Citation
Chatfield Environmental Education Center

Material Information

Title:
Chatfield Environmental Education Center
Creator:
Haddiz, Mark McKinley
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Mark McKinley Haddix. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
AURARIA LIBRARY
Chatfield Environmental
Education
Center
Thesis
M.M. Haddix


ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
AURARIA LIBRARY
Chatfield Environmental Education Center
An Architectural Thesis Presented To The College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver In Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for The Degree of Master of Architecture
Mark McKinley Haddix
Spring, 1985


The Thesis of Mark McKinley Haddix Is Approved.
Committee Chairman
University of Colorado at Denver May, 1985


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Special thanks to all the people in my life who have made the completion of my thesis possible. Without the generosity and graciousness of these knowledgeable people who have shared with me their love of architecture I could not have finished this thesis.
Gary Long,-Gene Sternberg and Jim Smith, my thesis advisors, provided me with inspiration and insight at key times during the conception and completion of this project. But most of all, thanks to my wife, Terri, for all her support and hard work during this project.
Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the State of Colorado Department of Parks and Recreation for the use of their Master Plan document of the Chatfield State Recreation Area which was used extensively in the preparation of this thesis.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Introduction 1
A. Project Statement 2
B. Thesis Statement 3-4
II. Background 5-7
III. Historic Data 8-10
IV. Site 11-40
V. Climate 41-52
VI. Energy Conservation 53-63
VII . Codes and Special Requirements 64-79
VIII. General Space Requirements 80-84
IX. Spatial Inventory 85-112
X. Functional Relationships 113-117
XI. Design 118-133
XII. Conclusions 134
XIII. Bibliography 135-136
XIV. Appendix


INTRODUCTION
The Earth that harbors both wildlife and man is a finite ball. During the past century, man's numbers and his domination of the natural environment have increased dramatically, and his destructive impact on the wildlife and their habitats has increased proportionately. His environment-modifying tools are powerful, pervasive and destructive: earth movers, paving machines, ditchdiggers
and city planners. Soil erosion and water and air pollution contribute further to the destruction of natural habitats.
By all odds the harshest impact of man on wildlife has been through his modification of the natural environment into cities, highways and industries with all their supporting technologies. In Denver and it's suburban areas we can see this destruction first hand: as the metro area swells it threatens to "finish off" the remaining natural habitats of the foothill region from Colorado Springs to Fort Collins.
Several ways of preventing this misuse of the environment are available. Education is the foremost in creating a society which will not only cure the symptoms of environmental problems such as water or air pollution, but eliminate the sauses as well. One problem with education however, is how to cope with educating a huge population,' such as in the Denver area. One way is to take advantage of existing open spaces near urban areas and put it to a greater use than just recreation. The state park systems have developed facilities which attract great numbers of urban dwellers. Denver is fortunate to have several such recreation areas. The Chatfield State Recreation Area which is only minutes from Denver and it's suburbs offers a very natural environment with an abundance of varied wildlife habitats. The area has a rural setting of relatively unspoiled river vallies and soft, rolling plains and the Rocky Mountain foothills which provides an impressive backdrop. The accessible open space and water surface provided has an immeasurable value because of its closeness to the Denver Metropolitan Area. The location of an environmental education facility at Chatfield could provide the needed environmental education that urban dwellers need to make intelligent decisions about ecological problems.


PROJECT STATEMENT
Page 2
This thesis pEgect involves the programming and design of an environmental education center and park headquarters for the Chatfield State Recreation Area. It will be developed on a small portion of the Chatfield State Recreation Area, which is located just southwest of Denver. The program which utilizes 31»000 square feet is composed of four design componentsj visitor, visitor support, administrative and maintenance areas. The functions that the facility will provide for revolve around four themes:
1. To provide environmental education to the populus;
2. To help integrate environmental education with recreation by providing a stimulating environment to the 1.5 million yearly visitors;
3. To provide a base for research activities in the surrounding area; and
4. To provide control and protection for the surrounding natural environments by accommodating park administration and law enforcement.
In architectural terms this facility will bring togethe
1. The community;
2. Special interest groups (e.g. Audubon Society, Sierra Club and various researchers); and
3. Education and law enforcement personnel from the Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation.
One of the main intentions of this facility will be to expose these groups to each other in a way which facilitates the action required to prevent the destruction of the environment.


THESIS STATEMENT
Page 3
When approaching an architectural design problem such as an environmental education center there are many important issues which influence the final design solution. Within this problem many of the issues will come from the wide range of activities which will occur in this building. But above and beyond these concerns for the functionality of the building are the issues that allow for the expression of individual values and concerns. These are the issues that are linked directly to the main concept of this project. This concept is one of environmental awareness, conservation and respect for the land. I believe that to be successful in relating this concept, the building itself must be designed in such a way as to facilitate a strong connection between the people and the natural environment.
Although the beauty of the surrounding environment will be the major influence on visitors to this area, this facility should represent how the built environment can exist with and enhance the natural surroundings, instead of just consuming them. It is my hypothesis that with the use of the appropriate design solution that this connection with the natural environment will be strengthened. The particular areas of design on which I will focus will be:
1) Creating a strong connection between the building and the surrounding environment by use of the appropriate materials, structure and form;
2) Siting the building as to allow it to become part of the landscape; and
3) Creating interior spaces which have a strong relationship to the surrounding environment.
In designing this facility it would be possible to use materials which through color, texture, form as well as the way they are assembled provide visitors with a visual and psychological connection with the natural environment. Materials indigenous of this rural site such as ledge rock, quarried stone and timbers could provide a strong connection. It also could be possible to use man made materials such as concrete or metal if they are used in such a way as to be sympathetic to the natural surroundings.
The appropriate siting of the building will be necessary to allow the building to become part of its surroundings.


Page ^
The major landscape features are established on this site and are very desirable. When possible the aim will be to build onto them, feature the best, screen out and de-empha-size those that are less desirable and contrive structural forms in the best relation to the natural forms.
The connection between the interior and exterior spaces must be strong if the facility is to promote the concept of having a firm connection to the environment.
This connection can be promoted by encompassing the use of all the senses. Visually, external elements such as material and forms can be carried internally. Also views into the building will be considered as well as those out onto the landscape. The use of these elements should create a subtle transition between exterior and interior space thereby strengthening the connection.


BACKGROUND
Page 5
Location.
The Chatfield Project is located on the South Platte River approximately 8 miles upstream from Denver. The project area covers portions of Jefferson, Douglas, and Arapahoe Counties. Interstate Highways 70 and 25 intersect at Denver and each passes within 15 miles of the project. Other State and Federal highways border the project area and provide excellent access.
Accessibility.
Transcontinental access is currently provided by east-west 1-70 and north-south 1-25, both of which traverse within 15 miles of the project. A future bypass interstate route, 1-4-70, will be located along the north boundary line of the project; it will connect the two transcontinental routes and provide excellent access to the project. Local access routes consist of U.S. Highway No. 85, paralleling the eastern boundary of the project, and Colorado State Highway Nos. 121 and 75i serving the westerly portions of the project. Highways 85 and 121 are two-lane and hard-surfaced; Highway 75 is a four-lane, minimum-access type road. All are considered to be adequate for the life of the project. Titan Road and Roxborough Park Road will provide less than desirable access routs to the project during the initial public use period of project operation. Titan Road is two=lane, hard-surfaced, and adequate; however, Roxborough Park Road is only gravel-surfaced at the present time.
Area of Influence.
The current population of the Denver metropolitan area is estimated at 1,180,000 persons. The population is expected to increase approximately 4-00,000 persons each decade and reach approximately 2,4-50,000 people by the year 2000; this is based on figures compiled by the Denver Regional Council of Governments. Past experience indicates that the outward expansion of the Denver metropolitan area is greatly accelerated toward areas which offer ample water-surface recreation. It is reasonable to assume that by the year 1990 the Chat-field Project will become completely encompassed by urban development. The urban expansion patterns, population influx, and economic growth of the Denver area are among the highest in the United States. With many favorable factors in evidence to promote family-type urban living, it is assumed that the Denver area will continue its well-established growth pattern and will exercise an increasing demand for the water-oriented recreation that will be partially provided by the Chatfield Project.


Page 6
across the area in wide alluvial plains. Much of the flat land, especially in the Deer Creek area, has been under irrigated cultivation. Upland areas near Riverside and Plum Creek have been under dryland cultivation. Other upland areas support native short grass-prairie type vegetation.
An urban subdivision and numerous other homes recently existed on the site.
Reservoir Operation.
The multipurpose pool will normally be operated between elevations 5»^26 feet, m.s.l. and 5»^30 feet, m.s.l.
Regulation for flood control will increase the level of the multipurpose pool whenever stream inflow exceeds 5»000
c.f.s., or whenever moderate to heavy runoff occurring in the area indicates that zero releases may be required to provide assurance of downstream flood protection. A temporary storage zone between elevations 5t^26 feet and 5»^30 feet will be utilized during periods when water is available. Regulation within this zone will be coordinated with the State of Colorado to assist them in programming for lake evaporation losses. The 10-year drawdown pool will be at elevation 5»^23 feet, m.s.l. Water for initial filling of the lake will be purchased by the State of Colorado .
Ecologic.
Ecologically, the project area falls within the transition zone between the Rocky Mountain foothills and the high plains. The extremely varied history of past land use and diversity of site in a transition zone results in many species of fauna and flora.


Page 7
Recreation.
Recreational use of project lands prior to construction of the project were primarily hunting, fishing, hiking and horseback riding. With the establishment of a 1,150 acre lake and adjacent land areas, recreational opportunities will be expanded greatly and will include all forms of water-oriented activity, such as boating of all types, water skiing, swimming, camping, picnicking, fishing and organized games. In addition, the project affords the unique opportunity of setting aside large areas in which the riparian habitat will be allowed to regain a natural setting for the enjoyment and study by students and naturalists.
Although the project is in close proximity to heavily populated areas, visitors, nevertheless, can expect to see increasing numbers and species of wildlife that may find sanctuary within the project boundary.
Anticipated Attendance.
Initial visitation is expected to reach 1.^ million annually during the early years of project operation and to reach maximum limits of 2 million between the years 1985 and 1990. According to the Colorado Outdoor Recreation Plan, severe shortages of all types of recreational facilities exist in the Denver metropolitan area. Although it is recognized that the Chatfield Project cannot alleviate all of these deficiencies, it can provide a quality recreational experience for many persons associated with the intercity life of large metropolitan areas, as well as the more sophisticated type recreationist with camping trailers, boats and recreation vehicles. It is expected that a great amount of public pressure will be directed toward the operating agency to permit unrestricted use of the project after the saturation point is reached. As custodians of the project, the Corps of Engineers will encourage the operating agency to regulate public use of the project, when annual visitation reaches 2 million, to conserve the ecological and environmental qualities of the project, even to the point of temporarily closing selected areas to permit rest and recovery of the natural vegetation and wildlife habitat.
Physical Characteristics.
The area surrounding the Chatfield Lake is flat to gently rolling. To the west and paralleling the site are a series of scenic hogbacks which form the beginning of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The South Platte River and its tributaries, Plum Creek and Deer Creek, meander


Historical Data


HISTORICAL DATA
Page 8
The site chosen for this project is within an area which is rich with natural beauty and history. Because of the Chatfield Dam Project in the early 70's, this area was investigated to locate valuable archaeological or historic sites in the area of the lake so that such sites would not be destroyed during the construction process.
During this time the University of Denver explored the known archaeological sites located on the project lands and found artifacts from early Indian settlements. Almost every site which produced artifacts belonged to the Archaic Horizon Tribe. A nearby Archaic site in Roxborough Park has radiocarbon date of 5780 - 160 year B.P. These sites indicate a long pre-Woodland occupation of the area.
On October 5» 1971» a quite unrelated discovery was made by earth moving equipment for the construction of the Chatfield Dam. A mammoth skull was discovered some fifty feet below the original surface. Glenn R. Scott of the U.S.G.S. estimates the age of this fossil to be 120,00 to 200,000 years old. Dr. Edward Lewis, paleontologist with the U.S.G.S., is studying the skull. It reposes in the U.S.G.S. offices in the Denver Federal Center.
Five separate sites located on park land and one site located adjacent to park lands contain single buildings or groups of buildings which appear to have historic significance worthy of future preservation and possible interpretation. Two farmsteads and an early American, one-room school are located along the banks of Deer Creek and are within the project boundary. The farmstead located farthest upstream on the creek can be traced back to 18^-9* 12 years before the founding of Denver. The farmhouse has been enlarged several times: each expansion depicts a different era. The barns and outbuildings are of rough-sewn lumber held together with early American square anils. The other farmstead, although not as old as the first, is complete with dairy barn, silo and stock buildings. In the upper reaches of the South Platte River arm of the project, there are two buildings of early vintage, one is constructed of logs. They appear to have been vacant for some time and are showing the effects of the elements. The State of Colorado Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation has requested that these two structures remain in their present state as a memorial to the early settlers that homesteaded in Colorado. In the Plaum Creek arm of the project, an old pumphouse, used to supply water for railroad steam


Page 9
engines, exists; it is in a state of considerable disrepair.
Located off-project and within close proximity to the pumphouse, there stands an old stone structure reputed to be an early post office. Support for this assumption is evidenced by the fact that the building is situated within the right-of-way of two railroads, which have been in their present location for a long period of time. All sites and buildings are included on the National Register of Historic Places.
More recently, in the 19^-0's a subdivision was developed near the Platte River in Douglas County. The Riverside Subdivision consisted of a rural type arrangement with streets arranged in a rectangular grid forming large lots (Figure 1 and 2). In the process of building the reservoir and preparing the land to receive the State Recreation Area, this subdivision was completely removed. Except for the existing vegetation this land was brought back to a point (with grading and introduction of native plants) where it could sustain the native wildlife population. Once the land was restored state recreational facilities were placed in selected areas to provide a wide cross-section of activities ranging from nature studies to boating. The current layout of facilities is shown in Appendix-'c.


Figure 1 A part of the Riverside subdivision showing woody vegetation before removal of buildings.
Figure 2 Riverside subdivision after removal of buildings. Many trees were severely damaged by snow in October 1969.


SITE
i.
ii .
Page 11
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTEXT
A. Regional Context
B. Site/Local Context SITE INVENTORY/ANALYSIS
A. Landform
1. Topography/Elevation
2. Slope Analysis
B. Natural Systems
1. Geology
2. Hydrology 3* Soils
k. Vegetation 5* Wildlife
C. Visual Character
D. Utilities
III. SITE PLANNING/DESIGN GUIDELINES


SITE
SITE SELECTION
Page 12
The site was chosen on the basis of the following criteria:
* proximity to Denver * good southern exposure
* panoramic view * good access
* moderate slope * central location within Chatfield
State Recreation Area
* good relationship to historic and ecologic resources
CONTEXT
Regional Context.
,/The Chatfield Environmental Education Center site is locafted on the South Platte River approximately 8 miles upstream from Denver, Colorado and only minutes from Denver's growing suburbs. Denver and its adjoining metropolitan areas are settled into the foothills and plains of the Front Range of the Colorado Rockies. The population of the Denver Metropolitan area is approximately 1.6 million and is expected to expand to 2.5 million by the year 2000 (Diagram 1). Much of the land nearby is privately owned but the project area is near Arapahoe and Pike National Forests as well as Roxborough State Park.
Interstate Highways 70 and 25 intersect at Denver and each passes within 15 miles of the project. Other state and federal highways border the project area and provide excellent vehicular access (Diagram 2). Additional access to the area is provided by the Highline Canal Trail which services pedestrian, bicycle and equestrian modes of transportation.
Site and Local Context.
The site chosen for the Chatfield Environmental Education Center is a tract of land owned by the United States Army Corps of Engineers as part of the Chatfield Reservoir project. The Division of the State Parks and Recreation has acquired this land through a long term lease and is provided for by the Chatfield State Recreation Area following guidelines established by the State of Colorado and the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Chatfield State Recreation Area land covers portions of three counties - Jefferson, Douglas and Arapahoe - but the building site is located within Douglas County.
Direct access to the site is by the main park road which is accessed by both state Highway 75 and Roxborough Park Road. Notable cultural features near the site are the Martin Marietta complex just south on Colorado 75* "the Johns-Manville Corporate Headquarters to the northwest on the Deer Creek Road and the Chatfield Arboretum across Colorado 75 "to the west. Housing developments extending from Denver are encroaching from the north and east. Also a small farming area lies to the south.


Page 13
Although regional and local context are important, the most critical context is that of the C. S. R. A. itself.
Several important aspects of this area make it ideal for the facility, both in its role as an environmental education center and a park headquarters. First it has an encompassing view of the majority of the park as well as scenic views of the Front Range and plains. This is advantageous for displays in the orientation and educational areas as well as providing visual access vo park rangers for the purpose of controlling activities of the patrons.
The view to the site is also unique in that it can be seen from the moment one enters the west gates of Chatfield until arrival at the facility. Also it can be viewed from state highway 75 as it passes by the western boundary of the park.
Other important features are the location of major wildlife habitats which spread out in all directions from the site. Specifically the heron rookery, which is a unique feature of the wildlife population of the area. Located just a few hundred feet away from the site, this is the home for a group of Great Blue Herons. It consists of 27 acres of trees which have been left standing in the lake specifically to provide nesting areas for these birds. Also there are a variety of habitats readily accessible from the site by existing pedestrian trails. These relationships between the building site and different areas of the park can be seen in Figure
SITE INVENTORY
Landform.
Topography/Elevation.
The site area exists on the northwest rim of a land mass enclosing Chatfield Lake on its southern border. When water levels are normal (el. 5^30') the site raises out of the water approximately 70 feet (el. 5500') and continues to the east as rolling plains and bluffs. Site elevations range from elevation 5^80' (which is maximum flood level) to elevation 5510'. The topography as seen in Figure shows one main ridge or bluff extending out from the west edge of the site which is surrounded on the north and south by gulches. Relatively level areas exist over the rest of the site.
Slope Analysis.
Although the majority of the site contains slopes from 3-8$ a variety of slopes exist along the lake side of the site. These range from:
3-8$ Gentle 8-15$ Moderate 15-25$ Moderately Steep
25+ $ Steep


REGIONAL CONTEXT Pa«°14


SITE LOCATION
Page 15
KKCini^fcTT
Well:

k^r\

>> ~ - - X

Jr


AREA POPULATION
YEAR
METRO. POPULATIO

ftLAKCU




Page 18
__________39°32 28
TOPOGRAPHY MAP
£] 50 YEAR FLOOD


SITE ELEVATION
Page 19


Page 20
For the purpose of this project those areas with moderate to steep slopes will be avoided as they represent the eroding edge of the lake shore as well as areas of natural drainage for the rolling plains to the east. The building site itself will be pulled back from the edge of the lake to a point where it is protected from possible flood conditions and shore erosion, yet keeping important views of the lake and heron rookery.
Natural Systems.
Geology.
The underlying geologic material throughout the site is slocum alluvium. Fill-terrace deposits of Slocum alluvium are extensively exposed between the South Platte River and PI tom Creek. Slocum alluvium is also found on the west boundary of the Chatfield Reservoir site. Slocum alluvium has a moderate reddish-brown color, coarse texture, good stratification, and deep weathering. Grain size of the alluvium varies from large boulders in deposits close to the mountains to silt in terrace deposits along the South Platte River. All deposits of the alluvium are poorly sorted and contain much silt and clay. The thickness of this alluvium ranges from 15 to nearly 100 feet.
Hydrology.
Figure shows the direction of surface run-off for rainfall and snow melt. Intermittent streams are formed in the gulches on either side of the site. These flow only during heavy rainfall and snow melt run-off during the spring. Ground permeability is high in the Truckton series except on very steep slopes because of the high permeability of the soils.
Soils.
Soils of the Riverside area are unnamed loam soils, Blakeland and Orsa loam, Truckton Series and a small area of Newlin Series. These soils have a low water holding capacity and have a moderate to severe rating for wind erosion hazard. Soil types on the site are composed of two types: the Truckton Series and the Newlin Series.
The truckton series are deep, dark-colored sandy loam soils. They occur on gently undulating to hilly uplands.
The surface layer is a very dark-brown sandy loam about 4 to 18 inches thick. It is hard when dry and has a weak sub-angular blocky structure. The subsoil ranges from 8 to 30 inches in thickness and consists of two layers. The upper-


39°32'28"
SURFACE HYDROLOGY MAP
*A0
j 50 YEAR FLOOD


Page 22
most layer is a brown sandy loam. The lower part is a light yellowish-brown sandy loam with less clay than the above layer. The underlying material is a very pale brown sandy loam to sand with depth. Arkosic sandstone or shale may occur at a depth of 40 inches or more.
Truckton soil is well drained. Surface run-off is slow to medium and internal drainage is rapid. Capacity to hold water is moderate to low. Truckton soils have hard setting qualitities when dry that slow water intake. Sloped are 3 to 8 percent.
The Newlin series consists of moderately deep, dark colored noncalcareous soils. The surface layer, about 3 to 10 inches thick is a dark grayish-brown gravelly sandy loam.
The subsoil is about 14 inches thick and contains two layers. The upper layer is a brown gravelly sandy clay loam. The lower layer is a brown gravelly sandy loam. Below the subsoil is noncalcareous sand and gravel extending to depths of 60 inches or more.
Newlin soils are well drained. Surface run-off is medium to slow and permeability is moderate. Water holding capacity is moderately low. Slopes range from 8 to 30 percent.
Important characteristics of these soils are shown in Table . Locations on the site are shown in Figure . Typical soil characteristics of the site are listed below:
Depth From Surface (feet)
o.o- 1.5 Sandy Loam and clay
1.5- 3.0 Silty sand and gravel, moist, medium dense
3.0- 5-5 Sand and gravel with some clay and rock fragments, dense
5.0-15.0 Arkansoic sandstone
Bearing Capacity: good (3500-4000 psf) see Soils/Foundation
Shink/swell and frost heave potential: high
Average permeability: good
Water percolation test: 1.68 inches/hour
Slope stability: good due to well graded texture




TABLE
SOME IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF CHATFIELD SOILS
Soil Name Depth Texture Available water holding capacity In/ln. of soil* pH 2 Permeability Suitability as aource of topaoli Wind erosion hazard
Blakeland Series 0-66" loamy sand and send .05-.08 6.2-7.5 rapid poor severe
0-8" sandy loam .08-.12 6.5-7.6 rapid fair moderate
Breaaer Series 8-30" sandy clay loam .12-.20 6.5-7.6 moderate to
30-60" sandy loam to sand .06-.12 6.5-7.6 rapid aevere /
Truckton Series 0-50" sandy loam .08-.12 6.5-7.5 rapid poor-fair moderate<7eever<
0-22" gravelly loam and .08-.16 6.5-7.6 moderate poor moderate
Newlln Series sandy clay loam
22-60" sand and gravel .05- .07 6.5-7.5 rapid
Consists of 307. Satanta soils. Nevlln soils are like above description Satanta aa followa:
Newlln-Satanta 0-30" clay loam .14-.21 6.0-7.0 moderate fair-good moderate
Complex 30-60" loam .12-.20 7.0-8.0
Blake 1 and and Orsa 0-60'* sandy loam and .05-.10 6.0-7.0 rapid poor aevere
Sandy loams loamy sand
Poorly drained 0-20" sandy loam to .12-.20 6.5-8.0 moderate poor-fair low
loamy alluvial clay loam
soils 20 - 60" stratified sands to c lays variable variable moderate-rapid
L'n-named clay-loam 0-20" clay loam and clays .16-.21 6.5-8.5 s low poor moderate
and clay soils 20-60" clays and shale .16-.21 7.0-9.0 very slow
Un-named loam 0-20" loam to clay loam .12-.20 6.5-8.0 moderate fair-good moderate
soils 20-60" clay loam to sandy loam .08-.16 6.5-8.0 moderate
1. Available waterholdlng capacity glvea the approximate amount of water held In soil In a form plants can readily use. It la an estimate of the water that the aoll holds between field capacity and the wilting point.
2. Permeability la the "In place" permeability and estimated from soil structure and porosity and compared with permeability tests on undisturbed cores of similar soil material. Classes used are: slow, less than .63 Inches per hour; moderate, .63 to 6.3 Inches per hour; rapid, over 6.3 Inches per hour.
3. Ratings for suitability as source of topsoil may be poor because of low organic matter content, natural fertility, may have been eroded, or are difficult co handle.
P
(ft
CD
IN3
-P-
SOIL CHARACTERISTICS


Page 25
Soil depth: varies, 0-30' in area, 5-15' average.
Less than 2' poses severe development limits due to difficulty of excavation. Shallower soils exist on steep slopes, deeper soils on gentle slopes and near bottom of slopes.
Soil erosion potential: varies
0-15% slope 15-2576 slope 25+?6 slope
Low
Moderate
Severe
Ecology.
This site is located at the heart of an especially rich and well developed rraparian ecosystem. Studies show that this raparian ecosystem supports an unusually high number of bird populations, primarily because of the diversity of habitats and proximity to the mountains. A significant number of mammals have also been observed, including deer, muskrat, raccoon, fox, beaver, rabbit and squirrel.
For the purpose of this project with its educational foundations this section will give a general view of the entire Chatfield park area.
Vegetation.
The South Platte River comes out of the mountains at Waterton and turns northeast on its way from the Rockies to the Gulf of Mexico. In the foothills, before it exits at Waterton, it courses through a canyon bordered by rocky cliffs, bruchy hillsides largely covered with Mountain Mahogany and an occasional Rocky Mountain Juniper, and gullies filled with Scrub Oak and a few cottonwoods.
Abruptly at its exit from the mountains, the river habitat changes into a plains river bottom, marked by healthy groves of cottonwoods. Other significant trees include Box Elder and some willows. Throughout its course, from the canyon to the Chatfield Dam area, it has a substantial undergrowth comprised of many shrubs; most noticeable are the Wild Plum, Rabbit Brush, currant Riker auream, and various willows. Adjacent to the cottonwood groves are scattered cattail and bulrush marshes, a high plains habitat, and some cultivated farmlands. The extremely varied history of past use is reflected in the diverse herbaceous cover of the area. On the Riverside Subdivision and other homesites, a wide variety of introduced annuals and perennial can be found. Areas, which have been under dryland culti-


Page 26
vation, have various amounts of cover ranging from none on recently-tilled areas to small grain, sorghum or corn stubble, and weeds. Irrigated land has been planted mainly to alfalfa or pasture grasses. The native rangeland supports blue grama, western wheatgrass, sideoats grama, western yarrow, yucca and other forbs. Noxious weeds, including poison ivy, field bindweed, Canada thistle and water hemlock, occur in numerous areas. A complete inventory of flora at Chatfield has been provided in Table Plant material to be used for landscaping is called out in the Plant Management section of the appendix.
On the building site itself many types of vegetation exist ranging from shrubs to mature trees. When viewing this area the initial appearance is that of mostly low ground cover (shrubs and grass, etc.) but on closer inspection it is discovered that the majority of the sit is covered with a crop of coniferous trees which range from two feet to five feet tall. In the near future these developing trees will drastically change the appearance of the area surrounding the building. Notably there will be a closure of the site to the south and east as the trees mature. This buffer should significantly decrease the effects of the winds which gust from the south during the winter months. Due to the location of the building site as it protrudes out onto the west ridge these trees should not effect the panoramic views and solar access of the site. Other significant vegetation is located in two areas (Figure ). The first is the gulch areas on either side of the site. These areas are overgrown with vegetation typical of the wild character of the river and lake edge.
The natural shore, tall cottonwoods, wild plums and tangled thickets offer a variety of habitats to many different species of animals and birds, filling the varied niches of this environment. These areas which are protected from harsh winds and left undisturbed could provide a valuable asset for the environmental education center.
The second area is a stand of trees which covers the point of western-most edge of the site. This stand is a mix of mature deciduous and coniferous trees and creates a pleasant protected area from which visitors can enjoy a view of Chatfield Lake, the rookery and the whole Front Range.
Wildlife.
The natural setting of the site provides habitats for a number of animal species. The density and variety of the wildlife population has been increasing within the park during the past few years as land development of the surroun ding areas has increased. The distribution of animal specie between habitat types is difficult to ascertain since many species utilize different environments for feeding and re-


Page 27
production and move between habitats seasonally or daily.
The following is a list of major wildlife species found in
the Chatfield area.
— Large Mammals: Mule deer, porcupine and coyote
— Small Mammals: Cottontails, mink, muskrats, beaver,
prairie dogs, squirrel and many small rodents
—Birds: A large number of birds, many of the song-bird variety, abound in the area (Table ).
A unique feature of the wildlife population is a small rookery of Great Blue Heron; it has a 60-year record. The rookery is located in Chatfield Lake near the South Platte River inlet. The rookery trees, approximately 27 acres, have been left standing specifically to perpetuate the colony during the early years of project life. Replacement trees have been planted immediately upstream from the present rookery but beyond the multipurpose pool limits.
Visual Character.
The site contains a number of spectacular panoramic views from the ridge top. These survey the mountain and foothills of the Front Range from north to south, the Denver Metropolitan area, and Chatfield Lake itself.
A number of intermediate views provide points of interest also. These consist of the heron rookery to the southwest and the overgrown areas of the gulches on either side of the site. To the east views are of the rolling bluffs and tree crops. These features screen the views of the campsites and recreational activities from visitors on the ground level but views of these areas are accessible from a second story which could be important in considering the placement of park ranger services within the facility. Another important aspect is that the placement of the facility on this ridge would mean it could be seen from all the areas from the west.
Utilities.
Water Supply.
All potable water will be provided from existing municipal water lines (Denver Water Board) located on or adjacent to project lands. Sizes of existing municipal water lines are 2^-" and 5^" in diameter. Service lines


Page 28
to the facility are existing and can be seen on Figure 1 and
2. This line is supplied by a 6" main which branches to a 4" pipe for 800' and reduces to 2" and travels for 650' to the area of the proposed facility. The water pressure at the main is 70 psi. Static pressure information was not available.
Sanitary Sewer.
Sewage disposal in the area of the proposed facility is accomplished by an underground collection system. This system collects then pumps sewage into a stabilization pond. The most likely hook-up point would be in Campground D (see Figures 2, 3» ^) . The connection could be made to an existing 8" line at the man hole shown in Figure 5- This man hole is at IE 5^96.50. Due to the fact that this is higher than the site, a pumping station would be installed at the facility.
Natural Gas.
Gas is supplied by Public Service of Colorado.
This supply is carried by a 3" main which runs directly to the existing maintenance shed which occupies the proposed site.
Electrical.
Power is supplied by PSCC by underground lines. The likely connection point is in Campground D. At this point a 13*8 kV transmission line exists with a 225 kVA transformer (see Figure .
Telephone.
Service is currently supplied to the site by underground lines.
Water Table.
This varies during the year but indications are that 5^40 feet is a good estimate. This is approximately 70 feet below the building level.


Page 29
SITE PLANNING/DESIGN GUIDELINES.
The following guidelines were derived from site analyse
1) Mintain site character/Provide natural buffer zone
2) Respond to land forms, natural systems
3) Protect from wind
4) Utilize good solar exposure to enhance outdoor areas adjacent to building
5) Repair disturbed areas
6) Terrace slopes if developed (parking)
7) Utilize panoramic views/Special events such as heron rookery
8) Preserve and utilize special sit features
9) Use native and suggested plantings for landscaping
10) Minimize roads and hard surfaces
11) Use vegetation to moderate climatic extremes
12) Utilize indigenous building materials (the use of such materials will help relate structures to their surroundings)
13) Keep excavation and grading to minimum
14) Provide positive surface drainage away from building
15) Create enclosed courts and sun traps; use of textured construction materials and warm "primitive colors"


Page 30

39 32 28
VISUAL CHARACTER
PANORAMI
INTERMEDIATE

J 50 YEAR FLOOD


Page 31





Kpj m%i
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iroup Picnic
\shELTER '
GROUP
PICNIC
SHELTERS
JSE. '
l STATION
AGROUND
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TRAILER CAMPIlft AREAL
COMFORT STATION /
ENTRANCE ANO JNF OP MAT ION STATION
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SANITARY OUMP STATION
‘//TRAILER CAMPING AREA
vj \J GROUP CAMPING AREA
40 CAMP SITES
DOUGLAS COUNTY
VAULT
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U. 8. ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT. OMAHA CORPS or CNOINCCRI OMAHA. MCRRARKA
* - - SOOTH PLATTE RIVER CHATFIELD LAKE. COLORADO

MMI* V ... MASTER PLAN
aCr- — FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT
roc,,.,,
CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE
Initial Corps ol Engineer Development
1 â–  firs! Phase
2 - Second Phase ) - Third Phase
future Cost Sharing Development .—a Development by Others
KCY PLAN
Contour Stream or lake Elisting Trees
Manmum flood Control Pool 50 Year flood Pool 10 Year Drawdown Multi-Purpose
â–  Building to be Removed
fence to be Removed
PUBLIC USE DEVELOPMENT:
^“j Roads and Parking Area Buildings .. , land form
Mater Line Sanitary Sewer line Sanitary Sewer Manhole Electrical Distribution line (Underground Telephone line lUnoergroundl
......... Miking and Bicycle Trail
force Mam (Sanitary sewer)
Yard Light . m. â– â–  Bridle Trail
Signs
SSOO


^age
LEGEND
BURIED TELEPHONE CABLE AERIAL TELEPHONE CABLE
---P---- ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION
---S---- SANITARY SEWER
a WATER DISTRIBUTION
---C---- NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION
— — —

I'll 0• At 1 Ab All AIIA AltuCIO TO
o..« ' " o«.C.»W ,, o
U. 8. ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, OMAHA CORPS OF ENGINEERS OMAHA. NEBRASKA
SOUTH PLATTE RIVER CHATFIELD LAKE. COLORADO MASTER PLAN EXISTING UTILITY PLAN
nt/c..
CMC.I.M ,,,
3
——



Page 36
i)

13
CHATfltLD AVC
CANYON
tAlOVIt*
*UC*VOlB
â– MULTI-PURPOSE POOL EL 5426.0 - EL 5430 0
â– MAXIMUM FLOOD CONTROL POOL EL. 5500.0
TITAN ROAD
â– 50 YEAR FLOOD FREQUENCY POOL EL 54500
WATER USE
MQTQRLESS BQATINQ
SAILING,BIRD WATCHING,HAND POWERED BOATS, FISHING AND SWIMMING
OPEN BOATING
POWER BOATS, WATER SKIING AND PISHING
WAKELESS BOATING
5HP OR LESS SAILING.PISHING,HAND POWERED BOATS AND SWIMMING
LAND U$E
• BAY. .USE.
PICNICKING,SWIMMING. FISHING. PLAYGROUNDS.
BOAT LAUNCHING .WATER SKIING AND INTERPRETIVE FACILITIES
OVERNIGHT USE
TRAILER CAMPING,GROUP CAMPING. TENT CAMPING AND WALK-IN PRIMITIVE CAMPING
NATURAL OR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY
MINIMUM VEHICULAR ACCESS.BICYCLE .HIKING AND
BRIDLE TRAILS, FISHING AND NATURE STUDY AREAS
OQPEN AREA
SCENIC AND BUFFER ZONE . AND TRAILS
u. . ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT. OMAHA CORPS Or ENGINEERS
SOUTH PLATTE RIVER CHAT FI ELD LAKE. COLORADO
Jit/
CMOIS ■' • M • MASTER PLAN
LAND AND WATER USE MAP
'-yn


Bicycle and Horse Trails at Chatfield SRA
Page 37
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NO HoR&£ c*E will. 0g PERMITTED
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IN/ THE SHAPED ARtAS.
HoR6£S MUST STAY ON TRAILS MARKED WITH A HORSE-SHOE SYMBOL.
Bicycles may be ridden on Roads within the park
WHERE NECESSARY, Birr RIDERS ARE ADVISED TO USE BIKE PATHS FOR. THE SAKE OF SAFETY.
ij§> CHATFIELD SRA


TABLE
INVENTORY LIST OF FLORA ON THREE Page 38
CHATFIELD PUBLIC USE AREAS**
Abundance Symbols Ab Abundant Co Common Oc Occasional Ra Rare - Absent FAMILY (Family name) Genua species Common name DEER CREEK TRI-COUNTY cn Q •a g OC FA14ILY (Family name) Genus svecies Common name DEER CREEK TRI-COUNTY RIVERSIDE
ACE RACEAE (Maple family) COMPOS ITAE (c on t.)
Acer negundo Boxelder Ra Ra - Lactuaa pulchella Blue lettuce Ra Ra Ra
AMARANTHACEAE (Anarantn family) Lactuca scariola Prickly lettuce Oc Ra Ra
Amcran thus rc trofLexus Redroot pigweed Oc Oc Oc Li a true punctata Dotted gayfeather Co - Ra
ALISMACEAE (Water Plantain family) Lygodesmia juncea Skeletonweed Ra - Ra
Sagittaria cuneata Arrowhead - Ra - 11 othoCalais cuspidata Oc - -
ANACARDIACEAE (Sumac family) Ratibida colurmifera Prairie cone-
Rhus radicans Poison ivy Ra Ra - flower Oc - Ra
Rhus trilobata Skunk bush Ra - - Sane do plattensis Butterweed Oc - Ra
APOCYUACEAE (Dogbane family) Sene do spartioides Butterveed Oc - Oc
Apocunun median floribunaun Indian hemp Oc Ra - Sene do mutabilis Butterweed Oc Ra Oc
ASCLEP1AVACEAE (Milkweed fanily) Soli dago oicantea Giant goldenrod Ra Ra -
Asclepias engelmanniana Milkweed - - Ra So tideso aremini folia Goldenrod Oc Oc Oc
A8clepias speciosa Milkweed Oc Ra Oc Solidago rigida Stiff goldenrod Oc Oc Oc
BORAGINACEAE (Borage family) Taraxaaun officicnale Dandelion Co Co Co
Cryptar.tha virgata Miner's candle Oc - - Thelesperma meg spot ami cun Ra - Ra
Lithosperrun inezsum Puccoon Oc - - Theicsperma trifiaurn Oc - Oc
Mertensia lanceolata Bluebells Co - Oc Tcrjncendia arar.diflora Easter daisv Oc - Ra
CACTACEAE (Cactus family) Tragopogon vratensis Goatsbeard Oc Oc Oc
Opuntia spp. Cactus Co Ra Oc Xar.thzur i tali cur, Cocklebur Ra Ra Ra
CAFPAF.JDACEAF ( Ca p pe r f ami 1 y ) CODVOLVVLACEAE (Morning glory family)
Clecme serrulate Rocky Mt. bee plant Oc Ra Ra *Convolvulus arvensis Bindweed Co Ab Ab
Pold'-.isia traohusperra Cl army-weed - - Oc Convolvulus eeziur l.ild morning glory - Ra -
CaPRIFGLIACcAE (Honeysuckle family) Ioonceae leotoohulla B ih morning glory - - Ra
Symphonic carpus utaaendis Snowberry buckbrush Co Ra Ra CF.UCIFEFSAE (Mustard fanily)
CARYOBH'IELACEA.E (Pink family) Alyssun clyssoides Alyssum Oc - Oc
Saoor.aria officianalis Bouncing bet - - Ra Bertcroa i'icar.a - Oc -
ScvoKoria vacasrla Oc - Ra *Cardcria draba ihitetop - Oc -
CHE1ICP0DIACEAE (Coosefoot family) Choriospora ter.ella Blue mustard Oc Oc
A triplex eerie scans Saltbrush Oc - Ra Cor.rir.gia orier.taii.8 Hares-ear mustard Oc -
Chcnopodium album Lambsquarters Oc Ra Oc Dcscurdnia pinnata Tansy mustard Co Oc Oc
Kochia scar aria Kochia Co Ab Ab Draba emithii Whitlow-wort - Oc -
Salsola kali Russian thistle - Ab Ra Erusimum asperun Wallflower Oc - Oc
COM!SLIDACEAE (Spiderwort family) Erysimun inconsvicuicn Wallflower Oc - -
Trades cantia ocddentolis Spiderwort Oc Ra Oc Levidiin virgir.icun Pepperweed Oc - Oc
COrPOSITAE (Composite family) Rorippa sinuata Spreading
Achillea ianulosa Yarrow Ra Ra Ra yellowcress Ra Oc Ra
Anbrcsia coronooi folia Western ragweed Oc - Ra Sisymbrium altissimun Tumble mustard Oc Ab Oc
Ambrosia elctior Common ragweed Oc - Oc Thlaspi arvense Pennycress Oc - Oc
Ambrosia trifida Giant ragweed Oc Oc Oc ELEAGNACEAE (Oleaster fanily)
Arctium minus Burdock Ra - - Elaecnus engustifolia Russian olive Ra Ra Ra
Artemisia cana Sage Oc - Ra EUPHORBIACEAE (Spurge fanily)
Artemisia frigida Fringe sage Ab Ra Co Euphorbia dentata Toothed spurge Ra - -
Artemisia pacifica Sage Co - Oc Euphorbia marginata Snow-on-the-mtn. Oc - Oc
Aster arenesus Oc - Oc Euohorbia serpulli folia Oc Oc Oc
Aster bigelovii Sticky aster Co Oc Co Euphorbia robusta Rocky Mtn. spurge - Ra “
Aster ericoides Heath aster Oc - Ra GERA1/1ACEAE (Geranium family)
Bahia opvositi folia Oc - Oc Erodium dcutariur. Heronbill Ra Oc Ra
Centaurea oicris Knapweed - Co - GRAMINEAE (Grass fanily)
Chrysothannus nauscoeu6 Rabbitbrush Oc - Ra Acgilops cylindrica Goat grass Oc - -
Cichoriun intybus Chicory Ra - - Agropyron de3crtcvum Crested vheatgrass Co - Oc
*Cireivm cv'venoe Canadian thistle Co Ab Oc Agropyron elonaatum Ra - -
Cirsiun lance datum Bull thistle Oc Co Oc Agropyron smithii Western wheatgrass Co - Ra
Crcpis cccidentalis Hawksbeard Oc - Ra Agropyron iracriycaulun Slender vheatgrass Oc - Ra
Eriaeron canadensis Horseweed Oc Oc Oc Agrostis alba Rcdtop - Co -
Eriacrcn divergens FI eabane Co Oc Oc Andropoaon hallii Sand bluestem Oc - -
*FPcr.scrLa discolor Povertyvced Ra Ra Ra Aristida longiseta Prairie threeavn Co - Oc
Grin deli a squarro3a Cumweed Co Oc Oc Aver.a fatua Wild oats Ra Ra Ra
Guitcrrcr.ia carothrae Snakeweed Oc - Oc Route 1ou2 crutipcndula Sideoats grama Co - Ka
Har>lcpjrt"juc suinulosus Oc - Ra Routeloua araciiis Blue gratra Ab - -
Rc l Can thus annuvs Sunflower Ab Co Co Bromus inermis Smooth brotne Co Co Oc
Hclicnthus petiolaris Sunflower Co Co Co Bromus Jsponicux Japanese brone Co - -
lie l i an t hue p urri l u.; Sunflower Co Co Co kromus t-'ctorur. Chcatp.rass Ab Ab Ab
I vs axillaris Pcvorf yveod Co Oc Co Bushier, dj.-tuIdJej Buffalo grass Oc - -
Iva xcv'.thifolia Marsh plantain elder Ra Ra Ra VacTylis glome rata Orchard grass Ra Ka -


TABLE —Continued
Page 39
FAMILY (Family name) Genua specie a Common name 04 a o f â–º-4 Od h- a >-> 2 g s FAMILY (Family name) Gr.n'ua zocdcs Common name a CJ a o 0 1 t-l ac i-i M Q *-* ** 2 g OC .
CRAMINEAE (cone.) ONAGRACEAE (cone.)
Echinochlea crusgalli ntitia Barnyard graaa - Ra Oenothera brachycarpa Yellow evening
Elymus canadensis Canada wild rye Ra - Ra primrose Co - -
Eragroatis cilianenaia Stinkgrasa Ra Ra Ra Oenothera aerrulata Halfshrub sundrop Oc - -
Eragroatis pectinaceoa - Ra - Oenothera etrigoea Common evening
Horde u/n juba turn Foxtail barley Oc Oc Oc prlmrosa - Ab Ra
Hordeum puaillum Little barley Oc - - OROBASCHACEAE (Broomrape family)
Koaleria cristata June grass Co - Oc Orobanche faaciculata Cancer root Ra - -
Huh lenbergia as peri folia Scratchgrasa Ra - - PAPAVERACEAE (Poppy family)
Muhlenbargia torrui Ring muhley Co - - Araemone intermedia Prickle poppy Oc Oc Oc
Panicien ccqpi l lore Wltchgrass Ra - - POLEMONIACEAE (Phlox family)
Phalarie arundinacea Canary grass - Oc - Cilia calcarea - - Ra
Fhleisn pratense Timothy Ra Ra Ra Cilia Candida Oc Ra Oc
Poa prateneia Kentucky bluegrass Co Oc Oc Cilia spiaata Co - Oc
Polypogon monapelienaia Rabbltfoot grass - Ra - PINACEAE (Pine family)
Puccinellia diatana Alkali-grass Ra - - Jur.iperus ecovulorum Juniper - - Ra
Schedonnardua paniculatua Tumblegrass Oc - - PLANT A CINA CEAE (Plantain family)
Set aria luteacena Yellow foxtail Ra Ra Ra Planiago lanceolata English plantain Ra - -
Sitanion hyetrix Squirreltall Oc - Ra Plan tags purshii Wooly plantain Ra - Ra
Sporobolus cryptandrua Sand dropseed Oc Ab Co Plantago spinuloaa Ra - Ra
Stipa comata Needle-and-thread Oc - - POLYGONACEAE (Buckwheat family)
Stipa robuata Sleepy grass Co - Oc Erioacnum effuaum Bushy eriogonum Co - Co
BYDROPHYLLACEAE (Waterleaf family) Polygonum cocdneum Swamp smartweed - Oc -
Elliaia nyatelea Elllsla Ra - - Folygonum pennaylvanicum Pennsylvania
Phacalia heterophylla Scorpion-weed Oc - Oc smartweed - Oc “
JANCACEAE (Arrowgrass family) Funex acetosella Oc Oc Oc
J uncus dudleyi Rush - Ra - R'onex cltissinus Smooth dock Oc Oc Oc
LABIATEAE (Mine family) Prunex crisous Curly dock Oc Oc Oc
Leonurua cardiac a Motherwort Ra - Ra PORTVLACACEAE (Purslane family)
Monarda pectinata Horse Mint - - Ra Fortulaca oleraceae Purslane Ra Oc Ra
Nepeta cataria Catnip Ra Ra Ra E/JJluCUZ/.CSAE (Buttercup family)
Scutellaria brittonii Skullcap Oc - Oc Cleratis liaustioifolia Virgin's bower Ra - -
Urtica dicica Nettle - Ra - Celzainiun vire3ce*:s cenardi Larkspur Ra - -
LECUMINOSAE (Pea family) PCSACEAS (Rose family)
Astragalus drurmjndii Vetch Co - Oc Crataegus chryaocarpa Hawthorne Ra - -
Glycyrrhiza lepidota Licorice Ra - - Frur.ua cmericar.a Wild plum Ra - -
Lupinus plattensis. Lupine Ra Ra Ra Frur.us r^lo’.ccarpa Chokecherry Ra - -
Medioago sati-Ja Alfalfa Co Co Co Fes a jcodiii Wild rose Oc Oc Oc
Me lilotus alba White sweet clover Ab Co Co SALT CACEAE (Vlllow family)
Nelilotus officianalia Yellow sweet clover Co Oc Oc Fovulus adrgentii Cottonwood Ra Ab Oc
Oxytropia lambertii Locoweed Ab - Oc Salix sure. Willow - Ab -
Cxytropia series a Locoweed Oc - Ra SAC! IAEA CEAE (Sandalwood family)
Petalos tenon Candidas White prairie clover Oc - - Conandra umbellata Bastard toad flax Oc - Oc
Petalos tenon purpurcum Purple prairie clover Oc - - SAXIFPAGACEAE (Saxifrage family)
Pscralea aigitata Wild alfalfa Co - Oc Fib S3 aureur. Current Ra Ra
Robinia necnexicana Black locust Ra - - SCROPHULARIACEAE (Flgwort family)
TrifoLiun pratense Red clover - Ra Ra Castilleja integra Paintbrush Co - -
Vida are ri can a Vetch Oc - Oc Penstemon alpinus Penstemon Co Oc Oc
LILIACEAE (Lily family) Penstemon angustifolius Penstemon Co Oc Oc
Allium textile Wild onion Oc - Oc Penstemon unilateralis Pens cemon Co Oc Oc
Asparagus officianalis Asparagus Ra Ra Ra Verbas cum thapsus Mullein Oc Oc Oc
Leucocrinum montanun Sand lily Oc - Oc SOLASJACcAE (Nightshade family)
Yucca glauca Yucca Co - Oc Physalis heterophylla Ground cherry Ra - Ra
LINACEAE (Flax family) Phyaalis subglabrata Ra - -
Linum leuisii Wild flax Ab - Oc Solanum rostra turn Buffalo-bur Oc - Oc
MALVACEAE (Mallow family) Solanum triflorum Cut-leaf nightshade- - Ra
Halva neglecta Common mallow Ra Ra Oc TYPHACEAE (Cattail family)
Sphaeralcea coccinea Copper mallow Co - Co Typha latifclia Cattail - - Ra
LOASACEAE (Loasa family) U’OELLIFEREAE (Carrot family)
Mentzelia nuda atricta Stickleaf Ra Ra Oc Conium maculatum Spotted water
NYCTAGIUACEAE (Four o'clock family) hemlock Co - -
Nirabilie linearis Narrow-leaf Caucus carol a Wild carrot Oc - -
umbrella-wort - - Oc VEFBEHACEAE (Vervain family)
Hirabili3 nyctaginea Heart-leaf Verbena brae teata Prostrate vervain - Ra Ra
umbrella-wort Ra Ra - VITACEAE (Crape family)
ONAGRACEAE (Evening Primrose family) Farthencdssus vitaceae Virginia creeper Ra Ra Ra
Gaura cocdnea Oc - - Vi tis vulpina Crape Ra Ra -
Gaut-j pai'viftora Oc Oc Oc VJCLACEAE (Violet family)
Oenothera albicaul is Prairie evening Viola nultalLii Violet Oc - Ra
primrose Oc Ka - ZYG,'Jc'HYLLACEAE (Caltrop family)
Tribulus terras trie Puncture vine - - Ra
*Noxious weeds—as defined by the Colorado Pure Seed Law,
**The inventory was conducted by David L. Putnam and Frank A. Keppelman, graduate students in botany and horticulture at Colorado State University.


TABLE
Page 40
LIST OF BIRDS FOUND IN THE CHATFIELD AREA MAINLY ALONG THE SOUTH PLATTE RIVER IN THE VICINITY OF WATERTON* **
Great Blue Heron (â– mall rookery)
Canada Goose
Mallard
Gadwall
Pintail
Wood Duck**
Blue-winged Teal Green-winged Teal Lesser Scaup Common Goldeneye American Widgeon Bufflehead Common Merganser Turkey Vulture Goshawk
Red-tailed Hawk Rough-legged Hawk Harlan's Hawk**
Sharp-shinned Hawk Coopers Hawk Broad-winged Hawk**
Osprey**
Golden Eagle Bald Eagle**
Marsh Hawk Prairie Falcon Pigeon Hawk Sparrow Hawk Ring-necked Pheasant American Coot Kllldeer
Spotted Sandpiper Common Snipe Ring-billed Gull Franklin's Gull Band-tailed Pigeon Rock Dove Mourning Dove Screech Owl Long-eared Owl Great Horned Owl Pygmy Owl Burrowing Owl Short-eared Owl Common Nlghthawk White-throated Swift Belted Kingfisher Broad-tailed Hummingbird Red-shafted Flicker Hairy Woodpecker Downy Woodpecker
Lewis's Woodpecker Eastern Kingbird Western Kingbird Dusky Flycatcher Olive Sided Flycatcher Say's Phoebe Western Wood Pewee Horned Lark Tree Swallow Rough-winged Swallow Violet-green Swallow Barn Swallow Blue Jay Steller'a Jay Scrub Jay Magpie
White-necked Raven**
Crow
Plnon Jay
Black-capped Chickadee Mountain Chickadee Common Buahtlt** White-breasted Nuthatch Red-breasted Nuthatch Brown Creeper House Wren Winter Wren**
Long-billed Marsh Wren**
Rock Wren
Canyon Wren
Dipper (Water Ouzel)
Mockingbird
Catbird
Brown Thrasher
Robin
Hermit Thrush Swalnson's Thrush Townsend's Solitaire Golden-crowned Kinglet Ruby-crowned Kinglet Water Pipit Bohemian Waxwing Cedar Waxwing Northern Shrike Starling Solitary Vlreo Red-eyed Vlreo Warbling Vlreo Black-poll Warbler** Virginia's Warbler Yellow Warbler
Magnolia Warbler**
Audubon's Warbler Myrtle Warbler Orange-crowned Warbler Black-throated Cray Warbler** Parula Warbler**
Worm-eating Warbler** MacGllllvray's Warbler Wilson's Warbler Yellow-breasted Chat Yellow-throat American Redstart House Sparrow Western Meadowlark Bullock's Oriole Rusty Blackwood**
Brewer's Blackbird Red-winged Blackbird Bronzed Crackle Cowblrd
Western Tanager Scarlet Tanager**
Black-headed Grosbeak Evening Grosbeak Lazuli Bunting Cassln's Finch House Finch
Gray-crowned Rosy Finch Black Rosy Finch Brown-capped Rosy Finch Common Redpoll Common Goldfinch Lesser Goldfinch Pine Siskin Rufous-sided Towhee Green-tailed Towhee Vesper Sparrow Lincoln's Sparrow Slate-colored Junco White-winged Junco Oregon Junco Gray-headed Junco Tree Sparrow Chipping Sparrow Clay-colored Sparrow Harris' Sparrow White-crowned Sparrow Golden-crowned Sparrow** White-throated Sparrow Fox Sparrow**
Song Sparrow
*Reported by Thompson Marsh and Hugh Kingery of the Denver Field Ornithologists.
**Rare


CLIMATE
Page 4l
GENERAL: Although the Chatfield area is located adjacent
to Foothills of the Front Range of the Rocky# Mountains, the climate is more typical of the Colorado eastern plains than of the mountains. Characteristic features of the plains are low relative humidity, abundant sunshine, light rainfall, high evaporation and moderate to high wind movement and a large daily range in temperature. Weather is changeable and difficult to predict because of the rain chadow effect of the Continental Divide. Atmospheric pressure is about 83 percent of that at sea level. Tables 1 and 2 show the normal temperature and precipitation at the United States Weather Bureau Station at Kassler, located on the South Platte River five miles upstream from the Chatfield Dam.
TEMPERATURE: The annual mean temperatures for the area
range from 47 degrees to 52 degrees. Temperatures of 100 degrees, or over, have been observed and daytime temperatures of 95 degrees or higher are common in summer. In the foothills, temperatures as high as 100 degrees are rare as summer afternoon temperatures are often modified by frequent afternoon cloudiness and thunderstorms over arid near the mountains. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the northern Great Plains are too shallow to reach the area's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. The lowest temperatures observed range generally from 30 degrees below zero to 40 degrees below zero .
PRECIPITATION: A large proportion of the annual total
precipitation falls in the growing season -- 70 to 80 percent during the period from April through September. Summer precipitation is largely from thunderstorm activity and is sometimes extremely heavy. Precipitation accompanying violent thunderstorms has been known to cause damage by erosion and flooding. Hail, commonly accompanied by strong winds, falls occasionally in early summer creating some damage. The annual mean precipitation averages about 13 to 19 inches, the amounts increasing with proximity to the mountains. The rainy season in the area reaches its peak in May.
WIND: Winds are generally from the south and southwest,
see Figure 1. Strong winds occur frequently in winter and spring. Such winds tend to dry out soils, which are usually not well supplied with moisture because of the low annual precipitation. A wind phenomenon called the "Chinook" occurs frequently along the eastern edge of the Front Range during laste winter and early spring. These winds, warmed by their


Page 42
rapid descent from higher levels cause large and sudden temperature rises.
STORMS: Prevailing air currents reach Colorado from
westerly directions. Eastward-moving storms originating in the Pacific Ocean lose much of their moisture in passage over mountain ranges to the west; a large part of the remaining moisture falls as rain or snow on the mountain tops and westward-facing slopes. Eastern slope areas receive relatively small amounts of precipitation from these storms.
Winter Storms moving from the north usually carry little moisture. The frequency of such storms increases during the fall and winter months, and decreases rapidly in the spring.
The accompanying outbreaks of polar air are responsible for the sudden drops in temperature often experienced in the plains sections of the state. Occasionally, these outbreaks are attended by strong northerly winds which come in contact with moist air from the south; the interaction of these air masses causes a heavy fall of snow and the most severe of all weather conditions of the high plains, the blizzard. The winter snowfall averages from 3 to 5 feet on the plains, and from 5 to 7 feet in the foothills.
Summer Storms: Warm, moist air from the south moves into Colorado most frequently in the spring. As this air is carried northward and westward to higher elevations, the heaviest and most general rainfalls of the year occur over the eastern portions of the state. Frequent showers and thunderstorms continue well into the summer. At times during the summer, winds shift into the southwest and bring hot, dry air over the state from desert areas of Mexico and the southwestern United States. This creates the hottest weather of the year over the eastern plains, but such hot spells are usually of short duration.
ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS: The variable and unpredictable weather of the Front Range coupled with low rainfall, low humidity, high evaporation and strong air movement combine to cause several landscape management problems. The annual precipitation is not great enough to sustain most tree and shrub species except a few hardy natives. With supplemental water many additional species can be grown. Without supplemental water greatcare will have to be given to species and site selection. The climate, as discussed above, is the macroclimate or the overall, general climate of the area.
The microclimate is the climate of a small or very localized area such as under a particular tree or at ground line under grass cover, etc. The variable and unpredictable weather or macroclimate of the Front Range causes extreme variations in the microclimate.


MICROCLIMATE OF SITE
Page ^3
The microclimatic conditions on the site are affected primarily by the openness of that area. Situated atop of a bluff and near a ridge which drops off quickly into Chat-field lake, the only protection comes from the surrounding vegitation. This creates good and bad qualities about the site. One of the advantages is that there is unobstructed solar access. This combined with the characteristic large diurnal temperatur swing, especially noticable from fall through spring, provides design opportunities to use passive techniques to carry some of the daytime heat over into the times when a heat release is appropriate. During summer month this could cause problems with overexposure, however, this could be avoided by the proper use of shading devices such as overhangs and trees.
The other significant climatic condition on the site is the winds. Typically, they blow from south or southwest in the winter at velocities averaging around 14 mph. This could cause significant winter heat loss in the building due to infiltration. Recalling information from an earlier section on vegitation it should be noted however, that there is a large block of young coniferous trees which have been recently established which will act as an effective wind screen when they reach maturity. In design considerations should be made to allow protection from this wind at openings and outdoor areas adjacent to the facility.
Results of analyses of other general climatic information suggest the use of well insulated walls and roof with thermal mass properly placed in exterior walls and on the interior where solar exposure can be accomplished during winter months. The long axis should be east-west so as to maximize heat gain. When sizing window openings care should be taken to balance aesthetic qualitites with the goal to minimize heat loss through these openings. Also, the building should be designed with a large time lag indicating the use of heavy materials inside the insulated skin, and the floor layout should be" arranged to create the lowest exterior surface area per floor area.


Page 44
'_____**
39 32 28
SITE
SOLAR AZIMUTH
i*o V*
J 50 YEAR FLOOD


Page 45
TABLE 1
TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION NORMALS AT KASSLER STATION, JEFFERSON COUNTY COLORADO (Elevation 5495 feet)*
Month Mean Temperature (°F) Precipitation (inches)
January 32.7 72
February 35.0 • 93
March 40.0 1. 62
April 49.6 2. 75
May 58.2 2. 90
June 67.9 1. 51
July 74.0 1. 42
August 72.7 1. 48
September 65.4 1. 22
October 55.0 1. 33
November 41.9 95
December 35.9 58
ANNUAL 52.4 17.41
'•Data from climates of the States-Colorado, U.S. Dept. TABLE 2 FREEZE DATA AT KASSLER STATION* of Commerce
Freeze threshold Mean date of last Mean date of first Mean no. days
Temperature °F spring occurance fall occurance between dates
32 5-12 10-09 150
28 4-27 10-15 171
24 4-15 10-28 196
20 4-07 11-05 212
16 4-01 11-11 224
*Data taken from Climates of the States-Colorado, U.S. Dept, of Commerce, Environmental Data Service, Climatography of the United States No. 60-5. Data in the above table are based on the period of 1931-1960.


Figure 1. Wind rose for the Chatfield Public Use area. Numbers show the percent of time the wind is blowing from the direction shown.


NORMALS. MEANS. AND EXTREMES
Keans and uirrati above are fro* existing and comparable exposures. Annual estreats have been exceeded at other sites Highest temperature 105 In Augu* t 1878; lowest temperature -30 in February 19)4; maximum monthly precipitation 8.57 In precipitation 0.00 In December 1881; sunlaus precipitation In 24 hours 6.5) In Kay 1876; maximum aionthly snowfall 57.4 snowfall In 24 hours 23.0 in April 1885; fastest mils of wind 65 from West In Kay 19).).
in the locality aa follows: Kay 1876; mlnlanaa monthly In Dec ember 1913; mailaus
COLORADO
DENVER Elevation 5283 Ft.
Dogroe
Temperature Days Ra| Proc
Avorago Extreme (Base 65') Hum Nor. Wind c Avoraga Number of Days of
E 3 E E 3 E > .c S l 0) C o> c E o
X c c £. i ro o o ro
ro o o © 0 r~ O
s i s 1 J I o r- H
J 42 15 28 69 -25 1132 0 44 .5
F 45 18 31 76 -18 938 0 45 .7
M 50 23 36 84 -4 887 0 43 1
A GO 32 46 84 13 558 0 37 2
M 70 42 56 91 26 288 0 39 3
J 82 51 66 98 36 66 149 40 1
J 88 57 73 101 43 6 203 36 2
A 87 56 71 100 41 9 240 37 1
S 79 47 63 97 20 117 53 40 1
O 67 36 51 87 3 428 0 36 1
N 52 24 38 76 •2 819 0 44 .6
D 45 18 32 71 •16 1035 0 45 .4
Y 64 36 49 101 -25 6283 653 40 14
_ in c Sunup/ GC
ro *-> O h- s o c *o o a a c o u ® 3 C/> o a_ Sundown i o i e— o c ‘ro o r~ o c 9 ~o c 3 X cn o U. c a> u ©
C/3 (/) Q o a. O GC CO H u. CL
8 9 s 72 10 10 1 1 6 2 0 1 3
8 9 s 71 8 9 1 1 6 3 • 2 5
1 3 10 s 71 8 11 12 8 4 • 1 8
9 10 s 67 7 10 13 9 2 1 1 7
1 9 s 64 6 12 13 10 • 6 1 4
r 9 s 70 9 13 8 9 0 10 1 1
0 8 s 70 9 16 6 9 0 11 • 2
0 8 s 72 10 14 7 8 0 8 1 1
2 8 s 75 13 10 7 6 • 3 1 2
4 8 s 74 13 10 8 5 1 1 1 3
7 9 s 66 1 1 10 9 5 2 • 1 5
6 9 s 68 1 1 10 10 5 2 0 1 5
58 9 s 70 115 135 115 87 18 41 10 4
cm
(D
-O


Mean Monthly Temperatures
TEMP
°F
....
----
MONTH


u. X I |
NORMAL DAILY VALUE - /ft*day
Solar Exposure:
SOLAR RADIATION INCIDENT
MONTH
Page 4-9


MONTH
HEATING DEGREE DAYS - 65°F BASE

Annual Degree Days


PERCENT
Percent Possible Sunshine

MONTH
Page 51


WIND SPEED CMPH)
17
OCTOBER
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
DECEMBER
NOVEMBER
AUGUST
MARCH
JULY
JUNE
MAY
SEPTEMBER
APRIL
8
7
6
5
4
SOUTHERLY TO TO WESTERLY M------------------------‘------------I
3
2
I ------------------------------------—
M ID I 2 3 4 50
NIGHT
II MID NIGHT
SOUTH PLATTE RIVER
CHATFIELD LAKE, COLORADO MASTER PLAN WIND PATTERNS
U. 3. ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, OMAHA CORPS OF ENGINEERS OMAHA, NEBRASKA
OCT. 1972
DESIGN MEMO. NO. PC-ID
PLATE 18


Energy Conservation
Page 53
I. The energy consumed by a building during use Is a variable which can and should be controlled.
A. Some factors which should be considered In the design of a building are:
1. Functional Factors
a. Building Iocati on
b. Building size and function
c. Floor area per person
d. Size of processing equipment and appliances
e. Building operating schedules
2. Environmental Factors
a. Lighting comfort levels
b. Thermal comfort levels
3. Envelope Factors
a. Orientation of building
b. Shape of bu iId i ng
c. Mass of bu iI ding
d. Wall and roof Insulation value (U-value)
e. Glass area and location
f. Reflectivity of skin (walls, roof, glass)
g. Skin shading or screening
4. Air Conditioning System Factors
a. System controls
b. Air conditioning system design character IstIcs
c. Air conditioning equipment selection and efficiency
d. Heat recovery and recycling
e. Natural (outside air) ventilation provisions
5. Energy Source Factors
a. Availability of reclalmable waste heat (One of the most efficient ways to make use of Internal heat gains is to recover heat generated by lighting systems and use it to supplement mechanical heating systems.)
b. Energy-source selection
6. Electrical System Factors
a. Electrical power utilization efficiencies
b. Energy-source selection


Page 5^
7. Additional Considerations
a. What Is the major supply/demand problem of the utility company?
b. What alternative energy sources are available?
c. What Is the utility rate structure and how will it affect energy use?
d. How will building operation schedules affect energy use?
B. Some other energy use questions which must be answered by the designer are:
1. Is the building going to be internally or externally dominated? (Buildings with high surf ace-to-volume ratios (houses, small commercial) are externally dominated; bu 11dIngs w I th low surf ace-to-voIume ratios tend to be Internally dominated.)
2. How will climate affect building energy use?
3. Is the building type predominantly passive or active in nature?
4. Is the primary problem energy demand or consumption?
5. Are there sources of reclatmable waste heat available?
6. What energy concepts enhance the project's priorities?
7. Is there a process within the building that has special energy features or energy effects?
Choosing a particular concept should come after some analysis, and should be evaluated In terms of Its effect on the energy meter.
II. Energy conserving design can have a deleterious effect on safety in buildings. Some considerations for which compensating design features or equipment must be provided Include:
A. Openings for cross-ventilation and daylighting purposes will tend to disrupt fire development In rooms. Where ventilation Is sufficient and fuel load sma I I, fires can be of short duration with relatively low tempertures due to Infiltration of cooler outdoor air.
B. Tightly sealed buildings with few openings tend to reinforce fire development by creating smokey, hot destructive fire conditions of prolonged duration.


Page 55
C. External solar shading devices (e.g., egg crate, sculptured block, expanded metal) can restrict emergency escape and access to buildings by fire fighters.
D. Locating buildings on steep slopes to take advantage of beneficial microclimate effects can restrict fire apparatus access. For example, buildings at the edge of cliffs or other steep grades may restrict access to only one side.
References: Egan, M.D., Concepts In Building Flresafetv.
John Wiley L Sons, 1978
Lerup, L. et al.. Learning From Fire:___A .Flr.S-
Protectlon Primer for Architects. National Fire Prevention & Control Administration, 1977


Lighting
Page 56
I. Lighting accounts for about 20$ of the total electrical energy consumption In the United States each year and up to 35$ of the electrical use In office buildings. Office buildings are character I zed by daytime use patterns, long hours of lighting use, relatively high lighting levels, and high Installed watts per square foot, which results In lighting being the single largest energy consumer In the building. (See Typical Energy Budget Chart, Page 33.)
A. Reductions In lighting energy consumption are thus essential elements of a national energy program to reduce our dependence on non-renewable and politically vulnerable energy sources.
B. Energy conservation practices can provide Improved visual performance and visual comfort while producing substantial energy savlngs.
I. Four different elements In this process can be Identified:
a. Selection of efficient lighting systems and components over less efficient products.
b. Improved lighting design practice which eliminates wasteful energy use.
c. Improved operation and maintenance of lighting systems.
d. A return to a partial reliance on natural lighting techniques.
11. Natural lighting serves several Important functions.
A. Visual power In defining and Identifying space and In articulating circulation patterns.
B. Pragmatic uses to offset electrical lighting requIrements.
C. Natural lighting techniques should include both diffuse light from the sky (daylight) and direct radiation from the sun (sun I 1ght).
I. Additionally, sldellghtlng (reflected light through windows) and toplighting (skylights) should be considered.
D. Four major Issues must be confronted before daylighting practice can be implemented.
1. Analysis and design techniques.
2. Therma 1/11 I urn I nation tradeoffs.


Page 57
3. Sun and glare control.
4. Lighting controls.
E. A full array of sun.control solutions Is available and should be considered. They Include:
1. Exterior archltectural appendages.
2. Ex.ter,J Qf sun control devices such as shades, drapes, bl Inds.
3. InterI or sun control devices such as shades, drapes, bl Inds.
4. Heat absorbing and reflective glasses and films.
a. It Is the opinion of experts In the field that dayllghted offices may require highly transparent windows which Incorporate operable climate management devices such as shades, blinds, and selective films to control excessive solar gain.
5. It seems likely that office occupants will close shades and blinds to reduce excessive heat gain or glare for thermal or visual comfort. They may not be so likely, however, to operate these devices to achieve energy savings. In particular, devices that have been closed In the afternoon to reduce summer heat gain may not be opened the following morning to realize daylighting savings.
F. In designing spaces which are to be naturally lighted, It is Important to consider that quality of light rather than greater Intensity Is the objective. Some guidelines which should be considered are:
1. Task areas: The lighting level should provide proper Illumination for the task to be performed. In adjacent nonworking areas, lower lighting levels are acceptable.
2. Nontask areas: General lighting surrounding task location needs an average lighting of approximately one-third the level of task I Ightlng.
3. Noncrltlcal lighting: In areas where casual visual tasks occur, a lighting level of approximately one-third the level of general lighting Is needed.
a. The efficiency of any lighting system Is directly affected by the reflectivity of InterI or surfaces, such as walls, ceilings, floors and furniture.


Page 58
b. In general, the designer can select light colors which reflect and contribute to the general visual comfort of a space. 4
Task Areas Footcandles on Tasks
OFFICE
General 100
Drafting . 150-200
Accounting 150
Conference 30
Restroom 30
Elevators, Stairs, Corridors 20
lobby 50
EXTERIOR
Building 15-30
Parking 1-2
Levels of Illumination
4. To reduce glare thorn uncomfortably bright light sources or ref Iectlons:
a. Reduce source brightness by dimming.
b. Relocate source outside field of vision.
c. Reduce reflectance of surfaces surrounding task.
d. Shield sources with baffles, screens, etc.
e. Select sources which distribute light away from the angle of glare and the angle of reflected glare.


Page 59
Typical Energy Budget
A. Building Envelope 10.5%
1. Walls + Windows 9.0%
2. Roof, Floor + Skylights 1.5%
B. Building Contents 39.5%
3. Occupants 2.5%
4. Appliances 5.0%
5. Elevators,Motors,Fans+Misc 15.0%
6. Water Heating 5.0%
7. Ventilation 12.0%
C. Lighting Systems 50.0%
8. Task + Gen'l Illumination 48.0%
9. Outdoor + Special 2.0%
D. Total Energy Budget 100.0%
i


skin and mechanical capital costs S/sf
Page 60
6 7 8 9
annuaL operating energy cost $1000/yr
S 8-8 §
T“ - T- T—
T- \ T— 11'-6 BUILDING HEIGHT
\ V 13'-6 BUILDING HEIGHT
Nv ^>•75* WINDOW/25* WALL
25% WINDOW/75* WALL
V \ 5» HORIZONTAL OVERHANG
\ ^ > / A 5' VERTICAL FINS
/ f / 5' SOUTH OVERHANG/E-W FINS
/ / / . 5 ’ OVERHANG WAFFLE
—7 / r » ONE TWO-STORY BUILDING
i K ONE TWO-STORY BUILDING W/INSULATION
• ss > / THREE TWO-STORY BUILDING
r THREE TWO-STORY BUILDING W/INSULATION
zapital vs energy costs
XlFPARI SON OF SKIN AND MECHANICAL COST AND ANNUAL ENERGY OPERATING COSTS
"ROM ENERGY IN DESIGN: TECHNIQUES TIE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS


Natural Lighting Pase 61
Commercial buildings present many opportunities for the use of dayllghtlng. Since commercial building design decisions are ultimately concerned with economics. It Is Important to establish the basis for significant cost savings using dayllghtlng.
A. The fact that most commercial buildings have high daytime occupancies the high lighting levels required during the daylight hours Is the key factor In considering dayllghtlng as an energy-efficient strategy.
B. One of the most powerful reasons f or I ncorporatl ng daylight design In buildings Is that, when properly used, daylight provides a lighting quality In architectural spaces rarely equaled by artificial systems.
1. Daylight through windows can enhance modeling effects, reduce celling reflections and provide diurnal time orientation by contact with outdoor conditions.
2. Window openings also can provide visual rest when used In work environments.
3. Dayllghtlng can complement artificial lighting. The following rules for dayllghtlng can be used:
a. DesIgn artificial lighting to fill In areas of room where desired II lumlnation levels cnnot be achieved by dayllghtlng '(e.g., near walls opposite windows, areas without access to outdoors).
b. When dayllghtlng Is sufficient, lighting fixtures should be switched or dimmed to lower Illumination levels or be turned off.
c. Use neutraI-col or InterI or surfaces to avoid color rendering distortion when artificial lighting Is used with day IIghtIng.
d. Admit day I Ight from two or more room sides to avoid sharp contrast between daylight and adjacent wall surf aces.
e. Admit daylight from high locations at least one-half room depth, that are away from occupants’ I 1ne-of-slght.
f. Use transparent Interior partitions (or upper part of partitions, transoms) to transmit daylight to Interior spaces.
g. Avoid sharp-cornered openings which can create high brightness ratios and glare. To lower brightness ratios, splay jambs and slope light wells.


Page 62
h. Baffle daylIghtlng openings so that view of sky Is shielded from occupants In most viewing positions.
I. Use large-scale elements (e.g., horizontal overhangs, deep reveals, or fine-mesh screen, drapes, or blinds). Exterior shading devices can mitigate any unwanted "greenhouse1' effects.
J. Horizontal overhangs can be used to project reflected ground-light Into rooms. Concrete, white gravel, white pavers, water, etc., are better ground reflectors of IIght than asphalt or grass.
k. Enhance daylight by using reflectors or topi Ightlng In areas without view (e.g., clerestorIes, light shelves) to project daylight deep Into Interior spaces. Use roof coverings with high reflectances to Increase quantity of light admitted by clerestories, and other top-1 Ightlng devices, and to minimize heat gain effects of summer sun angles.
l. Use Interior finishes with high reflectances to maximize effectiveness of both daylight and artificial lighting and to soften contrast with sky.
m. Do not use Iow-transmIttance glass (I.e., tinted glass, glass-block) adjacent to clear glass, open door, or open window.


Page 63
zenith
Sun Angles 40° N
V/V/V


ZONING AND CODES
Page 64
The Chatfield State Recreation Area is controlled by the State of Colorado. The state constitution contains a bill which exempts the state from local requirements, permits or restrictions on use. However, the bill states that " ... in sofar as possible, facilities shall conform to the substantive standards of any local building codes, fire safety, health and environmental control code or any other requirement which would otherwise by applicable." Thus, while the project is exempt from county codes and zoning it must provide for similar protective measures. The State of Colorado sets forth its own set of standards which all state projects must meet. The development of such projects shall conform to the following codes, regulations, laws and standards .
1983 Life Cycle Cost
1982 Uniform Mechanical Code
1982 Uniform Plumbing Code
1982 Uniform Fire Code
1982 Uniform Building Code Standards
1981 National Electrical Code (NFPA No. ?0)
1981 Life Safety Code (NFPA No. 101)
1981 National Fire Codes (16 volumes by NFPA)
1978 ANSI A17.1-1978 American National Standard Safety Code Elevators, Dumbwaiters, Escalators and Moving Walks
1977 2nd Edition - State of Colorado
Model Energy Efficiency Construction and Renovation Standards for Non-Residential Buildings 1973 CRS (Colorado Revised Statutes) as amended, Title 24-82-601, 602 Energy performance goal of 55*000 BTU/SF/YR for all State buildings, and improvements thereto.
1973 CRS (Colorado Revised Statutes) Volume 3 - Title 9 Article 2 - Safety Glazing Materials Article 5 - Buildings Contructed by Public Funds -This article is commonly referred to as the State "Handicapped Standards" as is in both the 1973 CRS and 1975 Cumulative Supplement.
In addition to adhering to the criteria presented above the project must be approved by the Douglas County Health Department, the Tri-County Water and Sanitation District and the state engineer.
For the purpose of this project a summary of the Uniform Building Code 1982 edition will be provided.


BUILDING CODES
Page 65
The Uniform Building Codes cover the fire, life and structural safety aspects of all buildings and related structures. The following pages contain a capsulized set of pertinent information.
The facility contains building types which fall into four different occupancy categories, each one requiring a separate code search*
B-2: Offices, workshops, storage and small meeting rooms
A-3t Large meeting room and auditorium H-3: Maintenance garage E-2: Educational classrooms


Page 66
PRELIMINARY CODE CHECK
PROJECTi Chatfield Environmental Education Center
LOCATION: Chatfield State Recreation Area
CODE: Uniform Building Code, 1982 Edition
CODE AUTHORITY: State of Colorado
BUILDING CLASSIFICATION
OCCUPANCY (Chapter 7): Classification B-2
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Chapters 17 & 20):
Minimum by code: V-N; Minimum for state: III-1HR
ACTUAL LOCATION ON PROPERTY (Refer to Chapters 5 & 20):
Not applicable
FIRE RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS (based upon location on property - Table 5A): 1 hour if less than 20 feet
REQUIREMENTS FOR OPENINGS (based upon location on property -Table 5*0: Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF 03 SECTIONS OF CHAPTER 20: None
BUILDINGS LOCATED ON SAME PROPERTY (Section 50*0;
Not applicable
COMPUTED FLOOR AREA OF PROPOSED STRUCTURE: 1*4-, 000 s.f.
BASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA (Table 5C): 18,000 s.f.
ALLOWABLE INCREASES IN FLOOR AREA:
SEPARATION ON 2 SIDES (Sect. 506-a-l):
Area may be increased at the rate of li$/ft. by which minimum width exceeds 20 feet; maximum of 50$ increase:
20* X 1.25 = 25$ allowable increase
18,000 X .25 = *4-500 s.f. allowed increase
INCREASES FOR AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS:
Not applicable
INCREASES FOR MULTIPLE STORY BUILDINGS: 18,000 s.f. MEZZANINES: Not applicable
BASEMENTS: Not applicable
TOTAL ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA: *K),500 s.f.
COMPUTED HEIGHT OF BUILDING FROM GADE (Section *4-09) * 30' max.
COMPUTED NUMBER OF STORIES (Section *4-20): One


Page 67
ALLOWABLE HEIGHT (65') and number of stories (4) from Table 5D*
ALLOWABLE STORY INCREASE for approved automatic fire sprinkler system (Section 507)s Not applicable
0CCUPANY.Ji.QAD (See Section 3302 & Table 33-A) : From Table 50:
USE MINIMUM OF TWO EXITS OTHER THAN ELEVATORS ARE REQUIRED WHERE NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS IS AT LEAST OCCUPANT LOAD FACTOR ACCESS BY MEANS OF A RAMP OR AN ELEVATOR MUST BE PROVIDED FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED AS INDICATED
OFFICE 30 100 Yes
MECHAN. EQUIP. ROOMS 30 300 No
ALL OTHERS 50 100 —
TO DETERMINE OCCUPANT LOAD (Refer Sect. 3302-a):
Associated floor area: 3000 s.f. = 30 Area occupant load DETAILED OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS (Chapter 7):
LIGHT, VENTILATION AND SANITATION (Section 705):
-minimum glazed opening area = l/lO total floor area, & -natural ventilation area = 1/12 total floor area
....or.....
-Artifical lite and mechanical ventilation per Section 605 -Toilet facilities for each sex is required
-Each toilet room shall have:
1) exterior operable window of min. 3 s.f. or
2) vertical duct of minimum 100 s.i. (with 50 additional s.i./facility), or
3) mechanical ventilation with complete air change each 15 minutes — must discharge to exterior; minimum 5' from any operable window


Page 68
SPECIAL HAZARDS (Section 708)s
-Boiler rooms or central heating plants in excess of
400,000 BTU shall have 1 hour separation
DETAILED TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS (Chapter 17 & 20):
Separations between occupancies - fire ratings and construction: B-2 and M=l, B-2 and R=N
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS (in hours) from Table 17A:
ELEMENT III-l hour
Exterior Bearing Walls ** 4 (2203-a)
Interior Bearing walls 1
Enterior Non-bearing Walls *** 4 (2203-a)
Structural Frame 1
Permanent Partitions * 1
Shaft Enclosures 1
Floors 1
Roofs 1
Exterior doors and windows (2003-a)
Inner court walls 1 (504c)
* EXCEPTIONS:
Fixed partitions serving single tenants which do not form corridors serving occupant loads greater than 30 may be:
A. Non-combustible materials
B. Fire treated wood
C. 1-hour construction
D. Light (wood) construction up to 3/4 of room height
** Exterior non-combustible bearing walls may be 2-hour construction where openings are permitted.
*** Exterior non-bearing walls may be non-combustible 1-hour construction where unprotected openings are permitted and non-combustible 2-hour construction where protected openings are required.


Page 69
Attic draftstops required (3205b) 1000 s.f. if horizontal distance is 60 ft. and not sprinkled.
Attic ventilation required
WEATHER PROTECTION (Section 1707)
PARAPETS (Section 1709)« Not required
PROJECTIONS (Section 1710):
Projections which occur where openings are not permitted must be 1-hour construction or heavy timber (2106)
Cannot extend more than 12" into such areas
INSULATION (Section 1713)
SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTORS (Section 1714)
ATRIUMS (Section 1715)
MEZZANINE RESTRICTIONS: May be wood or unprotected steel -must be less than 33^ of the floor area; ceiling height minimum 7'-0"
BUILDING EXITING REQUIREMENTS
Minimum of 2 exits required (3303a)
Minimum exit door widths: 3'-0" (3303b)
EXIT ARRANGEMENT: Shall be placed a distance apart
not less than J of the max. diagonal dimension of the building or area served
Corridor width: 44" (3304b)
Dead end corridor limit: 20" (3304f)
Stairway widths: 36" (3305b)
Stairway landing depths: 36" (3305f)
Door swing to be in the direction of travel if serving a hazardous area or if o.l. is greater than 50. Min. 90°. Landings at doors shall have a min. length of 5'-0"
Exit doors must be marked
Ramp requirements: Max. slope 1 in 10 - landing/5ft. of rise;
top landing = 5 ft. min.; bottom - 6 ft. min.
Riser/Tread limits: Max. rise 7*5 inches; min. tread 10 inches
DETAILED CODE REQUIREMENTS (Chapters 29-43,47,54 and appendix):
ENGINEERING REGULATIONS & REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION (Chapters 23-29)s
Occupancy Unit Lj.ve Loads: Uniform load 50 psf
Concentrated 2000 lbs/2.5 s.f.


Page 70
Dead load requirements: snow load for Douglas County 40 psf OCCUPANCY (Chapter 7): Classification A-3
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Chapters 17&20): Minimum by code: V-N
Minimum for state: III-1HR
ACTUAL LOCATION ON PROPERTY (Refer to Chapters 5 & 20):
Not applicable
FIRE RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS (based upon location on property - Table 5A): 2-hour if less than 5 feet,
1-hour if less than 40 feet
REQUIREMENTS FOR OPENINGS (based upon location on property -Table 5A): Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF 03 SECTIONS OF CHAPTER 20: None
BUILDINGS LOCATED ON SAME PROPERTY (Section 504): Not applicable
COMPUTED FLOOR AREA OF OCCUPANCY AREA: 6,000 s.f.
BASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA (Table 5C): 13,500 s.f.
ALLOWABLE INCREASES IN FLOOR AREA:
SEPARATION ON 2 SIDES (Sect. 506-a-l):
Area may be increased at the rate of 1^^/ft. by which minimum width exceeds 20 feet; maximum of 50$ increase:
30' X 1.25 = 25^ allowable increase 13»500 X .25 = 3375 s.f. allowed increase
INCREASES FOR AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS: Not applicable
INCREASES FOR MULTIPLE STORY BUILDINGS: 13,500 s.f.
MEZZANINES: Not applicable
BASEMENTS: Not applicable
TOTAL ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA: 30.375 s.f.
ALLOWABLE HEIGHT (65) and number of stories (2) from Table 5°
ALLOWABLE STORY INCREASE FOR approved automatic fire sprinkler system (Section 507): Not applicable


Page 71
OCCUPANT LOAD (See Section 3302 & Table 33-A): From Table 50:
USE MINIMUM OF TWO EXITS OTHER THAN ELEVATORS ARE REQUIRED WHERE NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS IS AT LEAST OCCUPANT LOAD FACTOR ACCESS BY MEANS OF A RAMP OR AN ELEVATOR MUST BE PROVIDED FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED AS INDICATED
Auditorium 50 7 Yes
Conference Rooms 50 15 Yes
Exhibit Rooms 50 15 Yes
Library 50 50 No
Locker Room 30 50 Yes
Lounge 50 15 Yes
TO DETERMINE OCCUPANT LOAD (Refer Sect. 3302-a): ASSOCIATED floor area : 6,000 s.f. = ^-22 Area occupant Load
DETAILED OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS (Chapter ?)t
Enclosure of vertical openings (1706)- more than 2 floors,
1-hour rated
Light ( 05 sect., ch. 6-14)- natural light from min.
opening of l/lO floor area
Ventilation- Min. l/lO floor area
Sanitation- Min. 3 s.f. window or 100 s.i. duct for each W.C.
Toilet facilities for each sex is required
Each toilet room shall have:
1. exterior operable window of 3 s.f., or
2. vertical duct of minimum 100 s.i. (with 50 additional s.i. per facility), or
3. mechanical ventilation with complete air change each 15 minutes — must discharge to the exterior; minimum 5 feet from any operable window


Page 72
DETAILED TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS (Chapters 17& 20)s
Separations between occupancies - fire ratings and construction: A—3 and B-2=N; A-3 and E-2=N
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS ELEMENT
Exterior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Permanent partitions Shaft enclosures Floors Roofs
Exterior doors and windows Interior court walls (504c)
Attic draftstops required (3205b)
Attic ventilation required (3205c)
(in hours) from Table 17A III-l hour 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1
2003b
1
enclosed attic space:
30,000 s.f.
enclosed rafter 1/150 or 1/300 for 2 vents
Wall and Opening Protection
Fire resistance of exterior walls 1
Openings in exterior walls 3/4 hr.


Page 73
BUILDING EXITING REQUIREMENTS (Chapter 33):
Number exits required each floor (3302a) Number exits required total building (302a) Required exit width (3302b)
Ramps required
2
50/tot. occupancy
36 in.
yes
ARRANGEMENT OF EXITS: Shall be placed a distance apart
not less than \ of the length of the max. diagonal dimension of the building or area served.
Corridor widths (3304b)
Dead end corridor limit (3304f) Corridor construction (3304g) Stairway widths (33058)
Stairway landing depths (3305f) Stairway to roof (3305o)
Exit signs required (3312b)
Exit signs separate circuit (3312c)
44 in.
20 ft. see above 44 in.
36 in.
only if more than 4 stories yes
not required
DETAILED CODE REQUIREMENTS (Chapters 29-43, 47, 54 and Appendix):
Fire extinguishing system required (3802b) when floor area
exceeds 1500 s.f.
ENGINEERING REGULATIONS & REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION (Chapters 23-29):
Occupancy Unit Live Load
Uniform Load 100 psf
Concentrated Load 0
Other Requirements
OCCUPANCY (Chapter 7): Classification E-2
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Chapters 17 & 20): Minimum by Code : V-N
Minimum for State: III-1HR
ACTUAL LOCATION ON PROPERTY (Refer to Chapters 5 & 20):
Not applicable
FIRE RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS (based upon location on property - Table 5A): 2 hours less than 5 feet
1 hour less than 10 feet
REQUIREMENTS FOR OPENINGS (based upon location on property - Table 5A): Not permitted less than 5 feet
Protected less than 20 feet


Page 74-
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF 03 SECTIONS OF CHAPTER 20: None BUILDINGS LOCATED ON SAME PROPERTY (Section 504-): Not applicable COMPUTED FLOOR AREA OF OCCUPANCY AREA: 900 s.f.
OCCUPANT LOAD (See Section 3302 & Table 33-A):
From Table 50:
USE MINIMUM OF OCCUPANT
TWO EXITS LOAD
OTHER THAN FACTOR
ELEVATORS ARE
REQUIRED
WHERE
NUMBER OF
OCCUPANTS IS
AT LEAST
ACCESS BY MEANS OF A RAMP OR AN ELEVATOR MUST BE PROVIDED FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED AS INDICATED
Classrooms
50
20
Yes
TO DETERMINE OCCUPANT LOAD (Refer Sect. 3302-a): Associated Floor Area: 900 s.f. = 60 - Area occupant load
DETAILED OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS(Chapter 7):
Enclosure of vertical openings (1706)
Light (05 sect., ch. 6-14-)
Ventilation
Sanitation
Fire extinguishing system required (3802b) Wet standpipes required (3805)
Combination standpipes required (3802)
Special hazards and requirements (see group occupancies) Exceptions and deviations (see group occupancies)
more than 2 floors-1 hr.
l/lO floor area
l/20 floor area
W.C. provided at 1:35
students, min. 1 lav.
for each 2 W.C.
if floor area exceeds
1500 sq. ft.
only if 4- stories or
20000 s.f./floor
only if floor area 1500
sq. ft. without enough
windows
Chimney special, heating plant 1 hr. enclosed Heating plant if 400,000 Btu/hr.


Page 75
DETAILED TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS (Chapters 17 & 20):
Separations between occupancies - fire ratings and construction: E-2 and A-3=N, E-2 and R=1
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS (in hours) from Table 17A
ELEMENT III-l hour
Exterior bearing walls 4
Interior bearing walls 1
Exterior non-bearing walls k
Structural frame 1
Permanent partitions 1
Shaft enclosures 1
Floors 1
Roofs 1
Exterior Doors and windows 2003b
Inner court walls (50^c) 1
Wall and Opening Protection
Fire resistance of exterior walls 1
Openings in exterior walls 3A
BUILDING EXITING REQUIREMENTS (Chapter 33):
Number of exits required total area (table 33-A) 3-1 per room
Required exit width (3303b) 3,-0”
Ramps required Corridor widths (3305b) yes % in.
Dead end corridor limit (3305e) 20 ft.
Corridor construction (330%) see above
Stairway widths (3306b) 36 in.
Stairway landing depths (3305f) 36 in.
Exit signs required (3312b) no
ARRANGEMENT OF EXITS: Shall be placed a distance apart not less
than \ of the length of the max. diagonal dimension of the building or area served.
DOOR SWING to be in the direction of travel if serving a hazardous area of if O.L. is greater than 50.
DETAILED CODE REQUIREMENTS (Chapters 29-^3t ^7. 5^ ard Appendix):
ENGINEERING REGULATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIALS OF C0N_ STRUCTION (Chapters 23-29):
Occupancy Unit Live Loads Uniform Load Concentrated Load
kO psf
1000 lb/2.5 ft


Page 76
OCCUPANCY (Chapter 7): Classification H-3
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Chapters 17 & 20): Minimum by Code: II
Minimum by States II-1HR
ACTUAL LOCATION ON PROPERTY (Refer to Chapters 5 & 20)s Not applicable
FIRE RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS (Based upon location on property - Table 5A)s 4 hours less than 5 feet,
2 hours less than 10 feet
REQUIREMENTS FOR OPENINGS (Based upon location on property -Table 5A): Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 20 feet
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF 03 SECTIONS OF CHAPTER 20s None BUILDINGS LOCATED ON SAME PROPERTY (Section 504): Not applicable
COMPUTED FLOOR AREA OF PROPOSED STRUCTURES 4000 s.f.
BASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA (Table 5C)s 11,200 s.f.
ALLOWABLE INCREASES IN FLOOR AREAs
SEPARATION ON 2 SIDES (Sect. 506-a-l)s
Area may be increased at the rate of 1^%/ft. by which minimum width exceeds 20 feet; maximum of 50% increases
20 X 1.25 = 25% allowable increase 11200 X .25 = 2800 s.f. allowed increase
INCREASES FOR AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMSs Not applicable INCREASES FOR MULTIPLE STORY BUILDINGS: Not applicable MEZZANINESs Not applicable BASEMENTS: Not applicable
TOTAL ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA: 14,000 s.f.
COMPUTED HEIGHT OF BUILDING FROM GRADE (Section 409): 15 max.
COMPUTED NUMBER OF STORIES (Section 420): One
ALLOWABLE HEIGHT (65) and NUMBER OF STORIES (2) from Table 5D.
ALLOWABLE STORY INCREASE for approved automatic fire sprinkler system (Section 507)s Not applicable


Page 77
OCCUPANT LOAD (See Section 3302 & Table 33-A): From Table 50:
USE MINIMUM OF TWO EXITS OTHER THAN ELEVATORS ARE REQUIRED WHERE NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS IS AT LEAST OCCUPANT LOAD FACTOR ACCESS BY MEANS OF A RAMP OR AN ELEVATOR MUST BE PROVIDED FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED AS INDICATED
Garage 30 200 Yes
Workshops 50 50 Yes
All others 50 100 —
TO DETERMINE OCCUPANT LOAD (Refer Sect. 3302-a):
Associated floor area: 4000 s.f. = 20 - area occupant load
DETAILED OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS
Light (05 sections, ch. 6-lb) Ventilation
Sanitation
Fire extinguishing system required (3802b)
Dry standpipes required (3803)
Wet standpipes required (3805)
Combination standpipes required (3802) Special hazards and requirements (see group occupancies)
l/lO floor area l/20 floor area, if flammable liquids are used, air change rate = b/hr. Auto 2 repair needs 1 cfm/ft^ separate W.C. for each sex when no. of employees exceeds 4 when floor area exceeds 1500 sq. ft. no
if floor area exceeds 20000 s.f. no
non-combustible floor surface; flammable liquids stored according to UBC standard 9-1; boiler or center heating unit separated from bldg, by 2 hr. fire resistive occupancy separation


Page 78
DETAILED TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS (Chapter 17 & 20):
Separation between occupancies - fire ratings and construction: H-3 and B-2=l, H-3 and A-3=4
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS (in hours) from Table 17A:
ELEMENT II (non-combustible/lhr.)
Exterior bearing walls 1
Interior bearing walls 1
Exterior non-bearing walls
Structural frame
Permanent partitions
Shaft enclosures
Floors
Roofs
Exterior doors and windows Inner court walls (504c) Wall and Opening Protection Fire resistance of exterior Openings in exterior walls
BUILDING EXITING REQUIREMENTS
Number of exits required each
1
1
1
1
1
1
19038
1
walls 1
3/4 hr. (19038)
(Chapter 33)*
floor (3303a) 1
ARRANGEMENT OF EXITS: Shall be placed a distance apart not less
than ^ of the length of the max. diagonal dimension of the building or area served.
DOOR SWING to be in the direction of travel if serving a hazardous area.
Corridor width (3305b) 44 in.
Dead end corridor limit (3305c) 20 ft.
Corridor construction (3305g) see above
Stairway widths (3306b) 36 in.
Stairway landing depths (3306f) 36 in.
Exit signs required (3314a) no
DETAILED CODE REQUIREMENTS (Chapters 29-43, 47, 54 and Appendix):
ENGINEERING REGULATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIALS OF C0N_ STRUCTION (Chapters 23-29):
Occupancy Unit Live Loads
Uniform load 75 psf ?
Concentrated load 2000 lb/2.5 ft^


Page 79
It is necessary that a central focus of planning and design efforts be directed toward the economic consequences of decisions. The state shall incur costs at all stages of project development and operation . . . which may significantly affect;
(1) the initial capital investment required for land acquisition and improvement, construction and even interim financing,
(2) the cost of personnel, supplies, energy, and services required for facility operation and maintenance over its use,
(3) the need for, and the cost of, cyclical repairs, replacements, and alterations to the facility, and finally,
(4) the cost of salvage and disposal associated with the cyclical renewals or with the ultimate disposal of the building.
The fact that all of these costs are spread out over a time requires an evaluation of initial expense and long term expense. Consideration must be given to the fact that building costs have risen; financing for building ventures is limited, and expensive; as well as, the rapid growth of building operating costs.
While it is impossible to do a complete and substantially accurate life cycle cost analysis at the Building Program Plan Stage, it is possible to establish basic project budget parameters under which detailed life cycle cost analysis of various building systems can be undertaken.
Cognizant of the fact that initial and ultimate building costs are directly impacted by the building configuration, materials, climatic conditions and orientation, we outline herein some minimum standards which form the basis of the initial project budget estimate:
Exterior masonry materials (not painted).
Type Ill-one hour construction.
Low maintenance interior floor finishes.
Accommodation of some daylighting principles.
Accommodation of snow and cold weather requirements.
The estimate for the basic project construction shall be $60.00 per square foot. All life cycle cost analysis should be based upon a twenty year life, and a 10% discount rate.


General Space Requirements


GENERAL SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Page 80
SUMMARY OF SPACES.
The following is a summary of the primary functional areas required by the Chatfield Environmental Education Center and Park Headquarters, along with a general description of the tasks or activities which typify them. Following this summary is a spatial inventory which itemizes each space, and lists all of the incidental requirements specific to each function. This is then followed by an inter-relationships matrix, which graphically depicts the functional relationships between spaces.
VISITOR SERVICES.
I. Entry Vestibule - 330 square feet
A. Place to enter and exit building during operational hours
B. Create a sense of entry and progression
C. Provide airlock for climatic attenuation
D. West orientation desirable,
South orientation second choice
II. Reception/Lobby area -800 square feet
A. Central public space for visitors
B. Reception should serve as focus for people entering building
C. Place for park information
D. Interface between visitor services and park headquarters
E. Provides control point for display area
F. Entry point into display area, auditorium, classroom and public restrooms
III!. Exhibit Room - 3100 square feet
A. Central attraction for visiting public
B. Area for flexible and fixed displays, exhibits concerning the environment, conservation, history and special attractions
C. Provide close connextion to outdoors
IV. Auditorium - 3200 square feet
A. Area for 200 people
B. Provide necessities for lectures or audio-visual presentations.
V. Classrooms - 2 at 350 square feet each
A. Informal, flexible area used for orientation of visitors to outdoors
B. Provides direct access to outdoors


Page 81
VI. Public Restrooms - 2 at 400 square feet each
A. Provides easy accessibility and visibility to visitor
B. Provides service for peak loads
VII. Secretary/Reception - ‘200 square feet
A. Provide information to visitors
B. Map sales, etc.
C. Control area for entry to park headquarters
D. Surveullance of display area
E. Some general business functions
VIII. Observation Deck
A. Second story viewing area
B. Accommodates panoramic views
VISITOR SUPPORT AREAS.
I. Park Naturalist Office/Lab Area - 200 square feet
A. Responsible for directing activities of study groups and researchers
B. Controls interpretive displays, activities involved in wildlife and vegetation management and documentation
C. Area for office and laboratory functions as well as small group meetings
II. Work Room/Graphics Room -1200 square feet
A. Workspace for designing and building exhibits
III. Storage Room - 1 at .720 square feet
A. Exhibit storage
B. Part of workspace
IV. Darkroom -280 square feet
A. Small area for photographic processing of display material and documentation
V. Library/Meeting Room - 900 square feet
A. Quiet area provided for private study and research for individuals or small groups
B. Accommodate 70 lineal feet of full height book shelves
PARK ADMINISTRATION AREA.
I. Park Manager's Office - 216 square feet


Page 82
A. Area for park manager to efficiently coordinate all park activities
B. Accommodate small groups
II. Assistant Park Manager's Office - 216 square feet
A. Area for assistant park manager to delegate duties and control activities of rangers, maturalist, and maintenance section
III. Senior Ranger's Office - 1^4 square feet
A. Control of visitor services
B. Control of law enforcement and training
IV. Staff Room - 1 at 700 square feet
A. Accommodations for five full-time rangers to control different aspects of the park
B. Space will be subdivided with movable office partitions
V. Storage Room - 6^- square feet
A. Small area provided off staff room for storage
VI. Communications Room - 6^ square feet
A. Small area off of staff room to accommodate radio and computer equipment; should have acoustic separation
VII. Clerical Area - 360 square feet
A. Area for two people; must accommodate copier, file cabinets, office supplies, computer terminal and printer
VIII. Conference Room - 260 square feet
A. Private staff conferences
B. During peak season becomes seasonal staff offices of 8-15
IX. Employee Lounge - 300 square feet
A. Accommodations for staff lunches and breaks with provisions for preparing small meals
B. Accommodate cabinets and refrigerator
X. Employee Restrooms/Locker Room - 2 at 200 square feet
A. One for each sex
B. Accommodate restroom facilities and 15 lockers for private storage and dench
C. Direct access to physical exercise room


Page 83
XI. Physical Exercise/Training Room - 720 square feet
A. Area for wol*k outs with weights and other equipment
B. Self-defense training
C. Should connect to outdoor hard surface
XII. Evidence/Control Area - 6k square feet
A. Area for storage of evidence and fire arms, etc.
B. Security entrance
XIII. Infirmary - 200 square feet
A. Area for emergency medical care - two patients maximum with medical supplies
XIV. Interview/Detainment area - 6k square feet
A. Two small rooms connected where suspects in illegal activities can be questioned and detained for pick-up by local authorities
B. Also used for detaining visitors with undesirable behavior (e.g. drunks)
MAINTENANCE AREA (A physically separate building).
I. Foreman Office - 120 square feet
A. Area for foreman to control activities of maintenance and grounds keeping crews
B. Storage of reference material
C. Clear view of work area
II. Staff Office Room - 300 square feet
A. Flexible space divided into several areas
1. Plant mechanic (Building/Facilities/Utilities Maintenance
2. Auto mechanic (Vehicle equipment and maintenance)
3. Utility foreman (Grounds maintenance)
B. Must accommodate desk and storage for each area
III. Garage - 1000 square feet
A. Accommodation of two vehicle maintenance stalls
B. Tools and parts storage
IV. Garage - 4-000 square feet
A. Large area which can be accessed by large vehicles (boats, trucks, trailers, etc.
B. Storage for different maintenance operations e.g. carpentry, electrical, ground
C. Work shop
D. Vehicle storage
1. Boat
2. Maintenance trucks


Page 8*4-
PARKING.
I. Facility Support Parking - 25spaces, 7500 square feet
A. Visitor Services
B. Law enforcement
C. Administration
D. Maintenance
II. Employee Parking - 25 spaces, 7500 square feet
III. Storage Yard - 9000 square feet
A. Area for storage of maintenance vehicles e.g. tractors, tree planters and grounds materials
IV. Visitor Parking - 250 spaces, 75,000 square feet
SUMMARY OF AREA.
Area
Visitor Service Visitor Support Area Administration
Square Feet
Subtotal
Maintenance Area Total
13,580
7300
5300
31,600
5420
37,020
Parking
Facility Support Groups Visitor
Maintenance area
Total
15,000
75.000 9,000
99.000


Spatial Inventory


Page 85
Spac 0 Entry Vestibule Uaora 1 General Public 1 Educational
Group Visitor Services No. Rqd. 1 3q. Ft. 80-100 Research Special Interest
Actlvlty/Schadullng 9 am - 5 pm (after hours on special occasions) Moderate Activity Spaclal Naada Floor mat (recessed) Double Doors
Behavioral Charactarlatlca Entry/Exit Daalgn Charactarlatlca Clear open link to outside Western exposure desirable Airlock required Must maintain building security
Adjacancia* Flnlshaa & Furnishing* Trash can
Ralatad Activity Shaata Lobby/Reception/Secretary 1


Page 86
Space
Lobby Area
Group
Visitor
Services
No. Rqd.
1
Sq. Ft.
500-750
Uaara
General Public
Educational
Research
Special Interest
Actlvlty/Schadullng
9 am - 5 pm (after hours on
special occasions)
Entry, information and point of dispersal to display, auditorium, classroom, administrative areas
Spaclal N a a d a
Visual access from receptionist area
Information area
Telephone
Drinking fountain
Restrooms
Bahavloral Charactarlatica
Hub of activity
Daalgn Charactarlatica
Clear circulation
Inward orientation to display area
Natural lighting
Adiacanclaa
1
Flnlahaa & Furnishing*
Comfortable seating Information center
Ralatad Activity Shaata
Exhibit space Auditorium


Page 87
11 1 ■—1 ■: Space Auditorium I Users ! General Public ) Educational Groups Special Interest Groups
Group Visitor Services No. Rqd. 1 S q. Ft. 1600
Actlvlty/Schedullng 9 am - 5 pm (after hours on special occasions) Presentations, movies, lectures and group meetings Special Needs Area for chair storage Projector booth Equiped for audio-visual > needs
Behavioral Characteristics Flexible, no fixed seating Must be able to shut out light Design Characteristics High ceiling Well ventilated Must seat 200 Good acoustics
Adjacencies Finishes & Furnishings 200 Folding chairs
Related Activity Sheets Lobby


Page 88
Space I Uaara
Exhibit Space I General Public
1 Educational groups
Group Visitor No. Rqd. 1 Sq. Ft. 2200 Research Special Interest Groups
Actlvlty/Schadullng Special Naada
9 am - 5 pm (after hours on Views to outside
special occasions) Carpeted floor
Viewing of interpretive exhibits Low noise
Central attraction
Behavioral Charactarlatlca Design Charactarlatlca
Flexible with efficient circu- Daylight or well lighted
lation Good ventilation
Wall and floor displays Roomy and uncluttered
Maintain close connection to outdoors Tall space
Ad|acsncia* Flnlahaa & Furnishing*
Natural wood and glass Display panals and cases
Related Activity Sheets
Lobby
—


Page 89
Spac 0 Classroom I Utara 1 Special Groups 1 Visitors
Group Visitor Services No. Rqd. 2 Sq. Ft. 300 each
Actlvlty/Schedullng Lectures Movies Business meetings Committee meetings Special Needa Provide connection for the option of using two rooms together Acoustical isolation Natural lighting Display space Sink/counter/storage
Behavioral Characterlatlce Private discussion Occasional wall displays and/or slide show Varying meeting sizes (5-20) Deaign Characterlatlce White walls to refract natural lighting Large window area Flexible table and chair arrangements
Ad|acenclee Flnlahee & Furnlehlnge Carpeting Table and chairs Acoustical board on 2 walls Partition divider in center of room Electrical wiring for A-V sho
Related Activity Sheeta Display area


Page 90
Space Public Restrooms liters Visitors Special interest groups
Group Visitor Services No. Rqd. 2 one/ sex 9q. FI. 250 each
Actlvlty/Schedultng Access whenever facility is open Special Needs Adequate ventilation Visual privacy
Behavioral Charactarlatlca Standard use Isolate noise generated from within No view in or out Design Characteristics Handicap per code Must be easy to maintain
Adjacencies Finishes & Furnishings Water closets Sinks Tile floors and walls
Related Activity Sheets Lob.by


Page 91
Space
Observation Deck
U««r«
Visitors
1
Group
Visitor
Services
No. Rqd.
1
Sq. Ft.
500
Actlvlty/Schodullng
Available when building open
Special Need*
Railing built so children and handicapped can see
Behavioral C h a r a c t e r I a 11 c •
Allows people to view all of park and front range
Dtilgn Characteristic*
Clear, open
Ad|ac*ncle*
Finishes A Furnishing*
Fixed binoculars for viewing area
Related Activity Sheet*
Lobby


Page 92
Space Secretary/Reception f" — —— 1 Usara | 1 staff person plus room i for up to two helpers
Group Admin. Visitor No. Rqd. 1 3q. Ft. 100
Actlvlty/Schedullng 9 am - 5 pro General business functions Information for visitors, maps, permits, etc. Special Needa Close connection to administrative office Connecting door for access directly to administrative section
Behavioral Charactarlatlca Some quiet office work Much answering of phones and questions Handles supply orders to outside the community, scheduling visitors, mailings, etc. Hub of activity Design Characteristics Clear, open view to entry and display
Adjacencies Finishes & Furnishings Desk Phone File cabinets
Related Activity Sheets Administrative office Lobby —


Full Text

PAGE 1

ARCHIVES LD 11 90 Al2!. 1 985 H 332 ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRA Y Chatfield Environmental Education Center Thesis J \1. J\;\. Haddix

PAGE 2

ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY Chatfield Environmental Education Center An Architectural Thesis Presented To The College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver In Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for The Degree of Master of Architecture Mark McKinley Haddix Spring, 1985

PAGE 3

The Thesis of Mark McKinley Haddix Is Approved. Committee Chairman Principle Advisor University of Colorado at Denver May, 1985

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Special thanks to all the people in my life who have made the completion of my thesis possible. Without the generosity and graciousness of these knowledgeable people who have shared with me their love of architecture I could not have finished this thesis. Gary Sternberg and Jim Smith, my thesis advisors, provided me with inspiration and insight at key times during the conception and completion project. B u t most o f all , thanks to my wife, Terri, f o r all her support and hard work during this project. Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the State of Colorado Department of Parks and Recreation for the use of their Master Plan document of the Chatfield State Recreation Area which was used extensively in the preparation of this thesis.

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Introduction A. Project Statement B. Thesis Statement II. Background III. Historic Data IV. Site V. Climate VI. Energy Conservation VII. Codes and Special Requirements VIII. General Space Requirements IX. Spatial Inventory X. Functional Relationships XI. Design XII. Conclusions XIII. Bibliography XIV. Appendix 1 2 3-4 5-7 8-10 11-40 41-52 53-63 64-79 80-84 85-112 113-117 118-133 134 135-136

PAGE 6

.INTRODUCTION The Earth that harbors both wildlife and man is a finite ball. During the past century, man's numbers and his domination of the natural environment have increased dramatically, and his destructive impact on the wildlife and their habitats has increased proportionately. His environment-modifying tools are powerful, pervasive and destructive: earth movers, paving machines, ditchdiggers and city planners. Soil erosion and water and air pollution contribute further to the destruction of natural habitats. By all odds the harshest of man on wildlife has been through his modification of the natural environment into cities, highways and industries with all their supporting technologies. In Denver and it's suburban areas we can see this destruction first hand: as the metro area swells it threatens to "finish off" the rema1n1ng natural habitats of the foothill region from Colorado Springs to Fort Collins. Several ways of preventing this misuse of the environment are available. Education is the foremost in creating a society which will not only cure the symptoms of environmental problems such as water or air pollution, but eliminate the sauses as well. One problem with education however, is how to cope with educating a huge population,' such as in the Denver area. One way is to take advantage of existing open spaces near urban areas and put it to a greater use than just recreation. The state park systems have developed facilities which attract great numbers of urban dwellers. Denver is fortunate to have several such recreation areas. The Chatfield State Recreation Area which is only minutes from Denver and it's suburbs offers a very natural environment with an abundance of varied wildlife habitats. The area has a rural setting of relatively unspoiled river vallies and soft, rolling plains and the Rocky Mountain foothills which provides an impressive backdrop. The accessible open space and water surface provided has an immeasurable value because of its closeness to the Denver Metropolitan Area. The location of an environmental education facility at Chatfield could provide the needed environmental education that urban dwellers need to make intelligent decisions about ecological

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PROJECIT STATEMENT Page 2 This thesis involves the programming and design of an environmental education center and park headquarters for the Chatfield State Recreation Area. It will be developed on a small portion of the Chatfield State Recreation Area, which is located just southwest of /Denver. The program which utilizes .)lt,,OOO square feet is composed of four design components, visitor, visitor support, administrative and maintenance areas. The functions that the facility will provide for revolve around four themes: 1. To provide environmental education to the populus; 2. To help integrate environmental education with recreation by providing a stimulating environment to the 1.5 million yearly visitors; J. To provide a base for research activities in the surrounding area; and 4. To provide control and protection for the surrounding natural environments by accommodating park administration and law enforcement. In architectural terms this facility will bring together: 1. The community; 2. Special interest groups (e.g. Audubon Society, Sierra Club and various researchers); and ). Education and law enforcement personnel from the Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation. One of the main intentions of this facility will be to expose these groups to each other in a way which facilitates the action required to prevent the destruction of the environment.

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THESIS STATEMENT Page 3 When approaching an architectural design problem such as an environmental education center there are many important issues which influence the final design solution. Within this problem many of the issues will come from the wide range of activities which will occur in this building. But above and beyond these concerns for the functionality of the building are the issues that allow for the expression of individual values and concerns. These are the issues that are linked directly to the main concept of this project. This concept is one of environmental awareness, conservation and respect for the land. I believe that to be successful in relating this concept, the building itself must be designed in such a way as to facilitate a strong connection between the people and the natural environment. Although the beauty of the surrounding environment will be the major influence on visitors to this area, this facility should represent how the built environment can exist with and enhance the natural surroundings, instead of just consuming them. It is my hypothesis that with the use of the appropriate design solution that this connection with the natural environment will be strengthened. The particular areas of design on which I will focus will be: 1) Creating a strong connection between the building and the surrounding environment by use of the appropriate materials, structure and form; 2) Siting the building as to allow it to become part of the landscape; and 3) Creating interior spaces which have a strong relationship to the surrounding environment. In designing this facility it would be possible to use materials which through color, texture, form as well as the way .they are assembled provide visitors with a visual and psychological connection with the natural environment. Materials indigenous of this rural site such as ledge rock, quarried stone and timbers could provide a strong connection. It also could be possible to use man made materials such as concrete or metal if they are used in such a way as to be sympathetic to the natural surroundings. The appropriate siting of the building will be necessary to allow the building to become part of its surroundings.

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Page 4 The major landscape features are established on this site and are very desirable. When possible the aim will be to build onto them, feature the best, screen out and de-emphasize those that are less desirable and contrive structural forms in the best relation to the natural forms. The connection between the interior and exterior spaces must be strong if the facility is to promote the concept of having a firm connection to the environment. This connection can be promoted by encompassing the use of all the senses. Visually, external elements such as material and forms can be carried internally. Also views into the building will be considered as well as those out onto the landscape. The use of these elements should create a subtle transition between exterior and interior space thereby strengthening the connection.

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BACKGROUND Page 5 Location. The Chatfield Project is located on the South Platte River approximately 8 miles upstream from Denver. The project area covers portions of Jefferson, Douglas, and Arapahoe Counties. Interstate Highways 70 and 25 intersect at Denver and each passes within 15 miles of the project. Other State and Federal highways border the project area and provide excellent access. Accessibility. Transcontinental access is currently provided by eastwest I-70 and north-south I-25, both of which traverse within 15 miles of the project. A future bypass interstate route, I-470, will be located along the north boundary line of the project; it will -connect the two transcontinental routes and provide excellent access to the project. Local access routes consist of U.S. Highway No. 85, paralleling the eastern boundary of the project, and Colorado State Highway Nos. 121 and 75, serving the westerly portions of the project. Highways 85 and 121 are two-lane and hard-surfaced; Highway 75 is a four-lane, minimum-access type road. All are considered to be adequate for the life of the project. Titan Road and Roxborough Park Road will provide less than desirable access routs to the project during the initial public use period of project operation. Titan Road is two=lane, hard-surfaced, and adequate; however, Roxborough Park Road is only gravel-surfaced at the present time. Area of Influence. The current population of the Denver metropolitan area is estimated at 1,180,000 persons. The population is expected to increase approximately 4009000 persons each decade and reach approximately 2,450,000 people by the year 2000; this is based on figures compiled by the Denver Regional Council of Governments. Past experience indicates that the outward expansion of the Denver metropolitan area is greatly accelerated toward areas which offer ample water-surface recreation. It is reasonable to assume that by the year 1990 the Chatfield Project will become completely encompassed by urban development. The urban expansion patterns, population influx, and economic growth of the Denver area are among the highest in the United States. With many favorable factors in evidence to promote family-type urban living, it is assumed that the Denver area will continue its well-established growth pattern and will exercise an increacing demand for the water-oriented recreation that will be partially provided by the Chatfield Project.

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Page 6 across the area in wide alluvial plains. Much of the flat land, especially in the Deer Creek area, has been under irrigated cultivation. Upland areas near Riverside and Plum Creek have been under dryland cultivation. Other upland areas support native short grass-prairie type vegetation. An urban subdivision and numerous other homes recently existed on the site. Reservoir Operation. The multipurpose pool will normally be operated between elevations 5,426 feet, m.s.l. and 5,430 feet, m.s.l. Regulation for flood control will increase the level of the multipurpose pool whenever stream inflow exceeds 5,000 c.f.s., or whenever moderate to heavy runoff occurring in the area indicates that zero releases may be required to provide assurance of downstream flood protection. A temporary storage zone between elevations 5,426 feet and 5,430 feet will be utilized during periods when water is available. Regulation within this zone will be coordinated with the State of Colorado to assist them in programming for lake evaporation losses. The 10-year drawdown pool will be at elevation 5,423 feet, m.s.l. Water for initial filling of the lake will be purchased by the State of Colorado. Ecologic. Ecologically, the project area falls within the transition zone between the Rocky Mountain foothills and the high plains. The extremely varied history of past land use and diversity of site in a transition zone results in many species of fauna and flora.

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Page 7 Recreation. Recreational use of project lands prior to construction of project were primarily hunting, fishing, hiking and horseback riding. With the establishment of a 1,150 acre lake and adjacent land areas, recreational opportunities will be expanded greatly and will include all forms of wateroriented activity, such as boating of all types, water skiing, swimming, camping, picnicking, fishing and organized games. In addition, the project affords the unique opportunity of setting aside large areas in which the riparian habitat will be allowed to regain a natural setting for the enjoyment and study by students and naturalists. Although the project is in close proximity to heavily populated areas, visitors, nevertheless, can expect to see increasing numbers and species of wildlife that may find sanctuary within the project boundary. Anticipated Attendance. Initial visitation is expected to reach 1.4 million annually during the early years of project operation and to reach maximum limits of 2 million between the years 1985 and 1990. According to the Colorado Outdoor Recreation Plan, severe shortages of all types of recreational facilities exist in the Denver metropolitan area. Although it is recognized that the Chatfield Project cannot alleviate all of these deficiencies, it can provide a quality recreational experience for many persons associated with the intercity life of large metropolitan areas, as well as the more sophisticated type recreationist with camping trailers, boats and recreation vehicles. It is expected that a great amount of public pressure will be directed toward the operating agency to permit unrestricted use of the project after the saturation point is reached. As custodians of the project, the Corps of Engineers will encourage the operating agency to regulate public use of the project, when annual visitation reaches 2 million, to conserve the ecological and environmental qualities of the project, even to the point of temporarily closing selected areas to permit rest and recovery of the natural vegetation and wildlife habitat. Physical Characteristics. The area surrounding the Chatfield Lake is flat to gently rolling. To the west and paralleling the site are a series of scenic hogbacks which form the beginning of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The South Platte River and its tributaries, Plum Creek and Deer Creek, meander

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. ro I J ro 0 ro u --I

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HISTORICAL DATA Pag e 8 The site chosen for this project is within an area which is rich with natural beauty and history. Because of the Chatfield Dam Project in the early 70's, this area was investigated to locate valuable archaeological or historic sites in the area of the lake so that such sites would not' be destroyed during the construction process. During this time the University of Denver explored the known archaeological sites located on the project lands and found artifacts from early Indian settlements. Almost every site which produced artifacts belonged to the Archaic Horizon Tribe. A nearby Archaic site in Roxborough Park has radiocarbon date of 5780 ! 160 year B.P. These sites indicate a long pre-Woodland occupation of the area. On October 5, 1971, a quite unrelated discovery was made by earth moving equipment for the construction of the Chatfield Dam. A mammoth skull was discovered some fifty feet below the original surface. Glenn R. Scott of the U.S.G.S. estimates the age of this fossil to be 120,00 to 200,000 years old. Dr. Edward Lewis, paleontologist with the U.S.G.S., is studying the skull. It reposes in the U.S.G.S. offices in the Denver Federal Center. Five separate sites located on park land and one site located adjacent to park lands contain single buildings or groups of buildings which appear to have historic significance worthy of future preservation and possible interpretation. Two farmsteads and an early American, one-room school are located along the banks of Deer Creek and are within the project boundary. The farmstead located farthest upstream on the creek can be traced back to 1849, 12 years before the founding of Denver. The farmhouse has been enlarged several times: each expansion depicts a different era. The barns and outbuildings are of rough-sewn lumber held together with early American square anils. The other farmstead, although not as old as the first, is complete with dairy barn, silo and stock buildings. In the upper reaches of the South Platte River arm of the project, there are two buildings of early vintage, one is constructed of logs. They appear to have been vacant for some time and are showing the -effects of the elements. The State of Colorado of Parks and Outdoor Recreation has requ.ested that these two structures remain in their present state as a memorial to the early settlers that homesteaded in Colorado. In the Plaum Creek arm of the project, an old pumphouse, used to supply water for railroad steam

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Pag e 9 engines, exists; it is in a state of considerable disrepair. Located off-project and within close proximity to the pumphouse, there stands an old stone structure reputed to be an early post office. Support for this assumption is evidenced by the fact that the building is situated within the right-of-way of two railroads, which have been in their present location for a long period of time. All sites and buildings are included on the National Register of Historic Places. More recently, in the 1940's a subdivision was developed near the Platte River in Douglas County. The Riverside Subdivision consisted of a rural type arrangement with streets arranged in a rectangular grid forming large lots (Figure 1 and 2). In the process of building the reservoir and preparing the land to receive the State Recreation Area, this subdivision was completely removed. Except for the existing vegetation this land was brought back to a point (with grading and introduction of native plants) where it could sustain the native wildlife population. Once the land was restored state recreational facilities were placed in selected areas to provide a wide cross-section of activities ranging from nature studies to boating. The current layout of facilities is shown

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Figure A part of the Riverside subdivision showing woody vegetation before removal of buildings. ; 1 . •t..' lo' • . • < Pag e 10 Figure 2 Riverside subaivision after removal of buildings. Many trees were aeverely damaged by snow in October 1969.

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SITE TABLE OF CONTENTS I. CONTEXT A. Regional Context B. Site/Local Context II. SITE INVENTORY/ANALYSIS A. Landform 1. Topography/Elevation 2. Slope Analysis B. Natural Systems 1. Geology 2. Hydrology J. Soils 4. Vegetation s. Wildlife c. Visual Character D. Utilities III. SITE PLANNING/DESIGN GUIDELINES Page 11

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SITE Pag e 12 SITE SELECTION The site was chosen on the basis of the following criteria: * proximity to Denver * good southern exposure * panoramic view * moderate slope * good access * central location within Chatfield State Recreation Area * good relationship to historic and ecologic resources CONTEXT Regional Context. J The Chatfield Environmental Education Center site is locc{ted on the South Platte River approximately 8 miles upstream from Denver, Colorado and only minutes from Denver's growing suburbs. Denver and its adjoining metropolitan areas are settled into the foothills and plains of the Front Range of the Colorado Rockies. The population of the Denver Metropolitan is approximately 1.6 million and is expected to expand to 2.5 million by the year 2000 (Diagram 1). Much of the land nearby is privately owned but the project area is near Arapahoe and Pike National Forests as well as Roxborough State Park. Interstate Highways 70 and 25 intersect at Denver and each passes within 15 miles of the project. Other state and federal border the project area and provide excellent vehicular access (Diagram 2). Additional access to the area is provided by the Highline Canal Trail which services pedestrian, bicycle and equestrian modes of transportation. Site and Local Context. The site chosen for the Chatfield Education Center is a tract of land owned by the United States Army Corps of Engineers as part of the Chatfield Reservoir project. The Division of the State Parks and Recreation has acquired this land through a long term lease and is provided for by the Chatfield State Recreation Area following guidelines established by the State of Colorado and the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Chatfield State Recreation Area land covers portions of three counties -Jefferson, Douglas and Arapahoe -but the building site is located within Douglas County. Direct access to the site is by the main park road which is accessed by both state Highway 75 and Roxborough Park Road. Notable cultural features near the site are the Martin Marietta complex just south on Colorado 75, the Johns-Manville Corporate Headquarters to the northwest on the Deer Creek Road and the Chatfield Arboretum across Colorado 75 to the west. Housing developments extending from Denver are encroaching from the north and east. Also a small farming area lies to the south.

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Page 1.3 regional and local context are important, the most critical context is that of the C. S. R. A. itself. Several important aspects of this area make it ideal for the facility, both in its role as an environmental education center and a park headquarters. First it has an encompassing view of the maj.ority of the park as well as scenic views of the Front Range and plains. This is advantageous for displays in the orientation and educational areas as well as providing visual access to park rangers for the purpose of controlling activities of the patrons. The view to the site is also unique in that it can be seen from .the moment one enters the west gates of Chatfield until arrival at the facility. Also it can be viewed from state highway 7 5 as it by the western boundary of the park. Other important features are the location of major wildlife habitats which spread out in all directions from the site. Specifically the heron rookery, which is a unique feature of the wildlife population of the area. Located just a few hundred feet away from the site, this is the home for a group of Great Blue Herons. It consists of 27 acres of trees which have been left standing in the lake specifically to provide nesting areas for these birds. Also there are a variety of habitats readily accessible from the site by existing pedestrian trails. These relationships between the building site and different areas of the park can be seen in Figure SITE INVENTORY Landform. Topography/Elevation. The site area exists on the northwest rim of a land mass enclosing Chatfield Lake on its southern border. When water levels are normal (el. 5430') the site raises out of the water approximately 70 feet (el. 5500') and continues to the east as rolling plains and bluffs. Site elevations range from elevation 5480' (which is maxrumum flood level) to ele va*ion 5510'. The topography as seen in Figure shows one main ridge or bluff extending out from the west edge of the site which is surrounded on the north and south by gulches. Relatively level areas exist over the rest of the site. Slope Analysis. Although the majority of the site contains slopes from 3-8 % a variety of slopes exist along the lake side of the site. These range froms 3-,:8' % Gentle 8-15 % Moderate 15-25% Moderately Steep 25+ % Steep

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REGIONAL CONTEXT ( ; )•j I I I ' ' ..., _____ ... .....-. -\KANS I ----------4. ----------' :: _ , _ . , _ _ _ _ LOC ATION MA"' ) C • { I c r _r.._ J r---, I ' -' h _ _l L -, Page 14 N

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SITE LOCATION / ' ' . J I I ' ' ... '...._ Page 15 \ I I

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AREA POPU N Page 16 YEAR I 19 70 1980 1990 2000 METRO . POPULATIO 1 1,180.000 -' . LS65,000 2 , 000.000 2 .450,000

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ACCESS ROAD SITE CONTEXT EXISTING FEATURES . -..... \. M 'I .:::.:, D 50 YEAR FLOOD Page 1'0

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SITE TOPOGRAPHY MAP . -....... I b I r 50 YEAR FLOOD

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.. 1•.0 •• 22 SITE ELEVATION M lt J I I ; .. c 0 .. 0 .. " c :. " T I T A.., Page 19. ? \ co. , _ LEGEND: EL. !>3!o0 -EL. !>375 EL. 5375 E L. 5400 o;;:;';;"(dj ! EL. 5-400 • EL 542!. N EL.5425 •• EL.!>-450 . , EL..!>.oC50 El-!>ot7S EL.S.ot75 EL.5!>00 . . . . I EL.!>!>OO EL. !>!>25 T EL. !>!>25 EL !'>550 (.:_::::::::;::::;::::::::! EL. 5!>!>0 -EL.5!>75 EL.!>575 EL.. 51500 EL. !>600 EL. !>625 EL. 5625 EL.56!>0 '""' Zl

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Page 20 For the purpose of this project those areas with moderate to steep slopes will be avoided as they represent the eroding edge of the lake shore as well as areas of natural drainage for the rolling plains to the east. The site itself will be pulled back from the edge of the lake to a point where it is protected from possible flood conditions and shore erosion, yet keeping important views of the lake and heron rookery. Natural Systems. Geology. The underlying geologic material throughout the site is slocum alluvium. Fill-terrace deposits of Slocum alluvium are extensively exposed between the South Platte River and Plum Creek. Slocum allUY.ium is also found on the west boundary of the Chatfield Reservoir site. Slocum alluvium has a moderate reddish-brown color, coarse texture, good stratification, and deep weathering. Grain size of the alluvium varies from large boulders in deposits close to the mountains to silt in terrace deposits along the South Platte River. All deposits of the alluvium are poorly sorted and contain much silt and clay. The thickness of this alluvium ranges from 15 to nearly 100 feet. Hydro logy. Figure shows the direction of surface run-off for rainfall and snow melt. Intermittent streams are formed in the gulches on either side of the site. These flow only during heavy rainfall and snow melt run-off during the spring. Ground permeability is high in the Truckton on very steep slopes because of the high permeability of the soils. Soils. Soils of the Riverside area are unnamed loam soils, Blakeland and Orsa loam, Truckton Series and a small area of Newlin Series. These soils have a low water holding capacity and have a moderate to severe rating for wind erosion hazard. Soil types on the site are composed of two types: the Truckton Series and the Newlin Series. The truckton series are deep, dark-colored sandy loam soils. They occur on gently undulating to hilly uplands. The surface layer is a very dark-brown sandy loam about 4 to 18 inches thick. It is hard when dry and has a weak subangular blocky structure. The subsoil ranges from 8 to JO inches in thickness and consists of two layers. The upper-

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SITE SURFACE HYDROLOGY MAP "-----1.-'-I 5 . I Q 50 YEAR FLOOD

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Pa g e 22 most layer is a brown sandy loam. The lower part is a light yellowish-brown sandy loam with less clay than the above layer. The underlying material is a very pale brown sandy loam to sand with depth. Arkosic sandstone or shale may occur at a depth of 40 inches or more. Truckton soil is well drained. Surface run-off is slow to medium and internal drainage is rapid. Capacity to hold water is moderate to low. Truckton soils have hard setting qualitities when dry that slow water intake. Sloped are 3 to 8 percent. The Newlin series consists of moderately deep, dark colored noncalcareous soils. The surface layer, about 3 to 10 inches thick is a dark grayish-brown gravelly sandy loam. The subsoil is about 14 inches thick and contains two layers. The upper layer is a brown gravelly sandy clay loam. The lower layer is a brown gravelly sandy loam. Below the subsoil is noncalcareous sand and gravel extending to depths of 60 inches or more. Newlin soils are well drained. Surface run-off is medium to slow and permeability is moderate. Water holding capacity is moderately-low. Slopes range from 8 to 30 percent. Important characteristics of these soils are shown in Table Locations on the site are shown in Figure Typical soil characteristics of the site are listed below: Depth From Surface (feet) 0.01.5 Sandy Loam and clay 1.53.0 Silty sand and gravel, moist, medi urn dense 3.05.5 Sand and gravel with some clay and rock fragments, dense 5.0-15.0 Arkansoic sandstone Bearing Capacity: good (3500-4000 psf) see Soils/ F ou nd atio n Shink/swell and frost heave. potentialz high Average permeability: good Water percolation test: 1.68 inches/hour Slope stability: good due to well graded texture

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SITE SOILS D TRUCKTON SERIES NEWLIN SERIES (] 50 YEAR FLOOD

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SoU 11.-Depth B lakeland Ser!et 0-66'' 0" llreuor Striu 8-JO" 30" Truck ton Ser!eo 0" 0-22" !levlln Serieo 22-60" Consists !lev lin-Satanta 0-30" C01111>lU 30 60" Blake land and Oru 0" S and loema Poorly drained 0-20" lot!Oy alluvial •oila 20" Un-named clay loam 0 -20" and c laz sol! a 20-60" un ... name:d loam 0-20" aoila 20"' SOHE IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF CHATFIEUJ SOILS Available ""ter Suitability Texture pH Perm .. billty 2 ao 1ource ) tn/ln. o f •oil of to ooll loamy •and and !e:nd .OS .08 6. 2 . 7. s rapid poor •andy loam .08 .12 6.5.6 rapid fair .-ndy clay loam . 12 •• 20 6.5-7.6 moderate .. ndy loam to sand . 06-.12 6.5-7.6 rop!d sandy Loam .08. 12 6.S.S rapid poor-fair gravelly loam and .08-.16 6. 5-7' 6 moderate poor ""ndy clay loam s11nd and .sravel .OS .07 6.5.5 rapid of 307. Satanta •nils. Newlln •olio ore llke above description Satant• a a follova: clay loam .14-.21 6.0.0 moder•te !oir-good loa"' '12 •• 20 7.0-8 .o oandy loam and .OS .10 6.0-7.0 rapid poor loa ••ndy loam to '12 .20 6.5-8.0 moderate poor fair clay stratified sands to clays voriablo variable moderate-rapid clay loam and clays .16 '21 6.5.5 slow poor clays and •hale .16-.21 7.0-9.0 very slav l oam to clay loatD .12-.20 6.5.0 moderate fair-good clay loam to •andy l oam .08 •. 16 6.5.0 moderate Wind ero1l.on haurd severe ataderate to aevere t moderate Ia evere moderate I!DOdertte aevere lov moder8te 1. Available waterholding capacity gives the approximate amount of water held in aotl in a form pl•nta can readily uae. It ia an estimate of the Yater that the ao!l holda between field capacity and the wilting point. 2. Penoeobillty !a the "in place" permeability and estimated from soU atructure and poro•ity and compared with penoea bility teota on undisturbed cores of similar aoil material. Claaaea used are: slow, le•a than .63 Inches per hour; moder•te, . 63 to 6.3 inches per hour; r•pid, over 6.3 inches per hour. J. Ratingt for auitability so source of topsoil may be poor because of low organic matter content, notural fertility, mwy have been eroded, or are difficult co hAndle, en 0 r() :I: )> ::0 f) -1 m ::0 en -1 () en '"d PJ Otl CD N .{::"

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Page 25 Soil depth: varies, 0-JO' in area, 5-15' average. Soil erosion Less than 2' poses severe development limits due to difficulty of excavation. Shallower soils exist on steep slopes, deeper soils on gentle slopes and near bottom of slopes. potential: varies 0-15% slope Low 15-25% slope Moderate 25+ % slope Severe Ecology. This site is located at the heart of an especially rich and well developed rraparian ecosystem. Studies show that this raparian ecosystem supports an unusually high number of bird populations, primarily because of the diversity of habitats and proximity to the mountains. A significant number of mammals have also been observed, including deer, muskrat, raccoon, fox, beaver, rabbit and squirrel. For the purpose of this project with its educational foundations this section will give a general view of the entire Chatfield park area. Vegetation. The South Platte River comes out of the mountains at Waterton and turns northeast on its way from the Rockies to the Gulf of Mexico. In the foothills, before it exits at Waterton, it courses through a canyon bordered by rocky cliffs, bruchy hillsides largely covered with Mountain Mahogany and an occasional Rocky Mountain Juniper, and gullies filled with Scrub Oak and a few cottonwoods. Abruptly at its exit from the mountains, the river habitat changes into a plains river bottom, marked by healthy groves of cottonwoods. Other significant trees include Box Elder and some willows. Throughout its course, from the canyon to the Chatfield Dam area, it has a substantial undergrowth comprised of many shrubs; most noticeable are the Wild Plum, Rabbit Brush, currant Riker aureamp and various willows. Adjacent to the cottonwood groves are scattered cattail and bulrush marshes, a high plains habitat, and some cultivated farmlands. The extremely varied history of past use is reflected in the diverse herbaceous cover of the area. On the Riverside Subdivision and other homesites, a wide variety of introduced annuals and perennials can be found. Areas, which have been under dryland culti-

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Page 26 vation, have various amounts of cover ranging from none on recently-tilled areas to small grain, sorghum or corn stubble, and weeds. Irrigated land has been planted mainly to alfalfa or pasture grasses. The native rangeland supports blue grama, western wheatgrass, sideoats grama, western yarrow, yucca and other forbs. Noxious weeds, including poison ivy, field bindweed, Canada thistle and water hemlock, occur in numerous areas. A complete inventory of flora at Chatfield has been provided in Table • Plant material to be used for landscaping is called out in the Plant Management section of the appendix. On the building site itself many types of vegetation exist ranging from shrubs to mature trees. When viewing this area the initial appearance is that of mostly low ground cover (shrubs and grass, etc.) but on closer inspection it is discovered that the majority of the sit is covered with a crop of coniferous trees which range from two feet to five feet tall. In the near future these developing trees will drastically change the appearance of the area surrounding the building. Notably there will be a closure of the site to the south and east as the trees mature. This buffer should significantly decrease the effects of the winds which gust from the south during the winter months. Due to the location of the building site as it protrudes out onto the west ridge these trees should not effect the panoramic views and solar access of the site. Other significant vegetation is located in two areas (Figure ). The first is the gulch areas on either side of the site. These areas are overgrown with vegetation typical of the wild character of the river and lake edge. The natural shore, tall cottonwoods, wild plums and tangled thickets offer a variety of habitats to many different species of animals and birds, filling the varied niches of this environment. These areas which are protected from harsh winds and left undisturbed could provide a valuable asset for the environmental education center. The second area is a stand of trees which covers the point of western-most edge of the site. This stand is a mix of mature deciduous and coniferous trees and creates a pleasant protected area from which visitors can enjoy a view of Chatfield Lake, the rookery and the whole Front Range. Wildlife. The natural setting of the site provides habitats for a number of animal species. The density and variety of the wildlife population has been increasing within the park during the past few years as land development of the surrounding areas has increased. The distribution of animal species between habitat types is difficult to ascertain since many species utilize different environments for feeding and re-

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Page 27 production and move between habitats seasonally or daily. The following is a list of major wildlife species found in the Chatfield area. Large Mammals: Mule deer, porcupine and coyote Small Mammals: Cottontails, mink, muskrats, beaver, prairie dogs, squirrel and many small rodents --Birds: A large number of birds, many of the song-bird variety, abound in the area (Table ). A unique feature of the wildlife population is a small rookery of Great Blue Heron; it has a 60year record. The rookery is located in Chatfield Lake near the South Platte River inlet. The rookery trees, approximately 27 acres, have been left standing specifically to perpetuate the colony during the early years of project life. Replacement trees have been planted immediately upstream from the present rookery but beyond the multipurpose pool limits. Visual Character. The site contains a number of spectacular panoramic views from the ridge top. These survey the mountain and foothills of the Front Range from north to south, the Denver Metropolitan area, and Chatfield Lake itself. A number of intermediate views provide points of interest also. These consist of the heron rookery to the southwest and the overgrown areas of the gulches on either side of the site. To the east views are of the rolling bluffs and tree crops. These features screen the views of the campsites and recreational activities from visitors on the ground level but views of these areas are accessible from a second story which could be important in considering the placement of park ranger services within the facility. Another important aspect is that the placement_of the facility on this ridge would mean it could be seen from all the areas from the west. Utilities. Water Supply. All potabl e water will be provided from existing municipal water lines (Denver lr!ater Board) located on or adjacent to project lands. Sizes of existing municipal water lines are 24" and 54" in diameter. Service lines

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Pag e 28 to the facility are existing and can be seen on Figure 1 and 2. This line is supplied by a 6" main which branches to a 4" pipe for 800' and reduces to 2" and travels for 650' to the area of the proposed facility. The water pressure at the main is 70 psi. Static pressure information was not available. Sanitary Sewer. Sewage disposal in the area of the proposed facility is accomplished by an underground collection system. This system collects then pumps sewage into a stabilization pond. The most likely hook-up point would be in Campground D (see Figures 2, ), 4). The connection could be made to an existing 8" line at the man hole shown in Figure 5. This man hole is at IE 5496.50. Due to the fact that this is higher than the site, a pumping station would be installed at the facility. Natural Gas. Gas is supplied by Public Service of Colorado. This supply is carried by a 3" main which runs directly to the existing maintenance shed which occupies the proposed site. Electrical. Power is supplied by PSCC by underground lines. The likely connection point is in Campground D. At this point a 13.8 kV transmission line exists with a 225 kVA transformer (see Figure 4). Telephone. Service is currently supplied to the site by underground lines. Water Table. This varies during the year but indications are that 5440 feet is a good estimate. This is approximately 70 feet below the building level.

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Page 29 SITE PLANNING/DESIGN GUIDELINES. The following guidelines were derived from site analyses: 1) Mintain site character/Provide natural buffer zone 2) Respond to land forms, natural systems J) Protect from wind 4) Utilize good solar exposure to enhance outdoor areas adjacent to building 5) Repair disturbed areas 6) Terrace slopes if developed (parking) 7) Utilize panoramic views/Special events such as heron rookery 8) Preserve and utilize special sit features 9) Use native and suggested plantings for landscaping 10) Minimize roads and hard surfaces 11) Use vegetation to moderate climatic extremes 12) Utilize indigenous building materials (the use of such materials will help relate structures to their surroundings) I 13) Keep excavation and grading to minimum 14) Provide positive surface drainage away from building 15) Create enclosed courts and sun traps; use of textured construction materials and warm "primitive colors"

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Pag e 3 0 SITE VISUAL CHA RACTER PANORAMI ....J ::4 INTERMEDIATE ----._ lww!.... 1 ' I 50 YEAR FLOOD

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Pa g e 3 1

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AERIAL PHOTOS

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N t l C OLOFU-\DO / DOUGLAS ' COUNTY OPEN AREA ... ,_ ........ ..... HGIN D IOPOGRAPHil Con lOur Strum o r ( ll\ltnq lttt\ M,.umum fklOd Con t rol Pool Yur fiOo
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" • • t • ! . ,. ' ... AitT I N I,IIAR I [TTA c 0 L N f c BUR IED TELEPHONE CABLE AERIAL TELEPHONE CABLE -P-ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION -sSANITARY SEWER WATER DISTRIBUTION -GNATURAL GAS DISTRI B U T IO N ' "'' . ... , • • •U " ' ' 10 •••ll-l•,o l o t h i 111,100. >{H I U . B . ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, OMAHA COR ... 0,. I:NOIN(( ... OMAHA, Nlt.IIA.I( A SOUl" P\.ATT[ llt! V[R CHATFIELD LAKE, COLORADO MASTER PLAN UTILITY PLAN

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c 0 L 0 AD co. I , •• ! ! CONTROL POOL E L . 5500 0 T I TAN "C) A O FREQUENCY POOL E L 5 .. 50. 0 ': . . ' 30 ' " WATER USE B OATING SAILING, BIRO WAT CHING.HANO POWERED B QA.TS, f"ISHING AND SWIMJ..AING OPEN B O AT ING POWER B O AlS, WATER Sr\.IING AND r t SH ING WA!'(..(Lt:SS eOATINC H P OR LESS S AILING, F" I SH ING,HANO P O W ERE 0 B OATS AND SW IMt..AING LAND USE • • 0 PICNICKING, SWIMMING. FISHING, PLAYGROUNDS, BOAT LAUNCHING.WATER SKIING AND INTERPRETIVE r ACILITI[S OVERNIGHT US( TRAILER CAMPING,C.ROUP CAMPING, TENT CAMPING AND WALK-IN PRI"'-41TIV( CAMPING NATURAL OR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY M INI"-4UM VEHICULAR AC CESS. BICYCLE , HII'\ING AND BRIDLE TRAILS, FISHING AND NATURE STUDY AREAS OPEN AREA SCENIC AND BUFFER 20N[,AN0 TRAILS U . S . ARMY CNGINECA DISTRICT. 0Jio4AHA CO•III• Dr ChiDINCC•S Q ... AHA, "H: e .. .o.Sot.o. CHATFIELD LAKE, COLORADO MASTER PLAN LAND AND WATER USE MAP

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.. . , • ,. * -.. ,# • ! .... __ .. .;: • • ... -.. -• • • .. • .. • • • .. 41 .. .. • lit .. .. .. • Bicycle and Horse Trails at Chatfield SRA Page 3 7 • • ' . , S', • • _ , .. , •• •• .... BIC.Ve-1-& ----/II Ill Ill Ill Ill Ill Ill Ill PARK BouNDAR'{ NO HOR$: VSE WIL-L-(3E IN 'fHE AA!?:-AS. HOR6 MUSl'" S'fAY ON 1'"RAILS MARKED WITH A HORSE: -SHOE SI(M80t-• N f 81CVCLE5 W-\'l BE RIDDEN ON ROADS WITHIN TH PARK WHERE NECESSARY, BtrT" RIDERS ARE ADVISED TO USE BIKE PAIU5 FOR THE SAKE oF SAI=E.T'Y . CHATFIELD SRA •• ••

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TABLE INVENTORY LIST OF FLORA ON THREE CHATFIELD PUBLIC USE AREAS** Page 38 Abundance Svmbnl• Ab Abund.lll t Co Common Oc Occasional Ra Rare Absent FAMILY (family nazr.e) s acics ACERAC/:.'11:.' (Haple falw.! m c c iwn floribur.dt<., Indian hemp ASCLPI.l!J.t.CEAE (Milkweed fa:oily) Asclepias e n p c z..,aw:ian:z Asclepias s;:ur;osa BORJ.CIIII.C EI.L ( Bonge family) Cryptar.tita u i rpata Li tllosperr.r..tr.> i n C:.swn Merte>1s i a lCD:ceolata CACTACEAE (Cactus family) H iner's candle Puc coon Bluebells Opunti a spp. Cactus (Capper family} CltiiC">-1 s erri.at:: Roc ky !it. bee plant Cl CAPRIFCLUt;Ef..I: (Honeysuc<.le fa":J!ly) uta = :cn,;i;: Snn;.oberry buckbrush CAFIY O?iiY::.U..c;;;.:; (Pink family) SJFc.r:a r-:.u Souncin6 bet (Goosefoot family) Saltbrush C l:c>:op:>c""'" albllopifoUa Ambrosia elatio r Ambrosia tri[i da Arc!iwn m iraf.S Artemisia car.a Artemis:a frigid:: Artemisia pacifica Aste r ar: ncsus Aster biaalouii Aster cr"icoides Bahia opposi ti[olia Ce>1taur a a >2auscosus Cirsium Crcpis ccr tadc n . tJis Eri.ft.:!r c n d i V CJ';}t:"iS c:ii.s ':!alo!" Gri l'q:4. l!'r,3a Gu i t:a'!'t'>thraq H aplc;>..r;' ? th : 3 . u., 1.ul o:;us fi.:..l i.a r ::.;:.A.1 a•:r!uu: H e Z i c • • tlli•S pa ti.o luris H .... Z i a • : ! ii:a; ; .u-::: !Lt.; Iu.J a.r:: I I ,11-: , ; Yarro""• Western ragueed Common raguced Giant ragueed Burdock Sage Fringe sage Sage Sticky aster Heath aster Knaploleed Rabbi tbrush Chicory Canadian thistle Bull thistle Hor&eYeed Fl Poverty•<'ed C u a:tJCf"d Snak P\o'ecd Sunflovc r S u : ,{low(!r Ra Oc Ra Ra Oc: Oc: Oc Oc . Co Co Oc Co Oc Oc Oc Co Oc Ra Oc: Oc Oc Ra Oc Ab Co Oc Co Oc: Oc: Oc Ra Co Oc Oc Oc Co Ra Co Oc Oc Ab Co Co Co I'..Jrsh pli\ntaln ddc r Ra Ra Oc Ra Ra Ra Ra Ra Ra Ra Ra Ab Ab Ra Oc Ra Oc: Co Ab Co Oc Oc Ra Oc Co Co Co Oc R a Oc Ra Oc Oc: Oc Ra Oc Ra Ra Ra Ra Oc Ab Ra Oc Ra Ra Oc Oc Ra Co Oc Oc Co Ra Oc: R.a Oc Oc Ra Oc Oc Ra Oc Oc: R a C o Co Co Co Ra FAUILY (family name) COI:POSJTA (cont. ) pulchella Lactuca scariola I;;a!rS punctata L ygodesmia juncea t.'othocalais cuspidata Ratibida S e >1ecio Se>1ec-:o sparti.oides S ;mecio mutabi Zis SoEd c g j Jigantea S o !idago Soli ic.g o rigi.da J"ar =:::::W"I officicnde r :.e l espema rr.e2Q(70 camiCl.D'7Z The lcs;>e rma trifidu-. , Tc:..Jn:;e,: C a grar.di ,;'7.ora Common name Blue lettuce Prickly lettuce Dotted gayfeather Skeletonueed Prairie coneButterueed llutteNeed Butterueed Giant goldenrod Goldenrod Stiff goldenrod Dandelion Easter daisy Goatsbeard Cocklebur glory family} Bindweed l .ild morning glory Ra Oc: Co Ra Oc: Oc Oc Oc Oc Ra Oc Oc Co Ra Oc: Oc Oc Ra Co CO.'IVvLv::...:.(i:.'AF: (Horning CF.UCIFEP.EI. E family ) i •t.caria B :.h morn!ng glory •carecria drab a t er.e C or:rir.gia orier.ta1:(s pi"r.ata ::>raJ; a s nti t ;1i i incons?ic-..twn uirgi r:i ,:-,..., Rorippa s i r 1 ua t a Alyssum perueed Spreading yellovcress a!tissimum mustard Thlas;i aruc>2se Pennycress ELEACNACEAE (Oleaster family) cngustifolia Russian olive EUPiiO.'?B!AC::AE (Spurge fa:nUy) F:uph.orbi c de!cta Toothed spurg e Euphorbia marginate E:up l :oroi a s erpylli f o ! i a E up h o rbia robust::: Rocky Htn. spurge C EF.A!Il'I.CEAE (Geranium family} Erod i = cic:..tariWl Heronbill Oc Oc O c Co Oc Oc O c Ra Oc Oc: Ra Ra Oc Oc Ra CRAMIIIEA (Grass A c g { . lops cy Liru:Lica A gropy ror: de3crtot••"" l.g ropyron s mi thii Agros tis a lba 11•:6-.;p ogor: l:allii Goat grass Oc: l.ri s tida l orzri s c ta h'r.>:a fotU!J. ! r. Loua g racilis !h•:'":'Jii.S i.nr.l' mi c "icporzic;tr. &,•.,.•""':;([': Vu ... :t: Cor:. g!c.,._rat.a Crested wheatgrass Co Ra Western wheatgrass Co Slende r vheatgras s Oc Redtop Sand blucstetll Prairie threeawn Wild oats Sideoats cram" Blue 5;t"iltfla Srr.oNh bromc Japanese broce s::rass Orchard g rass Oc Co R.1 Co Ab Co Co A u Oc Ra :z: i5 u I ..... "' '""" Ra Ra Ra Ra Oc Oc Co Oc P.a Ab P.a Oc Oc O c Oc O c Ab Ra Oc Ra Oc: C o Co ,\b Ra Ra Ra Ra Ra Ra Oc Oc Oc Oc Co Ra Oc: Ra Oc Ra Ab Ra Oc Oc Oc Oc Oc Ra Oc Oc Ra O c Oc Ra Oc Ra R a O c r.a Ra O c Ab

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TABLE --Continued Page 39 (Family name) Gen11e CRAHINE:A (cont.) Common name Echinochlca crWJ Hordewrt pusillwrt Little barley Koelsria erie eata June crau Nuhl4nbergia Scratchgrau Nuhlsnbllrgia torryi Ring muhley Pa11iC1111 cc:piLl.a:N Witchgrau Phalarie Canary gru5 Phlell!l pratBIIBB Ti.alothy Poa pratanaie JCentucky bluegrasa Pol11pogon Rabbitfoot grasa Pwccinellia dietana Alkali-grass Schsdonnardwl paniculatw Tumblegrass Sstaria lutescene Yellow foxtail Sitanion l:ys triz Squirrel ta 11 sporobolus crjptandrua Sand dropsced Stipa comata Needle-and-thread Stipa rob us ta Sleepy grass H1DROPH1LLACGAE (Waterleaf family) E:llisia lea Ellisia Phaoslia heterophylla Scorpion-weed JANCACEAE (Arrawgrass family) Oc Co -Ra Co -Ra -Ra Co Ra Oc Ra Oc Oc Ita Oc Ra Ra Oc Ab Oc Co Ita Oc Oc Ra Oc Ra Ra Co Oc Oc OROBANCHACEAE: (Broomrape Orobanchs fasciculata PAPA VF:RACEAE (Poppy faaaily) Argcmone intermedia POLEMONIACEAE (Phlox family) Cilia calcarea Cilia candida t;ilia spicata Cancer root Prickle poppy PINACEAE (P 1ne family) Juniperus scopulorum PLA/ITACi ti/,CGI.E (Plantain Plan!a go lanceolata P ! antag:J purshii P!antag:J spi nuL osa Juniper family) English plantain Wooly .Plantain POL1iXJ.VACEAE (Buckwhea t JffusW11 FoZy;; o r w n c!Jcci,ewrr family) F:> lygo"'um pennsy lvpulZAS Cottonwood Oc Saliz WillO\I Ita s;.: r :;.Lt.'.:EAE • • (Sandalwood fa1111ly) Oc Ra Oc Oc Ra Bastard toad flax SAXIF.O./.CACEAE (Saxifrage family) .=.:.a!! s aul'i!w:: Current family) Castilleja integra Paintbrush Penstemo n a l p inus angWJti[olius Penstemon Per.stemo"' unilateralis Penstemon Mullein Oc SOLAliACC:AE (ZHghtshade family) Oc p ;:ysalis Lla Ground cherry Co -Oc II& -Oc Oc Oc Oc Co Ra Ra Ra Ra Oc Oc Ra Co Co Oc Oc -Oc Oc Oc Oc Oc Oc Oc Oc Oc Oc Ra Ra Ra Ra Ra Oc Oc Oc Ra Oc Ra Co Co Co Ab Ab Oc Oc Ra -Oc Oc Oc Oc Oc Oc Co Oc Oc Ra Ra Oc LINACEAE (Flu famHy) Linwrt lewisii Wild flax Ab Oc Physalis s ubglabrata Solan1411 rostratum Buffalo-bur Oc Oc Ra Coazoon mallo" Copper mallow Stickleaf Ra Co Ra Ra Co Ra Oc So lan1411 triflorum (Cattail f3mily) T-;;pha lati[olia Uf.f3LUFE:R:A: (Carrot C onium maculatum Cut-leaf nightshade-Cattail family) Spotted water hemlock Co MALVACEAE (Hallow family) Malva negLecta Sphaeralcea coceinea LOASACEAE (Loasa family) MJntaeLia nuda striata liYCTACIIIACE:AE (Four o'clock Nirabilis linearie family) Dc:.cus carot a Wild carrot Oc Nirabilis nyctagine a umbre.lla-wort Heart-leaf umbrelh-,.ort family) VERBt:.VACEAE (Vervain family) : ..:or!.'t!nc b!•ac t.:ata VI T ACt.'AE (Crape bmily) F ..:.rt henoaissus vi V! t i s V:A! pina Prostrate vervain O.VACRAC.:At: (Ev.,ning Primrose Gaura cocci,P.a Gao.r".l pm.:L [ l o:•a Prairie evening pr1mros
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Page 40 TABLE LIST OF BIRDS FOUND IN THE CHATFIELD AREA MAINLY ALONG THE SOUTH PLATTE RIVER IN THE VICINITY OF WATERTON* Great Blue Heron (amall rookery) Canada Gooae Mallard Gadwall Pintail Wood Duck** Blue-winged Tea 1 Green-winged Teal Leeser Scsup Coamon Goldeneye American Widgeon Bufflehead Coamon Merganser Turkey Vulture Goa hawk Red-tailed Hawk Rough-legged Hawk Harlan' 1 Hawk** Shsrp-ahinned Hawk Coopers Hawk Broad-winged Hawk** Osprey** Golden Eagle Bald Eagle** Harsh Hawk Prairie Falcon Pigeon Hawk Sparrow Hawk Ring-necked Pheasant American Coot Killdeer Spotted Sandpiper Coamon Snipe Ring-billed Gull Franklin's Gull Band-tailed Pigeon Rock Dove Mourning Dove Screech Owl Long-eared Owl Great Horned Owl Pygmy Owl Burrowing Owl Short-eared Owl Coamon Nighthawk White-throated Swift Belted Kingfisher Broad-tailed Hummingbird Red-shafted Flicker Hairy Woodpecker Downy Woodpecker Lewis's Woodpecker Eastern Kingbird Western Kingbird Dusky Flycatcher Olive Sided Flycatcher Say' a Phoebe Western Wood Pewee Horned Lark Tree Swallow Rough-winged Swallow Violet-green Swallow Barn Swallow Blue Jay Steller's Jay Scrub Jay Magpie White-necked Raven** Crow Pinon Jay Black-capped Chickadee Mountain Chickadee Coamon Bushtit** White-breasted Nuthatch Red-breasted Nuthatch Brown Creeper House Wren Winter Wren** Long-billed Harsh Wren** Rock Wren Canyon Wren Dipper (Water Ouze 1) Mockingbird Catbird Brown Thrasher Robin Hermit Thrush Swainaon's Thruah Townsend's Solitaire Golden-crowned Kinglet Ruby-crowned Kinglet Water Pipit Bohemian Waxwing Cedar Waxwing Northern Shrike Starling Solitary Vireo Red-eyed Vireo Warbling Vireo Black-poll Warbler** Virginia's Warbler Yellow Warbler Magnolia Warbler** Audubon's Warbler Myrtle Warbler Orange-crowned Warbler Black-throated Gray Warbler** Parula Wsrbler** Worm-eating Warbler** MacGillivray's Warbler Wilson'• Warbler Yellow-breaated Chat Yellow-throat American Redstart House Sparrow Weatern Meadowlark Bullock'• Oriole Rusty Blackwood** Brewer'• Blackbird Red-winged Blackbird Bronzed Grackle Cowbird Western Tanager Scarlet Tanager** Black-headed Grosbeak Evening Grosbeak Lazuli Bunting Cauin'a Finch Houae Finch Gray-crowned Roay Finch Black Roay Finch Brown-capped Rosy Finch Coamon Redpo 11 Coamon Goldfinch Leeser Goldfinch Pine Siakin Rufous-aided Towhee Green-tailed Towhee Vesper Sparrow Lincoln's Sparrow Slate-colored Junco White-winged Junco Oregon Junco Gray-headed Junco Tree Sparrow Chipping Sparrow Clay-colored Sparrow Harria' Sparrow White-crowned Sparrow Golden-crowned Sparrow** White-throated Sparrow Fox Sparrow** Song Sparrow *Reported by Thompson Marsh and Hugh Kingery of the Denver Field Ornithologists. **Rare

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CLIMATE Page 41 GENERAL: Although the Chatfield area is located adjacent to Foothills of the Front Range of the RockY. Mountains, the climate is more typical of the Colorado plains than of the mountains. Characteristic features of the plains are low relative humidity, abundant sunshine, light rainfall, high evaporation and moderate to high wind movement and a large daily range in temperature. Weather is changeable and difficult to predict because of the rain chadow effect of the Continental Divide. Atmospheric pressure is about 83 percent of that at sea level. Tables 1 and 2 show the normal temperature and precipitation at the United States Weather Bureau Station at Kassler, located on the South Platte River five miles upstream from the Chatfield Dam. TEMPERATURE: The annual mean temperatures for the ar.ea range from 47 degrees to 52 degrees. Temperatures of 100 degrees, or over, have been observed and daytime temperatures of 95 degrees or higher are common in summer. In the foothills, temperatures as high as 100 degrees are rare as summer afternoon temperatures are often modified by frequent afternoon cloudiness and thunderstorms over andnear the mountains. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the hig h altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the northern Great Plains are too shallow to reach the area's altitude and move off over the plains to the east. The lowest temperatures observed range generally from 30 degrees below zero to 40 degrees below zero. PRECIPITATION: A large proportion of the annual total precipitation falls in the growing season-70 to 80 percent during the period from April through September. Summer precipitation is largely from thunderstorm activity and is sometimes extremely heavy. Precipitation accompanying violent thunderstorms has been known to cause damage by erosion and flooding. Hail, commonly accompanied by strong winds, falls occasionally in early summer creating some damage. The annual mean precipitation averages about 13 to 19 inches, the amounts increasing with proximity to the mountains. The rainy season in the area reaches its peak in May. WINDa Winds are generally from the south and southwest, see Figure 1. Strong winds occur frequently in winter and spring. Such winds tend to dry out soils, which are usually not well supplied with moisture because of the low annual precipitation. A wind phenomenon called the "Chinook'' occurs frequently along the eastern edge of the Front Range during laste winter and early spri-ng. These winds, warmed by their

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Pa g e 42 rapid descent from higher levels cause large and sudden temperature rises. STORMS, Prevailing air currents reach Colorado from westerly directions. Eastward-moving storms originating in the Pacific Ocean lose much of their moisture in passage over mountain ranges to the west; a large part of the remaining moisture falls as rain or snow on the mountain tops and westward-facing slopes. Eastern slope areas receive relatively small amounts of precipitation from these storms. Winter Storms moving from the north usually carry little moisture. The frequency of such storms increases during the fall and winter months, and decreases rapidly in the spring . The accompanying outbreaks of polar air are responsible for the sudden drops in temperature often experienced in the plains sections of the state. Occasionally, these outbreaks are attended by strong northerly winds which come in contact with moist air from the south• the interaction of these air masses causes a heavy fall of snow and the most severe of all weather conditions of the high plains, the blizzard. The winter snowfall averages from 3 to 5 feet on the plains, and from 5 to 7 feet in the foothills. Summer Storms: Warm, moist air from the south moves into Colorado most frequently in the spring. As this air is carried northward and westward to higher elevations, the heaviest and most general rainfalls of the year occur over the eastern portions of the state. Frequent showers and thunderstorms continue well into the summer. At times during the summer, winds shift into the southwest and bring hot, dry air over the state from desert areas of Mexico and the southwestern United States. This creates the hottest weather of the year over the eastern plains, but such hot spells are usually of short duration. ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS: The variable and unpredictable weather of the Front Range coupled with low rainfall, low humidity, high evaporation and strong air movement combine to cause several landscape management problems. The annual precipitation is not great enough to sustain most tree and shrub species except a few hardy natives. With supplemental water many additional species can be grown. Without supplemental water greatcare will have to be given to species and site selection. The climate, as discussed above, is the macroclimate or the overall, general climate of the area. The microclimate is the climate of a small or very localized area such as under a particular tree or at ground line under grass cover, etc. The variable and unpredictable weather or macroclimate of the Front Range causes extreme variations in the microclimate.

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Page 43 MICROCLIMATE OF SITE The microclimatic conditions on the site are affected primarily by the openness of that area. Situated atop of a bluff and near a ridg e which drops quickly into Chat field lake, the only protection comes from the surrounding vegitation. This creates good and bad qualities about the site. One of the advantages is that there is unobstructed solar access. This combined with the characteristic larg e diurnal temperatur swing , especially noticable from fall throug h spring, provides design opportunities to use passive techniques to carry some of the daytime heat over into the times when a heat release is appropriate. During summer month this could cause problems with overexposure, however, this could be avoided by the proper use of shading devices such as overhangs and trees. The other significant climatic condition en the site is the winds. Typically, they blow from south or southwest in the winter at velocities averaging around 14 mph. This could cause significant winter heat loss in the building due to infiltration. Recalling information from an earlier section on vegitation it should be noted however, that there is a large block of young coniferous trees which have been recently established which will act as an effective wind screen when they reach maturity. In design considerations should be made to allow protection from this wind at openings and outdoor areas adjacent to the facility. Results of analyses of other general climatic information suggest the use of well insulated walls and roof with thermal mass properly placed in exterior walls and on the interior where solar exposure can be accomplished during winter months. The long axis should be east-west so as to maximize heat gain. When sizing window openings care should be taken to balance aesthetic qualitites with the goal to minimize heatloss through these openings. Also, the building should be designed with a large time lag indicating the use of heavy materials inside the insulated skin, and the floor layout should bearranged to create the lowest exterior surface area per floor area.

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Page 44 ,, SITE SOLAR AZIMUTH 0 ... ,.. .... •, s ':"> r D 50 YEAR FLOOD

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Month January February March April May June July August September October November December ANNUAL TABLE 1 TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION NORMALS AT KASSLER STATION, JEFFERSON COUNTY COLORADO (Elevation 5495 feet)* Mean Temperature (OF) Precipitation 32.7 .72 35 .o. .93 40.0 1. 62 49.6 2.75 58.2 2.90 67.9 1. 51 74.0 1.42 72.7 1.48 65.4 1.22 55.0 1.33 41.9 .95 35.9 . 58 52.4 17.41 Page 45 (inches) ''
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w N Page 46 N &ti NUMBERS IN /o s Figure 1. Wind rose for the Chatfield Public Use area. Numbers show the percent of time the wind is blowing from the direction shown.

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NORMALS, MEANS, AND EXTREMES DENVER, CO STAPLETON INTERNATIONAL AP MOUNTAIN 5ZIIl FT 1171 f'to4io.e --,_,,........,,.n. f t ........ o.roo .... ........ -.. ...._ •-at ., .,,._ ............... , .......... l l: ........ "-kll .... tl ..._._ .. ...__. i i q i -J l } l t n f .. 1 1' ' .f I ••• , .. J .I f B H I! Ji I! OSll llU H J .. ti "' l j !• !I JUI H 1I I I l 1 u I I! 11 !i I j l H l ! I A l l I H l I H H A I i ls A 1o. b .... ,.. ,.. ,.. l.. ,.. ,.. ,.. ........ .. "''' ••• .. .. •• .. •• •• •• IJ u u u 11 u ,. ,. lO ll •• .. .. .. .. •• , It u •• u ) J . ,., lloJ: u . t .. ltll _, I h) IOU 0 . ... .... , ... o.ot ltJl .. ., '"' 1), f tHI u •• .. J " .. .. .. ••• I .. ,. , .. , ,, '' .. IO II • l 0 I 0 • )0 ' ,,,, , ''' "' u . t h ,,., ... IUJ . ., 0 o . u .... tUO O,Ol 1t1o 1.01 uu ll.) .... '' ..,, " .. ., .. .. , s .. .. ,., " ... • • II • ) . l 0 • ,, I ..... • so. t llol n.o .. 1971 lhJ ... 0 l.ll J ••• , ... O.lJ lht , ... "" n.J lhl ... , 1H1 .. ., •I •• 10.0 s , •• '"' .. ... • 10 II • . . I 0 . ,. I ., ... • u . o ,,, u.s .. , .. , _, ,.,, ,., 0 l.U • ,If 1t•J o.u I ttJ ) .JJ ... , li.J ,.,, If,) .. , .. , " " .... I .. •• .... •• 'I f 10 II • J I I 0 . I• . IJloO • 70. J H . t Sl.o .. ,.., . ,. ltlJ ,,, 0 J.t• ,,,, aut .... ,,,, ,,, lfTJ .... . .,. 10.7 l•U fO , It .. ... I •• ,. ltU •• ... • II ll 10 . • I . 0 J • IU.O J IOol Slot ••• o •• lUI ,. lttt IO 110 l.U .... ... , o.ao , ... J.U lUO 0 , 1 '"' lUl H )I )f " t.l I " I ,.,. fO s.o • II I • 0 10 I I 0 0 0 IJS.t J ''' ,._. n.o 10) ltlJ . , ana • , .. 1. Jl l , ... •• J1 ,, .. J,,, .... o.o ll ,. .. " ... I ,. ,. , .. , fo ... ' It • • • II . " • 0 0 .... I ., .. n., '' 100 .... 41 "" 0 JOt l.U '" IISl o.o. lhO ),6) lUI o . o 0,0 .. ,. .. " ' ' I 01 ,. lUI H ... :: I• ' • 0 • I IO • I 0 1)1.'7 I u. J 67.1 u:.l " lho 10 "'' IU " loiS .. ., atu ' .... ''' .. ,. u.J I,,. "' lth fl •• .. .. '' I ., •• .. , " ... IO f • . I I I • I 0 ., ... 0 .... U,J u.o If ,,, J .... •o• ' loiS .. " , .. , o.os .. ., 1. la ... , ,. .J , ... u.• ''" ,. ,. to ' ' I •• •• .. ,. fJ ... II IO • s I I I • . • 0 ., .. • , .. , u . • ,. .. " lUJ _, ... , "' 0 o. ,. z.n '"'' OoOl '"' lolt '"' Jtol .... .,,, ''" .. •• ,. ,, •• f I •• , ... , .. '' II • 10 s l . I 0 l •• . IUe L • ... , .... u • • ,, ltlJ .. ltll lOot • o.u ,; .. "" 0.04 lht loJI I Ill )0.1 )tl) 11,1 lth .. .. II .. . .. I " •I 1tU .. ,,, II IO IO ' I 0 I 0 ' 10 I 114 •• JUL ar: "" '" ... ••• ,. JUL Tl ••• o IOol 10) ltJ) u Itt) tOU us l)oll ,,,, '"' T .... ,_, "" Ito I .... "' .. ,. .. •o •o u t.o s .. •• ,,., lo ,,, liS .,. Ill .. I' .. IO )J u .. . 10 .,, .. COLORADO DENVER Elevation 5283 Ft. Dog roo Temperature Days Rei . Proc. Extreme (Base 65' 1 Hum Nor. Wind ., Avoroga Number of Days of Average .!: .t: Sunup/ "' a: iii c ::l Sundown u. E E 0 c U) a; ::l ::l > 01 "' .. ... . g .. E E :s E t;; c c 0 "0 ti C! "0 c .. ;: ] u .;. c .. ;; c: c .t: 0 0 .. 0 u .!: ::l a> u .!!' .. 0 .. Cl. "0 0 1-cJ .. 0 0 ., 0 0 c a. .. c .t: 0 a; :2 :2 J: ...1 J: (,) ... U) U) 0 u a: u a: U) ... U.Cl. Ill Utl J 42 15 28 G9 25 1132 0 44 . 5 8 9 s 72 10 10 11 6 2 0 1 3 ([) F 45 18 31 76 -18 93B 0 45 .7 8 9 s 71 8 9 11 6 3 2 5 M 50 23 36 84 4 887 0 43 1 13 10 s 71 8 11 12 8 4 1 B .{::A GO 32 46 84 13 558 0 37 2 9 10 s 6 7 7 10 13 9 2 1 1 7 --..J M 70 42 56 91 26 288 0 39 3 1 9 s 64 G 12 13 10 6 1 4 J 82 51 G6 98 36 66 149 40 1 T 9 s 70 9 13 8 9 0 10 1 1 J 88 57 73 101 43 6 203 36 2 0 8 5 70 9 16 6 9 0 11 2 A 87 56 71 100 41 9 248 37 1 0 8 72 10 14 7 8 0 8 1 1 s 7 9 47 G3 97 20 1 17 53 40 1 , 2 8 75 1 3 10 7 6 3 1 2 0 67 36 51 87 3 428 0 36 1 4 8 s 74 13 10 8 5 1 1 1 3 N 52 24 38 7G 2 819 0 44 . 6 ' 7 9 s 66 11 10 9 5 2 1 5 0 45 18 32 71 -16 1035 0 45 . 4 6 9 68 11 10 10 5 2 0 1 5 y G4 3G 4 9 101 -25 6283 653 40 14 58 9 70 115 135 115 87 18 41 10 4

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TEMP OF Mean Monthly Temperatures }60 ------,. t-------------... .. + Sot--i ... --.. . . I I -... , ......... -! '70+-------------------------.----. ; ,.... I . . I i _ _ ......... , 4o JAN . : •• , l . /• . ' . ' I ! l.. I /.' . ' ....... i I ...... ! ,, ... ' j I . • • ' L. ---i . . . ----r .. ----. ... --.. : ... ' . \ .. ' ' ! •• ' : I .... ••. .. .. •• .. ; 0 f' • . • ...... i ' . .. j .11.:r MONTH i .. '-= ! • , I • . l I 'I' ME-A.N . • • • .. --

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< c ...J
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w en ca u. 0 LO <0 en c w w a: (.!) w c (.!) z w J: Annual Degree Days i i -.. --------_ _ , ___ --I i -i i . I ---------Jl.'{ MONTH I 1 I i I . . . . , ! j . . -: _ J I I . . . l ! I I I . , I I ! ' I i l ' I I I I , 1 l OOT" ! I ! I l -: I I ' I I I \ i I I i I ILJ \J\ 0

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tz w (.) 0: w c.. Percent Possible Sunshine I ,._ ,0 .o .. .,. ; I ... . ................ I .. . I ..... ; . . . . . . . . : I . ! --!--!--l . . . _ _ . -_; I I . I .. _ : ... -v (,lJ .,.._..__--11---. .... ...f-'--.._-11---.. . _____ ---... _ ...... . .... _ ..... ' .. . &0--+--11----+--.. -........ ' " ..... ' t I I .......... -------....... .. ---i ------.. -------...... -"----....... .. I ; . l• ____ ,........ -.... . . .. .. _ ......... , ------' --1-----.. .... . ---... _____ .. _ _ _ _ _ ....... . . ,. 1----f--... .. ----.. ---.. --------it-----1--.. _______ ----. ------0 • • "d FE.& JL'1 oc.:r MONTH (]'q ro \J\ 1-"

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,.... I Q.. a UJ w a. en a z 17 16 ----15 ./ v .'V::= 14 v v?. ,--:;; L----..... 13 v v --/':: / . ./ 12 / / t:::::::: [....--: /.,. / / V-/ ./ / II 10 p -... 7 L :....-.,...,... :::;:::::: ..... ./ _.,. 9 8 7 6 5 4 SOUTHERLY TO 3 2 I MID NIGHT 2 3 4 J./ 17 / J L? L:J v-v-:: ),:;..-OCTOBER JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH DECEMBER NOVEMBER AUGUST MARCH JULY JUNE MAY SEPTEMBER APRIL r o WESTERLY II --.... MID NIGHT SOUTH PLATTE RIVER CHATFIELD LAKE, COLORADO MASTER PLAN WI NO PATTERNS U . S. ARt.4Y ENGINEER DISTRICT, OWAHA CORPS OF ENGINEERS 0'-4AHA1 NEBRASKA OCT. 1972 DESIGN MEMO. NO. PC -ID PLATE 18

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Page 53 Energy Conservation I. The energy consumed by a bu II dIng durl ng use Is a varl able whIch can and should be control led. A. Some factors which should be considered In the design of a bu I I d I ng are: I. Functl ona I Factors a. Building location b. Building size and function c. Floor area per person d. Size of processing equipment and appl lances e. Building operating schedules 2. Environmental Factors a. Lighting comfort levels b. Thermal comfort levels 3. Envelope Factors a. Orientation of building b. Shape of building c. Mass of building d. Wall and roof Insulation value
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Pa g e 54 7. Additional Considerations a. What Is the major sup pi y I demand problem of the uti 1 1 ty company? b. What alternative energy sources are aval I able? c. What Is the utility rate structure and how will it affect energy use? d. How w II I bu II dIng operatIon sc hedu I es affect energy use? B. Some other energy use questions which must be answered by the designer are: I. Is the building going to be Internally or externally domIna ted? (.Bu i I dIngs wIth hIgh surface-to-volume ratIos (houses, small commercial) are externally dominated; buildings with low surface-to-volume ratios tend to be Internally dominated.) 2. How will climate affect building energy use? 3. Is the building type predominantly passive or active in nature? 4. Is the primary problan energy demand or consumption? 5. Are there sources of reclaimable waste heat aval I able? 6. What energy concepts enhance the project's priorities? 7. Is there a process within the building that has special energy features or energy effects? Choosing a particular concept should come after some analysts, and should be evaluated In terms of Its effect on the energy meter. I I. Energy conserving design can have a deleterious effect on safety in buildings • . Some considerations for which compensating design features or equipment must be provided Include: A. OpenIngs for cross-vent i I at 1 on and day I I ghtl ng purposes w II I tend to disrupt fire development In rooms. Where ventilation Is sufficient and fuel load small, fires can be of short duration with relatively low tempertures due to Infiltration of cooler outdoor a Ir. B. Tightly sealed buildings with few openings tend to reinforce fire by creating smokey, hot destructive fire conditions of prolonged duration.

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Page 55 C. External solar shlldlng devices (e.g., egg crate, sculptured block, expanded metal) can restrict emergency escape and access to buildings by fire fighters. D. Locating buildings on steep slopes to take advantage of beneficial mlcrocl (mate effects can restrict fire apparatus access. For examp I e, bu II dIngs at the edge of cl I ffs or other steep grades may restrIct access to on I y one s I d .e. References: Egan, M.D., Concepts In Building Flresafety. John WI I ey & Sons, 1978 Lerup, L. eta(., Learning From Fire: A Fire Protection Primer for Architects. National Fire Prevention & Control Administration, 1977

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Lighting Pag e 56 I. Lighting accounts for about 20% of the total electrical energy consumption In the United States each year and up to 35% of the electrical use In office buildings. Office buildings are character I zed by daytl me use patterns, I ong hours of II ghtl ng use, reI at I v e I y h lgh I I ghtl ng I eve Is, and hIgh I nsta II ed watts per square foot, which results In lighting being the single larg-est energy consumer In the building. (See Typical Energy Budget Chart, Page 33.) A. Reductions In I lghttng energy consumption are thus essential elements of a national energy program to reduce our dependence on non-renewable and pol ltlcal ly vulnerable energy sources. B. Energy conservation practices can provide Improved visual performance and visual comfort while producing substantial energy savl ngs. I. Four different elements In this process can be Identified: a. Selection of efficient I lghting systems and components over less efficient products. b. Improved lighting design practice which eliminates wasteful energy use. c. Improved operation and maintenance of lighting systems. d. A return to a partial rei lance on natural lighting techniques. I I. Natural I lghtlng serves several Important functions. A. Visual power In defining and Identifying space and In articulating circulation patterns. B. Pragmatic uses to offset electrical I lghtlng requirements. C. Natural lighting techniques should Include both diffuse light from the sky (daylight) and direct radiation from the sun (sunlight). I. Additionally, sldellghttng (reflected light through windows) and topl lghtlng (skyl lghts) should be considered. D. Four major Issues must be confronted before day I lghtl ng practice can be Implemented. I. Analysis and design techniques. 2. Thermal/Illumination tradeoffs.

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Page 57 3. Sun and glare control. 4. Lighting controls. E. A ful I array of sun .control solutions Is available and should be considered. They Include: I. Exterior architectural appendages. 2. Extecloc sun control devices such as shades, drapes, bll nds. 3. Interior sun control devices such as shades, drapes, bl lnds. 4. Heat absorbing and reflective glasses and films. a. It Is the opInion of experts In the f lei d that day! lghted offices may require highly transparent windows which Incorporate operable cl !mate management d .evlces such as shades, bl lnds, and selective films to control excessive sol ac : gal n. 5. It seems likely that office occupants will close shades and bll nds to reduce excessive heat gal n or glace far thermal or visual comfort. They may not be so likely, however, to operate these devices to achieve energy savings. In particular, devices that have been closed In the afternoon to reduce summer heat gain may not be opened the following morning to real lze dayl lghtlng savings. F. In designing spaces which ace to be naturally lighted, It is Important to consider that qual lty of I lght rather than greater Intensity Is the objective. Some guidelines which should be considered are: I. Task areas: The lighting level should provide proper II lumlnatlon for the task to be performed. In adjacent nonworking areas, lower I lghtlng levels ace acceptable. 2. Nonta .sk areas: General lighting surrounding task location needs an average I ighting of approximately one-third the level of task I I ght I ng. 3. Noncritical lighting: In areas where casual visual tasks occur, a I lghtlng level of approximately one-third the level of general I lghtlng Is needed. a. The efficiency of any I lghtlng system I s directly affected by the reflectivity of Interior surfaces, such as walls, eel I I ngs, f I oors and furnIture.

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Page 58 b. In general, the designer can select light colors which reflect and contrtbute to the general visual comfort of a space. Footcand.les Task Areas on Tasks OFFICE General 100 Drafting. 150-200 JV:;counting 150 Conference 30 .Restroan 30 Elevators, Stairs, Corridors 20 lobby 50 Building 15-30 Parking 1-2 Levels of Illumination 4. To reduce g I are H om uncomforta b I y brIght I I ght sources or reflections: a. Reduce source brightness by dimming. b. Relocate source outside fIe I d of vis I on. c. Reduce ref I ectance of surf aces surroundIng task. d. Shield sources with baffles, screens, etc. e. Select sources. which distribute I lght away from the angle of glare and the angle of reflected glare.

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Page 59 Typical Energy Budget A. Build.i.I?g Envelope 1. Walls + Win::iCMS 2. Rx>f, Floor + Skylights B. Building Contents 3. CXx:upants 4. Appliances 5. Elevators, M::>tors, Fans+.r-ti.sc 6. Water Heating 7. Ventilation 10.5% 9.0% 1.5% 39.5% 2.5% 5.0% 15.0% 5.0% 12.0% C. Lighting Systems 50.0% 8. Task + Gen '1 Illumination 48.0% 9. CXltdoor + Special 2. 0% D. 'lbtal Energy Budget 100. 0%

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. skin and mechanical capital costs $/sf 6 7 8 9 annuaL operating energy cost $1000/yr ----.------g ":":"_ ,.... ,.... ,.... 111-6 BUILDING HEIGHT 131-6 BUILDING HEIGHT 25% WINDOW/75% WALL 5 1 HORIZONTAL (J{ ERHANG 5' VERTICAL FINS Pag e 60 5 I SOUTH (J{ERHANG/E-W FINS 51 OVERHANG WAFFLE ONE lWQ-STORY BUILDING ONE lWQ-STORY BUILDING W/I .NSULATION THREE lWQ-STORY BU I LD I NG THREE lWQ-STORY BUILDING W/INSULATION :apital vs energy costs XlWAR I SON OF SK IN AAD MEat AN I CAL COST AND AL ENERGY OPERATING COSTS ENERGY IN DESIGN: TEOtNIQUES rHE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARQ-i ITECTS

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Natural Lighting Page 6 1 Commercial buildings present many opportunities for the use of day I I g h t I n g. S I n c e com mer c I a I b u 1 I d I n g des I g n dec I s I on s are ultimately concerned with economics, It Is Important to establIsh the basis for significant cost savings using dayllghtlng. A. The fact that most commercial buildings have high daytime occupancies the high I lghtlng levels required during the dayl lght hours Ts the key factor In considering dayllghtlng as an energy-efficient strategy. B. One of the most powerful reasons forlncorporattng dayl lght design In buildings Is that, when properly used, dayl lght provides a I lghtlng qual lty In architectural spaces rarely equaled by art If I cl a I systems. 1. Dayl lght through windows can enhance modeling effects, reduce ceiling reflections and provide diurnal time orientation by contact with outdoor conditions. 2. WIndow openIngs a I so can provIde vI sua I rest when used In work environments. 3. Day I I ng can campi ement art If I cIa I II ghtl ng. The following rules for dayl lghtlng can be used: a. Design artificial lighting to fill In areas of room where des I red II I um I nat I on I eve Is cnnot be ach leved by dayllghtlng ce.g., near walls opposite windows, areas without access to outdoors). b. When dayllghtlng Is sufficient, lighting flxtur. es should be switched or dimmed to lower II lumlnatlon levels or be turned off. c. Use neutral-color Interior surfaces to avoid color rendering distortion when artificial lighting Is used with day I I ghti ng. d. Admit daylight from two or more room sides to avoid sharp contrast between daylight and adjacent wall surfaces. e. Admit daylight from high locations at least one-half room depth, that are away from occupants' I lne-of-slght. f. Use transparent Interior partitions (or upper part of partitions, transoms) to transmit .daylight to Interior spaces. g. Avoid sharp-cornered openings which can create high brightness ratios and glare • . To lower brightness ratios, splay Jambs and slope I lght wet Is.

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Pa g e 6 2 h. dayllghtlng openings so that view of sky Is shielded from occupants In most viewing positions. I. Use large-scaleelanents (e.g., horizontal overhangs, deep reveals, or fIne-mesh screen, drapes, or bl 'lnds). Exterior shading devices can mitigate any unwanted "greenhouse" effects. j. Horizontal overhangs can be used to project reflected ground-1 lght Into rooms. Concrete, white gravel, pavers, water, etc., are better ground reflectors otl lght than asp.ha It or grass. k. Enhance dayl lght by using reflectors or topl lghtlng In areas without view (e.g., clerestories, I lght shelves) to project dayl lght deep Into Interior spaces. Use root coverIngs wIth hIgh ret I ectances to Increase quantity of light admitted by cl erestorles. , and other top-1 tghtlng devices, and to minimize heat gain effects of summer sun angles. I • Inter I or f In I shes wIth hIgh ret I ectances to of both dayl lght and artificial I lghtlng and to soften contrast with sky. m. Do not use low-transmittance glass (I.e., tinted glass, glass-block) adjacent to clear glass, open door, or open wIndow.

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I zenith I I I I I Page 63

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ZONING AND CODES Page 64 The Chatfield State Recreation Area is controlled by the State of Colorado. The state constitution contains a bill which exempts the state from local requirements, permits or restrictions on use. However, the bill states that " . . . in so far as possible, facilities shall conform to the substantive standards of any local building codes, fire safety. health and environmental control code or any other requirement which would otherwise by applicable." Thus, while the project is exempt from county codes and zoning it must provide for similar protective measures. The State of Colorado sets forth its own set of standards which all state projects must meet. The development of such projects shall conform to the following codes, regulations, laws and standards. 198.3 1982 1982 1982 1982 198 1 1981 1981 1978 1977 197.3 197.3 Life Cycle Cost Uniform Mechanical Code Uniform Plumbing Code Uniform Fire Code Uniform Building Code Standards National Electrical Code (NFPA No. 70) Life Safety Code (NFPA No. 101) National Fire Codes (16 volumes by NFPA) ANSI A17.1-1978 American National Standard Safety Code Elevators, Dumbwaiters, Escalators and Moving Walks 2nd EditionState of Colorado Model Energy Efficiency Construction and Renovation Standards for Non-Residential Buildings CRS (Colorado Revised Statutes) as amended, Title 24-82-601, 602 Energy performance goal of 55,000 BTU/SF/YR for all State buildings, and improvements thereto. CRS (Colorado Revised Statutes) Volume .3 -Title 9 Article 2 -Safety Glazing Materials Article 5 -Buildings Contructed by Public Funds -This article is commonly referred to as the State "Handicapped Standards" as is in both the 197.3 CRS and 1975 Cumulative Supplement. In addition to adhering to the criteria presented above the project must be approved by the Douglas County Health Department, the Tri-County Water and Sanitation District and the state engineer. For the purpose of this project a summary of the Uniform Building Code 1982 edition will be provided.

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Page 6 5 BUILDING CODES The Uniform Building Codes cover the fire, life and structural safety aspects of all buildings and related structures. The following pages contain a capsulized set of pertinent information. The facility contains building types which fall into four different occupancy categories, each one requiring a separate code search: B-2: A-)s H-): E-2: Offices, workshops, storage and small meeting rooms Large meeting room and auditorium Maintenance garage Educational classrooms

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PRELIMINARY CODE CHECK PROJECT: Chatfield Environmental Education Center LOCATION: Chatfield State Recreation Area CODEs Uniform Building Code, 1982 Edition CODE AUTHORITY: State of Colorado BUILDING CLASSIFICATION OCCUPANCY (Chapter 7): Classification B-2 TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Chapters 17 & 20): Pa g e 66 Minimum by code: V-N; Minimum for state: III-1HR ACTUAL LOCATION ON PROPERTY (Refer to Chapters 5 & 20): Not applicable FIRE RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS (based upon location on propertyTabe SA): 1 hour if less than 20 feet REQUIREMENTS FOR OPENINGS (based upon location on property -Table SA): Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF OJ SECTIONS OF CHAPTER 20: None BUILDINGS LOCATED ON SAME PROPERTY (Section 504); Not applicable COMPUTED FLOOR AREA OF PROPOSED STRUCTURE: 14,000 s.f. BASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA (Table 5C): 18,000 s.f. ALLOWABLE INCREASES IN FLOOR AREA: SEPARATION ON 2 SIDES (Sect. 506-a-1): Area may be increased at the rate of 1t%/ft. by which minimum width exceeds 20 feet; maximum of 50% increase: 20' X 1.25 = 25% allowable increase 18,000 X .25 = 4500 s.f. allowed increase INCREASES FOR AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS: Not applicable INCREASES FOR MULTIPLE STORY BUILDINGS: 18,000 s.f. MEZZANINES: Not applicable BASEMENTS: Not applicable TOTAL ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREAa 4o,500 s.f. COMPUTED HEIGHT OF BUILDING FROM GADE (Section 409): JO' max. COMPUTED NUMBER OF STORIES (Section 420): One

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Page 67 ALLOWABLE HEIGHT (65') and number of stories (4) from Table 5D. ALLOWABLE STORY INCREASE for approved automatic fire sprinkler system (Section 507): Not applicable (See Section JJ02 & Table 3J-A): From Table 5C: USE MINIMUM OF OCCUPANT ACCESS BY TWO EXITS LOAD MEANS OF A OTHER THAN FACTOR RAMP OR AN ELEVATORS ARE ELEVATOR MUST REQUIRED BE PROVIDED WHERE FOR THE NUMBER OF PHYSICALLY OCCUPANTS IS HANDICAPPED AT LEAST AS INDICATED OFFICE 30 . 100 Yes MECHAN. 30 300 No EQUIP. ROOMS ALL 50 100 OTHERS TO DETERMINE OCCUPANT LOAD (Refer Sect. J302-a): Associated floor area: 3000 s.f. = 30 Area occupant load DETAILED OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS (Chapter 7): LIGHT, VENTILATION AND SANITATION (Section 705): -minimum glazed opening area = 1/10 total floor area, & -natural ventilation area = 1/12 total floor area ..•.. or .•... -Artifical lite and mechanical ventilation per Section 605 -Toilet facilities for each sex is required -Each toilet room shall have: 1) exterior operable window of min. 3 s.f. or 2) vertical duct of minimum 100 s.i. (with 50 additional s.i./facility), or 3) mechanical ventilation with complete air change each 15 minutes --must discharge to exterior; minimum 5' from any operable window

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Pa ge 6 8 SPECIAL HAZARDS (Section 708): -Boiler rooms or central heating plants in excess of 400,000 BTU shall have 1 hour separation DETAILED TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS (Chapter 17 & 20): Separations between occupancies -fire ratings and construction: B-2 and M=1, B-2 and R=N TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS (in hours) from Table 17Aa ELEMENT Exterior Bearing Walls ** Interior Bearing walls Enterior Non-bearing Walls *** Structural Frame Permanent Partitions* Shaft Enclosures Floors Roofs Exterior doors and windows Inner court walls * EXCEPTIONS: hour 4 (2203-a) 1 4 (2203-a) 1 1 1 1 1 (2003-a) 1 (504c) Fixed partitions serving single form corridors serving occupant tenants which do not loads greater than 30 may be: A. B. c. D. Non-combustible materials Fire treated wood 1-hour construction Light (wood) construction up to 3/4 of room ** Exterior non-combustible bearing walls may be 2-hour construction where openings are permitted. *** Exterior non-bearing walls may be non-combustible 1-hour construction where unprotected openings are permitted and non-combustible 2-hour construction where protected openings are required.

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Page 6 9 Attic draftstops required (3205b) 1000 s.f. if horizontal distance is 60 ft. and not sprinkled. Attic ventilation required WEATHER PROTECTION (Section 1707) PARAPETS (Section 1709): Not required PROJECTIONS (Section 1710): Projections which occur where openings are not permitted must be 1-hour construction or heavy timber (2106) Cannot extend more than 12" into such areas INSULATION (Section 1713) SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTORS (Section 1714) ATRIUMS (Section 1715) MEZZANINE RESTRICTIONS: May be wood or unprotected steel -must be less than 33% of the floor area; ceiling height minimum 7 '-0" BUILDING EXITING REQUIREMENTS Minimum of 2 exits required (3303a) Minimum exit door widths: 3'-0" (3303b) EXIT ARRANGEMENT: Shall be placed a distance apart not less than ! of the max. diagonal dimension of the building or area served Corridor width: 44" (3304b) Dead end corridor limit: 20" (3304f) Stairway widths: 36" (3305b) Stairway landing depths: 36" (3305f) Door swing to be in the direction of travel if serving a hazardous area or if o.l. is greater than 50. Min. 90. Landings at doors shall have a min. length of 5'-0" Exit doors must be marked Ramp requirements: Max. slope1 in 10 -landing/5ft. of rise; top landing= 5 ft. min.; bottom= 6ft. min. Riser/Tread limits: Max. rise 7.5 inches; min. tread 10 inches DETAILED CODE REQUIREMENTS (Chapters 29-43 ,47,54 and appendix): ENGINEERING REGULATIONS & REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION (Chapters 23-29): Occupancy Unit Ltve Loads: Uniform load 50 psf Concentrated 2000 lbs/2.5 s.f.

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Page 70 Dead load requirements: snow load for Douglas County 40 psf OCCUPANCY (Chapter 7): Classification A-J TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Chapters 17&20): Minimum by code: V-N Minimum for state: III-1HR ACTUAL LOCATION ON PROPERTY (Refer to Chapters 5 & 20): Not applicable FIRE RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS location on property -Table FOR EXTERIOR WALLS (based upon 5A): 2-hour if less than 5 feet, 1-hour if less than 40 feet REQUIREMENTS FOR OPENINGS (based upon location on property -Table 5A): Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF OJ SECTIONS OF CHAPTER 20: None BUILDINGS LOCATED ON SAME PROPERTY (Section 504): Not applicable COMPUTED FLOOR AREA OF OCCUPANCY AREA: 6,000 s.f. BASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA (Table 5C): 1J,500 s.f. ALLOWABLE INCREASES IN FLOOR AREA: SEPARATION ON 2 SIDES (Sect. 506-a-1): Area may be increased at the rate of 1i%/ft. by which minimum width exceeds 20 feet; maximum of 50% increase: JO' X 1.25 = 25% allowable increase 13,500 X .25 = JJ75 s.f. allowed increase INCREASES FOR AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS: Not applicable INCREASES FOR MULTIPLE STORY BUILDINGS: 13,500 s.f. MEZZANINES: Not applicable BASEMENTS: Not applicable TOTAL ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA: JO.J75 s.f. ALLOWABLE HEIGHT (65) and number of stories {2) from Table 5D ALLOWABLE STORY INCREASE FOR approved automatic system (Section 507): Not applicable

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Page 71 OCCUPANT LOAD (See Section 3302 & Table 33-A) z From Table 5C: USE MINIMUM OF OCCUPANT ACCESS BY TWO EXITS LOAD MEANS OF A OTHER THAN FACTOR RAMP OR AN ELEVATORS ARE ELEVATOR MUST REQUIRED BE PROVIDED WHERE FOR THE NUMBER OF PHYSICALLY OCCUPANTS IS HANDICAPPED AT LEAST AS INDICATED Auditoritml 50 7 Yes Conference 50 15 res Rooms Exhibit 50 15 Yes Rooms Library 50 50 No Locker 30 50 Yes Room Lounge 50 15 Yes TO DETERMINE OCCUPANT LOAD (Refer Sect. 3302-a): ASSOCIATED floor area : 6,000 s.f'. = 422 Area occupant Load DETAILED OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS (Chapter 7): Enclosure of' vertical openings (1706)more than 2 floors, 1-hour rated Light ( 05 sect., ch. 6-14)-natural light from min. opening of' 1/10 floor area Ventilation-Min. 1/10 floor area Sanitation-Min. 3 s.f'. window or 100 s.i. duct for each W.C. Toilet facilities for each sex is required Each toilet room shall have: 1. exterior operable window of' 3 s.f'., or 2. vertical duct of' minimtml 100 s.i. (with 50 additional s.i. per facility), or 3. mechanical ventilation with complete air change each 15 minutes --must discharge to the exterior; minimum 5 feet from any operable window

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Page 72 TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS (Chapters 17& 20): Separations between occupancies -fire ratings and construction: A-3 and B-2=N; A-3 and E-2=N TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION FIRE RESISTIVE R EQUIREMENTS (in hours) ELEMENT Exterior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Permanent partitions Shaft enclosures Floors Roofs Exterior doors and windows Interior court walls (504c) Attic draftstops required (3205b) Attic ventilation required (3205c) Wall and Opening Protection Fire resistance of exterior walls Openings in exterior walls from Table 17A III-1 hour 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 2003b 1 enclosed attic space: 30,ooq s.f. enclosed rafter 1/150 or 1/300 for 2 vents 1 3/4 hr.

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BUILDING EXITING REQUIREMENTS (Chapter JJ)z Number exits required each floor (JJ02a) Number exits required total building (J02a) Required exit width (JJ02b) Ramps required Pa g e 7J 2 50/tot. J6 in. yes ARRANGEMENT OF EXITS: Shall be placed a distance apart not less than of the length of the max. diagonal dimension of the building or area served. widths (JJ04b) 44 in. corridor limit (JJ04f) 20 ft. occupancy Corridor Dead end Corridor Stairway Stairway Stairway construction (JJ04g) see above widths (JJ05b) 44 in. landing depths (JJ05f) J6 in. to roof (JJ05o) only if more than 4 stories Exit signs required (JJ12b) Exit signs separate circuit {JJ12c) yes not required DETAILED CODE REQUIREMENTS (Chapters 29-4J, 47, 54 and Appendix): Fire extinguishing system required (J802b) when floor area exceeds 1500 s.f. ENGINEERING REGULATIONS & REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION (Chapters 23-29): Occupancy Unit Live Load Uniform Load Concentrated Load Other Requirements 100 psf 0 OCCUPANCY (Chapter 7): Classification E-2 TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Chapters 17 & 20)a Minimum by Code a V-N Minimum for States III-1HR ACTUAL LOCATION ON PROPERTY (Refer to Chapters 5 & 20)& Not applicable FIRE RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS (based upon location on property-Table 5A)s 2 hours less than 5 feet 1 hour less than 10 feet REQUIREMENTS FOR OPENINGS (based upon location on property Table 5A)r Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 20 feet

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Page 74 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF OJ SECTIONS OF CHAPTER 20s None BUILDINGS LOCATED ON SAME PROPERTY (Section 504)s Not applicable COMPUTED FLOOR AREA OF OCCUPANCY AREA: 900 s.f. OCCUPANT LOAD (See Section JJ02 & Table JJ-A)s Fram rTable 5C: USE Classrooms MINIMUM OF TWO EXITS OTHER THAN ELEVATORS ARE REQUIRED WHERE NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS IS AT LEAST 50 OCCUPANT LOAD FACTOR 20 ACCESS BY MEANS OF A RAMP OR AN ELEVATOR MUST BE PROVIDED FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED AS INDICATED Yes TO DETERMINE OCCUPANT LOAD (Refer Sect. JJ02-a)s Associated Floor Area: 900 s.f. = 60 -Area occupant load DETAILED OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS(Chapter 7): Enclosure of vertical openings (1706) Light (05 sect., ch. 6-14) Ventilation Sanitation Fire extinguishing system required {J802b) Wet standpipes required (3805) Combination standpipes required (J802) Special hazards and requirements (see group occupancies) Exceptions and deviations (see group occupancies) more than 2 floors-1 hr. 1/10 floor area 1/20 floor area W.C. provided at 1:35 students, min. 1 lav. for each 2 W.C. if floor area exceeds 1500 sq. ft. only if 4 stories or 20000 s.f./floor only if floor area 1500 sq. ft. without enough windows Chimney special, heating plant 1 hr. enclosed Heating plant if 400,000 Btu/hr.

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Page 75 DETAILED TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS (Chapters 17 & 20): Separations between occupancies -fire ratings and construc tion: E-2 and A-J=N, E-2 and R=1 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS (in hours) from Table 17A ELEMENT Exterior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Permanent partitions Shaft enclosures Floors Roofs Exterior Doors and windows Inner court walls (504c) Wall and Opening Protection Fire resistance of exterior walls Openings in exterior walls III-1 hour 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 2003b 1 1 3/4 BUILDING EXITING REQUIREMENTS (Chapter 33): Number of exits required total area (table 33-A) 3-1 per room Required exit width (3303b) 3'-0" Ramps required yes Corridor widths (3305b) 44 in. Dead end corridor limit (3305e) 20 ft. Corridor construction (3304g) see above Stairway widths (3306b) 36 in. Stairway landing depths (3305f) 36 in. Exit signs required (3312b) no ARRANGEMENT OF EXITS: Shall be placed a distance apart not less than ! of the length of the max. diagonal dimension of the building or area served. DOOR SWING to be in the direction of travel if serving a hazardous area of if O.L. is greater than 50. DETAILED CODE REQUIREMENTS (Chapters 29-43, 47, 54 am Appendix): ENGINEERING REGULATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIALS OF CON STRUCTION (Chapters 23-29): Occupancy Unit Live Loads Uniform Load Concentrated Load 40 psf 1000 lb/2.5 ft2

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Page 76 OCCUPANCY (Chapter 7): Classification H-3 TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION (Chapters 17 & 20): Minimum by Code: II Minimum by State: II-1HR ACTUAL LOCATION ON PROPERTY (Refer to Chapters 5 & 20): Not applicable FIRE RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS (Based upon location on property-Table 5A): 4 hours less than 5 feet, 2 hours less than 10 feet REQUIREMENTS FOR OPENINGS (Based upon location on property -Table 5A): Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 20 feet SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF 03 SECTIONS OF CHAPTER 20: None BUILDINGS LOCATED ON SAME PROPERTY (Section 504): Not applicable COMPUTED FLOOR AREA OF PROPOSED STRUCTURE: 4000 s.f. BASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA (Table 5C): 11,200 s.f. ALLOWABLE INCREASES IN FLOOR AREA: SEPARATION ON 2 SIDES (Sect. 506-a-1): Area may be increased at the rate of 1t%/ft. by which minimum width exceeds 20 feet; maximum of 50% increase: 20 X 1.25 = 25% allowable increase 11200 X .25 = 2800 s.f. allowed increase INCREASES FOR AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS: Not applicable INCREASES FOR MULTIPLE STORY BUILDINGS: Not applicable MEZZANINES: Not applicable BASEMENTS: Not applicable TOTAL ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA: 14,000 s.f. COMPUTED HEIGHT OF BUILDING FROM GRADE (Section 409): 15 max. COMPUTED NUMBER OF STORIES (Section 420): One ALLOWABLE HEIGHT (65) and NUMBER OF STORIES (2) from Table 5D. ALLOWABLE STORY INCREASE for approved automatic fire sprinkler system (Section 507): Not applicable

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Page 77 OCCUPANT LOAD (See Section ))02 & Table JJ::-A): From Table 5C: USE MINIMUM OF OCCUPANT ACCESS BY TWO EXITS LOAD MEANS OF A OTHER THAN FACTOR RAMP OR AN ELEVATORS ARE ELEVATOR MUST REQUIRED BE PROVIDED WHERE FOR THE NUMBER OF PHYSICALLY OCCUPANTS IS HANDICAPPED AT LEAST AS INDICATED Garage )0 200 Yes Workshops 50 50 Yes All others 50 100 TO DETERMINE OCCUPANT LOAD (Refer Sect. 3302-a): Associated floor area: 4ooo s.f. = 20 -area occupant load DETAILED OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS Light (05 sections, ch. 6-14) Ventilation Sanitation Fire extinguishing system required (J802b) Dry standpipes required (3803) Wet standpipes required (3805) Combination standpipes required (3802) Special hazards and requirements (see group occupancies) 1/10 floor area 1/20 floor area, if flammable liquids are used, air change rate = 4/hr. Auto 2 repair needs 1 cfm/ft separate W.C. for each sex when no. of employees exceeds 4 when floor area exceeds 1500 sq. ft. no if floor area exceeds 20000 s.f. no non-combustible floor surface; flammable liquids stored according to UBC standard 9-1; boiler or center heating unit separated from bldg. by 2 hr. fire resistive occupancy separation

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Page 78 DETAILED TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS (Chapter 17 & 20): Separation between occupancies -fire ratings and constructions H-3 and B-2=1, H-3 and A-3=4 TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION FIRE RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS (in hours) from Table 17A: ELEMENT Exterior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Permanent partitions Shaft enclosures Floors Roofs Exterior doors and windows Inner court walls (504c) Wall and Opening Protection Fire resistance of exterior walls Openings in exterior walls II (non-combustible/1hr.) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1903b 1 1 3/4 hr. (190Jb) BUILDING EXITING REQUIREMENTS (Chapter 33): Number of exits required each floor (3303a) 1 ARRANGEMENT OF EXITS: Shall be placed a distance apart not less than ! of tge length of the max. diagonal dimension of the building or area served. DOOR SWING to be in the direction of travel if serving a hazardous area. Corridor width (3305b) Dead end corridor limit (3305c) Corridor construction (3305g) Stairway widths (3306b) Stairway landing depths (3306f) Exit signs required (3314a) 44 in. 20 ft. see above 36 in. 36 in. no DETAILED CODE REQUIREMENTS (Chapters 29-43, 47, 54 and Appendix): ENGINEERING REGULATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIALS OF CON STRUCTION (Chapters 23-29): Occupancy Unit Live Loads Uniform load Concentrated load 75 psf 2000 lb/2.5 ft2

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Page 79 It is necessary that a central focus of planning and design efforts be directed toward the economic consequences of decisions. The state shall incur costs at all stages of project development and operation ••• which may significantly affect: (1) the initial capital investment required for land acquisition and improvement, construction and even interim financing, (2) the cost of personnel, supplies, energy, and services required for facility operation and maintenance over its use, (3) the need for, and the cost of, cyclical repairs, replacements, and alterations to the facility, and finally, (4) the cost of salvage and disposal associated with the cyclical renewals or with the ultimate disposal of the building. The fact that all of these costs are spread out over a time requires an evaluation of initial expense and long term expense. Consideration must be given to the fact that building costs have risen: financing for building ventures is limited, and expensive; as well as, the rapid growth of building operating costs. While it is impossible to do a complete and substantially accurate life cycle cost analysis at the Building Program Plan Stage, it is possible to establish basic project budget parameters under which detailed life .cycle cost analysis of various building systems can be undertaken. Cognizant of the fact that initial and ultimate building costs are directly impacted by the building configuration, materials, climatic conditions and orientation, we outline herein some minimum standards which form the basis of the initial project budget estimate: Exterior masonry materials (not painted). Type III-one hour construction. Low maintenance interior floor finishes. Accommodation of some daylighting principles. Accommodation of snow and cold weather requirements. The estimate for the basic project construction shall be $60.00 per square foot. All life cycle cost analysis should be based upon a twenty year life, and a 10% discount rate.

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Cf) I J c Q) E -:::J u Q) o_ (f) ru Q) c Q) lJ

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GENERAL SPACE REQUIREMENTS Page 8 0 SUMMARY OF SPACES. The following is a summary of the primary functional areas required by the Chatfield Environmental Education Center and Park Headquarters, along with a general description of the tasks or activities which typify them. Following this summary is a spatial inventory which itemizes each space, and lists all of the incidental requirements specific to each function. This is then followed by an inter-relationships matrix, which graphically depicts the functional relationships between spaces. VISITOR SERVICES. I. Entry Vestibule .3.30 square feet A. Place to enter and exit building during operational hours B. Create a sense of entry and progression C. Provide airlock for climatic attenuation D. West orientation desirable, South orientation second choice II. Reception/Lobby area 800 square feet A. Central public space for visitors B. Reception should serve as focus for people entering building C. Place for park information D. Interface between visitor services and park headquarters E. Provides control point for display area F. Entry point into display area, auditorium, classroom and public restrooms III:. Exhibit Room .3100 square feet A. Central attraction for visiting public B. Area for flexible and fixed displays, exhibits concerning the environment, conservation, history and special attractions C. Provide close connextion to outdoors IV. Audi tori urn .3200 square feet A. Area for 200 people B. Provide necessities for lectures or audio-visual presentations. V. Classrooms 2 at .350 square feet each A. Informal, flexible area used for orientation of visitors to outdoors B. Provides direct access to outdoors

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Page 81 VI. Public Restrooms-2 at 4oosquare feet each A. Provides easy accessibility and visibility to visitor B. Provides service for peak loads VII. Secretary/Reception 200 square feet A. Provide information to visitors B. Map sales, etc. C. Control area for entry to park headquarters D. Surveullance of display area E. Some general business functions VIII. Observation Deck A. Second story viewing area B. Accommodates panoramic views VISITOR SUPPORT AREAS. I. Park Naturalist Office/Lab Area . 200 square feet A. Responsible for directing of study groups and researchers B. Controls interpretive displays, activities involved in wildlife and vegetation management and documentation C. Area for office and laboratory functions as well as small group meetings II. Work Room/Graphics Room 1200 square feet A. Workspace for designing and building exhibits III. Storage Room -1 at .720 square feet A. Exhibit storage B . Part of workspace IV. Darkroom 280 square feet A. Small area for photographic processing of display material and documentation V. Library/Meeting Room900 square feet A. Quiet area provided for private study and research for individuals or small groups B. Accommodate 70 lineal feet of full height book shelves PARK ADMINISTRATION AREA. I. Park Manager's Office -216 square feet

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Pag e 82 A. Area for park manager to efficiently coordinate all park activities B. Accommodate small groups II. Assistant Park Manager's Office 216 square feet A. Area for assistant park manager to delegate duties and control activities of rangers, maturalist, and maintenance section III. Senior Ranger's Office 144 square feet A. Control of visitor services B. Control of law enforcement and training IV. Staff Room -1 at 700 square feet A. Accommodations for five full-time rangers to control different aspects of the park B . Space will be subdivided with movable office partitions V. Storage Room -64 square feet A. Small area provided off staff room for storage VI. Communications Room6 4 square feet A. Small area off of staff room to accommodate radio and computer equipment; should have acoustic separation VII. Clerical Area360 square feet A. Area for two people; must accommodate copier, file cabinets, office supplies, computer terminal and printer VIII. Conference Room 260 square feet A. Private staff conferences B. During peak season becomes seasonal staff offices of 8-15 IX. Employee Lounge JOO square feet A. Accommodations for staff lunches and breaks with provisions for preparing small meals B . Accommodate cabinets and refrigerator X. Employee Restrooms/Locker Room -2 at 2 00 square feet A. One for each sex B. Accommodate restroom facilities and 15 lockers for private storage and dench C. Direct access to physical exercise room

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Page 8 J XI. Physical Exercise/Training Room 720 square feet A. Area for work outs with weights and other equipment B. Self-defense training C. Should connect to outdoor hard surface XII. Evidence/Control Area 64 square feet A. Area for storage of evidence and fire arms, etc. B. Security entrance XIII. Infirmary 200 square feet A. Area for emergency medical care two patients maximum with medical supplies XIV. Interview/Detainment area . 64 square feet A. small rooms connected where suspects in illegal activities can be questioned and detained for pick-up by local authorities B. Also used for detaining visitors with undesirable behavior (e.g. drunks) MAINTENANCE AREA (A physically separate building). I. Foreman Office 120 square feet A. Area for foreman to control activities of maintenance and grounds keeping crews B. Storage of reference material C. Clear view of work area II. Staff Office Room JOO square feet A. Flexible space divided into several areas 1. Plant mechanic (Building/Facilities/Utilities Maintenance 2. Auto mechanic (Vehicle equipment and maintenance) J. Utility foreman (Grounds maintenance) B. Must accommodate desk and storage for each area III. Garage 100.0 square feet A. Accommodation of two vehicle maintenance stalls B. Tools and parts storage IV. Garage 4000 square feet A. Large area which can be accessed by large vehicles (boats, trucks, trailers, etc. B. Storage for different maintenance operations e.g . carpentry, electrical, ground C. Work shop D. Vehicle storage 1. Boat 2. Maintenance trucks

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Page 8 4 PARKING. I. Facility Support Parking -25spaces, 7500 square feet A. Visitor Services B. Law enforcement C. Administration D. Maintenance II. Employee Parking25 spaces, 7500 square feet III. Storage Yard 9000 square feet A. Area for storage of maintenance vehicles e.g. tractorsg tree planters and grounds materials IV. Visitor Parking 250 spaces, 75,000 square feet SUMMARY OF AREA. Area Visitor Service Visitor Support Area Administration Subtotal Maintenance Area Total Parking Facility Support Groups Visitor Maintenance area Total Square Feet 13,5"80 7300 5300 31,600 5420 37,020 15,000 75,000 9,000 99.,000

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-.J.-.J ro Q_ (f)

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Space Entry Vestibule Group Visitor Services No. Rqd. 1 ActiYity/Schedullng Sq. ft. 80-100 9 am -5 pm (after hours on special occasions) Moderate Activity Behavioral Characterletlce Entry/Exit AdJacenclea u •• ,. General Public Educational Research Pag e 85 Special Interest Specl•l Neede Floor mat (recessed) Double Doors Characterlatlca Clear open link to outside Western exposure desirable Airlock required Must maintain building security Flnlahet & Furnlthlnga Trash can Related Activity Sheela Lobby/Reception/Secretary

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Space Lobby Area Group Visitor Services Ho. Rqd. 1 Actlwlty/Schedullng Sq. Ft. 500-750 9 am -5 pm (after hours on special occasions) Entry, information and point of dispersal to display, auditorium, classroom, administrative areas Behawloral Characterlttlca Hub of activity AdJacencle• u •• ,. General Public Educational Research Special Interest Special Needa Page 86 Visual access from recep-tionist area Information area Telephone Drinking fountain Restrooms Characterlttlct Clear circulation Inward orientation to display area Natural lighting Flnlthet a Furnlthlng• Comfortable seatirig Information center Releted Activity Sheet• Exhibit space Auditorium

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I Space Auditorium Group Visitor Services No. Rqd. 1 Actlwlty/Schedullng Sq. Ft. 1600 9 am -5 pm (after hours on special occasions) Presentations, movies, lectures and group meetings Behawloral Cheracterlatlca Flexible, no fixed seating Must be able to shut out light AcSJacanclaa Page 87 u •• ,. General Public Educational Groups Special Interest Groups Specl•l Needa Area for chair storage Projector booth Equiped for audio-visual needs peaign Cheracterlatlca High ceiling Well ventilated Must seat 200 Good acoustics Flnlah•• 6 Furnlahlnga 200 Folding chairs Related Actlwlty Sheet• Lobby

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Space Exhibit Space Group Visitor No. Rqd. 1 Ac tl Y It y /Sche d ullng Sq. Ft. 2200 9 am -5 pm (after hours on special occasions) Viewing of interpretive exhibits Central attraction Behawloral Characterlatlca Flexible with efficient circulation Wall and floor displays Maintain close connection to outdoors AdJecanclee u •• ,. General Public Educational groups Research Page 88 Special Interest Group s Specl•l Neede Views to outside Carpeted floor Low noise Deeign Characterletlce Daylight or well lighte d Good ventilation Roomy and uncluttered Tall space Flnlehea 6 Furnlahlnga Natural wood and glass Display panals and cases Releted Activity Sheet• Lobby

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Space Classroom Group Visitor Services Ho. Rqd. 2 Actlwlty/Schedullng Lectures Movies Business meetings Committee meetings e e h • vI or el <: h • r • c t • rIa t1 c a Private discussion Sq. Ft. 300 each Occasional wall displays and/or slide show Varying meeting sizes (5-20) AdJecenclee Uaera Special Groups Visitors Special Neede Page 89 Provide connection for the option of using two rooms together Acoustical isolation Natural lighting Display space Sink/counter/storage Dealgn Cherecterlatlca White walls to refract natural lighting Large window area Flexible table and chair arrangements Flnlahea & Furnlahlnga Carpeting Table and chairs Acoustical board on 2 walls Partition divider in center of room Electrical wiring for A-V sho v Related Activity Sheela Display area

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Spac:e Public Restroorns Group Visitor Services No. Rqd. 2 one/sex Actlvlly/Schedullng Sq. Ft. 250 each Access whenever facility is open Bahevloral Charectarlstlcs Standard use Isolate noise generated from within No view in or out AdJecenclas Page 90 u •• ,. Visitors Special interest groups Spaclel Needa Adequate ventilation Visual privacy Charectarletlcs Handicap per code Must be easy to maintain Flnlahaa A Furnlahlngs Water closets Sinks Tile floors and walls Related Activity Shaata Lobpy

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Space Observation Deck Group Visitor Services No. Rqd. 1 Ac tl Y It y IS c hedullng Sq. Ft. 500 Available when building open Behawloral Cheracterlatlca Allows people to view all of park and front range AdJac:anclaa Page 91 u •• ,. Visitors Special Needa Railing built so children and handicapped can see Charactarlatlca Clear, open Flnlahea 6 Furnlahlnga Fixed binoculars for viewing area Related Activity Sheats Lobby

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Space Secretary/Reception Group Admin. Visitor No. Rqd. 1 Ac tl wily/ S c he dullng 9 am -5 pm Sq. Ft. 100 General business functions Information for visitors, maps, permits, etc. Behewlorel Chereeterlatlc:t Some quiet office work Much answering of phones and questions Handles supply orders to outside the community, scheduling visitors, mailings, etc. Hub of activity AdJec:enclet Page 92 Uten 1 staff person plus room for up to two helpers Special Neede Close connection to administrative office Connecting door for access directly to administrative section Chuecterhtlct Clear, open view to entry and display Flnlahea 6 Furnlahlnge Desk Phone File cabinets Related Activity Sheet• Administrative office Lobby

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Space Clerical Area Group No. Rqd. Admin. 1 A c: tl Ylt y/6 c: he d ullng 9 am -5 pm Phone conversations Sq. Ft. 100 General business activities Behawloral Charac:terlatlc:a Some quiet office work Answering of phones Haadle supply orders to outside, scheduling, mailing, bookkeepping, etc. AdJac:anc:laa Page 93 u •• ,. Secretaries and staff Close connection to administrative offices Connecting door for access directly to administrative section Charac:terlatlc:a Clear open view to adjoining offices Flnlahaa & Furnlahlnga Desk and chairs Phones File cabinets Related Activity Sheet• Administrative Offices

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Space Park Naturalist Office Group Visitor Support No. Rqd. 1 Activity/Scheduling 9 am -5 pm Paper work Phone conversations Research work Sq. Ft. 150 Running mechanics of visitor services Behavioral Characterl1t1c1 Need for privacy Small Group discussions Desk work Ad)ecenclel Page 94 Ulerl Park naturalist and staff Special Heeda Controlled access Connection to workshop Image of accessibility Connection to lab 1 i g n Char a c te r 1 1 t 1 c a Soundproof Flexible space Outdoor view Non-glare daylight Flnl1he1 & Furnllhlnge Desk and chair B oo kcase File cabinet Phone Small table and chairs Releted Activity Sheet• Workshop

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Space Storage Room Group Visitor Support No. Rqd. 1 Ac IIY It J /Sc he d ullng Sq. Fl. 100 Used for storage or materials and ina.ctive exhibits Behawloral Characterlatlce AdJacenclee Page 95 Uteri Naturalist and staff Special Neech Shelving Lots of floor space Oeelgn Characterlatlca Accessible by double 3'-0" doors Flnlahea 6 Furnlahlnga Related Activity Sheet•

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Space Library Group Admin. Visitor Support No. Rqd. 1 Activity/Scheduling Leisure reading Research Behavioral Characterlatlca Sq. Ft. 400 Informal reading loung e Relaxed atmosphere AdJacanclaa Page 9 6 u •• ,. Between 0-10 people Special Needa High level of daylighting Characterlltlca Floor-to-ceiling bookshelves along wall Acoustically isolated Sitting area located in daylit perimeter Flnlahea a Furnlahlnga Small card catalogue Carpeted floors Book racks Related Activity Sheeta

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Space Dark Room Group Visitor Services No. Rqd. 1 Ac: tl Y It y /6 c: he dullng Photography work BeheYioral Cherac:terlatlc:e Developing film Making prints Sq. Ft. 150 Individual work mainly in darkness AdJecencl•• Page 97 u •• ,. 2 at a time Spec:l•l Needa Back-up infra-red lighting system Chu•c:tuhtlce Lockable door Ample counter space Shelving for chemical storage No windows but good ventilation Means of identifying from outside when room is in use Flnl1he1 & Furnlahlnge 3 foot high, long tables and sinks Enlarger Photo stand Related Activity Sheeta Workshop

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Space Workroom/Graphics Room Group Visitor Support No. Aqd. 1 Ac th It y/8 c he d ulln g 9 am -5 pm Sq. Ft. 400 Designing and building exhibits Behavioral Characterlatlca AdJecenclea Page 98 u •• ,. Staff naturalist and staff Special N•eda Continuous hard surface along walls Well ventilated Well lit Dealgn Characterlatlca Tall ceiling Lots of open floor space Flnlahea 6 Furnlahlnga Pegboard Cabinets Shelving Related Activity Sheet• Naturalist's Office

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-Space Park Naturalist Lab Group Visitor Support No. Rqd. 1 Activity/Scheduling 9 am -5 pm Biological experiments Behavioral Characterlatlca Need for privacy Sq. Ft. 100 Often long hours of tedious work AdJacencies Page 99 Us ere Park naturalist and staff Counter space Sink Storage cabinets Task lighting Detign Characteristic• compact efficient space Security No view Flnlahea & Furnlahlnga Two stools Built-in cabinets Related Activity Sheeta Park Naturalist Office

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.: Space Park Manager's Office Group Admin. Ho. Rqd. 1 A c tl Y It y /6 che d ullng 9 am -5 pm use Paper work Phone conversation Sq. Ft. 200 Business with "outside" Running mechanics of the park BehaYioral Characterlatlca Small impromptu discussions Need for privacy Lots of phone conversations AdJacanclaa Page 100 u •• ,. 1 Manager plus room for up to four seated visitors (larger meetings take place in meeting room) Special Needa Controlled access Special interface with secretary Image of accessibility, not separateness Special interface with assistant park manager !?••ign Characterlatlca Soundproof door linking administrator with secretary Flexible space for small discussion Outdoor View Non-glare daylight Flnlahaa & Furnlahlnga Desk and chair Phone Book shelves File cabinets Four movable chairs Related Activity Sheata Secretary Assistant Park Manager

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Space Assistant Park Manager Group No. Rqd. Admin. Activity/Scheduling 9 am -5 pm Paper work 1 Phone conversations Business witnn park Supervision of staff Enacting policy Beha vtoral Chera cterla tie • Need for privacy Small discussions Sq. Ft. 200 Lot of interaction with staff Page 101 u •• ,. Assistant manager plus room for up to 2 seated visitors Spec:l•l Needa Controlled access Special interface with secretary and manager Image of accessibility Datlgn Charaeterletlca Soundproof area Flexible space for small discussions Outdoor view Non-glare daylighting Flnlahea 6 Furnlthlnge Desk and chair Phone Book shelves File cabinet Two movable chairs Related Activity Sheet• Park manager

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Space Senior Ranger's Office Group Admin. No. Rqd. 1 Actlwlty/Schedullng 9 am -5 pm Sq. Ft. 100 Coordination of staff ranger's activities Phone conversations General business activities Bahawloral Characterlttlca Small impromptu discussions Direct dealings with 5 staff rangers Adlacanclae Page 102 u •• ,. Senior Ranger Spacl•l Needa In direct communication with staff room J?atign Characterletlct Compact and efficient space Outdoor view Non-glare daylight Flnlahaa & Furnlahlnge Desk and chair Phone Book shelves File cabinets Related Actl'flty Sheela Staff room

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Space Conference Room Group No. Rqd. Admin. Activity/Scheduling 9 am -5 pm 1 -Sq. Ft. 350 Private staff conferences During peak season becomes seasonal staff offices Behevloral Charecterletlce Group discussions Occasional wall displays and slide shows Varying meeting sizes (5-20) Ad)acenclee Page 103 u •• ,. Staff 8-15 Spec:l•l Needa Acoustical isolation Natural lighting Charecterletlca White walls to refract natural lighting Large window area Flexible table and chair arrangements Flnlahea & Furnlahlnge Carpeting Table and chairs Electrical wiring for A-V Related Activity Sheets

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Space Staff Room Group No. Rqd. Admin. 1 ActiYily/Schedullng 9 am -5 pm Sq. Ft. 400 Personal space for rangers controlling different aspects of / park B•havloral Charact•rlatlct Multiple entries throughout the day AdJacencies Page 104 u •• ,. Five full time rangers Sp•clal Needa Flexible space with movable partitions Characterlatlca Flexible Good lighting Outdoor view Non-glare daylight Door to exterior Flnlahea A Furnlahlnga Five desks and chairs Bookcase File cabinets Dividers Phones Ralat•d Activity Sheats Senior Ranger's Office

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Space Storage Room Group Ho. Rqd. Admin. 1 Sq. Ft. JO Users Staff Actlwlty/Schedullng Special Needs Used as storage for ranger staff Shelving Behawloral Characterlatlcs Cluracterlstlca Standard Use Flnlshea a Furnishings Related Activity Sheela Page 105

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Space Communication Room Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. Admin. 1 60 ActiYity/Schedullng Radio conversations with law enforcement vehicles and local authorities BehaYioral Characterlatlca AdJacancl•• Page 106 u •• ,. Staff Specl•l Needa Area for large switchboard Characterlatlca Small acoustically separated room Flnlahaa 6 Furnlahlnga Table and chair Switchboard Related ActiYity Sheet• Staff Office

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Space Interview/Detainment Area Group No. Rqd. Admin. 1 Actlwlty/Schedullng When needed: Sq. Ft. 100 Suspects in illegal activities are questioned and detained fo local authorities Detainment of visitor with undesirable actions BehaYioral Characterlatlca AdJacanclea u •• ,. Staff Special Needa Locking doors Visual access Characterlatlca Page 107 Two rooms separated acoustically by door Visual access required Flnlahea & Furnlahlnga Table and chairs Bed Related Activity Sheela Staff Offices

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Space Evidence and Control Area Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. Admin. 1 100 Activity/Scheduling When needed, area for storage of evidence and firearms Behavioral Characterlatlce AdJacencies u •• ,. Staff Special Needa Secure area No visual access r:>eelgn Characterletlcs Page 108 Flnlahes 6 Furnishing• Loc k a ble storag e areas Related Activity Sheet• Staff Offi c e s

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Space Lounge Group No. Rqd, Admin. Actlwlty/Schedullng Socializing Eating 1 Behawloral Characterlatlca Small group activities Several varied activities occurring simultaneously AdJac anclea Pag e 109 Uaera Up to 8 at one time Special Neech Allow for variety of activities, but minimize acoustical distraction Char.icterlatlca Flexible floor plan Moveable furniture Use soft surfaces and/or acoustical tile to reduce noise level overall Flnlahea 6 Furnlahlnga Table Chairs Television Refrigerator Related Activity Sheet•

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Space Restrooms/Locker Rooms Group Admin. No. Rqd. 2 Activity/Scheduling Sq. Ft. 110 9 am -5 pm plus afterhours use Storage of personal items Changing clothes Showers Beh1vlorel Cherecterlatlca Standard restroom use Privacy Isolation of noise from within No view in or out AdJec enclea Uaera Staff Special Needa Pag e 110 Separate male and female Visual privacy for showers Adequate ventilation peaign Clur•cterletlca Handicap as per code One shower each sex Slick, easy to clean surfaces Flnlahea 6 Furnlahlnga Lockers Benches Sinks, water closets Shower Tiled floor and walls Related Activity Sheet•

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Space Training Room Group Admin. No. Rqd. 1 ActiYity/Schedullng Weightlifting Exercise Bicycling Sq. Ft. 500 Law enforcement training BehaYioral Cheracterlatlca High level of physical exertion Frequent changing of users AdJacanclaa Pag e 111 u •• ,. Up to 15 at one time Specl•l Needa Fresh air ventilation -high rate Characterlatlca Padded floor to allow for stretching, etc. High air-exchange rate Sensitive air conditioning system Flnlahea & Furnlahlnga Nautilus equipment Stationary bicycles Rubber mats on floor Related ActiYity Sheela Locker room

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I Space Infirmary Group No. Rqd. Admin. 1 Ac: tl Y It y IS c: hedulln g Staff person Sq. Ft. 100 Equipped to handle simple injuries and illnesses BeheYiorel Charecterlttlct Used only in case of illness or emergency AdJecenclee Page 112 u •• ,. N/A Specl•l Neede Secure room but accessible at all times of day or night Characterlttlce Great need for shelving and general storage High level of electric lighting (either primary or backup) Flnlthet 6 Furnlthlnge Sink Closet storage Fold-out cot Releted Activity Sheet•

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Cf) D... -_c Cf) c . 0 -1 J ro ro c 0 -1 j u c :::J u_

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t ENTRY .VISITOR SERVICES COMPONENT SPACES 1. entry vestibule 2. lobby area J. exibit area 4. auditorium 5. classrooms 6. public restrooms 7. secretary/reception 8. observation deck 9. visitor support areas 10. park administrative areas controled entry Page 11.3

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Visitor Services Administrative Area VISITOR SUPPORT AREAS COMPONENT SPACES 1. park naturalist office 2. park naturalist lab 3. work room I graphics room 4. storage room 5. darkroom 6. library I meeting room 7 . class rooms Page 114

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Visitor Services Pag e 115 ADMINISTRATION COMPONENT SPACES 1. park manager's office 2. assistant park manager's office J. senior ranger's office 4. staff room 5. storage room 6. communications room 7. clerical area 8. conference room 9. clerical area 10. conference room 11. employee lounge 12. employee restrooms 13. locker room 14. training room 15. evidence room 16. infirmary 17. interview/ detainment area

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Page 116 Main Facility MAINTENANCE AREA COMPONENT SPACES i. foreman's office 2. staff office room J. garage (vehicle maintenance 4. garage (general maintenance 5. storage yard Fire Separation Physical Separation

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Function Parking Reception Display/Exhibit Auditorium Library Dark Room Workroom/Graphics Classroom Naturalist/Work area Administrative Areas General Public X X X 0 0 0 X = Major Relationship USER FUNCTION MATRIX Users Park Administration Educational X X 0 X X X 0 X X X 0 X X 0 X 0 = Moderate Relationship --Researchers X X X 0 0 X N o Relationship Special Interest Groups X X X X 0 X 0

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DESJGN Page 118 Several major ideas provided the conceptual basis for the design of the Chatfield Environmental Education Center. The first is the perception of the facility as a goal or destination which would creat a sense of expectation or anticipation when approaching, arriving at and experiancing the building. This idea evoled from studies of the site and from trying to understand and utilize the major recrational concepts of the park itself as to produce a facility which could become the climax of a visit to Chatfield. This was accomplished by siting the building in a location which can be seen from the majority of the park. Located on a bluff above the water the building can be seen from the entry of the park as well as along the main road which forms a spiral type path leading to the building. This path is then continued within the \ building until you reach the main display area which culminates in outstanding views of the front range and the whole of the reservoir area. The building organization and circulation are a response to this. The building is organized into two type of spaces, visitor areas and support areas. These spaces are arranged along a circulation spine which end in the main display space. Other important ideas relatd to the building:' s direct relationship to the site, one of these was to provide an organization which gave spaces for the visitor the closest relationship to the outdoors. This can be seen in the arrangement of classrooms, library and similar spaces along the perimeter of the south side of the building. Materials of the building a.ct -to creat a harmony with the landscape, the wood,concrete and metal roof combi ,nsympathetically with the landscape but differ enough to allow a clear between the building and land. The proportion and scale of the building also add to the sympathetic relationship. The dominant low roof form emphasizes the horizontal nature of the building as it spreads out on the large horizontal plane of the site. The scale of the structural elements is large to emphasize the strength of the building as it sets on this exposed bluff -as if to resist the powerful elements of nature. These large elements give way, however, to a reduction to human scale in the elements of the facades, exterior cladding, tile patterns and many more.

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COST ESTIMATE Preliminary cost estimate Building Class D Local modifier .99 Building area 31,6000 sf Base price $55.00/sf (good-educational) 1 story Heating & cooling $7.25/sf (cold climate) -package unit (short ducts) Sprinkler non required by code Floor area perimeter multiplier .934 -perimeter = 1000 ft -area = 30,000sf New base price $55oOO + 7.25 = 62.25 -$62.25 X .99 X ,934 = $57,5 6 $5?.56 x 31,600 sf= 1,818896.00 Foundation cost 100 piers 18" dia ;... 15' ave. depth $18/ft $5500.00 setup cost $5500,00 +(100 X 15 X 18)= $32500.00 TOTAL COST $32500.00 + $1 ,818896.00 = $1 ,851396.00 Page 120

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. ----------------• I I ! . • I r I I I I I ' I . I I " I I I I . L.:_ --------------_j. I G I ll ' • ---____ _. ..... rn • • • • FLOOR PLAN 40

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SITE DEVELOPMENT Page 122 Site development was apprached with three main goals in mind: 1o Since this is a ecologically oriented project, the manipulation of the land should be minimal so that the natural state of the land can be conserved with existing contours used where possibleo 2. Since this is a public facility, handicap access should be observed at all times. 3o Development should utilize existing site features which are good and correct those which are not advantageous. In general, the facility was placed out on a bluff to create a dramatic setting for the buildings and to take advantage of views. Although the site drops off quickly to the east, west and north, the bluff is relatively flat with approximately a 1-3% slope towards the edge of the bluff. With the handicapped in mind, the building is on one level which allows for minimal grading of the site around the building. The grading to be done would allow for proper drainage away from the building and for aesthetics. Drainage calculations indicate that approximately 7000 cubic feet of water would need to be retained during the worst storms in that area. This retention would be accomplished by providing a 1" deep reservoir in the 90,000 square foot main parking lot. Water falling on the building could also be retained on its flat roofo The parking lots were developed using the existing contours as a guide. The successive rows of parking spaces step up the slope (approximately 3-5% ) to the east. Buffer spaces were provided in between lots to minimize the visual effects of the large lot. Road development also responds to the existing contours by running parallel to them thereby creating a passive, winding road on the south side of the slope providing great views of the approaching building. The road is split into a parkway with landscaping in between to minimize the visual effects of the paving.

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Page 123 Photo of site model to emphasize expectation with the building as the goal.

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STRUCTURAL SYSTEM Page 126 The structural system of this building is the central organizing element in the design. It is the architectural image of the building and its elements are readily exposed whenever possible. The structural system is composed of a "kit of parts" which consists of: 18" diameter concrete columns -King post truss -Exposed metal connections 9" x 24" Glulam beam 20 ' 10 J/4" x 30" Glulam beam 40 ' 5 1/8" x 15" Glulam joist 20' 6" 2 way concrete slab 20' x 20 ' bay 18" concrete pier 2" x 6" non-bearing exterior wall Certain elements such as the columns and 9" x 24" Glulam beam were chosen strictly based upon proportional relationships with structural calculations used secondarily to confirm their integrity. This structural system was designed to provide for and work integrally with other important systems such as architectural image, interior spaces, mechanical systems and daylighting. In general, the building is dominated by its roof form which consists of many hip roofs coming together in peaks and vallies that create a massing and profile which plays against the Rocky Mountains in the background. This roof is solidly connected to the ground by large columns which are articulated with red metal connections. These columns set on a concrete base which acts to distinguish building from ground. The interior spaces are given their proportions and spatial elements by the structural system. Larger interior spaces are directly reflected in the massing of the building and are easily recognized in the building elevations. Mechanical systems are gathered to the central areas of the building which are dominated by a flat roof which is hidden from view by the exterior ring of hipped roofs. Packaged heating and cooling units are located on the roof which provides great flexibility in unit location as well as efficiency and economy . Beam and joist arrangement as

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Page 127 well as a series of dropped ceilings provide ample and flexible areas f o r HVAC systems to reach all parts of the building. Areas needing utilities such as water, sewer and gas are clustered to the middle of the building where vents, drains and other mechanical equipment can be hidden from sight via the concealed flat roof. Daylighting was accomplished within this structural system by penetrating the flat roof with 8' x 8' skylights which provide light that floods over and accents the exposed structure. Also the back side of the trussed roofs are opened up at key points to provide daylight to work areas so as to decrease overall operating costs and to provide an attractive and inspiring space in which to work . Chatfield Environmental Education Center Mark M . Haddix Thesis Project University of Colo rado May 9 , 1985

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EAST ELEVATION APPROACH TO ENTR Y FLOOR PLA AREA 31600 s.f. KEY Llnlr; 2,1\hbtlt)ll tiall 3.Rt•u_ ophurl 5.AWtoriUTl for 6. 7. \1ulh,JUI'JJO'Iof' Room 8. Room 9.loilbotollll.lf'f 12. OffKt> .-d 13,[('(1llft•ll.aSStot..-. 15.KMIRJ011l\ .nj VNIOf 17.Sel:rt>Wt.tl lB. 9. SN"ul'lty lblrn ... toury-lc)(let ltoom 23. Conh:'u'flc:t' !Worn Alt'ol 25. \1t."ttwf.:. t l Ro..om 26. lllnn 27.hhbtl0n -'Ill 29. lrcllf ... Al .. .l Mid Roorm 31.5.t'q) 32.\'""Jr\runrn

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88 _ .L--J.

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I /1.\tot..lltoof I)I,I.•IH G ..... Sofltl t ....... '!lmoolh (lodMSdq Conot•tt• 'j,l,.•t WEST ELEVATION EXHIBIT IO HALL

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SECTION A-A SECTION A-A FLOOR PLAN S •8ALE Ys'=1'-0 H T TAL BUILD! A REA 31,600 KEY l.lntry 2. l \hlll111011 1 1.111 3. 4. \1 ,1111 G.tllt,r\ 5. Audltomrn I or 300 6. ,tit:"> 7. Mult•fll"t>O'<' Room 8 . PreparaltOfl Room 9. labol rOlXI" 16. onu•sSIOil .md V1>1tor I OLillW 17. rt't.mal rt>a 18 . CCNlllllUfl( d t 10f1S 19. <'l t'l'' S I OUI' 22. I n'Pk>l..., s Room 23. ( tx>f• • rer><" Room rea 25. "1l.' h.tnK.al Room 26. l.u'lltOJMI R oom 27. ht.b.t""' torag< • 2B. IIf\l AKI 29. A rl"d 30. LrhK; Jnd l:l.ul Roorn; 3 1 . \hop 32. I I J

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CONCLUSI .ON Page 134 Upon reviewing the thesis set forth at the beginning of this project, I feel the majority of the issues have been resolved in a successful manner. Many of these issues have been discussed in the previous section. One important issue not discussed so far is that of process or the steps which lead to a successful end to this project. Although it would be impossible to discuss this topic in depth several important things can be distilled. One important feature of my process was simplification of the design. However, a concommitant elaboration of my program occurred. I view this as a sign of maturation of my project. I think this quality of simplification is good, because I feel one must be capable of relaying the building as simply as possible to the primary users of the building -the general public. I feel I used a simple approach to the building by using phythm and repetition as conveyed in column placement, windows, doors and material pattering. However, I endeavored to use these elements only where needed to create rhythm without wastefulness. The rhythm and repetitive nature of the building imparts to it an inherent flexibility. This flexibility applies not only to the struture itself but to its potential. The structural flexibility reflects the needs of users by allowing myriad arrangements of exhibits and demonstrations. However, in the procBss of the design I realized that the concept of a nature center was somewhat unique and, therefore, the construction of such an elaborate facility might not be attempted all at once. The design allows for partial completion in as the two prime functional areas -administration and public use -are separate. This flexibility is greatly appreciated by the Division of Parks and Recreation in the present times of limited financial support.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Page 135 Bednar, Michael J. Pennsylvania: Barrier-Free Environments. Stroudsburg, Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., 1977. Construction Guidlines (Technical Assistance Renort). Fort Collins, Colorado: Colorado Division of Park and Outdoor Recreation, 1981. Conway, H. McKinley. The Weather Handbook. Atlanta, GA: Conway Research, Inc., 1975. Davis, A. J., and R. P. Schubert. Sources in Building Design. Reinhold Company, 1981. Natural Energy New York: Van Nostrand DeChiara, Joseph and John Callender. for Building Types. New York: Time Saver Standards McGraw-Hill, 1973. Doubilet, Susan. "Michael Graves: An Environmental Education Center." Progressive Architecture Journal, 1 (1983), 97-100. Doubilet, Susan. "Environmental Education Center." Progressive Architecture Journal, 8 (1983), 88-93. Goldsmith, Designing for the Disabled. London: RIBA Publications Ltd., 1976. Halfman, Jasper. "Cosmological Park: Bundesgartenschau 1985." Architectural Design, Aug. 1982, 110-111. Keyes, Dale. "\'Jildlife and Vegi tation." Ins Land Development and the Natural Environment: Estimating Imlacts. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute, 197 . Leedy, Daniel. Planning for Wildlife in Cities and Suburbs. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, 1978. Lynch, Kevin. Site Planning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1971. Mazriaf Edward. The Passive Solar Energy Book. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1979. McHarg, Ian. Design With Nature. Garden City, NYa The Natural History Press, 1969. Momaday, Scott N. The Way to Rainy Mountain. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1969.

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Page 136 Murphy, Jim. "Bridging Between Man and Nature." AlA Journal, Jan. 1981, 56-62. National Audubon Society. Directory of Nature Centers and Related Environmental Education Centers. New York: National Audubon Society, 1975. Program Plan for the State of Colorado. Project Number 2944. Prepared by Morgan Associates Architects. Ruffer, James A. Climates of the States, Vol. 1. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Co. Book Tower, 1977. Shivers, Jay. Toronto: The Crisis in Urban Recreational Services. Assoc. University Press, 1981. Shomon, J. J. "Educational Aids, Facilities and Features," In: Manual of Outdoor Conservation Education. New York: National Audubon Society, 1966. Shomon, J. J. A Nature Center for Your Community. New York: National Audubon Society, 1975. Shomone J. J. Manual of Outdoor Interpretation. New York: National Audubon Society, 1975. Simonds, John Ormsbee. Landscape Architecture. New York: McGraw-Hill, 198J. Uniform Building Code. Whittier, CA: 1982. Vander Smissen, Betty. "Environmental Actions and Understandings," In: Research Camping and Environmental Education. Penn. State HPER Series, No. 11, 1975. Winter, Steven. The Passive Solar Construction Handbook. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 198J.

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APPENDIX a. Chatfield Master Plan Introduction b. Chatfield Vehicle Fleet Summary c. Existing Vegetation Features Map and Key d. Tree and Shrub Management Plant Material Specifications e. Designing for Disabled

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PART I INTRODUCTION SECTION 1 -GENERAL 1. PURPOSE OF PLAN: The purpose of this management plan is to set forth recommendations, procedures, estimated costs, and sequence for the establishment of a permanent vegetative cover within the boundaries of the Chatfield Lake Project, except for areas specified below. Special emphasis is placed on establishing vegetation compatable with heavy outdoor recreation use consistent with the ecological composite of soil, fauna, flora and man. This plan is to be used as a guide by the forester for the establishment, improvement, and maintenance of the vegetative cover. The forester or technician referred to is the official representative of the U. S. Forest Service Region 2, or his designated representative. 2. PREPARATION OF PLAN: This plan was prepared by personnel of the Colorado State Forest Service, Colorado State University, under contract with the United States Department of Agriculture--Forest Service, Region 2, for the United States Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha District of the Missouri River Division. Specifications and authorization for this plan are contained in the following documents. 2.1 Public Law 86-717, 86th Congress, H. R. 9377, Sept. 6, 1960. See Appendix I. 2.2 Memorandum of Agreement between the Forest Service (Region 2) of the United States Department of Agriculture and the Corps of Engineers (U. S. Army Engineers, Omaha District) relative to Vegetative Planning, Development and Management for the Chatfield Project and other selected Colorado projects within the District. May 2, 1968. 2.3 Memorandum of Understanding Relative to Vegetative Management Planning, Development, and servicing for the Chatfield Project and Other Selected Colorado Water Development Projects of the United States Army Engineers (Omaha District) between the Forest Service Region 2, United States Department of Agriculture and the Colorado State University (acting through the State Forester). June 18, 1968. 2.4 Intra-Army Order for Reimbursable Services. Number MROGD-51. Date of November 25, 1968. 2.5 Contract Number 33-995. Project: Management Plan for Chatfield Reservoir. Location: Chatfield Reservoir. Contractor: Colorado State University (acting through the State Forester). June 18, 1968. -3-

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( SECTION IX FACILITY LOAD AND DESIGN CRITERIA 1. FACILITY LOAD: All proposed recreation developnent vas based on the estimated number of visitors who will participate in the various recreational activities during an average summertime peak day. Peak days are all weekend days and holidays occurring during the normal summertime recreation season. Other factors used include daily turnover rate, average number of people in a group, and the percentage of annual visitors anticipated on an average peak day. The following criteria was used to determine anticipated use. Facilities required were based on criteria contained in Appendix A of EM 1110-2-400, except where local conditions required departure from the standard. 1.1 Recreation Mix: Based on the public use experience at the Cherry Creek Project and with the concurrence of the Bureau of Reclamation and the State of Colorado Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation, the percentage of the total anticipated visitation participating in each activity is estimated as follows: Activity Fishing Boating Sightseeing Picnicking Nature Study Water Skiing Camping Swimming Organized Games Other Percent 26 13 15 12 10 5 9 8 1 1 100 Percent Although it is recognized that the average recreationist will participate in more than one activity during an average activity day, the determination of recreational facilities required is based on the primary activity engaged in, without assigning weighted factors for secondary activities. 1.2 Design Load: The design load is defined as the number of visitors which may be expect. ed to participate in each activity at any one time during a summertime peak day. The following formulae were used to determine the peak day load {E) and the design load (DL). 9-1

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Ax B X C D = E A = Total estimated project visitation ! = DL T B = Percentage of visitors engaging in specific activity C = Percentage of annual visitors expected on average summertime peak day D = Number of peak days during season E = Total number of persons engaged in specific activity during a peak day T = Daily turnover rate DL = Total number of persons engaged to specific activities at any one time during a peak day P = Number of persons in average group The number of parking spaces required for each activity is determined as follows: DL p Based on the above formulae, the following numbers of visitors were considered in the development of public use facilities: FISHING Initial Future A = 1,400,000 A = 600,000 B = 26% B = 26% c = 25% c = 25% D = 54 D = 54 E = 1,685 E = 922 T = 1 T = 1 DL = 1,685 DL = 72. 2 p = 3.5 p = 3.5 481 parking spaces 206 parking spaces 9-2 (

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( BOATING Initial Future A = 1,400,000 A = 600,000 B = 13% B = 13% c = 35% c = 35% D = 54 D = 54 E = 1,180 E = 505 T = 2 T = 2 DL = 590 DL = 252 p = 3.5 p = 3.5 8 Launching Lanes 5 Launching Lanes 6 Courtesy Piers 4 Courtesy Piers 168 Car and Trailer Spaces 72 Car and Trailer * Rest Rooms * To be included in marina building Note: 1. To facilitate ease of construction, all boat launching ramps will be constructed initially before inundation of the lake. 2. One .. launching lane per 40 peak day launchings. SIGHTSEEING Initial Future A = 1,400,000 A = 600,000 B = 15% B = 15% c = 25% c = 25% D = 54 D = 54 E = 972 E = 416 T = 2 T = 2 DL = 486 DL = 2o8 p = 3.5 p = 3.5 111 parking spaces 47 parking spaces including 75 cars and 15 cars and trailer spaces at visitor center Rest rooms in recreation units by trail system. 9-3 Spaces

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PICNICKING Initial Future A= 1,400,000 A = 6oo,ooo B = 12% B = 12% c = 25% c = 25% D = 31 D = 31 E=l,354 E = 580 T = 2 T = 2 DL = 677 DL = 290 p = 3.5 p = 3.5 193 parking spaces 83 parking spaces picnic units 1 rest room min. per picnic area 5 group .shelters 20 picnic shelters * 4 tables, 2 vaist high stoves and 1 vaste can Picnic shelters substituted in place of 6th group shelter. NATURE STUDY, HIKING, HORSEBACK RIDING, AND BICYCLE RIDING -Initial Future ( A = 1,400,000 A = 600,000 B = 10% B = 10%. c = 25% c = 25% D = 54 D = 54 E = 648 E = 277 T = 2 T = 2 DL = 324 DL = 138 p = 3.5 p = 3.5 92 parking spaces 39 parking spaces 20.6 miles of trails 13.1 miles of trails 4 vault toilets 9-4

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( WATER SKIING Initial A = 1,400,000 B = 5% c = 25% D = 59 E = 296 T = 1 DL = 296 p = 3 98 parking spaces Change house and rest rooms combined with swimming beach Future A= 600,000 B = 5% c = 25% D = 59 E = 127 T = 1 DL = 127 p = 3 43 parking spaces Average of 75 sq. ft. per person of beach Note: Entire ski beach facilities will be constructed initially. Initial A = 1,400,000 B = 6 % c = 25% D = 21 E = 1,000 T = 1 DL = 1,000 p = 7 150 camp pads CAMPING (TRAILERS) 1 rest room for each 50 pads consisting of washhouse, showers9 and lavatories 9-5 Future A = 600,000 B = 6% c = 25 % D = 21 E = 428 T = 1 DL = 428 p = 7 50 camping pads 1 rest room

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CAMPING (GROUP) Initial A c 2,000,000* B = 1% c = 25% D = 21 E = 238 T = 1 DL = 238 p = 7 10 clusters of 4 each 1 rest room consisting of shovers, washhouse, and lavatories. Future None It It It It It It II * All group camping constructed under initial program. CAMPING (PRIMITIVE) Initial A = 1,400,000 B = 3% c = 25% D = 21 E = 500 T = 1 DL = 500 p = 7 70 wa.lkin camp sites 3 vault type rest rooms SWIMMING Initial A = 1,400,000 B = 8% c = 25% D = 21 E = 903 T = 2 DL = 451 p = 2 225 parking spaces Change house vith rest rooms 75 sq. ft. of beach per person Future A = 600,000 B = 3% c = 25% D = 21 E = 214 T = 1 DL = 214 p = 7 30 wa.lkin camp sites 1 vault type rest room Future A = 600,000 B = 8% c = 25% D = 21 E = 571 T = 2 DL = 285 p = 2 142 parking spaces Note: Entire beach area to be constructed initially. 9-6 ( "

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( 2. SITING: In coordination vith the State of Colorado Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation, the Corps of Engineers Citizens Advisory Committee on Environmental Planning, local citizen groups, and other interested and knovledgeable organizations, an architectural theme (D.M. No. PC-lC), was established, see Exhibit H; it recognized that the natural landscape is the dominant feature of the project and that the recreation buildings,should be designed and sited in such a manner so as to be recessive and thus subordinate to the natural surroundings. General criteria required to accomplish the theme vill include the use of building materials of soft, earthy color tones that vill blend into the plains character of the area, the use of native plant materials, and the construction of rolling landforms for sight screening pur.poses. The rooflines and the elevations of all buildings vill be lov so as to produce the visual effect that the structure is but another indulation of the terrain, rather than a sharp intrusion. Public use buildings vill be clustered or combined in order to reduce man's impact on the overall project, to facilitate operational management, and to better adapt a vehicular road pattern vith large centrally located parking areas. Concession facilities and rest rooms, vhich vill partially serve picnic areas, vill be located in the svimming beach change houses in order to reduce the number of structures required. Day use recreational structures, such as picnic and group shelters, will be sited in the field to insure that the most advantageous view of the lake or other outstanding feature is achieved. Rest rooms will be located, vhenever possible, close to vehicular parking areas in order that they may be used by the motorist as vell as the casual walking recreationist. All recreation units, such as picnic areas, camping areas, swimming beaches, playgrounds, and natural areas vill be divided by roads, natural topographic features, landform; or vegetation. Recreational units with compatible uses, such as picnicking and swimming, will be within close proximity to each other. Recreational uses, vhich depend on or are enhanced by the lake, vill be sited accordingly; nondependent use was located back from the shoreline. Adequate buffer zones will be provided adjacent to public highways or where undesifable off-project development detract from the quality of the recreational experience. 3. WATER SYSTEI-1: All potable water supplies will be provided from existing municipal water lines located on or adjacent to project lands. Sizes of existing lines vary from 24 inches to 54 inches in diameter. Service lines to recreational areas will be sized to accommodate the facility and the anticipated use. In general, rest rooms vith shovers and laundry facilities, vhen located in camping areas, require approximately 35 gallons per day per capita use. In day use area rest rooms, a minimum of 10 gallons per day per capita vill be required. Several low capacity 9-7

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Yells (5-10 gallons per minute) vere purchased from former landoYners; hoYever, output is unreliable and Yater obtained from these sources Yill be used forlrrieation of vegetation only. See Plate 10 for location of existing Yater lines. 4. WASTE COLLECTION AND TREATMENT SYSTEM: Sanitary Yastes originating on project lands Yill be collected and treated by one of four means, each method meets the minimum requirements of the Colorado Department of Health. Wastes collected from facilities located doYnstream and immediately upstream from the dam Yill be pumped into a municipal system located doYnstream from the project. Facilities located along the west shoreline of the lake and other remote regions, where it vould be impractical to provide a central collection system, will be provided with individual septic tanks and tile leeching fields sized to meet the anticipated contribution. In areas such as the principal camp ground, where several rest rooms are located in a relatively congested area, a central underground collection system will be installed which will pump the sewage into a stabilization pond on project land. The pond will be sized to meet the anticipated contribution and will be located above the 50-year flood frequency. No discharge from the stabilization pond will be made into the lake or any flowing streams. In the walkin camping areas, a concrete holding tank will be below the rest room; it will collect and hold sanitary wastes which will be pumped out periodically and disposed of in the stabilization pond. A trailer sanitary dump station will be located adjacent to the main access and exit road to the trailer camping area. The necessary water supply and night lighting will also be provided. Sanitary disposal facilities for boats equipped with holding tanks will be incorporated into the design of dock facilities at the marina. 5. ROADS: Access and circulation roads within the project will be bituminous-surfaced, 22 to 24 feet in width, depending on the anticipated traffic load, with 3-foot-wide shoulders. The horizontal alignment will be designed to accommodate maximum vehicular speeds of 25 m.p.h., and vertic6.1 grades will not exceed 7 percent. Self rusting steel beam guard rails will be installed in various areas to meet minimum safety requirements. Drainage will be accomplished with metal culverts; the minimum ditch depths will depend on the terrain. One-way camp-loop roads will be bituminous-surfaced, 12 feet in width, with 2-foot-wide shoulders designed for a maximum speed of 15 m.p.h. Minimum drainage will be required. Service roads required for project operation and not open to the public for vehicular access will be 12 feet in width and gravel surfaced, with minimal drainage requirements. For typical plans and sections of roads, see Plate 19. Tva vehicular crossings will be required, one over the South Platte the other over Plum Creek. 9-8 (

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( 6. PARKING AREAS: All parking areas vill be surfaced vith a bituminous material. Typical sizes of parking spaces are 10 feet by 20 feet for cars and 10 feet by 40 feet for car trailer combinations. Precast concrete wheel stops vill be installed to confine vehicles to the parking areas and to protect the adjacent vegetation. In areas vhere positive drainage is desired, continuous curbs vill be constructed of bituminous material or concrete, and the surface sloped to grated catch basins. All parkings areas vill receive landscaping treatment consisting of screen type vegetative plantings, landforms, or a combination of both. For typical plans and sections of parking areas, see Plates 20 and 21. 1. BOAT RAMPS: Boat ramps vill be constructed of concrete; lanes vill be 16 feet vide and vill be placed on a slope vhich may vary betveen 12 percent and 14 percent. A total of 13 launching lanes are required to meet the anticipated initial demand. Two launching sites, containing five lanes each, vill be located in the marina area adjacent to the dam; onelaunching site, containing three lanes, vill be located infue sailboat harbor. In addition, space vill be provided in the vicinity of the sailboat harbor for construction of an electrically operated vinch. The vinch vill be provided by the concessionaire to launch boats on a fee basis. Toe elevation on all three ramp locations vill be set at 5,416 feet, m.s.l., vhich vill provide betveen 10 and 14 feet of vater under normal conditions. Top elevations vill vary in order to provide a usable launching facility at various levels during higher than normal pool stages. For a typical ramp section, see Plate 22. 8. DOCK, PIERS, AND MOORING FACILITIES: In conjunction vith construction of the boat launching lanes, one courtesy dock vill be placed between each two adjacent boat launching lanes. Mooring facilities for refueling purposes vill be provided by the concessionaire. Design will be of the "fish spine" type vith a central va.lkw.y connected to the shoreline and perpendicular mooring docks connected to the valkvay. Minimum distance betveen mooring docks vill be 40 feet for maneuvering purposes. The concessionaire vill determine the number of docks required to meet the needs and demands of the public. 9. PICNIC U NITS: A picnic unit vill consist of four tables, two vaist-high grates or fire rings, and one trash receptacle. 9.1 Table construction vill conform to the existing Omaha District design of steel tubing frame and wood plank seats and table tops. Spacing vill average four tables per acre; tables vill be separated by lov land forms or shrubs. Shade trees and high-density ground cover vill be nlanted and the tables vill not be anchored; this vill permit movement in order to permit rest and recovery of ve.getation. 9 9

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9.2 Waist High Stoves: Waist-high vicinity of the tables. Commercially or charcoal fuel, vill be acceptable. be provided in group picnic shelters. stoves will be located in the available models which use wood Electrically fueled grills '\oTill 9.3 Fire Fire rings will be a of 3 feet in diameter and will be constructed of one-fourth inch steel plate. They will be 6 inches high and will be recessed into the ground a minimum of 2 inches. 9.4 Waste Receptacles: 'faste receptacles will consist of a steel outer lining and a cast iron cover. They will be recessed into the ground and will be of sufficient size to contain a 20-gallon receptacle. 10. CAMPING UNIT: A camping unit will consist of one table, one waist high or fire ring, and one waste receptacle for every two adjacent camp sites. For typical plans of each type camp site, see Plates 24 and 25. A dry well for disposal of dishwater will be provided at strategic locations. 10.1 Vehicle Campsite: Each camp pad will be 12 feet in width and paved with bituminous material. The table, waist high stove, and waste receptacle will be similar to those in the picnic areas. Waste receptacles will be sited adjacent tothe camp loop road for ease of maintenance. Landforms or vegetation separate each campsite and shade trees will be planted around the site. In order to protect the established ground cover, gravel pads under the tables and around the stove will be used where necessary. 10.2 Tent Campsite: Sites will be selected in the field in accordance with existing terrain and vegetative cover. Developed facilities will include a table and fire ring. Other development will include tree logs for sitting purposes if they are natural to the area and are available placed around fire rings or.other convenient locations. 10.3 Group Campsite: up to four vehicles will be The interior portion of the cover with one picnic unit, A circular campsite sufficient to handle provided at each site for family groups. site will consist of natural vegetative 4 tables, 2 stoves, and 1 waste receptacle. 11. BEACH: Design of the beach areas is based on criteria developed by the State of Colorado. The sand area above and below the water elevations will be sloped on a constant 1 vertical to 12 horizontal grade. The ratio of sand beach, designated as a swimming water area, is approximately 2:1. Approximately 150 square feet of water surface is required for each swimmer. A typical cross section of the svimming area would be 100 feet of water surface, 200 feet of sand beach, and 100 feet of beach picnic area. Typical ranges may vary depending on topography, vegetative cover, and shoreline configuration. 9-10

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( See Plate 26. A definite division of the sand beach and picnic area will be made by use of a 2-foot high meandering retaining wall. Facility load of the change house and parking areas be based on the activity mix outlined in paragraph l of this section and projecting the total number of swimmers expected on an average summertime peak day. A feature d esign memorandum for the proposed Changehouse-Concession facility, consistent with the architectural theme, will be submitted at a later date. 12. RECREATIONAL BUILDINGS: Design of recreational buildings for the project will be in accordance with the established theme of recessive architecture. Particular emphasis will be directed toward fitting the design of the structure to the site and use intended. Rooflines will be low and unobtrusive; the exposed building materials will be native to the area. A feature design memorandum for architectural design of each building to be located on project lands will be submitted at a later date and will be appended to this Master Plan. An example of the type of architecture, which will be followed in the design of project buildings, is shown on Plate 29. 13. OVERLOOK STRUCTURES: The main project Visitor Center will be located on the crest of the dam near the left abutment and will offer panoramic views of downstream areas as well as the lake and the South Platte River valley. The building will contain exhibition rooms, interpretive display areas, rest rooms, audio visual rooms, concession area, offices, and a large viewing terrace or patio. Paved parking will be provided for 75 cars and 15 car-trailers or buses. A feature design memorandum will be submitted in the future for the Visitor Center and will be appended to the Master Plan. An overlook parking area will be provided on the crest of the dam near the right abutment. No structure is proposed. A lookout tower will be located on the right high bankline of the South Platte River near the heron rookery; it will offer sweeping views of the South Platte River valley, the heron rookery, and a majority of the lake. 14 . PLAYGROUND FACILITIES FOR CHILDREN: Two playground areas for c hildren will be centrally located within highly intensified day use areas. Facilities will include swings, teeter-totters, sand piles, and climbing structures or jungle gyms. T h e State of Colorado has had p;ood experience with "timberform" facilities in other areas under their jurisdiction and their design and function will blend well with other features of the project. Composition consists of heavy woody timber, sanded smooth and assembled into various forms which are safe and appeal -:..::);:.., ... , .. to children's desires. A sample plan of a typical "timberform" structure i s shown on Plates 27 and 28. 9-11 Cl

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15. BRIDGES AND DRAINAGE STRUCTURES: Minor footbridges will be required to provide access to islands in the "put-and-take" fishing area located in the vicinity. Construction will be of vood, with guard rails, and will be of sufficient width to accommodate wheel chairs. 16. ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION AND SECURITY LIGHTING: All electrical distribution to recreation activity areas will be underground, in order to maintain and enhance aesthetic quality. Trailer electric power hookups will be provided in tvo camp loops. Security lighting will be provided in the vicinity of boat launching lanes, selected parking areas, entrance stations, visitor center, marina, and adjacent to campground rest rooms. Electric hook-ups will also be provided in group picnic shelters. 17. TRAILS: 17.1 Hiking and Trails: The trails will be bituminous surfaced, 8 feet in width, and recessed into the natural grade. The exact locations will be sited in the field to take advantage of topography and vegetation. Directional and interpretive signs indicating and explaining unusual areas will be provided. Maximum grades will be lind ted to 4 percent in order to provide a suitable surface for wheel chairs and the handicapped. In remote areas, gravel surfacing may be provided rather than hard surfacing. A foot ford will also be provided across the South Platte River in the extreme upper reaches of the project area; it will connect foot trails. 17.2 Bridle Trails: Bridle trails will be located in remote locations of the project area, generally along the project boundary line. Minimum development will consist of tilling the natural ground along the trail alignment and allowing the horse to tramp the trail into a compacted soil surface. Directional signs will also be provided. For cross sections of trails, see Plate 23. 18. SITE H1PROVEJI1ENTS, GRADING, AND LANDSCAPE PLANTING: All remaining houses, farmsteads, and pumphouses, not having historical or operational value, will be demolished and removed from the project area. Foundation walls will be pushed in and filled to natural grade with soil. Existing fences, dumps, and rubble piles will be removed off-project. Landforms will be used extensively to preserve the rolling plains characteristics of the project area, yet serve to disguise necessary undesirable aspects such as parking areas. division of activity use areas will be accomplished by liberal use of landforms. Landscaping details of landforms and foundation planting around buildings and campsites are shown in Appendix B, Forest Management Plan. Plant materials native to Colorado will be used . 19. SIGNS: All signs designating an activity area, facility, or direction will be graphic type showing both lettering and picture. Construction will be of wood with figures affixed or painted on arrow type planks. Colors are optional; however, natural tones of green or 9-12 -c

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( ' brown are recommended and once established vill be reneated throughout the project. Anticipated sign figures are shown on Plate 30. Signs located at the tva public entrances to the project vill be of sufficient size to be seen and read at a reasonable distance at highvay speeds. Natural stone and rough sawn timber are suitable materials for signs and they vill be enhanced by vegetative plantings and night lighting. 20. DEVICES: Audio-visual devices vill be included in the design of the visitor center to interpret the project purposes, benefits, and programs. 21. WASTE DISPOSAL: Disposal of sanitary vastes vas previously discussed in paragraph 4 of this section. All solid vastes and rubbish vill be hauled off-project for disposal in State approved disposal areas by the operating agency. In areas of high use and in the vicinity of concession developments, a paved pad of sufficient size to hold a large portable covered container vill be provided. Adequate vegetative screening vill be planted. Waste containers located in the activity areas vill be recessed in the ground and vill be located near roadway or parking areas for ease of maintenance. 22. VISITOR SAFETY CONTROLS AND CONVENIENCE FEATURES: All buildings vill be equipped vith ramps and handrails in lieu of steps, vherever possible, to provide safer access for the elderly and the handicapped. Signs placed at strategic locations of probable dangers vill be provided and permanent type fencing and floating buoys, in accordance vith State standards, vill delineate zones of possible danger. Fencing vill also be provided in all areas, such as the outlet works and spillway areas, to delineate danger zones and for the protection of the public. 23. FACILITIES FOR THE ELDERLY: Fishing piers >rith guard rails vill be provided in conjunction vith the fish ponds located downstream from the dam. Trails vill be constructed vith relatively flat grades and the resting areas vill have benches and sanitary facilities. Horseshoe pits will be included in the playground and open game areas. 9-13

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MEMOMNDUM I DIVISION OF PARKS AND OUTDOOR RECREATION Ron G . Holliday. Division Director TO: FROM: SUBJECT: Gene Schmidt, Metro Gary K. Buffington, Vehicle Fleet Region Manager Area DATE: August 91 1984 Chatfield S.R.A. Vehicle Fleet optimum Vehicle Fleet (year around use) Visitor Services No. 4 1 1 1 TOTAL 7 Description \ patrol sedans -police packages patrol truck ton 4X4-off road/winter enforcement patrol truck ton -section work -campground,swim be.ach, etc. motorcycle -police package Maintenance 2 pickup truck ton with side boxes 1 pickup truck ton 1 truck 1 ton stake bed 1 truck 2 ton dump with plow attachment TOTAL 5 Administration/Logistics 1 sedan TOTAL 1 . GRAND TOTAL 13 Current vehicle total -18 Eliminate 1 2 1 1 TOTAL 5 trade in (this years new one) vans -maintenance 3/4 ton Dodge pickup-crew cab ton Ford pickup Leased Vehicles (needed) *2 2 TOTAL 4 ton pickup trucks -Visitor Services ton pickup trucks -Maintenance *-these vehicles would need pack-set radios available for use. D

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VEHICLE FLEET: CHATFIELD S.R.A. 8/84 cense No. Description year mileage 3 Kawasaki motorcycle 80 Ford ton PU 79 Dodge ton 4X4 PU 77 IHC ton PU 72 Chevy ton van 71 Plymouth sedan 73 Dodge PU 69 Ford Maverick 77 sedan AMC Gremlin 2 dr. 74 Ford ton PU 78 Dodge 3/4 ton 75 van Dodge 1 ton stake 78 bed ton pu 80 Dodge 3/4 ton 79 4X4 Ply.Volare sedan 79 Dodge 3/4 ton PU 78 Ford Fairmont Sedan 82 tumbered Ford LTD sedan 84 4501 62370 92440 76460 81640 153980 87415 t 122650 90875 81430 60180 64520 76000 67080 77310 41100 55100 1322 , 18 vehicles Average 1977-Average 72021 0 use Conunents patrol trail checks patrol campground Admin/ Assist. P.M. II Patrol Maint. side boxes Maint toilet cleaning Admin/ PM II trade-in ,Patrol I Maint. side boxes Plant III patrol seasonal ranger Admin. trans./maint. patrol swim beach maint. toilet cleaning maint. general utility maint. Plant Mech. Foreman maint. snowplow & wrecker patrol FTE ranger maint. Crew cab patrol FTE ranger patrol Sr.Ranger/patrol

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Type and Eatim..Jtt:J t ... . . r....:J Dnit Unit Siu QuanItea Quantity Unit ut Ar• " Oucrlptiu n Oescription clcy Price Cost Cost l!nita Cus t l 2 3 4 Block 6 acres Vault Toilet Block 4 acres Comfort Station 6 Stabilization 7 Block-Wilflife 4 acrea 8 Spot-Accent 9,10, Stabilization 11,12, 13 14,15, Shade-Wind 16 Protection 17 Comfort Station 18 Shade-Screen 19,20 Stabilization 21 Shade-II ind Protection 22,23 Stabilization 24 Shade-loo"ind Protection 25 Comfort Station 10-12" Pot. 500 1. 50 10-12" Pot. 200 1.50 750.00 300.00 App. XIII Ponderosa Pine Colorado Blue Spruce Green A.er Ponderosa I'Jne Hcd&crosc E.R. 300 1.50 450.00 1,530.00 o-8' 3&E 3 43.CO 6-8' 8&8 . 1 59.00 6-8' B.R. 4 18.50 18-24 " ' B.R. 10 4.05 129.00 59.00 74.00 40.50 App. l Rock y Hen. Juniper Ponderosa Pine Honey1ocust Shrubby Cinquefoil I Housh 12 -18" B.R. 3 3.00 9 0 00 311.50 R.1ndos Randos !tandom l0xl2 a .. ndom Rando111 App. X Rando= Ra;,c!om Random Ranc!= Rando a App. X Mtn. Juniper Rocky Juniper Au5tr!an Pine H:.nson llc.Jg.,rosc locky Mtn. 'Juniper Caragan" Ouatlbush S!ouxlan.J Co:tonvood Rocky Juniper Ponderosa Pine Quail bush Ranaon Hedgerose Siouxland Cottonwood Roc k y Mtn. Juniper Pondero,.a Pine Hackberry Pinvor. Ptne Rocky Juniper Ponderos" Pine Hackberry Mountain Privit Colorado Roc ky Juniper Pinyon Pine Ho!'!evlocust 6-8' 8&8 $4).00 s 645.00 $ 2-4' e&B JO 17.50 825.00 10-12" Pot. 60 2.00 120.00 18-24" B.R. 40 0 1 . .JO 600.00 lQ-l2" Pot, 300 1.50 450.00 18-24" B.R. 200 1.50 300.00 18-24" B.R. 660 t.SO 990.00 2-4' B.R. L5 2.00 JD;O O 10-12" Pot. 5 0 1.50 75.00 lD-12" Poe 30 1.50 45.00 18-24" B.R. 15 1.50 22.50 18-24" B.R.. 15 1.50 22.50 2-4' B.R. ) 2.00 6.00 3-4' AbB 12 27.50 230.00 3-4' B&8 12 35.50 426.00 6-8' 8&8 10 23 .00 230.CO 3-4' 5 33.50 167.50 6-8' 8&8 4 43.00 172.00 6-8' 8&8 l 59.00 59.00 8-10' B&B 3 28.50 85.50 3-4' B.R. 3 4.40 13.20 J-4' 8.R. 10 4.25 42.50 Z-4' E&B 18 27.50 495.00 2-4' E&B 12 33.50 402.00 B.!. 10 18.50 185.00 Rocky :uniper 10-12" ?ot. 90 1.50 135.00 Ponderosa Pine 10-12" Pot. 30 1.50 45.00 18-24" 8.R. 25 3.90 97.50 Rocky !!r.n. Juniper 2-4" a.;a 25 27.50 667.50 Austrian P ine 2-4' 8&8 10 35.50 355.00 6-8' B&B 15 23.00 345.00 Rock} : :cr.. Juniper 10-12" Pot. 90 1.50 35.00 Austrian Pine 10-12" Pot. 60 1.50 90.00 Manson Hedg.,rose 18-24" B.R. 150 1.50 225.00 C.1rasana 18-24" 8.R. 50 1.50 75.00 Rocky Juniper 2-4" S&B 30 27.50 825.00 Pine 2-4' B&8 12 35.50 426.00 Hackberry 6-8' 8&8 12 23.00 276.00 Green Ash 6-8' 8.R. 10 19.50 195 . 00 Austrian Pine 6-8' B&B 4 59.00 236 .00 Rocky Juniper 6-8' <>.SoB l 43.00 43.00 Hackb.,rry 8-iO' 8 6 B 3 28.50 85.50 Mountain Frlvit J-4' B.R. 3 4.40 13 . 2 0 645.00 945.00 340.00 JO.OO 171.00 l 153.50 372.20 1,082.00 277 0 50 l 387.50 525.00 1 722.00 Clnol!efoil i8-24" B.R. 10 4.05 40.50 26 Shad.,-Wind ?anc!oo Rocky Juniper 4 -6' 15 35.0 0 e75.00 413.20 Protectio n 20x20 Cak 6-8' 8.R. 30 25.50 765.0 0 27 Protection 28 Shade-Screen and Protection 29 Shad., S c reen and Wind Protection 30,31 Group Shelter Rar.dom 20x20 Randoo l2xl2 A?P \'II 2 0 x 20 App. l.X Pine 4-6' B&B 15 47.00 705.0 0 Hackberry 6-8' B&8 20 23.00 460. 0 0 C l ive 4-6' B . R . 10 17. 50 175.00 Juniper 4 6 ' 5&8 20 35.0 0 7 00 . C O Juniper 4-6' 8&8 10 35.00 350.0 0 Gaebel Oak 6-8' B.R. 20 25.50 510 . 00 Red 9-12" 3.R. 2 0 4 .00 60.1'\0 Roc ky Juniper 4 6 ' 8&8 1 0 0 35.00 ),500.0 0 Rocky Mtn . Juniper 10-12" Pot. 1500 1.50 2,250.00 Gaebel Q,,k 6-8' B.R. 30 25.50 765.00 Austria:> ?ine 10-12" ?oc. 600 1.50 90(). 0 0 ?.<>cky Juniper 4-6' B&8 70 35.0 0 2 , 45 0.00 Siouxland Cottonwood 8-10' B.R . 100 22 . 0 0 2,20 0 . 00 Green Ash 8-10' B.R. 100 22.00 2,200.0 0 Honey 1ocust 8-10' 8.R. SO 21.0 0 1 , 0 5 0 . 0 0 Rockv Junioer 1012 " Poe. 450 1.5 0 675.0 0 Siouxland Coctor.wood 8 10' B.R. 4 22.00 88.0 0 Pin e 6-8' 8&8 3 71.0 0 213.00 Purplelc3t Plu m 8-10' 8.R. 5 18.5 0 q2.50 Mountain Pr!vit 3-4' 8.R. 15 4.40 66.00 2 980.00 1 6 40.00 7 415.00 8 5 75.00 1 390.00 1 619.70 1 1,530.00 1 311.50 1 $ 645.00 945.00 340.00 30 .00 s 855.00 3 460.50 372.20 1,082.00 2 555.00 1 1 387.50 1,050.00 1 722.00 418.20 980. 00 l 64() . 0 0 7 415.00 8 57S.CO 32 Cl.lofort App. X 8 1 0 ' G . R. 4 22.00 8-8.0 0 Station Bristlecone r1ne 6 8 ' 8&8 1 71.00 7 1 . 0 0 33 Shade 20 x 20 P lum 8 10 ' e.R. 3 18.50 55.50 177.0 0 R ocky J u n!o
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Unit No. Unit Description Type and Destsn Plate 10 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Picnic Shelter Picnic Shelter Spot Shade Picnic Shelter Picnic Shelter Shade Sign Shade-Scree n and Wind Protection App. VIII App. VIII Random App. VIII App. VIII Random App. XII B.&ndom Sign App. XII Screen and Random Noise Abate!:>ent Play Area Random Shade Spot Shade Random Comfort App. X Station Noise Random Abatement 12x12 Spot Shade S i gn App. XII Sign App. XII Screen Randoc l4xl4 Sign App. XII 5 3 Com fort App. X Station TAhl.l. L :-. I ... Size Description Quantity ltl!lll Price Quantity l:nit Siouxland Cottonwood Colorado Blue Spruce Mountain Privet llhite Willow Siouxland Cottonwood Creen Aah Mountain Privit Nanking Cherry Siouxland Cottonwood Green Slouxland Cotton w ood Colorado Blue Spruce Mountain Privit Nanking Cherrv \o.'hite Colorado Blue Spruce Mountain Privit Nanking rrv \.lhite \o.'UlC',_. Colorado Blue Siouxland Wnter Birch Gro und Juniper Rocky Mtn. Siouxland Cottonwood 8-101 !.R. li-8 ' B&B J-4' 8.R. 3-4' B.R. 8-10' B.R. 8-10' B.R. 8-10' B . R. 3-4' B.R. 2-3' B.R. 8 -10' B.R. 8-!0' P.. R . 8-10' B.R. 6-8' B&B 3-4 I B .R. 2 -J' B.R. 1:1-10' B.R. 6-8' B&B 3-4' B.R . 2 3 ' B.R. B.R. 6-8' 8&!1 8-10 I B . 0 6-8' B .r.. 5 sa 1. c. r.. 8!.8 8-10' II.R. 3 3 9 5 3 1 2 9 5 60 15 3 3 9 5 3 3 9 5 12 3 18 l 3 12 20 $22.00 $ 55.00 4.40 4.00 25.00 22.00 22.00 4,40 3.70 22.00 22.00 22.00 55.00 . 4,40 3.70 25.00 55.00 4.40 3.70 25.00 55.00 22.00 19.00 10.30 35.00 22.00 OneSeeded Juniper 4 -6' BoB l 3 5.00 Gr<:'und 5 C.G. 3 10.30 Rocky Juniper 2 -4' o&h 2 5 :7.50 Austrian Pine 2-4' 25 35.50 Green Ash 8 -10' B . R . 3 0 22. 00 S iouxland Cottonvood 8 -10' 8 . R. 30 22.00 Hackberry 8-10' B&B 30 28.50 8 -10' B.R. 30 21.00 Hackberry 8-10' B&B 1 5 2 8.50 Green Ash 8 -JO' 5 22. 00 H a ckberry 8 -10' B&B 4 28.50 Green Ash 8 -10' B.R . 3 22.00 Bristlecone Pine 6-8' 1 71. 00 Plum 4-6' B.R. 3 5.40 Grou n d Juniper 5 l!.:>l. C.G. 10 10 . 30 Rocky :ltn. Juniper 4 -o' 100 35.00 Rocky Mtn. Juniper 10 12" Pot. 500 1.50 Austri an Pine 4 -6' B&B 50 47.00 Austrinn Pine 10-12" P ot. 5 00 l.SQ 6 -8' B.R. SO 25.50 E&i 15 2 8.50 Green Ash 8-10 ' B.R. 5 22.00 Rcc kv 3 }5.00 Austri an Pine 4 -6' B&B 1 47.00 Shrubbv Cir: oue:oil 1P-24" B.il.. 5 4.05 Shn:bby CinGuefoil 16 24" B.R . 1 0 4.05 G r o und Junioer 5 C.C . 10 10.30 Austrian Pine 4 6 ' B&B 8 47. 00 Rocky Mtn. Juni?er 4 -6' B&B 15 35.00 Rockv t!tn. Juni:-cr 10 -12" P ot. 200 1. SO Rocky Mtn. Juniper 4-6' BOB l 35.00 S hru!:>bv Cincue[o11 le24" D.R. 5 4 . 05 Rnd.y M t n . j uni;:;er 6 8 ' S&B 4 q , oo Ponderosa Pine 6-8 ' l 59.00 Hackberry 8-10' B&B 3 28. 50 M ountain Privit 3 4 ' B.R . 3 4.40 Cnst Cosc 66.00 165 . 00 39.60 20. 0 0 $ 7 5.00 22.00 44.00 39.60 18.50 1,320.00 })0.00 66. 00 165.00 39.60 18.50 75.00 165.00 39.60 18.50 300.00 165.00 396.00 19.00 30.90 420 . 00 440.00 35.00 290.60 199.10 650.00 289.10 298.10 861.00 49.90 860.00 30.90 65.90 687.50 887.50 5 75.00 660. 00 660.00 855 . 00 630.00 805.00 4:7.50 11G.OO 537 . 5 0 lH.OO 66. 00 71.00 16.20 103. 0 3 70 .20 3,500.00 750.00 2,350.00 750.00 275. 00 8 625.00 427.50 110 . 00 1 05.00 61.2.50 G i . 00 20.25 67 .25 40.50 103.00 143.50 376.00 525.00 3 00.00 201. ::0 35.CO 20.25 55.25 Dor.o.:ood J -1.' B.R. J O 1..25 54 Juniper 6 -6' 12 172.00 59 .co 85.50 13.20 42.50 516.0C 4 95 . 00 372. 20 P i tp . o n r 1:1c 6 8 ' 5 ).00 Oll. 00 !>5 Nois e Random i ;•ine lit . B 15 33.50 502.50 1\o. t:stl,..:ltcd of Arcn Cost $ 581.20 l 199.10 1 650.00 2 578.20 1 298.10 1 861.00 1 49.90 1 860.00 1 65.90 l 575.00 537.50 1 370.20 8 642.50 67.25 1 4 3 . 50 1 201.00 55.25 372.20 011. (10 56,57 Sign App . XII Pir::o 1 33.50 3 3.50 58:--:c=---=--------=-=--=t:r>d 9 !:'" e .?.. s t..nq ?O.f'J 5 9 ,60 S!&n X!! ;,.:. : ; . s o . >;.50 53.SIJ J .' ------5 n . C . C::..;. 61 S1p App. XI: i-.::o:::.• fin< 2-l 35.50 35.50 c<'r.rc;c 18<'4'" B . k . 3 3.55 10. 6 5 ----------------=G:.:.: ...:.:..::u.:.;n.,;c-=...u=.nc...:..;! r.c.;'; " c r'-------) c.:! . C.(: . l 1 0 . )0 1r.. JO 5 c (

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MANAGE-r-1ENT SECTION 2 -TREES AND SHRUBS 1. SPECIES TO BE USED: Soil, exposure, plant hardiness, flooding tolerance and other special requirements must be considered when selecting species. Plantings which do not adapt to the site will very likely fail, or growth and vigor will be reduced so that poor quality insect and disease vulnerable plantings will result. Although several hundred tree and shrub species are now growing in the Denver area, the ones listed in Tables 8 and 9 appear suited for public recreation use and for the associated benefits of soil and water conservation and wildlife habitat improvement. 2. PLANT MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS: 2.1 All nursery-grown plants, bare-root, balled and burlapped and container grown stock, shall be graded according to the rules of "U.S.A. Standards for Nursery Stock", as adapted by the American Association of Nurserymen. These plants shall be free from noxious weeds, root rot, scales, tree borers, insects, blights, and other diseases. All plants shall be subject to the laws and regulations of the State of Colorado. All plants will be identified by plant names approved by the above mentioned standards. , 2.2 Potted seedlings not covered by specifications above may also be specified. Such seedlings shall have been potted for at least one (1) year prior to planting. Seedlings will be at least two (2) years old at the time of potting. Pots shall be made of a material and design that does not require removal at the time of planting. 3. PLANTING REQUIREMENTS: 3.1 Planting time for deciduous and coniferous bare-root seedling plants shall be between March 1 and May 1. The temperature shall be above freezing whenever bare-root plants are shipr-ed or planted, and the soil shall be in a satisfactory workable condition. Planting operations shall be suspended during exceptionally wet, dry or windy periods. During exceptionally late seasons, the planting period may be extended a few days provided the bare-root planting stock is still dormant. Potted seedlings may be planted between March 1 and Septem ber 1. Balled and burlapped stock may be planted between March 1 and June 1. Container grown stock may be planted whenever the forester considers conditions are suitable for successful establishment. 3.2 Packing and shipping plants from suppliers to planting sites shall be in such a manner as to assure proper protection against drying, freezing, breaking, or other injury. Plants with bare-roots shall be packed in wet packing material and bundled in such a manner as to ensure against heat and mold damage. Plants shall be protected d

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against the elements while in transit. Planting is prohibited until .. the plants have been inspected by the forester. 3.3 Pre-planting Care of Plants 3.3.1 Bare-root plants, upon delivery and after acceptance-by forester, shall be planted the same day, heeled in, or placed in cold storage and maintained at temperatures between 34F and 38F and a humidity between 85 and 90 percent. Plants taken from cold storage or heel-in trenches must be kept moist with wet packing materials; roots will not be subjected to direct sun or drying winds. Stored plants will be rejected if they show signs of shriveled and dry tops or roots or if the plants show signs of growth or mold during storage. 3.3.2 Potted seedlings shall be watered, and protected from wind and mechanical damage until planted. 3.3.3 Balled and burlapped plants and container grown stock shall be properly watered and protected from drying and damaging winds, and mechanical damage until planted. B/B and container stock shall be handled without using the tops for lifting or moving. 4. PLANTING TECHNIQUES: 4.1 Bare-root and potted seedlings must be planted at the same depth (indicated by the root-shoot node) as they grew in the nursery. With machine planting, soil preparation shall be accomplished by scalping to mineral soil a strip no narrower than eighteen (18) inches and no wider than twenty-four (24) inches at the time of planting. The planting slit must be deep enough to accommodate seedling roots in a vertical position and without bending. Seedlings must be planted tightly enough to resist a "firm" pull on the stem, and to remove all air pockets from the soil. Hand planted seedlings will require scalped areas twenty-four (24) inches in diameter. A hole or slit dug in the middle of the scalped area will be sufficiently large to accommodate the roots in a vertical manner without bending. Soil shall be left slightly cupped around seedlings to catch rainfall. Sod pieces cut from the planting spot shall be placed along the west edge of the spot to serve as a wind-barrier. 4.2 Balled and Burlapped Plants 4.2.1 Planting holes shall have a diameter of at least one (1) foot greater than the ball of the plants to be planted. The depth of the hole before backfilling will be at least six ( 6) inches deeper than the diameter of the ball. The topsoil obtained from the excavation of holes for trees and shrubs shall be placed in a separate pile from the subsoil. In the process of backfilling, only topsoil shall be used. The soil shall be pulverized and all clods and stones of ,more than three ( 3 ) inches in diameter removed. Topsoil adjacent to the hole, if acceptable, may be used to finish the backfill, provided pits d ( . (

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5. SODDING: On critical sites and areas vhere grass cover is needed inmediately, it may be necessary to make site preparation and then sod established grass on the area. 6. EROSION On critical sites vhere erosion may inhibit grass establishment an erosion control mat such as Amxco's Soil Retention Blanket may be used to aid grass establishment. 7. CROSS SEEDING: In areas vhere aesthetics are of primary concern, grass drilling may be done in tva directions to reduce the rev effect and make seeding appear more natural. This method does not vork vell on steep slopes. On gentle slopes first drill up and down the slope and then drill along the contour. 8. FORBS AND LEGUMES: Naturally occurring varm season grasses normally have a number of forbs and legumes (often called "vild flowers" ) mixed vi thin the stand. Seeding prescription for varm season. grasses should specify several species of "vild flowers" in order to insure a natural appearing stand. The availability of such seeds varies from year to year so the specific species vill be recommended vhen the annual vork plans are developed. 9. INSURANCE OF ESTABLISH}ffiNT: Climatic conditions in the Chatfield Lake area are highly variable and are often unpredictable. See Section 4-Climate on page 29. For these reasons, both native and introduced grass species are generally slav to establish under natural conditions. Available moisture at the time of germination and immediately after is the critical factor. Without supplemental moisture, native grasses generally require from three to ten years to become vell established. Some adapted introduced grasses require less but in either case complete or partial failure can be expected in dry years. In this area of hig h recreational value a temporary portable sprinkler irrigation system should be available to insure establishment the first year. Areas of hig h recreational impact should receive at least one-half inch of vater per veek during t h e first graving season. Supplemental vater vil l also insure the establishment of native grasses the first year after planting . After establishment, supplemental vater should be needed only occasionally during dry years to maintain plant vigor. An exception t o the above vill probably exist in areas of extra high impact. Problem areas may develop in highly used picnic areas near t h e swimming beach and around parking lots. It may be necessary to establish bluegrass turf req u i r i n g additional vater i n these areas. d

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I .t:-? TABLE SUGGESTED SHRUB SPECIES FOR PLANTING ON CHATFIELD PUBLIC USE AREAS Botanical Name SMALL SHRUBS {up to 4 feet) Berberis thunbergii Juniperus ch -inesis pfitzer Juniperus communis var. Juniperus sabina var. Physocarpus monogynus Potentilla fruiticosa Prunus bessyii HEDIUM SHRUBS (5-7 feet) Cor•nus stolonifera Rosa hanson LARGE SHRUBS (over 7 feet) Caragana arborescens Cerc o carpus montanus Cotoneaster acutifolia Crataegus succulenta Forestiera neo-mexicana Lonicera tatarica Prunus americans Prunus tomentosa Prunus virginiana var. Rhus trilobata Salix discolor Common Name Japanese Barberry Pfitzer Junipers Ground Juniper Savin Juniper Colorado Ninebark Shrubby Cinquefoil Sand Cherry Colorado Dogwood Hanson Hedgerose Caragana Hountain Mahogany Cotoneaster Red Ha ... r Mountain Privit Honeysuckle American Plum Nanking Cherry Chokecherry Quailbush Pussywillow Remarks (Additional description and remarks in Appendix V) Good fall color, excellent for foot traffic control Good ground cover Good ground cover Good ground cover Multipurpose shrub Very hardy on dry sites Excellent food for wildlife but is short-lived Multipurpose shrub Excellent wildlife cover Multipurpose A native shrub for natural areas Hultipurpose Showy red fruit Wildlife food and cover Screening, multipurpose Wildlife food and cover Wildlife food and cover Wildlife food and cover Wildlife, wind protection Screening, interesting flowers {catkins) ' c.

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TABLE SUGGESTED TREE SPECIES FOR PLANTING ON PUBLIC USE AREAS Botanical Name SMALL TREES (up to 25 feet) Acer ginaUa Elaeagnus angustifolia Malus spp. PY.unus 1 Newpor t 1 MEDIUM TREES (25 to 30 feet) Alnus tenuifolia Betula fontinalis Betula nigra Juniperus monosperma Junipel'Us scopulol'Um Junip erus virginiana Pinus aristata Pinus c embroide s edulis Quercus Robinia neo-mexicana LARGE TREE S (over 30 feet) Acer negundo Acer Celtis occidentalis pennsylvanica Gleditsia triacanthos Juglans nigra Picea pungens Pinus nigra Pinus ponderosa Populus angustifolia Populus fremontii Populus sargentii var. siouxlarzd Salix alba Salix alba vitellina Salix penta ndra Common Name Ginalla Maple (Arnur maple) Russian Olive Flowering Crab Purpleleaf Plum (Newport) Rocky Mountain Alder Water Birch River Birch One-seeded Juniper Rocky Mountain Juniper Eastern Redcedar Bristlecone Pine (Foxtail Pinyon Pine Gambel Oak New Mexican Locust Boxelder Silver Maple Hackberry Green Ash Thornless Honeylocust Black Walnut Colorado Blue Spruce Austrian Pine Ponderosa Pine Narrowleaf Cottonwood Fremont Cottonwood Siouxland Cottonwood White Willow Golden Willow Laurel Leaf Willow (Additional remarks and descriptions R emarks in Appendix V) For landscape variation -use spareingly Excellent for dove nesting and wildlife areas Spring color, excellent for wildlife areas Dark foliage Use near water Use near water Use near water Landscape, wind protection Wind protection, screening, wildlife cover Wind protection, screening, wildlife cover Landscape, specimen tree Multipurpose Multipurpose Spring color Hardy native Shade, fast growing Very drought resistant Hardy multipurpose tree Open shade Edible nuts, attracts squirrels The Colorado State tree Excellent multipurpose tree Excellent multipurpose tree Shade Shade Shade Shade, sandy moist areas Shade, sandy moist areas Shade, sandy moist areas c.

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.TABLE SUGGESTED CRASS SPECIES FOR PLANTING ON CHATFIELD PUBLIC USE AREAS Species WARH SEASON C.RASSES ;1nm•opog o n hallii A nd1•c pogon scopari. us nouteloua curtipendula B oute loua gracilis Common Name Sand bluestem Little bluestem l Height mid mid Soil Requirements (see Appendix V) Sandy and sandy loam Medium to sandy and gravelly soil, dry hills Rocky to sandy loam Sandy to heavy textured soils Bu hloe dactyloides Distichlis striata Eragrostis t rich ode s Panicum virgatum Sporobo lus airo-ides Spm•c bo lus c1•yptandru s Side-oats grama Blue grama Buffalograss Inland saltgrass Sand lovegrass Switchgrass Alkali sacaton Sand dropsee d mid short short short tall mid mid mid Heavy textured, clays and "Hardlands" Adaptable to most soils COOL SEASON GRASSES Ag1•op yron cristatwn Agr o pyron desertorum Agr opyron riparium II !Jl' o py r on smi thi i llgr(lpy r o n trichophorum BPormts ineY"'Inis P estuca idahoensis Iii laria jarn.esii Oryzopsis hymenoides Phalaris arundincea Poa pratensis Stipa c o mata Stipa tl1" .ridula crested wheatgrass Standard crested wheatgrass Steambank whe atgrass Western wheatgrass Pubescent wheatgrass Smooth brome Idaho fescue Galleta grass Indian ricegrass Reed canarygrass Kentucky bluegrass Needle and threadgrass Green needlegrass mid mid mid mid mid mid mid mid mid mid-tall short-mid mid mid Sandy to medium textured soils Medium textured to sandy soils Alkali soils Sandy and sandy loam soils Adaptable to most soilP Adaptable to most soils Adaptable to most soils Bottom lands to dry hillsides Adaptable to most soils Loam Most well drained soils Heavy, medium and shale soils Dry, sandy Moist to wet, pond banks Sandy loam to clay loam Plains, mesas, dry hills and sandy soils Dry slopes, foothills 1 Short grass--grasses which are normally less than lB inches tall at maturity. Mid grass--grasses which are normally from to 3 feet tall at maturity. Tall grass--grasses which are normally over 3 feet tall at maturity. .. c.

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Ahhrt!'viatt!d Checklist for Ph ysically Dis;1hled People Prepared by liill Dcnu, Office of Fucilitielll Planning, University of Colorado, Boultlt•r "U11able limits" providl!d in this checltlisc will provit.le functional access to buildings nnd use of facilities fot::_ most people with phya.ical disabilities. limits do not necessarily m,•et design criteria chat =Y be legally binding. possibh:, facilitie!:l &huuld be provided that go beyond the standards provided in this or any ocher guideline. Item 1. Dimensional/Operatiunal • Wheelchair travel pathlll. • 1\lo wheelchairs to pass. • 1!10 turn in a wheelchair. • Stationary occupied wheelchair space. • IJheelchai r reach front approach. • Wheelchair reach llllde approach. • RanKe of reach over a desk in a wheelchui r. • Items projecting into a travel space. • Operation of controls, handles, pulls, etc. • Openinl(:i on triJV
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5. Elevators • General. I tell • Lobby Access. • Elevator Cab 6. Toilet Rooms • Entrance. • Toilet stalls. • Grab bars. . water Closets. • Urinals. • Lavatories. • Towel dispensers, mirrors, etc. 7. Drinking Fountains • Location. a Configuration. 8. Public Telephones • Configuration. 9. Miscellaneous • Showers. • Sachtubs. • Signage. • surfaces. • Uaable Limite all floorw of builuing that have essential programs. Public, automatic, push button operation (no keys). Call buttons no higherthan 48" abovl.l the floor. Hall lantern indicators vith both visual and audible signals. Raised floor numbers on door jambs at floor. Cab size at lease 68" long by 5111 deep. iiighest control button no more than 54" above the floor. Emergency control items at bottom of panel. Self leveling and protective door reopening device. Tactile numerals and operating ins true t ions. 32" door usable, 36" door preferred. Privacy undesirable; at least a 42" path around required. 36" or 60" in lolidth; at least 60" in depth. 32" clear opening to enter. A lavatory vithin is desirable. 3211 co 34'1 above the floor; both sides o f 36" stall; w.c. side and rear of 60" stall. Top of seat height 17" co 1911 above i loor; wall 100unt preferred. No more than 17" from lip to floor. No less than 27" clearance beneath; no more than 34" to top edge. Insulate hot water supply line and drain. Provide lever-type control handles. Lower edge or operable part no 111ore than 4811 above floor. Full length wall mirrors recommended. No closer than 24" to intersecting walls. Recess alcoves no less than JO" wide. Spout opening no higher than 36" above floor. Water flow as parallel to front as possible. Lever or push-button controls. Clear access, 54" or less to coin slot. Padded seats, grab bars, hand held shower units, anti-scald device, usable controls within rench. Movable grab bars, usable controls within reach. Symbol of access, contrasting letters to background of sufficient size, tactil e letters. Location and identification of accessible facilities. Stable, firm, sUp resistant. Carp.!t and pad securely with n firm feel. sink a nti work surface with kn'-'eloulc, front controls for ranr,c, storage cabinet to replace W1usable shclVt!s in wall cnhinets. 16 2.