE DAY DATA
SUN ANGLE


Month Percent of Possible Sunshine Number of® Clear Days Number of* Partly Cloudy Days Number of* Cloudy Days Mean Sky Cover (Tenths)
January 72 10 10 11 5.5
February 71 8 9 11 5.8
March 70 8 10 13 6.0
April 66 7 10 13 6.1
May 65 6 12 13 6.2
June 71 9 13 8 5.0
July 71 9 16 6 5.0
August 72 10 14 7 4.9
September 74 13 9 8 4.4
October 73 13 10 8 4.4
November 66 11 9 10 5.3
December 68 11 10 10 5.3
Total 70 115 132 118 5.3
aMonthly totals are rounded to the nearest whole day. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977.
ZENITH
IUNSHINE AND CLOUD DATA


Month Mean Wind Speed (mph) Prevailing Direction Maximum Wind Speed Recorded (mph) Direction Associated with Maximum
Jan 9.2 S 53 N
Feb 9.A S 49 NW
Mar 10.1 S 53 NW
Apr 10.4 S 56 NW
May 9.6 S 43 sw
Jun 9.2 S 47 s
Jul 8.5 S 56 sw
Aug 8.2 S 42 sw
Sep 8.2 S 47 NW
Oct 8.2 s 45 NW
Nov 8.7 s 48 w
Dec 9.0 s 51 NE
Annual 9.1 s 56 NW
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Comr.erce, 197 7
Mountain Standard Time JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JVN JUL AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC annual
O'r.' mph; Dir. ,^h r. mph Dir. aph Cir. mph Cir. mph Cir. *ph Dir. P<>. mph
AM 1:0? 2:00 3: DC 4 :0j 5:03 e.o: 7:00 8:00 9 ;QC 10:00 11:00 12:0C 5 7.2 S 7.2 5 7.2 S 7.2 S 7.2 S 7.3 S 7.5 S 7.5 S 7.7 S 7.7 S 8.0 5 8.3 S 6.5 S 6.5 S 6.9 S 6.6 5 C. 7 s 6 e S 6.8 S 7.0 S 7.3 S 7.6 S 8.2 I.E f».F S 6.9 S 6.9 S 6.8 S 6.B S 6.8 l fc. 0 S 0.9 5 7.0 S 7.5 S 8.0 N 8.7 N 9.5 5 7.0 s 6.e 5 6.8 S 6.7 S 6.5 S 6 5 S 6 .fc 5 6 9 .« 7 4 N 8 0 •»E 8.6 -IE 9.4 S 6 5 S 6 3 S 6.0 S 5 8 S 5.7 S 5.7 S 5.7 S 6.2 S 6.8 N 7.6 i.E 6.3 NE C.S 5 6.3 5 fc.) S 5.9 S 5.7 5 5.5 5 5.3 S 5.3 S 5.7 S 6.1 N 6.7 NE 7 6 NE 6.3 5 6.3 S 6.1 S 5.7 S 5 4 S 5.2 S 5.1 5 5.0 S 5.1 S 5.5 U 5.5 NE 6.5 NE 7.2 S 6.2 S C.C 5 5.9 S 5.6 S 5.5 S 5 j :. i S c » :it 5.4 III 6 3 NE E ) S 6.3 5 6.3 S 6.’ S 6 r '• 6. •: S 5.9 S 5.9 S 5 C S 5.7 r> 5.Q '.t 6.5 NE 7.1 S 6.7 S 6.5 S 6.5 S 6.4 S 6.5 S 6.6 s •: .6 5 6.4 S 6.4 5 6.5 Nl 7.0 Nr 7.6 S 7.0 S 7.1 S 7 1 S 7.2 S 7.3 S 7.3 S 7.4 S 7.4 S 7.4 S 7.1 S 7 4 S 7.0 S 7.3 S 7.4 S 7.4 S 7.5 S 7.5 5 7.6 j 7.6 S 7.7 S 7.7 S 7.7 S 7.5 5 5.1 5 6 7 S 6.6 S 6.5 5 6.4 S ( 4 S 6.4 S 6.4 S C.S S 6.7 S 7.0 NE 7.6 •il 8.2
PM 1:00 2:00 3:00 4 00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8 00 9:00 10 :0C 11 :o: 1? ;0C S 9.1 •*«£ 9.3 HI 9 5 H 9.1 HE 8.4 NE 7.7 S 7.3 S 7.1 S 7.1 S 7.1 S 7.2 S 7.1 ••£ 9.5 NE 10.0 NE 10.1 •»E 1C. 2 at 9.7 •If 8 3 N 7.2 S 6.7 S 6 9 5 IP S 6.6 S 6.9 .<£ 10.2 •1 10.7 HE ll.C HE 11.2 NW 11.1 •i 10.1 il 0.7 N 7.8 S 7.1 S 6.9 5 6.9 S 6.9 Hi 10 2 NE 10.6 NF 10.9 l.E 11.2 i>E 11.2 H 10.6 flE 9.3 A 6 4 SW 7.7 S 7 4 5 7.1 S 7.0 NE 9.6 ..E 10.3 NE 1C.6 UW 10.6 • • hen t: 1*3 Data ftaurcai U. I. VaatKar luruu
ltf] ty :s>i. U^tloa af Wind Vanaai Dovatovn Danvar, rooftop alovatloaa at or Mar Itela Foot Offlca
WIND DATA


Solar T in.e A.H. Solar Position Dir ect Normal Irradiation, P.tuh/sa ft Solar Heat Cain ractors, Btuh/sq ft Sol ar T lae P.M.
Alt. Azimuth N NT F SF S sv V NV Hot .
SITMfcfER 5 4.2 117.3 21 10 21 20 f i i 1 i 2 7
6 14.R 19B.4 154 47 142 151 70 12 12 12 12 39 6
June- 21 7 26.0 99.7 215 37 172 207 122 21 20 20 20 97 5
R 37.4 90.7 246 29 156 215 152 29 26 26 26 153 4
9 46.6 80.2 262 33 1)3 192 161 45 31 31 31 20) 3
in 59.8 65.8 272 35 62 145 146 6? 36 35 35 237 2
11 69.2 41.9 276 37 40 BO 116 RR 41 37 37 260 3
12 73.5 0.0 278 38 3P 41 7) 95 71 41 38 267 12
Half Oav Totals 242 714 1019 610 311 197 181 1R0 1121
WINTER P 5.5 53.0 RR 2 7 67 83 49 3 2 2 6 4
9 14.0 4) .9 217 9 10 115 205 J 51 12 9 9 39 3
Pet 21 10 20.7 2».4 26) 14 14 113 ?!? 210 55 14 14 77 *> )
11 25.0 15.2 270 IN 16 56 217 242 120 16 16 103 1
12 26.6 n.n 264 17 17 ]6 177 253 177 16 17 1)3 12
Half Da v Totals 40 54 3*0 *11 781 773 50 49 2R2
lot*] so]*r heat pains for DS < 1 /B in.) aheet plans. Based on a pround reflectance of 0.20
Benrinted fror- ASHKAf "Mandhoot o' fundamentals, 1°"’2
FACING EAST
FACING WEST
FACING SOUTH
40° NORTH LAI
tmmm HEAT GAIN ON UNSHADED WINDOWS
-----HEAT GAIN WITH SHADES
llllllllll HEAT BLOCKED
iOLAR HEAT GAIN FACTORS FOR 40° N LAT.


SOLAR DIAGRAMS


FACADE ORIENTATIONS INSOLATION ON WALL (Btu/dayl
a b c d Total
• r-t-i • A 118 84 168 118 236 508 722 361 1016 508 1630 1160 2320 1630 3260 508 722 361 1016 508 2764 2668 3210 3780 4612
* * - J71 di c h c —c—' 1 | c DOUBLE B c DOUBLE C
f © $ ^ TOUej ' DOUBLE C 123 . 87 174 123 246 828 1180 590 1656 828 1490 1060 2120 1490 2980 265 376 188 530 265 2406 2703 3072 3799 4319
. yx rX 8 / X/* X/ XX double 8 ' DOUBLE C 127 90 180 127 254 1174 1670 835 2348 1174 1174 835 1670 1174 2348 127 180 90 254 127 2602 2775 2775 3903 3903
J kAcPft s \ c\^ \^> DOUBLE B b DOUBLE C 265 188 376 265 530 1490 2120 1060 2980 1490 828 590 1180 828 1656 123 174 87 246 123 2406 3072 2703 4319 3799
BUILDING SIZES: RELATIVE WALL AND FLOOR AREAS.
Variation A Variation B or C Variation douWa B or ctoubla C
i If

1.42 *
2f

Relative irradiation on buildings of different shape and orientation — January 21, 40°N latitude. Listed values represent the irradiation on walls of a hypothetical building with w ■ 1 square foot. To get the daily irradiation on a building of similar shape with w - 100 square feet, multiply these numbers by 100
NSOLATION ON WALLS


INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
RADIANT
WINTER HEATING
CONVECTED
SUMMER CONDITIONING DEHUMIOIFIED AIR COOLED AIR CIRCULATED AIR
HOUSEHOLD ODORS
VIEW (VISION OUT)
ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION
PRODUCTIVE SOUND
INHABITANTS
WASTE WATER
ELECTRICITY
WALL
4
â– >
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
WINTER INSOLATION
WINTER AIR TEMPERATURE (STILL AIR)
WINTER WINDS <
3
a
1
SUMMER INSOLATION 4-
SUMMER AIR TEMPERATURES (STILL AIR) SUMMER BREEZE
SUMMER HUMIDITY
PRECIPITATION (RAIN. SNOW ETC )

ODORS
UNPLEASANT
DUST
ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION
NOISE
VISITORS FRIENDS
EMPLOYEES
CUSTOMERS
INTRUDERS. THIEVES
PRIVACY (VISION IN)
WINTER SUNSHINE (VISIBLE WAVE BAND)
Z
3
SNOWGLARE
VERMIN INSECTS POLLENS MICRO-ORGANISMS
NUCLEAR POLLUTION
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS TO CONSIDER


PROCESS FOR ENERGY SYSTEMS DESIGN
The process of thermal design should fit into the overall building design process, thereby evolving from the more general to the specific.
My approach will consider energy conservation measures, passive heating and cooling techniques, and active hot water heating systems for both the community center and the housing units. My specific goal in regard to the housing is to supply at least 50% of the annual space heating needs and 75% of the domestic hot water needs through the energy systems’ design.
The first section will provide information on passive solar strategies and guidelines for conservation techniques.
The following section provides relatively quick methods for estimating the impacts of design decisions on thermal performance. The method is intended as an iterative approach where adjustments can easily be made and assessed. Once the important characteristics of the building are established, several different approaches can be taken depending on the type of information that is known. Differnet parameters can be made variable to look at their affect on thermal performance. These building parameters are as follows:
a. gross floor area and perimeter length
b. number of stories
c. R-values of componets
d. Floor SystemCslab, basement,crawl space)
e. Rough percentage of wall area devoted to windows
The procedure is intended to give results within 10% of a detailed calculation, and will show the percentage that each building element contributes to the total thermal load. Once the building load coefficient (BLC) has been determined, this figure can be used to estimate the building’s balance point temperature by relating the BLC to the internal heat gains generated within the building and solar gains. From this balance point temperature, one can establish whether the building is load or skin dominated and to what extent.
The final section gives the month by month detailed evaluation (SLR) of a chosen design, in order to judge the probable performance of the energy systems design.


Multi-Family Passive Housing
Solar Tips for Architects
Multi-family is different
Even within a particular climate, what works well in one building is often inappropriate to another. Architects must adapt passive solar principles to a wide variety of building types and configurations, each with its own opportunities and constraints.
Houses are skin-dominated. They use energy mainly to overcome heat loss or gain through walls, windows, and roofs. Office buildings, on the other hand, are usually internal-load-dominated. Energy use is often largely for lighting and cooling to remove heat from bodies, lights, and equipment.
Multi-family buildings, of which there are many types, have energy characteristics that fall somewhere between offices and houses. They tend to use less energy for space heating than their single-family counterparts. This is because shared party walls make it easy to achieve heat-loss rates per square foot of space that rival single-family superinsulation. Heat from bodies, lights, and appliances can then satisfy a large percentage of space heating needs and relatively small passive solar systems can make large contributions to remaining heat loads.
But space heating is not the whole story. While shared walls cut heat loss, they may also result in poor natural light and crossventilation. Internal heat gains and unwanted solar gains may cause overheating and high cooling costs during the spring, summer, and fall. And as heating loads shrink, it becomes harder to justify the costs of solar space heating.
In multi-family design, close attention to lighting, shading, and ventilation is critical. Passive solar features can cut energy use and improve thermal and visual comfort. But misguided solar solutions may merely trade heating bills for cooling bills.
After a few years in the trenches, most professionals build up a stock of insights, rules of thumb, and pet peeves. Roily Rouse is no exception, and what follows is his personal list. It is frankly unsystematic and fraught with opinion—also very useful.
Energy conservation
• Good conservation means more them just lots of insulation. It requires attention to detail and use of high-quality products that won’t degrade over time.
• Think about thermal comfort, not just energy savings. Insulate under slabs-on-grade whether or not you think it is cost-effective. It is most certainly necessary for good thermal comfort in low-energy buildings.
Windows
• Don’t overemphasize use of south glass. Direct sunlight is often desirable for its own sake. East windows let in morning sun; west windows give rooms a warm afternoon glow.
• Place windows for excellent daylight, ventilation, and views, as well as for solar gain. Don’t eliminate north windows just because they are net losers of heat. They also let through desirable light and breezes without increasing cooling loads.
• For good cross-ventilation, put about half the area of operable windows in the walls that face prevailing summer winds as in the leeward walls.
Earth-sheltering
• Use earth berming or sheltering only if it is also desired for architectural or programmatic reasons. Building well below grade often costs as much or more than superinsulated frame construction above grade and can limit design options.
Air-to-air heat exchangers
• Forget about through-the-wall heat exchangers. They cost too much and don't work very well. Use stacked central heat exchangers, if any. These too are overpriced.
Appliances
• Use energy-efficient appliances. (Otherwise you'll never be able to justify spending money on sunspaces.) Even if your tenants or buyers don’t really care, you’ll sleep better at night knowing you did the right thing
Setting design priorities
• Balance passive solar design issues with other important architectural concerns. Windows are not just sources of heat. Sometimes solar "experts’’ seem to forget that homes are not built to save energy, but for people to live in. Conservation and solar features are neither easy add-ons nor paramount concerns. Trade-offs are necessary.
Climate
• Learn more about the climate and microclimate. But remember, Mother Nature is a fickle friend indeed. "Averages” almost always lie. Designs that are very flexible in their response to climate outperform ones based on a rigid response to average conditions.
• Don’t rely too much on radiation data. It is, in most cases, based on extrapolations from data produced by a few poorly instrumented, poorly maintained sites. Besides, variations from long-term monthly averages are often enormous.


Shading
• Fixed overhangs frequently don’t work very well. At best, they only do the right thing on “average" days and "average” months. A better solution is operable awnings used with indoor roller shades or Venetian blinds.
• Deciduous trees may make a monkey out of you by blocking needed sunlight. They can, however, provide excellent shading and natural cooling while cutting glare. If the building isn't too tall, deciduous trees provide effective and beautiful shading for east and west windows.
Trombe walls
• Until new evidence to the contrary emerges, forget about Trombe walls. They are typically expensive, complicate construction, and provide only modest energy savings. They provide little sugar to help the medicine go down, so long playbacks are unacceptable.
Movable insulation
• Hedge your bets on movable window insulation. Tenants may lack commitment to energy conservation and often prefer to choose their own window treatments. It may be best to use triple or low-emissivity glazing on all windows, including those facing south, and to encourage tenants to purchase insulating shades or drapes on their own.
Sunspaces
• Find any excuse you can to use sunspaces. In private-sector projects, they may well have am instantaneous playback, regardless of energy savings. Nevertheless, try to design sunspiaces that are both marketable and energy-saving. Don’t feel compelled to glaze the entire wadi and be wary of sliders and slopied glass. Teach tenants to opierate sunspiace systems piropierly.
• Consider replacing double-loaded corridors with passive solar atria.
Mechanical systems
• Make sure the mechamical engineers talk to the architect from the outset and that HVAC systems are efficient amd propierly sized.
Performance analysis
• Don’t just amalyze energy use for spiace heating. Look at lighting, ventilation, and cooling, too.
• Beware of estimated “solar savings fractions." They are often misleading and tend to distract designers from the real problem—lowering total energy costs while improving the quality of the indoor environment.
• Learn about thermal comfort and daylighting.
• Treat aimenity as pairt of pierformance. Amenities may be difficult to quantify, but are often the most valuable and marketable aspect of passive solar apartments.
Analyzing costs
• Exercise caution when analyzing added costs. Incremental cost analysis can be extremely misleading. The base case may be unrealistic, costs or cost credits may go unclaimed, and the whole frequently costs less than the sum of the parts. Costestimating is as much an art as a science. The Energy Office, for instance, compiared total construction costs in the solar projects it sponsored with costs in similar non-solar state-financed elderly housing. Extra costs for solar were statistically insignificant and rarely matched estimated incremental costs.
Cost-effectiveness
• Beyond a certain point, it makes more sense to invest your money in better workmanship, in nice details that show, than in added insulation, regardless of its "cost-effectiveness" in saving energy.
• Perhaps we should all banish the word "cost-effective" from our vocabularies. It usually needs to be festooned with so many caveats as to be utterly meaningless. Instead, we might use words like "excellent," “balanced," or “well-designed.”


State of the Art:
Passive
Cooling
mJNf^VlU^ALA-OUfeil?* CONDITIONS fO^ J0H&
70 75 30 35 <\o ^5 |oo
I7KY euue tgMP&«ATUR&/ °P
Figure 1. Bioclimatic chart after Milne and Givoni, showing the zones of effectiveness of three passive coding strategies: direct ventilation, V; night-ventilated thermal mass, M; and evaporative cooling, EC. The temperature/humidity conditions are plotted for an average June day in Huntsville, Alabama. From the coldest time of day, 6 am, to 9 am, conditions are in the comfort zone. From 9 am to 8 pm, it is too hot. Comfort can be achieved inside through ventilation or thermal mass. From 8 pm to just before 6 am, conditions are once again in the comfort zone.
From earth tubes to roof ponds, with many choices in between, solar design offers practical ways to cool buildings naturally.
By Jerry Germer
It was a shortage of heating oil 11 winters ago that started the ball rolling for solar energy, and active and passive solar heating have devoured the lion's share of research and development dollars to date. Passive cooling, long used in countries with few energy resources and extreme cooling problems, got a late start in industrial nations. An international conference at Miami in 1981 was the first to draw together researchers and designers to focus on passive and low-energy strategies for cooling houses and small buildings.
In the three years since the conference, work hits quietly continued at research centers such as the Florida Solar Energy Center, Trinity University (San Antonio), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and the University of Arizona. None of these efforts has yielded a cooling cure-all. but the frontiers of passive and hybrid cooling have been breached. Research results occasionally trickle down to the building site. Radiant barriers (Solar Age, 7/84, p. 34) find shading systems (8/84, p. 38) are just two examples.
Cooling through natural processes is harder to understand and accomplish than solar heating. Strategies that work in some climates and seasons make matters worse in others. Some seem promising but have yet to make much impact on the mainstream of skin-load commercial buildings and include:
• Roof ponds. Insulated from solar radiation during the day, they absorb heat from the living space and radiate it to the night sky when uncovered. They work best when skies are clear and the diurnal temperature swing is large. But they suffer some practical drawbacks. They are costly and limited to flat roofs, and they require heavy construction. "People don't like water over their heads," says John Yellott, veteran solar engineer and researcher. Failures found in
Jerry Germer, AI A, is an associate editor at Solar Age.
a recent study of 14 projects around the country include standing water, frozen drains, defective flashing, liners that leak (from installers walking on them), bags punctured fin one case, rodents had chewed on the bag). Also, the movable insulation required above the water is prone to failure, particularly in cold weather, when it may freeze in one position or be covered by snow and ice. Still, roof ponds work in certain applications and Yellott believes they have a future.
• Roof spray systems. Cooling the roof through evaporation by spraying it with a
water mist has not found wide acceptance, except in a few one-story open-bay industrial buildings, where radiant barriers are not feasible. But the managers of these large-roof buildings are wary of roof deterioration through constant exposure to water and the expansion and contraction that roof temperature swings of up to 100°F incur.
Other cooling tacks are under study. Gene Clark, a physicist at Trinity University, is working on radiant-panel cooling. A fluid, chilled by refrigeration, circulates in a metal panel mounted in the wall. T e


The Wagner house, Palo Alio, Calif., is designed to be cooled by natural ventilation. Breezes enter at the ground level, rise by the slack effect, and are drawn out the cupola at the top of the tuxxind-a-half-story living room. William T. Meyer, AIA, San Francisco.
panels cool people directly by absorbing radiant body heat. Clark says people report feeling comfortable even when the air temperature is 95°F. A passive version of this strategy uses water cooled by trickling down the roof at night and stored in a tank. Look also for developments in seasonally stored cooling in the future.
• Earth tube*. To deliver effective cooling to occupied space, earth-tube systems must have soil temperatures sufficiently lower than the space to be cooled. And they need enough length to cool the transient air. Soil temperatures favor earth-tube cooling during the short—but often severe— cooling season of the Midwest. But in much of the South, where there is a longer need for cooling, soil temperatures are too warm for this strategy to make sense. Earth tubes are limited by high cost, tricky design, and difficult insulation. Microorganisms and radon gas borne by the humid air emerging from perforated tubes may pose a healthy concern (who needs yet another one?).
But what of the present? Between the untried and the impractical there are tried-and-proven low-energy measures that can either produce thermal comfort or at least reduce dependence on costly mechanical cooling. The two general approaches, in order of cost-effectiveness, are load avoidance and passive cooling.
Load avoidance
As with solar heating, conservation first. Cutting heat transmitted through the walls and roof to a minimum should be the first line of defense in any cooling climate. Radiant barriers, particularly in the roof, reduce radiative solar heat gains effectively in regions where cooling is the chief annual concern ("Radiant Barriers," Solar Age, 7/84). Moving farther north, winter heating becomes the dominant problem, requiring thermal insulation to prevent conductive losses to the outdoors. Enough insulation for winter heating is probably more than enough for the cooling season.
Shielding openings against solar penetration is of paramount importance. Direct solar rays are the worst offender, but reflected and diffuse radiation also add substantial heat. Exterior shading devices block the most gain, followed by exterior window shade screens, films, and tinted (heat-absorbing) glass (“Dodging the Heat in Dixie," Solar Age, 8/84).
White or reflectiveed interior shades may help, but colored blinds, shades, and drapes have little effect, since they only absorb heat already inside the building. Reflective glass also works, blocking solar gain in proportion to its reflectivity.
Passive cooling
After beefing up the building envelope to minimize the cooling load, there are three practical passive cooling means: thermal
mass, ventilation, and evaporative cooling. But they are not interchangeable. Each works under specific climatic conditions.
One quick way to choose the right cooling strategies in the schematic stage is the bioclimatic chart (“Notebook,” 2/84). Plotting average maximum and minimum dry-bulb temperatures for each month, and the relative humidities that coincide with these temperatures, will give you an idea of when each strategy will produce comfort, and when mechanical cooling must make up the deficit Months with overheated periods are plotted in the bioclimatic chart for Huntsville, Alabama, in Figure 1.
• Ventilation. Within the ventilation zone "V" on the chart, comfort is possible if you move enough air through the building to evaporate sufficient skin moisture, even though dry-bulb temperatures exceed comfort levels. This occurs for temperatures up to 90°F, if relative humidity (RH) is less than 50 percent, and up to about 85°F if the RH is 80 percent. These conditions prevail for the northernmost parts of the Northeast and Northwest for most of the summer, the Midwest to Atlantic coast in spring and fall, and the Southeast for much of the year.
With skillful design of the walls and roof, you can capture natural ventilation through the stack effect (temperature differences) or prevailing winds (pressure differences). When neither is enough, you can use fans to do the job ("Whole-House Fans for Low-Cost Cooling," 4/83).
• Thermal Mass. If the interior walls and floors are concrete or masonry, they can provide comfort when conditions are in the zone marked "M." To do this, ventilate the building at night with cool outside air and close it during the day. The cled building mass absorbs radiant heat (from people) and convectively cools the inside air.
Climate conditions that favor thermal mass occur where night temperatures fall below 68°F. This happens in the transition seasons for much of the country. But even when buildings have to be closed and totally mechanically conditioned, cooling the mass with off-peak power at night can reduce energy costs substantially.
• Evaporative cooling. The effective zone of evaporative cooling, “EC," extends up to 104°F if the wet-bulb temperature is lower than 71°F (or RH is less than about 16 percent). These conditions are not as widespread as those for ventilation and thermal mass except in the West, where summers are dry. "Swamp coolers," which seem to dot the roofs of almost every Phoenix house, economically remove latent heat in all but the two hottest months. But they add humidity as the tradeoff for cooler ai-.
Two-stage evaporative coolers (two single-stage units in series) have a wider range of operating conditions, but at a higher cost Indirect evaporative coolers (a singlestage unit combined with a heat exchanger) are gaining ground. Though they deliver dry air, they still require mechanical air conditioning for the most extreme periods in Phoenix. Jeffrey Cook, Arizona State University architecture professor, believes their cost will come down and electric rates will go up when a nearby nuclear power plant comes on line. This will give a push to devices with lower operating costs.
The last resort
Buildings vary in the extent to which they can be effectively cooled by passive strategies alone. But if they are thoughtfully designed to minimize cooling loads and take advantage of passive strategies, they can sharply reduce or even eliminate mechanical cooling. ^


Indirect ThtnnaA ipajx
ttujfimc Optreuicvn jhf-
WcUt as 5ti,ro£jc^ (S>tltcti'oC' n <5var&n,o
OUtUt/ 6olltdt> Wed- dlurirc^ Hn*- detej one! rrdicdt-i) htccr to inixriov^ cut- ntcjhf
llwncU 'tftrzqc Fad- f£pf Tbnd


fcnctpvoJ V\&qrdJ(Y\^ ftntrc^uj
Virrct - pi^trihond Mctt>
UcjhnjoeJQht' • ujcll t r>^oicUtd Dcftnor WojU^
Hkxvcj \v\ujncr ^tnxtor^ ^prxod oot
Irvsolzu-^ (ZcHnor uuaAl*>
toatif of nrriwrcj
shcoid oJlloco cur thrrxx/h^"
arDOrd *
fonctniroctid


ftx&jwjc ^o\cur Kgcurrx| Tzchni^uez pi red f^fx/w^-i) Dbtri borsd ^ £cr> c in tTTXUd H
indirect •
1") ThcrmcU 6tc>ra^c (joclU tbtrfTDd ^crz>^c poof
Iceland
i) 6ont)poO il
^ Thermo pher^ &>nv/eaiv/t_ Uoep.
fooling Tec^i
0 foior (Control Z) Miqht vintfnC|
3) fonv/ecrivc fooling
^VOpOrCLtt (^DOlin
5 ) pcudir)Lchvc o\incj
(c^ 6rtX)nd CooUnCj
Adlvl ^q^fbm.
i5drur LOanr ttyaJim 6_pam


^un6ptA
Yrz^ Id [n
-6om(rnr
gctonor^ Vaite fcr >$unnmty tfX>ll'
^or\ cojt\ t*_, c^x2.d (n thntc functioned uoaxj^:
0 ymr" f^cond i_4vincj ^pzxcc^’ w>nr£ rr&zr> / limit" C»s/£rK2.£xd CjleLZJnCj } £0^1" t toc/bt n£jp>
2) i^ojt Htcu’LT -for 'buildmC| • \oooer v^cc^ dc/y’cjn 60 mod- htcur oy^ men. (^0fcWc| into |iv/inj 6ppxc , vmtllconon frApertO-nt:
*T) 6tr\cot> 6r^cnVx3j6o production - -Hit cjlazincj , o^c noac") to conwo\ umpmuvrt tMirYj , evtn \iqht cbtribotiom


CONSERVATION MEASURES
"Proper site orientation
-Sun controls; balance need for winter gains with summer cooling (with special attention to overheating problem in simmer)
-insulated for maximum efficiency
-Optimum shapes; ratios for height, width and length based on k0° latitude
a. South receives twice as much irradiation in winter as in summer
b. East and West walls receive 2 l/2 times more irradiation in summer than winter
c. optimum form for latitude is elongated along east-west axis -Careful placement and size of aperatures based on orintaion and function -Strive to warm and cool room surfaces (radiant temperatures)
-Impact of ground refectance on building -Impact landscaping
-Exterior color related to heating and cooling needs -Use of berming
-Use of thermal mass to control temperature swings
-Airlock entries
-Daylighting
-Control of interior air flows and infiltration -Detailing


bdzUrad -euoiwv- TWrwoiphcn
fcr fbrelu patraoe appUccUicrt aslUotr moot-
t*, IcCOJfad N,1dlo •feVtaro.cjt. ^ hot tX| ottrcj
fa.no the cur Kuuid to flno tollfOtr'
tx, CcOttotlt) trtontft/rtd tt> hV* efcr^t nntdlonrv Fade txd art. t^pcoJ -tojpo of +Umye> OTcr^jc bf thto
z~-
Mcdtl •6tcr&c(
-Kicdt. n oc?\lffctor
Medem uoedd 10 ^|p5^ toildincj donnq dcuj fcr 'erorrcjt :hz3utj\nc|
b-
Ftui o^ed to "po\ l tuxrrr\ cur dctor\ into neck- btd


DESIGN GUIDELINES WORKSHEET CONSERVATION LEVELS
CF
conservation factor, from map or table
Solar incremental cost *
$/ft2
Rwall * (CPwall
) x (CF
^ceiling 3 ^pceiling *
) x (CF
pperimeter 3 ^pperimeter *
) x (CF
Rbasement 3 ^pbasement
) x (CF
ne,w,n 3 ) x (CF
.) -5 - 8
ACH = (CPACH 3 _________)/(CF * __________)
SOLAR PROJECTED AREA, Ap Floor area *__________ ft2 (Af)
NLC * (CPS01 ar 3 _________) x (Af 3 _________)/(CF = _________) = ________ Btu/°F day
LCR 3 _________ Btu/°F ft2 day from map or table
Ap 3 (NLC 3_____________)/(LCR 3 ___________) - __________ ft2


PROCEDURE FOR PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF CONSERVATION LEVELS AND SOLAR COLLECTION AREA
CONSERVATION LEVELS
Step 1. Look up conservation factor (CF) from the map
Step 2. Estimate the cost of the passive system per sq ft of net solar
glazing (or use $10/ft2 1f uncertain).
Step 3. Determine cost factors from the table.
Step 4. Determine appropriate conservation levels from the following formulas:
Rwall ■ CPwall • CF wall Insulation R-value
^ell 1ng ■ CPcefung • CF celling Insulation R-value
Rper1meter * CPper1meter • CF - 5 perimeter Insulation R-value
Rbasement * CPbasement * CF - 8 basement Insulation R-value
nE,W,N "'CPe.W.N * CF number of glazings (E,W,N)
ACH » CP^ch/CF air changes per hour
SOLAR COLLECTION AREA, Ap
Step 1. Find an appropriate value of CPsofar'from the table.
Step 2. Estimate the net load coefficient (NLC) from the equation
NLC â–  CPsoiar x Af/CF
where Af » floor area.
Step 3. Look up load collector ratio, LCR, from the-map
Step 4. Calculate Ap » NLC/LCR.


GUIDELINE MAPS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN
Conservation Levels (CF)
Load Collector Ratio (LCR)
GUIDELINE VALUES
Low Fuel Cost Hi gn Fuel Cost
CF LCR SSF(t) CF LCR SSF(l)
DENVER, COLORADO 1.27 3b t>7 1 .52 19 7b
GFOHiTRY FACTOR, Gf
Number of Stories
Floor
Area 1 2 3 4
1UOO 7.3
1SOU 6.S 6.7
3000 5.4 5.4 5.7
SOOO 4.9 4.7 4.9 5.1
louoo 4.3 4.0 4.0 4.2
20000 3.9 3.5 3.5 3.5
GF • Af
NLC *---------
cr
there GF Is 4 geometry lector that accounts for the relative dimensions of the building end Af is the gruss lloor area. Suggested values of CF are given in lable 2.


TABLES
The CP are cost parameters that depend on Incremental costs of both conservation and passive solar. Suggested values are as follows*
Cost of Passive System, $/ft2
5 10 15 20 25
CPwall 10 14 17 20 22
excelling 13 18 22 26 29
CPper1meter 9 13 16 18 20
CPbasement 11 16 20 23 26
CPE,W,N 1.2 1.7 2.0 2.3 2.6
CPACH 0.60 0.42 0.34 0;30 0.26
Suggested values of the solar cost parameter, CPsoiar, for different building configurations and passive solar costs are as follows:
Cost of Passive System, $/ft2
Floor
Area Stories 5 10 15 20 25
1,000 1 10.3 7.3 5.9 5.1 4.6
1,500 1 9.1 6.5 5.3 4.6 4.1
3.000 1 7.7 5.4 4.4 3.8 3.4
5,000 1 6.9 4.9 4.0 3.4 3.1
10,000 1 6.1 4.3 3.5 3.0 2.7
20,000 1 5.5 3.9 3.2 2.8 2.5
1,500 2 9.4 6.7 5.4 4.7 4.2
3,000 2 7.6 5.4 4.4 3.8 3.4
5,000 2 6.6 4.7 3.8 3.3 3.0
10,000 2 5.6 4.0 3.2 2.8 2.5
20,000 2 4.9 3.5 2.8 2.5 2.2
3,000 3 8.1 5.7 4.6 4.0 3.6
5,000 3 6.9 4.9 4.0 3.4 3.1
10,000 3 5.7 • 4.0 3.3 2.9 2.6
20,000 3 4.9 3.5 2.8 2.5 2.2
5,000 4 7.2 5.1 4.2 3.6 3.2
10,000 4 5.9 4.2 3.4 3.0 2.7
20,000 4 5.0 3.5 2.9 2.5 2.2


The following solar-access design process is divided into four steps: determination of the solar window, solar-access strategies, solar energy systems strategies, and solar-access analysis.
1. Determination of the solar window
a. Determine the solar-access design day of the year (typically December 21 or the coldest day).
b. Determine the desired hourly duration of sunshine (typically 4 to 8 hours during the design day).
c. Identify governing altitude and azimuth angles associated with the duration of sunshine to determine shadow and shading patterns.
d. Determine true south. You can do this by observing the north star or by using a compass. Check the isogonic chart for magnetic variations (refer to Appendix A, Figure A-12).
e. Establish range of building orientations (determine ofT-axis orientation adjustments by revising shadow patterns) and topographical effects.
2. Solar-access strategies
a. Identify any local site obstructions to the solar window (trees, buildings, mountain formations, etc.).
b. Establish a method for determining context protection (bulk-plane, solar-envelope, solar-fence, etc.).
c. Determine desired density and associated levels of solar access (roof, south wall, east-west wall, south lot, or other).
SOLAR ACCESS


3. Solar energy systems strategies
a. Determine preliminary energy balance (identifying emphasis on space heating, cooling, and/or conservation, etc.)- Identify heat load, energy-conservation concepts, and methods of solar collection.
b. Determine preliminary energy design strategies with location of south-facing windows and collectors (determine preliminary active and passive collector areas and thermal-mass volumes) and identify unit zoning concepts (east-west zoning, north-south zoning, etc.).
c. Identify relationships of solar collectors to mass and determine solar-access requirements for thermal mass.
4. Solar-access analysis
a. Ensure that context protection has been achieved (compare building forms with solar envelope or building shadows with solar fence).
b. Ensure that internal protection has been achieved. Construct building-shadow patterns based upon the above items (look for shading on internal thermal mass, south-facing windows, and other solar collectors).


SOLAR HOT WATER SYSTEMS
The W-Chart published by the Solar Energy Design Corporation of America will be used to establish the optimum size of the active solar water heating systems for the apartments. These figures will influence decisions regarding the design and placement of necessary componets. Of primary importance will be deciding between a large concentrated arrangement, independent of each unit, or smaller individual systems related to each unit or group of units. My goal is to supple 75% of the hot water needs through this solar system.
The size of the active system for the community center's needs will be done in a separate calculation. My goal is to supply 50% of the yearly hot water needs of the center through an active system.
Daily hot water usage (140“F) for solar system design*
Category On* and Two Family Units 1/ and Apts up to 20 Units Apts, ot 2/ Apts, of 2/ 20-200 Units Over 200 Units
No. of People 2 3 4 5 6 — —
No. of Bedrooms 1 2 3 4 5 — —
Hot Water/Unit (gal./day) 40 55 70 65 100 40 35
1/ Assumes 20 gal. familv per person for first 2 people and 15 gal. per person tor additional
? From: H. G Worden and L. G Spielvogel: "Part II Sizing ol Service Water Heating E ,uipnmnt in Co>-mercial and Institutional Buildings.' ASHRAE Transactions Vol 75 Pll. 1969. p iv. 1.1.
' Adopted from HUD Minimum Property Standards for Solar Systems


BLC WORKSHEET
NET LOAD COEFFICIENT. NIC
BLNLOtNG FW In lha Blanka
ELEMENT FORMULA and Parlora AiUhmallo
WAUS : UAW • aw/rw m /
ROOF :UA,-A(/R, - _ /
B. W. N WINOOWS: UA„- an*un • - X -
FLOOR tUA,-A,/R, • /
PERMETER : UAp»4.1 Pp/(Rp ♦ 6) • 4.1 a _/C
BASEMENT :UAb- 107 Pb/(Rb*a) m 107 ■ il ♦ a)
MFLTRAT10N :UA,-OjOISV bAOR - ACM - 0.01a â–  . * â–  â–  -
EL£»24 i Sum
LOAD.
UA
Blu/V • h Blu7*P-

ESTIMATION DESIGN HEATING LOADS
The design heat load is the Building Load Coefficient times the temperature differential between indoor and outdoor design temperatues.
Design Heating Load = BLC x T (Btu/day)
This figure is the total heat required to maintain the building at the indoor design temperature in the absence of any internal heat generation or solar gains at the given outdoor design temperature. In addition, it is assumed that the solar wall loses no net energy.
A more conservative approach would be to provide auxiliary heating assuming that the solar wall loses heat based on a steady state conduction coefficient. These are given by the following table:
Steady-State Conduction Coefficient (Btu/hr sq ft of glazing)
Without Night With Night Insulation
Insulation R4 R9
Direct Gain 0.55 0.30 0.24
Trombe Wall (18") 0.22 0.15 0.12
Water Wall 0.33 0.20 0.17
Solar Wall Steady-State. Load Coefficient:
Lg= 24 hrs x (A x U) Btu/DD
L^. Lg x T (Btu/day)
Add L. , to Design Heating Load for the Total Design Load, xox
ESTIMATION BALANCE POINT TEMPERATURE
Internal Sources(Qint)-The daily internal heat generation by people, lights, appliances, equipment or any heat source other than an auxiliary heater or the sun. Unless other information is available, this can be taken equal to 20,000 Btu/day per person.
Tbal = Qint/BLC


SSF WORKSHEET
IPAQ COLLECTOR RATIO. tCW
LCR /Ap • __________/_________
WEtQHTED AVERAOE. SSF
PROJECTED
REFERENCE APERTURE
OE3IQN AREA
Siu/*F*day»h*
FRACTION SSF FOR EACH PROOUCT OF
OF Ap REFERENCE DESIGN SSF â–  FRACTION
TOTAL Ap-
8UM â– 
SSF â– 
AUXILIARY HEAT, Q,u,
Om, • (I - 8SF)»BIC«do*(I -_________H___________)*(_________) a 10"* ■ ________MBlu/yiw
LCR & D VS SSF
derrer COLORADO SSF * .1 .2 .3 .9 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9
W 136 63 39 27 20 15 11 7 .
39.T R L WVNI ?18 105 67 9 8 3T 29 29 19 13
6016 DD C TV 13? 61 38 25 17 12 8 5 3
T(JAR)t 30 R TVRI ?07 99 63 95 39 27 21 15 10
DC 1?7 5« 28 13 - - - • -
DGRI ??7 108 68 98 36 27 20 19 9
W 1?.9 11.1 9.6 8.9 7.1 5. 1 3.0 1.2 _
WRI 21.8 19.1 18.2 16.2 15.0 13.6 10.8 6.9 2.9
D TV 12.5 10.6 8.7 6.5 9.7 3.2 1.9 .9 -3
TVRI 20.2 18.2 16.5 15.1 13-3 10.6 7.5 9.6 1.9
DC 11.2 8.0 9.3 1. 1 - - - - -
DCRI 21.8 19.6 17.« 15.6 12.8 9.5 6.5 3.7 1.3
This table is based on particular reference designs which are defined on the following page.
For designs which are mixtures of different system types: (1) calculate a single LCR, based on the total load and the total combined collection area, (2) look up the resulting value of SSF for each of the system types, and (3) average between the table values for each type of system based on the relative proportions of glazed area of each.


Reference Passive System Designs
General
------- 2
Thermal storage capacity = 45 Btu/F ft of glazing
Other thermal mass of building is negligible
Double glazing, with normal transmittance = .747, spacing = 1/4 inch. Room temperature control range = 65 F to 75 F Night insulation (when used) is R9
In place 5 pm to 8 am (Trombe and water walls)
In place 5 pm to 7 am (Direct gain)
2
Thermal mess-to-room air conductance =1.0 Btu/F hr ft Masonry properties (Trombe walls and direct gain)
k = 1.0 Btu/ft hr F (thermal conductivity)
P = 150 lb/ft5 (density)
c = 0.2 Btu/lb F (specific heat)
Infrared emittance of mass surface = 0.9 No internal heat generation (from appliances, etc.)
Trombe Walls *
Wall has vents at top and bottom, with backdraft dampers Vent area = 3% of wall area (each of 2 vents)
Direct Gain
Mass is 6-inch thick masonry Mass area is 3 times glazing area
Transmitted solar radiation is uniformly distributed on mass Non-mass absorption fraction = 0.2 (heats air directly)
Additional Assumptions for LCR Method Vertical, south-facing glass Ground reflectance = 0.3 No shading of solar aperture Mass absorptance = 1.0 (thermal storage walls)
= 0.8 (direct gain)
*In cases of attached sunspaces use the table values for Trombe Walls


MONTHLY CALCULATION - THE SLR METHOD
A central tool in passive solar design analysis is the monthly calculation, or "SLR method," based on the monthly SLR correlations.
For ease in application to the monthly calculation, the SLR 1s expressed 1n terms of two quantities, LCR, which is a building parameter, and a monthly variable, S/DD, where S is the monthly solar radiation absorbed in the building per unit of projected area and DD is the monthly heating degree days.
A Step-By-Step Procedure
1. Obtain building information
a. Building load coefficient, BLC
b. Projected area, Ap
c. Load collector ratio, LCR = BLC/Ap
2. Obtain site and climate information
a. Latitude
b. Latitude minus mid-month declination, monthly (Appendix D)
c. Clearness ratio, monthly, Kj (Appendix D)
d. Incident solar radiation, horizontal surface, monthly (Appendix D)
e. Heating degree days, monthly, DD (Appendix D)
3. Obtain absorbed solar radiation, monthly, S (Appendix C or E)
4. Obtain monthly solar savings fractions, SSF
a. Calculate S/DD, monthly
b. Determine SSF, monthly, two options (Appendix C) i) Graphical, SSF-vs-S/DD curves
i 1) Analytical, equations for SLR and SSF
5. Calculate auxiliary heat requirement, Q
a. Monthly, Q = (1 - SSF) x BLC x DD
b. Annual, Q = sum of monthly Q
6. Calculate annual solar savings fraction, SSF = 1 - Q/(BLC x DD)


PROJECT WORK SHEET
Specifications
Project Name______________________________ Date__________________________________
Location__________________________________ Initials______________________________
Latitude _________
Night Insulation
Passive System Type Glazing Area R Value
________sq ft R__________
__________________________________________________ sq ft R__________
__________________________________________________ sq ft R__________
__________________________________________________ sq ft R__________
Total Area Ac =__________________sq ft
Thermostat Setting, Tset _________________F
Internal Heat Rate, Qint__________________Btu/day
Design Heating Load, _____________________Btu/hr
Design temperature: inside_____________ F, outside_________________F
Calculated Values
Building Load Coefficient, BLC____________Btu/DD, by Method 11 | , Method 2^
Load Collector Ratio, LCR = BLC/Ac ______________Btu/DD sq ft
Degree-Day Base Temperature for Non-solar Building, Tbns _________F
Degree-Days for Non-solar Building, DDns_________DO
Degree-Day Base Temperature for Solar Building, Tbs ______________F


The effective base temperature for the non-solar building, Tbns, is:
Tbns = Tset - Qint/BLC
Calculate Tbns and enter Tset and Tbns on the Project Work Sheet.
The AT due to internal heat generally will be less in the solar building than in the non-solar building because some of the internal-source heat passes out through the solar wall. This difference can be appreciable and can significantly effect the final SSF result.
In order to account properly for this effect it is appropriate to calculate a steady-state conduction coefficient for the solar wall. This can be done using U-values from the following table:
Steady-State Conduction Coefficient, Uc (Btu/hr sq ft of glazing).
Without Niqht With Night Insulation
Insulation R4 R9
Direct Gain 0.55 0.30 0.24
Trombe Wall (18") 0.22 0.15 0.12
Water Wall 0.33 0.20 0.17
Thus the effective base temperatur® of the solar building, Tbs, is given by:
Tbs = Tset - Qint/(BLC + 24 x Ac x Uc) where Uc is taken from the table above.


TABLE A SOLAR RADIATION ABSORBED PER SQUARE FOOT
T.nraMnn DENVER, CO Latitude Aperture Type _____ Collection Area Arl "1 ft-^
Column (1) (2) (3) (A) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
Either HS or VS X Days/Mon Btu Product of all Factors (1) x (8) S Btu
KT (CLEAR- NESS RATIO) F ORIENT F TRANS RAD MODS F ABS A A P
Hon L-D
non sq ft non sq ft
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun


LEGEND
HS = normal daily value of total hemispheric radiation incident on a
2
horizontal surface (Btu/ft day).
VS = normal daily value of total solar radiation incident on a vertical,
p
south-facing surface (Btu/ft day).
TA = (T . + T )/2 where T . and Tmav are monthly (or annual)
min max mm max
normals of daily minimum and maximum ambient temperatures (F).
Dxx = monthly (or annual) normals of heating degree-days below the base temperature xx (F days).
KT = average monthly (or annual) clearness ratio, i.e., the ratio of total hemispheric radiation incident on a horizontal surface to the extraterrestrial radiation incident on a horizontal surface.
LD = LAT-DEC, latitude minus mid-month solar declination (degrees).
TABLE
DENVER, COLORADO ELEV 5331 LAT 39.7
HS VS TA D50 D55 D60 D65 D70 KT LO
JAN 840 1465 30 623 778 933 1088 1243 .64 61
FEB 1127 1577 33 482 622 762 902 1042 .64 53
MAR 1530 1503 37 406 559 713 868 1023 .64 42
APR 1879 1227 48 130 240 379 525 675 .62 30
MAY 2135 1061 57 18 63 143 253 406 .62 21
JUN 2351 1037 66 1 5 23 80 158 .65 16
JUL 2273 1063 73 0 0 0 0 50 .64 18
AUO 2044 1188 72 0 0 0 0 69 .64 26
SEP 1727 1491 63 3 14 51 120 232 .66 38
OCT 1300 1657 52 63 143 261 408 559 .67 50
NOV 883 1441 39 324 469 618 768 918 .62 59
DEC 732 1323 33 540 695 849 1004 1159 .61 63
YR 1570 1334 50 2592 3588 4733 6016 7535 .64
EATHER DATA FOR LCR & SLR METHOD


TABLE B SOLAR SAVINGS FRACTION AND AUXILIARY ENERGY
Location DENVER, CO. System
Col. Mon m m (3) (M 15)
From Table A Col. (9) or W1 S Rr ii . From Appendix A or W2 DDs nn (1) f (2) S/DDs Btiu From Figs F-l to 6, Equations, J3, or W4 "Monthly SSF" [l-(4)] x (2 x BLC Qauxs 10^ Btu/mon
non sq ft rnon mon
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Total
BLC I I Btu/DD
DDns I I F day
LCR I I Btu/DD sq ft
Yearly SSF
SSF
EQauxs
Qauxns
Z(5)
BLCxDDns
Annual Auxiliary Heat


WORKSHEET W1 AREA-WEIGHTED SOLAR INPUT
FOR MULTIPLE SOLAR APERTURES Location ________________________
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Syst FlxSl + F2xS2 + Etc.
Area
SI S2 S3 S4 S
Tonst FI- F2- F3- F4-
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Sum


WORKSHEET W4 SOLAR SAVINGS FRACTIONS FOR MIXED SYSTEMS
Location __________________________
(1) (2) (3) (A) (5) (6)
Syst Area Table B Col (3) Flx(2) + F2x(3) + Etc,


S DD SSF1 R NI SSF2 R NI SSF3 R NI SSF4 R NI SSF Mixed System
lonst Fl= F2= F3= F4=
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Sum


ESTIMATING TEMPERATURE SWING FOR DIRECT GAIN BUILDINGS
During the final phase of design, it is necessary to do a detailed estimate of the building's interior temperature swing in direct gain cases, where this can be a potential problem. This temperature swing can be uncomfortably large if the LCR is small or the thermal storage is inadequate.
The foilwing is an estimating procedure which will account quantitatively for the important physical effects: thickness and material properties of the thermal storage materials, location of these materials, and orientation of-the surfaces. (Ref: Passive Solar Handbook II, p. 178—91)
Material
DIURNAL HEAT CAPACITY* 0> 0) 1 y.
(Btu/ft2 F) 4-> 0) H u 6 imesto Rock r* L> • H U •g a> .5 J £ 4> 3
U -J pa P* <
density (lb/ft3) 143 153 112 31 95 120
specific heat (Btu/lb F) 0.21 0.22 0.22 0.67 0.19 0.20
thermal conductivity (Btu/ft F hr) 1.0 0.54 0.40 0.097 0.19 0.332
Class 142 (direct) 1" 2.50 2.80 2.05 1.71 1.50 2.00
2" 4.99 5.52 4.04 2.96 2.90 3.92
3" 7.37 7.81 5.73 3.14 3.86 5.44
Daily Heat Stored 4" 9.47 9.17 6.74 2.93 4.14 6.20
Surface AT 6" 11.94 9.30 6.86 2.76 3.82 6.05
8" 12.14 8.63 6.36 2.77 3.62 5.62
12" 10.99 8.29 6.10 2.77 3.61 5.49
16" 10.65 8.33 6.13 2.77 3.62 5.52
Class 3 (indirect) 1" 2.28 2.48 1.91 1.58 1.43 1.86
2" 3.63 3.71 3.10 2.26 2.39 3.00
3" 4.21 4.05 3.54 2.21 2.70 3.39
Daily Heat Stored 4" 4.40 4.06 3.60 2.07 2.67 3.41
Room AT 6" 4.37 3.84 3.40 1.99 2.46 3.19
8" 4.22 3.69 3.24 2.00 2.38 3.05
12" 4.02 3.65 3.20 2.00 2.39 3.04
16" 4.00 3.66 3.21 2.00 2.39 3.04
•The wall is assured to be insulated on the back side, or to be back-to-back with another wall of the sane thickness having the same surface boundary condition.


Step 1
Calculate the surface area, A, of all building interior mass walls, floors, and ceilings and assign classification in accordance with the following criteria but being guided by the previous discussion.
Location __________________________________
The surface of any massive material which
receives some direct sun, except covered floor. Class 1
Covered floor (or any covered surface) Class 4
Walls which enclose a direct-gain room for Class 2
which the solar gains exceed the room daytime losses.
All ceilings, except in sealed rooms (such Class 2
as closets).
Walls which enclose other rooms which Class 3
communicate by convection with direct gain rooms.
Uncovered floor in direct-gain rooms Class 3
(not directly sunlit)
Floors other than in direct-gain Class 4
rooms.
All surfaces in closed-off rooms Class 4
In this listing, include gypsum board surfaces, and wood surfaces more than 1/2 inch thick. Do not include insulating materials such as fiberglass ceiling panels and walls covered with heavy fabric, rugs, or other insulation.
Step 2
For Class 1 surfaces, estimate the fraction of the solar day that the surface is sunlit, f, and the absorptance of the surface, a,.
The estimate need not be very precise. Absorptance values can be estimated visually using the following guide:
Very dark surfaces a = 0.8 to 0.9
Most surfaces a = 0.5 to 0.6
Light colored surfaces a, = 0.3 to 0.4


Step 3
Look up the diurnal heat capacity (dhc) of each Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 surface in Table F-l. Note that there are two dhc tables, one for Class 1 and Class 2 surfaces (direct), and another for Class 3 surfaces (indirect). For interior mass walls the effective wall thickness is one-half the total thickness and both surfaces should be counted.
Step 4
Calculate the Diurnal Heat Capacity (DHC) of each surface from the formula
DHC = A x (dhc) x (1 + oif) Class 1
DHC = A x (dhc) Class 2 and 3
DHC = 0 Class 4
Step 3
Estimate the heat capacity of the building furnishings. In lieu of other information, use 2 Btu/F per sq ft of floor space.
DHC = 2 x Afloor
Step 6
Sum the DHC values to obtain the Total Diurnal Heat Capacity (Total DHC) of the building interior.
Step 7
Use the following formula to estimate the January, clear-day temperature
swing:
AT(swing) = 0.733 x (collection area) x Qtran/(Total dHC)
where Qtran is as follows (for 1/8" double glass) Latitude Qtran (Btu/day sq ft)
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
1390
1443
1460
1445
1390
1287
1128
899
584


WORKSHEET
Surface type:
Area, in square feet
t (Class l)x(l*otn ' -----V---'
SPACE CROSS NET Class 4 Class 3 Class 2 Class 1 oC f














ZONING.




V.
r
K
s'
.
S'
V.
X0H90


PROJECT:CHEESMAN PARK CENTER
APPLICABLE ZONING CODE: ZONING ORDINANCE CITY ?< COUNTY OF DENVER
DIVISION a. R-3 DISTRICT
SEC. 59-177 Permitted Uses.
1) Uses by right.
c. Community center: shall have no outdoor public address system or any type of amplified music device;
d. Community recreational facility: shall have no outdoor public address system or any type of amplified music device; need not be enclosed
f.Dwel1ing, multiple unit;
SEC 59-178 Limitations on external effects of uses
1) Enclosure of uses. Every use, unless expressly exempt, shall be operated in its entirety within a completely enclosed structure; the exemption of a use from the requirement will be indicated by the phrase need not be enclosed."
SEC 59-179. Permitted structures
a) Zone lot for structures. A separate ground area, called the zone lot, shall be provided for each structure containing a use by right. Each zone lot shall have at least one front line and shall be occupied only by the structure containing a use by right. The zone lot for the fallowing structures shall provide at least the fallowing amounts of unobstructed open space which shall not include space provided for off-street parking:
1) each residential structure of one to three habitable stories, 20% of the area of the zone lot;
2) each residentaial structure of 4 or more habitable stories, 307. of the area of the zone lot.
Unobstructed open space may be decks having an average height and shall be utilized only for f aci 1 i t i es .
located on the ground and on roof of not more than six feet above grade landscaping and/or recreational
b) Location of structure, unobstructed.
The following setbacks shall be open and


1) Front Setback. All structures shall be set a distance o-f not less than 10 feet from each front line of the zone lot; provided, that detached accessory structures, except those detached accessory structures used as garages of for recreational or outdoor cooking and eating purposes or gas-fired incinerators, shall be set in a sufficient distance from each front line of the zone lot so that such structures are located only on the rear one-fourth of interior zone lots. The space resulting from the foregoing setbacks shall be used for landscaping and access ways to the use by right but shall bat be used for the parking of vehicles.
2) Rear Setback. If no alley abuts the rear line of the zone lot, all detached accessory structures and fixtures shall be set in a distance of not less than 5 feet and all other structures shall be set in a distance of not less than 20 feet.
3) Side Setback:
a) N/A
b) On zone lots 30 or more feet in width: structures, except as set forth in subsection 3c, hereof, shall be set in a distance of not less than 7.5 feet from each side line of the zone lot.
c) Regardless of the width of the zone lot, detached garages or carports need not be set in from any side line of the zone lot if such garages or carports meet the following conditions:
1) On zone lots 125 or less feet in depth, they are located in their entirety on the rear one third of the zone lot and no part of such structures is more than 40 feet from the rear line of the zone lot.
2) N/A
d) The space resulting form the foregoing setbacks shall be used for landscaping and access ways but shall not be used for the parking of vehicles; provided, however, if the distance from the building to the side line of the zone lot measures 21 feet or more, that setback space may be used for the parking of vehicles.
4) Permitted encroachments on setback space:
a) Belt courses, sills, lintels, pilasters may project 19" into setbacj spaces
b) Cornices, eaves and gutters may project 3 feet into front, 5 feet into rear and 3 feet into side; provided that if side setback is less than 5 feet in width such projection shall not exceed one-half the width of side setback


c) Outside starways may project. 5 -feet into -front setback, 10 into rear setback, and 3 feet into side setback; access ramps for the handicapped may encroach into any required building setback space, providing no alternative location is available and providing the ramp construction is compatible with the character of the structure.
d) Unwalled parches, terraces and balconies may extend 5 feet into front and rear setback spaces
e) Chimneys not to exceed 6 feet in width may project 18" into setback spaces
f) Building accessories designed to control light entering a building and being a permanent part of such building may project 5 feet into front setback, 10 feet into rear setback and 3 feet, into side setbacks
g) Building accessories designed to control light entering a building and not being a permanent part of such building, by being removable and not attached to a load-bearing member, may project any distance into any setback space
h) Canopies may project any distance into the front setback
space
i )
proj ec:t
Any structure or part which is below grade of any distance into such setback space
any setback may
j) Gas and electric meters may project 3 feet into any setback space if screened on all sides by a masonry wall. Utility pedestals, transformers or other similar equipment may be installed in any setback providing they do not exceed a height of 3 feet.
5) Fences, walls and retaining walls.
Fences and walls not exceeding 4 feet in height may be erected on any part of the zone lot between the front line of the lot and the front setback line for structures and on any other part of the zone lot may be erected to a height not to exceed 6 feet; provided:
a) Retaining walls abutting public rights-ofway may be built to any height
b) 'n/A
c) N/A
d) The materials used for fences or walls shall consist of wood, brick, masonry, wire mesh, metal bars not exceeding 1.5" in diameter or other materials which may be approved by the zoning administrator.
Salvaged doors and corrugated or sheet metal will not be allowed.
The height of walls, fences, and retaining walls shall be determined by measurement from the ground level at the lowest grade level within 3 feet of either side of such walls, fences or retaining walls; provided, that in computing the height of retaining walls there shall be omitted from such computation any open—mesh fence located on top of the retaining wall and not exceeding 4 feet in hei ght.


(c) Maximum Bulk of Structures.
No part of any structure (except -flagpoles, antennas, chimneys, flues, vents) shall project up through bulk limits which are defined by planes starting:
1) At horizontal lines which are codirectional to the side line or lines of the zone lot and pass through points 20 feet above the midpoint of each such side line or lines; and
2) At horizontal lines which are co-directional to the center line of all streets abutting the zone lot and pass through points 20 feet above the mid-point of such center lines between the boundary lines of the zone lot extended; and
3) At, if no alley abuts the zone lot, a horizontal line which is co-directional to the rear line of the zone lot and passes through a point 20 feet above the midpoint of such rear line of the zone lot; and if the rear line of the zone lot are established by an abutting alley or alleys, such planes shall start at horizontal lines which are co-directional to the center lines of such abutting alley and pass through points 20 feet above the mid-point of such center lines between the boundary lines of the zone lot extended, and which planes extend up over the zone lot at an angle of 63 degrees and 26 minute with respect to the horizontal (a pitch of 2 feet addn rise for eac foot addn setback) until such planes intersect a vertical line 30 feet horizontally distant fromthe various points of beginning as above set forth, at which point the angle of the bulk plane shall change to 90 degrees true vertical.
Maximum Gross Floor Area in Structures
The sum greater than
total of al1 structures three times the area of
on a zone lot, shall not be the zone lot. (F.A.R. 3:1)
SEC 59-ISO PERMITTED SIGNS
The provisions article IV shall be in effect in this distict.
SEC 59-181 OFF STREET PARKING REQUIREMENTS
The provisions of article V shall be in effect in this district
m _c


ARTICLE IV PERMITTED SIGNS
SEC 59-548 R-2 AND R-3 DISTRICTS
(a) General: Signs may be erected ane maintained only -for and a use by right. The signs shall be located on the same zone lot as the use by right.
(b) Permitted contents: Identification by letter, numeral , symbol or design o-f the use by name, use, hours of operation, services offered and events.
(c)Permitted sign types:
Wall, window and ground.
t
max number: Two signs for each front line of the the use by right is located.
(e)Permitted max sign area: Use by right other than hospital-20 sq ft or 2 sq ft od sign area for each 1000 sq ft of zone lot not, to exceed 96 sq ft of total sign area for each zone lot and provided that no one sign shall exceed 32 sq ft.
(1) WcU 1 and Window- 25 ft
(2) Ground- 12 ft

(1)
lines of bui1 ding into the (2)
line of
Permitted locations:
Wall and Window signs: Shall be set the zone lot on which it is located, containing a use by right; provided, required setback space the permitted Ground signs: Shall be in at least 5 the zone lot.
in from the boundary the smae distance as a wall signs may project depth of the sign, ft from every boundary
(h)F'ermitted illumination: May be illuminated but only from a concealed light source and shall not flash, blink or fluctuate.
(i)Animation: Shall not be animated.


RTICLE V OFF STREET PARKINS REQUIREMENTS
ased on uses
ac 59-588 Off Street Parking Classes
(a) Class One
(1) Dwelling Multiple Units: Parking class one being composed of all uses
y right which are enumerated in the schedule hereinafter provided: there shall e 1 1/2 off street parking spaces provided for each dwelling unit in a
lultiple unit dwelling.
(c) Class Three
(2) Community Center: Parking class three, being composed of all uses by ight, which are enumerated in the schedule provided: Parking shall be rovided in an amount equal to 1/4 of the area of the zone lot on which the use y right is located; provided, a community recreational facility which estricts membership to persons living in a specific geopgraphic area shall rovide at least 10*/. of the area of its zone lot for off-street parking.
ELEVANT SECTIONS
EC 59-582
Parking for disabled persons. For all usses by right, there shall be the iriount of off-street parking spaces for disabled persons as follows: for all ses other than multiunit dwellings, the number of such parking spaces shall be /. of the number of spaces required; provided that at least one such parking Dace for disabled persons shall be required where 12 pf more spaces are squired. For multiunit dwellings, off-street parking spaces for disabled arsons shall be provided for 2*/. of the dwelling units of for each dwelling nit occupied be a diasbled persone; whichever is the greater requirement; '-ovided that at least one such parking space be required where 12 or more Daces are reqired. Dwelling units requiring parking for disabled persons ithin a multiunit dwelling shall be provided with such spaces at a ratio of ne space per dwelling unit anbd each suchparking space for disabled persons nail be a minimum of 12 feet wide and 19 feet long. Accessible routes, assenger loading zones and other facilities for disabled persons shall be "•ovided according to the guidelines contained in the F'UD/PBG rules for site lan review.
EC 59—583L0CATI0N OF OFF-STREET PARKING
Off street parking spaces shall be located on the same zone lot as the use / right.
EC 59-584 COMBINED SPACE
Parking spaces required by each of 2 or more uses by right located on the ame zone lot need not be separated, and may be used jointly.
EC 59-585 USES S< MAINTENANCE
(3) Shall be graded for proper drainage and provided with an all weather Jirface of ashalt, concrete, of any equivalent material.
(5) Shall be provided with entrances and exits located so as to minimize "affic congestion.
(6) Shall be providid with wheel guards so located that, no part of parked shicles will extend beyond the property lines


Full Text

PAGE 1

l... 1"-. • • . ... • : 1 ' ' ' . . "" I • I I I . . I . I --.II Capitol Hill . Community Center

PAGE 2

An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the . Degree of Master of Architecture Suzanne E . Gross Fall 1985

PAGE 3

The Thesis of Suzanne Elizabeth Gross is approved. Mr. Conrad Miller University of Colorado at Denver December 20, 1985

PAGE 4

Personal Goals Introduction Site The Process Project Description The Scenario The Thesis Neighborhood Analysis Climate & Energy Zoning Maps Code Search Bulk Plane Diagrams Life Safety Code Economics Introduction Market Survey Analysis Conclusions Programming The Process TABLE OF CONTENTS Survey of Existing Center Spatial Surveys Community Center Area Summary Housing Area Summary Parking Requirements Elevator Requirements Appendices Precedents Capitol Hill Neighborhood Plan Bibliography

PAGE 5

The Design Photographs of Drawings & Model Conclusion

PAGE 6

PERSONAL GOALS •

PAGE 7

PERSONAL GOALS 1. Reach a level where I can more succinctly express my own philosophy on what constitutes good design----understanding what it is I truly like, what I don't and try to create the former. 2. Derive an understanding of how economics work in the development of a project, particularly involving urban housing. 3. Exhibit the capability of generating a design package from schematics through design development .

PAGE 8

INTRODUCTION •

PAGE 9

THE PROCESS At the outset of this project, my ideas revolved around creating a multi-use center that would help one group, in particular, to improve the quality of their lives in this city. I had made observations that disabled people living in the Capitol Hill area had needs which could be better met by a center where those needs would be specifically addressed. I have gotten to know two physically handicapped people who live in my apartment building, and have assisted them at various times. In talking with them, and observing the ways in which their living spaces make their lives more difficult, I felt that more housing is needed that is truly adaptable for a disabled person's needs. Therefore, I proposed a multi-unit residential complex that would be open to everyone, but would be completely adaptable to the needs of handicapped people. I have also been affected by witnessing how disabled people get around the city. It is not uncommon to see a wheelchair-bound person stuck in a rut or at a curb. One snowy afternoon, I was walking down the alley near my building, and found my handicapped neighbor stuck in a pothole. She had been trying to get to her job which is about four blocks from our building. I ended up pushing her on to her work, and came to the realization of the effort required for this person to get to her job just a few short blocks away under conditions that are not uncommon in winter. From riding the buses , I have witnessed some of the problems the disabled have riding the buses. Often, the rider must wait through several buses until one arrives that has an operable lift. The real answer is to have lifts that work, but it would seem such aggravations could be reduced by centralizing housing and other important aspects of their lives: in the case of my project a training and educational center. I have worked in a school for people with cerebral palsy, and each day as the students arrived by bus and car, the lengthly process of unloading would proceed (with the reverse occurring at the day's end). It seemed this time could have been better spent. It would have been beneficial to have the students live near their learning facility, which serves them throughout their lives. Although all such instances are

PAGE 10

at times, I felt that a number of handicapped people might prefer to live in very close proximity to their place of education or employment. In trying to establish the potential needs for such a facility, I contacted an advocacy group that represents a large segment of the disabled population, architects that have worked on projects related to these issues, and my disabled acquaintances. I came to realize that the overall concept was opposed to the philosophy of independent living.---The combination of housing with a learning center would inevitably be viewed as an complex even though the housing would be open to everyone. My ideas, although well intended, were counter to the premise of assisting people to achieve a mainstream lifestyle. From my research, I came to realize that the needs of the disabled community are not any different than the needs of the community at large. In an interview with the director of I asked whether she felt a new building for their programs would be desirable. Her feeling was that the money for such a project could be much better used in other areas of service. She would consider a new facility for their of other similar organizations to be a very low priority. Others I spoke with at HAIL expressed the feeling that the building they were currently using (a typical office renovated as needed) suited their programs quite adequately. A monograph completed as part of the "Model Program," discussed the "edifice complex" that government and other:---agencies suffer from in their attempts to provide services to the handi-capped. Instead of spending limited funds on buildings, the money could be much better utilized in direct service delivery to I came to realize that my center should more generally address-the-needs-of the community at large, and in so doing encompass the needs of the disabled who are really just one of many special interest groups that comprise the people of Capitol Hill. Although those who choose to live in urban settings such as Capitol Hill, rather than suburban or rural ones, do so for many different reasons, I feel that two primary reasons involvea 1) their preference for proximity of their living, play and work environments

PAGE 11

2) their preference for the diversity of people, lifestyles, spaces and activities The essence of the Capitol Hill area is in its melting pot quality, It is home to professionals, blue collar workers, students, and the elderly. As Bernie Jones, a former president of the area's largest neighborhood group stated: The most significant contrast on the Hill is class---at one end of the scale are the down and out. At the other end are the people who live in $300,000 condos, and in the meantime, there is every kind of person in between.3 The 1973 maps on the following pages can still be used to generally describe existing land use conditions. These maps indicate the multiuse, multi-density patterns existing throughout much of the area. The clusters of random retail and public activities in the midst of residential uses enrich the urban context. These interwoven activities reinforce each other by collectively supporting the everyday life of those in the neighborhood. By choosing a mixed-use project, I hope to promote further neighborhood diversity, and create a place where the integration of uses allows for a more satisfying environment than could otherwise occur if each use were isolated, One primary issue involves the increasing cost of housing in the area, The vast majority of people in the area are renters. The introduction of condominiums into the area over the last decade has reduced this dominance very little (from approximately 90% tO The city's 1981 report on housing found "there is an inadequate number of rental units in the city."5 My own later findings supported this report, As part of my economic analysis for the housing part of this project, I found the vacancy rate in the area to be only 3.4% for moderately priced rental units (see section on Economics). Typically, an 8.0% vacancy rate is considered normal. Such shortages tend to drive rental levels up due to excess demand, The Denver Planning Office's 1973 neighborhood plans found that: While the neighborhood still has a representative sampling of rental units in all categories, the shift to a higher rental structure has been significant. Unless action is taken to insure that a mix is retained, the next ten to twenty years could see the of lower prices units.6

PAGE 12

EXISTING COND ITIONS JANUARY 1973 LAND USE RESIDENTIAL SINGLE UNI T C:=:J LOW DENSITY C:=:J HIGH DENSITY MULTIUNI T C:=:J LOW DENSITY r==:J MEDIUM DENSITY HIGH DENSITY BUSINESS PARKING [=:J OFFICE RETAIL INDUSTRIAL c=J LIGHT INDUSTRIA L PUBLIC AND SEMI PUBLIC SCHOOLS . HOSPITALS CHURCHES ETC OPEN SPACE CIRCULATION STREETS AND HIGHWAYS ARTERIAL COLLECTOR =LOCAL &.ONE WAY TRANSPORTATION NETWORKS RTD CORRIDOR Ill HI Ill !GENERALIZED ALIG"MNT> * --BUS ROUTE BIKE ROUTE FACILITIES + LANDMARK • RTD STATION * r==:J VACANT 0 PUBLIC ACCESS PARKS AND RECREATION • B ased on prehmnary R TD SCALE

PAGE 13

An updated study in 1976 found this trend to be continuing.? In 1981, the director of the Capitol Hill Community Center stated: We've become a victim of our own (the community's) success. The problem has changed from, how to get rid of the deadbeats to how to keep the area from becoming entirely affluent.8 Given these housing needs, my own interest in the design of urban dwellings and their compatibility with other uses, one aspect of the project will involve housing. While the Capitol Hill area seems to have improved steadily over the last decade in economic terms, it does not seem to have well developed community facilities for such a large and diverse population. In assessing the existing facilities, I found that while the community center seeks to address a broad range of goals, it has limited physical facilities from which to offer a continuum of services. The center serves an area encompassing several neighborhoods, and is estimated to include 80,000 people, The only other community facility is the city's recreational center housed in an elementary school, whose programs are geared extensively for youth. The existing community center has only been in existence for eight years, and I feel its existence represents a symbol of the direction residents are taking to improve their community resources. As the area continues to progress, a more extensive community center would likely be seen as necessary in better serving the people of the area, As Alison and Peter Smithson express: Community facilities are the raw material for the building of tangible stopping places, for places where things can happen. 9 Can be seen to be about to happen. Can cause things to happen! In attempting to resolve issues of providing for these community based needs and urban dwellings, that balance the need for personal privacy and desired social interaction, I plan to experiment in a mixed use combination that celebrates living within a particular city.

PAGE 14

PROJECT DESCRIPTION The Capitol Hill area has an established community center located on the north-eastern rim of Cheesman Park in the Tears McFarlane Mansion, a designated historic landmark. The center's goal is to provide the "people in its area with educational, social, recreational, and cultural Given the physical constraints of its present facility, the center is limited in the services it can offer directly, and acts primarily as an informational and referral center for services occurring within the community. This project proposes to create an expanded center adjacent to the existing facility, where a broader range of community can be met. In addition to the community center, the project will include sixty multi-family apartments.

PAGE 15

THE SCENARIO Considering the current municipal, state, and federal financial constraints and uncertainties, it is highly unlikely that a new community center could be built through public means. In order for such a project to be realized, it would need to be developed through a predominately private effort. For the purposes of this project, I am assuming that the existing neighborhood organization (Capitol Hill United Neighborhoods, CHUN) has formed an association with the intent of developing a complex that would house this expanded community center for the neighborhood and provide moderately priced rental housing. There is a need for such housing in the area, and the organization felt that private developers were unlikely to provide such housing, as most recently built projects have been high-rise condominiums priced between $200,000-600,000. In order to be financially realistic and provide for this needed reasonably priced housing, the site's location within Capitol Hill demands fairly intensive use. The project will reflect, however, the local residents expressed desires, that the current 3:1 FAR be reduced to a ratio closer to 2:1. This is one of the recommendations in the 1973 Neighborhood Plan. The concept behind this scenario is that it allows this project to develop beyond the idea. that the land, as a private commodity, must be exploited to its maximum market value. CHUN has an existing economic development program, which it hopes will become involved in its own economic ventures, where community interests get priority over financial returns.

PAGE 16

THE THESIS We must learn to look upon ourseles as part of a greater community and develop a hierachy of loyalties extending from our family to our own community to the greater community of all mankind. J. Royce, American Philosopher It seems as though the call for stimulating and deepening the "sense of community" is so often heard throughout our society. As Gene and Barbara Sternberg ask in their study of communal centers in America: If the lack of a sense of community is a central problem of our cities, what kind of new arrangements in living conditions are we trying? What kinds of centers to foster community feelings are we building?11 This question underlies my belief that urban communities need new public facilities that embody citizen participation by providing a forum for community decision making and problem solving, life long learning, social interaction, and physical well being. The key to designing for public participation lies in setting the proper stage. This stage involves the architectural, functional, and social settings of the building. I have conceptulized these themes as The Expression, The Fit, and The Peoplescape. A mixed-use community service/housing center will provide the fabric with which to communicate these ideas. The Expression This theme concerns the building's image and its relation to its urban context. These external demands will be equally important as the internal demands. The building must portray its role through an appropriate architectural language that communicates its public purposes at its base, while respecting its residential character above. Therefore, the building as a public discourse should seek a broad level of comprehension that implies a strong recognition of its public role within theneighborhood. Most importantly, the building should convey a feeling of welcome. Forms, materials and color will be used as the primary elements in realizing this goal.

PAGE 17

The participatory nature of the building should be reinforced by its participation with its neighborhood context. The design should seek_ . a referential relationship to its surroundings while formally expressing a "new spirit". The infill projects of Aldo van Eyck in Amsterdam elucidate this concept of a similar, but contemporary, architectural vocabulary. The Fit It is evident that the starting point for Van Eyck's design lay in the nature of the existing townscape. The humane, intimate scale of the old is recaptured in his Eympathetic essays of modern housing.12 The functional concerns of the project involve, the appropriate fit of the building within its community, and two, the fit of the internal and external spaces to the user activities they are supposed to serve. In the first case, the easily accessed location of the center in connection with potential use, recognized focuses of community life will increase its Secondly, the spaces of the center must allow for the changing needs of dynamic user groups. The increased mobility and changing social structures of our society, will cause the directions of community interests to vary with time. Therefore, the community center should be,to the greatest possible extent, an adaptable framework that allows for a wide variety of conditions and uses. The building that best exemplifies this concept in my mind is the Pompidou Center in Paris. Although, obviously, quite different in many regards to my project, I am fansinated by the wonderful way in which the building provides a background for such a plethora of varied, constantly changing activities. While Charles Jenks may label the building as a failure in terms of its "supermarket atmosphere"13 of cultural activities, my experiences of the building found it to be one of the most exciting, uplifting contempoary , architectural environmentP I have ever been in. The building is an inspiration for the type of public, community use buildings that are possible. The Pompidou center also exemplifies the idea of peoplescape as a place where all sorts of people engage simaltaneously in the myriad of activities.

PAGE 18

The Peoplescape The essence of public life involves peoples' varied needs for interaction with other people. As a mixed-use concept, the goal of this building will be to provide the background as a support environment for such social interactions to occur. This belief is based on the pluralism of uses that will bring all types of people together for different reasons at different times. Places seeking to embody the vitality of their community are enhanced by the presence of people engaged in varied activities, even though they may not personally interact with one another. I feel these needs are especially important for many people living within urban settings. Today there is an increasing need to design for contact as family sizes dwindle and more and more people live alone. Urbanites no longer live in the neighborhoods of their parents and grandparents. No longer are they surrounded by established networks of friends, relatives,stores, and generally familiar settings providing continuity from one generation to another. Instead families and individuals are mobile,in search of opportunities which take them to distant places. Everytime one moves, they must make new friends and re-establish social ties.14 This project presents my personal vision of a structure that could provide a rich and viable setting for community life.

PAGE 19

FOOTNOTES 1. Holistic Approaches to Independent Living, 1247 E. Colfax Avenue #107, Colorado. 2. Freda, Theresa, Final Report Model Approaches Program for Improved Delivery Independent Living Programs, 10-81 to 9-84. 3. Jones, Bernie, The Denver Post, July 1983. 4, The Denver Planning Office, The Capitol Hill Cheesman Park Update and Analysis, 1976, and US Bureau of the Census, Neighborhood Statistics Program, 1980. 5. The Denver Post, November 8, 1981, p. 36. 6. The Denver Planning Office, 1973 Neighborhood Plans, Capitol Hill and Cheesman Park, p. 3. 7, The Denver Planning Office, The Capitol Hill Cheesman Park Update and Analysis, 1976, p. 5. 8. Wolfson, Morey, The Denver Post, November 8, 1981, p36. 9. Smithson, Peter and Alison, Ordinariness and Light, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1970. p. 182. 10.The Capitol Hill Community Center Brochure 11.Sternberg, Barbara and Eugene, Community Centers and Student Unions, Van Nostrand and Reinhold Co., N.Y., 1971, p. 11. 12.Taylor, Jennifer, The Dutch Casbahs, Progressive Architecture, March 1981, p 91. 13.Jenks, Charles, Architecture Today, Harry Abrams Inc.N.Y., 1982, p. 46. 14.Mehrabian, Albert, Public Places and Private Spaces, Basic Books, Inc., N.Y., 1976, p 106-7.

PAGE 20

SITE.

PAGE 21

, r \ ' ' .r "" "> , . . , . I / ' METROPOLITAN DENVER LOCATION

PAGE 22

TE VICINITY

PAGE 23

The city of Denver owns t h e land a n d buildings housing several of the community ce nters located in Denver. The r e a r e a variet y of other centers, which are run through churches or other non -profit groups. The city' s Planning Office has divided the city into districts to which each community center is addressed. Under the Capitol Hill Center' s present arrangement, its district encompasses the area between 1st and 22nd Avenue, and between Broadway and Colorado Blvd . The area is shown on the map below . The center represents the only public community center facility within this area. This is a large area encompassing the parts of nine different neighborhoods, as specified by the neighborhood plan of the city's Planning Office, and approximately 80 , 000 residents (1980 Census) The map on the following page shows the different neighborhood boundaries. Since the proposed new center would no longer be directly affli-ated with the city, I feel that a target area including the Capitol Hill, Cheesman Park, and Congress Park neighborhoods would be much more appropriate. (40 , 000 residents, 1980 Census) 111111111 -.h ....

PAGE 24

.. ----.... -Ill! REGIS CHAFFEE PARK 1.-...--.....----r-----...J i i i SUNNYSIDE BAA I I WEST BARNUM VALVERDE I i WESTWOOO i i MAR LEE i,-,1 H.ARVY PARK l w L MAR VALLEY HARVEY PARK SOOTM ., e..: I I FOfn' LOGAN ... r-...:.1 •.• ..i \,L i...._. r't\ .. 11!...-...r' " ,. --i ... .. SWANSEA CLAYTON NORTHEAST PARK HILL NORTH PARI< HILL CITY PARK SOUTH PARK HILL HALE MONT BELLO --• r----, i ,..J •. I i--.1 i NORTHEAST IN.E.C.I i STAPlETON ---------,. . ., ---. ., I ----.. r---i -----r----i i -i J i.., i., NEIGHBORHOODS OORTH "'--0---i SCliU WI lOUt

PAGE 25

The Center' Location A Community center's location can promotP participation by its close relation to an established neighborhood amenity, a central location within the and easy accessibility through various transportation modes. Within the area servedby the Capitol Hill Community Center, Cheesman Park is the most recognized community resource. The existing building, located at the corner of Williams and 13th Avenue on the northern rim of the Park, has an excellent location in terms of the above criteria. In choosing a site, I felt it would be highly desirable to locate the new center in close conjunction with the existing one. Given the fully developed urban location, it was necessary to choose a site that had an existing structure for the purposes of this project. The site I choose for the new complex will be located directly to the east of the existing center on 13th Avenue between Williams and Race Street. (See Scenario Description in next section) LOCATION The Center is two miles east of the State Capitol on the north edge of Cheesman Park on the comer of Williams Street and 13th A venue. 7th 6th

PAGE 26

The Center' s location is very accessible by bus, bike, and the park's footpath j ogging system. RTD BUS ROUTES . @ @)

PAGE 27

BICYCLE ROUTES Legend: Good Bicycling Streets: -----------Streets With More Traffic: • • • • • • • • • • • Good Bike Paths: Secondary Bike Paths: Prepared by: Mountain Bicyclists' Association. Inc. 1290 Williams Street, Denver, Colorado 80218

PAGE 28

The only drawback to the location is the present one-way street designation for 13th Avenue. As former CHUN president, Mike Henry describes: One ways are noisy, dirty, dangerous andderisive. rlhat we are trying to say to the mayor and city council is that preserving neighborhoods in Denver is just as important as the smooth, convenient flow of traffic. Cars travel at speeds of approximately 40 mph as they pass the site if the taffic lights are green. There is a fairly good chance that at some future date this street will be returned to a two way "normal" neighborhood street, as a alternate solution will be found for bringing suburbanites into downtown. Neighborhood groups have been applying steady pressure on the city concerning this issue.

PAGE 29

SCENARIO As stated previously, I feel it would be extremely desirable to locate the proposed center as close to the existing Community Center as possible. Given the fully developed urban location (vacant land accounts for less than 2i. of toal acreage in neighborhood), there is only one existing vacant lot in the immediate area, and it is five blocks from the existing center, and does not face the park. The site neighboring the community center to the east is currently slated for development as a 30 story luxury condominium project. The project has undergone a lengthly and unusual planning process to this point. A developer owns the land on either side of High Street (See map on following page). Although neighborhood sentiment, as chiefly expressed through the Capitol Hill United Neighborhood organization (a 1,000 member group), rallies against the construction of more high rises, the developer was able to convince all concerned parties to go along with the proposal. Under current zoning laws, the developer would be able to build two 15 story blocks on each parcel, thereby walling in the park and blocking the maximum amount of sunshine for neighbors to the north. Instead, the developer proposed that High Street be abandoned between 13th Avenue and the park, and that he be allowed to build a single narrow builing on what is now the street. As a concession to the city for approving the proposal, the developer has agreed to make both sides of the project greenspace and allow public access to the park. The city owns the two buildings on the site, and plans to move the older portion of the Cheesman Academy building to a new site. Plans for the second building are unknown at this time. The proposal has passed all necessary approval processes and is currently seeking financial backing. Due to the slow sales of the high priced units in the area (Ref. Denver Post Article 1-30-84), it would seem that actual development of this project is unlikely in the near futute. A neighboring luxury condominium project is currently being auctioned as a means of selling units that have been on the market for two years. I am assuming that a similar agreement regarding the closing of the street can be accomodated with the city.

PAGE 30

_ w / f ).{ / I > UJ ... _J _...._ 13TH STREET lONE WAYI 60' R/W •• ...._ 2'1;2 STORY Cheesman Academy (Vacanti Gar. r 1St --CHEESMAN PARK . L...) -1---,_____ II I I 1111 / I •• Cone. Curb(Typl t=.J I ,_____ -r===: ' ..... ttl;= F== 2"1;2 ST. ::!I 11Vacantl S:2 -:J: r---b;:r.r=::---I Gar. I 1St OJ 1.0 W I 1 \0 -+0 1 a l eo (ij ..J ..J <

PAGE 31

t lW W! 1 I L :J --c:::::::: = --

PAGE 32

SITE ANALVSIS

PAGE 33

View to Southeast from site. 2 Vjew lookinG to t h e East from center of t h e site . (Show s l a rge deci d . trees t o the south of site) 1 View looking directly South from east side of site. 3

PAGE 34

View to the Southwest from the site, 5 View lool,ing directly South from west side of sjte. 4 V i e w looking toward s ite from the center of the park.

PAGE 35

J l'-----_ _________.j L I lm I I • 7.5' ' I I .. --. _-t;o:.. S89'58" J ZONING PLAN 338.35' Data: Zone R 3 IF.A.R 3:1) Lot Area-34,427 sq ft .79 acre

PAGE 36

I (/) I STREET l k) I I I LIGHT TYP ;::; I I t:x. '-------------------'------+------'----; )E OE 1 o -nE w ---12 ----w I leo j co ---+---G---1-----4 ----G-__J_-+--J.----t"-----4 -----G -------+-
PAGE 37

THE PARK Cheesman Park already serves the community as a popular place for recreational and leisure activities. On any warm, sunny day the park is filled with sunbathers, joggers, bicyclists, kite flyers, volley ball players, and picnicers. In general, the park is used in an informal manner. The pituresque layout of the park promotes such activities with its large open grass expanses and clusters of large old shade trees. There is little in the way of man-made structures within the park: a few picnic tables scattered throughout the park, a picnic enclosure pictured below, a childrens' playground, the Memorial, and a few well used benches. The park has a different ambiance than some of the other larger city parks in Denver. As compared to Washington or City Park, there are no softball fields, tennis courts, swimming pools or the like. Cheesman is a passive setting, which allows people to use it in an informal, casual manner. The community center could serve a great function to the neighborhood be supporting and enhancing these activity patterns.

PAGE 38

. .... . :-ntV, [ > lll.l. .LV .\Vd V

PAGE 39

PARK VISTAS .•••. Towards Downtown Denver Towards the Mountains

PAGE 40

NEIGHBORHOOD ANALYSIS.

PAGE 41

The Capitol Hill United Neighborhood organization has published the following colorful, anecdotal description of Capitol Hill's history, resources, and unique character. This piece gives a sense of the enthusiasm that many members hold for their community. IN 11-tE 1800 Is J HENRY c I OONA TED 11-tE BROrl OF A HILL OVERLOOKING DENVER FOR 11-tE STATE CAPITOL, SOON 11-tE PRAIRIE ABOVE 11-tE CAPITOL SITE WAS PLATTED AND IT BEc:.AI-1E I 11-tE" FASHIONABLE AAEA Wl-liRE 11-tE WEAL !W BUILT 11-tEI R t-1ANS IONS I THE AAEA BECAM: AS CAPITOL HILL' , THE EXTRAVAGANT IN ITS ECLECTIC STYLES RANGING FRCl-1 CLASSICAL REVIVAL1 TO R0'1ANESQUE" TO VICTORIAN REFLECT THE lN>RDINARY LIVES OF 11-tEIR INHABITANTS AND THE I.N)RDINARY LIFE OF EAALY DENVER, TODAY ANOTHER CHANGE APPEAAS TO BE TAKING PLACE; YET" IN ACTLW.ITY IT IS rRELY AN EXTENSION OF AOOST A CENTURY OF STUBBORN STABILITY, YOI.J-4G FN-1ILIES1 PROFESSIONAL PEOPLE AND EX-SUBrnBANITES AAE t-'OVING BACK INTO 11-tE CITY AND JOINING 1H>SE Wl-0 NEVER LEFT" IN A RESrnGENCE OF 11-tE IDEAL THAT tJmAN NEIGHBORHOODS CAN PRESENT THE BEST POSSIBLE LIVING ENVIRONMENT, f'bsT PEOPLE LIVING TOGETHER IN CAPITOL HILL SHARE THE OM-111MENT TO AN LIFE STYLE, THE PROXIMITY OF SERVICES., AIDED BY THE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM AND THE WIDE VAAIETY OF OPTIONS AVAILABLE ENCOLRAGE PEOPLE TO LIVE HERE BY OOICE, THE OF ACTIVITY., INCLUDING REOOVATION AS WELL AS NEW AND A SENSE OF CO'flJNITY., EXEr-PLIFY THE OF ATIITUDE OF JW.N NOCCloRS TO CAPITQI.. HILL AS WELL AS THE LONG TIME RESIDENTS, 11-tE FEAAS OF THE ttJ's THAT 11-tE INNER CITIES WERE DEAD OR DYING WERE., AS fo\1\RK lWAIN lYJrE C0'+1ENTED ON REPORTS OF HIS CJrlN DEAll-t., "GREATLY EXAGGERATED11:THE CAPITOL HILL AAEA HAS 11-tE POTENTIAL OF BEC0'-1 I NG THE IDEAL URBAN CSPt;fERE, CONTAINING THE GREATEST AACHI"!iCTURAL REMAINS OF DENVER S LtHOOE AND GRANDEUR PAST--THE AAEA S HIGH DENSITY AND CULTURAL MIX OFFERS AN ENRICHED ATMOSPHERE,

PAGE 42

tmAN LIFE IN CAPITOL HILL INCLUDES lliE SWIM'-1Itl POOLS AHD NEARBY GOLF AS IN 1liE SUBt.JmS1 1liE CAPITOL HILL RESIDEm-MAY SPEND AN EXPLORING TROPICAL PLANT SPECIES AT THE BOTANICAL GARDENS1 OR TAKE A VISITING FRIEND nro.xiH THE fot>U.Y l-OUSE, OR1 HE MIGHT SPEND SQYC Tift AT lliE JENVER ART MJSELM OR nm..Gt THE PLBLIC LIBRARY, 'fA-fiLE HE MAY TAKE A StmT TRIP FOR ITS VARIED NIGHT LIFE1 HE DOESN'T NEED TO LEAVE HIS NEIGHBORHOOD TO ENJOY lliE EVENitl AT A CONCERT AT 1liE FOLKLORE CENTER1 ATTEND A PLAY AT BONFILS lliEATRE1 EXPLORE lliE BAWDY NIGHT ACTIVITY ALOOG '}ljE COLFAX STRIP1 OR HAVE A AT ONE OF 1liE AREA S FAMOUS RESTAURANTS, TI-E PEOPLE OF CAPITOL HILL CAN ENJOY A SltiDAY AFTERNOON BIKE RIDE TO CITY PARK TO TAKE lliE Oill.DREN TO 1liE ZOO OR MJSELM OF HISTORY, lliEY MAY PLAY BALL AT PARK1 RELAX IN THE AT GOVERt-m S PARK OR GET OUT OF lliE OFFICE TO EAT A SACK UliD-1 ON lliE CIVIC CEm-ER GROU'IDS, &iJPPING IN CAPITOL HILL AREAS CAN ALSO BE AN GROCERIES AT lliE .NEIGHBORfmD BOOK STORES AHD PLANT SI-{)PS, ,FAMILY f'AT MARKETS OR STORES,, GERM4N BAKERIES OR AN ICE CREAM SI-{)P .. A BEER AT lliE LOCAL TAVERN, ,A HlNT IN lliE ARTISAN SI-{)PS SPRINKLED TH00UGH lliE AREA, , OR TAKE A SI-K>RT BUS RIDE , (H;o I NG EDJCAT I ON IS IMPORT ANT TO lliE PEOPLE OF CAPITOL HILL, lliEY HAVE BATTLED TO KEEP lliE I R I C I TV SOCOLS OPEN NID 'PiE QUALITY OF EDLCAT I ON HI Gi, PUBLIC SQ{)()LS IN THE AREA ARE EAST HIGH SOOOLI MJREY NID GOVE JR' HI GHI a-RSONI TELLER1 SHERtW-4 NID BR
PAGE 43

0 .. 0 [] D D ........ .... . 10 PUBLIC & RETAIL FACILITIES NEAR SITE 1. Existing Capitol Hill Community Center 2. Retail Cluster-Including mom & pop grocery, pasta shop, card shop, and ice creamery ). Church 4. Botanic Gardens-Entry off York Street-Facility includes communal garden were local residents tend their plots 5. Cheesman Memorial-Gathering spot, provides vista of mountains 6. Childrens Payground 7. Picnic Enclosure-Small gathering spot 8. Warren Single Mothers Housing & Day Care with large childrens' play area 9. Gilpin Grammar Schoolincludes recycling center

PAGE 44

1 0 . Church 11. Colfax Avenue-Retail/Commercial uses 1 2 . Retail Cluster-Includes flower shop, video store, and bar 1 ) . RetaiJ Development -Inludes l a r ge grocery store, ice creamery, card shop , bank , h ardware, pizza, etc. 14 . Juni o r High School-Includes C ity recreation program for youths Church-Sunday Afternoon Retail Cluster (2)-Very popular gathering place on nice afternoonsParticularly weekends Space provides chairs covered tables, bikeracks etc

PAGE 45

CHEESMAN PARK NEIGHBORHOOD The eclectic nature of the neighborhood is characterized by a mixture of older single family detached homes and multi-unit housing structures of various configurations that have been built within the last 30 years.(Sorne older apartment buildings have been around since the 40's) The homes vary in both size and styles. They range from the large mansion-type homes, located generally on the southern rim of Cheesman Park and along Humboldt Street to the west, to the modest row houses. Many of the fine old buildings retain their stately elegance along the lines of the Tears MacFarlane Mansion which houses the existing community center. As the sketches of these neighborhood streets convey, these homes lend quite a bit of character to their environment. In order to save these worthy structures and help average horne owners to retain their dwelling, the preservation rnovenent has worked to attain beneficial zoning measures and expanded borrowing opportunities for rehabilitation. As the first paragraph of the CHUN description states, most dwelling in the area incorporate a wide range of stylistic types. Streets lined with such residences have a rich pedestrian atmosphere. The common threads attributable to such structures are their roofs, the composition and intricate detailing of the facade, their use of modular building materials such as brick, stone, and wood shingles, their colors, their scalar relationship of forms that is related to human dimensions, and their positive dialogue with their surroundings.

PAGE 46

The areas north and east of the park are designated for high growth in the future thru their R-3 zoning designation (FAR 3:1). The southern end of the park is protected through its R-0 designation. In addition to the zoning, the city has established view and sun path corridors, that are designed to protect the park from any further highrise construction to the west. The north and eastern area provide the immediate context for this project. As the zoning implies many of the multi-unit complexes are located in this vicinity, These buildings range in size from small unit grouping to 100+ unit complexes. Most of these larger complexes can can best be described as "dumb" blocks. Charles Moore uses this term in describing banal buildings such as these that have nothing to say, Some are masses as in picture below, which tend generally to be apartments. The taller spine-like structures are almost all condiminium complexs, which are usually expensive, luxury-type projects. Two are pictured on the next page, High rises such as these alienate their surroundings by offering nothing to the srtreetscape, Most have sterile, unfriendly entries that speak of the extreme emphasis placed on security within these structures, In my opinion and the opinion of other neighborhood spokesmen

PAGE 47

Two high rise condominium complexes located in immediate context of the site Barren; lifeless base of high risedesigned purely for auto's use-foreign to environment of traditional neighborhood streets

PAGE 48

quoted in the newspapers, all the modern buildings within the neighborhood have characters which are alien to the existing built fabric and to people. New buildings need to be infused into the area that reverse this trend and return to the idea of interconnectedness between neighborhood elenent::;. As Charles }:oore has stated: One of the oldest traditions in architecture is tradition itself-the use of understood and proven precedents which are partly repeated, partly modified to make a new building. From Dimensions Such transformation processes amlead to a much more expressive architectural language that replaces the generic, meaningless forms that have so stigmatized the idea of new buildings within this neighborhood. 't-ru1 in a -word, l-as m mture; wtat re l-as is ••.• history. EXpressed differently: wtat mture is to history, is to nan. 'Ire only :radical difference 00tween hunan history ani 1ffitural I history iS tre.t the fonrer am rever OOgin aepin •••• the chlmp3nzee ani orawrtan are distir:@rl.sl'ai fran nan rot by wtat is known strictly as rut OOaruse they rave far less memory. Every momil':\g the :p::>Or beasts rave to face aJ.most total oblivion of wtat they lived through the day oofore, ani their intellect l-as to work with a minimum funi of experience . SimiJarl._v t.re tiger of today iS identical with tfat of 6eX th:::Jusani years ago 1 each O!le ravir.g to OOgin his llie as a tiger fran the as if mne h3.d existed oofore him • • •• BreaJd.r:g the continuity with the J,BSt, is a lowering of nan ani a plagiarism of the Jose' Ort.egp. Y Gasset F.ran Cb]Jage City The designers of contemporary structures in the Cheesman Park neighborhood have made a decisive break with precedents, and thus far the results have been to the detriment of the urban context.

PAGE 49

CLIMATE & ENERGY •

PAGE 50

Daily Daily M onthly Record l'!on t h 1"14x Hi nimur.. Y.o,an Htr h Jan 43 . 5 16 . 2 2 9 . 9 72 Fe to 4f>. 2 1 9 . 4 32.8 71. H u 50.1 23.8 3 7 . 0 84 Apr 61.0 )3.11 4 7.5 85 Hav 70 . 3 43.fi .57.0 96 Jun "'l . l 51.9 66.0 ]1"\4 Ju1 87.lo 51Ui 73.0 104 Aug 85 . 8 57 . 4 71.6 1 0 1 Ser 77.7 47.11 62 . 8 Oct 6 6 .1! )7.2 52.0 8 8 """ 53 . 3 25.4 3 Q.4 79 .. Dec 46 . 2 111.9 3 2 . 6 74 A n n ual 61.. 0 3 6 . 2 511. J ]O L .. than on t ha lf. DENVER TEMPERATURE DATA Total Precipitation Monthl v Monthly Maxi mum !'ionth H e an Maximum tlini mum 2 4 hou r Jan .fi1 ]. 4 4 o.n 1 ].1)2 Feb . 67 1.66 0.01 ].()) Mar 1.21 2.89 0 .13 ].48 A!)r 1.93 4.17 0.113 3. 25 May 2.64 7 0 31 0.06 3 .55 Jun 1.93 4 .69 11.10 3.16 Ju1 ]. 78 6 . 4 1 0 .17 2.42 Au11. l. 29 4 .47 O.fl 6 3 . 43 Sep 1 . 13 4.67 T 2 .44 Oct 1.13 4.17 0 . 05 l. 7 1 Nov o. 71; 2 . 97 0 .0) I. 2 9 D ec 0 . 43 2 .114 '1.113 l. 1A Tnt11l 15 0 51 7 0 ll T ) . 55 a Honthlv tota l • are rounded to t h e wh<'h d11y. b•nenotea lea a t han one-half. DENVER PRECIPITATION DATA ' N orm&) Days Mea n N lll'" , i • • r o: , . , T .. !!:nl'r R•cord 1 n f" 90F and 32f a nd (Cool1nr) abovt> belo,.. -25 ]011'1 0 0 30 -30 110 2 0 0 27 -ll [If,'! 0 0 27 2 52.5 0 ., 0 13 22 2.53 0 * 2 30 110 110 5 0 43 0 741' 15 o 0 2 011 9 0 21"\ 120 5 4 2 1 3 4011 5 0 9 . A "lf>A 0 0 25 -ll> 1 004 () 0 29 -10 6 0Jf, 6 2 5 32 162 Mean SuMber a Sno w Mean Number a of Dav s w i ch Monthly Maximuo of Days with Prec i pitation >,.,1)1 i n ch !1e>nth1y Sno w 1 .I) inc h f. 11.4 2 3.7 2 6 11.0 Pl. 3 2 A 12 . 6 2 9.2 4 9 9 . 6 2'1. 3 3 10 1 0 5 13., •b 9 T 0.1 0 9 o.o o.o 0 8 o.o 0 . 0 0 6 J .II 21.3 * 5 3.11 )]. 2 1 5 7.6 )C,. l 2 5 1.. 5 )l).fl 2 'Ill 5'1.11 19 . ] 111 SOU R C E : U . S . Oepartmrnt o f C.ommerc r , 1'177

PAGE 51

, [ II II ' II lf200 :; ) ) ) ) 0 ) ' , ' I) [ 200 ) II II ' II ) ' 400 ' II eoo aoo 1000 DEGREE DAY DATA TOTAL-625 1004 1088 250 525 TOTAL-6016 868 902 BASE 65F NORMAL HEATING DEGREE DAYS NORMAL COOLING DEGREE DAYS _ __. ... _._ SUN ANGLE DATA SOURCE: U.S. WEATHER BUREAU 1841, DENVER

PAGE 52

Percent of Number ot• Posaible Number of8 Partly Cloudy Month Sunshine Clear Da19 January 72 10 February 71 8 March 70 8 April 66 7 May 65 6 June 71 9 July 71 9 August 72 10 September 74 13 October 73 13 Novecber 66 11 December 68 11 Total 70 115 •Monthly total9 are round ed to the nearest whole day. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977. ;UN SHINE AND CLOUD DATA / / Day a 10 9 10 10 12 13 16 14 9 10 9 10 132 Number ot• Mean Sky Cloudv Dava Cover (Tenths) 11 5.5 11 5.8 13 6.0 13 6.1 13 6.2 8 5.0 6 5.0 7 4 . 9 8 4.4 8 4.4 10 5.3 10 5.3 118 5.3

PAGE 53

Maximum Direction Mean Wind Prevailing Wind S pe:ed Associated with Mont h Speed (mnh) Directio n Recorded ( mph) Maximum Jan 9.2 s 53 N Feb 9.4 s 49 NW I Mar 10.1 s 53 NW Apr 10. 4 s 5 6 NW -May 9 . 6 s 43 sw J u n 9 . 2 s 4 7 s Jul 8 . 5 s 56 s w Aug 8 . 2 s 42 sw Sep 8 . 2 s 47 NW Oct 8.2 s 45 NW Nov 8.7 s 48 w Dec 9 . 0 s .)1 NE Annual 9.1 s 56 SOURCE: U.Sof Mountain JAN FEB MAR APR HAY JUN J U L AUG SEPT OCT N O V DEC ANSUAl S t andard T1L n r . : llp h 0 1 r. llph llp h :p, llp h (: r . llp h c ,,., llph 01r . -.:b rtl'". lip!> llp h 01r . llp h 0 1r-. llph V' r . llph 1 :()." l 5 6 ,c; 5 6 . 9 7 . 0 s 6 . 5 3 3 5 E . ? s E . 3 s ( . 7 s 7 . 0 s 7. J s ( ) .. ' 2 :t>J s 7 . 2 s E.S s 6 . 9 s 6.@ s 6 J b. 1 s 6 . 1 s '.c ; 6. J ! 6 . 5 s ) . l s ) . ' 5 6 . 6 J : O C ! / . ? s 6 . ? s 6 . 8 s 6. 5 6 s !, ,c; 5 5 . 7 : 5 . 9 ' (.1 s 6. 5 5 7 1 7.' s 6 . 4 :Oj s ) . { s 6 . E 5 6 . s 6 . 7 5 5 . s s 5 . 7 5 4 ' . 6 s t s 6 . 5 ) . 2 s / . 5 s 6 . 5 7 . 2 7 s 6 . 8 s 6 . s 5 5 ' s s . 5 s s . 2 5 '' f '• s b . s s 7 . ) s 1 . 5 s ( • 6 . o : s 7 . 3 s 6 f ; 6 . 8 s 6 . s s !,. 7 5 . ) s 5 . 1 s ' j ' .. ' } s :: . t s ) . 3 s 7 . 6 s 6 . • I :JJ s 7 . 5 s 6 . 8 s G . 9 s 6 . b s s . i s J s .0 , :i. l s s . s '. 5 s ; , • ' 7 . 6 s 6 . • 8 :0, 5 7 . s 5 7 . 0 7.0 s 6 9 s 6 ; s 5 . 7 5 s . ' !,.:.: ! s ( s 6 . • 5 7 . • s 7.7 s ; ! 9 :0C s 1 . 7 s ; . 3 s 7 . s . . 7 • 5 6 . 8 5 6 .1 s ; , s ! '' 5 5 . ; t . ( 5 7 . • s ) . 1 s 6 . 7 5 7. 7 5 1 . 6 s " 8 . G II 1.6 . . G . 7 , 5 . c; ;,( ; ( Q 6 . ' 5 ; , 1 5 7 . I s 7 11:()1j 5 8 . 0 s B . 2 ; , 8.7 .. r 8 . e .. r f . 3 h 7 . 6 II ( 6 . ;I( 6 J •.[ r..s .H: ' . 0 s 7 , 4 s 1 . :.[ 7 . 6 12 :00 s B . 3 1 , [ " 9 . s .I( 9 . 4 l o l C . 5 1,( e. J 1 ) .: : 1 r f ; "' 1 . 1 1,[ :.6 s 7 s ' I . l l B . 2 PI< s 9 . 1 10[ 9 . 5 , I[ 2 ,1[ 10. 2 Il l 9 .t II[ 9 . I l , f 7 5 ',[ , . I ) . 8 . 1 r { B . • s R :.r B , , 2 : 00 :or 9 . 3 Ill 1 0 . J •I 10.7 II[ 10. 6 ,,[ 10. J J:l 9 . 6 '' 0 . ( :.1 P.. 1 : . L p. I .. l JJ. 7 .. ( e . 5 . . R . l l ? . ) Ill 9 . 5 II 10. 1 •r 1 1 . C I If 1 0 . 1 0 . 6 1 , [ 1u . 2 N 9 . l .. ti. 7 . /I e 6 :tl 9 . 0 li[ 6.6 il[ b . 7 i,l 9 . 6 • o o H 9 . 1 ,; [ 1C . l A[ 11. l h[ 11.2 1 .;.: 1 0 .P. ol[ 1 0 . ,, 9 . 6 ;, 1 l o .or b . 6 N ( h e . 3 ,[ 9 . 7 ol[ B . t jj 9 . 7 Nlo 11. 1 j,[ 11.2 lOt 10 . B II 10. 5 ll 9 . 7 " 9 . J : H e . 7 lo[ 6 . 5 H[ "/. 7 " 7 . 6 II[ 9 , 4 6 :00 II[ 7 . 7 : I ( B . J ,, 1 0 . 1 li 10 .G 1 0 . ? •I [ 10. 1 Sh 9. J : I . • . 6 " a.G it( 7 . 5 t . e s 7 .c '.l 1 . 1 7 s 7 . 3 l o 7 . 2 ,, 0 . 7 9 . 3 li( 9 . m 9 . I s a . s s r 1,1 l o 7 . l Nl 6 . 7 s 6 . • s 6 " l,f 7 . 9 BOO 5 7.1 s 6 . 7 l o 7 . 8 4 H f 8 . 4 .•. 8 . 0 s 7 . 1 s 1 1 s s c . ) 5 6 . I s ; .0 s 1.) 9 0') 5 7 . 1 s 6 . 9 5 7. 1 5W 7 . 7 s w 7.7 5 7 . 3 ' 7 . 2 s c ' s 6 . ) s 6 . • s 7 5 1 . 1 s 7 . C 1 0 :OC s 7.1 s 6 . p s 6 . 9 s 7 . 4 s 7.1 ' 6 . e 5 6 . A s 6 . t s 6 ' 5 6 . 6 s 1 . 2 s l . l s t.9 11 : o : s 7 . 2 s 6 . 8 s 6 s 7 . 1 s C . B s 6 . 7 s 6 . 7 5 L 4 s 6 . s s 6 . 6 s 7 . 1 s 7 . J s 6 . 9 I?:OC s 7 . 1 s 6 . 5 6 . 9 s 7 . 0 s E . 7 5 6 . s s 6 . s s 6 . 3 5 6 . 3 s 6 . 8 s 7 . 1 s 7 . 2 s B J IU< t : hJ Dlit a leut'c e a ILl . v .. cher lvr .. u Zu!J t . IA<...tS... •I V i.., ••"••• ••••uown Den•er, l'.atc., al"aU.eu a t e r ... , .. 1 • '"'Office WIND DATA

PAGE 54

S olu Soh r Position S oln lle•t Cain B t u h/oq f t Solar N oJ"!'Uo 1 7 itttP lrr .. dhtton, ....... Alt. Azivtuth U uh /ao ft Slf!o!VER 5 4.2 117.3 21 f, 14.11 101\.4 ! 5 4 2 1 7 21o. O 99.7 215 1\ 3 7 . 4 9 0.7 241> 9 8 0.2 10 59.11 65.11 272 l 1 t>9. 2 41.9 27f, 12 73.5 0 . 0 nq Half Oav Tot•lll W HITER II 5.5 53 . 0 1111 9 }4 . 0 4).'1 217 fle e 21 1 0 2r>.i 2 0 . 4 2f>l ll 25.0 1 5 . 2 270 17 21oJ 0.0 ]F.L H6lf o .. , . To t •!5 *1ntal aolar hut f n r (I /II in. ) ,I••• nn • r r flrctancr of 0 .20 N "'" r }() 21 2 'l 47 142 151 3 7 172 21)7 29 Hb 215 33 113 192 f,2 145 37 t,n 8'l 3 '\ lP. 41 242 7)4 } 0) 9 2 7 f,7 9 1 0 1 1 5 1 4 ) 4 )}) llo H Sh l7 p } R /,0 l FACING EAST FACING WEST ! 100 r-r -l--n--. I ' I i '"'t I I i . . I ++-f 1SO ! I ' ' j ; ' i ' I ... :--L hr--.H-' ' . I ; lwUl ! I I sr f, 7fJ 122 ! 5 2 lbl 14A 1 1 6 71 610 113 705 n2 )77 I R)l l + ..L --r-: ' -' . I I I 7 I I 10 n 1 2 1 2 3 4 I I 7 O I 7 I I 10 11 1 2 1 2 3 ol S I 7 . .nur __ t1l I I AM PM AM PM 5 1 1 2 21 19 45 RF, '15 311 49 J 51 7J(l 2L1 251 7 ! 35 35 2 3 7 2 41 37 17 26'1 1 71 41 2f>7 1 2 197 )I\) 1flr> !121 3 2 2 6 4 1 2 9 9 39 3 JL 1 4 7 7 2 120 Jt, )f, }0) l !77 l7 )}1 12 71) 5 " 4'1 t
PAGE 55

• '"' " J w )QLAR DIAGRAMS E • 0 a> D I RECTED WEATHER ATTACK , DENVER

PAGE 56

FACADE ORIENTATIONS INSOLATION ON WALL (Btu/day I A B c I 118 b 508 722 361 c d 508 722 361 DOUBLE B DOUBLE C 84 168 118 236 1016 508 1630 1160 2320 1630 3260 1016 508 A B c DOUBLE B DOUBLE C A B c DOUBLE B DOUBLE C A B c DOUBLE B DOUBLE C . 123 • 87 174 123 246 127 90 180 127 254 265 188 376 265 530 828 1180 590 1656 828 1174 1670 835 2348 1174 1490 2120 1060 2980 1490 BUILDING SIZES: RELATIVE WALL ANO FLOOR AREAS. 1490 1060 2120 1490 2980 1174 835 1670 1174 2348 828 590 1180 828 1656 lla< itlion cloublo I ot cloublo C • 2f 2w ID lw 1 .42w Relative irradiation on buildings of different shape and orientation --January 21, 400N latitude. Listed values represent the irradiation on walls of a hypothetical building with w • 1 square To get the daily irradiation on a building of similar shape with w • 100 square feet, multiply these numbers by 100 NSOLATION ON WALLS 265 376 188 530 265 127 180 90 254 127 123 174 87 246 123 2764 2668 3210 3780 4612 2406 2703 3072 3799 4319 2602 2775 2775 3903 3903 2406 3072 2703 4319 3799

PAGE 57

INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT RADIANT WINTER HEATING CONVECTED SUMMER CONDITIONING DEHUMIDIFIED AIR COOLED AIR CIRCULATED AIR HOUSEHOLD ODORS VIEW (VISION OUT) ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION PRODUCTIVE SOUND INHABITANTS WASTE WATER ELECTRICITY • I • :NVIRONMENTAL FACTORS TO CONSIDER L EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT W INTER IN SOLA TION WINTER A IR TE MPERATURE (STIL L AIR) WINTER WINOS 2 a:: ... SUMMER INSOL ATION X .... SUMMER AIR T EMPERATURES ( STILL AIR I SUMMER BREEZ E SUMMER HUMI OITY PRECIPITATION PLEASA ODORS (R A I N , SNOW , ETC) NT UN PLEA SANT OUST PRIVACY (VI SI ON IN) Cl) ;:) 0 ... ;:) 0 c WINTER SUNSH INE (VISIBLE WAVE BAND) DAYLIGHT SNOWGLARE ART IFICI AL ILL UMINATION NOISE VISITORS F RIENOS E c MPLOYEES USTOMERS INTRUDERS , T HIE\IES 0 ;;: ... l vr !;( Cl) ;:) 0 z :i ;:) "" >:? z g 0 a 0 "" 0 iii VERMIN INS E CTS POL LENS MICRO-ORGANISMS NUCLEAR POLLUTION

PAGE 58

PROCESS FOR ENERGY SYSTEMS DESIGN The process of thermal design should fit into the overall building design process, thereby evolving from the more general to the specific. My approach will consider energy conservation measures, passive heating and cooling techniques, and active hot water heating systems for both the community center and the housing units. My specific goal in regard to the housing is to supply at least SO% of the annual space heating needs and 75% of the domestic hot water needs through the energy systems' design. The first section will provide information on passive solar strategies and guidelines for conservation techniques. The following section provides relatively quick methods for estimating the impacts of design decisions on thermal performance. The method is intended as an iterative approach where adjustments can easily be made and assessed. Once the important characteristics of the building are established, several different approaches can be taken depending on the type of information that is known. Differnet parameters can be made variable to look at their affect on thermal performance. These building parameters are as follows: a. gross floor area and perimeter length b. number of stories c. R-values of componets d. Floor System(slab, basement,crawl space) e. Rough percentage of wall area devoted to windows The procedure is intended to give results within 10% of a detailed calculation, and will show the percentage that each building element contributes to the total thermal load. Once the building load coefficient (BLC) has been determined, this figure can be used to estimate the building's balance point temperature by relating the BLC to the internal heat gains generated within the building and solar gains. From this balance point temperature, one can establish whether the building is load or skin dominated and to what extent. The final section gives the month by month detailed evaluation ( SLR) of a chosen design, in order to judge the probable performance of the energy systems design.

PAGE 59

Multi-Familg Passive Housing Multi-family is different Even within a particular climate , what works well in one building is often inap propriate to another. Architects must adapt passive s o lar principles to a wide variety of building types and configura tions , each with its own opportunities and constraints . Solar Tips for Architects Houses are skin-dominated . They use ; After a few years in the trenches. most energy mainly t o overcome heat loss or professionals bulld up a stock of gain through walls . windows , and roofs. Insights, rules of thumb, and pet peeves. Office on the o . ther hand, are Rolly Rouse Is no exception, and what usually mternal-load dommated . Energy follows is his personal list. It is frankly use is often larg ely for lighting and cooling unsystematic and fraught with to heat from bodies . lights , and opinion--also very useful. equ1pment. Energy conservation • Good conservation means more than just lots of insulation . It requires attention to detail and use of high-quality products that won't degrade over time. • Think about thermal comfort, not just energy savings . Insulate under slabs-on grade whether or not you think it is cost eHective .lt is most certainly necessary for good thermal comfort in low-energy buildings. Multifamily buildings . of which there are many types . have energy characteris tics that fall s o mewhere bt>tween offices and houses . They tend to use less energy for space heating than their single family counterparts . This is because shared party walls make it easy to achieve heat loss rates per square foot of space that rival single-family superinsulation . Heat from bodies, lights , and appliances can then satisfy a large percentage of space heating needs and relatively small passive solar systems can make large contributions to remaining heat loads . But space heating is not the whole story . Windows While shared walls cut heat loss, they may • Don ' t overemphasize use of south glass . also result in poor natural light and crossDirect sunlight is often desirable for its ventilation. Internal heat gains and unown sake . East windows let in morning sun; wanted solar gains may cause overheating west windows give rooms a warm and high cooling costs during the spring, afternoon glow . summer, and fall. And as heating loads • Place windows for excellent daylight, shrink, it becomes harder to justify the ventilation , and views . as well as for solar costs of solar space heating . gain . Don't eliminate north windows just In multi-family design, close attention to because they are net losers of heat. Tiley lighting, shading , and ventilation is critical. also let through desirable light and breezes Passive solar features can cut energy use without increasing cooling loads . and improve thennal and visual comfort . • For good crossventilation, put about But misguided solar solutions may merely half the area of operable windows in the trade heating bills for cooling bills . walls that face prevailing summer winds as in the leeward walls . Earth-shehering • Use earth benning or sheltering only if it is also desired for architectural or pro grammatic reasons . Building well below grade often costs as much or more than superinsulated frame construction above grade and can limit design options . Air-to-air heat exchangers • Forget about through the-wall heat exchangers .llley cost too much and don't work very well. Use stacked central heat exchangers , if any . These too are overpriced . Appliances • Use energy efficient appliances . (Otherwise you 'll never be able to justify spending money on sunspaces.) Even if your tenanl<; or buyers don't really care, you'll sleep better at night knowing you did the right thing . Setting design priorities • Balance passive solar design issues with other important architectural concerns. Windows are not just sources of heal Sometimes solar "experts " seem to forget that homes are not built to save energy, but for people to live in . Conservation and solar features are neither easy add-ons nor paramount concerns . Trade-olfs are necessary . Climate • Learn more about the climate and microclimate . But remember, Mother Nature is a fickle friend indeed. ' 'Averages " almost always lie . Designs that are very flexible in their response to climate outperfonn ones based on a rigid response to average conditions . • Don't rely too much on radiation data . It is, in most cases, based on extrapolations from data produced by a few poorly instrume nted , poorly maintained sites . Besides, variations from long-tenn monthly averages are often enormous .

PAGE 60

Shading • rlXed overhangs frequently don't work very well. At best, they only do the right thing on "average " days and " average" months . A better solution is operable awnings used with i ndoor roller shades or venetian blinds. • Deciduous trees may make a monkey out of you by blocking needed sunlight. 1bey can, however , provide excellent shading and natural c ooling while cutting glare . U the building i sn ' t too tall , deciduous trees provide effective and beautiful shading for east and west windows . Trombe walla • Until new evidence to the contrary emerges, forget about Trombe walls . They are typically expensive , complicate construction, and provide only modest energy savings . They provide little sugar to help the medicine go down, so long paybacks are unac c eptable. Movable insulation • Hedge your bets on movable window insulation . Tenants may lack commitment to energy conservation and often prefer to choose their own window treatments . It may be best to use triple or low-emissivity glazing on all windows , including those facing south , and to encourage tenants to purchase insulating shades or drapes on their own . Suns paces • Find any excuse you can to use sunspaces . In private-sector pr o jects , they may well have an i nstantaneous payback , regardless of energy savings . Nevertheless, try to d e sign s unspaces that are both marketable and e nergy -s aving . Don' t feel compelled to glaze the entire wall and be wary o f sliders and slo ped glass . Teach tenants to operate s un s pace systems properly . • Con s ider repl acin g d o uble-loaded corr i d o rs with p ass i v e s olar a tria . Mechanical systems • Make sure the mechanical engineers talk to the architect from the outset and that HVAC systems are efficient and properly sized . Performance analysis • Don ' t just analyze e nergy use for s pace heating . Look at lighting , ventilat i on . and cooling , too. • Beware of estimated "solar savings frac tions." They are o ften mislead ing and tend to distract designers from the real problem-lo wer ing total energy cos ts whi le improving the quality o f the indoor environment. • Learn about thermal comfort and daylighting . • Treat amenity as part o f performan c e . Amenities may be diffi cult to qu an t ify. but are often the m o st v alua ble and marketable aspect o f passive s o lar apartments . Analyzing costs • Exercise caution when analyz i ng added costs . Incremental cost analysis can be extremely misleading . The base case may be unrealistic . costs or cost credits may go unclaimed , and the whole frequently costs less than the sum of the parts . Cost estimating is as much an art as a science . The Energy Office . for instance , compared total construction costs in the solar projects it sponsored with costs in similar non-solar state financed elderl y housing . Extra costs for solar were stat i stically insignificant and rarely matched estimated incremental costs . Cost-effectiveness • Beyond a certai n point, it makes more sense to invest your money in better w o rkm a nship , in nic e details that show , than in added i nsulat i on . regardless of its " cost-effectiven ess" in saving energy . • Perhaps we sho uld all banish the word "cost-eff ec tive " from our vocabularies . It usually needs t o be fes tooned with so many caveats as t o be utterly meaningle s s . Instead . we might us e w ords like " excellent , " " balan c ed . " or " well d es igned . "

PAGE 61

From earth tubes to roof ponds, with many choices in between, solar design offers practical ways to cool buildings naturally. By Jerry Germer It was a shortage of heating oil 11 winters ago that started the ball rolling for solar energy, and active and passive solar heating have devoured the lion's share of research and development dollars to date. Passive cooling, long used in countries with few energy resources and extreme cooling problems, got a late start in i ndustrial na tions. An international conference at Miami in 1981 was the first to draw together researchers and designers to focus on passive and low-energy strategies for cool ing houses and small buildings . In the three years since the conference, work has quietly continued at research centers such as the Florida Solar Energy Center, Trinity University (San Antonio), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and the University of Arizona. None of these efforts has yielded a cooling cure-all. but the fron tiers of pass ive and hybrid cooling have been breached . Research results occasional ly trickle down to the building site . Radiant barriers r:;otar Age, 7 184, p . 34) and shading systems (8/84, p. 38) are just two examples. Cooling through natural processes is harder to understand and accomplish than solar heating . Strategies that work in some climates and seasons make matters worse in others. Some seem promising but have yet to make much impact on the main stream of skin-load commercial buildings and include : • Roof ponds. Insulated from solar radia tion during the day, they absorb heat from the living space and radiate it to the night sky when uncovered. They work best when skies are clear and the diurnal temperatu re swing is large . But they suffer some prac tical drawbacks . They are costly and limited to nat roofs, they require heavy con struction. " People don ' t like water over their heads," says John Yellott, veteran solar engineer and researcher . Failures found in Jerry Germer , AlA, is an associate editor at Solar ARe. State of the Art: Passive Cooling HU I L..L..6, ALA. .JUNES
PAGE 62

panels cool people dirL>t:tly by absorbing ra diant body heat. Clark says people report feeling comfortable even when the air temperature is 95F . A passive version of this strategy uses water cooled by trickling down the roof at night and stored in a tank. Look also for developments in seasonally stored cooling i n the future. • Earth tubea. To deliver effective cool ing to occupied space, earth-tube systems must have soil temperatures sufficiently lower than the space to be cooled . And they need enough length to cool the transient air. Soil temperatures favor earth-tube cool ing during the short-but often severecooling season of the Midwest . But in much of the South, where there is a longer need for cooling , soil temperatures are too warm for this strategy to make sense . Earth tubes are limited by high cost , tricky design, and difficult insulation . Microorganisms and radon gas borne by the humid air emerg ing from perforated tubes may pose a healthy concern (who needs yet another one?). But what of the present? Between the untried and the impractical there are tried-and proven low-energy measures that can either produce thermal comfort or at least reduce dependence on costly mechanical cooling . The two general approaches, in order of cost-effectiveness , are load avoidance and passive cooling . Load avoidance As with solar heating , conservation first . Cutting heat transmitted through the walls and roof to a minimum should be the first line of defense i n any cooling climate . Ra diant barriers , particularly in the roof, reduce radiative solar heat gains effective ly in regions where cooling is the chief an nual concern ['Radiant Barriers, " Solar Age. 7 /84) . Moving farther north, winter heating becomes the dominant problem, requiring thermal insulation to prevent conductive losses to the outdoors . Enough insulation for winter heating is probably more than enough for the cooling season. Shielding openings against solar penetra tion is of paramount importance. Direct solar rays are the worst offender, but reflected and diffuse radiation also add substantial heat. Exterior shading devices block the most gain, followed by exterior w indow shade screens, films, and tinted (heat-absorbing) glass ("Dodging the Heat in Dixie," Solar Age, 8/84). White or reflectivized interior shades may help, but colored blinds, shades , and drapes have little effect , since they only absorb heat already inside the building . Reflective glass also works , blocking solar gain in pro portion to its reflectivity . Passive cooling After beefing up the building envelope to minimize the coolinM load, there are three practical passive cooling means: thermal "\. \ ... ...,. I The Wagner house , Palo Alto, C alif., i s designed to be coo led by natural ve n t ilat i on. B reezes enter at the ground leuel , rise by the stack effect , and are drawn out the cupola at the top of the two-and-(1half-story living room . William T Mey er , AlA , San Francisco . mass, ventilation, and evaporative cooling . But they are not interchangeable . Each works under specific climatic conditions . One quick way to choose the r i ght cool ing strategies in the schematic stage is the bioclimatic chart ("Notebook," 2 / 84) . Plot ting average maximum and minimum dry bulb temperatures for each month. and the relative humidities that coincide with these temperatures, will give you an idea of when each strategy will produce comfort, and when mechanical cooling must make up the deficit Months with overheated periods are p lotted in the bioclimatic chart for Hunts ville, Alabama, in Figure I. • Ventilation. Within the ventilation zone "V' on the chart, comfort is possible if you move enough air through the building to evaporate sufficient skin moisture, even though dry-bulb temperatures exceed com fort levels. This occurs for temperatures up to 9QOF, if relative humidity (RH) is less than 50 percent, and up to about 85F if the RH is 80 percent. These conditions prevail for the northernmost parts of the Northeast and Northwest for most of the summer, the Midwest to Atlantic coast in spring and fall, and the Southeast for much of the year. With skillful des ign of the walls and roof , you can capture natural ventilation through the stack effect (temperature differences) or prevailing winds (pressure differences) . When neither is enough, you can use fans to do the job ("Whole-House Fans for Low Cost Cooling," 4 / 83). • Thennal Masa. If the interior walls and floors are concrete or masonry, they can prov ide comfort when conditions are in the zone marked "M." To do this, ventilate the building at night with cool o utside air and dose it during the day. The nx>led building mass absorbs radiant heat (from people) and convectively n>ols the inside air . Oimate conditions that favor thermal mass occur where n i ght temperatures fall below 68"F. This happens in the transition seasons for much of the country . But even when buildings have to be closed and t o tal ly mechanically conditioned, cooling the mass with off -peak power at n i ght can reduce energy costs substantially . • Evaporative cooling. The effective zone of evaporative cooling, "EC," extends up to 104F if the wet bulb temperature is lower than 71 F (or RH is less than about 16 percent) . These conditions are not as widespread as those for ventilation and thermal mass except in the West. where summers are dry. "Swamp coolers," which seem to dot the roofs of almost every Phoenix house, economically remove latent heat in all but the two hottest months. But they add humidity as the tradeoff for c ooler ai. Two-stage evaporative c oolers (two sin J!e-stage units in series) have a wider range of operating conditions , but at a higher cost. Indirect evaporative coolers (a s ingle-stage unit combined with a heat exchanger) are gain ing ground. Though they deliver dry air, they still requ ire mechani cal a i r co ndi tioning for the most extreme periods in Phoenix . Jeffrey Cook, Ariz ona State University architecture professor . believes their cost will come down and electric rates will go up when a nearby nuclear power plant comes on line . This will give a push to devices with lower operating c o sts . The last resort Buildings vary i n the extent to which they can be effectively cooled by passive strategies alone . But if they are th o ughtful ly designed to minimize cooling loads and take advantage of passive strat egie s , they can sharply reduce or even eli m i n ate mechanical cooling . •

PAGE 63

I Nlqht (f) ll{WO"\ r lOrutf GO '""L dM.i a.nc\ tto.t-htlXt to 1nhricv-cU" ntqht

PAGE 64

DIMI""O.M? E'-nt!tJl-j . t1LO..tlrij Virt.d fuU1 UJC.,Il t ex.tvior t-roYLf \Y\ nrtif cot

PAGE 65

-6olw H-tCU\"9 Techniquts P1r-tGf . i'> Vi ')tri oomd c;, 2) ConctntrWt.d lrdirect : I) 1h trYV1o.A t.. (}JVJA fhtrrroJ -p-oof t) 2\ {onv((livt. W::op. (OOiirQ )ec-hr\icpr-:> I) to\CLY" rontro I 2) "'1q ht vt"Hnll 3) {onvlCt}vt, {oollrY( 4-) 5 . ) v..cttv(. {OO\irl9 CD) ttroord coot l Adtvt tc{v.r tx:ML"'.:il c., wnnr t1tlltt r'Cj

PAGE 66

P.ta.nor Vtnl"? {Dr _........;;;p;p; (CO!In4 C.ru\ (ll thrtl. furcttor..ru wa.t.t-s: \) year fCC'rd 6pD..c.e.....: morL. 1 \im\t" > t W(..'"::>t-2) 6:::4tA.r" \-\ L Wlf {tx-1:JJi \ ci I, \OW t.r v-ACA. d fl. n tp t'l\c:U'" ht.:DJ'" qu-:> Mcrt.. ihto 1 ivlnJ 6-po.-cl.... , vmti\fAJ\o(\ a7J ttrt U\ ra.:f:L, ?n:dcdi Ct"l ti \ t 'l f a.zJ rYj 1 tD (!X)tn)\ J t.-Vtn c\VJttibotlon

PAGE 67

CONSERVATION MEASURES -Proper site orientation -Sun controls: balance need for winter gains with summer cooling (with special attention to overheating problem in summer) -insulated for maximum efficiency -Optimum shapes: ratios for height, width and length based on 40 latitude a. South receives twice as much irradiation in winter as in summer b. East and West walls receive 2 1/2 times more irradiation in summer than winter c. optimum form for latitude is elongated along east-west axis -Careful placement and size of aperatures based on orintaion and function -Strive to warm and cool room surfaces (radiant temperatures) -Impact of ground refectance on building -Impact landscaping -Exterior color related to heating and cooling needs -Use of berming -Use of thermal mass to control temperature swings -Airlock entries -Day lighting -Control of interior air flows and infiltration -Detailing

PAGE 68

k;oltA.tad . fcr Clff'licoJICY\ (DlltCllr . J cut t:Lt thL cur htrute\ th"-c.oll{GfDJ CCU"\ tx.-to tht. 61trllejt-Rtic Em [>.YL eX L tJ,r -thi.
PAGE 69

DESIGN GUIDELINES WORKSHEET CONSERVATION LEVELS CF a conservation factor, from map or table Solar incremental cost a $/ft2 Rwa11 • (CPwall a ___ ) X (C. F a ___ ) Rceil ing a (CPceil ing a ___ ) X (CF • ---Rperimeter a (CPperimeter • ) X (CF • ___ ) -5 Rbasement a (CPbasement • ___ ) X (CF • -8 NE,W,N .. (CPE,W, N = ___ ) X (CF • --ACH = (CPACH :a ___ )/(CF • __ _ SOLAR PPOJECTED AREA, Ap Floor area a ft2 fAf) --NLC a (CPsolar .. ---X (Af .. ___ )/(CF = --LCR ,. ---Btu/oF ft2 day from map or table Ap a (NLC ,. --)/(LCR ,. ____ ) • ----ft2 a a = • = --Btu/F da y

PAGE 70

PROCEDURE FOR PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF CONSERVATION LEVELS AND SOLAR COLLECTION AREA CONSERVATION LEVELS Step 1. Step 2. Look up conservation factor (CF) from the map Estimate the cost of the passive system per sq ft of net solar glazing (or use Sl0/ft2 if uncertain). Step 3. Step 4. Determine cost factors from the table. Deternrine appropriate conservation levels from the following formulas: Rwall • CPwal 1 • CF Rceiling • CPceilfng • CF Rperimeter • CPperimeter • CF -5 Rbasement • CPbasement • CF -8 NE,W,N .ACH •CPE,W,N • CF • CPACHICF SOLAR COLLECTION AREA, Ap wall insulation R-value ceiling insulation R-value perimeter insulation R-value basement insulation R-value number of glazings (E,W,N) air changes per hour Step 1. Find an appropriate value of CPsolar'from the table. Step 2. Estimate the net load coefficient (NLC) from the equation NLC • CPsolar x Af/CF where Af • floor area. Step 3. Look up load collector ratio, LCR, front th.-map Step 4. Calculate Ap • NLC/LCR.

PAGE 71

Conservation L.vels (CF) GUIDELINE MAPS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN Load Collector Ratio (LCR) CONSIIVATION fACTOI GUIDELINE VAlUES Low Fuel Cost CF LCR S!>f"(l) liENVER, COLORAUO 1. 27 Jb Floor Aru 1000 1!100 3000 !1000 10000 20000 liC 1M. TRY f AC 1 011, Gf llullber 7.3 6.5 5.4 4.9 4.3 3.9 NLC • Gf • At cr 2 6.7 5.4 4.7 4.0 3 . 5 of Storlu 3 !1.1 4.9 4.0 l.S 4 !i.l 4.2 3.5 .-ere Gf Is • f•clor th•t 1ccounts for Ole rehtlve of tht oulldlng tnll At h the II oor ..-u. ted ulues of Gf ue gln'fl 111 T•ble l. LOAD COLUCTOI IATIO (lCI) Hign Fuel Cost CF 19 7b

PAGE 72

TABLES The CP are cost parameters that depend on incremental costs of both conservation and passive solar. Suggested values are as . Cost of Passive System, $/ft2 5 10 15 20 25 CPwall 10 14 17 20 22 CPce11ing 13 18 22 26 29 CPperimeter 9 13 16 18 20 CPbasement 11 16 20 23 26 CPE,W,N 1.2 1.7 2.0 2.3 2.6 CPAOf 0.60 0.42 0.34 0;30 0.26 Suggested values of the solar cost parameter, CPsolar• for different building configurations and passive solar costs are as follows: Cost of Passive System, $/ft2 Floor Area Stories 5 10 15 20 25 1,000 1 10.3 7.3 5.9 5.1 4.6 1,500 1 9.1 6.5 5.3 4.6 4.1 3.000 1 7.7 5.4 4.4 3.8 3.4 5,000 1 6.9 4.9 4.0 3.4 3.1 10,000 1 6.1 4.3 3.5 3.0 2.7 20,000 1 5.5 3.9 3.2 2.8 2.5 1,500 2 9.4 6.7 5.4 4.7 4.2 3,000 2 7.6 5.4 4.4 3.8 3.4 5,000 2 6.6 4.7 3.8 3.3 3.0 10,000 2 5.6 4.0 3.2 2.8 2.5 20,000 2 4.9 3.5 2.8 2.5 2.2 3,000 3 8.1 5.7 4.6 4.0 3.6 5,000 3 6.9 4.9 4.0 3.4 3.1 10 • . ooo 3 5.7 4.0 3.3 2.9 2.6 20,000 3 4.9 3.5 2.8 2.5 2.2 5,000 4 7.2 5.1 4.2 3.6 3.2 10,000 4 5.9 4.2 3.0 2.7 20,000 . 4 5.0 3.5 2.9 2.5 . 2.2

PAGE 73

The following solar-access design process is divided into four steps: determination of the solar window, solar-access strategies, solar e n ergy systems strategies, and solar-access analysis. 1 . Determination of the solar window a . Determine the solar-access design day of the year (typically December 21 or the coldest day). b. Determine the desired hourly duration of sunshine (typically 4 to 8 hours during the design day). c . Identify governing altitude and azimuth angles associated with the duration of sunshine to determine shadow and shading patterns. d . Determine true south. You can do this by observing the north star or by using a compass. Check the isogonic chart for magnetic vari ations (refer to Appendix A , Figure A -12). e . Establish range of building orientations (determine off-axis orien tation adjustments by revising shadow patterns) and topographical effects. 2. Solar-access strategies SOLAR ACCESS a . Identify any local site obstructions to the solar w indow (trees, buildings, mountain formations, etc. ) . b. Establish a method for determining context protection (bulk plane, solar-envelope, solar-fence, etc. ) . c . Determine desired density and associated levels of solar access (roof, south wall, east-west wall, south lot, or other).

PAGE 74

3 . Solar energy systems strategies a. Determine preliminary energy balance (identifying emphasis on space heating, cooling, andjor conservation, etc. ). Identify heat load, energy-conservation concepts, and methods of solar col lection. b. Determine preliminary energy design strategies with location of south-facing windows and collectors (determine preliminary active and passive collector areas and thermal-mass vo lumes) and identify unit zoning concepts (east-west zoning, north-south zon ing, etc. ). c . Identify relationships of solar collectors to mass and determine solar-access requirements for thermal mass. 4 . Solar-access analysis a. Ensure that context protection has been achieved (compare build ing forms with solar envelope or building shadows w ith solar fence). b . Ensure that internal protection has been achieved. Construct building-shadow patterns based. upon the above items (look for shading on internal thermal mass, south-facing w indows, and other solar collectors).

PAGE 75

SOLAR HOT WATER SYSTEMS The W-Chart published by the Solar Energy Design Corporation of America will be used to establish the optimum size of the active solar water heating systems for the apartments. These figures will influence decisions regarding the design and placement of necessary componets. Of primary importance will be deciding between a large concentrated arrangement, independent of each unit, or smaller individual systems related to each unit or group of units. My goal is to supple 75% of the hot water needs through this solar system. The size of the active system for the community center's needs will be done in a separate calculation. My goal is to supply SO% of the yearly hot water needs of the center through an active system. Daily hot water usage (140*F) for solar system design• Catogory Ont and Two Family Apt•. of 2/ Apts. of 2-' Uni ts 1 / and Apts. up to 20 Unita 20 200 Uni ta OYir 200 Unita No. of Peopl e 2 3 4 5 6 No. of Bedrooms 2 3 4 5 Hot Water/Uni t 40 55 70 85 100 40 35 (gal.! day) 1 I A ssu n,ns 20 gal. per person for first 2 people and 15 gal. p e r per5on for addtttonal fam i l y '"'" "'" From : H. G Werden and L. G . Sptelvogel: "Part II Sizing of Service Water Heating E ,uipn ' """' i n Co• '11P.rc i al and Insti tut ional Bu il d ings." ASH RAE Transactions. Vol. 75 Pll. 1969 . p . IV. 1.1. • Adopted from HUD Mtntmum Property Standards for Solar

PAGE 76

BLC WORKSHEET , .............. LOAD, NET LOAD COEFFICIENT, NLC 8LaDIHO ELEMENT aad p.,fot• AdiMella UA WAU8 ROOf :UAw•AwiRw :UA1•A,IR1 I. W, N WINDOW I: UA• • A,.•Ua tUAe•A11Re : UAp • 4.1 P 1111CR111 + I) I • 1G.7 +I) ----I ----I ---• ---I /( .1•---G.7• ---IC PfR..,ETER 8AIEUENT IHFLTRAllOH I lJAa •O.OIIV • ADR • ACH • 0.011 a • • • • • +I) • .. , • • • au.. 81ul, ... 0 m.e., ..... ---81ul, •• ,

PAGE 77

ESTIMATION DESIGN HEATING LOADS The design heat load is the Building Load Coefficient times the temperature differential between indoor and outdoor design temperatues, . Design Heating Load = BLC x T (Btu/day) This figure is the total heat required to maintain the building at the indoor design temperature in the absence of any internal generation or solar gains at the given outdoor design temperature. In addition, it is assumed that the solar wall loses no net energy, A more conservative approach would be to provide auxiliary heating assuming that the solar wall loses heat based on a steady state conduction coefficient. These are given by the following table: Direct Gain Trombe Wall (18") Water Wall Steady-State Conduction Coefficient (Btu/hr sq ft of glazing) Without Night With Night Insulation Insulation R4 R9 0.55 0.30 0.24 0.22 0.15 0.12 0.33 0.20 0.17 Solar Wall Steady-State. Load Coefficient: L = 24 hrs X (A X u) Btu/DD s p Ltot= Ls x T (Btu/day) Add Ltot to Design Heating Load for the Total Design Load, ESTIMATION BALANCE POINT TEMPERATURE Internal Sources(Qint)-The daily internal heat generation by people, lights, appliances, equipment or a11y heat source other than an auxiliary heater or the sun, Unless other information is available, this can be taken equal to 20,000 Btu/day per person. Tbal = Qint/BLC

PAGE 78

SSF WORKSHEET LOAD COLLECTOR RATIO, LCR LCR .Bl.C 1". • 1---• ---aw•p ••r • 112 WEIGHTED AVERAGE, SSf REFERENCE DESIOH PROJECTED APERTURE AREA fRACTtOH OF Ap 88PfOR EACH REFERENCE DEIIOH PROOUCTM 8V a fRACTION TOTAL Ap----aut.l•-......::--88f-----AUXIliARY HEAT, 0811• Q au•. " aSf)Bl.C •DO •C1 _____ ,.. ---N ____ , • 10-e. ----MIIlulraar LCR&D VS SSF DUYEII SSF' a • 1 .2 .3 .II .5 .6 .1 .8 .9 COLORADO vv 136 6] 39 21 20 15 11 7 ]9.7. L VVIII ?18 105 67 -8 37 ?9 211 19 1] 6016 00 c TW 132 61 ]8 25 11 12 8 5 3 t(JUh]O II TV III 207 99 63 -5 327 21 15 10 DC 127 511 28 1] OGIII 227 108 68 118 ]6 27 20 111 9 vv 12. 9 11. 1 9.6 8.7.1 5. 1 3.0 1. 2 VVMI 21.8 19. 1 18.2 16.2 15 .o 1].6 10.8 6.9 2.9 0 TW 12.5 10.6 8.7 6.5 11.7 ).2 1.9 .9 .3 TWNI 20.2 18.2 16.5 15. 1 1). 3 10. 6 7.5 11.6 1.9 OG 11.2 8.0 II.] 1.1 OCNI 21.8 19.6 11.11 15.6 12.8 9.5 6.5 ].7 1.] This table is based on particular reference designs which are defined on the following page. For designs which are mixtures of different system types: (l) calculate a single LOR, based on the total load and the total combinea collection area, (2) look up the resulting value of SSF for each of the system types, and (3) average between the table values for each type of system based on the relative proportions of glazed area of each.

PAGE 79

Reference Passive System Designs General 2 Thermal storage capacity = 45 Btu/F ft of glazing Other thermal mass of building is negligible Double glazing, with normal transmittance= .747, spacing= 1/4 inch. Room temperature control range = 65 F to 75 F Night insulation (when used) is R9 In place 5 pm to 8 am (Trombe and water walls) In place 5 pm to 7 am (Direct gain) Thermal mass-to-room air conductance = l.D Btu/F hr ft2 Masonry properties (Trombe walls and direct gain) k = 1.0 Btu/ft hr F (thermal conductivity) P = 150 lb/ft3 (density) c = 0.2 Btu/lb F . (specific heat) Infrared emittance of mass surface = 0.9 No internal heat generation (from appliances, etc.) Trombe Walls * Wall has vents at top and bottom, with backdraft dampers Vent area = 3% of wall area (each of 2 vents) Direct Gain Mass is 6-inch thick masonry Mass area is 3 times glazing area Transmitted solar radiation is uniformly distributed on mass Non-mass absorption fraction = 0.2 (heats air directly) Additional Assumptions for LOR Method Vertical, south-facing glass Ground reflectance = 0.3 No shading of solar aperture Mass absorptance = 1.0 (thermal storage walls) = 0.8 (direct gain) *In cases of attached sunspaces use the table values for Trombe Walls

PAGE 80

MONTHLY CALCULATION -THE SLR METHOD A central tool in passive solar design analysis is the monthly calculation, or "SLR method," based on the monthly SLR correlations. For ease in application to the monthly calculation, the SLR is expressed in terms of two quantities, LCR, which is a building parameter, and a monthly variable, S/00, where Sis the monthly solar radiation absorbed in the building per unit of projected area and DO is the monthly heating degree days. A Step-By-Step Procedure 1. Obtain building information a. Building load coefficient, BLC b. Projected area, AP c. Load collector ratio, LCR = BLC/AP 2. Obtain site and climate information a. Latitude b. Latitude minus mid-month declination, monthly (Appendix D) c. Clearness ratio, monthly, KT (Appendix D) d. Incident solar radiation, horizontal surface, monthly (Appendix D) e. Heating degree days, monthly, DO (Appendix D) 3. Obtain absorbed solar radiation, monthly, S (Appendix C or E) 4. Obtain monthly solar savings fractions, SSF a. Calculate S/00, monthly b. Determine SSF, monthly, two options (Appendix C) i) Graphical, SSF-vs-S/00 curves ii) Analytical, equations for SLR SSF 5. Calculate auxiliary heat requirement, Q a. Monthly, Q = (1 SSF) x BLC x DO b. Annual, Q = sum of monthly Q 6. Calculate annual solar savings fraction, SSF = 1 Q/(BLC x DO)

PAGE 81

PROJECT WOOK SHEET Specifications Project Narre -----------Location --------------Latitude ---Passive System Type Glazing Area Date ____ _ Initials ----Night Insulation R Value _______ sq ft R;..._ __ _ _______ sq ft R . ___ _ _______ sq ft R;..._ __ _ ft R. ___ _ Total Area Ac = _______ sq ft Thermostat Setting, Tset ______ --:.F Internal Heat Rate, Qint _______ Btu/day Design Heating Load, ------Btu/hr Design temperature: inside ____ F, outside ____ F ----------------------------------------Calculated Values Building Load Coefficient, ELC ____ Btu/00, by Method 1 D , Method 2 0 Load Collector Ratio, LCR = BLC/Ac Btu/00 sq ft Degree-Day Base Temperature for Non-solar Building, Tbns F Degree-Days for Non-solar Building, DOns 00 Degree-Day Base Temperature for Solar Building, Tbs _____ ___:F

PAGE 82

The effective base temperature for the non-solar building, Tbns, is: Tbns = Tset -Qint/BLC calculate Tbns and enter Tset and Tbns on the Project Work Sheet. The 6T due to internal heat generally will be less in the solar building than in the non-solar building because some of the internal-source heat passes out through the solar wall. This difference can be appreciable and can significantly effect the final SSF result. In order to account properly for this effect it is appropriate to calculate a steady-state conduction coefficient for the solar wall. This can be done using U-values from the following table: Steady-State Conduction Coefficient, Uc (Btu/hr sq ft of glazing). Without Night With Night Insulation Insulation R4 R9 Direct Gain 0.55 0.30 0.24 Trombe Wall (18") 0.22 0.15 0.12 Water Wall 0.33 0.20 0.17 Thus the effective base temperature of the solar building, Tbs, is given by: Tbs = Tset -Qint/(BLC + 24 x Ac x Uc) where Uc is taken from the table above.

PAGE 83

TABLE A SOLAR RADIATION ABSORBF.D PER SQUARE FOOT Location DENVER, CO Latitude f 39 • 7 I Aperture Type---Collection Area Acr=J ft2 Column (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Either Factors Product (1) X (8) HS or VS of all s X Days/Mon KT F F RAD F A Factors (CLEARORIENT TRANS MODS ABS A Hon L-D Btu NESS p Btu tyton sq ft RATIO) lmon sq ft Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr Hay Jun

PAGE 84

LEGEND HS = normal daily value of total hemispheric radiation incident on a horizontal surface (Btu/ft 2 day). VS =normal daily value of total solar radiation incident on a vertical, south-facing surface (Btu/ft 2 day). TA = (Tmin + Tmax)/2 where Tmin and Tmax are monthly (or annual) normals of daily minimum and maximum ambient temperatures (F). Dxx =monthly (or annual) normals of heating degree-days below the base temperature xx (F days). KT =average monthly (or annual) clearness ratio, i.e., the ratio of total hemispheric radiation incident on a horizontal surface to the extraterrestrial radiation incident on a horizontal surface. LD = LAT-DEC, latitude minus mid-month solar declination (degrees). TABLE DENVER, COLORADO HS VS TA D50 D55 84n 1465 30 623 778 FEB 1127 33 482 622 MAR 1530 1503 37 4 0 6 559 APR 1879 1227 48 130 240 MAY 2135 106 1 57 18 63 2351 1037 66 1 5 JUL 2273 10S3 73 0 0 Aur, 2044 11B8 ]2 0 0 SEP 1727 1491 63 3 14 OCT 1300 1657 52 63 143 NOV 8E3 1441 39 324 469 DEC 732 1323 33 540 695 YR 1570 1334 50 2592 35R8 [LEV 5331 lAT 39.7 060 D65 D70 KT lQ 933 1088 1243 .64 61 762 902 1042 .64 53 713 86A 1023 .64 42 379 525 675 .62 30 143 253 406 .62 21 23 80 158 .65 16 0 0 50 .64 18 0 0 69 .64 26 51 120 232 .66 38 261 408 559 .67 50 618 768 918 .62 59 849 10n 4 1159 .61 63 4733 6016 7535 .64 ' EATHER DATA FOR LCR & SLR METHOD

PAGE 85

TABLE B SOLAR SAVINGS FRACTION AND AUXILIARY ENERGY Location DENVER, CO. System---------Col. (1) (2) From From Ap-Table A pendix A Col. (9) or W2 or Wl s DDs Rtu -lrmn Hon non sq r-.:: Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr Hay Jun (3) (4) (1) i (2) !From Figs IF-1 to 6, !Equations S/DDs or W4 "Monthly Rr-n SSF" mon ttLDf. Total (5) (1-(4)] X (2 x BLC Qauxs 10 6 Btu/mon BLC I Btu/DD DDns I IF day LCR I I Btu/DD Yearly SSF SSF • 1 T.Qauxs Qauxns 1 1:(5) BLCxDDns -._I _ ____, Annual Auxiliary Heat sq ft

PAGE 86

WORKSHEET Wl. AREA-WEIGHTED SOLAR INPUT FOR MULTIPLE SOLAR APERTURES Location -----------(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Syst FlxSl + F2xS2 + Etc. Area 51 52 53 54 s Fl• F2• F3• F4,. / f-onst Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Sum

PAGE 87

Syst V..rea f--onst Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Sum WORKSHEET W4 SOLAR SAVINGS FRACTION S FOR MIXED SYSTD1S Location ------------(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Table B --Col (3) --l SSFl SSF2 SSF3 SSF4 DD R_ NI R_ NI R_NI R_Nl / Fl= F2c: F3= F4= / (6) Flx(2) + F2x (3) + Etc, SSF Mixed System /

PAGE 88

E STIMATING TEMPER A T U R E SWING F O R DIRECT G A I N BUILDI NGS During the final phase of design, it is necessary to do a detailed est i mate of the building's interior temperature swing in direct gain cases, where this can be a potential prob lem. This temperature swing c a n be uncomfor tably large if the LCR is small or the thermal storag e is The follwing is an estimating procedure which will account for the i mportant physical effects: thickness and material properties of the thermal storage materials, location of these materials, and orientation of. the surfaces. (Ref: Passive Solar Handbook II, p . 178-91 ) Material DIURNAL HEAT CAPAC! TY* "8 ] c:: (Btu/ft2 F) .... 0 g ..,,.;.: 1-< Vl u ,.lo( u 6t u .0 6 .... 1-< u ....l t:O p.. 3 density (lb/ft ) 143 153 112 31 95 120 specific heat (Btu/lb F) 0.21 0 .22 0.22 0.67 0.19 0.20 thermal conductivity (Btu/ft F hr) 1.0 0.54 0.40 0.097 0.19 0.332 Class 1 & 2 (direct) 1" 2.50 2.80 2.05 1. 71 1.50 2.00 2" 4 .99 5.52 4.04 2.96 2.90 3.9L 3" 7.37 7.81 5.73 3.14 3.86 5.44 Heat Stored 4" 9.47 9.17 6.74 2.93 4.14 6.20 Surface !! T 6" 11.94 9.30 6.86 2.76 3.82 6.05 8" 12.14 8.63 6.36 2.77 3.62 5.62 12" 10.99 8.29 6.10 2.77 3.61 5.49 16" 10.65 8.33 6.13 2. 77 3.62 5.52 Class 3 (indirect) 1" 2.28 2.48 1.91 1.58 1.43 1.86 2" 3.63 3.71 3.10 2.26 2.39 3.00 3" 4.21 4.05 3.54 2.21 2.70 3.39 Heat Stored 4" 4.40 4.06 3.60 2.07 2.67 3.41 Room l!T 6" 4.37 3.84 3.40 1.99 2.46 3.19 8" 4.22 3.69 3.24 2.00 2.38 3.05 12" 4.02 3.65 3.20 2.00 2.39 3.04 16" 4.00 3.66 3.21 2.00 2.39 3.04 •The wall is assumed to be insulated on the back side, or to be back-to-back with another wall of the same thickness having the same surface boundary condition.

PAGE 89

Step 1 Calculate the surface area, A, of all building interior mass walls, floors, and ceilings and assign classification in accordance with the following criteria but being guided by the previous discussion. Location The surface of any massive material which receives some direct sun, except covered floor. Covered floor (or any covered surface) Walls which enclose a direct-gain room for which the solar gains exceed the room day time losses. All ceilings, except in sealed rooms (such as closets). Walls which enclose other rooms which communicate by convection with direct gain rooms. Uncovered floor in direct-gain rooms (not directly sunlit) Floors other than in direct-gain rooms. All surfaces in closed-off rooms Class 1 Class 4 Class 2 Class 2 Class 3 Class 3 Class 4 Class 4 In this listing, include gypsum board surfaces, and wood surfaces more than 1/2 inch thick. Do not include insulating materials such as fiberglass ceiling panels and walls covered with heavy fabric, rugs, or other insulation. Step 2 For Class 1 surfaces, estimate the fraction of the solar day that the surface is sunlit, f, and the absorptance of the surface, The estimate need not be very precise. Absorptance values can be estimated visually using the following guide: Very dark surfaces = 0.8 to 0.9 Most surfaces a = 0.5 to 0.6 Light colored surfaces a = 0.3 to 0.4

PAGE 90

Step 3 Look up the diurnal heat capacity (dhc) of each Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 surface in Table F-1. Note that there are two dhc tables, one for Class 1 and Class 2 surfaces (direct), and another for Class 3 surfaces (indirect). For interior mass walls the effective wall thickness is one-half the total thickness and both surfaces should be counted. Step 4 Calculate the Diurnal Heat Capacity (DHC) of each surface from the formula: DHC = A x (dhc) x (1 + af) Class 1 DHC = A x (dhc) Class 2 and 3 DHC = 0 Class 4 Step 5 Estimate the heat capacity of the building furnishings. In lieu of other information, use 2 Btu/F per sq ft of floor space. DHC = 2 x Afloor Step 6 Sum the OHC values to obtain the Total Diurnal Heat Capacity (Total DHC) of the building interior. Step 7 Use the following formula to estimate the January, clear-day temperature swing: 6T(swing) = 0.733 x (collection area) x Qtran/(Total where Qtran is as follows (for 1/8" double glass) Latitude Qtran (Btu/day sq ft) 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 1390 1443 1460 1445 1390 1287 1128 899 584

PAGE 91

WORKSHEET Surface type: Area, in S'luare feet (Class l)x(l+O(.f) L SPACE GROSS NET Class 4 Class 3 Class 2 Class 1 o<. f .

PAGE 92

O N INC.

PAGE 94

'""'""""'--.-.J' ._1 ___ _., \..._ ___ _., ._1 _____ .; \..._ ___ ..J'I"""" ___ _.; \:'-. ___ __, t ._I _____ ; '-== \1 C•llu -f. 111 -' -.. I •. '! [l_ -.. rL I •• lll I• n .. llooof-. . .., 1 .. .:____ -l:. .J " •Ll • --I " . -I J " •""""T •• • I?" : .. • ,. • I I • t'll (?7) " . . • • .. • M • L --.. • .. • "-! • II • [ , ll .. , ltn IA .. I.Btil , r _ .. ' r"""-.. ..... .. • .. • .. • o.::i;;,L .... ,•_ A. .. • Vi ... • .. -, ,., ' " :• 1 . . ,. .. .. . . , .. ' .. .. , ... • .. ,. -.. • .. ,. .. , . " •• u •• .. .. v •• _..__ 1'n "•u .. _..zr "" ., A ,.., .. ,.. ' FH ., rrt MH u/'1 oJ .. II •• uV f • ,. .. .. ,. ."' •• ,. .. [ . 1 • .. " r I I •• , .. , " H " " -.. ,. II ,.. II .. f-.."' " I I .. i , I" .. .. i .. .. . l: i "' 14111. ... ' I • • M. .. I . ... • ... .. I -• .. . . .. •r n .. • T ... •• . -... I , n • .. • ., • ... I .. • .... • .. .. • ... . .. .. . ' .. , .. .. • ... • .Ill .. , .. • .., . . ,. ., ,. ... II .. II .. " u .. .. II .. .. •• ,. r ,. "r OJ'. n" "rv I " ,., , .. " II " .. , •• " •• " " •• Mo' • n ,. ..... 'V , • ...:..:. . ,. w .. ... . • . -.. n \5 u " II ,, II •• : ...,., ,., .. " ""'\.U ,. .--'7 " ..... 'IJ ,. ) , .. . . • .. ' ':i• 13111. / R -I C H E E S M A N p R /( SW.f of NC.f of Soc I T4S. f1. 68W.

PAGE 95

PROJECT:CHEESMAN PARK CENTER APPLICABLE ZONING CODE: ZONING ORDINANCE CITY & COUNTY OF DENVER DIVISION 8. R-3 DISTRICT SEC. 59-177 Permitted Uses. 1> Uses by right. c.Community center: shall have no outdoor public address system or any type of amplified music device; d.Community recreational facility: shall have no outdoor public address system or any type of amplified music device; need not be enclosed multiple unit; SEC 59-178 Limitations on external effects of uses 1> Enclosure of uses. Every use, unless expressly exempt, shall be operated in its entirety within a completely enclosed structure; the exemption of a use from the requirement will be indicated by the phrase need not be enclosed." SEC 59-179. Permitted structures a> Zone lot for structures. A separate ground area, called the zone shall be provided for each structure containing a use by right. Each zone lot shall have at least one front line and shall be occupied only by the structure containing a use by right. The zone lot for the following structures shall provide at least the following amounts of unobstructed open space which shall not include space provided for off-street parking: 1) each residential structure of one to three habitable stories, 20% of the area of the zone lot; 2> each residentaial structure of 4 or more habitable stories, 30% of the area of the zone lot. Unobstructed open space may be located on the ground and on roof decks having an average height of not more than six feet above grade and shall be utilized only for landscaping and/or recreational facilities. b) Location of structure. The following setbacks shall be open and

PAGE 96

l)Front Setback. All structures shall be set a distance of not less than 10 feet from each front line of the zone lot; that detached accessory e xcept those detached accessory structures used as garages of for recreational or outdoor cooking and eating purposes or gas-fired shall be set in a sufficient distance from each front line of the zone lot so that such structures are located only on the rear one-fourth of interior zone lots. The space resulting from the foregoing setbacks shall be used for landscaping and access ways to the use by right but shall bot be used for the parking of vehicles. 2) Rear Setback. If no alley abuts the rear line of the zone all detached accessory structures and fixtures shall be set in a distance of not less than 5 feet and all other structures shall be set in a distance of not less than 20 feet. 3) Sid e Setback: a)N/A b) On zone lots 30 or more feet in width: e xcept as set forth in subsectio n shall be set in a distance of not less than 7.5 feet from each side line of the zone lot. c) Regardless of the width of the zone lot, detached garages or carports need not be set in from any side line of the zone lot if such garages or carports meet the following conditions: 1) On zone lots 125 or less feet in depth, they are located in their entirety on the rear one third of the zone lot and no part of such structures is more than 40 feet from the rear line of the zone lot. 2) N/A d) The space resulting form the foregoing setbacks shall be used for landscaping and access ways but shall not be used for the parking of vehicles; provided, however, if the distance from the building to the side line of the zone lot measures 21 feet or more, that setback space may be used for the parking of vehicles. 4) Permitted encroachments on setback space: a) Belt sills, lintels, pilasters may project 18'' into setbacj spaces b) Cornices, e aves and gutters may project 3 feet into 5 feet into rear and 3 feet into side; provided that if side setback is less than 5 feet in width such projection shall not exceed one-half the width of side setback

PAGE 97

c) Outside starways may project 5 feet into front 10 into rear and 3 feet into side setback; access ramps for the handicapped may encroach into any required building setback providing no alternative location is available and providing the ramp construction is compatible with the character of the structure. d)Unwalled terraces and balconies may e xtend 5 feet into front and rear setback spaces e>Chimneys not to exceed 6 feet in width may project 18'' into setback spaces f) Building accessories designed to control light entering a building and being a permanent part of such building may project 5 feet into front 10 feet into rear setback and 3 feet into side setbacks g) Building accessories designed to control light entering a building and not being a permanent part o f such by being removable and not attached to a load-bearing may project any distance into any setback space h) Canopies may project any distance into the front setback space i) Any structure or part which is below grade of any setback m a y project any distance into such setback space j) Gas and electric meters may project 3 feet into any setback space if screened on all sides by a masonry wall. Utility pedestals, transformers or other similar equipment may be installed in any setback providing they do not exceed a height of 3 feet. 5) walls and retaining walls. Fences and walls not exceeding 4 feet in height may be erected on any part of the zone lot between the front line of the lot and the front setback line for structures and on any other part of the zone lot may be erected to a height not to exceed 6 feet; provided: a) Retaining walls abutting public rights-ofway may be built to any height b) N/A c) N/A d) The materials used for fences or walls shall consist of masonry! wire metal bars not exceeding 1.5'' in diameter or other materials which may be approved by the zoning administrator. Salvaged doors and corrugated or sheet metal will not be allowed. The height of and retaining walls shall be determined by measurement from the ground level at the lowest grade revel within 3 feet of either side of such fences or retaining walls; that in computing the height of retaining walls there shall be omitted from such computation any open-mesh fence located on top of the retaining wall and not exceeding 4 feet in height.

PAGE 98

(c) Maximum Bulk of Structures. No part of any structure
PAGE 99

ARTICLE IV PERMITTED SIGNS SEC 59-548 R-2 AND R-3 DISTRICTS General: Signs may be erected ane maintained only for and a use by right. The signs shall be located on the same zone lot as the use by right. (b)Permitted contents: Identification by letter, numeral, symbol or design of the use by name, use, hours of operation, services offered and events. (c)Permitted sign types: Wall, window and ground. , (d)Permitted max number: Two signs for each front line of the zone lot on which the use by right is located. (e)Permitted max sign area: Use by right other than hospital-20 sq ft or 2 sq ft ad sign area for each 1000 sq ft of zone lot not, to exceed 96 sq ft of total sign area for each zone lot and provided that no one sign shall e xceed 32 sq ft. (f) Permitted max height above grade: (1) Wall and Window-25 ft (2) Ground-12 ft (g) Permitted locations: (1) Wall and Window signs: Shall be set in from the boundary lines of the zone lot on which it is located, the smae distance as a building containing a use by right; provided, wall signs may project into the required setback space the permitted depth of the sign. (2) Ground signs: Shall be in at least 5 ft from every boundary line of the zone lot. Permitted illumination: May be illuminated but only from a concealed light source and shall not flash, blink or fluctuate. Ci>Animation: Shall not be animated.

PAGE 100

RTICLE V OFF STREET PARKING REQUIREMENTS 'ased on uses 2c 59-588 Off Street Parking Classes (a) Class One (1) Dwelling Multiple Units: Parking class one being composed of all uses y right which are enumerated in the schedule hereinafter provided: there shall e 1 1/2 off street parking spaces provided for each dwelling unit in a 1Ultiple unit dwelling. (c) Class Three (2) Community Center: Parking class being composed of all uses by ight, which are enumerated in the schedule provided: Parking shall be rovided in an amount equal to 1/4 of the area of the zone lot on which the use y right is located; provided, a community recreational facility which estricts membership to persons living in a specific geopgraphic area shall rovide at least 10% of the area of its zone lot for off-street parking. ELEVANT SECTIONS EC 59-582 Parking for disabled persons. For all usses by right, there shall be the mount of off-street parking spaces for disabled persons as follows: for all ses other than multiunit dwellings, the number of such parking spaces shall be % of the number of spaces required; provided that at least one such parking pace for disabled persons shall be required where 12 pf more spaces are equired. For multiunit dwellings, off-street parking spaces for disabled ersons shall be provided for 2% of the dwelling units of for each dwelling nit occupied be a diasbled persone; whichever is the greater requirement; that at least one such parking space be required where 12 or more Jaces are reqired. Dwelling units requiring parking for disabled persons ithin a multiunit dwelling shall be provided with such spaces at a ratio of ne space per dwelling unit anbd each suchparking space for disabled persons nall be a minimum of 12 feet wide and 19 feet long. Accessible routes, assenger loading zones and other facilities for disabled persons shall be according to the guidelines contained in the PUD/PBG rules for site lan review. 59-583LOCATION OF OFF-STREET PARKING Off street parking spaces shall be located on the same zone lot as the use 'I right. 59-584 COMBINED SPACE Parking spaces required by each of 2 or more uses by right located on the arne zone lot need not be separated, and may be used jointly. 59-585 USES & MAINTENANCE (3) Shall be graded for proper drainage and provided with an all weather of ashalt, concrete, of any equivalent material. (5) Shall be provided with entrances and e xits located so as t o m i n i m ize congestion. (6) Shall be providid with wheel g u ards so located that no part o f parked will extend beyond the property lines

PAGE 101

(9) Off street bicycle parking spaces shall be a minimum of 2 feet wide and 6 feet long. Access aisles running perpendicular to the length of the parking spaces shall be a minimum of 5 feet in width or 3 feet in width when running parallel to the length of the parking space. Eacj parking spac e shall include a metal anchor which will secure the frame and both wheels in conjunction with an integral coin operated lock, user supplied lock or simi 1 ar device. SEC 59-586 1 > See dimensions as set out in chart 1 on p age 2) The preparation of compact cars spaces provided t o satisfy the parking shall not exceed 50% of the total of all off-street parking space for each use. -----LARGE CARS ----• b c d e f • {I rurb OPntft' \0 otnter widt.h partiDC ol.all ol.all aiale lencth of,._....,.. b t a with wiclth to c:urt: wulth P"• car -f'Oad betWHn 1111' Ioiii ol.all ( curt> to Nrb la p a: o • •••• u IU 230 no -, . . . . " 121 230 JOO Jo . . ... ,.., 111 17. 1 ... J7 . • ,. ... 17. J IU 110 U& J71 45. . . , .. IU us 121 UJ . ., , . , .. IU uo 177 n& . ., 60. • • • • • 10 7 IU .. Uf su , . , .. 2U Ill 10. 100 su 90. • • ••• ItO 2J o IS " ' , . , .. "' 21 o• .. . ... -----COMPACT CARS ----a b c d e f ' r cWi> IA>..-DIM width ,.nine -.II ol.all aWe le"'\h of ,._...,.. bin wi th ... le width to curl> width ,...car -r-.1'-t-D (IS' loGe o&all) nub-lo -lapet< r -1 o 7 . S 7 . . s 11. 0 19.()' u . o M.O t---i r---• "! 30. 7.5 14.0 11. 0 as. o lt.O l2..S .... ,, -"f--+ . . • . -45. 7.5 lS. t ' 11. 0 ' 10., 42. 1 ' ]7.t' 60. 7 . 5 15. 7 ' 14. 0 1 . 7 47. 5 ' 40.4 90. . 7 . 5 15 . 0 u . o 7 . 5 41. 0 ••. o

PAGE 102

I

PAGE 103

PROJECT NAME: Cheesma n Park LOCATION: Denver APPLICABLE CODE:Denver Building 1979 ITEM SECTION 1.FIRE ZONE 3 2.0CCUPANCY CLASS ASSM USE/MULTIUNIT DWELLING GF\OUF' DIV 3 GROUP DIV 2 OTHERS PARVING GARAGE GROUP DIV 3 DINING DRINKING GROUP DIV 1 OCCUPANCY SEF'ARAT I ON REQUIRED -. B-3 TO H-2 = 1 HOUR B-3 TO G-3 1 HOUR B-3 TO F-1 = 1 HOUR H-2 TO G-3 = 1 HOUR H 2 TO F-1 1 HOUR F-1 TO G-3 = 1 HOUf;: 4. CONSTRUCTION TYPE I OR II 5. MAX ALLOWABLE BASIC FLR AREA: TYPE I : UNLIMITED-ALL aces TYPE I I: SQ FT SQ FT SQ FT IF ADJACENT TO OPEN AREA > 20'-0" ON 2 SIDES=1.25% INCREASE 3 SIDES=2.5% INCREASE ALL SIDES=5.0% INCREASE IF OVER ONE STORY-200% AREA PERMITTED FOR FLOOR ABClVE IF SPRINKLERED-TYPE I AREA NOT LIMITED WHEN SURROUNDED BY 20" OPEN SPACE TYPE II AREA ALLOWED DOUBLED OVER ONE STORY INCREASES 506B 1601 701 1301 1209 1101 TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABL_E TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE 5068 5068 506B 505B 5060 58 58 58 58 58 :' i B 5C 5-C 5-C 5-C 5-C

PAGE 104

6. 7. M?;x AL.LDW?H3LE HE: I C 3HT FEET TYPE I UNLIMITED TYPE II 75' TYF'E I UNLIMITED TYPE I I B-3=4 STORIES H 2=-'6 STORIES F-1==6 STORIES FIRE RESISTANCE OF EXT WALLS-B-3 I I I EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS 4 4 EXTER IOR NON BEARING WALLS 4 4 FOR GROUPS & H EXT BEARING WALLS MAY BE F'F 2 HR CONS TR. WHERE OF'NG ARE F'Et=i:M I TTED 8. OPENINGS IN EXT WALLS: NOT PERMITTED IN EXT WALLS LOCATED LESS 5' FROM PROF' DR CENTER LINE STR SETBACKS REQU PROTECTION OF OF'NG: TYPE I OR II= 2 0 ' TYPE I OF II=20' 9 . WINDOWS REQU IN ROOMS: IN H-2 ALL SLEEF'NIG RMS SHALL HAVE AT LEAST 1 OPERABLE WINDOW DR EXT DOOR APPROVED FOR EMERGENCY EXIT AREA IF REQU: 5.7 SOFTCLR OF'NG 24" SILL NOT MORE 44" AFF 10. ENCLOSED OR SEMI ENCLOSED COURT SIZE REQU: AT LEAS T 3 FT WHEN NOT MORE THAN 2 STORIES HIGH-INCREASE 6" EA ADDN STORYWIDTH 50% GREATER WHEN SURROUNDED TABLE 5D TABLE 5D TABLE 50 TABLE 5D TABLE 17A 1803 A 1707B TABLE 17C 3303A D 33C)3 BY BUILDING 3303 11. MIN CEILING HEIGHT H-2 MINI 7 ' OVER 50% OF AREA-NONE <5' 1305B 12 FIRE RESISTIVE REQU I I I ?\LL E X T WALLS SEE 7 ? .\BOVE IN TERIOR BEARING WALLS ...,.. 2 TABLE 17A ._:. STFWCTUF:;:AL FRAME ..,.. ....., TABLE 17A ._:. ..::. PERMANENT PARTITIONS 1 1 TABLE 17A VERT OPEN ENCLO 2 2 TABLE 17A FLODI=
PAGE 105

INNER COURT WALLS t 1E Z Z ( -\N I ROOF COVERINGS BCJ I RM ENCLO 13 STRUCTURAL REQU SEE EXT OF'N 1 1 1 FRAMEWORK-STEEL, CONCRETE, MASONRY STAIRS-REINF CONC, STRUCT STEEL FLOORS-NONCUMBUSTIBLE FIRE RESIST ROOFS-ALL STRUCT. 25" ABOVE FLR, NONCOMBUST PROTECTED BY SPRINKLER OR RESISTIVE PARTITIONS-NONCOMBUSTIBLE, FIRE RESIST 1.4 EXITS OCCUPANCY LOAD-BASISCSQ FT/OCCJ DCC TYPE ASSM-MED CONC ASSI''I-LOW CONC APARH1EI\lTS EXCEF< /WEIGHT I < I TCHEN ( COMM l LOCI
PAGE 106

WITH SF'F\: I 1\lKLEF\:S B-3-200 H-2-150 F\:EQU EXITING: IN B-3 DCC NO EXIT DOOF\: SHALL HAVE LATCH, OF\: ANY PANIC HARDWARE IF LO(.W > 1(H) EXIT DOORS MINI WIDTH ALLOWED 3"-0" LEAF WIDTH ALLOWED 4" 0" MINI HEIGHT ALLOWED 6"-8" EXIT CORRIDORS MIN ALLOWABLE WIDTH 3"-8" MIN ALLOW?" iBLE HEIGH T 7. -0 II EXIT REQUIRED AT EACH END CORRIDOR WHEN 2 E XITS REQU MAX LENGTH DEAD END CORRIDORS:20" CORRIDOR WALL FIRE RESIST:! HOUR DOORS & FRAMES FIRE RESIST:.75 HOUR 15. STAIRS: MINI WIDTH 3"-8" FOR DCC LOAD > 50 3"-0" FOR DCC LOAD < 50 MINI RISER 7.5" tHNI TRE{-1D 10. 0" WINDERS: NONE IN B-3 DCC H-2 WINDERS ALLOWED PRIVATE STAIRS LANDINGS: MINI SIZE-DIMEN MEASURED IN DIRECTION OF TRAVEL=WIDTH STAIR MAX SIZE REQU-5" W/STRAIGHT RUN MAX VERT DISTANCE BETW LAND-12"-6" REDU HEIGHT RAILS-2"-6" TO 2"-10" ABOVE TREAD NOSINGS HANDRAILS: REDU EACH SIDE: B-3 YES H-2-HANDRAILS SERVING ONE UNIT MAY HAVE ONE ONLY UNLESS STAIR OPEN ON ONE OR MORE SIDES 3316D 3303D 3303E 33048 3304E 3304F 33048 3304F 33058 33058 3305C 3305C 33(>5G 3305G 3305I 3305I 3305I

PAGE 107

INTERMEDIATE RAILS REQU AT STAIRS88" WIDE MAX WIDTH BETW INTER RAILS-EQUAL SPACING HEIGHT ABOVE NOSING-2 "6" TO 2 -10" G U ARDRAILS REQU-3 "-6" HEIGHT INTERMEDIATE RAIL AT NO MORE THAN 6 II CLEAR SP?\C I NG HANDRAILS RETURN TO WALL ENDS-YES DIST HANDRAIL EXTEND BEYOND STAIR AT LEAST ONE HANDRAIL 6" BEYOND STAIR TO ROOF REQU: YES IF BLDG > 4 STORIES-EXTEND TO ROOF W/ 3'-0"-6'-8" DOOR STAIR TO BASEMENT REQU: PROVIDE BARRIER PREVENT CONT. TRAVEL TO BASEMENT ACCESS TO ROOF REQU: YES TO MECH STAIR ENCLO REQU:YES FIRE RESIST: 2 HOURS EXCEPTIONS : B-3 :ENCLOSURE SHALL NOT BE REQUIRED FOR A STAIRWAY, OR ESCALATOR SERVING ONLY ONE ADJACENT FLOOR AND NOT CONNECTED WITH CORRRIDORS OR STAIRS SERVING OTHER FLOORS H 2:ENCLOSED PRIVATE STAIRS ENCLOSURES NEED NOT BE PROVIDED WHEN AUTO FIRE SPRINK IN ACCORD WITH CHAPT AND STAIR DOES NOT CONNECT WITH MORE THAN ONE FLOOR H-2:ALL STAIRS WITHIN APARTS NEED NOT BE ENCLOSED M A X SLOPE TO USE AS EXIT-1:12 HANDRAILS REQU-AT LEAST ONE SIDE MINI EXTEND 1 " BEYOND TOP AND BOTTOM EXIT SIGNS REQU:YES ALL EXIT DOORS W/ OCC LO?"\D > 30 3305I 3305I 3305I 1714 1714 3305L 3305L 3305N 3305H 5213C 33088 3308A 3306C 3306E 3312

PAGE 108

BALCONY RAILS REQU-ALL UNENCLOSED ROOF OPNGS, & GLAZED SIDES STAIRS & RAMPS, BALCONIES 1714 HEIGHT REQU-3' -6" 171.4 16. PENTHOUSES: AREA LIMITATIONS-33-1/3% AREA SUPPORTING ROOF HEIGHT LIMITATIONS-NONE TYPE I TYPE II USE LIMITATIONS-USE ONLY SHELTER MECH EQUIP OR VERT SHAFT OPNGS. CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS-SHALL HAVE WALLS & ROOF CONSTRUCTED AS MAIN PART OF BLDG. UNLESS PENTH. WALLS ARE > 5' FROM PL MAY BE OF 1 HR CONSTRUCTION 17. PARAPET WALLS: WHERE REQU-ALL EXT WALLS EXCEPTIONS HEIGHT REQU-30" ABOVE POINT ROOF AND WALL INTERSECT 18. FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS: SPRINKLERS REQU-WHEN FLOOR AREA EXCEEDS 1500 SQ FT WET STANDPIPES REQU-IN BLDGS > 4 STORIES NUtviBER REQU 4 STORIES (100 FT MAX DISTANCE ANY POINT IN BLDG) LOCATION-IN PUBLIC CORRIDOR W/IN 10" OF THE OPENING REQU'D STAIRWAY ON ALL FLOORS FIRE EXTINGUISHERS REQU-AT EA STANDPIPE 19 TOILET RM REQU SHOV.JEf;: REQU-YES NON-ABSORBENT SURFACE NON ABSORBENT SURFACE 33018 3601A 3601C 3601D 1710A 1710B 3803A 509B 5A 5098 5A

PAGE 109

CDMF'ARTI'1ENTS-30 II w I DE/W. c. +24" LONG TOTAL. 14 SQ FT HANDICAPPED REQU-SEE CHAPTER 64 20 I GHTS: SEPARATION-MINI 4'-0" BETW UNITS MAX SIZE-100 S Q FT M A X AGGREGATE AREA IN ROOM 25% ROOM AREA SHELTERED BY ROOF CURB HEIGHT9" ABOVE ROOF PLANE 21. ELEVATOF\S 22. USE OF PUBLIC PROPERTY: DOORS PROHIBITED SWINGING INTO CITY PROF' CANOPIES AND ALL OTHER PROJECTIONS: SUPPORT FROM BLDG ENTIRELY MATERIAL RES TRCT-LAMINATED SAFETY FABRIC DISTANCE ABOVE GROUND-8'-0" MAX DI S T EXT OVER WALK-MIN 2'-0" INSIDE CUR B LINE DRAINAGE-TOWARD BUILDING 23. FIRE ALARM H-2 FIRE ALARM REQU UNLESS < 4 STORIES TYPE-MANUAL PULL STATIONS 24 EMERGENCY LIGHTS OR STANDBY POWER B-3:IN E XIT WAYS WHICH ARE CONTINUOUS AND UNOBSTRUCTED MEANS OF EGRESS TO A PUBLIC WAYILLUMINATE TO ONE FOOT CANDLE H-2:STANDB Y POWER SOURCE REQU FOR DCC } 100 5098 58 510 600 5 A 600 5A 600 5A Chapt. 51 UBC 4507 45058 4505C 4606A, 4505A 4501G 4505CL 3811A

PAGE 110

ECONOMICS.

PAGE 111

The following market study allowed me to gain a better understanding of the role economics play in determining the parameters of developing a project. Because financial structures have been in an almost constant state of change within the last decade, it is difficult to find literature which gives an accurate picture of current financial programs. Therefore, it is necessary to seek out people who are currently involved in the financial aspects of development. The process involved working sessions with an urban land economist, interviews with realtors: and developers of current projects in the Capitol Hill area, and analysis of recent building costs. With the use of a market study performed by THK Associates in the vicinity of my site, I was able to prepare an analysis based on the particulars of my housing project. The area used as my site vicinity is bounded by Colfax Avenue to the North, Broadway to the West, Alameda to the South and Colorado Blvd. to the East. (See map next page) I would especially like to thank Peter Elzi, of THK Associates, Inc., for the time and resources he generously provided in helping me to structure my analysis.

PAGE 112

I TE VICINITY

PAGE 113

IARKET STUDY ANALYSIS IULTI-UNIT APARTMENT DEVELOPMENT :oR .79 ACRE SITE LOCATED AT 13TH AVENUE & HIGH STREET COLORADO I SUMMARY OF DENVER AREA POTENTIALS "he potential for multi-family apartment development i n the centra l lenver area depends on the economic performance of the entire 1etropolitan Denver region. As the region's econmic base grows, ?mployment and population will which in turn cre a tes new Jemands for multi-family development. [ n order to project the demand for multi-family apartment Jevelopment, recent employment and demographic trends are analyzed to Jroject future employment and population growth in the Denver region. The demand for multi-family rental type units can then be estimated Jased upon inferences about growth in the total number of households ind unit preferences. TRENDS rABLE 1: EMPLOYMENT IN METRO DENVER LABOR MARKET
PAGE 114

HOUSING CONS TRUCTION TRENDS Historica l trends in new housing c onstructio n are e x amined to s h o w that p ast constrction trends have been a f fected b y population and d emographi c by changing lifestyles and preferences and b e economic coditions. Household composition, tenure and income are the k e y factors affecting the demand for renta l h ousing . Recent trends in metropolitan Denver housing tenure patterns are shown on followi n g te<.ble: TABLE 3: HOUSING TRENDS IN METRO DENVER AREA 19.60 1970 1 980 1984 61.9'%. 61 . 5'%. 62.9'% 62.4'%. RENTERS 38.1'%. 38.5'%. 3 7 . 1 37.6'%. S OURCE: us DEPART. COMMERCE BUREAU A SSOCIATES The following table shows the historical rental multi-family construction pattern in the metropolitan Denver area. The data s hows there has been a strong market for rental apartments in the are a during the 1980's. T A BLE 4 METRO DENVER CONSTRUCTION OF RENTAL MULTI-UNIT RES IDENT I A L YEARS # F : ENTAL TOTAL # /.T O T A L MUL RES. UNITS 1974-1983(10 YR) 2,670 19,200 14. 1 1979-1983(5 YR> 27<) 2 0,960 1 4.5 1981-1983(3 YR> 22 3(H ) 1 7 . 5 SOURCE: US DEPART DENVER PLANNING OFFICE, THK ASSOCIATE S The percentage of recent residential construction occurring in Denver County is shown by the following table: T A BLE 5 MULTIFAMILY HOUSING PERMITS YEARS 1 9 7 4-1'7>83 < 1 0 YR) 1979-1.983<5 YR> 1981-1983( 3 YR> # DENVER COUNTY 1,269 1.054 SOUF\:CE: D ENVER 1'1ETRO II HOMEBUILDERS II #METF : O AREA 5,59 8 6 ( >23 (JF 1"1 ETRO 2 8 . 3 19.4 1 7 . 5

PAGE 115

POPUL A TION AND HOUSEHOLD TRENDS Population and household growth are principal indicators of residential real estate demand. The demand for residential real estate is a function of population growth trends in the site's region as well as the metropolitan region as a whole. TABLE 6: POPULATION AND HOUSEHOLD TRENDS YEAR 1970 1980 1985 1970 1980 1985 TOTAL POP 1,237,000 1,622,200 1,810,040 513,500 494,600 515030 METRO TOTAL POP IN HH* 1,204,080 1,590,910 1,779,690 DENVER COUNTY 499,773 485,059 506,394 # OF HH 394,620 610,050 710,6500 185,210 212,350 224,440 * Differnece due to those living in group quarters SOURCE: US DEPT COMMERCE, BUREUA CENSUS TABLE 7: METRO DENVER POPULATION GROWTH PROJECTIONS YEAR 1985 1990 1995 AVERAGE ANNUAL CHANGE 1985-95 POPULATION 1,810,040 2,002,400 2,215,500 POP /HH 3.05 2.61 2.50 2.70 2.28 SOURCE: DENVER REGIONAL COUNCIL GOVERNMENTS, US DEPARTMENT COMMERCE, THK ASSOCAIATES Based upon the above population projections, the following table shows housing demand created be the growth in the number of households usinq household size estimates.

PAGE 116

TABLE 8: METRO DENVER HOUSEHOLD GROWTH PROJECTIONS YEPtR 1985 1990 1995 A'v'E/YR POP IN HH 1,779,690 1,973,020 2, 187' 180 40,750 SEE TABLE 7. # OF HH 710,650 812,410 928,660 21' 800 2.50 2. lf3 2.35 The current household income characteristic s of Denver County are shown on the following table: TABLE 9: DENVER COUNTY HOUSEHOLD INCOME DISTRIBUTION INCOME RANGE <15,000 15,000-29,999 30,000-49,000 50,000-74,999 >75,000 TOTAL MEDIAN NUMBER 76,394 63,249 52,830 22,419 9,547 J 224,440 ?? 1 nn r --' .1. -SOURCE: THK ASSOCIATES PERCENT 34.0 28.2 23.5 10.0 4.3 100.0

PAGE 117

PROJECTED RESIDENTAIL CONSTRUCTION DEMAND Based upon the historical performance of the Denver area housing and upon the projected growth in new household formations shown above and anticipated lifestyle characteristics of the the demand for new rental multi-family construction can be segmented from the teal residential demand. The key componets of residential construction demand during the next decade include new housing units to meet demands of new population growth and household construction to meet the demands of the existing households in the area who desire to upgrade or downgrade into new ownership or rental and construction to replace units lost through demolition and conversion. TABLE 10: PROJECTED METRO DENVER RESIDENTIAL DEMAND YEAR NEW OWNERSHIP I. RENTAL MULTI-FAMILY I. UNITS UNITS 1985 74.0 26.0 1990 18,100 75.0 6,020 25.0 1994 20,330 75.7 6,520 24.3 AVERAGE ANNUAL CHANGE 17,910 75.0 5,980 25.0 SOURCE:THK ASSOCIATES

PAGE 118

II 3UMMARY SITE VICINITY POTENTIALS tha t overall pattern of Denver region has been examined, the Jotentials of the site vicinity can be projected. Based on overall trends shown in Part I of analysis , )enver County can be estimated to take a 20% share o f renta l nulti-family market. From Table 10, we have established an annual Jrojected demand for 5980 rental multi-family units. Therefore, )enver will net an annual share of 1195 units. fABLE 11: POPULATION AND HOUSEHOLD TREND IN SITE V ICINITY YEAR TOTAL POP # OF HH POP/HH 1970 61,347 1.89 1980 52,232 31,870 1.64 1985 53,250 32,870 1.62 ANN :HANGE (1970-85) -540 30 ANN :HANGE <1980-85) 200 200 SOURCE: THK ASSOCIATES Based on analysis of historic construction activity , household growth within last five years, knowledge of vacancy rates in the area and of trends toward the downtown area, we will estimate that the site vicinity will capture 40% of total 1195 multi-family rental units in Denver County, or 480 units annually. TABLE 12: SITE VICINITY HOUSEHOLD INCOME DISTRIBUTION INCOME RANGE <15,000 15,000-29,999 >29,999 MEDIAN: $19,500 SOURCE: THK ASSOCIATES PERCENT 35.8 29.5 34.7

PAGE 119

ANNUAL GROWTH DEMANDS In todays it is exceedingly difficult from a financial standpoint to construct unsubsidized apartment units which lease for less than .50/sq ft. For this future construction demand will be based on minimum demand for units renting over $315/month. With this stating which is equivalent to 25% of income the following price ranges(Based on premise that households can pay 25% of their income for rent) will be used along with the percentage share of people falling into each income level: UNDER $315 315-625 OVER 625 TOTAL 168(35%) 144(30%) 168(35%) 480 PENT-UP DEMAND IN SITE VICINTY A survey of existing multi-unit rental apartments in area found a vacancy rate of 3.4% for apartment units falling mainly the middle price 300-650. See survey results following this section. Out of 2,042 units surveyed, I found 70 vacant. If we say, conservatively, that 6% would be a normalized vacancy there should be 125 units vacant. This leaves a 55 unit pent up demand within site vicinity. Based on our distribution: UNDER $315 315-625 OVER 625 TOTAL 19 17 19 Based on this survey of possible including e xisting and propsed projects in area, I found that there is no real competition from existing projects which could be considered as prime competition. This is due to the low vacancy rate of such projects. The primary competition will be due to proposed projects. See listing in following section. Based on a subjective analysis of my site in relation to overall site vicinity, and the lack of very strong a capture rate of 35% would be easily attainable. CONCLUSIONS Site capture rate per year equals 35% of annual market demand for units in each particular price range. Assuming that project rents will fall within $315-625 range, the estimated annual absorption potential of of site will be as follows:

PAGE 120

An nu;:.'ll Demc:u1d:::51. of 144 unit. s -50 unit. s Based on records from the Denver Planning Office, only one definite new proposed apartment projPct is on line, and two rehabilitation projects which leads to the 30% pent up demand capture rate for the project. Pent-up Demand-30 /. of 17 units = 6 units TOTAL 56 UNITS ANNUALLY If a preleasing program is assumed to occur during the construction the 60 total units in project will be absorbed in less than , 3 year. (P1pprm: 9-10 months)

PAGE 121

SURVEY OF SELECTED APARTMENTS IN SITE VICINITY The following apartment complexes generally fall within the price range $300-650/month. NAI'lE I LOCATION HOUSE 1055 LOGAN 2 .FLOREI'JT I NE APT 700 vJASH I NGTON 3 . LIDO APTS 790 WASHINGTON 4 . LIONGATE APTS CJO CORONA 5 .F: ASSF'ORT I I 1433 WILLIAMS 6 PENN SQUARE 550 E 12 TH 7 F'ENl•JOOD PLACE 800 PENNSYLVANIA s.RESIDENCE AT GOVERNOR' S PAF:f< 9 .EMERSON APTS 10 EMERSON le1 1ANCHESTER 2030 E 11 TH llAVANT I APTS 1200 VINE 12It1PER I AL HOUSE 1211 VINE 13SAXONY 1275 CORONA 14F'LAZA DEL SOL 1265 DOWNING HUI'lBCJLDT 965 HUMBOLDT STUDIO/VAC 26/0 7/0 8/4 1BDR/VAC 2BDR/VAC 74/3 63/0 30/0 68/7 49/0 49/3 52/0 52/0 48/2 48/4 90/0 63/0 158/9 130/4 39/2 18/1 25/0 26/1 50/0 50/0 33/(> 30/0 30/0 35/0 14/0 8/1 28/1 28/4 59/10 59/0

PAGE 122

TOl.JER 75/2 150/3 75/3 901 SHER1'1AN l"FRANCON I A 30/0 930 DOWNING 18JGDEN NINES 20/0 24/0 24/2 999 OGDEN 48/1 49/3 1029 E 8 TH TOTALS: 19 BUILDINGS 136/6 1031/31 875/33 VACANCY I. 4.41.. 3.01.. 3.81.. AVERAGE RENTS $326 $430 $560 TOTALUNITS/70 VACANT = 3.4 VACANCY RATE PROPOSED APARTMENT PROJECTS IN SITE VICINITY 1. POETS RUN 1OTH SHERMAN 2. MONTOGOMERY COURT 215 E 11TH 3. UPTOWN VILLAGE 300 17 TH 4. GF:EENHOUSE ALAMEDA & HARRISON SOURCE: DENVER PANNING OFFICE 180 UNITS/REHAB 45 UNITS/REHAB 411 UNITS/60/. 1 BDR 40/. 2 BDR 20/. LOWER INCOME 80/. MODERATE INCOME 150 UNITS/PRELIMS

PAGE 123

FINANCING PROJECT-The community facilities for the Capitol Hill Community Center will occupy the base of the building. Dwellings will be located above the communal facilities. CLIENT-Capitol Hill United Neighborhood Association(Non-Profit Organization) The density will be based on a general guideline and neighborhood averages: a. The Neighborhood Plan recommends as desirable FAR of 2:1 b. Neighborhood Densities: Cheesman Park-SO/residential acre Capitol Hill 106/residential acre By assuming 60 dwelling units along with the community center, a 2:1 FAR will be achievable. This figure will result in a density of ??/acre. The housing structure will be a mid-rise, elevator building consisting of studios, one bedrooms and two bedrooms. The residential portion of the building will be assumed to be 85% net rental. Rent will include water only. ASSUMPTIONS Studios One Bedrooms Two Bedrooms ALTERNATIVES 10 stu./20 one/30 two 10/30/20 15/20/25 15/30/15 15/15/30 15/35/10 20/30/10 SIZE 473 650 950 AVE. SQ FT 771 721 731 681 ?56 656 642 RENT $350 $410 $590 AVE RENT $490 $460 $470 $438 $485 $425 $420 $/SQ FT .?4 .63 .62 $/SQ FT .635 .638 .643 .643 .642 .648 .654

PAGE 124

Based on best financial alternative go through analysis: -Average monthly rent $420/month/unit $420 x 60= _$25,200/mo Generate $302,400/yr -Assume 5% loss (vacancies, collection, etc) for $287,280 effective gross income/yr -Assume $1,000/unit costs for maintenance, management, etc.=Total $60,000/yr Leaves $227,280 to repay mortgage loan -Client will seek bond revenue financing from Colorado Housing Finance Authority @ 9.5% interest rate= $227,280/.095= $2,392,421 -Assume that development group is able to finance or mortgage 80% of project and service this debt with 20% equity resulting in $2,990,526 -Assume that non-construction items (land, interest during construction, architect's fee, etc) amount to 25% which = $747,632 -$747,632/60 = $12,460/unit -Leaves $2,242,894 -Assume that housing portion of the building will be built for $50/sq ft $2,242,894/50 = 44,858 sq ft -@85% Rental = 38,130 sq ft total for units (Average 636 sq ft/unit)

PAGE 125

FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS-COMMUNITY CENTER The center should reflect an vital state. There is a need for a variety of means to provide economic support for the center. 1. Landlord-Rental-agencies/organizations/clubs (Permanent-type) Rental-meetings, classes, receptions, parties etc (temporal) 2. Day Care-Managed through an outside interest who pays rent ). Cafe-Managed through an outside interest who pays rent 4. Fund Raising Events 5. Private Donations 6. Grants for applicable programs

PAGE 126

PROGRAMMING.

PAGE 127

The extent of my research found there has been no study which trys to evaluate potential user needs of Capitol Hill residents in terms of what should be included in an expanded community center. The center' s staff is in the process of trying to determine which sectors of the community it should target for its services. Up to now, the staff has not kept records showing who uses the facility, but the director told me she plans to survey all users of the center for a period to get a better understanding of who is using the center' s resources and in what capacity. My analysis, therefore, has been largely influenced by the following factors: The Pxistinsr Center-Hy interview with Director Nancy Schoyer and my periodic visits to observe and participate in center activities gave me an overview of the center's structure and some of its future goals. The 1 9 73 Plan and the 1976 Update-A report that provides guidelines for overall community development. A citizens' advisory board was formed to work with city planners in preparing the plan. I .found.most of the written recommendations conveyed a spirit of retaining and enhancing the neighborhoods' diverse atmosphere, the proposed land use plan divided the neighborhoods into predominately single use, single density sections that convey a monotonous city fabric. The plans the inherent vitality and diversity that is the area's lure. (Copy of plan included in appendix) I did use the text as a guide to the needs of the community. The reports findings and recommendations were an impetus to the creation of the existing community center. Knowledge of the neighborhoods demographic trends. I obtained this information from a variety of sources and was able to look at data for 1960,70, 73, 76, 80 and 85. The information gave me an idea of major changes ocurring over the last 25 years, and the lifestyle characteristics of those in the community. Visits to other community centers in Denver-I visited four other community centers which of course differed greatly due to varied neighborhood conditions and structures. Two were city-affliated as the existing Capitol Hill Center, one was completely private non-profit, and one was run by Salvation Army. I learned of the successes and problems

PAGE 128

CHEESMAN PARK NEIGHBORHOOD PLAN

PAGE 129

in running each center, the program and adminstrative organization, the different means of obtaining funding, and a sense of how greatly each center varies. Lastly, as I am a resident of the who fits the description of one of our most prominent resident types (Single, young adult, living alone in rental apartment, who has lived in the area for less than five years), I feel my own opinions on how community life might be improved are relevant. Although my opinions are obviously not the definitive word on what the center should be, I can speak for my own experience as a resident of the community .

PAGE 130

The following chart diagrams the structure of the entity that is the client for this project. CHUNA-Hypothetical Association formed from the basis of existing large organization-Capitol Hill United Neighborhood-1,000 members currently

PAGE 131

OF-l:JAN 1-z./-\JIUN ----.. " ftiL,-1,/ LJ"' llfP eo.AFO Of {_ ?HUt--! I: --Q l,.-----1 t-'f. ., . '" f"f''(:lf')A M , IJII' V'Pt? (.... I t:CMMUtJI-f( I I +--,:;,f!C,C.:(JC.# f---a>HHLJNIGA110N I • • • • efv

PAGE 132

SURVEY EXISTING CENTER Facilities: 12 Office Spaces-Several community organizations maintain offices 3 basement 2 first floor 4 second floor 3 third floor Range from 250-475 sq ft Total sq footage = 8,750 2 classroom/meeting rooms-rent on hourly basis/weekdays 2 first floor-1 @ 275 sq ft 1 @ 500 sq ft 1 meeting hall-Weekdays and Weekends detached w/full kitchen -Approx 1,300 total Built 19?8

PAGE 133

HISTORY The center is a non-profit organization formed in 1977 by members of the community who felt the surrounding neighborhoods could be improved through the "provision of education, social, recreational, and cultural" programs.(C.H.C.C. information brochure) The building was purchased in 1977 by the City and County of Denver with funds from the Community Development Administration. PROGRAMS Nutritional Program sponsered by Volunteers of America-offers lucnch to seniors on weekdays at meeting hall Sponsers free music concerts in park during summer Spenser City's Neighborhood Garden Project out of center An information clearinghouse and referral center as a guide to resources in community Sponsers various special events, forums, lectures and a free film program

PAGE 134

ADMINSTRATION & ORGAiiiZATION The center is run throug h a to twenty member Board of Directors who establish the goals and direction of the center's operation. The center is administered by a full-time executive director. The director works interactively with the board in carrying out the board's directives and propsing new directions for the center to explore. A full-time manger organizes the center's rental activities and informational services,1 The center is presently interested in establishing target groups to whom its efforts can be primarily addressed. The center currently operates on a membership basis as a means of raising funds. Although anyone is free to receive information and use the facilities at the center, members receive a discount on rentals and receive a monthly newsletter containing information on upcoming activities, There is some debate at the current time as to whether a membership basis for a community center is a valid proposition. Although the fees are low, some members feel that anyone who lives in the neighborhood should automatically be a member. These fees account for only a small portion of the budget. FINANCIN G The center's current financial situation is stable. The center operates largely through funds collected through rental spaces •• A small percentage is collected through membership fees. Under the existing rental agreement with the city, the center pays the city only $1/ a month for use of the facility and the city provides the maintenance for the building. Any other city funding is on a yearly basis through the Community Development Agency who have a $1,000,000 budget to allocate among all the "community-type" facilities throughout the city. According to a director I spoke with the budget will be slashed next year. The center also raises funds through a variety of fund raising activities throughout the year. For example, the center co-sponsers the popular People's Fair. This on going fair has been an extremely successful as a means of raising funds. The present director is starting to more actively pursue grants for applicable programs that the center could facilitate.

PAGE 135

The exact number of organizations that would choose to locate at an expanded community center can not be precisely predicted as there are hudreds of possible organizations that might be interested if the possibility existed. In the existing center there are 12 agencies presently housed along with the off ice for the center itself. These offices range from small clubs that sharesmall office spaces to larger organizations that reQuire suite-like arrangements with a reception area, The new center should allow for such flexibility in both size and layout of rental spaces, as the make-up of organizations housed at the center will change over time. 3ince there no space available at the existing community center, and no information as to the pent up demand for such space, I am assuming :hat the large number of agencies operating in the Capitol Hill area, and the inauiries that the center's director has received, that an incresed number of spaces could be utilized by neighborhood agencies if available. With the hope of stimulating interaction between diverse groups it will be assumed that a range of size and spatial characteristics should be offered by such office spaces. :::n an effort to "inform peop ,le of the community about sources of aid, ideas and amusement',' the Communl.'t.y has publi:o .hed two editions of the "Community Yellow Pages': This directory list the hundreds of service organizations that are located within center's district. As a source of validation for the anticipated use of such rental space, the following listing shows the breadth and number of agencies that could potentially locate within the center. : . Alcoholism & Drug Addiction (18 different groups) 2. Animal Care (5) 3 .Arts (5) 4, Performing Arts (16) 5. Business Management (9) 6. Children-Adoption (4) Child Care ( 16) ?. Family Support Services (?) 8 , Health (4)_children 9.Housing (?) children 10.Community Action Groups (20) 11. Cultural Programs (18) 12. Disabled (25)

PAGE 136

1). Education (25) 14. Alternative Education for Children (11) 15. Emergency Services (15) 16. Employment & Unemployment (27) 17. Energy & Environment (17) 18. Food (J) 19. Gay & Lesbian Services (11) 20. Health (15) Disease Information(12) Support Services & Home Care (8) 21. Housing Information Services (8) 22. International Organizations (7) 2), Legal Services (20) 24. Media Information (8) 25. Publications (18) 26. Public Radio (2) 27. Men (9) 28. Mental Health & Counseling (10) 29. Minorities (11) )0. Political Action & education (16 ) Political Parties (6) )1. Recycling (4) 2 )2, Religion & Spirituality (Would probably not locate in the center since most are affliated with a church-50 groups) Church organizations (14) )), Seniors-Food Programs (7) Housing Organization & Services (JO) )4, Transportation (4) )5. Veterans (5) 36. Volunteers (20) 37. Women (22) 38. Youth (18)

PAGE 137

CONSTAINTS ON USES WITH EXISTING CENTER By making use of this mansion, the city is contributing to the effort to find new uses for worthy older buildings in the Capitol Hill area. There are limitations, however, to having such a structure be the exclusive community use facility for the neighborhood. The exterior of the building cannot be altered in any way which restricts the diversity of possible interior layouts. This is a stipulation concerning the building being a designated historic landmark. Because of this designation, there are also very strict limitations on the signage. The only sign permitted is the existing one that states the name and address only. No other uses within the building can have any signage, which is one reaso n the existing center's former small cafe was not successful. Another limitation is that the only parts of the building accessible to the handicapped are the first floor, and the detached meeting hall. Therefore, all most all of the agencies and clubs within the center are not accessible to the disabled. There is an obvious lack of quantity and quality of space to accomodate uses other than meetings and classes. The former cafe, for example, was extremely limited in that it had to share its kitchen facilities. In particular, the cafe needs conflicted with the nutritional lunch program for seniors, which operates on weekdays in the meeting hall. It is not feasible for a cafe to be closed during lunch hours. The quality of space in the meeting hall is not that appealing for for many social uses. The ceiling feels too low and makes the room seem confining. Also, the lighting is particularly unattractive. Lastly, the center lacks any kind of place for people to come and linger. Unless you have a set purpose in the building, you feel awkward. Due to the spatial constraints, there is not any extra space in this building, but I feel that the neighborhood could use more places for people to go in a casual, unintentional manner.

PAGE 138

SPACE Entry/ Lobby/ Seating Area *Anyone entering the building-*People seeking general information *reople w/express purpose *People with no set agenda who just PRIMARY USERS and see ADD'N INTERESTS *Offer visual clues to the buildings functions *Offer clues to orientaion through building *Seating Area shall be a place reading papers,magazines or community publications _ to be seen and allow for -Ut\IL I IUN:) casual, unplanned interactions *Airlock entry *Relation to existing circulation path necessary *Resilent floor surface at entry *If entry also serves housing, should provide easy access to circulation to floors above that does not require going through whole building *Provide area for residents mailboxes near entry :>HYSICAL REQUIREMENTS \DJACENCIES SIZE 750 NUMBER OF USERS FREQUENCY OF USE Varies Intermitent throughout the day *Comfortable, casual seating areas *Incorporate high level of visual stimulants to engage people interest upon entering lobby--Spaces for this type of information should be thoughtfully designed to avoid a chaotic jumble of uninviting displays *Warm c olors and soft textures should be used to welcome *Distinguish between various areas through floor, wall etc material changes *View out to park from seating area would be desirable SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL SURVEY.

PAGE 139

SPACE Entry Outdoor Space Community Center Users & Workers Housing Tenants PRIMARY USERS People waiting for rides etc or hanging out ADD 'N >''
PAGE 140

SPACE Organization Offices Organization Members Clients PRIMARY USERS ADD 'N INTERESTS *House a variety of organizations that can accomodate their spatial FUNCT!ONS should respond to need of many 0 rganizations to provide direct to the public should respond to potential changing use of these offices-if demand for suc h spaces should decrease or center changes its emphasis, the spaces should be viaole as appropriate retail type estabJishment such as book store, print shop etc. REQUIREMENTS SIZE 4 Small@ 300 sq ft= 1,200 6 One/Two Rm @ ll50 = 2, 700 4 Two+ Rms@ 600 = 2,bOO 6,'•Design should allow information concerning offices to be easily communicated SPATIAL QUALITIES A.DIACFNCIES ou 1'"'71 pe.-fCf' SPATIAL SURVEY.

PAGE 141

SPACE Community Center Office PRIMARY USERS Director Staff (1-2) Visitors ADD'N INTERESTS *Provide for organizational and administrative structure of facility *Allow director to conduct small, private meetings & accept visitors *Provide reception duties for center *Allow staff visual contact with lobby _ C O for latent supervision of -UN Tl NS drop-in area *Efficient maximization of storage *Tackable wall surfaces *Accomodate needs of disabled at . reception PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS \DJACENCIES SIZE 6oo NUMBER OF USERS Staff/Storage 450 Director's Off 150 2-3 Primary Director's office should accommodate up to 3 visitors Open daily M F approx 8-6 FREQUENCY OF hrs weekends *Daylit interiors *As the place where ones' initial human contact with building will occur, the area should be a comfortable, accomodating space *operable windows that allow users to control ambient setting SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL SURVEY.

PAGE 142

SPACE Large Meeting Hall Anyone Attending: PRIMARY USERS Large Meetings on Community Issues Debates & Discussions Dances/Auditions/Talent Shows Lunchs etc ADD 'N INTERESTS *Facilitate wide range of user groups' needs that involve informal large gatherings *Provide for service of luncheon and nutrition programs through conjuction with kitchen FUNCTIONS *Proper Ventilation *Must be located in conjuction with one of the smaller meeting rooms so that it can expand to faciltate large gatherings *Informal setting for amateur productionsProvide for permanent or portable stage *Provide tables as described for classes *If daylit, provide means of control PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS SIZE 1200 ft If combined w/500=1700 If combined w/700=1900 If audit. seating approx 100 max 11 table seating 11 75 11 11 reception 150 max \fuen combined w/ other rm. capacity NUMBER OF USERS Use throughout the day & night Varies with use-Some activities will be scheduled on regular basis but most activities will FRE UENCY OF USE be. sp9radic Hall used *See Section for Class/Meeting rooms All cases *Existing center's meeting has 8' flat ceiling-very confining for room of this size-Ceiling should be proportional to large room size SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL SURVEY.

PAGE 143

SPACE Kitchen Serving Meeting Hall VOA Program Workers, Food preparers for event PRIMARY USERS Suppliers ADD'N lNTERESTS *Hot and cold food preparation to s-=rve people in Heeting Hall FUNCTIONS *Pass thru connection to Meeting Hall as 'r:ell as door location that provides for ease of delivery from suppliers wall & clg in kit *Non-skid floor counter space >':Capable of serving two spaces at once PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS '\DIACENCIES SIZE JOO NUMBER OF USERS Kitchen 200 Storag e 100 Varies Varies-Could be used at any time FREQUENCY OF USE *Design should reflect efficier.t organization necessary to serv e large numbers under banquet conditions SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL SURVEY •

PAGE 144

)PACE Class/Meeting Rooms Anyone Attending: >RIMARY USERS DFU and other educational classes Organization Meetings Private Social uses \DD'N INTERESTS *Facilitate range of user groups' meeting needs that do not require very specific spatial or equir ment uses UNCTIONS *Provide wall chalkboards, screen, and generous number of power *Provide rectangular table shapes that seat 6 -Allows for tables to be placed separately (typ. classes), or combined into longer cQnference type arrangement (typ meetings) *If must provide means of control 'HYSICAL REQUIREMENTS DJACENCIES 1 @ 50 0 Sq ft. 1 @ ?00 " SIZE For 500 Class 25-30 max Meetin g 45 max For ?00 Class 40-45 max meeting 65 max NUMBER OF USERS Varies w/ use Some scheduled weekly/biweekly/monthly meetings/classes that occur on regular basis + sporadic events FREQUENCY OF USE *Flexibility for variety of activities and for dividing larger meeting room with dividers when necessary *Provide necessary ceiling heights related to room size--provide proper volumes *Consider room shape in terms of desired configuration of user type *Design so that people can enter discreetly with minimum disruption to proceedings *Lighting should be high priority ugly lighting fixtures are often found in existing spaces such as these-should seek design that integrates lighting SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL SURVEY.

PAGE 145

)PACE Storage for Meeting Rooms >RIMARY USERS \OD'N INTERESTS *St.orage for table and folding chairs that will be used as required in 3 meeting/class spaces UNCTIONS *No maintenance surfaces 'HYSICAL REQUIREMENTS D J ACEN C IES SIZE 250 sq ft NUMBER OF USERS FREQUENCY OF USE SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL SURVE Y.

PAGE 146

SPACE Arts & Crafts PRIMARY USERS DFU , Art Prog rams , Summer school programs Students and instructors Visitors ADD' N INTERESTS *Provide durable space that can be used for wet or other messy crafts -classes currently offered by DFU include drawing, silkscreening, basketry, stained glass,acrylic and oil painting, pottery, airbrush, quilting FUNCTIONS *Hot and cold water work sink *Large tackable wall surfaces *Storage of different types of unfinished work that is lockable *Separate storage lockers for materials of various classes *Well ventilated *Provide many floor and wall outlets *Provide for gas & compressed air *Provide one 220v outlet for kiln, etc PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS A DJACENCIES J SIZE ?CO includes storage Depending on craft could range up to approx 20 NUMBER OF USERS Varies according to classes scheduled-Heavy evening use FREQUENCY OF USE *Design should incorporate daylighting to greatest extent-particularly northern light *Incorporate display and review area that is a Special s:rot within the room-Celebrate the v :ork! *Space should encourage users to invest their own talents in defining its atmosphere as place where creativity occurs *To encourage participation with activities occurring in this space, display cases should be placed throughout center and especially near entrance to. the crafts area SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL SURVEY.

PAGE 147

SPACE Excercise/ Aerobics/Weights PRIMARY USERS People Interesting in Fitness Activities Spectators ADD' N INTE R ESTS *Facilitate excercise/recreation program Promote socializing as a meeting place FUNCTIONS *Mirrors & parallel bars on walls *Proper Ventilation *Parquet type or linoleum floors-nothing absorbtant (no carpet, etc) *Built-in sound system *\Hn dows only on rear wall *vleight Station located not to interfere with classes PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS ADJACENC IES SIZE 1000 Varies with use-Classes could range between 50 for simple stretch to 35-40 for more active aerobics Weight station to accomodate 6 NUMBER O F USERS users at one time Intermittent use depending on classes or drop in users FREQUENCY OF USE *Area should have bright, healthful appearance-active colors & graphics *Bright lighting should be avoidedeven diffused lighting preferrable as one looks right up into lights when do activities from floor *Seati ng clusters should be provided fnr a few spectators and those waiting to use the weight station SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL S URVEY.

PAGE 148

SPACE Dressing, Shower, Locker Rooms PRIMARY USERS Anyone doing athletic activity-excercise class indiv. workout, jog in the park at lunch etc ADD 'N INTERESTS *Provide sanitary, functional spaces for changing clothes_ & grooming =uNCTIONS *Good Ventilation *Non Absorbtive surfaces *Floor Drains *Provide drinking fountain *Locker arrangement should allow for some handicapped users *Cove wall to floor surfaces PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS DJACENCIES rA1H "'fO AVOfP [101J.Jtl "'ft'ff&-IJ • rr-ooM Dress/Locker 400 Shower 120 (5ea) Toilet 80 SIZE. 600 ea/Men & Women Estimate that peak would occur just before and after an excercise class50 max for NUMBER OF USERS larger classes Heavy Summer Use Intermittent-Day & Evening FREQUENCY OF USE *Plan festive environment for uses through color & as there no relation Fith natural environment. space should promote conversational activities that tend to occur in locker rooms that work well(ie bulletin board) *Design should respect some people' s need for more privacy-Provide space for some private dressing * SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL SURVEY.

PAGE 149

SPACE Cafe-Operated by outside interest Consumers PRIMARY USERS Staff-cooks & servers Suppliers ADD'N INTERESTS *Facilitate efficient food service for a casual, cafe type establishment *promote socializing as a meeting place FUNCTIONS *As successful retail establishment location in terms of visibility to public will be of primary importance location that allows for ease of del"iveries *Provide prepartion and service areas appropriate for "cafe" type operation *Dining area should have outdoor seating PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS off park ADJACENCIES 50 Seats Indoor @15ea=750 Kitchen 300 Storage 300 SIZE 1450 Service Dock 8x12 96 50 patrons inside(12-15 tables) 30 " outside Staff as determined by owner NUMBER OF USERS Open Daily-Expected to serve breakfast, lunch, snack and light supper fare FREQUENCY OF USE *Dining area should reflect casual, informal nature *Space should not feel crowded, cramped *Daylighting should be maximized in eating areas *Provide neutral background that allows tenent to express uniqueness of establishment SPATIAL SURVEY.

PAGE 150

SPACE Cafe outdoor spaces Customers Servers PRIMARY USERS ADD'N INTERESTS *Provide outdoor dining adjacent to park FUNCTIONS ease of service from kitchen with as little disruption of indoor as possible PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS ADIACFNCIES SIZE 400-450 Sq Ft 25-30 NUMBER OF USERS Probable Lunch/Supper Spring, Summer, Fall FREQUENCY OF USE open seating layout ;' : SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL SURVEY.

PAGE 151

SPACE Childrens' Day Care Pre-School Age Kids (2-6) PRIMARY USERS Staff-Private agency Parents ADD'N INTERESTS Visitors * Learning and play environment for children in a group setting FUNCTIONS *Must have access to direct sunshinenorth only orintaion not adequate *Provide for childrens privacy as groupsome interaction with outsiders desirable but should not be totally exposed to public view *Require access to outside space *Storage both accessible & inaccessible PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS to kids ADJACENCIES SIZE Class Area30x30/child =900 Recep/Restrms/Stor/ 1350 Sq Ft Dir Off= 450 30 Kids Max. Director NUMBER OF USERS 1-2 Staff Depends on needs M-F ?am-6pm mini-w/ possible use on nights and weekends for parents who work night shifts or FREQUENCY OF USE weekends *Small size of users should be considered for special needs *Emphasis on soft surfaces for acoustic and safety considerations *Cheery, stimulating atmosphere which seeks to be responsive to primary users perceptual abilities SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL SURVEY.

PAGE 152

COMMUNITY CENTER'S BUILD ING A REA Entry/Lobby/Seating Area Community Organization's Offices Meeting Hall Kitchen & Storage Class/Meeting Room " " Storage/Meeting Rooms Arts & Crafts Excercise/Aerobics/Weights Dressing/Showers/Lockers Cafe (incl Kit & Storage) Children's Day Care Restrooms Assume Approx 15 % Circulation TOTAL 750 sq ft 6,)00 sq ft 1,200 sq ft )00 sq ft 5 00 sq ft 700 sq ft 250 sq ft 700 sq ft 1,000 sq ft 1,200 sq ft 1,450 sq ft 1,350 sq ft 50 0 sq ft 16,200 sq ft 2,4)0 18,6)0 sq ft

PAGE 153

SPACE Mechanical Plant Maintenance PRIMARY USERS ADD 'N INTERESTS FUNCTIONS *Easily accessible for service and repair PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS SIZE To be determined-At this time do not intend to locate on ground floor NUMBER OF USERS FREQUENCY OF USE SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS *Centralized Plant for both uses? *Should be roof mounted or in garage? If in garage, is there enough room? SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL SURVEY.

PAGE 154

;PACE Circulation-Community Center >RIMARY USERS \DO 'N INTERESTS 'Provide clues that ease orientaion UNCTIONS See Code Section 'HYSICAL REQUIREMENTS DJACENCIES SIZE. Assume Approx 15 % Total NUMBER OF USERS FREQUENCY OF USE *Provide Daylit spaces whenever possible *Particular importance to special needs of disabled-i.e. contrast between wall floor surfaces, locate doors with consideration of those in wheelchairs . SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL SURVEY.

PAGE 155

SPACE Restrooms PRIMARY USERS ADD 'N INTERESTS FUNCTIONS *Ventilation requirements *Ease of access from all areas of center *General Proximity to entrance *Durable, easily, cleaned surfaces PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS II ADJACENCIES SIZE 500 sq ft NUMBER OF USERS FREQUENCY OF USE SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL SURVEY.

PAGE 156

SPACE Housing-Resident Needs Residents PRIMARY USERS Staff Visitors INTERESTS i f particular importance will be the seauencng of spacas from the public to private ealms-issues of personal privacy and securty will greatly affect desirability of .ousing should be provided for .residents' communal use-A roof top garden/plaza/sun deck or the like could work for this purpose :uNCTIONS >HYSIC-\L REQUIREMENTS \OIACENCIES Varies, see p. SIZE 60 Units NUMBER OF USERS All times day and night FREQUENCY OF USE SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL SURVEY.

PAGE 157

SPACE Housing Office Staff Residents PRIMARY USERS Mail Carriers, UPS etc Prospective tenants AOD' N INTERESTS *Provide organization of building services to residents *Building Maintenance *Leasing activities FUNCTIONS *Storage provisions for keys, paperwork, tools • '•Proximity to entry >'•General proximity to community center staff office !PHYSICAL REQUIREMENT S 50 Sq Ft SIZE 1 Staff-Manager & Service Employees NUMBER OF USERS Daytime Hours (9AM-6P M ) FREQUENCY OF USE *Open atmosphere that feels easily accessible for residents SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL S URVEY.

PAGE 158

HOUSING PROPOSAL-60 Total Units 10 Studio units @ 475 sq ft KitjLiv 310 Bdr/Dressing 130 Bath 35 30 One Bedroom units @ 650 sq ft Kit/Liv 455 Bdr/Dressing 160 Bath 35 20 Two Bedroom units @ 975 sq ft KitjLiv 585 Bdr/Dressing 170 Bdr/Dress 150 2 Baths @ 70 TOTAL 43,800 sq ft + assume 15% circulation = 50,370 sq ft

PAGE 159

SPACE Parking Garage Housing Residence and Community Center users PRIMARY USERS ADD'N INTERESTS FUNCTIONS *Adequate ventilation *Clear circulation paths >'•Clearly defined exit paths >'•System for providing both types of parking (residents and community center users) for required ramping PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS ADJACENCIES SIZE Housing 27,0 00 Sq Ft Comm. 8,600 Sq Ft NUMBER OF USERS Housing-Constant Community Center-During hours of operation FREQUENCY OF USE *Secure feeling as possible for underground garage (avoid dark secluded spaces) natural 1 ight ing where possible thru light wells SPATIAL QUALITIES SPATIAL SURVEY.

PAGE 160

PARKING REQUIREMENTS Underground structure-One level 60 Units dwelling = 90 Spaces @ 300/Sq = 27,000 sq ft Community Center * Zone Lot = 8,607 Sq ft 35,607 Sq Ft Total 10 Spaces will be located above Grade surface Parking ELEVATOR REQUIREMENT One elevator serving parking garage and all floors above. Elevator will conform to U.B.C., Chapter 51 in accomodating a wheelchair. (Distance between inside cab walls= 68", distance between back cab wall and door= 54", distance between cab wall and return panel adjacent to door = 51", door opening= 32"---0peration buttons and phones shall be within 54" of the floor)

PAGE 161

APPENDICES.

PAGE 162

CI.JENT s 1 rt: OE:SCII!l 'l'I0:-1 MATF.!: I A LS <'ourhood Assoc i ati u n oiCCl.lpy ba.s..m ent, K"OIInd 0 < K i r anri mt'tZanine . The nau above for I 0 fami l ies have l(l' neruus south facing l
PAGE 163

am beth th Bo rou :Jh Council >y, Lam bC:tl1 Bor ouqh a r chi tect . , ' . ' -=. ... ' -:. • . _.. -. .... :.:: .... -' . '•' : < '/ ; ' <..:...,_' . / l'f\Gft IS'I.Att .: : . ' . : :.!: :.: .!' : ' • ' \ '\ .. : , I '(:. "'" .. '( .. . . .;:. '.: ,. :4J "'' "" out 111 ;)Jrkt r M crrt<; ri 'POrt (!2 tour -pr: r son ': ,111Cl 8 h'IOPt : ro;Oil . 1re 111 .1 :'::'sto rt':y pornt block whi c h h:l:> 11 to 11!' h ud t IISiflQ nwlhrld'>. TIH• con struct1on is o t p r r c .Jst concre:e ;tructu r .11 .1nd cladd1nq elements c roducr : d 111 a s1te factory. T11i5 I.J!OCk ._.,oil t ' 1 : Ofll' tll :l Sf'rii'S which ;HI! t. l be IJurlt on . , numl>r r o t SII' : S a!': th e fir o.;! staqe of the incrr ast>d hou<;in q prnor ,Jrnm.-. Thesr ! wrll be hous e pc! OfJI" mov e d wt1t: n c iP.Hve a ;ltr mbP.r of our poses rncludinq usn :Js a n t • ld p e rsons' lunch club. R e fu se tlrsp osal writ lw by mt:J n s of an rn c ine ralor. Th e cPntral 11natrnq writ be 111111 fan assis t e d w ;um; m ' • • .llt•rs wll!1 . 1 rnol lop l.o i l • ' r rnorn. I . ' I ---; I ii IJ: .Iii ., .. ... , .... ' Q j • , 'i " \ . 1 2 4 3 5 . i ' i 1'10

PAGE 164

_ ; I MASTEn I"'LA.N roR COMMUNITY ANO CUL lUflAL CE:Nilll FOR NORTHEAST DENVER ) -: "h-fJJ lJ-3 .a.vt. ............... _ ... " ........ \ l a . Housing lor the elderly b. Nurs i ng home ,. r"''""'" " "•lv rPntPr -

PAGE 165

i j l I l , AN() l :UI.lUHAl Cl NllH t Lt l "''M"-' ' ''-'' u.o,.v . ..................... .

PAGE 166

r ....... ... . , --CT F'RANK VAN KLINGEREN RAPHY JAN AND FLORIAN J . LEM i" t tnhre range of new commun ity faciltties we have countr 1es. there are very few authentically p ideas The Oron!en Aqora 1s one a New Town 1 n the m 1ddle of a bleak desolate ... lrr>m the Zu1 der Zee : it was started i n 1957 . !11 ponula llon of 10. 000 l!'n y'!ars taler . and anl • c i pates jb t hat many by the .,.ear 2 000 Consc i ':lus of the need to i6l l 11e as c heerful an1 s o c • abte as pos-;1ble tn I he WieSS cl•mal e . the Oeve l(l pment A u thor ity comm1ss•oned F Van K hrf) eren l o des 1 qn the tnwn commun •fy .-r-1 sell t'IQ lor a ll the stJct a l tacd • ltes thai suc h a ll!f'l u ni1, w oul d need o ther than s c hools and churc hes . 1M 1 1sl o f facd•t •es thai the arch i tect was asked to prov ide t cnQ. t h e t-udQel very llm11ed The town needed a • r SUitable lo r ct avs. rec t tals . choral so c ie l1es. ballet , ,-.o"I'"V o r c nes! r a . brass ba<'d . and beat group : space tor ,..,, and farmer s pr o duce exchange ; a pla c e for llfrrt' n c e s and s 1 mtlar galhermgs ; tndoor games and sports; 11!11 small exh , b • I I0'1S. both profess1onal and amateur ; liS and r estaurants cater i ng tor snacks and gourme t meals, 11 mus• c and ent erta o nment as needed : teiP.vi ston and f t lm tor amuse,ent and ed u catton And all these were tbt 1 n pre m 1 s es that were i nexpen s ive. easy to tnSinJCI. fle11ble tn use . and proof aga t nst exlremes of F?t Van Klingeren went back to the anc ien! l!tk ag"a It may seem a l ong way from the New Towns of I!Ke ' " !he s,.lh century 8 C . to the New Towns of the ttnl•t ' h century. But the agora approached the tdeal as a 111mUn1ly mePI1 ng p l ace 1 1 was located in the heart of town, • pla c e t o w'l t ch C t ltzens naturally grav t laled . Here goods "'r-ough!. sold . and bustness was transacted, litltC orated . and Citi zens loafed or goss i ped . It a a p l a r e of many acltv t l i es where people met by chance IWTangement. and somet i mes got in eech other's way: a Ice 10here many lhmgs went on simultaneously . Tht need lor shelter from the Dutch climate precluded a •lor outdo o r actfVIItes i n an open bu l Van s u c c essfully translated the sptr i t of lhe an cient _., r t a c"! i n t o a large glass enclosure, roofed and healed . 1 de'vel ooment plan for Dronlen provtded fo r a spacious ""' S'lu are at the run c tton of ma i n roads leading into the .,, S J"ounded by shops and provid i ng space for bus park, r par1c. and town hall . Th1 s left an excellent site f or lhe 0011 .. at l he end of the sQuare . To ha• e r•ovtdP.d s eparate !-oaces for all the needed w0u ld havr more than doubled the budget (11 modest $ 600. 0001. The alternat ive was to des i gn 1 s arra rae t o tuno::t o n l ess e•c lus i vely : lh• s t nvolves ':ra e ! ens o::ompe lt ng 1r>t ere sts. but also allows for . . • . ,. . • ,," art• v t • P s . t o r k t bb ttrt ng , tor " happen i nos . " The 'I • • ..• '" 1 o l " ' " t N m -lh" n"rPM• I v unt t ni shed • • , !'llOid n9 b e t n Q adapt ed for a v ar t ely of 1 M1ln rn1t,1,r e 2 . Box ofttce 3 t.Aeetlng room 4 . C loakro
PAGE 167

t"NU I UUNAt'M J . .JI\\...o . I Cl,. DnUC'-'r\. Tn . s youth cente r 1s buill w1th money g1ven to the Queen ot !he Ne,tl'lerlanas o n the 25111 ann1versary ol her marroage . Its IS to (.reate poss1b111tles lor young pe01Jie ol the soc , t:IJ ;-. ; ...... J .. -::,., d _ r .. r.g VJtt.lt:l T n,; ng r .a:. Dtt:n 1n w oo d ana made rna•nly fcc.n. oli:d t:ler11r;nls ol a module o l 175 em 0 . . 111 '''""r a> "'ell >umr11ec 7ll people can hve 1n, wh1le lloe .. • n !11: CJ(Iome IS I 40 PC01JIC

PAGE 168

, _ . \ ,---:--, ( 0 , i . ___ o •• l U Sl I ' . r . o . . . . . .._ i -------' I r_, __ j'l_(.f : .. . . . . ::.11 ( . : . i . . . I .. ; .. I , i i . . . . . l ---'. : .. . . . 0 . : . 0 . .. .. . ; : .• o . i..' v f•: 0. . I : . . :J l l. . . . . .... • . '::;[.'rf . i 0 ; . 0 _.0:0 . 0 . . 0 : '.-o . : :0:. 0:_.. 0 0 .. , ! ., ...... :_-• . . I . : . o . ; : o 0 • . 0 ! :: . ::: :.= .... . : ....... .: .. : -. . . • . . . .. . •. o• .. • . < . . . . . : . ... .. . . . . Groundplln 1 : 100 1 . Enr r ance 2 . Cloahoom 3 Adm i niStrat o on 4 . Cen1r1l hall 5 . L•tu r grC31 room 6 . Musrc room 7 . lrbrary 8 Ba r {shop 9 Open lue 10 Indoor 1 1 . lavatory lor onvahds 12 Manager 13 lf'Oder 14 Consulhng room k •oemf'nt 15 Me etong roo'll lor looe ma n 16 and t 7 room 18 a n d 19 . roo m 20 H rgh and low ten sro n 21 Kolc hen 22 . K i t c hen lor 23 K•tchen lo• b•P3d 24: D•n•ng room ll•lm/conlf'rcnce) 25 O ne persoho s room 26: House ol staH members 27 H ous e ol hostess 28 Sle ep • ng p av •tho n 2 9 Showers . lavatNy 30 Steepong room 31 C•ea11v1ty toom 320 Oar•o• 245

PAGE 169

\1 " ' ' ' . \ ' \ f r ' I I ' " \ I v

PAGE 170

CAPITOL HILL NEIGHBORHOOD PLAN DENVER INTRODUCTION Th i s i s the offi cial plan for t he Capitol Hill ne ighborhood. bounded on the north by Colfa x Avenue , on the south by Seventh Avenue, on the west by Broadway and on the east by Down i ng Street. Capitol Hill i s a complex and chang in g ne ighborhood near the center of Denver w i th one of the broadest spectrums of people to be found in the City. Early in May, 1973, a 15-member c i t izens' adv i sory group w a s formed to work w ith a ne ighborhood planner in th e d evelopment of this ne ighborhood plan . The advisory board i nc luded represen tatives from the major civic associations (Cap i tol H ill Un ited Neighborhoods, Capitol H ill Committee to Coordinate Community Serv i ces . and Cap it ol H ill Tenants Union) and interest groups i n the neighborhood (tenants, home-owners, the P. T.A . • the Coif ax Businesses . other small businessmen, rea ltors, the aged and the young). The group part i c ipated i n meeti ngs which focused on land use and zoni ng, transportation, the env ironment, publ i c facilities and services, and general socio-economic problems. After init ial preparation of t h e proposed plan, a lar g e r ne ighborhood meeting was he l d . Su g gest ions and recommenda t ions were analyzed and integrated into the plan prior to presentation to the Planning Board for adoption. Deta i led information about soc i o -economi c characteri st i cs, land use and zoning , environmental, public facility and other background ma t er ial upon wh i ch the plan has been based may be obtained from the Denver Planning Office . PURPOSE The Capitol H ill ne ighborhood p l an consi sts of this text a n d the accompanyi ng map entitled "Capitol H ill Neighborhood Plan . " Use of the Plan T he purpose of t he Capitol H ill plan is to prov id e an official gu i de to the future development of the ne ighborhood for use by the Denver Plann ing Offi ce; the Denver Plann in g Board; the Mayor; the City Counci l and other concerned governmental agenc i es ; residents , property owners and bus ine s smen of the neighborhood; and private organizations concerned with planni ng and ne ighborhood improvement. The p l an will also provide an offi c i ally approved reference to be used in connection with action on var ious City development matters as required by law. The plan is intended to promote an arrangement of land use , circu lation and serv i ces which w ill encourage and contribute to the economic, soc ial and physical health, safety, welfare, and convenience of the neighborhood, w ithin the larger framework of the C i ty . It is also intended to guide development and change of the neighborhood to meet existing and anticipated needs and condit ions; contribute to a healthy a nd pleasant env ironment; balance growth and s tability; reflect economi c potentialities and limitations, land development and other trends; and protect investment to the extent reasonable and feasible. The plan proposes approximate locations, configurations, and intens i t i es of var ious land uses, circulation and community facilit i es. Development should not be allowed which is incons istent with the intent and purpose of the Plan. The plan is not an offi cial zone map and as a gu i de, does not imply any implicit right to a particular zone or to the land uses permitted therein. Changes of zone are considered under a specif i c procedure established under the City and County of Denver Mun i cipal Code, subject t o var ious requirements set forth therei n, includ i ng consideration of their relat ion to and effect upon the Comprehensive Plan. Th i s plan is subject to review and amendment i n the manner prescr ibed by law to reflect changes in circumstances. Objectives of the Plan 1. To coordinate the development of the Cap itol Hill ne ighborhood with that of other parts of the C ity as set forth by the Comprehensive Plan, and with the metropolitan area. 2. To prov ide a guide to the orderly and balanced dev elopment of the neighborhood, des ignating and generally locating land uses and public fac iliti es in quanti t i es and at dens i t i es which will . accommodate population and activities projected to full plan development. 3. To encourage the preservation and enhancement of the mixed density res i dential character of the ne ighborhood. 4. To make provision for housing in such types. s i zes and dens i t i es as are required to sat i sfy the vary i ng needs and des i res of all economic segments of the ne ighborhood, w ith special consideration to the elderly and lower income families .

PAGE 171

5. To pr omote the economi c health a nd convenien c e through: A. The all ocation and distribution of comme rc ial lan ds for r eta i l and s ervi c e facilities in quanti t i es and patterns based on accepted planning standards and princ i ples . B . Prov isio n for plac e s of employment w ithin the neigh borh o od, and for transportation facil i t i es serving places of employment in adjacent communi t i es . 6. To provide a c irculation system coordinated with l and use and densities and adequate to accomodate necessary movements, includi ng the expansion and improvement of publ i c tran sportation s erv i ce and rapid transi t , and the development of bicycle routes as well as pedestrian paths. 7. To improve t he ae stheti c env ironment of the ne ighbor hood through the development and appl ication of appro pri ate des i gn cr i teria. 8. To prov ide a bas i s for the location and programming of public services and uti lities and to encourage coordinated phasing of public fac i lities with private development. ' HISTORY Cap i tol Hill is o n e of the oldest res idential areas in Denver . The impetus for development of the neighborhood was largely the work of t\vo men, Horace A .W. Tabor and Henry C. Brown. Until Tabor' s arr i val in the 1880's, Denver's growth had been northwest, nearer to the South Platte River . Tabor bought land east of Lar imer Street and wanted the City to develop in an eastern direction. To encourage such growth, he built the famous Tabor Grand Opera House on the corner of 16th and Curtis Streets. About this t ime bui lding began on the site Henry C . Bro w n donated to the State of Colorado for the capi tol on the brow of a hill looking west towards the mountai ns. The ridge was known as Brown' s Bluff, a Victorian double entendre ind icat ing the folly of developing land so far off course from the downtown of the C ity. These two acts served to turn the growth of Denver ' s business distr ict eastward. As the bus i ness district advanced, the resi dential sect ion moved before i t and occupied the "hi gh, sightly prair ie" known as Capitol Hill. By the end of the 1880's, Capitol Hill was completely platted and a sizeable amount of development had occurred east of the Capitol and along the trolley lines on Colfax to Alta (now known as Ogden Street). In Denver it was on Capi tol H ill that Colorado's wealthy built thei r mansions. The arch itecture was as eclecti c as the inhabitants, from early Greek Revival to Tudor to Victori an . The Molly Brown House (listed a s a Denver Landmark and als o in the National Register of H istori c Places), is one of the rema ining houses from thi s early period. The prominence of Capi tol H ill as "the" fash ionable res iden t ial area continued until after the turn of the century, but as the City grew and prospered, the wealthy began to move further south and east to the Country Club and Cheesman Park areas . After 1910. the complexion of Capitol Hill changed rapidly. As e a r ly a s 1929, the fir s t M aste r Pla n of the City d e scr i b es E a st C o lfax as " f ormerly a pri n cipa l residential street, and now in large part zoned for business and the pr i ncipal artery through the Cap i tol Hill apartment district." The neighbor hood was alre ady a less exaggerated vers ion of what it has become today. Duri ng World War II, Capi tol H ill prov ided rooms and apartments to people who could not find housi ng elsewhe r e . Thes e non-conformi ng apartments were formally recognized i n 1955 with overall high density r esidential ( R -3) zoning of the neighborhood. Thi s zoning spelled the b e g inni ng of the end o f Capitol Hill as a well -balanced single-family home and apart ment district, abetted by inflated real estate values because o f the neighborhood' s central lo cation and proximity to down town. Today, l ess th a n 4 % of the s tructu re s i n C a p i tol H ill are s i n g le fam i ly uni ts , 22% of all uni ts are converted homes or small apartment buildi ngs, and almost 75% are in large apartment structures. Population density is now the highest in the City. DESCRIPTION Capitol Hill is a complex, ever changing neighborhood that i s , i n many ways, a microcosm of the City as a whole. The dynamics at work on the larger sca l e are mirrore d i n this small ne ighborhood at all levels . Although its condi t ion may be considered "endangered" in comparison to many other Denve r ne ighborhoods, an active and vital private market keeps Capitol Hill from becoming a s lum. Population The Capitol Hill ne ighborhood is one of the smallest in Denver i n land area (433 acres) , but the largest in terms of population. The 1970 census s hows 17,661 persons living her e, an increase of 4 . 7% over the 1960 f igure of 1 6,B71 . W ith only . 7% of the Denver total land area, Capitol Hill accounts for 3.4% of the C ity's total population. \o\lhi le infants and school age ch ildren are underrepresented i n the neighborhood, young adults account for 47% of the total popu lat ion, compared to the C ity average of 27% in thi s category. This proportion has increased dramatically since 1960, when the 18-34 year olds accounted for 30% of the tot al. Although the aged still compri se almost 1 8% of the total ne ighborhood population (compared to' a C it y average of 12%), the share is down slightly from 1960, when the aged accounted for 20% of the total. Capitol Hill has a significant percentage of the C ity's sing l e population (6.7 %), or 42% of the neighborhood population, compared to a Cit y average of 27%. Only slightly more than one-third of the population is married. The remainder is either widowed or divorced. The importance of s i ngles is further reflected by the fact that slightly mor e than 70% of households are headed by a s i ng l e individual. In Denver as a whole, 70% of households are headed by married persons. Res idents are relatively well educated. The median education level is above the City average, with the majority of adult residents having completed high school. The neighborhood has a highly mobile population. Less than one-fourth of the population h a s l i v e d i n the s ame residence for f ive years while nearly oneh alf of the p opula t ion stayed i n one place for the same amount of time in the whole City.

PAGE 172

While a large percentage of the Capitol H ill population was in the labor force in 1970 (67"-S versus the City average of 60";,) the neighborhood also had a slightly h i gher percentage unemployed. On the other hand, income levels are signifi cantly below the city average . Median family income in 1970 was $8,148 and median income of unrelated individuals was $4,684. Housing Capitol Hill has a disproportionately large share of Denver's housing stock with nearly 12,000 units representing more than 6% of the City's total. Moreover, the number of apartments having 10 units or more comprise over 20".; of the City's total. Only 3.4"; (407 homes) of the Capitol Hill housing is in single-family units, a large decline from the 1960 percentage of 90.:.. 1\,any small apartment structures have resulted from conversion of old, large houses throughout Capitol Hill . This process of conversion has been hastened by the blanket A zoning applied to the neighborhood in 1955 . The tendency to construct large buildings shows signs of tapering oH and other recent influences are providing a wider choice of living styles to potential renters and owners. For example, the ne ighborhood has seen the first development of smaller tovmhouse condominiums, aimed toward the owner sh i p rather tt>an rental market. Rehabilitation of sound older structures by the private market is also occurring. In 1970 89% of all units were rentals, less than 3% were owner-occupied, and the remaining 8% were vacant. A May, 1973 vacancy study indicated a vacancy rate of slightly over 6%. According to the 1970 Census, nearly half of the housing stock in Capitol Hill was built prior to 1939, and one-quarter since 1960 . Recent development has been largely at the expense of older homes, cleared for this purpose, rather than on vacant land which has been scarce for decades. The Capitol Hill neighborhood still includes more than 7% of the City's total number of homes built prior to 1939 . Many of these are historically and architecturally significant. The Denver Landmark Preservation Commission has already desig nated many structures as historic landmarks in Capitol H ill including the Governor's Mansion and the Molly Brown House. Within the next year, following completion of a city-wide survey, it is expected that many more structures in Capitol Hill will receive like designation. Exact details about the physical quality of housing in Capitol Hill are not available. However, one indicator from the 1970 Census, plumbing condition, points to an inadequacy in the housing stock in the neighborhood greater than in the City as a whole. 6.7% of all housing units Jack some plumbing fac i lit i es compared to the City average of 4%. Moreover, Capitol Hill encompasses 10% of all such units in the City. The value of the relatively few remaining s i ngle family homes is significantly above the City mean ($25,000 compared to $19,500) . A wide range of prices is still available in rental units, with approximately half renting for less than S 100 per month in 1970 but an increasing significant number of dwelling units is in the over 5150 per month raf)C]e. The sh i ft in rental struct ures, with movement toward h•gher pr•ces may significantly affect the City's stock of low and moderate priced units in the next few years. Population and housing density is higher than i n any other neighborhood in Denver. The number of persons per residen tial acre (107 in 1970) was four times the City average, and the number of housing units per residential acre (72. 5) was times the City average. As a concomitant, the average size of a household is significantly lower than in the City as a whole. 1.6 in Capitol Hill vs. 2 . 8 for Denver. Land Use With land and improvements valued in excess of $157 million (3.4% of the City total) Capitol Hill continues to be an economically vital subarea of Denver. The variety of land uses is extraordinary for such a small area. and includes State buildings, small industrial facilities, offices.. and commercial establishments, and services predominantly in the western and northern sections. Residential structures predominate in the center, and along the southern and eastern edges. These diverse uses coexist in a successful admixture as a result .of ambience in the obys1cal environment. Stately old street trees (although many elms are dymg or bearing diseases). relatively narrow streets. landscaped areas between tile side walks and tree nd an interesting topography 1llusfrate thl s However, the intra u y one-way s reets bearing greater traffic than is considered normal for a neighborhood, the increasing monotony of high-rise apartment dwellings and oHices which foster a feeling of anonymity and some encroachment into the neighborhood along the business edges on the north and west tend to have a divisive effect. There is conformance between land development and zoning due to the generosity of the present zoning, except in the cas . e of single-family home use which is greater than the zoning would indicate. Streets occupy more than onethird of the land area. Community Facilities Parks and Open Space Parks and open space are inadequate within Capitol Hill. which has one mini-park within its boundaries, the 2 . 27 acre Governor's Park, and another park proposed at 13th and Logan of approximately % acre. However, the neighborhood is withi n walking distance of two major city-wide p.arks-Cheesman Park (80.1 acres) and Civic Center (18.2 acres). Schools The three schools located in Capitol Hill-Moore Elemerl tary, Emerson Elementary, and Morey Junior High School-are all antiqL•ated facilities on inadequate Jots accordi ng to current standards. All have under-capacity enrollments. The Emerson School and possibly Moore School will be phased out in the next few years . Morey has a maintenance and minor renovation budget and is expected to remain open. Other Services Over 50 service organizations have representatives in the neighborhood either with physical offices or roving person nel from departments located elsewhere in the City. Capitol Hill is served by Police District 3, with precinct headquarters at South University Boulevard and the Valley

PAGE 173

H i ghway. AI though pol ice cars patrol the neighborhood with r eg ul a r frequency, it continues to have one of. the highest crime rates in the C ity. Fire protection i s adequate. The Capitol Hill neighbor hood is located in Fire D istrict 8. The main branch of the Denver Public L ibrary, at 13th and Broadway, immediately adjacent to Capitol Hill, ade quately serves the neighborhood. In addition the book mobile carrying adult and juvenile material stops at Moore School on Mondays. Extra service to the neighborhood may possibly be expanded if needed through Friends of the Library, which delivers books to shut-ins. There are almost 20 churches in Capitol H ill ranging from modest structures serving a few parishioners, to Gothic landmark structures which serve the entire C ity. Nearly all religious denominations are represented in Capitol Hill. There are no community centers located in the neighbor hood. although several churches have senior c itizens' centers and/or youth recreation services as part of their programs. Transportation Because of the proxtmtty of Capitol Hill to the Central Business District, one-way streets serving other than neighbor hood res idents interlace the area. The four north-south arterial ;treets, (all one-way reciprocals) are Broadway-Lincoln and Corona -Downing. GrantLogan and WashingtonC larkson are :ollectors. Arterial streets running east-west are: 8th Avenue, 13th and 14th Avenues, and Colfax. 11th and 12th Avenues He collector streets. Heavy through traHic places a burden on the neighborhood, with traHic volumes rang i ng from 7 ,000-20,000 cars per day for oneway streets in the neighborhood t o 26,000 cars per day for streets on the periphery. The neighborhood has a high level of bus service from Denver Transit. Eight routes traverse the area. Buses run frequently and are well-used by Capitol Hill res idents. rwo on-street bike routes, part of a larger bikeway system for :he City, run through Capitol Hill on 10th and 14th Avenues. :ar ownership is relatively very low, with 40% of households 1aving no automobile available. This is largely by resident :ho ice because of the neighborhood's proximity to mass :ransit and service. >verview of Problems and Needs ::apitol Hill, while fully developed, is changing from lower !ensity to hig!-ter density and from res idential to business and > H ice use . The neighborhood i s now classified as "endan 1ered" in the Community Renewal Program's analysis of all )enver neighborhoods. n a positive sense, Capitol Hill offers housing types in all tyles and price ranges; a mix of people in all age brackets and ncome levels ; a large assortment of land uses : and activiti es enerated by them. Residents have good proximity to services. lowntown, bus lines and bike routes. Many people in the teighborhood still walk to work. The neighborhood is unique in the range and depth ot expenence 1t offers to tne people or Denver . The crucial proble m in Capitol Hill i s to maintai n a balance among these diverse elements and to reintroduce a measure of stabi l ity and permanence . Many poss ib le futures are s till open to Capitol Hill. At the pessimisti c extreme, projection of current trends suggests monolothic high rise development; additional encroachment of State and private bus i nesses and offices from the north and west edges ; inc reas in g use of Capitol Hill as a traffic corridor for suburban drivers and an increasing population of transients and old people. On the other hand, Capitol Hill may yet develop as a cohesive and experientially rich neighborhood enlivened by i ts variety of people and places to live, a neighborhood that i s socially and economically competitive with the suburbs. The problems and needs of the res idents must be examined pr ior to generating the ideas and means to implement changes that will guide Capitol Hill to a successful future. Socio-Economic Problems The heterogenity of the population, with emphasis on the young and very o ld , and a corresponding downplaying of middle-aged couples with children puts a heavy burden on service organizations. The neighborhood lacks a healthy proportion of people who tend to stay put, buy homes, and display a quality of self -sufficiency. Socio-economic problems facing the residents fall into four general categories-housing, health, employment, and legal aid. There is a continuing lack of information about the availability of current service organizations dealing with these problems. Two organizations, Connection (a 24-hour information switch board) and Capitol Hill Storefront (a community relations bureau established under the Police Department) provide information on where to problem assistance. However, the majority of residents do not know of their existence. An ad hoc ne ighborhood group, the Capi tol Hill Committee to Coordinate Communit y Services, meets monthly to discuss serv ice-related problems in the neighborhood. While at least 50 organizations are members, few residents know of this group. Many categorical agencies are understaffed and overvvorked . Emergency housing is available in short supply for the young but not at all for the old. The Housing Administration attempts to locate housing for the low-income population, but little low-rent housing is ava i lable . Simi larly, employment is hard to find. One of the largest problems occurs in the provision of low cost legal advice which is in short supply, though badly needed. The Capit ol Hill Tenant's Union counsels tenants and landlords from all over the City as to their r ights and responsibilities, but similar services in the legal field are available only on a part-time basis through Legal Aid. Land Use and Zoning Land development i n Capitol Hill and other ne ighborhoods i n the C ity continues to be determined primarily by an economic parameter, "highest and best use" of a property, within the governmental controls (such as zoning) affecting the property. The "highest and best use" generally reflects the maximum price for which the property can be sold, as determined principally by its relative economic desirability compared to other properties.

PAGE 174

Th i s fac t remf o r ces the paramount problem of finding a t echnique for r e t a in i ng the currently desirabiP. mixture o f r esidential buildmg t y pes and densities withi n the neighbo r hood. There i s a desire to retai n dwelling units in small e r converted hous es and low density apartments as well as in large apartment structures. The need has been expressed for reintroducing new single -family ownerships and lower density apartments into Capitol Hill. The need for more open space is also apparent. In a parcel by parcel survey of assessor's data for Capitol Hill m 1973. it was found that most of the lots in the neighborhood are actually developed at less than A 3X density. (86 or less dwelling units per acre) far below the 130 dwell i ng units per acre p ermitted under the current R 3 zoning. This suggests that possi ble excessive density is current ly permitted throughout the neighborhood. An0thrr prc>blem th.lt l.1nd ll5t' in C.wit<'l Hill is the age and condition of structures. \'.'hen the cost of maintenance and property taxes are high , and the potential for profi ts from sale or redevelopment of the property to a more intensive use (i. e .. h i gh rise apartments) i s great. the more profitable use will usually prevail over retention of an old structure (as long as governmental controls allow the more intensive redevelopment). If Capitol H ill is to retai n i ts present residenti al desirability. then satisfaction with low-density residential development must be substituted for the poten t i ally greater profits that may be realized from sale of the property for high rise apartments. Land Use Mix \Vhile the d iversity of land use in Capitol H ill i s attracti ve in many respects, it is also threatenin g the stability of the residential character of the neighborhood. The maior boundary arteri als . Broad,• :av: Lincol n . and ColfJx. ha\'e generated some commercial in:o the resi dential area. Similarly, the R 4 zoned areas along Sherman. Grant. and the area to the east of the Capi tol have potential for doing so. State use of land w i th i n the ne ighborhood is also a threat. in that State expansion east of Grant would replace badly needed low-income housi ng for "the elderly with office buildings. Another problem related to the land use mix is derived from the present zoni ng ordinance. A mixed use zone would provide the opportunity for small neighborhood oriented stores to establish themselves in apartments. \Vhile access to ne ighborhood shopping is relatively good in Capitol Hill, walking even a short d istance is difficult for many of the elderly. A mixed use zone would facilitate a better d istribution of activities. Unfortunately, mixed use zoning is extremely lim ited, with only the 8, 8 and 8 4 zones allowing several uses within the same structure. Because of economic exigences, however, even these zones currently promote destruction of housing rather than a mix. Parking Another potential land use problem in Capitol Hill involves land taken up by commercial parking lots serving other than the residents. This is especially evident in the western portion where lots are established for the convenience of downtown auto commuters. This land could be better used as open space or for future residential development. Similarly, surface parkinq associated with re1identi1l uniu " " elsewhere in the C i ty . Howeve r , s ome sidewalks in th• neighborhood should be r eplaced because of their extrem• age, and some are too narrow for pedestrian safety and comfort. Public Facilities and Services Schools The future of the schools in the neighborhood is uncertain . Maintenance w ill depend on the future numbers of school-aged children in the district. The Emerson School, an elementary school with a steadily decreasing enrollment, w ill definitely be closed in the next few years. The fac ility, built in 1885, is a landmark asset to the ne ighborhood, but the site is woefully small by today's school standards. M0c>n! Elcmrnt.11V :1 fnr landmark designi!tion WilS constructed i n 1889 und slated for demolition or rebuilding withi n the next decade. The problems of inadequate s ite size and antiquated facilities are similar to Emerson's. Moreover, Moore is surrounded on all four sides by h i gh speed arterial or collector streets. The School Board is prepared to consider rebuilding this elementary school in Capitol Hill on one of the old s i tes, or a new one, if the demand materi a lizes . Otherwi se, children will be reassigned to schools outside the neighborhood. Morey Junior High School will be retained with the possibility that some children may be reassigned to other refurbished schools outside Capitol Hill. Schools have more impact on the composition of the neighborhood population than any other public fac ility. The school prot>lem in Capitol Hill is somewhat circular, in that many parents won't move into the neighborhood until the schools improve, and the School Board refuses to rebuild or refurbi sh facil i t i es until the need for schools, in terms of an increased student population is demonstrated. Parks and Recreation Capitol H ill is deficient in park space (the exact amount varies from 85 to 100 plus acres according to which set of standards is used) and has no large vacant parcels on which to develop a substantial park acreage space. The high cost of land further impedes any potential park development. Civic Center and Cheesman Park provide nearby space, but neither are centrally located. Libraries The mai n branch of the Denver P ubli c L ibrary, i n conjunction with the Cherry Creek L ibrary, a bookmobile stop, and a limited delivery service to shutins (called Friends of the Library) serve Capitol Hill rather well . Police and F i re Prorecrion Police and f • re service is excellent in Capit ol H ill but the crime rate is still one of the highest in the C ity. The situation is no better and no worse than in the majority of older urbanized sub-areas of cities in other parts of the country. Transport ar ion Capitol Hill's central position In the C ity has resulted in • I • ,, I •

PAGE 175

run-off. Unde rground and s tr uc tured p a rk i ng i s a m ore des ira ble but seldom u se d alternative . Hou s i ng Condi t ion s Housing conversions, code enforcement, and maintenance cost s are potential problems that work against retention of older detached housin g units. Single-family homes that have been converted to rooming house s i n Capitol Hill often result in more congested, deteriorating structures. Simil ar ly, the enforcement of housi ng codes geared to contemporary dwelling s is detri mental to conservation of the converted structures and remai n i ng sing l e family homes which ar e invariabl y o l d , and may not m eet today's codes. F inally, few people can afford to maintain detached homes because of taxes and high land values . ! Environment ? strategy for the 1972 Denver Community R e new,1l gram was drpendent upon three major elements whrch are nplementary: ( 1) a to a housing market need, (21 nomi c land use log i c for any action proposed i n a given 'lt ion. and (31 a strong, consistent policy to protect and ll"ove environmental quality w ithi n all areas of the Crty. h of these elements are essenti al components of the 1peti t i ve desirability which must be achieved if Denver is to id becomin g a weak center city i n which declining housing neighborhood areas spread outward over time from the rver has been able to maintain a relati vely h igh environ ltal desirability throughout most neighborhoods. With a exceptions. older neighborhoods have retained a character ch is attracting renewed interest among a growing sector of 3y's home buyers. A lthough part of the increasing interest ' be a result of lim ited housing choice , the urban amenities 1ested earlier appear to be real attractions in s p it e of such Hive urban factors as a i r and noise pollution; neighborhood fie congestion; declinin g condition of neighborhood hous community faciliti es, and the quality of education jrams. Aesthetics Capitol Hill's sense of cohesion i s due in part to street trees, a large number of which have already been lost to street w ideni ngs and Dutch Elm d iseas e . The commercial stri p boundaries of C apitol H ill along Broadway and Colfax are visual eyesores. The lack of small urban open spaces such as m i ni -parks is an important aesthetic problem. The a i r pollution problem withi n the Denver region is severe. In Capitol Hill it is often intense. The major contributor is the internal combustion engine. Wherever large volumes of traffic are channeled, pollution levels are highest. Noise pollution is a corollary to this inasmuch as traffic-related noise is a major d isruptive element i n the :fai ly lives of urban res idents. 0roperty The level of property maintel"lance throughout C api t o l H ill i s generally good: alleys are usually uncluttered, curbs and JUtters are sound, street paving is no better or worse than ...... ... , \ V ''''V'-"'f'' \ I UI'I\..., o '"• \.Jill,.. o f \ 1., Jllll.. \ ) l)ft; \JIVI)IVt:' and an impedrment t o cohesrve nerghborhood dev elop ment. Throu gh -traffic volume interferes with a multitude of aspects o f daily lrfe . As traffic volumes increase, bike routes become more dangerous to u se, and pedestr ia ns are more afraid to cross s tr ee ts . Al so, noise, fumes, and dirt generated b y motor v e h icles adversely affect all residents of the nerghborhood. Changes i n street patterns, \ 'tidenings, or designations may have as much impact as zoning changes on the conti11uing d esirability of the neighborhood. Other The leve l of serv i ces in C apitol Hill is generally adequate. Ho\tever, there are too f e w recreation programs such as tha t a t Our Saviors Lutheran Churc h . Additional social programs deali ng with youth and the age d are needed, as are day care fac ili t i es which could function out of existing buildings , such as churches and schools. POLICIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS Overview While the problems identified above reinforce the current "endangered" status of the neighborhood , Capitol H ill has survived remarkably well to date w ithout public funds. Pr ivate citizens have acted as the vital force i n maintenance of the neighborhood. This p i an and the re commendations which follow are designed to encourage and reinforce cont i nu i ng private redevelopment which will complement t h e unique character of Capitol H ill. While implementation of all the recommendations described below is possible, the commrtment of the C ity and c iti zens to follow through on them will i n the end determin e the final success of the plan. The future vitality of Denver or any city is d ependent on a strong, healthy core. It has been demonstrated that if the center portion of a city declines, the future of the entire city is jeopardized. \Vrtness the fate of the older, established cities of the Ea st. One purpose of planni ng is to serve as a means to avoid m ista kes made e lsewhere. Hav i ng identrf ied deficiencies in housrng, health. employment and i!'gal areas, recommrndatrons for solving these problems can be identified. Currently, the amount and type of Federal

PAGE 176

funding that will be available for problem solving in the future is unknown. Indications a--e that programming will take a new turn. going from appropriations to block grant contributions fOf" the State and C ity, making reliance on old Pf"ograms diffiwlt. The medla nism has yet to be developed at the State level to replace the Federal role . Meanwhile, because of financial ri!'Source limrta tions, the City is unable to ri!'Solve all of its problems alone. However, several shortrange programs can be recommended for Capitol Hill until such time as the extent of funding and the general direction of programs nation-wide are known. Socio-Economic Recommendations 1. Establish a Southeast Neighborhood Servici!'S Bureau with headquarters in the Capitol Hill Area. The thrust of this bureau would be to help the actual and potential victim of cr i me (rather than the offender as in other parts of the City) since much of the crime in Capitol Hill is initiated by people living outside the neighborhood. 2. Establish an information and referral service . This can be used by all residents of Capitol Hill in determining what help is already available. One of the greatest problems with available services in Capitol Hill is that few res idents know of their whereabouts. Continued funding of The Connec t ion, separate.ly or in conjunction with the Neighborhood Services Bureau, might be a useful mechanism. 3. Fund on a permanent basis the Capitol Hill Committee to Coordinate Community Services . The monthly meetings held by this group should become regularized within agency structures as a valuable outlet for getting informa tion dissem inated to agencies and for finding deficiencies in service areas. 4. Encourage funding from the State to supplement mental health teams working with released patients from State facilities who find a home in Capitol Hill. 5. The City and County should initiate more stringent l i censing for boarding houses . This would, in part, insure a decent level of professional help for the mentally ill. 6. Fund the Denver Clinic to initiate a ger iatric nurse practitioner to work with the aged in Capitol Hill . 7 . Fund a full-time lawyer to work with citizens in Capitol Hill. This might be done in conjunction with the Capitol Hill Tenants Union. 8. Establish a special landlord-tenant intervention team under the Police Department. 9. Expand the housi ng court from its present two hours once a week to a full day. 10. Establish public bulletin boards or kiosks for posting events, information and serv i ces in the ne ighborhood. Extant examples in Capitol H ill are the bulletin boards at K i ng Soopers and in the Capitol Hill Police Storefront. These two alone are inadequate. 11. Funding should be found to strengthen enforcement resources with respect to such problems as weed control on vacant lots and illegal parking of cars. Housing Recommendations 1. Encourag e select ive housing and commercial re habilitatio n w ith public and pr i vate funds a s a means of u pgrading the , I I '• ,,,, r .. , ... , , I I'. 1 I , • , ,, 1, 1 . 1 , , , , f square feet, under the new R-3, 2 to 1 f loor area ratio, h1 would not have used 800 of the 2 , 000 square fee1 allowable . This 800 square feet of allowable floor are< could _be sold to another builder w ithin the district. The first owner would then have a deed restriction or covenant running with h i s property which bound the property to <1 maximum of 1,200 square feet. The second builder would be able to apply the extra s quare foota ge to his n e w building, with the provision that no development in the district could exceed the floor area rati o by more tha n 15%. The transfer of rights would only be applicable within the R 3 areas of the district and could never b e transferred outside the district. ) . 3. Defir>e usable open space in terms of des i gn and allocation. This recommendation would increase the amount of usable open space associated with apartments, to better provide for current and future occupants. The c urrent ordinance definition of open space is passive and does not cstnhl i sh characteristics of quality. Consequently, interpretation u f what qualif ies as open space is loose . For example, builders in Capitol Hill now a r e allowed to count carport roofs, and roof decks with back access and I it tie or no landscaping as open space. It must be recognized that higher density l i ving creates a greater need for open space, with the qval ity of those spaces being of primary importance. Language amendments can improve the situ ation for apartment dwellers by establishing positive standards for usable open space. 4. Delete parking as a use by right in R-3 zoned areas. Under the current language of the zoning ordinance, commercial parking lots not associated with apartment dwellings may locate in R-3 areas and need not_ go through any sort of review before getti ng a permit to do so. The R 3 district i s still basically a residential district; thus much valuable space that could be used as open space or for additional apartment dwellings is bei ng forfeited to parki ng cars of people who do not even live in the neighborhood. Further, since there are no controls as to design or landscaping, the parking lots are usually a v i sual eyesore, .and frequently generate unneeded traffic within residential areas. 5. Provide histori c structures with a broader range of uses than currently allowed in the R-3 zoned area. This will make them more economically competitive with new structures, and thus reinforce their continuance. Under present economi c conditions, few people can afford to maintain the old mansions as single family homes with the cost of maintenance, taxes, etc. Typi cally, such structures succumb to the wrecking ball or are converted to boardin!} houses, which i n the end meet the s ame fate . The working hours of new u s es would not conflict with the functional hours within Capitol Hill, s ince so many residents work. Park i ng would not be a problem for the same reason since on-street spaces are not occupied until the evening hours when people come home from work. 6. Establish mixed use commercialres idential zones with good design controls that could be applied a s o v erlny zones along the Colfax corridor in Capitol Hill, wh i ch i s badly i n need of redevelopment. 7 . De velop bonuses for underground or g J rage p ar king i n apartme nts. pos s i bly in the form of a floor ar ea bonus for every square foot of underground space, to encourage additional ground level open sp a ce . Other Studies , , , I I , . , , . , . . . , , I ' . . . .. , , , , I . . . '. , .. , , . ,, .

PAGE 177

L . )IIUUI U IJ" UUI)lt:lt:U as s h ould the C ity's o 1 m l o ng r ang e c ommitment to e ither b uild i ng l ower income hous ing or subsidizi ng or mandati ng builders to allocate a c ertai n p ercentage of their units for lower income families and individuals. 3. Establish w ithin the City a mechanis m for locating emergency and permanent housing in C apitol Hill and other neighborhoods for the lower and middle income rent brackets for the chronically mentally ill as well as the healthy population. Fundi ng "lodges" for the chronically ill out-patient is badly needed. The Comprehensive Plan Because of the complexity of problems in Capitol Hill . the normal procedure for indicating zone district changes. street designations and the like simply would not suffice to bring about needed changes in the ,,eighborhood. Many of the problems in the neighborhood have generi c causes in the zoning ordinance, while others reflect changi ng conditions since the preparation of the 1967 Comprehensi ve Plan. This section on the Comprehensive Plan for C.1pi tol Hill is divided into two parts. The first deals l'l ith language amendments to the zoning ordinance and the addition of a ne w section to the Municipal Code. Thes e recommended changes have city-wide implications, and will require a great deal of study and investigati -on before they can be implemented. They are part of a larger project loo'
PAGE 178

EXISTING CONDITIONS JANUARY 1973 II LAND USE lESIDENTIAL SINGLE UNIT :J ::>':' .'$ 'v :J :r v MULn UNIT J -::. ; :-o. 3 . , :: ' .':::>" .... ".' :-: • .. s.'rv 11XED PUBLIC AND SEMI PUBLIC OPEN SPACE ] c:::s.cr'. -,.1.!...1 0&' " : : " ' .. , ... ' <.: r.: USINESS J :;.-:. .. . G : (.C! (.:: I = : -.-. . /DUSTRIAL } L-su / \ TI-L 0 fi SCALE • ':...., '{<"I!',_.,.J I ,_ . .r:•.•; CIRCULATION STREETS AND HIGHWAYS : .=-::= :.. == • : . > TRANSPORTATION NETWORKS 'II II ;:>':J r::c-== "J:<" :-:. : =:.. _ A:..G'-J' . .,,-. • :-::.. : .. . . : FACILITIES SERVICES .%. " . .... ::: . . . ") ... SCHOOLS E JH . . . . = •C.'-' corridor east of Logan and west of Corona streets. Expanded service to elderly shutins via Friends of the L ibrary should be pro vided. 6. The Capitol Hill Pol ice Storefront should receive a funding increase to allow 24-hour operation. Because the service area of the Storefront is so lar ge cons ideration should be given to establi shment of two other Store fronts outside the neighborhood. 7. A sidewalk lighting program should be ini tiated in C a p i tol Hill along w it h the other three communities identi f ie d as the four h1ghest -crime areas in Denver (Cheesman Park, North Capitol Hill, and C it y Park \Vt•st l. ftu the project m ight l>c obtarncd from the Denver Anti-Crime C.: V/ Counci l. tf 8 . Funds should be allocated to widen the sidewalks along 13th Avenue between Pennsylvani a and Washington, and to repair sidewalks throughout Capitol Hill as needed. 9 . A vigorous program by the City to enforce the sign code in the neighborhood should be initiated immediately. 10. A street tree planti ng program subsidized in whole or i n part by the C it y and/or private institutions should be initiated. At a minimum, Colfax and other major arteri als affect ing Capitol Hill must be planted to buffer the residents from the noise and pollution of motor vehicles and to enhance the environ ment of the neighborhood. 11. Improvement and enforcement of the C ity' s noise abatement ordinance should be en couraged. Transportation Plan Transportation and traffi c related problems -traffic volume, circulation and parking, bus routes, b ik e routes, and pedestrian movement -are perceived by the residents to be the source of the majority of problems i n Capitol H ill. The following transportation recommendations are admittedly short-term remedial measures. The long -range solution to the problem w ill ulti mately involve a reductio n in our dependence on the auto as the principal mode of travel in the home to work trip and the downtown shopping trip. Thi s plan must therefore be carefully coordinated with long-range RTD planning. 1. In the context of considering transportation an integral part of lan d u s e p lanning, a broader re v iew should be m ad e of proposed changes i n the transportat ion system. Major changes i n streets have at least as much impact on a neighborhood as do rezonings. C ity Council ' s su b -commit tee on transporta t if'l n rn11lri ( tJrh m,in r rh,,,,.t'lr; , ,

PAGE 179

-c--., II NEIGHBORHOOD PLAN the mini-park at 13th and Logan should be the assurance of the preservation of the Grant-Humphries mansion. Pennsylvania, between 7th and 8th Avenues, should be vacated, except for a cui de sac at the southern end to serve the apartment at 7th and Pennsylvania, and the street developed as a continuance of the park. The project, which is one of histori c significance, would connect the Gover nor's mansion, Governor's Park, and the Grant-Humphries mansion and would be a welcome addition to the City both in terms of the project's dignity and its scale. At a minimum, four other sites should be acquired for mini parks. All the suggested sites are now vacant or used for parking. Included should be: A. The northwest corner of 10th and Pennsylvania. Th i s site i s badly needed because of the density of dev e lop ment now occurring in the area. The site is suitably located to serve either the elderly or preschoolaged children. B. The State Department of Employment site on 12th between Sherman and Grant. If the State decides to dispose of this site, the City should acquire it for a mini-park. It is admirably located to ser v e the elderly population of Capitol Hill, and is of sufficient size to develop into an interesting and useful urban open space. C. Development of either the southeast corner of 8th Avenue and Pearl or the northwest corner of 8th Avenue and Washington. Either site would help to break up the surroundi ng dense development and would reduce the open space deficit in Capitol Hill . D. The site on the west side of Ogden between 7th and 8th Avenues to be developed as a tot lot or play space for young children. : 5. At least one stop should be added to the Denver Public Libraries Bookmobile, at whatever spot is deemed suitable • by them. Such expanded service is especially needed in the would be obliged to state thei r pos i tiol'l be fore the subcommittee on transportation. The recommended proces s would then paral lel rezoning cases with a first reading in City Council ; second reading with a public hearing, then voting. This recommendation en tails an amendment to existing provisions il'l the Municipal Code. 2. No additional streets should be designated as one-way in the Capitol Hill Ne ighborhood_ One-way streets in Capitol Hill are found to be divisive and an impediment to the forma tion of a cohesive neighborhood. One-way designation allows a higher capacity and hence a higher volume of traffic traveling along the street than would occur with a two-way designation and brings with it asso ciated problems of noise, air pollution, higher speeds, disincentives toward interactiol'l between both sicks of the facility and ham pers intrancic]hllorhood circulation. OncwJy pa ire d streets are unique because their in-fluence is imposed in a swathlike manner affecting four or more blockfaces. It is impossible to change the designation of exrstmg one-way streets at the present because of the lack of suitable alternative modes of travel. However, whole hearted support should be given to the development of a superior local and express bus system, to the development of rapid transit, and to the promulgation of any other modes of transit that will provide useful alternatives to the car. 3. Exclusive bus lanes should be encouraged wherever suit able to raise buses to a more competitive status with the car. Exclusive bus lanes should be established in Capitol Hill on Broadway, Lincoln and Colfax at a minimum. 4. Speed limits throughout the neighborhood should be strictly enforced. 5. Truck traffic should be limited to the per ipheral arterial streets and not run through Capitol Hill. Weight limits should be enforced. 6 . R ight-ofway to the pedestrian at the crosswalk should be enforced in this City as it is in the Los Angeles area. 7. A traffic engineering study should be made to establish the need for pedestrian cross lights on Colfax Avenue (to lengthen pedestrian crossings with "walk, don't walk" lights) ; \ vhere Ogden, Pennsylvania, Pearl, and Downing cross Colfax; and the crossings from the State Capitol across Lincoln and Broadway. 8. A traffic engineeri ng study should be made as to establish the need for traffic lights to replace signs at 10th and Logan, 9th and Grant, and 9th and Logan. 9. A s ;gned b ike route ,._.i th a d e s ignated lane should be established on 10th Avenue i n addition to the 14th Avenue route, which is considered undesirable by bike riders because of the large number of cars using 14th Avenue, and because of the speed at which they travel.

PAGE 180

Al e xander Ced.l, Housing Costs and Housing Needs, Praeger 1976. Help me to understand how housing projects are financed and factors tha t within an urban area fchez. Design for Independent Living-The Environment and Physically sabled People, Whitney o f 1979. means of approaching design for the disabled from an tteractionist position-Book seeks to discover the environmental needs that tve implications for people with disabilities ttzin, Sidney, Managing Municipal Leisure Service$, International Man agement >SOC. , l '773. Investigates how to provide leisure services to a city or urban area. itterJ for management awareness that stresses importance of community 1rticipation in planning facilities. Helpful in understanding organization Amer1can parks although Denver is not specifically mentioned. 1scai, . J c :>hn, Housing. Sons, N.Y., 1976. Gives complete information an how systems work and are put together on n q proj i tecturall 'r' structural! y HVAC, plumbin g and ectric ally. Includes low, medium and high rise applications. Also, nancin g information for s uch proJects. (ed.), Architecture for People, Holt, and Winston, Y., 1. : :ao. Theories from several different sources on how architecture can better serve ople. Some articles directly address housing, some others are of genera l t2rest in terms of the theme of the project. ndel s on, Robert, ( ed. ) , Politics of Housing in 01 der Urban Areas, F'r aeger N. Y., 1976. Contains historical background on h ousing policies of both the public and ivate sector. Particulary of interest is Part V on new directions in using-experiments in financing. eda, Theresa, Hail Report-Model Approaches Program for Improved Delivery of dependent Living 10-81/9-84. me to understand the concept and goals of the independent living ogram. Report led to redefining m y project to accommodate this philosop h y . erwood , Roger, Modern Housing Prototypes, Harvard University Press, Mass.,1978. amines built housing projects throughout the world. Importance of thi s study the .:\uthor states: "in tt-1e of discovery and invention relating to oblem reference to analogous proble ms can be used to give a n ew turn om:':; thinking. Through the study of solutions-. to r-elated problems a fresh nclusion may be reached." ernbe t t], Eugene and Barbara , st.ra.nd and Reinhold Co. N.Y . Community Centers & Student Unions, 1971. 1Jan Gi ves background on communi t y cente r s throug h example projects-good sourc e r inf0rmation on building t ype. F ocus i s o n creating new 1 d eas a b out mmuni; y c enters in the future . Authors' emphasi s is same a s min e : " Co m muntty nters a vi tal part of our urban agenda." BIBLIOGRAPHY

PAGE 181

Jrban Institute and Community Associations InstitLtte, Creating a Community A Developer's Role in Condominiu1n and Homr: Owner A ssocia.t:ion, L977. Basic definitions and organizatio n on different procedures of residential :!velop;,;,:nts. Idea of t-,ome owner .:..ssociation or co-op c.wgani:.:ation work For t y p e of project. John, Architecture, Purposes, Wiley and Sons. N.Y., 1977. Thor0ugh look at the design process of architect's in all phases of typical e xperience-seems to be a help for me to pull discussions of class :ogethe t . Cities for People, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1981. at several American and European urban scenes to point out failures ind as seen by the author. Gives thoughts on improv1ng f ailures with .dea of "humanizing" urban environment . :isook, S.W., Housing for the Physically Disabled, University Microfilms :nter-r-.a<: :. onal, Ann Arbor, Mi. 1981. Infot . n atio n on the nature of physical disabilities , and more p articularly o n tousin q preterneces of the disabled in this study. Also, n ote researc h 1ethodo:.o •dY in approaching study . (Done a s disertation.) , y0-"' 1 f.rJdf'' itl?l•/ fr.:..cL
PAGE 187

CONC L USION As stated in the introduction, I chose this particular project because I felt it would allow me to address issues concerning stimulating a sense of community within an urban area. My primary theme for this project was to strongly express the building's compatiable mixed public and private uses as a symbol of community spirit within the neighborhood that seeks to fill voids that occur with decentalized use patterns. The building's purpose is to provide a microcosm of the greater community that reflects the potential richness and variety available within urban life. Conceptually, the formal response of the building symbolizes these ideas by using a strong consistent base that contains the public uses and roots the building to the ground, while supporting the residential activities above. This consistent base represents the continuing presence of a community spirit within the neighborhood while the upper levels represent the collection of indivduals that make up the community. I used the site's configuration and its context as the primary means of expressing these goals. The form and circulatron paths correspond to the linear shape dictates of the site, and the location of the existing center. The site is an edge to both the order of the city to the north, and the random flowing layout of the park to the south. The building' s expression seeks to respond specifically to these different orders. Hence, although the elevations maintain a similar bay pattern, they were conceived in different ways. Forms, colors and materials are used to respond to the different settings and orientations. The north elevation's treatment is founded on the positive appeal of Capitol Hill's historic residential neighborhood while consciously addressing the street at the ground floor. Some detail elements are derived from the existing center. The elevation is an adorned wall maintaining the edge

PAGE 188

along the street that is broken only at the central entry to the building. The south elevation responds to its 'garden' context, and therefore glass, sun shading treatments, and color variatons are used to pattern the facade. Shadow patterns were used as a means of creating the elevation's form. Instead a maintaining the wall edge, the building steps back and modulates along its length. The building also steps back from the base along the ground level so that the colonade acts as a shading device along the south facade. The park elevation uses a shallow curve form abstracted from the existing center's portico as a major feature. This element works both in plan and elevation within each bay to unify the facade. The central body of the building is important in terms of its expression as a public place and in its relation to the city grid. The central piece occurs at a point where the city grid terminates at an intersection point. This point serves as a vista from the major thoroughfare of Capitol Hill (Colfax Avenue). The base extends up in a gridded screen over the residences to heighten the focus on the public realm of the building. This central piece makes the image of the building for those experiencing the building from the city. In relation to the park, the bulding sits at a corner of the park. Hence, the splayed opening to the park which opens to a forecourt. This forecourt serves to both bring the park into the bulding and present the building to those in the park. A colonade form peels off the base and encloses this court. As described earlier, the shallow curve form of the colonade was abstracted from the existing center's portico. Traditionally, such forms have been used for buildings fronting onto parks and gardens, particularly eighteenth century English-type gardens from which Cheesman Park's design was derived.

PAGE 189

These are the major elements of the building' s design. The project has been very satisfying in allowing me to explore the areas that I am most interested in personally. As I stated in the introduction of this project, designing for greater levels of public participation lies in setting the proper stage. I feel that this project has created a rich and viable setting which seeks to symbolize a sense of community.