Citation
Denver Aquarium

Material Information

Title:
Denver Aquarium
Creator:
Hahm, Ro Houn
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Committee Chair:
Kindig, Robert
Committee Members:
Farley, Richard C.
Acosta, Luis O.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Ro Houn Hahm. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
DENVER AQUARIUM
AN ARCHITECTURAL THESIS PRESENTED TO
THE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE
HAHM, RO HOUN SPRING, 1987


THE THESIS OF HAHM, RO HOUN IS APPROVED
SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, DENVER
SPRING, 1987



TABLE OF CONTENTS
00.
01.
Prolog
001. Geological Pre-History of Denver
002. History of Public Aquarium
Thesis Statement
Oil. Project Background
012. Project Description
013. Goals and Concepts
014. Design Approach
Research
021. Water Quality
022. Water Systems
023. Display Tanks
024. Operation Area
025. Modern Aquarium Lighting
026. Food Processing
Code
031. Zoning
032. Building Code
Site Survey
041. Site Selection
042. Site Review
043. Natural Context
044. Social Context
045. Aesthetical Context
046. Economic Context
Programing
051. Content
052. Linkage System
053. Space Program
Synthesis
061. Context
062. Design Factor
063. Central Platte Valley Future Plan


07. Design Proposal
071. Site -past -present -future
072. Concept
073. Process and Evaluation
074. Plan
075. Elevation
076. Section
077. Perspective
078. Model
08. System Synthesis
081. Structural System
082. Mechanical System
09. Presentation Bibliography Appendix


00. PROLOG
"In the beginning God created the heavens and earth. The earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God was moving over the face of the waters."
Genesis 1; 1-2


001. GEOLOGICAL PRE-HISTORY OF DENVER
Millions of years swept by and then came an upward movement from the depths. The cooling, contracting planet wrinkled its engulfed and thickening crust, and across the upper part of what is now North America the waters parted and land appeared above the dreary, far-reaching waste This upheaval, this ridge of Archaean masses, came out of bondage to the desolate sweep of waters, on the eastern side of the continent. Because of its appearance there where now lies the valley of the St. Lawrence River, it has received the name "Laurentian Hills". This ancient range, generally believed to have been the first-born land of the earth's present surface, stretches across Canada in the direction of Lake Huron, then bends away to the northwest toward the shores of the Artie Ocean. Through inestimable centuries it was a lonely land of desolation, its bleak and barren areas of igneous rock looking down in solitude over the waste of waters covering everything else the world contained.
The Laurentian masses are supposed to rest on the primitive solid envolope embracing the entire globe. They are quartzites, granites, schists and genisses, and are accompanied in some places by the greatest beds of iron ore known in any of the earth's strata. Here in this region of the west, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming and the Dakotas, similar masses were later raised above the surface, bringing with them great quantities of iron; those in Southern Utah being considered the longest deposits of iron ore in the world. The prevailing reddishness of much of the younger rock of Colorado, and her soil, is due to the widely distributed oxide of this Laurentian iron to the discoloration caused by ancient iron rust.
In the early ages of the Primary Epoch, the geography of this continent presented unpromising and watery aspects. The Laurentian strip of land along the Atlantic coast to the southward. Here in the west, a long, low, narrow, barren area of land extended from far down in Mexico northwestard to near Puget Sound, about on the line of the Sierra Navadas; here where the Colorado mountains now stretch away was another strip of like character, but of far smaller dimensions, ex-t-nding northward into what is now Wyoming. It was merely a long, low, arrow island not far west of Denver's longitude. The accompanying maps f the ancient beginnings of the continent show these and subsequent onfigurations of the emerging land. How old these western areas were s compared with the Laurentian is unkown. But they must have soon fol-wed the Laurentian, as they were here in the opening ages of the imary Epoch.


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North America In Primordial 'limes. (Hlnck. present seas and lakes; shaded, parts of continent then covered by sen; white areas, then existing land. 1, Laurentlnn land; 2, Appalachian land; 3, Sierra land; 4, Region of Colorado ranges.)
The word "soon" used in this connection does not imply a brief interval of years. Geology can not measure time by so fleeting and in-finitesmal an unit as a year. A million of years would probably be a more convenient counter. Furthermore, the geologists tell us of "lost intervals of time", and were preceding the definite records of the Palaeozoic rocks occurs one of these intervals, the length of which can not even be guessed. There are many
reasons for believing that during this era of blankness much wider areas of land existed, which were again submerged to the meager limits indicated by the map, which represents the present state of geological knowledge on this subject.
Between these strips of land in the east and in the west, the great Palaezoic Sea spread over the rest of the continent, submerging the broad valley of the Mississippi and all the rolling plains. The Rocky Mountains were not yet lifted from the deep when this wide sea united the waters of the Pacific and the Atlantic, and swept its surges over the site of Denver. The fountains of these great mountains and plains were beneth the billows, receiving the sediments of the same sea which rolled over the future lands of Babylon and Tyre.
The primitive little creatures that had been endued with life in the early ages of this Epoch, became in the Upper Silurian division, of more definite individuality, but were still lowly forms. Simple sea-worms, sponges, sea-weeds, crinoids or "stone lilies", little embryo shell fish, and other diminutive bodies - myriads of them in all. The curious, pulpy animal forms of "star-fishes" - which were fishes only by coutesy, and because they lived in the sea - were also brought into being; and then came the first articulates, the trilobites, followed by other humble creatures of advanced complexity of structure. The Silurian period drew to its close, and the multitudes of lowly beings brought into existence through its eras, began their exit from the stage of life. Many survived far into the succeeding Deronian age in which the fishes presented themselves, but the vast majority became extinct.
The Deronian fishes were the first vertebrates, and foreshadowed e coming of reptiles, birds and mammals. They were covered with large, iff, thick scales - clad in a bony armor of them. These fishes were in eat variety, and among them eventually appeared enormous sharks with gh jaws set with saw-teeth nearly as long and wide as the hand. Among


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these Deronian fishes was the gar-pike, whose descendants still exist. Finally a fish-creature appeared with fins enlarged to rudimentary wings as paddles - the herald of the reptiles; and new forms of crustaceans and mollusks abounded.
In all this lengthened time the area of land was gradually expanding; a large island had formed from Ohio to Tennessee in the closing Silurian ages, and the earth presented fairer aspects. In the Deronian age there was a marked development of plant-life. The former simple sea-weeds were now replaced by aquatic plants, and verdure brightened the landscape shores. Some of this vegetation still survives in the tropics. The Deronian period brought this development of fishes, of the coral animals and of many plants growing in the flooded lowlands. It must have been one of vast length, for the evolution of a vertebrated fish from an invertebrated lowly creature, required an enormous period of time. The production of the great predatory families of hugh sharks which then flourished was a process of long duration.
The flight of years by thousands and thousands through these middle ages in the strange history of the world, brought the end of the Deronian era, and prepared for the event of still higher forms of animate and inanimate life. Greater areas of the earth appeared above the water. The long tongue of land stretching from northern Mexico to Puget Sound along the line of the Sierra Nevadas, and the short, narrow strip, lying north and south near the longitude of Denver, which had become exposed in early Silurian times, were slowly resting further out of the tide; and the sun's heat was still more effective on the surfaces. But the Rocky Mountains were yet unborn, and a shoaling sea rose and fell over the land where Denver stands, when the Carboniferous age set in.
Mesozoic Epoch with its still greater marvels, now dawned upon the earth; that long span of ages distinguished by an astounding development of reptilian life; with its three periods, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous, representing the rise, progress, and decline of most wonderful animated creatures. Early in its Triassic period there was an enormous wrinkling of the crust below, causing the Alleghany ranges to push themselves above the flood where they might keep company with the ancient Laurentian Hills in the east, which then had stood almost alone so long, in the midst of the tide that ebbed and flowed over the beaches of their extended slopes.
It is believed that these mountain-lifting processes were of great duration, and had their beginnings far back in the earlier ages; and that onsiderable areas of land existed in the great Utah basin region of this ime, but the Rocky Mountains were yet to come. The earth was now in the irst period of the long Mesozoic Epoch, which brought into the world a rodigious family of prodigious reptiles, with forms as queer as the mes since given them such as the Ichthyosaurus, Plesiosaurus, Iguanodon, teosaur, and Dinosaurs.


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At the Cretaceous period the eastern and western shore lines of the continent were much farther inland than now, and the proper limits of the Gulf of Mexico were far to the north and west, as compared with their present bounds. The Pacific washed the foot-hills of the Sierras, to the east of which the uplifted basin area stretched from far down in Mexico to the distant northwest, and North America was still divided into two continents.
The uplifting of the Sierras resulted in great changes in the vegetation and the former marine creatures. Many of the former marine creatures were developing, changing or dying off as best suited the purposes of Nature, but the result was a great stride forward in advancement, variety and complexity of structure, to which was added pronounced improvement in both grace and beauty of form. Among the fishes the true modern types, some of gigantic size compared with that of their present representatives, appeared for the first time. In our own times there are nearly a hundred species of fishes which have existed from this Cretaceous period, so that we may consider that the fishes now pass from our narrative, and with them we will let all their marine kindred go, also.
The fishes of these ancient times have been preserved in the rocks of Colorado in prodigious numbers. In many places along the South Platt in the vicinity of Denver the exposed strata contains hundreds of them, their forms perfectly preserved in a fossilized condition, and their crystallized coverings frequently presenting iridescent hues. In the northwestern part of the state, along the tributaries of the Green River, there are multitudes of them.
Colorado is a vast Golgotha for myriads of the creatures of these Epochs and those of subsequent ages. The strata of the San Juan region for hundreds of feet in thickness is especially rich in the numbers and varieties of these relics of ancient life.
The Cretaceous era, the third and last division of the strange Mesozotic Epoch, closed upon an earth that presented continents with outlines foreshadowing their present figures. Through its ages the wide, inland sea extended northwestward here in our country, covering the region of the great plains and the Rocky Mountains as far west as the present Wahsatch range, and it is believed on to the Arctic Ocean, dividing North America into tow continents of comparatively limited area, with islandic places like the Black Hills, standing above its surface.


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The great deposits of the varieties of coal called lignites, so abundant in many large sections of Colorado - one vast measure of it underlying Denver and extending in a wide belt beneath the foot-hills and the plains from Pike's Peak northward into Wyoming - were formed during this period.
This Mesozoic Epoch was inaugurated by the upheaval of the Alleghany ranges, its Jurassic period marked by the elevation of the Sierras, its closing, Cretaceous, era ended with a vast addition
to the work of making the continent. The lofty mountain ranges of the Rockies began to slowly raise their heads from the welter that so long had engulfed them. The whole western half of the continent was bodily upheaved, not suddenly, violently nor explosively, but with a steady, majestic movement that was the beginning of the end of continent-making. The beautiful mountain parks of Colorado were lifted like bowls, retaining waters that had formely swept over them and which now made them mountain lakes, or little isolated seas, and kept them so for untold after years.
North America had become a continent, as the accompanying map indicates, not greatly different from its present outlines. The Southeastern coastline of the Atlantic was farther inland, submerging Florida; the Gulf of Mexico projected up the Mississippi valley in a broad tongue-shaped form to the mouth of the Ohio River, and covered Louisiana and most of Texas; on the Pacific the Sierras were the coast line; the Coast Range, the last of our great mountain chains to be formed, having been yet beneath the waves of that ocean. In the three different periods of this Epoch great lakes of fresh water successively existed here in this western region. The oceans were not yet more than brackish, and the climate was so mild and sulubrious that evergreens, palms and figs grew as for north as the Dakotas, indicating gentle conditions such as Florida now enjoys.


7
This terrestrial revolution abolished the great interior sea which had previously divided North America into practically two continents, and permanently elevated, at last, the land of the Denver region.
North Amorim In Tertiary Times. (Dotted lines Indicate places of Tertiary fresh water lakes: black lines, course of mountain chains.)
Note:
Summarized from History of Denver, by Smiley Jerome Consta, Old American Publishing Company, Denver, 1971


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002. HISTORY OF PUBLIC AQUARIUM
Aquatic animals, and particularly marine animals from the oceans of the world have always been a source of fascination. The Sumertans, the Chinese and the Romans kept fish in ponds and aquaria of various kinds, but not as a public display as we know it today. Since the middle of the 19th. Century, improving techinques of water treatment, life support and husbandry have led many cities, beginning in Europe and England, to build public aquariums where a diverse collection of animals could be put on display and enjoyed by large numbers of people.
The Sumertans of Mesopotamia are known to have stocked ponds and pools with food fish as far back as 2500 B.C. It was the Chinese who were given credit for the first domestication of fish; they did breeding experiments with carp as far back as 2000 B.C. However, it was during the Sung Dynasty (960 - 1278 A.D.) that small aquaria were made of porcelain, and small goldfish and carp were first bred for the sole pleasure of fish watching, a royal pastime. These small aquaia were so popular that the Chinese scholar, Chang Ch'ien-Te wrote the first book on aquarium management in 1596 A.D. As right be expected, it was the Romans who devoloped the first large scale aquaria. The salt water tanks were supplied by a series of canals that carried salt water inland from the ocean. These facilities were not scientific in nature, but served as a large salt water commissary for a complex of banquet halls, a uniquely Roman approach.
The critical development of aquariums as we know them today has always been an issue of technology. The main problem in aquarium management is that aquatic animals have more stringent and precise physiological requirements than do terrestrial animals. Because fish cannot regulate their body temperature they need a stable environmental temperature, as well as precise balance between the saline content of their body fluids and that of the surrounding water.
Two Englishmen were the first pioneers of modern aquarium management. Robert Warrington did initial experiments concerning oxygen enrichment of fresh water systems in 1849. Five years previous to this, P.H. Grosse patented a process to make a salt compound that could be added to fresh water to produce a substitute for sea water. These two separate discoveries made it possible for the London Zoological Gardens to open its "fish house" to the public. In the ten years that followed many European capitals opened public Aquariums, among them: Hanover in 1866, aris in 1867, Brussels in 1868, and Cologne and Berlin in 1869.


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Initially these "fish houses" were quite simple and at times plagued with technical difficulties. Oxygen levels were hard to maintain, and the amount of daylight necessary to encourage plant growth but not allow the growth of algae was difficult to regulate.
At first the fish were displayed in table top tanks that were arranged in a classroom-like setting. A "fountain system" of circulation was used to supply the series of tanks. The system pumped water to a central overhead tank that overflowed into the individual tanks in the Aquarium, then back into a collecting cistern below the tanks where could be recirculated through the system again. This basic system has been used and modified by many fidderent Aquariums over the last century.
During the last quarter of the nineteenth century two distinct architectural styles evolved in Aquarium design, the continental and the British Aquariums. The continental style can be typified as being naturalistic in design. Generally, the continental approach was one of simulating a grotto-like environment. Occasionally the natural rockwork in the tank habitat would be carried above the water's surface and extend into the walls and was suspended from the ceiling. The Hanover Aquarium typified this style, being designed to simulate one large grotto with no differentiation between the tank habitat and the exhibition space.
At other times this naturalism manifested itself in a ruin of gothic origin.
The British style Aquarium was more conservative and practical in nature. Generally Aquariums were thought of in Ruskimesque terms:
"buildings for scientific purpose should be plain and useful in all things, in appearance as in fact." Within a typical British Aquarium the greatest emphasis was placed on scientific and technological aspects. The architecture of these buildings was less flamboyant than those Aquariums build in Europe. Generally, the British Aquarium was neo-classical in plan and with elevations of an appropriate order. Usually a doric order was utilized. All things considered, the attitude within a British Aquarium was one of scientific research.
Most public aquariums were designed as arrays of tanks, with fresh water at inland locations, and saltwater at coastal locations, and displaying primarily fishes. In the late nineteenth century, techniques of making artificial salt water encouraged the growth of public aquariums, inland and particularly in European cities.


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Many U. S. Zoos have included aquariums as a part of their menu of offerings, and have been well equiped to operate them successfully within the larger Zoo context. Free-standing aquariums, however, have tended to be more rare in the U. S. and to be located must often at the edge of the sea, where good quality saltwater could be found. Early U. S. examples in Boston and New York attracted visitors for years, and then closed, unable to sustain themselves.
Two free-standing public aquariums that were not by the sea, and which did become successful and permanent urban institutions, were the Steinhart Aquarium in San Francisco, built in 1912 and the Shedd Aquarium in Chicago, built in 1929.
More recently, New York developed a free-standing aquarium on the beach at Coney Island, operated by the New York Aquarium using saltwater from offshore. Cleveland developed a public aquarium that was innovotive in manufacturing saltwater, and equally innovative in methods of husbandry and filtration, but which has not been successful as an institution.
The aquariums at Coney Island, Cleveland, and more recently at Seattle have all suffered from disappointing attendance, possible because of drawing power in non-central urban locations.
In the period after World War II, a new aquarium concept emerged, the oceanarium, initiated in the U. S. by Marine Studios near St. Augustine, Florida. Using salt water from offshore, continually supplied to hugh tanks containing hundreds of thousands of gallons, displays were demonstrated of whole communities of marine animals, on the one hand, and of marine mammals, by themselves, on the other. The emphasis was on entertainment, with dolphins, and later whales, performing in shows for seated audiences. The concept was so successful that it spread to other parts of Florida, to California, and ultimately, in combination with more traditional aquarium exhibits, to Vancouver and other northern and inland locations such as Coney Island, Mystic, Connecticut and Boston.
Boston, in the 1960's, accepted the challenge of creating a new kind of urban aquarium, borrowing from prior examples but adding some new ideas. Freshwater and saltwater systems were combined, including a large oceanarium type tank housing an Atlantic reef community. A more broadly environmental approach was taken to exhibit subjects than had been found at earlier urban aquariums such as Shedd in Chicago. The world of water became the theme.
A multi-disciplinary design approach was used, reinforcing live exhibits with museum exhibits, and intergrating the exhibits with a dramatic and entertaining experience of interior architecture. Perhaps most important, the New England Aquarium demonstrated a concept that created a year-round popular attraction as well as an educational institution. The economic benefits were found to be substantial. The Aquarium emerged as a catalyst of downtown revitalization, bringing in substantial numbers of tourists,


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substantial numbers of visitors from the City and region, and stimulating other real estate development in a then neglected area, the downtown waterfront.
Baltimore, in the 1970's, followed the Boston example and went further, building a larger and even more dramatic aquarium, with an even greater mix of animals, and a new emphasis on simulating natural habitats so as to bring wild places and whole ecosystems, such as rain forests, to the people of the City. Again, a major institution was created, offering both recreation and education year round, and again stimulating other downtown waterfront revitalization.
In Boston, the Fameuil Hall Marketplace emerged as an important companion prototype, combining specialty shopping and diverse food offerings with the Aquarium and other downtown attractions. Baltimore followed that example with Harborplace, a shopping and food complex even more closely tied to the Aquarium. In both cities, and perhaps more so in Baltimore because of closer adjacency, large numbers of people go shopping, or eat a meal before or after their Aquarium visit. The Aquarium and Harborplace in Baltimore can be described as a combined attraction, since each is more successful, in its powers of attraction and revenues, because of the presence of the other.
In Monterey, California, a new aquarium opened in 1984, demonstrating once again that a substantial educational institution can also be a major and successful attraction on a year-round basis. Even larger than Baltimore, the Aquarium in Monterey limits itself to the marine animals of Monterey Bay found in the immediate vicinity of the building. Its success has been measured not only in terms of attendence, but agin in terms of the synergy with shops, restaurants and hotels and its stimulation of nearby development.
Currently, many cities are making plans to follow these examples, including Toronto; Philadelphia; Camden, N. J.; New Orleans; Charleston,
Sough Caroline; Chatanooga; Portland, Maine; Portland, Oregon; San Diago; Cleveland; Dallas; and others.
Note:
Adapted from the program compiled by Cambridge Seven Associates, Boston, January, 1985


01. THESIS STATEMENT
"The Question of questions for Mankind the problem which underlies all others, and is more deeply.interesting than any other - is the ascertainment of the place which Man occupies in Nature and of His relations to the Universe of things...."
Thomas Henry Huxley Man's Place in Nature


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Oil. PROJECT BACKGROUND
In 1982 the City and County of Denver voters passed a multi -project bond issue that included capital construction funds for the Aquarium project. This RFP is the beginning of the implementation of that objective.
The Denver Zoo has begun work on a marine/mammal exhibit and the Museum of National History is expanding and the Zoo proposed new aquarium at either the Zoo's City Park or on City Park Golf Course.
However, that facility, which may attract about one million visitors a year, will mean that more parking lots will have to be built. If they provide the parking in the park, it will reduce the green space in City Park.
The Park now has 1,200 spaces. Based on peak conditions figuring three to four people in a car, City Park will need 6,170, parking spaces just to serve those using the Zoo and Museum when the current expansion it complete. But if the aquarium draws one million people a year, as advertised, the park would need 1,710 more spaces.!
Also, the area around the Zoo, which hosts City Park and the Denver Museum of Natural History, already is congested enough to annoy residents and visitors alike.
In 1985, the administration of Mayor Federico Pena and advocates of Platte Valley development reportedly wanted to see the aquarium located in the downtown Platte Valley as a tourist attraction. Additionally, weekly field trips by school children to the aquarium could be twinned with a tour of the nearby Children's Museum. It would make for a pleasant, educational day for any child.
But the Platte Valley, where Denver was going to build its convention center, is too far away from existing activity centers.
Denver recently hired a Massachusetts based consultant firm, Cambridge Seven Associates, to study possible sites. The firm has pointed to City Park, the Golden Triangel and the Platte Valley as the main locations for the facility. But after the council's vote that they decided to build a new convention center, the consultants looked more closely at the old Currigan site and it became a serious alternative.
In September, 1986, the consultants reported to the Mayor and city council members that their top choice would be to build a 118,000 square foot,-


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state-of-the art aquarium in the South Platte River Valley behind Union Station. It would cost about $30 million to build and $6 million a year to operate. It would attract about 900,000 visitors and spin off more than $10 million in revenues and downtown spending.^
Mayor Federico Pena said he already has "a full plate" of expensive projects he's trying to build.
Notes: V: "No Aquarium in Park", The Denver Post, April 11, 1986
2: "Aquarium Founders on Funding", The Denver Post, by
Charles Broderick, September 19, 1986


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012. PROJECT DESCRIPTION
If the Aquarium is built in Denver, through a variety of underwater and above-water exhibits, visitors would trace the falling snow on the Continental Divide through springtime snowmelt, flowing west through the Grand Conyon to the Pacific Ocean and east across the Plains to the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean.
A number of potential Aquarium sites exist along the western edge of the lower downtown area and as a transition to the development of the Central Platte Valley. The sites that have been identified, by Cambridge Seven, extend from a location at the terminum of 18th. Street, the terminus of the 16th. Street Mall and sites from the mall toward Cherry Creek. All the sites could be developed in conjuction with the preservation and rehabilitation of the Union Terminal Building, could be served by an extension of the 16th. Street Mall, could front on the Denver Commons,
Cherry Creek, the Mall or some adjacent public open space, could have a view of the mountains and could be physically connected to a nearby waterway. It could be a symbolic building, complementary and compatible with the Denver Union Terminal and the historic lower downtown area, mark the entrance to the valley and could reinforce the existing synergy of downtown and lower downtown. Potential exists for shared or joint-use parking.
The Aquarium is anticipated to be an approximately!!5,000 square foot facility serving the Denver Metropolitan area. Conceived as a multi-use struture, the building itself will contain various exhibition which would showcase glaciers in Colorado's high country, the underwater landscape of a lake with cutthroat trout and arctic graying, a waterfall, a trout stream and a beaver pond. Visitors would move one direction to follow exhibits that showcase the flow of water to the Pacific and another to the Atlantic.
The Atlantic side would begin with the Platte River and take people through fish and wildlife of the Missouri River, a Mississippi bayou with alligators and large snapping turtles and a Caribbean coral reef with tropical fish such as barracuda and moray eels. It would end with a large shark tank from the depths of the Atlantic.
The Pacific side would begin with exhibits showing water moving southwest along the Colorado River and to the northwest along the Columbia River and its tributaried. Exhibits would show wildlife and fish from desert hot springs, the Colorado River with a simulated view of the edge of the Grand Canyon and tropical fish off the shores of the Baja, California


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Other sea life would in-lude Pacific Salmon, intertidal fish and animals such as shrimp and sea stars, a rock cave with a giant octopus, Alaskan King Crab and a discovery center with displays such as tide pools where children could touch starfish, hermit crabs, mussels and sea cucumbers.
The building also will contain support facilities, such as a restaurant, book store, public service and administration offices.
Denver's Aquarium should be designed to handle not less than one million visitors per year.l The visitors will range in age, lifestyle, education and interest; therefore a high degree of flexibility for evolving concepts and technolgoies will be required. With a building life expectancy of 30 to 50 years,2 quality materials and construction, along with a highly-educated staff, will provide a meaningful experience to its visitors. Because of such a "high profile" image is desired, a large extent of the Aquarium's operating expenses can be generated from its visitors and through the revenue created by recreational, and educational support facilities.
Aquariums are no longer "fish houses", "scientific clubs", or gotheic ruins". Central to the issue of variety is the fact that many Aquariums are financially self-sustaining. That is they must pay their own way through admissions and must compete for discretionary recreation spending within the entertainment industry. Therefore, not only must a successful facility provide a variety of activities for the community but it must do them competitively and in an entertaining and creative manner.
This competition has placed Aquarium design at the forefront of zoological architecture and design. Aquariums have at times specialized in regional aquatic themes or have developed certain galley collections that explain ecological or eveolutionary issues. Generally, the goal of contempory aquatic exhibitions has been to directly involve the visitor in a one-on-one relationship and to interpret the broader ecological and geographical story of water and its dependent life.
The Aquarium is to serve an essential role in the education of the residents of the Rocky Mountain region concerning the aquatic enviroment, and to provide quality entertainment and recreational interest to the Denver Community, as well as to the intermountain region.
Note: 1 & 2: An Aquarium for the Denver Zoological Gardens,
City and County of Denver, January, 1985


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013. GOALS & CONCEPTS
An Aquarium for Denver must not repeat what has been done elsewhere. Because of its unique position, inland at the base of the Rockies, located in the highest state in the nation, an Aquarium in Colorado provides an unique opportunity which is to dramatically divide the two oceans, following rivers such as the Platte and the Colorado. This can be the major U.S. Rocky Mountain aquarium, presenting a wide range of animals and habitats from the Rockies to the Plains and the deserts, to the bayous and the coral reefs.
Human understanding of natural systems, of their fragility, of our own place in them, and of our own responsibility as their stewards, is a need everywhere. Cities with aquariums are able to effectively bring aquatic life, and aquatic habitats, into focus as a critically important window on the planet earth. Denver will become much stronger in its educational and recreational assets with the new aquarium.
Recent experience in Baltimore, Boston, and Monterey has made clear that a public aquarium can play a catalytic role in the redevelopmertt of a blighted downtown area. Desolate or neglected places can become popular places, full of people. Dormant nearby real estate tends to take on new potential, to take on new values, to become useful, to find new development activity and to contribute with the Aquarium to an improved larger environment. Denver's downtown, already becoming lively and economically healthy in the last decade, would be further stimulated by the presence of the new aquarium.
Also it's success in Boston, Baltimore and Monterey, joined by new directions in aquarium technology, and new thinking in regard to natural history education, has suggested some directions for other cities to consider in building aquariums. One is that the menu of attractions should include opportunities for change, for temporary exhibits, and for revising or updating exhibits.
Another future trend is toward greater simulation of natural habitats, allowing both the visitors and captive animals to experience conditions as close as possible to those in the wild.
A third trend is toward a more ecological approach, bringing complex subjects together in a coherent presentation of the interdependence, or interaction, of all life in ecosystems.
A fourth trend is toward greater visitor participation. This is accomplished by such means as natural habitats within which the visitor finds himself exploring, finding, observing and even touching the


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animals by such means as computer controlled laser disc video programs, with which the visitor can explore natural habitats, animal behavior and other subjects at will, on film, in an interactive learning process.
New technologies of this kind will be more prevalent throughout the museums of the world in the next decade, and mutually reinforcing combinations of living exhibits, and non-living exhibits, using the new technologies, are an extraordinary opportunity for new aquariums.


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014. DESIGN APPROACH
A. WATER
Colorado is a land of extremes. In some areas of the Plains, annual reinfall may not exceed four or five inches. High on the glaciers snowfall may reach as much as three hundred inches. Even so, very little water falls on Colorado. With the exception of the Pacific Northwest, the remaining fourteen western states, representing almost one-half of the land mass of the United States, receive on 14% of the fresh water which falls annually; 73% falls east of the Mississippi.
The water falling on the Rocky Mountains accounts for most of the western water. Along the Continental Divide, raindrops fall on rocky surfaces and drip to the east and to the west. The headwaters of Colorado's mighty rivers are born along this line - the Rio Grande, the Colorado, the Platte and the Arkansas Rivers running west will sustain life in California, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico and Nevada.
The Colorado reaches Mexico nearly used up for irrigation and water supplies. The Plains to the east direct water from the western slopes for irritation purposes.
The Denver Aquarium will focus on the water enviroments of the Rocky Mountains and the moisture starved Plains and will explore the diverse aquatic ecosystems of the Atlantic and Pacific drainage basins.
B. EXHIBITION
Full collaboration between the exhibit designer and the architect is vital to the success of the exhibition spaces. It is imperative for the architect is spatially enhance the exhibit spaces and not dominate or compete with the exhibit presentation.
Gaining the active involvement of the viewer is the key in successful exhibit design. A well conceived exhibit presentation is one that creates a one-on-one relationship between the exhibit animal and aquarium visitor. Additionally, the exhibit must entertain as well as educate the viewer, while offering a good simulation of the aquatic enviroment.
Accommodation of all visitors, including the handicapped, is an important issue in exhibit presentation. This requires that individuals in wheel chairs be given equal viewing access to exhibits. The exhibit spaces should also work well for families with children in strollers.


The presence of excessive ambient light in exhibit areas can cause problems with reflective glare on the viewing surfaces. At the least, this reflectance can cause distractions; at the worse, it presents a complete osbtruction to viewing. Therefore, the arrangement of exhibits and placement of lighting fixtures should be well planned and analyzed.
The exhibits are conceived in three primary experiences. The Rocky Mountains will orient the visitor to Denver's position in the West and will celebrate water environments as diverse as a beaver pond or a water hole on the Plains. An exhibit focusing on a mountain trout stream and a presentation of the Water Cycle will introduce the Continental Divide and two routes, the Atlantic and Pacific. Water flowing off the west slope will be followed to the Pacific and from the east slope to the Atlantic. Visitors may chose either direction and, returning to mountain stream, may then tour the remaining gallery.
Exhibitors Groupings
A. Rocky Mountains
B. Continental Divide
C. Pacific Drainage - North
D. Pacific Drainage - South
E. Atlantic Drainage


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C. USERS
At the outset, it is imperative to realize that there are three primary users of an aquarium design. These users are:
The Aquarium Animals The Zoological Staff The Aquarium Visitor
It is essential in any successful planning and design effort to be aware of and reconcile any conflicts that may arise between these primary facility users.
The health and welfare of the aquarium animals and the maintenance of a stable environment is the primary goal of any successful aquarium design. Any design decision must not directly endanger the well-being of the exhibit animals or create an environmental stress that will affect the long term survivability of the exhibit residents. This is the central issue in any aquarium.
The primary goal regarding the zoological staff is to work towards operational efficiency and equipment reliability. It goes without saying that reliable operation of all filtration and life support equipment is of paramount importance. Likewise, it is vital for operational efficiency to allow the curatorial staff to carry on their daily activities out of sight and enencumbered by aquarium visitors.
The chief issues surrounding the visitor are associated with education and entertainment. The resolution of an educational message within are overall entertaining experience is the single most important visitor-related concern.lt must be understood that aquariums are in competition for discretionary entertainment expenditures. Therefore, the aquarium must attract, educate and entertain an increasingly sophisticated visiting public.
Particulary, children are in many ways the most important visitors to an aquarium. Special care must be taken in planning exhibits that successfully accommodate children.


22
The most obvious issues affecting children is that of visibility of exhibits. Although this appears intuitive, many past aquarium facilities have failed to accommodate children in regard to exhibit visibility. It is most important to provide children with a ledge that will safely allow the child to see a viewing area directly in front of the exhibits. Nothing frustrates a parent more than having to continually lift a child up and down to see a series of exhibits.
Strong visual interest and the use of audio-visual information is another technique to engage and inform children that are too young to read. Addidtionally, these techniques can provide a way to inter-relate a series of exhibits and tell a story.
Interactive exhibits and touch tanks are perhaps the best type of exhibit to use and capture the attention of a child. These techniques direct involvement on a one-on-one basis between the child and exhibit. This hands-on experience also provides the best instruction method for children of al1 ages.
D. NATURAL DAYLIGHT
Natural daylight is perhaps the most dichotomous element to be manipulated in aquarium design. At times, it is a life threatening element in certain aquatic habitats; or a water management muisance due to the increase in algae growth that it causes. At other times, it can be a required life sustaining element necessary to ensure surrivability of the exhibited animals. Therefore, the manipulation of natural daylight throughout the various aquatic habitats will be a primary environmental consideration.
For the professional and curatorial zoological staff, natural daylight is a desirable element throughout the work place. Numerous studies have supported the premise that worker morale and productivity are increased in a naturally lighted environment. The prime acution is to pay attention to the principal task to be accomplished in particular areas. If natural light would pose an environmental threat to the habitat of reserve animals, then it should be excluded from the particular work area.


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The inclusion of natural daylight into the public areas should be encouraged where practical. Natural daylight in the public lobby, amphitheater, restaurant, as well as other areas, would enhance the overall visitor experience. Additionally, natural lighting could be introduced at various points throughout the exhibition circulation scheme as a means to relieve exhibit fatigue and refresh the attention span.
E. ATTENTION SPAN
Attention span is the single most critical element related to visitor satisfaction. If the issues associated with attention span are not accommodated in the architectural and exhibit design, then the long term success of the aquarium facility could be placed in jeopardy.
Although people can defy generalized characterization, it is possible to make a few observations about public behavior in exhibition facilities. Generally, the two types of visitors in exhibit areas are:
The Fast Tracker:
Primarily the visual observer, who goes rapidly from exhibit to exhibit taking little time to read graphic communication. Typically young children are present in groups exhibiting these characteristics.
The Lingerer:
A critical and intel1ectural viewer, this person takes in both written and visual information, often making comparisons between exhibits. Individual visitors and older adults often exhibit these characteristics.
It is imperative to design the facility and exhibit so that they accommodate these two types of visitors. Typically, this is accomplished by layered visual and graphic information. This layering techinque will


allow the viewer with the short attention span to quickly move through the exhibit and grasp the theme and storyline-related issues. At the same time, more detailed graphic communication will provide the in-depth viewer with additional information and will accommodate their more leisurely pace of viewing.
Another technique to prevent viewer fatique is to provide breaks in the flow of exhibits by allowing visitors an opportunity to sit, relax, and renew their energy level. Where feasible, the introduction of natural lighting into these lounge areas will enhance the overall experience.
A final concern is to provide a variety of presentation formats in both the exhibit and architectural design. It is important to avoid "Pullman Car Syndrome": the repetitive presentation of similar tanks in a linear format. A variety of presentations prevents monotony.
F. OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY
Aquariums, in many ways, can be thought of as aquatic machines.
This analogue is particularly thru when examining an aquarium behind the scenes: life support issues place complex and stringent requirements on the requisite mechanical systems. Observations of service areas in many aquariums further reveals that there are close similarities between these facilities and the interior of a ship. It is important to make the service areas of aquariums as "ship-shape" efficient as possible by producing multifunctional task-oriented spaces.
Operational efficeincy has an added dimension that relates to exhibit planning. It is important to correlate the operational i-sue of an exhibit to its functional relationship within the complete aquarium scheme. Specifically, where feasible, similar operational tasks should be located adjacent to each other so as not to duplicate work areas and services. It is also important to estimate curatorial manpower needs so as to know the current and projected operational requirements of a facility.
G. REVENUE GENERATION
Revenue generation has become a vital issue with most public exhibition facilities. Since financial self-sufficiency has become a virtual


25
requirement for zoological facilities, the new aquarium must maximize its revenue generation potential. Aside from gate receipts, the principal revenue generator for the aquarium will be the giftshop and the restaurant. These facilities must be integrated properly into the circulation flow and the overall functional system of the aquarium.
H. GRAPHICS
he principal goal of a successful graphics program is to communicate educational information to a diverse audience in a concise and lucid manner.
Many factors will contribute to the success of the graphic program.
The most important is to delineate, typically through an exhibits program, a theme and storyline so that the required message can be developed. Then it is important to create a multi-level presentation of material and information that will allow a variety of visitors to assimilate information at their own pace.
It is also critical to analyze the concepts being presented, and express them in a clear and comprehensible manner. Additionally, the information used to relate the concept should be scrutinized pertaining to its relevancy and complexity. Excessive information can have a detrimental effect upon the overall educational impact.
Not all graphics need be in a purley printed format. Increasingly, a multi-media presentation is being used to convey theme and storyline development in a succinct manner. It is also possible to go beyond multi-media into a multi-sensory presentation which combines visual, auditory, alfactory, and tactile experiences to convey the educational message.


02. RESEARCH


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021. WATER QUALILY
The chemical condition of the water in which fishes and aquatic animals without backbones (invertebrates) are kept is vital to their health. Anything suspended or dissolved in the water comes into the most intimate contact with these animals, mostly through their gills, and there is little they can do to keep harmful substances from entering their bloodstream or body. For example, only two parts of copper dissolved in a hundred million parts of water can kill some fishes within 24 hours, while acutely toxic concentrations of pesticides like Endrin need have a strength of less than one part per billion. The invertebrates are even more sensitive than fishes.
In order to keep animals as sensitive as this alive in captivity, there is only one safe rule to follow: all aquaria and other parts of water systems must be made of chemically inert materials.
The source of any water that is to be used in aquariums must be scrutinized to make certain it always has the proper chemical composition and never contains substances harmful to the exhibits. Oridnary standards of water purity are not adequate because perfectly potable fresh water or seawater, perfectly safe for bathing, may be deadly to fishes and aquatic invertebrates. As far as their water supply is concerned, these animals are much more delicate than man. Frequent troublemakers in municipal tap water are chlorine, excessive hardness, and brass or galvanized piping. A single small metallic fixture can quickly bring about the death of fish when the water running through it is soft.
As far as the aquarium's visitors are concerned, the only necessary water quality is clarity, so that they can easily see the exhibits. For large tanks (500 gal. or more) the water must be very clear indeed; the water of some municipalities contains colloidal clay, and although it looks crystal clear in small tanks, its milky appearance in large ones makes viewing through it quite unsatisfactory. (Animals may live in such cloudy water without any difficulty, but water that is cloudy from the presence of myriads of bacteria is unsatisfactory for both visitor and exhibit animal, although for different reasons.)
In some aquarium water systems, the water is used only once and is then discarded. These are called open systems. Closed systems are those in which the water is recirculated, being used over and over again.
Sometimes it f.s necessary to treat the water as soon as it enters the aquarium building, usually by filtering it. Natural seawater should always be filtered before being put into reservoirs or closed systems of any kind in order to remove the tiny animals and plants (plankton) that


28
inhabit it. These floating mites cannot live under the conditions of captivity and when they die, they decompose and temporarily make the seawater toxic to larger forms of marine life. Even filtered seawater "rots" to some extent and may have to be stored in the dark for as long as 6 weeks before becomming fit to use, particularly in small tanks.
For the great majority of exhibits, however, fresh, filtered seawater may be used without delay if it has not originated from polluted sources and if each water system contains at least 1,000 gal. On the other hand untreated natural seawater can be used in open systems provided it is clear enough not to obstruct the view of the exhibits.
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An important advantage of this kind of arrangement is that it makes easy the exhibition of plankton-feeding animals, which subsist onthe small plants and animals they strain out of the water.
Unless the aquarium can be built near a dependable source of water of the proper quality and sufficient quantity, closed water systems will be a necessity, but water that is used over and over accumulates waste products from the animals living in it, and as time goes on, the concentration of these substances becomes intolerable. Their removal, however, presents special problems.
Aquarium animals, just like terrestrial ones, must consume oxygen to stay alive and at the same time must get rid of the carbon dioxide they produce. If the water in which they find themselves has either too little oxygen or too much carbon dioxide, they will die. Fortunately, the atmosphere provides an unlimited supply of oxygen and can take up unlimited amounts of carbon dioxide - at least the small amounts produced by aquariums. Therefore all that needs to be done is to expose enough of the aquarium water to air above the vessel so that the two gases will be exchanged at a fufficiently rapid rate. This is most easily done by the use of aerators, although circulating the water and otherwise agitating it is also very helpful.
The animals other wastes are not so easily disposed of, however, in fact, no economically feasible way has yet been devised to remove them from aquarium water, Most important of all is ammonia. This is the principal waste product in the urine of fishes, and these animals excrete ammonia through their gills as well. Ammonia is also the principal excretory product of aquatic invertebrates. Other waste products such as urea, are broken down into ammonia by bacteria in the water. In addition, ammonia is produced when bacteria bring about the decomposition of fecal fish wastes as well as any uneaten food or plants and animals that have died in the tank. It would not be far wrong to state that every bit of food put into an aquarium, except that utilized in the growth of its inhabitants, eventually turns into ammonia.
Ammonia is exceedingly toxic to almost all fishes and invertebrates.
For example, trout living in water with as little as six parts per billion of ammonia show abnormal gills. Even freshwater pond fishes, which are much less sensitive to ammonia than trout or coral-reef fishes, should not be exposed to concentrations of more than one part in ten million of water.
At present time, there is only one economical way to avoid ammonia poisoning in closed aquarium systems, and this is by taking advantage of the bacteria that change ammonia into nitrate (by oxidation), a chemical that is much less harmful to aquatic animals. These nitrifying bacteria occur naturally in all aquariums and water systems, but not


30
in large enough numbers to quickly convert the toxic ammonia into relatively harmless nitrate in a well-managed tank, these bacteria thrive on the walls and other surfaces, but not in the water itself, because they must be attached to some kind of solid material in order to grow and multiply. There are not enough surfaces in an aquarium to provide "homes" for sufficient numbers of nitrifying bacteria to keep the concentration of ammonia as low as it needs to be, that is, virtually zero. One of the principal functions of a filter is to provide living space for nitrifying bacteria, and countless numbers of them cover the grains of sand or gravel of the filter bed. In the future, other ways of eliminating ammonia may be found, but biological filtration is now the only practical way to do so.
In addition to the solid surface they require, nitrifying bacteria need oxygen; the water should be aerated both before and after filtration afterwards in order to replace the oxygen used up by the filter bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria are slow multipliers (as compared with many other bacteria), cold temperatures, acid waters, high salinity, and lack of calcium slow them down even more. Whenever an aquarium or a water system is put into operation, the number of animals put into it ought to be limited until the filter has acquired its full complement of nitrifying bacteria. A "healthy" filter is essential to a "healthy" closed aquarium water system and vice versa.
The longer the aquarium or water system is in operation, the greater the amount of nitrate that accumulates in the water. Although certain aquatic bacteria (denitritiers) change nitrates into nitrogen gas and thus eliminate the nitrogen from the system, this process does not take place rapidly enough to prevent the buildup of nitrate in aquarium water. Moreover, there are other less well-known substances that accumulate in the water in which animals are living. None of these is at all as toxic as ammonia, but they do have an inhibitory effect, especially on marine invertebrates. The only practical way to get rid of them, at the present state of aquarium technology, is by replacing part of the water at regular intervals. This is the procedure used by home aquarists who want their fishes to reproduce. By keeping the concentration of nitrates (and undoubtedly other inhibiting substances that were not measured as well) below 10 parts per million with regular replacements of fresh seawater, the London Aquarium has been able to maintain marine invertebrates it otherwise found impossible to keep alive.
Another cumulative change that takes place in aquarium water is an increase in acidity. Oxidation is a process essential to all life, and oxidation is an acid producing process. Aquatric animals produce carbon dioxide, which becomes carbonic acid in water. All of their other waste


31
products are eventually oxidized by bacterial action, and this, too, produces acid. In order to prevent the aquarium system from suffering from acidosis, it must be alkalized. This is absolutely essential for closed seawater systems and is usually accomplished by keeping the water in very close contact with some form of calcium carbonate (coral sand, calcite, marble chips, bivalve shells).
Proper aquarium water quality depends primarily on the following factors:
- Chemically inert material
- Suitable source of water
- Adequate circulation, aeration, and filtration
- Cleanliness, achieved mostly by avoiding overcrowding and overfeeding
- Control of waste end-products by filtration, alkalization and dilution


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022. WATER SYSTEMS
The water system includes, in whole or part, the incoming line, a clarifying or sterilizing unit if required, storage reservoirs, the pipelines furnishing types and temperatures of water serving the display tanks, the display tanks, inflow and outflow and drainage, and filters.
Piping should be of nonmetallic materials. Water should come in contact with metal only as absolutely necessary. Metal or other piping may be used to serve cetaceans, seals, penguins, and aquatic reptiles, but expensive replacement may be necessary because of corrosion.
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33
1. Open system (use and waste). This method is the least troublesome provided an adequate source of excellent disease-free water is available. The requirement that metal not come in contact with water may not be quite so important here, as animals are exposed to water that has passed over the metal only once and as the toxicity potential decreases due to the formation of inert oxides, etc., on the interior of metal pipes, this forming an insulating barrier, but corrosion is a factor to be considered.
Economics must be considered when water is to be discarded after one use. As a general rule of thumb, the average display tank if specimens loaded at the rate of 1 lb. of fish per 100 gal. of water should have a turnover or replacement rate of one valume each one to two hours. If the gallonage of all display tanks is 100,000 gal., a flow of 50,000 to 100,000 gal. per hour would have to be maintained. Thus, 1.2 to 2.4 million gal. would be required each 24 hours. An added cost would arise if some waters had to be heated or cooled.
When water is used only once and discarded, the rate of turnover usually need not be as great as in closed systems, as waste products from the specimens are continually carried away.
It should be noted that the rule of thumb cited above is just that.
Many species of fish can be loaded heavier, and some species, particularly invertebrates, may require a more rapid turnover of water.
2. Closed system (recirculating total system). Water continuously enters the display tanks and the overflow returns to the reservoirs after passing through filters. In theory, this method requires only the replacement of water lost by evaporation or in the process of cleaning a tank or backwashing a filter. However, seawater should be replaced
at the rate of one-third of the total volume every two weeks, if possible.
If this cannot be done, monitoring of nitrite, nitrate, and urea buildup becomes very important.
One serious disadvantage in a closed system is the real possibility of disease organisms from one tank being carried to all tanks. Filtration will not remove many of these. Ultraviolet radiation or passage ghrough a reverse osmosis process, however, is effective in removing or destroying organisms both desirable and undesirable. Reverse osmosis cannot be used with salt water.
3. Closed system (recirculating individual systems). Each display tank is provided with its own recirculating water system. Filling and minor replacement is from the main supply lines. In operation, the overflow passes through a biological filter and is pumped back to the display tank. Desired temperature range can be maintained by cooling or heating units placed in thefilter or line.
In the recirculating systems, the main supply lines of water, preferably overhead, also are continually circulating at a low rate to preclude dead water and the growth of organisms in the pipes.


34
The plans for the National Fisheries Center include the above system (3). The city water supply contains traces of zinc and copper, detergents and chlorine. After all display and reservoir tanks are filled (approximately 3.5 million gallons), the replacement water estimated to be required is 100 gallons per minute. It is planned to pass this incoming water through the reverse osmosis process to remove the metals and detergents. The chlorine will be removed by aeration or charcoal filtering.
Display tanks of up to 2,000 gal. can, for some species, be recirculated through bottom filters with water circulation controlled by air-lift pumps.
In recirculating systems it is desirable to replace at least 10 percent of fresh water and at least 40 percent of salt water each month to avoid a buildup of harmful substances. Usually a greater amount than this is replaced when the display tanks are regularly cleaned and filters backwashed.


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023. DISPLAY TANKS
Tanks for the display of aquatic specimens are expensive. Materials in tanks for seawater must be more carefully chosen than for fresh water. Nevertheless, all tanks should be made of inert material to the greatest estent possible.
Ideal tanks are those that are least costly, light in weight, readily altered or drilled, inert in easwater, with hard and smooth interiors, among other things. No currently available materials from which tanks may be produced have quite all the foregoing desirable features. For smaller tanks (up to about 2,000 gal.), fiber glass or plastic-impregnated plywood appear to be quite satisfactory.
A number of companies manufacture fiber glass aquaria or holding tanks. Moreover, some of these will fabricate to specifications. It is desirable to plan to install tanks of standard sizes, preferable those that are available "off the shelf" or for which fiber glass fabricating forms are still available.
Fiber glass is completely inert, is light in weight, and can be readily altered and drilled. Some experience by aquarium personnel will permit them to make repairs. It is quite possible, with an experienced technician, for an aquarium to fabricate its own tanks of reinforced fiber glass.
For larger tanks, reinforced concrete, steel plate, or some other substantial and suitable material will be required.


36
Concrete tanks should never be poured as an integral part of the building. Each such tank should be an independent unit, capable of being broken up and removed without damage to the building.
The design of tanks should consider the problems of drainage, cleaning, viewing, etc. Some tanks, because of the specimens to be held therein, may require special features, e.g. scuppers at the surface to remove oily film produced by some foods. Rapid drainage is desirable. It si preferable that gravel or sand not touch the viewing glass. Disappearing side walls may be desired.
All concrete and metal surfaces should be coated with an epoxy sealer. This will continue to seal the inevitable hairlinecracks in concrete, and this prevent seawater (particularly) from attacking the reinforcing iron. (If possible, Monel bars should be used). The seal also inhits the growth of algae. Color amy be added to the epoxy. Epoxy may also be used with sand to provide skidproffing for wet floors, ramps, etc. Careful application of eposy paints over concrete will prevent blistering.
It is desirable to have a flow pattern for visitors. Design can quite readily lead the visitor into the desired path in most situations.
Upon entering, a visitor will generally trun right, provided no attractions draw him elsewhere. By placing display tanks at an angle, with the viewing glass facing the oncoming visitor, he will normally proceed in that direction. Open-floor exhibits can serve as sheilds and also continue to draw the visitors along the desired path.
Monotony is to be avoided in the placement of display tanks. They should not be lined up like railway car windows. All of them should not be set at an angle. Alcoves and jut-outs will provide variety and surprises and can serve as dividers between special exhibits. Variety also serves to orient the visitor.
Handrails to keep the public about 3 ft. from the viewing glass may be desirable. Opinion is divided among aquarists regarding rails. When large numbers of visitors are present, a rail keeps them back from the glass and permits more people a better view. On the other hand, close inspection of small organisms is then not possible.
A step-up for small children is often provided. This usually is about 1 ft. high and 1 ft. wide, and should be part of the building structure and continuous.


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024. OPERATION AREA
Planners of aquariums often consider the facility only from the visitor's viewpoint. They do not realize that the welfare and attractiveness of the specimens and minimum costs for operation and maintenance depend upon the attention given to behine-the-scenes design.
The immediate work area behind the display tanks may be considered first. The work area floor should be about 3 ft. higher than the public area floor. This is dictated by the height of the average visitor looking into the approximate center of the viewing glass of the average large display tank. Most display tanks are placed on the floor of the work area. Obviously very small and very large tanks will have to be placed differently. Tanks should be placed to permit ease of celaning by aquarists.
Holding tanks to receive new specimens for quarantine and space to hold surplus or sick specimens should be placed along the rear wall of the work area or in any other convenient locations. Each of these holding tanks should have its own recirculating system. The total holding capacity should be equal to about one third of the display volume but may vary considerable, depending upon the sizes of display tanks and specimens as well as the mortality rate and replacement need.
All quarantine tanks should be provided with drain valves to permit rapid drainage after treatment procedures. All tanks should have removable pump screens.
Many specimens ought to be on display since they use space when held in reserve and require the same care as specimens on display. Nevertheless, too few quarantine or treatment tanks can greatly hamper operations. The exhibit/ holding ratio should be carefully considered.
The various main supply pipes from the reservoirs should extend around the aquarium over the display tanks. These should be a minimum of 7 ft. above the work-area floor and should have frequent tap valves from which, by flexible hose, replacement water or a continuous flow may be fed to the tanks, depending upon the system. It si important to have shut-off valves conveniently located along the major supply lines to facilitate plumbing repairs.
To reduce the possibility of accidental flooding to a minimum, automatic cut-off switches, built-in overflow drains, and failsafe devices should be planned in connection with tanks and reservours that are periodically drawn down and refilled.
All electrical appliances and equipment, including connector boxes, must be grounded. Outlets should not be located near the floor. Fixtures over the tanks should be protected to avoid breakage and possible danger to personnel


38
working in water. Poles attached to brushes or other cleaning devices should be of wood or other nonmetal lie material.
Natural light should be held to a minimum unless completely controllable. Natural light promotes algae growth on interiors of tanks.
A flexible lighting system over each tank should include the capability of being lifted out of the way when cleaning tanks or feeding specimens. Sufficient waterproof outlets should be provided for auxiliary or special 1ighting.
A clear passageway about 6 ft. wide should extend along the back of all display tanks in order to permit the easy transport of tanks incoming specimens, etc., by fork lift truck or four-wheel flatbed. No stairs or other obstacles should be located in this passageway.
The surface of the work-area floor should have a nonskid finish. Floor drains with sand traps are absolutely necessary and floors should be sloped to drains. Water-resistant materials should be used in all places adjacent to tanks.
Storage space for tools, nets, chemicals and other items in frequent use should be provided. Refrigerators often are convenient for the storage of special foods and may reduce trips to the food preparation room.
Stairs should be placed conveniently from tie work area to the public area, with lock doors. Small wall desks may be Drovided for record keeping.
Deep washbasins with hot and cold water and towel boxes should be located conveniently in the work areas. Also, suitable containers for net sterilization should be provided.
Centrally located and convenient to the live exbibits should be the grouping of loading dock, food preparation room and freezer, offices for the biologist and chief aquarist, a room for the shipping and receiving of live specimens, and a crew room with showers and toilets. Space for the chief engineer and control and monitoring panels should be provided. The size of each of the foregoing as well as the necessity for offices and crew room, will depend upon the size of the aquarium and the number of personnel involved in operations.
The above can be located on either the work-area level or the public-area level. If the latter is the case, a ramp should extend from the landing dock area to the work level. It is also desirable to have easy rolling access


39
to the public area and to the administrative offices.
In any aquarium a two-way intercom system is very important.
The work area should be spearated acoustically from the public area.
Interior windows may be desirable to permit visitors to view the more interesting operational features.
Source:
James W. Atz, Associate Curator, The American Museum of Natural History


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025. MODERN AQUARIUM LIGHTING
In many public aquaria, lighting is largely a 'rule of thumb1 matter, without study of the principles involved and with little use being made of modern techniques. The range of lighting derived from discharge tubes and lamps has been greatly increased and this paper is based on experience with a large range of freshwater and marine, tropical and cold tanks of from 20 to 3,000 gallons. Many points apply equally to vivaria and to zoo practice generally.
The five main factors determining cost and suitability include I. qualitative output; i.e., the spectral distribution or radiation characteristic. On technical data sheets this is shown as a curve or black graph indication the power in each group of wave lengths, or as a table giving the percentage emmission in each colour bank. II. Quantitative output, usually listed in lumens. (This is a light unit and in this context important only for comparison). Lumens measure the eye response, which is relatively higher in the yellow and green part of the spectrum, whereas plants depend on the visible energy in the red and blue bands. For the aquarist, these output factors are intimately connected. The less 'efficient' sources are often richest in the radiation used by plants. III. Average life of lamp or tube. Makers' figures are for normal use. The life of discharge lamps and tubes is shortened by frequent switching; in an aquarium this is usually once daily, which is optimum.
Filament lamps run hot and are subject to splash damage, and average much below rated life. As labour costs rise, the replacement of lamps becomes more expensive and this makes the initial cost of long-life units less important. IV. Prime cost of lamps with starter gear, if needed. The latter is non-recurrent and is reckoned as part of the fitting. V. Consumption of electricity. Only the steady current affects cost, but the short initial surge, of up to twice the rated wattage in some cases, may need to be taken into account for fuses. The total cost of lighting has four components, i.Fittings, control gear, and other capital equipment. This can be written off in five years, as regrads costing, but should last much longer if properly chosen and maintained. (For some situations special moisture-proof fittings are a sound investment.) ii. Cost of current, iii, Lamp cost. iv. Labour for maintenance, cleaning and replacement, Replacement can be ignored for modern tubes and lamps with rated life of 5,000 or more hours.
Four main types of light sources are on the market. Fluorescent tubes are made with at least ten substantially fidderent emmission patterns. These are each coated internally with a phosphor calculated to emit a particular radiation when activated by ultra-violet light. 'Standard' or 'universal' tubes such as white or warm white are rich in yellow and green wavelengths and rather poor at the red and blue ends of the spectrum; these emit maximum lumens per watt. The newer types have more red and blue, and give a more balanced rendering. In general their putput is lower, sometimes only 50% of the maximum.


41
Fluorescent tubes are highly efficient because a larger proporation of the output is emitted as light and less as heat, making them more suitable for use over cold water tanks, especially in summer. The lower working temperatures makes splash breakage unlikely. Very hot or very cold conditions may effect performance and technical advice should be sought about this. Fluorescent tubes give more even lighting than any but powerful lamps placed high above the tank.
Tubes of 4 ft. and above are rated at 7,500 hours, shorter ones at
5.000 hours, with guaranteed replacement for failure at 12 months or
3.000 hours, whichever is shorter. In industrial buildings, where they may be inaccessible, tubes often have batch replacement at 6,000 hours. In
most aquaria it is enough to replace at the first sign of failure or.'serious deterioration. This loss of efficiency at 7,500 hours is only 15% and there should be no noticable change of light quality throughout life.
For medium-sixed tanks, 18-24 inches deep, holding 40-200 gallons, it is most convenient to use banks of 2 or 3 tubes, mounted on a hinged cover for easy access. This allows a wide range of quality and quantity, and a combination can be selected to give the total light required for plant growth and visual effect. This must be largely a matter of trial and error to suit the tank, its plants, rockwork and fish - as well as the taste of the director. A useful starting point for a 50 gallon tank well stocked with plants would be a single 30 watt tube and two 20 to 40 watt tubes. At water depts in excess of 2 feet., increasingly higher output is needed to supply energy to bottom plants.
Grolux tubes have been designed in America by the Sylvania Company, specifically for use over growing plants; their spectral characteristic follows closely the photosynthetic curve, with sharp peaks in the blue and red spectral bands. The Grolux tube is now widely obtainable in outputs ranging from 15 to 80 watts. It has low visual efficiency but its makers claim that it has double the growth effect on plants of a standrad tube of the same wattage. In fact, over 60% of its emission is in the blue and red. We have used this tube since it became available, but some workers condemn its use, claiming that the emission includes some ultraviolet which has a sterilising effect on exposed animals. However, an appeal in the aquarist press for evidence has brought no response; in fact, this claim cannot be correct for the glass tube alone filters out any such radiation. The reds and blues of some fish show up most effectively, which also distrubs a few purists.
In spite of several major disadvantages, tungstern filament lamps are still used widely in public aquaria. A major drawback is their low average life. Under ideal conditions, in the vertical position, they are rated at


42
1,000 hours, but in aquarium practice it si better to take 500 hours as maximum with many failing before 200 hours if they are used naked near water. For comparable output of lamp cost per hour is roughly ten times that of a fluorescent tube and on average 16 filament lamps will be replaced before a tube fails.
The low emission per watt is an even bigger cost factor, with its bearing on current. As with tubes, the output per watt increases with the wattage, from 8 lumens per watt at 25 watts, to 11 at 100 watts and 17 at 1,000 watts. Even so, the more efficient tubes are 5 to 8 times better.
Tungsten emission reaches its visible peak at the red end of the spectrum and extends into and beyond the infra-red, with a high percentage emitted as heat/ This redder light was once useful for balancing the 'colder' fluorescent light but new phosphors now make this unnecessary. A whiter light can be obtained by 'over-running' a filament lamp at a voltage higher than that for which is was designed but this reduces its life.
A development in the field of Mercury vapour lamps during the past two years, the new Kolorlux lamps are so much more efficient and have such improved quality that they will soon replace most of the other types which include:
MBF.(MB - mercury vapour, F-fluorescent). These come in a series of from 50 to 1,000 watts having an output of 35-49 jumens per watt. It has a hard green light unsatisfactory for ordinary work, but in thesmaller sizes it si sometimes useful for special effects, for example, to give a cold deep-water feeling to a corner of a large cold marine tank.
MBFR. (R-reflector). 250 watts upwards; with an output of 38-42 lumens per watt. They are suitable for flood-lighting but are soldom needed in zoos. Both of the above need control gear, consisting of choke and capacitor. A consequence of this is that the lamp takes 2 or 3 minutes to reach full output.
MBTF.(T-tungsten). Here the tungsten filament acts as a ballast and replaces the control gear; at the same time it fills in at the red end and
corrects the colour balance. The maker's claim for a life of 6,000 hours
is very conservative; we have run them for over 10,000 hours. They have an output of 20 lumens per watt. Kolorlux is now available in some or all of the wattages of the above. They are too recent for us to report on fully, but the spectral characteristic of the MBF Kolorlux is even better than of the MBTF
and with an output of 38-54 lumens per watt. We have found the 250 watt MBTF
an ideal source of light for our 500-gallon tanks. This is placed centrally above and towards the rear of the tank in a large reflector. A 5 foot


43
Fluorescent tube is situated near the front of the tank.
CONCLUSIONS
The new range of emissions from fluorescent tubes allows wide flexibility in both colour and output which is ideal for galancing the requirements of the fish and plants against the need for displaying them to the public. This lighting is also much cheaper.
The most efficient filament lamp costs at least 50% more per hour to operate than the dearest tube. The MBF Kolorlux is closely comparable in cost and quality with the best fluorescent tubes, while its point source of light has advantages and may be cheaper and more convenient to house.
It is impossible to forecast the precise savings to be expected.
However, in a small unit such as the Aquarium at Natureland, with some 6,000 gallons in artificially lit exhibition tanks, we estimate that changing from tungsten lamps to fluorescent tubes and MBTF has more than halved the running costs. Savings of this order quickly pay for the rather higher non-recurrent cost of fittings.
Source:
George Cansdale, Director and John Veadon, Manager Naturaland, Skegness, Lincolnshire, Great Britain


44
026. FOOD PROCESSING
FOOD SOURCE
multiple sources large amounts various containers
LOADING
ton lots
internal movement on same level or provide conveying system
FREEZING
capacity animal/days -20°F
dehumidified
THAWING
daily
cool room or H20 soak
PREPARATION
daily
washing/hand prep
weighing
records
medication
sanitation
cleanup
DISTRIBUTION
to animals in individual lots WASTE DISPOSAL
-XD'V I COOL

Source:
BIOS, Seattle, Washington


46
031. ZONING
The current zoning ordinance for the sites included in the site alternatives are classified as 1-2 districts, a heavy industrial area.
Although the Aquarium can be loosely catagorized as "a community center owned and operated by a governmental entity and/or community recreational facility owned and operated by a governmental entity" (DZO, 1982), in all probability a change in zone in the form of a Planned Urban Development (P.U.D.) would be required. A P.U.D. is, in effect, a specific zone district for a specific area, including set regulations written by the applicant and, if approved by City Council, is enforced by the City. It allows maximum flexibility during the planning stage and maximum assurance that the stipulations and conditions proposed will be developed and implemented.


47
032. BUILDING CODE
BUILDING AREA
As set forth in Section 505 of the a B-2 occupancy with Type I Construction
DBC, the allowable floor area for is catagorized as "Unlimited".
BUILDING HEIGHT
As listed in Table 5-D of the DBC, the maximum height of a building with Type I Construction is catagorized as "Unlimited".
PARKING
According to the 1982 Denver Zoning Ordinance, Section 59-586,
The required number of off-street parking spaces is dependent upon the zoning "use by right" and is therefore catagorized into classes according to such uses.
The Aquarium falls under the catagory of Class Two, which states that "...there shall be one off-street parking space provided for each six hundred (600) square feet of gross floor area contained in any structure or structures containing any use by right..."
Therefore, the total number of parking spaces required is as follows:
53,340 sq.ft, building area
600 sq.ft, parking spaces needed = 89 parking spaces
Furthermore, an allowance for 4-6 school buses must be taken into account when planning the parking layout and access and drop-off points.
School Bus: 39'-6" length
81-0" width 12'-8" overhand rear
Allow a maximum turning radius of 48'-0" for school buses, fire trucks, and semi-tractor trailers.
Also there is a requirement of two access points to accomodate fire vehicles.


48
CODE
FIRE ZONE 3
Occupancy classification; Group B, Division 2, Principal occupancy:
B-2, F-l, G-3, F-2
B-2: Light Assembly F-l: Dining/Drinking G-3 Parking Garage F-2 Offices
Occupancy Separation: Maximum 1-Hour Construction Type I
Maximum allowable basic floor area: Unlimited If adjacent to an open area:
All sides; 5%/ft.; 3 sides: 2.5%/ft., 2 sides: 1.25%/ft., where public space, streets, or yard more than 20' are not extending along 2 sides of the building, the area may be increased 1.25% for each foot by which the minimum may exceed 20' but not exceed 50".
If over one story, 200% of the area permitted for one-story buildings can be used, yet no floor area can exceed all percentages permitted for one-story buildings; basements are not included in floor area percentages.
Enclosed or semi-enclosed courts:
The size required with 2 sides 50% open is 7'-0" by 7'-0".
The width of the courts is 3' or greater if the building is 2 stories high, and with an increment of 6" for each additional story.
The width of the court must be at least 50% greater than normally required if the court is totally enclosed.
Minimum ceiling height in rooms: No portion can be less than 5' and 50% must be it least 7'.
Fire resistive requirements:
exterior bearing walls 4 hours
interior bearing walls 3
exterior non-bearing walls 4
structural frame 3
permanent partitions 1
vertical openings 2
floors 2
roofs 2
exterior doors (20' setbk) 3/4


exterior windows (201 setbk) 3/4
inner court wails see courts
mezzanine floors (1/3 rm. size) 1
roof coverings 1
boiler room enclosure 1
Structural requirements: framework (steel, cone., masry) 3
stairs (rein,cone.,steel) 2
floors (noncomb.fire-res const) 2
In B-occupancy, where every part ofthe roof structure is 25' above the floor, unprotected noncombustible material is allowed.
Roofs:
partitions (noncomb.,fire-res) 1-2 roofs 1
Exits:
Two or more exits are occupancy type exceeds: occupancy assembly (medium) office (bldgs. & offices) dining assembly (low) kitchens (commercial) mechanical equipment stores
required when the occupancy load of each
basis (s.f./occ)
10
100
15
200
300
30
Occupant load: Floor area/ sq.ft./ occupant no. of exits required -2 or more exits are required when occupancy load exceeds: -assembly: 50 -offices: 30
-mechanical equipment: 30 Minimum width of exits: 3 ft.
Exits should be accessible in at least 2 different directions. . Minimum travel distance between fire exit doors shall be 25' apart at minimum, and should be arranged to be remote enough from each other so that they both will not be blocked by fire or emergency conditions.
Minimum travel distance to an exit: 150'
with sprinklers: 200'


50
At least half of the required exits shall be located as that they can be reached without going through checkout stands. Exits from one room opening into another room adjoining or intervening with the area are allowed, as long as the adjacent room is accessory to the area served, and provides a direct means of egress to an exit.
Doors must have a 45-minute fire resistance, and be accessorized with a self-closing device.
Minimum width of exit doors: 3'
Maximum leaf width allowed: 4'
Width required for no. of occupants: total occ. Id.
50
Corridors:
Exit corridors have a minimum allowable width of 44" (3'-8")
It is required to have an exit at each end of the corridor when 2 exits are needed.
Dead-end corridors are allowed, with a maximum length of 20'.
Stairs:
For occupancy loads of 50 and above; min, width 44'
For occupancy loads less than 50: 36'
For occupancy loads less than 10: 30'
Maximum riser: 7.5"
Minimum tread: 10"
Landings:
Minimum size: Dimension is measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stariway but not exceeding the 5'0" maximum size required with a straight run.
Maximum vertical distance between landings is 12'-6".
The required height of the rails is to be not less than 30" and not more than 34" above the nosing.
Handrails:
They are required at each side of the stairs. Intermediate rails are required at stairs which are at least 88" wide.
For stairways 44" or less in width, only one handrail will be required. Stairways open on one or both sides must have handrails on all open sides.
Height above nosing: 30-34"
Balusters are required at a height of 42"
Intermediate rails are required at 9"


51
Handrails must return to the wall at the ends, and may extend beyond the stair by 6"
If the building is 4 or more stories, one stairway shall extend to the roof with a hinged door.
The stairway to the roof must have a permanent inside means of access leading to any roof mechanical facilities.
Stair enclosures are required and must have a 2-hour rating, but are not required for a stairway, ramp, or escalator serving only one adjacent floor and not connected with corridors or stairways serving other floors.
Ramps:
Maximum slope to use as an exit: 1:12 (from first floor to grade),
1:8 (any other exit ramps).
Handrails are required on at least one side of the ramp.
Exit signs are required at every exit from an area where the occupancy load is 30 or greater.
Balcony rails are required on all unenclosed floor and roof openings, open and glazed sides of stairway ramps, landings, and balconies. The required height of a balcony rail is 42".
Penthouses:
Area limitations: 33.3% of area supporting roof
Height limitations: None in Type I Construction
Penthouses may be used only for the shelter of mechanical equipment or for ve-tical shaft openings. The walls, floor, and roof shall be constructed in the same manner as the main part of the building, unless the penthouse walls are at least 5'0" from the property line; in that case they may be of 1-hour construction.
Parapet walls:
All exterior walls are required to have aprtpets, which must be 30" above the intersection of the wall and roof surface.
Fire Extinguishing Systems:
Sprinklers are required when the floor area exceeds 1,500 sq.ft.


52
Wet standpipers are required in buildings of 4 or more stories, with one or more 4" standpipes for every 4 stories. Them must be located in a public corridor within 10' for the opening of a required stairway on all floor levels. Fire extinguishers must be placed at each standpipe location.
Toilet Room Requirements:
Men:
lavatories: 3 per 601-775 occupants in bldg, water closets: 3 per 601-950 occupants in bldg, urinals: 3 per 601-950 occupants in bldg.
Women: lavatories: 3 per 601-1100 occupants in bldg.
water closets: 3 per 201-400 occupants in bldg.
At least one dringing fountain per floor is required.
Skylights:
Sklylights must be located at least 4'0" from the wall, with a minimum separtation of 4'0" between each unit. The maximum size allowed for skylights is 100 sq.ft, and can cover up to 25% of the room area sheltered by the roof.
Elevators and Escalators:
Maximum number in each shaft: 2
The machine room wall construction must have a 2-hour fire rating, and the penthouse must be properly ventilated. For fire protection, sprinklers must be located directly above and parallel to each escalator and at the ceiling above vertical openings of escalators or elevators.
Use of Public Property:
Doors are prohibited from swinging into city property.
Marquees and canopies must be entirely supported from the building and must be constructed of laminated safety glass, plastic or fabric that is treated so that it is noncombustible.
Distance above walk (canvas): 8'-0"
(7'-0" for canopy)
Maximum distance of extension over walk: minimum of 2'0" inside curb
1 ine.
Maximum height: slope is 1" in 4'.
Drainage should be toward the building.
Awings and balconies must be at least 8'-0" above the ground, with a 1" per 1' of clearance up to 4'0".


53
Fire Alarm:
Fire alarms must be provided on all stories, andmust provide manual pull stations.
Emergency lights or power is required in exit ways which are continuous and unobstructed means of egress to a public way, and must be illuminated by at least one foot candle.
Access doors are required in exterior walls that are without openings.
Note:
Information adapted from Denver Building Code, 1982


04.
SITE SURVAY
PeNYPR •
HO. THANKS TO mAJ?TlM MwerrA its notsomkh UATGR HeRB A* if IS PRlK£>RWAl OOZg .
oktw.okay, water's a PKoblgih. simpie. twh THe FISH TO wAIKOM LAND
and BReame Air 1
THAr, liNFDRRwATttY, geiu6$ UPflr\)meRpRcBOPTVf
The Denver Post/Friday, February 7, 1986


041. SITE SELECTION
The sites presented in this part were proposed by the City of Denver, the Denver Zoological Foundation, and consultant team and/ or private landowners for consideration as locations for the proposed Denver Aquarium. Many of the sites considered had serious drawbacks wi regard to accessibility, infrastructure cost, site cost and lack of compatible and complementary uses necessary to create a critical mass, or strong destination attraction.
The following list of criteria was developed as a basis on which to address the potential of proposed sites for the Denver Aquarium.
The criteria provides a framework for evaluation. Each category has been treated equally with others so as not to bias the over-all selection in the initial evaluation of sites.
A. SITE SIZE/CONFIGURATION:
Area for the proposed facility, including space for future expansion, but excluding parking. The exact size and shape of the site will vary with the specific site program and design solution.
B. ACCESSIBILITY:
Vehicular access for autos, school buses, services vehicles, pedestrians, and public transit.
C. PARKING:
Available parking within 1/4 mile (typical distance which people will walk) or possibility for new construction of parking at reasonable cost. At downtown locations, 350-400 visitor parking spaces will be required. For City Park location 120 spaces will be required in addition to the existing.
Possibility of further nearby parking for employees and for school and tour buses.


56
D. INFRASTRUCTURE:
Existing provisions of, or potential for roads, utilities, and other jimprovments.
E. COMPATIBILITY:
Location in an area with compatible existing and future land uses. Degree of "fit" with the surroundings.
F. ENVIROMENTAL CONCERNS:
Freedom from noise, vibrations, visual obstructions, distractions and other negative environmental conditions.
G. PHASING/TIMING:
Availability within 3-5 years and the commitment of the required associated public improvements, to be in place concurrently with the opening of the facility.
H. EXHIBIT PROGRAM:
Potential to accommodate a comprehensive Aquarium program experience, unique to Denver, including views of the Rocky Mountain.
I. SYMBOLISM/IMAGE:
Location which allows the Aquarium to be easily recognizable, and an identifiable image of Denver, Colorado and Rocky Mountain region.
J. JOINT AND MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES:
Possibilities of either joint use or mixed use on-site.


57
K. OFF-SITE ECONOMIC SYNERGY:
Opportunities for mutual reinforcement between the Aquarium and nearby facilities and activities, to create a critical mass, a stronger composite attraction.
L. RELATIONSHIP TO PUBLIC AMENITIES:
Relationship to existing and future public amenities within the City which will contribute to the overall enjoyment of the Aquarium visitors, such as landmarks, open space, and facilities such as sitting places, shelter, restrooms and other amenities.
M. CONTEXTUAL IMPACT:
Impact on the environmental quality of the surrounding area.
N. REVENUE POTENTIAL:
Revenue potential through ticket sales, gift shop sales, restaurant use and space rentals.
0. CAPITAL COST:
Opportunity for optimum aquarium experience within specified capital expenditure for site, building and associated off-site improvements, and potential to be phased if necessary.
The matrix on the following page is an abbreviated review, numerically evaluating a large number of potential sites, using the criteria listed in this report. All criteria were given equal weight and sites were rated on the basis of 1 (least desirable) to 5 (most desirable).
The twenty-one sites as potential location for the Denver Aquarium were analyzed and "Denver Commons" was chosen as the most desirable site with 66 points on the evaluating.


Note: Some information adapted from "Denver Aquarium-Site-
Selection Study", prepared by HOH Associates, Denver, June, 1986
n c; CO y* f 3 CO T3 ( J i; C ) UJ u [ J C J C J "U UJ LLJ UJ < J
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Ln 4k to LO to LO LO Ln LO LO LO LO Ln Ln H-* Ln Ln Ln ►—* 4k Site Size.
4* to LO LO LO LO LO 4k to to LO 4k Ln Ln LO to Ln Ln Ln Ln Ln Accessibility
h-* to LO LO to to LO 4k LO 4* to 4k 4k Ln LO h-* Ln Ln Ln LO Ln Parking
4k LO to to LO LO 4k to LO to LO 4k to Ln LO 4k LO LO LO LO LO Infrastructure
LH 4k Ln Ln Ln LH LO LO LO to LO to Ln LO 4* to to to to to Compatibility
to LO Ln Ln 4k Ln LO to to to to to LO to 4* LO to to CO to LO Environmental Concerns
Ln LO LO LO LO LO LO LO LO LO Ln 4k 4* Ln LO h-4 LO h-* 4k LO 4k Phasing/Timing
LO LO Ln Ln LO LO LO LO LO LO LO LO Ln Ln LO LO LO LO LO LO LO Exhibit Program
Ln LO Ln Ln Ln Ln LO LO to to to to Ln to to to to to to to LO Symbolism
Ln LO LO LO LO LO LO to to to to to ai Ln 4^ Ln to to to h-4 to Joint/Mixed-Use
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4k LO 4k 4k 4k 4* LO to to to to to Ln to to to to to to to to Public Amenities
h-* LO Ln Ln 4k 4* LO to to to to to Ln 4k 4k to to to to h-* to Contextual Impact
to LO LO LO LO LO LO to to to to to Ln LO LO 4k h-* to h-» b-• to Revenue Potential
4k LO h-* h-* LO to LO LO LO LO LO u> LO to LO LO LO LO LO LO Capital Cost
Ln 4k Ln Ln Ln Ln â–  fk 4* LO LO LO 4* cr> Ln 4k LO 4k 4k 4k LO 4k Total - 75 pts.
to U1 to 4k h—4 h-4 (Ts to -J VO b-> Gh a> h-4 1—1 LO LO 4k



\
59
042. SITE REVIEW
A. SITE SIZE:
The Union Terminal/Lower Downtown site has adequate space for the Aquarium to be located within a plaza setting relating to the Mall and the Denver Union Terminal. If the railroad tracks are located at the DUT, a platform level would need to be established a raised public plaza level which would terrace to the Denver Commons and Platte River as well as to Cherry Creek. The Aquarium building would become a bridge over the track right-of-way providing a continuity for public access to the Commons and water park. Threr is adequate space for future phasing and master planning purposes.
B. ACCESSIBILITY:
Access to the site is excellent and would be by Speer Boulevard and a new connector road located at the DUT track right-of-way if the rail lines are located at mid-valley. Access would also be by the 16th. Street Mall transportation system with the shuttle bus turnaround located next to the Denver Union Terminal and at the main entrance to the Aquarium.
C. PARKING
Parking for approximately 2000 cars could be located at the Post Office site, either as a re-use of the present structure or as new construction to serve the redevelopment of this portion of Lower Downtown. The Post Office has proposed to relocate to Stapleton Airport, but, the move (projected for 1991-92) would not be in phase with the Aquarium project. On-grade parking might be the solution on an interim basis. Parking would have easy access and be located at the edge of the development and be immediately connected to the 16th. Street Mall trnasit system.
D. INFRASTRUCTURE:
The development of the Aquarium in this area assumes a major effort, consistent with the Downtown Area Plan, including the following:
1.
Acquisition of Land


60
2. Extension of the 16th. Street Mall
3. Development of the Denver Commons
4. Removal of the 16th. Street Viaduct
5. Relocation of the railroad tracks
6. Availability of on-grade parking or parking structure
The above development work and associated costs must be considered as costs justified by multiple development projects and not solely as costs attributed to the Aquarium.
E. COMPATIBILITY:
Aquarium facilities have proven to be highly successful when combined with waterfront settings including park space, promenades, retail and food market places. Although the exhibits are primarily inwardly oriented, the Aquarium provides festive setting for urban development. The lower downtown area provides the framework for a strong mutual reinforcement.
F. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS:
The inclusion of the main line corridor at the Denver Union Terminal or mid-valley would present a negative impact on this site which must be dealt with in terms of landscaping, and including acoustical and visual barriers and possible grade separation, building over the tracks. The proposed four-lane connector road at the Denver Union Terminal would have similar problems. In either case a raised platform would be required at the Denver Union Terminal and Aquarium, bridging the road or tracks and isolating sound from the area.
G. PHASING/TIMING:
The tracks are planned for removal immediately with realignment to follow. A developed master plan for the Aquarium/Denver Union Terminal/Denver Commons area is important to not only timely development, but for the open space to be established, and for all other parcels for commercial, office and other development to be established.
The extension of the 16th. Street Mall and the related viaduct removal are critical to the Aquarium's location at this site.


H. EXHIBIT PROGRAM:
The fully developed Aquarium program can be realized at this site with space for future expansion.
I. SYMBOL ISM/IMAGE
Located as the terminus of the 16th. Street Mall, complementing the State Capitol as the other, the Aquarium building has an opportunity to be a major focal point in Denver. A clear view of the Rockies would be maintained beyond the structure as seen from the Mall. The Aquarium would be in an important position on the Denver Commons when viewed from 1-25 , and be a landmark gateway to the Platte Valley when seen from the Mall.
The opportunities present in the lower downtown are similar in many ways to those present on the Boston Waterfront in the 1960's . Existing warehouse structures, at first with a dilapidated and negative image, became the basis for highly successful retail, restaurant, office and housing development. The fabric of open space, including pathways and Boston Harbor itself, held the area together, as would the new proposed Denver Common, further developed conceptually as a water park.
J. JOINT AND MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT: OFF-SITE ECONOMIC SYNERGY:
The site offers opportunities for mixed-use development within the Aquarium site, such as restaurants and shops which might also relate directly to the proposed mixed-use development to the Denver Union Terminal.
K. RELATIONSHIP TO PUBLIC AMENITIES:
The site has excellent relationships to the 16th. Street Mall, the Denver Commons, possible connections to Cherry Creek and the general small scale ambiance of the historic Lower Downtown. In addition, views from open space and from the Aquarium to the Rocky Mountain are possible from this site.


62
L. CONTEXTUAL IMPACT:
The economic benefit created by the establishment of a major open space and a destination facility asuch as the Aquarium as an extension of the 16th. Street Mall are consistent with the anchor described inthe Downtown Area Plan: "The 16th. Street Mall in the new plan is THE SPINE of Downtown, its central organizing element, the key reference point for anyone in the area and the magnet for its people and activities. All Downtown development and infrastructure is defined by its relationship to the Mall as the spine of the system. The anchors for the spine are Civic Center Park -- and Union Station..." It is the study team's view that the critical mass of the Aquarium combined with the Denver Union Terminal and the Denver Common will in fact provide the desired anchor comparable to Civic Center Park and the complex surrounding it. Denver Union Terminal cannot be this anchor by itself.
M. REVENUE POTENTIAL:
The fully developed site can provide a framework for the maximum level of expected visitation and, therefore, the most attractive setting for optimum direct revenues to the Aquarium from admissions, shops sales, and restaurants.
N. CAPITAL COST:
The construction cost for an Aquarium with the full porgram, and the specific construction costs related to site preparation are high and would require a major commitment from the City of Denver, and the Denver Zoological Foundation, to work together to achieve the program's potential. The cost site would be a determinant in the final feasibility of this fine site.


63
A site has been identified near Union Terminal, directly on axis with the Union station. In this location, the Aquarium would act as the western visual terminus of the Mall, marking it visually as does the State Capitol at the east end. A new termination point for the Mall's transit vehicles would serve the Aquarium and Union Terminal, which could be developed as a festival market complex.
SUMMARY POINTS
1. The Denver Union Terminal would be historically preserved and renovated into a mixed-use festival market with restaurants, shops and other uses in conjunction with the Aquarium and the Denver Commons.
2. The historic character and small scale of Lower Downtown would be protected, and continued redevelopment of the area could be controlled to undertake infill and developemnt by enhancing, rather than destroying, the existing fabric.
3. The site would front on the Denver Commons, which could become even more important, as an open space for the City, than has been previously contemplated. In the 1990's a new open space, symbolic of Denver, could be created, following on the superb earlier precedent of Civic Center Park at the other end of the Mai 1.
4. The site would be on the 16th. Street Mall, connected by public space as a forecourt.
5. The building could be an architectural statement of landmark stature which would be compatible with the Denver Union Terminal and the architecture of the lower downtown area.
6. The site could be connected to both Cherry Creek and the Platte River by open space. The Denver Common concept, expanded in relation to the Aquarium, includes the possibility of a water park with open spaces containing large and accessible areas of water.


64
7. The existing Post Office building, or some other nearby structure, could provide structured parking in adequate numbers for Aquarium visitors and for Denver Union Terminal visitors.
8. Other adjacent uses could include a hotel, and further shops, restaurants, entertainment, and cultural attractions.
9. Development of the aquarium site, in conjunction with the Denver Union Terminal and other adjacent facilities and amenities, would collectively form a critical mass, which would provide a focus and a catalyst for the redevelopment of this portion of Lower Downtown and the Central Platte Valley.
10. The Aquarium would act as the gateway to the Platte Valley.
11. The Platte Valley area could be planned, with adjustments
consistent with the abjectives of the Downtown Area Plan, to allow major new development to the north and northwest of Union Terminal, and to create major new open space to the west of the Mall and Union Terminal, connecting to the Platte River and Cherry Creek.
12. The Aquarium could become the centerpiece and catalyst of a new component in Denver's Park system, the Denver Common reexamined, focused perhaps not on conventional green space, but a new concept -- a water park using water as a connection to the Platte, to the Cherry Creek. The Aquarium would be given an appropriate water setting.
13. Along 15th. Street and between the Aquarium and the Platte River, a series of large water terraces could be created. These would be areas of water within which the public could wander and assmeble in groups, on elevated waldways, causeways, piers and islands. Passive water areas would provide spaces for quiet enjoyment of the water park setting. Other areas could be more active. Extensive planting within the water park would also be possible.


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14. The Aquarium might act as an initial anchor, beginning the creation of the new park at its southern corner. In the future, as an extension of this concept, a larger garden complex with diverse entertainment, amusements, specialty shops, and food service, perhaps in the spirit of Copenhagen's Tivoli Gardens, might be developed as a complementary anchor at the northern corner of the water park, adjacent to the Platte River.
15. The Aquarium building would be freestanding, dramatically positioned to be focal point from the 16th. Street Mall, and to be seen acrosss the Water Park from 1-25 and from 15th. Street, as a landmark and symbol of Denver.
16. Land is apparently available to this location at little or no cost. Synergy could occur in the short term with Union Station and Lower Downtown, both of which would be stimulated toward redevelopment by the Aquarium's presence.
17. In this location the Aquarium would not be benefiting from the presence of established neighbors, such as would be the case at Civic Center Park. Instead it would be providing a catalytic force for the transformation of its surroundings. It appears to the study team that this site, if boldly developed in these terms, would allow the Aquarium to be an extremely positive catalytic force in the future development of Denver.


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043. NATURAL CONTROL FLOOD
The Army Corps of Engineers and Urban Drainage, and Flood Control District analysis concludes that Cherry Creek will stay without its channel walls during a 100 year storm and will not flood the area of site.
SOIL BEARING CAPACITY
Forty (40) to Fifty (50) feet of bedrock
AIR QUALITY
Temperature inversions are common and air circulation is poor. The main pollutants include:
- Carbon Monoxide (CO) primarily from motor vehicles
- Ozone (0^) generated when oxygen interacts with hydrocarbons from auto exhaust
- Suspended particles (known as the "Brown Cloud")


CLIMATE
Denver lies on a high semi-arid plain near the Rocky Mountains with a mild interior continental climate typical of the region. The area is charactrized by mild seasonal temperature differentiation, drastic diurnal temperature of differentiation, relatively low levels of precipitation,and a high degree of solar radiation. At an elevation of 5,280 feet above sea levels, Denver's location is 39.45° north latitude and 104.53° west longitude.
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The following data and statistics are explained by climatic components for use in the site analysis.
ALTITUDE
Al^idude angles for the solar disk in Denver ranges from a high of 73.5° at noon on the summer solstice to a low of 26.6° at noon on the winter solstice. The low winter angle and high summer angle extremes may cause problems in monitoring water temperatures and in preventing the growth of bacteria in the tanks. Heat gain and direct sunlight are also problems which must be closely examined.
DEGREE DAYS
In determining energy requirements for a building, the concept of degree days becomes very helpful in revealing peak periods of space heating and air conditioning in a facility. Degree day temperature data helps predict such seasonal heating and cooling demands.
Degree days, based on 65°; are computed as follows:
Maximum temp, for the day=50°F
Minimum temp, for the day=30°F
Sum = 80° t 2 = 4qO
Degree day base = 65° - 40° = 25 degree days (heating)
The highest heating demand falls in both December and January (1040 heating heating degree days), with the highest cooling demand being in the months of July and August (220 cooling degree days).
In comparison to similar less temperate climates, these figures are somewhat reasonable and compatible.
Because there is an abundance of sunlight in the months of summer (70% possibility of sunshine), the cooling load in a load-dominated building could be decreased by leiminating and/or reducing artificial light, and by avoiding direct heat-gain through some kind of sunshading. In winter, the physical mechanical system could be used to recirculate ambient heat, which would reduce heating costs.


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HUMIDITY AND PRECIPITATION
Denver's mean annual precipitation of a mere 15.51" qualifies it as a semi-arid environment. The greatest precipitation occurs during the months of April, May and June, whereas the winter months are usually the driest. In the period from November to March, precipitation typically falls in the form of snowfall, which averages 59.9" per year. Snow has been recorded at some time in every month except July and August.
Humidification of the space becomes mandatory due to the low monthly humidity levels. Such humidification in the winter causes problems in condensation on interior windows and on any large expanses of glass, yet the overall effect is beneficial as to prevent any acceleration in the natural evaporation of the water in the tanks.
In Denver, sudden heavy thunderstorms are common during the months of summer, requiring the provision for site runoff and drainage.
As a somewhat urban area, the runoff should be dealt with without eroding away the site's landscaped areas. Precipitation also effects roof pitch, overhand, gutters, downspouts and weatherproofing.
Being a public building, ice and snow accumulation must also be an issue of concern. Sheltered areas located on the north may harbor snow for longer periods, becoming a hazard to pedestrians. Accumulation elsewhere on the site would be somewhat negligible due to evaporation and melt-off.
SOLAR DISK
Solar Bearing June 22: 240° Summer
The sun angles typical for Denver result in a strong design solution because the south becomes exposed to a maximum amount of solar energy in the cold months of winter when the sun rays are low, and a minimum amount in the warm months of summer when sun rays are high. Shading of a southern-exposed window to prevent overheating during the summer is easily accomplished by providing an overhand which is calculated to equinox sun angles.
Solar Bearing December 22: 120° Winter
During the summer months, three sides of the building will be bathed


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in sunlight. In the winter months, the exposure to the building will be reduced to half that of the summer.
SUNLIGHT DURATION AND CLOUD COVER
Due to the city's elevation and high percent of clear days, the intensity of Denver's sunshine has the potential of adversely effecting water temperature and therefore the support of life. The building design must protect against this by providing shading which would prevent the influx of direct glare and sunshine.
Denver receives an average of 70% of the total possible sunshine levels throughout the year. The cloudiest days occur in the spring: the clearest in the fall. Annually, Denver averages 115 clear days (10-30% cloud cover), 133 partly-cloudy days (30-80% cloud cover), and 117 cloudy days (80-100% cloud cover). The highest percentage of solar radiation occurs in the month of July, and the lowest in December.
TEMPERATURE
Denver's mild temperature has always been one of the city's major assets in drawing visitors and new inhabitants. The diurnal temperature range is usually greater than the winter to summer swing, which ranges from a monthly mean of 29.9°F in January to 73°F in July. The average yearly temperature is a mild 50.2°F.
Periods of extremes in high or low temperatures rarely last beyond 5-6 days, but will still require mechanical conditioning. In an Aquarium, where the public circulate through every space and require a certain comfortable temperature, and the fish societies require a different temperature than the public to sustain life, mechanical heating and cooling becomes a real challenge.
The low levels of humidity in Denver as forementioned are amplified by the need for heating in winter, adding to the problem of water tank evaporation. Relative humidity must be maintained at a minimum of 45-55% during the heating system cycle. The demands on the HVAC system depend on thenumber of occupants, wind direction, and the amount of sunshine.


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WIND
The highest average wind speeds have been recorded during the months of March (10.1 MPH) and April (10.4 MPH), with winter and later spring winds showing an average of 9.3 MPH. Summer and autumn winds are slightly lower, averaging 8.36 MPH. While the stronger winds are generally from the north west ranging up to 56 MPH, the prevailing winds are from the south.
Wind damage should not cause a problem if the structure is properly designed, but there is the danger of the breakage of glass on the entry atrium and restaurant spaces if such panes of glass are designed to be too large and are exposed to large gusts of wind.
Desirable site characteristics might be to protect the structure from winter winds, which would sweep across the open expanse of the Platte River, while providing access to summer breezes. One advantage of the wind is that is cleanses the air of pollution, which is badly needed around the site.
MICRO SCALE EFFECTS
Site analysis and prientation and location of the building in relation to its surrounds can modify the immediate climate. Such effects are as follows:
- air pollution control
- changes in wind, sunshine, precipitation, and runoff
- increase in flood and drought potential
- failure of structure to withstand stress from climate extremes such as wind, snow
- excessive energy use in buildings that are poorly adapted to local climate
- potential problems entailing solar rights and reflective glare
- icy or snow-covered sidewalks and parking lots
These effects should be a primary concern when determining the design concepts.
Source: Climatological Date, U. S. Department of Commerce, 1977, 1979, 1981 (National Oceanic and Stmospheric Administration), and some information adopted from Liz Leprich's thesis report, 1986.


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044. SOCIAL CONTEXT HISTORIC SITES
Current recognized historic areas within the site's vicinity, by the Preservation Alliance, including two blacksmith shops, two flour miles and the old Daniels and Fisher warehouse.
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CULTURAL FACILITY
With the addition of the Aquarium these facilities will be able to benefit from the public awareness that the aquqtic facility will generate, therefore increasing revenue benefits.
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054. AESTHETICAL CONTEXT
PARKS AND OPEN SPACE
The surrounding parks include;
- Gates Crescent Park
- South Platte River Green way
- Centenial Park
- Rockmont Park


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WATER
The quality of water in the South Platte River and Cherry Creek has been improving in the past decade. Increasing run-off casued by any developments could adversely affect water quality unless treated before flowing into the rivers.
VEGETATION
Currently, a diverse reparian vegetation exists along the rivers. This sparse natural vegetation provides a limited habitat for small mammals and a variety of birds. Habitat restoration may produce an increase in animal species population.
Care should be taken to utilize maximum amounts of native vegetation to ehlp replace carbon dioxide with O2 oxygen around site.


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046. ECONOMICAL CONTEX

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05. PROGRAMMING


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051. CONTENT
I. EXHIBITS AND PUBLIC CIRCULATION
The purpose of these facilities will be to bring about a greater understanding and appreciation of those often misunderstood animals.
Such acceptance will be accomplished by displaying them in a naturalistic and aesthetically pleasing environment complemented by a full interpretive displays.
The principal caution is to avoid monotony. The traditional presentation of long rows of display in repetition along long public corridors should be discouraged. Current concepts look to the establishment of more complete ecological niches in which to present a layering of aquatic animals that represent and explain a message. By design, the emphasis is placed on a few major exhibitions as opposed to a larger quantity of unrelated tank displays. In the past, exhibits came across more as fish bowls, bathrooms, or large swimming pools than as wildlife habitats. Today, emphasis is placed on creating the illusion of nature. It is the hope of contemporary exhibit design that the aquatic creatures will feel as if they are in a natural setting and will therefore lead near-normal lives and thus breed successfully as well as enjoy full 1ifespans.
A Rocky Mountain aquarium, unique to Denver, would be an important exhibition statement.
A. ORIENTATION SHOW ROOM
The visitor is welcomed with a grand vista of the Rocky Mountains seen from the Aquarium and enters an orientation show. In a darkened space, the visitor is placed along the Continental Divide and may look in all directions. Time lapse photography begins on a clear day which evolves into a distant storm in the west. The sky darkens and snow begins to fall, at first slowly and then thickens until the view has disappeared, ending the sequence and brightening into the clear day again. The experience lasts for approximately one minute.


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B. ROCKY MOUNTAIN GALLERY
1. Glacial Ice
Immediately beyond the Continental Divide Show, the visitor enters a diorama of rock and glacial ice, with melting edges. Visitors may touch the ice and see alpine birds, skittering about. Pikas, small rodent-like animals, store hay in boulder dens. In the background, mountain peaks may be seen. Although uplift created the Rockies, their shape is derived from the glaciers, with a constant cycle of melting and freezing sculting the rock.
2. Alpine Lake
The underwater landscape of a breen lake bottom is the setting for cutthroat trout, arctic gralying and lake trout a two foot layer of ice may be seen at the surface of this lake exhibit.
Many alpine lakes remain ice-bound for much of the year. Along the shores, tundra conditions may yield growing seasons of only 5-6 weeks each year.
A minimum of life forms exist here and, with the exception of the cutthroat trout, most of the fishes found in Alpine lakes have been introduced for sport fishing.
3. Trout Stream
A waterfall plunges over rocky ledges and into a deep scoured pool of chilled water. Above the surface of the pool is an outdoor environment changing with the Denver seasons and heavily planted with native plant material. Trout can be seen deep in thepool which appears to drop far away below the viewer. The pool changes to a rushing stream with worn rocks and boulders. Cutthroat trout, rainbow and brook trout may be seen swimming against the current. Dippers, a small bird, poke at the : edge of the pool and may be seen "walking" underwater against the current in search of food.
Above the water's surface, imbedded in the rock face of the ledge, a fossilized creature can be seen. It is a portion of a plesiosaur, a marine reptile from an ancient ocean. The visitor will discover on closer inspection other fossils of shells and crustaceans which lived in the ancient ocean which once covered all of Colorado. It is startling to learn that this region had been underwater far longer than it has been out of it. The visitor will also learn that Colorado boasts 8,500 miles of trout streams.


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Adjacent to the stream, the visitor will encounter the small inhabitants of the mountain stream such as aquatic insects, frogs, turtles, interspersed with photographs of birds, mammals and insetcts commonly found along the stream.
4. Beaver Pond
The stream flows into the beaver exhibit and appears to be a part of it. A cut-away view allows the visitor to see above and below the surface, and to one side, into the den. A portion of this exhibit is also exposed to the outside and borrows direct sunlight.
The pond is stocked with sunfish, crappie and bass.
Smaller exhibits deal with life in the pond and at its edges.
C. ATLANTIC DRAINAGE BASIN
A visitor, who has chosen to follow a route east and south to the Atlantic, starts a series of experiences which begin with the South Platte and ends at the Gulf of Mexico. Climax Atlantic exhibits present an Atlantic coral reef and a deep water Atlantic shark tank. These large displays return the visitor to the water cycle exhibit and to the point where he or she may then choose to travel west to the Pacific.
1. Platte River
This exhibit will illustrate fish and reptiles typically found along the South Platte in the Denver area.
2. A Prairie Marsh
A pair of North American otters live in this marsh, part of which is outdoors. The interior of the den can be seen from the gallery. Black birds and stilts occupy the exhibit. The otter, extinct in Colorado since the early 1900's was re-introduced to the state in 1976.
3. A Prairie Burrow/Water Hole
Little rain falls on the prairie and what does fall (4-5 inches annually in some areas) evaporates quickly due to high temperatures and extremely windy conditions. Much of the year, creatures and plants must go without moisture. The small water hole in this habitat does not have fish life. Fairy shrimp and amphibians, however, may be seen close-up. The foot prints of many grassland animals are seen around the edge of this valuable resource. An identification panel allows visitors to


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bison, pronghorns, white tail deer, etc. A burrow may be seen cutaway. Kangaroo rats or a community of prairie dogs live here, creatures which can spend most of the year without water.
4. Northern Gamefish/Missouri River
Northern Pike, Muskelunge and other predatory fish, found in the Missouri, are isolated in this deep water tank.
5. Backwater/Missouri Water
This tank is adjacent to the gamefish exhibit and illustrates a riverbank habitat designed to feature the paddlefish and the bottom dwelling shovel nose sturgeon.
6. Mississippi River Community
This tank displays large river species including drum, buffalo fish, flathead catfish, channel catfish and other important species of the main stream of the river.
7. Mississippi Bayou
Large Alligator gars cruise in this Louisiana environment along with soft shell turtles, sliders and cooters.
8. Alligator Snapping Turtle
An extension of the bayou tank will display a large alligator snapping turtle which may reach 75-80 pounds, small, live fish are provided to demonstrate the turtles unique lure-like tongue and feeding techniques.
9. American A11igator
The bayou continues with a large beach diorama containing three or four large alligators and an assortment of turtles residing on fallen trees. Short birds such as ibis, egrets and heron can also be included.
10. The Bayou
Samll denizens of the bayou are displayed, such as crayfish, frogs, shrimp, small turtles, sladmanders and baby alligators.


11. Mangrove
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The mangrove is a form of tropical marsh which is the nursery where most juvenile marine gamefish and food fish begin life. Young tarpon, red drum, sheephead, snook and snappers flit among the roots of this small habitat.
12. Gulf Waters
This tank will display a large school of Guld coast sport fish (200-300) incessantly moving with an introduced current. Fish will be selected from cobia, jacks, drum and weakfish.
13. Atlantic Coral Reef
The coral reef communities found in the Gulf of Mexico, the Florida Keys and the Caribbean Sea are highly productive systems providing homes for multitudes of living organisms.


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The visitor encounters a brightly lit world of coral and colored fishes of many sizes, sometimes seen singly, at other times in passing schools. Vistas into the coral are sometimes close-up. Long views give a sense of the larger scale of the over-all community. Large fish swim in continuous patterns and sea turtles explore crevices. A moray eel may occasionally be seen lurking in confined spaces.
Species included in this reef setting are southern stingrays, yellow spotted stringrays, morays, squirrel fish, barracuda, snook, sandtile fish, yellow jack, spotted drum, angel fish, butterflyfish, spiny puffers, snappers, parrotfish, triggerfish and a host of others. Small sharks will also be present swimming in more open areas of the reef tank. Beyond, in deeper water, large nurse sharks may be seen passing the coral reef.
14. Deep Water Altantic
The visitor proceeds onward and encounters the shark tank designed to be visible from the Coral Reef tank. The two tanks are in reality separated by clear glass panels set into the coral formations. Light levels here are low creating a greater sense of depth and surprise. Species on display are expected to include nurse sharks, lemon sharks, bull sharks, sand tiger sharks, brown sharks and tiger sharks. In addition, large jacks, cobia and tarpon are included.
15. Shark Tank
The exhibition of sharks cause some unique problems in aquaria habitation, for the following reasons. Sharks differ from true fish in that they have lighter, more elastic skeletons of cartilage instead of bone. Also, they loack a gas-filled bladder for buoyancy, making it essential for some species to swim continuously to avoid sinking. Furthermore, the handling and movement becomes difficult, if not life-threatening, due to their lack of a bony skeleton. Some species require constant movement in the water so that they can obtain the required amount of water circulation over their gills for survival.
These characteristics illustrate some of the difficult issues in keeping sharks healthy. In general, shark tanks should be designed to optimize the gliding motion needed for water circulation through the gills for life support. Because of this, the tank needs


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to be oblong, and could become a multi-1eveled display area utilizing a one-way ramp scheme. The tank could provide large controlled viewing portals and multi-media graphic presentations in the intervening areas between the portals.
Several species of sharks and rays could be exhibited together in a setting simulating the floor of the ocean.
Required service facilities:
- Back-up tanks
- Quarantine tanks
- Mechanical systems


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16. Arctic Atlantic
The exhibit is intended to show the adaptions of glacial animals such as Penguins, Walruses from Greenland, and Puffins from Iceland. There is a need for a refrigerated environment and an air filtrations system for life support.


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D. PACIFIC DRAINAGE BASIN/SOUTH
Returning once again to the Continental Divide exhibit, the visitor now begins the gallery sequence which leads to the Pacific basin gallery. Water will be followed southwest along the Colorado and to the northwest along the Columbia River and its tributaries.
1. Bear Lake
The southern route to the Pacific begins in the Wasatch Mountains of Utah and Idaho, at Bear Lake, a remnant of long vanished, prehistoric Lake Bonneville. Fish and other aquatic life have evolved here disconnected from other Rocky Mountain fauna and have established a group found only here. Bonneville Cisco, Bonneville white fish, Utah chub and Bear Lake sculpin are displayed in illustrative relic fauna.
2. Desert Hot Springs
Additional forms of fish life have been distrubuted over a wide area due to prehistoric waters. These fish and amphibians dot the high desert and plateau region. Desert pupfish and plains killi-fish will be displayed.
3. Colorado River
One of the longest rivers in the United States, the Colorado, with its drainage basin, has carved hundreds of miles of canyons at Canyonlands, Glen Canyon and the Grand Canyon, and has sliced through the land creating countless others. This above and below water diorama shows the Colorado at a canyon edge. Sandstone rises vertically at the background of th habitat and a small sandy beach is exposed where blacknecked stilts poke long bills into sandy soil in search of food. Below the surface of the water may be seen the humpback sucker, chub, Colorado squawfish and introduced striped bass. In its rush to the sea at the Gulf of California, the Colorado gives up most of its water for use by neighboring states. It enters Mexico only as a trickle.


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4. The Colorado
Live tank displays present a series of small creatures which inhabit the Colorado River basin such as Colorado River toads and reptiles of the desert. Photographs accompany the displays and illustrate the wide range of land forms carved by this great river.
5. Baja
Two tanks display a community of fish commonly found off Baja, California and include exotic Pacific fish from the tropics that occasionally enter Baja Waters.
Kissing Gourami in kissing posture


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E. PACIFIC DRAINAGE BASIN/NORTH
1. Columbia River
The Columbia River rushes from the snow and ice fields of the Canadian Rockies an dis fed by tributaries from as far wasy as Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. This river system drops over 2,500 feet on its course to the Pacific. Along its way dams provide nearly 1/3 of the hydroelectric power to the United States. Sixty years ago there were no dams and the river ran free in a wilderness.
This riverbank setting of strongly flowing water has two distinct and deep oools. Adult salmon occupy one. Smolt (young salmon) occupy the other. Coho salmon, Chinook, and pink salmon may be seen.
2. Pacific Northwest Coastal Community
This tank will contain a rocky reef typical of the Washington and Oregon coasts. These waters are rich with invertebrate life and bottom dwelling fish. Starfish, anemones, rockfish and greeling create a blaze of color.
3. Intertidal Zone
This exhibit allows a close-up look at sea stars, sand dollars, featherdusters, grunt sculpin, shrimp, giant barnacles and wolf eels.
4. Giant Octopus
A darkened rock cave is seen from a dark alcove off the main gallery. The visitor seems to be in a cave. Light penetrates from beyond the cave opening and reveals the giant Pacific Octopus.


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Anemone and starfish cling to mouth the visitor glimpes the
the cave walls. Beyond rocky reef community.
the cave


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5. Alaskan King Crab
This dramatic exhibit will present 4-6 large kind crabs walking stilt-like on a sandy floor.
6. Channel Islands Kelp Forest
Rock outcrops and a forest of bull kelp present the fascinating community of the coastal kelp bed. Kelp bass, senorita wrasse, garibaldi perch, opaleye, leopard shark, batray, and sheep-head wrasse populate this tank. A surge creates movement in the kelp and genetrating rays of light simulate rays of sunlight.
7. Sea Otters
A major inhabitant of the kelp forest and rocky coastline, this marine mammal is an important endangered species. Their natural behavior has proven to be highly popular and interesting for visitors. This deep tank with rocky edges may be seen from below as well as above the water's surface.
F. AMPHITHEATRE
The amphitheatre can be thought of as the primary attraction of the aquarium facility, and will tend to be the major draw for most visitors. Beacuse of this anticipated popularity, it will be necessary to accommodate up to 1,000 visitors at one seating in the amphitheater. The peak loading conditions that must be resolved include providing adequate areas, to queue waiting visitors while at the same time having space for the 1,000 exiting visitors.
This is to be an exhibition for educational and behavioral demonstrations of Cetaceans, specifically, Bottlenose dolphins, along with the possibility of trained Pinnipeds (Sealions).


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Also, this is to be an all-weather facility with an exhibition tank of 150,000 gallons, which affords a view of both above and below water viewing. Additionally, there is a need for a stage area located adjacent to the exhibition tank equipped with a public address system and stage lighting. This facility could take advantage of natural daylighting because lighting control is not cirtical here for water management.
It is equally important to remember that the aquatic habitat within the amphitheater is the home for very sensitive and intelligent marine mammals. Great care must be taken to provide porpoises with a stress-free aquatic environment that will satisfy their habitat requirement and provide adequate life expentancies. This is critical for ethical as well as economical reasons. The dolphins would require a saline habitat.


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The exhibition space must additionally satisfy multi-functional roles, e.g. serving as an auditorium. An audio-visual package including a projection room, large roll-up movie screen and sound system will greatly enhance flexibility. Several components to be included in the support facilities are as follows:
- Three (3) holding tanks
- Two (2) quarantine tanks
- Food preparation
- Trainer's room
- Storage
- Portable hoist
G. MISCELLANEOUS EXHIBITS
1. Discovery Center
This area is located adjacent to the entrance lobby and provides a place for school groups to organize, hold demonstations and explore the world of water from a number of points-of-view.
A touch tank will allow both young and old to sit among rocks at the edge of a tide pool and touch starfish, hermit crabs, mussels, sea cucumbers and other creatures.
Video displays illustrate behavior traits not normally visible in an Aquarium, or allow the visitor to travel to various aquatic habitats such as the Arctic, Antarctica, a coral reef, the Galapagos Islands.
Small displays present adaptations to the water world such as hiding techniques, moving, feeding, schooling and other methods of coping.
2. Water In The West
A final exhibit will make clear the importance of water in the West both now andhistorically. This exhibit will utilize photography, quotations, artifacts and live displays


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H. WATER CYCLE SHOW
Adjacent to the stream exhibit, the visitor can enter a small theater which presents a 2-3 minute multi-image audio-visual show which depicts the concept of the hydrologic cycle, an endless renewal in which water is never used up. It is an endless processing of water from the mountains to the sea, carving great canyons, scouring rock and depositing silt across the land. The visitor glimpses this process at work from melting ice, to storms, dripping water, rushing streams, flooding courses and occasionally dry river beds and parched earth. Finally, it reaches the sea. This is the journey which the visitor will now embark upon following water from the Continental Divide to the Atlantic and to the Pacific. The visitor may choose to either travel west first, or east, as we shall do in the illustrative description.


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II. PUBLIC AREA
Recent Aquariums have placed as high priority the provision of quality of the public space. The emphasis is to provide aesthetic and attractive interior observation areas, always recognizing that thru beauty should be found within the wild life exhibited. Therefore, the public areas are meant to create a pleasure in which the public can interact and relate with the aquatic inhabitants.
In regards to circulation patterns, a controlled visitor flow seems to be the preferred concept by contemporary Aquarium designers.
More specifically, the public observation spaces are designed so that the visitors view the exhibits one at a time and in a controlled progressional order. This becomes crucial if the displays tell a successive story or are interrelated. A design solution that has been used in contemporary schemes is to provide looped bypasses of cretain exhibits, as some people might find contain creatures objectionable.
Finally, the Aquarium staff needs a limited interface with the visiting public to function in their daily routine, and therefore, do not necessarily need public access to accomplish their tasks.
This is important not only for staff efficiency, but also helps to focus and not distract the attentions of the visiting public.
Additional parameters applicable to the circulation scheme should be considered; one of which is the need to confine exhibits to only one side of the public corridors. This concept eliminates the need for back-tracking through the exhibitions. Also, this type of viewing scheme will aid in the control of reflections and ambient light levels while helping to focus the visitor's attention.
The overall effect sought for the circulation scheme is to create a sense of procession, adventure, and surprise through the exhibits and public spaces. By using level changes and by inviting visitors through the spaces while presenting new vistas of major exhibits, a sense of the intuitive path can be developed. Additionally, square corners should be avoided since they do not appear in nature; instead the use of curvilinear junctions should be an intention. It is hoped that all these techniques will establish the illusion of a natural pathway as opposed to the feeling of a one-way street scheme.


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Denver's Aquarium should be designed to handle not less than 1,000,000 visitors per year. In as much as the Zoo can draw 20,000 -25,000 people in an eight hour period at peak times, the building should be able to accommodate 2,500 - 3,500 visitors per hour.
Within the circulation scheme, there will be a need for a centralized entrance hall with access from both the main entry and the service/receiving area.
Located within the entry space are the following functions:
- Cashiers and ticket-takers
- Public restrooms
- Public telephones
- Drinking fountains
- Security guard post, first aid, lost and found, information desk
- Gift shop and book store
- Seating areas, lounge, and cloak room
- Janitorial closets
- Restaurant
The gift shop should be assimilated into the circulation flow so that visitors pass through it at some point during their tour of the aquarium. The more subtle the assimilation, the more successful the presentation. Finally, it is important to include attractive and efficient retail space in the gift shop to enhance the consumer experience.
The restaurant can provide an exciting amenity to the aquarium facility. It has the potential of attracting evening visitors to the aquarium or at the least, affording the aquarium the potential of being leased and catered for social functions. If handled properly the two possibilities could provide substantive income for the aquarium .
The restaurant's most obvious requirements are a public entrance and service entrance from outside of the aquarium. A strong visual link between the restaurant and the aquarium is also a positive addition to the ambiance of the restaurant.
The restaurant, located on the building's upper floor, should be versatile enough to interest use for evening parties, receptions, etc.
It should be accessible directly by elevator for the evening patrons.
A full service bar-restaurant which seats 150 people would expand
Note:
1. Flynn, 1985


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the Aquarium's services and enhance revenue production. Aquariums have demonstrated their popularity and ability to generate income through being booked for private parties with cocktails and dinner included. This aspect of the Aquarium's potential should be fully exploited. Should the restaurant not prove successful, a catering kitchen would be retained and the remainder of the space could be converted into an Insectrarium. A possible design concept might include locating the restaurant on a cantilevered balcony over the porpoise amphitheatre so that patrons could see the animals and/or view the front range of the Rockies.
Entrance to the Aquarium could be conspicuously attractive with the remainder of the structure obscured by plantings. Use of reflecting pools containing fish and water lilies and/or a sculputre piece should be considered as site enhancements.


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III. COMMON SERVICE FACILITIES
There are several facilities that are anticipated as being required for the Aquarium Complex. Many of these elements could be located in a cnetral basement area which allow the staff unhindered access to the different habitats.
A. CENTRAL COMMISSARY
Recognizing the great distance of Denver from commercial fishing, it will be necessary to purchase sea food when supplies are seasonally plentiful and affordable. There is a need for bulk processing and storage facilities to handle the long term supplies of food stuffs for the exhibition animals. This will be the primary role of the central commissary. Most of daily food preparation and short-term storage will be done at the various habitat work stations. Within this central commissary space, the following elements are needed:
- Office
- Workroom with scales and work stations
- Short-term refrigerator
- Short-term freezer
- Long-term freezer
- Elevator (dumb-waiter)
B. WATER RESERVOIRS
All water used in the aquarium system, whether in the fresh or marine environments, will require various levels of initial processing prior to being placed in the aquatic systems. Some of these processes and their spatial elements are listed below:
- Sedimentation filters
- Diatomaceous earth filters
- Dechlorination equipment
- Salination equipment
- Mechanical equipment
- Aeration equipment
- Ozone generation equipment


Full Text

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DENVER AQUARIUM AN ARCHITECTURAL THESIS PRESENTED TO THE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE HAHM, RO HOUN SPRING, 1987

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SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, DENVER SPRING, 1987

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 00. Prolog 001. Geological Pre-History of Denver 002. History of Public Aquarium 01. Thesis Statement 011. Project Background 012. Project Description 013. Goa 1 s and Conce pts 014. Design Approac h 02. Research 021. Water Qua 1 ity 022. Water Systems 023. Display Tanks 024. Operation Area 025. Modern Aquariu m Lighting 026. Food Processing Code 031. Zoning 032. Building Code Site Survey 041. Site Selection 042. Site Review 043. Natura 1 Context 044. Social Context 045. Aesthetical Context 046. Economic Context Programing ' 051. Content 052. Linkage System 053. Space Program Synthesis 061. Context 062. Design Factor 063. C entral Platte Valley Future Plan

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i i 07. Design Proposal 071. Site p ast -present -future 072. Concep t 073. Process and Evaluation 074. Plan 075. Elevation 076. Section 077. Perspective 078. Model 08. System Synthesis 081. Structural System 082. Mechanical System 09. Presentation Bibliography Appendix

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00. PROLOG 11ln the beginning God created the heavens and earth. The earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God was moving over the face of the waters.11 Genesis 1; 1-2

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2 001. GEOLOGICAL PRE-HISTORY OF DENVER Millions of years swep t by and then came an upward movement from the depths. The cooling, contracting planet wrinkled its engulfed and thickening crust, and across the upper part of what is now North America, the waters parted and land appeared above the dreary, far-reaching waste. This upheaval, this ridge of Archaean masses, came out of bondage to the desolate sweep of waters, on the eastern side of the continent. Because of its appearance there where now lies the valley of the St. Lawrence River, it has received the name "Laurentian Hills". This ancient range, generally believed to have been the first-born land of the earth's pre sent surface, stretches across Canada in the direction of Lake Huron, then bends away to the northwest toward the shores of the Artie Ocean. Through inestimable centuries it was a lonely land of desolation, its bleak and barren areas of igneous rock looking down in solitude over the waste of waters covering everything else the world contained. The Laurentian masses are supposed to rest on the primitive solid envelope embracing the entire globe. They are quartzites, granites, schists and genisses, and are accompanied in some places by the greatest beds of iron ore known in any of the earth's strata. Here in this region of the west, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming and the Dakotas, similar masses were 1 ater raised above the surface, bringing with them great quantities of iron; those in Southern Utah being considered the longest deposits of iron ore in the world. The prevailing reddishness of much of the younger rock of Colorado, and her soil, is due to the widely distributed oxide of this Laurentian iron to the discoloration caused by ancient iron rust. In the early ages of the Primary Epoch, the geography of this continent presented unpromising and watery as pects. The Laurentian strip of land along the Atlantic coast to the southward. Here in the west, a long, low, narrow, barren area of land extended from far down in Mexico northwestard to near Puget Sound, about on the line of the Sierra Navadas; here where the Colorado mountains now stretch away was another strip of like character, but of far smaller dimensions, ex -nding northward into what is now Wyoming. It was merely a long, low, arrow island not far west of Denver's longitude. The accompanying maps f the ancient beginnings of the continent show these and subsequent onfigurations of the emerging land. How old these western areas were compared with the Laurentian is unkown. But they must have soon fold the Laurentian, as they were here in the opening ages of the imary Epoch.

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:>orth Aml' rl c n In l'rlmordlnl Time•. (!Ii n c k. J>r<• ,rnt •en s And !'.h o d cd, J HUts o r contlncnL th<'n coH•rrc l s.-n: wlltte arc " " the n exlstlrll ; land. I. Laurentlnn lnncl: 2. ,\ppnlnchlan land; ll, Slerm land; 4, R egion or Colorado rang e s . ) The word 11SOOn11 used in this connection does not imply a brief interval of years. Geology can not measure time by so fleeting and infinitesmal an unit as a year. A million of years would probably be 3 . a more convenient counter. Further more, the geologists tell us of 11lost intervals of time11, and were preced ing the definite records of the Pal aeozoic rocks occurs one of these intervals, the length of which can not even be guessed. There are many reasons for believing that during this era of blankness much wider areas of land existed, which were again submerged to the meager limits indicated by the map, which represents the present state of geological knowledge on this subject. Between these strips of land in the east and in the west, the great Palaezoic Sea spread over the rest of the continent, submerging the broad valley of the Mississippi and all the rolling plains. The Rocky Mountains were not yet lifted from the deep when this wide sea united the waters of the Pacific and the Atlantic, and swept its surges over the site of Denver. The fountains of these great mountains and plains were beneth the billows, receiving the sediments of the same sea which rolled over the future lands of Babylon and Tyre. The primitive little creatures that had been endued with life in the early ages of this Epoch, became in the Upper Silurian division, of more definite individuality; but were still lowly forms. Simple sea-worms, sponges, sea-weeds, crinoids or 11Stone lilies11, little embryo shell fish, and other diminutive bodies myriads of them in all. The curious, pulpy animal forms of 11Star-fishes11 -which were fishes only by coutesy, and because they lived in the sea -were also brought into being; and then came the first articulates, the trilobites, followed by other humble creatures of advanced complexity of structure. The Silurian period drew to its close, and the multitudes of lowly beings brought into existence through its eras, began their exit from the stage of life. Many survived far into the succeeding Deronian age in which the fishes presented them elves, but the vast majority became extinct. The Deronian fishes were the firs t vertebrates, and foreshadowed e coming of reptiles, birds and mammal s . They were covered with large, iff, thick scales clad in a bony armor of them. These fishes were in eat variety, and among them eventually appeared enormous sharks with gh jaws set with saw-teeth nearly as long and wide as the hand. Among

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4 these Deronian fishes was the gar-pike, whos e descendants still exist. Finally a fish-creature a ppeared wit h fins enla rged to rudimentary wings as paddles the herald of the reptiles; and new forms of crustaceans and mollusks abounded. In all this lengthened time the area of land was gradually expanding; a large island had formed from Ohio to Tennessee in the closing Silurian ages, and the earth presented fairer aspects. In the Deronian age there was a marked development of plant-life. The former simple sea-weeds were now replaced by aquatic plants, and verdure brightened the landscape shores. Some of this vegetation still survives in the tropics. The Deronian period brought this development of fishes, of the coral animals and of many plants growing in the flooded lowlands. It must have been one of vast length, for the evolution of a vertebrated fish from an invertebrated lowly creature, required an enormous period of time. The production of the great predatory families of hugh sharks which then flourished was a process of long duration . The flight of years by thousands and thousands through these middle ages in the strange history of the world, brought the end of the Deronian era, and prepared for the event of still higher forms of animate and inanimate life. Greater areas of the earth appeared above the water. The long tongue of land stretching from northern Mexico to Puget Sound along the line of the Sierra Nevadas, and the short, narrow strip, lying north and south near the longitude of Denver, which had become exposed in early Silurian times, were slowly resting further out of the tide; and the sun's heat was still more effective on the surfaces. But the Rocky Mountains were yet unborn, and a shoaling sea rose and fell over the land where Denver stands, when the Carboniferous age set in. Mesozoic Epoch with its still greater marvels, now dawned upon the earth; that long span of ages distinguished by an astounding development of reptilian life; with its three periods, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous, representing the rise, progress, and decline of most wonder ful animated creatures. Early in its Triassic period there was an enormous wrinkling of the crust below, causing the Alleghany ranges to push themselves above the flood where they might keep company with the ancient Laurentian Hills in the east, which then had stood almost alone so long, in the midst of the tide that ebbed and flowed over the beaches of their extended slopes. It is believed that these mountain-lifting processes were of great uration, and had their b e ginnings far back in earlier ages; and that nsiderable areas of land existed in the great Utah basin region of this ime, but the Rocky Mountains were yet to come. The earth was now in the irst period of the long Mes ozoic E p och, whic h brought into the world a digious family of prodigious reptiles, with forms as queer as the mes since given them such as the Ichthyosaurus, Plesiosaurus, Iguanodon, teosaur, and Dinosaurs.

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5 At the Cretaceous period the eastern and western shore lines of the continent were much farther inland than now, and the proper limits of the Gulf of Mexico were far to the north and west, as compared with their present bounds. The Pacific washed the foot-hills of the Sierras, to the east of which the uplifted basin area stretched from far down in Mexico to the distant northwest, and North America was still divided into two continents. The uplifting of the Sierras resulted in great changes in the vegetation and the former marine creatures. Many of the former marine creatures were developing, changing or dying off as best suited the pur poses of Nature, but the result was a great stride forward in advance ment, variety and complexity of structure, to which was added pronounced improvement in both grace and beauty o f form. Among the fishes the true modern types, some of gigantic size compared with that of their present representatives, appeared for the first time. In our own times there are nearly a hundred species of fishes which have existed from this Cretaceous period, so that we may consider that the fishes now pass from our narrative, and with them we will let all their marine kindred go, also. The fishes of these ancient times have been preserved in the rocks of Colorado in prodigious numbers. In many places along the South Platt in the vicinity of Denver the exposed strata contains hundreds of them, their forms perfectly preserved in a fossilized condition, and their crystallized coverings frequently presenting iridescent hues. In the northwestern part of the state, along the tributaries of the Green River, there are multitudes of them. Colorado is a vast Golgotha for myriads of the creatures of these Epochs and those of subsequent ages. The strata of the San Juan region for hundreds of feet in thickness is especially rich in the numbers and varieties of these relics of ancient life. The Cretaceous era, the third and last division of the strange Mesozotic Epoch, closed upon an earth that pre s ented continents with outlines foreshadowing their pr e sent fig ures. Through its ages the wide, inland sea extended northwestw a rd here in our country, covering the region of the great plains and the Rocky Mountains as far west as the present Wahsatch range, and it is b e lieved on to the Arctic Ocean, dividing North America into tow continents of comparatively limited area, with islandic places like the Black Hills, standing above its surface.

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North America In Time•. 6 The great deposits of the varieties of coal called lignites, so abundant in many large sections of Colorado -one vast measure of it underlying Denver and extending in a wide belt beneath the foot-hills and the plains from Pike1S Peak northward into Wyoming -were formed during this period. This Mesozoic Epoch was inaugurated by the upheaval of the Alleghany ranges, its Jurassic period marked by the elevation of the Sierras, its closing, Cre taceous, era ended with a vast addition to the work of making the continent. The lofty mountain ranges of the Rockies began to slowly raise their heads from the welter that so long had en gulfed them. The whole western half of the continent was bodily upheaved, not suddenly, violently nor explosively, but with a steady, majestic movement that was the beginning of the end of continent-making. The beautiful mountain parks of Colorado were lifted like bowls, retaining waters that had formely swept over them and which now made them mountain lakes, or little isolated seas, and kept them so for untold after years. North America had become a continent, as the accompanying map indicates, not greatly different from its present outlines. The Southeastern coastline of the Atlantic farther inland, submerging Florida; the Gulf of Mexico projected up the Mississippi valley in a broad tongue-shaped form to the mouth of the Ohio River, and covered Louisiana and most of Texas; on the Pacific the Sierras were the coast line; the Coast Range, the last of our great mountain chains to be formed, having been yet beneath the waves o f that ocean. In the three different periods of this Epoch great lakes of fresh water successively existed here in this western region. The oceans were not yet more than brackish, and the climate was so mild and sulubrious that evergreens, palms and figs grew as for north as the Dakotas, i ndicating gentle conditions such as Florida now enjoys.

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Amerlr n In T<>rtlnry Time•. (llottetlllnc• lndlcnlc plnce• of Tcrllo r y fre s h wutcr lakes: hhu : k lines, cours e or m onntoln c h nlns . ) 7 This terrestrial revolution abol ished the great interior sea which had previously divided North America into practically two continents, and permanently elevated, at last, the land of the Denver region. u m m a r i zed from History o Den ver, b y S mil ey Jerome Old A merican Publishinq Com pany, Denver, 1971 nsta,

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8 002. HISTORY OF PUBLIC AQUARIUM Aquatic animals, and particularly marine animals from the oceans of the world have always been a source of fascination. The Sumertans, the Chinese and the Romans kept fish in ponds and aquaria of various kinds, but not as a public display as we know it today. Since the middle of the 19th. Century, improving techinques of water treatment, life sup port and husbandry have led many cities, beginning in Europe and England, to build public aquariums where a diverse collection of animals could be put on display and enjoyed by large numbers of people. The Sumertans of Mesopotamia are known to have stocked ponds and pools with food fish as far back as 2500 B.C. It was the Chinese who were given credit for the first domestication of fish; they did breed ing experiments with carp as far back as 2000 B.C. However, it was during the Sung Dynasty (9601278 A.D.) that small aquaria were made of porcelain, and small goldfish and carp were first bred for the sole pleasure of fish watching, a royal pastime. These small aquaia were so popular that the Chinese scholar, Chang Ch'ien-Te wrote the first book on aquarium management in 1596 A.D. As right be expected, it was the Romans who developed the first large scale aquaria. The salt water tanks were supplied by a series of canals that carried salt water inland from the ocean. These facilities were not scientific in nature, but served as a large salt water commissary for a complex of banquet halls, a uniquely Roman approach. The critical development of aquariums as we know them today has always been an issue of technology. The main problem in aquarium management is that aquatic animals have more stringent and precise physiological requirements than do terrestrial animals. Because fish cannot regulate their body temperature they need a stable environmental temperature, as well as precise balance between the saline content of their body fluids and that of the surrounding water. Two Englishmen were the first pioneers of modern aquarium management. Robert Warrington did initial experiments concerning oxygen enrichment of fresh water systems in 1849. Five years previous to this, P.H. Grosse patented a process to make a salt compound that could be added to fresh water to produce a substitute for sea water. These two separate discoveries made it possible for the London Zoological Gardens to open its 11fish house .. to the public. In the ten years that followed many European capitals opened public Aquariums, among them: Hanover in 1866, aris in 1867, Brussels in 1868, and Cologne and Berlin in 1869.

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Initially these 11fish houses11 were quite simple and at times plagued with technical difficulties. Oxygen levels were hard to maintain, and the amount of daylight necessary to encourage plant growth but not allow the growth of algae was difficult to regulate. At first the fish were displayed in table top tanks that were arranged in a classroom-like setting. A 11fountain system11 of circulation was used to supply the series of tanks. The system pumped water to a central overhead tank that overflowed into the individual tanks in the Aquarium, then back into a collecting cistern below the tanks where could be recir culated through the system again. This basic system has been used and modified by many fidderent Aquariums over the last century. During the last qua r ter of the nineteenth century two distinct architectural styles evolved in Aquarium design, the continental and 9 the British Aquariums. The continental style can be typified as being naturalistic in design. Generally, the continental approach was one of simulating a grotto-like environment. Occasionally the natural rockwork in the tank habitat would be carried above the water's surface and extend into the walls and was suspended fromfue ceiling. The Hanover Aquarium typified this style, being designed to simulate one large grotto with no differentiation between the tank habitat and the exhibition space. At other times this naturalism manifested itself in a ruin of gothic origin. The British style A q uarium was m ore conservative and practical in nature. Generally Aquariu m s were thought of in Ruskimesque terms : 11buildings for scientific purpose should be plain and useful in all things, in appearance as in fact.11 Within a typical British Aquarium the greatest emphasis was placed on scientific and technological aspects. The architecture of these buildings was less flamboyant than those Aquariums build in Europe. Generally, the British Aquarium was neo-classical in plan and with elevations of an appropriate order. Usually a doric order was utilized. All things considered, the attitude within a British Aquarium was one of scientific research. Most public aquariums were designed as arrays of tanks, with fresh water at inland locations, and saltwater at coastal locations, and displaying primarily fishes. In the late nineteenth century, techniques of making artificial salt water encouraged the g rowth of public aquariums, inland and particularly in European cities.

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10 Many U. S. Zoos have included aquariums as a part of their menu of offerings, and have been well equiped to operate them successfully within the larger Zoo context. Free-standing aquariums, however, have tended to be more rare in the U. and to be located must often at the edge of the sea, where good quality saltwater could be found. Early U. S. examples in Boston and New York attracted visitors for years, and then closed, unable to sustain themselves. Two free-standing public aquariums that were not by the sea, and which did become successful and permanent urban institutions, were the Steinhart Aquarium in San Francisco, built in 1912 and the Shedd Aquarium in Chicago, built in 1929. More recently, New York developed a free-standing aquarium on the beach at Coney Island, operated by the New York Aquarium using saltwater from offshore. Cleveland developed a public aquariu m that was innovative in manufacturing saltwater, and equally innovative in methods of husbandry and filtration, but which has not been successful as an institution. The aquariums at Coney Island, Cleveland, and more recently at Seattle have all suffered from disappointing attendance, possible because of drawing power in non-central urban locations. In the period after World War II, a new aquarium concept emerged, the oceanarium, initiated in the U. S. by Marine Studios near St. Augustine, Florida. Using salt water from offshore, continually supplied to hugh tanks containing hundreds of thousands of gallons, displays were demonstrated of whole communities of marine ani mals, on the one hand, and of marine m ammals, by themselves, on the other. The emphasis was on entertainment, with dolphins, and later whales, performing in shows for seated audiences. The concept was so successful that it spread to other parts of Florida, to California, and ultimately, in combination with more traditional aquarium exhibits, to Vancouver and other northern and inland locations such as Coney Island, Mystic, Connecticut and Boston . Boston, in the 1960's, accepted the challenge of creating a new kind of urban aquarium, borrowing from prior examples but adding some new ideas. Freshwater and saltwater systems were combined, including a large oceanarium type tank housing an Atlantic reef com munity. A more broadly environmental approach was taken to exhibit subjects than had been found at earlier urban a quariums such as Shedd in Chicago. The world of water became the theme. A multi-disciplinary design approach was used, reinforcing live exhibits with museum exhibits, and intergrating the exhibits with a dramatic and entertaining experience of interior architecture. Perhaps most important, the New England Aquariu m demonstrated a conce p t that created a year-round popular attraction as well as an educational institution. The economic benefits were found to be substantial. The Aquarium emerged as a catalyst o f downtown revitalization, bringing in substantial numbers of tourists,

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11 substantial numbers of visitors from the City and region, and stimulating other real estate development in a then neglected area, the downtown waterfront. Baltimore, in the 19701s, followed the Boston example and went further, building a larger and even more dramatic aquarium, with an even greater mix of animals, and a new emphasis on simulating natural habitats so as to bring wild places and whole ecosystems, such as rain forests, to the people of the City. Again, a major institution was created, offering both recreation and education year round, and again stimulating other downtown waterfront revitalization. In Boston, the Fameuil Hall Marketplace emerged as an important companion prototype, combining specialty shopping and diverse food offerings with the Aquarium and other downtown attractions. Baltimore followed that example with Harborplace, a shopping and food complex even more closely tied to the Aquarium. In both cities, and perhaps more so in Baltimore because of closer adjacency, large numbers of people go shopping, or eat a meal before or after their Aquarium visit. The Aquarium and Harborplace in Baltimore can be des cribed as a combined attraction, since each is more successful, in its powers of attraction and revenues, because of the presence of the other. In Monterey, California, a new aquarium opened in 1984, demonstrating once again that a substantial educational institution can also be a major and successful attraction on a year-round basis. Even larger than Baltimore, the Aquarium in Monterey limits itself to the marine animals of Monterey Bay found in the immediate vicinity of the building. Its success has been measured not only in terms of attendence, but agin in terms of the synergy with shops, restaurants and hotels and its stimulation of nearby development. Currently, many cities are making plans to follow these examples, including Toronto; Philadelphia; Camden, N. J.; New Orleans; Charleston, Sough Caroline; Chatanooga; Portland, Maine; Portland, Oregon; San Diago; Cleveland; Dallas; and others. Note: Adapted from the program compiled by Cambridge Seven Associates, Boston, January, 1985

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01. THESIS STATEMENT 11The Question of questions for Mankind the problem which underlies all others, and is more deeply . interesting than any other -is the ascertainment of the place which Man occupies in Nature and of His relations to the Universe of things ..... '' Thomas Henry Huxley Man's Place in Nature

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011. PROJECT BACKGROUND In 1982 the City and County of Denver voters passed a multiproject bond issue that included capital construction funds for the Aquarium project. This RFP is the beginning of the implementation of that objective. 13 The Denver Zoo has begun work on a marine/mammal exhibit and the Museum of National History is expanding and the Zoo proposed new aquarium at either the Zoo•s City Park or on City Park Golf Course. However, that facility, which may attract about one million visitors a year, will mean that more parking lots will have to be built. If they provide the parking in the park, it will reduce the green space in City Park. The Park now has 1,200 spaces. Based on peak conditions figuring three to four people in a car, City Park will need 6,170, parking spaces just to serve those using the Zoo and Museum when the current expansion it complete. But if the aquarium draws one million people a year, as advertised, the park would need 1,710 more spaces.1 Also, the area around the Zoo, which hosts City Park and the Denver Museum of Natural History, already is congested enough to annoy residents and visitors alike. In 1985, the administration of Mayor Federico Pena and advocates of Platte Valley development reportedly wanted to see the aquarium located in the downtown Platte Valley as a tourist attraction. Additionally, weekly field trips by school children to the aquarium could be twinned with a tour of the nearby Children•s Museum. It would make for a pleasant, educational day for any child. But the Platte Valley, where Denver was going to build its convention center, is too far away from existing activity centers. Denver recently hired a Massachusetts based consultant firm, Cambridge Seven Associates, to study possible sites. The firm has pointed to City Park, the Golden Triangel and the Platte Valley as the main locations for the facility. But after the council •s vote that they decided to build a new convention center, the consultants looked more closely at the old Currigan site and it became a serious alternative. In September, 1986, the consultants reported to the Mayor and city council members that their top choice would be to build a 118,000 square foot,-

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state-of-the art aquarium in the South Platte River Valley behind Union Station. It would cost about $30 million to build and $6 million a year to operate. It would attract about 900,000 visitors and spin off more than $10 million in revenues and downtown spending.2 Mayor Federico Pena said he already has "a full plate" of expensive projects he's trying to build. Notes: 1: 11No Aquarium in Park", The Denver Post, April 11, 198 6 2: "Aquarium Founders on Funding", The Denver Post, by Charles Broderic k , S e pte m ber 19, 1986 14

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012. PROJECT DESCRIPTION If the Aquarium is built in Denver, through a variety of underwater and above-water exhibits, visitors would trace the falling snow on the Continental Divide through springtime snowmelt, flowing west through the Grand Canyon to the Pacific Ocean and east across the Plains to the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. A number of potential Aquarium sites exist along the western edge 15 of the lower downtown area and as a transition to the development of the Central Platte Valley. The sites that have been identified, by Cambridge Seven, extend from a location at the terminum of 18th. Street, the terminus of the 16th. Street Mall and sites from the mall toward Cherry Creek. All the sites could be developed in conjuction with the preservation and rehabilitation of the Union Terminal Building, could be served by an extension of the 16th. Street Mall, could front on the Denver Commons, Cherry Creek, the Mall or some adjacent public open space, could have a view of the mountains and could be physically connected to a nearby waterway. It could be a symbolic building, complementary and compatible with the Denver Union Terminal and the historic lower downtown area, mark the entrance to the valley and could reinforce the existing synergy ' of downtown and lower downtown. Potential exists for shared or jointuse parking. The Aquarium is anticipated to be an approximatelyll5,000 square foot facility serving the Denver Metropolitan area. Conceived as a multi-use struture, the building itself will contain various exhibition which would showcase glaciers in Colorado's high country, the underwater landscape of a lake with cutthroat trout and arctic graying, a waterfall, a trout stream and a beaver pond. Visitors would move one direction to follow exhibits that showcase the flow of water to the Pacific and another to the Atlantic. The Atlantic side would begin with the Platte River and take people through fish and wildlife of the Missouri River, a Mississippi bayou with alligators and large snapping turtles and a Caribbean coral reef with tropical fish such as barracuda and moray eels. It would end with a large shark tank from the depths of the Atlantic. The Pacific side would begin with exhibits showing water moving southwest along the Colorado River and to the northwest along the Columbia River and its tributaried. Exhibits would show wildlife and fish from desert hot springs, the Colorado River with a simulated view of the edge of the Grand Canyon and tropical fish off the shores of the Baja, California

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Other sea life would in-lude Pacific Salmon, intertidal fish and animals such as shrimp and sea stars, a rock cave with a giant octopus, Alaskan King Crab and a discovery center with displays such as tide pools where children could touch starfish, hermit crabs, mussels and sea cucumbers. The building also will contain support facilities, such as a restaurant, book store, public service and administration offices. 16 Denver's Aquarium should be designed to handle not less than one million visitors per year.1 The visitors will range in age, lifestyle, education and interest; therefore a high degree of flexibility for evolv ing concepts and technolgoies will be required. With a building life ex pectancy of 30 to 50 years,2 quality materials and construction, along with a highly-educated staff, will provide a meaningful experience to its visitors. Because of such a "high profile" image is desired, a large extent of the Aquarium's operating expenses can be generated from its visitors and through the revenue created by recreational, and education al support facilities. Aquariums are no longer "fish houses", "scientific clubs", or gotheic ruins". Central to the issue of variety is the fact that many Aquariums are financially self-sustaining. That is they must pay their own way through admissions and must compete for discretionary recreation spending within the entertainment industry. Therefore, not only must a successful facility provide a variety of activities for the community but it must do them competitively and in an entertaining and creative manner. This competition has placed Aquarium design at the forefront of zoological architecture and design. Aquariums have at times specialized in regional aquatic themes or have developed certain galley collections that explain ecological or eveolutionary issues. Generally, the goal of contempory aquatic exhibitions has been to directly involve the visitor in a one-on-one relationship and to interpret the broader ecological and geographical story of water and its dependent life. The Aquarium is to serve an essential role in the education of the residents of the Rocky Mountain region concerning the aquatic enviroment, and to provide quality entertainment and recreational interest to the Denver Community, as well as to the intermountain region. Note: 1 & 2: An Aquarium for the Denver Zoological Gardens, City and County of Denver, January, 198 5

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17 013. GOALS & CONCEPTS An Aquarium for Denver must not repeat what has been done elsewhere. Because of its unique position, inland at the base of the Rockies, located in the highest state in the nation, an Aquarium in Colorado provides an unique opportunity which is to dramatically divide the two oceans, following rivers such as the Platte and the Colorado. This can be the major U.S. Rocky Mountain aquarium, presenting a wide range of animals and habitats from the Rockies to the Plains and the deserts, to the bayous and the coral reefs. Human understanding of natural systems, of their fragility, of our own place in them, and of our own responsibility as their stewards, is a need everywhere. Cities with aquariums are able to effectively bring aquatic life, and aquatic habitats, into focus as a critically import ant window on the planet earth. Denver will become much stronger in its educational and recreational assets with the new aquarium. Recent experience in Baltimore, Boston, and Monterey has made clear that a public aquarium can play a catalytic role in the redevelopment of a blighted downtown area. Desolate or neglected places can become popular places, full of people. Dormant nearby real estate tends to take on new potential, to take on new values, to become useful, to find new development activity and to contribute with the Aquarium to an improved larger environment. Denver's downtown, already becoming lively and economically healthy in the last decade, would be further stimulated by the presence of the new aquarium. Also it's success in Boston, Baltimore and Monterey, joined by new directions in aquarium technology, and new thinking in regard to natural history education, has suggested some directions for other cities to consider in building aquariums. One is that the menu of attractions should include opportunities for change, for temporary exhibits, and for revising or updating exhibits. Another future trend is toward greater simulation of natural habitats, allowing both the visitors and captive animals to experience conditions as close as possible to those in the wild. A third trend is toward a more ecological approach, bringing complex subjects together in a coherent presentation of the interdependence, or interaction, of all life in ecosystems. A fourth trend is toward greater visitor participation. This is accomplished by such means as natural habitats within which the visitor finds himself exploring, finding, observing and even touching the

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animals by such means as computer controlled laser disc video programs, with which the visitor can explore natural habitats, animal behavior and other subjects at will, on film, in an interactive learning process. New technologies of this kind will be more prevalent throughout the museums of the world the next decade, and mutually reinforcing combinations of living and non-living exhibits, using the new technologies, are an extraordinary opportunity for new aquariums. 18

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19 014. DESIGN APPROACH A. WATER Colorado is a land of extremes. In some areas of the Plains, annual reinfall may not exceed four or five inches. High on the glaciers snowfall may reach as much as three hundred inches. Even so, very little water falls on Colorado. With the exception of the Pacific Northwest, the remaining fourteen western states, representing almost one-half of the land mass of the United States, receive on 14% of the fresh water which falls annually; 73% falls east of the Mississippi. The water falling on the Rocky Mountains accounts for most of the west ern water. Along the Continental Divide, raindrops fall on rocky surfaces and drip to the east and to the west. The headwaters of Colorado's mighty rivers are born along this line -the Rio Grande, the Colorado, the Platte and the Arkansas Rivers running west will sustain life in California, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico and Nevada. The Colorado reaches Mexico nearly used up for irrigation and water supplies. The Plains to the east direct water from the western slopes for irritation purposes. The Denver Aquarium will focus on the water enviroments of the Rocky Mountains and the moisture starved Plains and will explore the diverse aquatic ecosystems of the Atlantic and Pacific drainage basins. B. EXHIBITION Full collaboration between the exhibit designer and the architect is vital to the success of the exhibition spaces. It is imperative for the architect is spatially enhance the exhibit spaces and not dominate or compete with the exhibit presentation. Gaining the active involvement of the viewer is the key in success ful exhibit design. A well conceived exhibit presentation is one that creates a one-on-one relationship between the exhibit animal and aquarium visitor. Additionally, the exhibit must entertain as well as educate the viewer, while offering a good simulation of the aquatic enviroment. Accommodation of all visitors, including the handicapped, is an important issue in exhibit presentation. This requires that individuals in wheel chairs be given equal viewing access to exhibits. The exhibit spaces should also work well for families with children in strollers.

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The presence of excessive ambient light in exhibit areas can cause problems with reflective glare on the viewing surfaces. At the least, this reflectance can cause distractions; at the worse, it presents a complete osbtruction to viewing. Therefore, the arrangement of exhibits and placement of lighting fixtures should be well planned and analyzed. The exhibits are conceived in three primary experiences. The Rocky Mountains will orient the visitor to Denver's position in the West and will celebrate water environments as diverse as a beaver pond or a water hole on the Plains. An exhibit focusing on a mountain trout stream and a presentation of the Water Cycle will introduce the Continental Divide and two routes, the Atlantic and Pacific. Water flowing off the west slope will be followed to the Pacific and from the east slope to the Atlantic. Visitors may chose either direction and, returning to mountain stream, may then tour the remaining gallery. Exhibitors Groupings A. Rocky Mountains B. Continental Divide c. Pacific Drainage North D. Pacific Ora in age South E. Atlantic Drainage 20

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C. USERS At the outset, it is imperative to realize that there are three primary users of an aquarium design. These users are: The Aquarium Animals The Zoological Staff The Aquarium Visitor It is essential in any successful planning and design effort to be aware of and reconcile any conflicts that may arise between these primary facility users. 21 The health and welfare of the aquarium animals and the maintenance of a stable environment is the primary goal of any successful aquarium design. Any design decision must not directly endanger the well-being of the exhibit animals or create an environmental stress that will affect the long term survivability of the exhibit residents. This is the central issue in any aquarium. The primary goal regarding the zoological staff is to work towards operational efficiency and equipment reliability. It goes without saying that reliable operation of all filtration and life support equipment is of paramount importance. Likewise, it is vital for operational efficiency to allow the curatorial staff to carry on their daily activities out of sight and enencumbered by aquarium visitors. The chief issues surrounding the visitor are associated with education and entertainment. The resolution of an educational message within are overall entertaining experience is the single most important visitorrelated concern.It must be understood that aquariums are in competition for discretionary entertainment expenditures. Therefore, the aquarium must attract, educate and entertain an increasingly sophisticated visiting public. Particulary, children are in many w ays the most important visitors to an aquarium. Special care must be taken in planning exhibits that successfully accommodate children.

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22 The most obvious issues affecting children is that of visibility of exhibits. Although this appears intuitive, many past aquarium facilities have failed to accommodate children in regard to exhibit visibility. It is most important to provide children with a ledge that will safely allow the child to see a viewing area directly in front of the exhibits. Nothing frustrates a parent more than having to continually lift a child up and down to see a series of exhibits. Strong visual interest and the use of audio-visual information is another technique to engage and inform children that are too young to read. Addidtionally, these techniques can provide a way to inter-relate a series of exhibits and tell a story. Interactive exhibits and touch tanks are perhaps the best type of exhibit to use and capture the attention of a child. These techniques direct involvement on a one-on-one basis between the child and exhibit. This hands-on experience also provides the best instruction method for children of all ages. D. NATURAL DAYLIGHT Natural daylight is perhaps the most dichotomous element to be manipulated in aquarium design. At times, it is a life threatening element in certain aquatic habitats; or a water management muisance due to the increase in algae growth that it causes. At other times, it can be a required life sustaining element necessary to ensure surrivability of the exhibited animals. Therefore, the manipulation of natural daylight throughout the various aquatic habitats will be a primary environmental consideration. For the professional and curatorial zoological staff, natural daylight is a desirable element throughout the work place. Numerous studies have supported the premise that worker morale and productivity are increased in a naturally lighted environment. The prime acution is to pay attention to the principal task to be accomplished in particular areas. If natural light would pose an environmental threat to the habitat of reserve animals, then it should be excluded from the particular work area.

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The inclusion of natural daylight into the public areas should be encouraged where practical. Natural daylight in the public lobby, amphitheater, restaurant, as well as other areas, would enhance the overall visitor experience. Additionally, natural lighting could be introduced at various points throughout the exhibition circulation scheme as a means to relieve exhibit fatigue and refresh the attention span. E. ATTENTION SPAN Attention span is the single most critical element related to visitor satisfaction. If the issues associated with attention span are not accommodated in the architectural and exhibit design, then the long term success of the aquarium facility could be placed in jeopardy. Although people can defy generalized characterization, it is possible to make a few observations about public behavior in exhibition facilities. Generally, the two types of visitors in exhibit areas are: The Fast Tracker: Primarily the visual observer, who goes rapidly from exhibit to exhibit taking little time to read graphic communication . Typically young children are present in groups exhibiting these characteristics. The Lingerer: A critical and intellectural viewer, this person takes in both written and visual information, often making comparisons between exhibits. Individual visitors and older adults often exhibit these characteristics. It is imperative to design the facility and exhibit so that they accommodate these two types of visitors. Typically, this is accomplished by layered visual and graphic information. This layering techinque will 23

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allow the viewer with the short attention span to quickly move through the exhibit and grasp the theme and storyline-related issues. At the same time, more detailed graphic communication will provide the indepth viewer with additional information and will accommodate their more leisurely pace of viewing. Another technique to prevent viewer fatique is to provide breaks in the flow of exhibits by allowing visitors an opportunity to sit, relax, and renew their energy level. Where feasible, the introduction of natural lighting into these lounge areas will enhance the overall experience. A final concern is to provide a variety of presentation formats in both the exhibit and architectural design. It is important to avoid 11Pullman Car Syndrome11: the repetitive presentation of similar tanks in a linear format. A variety of presentations prevents monotony. F. OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY Aquariums, in many ways, can be thought of as aquatic machines. This analogue is particularly thru when examining an aquarium behind 24 the scenes: life support issues place complex and stringent requirements on the requisite mechanical systems. Observations of service areas in many aquariums further reveals that there are close similarities between these facilities and the interior of a ship. It is important to make the service areas of aquariums as 11Ship-shape11 efficient as possible by producing multifunctional task-oriented spaces . Operational efficeincy has an added dimension that relates to exhibit planning. It is important to correlate the operational i-sue of an exhibit to its functional relationship within the complete aquarium scheme. Specifically, where feasible, similar operational tasks should be located adjacent to each other so as not to duplicate work areas and services. It is also important to estimate curatorial manpower needs so as to know the current and projected operational requirements of a facility. G. REVENUE GENERATION Revenue generation has become a vital issue with most public exhibition facilities. Since financial self-sufficiency has become a virtual

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25 requirement for zoological f acilities, the new aquarium must max1m1ze its revenue generation potential. Aside from gate receipts. the principal re venue generator for the aquarium will be the giftshop and the restaurant. These facilities must be integrated properly into the circulation flow and the overall functional system of the aquarium. H. GRAPHICS he principal goal of a suc cessful graphics program is to communicate educational information to a diverse audience in a concise and lucid manner. Many factors will contribute to the success of the graphic program. The most important is to delineate, typically through an exhibits program, a theme and storyline so that the required message can be developed. Then it is important to create a multi-level presentation of material and information that will allow a variety of visitors to assimilate information at their own pace. It is also critical to analyze the concepts being presented, and express them in a clear and comprehensible manner. Additionally, the information used to relate the concept should be scrutinized pertaining to its relevancy and complexity. Excessive information can have a detrimental effect upon the overall educational impact. Not all graphics need be in a purley printed format. Increasingly, a multi-media presentation is being u sed to convey theme and storyline development in a succinct manner. It is also possible to go beyond multi-media into a multi-sensory presentation which combines visual, auditory, alfactory, and tactile experiences to convey the educational message.

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02. RESEARCH

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27 021. WATER QUALILY The chemical condition of the water in which fishes and aquatic animals without backbones (invertebrates) are kept is vital to their health. Anything suspended or dissolved in the water comes into the most intimate contact with these animals, mostly through their gills, and there is little they can do to keep harmful substances from entering their bloodstream or body. For example, only two parts of copper dissolved in a hundred million parts of water can kill some fishes within 24 hours, while acutely toxic concentrations of pesticides like Endrin need have a strength of less than one part per billion. The invertebrates are even more sensitive than fishes. In order to keep animals as sensitive as this alive in captivity, there is only one safe rule to follow: all aquaria and other parts of water systems must be made of chemically inert materials. The source of any water that is to be used in aquariums must be scrutinized to make certain it always has the proper chemical composition and never contains substances harmful to the exhibits. Oridnary standards of water purity are not adequate because perfectly potable fresh water or seawater, perfectly safe for bathing, may be deadly to fishes and aquatic invertebrates. As far as their water supply is concerned, these animals are much more delicate than man. Frequent troublemakers in municipal tap water are chlorine, excessive hardness, and brass or galvanized piping. A single small metallic fixture can quickly bring about the death of fish when the water running through it is soft. As far as the aquarium1S visitors are concerned, the only necessary water quality is clarity, so that they can easily see the exhibits. For large tanks (500 gal. or more) the water must be very clear indeed; the water of some municipalities contains colloidal clay, and although it looks crystal clear in small tanks, its milky appearance in large ones makes viewing through it quite unsatisfactory. (Animals may live in such cloudy water without any difficulty, but water that is cloudy from the presence of myriads of bacteria is unsatisfactory for both visitor and exhibit animal, although for different reasons.) In some aquarium water systems, the water is used only once and is then discarded. These are called open systems. Closed systems are those in which the water is recirculated, being used over and over again. Sometimes it ts necessary to treat the water as soon as it enters the aquarium building, usually by filtering it. Natural seawater should always be filtered before being put into reservoirs or closed systems of any kind in order to remove the tiny animals and plants (plankton) that

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inhabit it. These floating mites cannot live under the conditions of captivity and when they die, they decompose and temporarily make the seawater toxic to larger forms of marine life. Even filtered seawater 11rots11 to some extent and may have to be stored in the dark for as long as 6 weeks before becomming fit to use, particularly in small tanks. For the great majority of exhibits, however, fresh, filtered seawater may be used without delay i f it has not originated from poll uted s o urces and i f each water system contains at least 1,000 gal . On the other hand untreated natural seawater can be used in open systems pro v ided it is clear enough not to obstruct the view of the exhibits. IIIIIIIU : • == ::L...I -------2 : AnA y == = == : iilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll= : -•• )!Jii!lfiilir ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• : e y y y v v V' : iillllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllillllllllllll : 1111'--rUIVc : ;oor;.. I I J.--11\H lfllvr-' 28

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An important advantage of this kind of arrangement is that it makes easy the exhibition of plankton-feeding animals, which subsist onthe small plants and animals they strain out of the water. 29 Unless the aquarium can be built near a dependable source of water of the proper quality and sufficient quantity, closed water systems will be a necessity, but water that is used over and over accumulates waste prod ucts from the animals living in it, and as time goes on, the concentration of these substances becomes intolerable. Their removal, however, presents special problems. Aquarium animals, just like terrestrial ones, must consume oxygen to stay alive and at the same time must get rid of the carbon dioxide they produce. If the water in which they find themselves has either too little oxygen or too much carbon dioxide, they will die. Fortunately, the atmosphere provides an unlimited supply of oxygen and can take up unlimited amounts of carbon dioxide -at least the small amounts produced by aquariums. Therefore all that needs to be done is to expose enough of the aquarium water to air above the vessel so that the two gases will be exchanged at a fufficiently rapid rate. This is most easily done by the use of aerators, although circulating the water and otherwise agitating it is also very helpful. The animals other wastes are not so easily disposed of, however, in fact, no economically feasible way has yet been devised to remove them from aquarium water, Most important of all is ammonia. This is the principal waste product in the urine of fishes, and these animals excrete ammonia through their gills as well. Ammonia is also the principal excretory product of aquatic invertebrates. Other waste products such as urea, are broken down into ammonia by bacteria in the water. In addition, ammonia is produced when bacteria bring about the decomposition of fecal fish wastes as well as any uneaten food or plants and animals that have died in the tank. It would not be far wrong to state that every bit of food put into an aquarium, except that utilized in the growth of its inhabitants, eventually turns into ammonia. Ammonia is exceedingly toxic to almost all fishes and invertebrates. For example, trout living in water with as little as six parts per billion of ammonia show abnormal gills. Even freshwater pond fishes, which are much less sensitive to ammonia than trout or coral-reef fishes, should not be exposed to concentrations of more than one part in ten million of water. At present time, there is only one economical way to avoid ammonia poisoning in closed aquarium systems, and this is by taking advantage of the bacteria that change ammonia into nitrate (by oxidation), a chemical that is much less harmful to aquatic animals. These nitrifying bacteria occur naturally in all aquariums and water systems, but not

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in large enough numbers to quickly convert the toxic ammonia into relatively harmless nitrate in a well-managed tank, these bacteria 30 thrive on the walls and other surfaces, but not in the water itself, because they must be attached to some kind of solid material in order to grow and multiply. There are not enough surfaces in an aquarium to pro vide "homeS11 for sufficient numbers of nitrifying bacteria to keep the concentration of ammonia as low as it needs to be, that is, virtually zero. One of the principal functions of a filter is to provide living space for nitrifying bacteria, and countless numbers of them cover the grains of sand or gravel of the filter bed. In the future, other ways of eliminating ammonia may be found, but biological filtration is now the only prac-tical way to do so. In addition to the solid surface they require, nitrifying bacteria need oxygen; the water should be aerated both before and after filtration afterwards in order to replace the oxygen used up by the filter bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria are slow multipliers (as compared with many other bacteria), cold temperatures, acid waters, high salinity, and lack of calcium slow them down even more. Whenever an aquarium or a water system is put into operation, the number of animals put into it ought to be limited until the filter has acquired its full complement of nitrifying bacteria. A "healthy" filter is essential to a "healthy" closed aquarium water system and vice versa. The longer the aquarium or water system is in operation, the greater the amount of nitrate that accumulates in the water. Although certain aquatic bacteria (denitritiers) change nitrates into nitrogen gas and thus eliminate the nitrogen from the system, this process does not take place rapidly enough to prevent the buildup of nitrate in aquarium water. Moreover, there are other less well-known substances that accumulate in the water in which animals are living. None of these is at all as toxic as ammonia, but they do have an inhibitory effect, especially on marine invertebrates. The only practical way to get rid of them, at the present state of aquarium technology, is by replacing part of the water at regular intervals. This is the procedure used by home aquarists who want their fishes to reproduce. By keeping the concentration of nitrates (and undoubtedly other inhibiting substances that were not measured as well) below 10 parts per million with regular replacements of fresh seawater, the London Aquarium has been able to maintain marine invertebrates it otherwise found impossible to keep alive. Another cumulative change that takes place in water is an increase in acidity. Oxidation is a process es sential to all life, and oxidation is an acid producing process. Aquatric animals produce carbon dioxide, which becomes carbonic acid in water. All of their other waste

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products are eventually oxidized by bacterial action, and this, too, produces acid. In order to prevent the aquarium system from suffering from acidosis, it must be alkalized. This is absolutely essential for closed seawater systems and is usually accomplished by keeping the water in very close contact with some form of calcium carbonate (coral sand, calcite, marble chips, bivalve shells). Proper aquarium water quality depends primarily on the following factors: Chemically inert material Suitable source of water Adequate circulation, aeration, and filtration Cleanliness, achieved mostly by avoiding overcrowding and overfeeding Control of waste end-products by filtration, alkalization and dilution 31

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022. WATER SYSTEMS The water system includes, in whole or part, the incoming line, a clarifying or sterilizing unit if required, storage reservoirs, the pipelines furnishing types and temperatures of water serving the display tanks, the display tanks, inflow and outflow and drainage, and filters. 32 Piping should be of nonmetallic materials. Water should come in contact with metal only as absolutely necessary. Metal or other piping may be used to serve cetaceans, seals, penguins, and aquatic reptiles, but expensive replace m ent may be necess a ry because of corrosion.

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33 1. Open system (use and waste). This method is the least trouble-some provided an adequate source of excellent disease-free water is available. The requirement that metal not come in contact with water may not be quite so important here, as animals are exposed to water that has passed over the metal only once and as the toxicity potential decreases due to the formation of inert oxides, etc., on the interior of metal pipes, this forming an insulating barrier, but corrosion is a factor to be considered. Economics must be considered when water is to be discarded after one use. As a general rule of thumb, the average display tank if specimens loaded at the rate of 1 lb. of fish per 100 gal. of water should have a turnover or replacement rate of one valume each one to two hours. If the gallonage of all display tanks is 100,000 gal., a flow of 50,000 to 100,000 gal. per hour would have to be maintained. Thus, 1.2 to 2.4 million gal. would be required each 24 hours. An added cost would arise if some waters had to be heated or cooled. When water is used only once and discarded, the rate of turnover usually need not be as great as in closed systems, as waste products from the specimens are continually carried away. It should be noted that the rule of thumb cited above is just that. Many species of fish can be loaded heavier, and some species, particularly invertebrates, may require a more rapid turnover of water. 2. Closed system (recirculating total system). Water continuously enters the display tanks and the overflow returns to the reservoirs after passing through filters. In theory, this method requires only the replacement of water lost by evaporation or in the process of cleaning a tank or backwashing a filter. However, seawater should be replaced at the rate of one-third of the total volume every two weeks, if possible. If this cannot be done, monitoring of nitrite, nitrate, and urea buildup becomes very important. One serious disadvantage in a closed system is the real possibility of disease organisms from one tank being carried to all tanks. Filtration will not remove many of these. Ultraviolet radiation or passage ghrough a reverse osmosis process, however, is effective in removing or des troying organisms both desirable and undesirable. Reverse osmosis cannot be used with salt water. 3. Closed system (recirculating individual systems). Each display tank is provided with its own recirculating water system. Filling and minor replacement is from the main supply lines. In operation, the overflow passes through a biological filter and is pumped back to the display tank. Desired temperature range can be maintained by cooling or heating units placed in thefilter or line. In the recirculating systems, the main supply lines of water, preferably overhead, also are continually circulating at a low rate to preclude dead water and the growth of organisms in the pipes.

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34 The plans for the National Fisheries Center include the above system (3). The city water supply contains traces of zinc and copper, detergents and chlorine. After all display and reservoir tanks are filled (approximately 3 . 5 million gallons), the replacement water estimated to be required is 100 gallons per minute. It is planned to pass this incoming water through the reverse osmosis process to remove the metals and detergents. The chlorine will be removed by aeration or charcoal filtering. Display tanks of up to 2,000 gal. can, for some species, be recirculated through bottom filters with water circulation controlled by air-lift pumps. In recirculating systems it is desirable to replace at least 10 percent of fresh water and at least 40 percent of salt water each month to avoid a buildup of harmful substances. Usually a greater amount than this is replaced when the display tanks are regularly cleaned and filters backwashed.

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023. DISPLAY TANKS Tanks for the display of aquatic specimens are expensive. Materials in tanks for seawater must be more carefully chosen than for fresh water. Nevertheless, all tanks should be made of inert material to the greatest estent possible. 35 Ideal tanks are those that are least costly, light in weight, readily altered or drilled, inert in easwater, with hard and smooth interiors, among other things. No currently available materials from which tanks may be produced have quite all the foregoing desirable features. For smaller tanks (up to about 2,000 gal.), fiber glass or plastic-impregnated plywood appear to be quite satisfactory. A number of companies manufacture fiber glass aquaria or holding tanks. Moreover, some of these will fabricate to specifications. It is desirable to plan to install tanks of standard sizes, preferable those that are available 110ff the shelf11 or for which fiber glass fabricating forms are still available. Fiber glass is completely inert, is light in weight, and can be readily altered and drilled. Some experience by aquarium personnel will permit them to make repairs. It is quite possible, with an experienced technician, for an aquarium to fabricate its own tanks of reinforced fiber glass. For larger tanks, reinforced concrete, steel plate, or some other substantial and suitable material will be required. sa:.TtoN-A

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36 Concrete tanks should never be poured as an integral part of the building. Each such tank should be an independent unit, capable of being broken up and removed without damage to the building. The design of tanks should consider the problems of drainage, cleaning, viewing, etc. Some tanks, because of the specimens to be held therein, may require special features, e.g. scuppers at the surface to remove oily film produced by some foods. Rapid drainage is desirable. It si preferable that gravel or sand not touch the viewing glass. Disappearing side walls may be desired. All concrete and metal surfaces should be coated with an epoxy sealer. This will continue to seal the inevitable hairlinecracks in concrete, and this prevent seawater (particularly) from attacking the reinforcing iron. (If possible, Monel bars should be used). The seal also inhits the growth of algae. Color amy be added to the epoxy. Epoxy may also be used with sand to provide skidproffing for wet floors, ramps, etc. Careful application of eposy paints over concrete will prevent blistering. It is desirable to have a flow pattern for visitors. Design can quite readily lead the visitor into the desired path in most situations. Upon entering, a visitor will generally trun right, provided no attractions draw him elsewhere. By placing display tanks at an angle, with the viewing glass facing the oncoming visitor, he will normally proceed in that direction. Open-floor exhibits can serve as sheilds and also continue to draw the visitors along the desired path. Monotony is to be avoided in the placement of display tanks. They should not be lined up like railway car windows. All of them should not be set at an angle. Alcoves and jut-outs will provide variety and surprises and can serve as dividers between special exhibits. Variety also serves to orient the visitor. Handrails to keep the public about 3 ft. from the viewing glass may be desirable. Opinion is divided among aquarists regarding rails. When large numbers of visitors are present, a rail keeps them back from the glass and permits more people a better view. On the other hand, close inspection of small organisms is then not possible. A step-up for small children is often provided. This usually is about 1 ft. high and 1 ft. wide, and should be part of the building structure and continuous.

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37 024. OPERATION AREA Planners of aquariums often consider the facility only from the visitor's viewpoint. They do not realize that the welfare and attractiveness of the specimens and minimum costs for operation and maintenance depend upon the attention given to behine-the-scenes design. The immediate work area behind the display tanks may be considered first. The work area floor should be about 3 ft. higher than the public area floor. This is dictated by the height of the average visitor looking into the approximate center of the viewing glass of the average large display tank. Most display tanks are placed on the floor of the work area. Obviously very small and very large tanks will have to be placed differently. Tanks should be placed to permit ease of celaning by aquarists. Holding tanks to receive new specimens for quarantine and space to hold surplus or sick specimens should be placed along the rear wall of the work area or in any other convenient locations. Each of these holding tanks should have its own recirculating system. The total holding capacity should be equal to 'about one t:hird of the display volume but may vary considerable, depending upon the sizes of display tanks and specimens as well as the mortality rate and replacement need. All quarantine tanks should be provided with drain valves to permit rapid drainage after treatment procedures. All tanks should have removable pump screens. Many specimens ought to be on display since they use space when held in reserve and require the same care as specimens on display. Nevertheless, too few quarantine or treatment tanks can greatly hamper operations. The exhibit/ holding ratio should be carefully considered. The various main supply pipes from the reservoirs should extend around the aquarium over the display tanks. These should be a minimum of 7 ft. above the work-area floor and should have frequent tap valves from which, by flexible hose, replacement water or a continuous flow may be fed to the tanks, depend ing upon the system. It si important to have shut-off valves conveniently located along the major supply lines to facilitate plumbing repairs. To reduce the possibility of accidental flooding to a minimum, auto matic cut-off switches, built-in overflow drains, and failsafe devices should be planned in connection with tanks and reservours that are periodically drawn down and refilled. All electrical appl i ances and equipment, including connector boxes, must be grounded. Outlets should not be lo cated near the floor. Fixtures over the tanks should be protected to avoid breakage and possible d a nger to personnel

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working in water. Poles attached to brushes or other cleaning devices should be of wood or other nonmetallic material. 38 Natural light should be held to a minimum unless completely controllable. Natural light promotes algae growth on interiors of tanks. A flexible lighting system over each tank should include the capability of being lifted out of the way when cleaning tanks or feeding specimens. Sufficient waterproof outlets should be provided for auxiliary or special lighting. A clear passageway about 6 ft. wide should extend along the back of all display tanks in order to permit the easy transport of tanks incoming specimens, etc., by fork lift truck or four-wheel flatbed. No stairs or other obstacles should be located in this passageway. The surface of the work-area floor should have a nonskid finish. Floor drains with sand traps are absolutely necessary and floors should be sloped to drains. Water-resistant materials should be used in all places adjacent to tanks. Storage space for tools, nets, chemicals and other items in frequent use should be provided. Refrigerators often are convenient for the storage of special foods and may reduce trips to the food preparation room. Stairs should be placed conveniently from work area to the public area, with lock doors. Small wall desks may be orovided for record keeping. Deep washbasins with hot and cold water and towel boxes should be located conveniently in the work areas. Also, suitable containers for net sterilization should be provided. Centrally located and convenient to the live exbibits should be the grouping of loading dock, food preparation room and freezer, offices for the biologist and chief aquarist, a room for the shipping and receiving of live specimens, and a crew room with showers and toilets. Space for the chief engineer and control and monitoring panels should be provided. The size of each of the foregoing as well as the necessity for offices and crew room, will depend upon the size of the aquarium and the number of personnel involved in operations. The above can be located on either the work-area level or the publicarea level. If the latter is the case, a ramp should extend from the landing dock area to the work level. It is also desirable to have easy rolling access

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39 . to the public area and to the administrative offices. In any aquarium a two-way intercom system is very important. The work area should be spearated acoustically from the public area. Interior windows may be desirable to permit visitors to view the more interesting operational features. Source: James W. Atz, Associate Curator, The American Museum of Natural History

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40 025. MODERN AQUARIUM LIGHTING In many public aquaria, lighting is largely a 'rule of thumb' matter, without study of the principles involved and with little use being made of modern techniques. The range of lighting derived from discharge tubes and lamps has been greatly increased and this paper is based on experience with a large range of freshwater and marine, tropical and cold tanks of from 20 to 3,000 gallons. Many points apply equally to vivaria and to zoo practice generally. The five main factors determining cost and suitability include I. qualitative output; i.e., the spectral distribution or radiation characteristic. On technical data shee t s this is shown as a curve or black graph indication the power in each group of wave lengths, or as a table giving the percentage emmission in each colour bank. II. Quantitative output, usually listed in lumens. (This is a light unit and in this context important only for comparison). Lumens measure the eye response, which is relatively higher in the yellow and green part of the spectrum, whereas plants depend on the visible energy in the red and blue bands. For the aquarist, these output factors are intimately connected. The less 'efficient' sources are often richest in the radiation used by plants. III. Average life of lamp or tube. Makers' figures are for normal use. The life of discharge lamps and tubes is shortened by frequent switching; in an aquarium this is usually once daily, which is optimum. Filament lamps run hot and are subject to splash damage, and average much below rated life. As labour costs rise, the replacement of lamps becomes more expensive and this makes the initial cost of long-life units less important. IV. Prime cost of lamps with starter gear, if needed. The latter is non-recurrent and is reckoned as part of th e fitting. V. Consumption of electricity. Only the steady current affects cost, but the short initial surge, of up to twice the rated wattage in some cases, may need to be taken into account for fuses. The total cost of lighting has four components. i .Fittings, control gear, and other capital equipment. This can be written off in five years, as regrads costing, but should last much longer if properly chosen and maintained. (For some situations special moisture-proof fittings are a sound investment.) ii. Cost of current. iii, Lamp cost. iv. Labour for maintenance, cleaning and replacement, Replacement can be ignored for modern tubes and lamps with rated life of 5,000 or more hours. Four main types of light sources are on the market. Fluorescent tubes are made with at least ten substantially fidderent emmission patterns. These are each coated internally with a phosphor calculated to emit a particular radiation when activated by ultra-violet light. 'Standard' or 'universal' tubes such as white or warm white are rich in yellow and green wavelengths and rather poor at the red and blue ends of the spectrum; these emit maximum lumens per watt. The newer types have more red and blue, and give a more balanced rendering. In general their putput is lower, sometimes only 50% of the maximum.

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41 Fluorescent tubes are highly efficient because a larger proporation of the output is emitted as light and less as heat, making them more suitable for use over cold water tanks, especially in summer. The lower working temperatures makes splash breakage unlikely. Very hot or very cold conditions may effect performance and technical advice should be sought about this. Fluores cent tubes give more even lighting than any but powerful lamps placed high above the tank. Tubes of 4ft. and above are rated at 7,500 hours, shorter ones at 5,000 hours, with guaranteed replacement for failure at 12 months or 3,000 hours, whichever is shorter. In industrial buildings, where they may be inaccessible, tubes often have batch replacement at 6,000 hours. In most aquaria it is enough to replace at the first sign of deterioration. This loss of efficiency at 7,500 hours is only 15% and there should be no noticable change of light quality throughout life. For medium-sixed tanks, 18-24 inches deep, holding 40-200 gallons, it is most convenient to use banks of 2 or 3 tubes, mounted on a hinged cover for easy access. This allows a wide range of quality and quantity, and a combination can be seletted to give the total light for plant growth and visual effect. This must be largely a matter of trial and error to suit the tank, its plants, rockwork and fish as well as the taste of the director. A useful starting point for a 50 gallon tank well stocked with plants would be a single 30 watt tube and two 20 to 40 watt tubes. At water depts in excess of 2 feet., increasingly higher output is needed to supply energy to bottom plants. Grolux tubes have been designed in America by the Sylvania Company, specifically for use over growing plants; their spectral characteristic follows closely the photosynthetic curve, with sharp peaks in the blue and red spectral bands. The Grolux tube is now widely obtainable in outputs ranging from 15 to 80 watts. It has low visual efficiency but its makers claim that it has double the growth effect on plants of a standrad tube of the same wattage. In fact, over 60% of its emission is in the blue and red. We have used this tube since it became available; but some workers condemn its use, claiming that the emission includes some ultraviolet which has a sterilising effect on exposed animals. However, an appeal in the aquarist press for evidence has brought no response; in fact, this claim cannot be correct for the glass tube alone filters out any such radiation. The reds and blues of some fish show up most effectively, which also distrubs a few purists. In spite of several major disadvantages, tungstern filament lamps are still used widely in public aquaria . A m ajor drawback is their low average life. Under ideal conditions, in the vertical position, they are rated at

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42 1,000 hours, but in aquarium practice it si better to take 500 hours as maximum with many failing before 200 hours if they are used naked near water. For comparable output of lamp cost per hour is roughly ten times that of a fluorescent tube and on average 16 filament lamps will be replaced before a tube fails. The low emission per watt is an even bigger cost factor, with its bear ing on current. As with tubes, the output per watt increases with the wattage, from 8 lumens per watt at 25 watts, to 11 at 100 watts 17 at 1,000 watts. Even so, the more efficient tubes are 5 to 8 times better. Tungsten emission reaches its visible peak at the red end of the spectrum and extends into and beyond the infra-red, with a high percentage emitted as heat/ This redder light was once useful for balancing the 'colder' fluorescent light but new phosphors now make this unnecessary. A whiter light can be obtained by 'over-running' a filament lamp at a voltage higher than that for which is was designed but this reduces its life. A development in the field of Mercury vapour lamps during the past two years, the new Kolorlux lamps are so much more efficient and have such improved quality that they will soon replace most of the other types which include: MBF.(MB-mercury vapour, F-fluorescent). These come in a series of from 50 to 1,000 watts having an output of 35-49 jumens per watt. It has a hard green light unsatisfactory for ordinary work, but in thesmaller sizes it si sometimes useful for special effects, for example, to give a cold deep-water feeling to a corner of a large cold marine tank. MBFR. (R-reflector). 250 watts upwards; with an output of 38-42 lumens per watt. They are suitable for flood-lighting but are soldom needed in zoos. Both of the above need control gear, consisting of choke and capacitor. A consequence of this is that the lamp takes 2 or 3 minutes to reach full output. MBTF.(T-tungsten). Here the tungsten filament acts as a ballast and replaces the control gear; at the same time it fills in at the red end and corrects the colour balance. The maker's claim for a life of 6,000 hours is very conservative; we have run them for over 10,000 hours. They have an output of 20 lumens per watt. Kolorlux is now available in some or all of the wattages of the above. They are too recent for us to report_ on fully, but the spectral characteristic of the MBF Kolorlux is even better than of the MBTF and with an output of 38-54 lumens per watt. We have found the 250 watt MBTF an ideal source of light for our 500-gallon tanks. This is placed centrally above and towards the rear of the tank in a large reflector. A 5 foot

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43 Fluorescent tube is situated near the front of the tank. CONCLUSIONS The new range of emissions from fluorescent tubes allows wide flexibility in both colour and output which is ideal for galancing the requirements of the fish and plants against the need for displaying them to the public. This lighting is also much cheaper. The most efficient filament lamp costs at least 50% more per hour to operate than the dearest tube. The MBF Kolorlux is closely comparable in cost and quality with the best fluorescent tubes, while its point source of light has advantages and may be cheaper and more convenient to house. It is impossible to forecast the precise savings to be expected. However, in a small unit such as the Aquarium at Natureland, with some 6,000 gallons in artificially lit exhibition tanks, we estimate that changing from tungsten lamps to fluorescent tubes and MBTF has more than halved the running costs. Savings of this order quickly pay for the rather higher non-recurrent cost of fittings. Source: George Cansdale, D1rector and John Yeadon, Manager Naturaland, Skegness, Lincolnshire, Great Britain

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026. FOOD PROCESSING FOOD SOURCE multiple sources large amounts various containers LOADING ton 1 ots internal movement on same level or provide conveying system FREEZING capacity animal/days -20F dehumidified THAWING daily cool room or H20 soak PREPARATION daily washing/hand prep weighing records medication sanitation cleanup DISTRIBUTION to animals in individual lots WASTE DISPOSAL Source: BIOS, Seattle, Washington 44

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031. ZONING The current zoning ordinance for the sites included in the site alternatives are classified as I-2 districts, a heavy industrial area. Although the Aquarium can be loosely catagorized as 11a community center owned and operated by a governmental entity and/or community recreational facility owned and operated by a governmental entity11 (DZO, 1982), in all probability a change in zone in the form of a Planned Urban Development (P.U.D.) would be required. A P.U.D. is, in effect, a specific zone district for a specific area, including set regulations written by the applicant and, if approved by City Council, is enforced by the City. It allows maximum flexibility during the planning stage and maximum assurance that the stipulations and conditions proposed will be developed and implemented. 46

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47 032. BUILDING CODE BUILDING AREA As set forth in Section 505 of the DBC, the allowable floor area for a B-2 occupancy with Type I Construction is catagorized as 11Unlimited11• BUILDING HEIGHT As listed in Table 5-D of the DBC, the maximum height of a building with Type I Construction is catagorized as 11Unl imited11• PARKING According to the 198 2 Denver Zoning Ordinance, Section 59-586, The required number of off-street parking spaces is dependent upon the zoning 11Use by right11 and is therefore catagorized into classes according to such uses. The Aquarium falls under the catagory of Class Two, which states that 11 ••• there shall be one off-street parking space provided for each six hundred (600) square feet of gross floor area contained in any structure or structures containing any use by right. .. 11 Therefore, the total number of parking spaces required is as follows: 53,340 sg.ft. building area 600 sq.ft. parking spaces needed= 89 parking spaces Furthermore, an allowance for 4-6 school buses must be taken into account when planning the parking layout and access and drop-off points. School Bus: 391-611 length 81-011 width 121-811 overhand rear Allow a maximum turning radius of 481-011 for school buses, fire trucks, and semi-tractor trailers. Also there is a requirement of two access points to accomodate fire vehicles.

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CODE FIRE ZONE 3 Occupancy classification; Group B, Division 2, Principal occupancy: B-2, F-1, G-3, F-2 B-2: Light Assembly F-1: Dining/Drinking G-3 Parking Garage F-2 Offices Occupancy Separation: Maximum 1-Hour Construction Type I Maximum allowable basic floor area: Unlimited If adjacent to an open area: 48 All sides; 5 %/ft.; 3 sides: 2.5 %/ft., 2 sides: 1.25 %/ft., where public space, streets, or yard m ore than 20' are not extending along 2 sides of the building, the area may be increased 1.25 % for each foot by which the minimum may exceed 20' but not exceed 5011• If over one story, 200% of the area per mitted for one-story buildings can be used, yet no floor area can exceed all percentages permitted for one-story buildings; basements are not included in floor area percentages. Enclosed or semi-enclosed courts: The size required with 2 sides 50% open is 7'-011 by 7'-011• The width of the courts is 3' or greater if the building is 2 stories high, and with an increment of 611 for each additional story. The width of the cour t must be at least 50% greater than normally required if the court is totally enclosed. Minimum ceiling height in rooms: No portion can be less than 5' and 50% must be at least 7'. Fire resistive requirements: exterior bearing walls interior bearing walls exterior non-bearin g walls structural frame permanent partitions vertical openings floors roofs exterior doors (20' s etb k ) 4 hours 3 4 3 1 2 2 2 3/4

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3/4 exterior windows (20' setbk) inner court walls mezzanine floors (1/3 rm. size) roof coverings see courts 1 1 boiler room enclosure 1 Structural requirements: framework (steel, cone. , masry) 3 stairs (rein,conc. ,steel) 2 floors (noncomb.fire-res const) 2 In B-occupancy, where every part ofthe roof structure is 25• above the floor, unprotected noncombustible material is allowed. Roofs: partitions (noncomb. ,fire-res) 1-2 roofs 1 Exits: Two or more exits are occupancy type exceeds: required when the occupancy load of each occu ancy assembly medium) office (bldgs. & offices) dining assembly (low) kitchens (commercial) mechanical equipment stores basis (s.f./occ) 10 100 15 200 300 30 Occupant load: Floor area/ sq.ft./ occupant no. of exits required: -2 or more exits are required when occupancy load exceeds: -assembly: 50 -offices: 30 -mechanical equipment: 30 Minimum width of exits: 3 ft. Exits should be accessible in at least 2 different directions . . Minimum travel distance between fire exit doors shall be 25' apart at a minimum, and should be arranged to be remote enough from each other so that they both will not be blocked by fire or emergency conditions. Minimum travel distance to an exit: 150' with sprinklers: 200' 49

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At least half of the required exits shall be located as that they can be reached without going through checkout stands. Exits from one room opening into another room adjoining or intervening with the area are allowed, as long as the adjacent room is accessory to the area served, and provides a direct means of egress to an exit. 50 Doors must have a 45-minute fire resistance, and be accessorized with a self-closing device. Minimum width of exit doors: 3' Maximum leaf width allowed: 4' Width required for no. of occupants: total occ. ld. 50 Corridors: Exit corridors have a m1mmum allowable width of 44" (3'-8") It is required to have an exit at each end of the corridor when 2 exits are needed. Dead-end corridors are allowed, with a maximum length of 20'. Stairs: For occupancy loads of 50 and above; min, width 44' For occupancy loads less than 50: 36' For occupancy loads less than 10: 30' Maximum riser: 7.5" Minimum tread: 10" Landings: Minimum size: Dimension is measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stariway but not exceeding the 5'0" maximum size required with a straight run. Maximum vertical distance between landings is 12'-6". The required height of the rails is to be not less than 30" and not more than 34" above the nosing. Handrails: They are required at each side of the stairs. Intermediate rails are required at stairs which are at least 88" wide. For stairways 44" or less in v1idth, only one handrail will be required. Stairways open on one or both sides must have handrails on all open sides. Height above nosing: 30-34" Balusters are required at a height of 42" Intermediate rails are required at 9"

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51 Handrails must return to the wall at the ends, and may extend beyond the stair by 611 If the building is 4 or more stories, one stairway shall extend to the roof with a hinged door . The stairway to the roof must have a permanent inside means of access leading to any roof mechanical facilities. Stair enclosures are required and must have a 2-hour rating, but are not required for a stairway, ramp, or escalator serving only one adjacent floor and not connected with corridors or stairways serving other floors. Ramps: Maximum slope to use as an exit: 1:12 (from first floor to grade), 1:8 (any other exit ramps). Handrails are required on at least one side of the ramp. Exit signs are required at every exit from an area where the occupancy load is 30 or greater. Balcony rails are required on all unenclosed floor and roof openings, open and glazed sides of stairway ramps, landings, and balconies. The required height of a balcony rail is 4211• Penthouses: Area limitations: 33.3 % of area supporting roof Height limitations: None in Type I Construction Penthouses may be used only for the shelter of mechanical equipment or for ve-tical shaft openings. The walls, floor, and roof shall be constructed in the same manner as the main part of the building, unless the penthouse walls are at least 5'011 from the property line; in that case they may be of 1-hour construction. Parapet walls: All exterior walls are required to have aprtpets, which must be 3011 above the intersection of the wall and roof surface. Fire Extinguishing Systems: Sprinklers are required when the floor area exceeds 1,500 sq.ft.

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52 Wet standpipers are required in buildings of 4 or more stories, with one or more 411 standpipes for every 4 stories. Them must be located in a public corridor within 10' for the opening of a required stairway on all floor levels. Fire extinguishers must be placed at each standpipe location. Toilet Room Requirements: Men: lavatories: 3 per 601-775 occupants in bldg. water closets: 3 per 601-950 occupants in bldg. urinals: 3 per 601-950 occupants in bldg. Women: lavatories: 3 per 601-1100 occupants in bldg. water closets: 3 per 201-400 occupants in bldg. At least one dringing fountain per floor is required. Skylights: Sklylights must be located at least 4'011 from the wall, with a minimum separtation of 4'011 between each unit. The maximum size allowed for skylights is 100 sq.ft. and can cover up to 25% of the room area sheltered by the roof. Elevators and Escalators: Maximum number in each shaft: 2 The machine room wall construction must have a 2-hour fire rating, and the penthouse must be properly ventilated. For fire protection, sprinklers must be located directly above and parallel to each escalator and at the ceiling above vertical openings of escalators or elevators. Use of Public Property: Doors are prohibited from swinging into city property. Marquees and canopies must be entirely supported from the building and must be constructed of laminated safety glass, plastic or fabric that is treated so that it is noncombustible. Distance above walk (canvas): 8'-011 (7'-011 for canopy) Maximum distance of extension over walk: minimum of 2'0'' inside curb line. Maximum height: slope is 111 in 4'. Drainage should be toward the building. Awings and balconies must be at least 8'-011 above the ground, with a 111 per 1' of clearance up to 4'011•

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Fire Alarm: Fire alarms must be provided on all stories, andmust provide manual pull stations. 53 Emergency lights or power is required in exit ways which are continuous and unobstructed means of egress to a public way, and must be illum inated by at least one foot candle. Access doors are required in exterior walls that are without openings. Note: Information adapted from Denver Bu1lding Code, 1982

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GOTTO Be I
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041. SITE SELECTION The sites presented in this part were proposed by the City of Denver, the Denver Zoological Foundation, and consultant team and/ or private landowners for consideration as locations for the proposed Denver Aquarium. Many of the sites considered had serious drawbacks with regard to accessibility, infrastructure cost, site cost and lack of compatible and complementary uses necessary to create a critical mass, or strong destination attraction. The following list of criteria was developed as a basis on which to address the potential of proposed sites for the Denver Aquarium. The criteria provides a framework for evaluation. Each category has been treated equally with others so as not to bias the over-all selection in the initial evaluation of sites. A. SITE SIZE/CONFIGURATION: Area for the proposed facility, including space for future expansion, but excluding parking. The exact size and shape of the site will vary with the specific site program and design solution. B. ACCESSIBILITY: Vehicular access for autos, school buses, services vehicles, pedestrians, and public transit. C. PARKING: Available parking within 1/4 mile (typical distance which people will walk) or possibility for new construction of parking at reasonable cost. At downtown locations, 350-400 visitor parking spaces will be required. For City Park location 120 spaces will be required in addition to the existing. Possibility of further nearby parking for employees and for school and tour buses. 55

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D. INFRASTRUCTURE: Existing provisions of, or potential for roads, utilities, and other pmprovments. E. COMPATIBILITY: Location in an area with compatible existing and future land uses. Degree of "fit" with the surroundings. F. ENVIROMENTAL CONCERNS: Freedom from noise, vibrations, visual obstructions, distractions and other negative environmental conditions. G. PHASING/TIMING: Availability within 3-5 years and the commitment of the required associated public improvements, to be in place concurrently with the opening of the facility. H. EXHIBIT Potential to accommodate a comprehensive Aquarium program experience, unique to Denver, including views of the Rocky Mountain. I. SYMBOLISM/IMAGE: Location which allows the Aquarium to be easily recognizable, and an identifiable image of Denver, Colorado and Rocky Mountain region. J. JOINT AND MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES: Possibilities of either joint use or mixed use on-site. 56

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K. OFF-SITE ECONOMIC SYNERGY: Opportunities for mutual reinforcement between the Aquarium and nearby facilities and activities, to create a critical mass, a stronger composite attraction. L. RELATIONSHIP TO PUBLIC AMENITIES: Relationship to existing and future public amenities within the City which will contribute to the overall enjoyment of the Aquarium visitors, such as landmarks, open space, and facilities such as sitting places, shelter, restrooms and other amenities. M. CONTEXTUAL IMPACT: Impact on the environmental quality of the surrounding area. N. REVENUE POTENTIAL: Revenue potential through ticket sales, gift shop sales, restaurant use and space rentals. 0. CAPITAL COST: Opportunity for optimum aquarium experience within specified capital expenditure for site, building and associated off-site improvements, and potential to be phased if necessary. The matrix on the following page is an abbreviated review, 57 numerically evaluating a large number of potential sites, using the criteria listed in this report. All criteria were given equal weight and sites were rated on the basis of 1 (least desirable) to 5 (most desirable). The twenty-one sites as potential location for the Denver Aquarium were analyzed and "Denver Commons" was chosen as the most desirable site with 66 points on the evaluating.

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fJl c:: (1) u c:: 0 fJl u E (1) t:J"I (1) (1) tJI ro fJl ri :>. ..--i c:: ::> (1) +J +J ::l +J ro •rl t:J"I I c:: rl ri +J ri +J E 0 '0 c:: ..--i u ..--i c: ri (1) CJ) (1) (1) rl ::l ri (1) E-4 0.. E X N .a .a E -fJl ri (1) rl rl t:J"I +J ri c:: tJI +J rl +J CJ) fJl c: fJl +J 0 c:: rl ..--i -rl u fJl ri ro ro ri .a 0 +J CJ) rl (1) (1) 0. ri fJl rl .0 c: I ...-i +J u E :> ro .c:: E rl .a rl u ro c:: 0 c:: ..c: X :>. 0 ::l CJ) ..X: 0.. H u 0.. CJ) t-:l 0 0.. :oliseum 4 5 5 3 1 3 4 3 3 2 2 2 Sloan's Lake 1 5 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 1 1 2 E:litch Gardens 5 5 5 3 2 2 4 3 2 2 2 2 Stapleton Airport 5 5 5 3 2 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 Park Hill Golf Cour. 5 5 5 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 1 2 :herry Creek 1 2 1 4 2 3 1 3 2 5 3 2 :enters tone 1 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 2 4 4 2 :urrigan Hall 5 5 5 5 3 2 5 5 2 5 3 2 Denver Commons/DOT 5 5 4 2 5 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 Sports Complex 3 4 4 4 2 2 4 3 2 2 2 2 :hildren's Museum 3 3 2 3 3 2 5. 3 2 2 2 2 vvater Street 3 2 4 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 :entennial Park 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 Platte River 5 4 4 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 ::;olden Triangle 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 City Library 3 3 2 3 5 5 3 3 5 3 3 4 RTD Transit Center 2 3 2 3 5 4 3 3 5 3 4 4 f>.nnex I 3 3 3 2 5 5 3 5 5 3 3 4 Cowperthwaite 2 3 3 2 5 5 3 5 5 3 3 4 U.D. Law School 4 2 2 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 . 3 City Park 5 4 1 4 5 2 5 3 5 5 2 4 Note: Some information adapted from 11Denver Aquarium Site Selection Study", prepared by HOH Associates, Denver, June, 1986 58 +J ...-i u ro ro rl . 0.. +J fJl E c:: +J H (1) +J 0.. +J fJl ...-i 0 0 lf'l ro 0.. u r--::l +J (1) ...-i I X ::l ro (1) c: +J ...-i +J (1) rl ro c: :> 0.. +J 0 (1) ro 0 u 0::: u E-4 2 2 3 44 1 1 3 33 2 1 3 43 2 2 3 41 2 1 3 41 2 4 1 36 4 3 3 46 4 3 2 56 5 5 3 66 2 2 3 41 2 2 3 39 2 2 3 36 2 2 3 37 2 2 3 42 3 3 3 46 4 3 2 51 4 3 3 51 5 3 1 54 5 3 1 52 3 3 3 45 1 2 4 52

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\ 042. SITE REVIEW A. SITE SIZE: The Union Terminal/Lower Downtown site has adequate space for the Aquarium to be located within a plaza setting relating to the Mall and the Denver Union Terminal. If the railroad tracks are located at the OUT, a platform level would need to be established a raised public plaza level which would terrace to the Denver Commons and Platte River as well as to Cherry Creek. The Aquarium building would become a bridge over the track right-of-way providing a continuity for public access to the Commons and water park. Threr is adequate space for future phasing and master planning purposes. B. ACCESSIBILITY: Access to the site is excellent and would be by Speer Boulevard and a new connector road located at the OUT track right-of-way if the rail lines are located at mid-valley. Access would also be by the 16th. Street Mall transportation system with the shuttle bus turnaround located next to the Denver Union Terminal and at the main entrance to the Aquarium. C. PARKING Parking for approximately 2000 cars could be located at the Post Office site, either as a re-use of the present structure or as new construction to serve the redevelopment of this portion of Lower Downtown. The Post Office has proposed to relocate to Stapleton Airport, but, the move (projected for 1991-92) would not be in phase with the Aquarium project. On-grade parking might be the solution on an interim basis. Parking would have easy access and be located at the edge of the development and be immediately connected to the 16th. Street Mall trnasit system. D. INFRASTRUCTURE: The development of the Aquarium in this area assumes a major effort, consistent with the Downtown Area Plan, including the following: 1. Acquisition of Land 59

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2. Extension of the 16th. Street Mall 3. Development of the Denver Commons 4. Removal of the 16th . Street Viaduct 5. Relocation of the railroad tracks 6. Availability of on-grade parking or parking structure The above development work and associated costs must be considered as costs justified by multiple development projects and not solely as costs attributed to the Aquarium. E. COMPATIBILITY: Aquarium facilities have proven to be highly successful when combined with waterfront settings including park space, promenades, retail and food market places. Although the exhibits are primarily inwardly oriented, the Aquarium pro vides festive setting for urban development. The lower downtown area provides the framework for a strong mutual reinforcement. F. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS: The inclusion of the main line corridor at the Denver Union Terminal or mid-valley would present a negative impact on this site which must be dealt with in terms of landscaping, and including acoustical and visual barriers and possible grade separation, building over the tracks. The proposed four-lane connector road at the Denver Union Terminal would have similar problems. In either case a raised platform would be required at the Denver Union Terminal and Aquarium, bridging the road or tracks and isolating sound from the area. G. PHASING/TIMING: The tracks are planned for removal immediately with realignment to follow. A developed master plan for the Aquarium/Denver Union Terminal/Denver Commons area is important to not only timely development, but for the open s pace to be established, and for all other parcels for commercial, office and other development to be established. The extension of the 16th. Street Mall and the related viaduct removal are critical to the Aquarium's location at this site. 60

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H. EXHIBIT PROGRAM: The fully developed Aquarium program can be realized at this site with space for future expansion. I. SYMBOLISM/IMAGE Located as the term inus of the 16th. Street Mall, complementing the State Capitol as the other, the Aquarium building has an opportunity to be a major focal point in Denver. A clear view of the Rockies would be maintained beyond the structure as seen from the Mall. The Aquarium would be in an important position on the Denver Commons when viewed from I-25 , and be a landmark gateway to the Platte Valley when seen from the Mall. The opportunities present in the lower downtown are similar in many ways to those present on the Boston Waterfront in the 19601s . Existing warehouse structures, at first with a dilapidated and negative image, became the basis for highly successful retail, restaurant, office and housing development. The fabric of open space, including pathways and Boston Harbor itself, held the area together, as would the new proposed Denver Common, further developed conceptually as a water park. J. JOINT AND MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT: OFF-SITE ECONOMIC SYNERGY: The site offers opportunities for mixed-use development within the Aquarium site, such as restaurants and shops which might also relate directly to the proposed mixed-use development to the Denver Union Terminal. K. RELATIONSHIP TO PUBLIC AMENITIES: The site has excellent relationships to the 16th. Street Mall, the Denver Commons, possible connections to Cherry Creek and the general small scale ambiance of the historic Lower Downtown. In addition, views fro m open spa ce and from the Aquarium to the Rocky Mountain are possible from this site. 61

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L. CONTEXTUAL IMPACT: The economic benefit created by the establishment of a major open space and a destination facility asuch as the Aquarium as an extension of the 16th. Street Mall are consistent with the anchor described inthe Downtown Area Plan: "The 16th. Street Mall in the new plan is THE SPINE of Downtown, its central organizing element, the key reference point for anyone in the area and the magnet for its people and activities. All Downtown development and infrastructure is defined by its relationship to the Mall as the spine of the system. The anchors for the spine are Civic Center Park-and Union Station ... " It is the study view that the critical mass of the Aquarium combined with the Denver Union Terminal and the Denver Common will in fact provide the desired anchor comparable to Civic Center Park and the complex surrounding it. Denver Union Terminal cannot be this anchor by itse l 'f. M. REVENUE POTENTIAL: The fully developed site can provide a framework for the maximum level of expected visitation and, therefore, the most attractive setting for optimum direct revenues to the Aquarium from admissions, shops sales, and restaurants. N. CAPITAL COST: The construction cost for an Aquarium with the full porgram, and the specific construction costs related to site preparation are high and would require a major commitment from the City of Denver, and the Denver Zoological Foundation, to work together to achieve the program•s potential. The cost site would be a determinant in the final feasibility of this fine site. 62

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A site has been identified near Union Terminal, directly on axis with the Union station. In this location, the Aquarium would act as the western visual terminus of the Mall, marking it visually as does the State Capitol at the east end. A new termination point for the Mall •s transit vehicles would serve the Aquarium and Union Terminal, which could be developed as a festival market complex. SUMMARY POINTS 1. The Denver Union Terminal would be historically preserved and renovated into a mixed-use festival market with restaurants, shops and other uses in conjunction with the Aquarium and the Denver Commons. 2. The historic character and small scale of Lower Downtown would be protected, and continued redevelopment of the area could be controlled to undertake infill and developemnt by enhancing, rather than destroying, the existing fabric. 3. The site would front on the Denver Commons, which could become even more important, as an open space for the City, than has been previously contempl ated. In the 1990's a new open space, symbolic of Denver, could be created, following on the superb earlier precedent of Civic Center Park at the other end of the Mall. 4. The site would be on the 16th. Street Mall. connected by public space as a forecourt. 5. The building could be an architectural statement of landmark stature which would be compatible with the Denver Union Terminal and the architecture of the lower downtown area. 6. The site could be connected to both Cherry Creek and the Platte River by open space. The Denver Common concept, expanded in relation to the Aquarium, includes the possibility of a water park with open spaces containing large and accessible areas of water. 63

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7. The existing Post Office building, or some other nearby structure, could provide structured parking in adequate numbers for Aquarium visitors and for Denver Union Terminal visitors. 8. Other adjacent uses could include a hotel, and further shops, restaurants, entertainment, and cultural attractions. 9. Development of the aquarium site, in conjunction with the Denver Union Terminal and other adjacent facilities and amenities, would collectively form a critical mass. which would provide a focus and a catalyst for the redevelopment of this portion of Lower Downtown and the Central Platte Valley. 10. The Aquarium would act as the gateway to the Platte Valley. 11. The Platte Valley area could be planned, with adjustments consistent with the abjectives of the Downtown Area Plan, to allow major new development to the north and northwest of Union Terminal, and to create major new open space to the west of the Mall and Union Terminal, connecting to the Platte River and Cherry Creek. 12. The Aquarium could become the centerpiece and catalyst of a new component in Denver1S Park system, the Denver Common reexamined, focused perhaps not on conventional green space, but a new concept --a water park using water as a connection to the Platte, to the Cherry Creek. The Aquarium would be given an appropriate water setting. 13. Along 15th. Street and between the Aquarium and the Platte River, a series of large water terraces could be created. These would be areas of water within which the public could wander and assmeble in groups, on elevated waldways, causeways, piers and islands. Pass ive water areas would provide spaces for quiet enjoyment of the water park setting. Other areas could be more active. E xtensive planting within the water park would also be possible. 64

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14. The Aquarium might act as an initial anchor, beginning the creation of the new park at its southern corner. In the future, as an extension of this concept, a larger garden complex with diverse entertainment, amusements, specialty shops, and food service, perhaps in the spirit of Copenhagen's Tivoli Gardens, might be developed as a complementary anchor at the northern corner of the water park, adjacent to the Platte River. 15. The Aquarium building would be freestanding, dramatically positioned to b e focal point from the 16th . Street Mall. and to be seen acrosss the Water Park from I-25 and from 15th. Street, as a landmark and symbol of Denver. 16. Land is apparently available to this location at little or no cost. Synergy could occur in the short term with Union Station and Lower Downtown, both of which would be stimulated toward redevelopment by the Aquarium's presence. 17. In this location the Aquarium would not be benefiting from the presence of established neighbors, such as would be the case at Civic Center Park. Instead it would be providing a catalytic force for the transformation of its surroundings. It appears to the study team that this site, if boldly developed in these terms, would allow the Aquarium to be an extremely positive catalytic force in the future development of Denver. 65

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66 043. NATURAL CONTROL FLOOD The Army Corps of Engineers and Urban Drainage, and Flood Control District analysis concludes that Cherry Creek will stay without its channel walls during a 100 year storm and will not flood the area of site. SOIL BEARING CAPACITY Forty (40) to Fifty (50) feet of bedrock AIR QUALITY Temperature inversions are common and air circulation is poor. The main pollutants include: -Carbon Monoxide (CO) primarily from motor vehicles Ozone (0 2 ) generated when oxygen interacts with hydrocarbons from auto exhaust Suspended particles (known as the "Brown Cloud")

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67 CLIMATE Denver lies on a high semi -arid plain near the Rocky Mountains with a mild interior continental climate typical of the region. The area is charactrized by mild seasonal temperature differentiation, drastic diurnal temperature of differentiation, relatively low levels of precipitation,and a high degree of solar radiation. At an elevation of 5,280 feet above sea levels, Denver's location is 39.45 north latitude and 104.53 west longitude.

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The following data and statistic s are e x plained by climatic components for use in the site analysis. ALTITUDE angles for the solar disk in Denver ranges from a high of 73.5 at noon on the summer sol stice to a low of 26.6 at noon on 68 the winter solstice. The low winter angle and high summer angle extremes may cause problems in m onitoring water tem peratures and in preventing the growth of bacteria in the tanks. Heat gain and direct sunlight are also problems which must be closely examined. DEGREE DAYS In determining energy require m ents for a building, the concept of degree days becomes very helpful in revealing peak periods of space heating and air conditioning in a facility. Degree day temperature data helps predict such seasonal heating and cooling demands. Degree days, based on 65; are computed as follows: Maximum temp. for the day=50F Minimum for the day=30F Sum = 80 2 = 40o Degree day base = 65 40 = 25 degree days (heating) The highest heating demand falls in both December and January (1040 heating heating degree days), with the highest cooling demand being in the months of July and Augus t (220 cooling degree days). In comparison to similar less temperate climates, these figures are somewhat reasonable and compatible. Because there is an abundance of sunlight in the months of summer (70% possibility of sunshine), the cooling load in a load-dominated building could be decreased by leiminating and/or reducing artificial light, and by avoiding direct heat-gain through some kind of sun shading. In winter, the physical mechanical system could be used to recirculate ambient heat, which would reduce heating costs.

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HUMIDITY AND PRECIPITATION Denver1S mean annual precipitation of a mere 15.5111 qualifies it as a semi-arid environ ment. The greatest precipitation occurs during the months of April, May and June, whereas the winter months are usually the driest. In the period from November to March, precipitation typically falls in the form of snowfall, which averages 59.911 per year. Snow has been recorded at some time in every month except July and August. 69 Humidification of the space becomes mandatory due to the low monthly humidity levels. Such humidification in the winter causes problems in condensation on interior windows and on any large expanses of glass, yet the overall effect is beneficial as to prevent any acceleration in the natural evaporation of the water in the tanks. In Denver, sudden heavy thunderstorms are common during the months of summer, requiring the provision for site runoff and drainage. As a somewhat urban area, the runoff should be dealt with without eroding away the site1s landscaped areas. Precipitation also effects roof pitch, overhand, gutters, downspouts and weatherproofing. Being a public building, ice and snow accumulation must also be an issue of concern . . Sheltered areas located on the north may harbor snow for longer periods, becom ing a hazard to pedestrians. Accumulation elsewhere on the site would be somewhat negligible due to evaporation and melt-off. SOLAR DISK Solar Bearing June 22: 240 Summer The sun angles typical for Denver result in a strong design solution because the south becomes exposed to a maximum amount of solar energy in the cold months of winter when the sun rays are low, and a minimum amount in the warm months of summer when sun ray s are high. Shading of a southern exposed window to prevent overheating during the summer is easily acc omplished by providing an overhand which is calculated to equinox sun angles . Solar Bearing December 22: 120 Winter During the summer months, three sides of the building will be bathed

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in sunlight. In the winter months, the exposure to the building will be reduced to half that of the summer. SUNLIGHT DURATION AND CLOUD COVER 70 Due to the city's elevation and high percent of clear days, the intensity of Denver's sunshine has the potential of adversely effecting water temperature and therefore the support of life. The building design must protect against this by providing shading which would prevent the influx of direct glare and sunshine. Denver receives an average of 70% of the total possible sunshine levels throughout the year. The cloudiest d a ys occur in the spring: the clearest in the fall. Annually, Denver averages 115 clear days (10-30 % cloud cover), 133 partly-cloudy days (30-80 % cloud cover), and 117 cloudy days (80-100 % cloud cover). The highest percentage of solar radiation occurs in the month of July, and the lowest in December. TEMPERATURE Denver's mild temperature has always been one of the city's major assets in drawing visitors and new inhabitants. The diurnal temperature range is usually greater tha8 the winter to summer swing, which ranges from a monthly mean of 29.9 F in January to 73F in July. The average yearly temperature is a mild 50.2F. Periods of extremes in high or low temperatures rarely last beyond 5-6 days, but will still require mechanical conditioning. In an Aquarium, where the public circulate through every space and require a certain comfortable temperature, and the fish societies require a different temperature than the public to sustain life, mechanical heating and. cooling becomes a real challenge. The low levels of humidity in Denver as forementioned are amplified by the need for heating in winter, adding to the problem of water tank evaporation. Relative humidity must be maintained at a minimum of 45-55 % during the heating system cycle. The demands on the HVAC system depend on thenumber of occupants, wind direction, and the amount of sunshine.

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WIND The highest average wind speeds have b een recorded during the months of March (10.1 MPH) and April (10.4 MPH), with winter and later spring winds showing an average of 9.3 MPH. Summer and autumn winds are slightly lower, averaging 8.36 MPH. While the stronger winds are generally from the north west ranging up to 56 MPH, the prevailing winds are from the south. 71 Wind damage should not cause a problem if the structure is properly designed, but there is the danger of the breakage of glass on the entry atrium and restaurant spaces if such panes of glass are designed to be too large and are exposed to large gusts of wind. Desirable site characteristics might be to protect the structure from winter winds, which would sweep across the open expanse of the Platte River, while providing access to summer breezes. One advantage of the wind is that is cleanses the air of pollution, which is badly needed around the site. MICRO SCALE EFFECTS Site analysis and prientation and location of the building in relation to its surrounds can modify the immediate climate. Such effects are as follows: -air pollution control changes in wind, sunshine, precipitation, and runoff increase in flood and drought potential -failure of structure to withstand stress from climate extremes such as wind, snow excessive energy use in buildings that are poorly adapted to local climate -potential problems entailing solar rights and reflective glare icy or snow-covered sidewalks and parking lots These effects should be a primary concern when determining the design concepts. Source: Climatolo ical Date, U. S. Department of Commerce, 1977, 1979, 1981 National Oceanic and Stmospheric Administration), and some information adopted fro m Liz Leprich•s thesis report, 1986.

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044. SOCIAL CONTEXT HISTORIC SITES 72 Current recognized historic areas within the site's vicinity, by the Preservation Alliance, including two blacksmith shops, two flour miles and the old Daniels and Fisher warehouse.

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CULTURAL FACILITY With the addition of the Aquarium these facilities will be able to benefit from the public awareness that the aquqtic. facility will generate, therefore revenue benefits . TRAFFIC 73 .

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054. AESTHETICAL CONTEXT PARKS AND OPEN SPACE The surrounding parks include; Gates Crescent Park South Platte River Green way Centenial Park -Rockmont Park 74

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75 WATER The quality of water in the South Platte River and Cherry Creek has been improving in the past decade. Increasing run-off casued by any developments could adversely affect water quality unless treated before flowing into the rivers. VEGETATION Currently, a diverse reparian vegetation exists along the rivers. This sparse natural vegetation provides a limited habitat for small mammals and a variety of birds. Habitat restoration may produce an increase in animal species population. Care should be taken to utilize maximum amounts of native vegetation to ehlp replace carbon dioxide with 0 2 oxygen around site.

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76 046. CONTEX

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05. NG

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051. CONTENT I. EXHIBITS AND PUBLIC CIRCULATION The purpose of these facilities will be to bring about a greater understanding and appreciation of those often misunderstood animals. 78 Such acceptance will be accomplished by displaying them in a naturalistic and aesthetically pleasing environment complemented by a full interpretive displays. The principal caution is to avoid monotony. The traditional presentation of long rows of display in repetition along long public corridors should be discouraged. Current concepts look to the establishment of more complete ecological niches in which to present a layering of aquatic animals that represent and explain a message. By design, the emphasis is placed on a few major exhibitions as opposed to a larger quantity of unrelated tank displays. In the past, exhibits came across more as fish bowls, bathrooms, or large swimming pools than as wildlife habitats. Today, emphasis is placed on creating the illusion of nature. It is the hope of contemporary exhibit design that the aquatic creatures will feel as if they are in a natural setting and will therefore lead near-normal lives and thus breed successfully as well as enjoy full lifespans. A Rocky Mountain aquarium, unique to Denver, would be an important exhibition statement. A. ORIENTATION SHOW ROOM The visitor is welcomed with a grand vista of the Rocky Mountains seen from the Aquarium and enters an orientation show. In a darkened space, the visitor is placed along the Continental Divide and may look in all directions. Time lapse photography begins on a clear day which evolves into a distant storm in the west. The sky darkens and snow begins to fall, at first slowly and then thickens until the view has disappeared, ending the sequence and brightening into the clear day again. The experience lasts for approximately one minute.

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79 B. ROCKY MOUNTAIN GALLERY 1. Glacial Ice Immediately beyond the Continental Divide Show, the visitor enters a diorama of rock and glacial ice, with melting edges. Visitors may touch the ice and see alpine birds, skittering about. Pikas, small rodent-like animals, store hay in boulder dens. In the background, mountain peaks may be seen. Although uplift created the Rockies, their shape is derived from the glaciers, with a constant cycle of melting and freezing sculting the rock. 2. Alpine Lake The underwater landscape of a breen lake bottom is the setting for cutthroat trout, arctic gralying and lake trout a two foot layer of ice may be seen at the surface of this lake exhibit. Many alpine lakes remain ice-bound for much of the year. Along the shores, tundra conditions may yield growing seasons of only 5-6 weeks each year. A minimum of life forms exist here and, with the exception of the cutthroat trout, most of the fishes found in Alpine lakes have been introduced for sport fishing. 3. Trout Strea m A waterfall plunges over rocky ledges and into a deep scoured pool of chilled water. Above the surface of the pool is an outdoor en vironment changing with the Denver seasons and heavily planted with native plant material. Trout can be seen deep in thepool which appears to drop far away below the viewer. The pool changes to a rushing stream with worn rocks and boulders. Cutthroat trout, rainbow and brook trout may be seen swimming against the current. Dippers, a small bird, poke at the edge of the pool and may be seen 11Walking11 underwater against the current in search of food. Above the water•s surface, imbedded in the rock face of the ledge, a fossilized creature can be seen. It is a portion of a plesiosaur, a marine reptile from an ancient ocean. The visitor will discover on closer inspection other fossils of shells and crustaceans which lived in the ancient ocean which once covered all of Colorado. It is startling to learn that this region had been underwater far longer than it has been out of it. The visitor will also learn that Colorado boasts 8,500 miles of trout streams.

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Adjacent to the stream, the visitor will encounter the small inhabitants of the mountain stream such as aquatic insects, frogs, turtles, interspersed with photographs of birds, mammals and insetcts commonly found along the stream. 4. Beaver Pond The stream flows into the beaver exhibit and appears to be a part of it. A cut-away view allows the visitor to . see above and below the surface, and to one side, into the den. A portion of this exhibit is also exposed to the outside and borrows direct sunlight. The pond is stocked with sunfish, crappie and bass. Smaller exhibits deal with life in the pond and at its edges. C. ATLANTIC DRAINAGE BASIN A visitor, who has chosen to follow a route east and south 80 to the Atlantic, starts a series of experiences which begin with the South Platte and ends at the Gulf of Mexico. Climax Atlantic exhibits present an Atlantic coral reef and a deep water Atlantic shark tank. These large displays return the visitor to the water cycle exhibit and to the point where he or she may then choose to travel west to the Pacific. 1. Platte River This exhibit will illustrate fish and reptiles typically found along the South Platte in the Denver area. 2. A Prairie Marsh A pair of North American otters live in this marsh, part of which is outdoors. The interior of the den can be seen from the gallery. Black birds and stilts occupy the exhibit. The otter, extinct in Colorado since the early 1900's was re-introduced to the state in 1976. 3. A Prairie Burrow/Water Hole Little rain falls on the prairie and what does fall (4-5 inches annually in some areas) evaporates quickly due to high temperatures and extremely windy conditions. Much of the year, creatures and plants must go without moistur e . The small water hole in this habitat does not have fish life. Fairy shrimp and a m phibian s , however, may be seen closeup. The foot prints of many grasslan d animals are seen around the edge of this valuable resource. An identification allows visitors to

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bison, pronghorns, white tail deer, etc. A burrow may be seen cutaway. Kangaroo rats or a community of prairie dogs live here, creatures which can spend most of the year without water. 4. Northern Gamefish/Missouri River Northern Pike, Muskelunge and other predatory fish, found in the Missouri, are isolated in this deep water tank. 5. Backwater/Missouri Water This tank is adjacent to the gamefish exhibit and illustrates a riverbank habitat designed to feature the paddlefish and the bottom dwelling shovelnose sturgeon. 6. Mississippi River Community 81 This tank displays large river species including drum, buffalo fish, flathead catfish, channel catfish and other important species of the main stream of the river. 7. Mississippi Bayou Large Alligator gars cruise in this Louisiana environment along with soft shell turtles, sliders and cooters. 8. Alligator Snapping Turtle An extension of the bayou tank will display a large alligator snapping turtle which may reach 75-80 pounds, small, live fish are provided to demonstrate the turtles unique lure-like tongue and feeding techniques. 9. American Alligator The bayou continues with a large beach diorama containing three or four large alligators and an assortment of turtles residing on fallen trees. Short birds such as ibis, egrets and heron canalso be included. 10. The Bayou Samll denizens of the bayou are displayed, such as crayfish, frogs, shrimp, small turtles, sladmanders and baby alligators.

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11. Mangrove The mangrove is a form of tropical marsh which is the nursery where most juvenile marine gamefish and food fish begin life. Young tarpon, red drum, sheephead, snook and snappers flit among the roots of this small habitat. 12. Gulf Waters 82 This tank will display a large school of Guld coast sport fish (200-300) incessantly moving with an introduced current. Fish will be selected from cobia, jacks, drum and weakfish. 13. Atlantic Coral Reef The coral reef communities found in the Gulf of Mexico, the Florida Keys and the Caribbean Sea are highly productive systems providing homes for multitudes of living organisms.

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83 The visitor encounters a brightly lit world of coral and colored fishes of many sizes, sometimes seen singly, at other times in passing schools. Vistas into the coral are sometimes close-up. Long Yiews give a sense of the larger scale of the over-all community. Large fish swim in continuous patterns and sea turtles explore crevices. A moray eel may occasionally be seen lurking in confined spaces. Species included in this reef setting are southern stingrays, yellow spotted stringrays, morays, squirrelfish, barracuda, snook, sandtile fish, yellow jack, spotted drum, angel fish, butterflyfish, spiny puffers, snappers, parrotfish, triggerfish and a host of others. Small sharks will also be present swimming in more open areas of the reef tank. Beyond, in deeper water, large nurse sharks may be seen passing the coral reef. 14. Deep Water Altantic The visitor proceeds onward and encounters the shark tank designed to be visible from the Coral Reef tank. The two tanks are in reality separated by clear glass panels set into the coral formations. Light levels here are low creating a greater sense of depth and surprise. Species on display are expected to include nurse sharks, lemon sharks, bull sharks, sand tiger sharks, brown sharks and tiger sharks. In addition, large jacks, cobia and tarpon are included. 15. Shark Tank The exhibition of sharks cause some unique problems in aquaria habitation, for the following reasons. Sharks differ from true fish in that they have lighter , more elastic skeletons of cartilage instead of bone. Also, they loack a gas-filled bladder for buoyancy, making it essential for some species to swim con tinuously to avoid sinking. Furthermore, the handling and movement becomes difficult, if not life-threatening, due to their lack of a bony skeleton. Some species require consta nt movement in the water so that they can obtain the required amount of water circulation over their gills for survival. These characteristics illustrate some of the difficult issues in keeping sharks healthy. In general, shark tanks should be designed to optimize the gliding motion needed for water circulation through the gills for life support . Because of this, the tank needs

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to be oblong, and could become a multi-leveled display area utilizing a one-way ramp scheme. The tank could provide large controlled viewing portals and multi-media graphic presentations in the intervening areas between the portals. Several species of sharks and rays could be exhibited together in a setting simulating the floor of the ocean. Required service facilities: -Back-up tanks Quarantine tanks Mechanical systems . ..._.... -. . r: • =-• • • • • .1.;j . ' ......... .... 84

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16. Arctic Atlantic The exhibit is intended to show the adaptions of glacial animals such as Penguins, Walruses from Greenland, and Puffins from Iceland. There is a need for a refrigerated environment and an air filtrations system for life support. 85

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D. PACIFIC DRAINAGE BASIN/SOUTH Returning once again to the Continental Divide exhibit, the visitor now begins the gallery sequence which leads to the Pacific basin gallery. Water will be followed southwest along the Colorado and to the northwest along the Columbia River and its tributaries. 1. Bear Lake The southern route to the Pacific begins in the Wasatch Mountains of Utah and Idaho, at Bear Lake, a remnant of long vanished, prehistoric Lake Bonneville. Fish and other aquatic life have evolved here disconnected from other Rocky Mountain fauna and have established a group found only here. Bonneville Cisco, Bonneville white fish, Utah chub and Bear Lake sculpin are displayed in illustrative relic fauna. 2. Desert Hot Springs 86 Additional forms of fis h life have been distrubuted over a wide area due to prehistoric waters. These fish and amphibians dot the high desert and plateau region. Desert pupfish and plains killi-fish will be displayed. 3. Colorado River One of the longest rivers in the United States, the Colorado, with its drainage basin, has carved hundreds of miles of canyons at Canyonlands, Glen Canyon and the Grand Canyon, and has sliced through the land creating countless others. This above and below water diorama shows the Colorado at a canyon edge. Sandstone rises vertically at the background of th habitat and a small sandy beach is exposed where black necked stilts poke long bills into sandy soil in search of food. Below the surface of the water may be seen the humpback sucker, chub, Colorado squawfish and introduced striped bass. In its rush to the sea at the Gulf of California, the Colorado gives up most of its water for use by neighboring states. It enters Mexico only as a trickle.

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87 4. The Colorado Live tank displays present a series of small creatures which inhabit the Colorado River basin such as Colorado River toads and reptiles of the desert. Photographs accompany the displays and illustrate the wide range of land forms carved by this great river. 5. Baja Two tanks display a community of fish commonly found off Baja, California and include exotic Pacific fish from the tropics that occasionally enter Baja Waters. Kissing Gourami in kissing posture

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88 E. PACIFIC DRAINAGE BASIN/NORTH 1. Columbia River The Columbia River rushes from the snow and ice fields of the Canadian Rockies an dis fed by tributaries from as far wasy as Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. This river system drops over 2,500 feet on its course to the Pacific. Along its way dams provide nearly 1/3 of the hydroelectric power to the United States. Sixty years ago there were no dams and the river ran free in a wilderness. This riverbank setting of strongly flowing water has two distinct and deep oools. Adult salmon occupy one. Smolt (young salmon) occupy the other. Coho salmon, chinook, and pink salmon may be seen. 2. Pacific Northwest Coastal Com munity This tank will contain a rocky reef typical of the Washington and Oregon coasts. These waters are rich with invertebrate life and bottom dwelling fish. Starfish, anemones, rockfish and greeling create a blaze of color. 3. Intertidal Zone This exhibit allows a close-up look at sea stars, sand dollars, featherdusters, grunt sculpin, shrimp, giant barnacles and wolf eels. 4. Giant Octopus A darkened rock cave is seen from a dark alcove off the main gallery. The visitor seems to be in a cave. Light penetrates from beyond the cave opening and reveals the giant Pacific Octopus.

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Anemone and starfish cling to the cave walls. Beyond the cave mouth the visitor glimpes the rocky reef community. 89

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5. Alaskan King Crab This dramatic exhibit will present 4-6 large kind crabs walking stilt-like on a sandy floor. 6. Channel Islands Kelp Forest Rock outcrops and a forest of bull kelp present the fascinating community of the coastal kelp bed. Kelp bass, senorita wrasse, garibaldi perch, opaleye, leopard shark, batray, and sheep90 head wrasse populate this tank. A surge creates movement in the kelp and genetrating rays of light simulate rays of sunlight. 7. Sea Otters A major inhabitant of the kelp forest and rocky coastline, this marine mammal is an important endangered species. Their natural behavior has proven to be highly popular and interesting for visitors. This deep tank with rocky edges may be seen from below as well as above the water1s surface. F. AMPHITHEATRE The amphitheatre can be thought of as the primary attraction of the aquarium facility, and will tend to be the major draw for most visitors. Beacuse of this anticipated popularity, it will be necessary to accommodate up to 1,000 visitors at one seating in the amphitheater. The peak loading conditions that must be resolved include providing adequate areas, to queue waiting visitors while at the same time having space for the 1,000 exiting visitors. This is to be an exhibition for educational and behavioral demonstrations of Cetaceans, specifically, Bottlenose dolphins, along with the possibility of trained Pinnipeds (Sealions).

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91 Also, this is to be an all-weather facility with an exhibition tank of 150,000 gallons, which affords a view of both above and below water viewing. Additionally, there is a need for a stage area located adjacent to the exhibition tank equipped with a public address system and stage lighting. This facility could take advantage of natural daylighting because lighting control is not cirtical here for water management. It is equally important to remember that the aquatic habitat within the amphitheater is the home for very sensitive and intelligent marine mammals. Great care must be taken to provide porpoises with a stress-free aquatic environment that will satisfy their habitat requirement and provide adequate life expentancies. This is critical for ethical as well as economical reasons. The dolphins would require a saline habitat.

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92 The exhibition space must additionally satisfy multi-functional roles, e.g. serving as an auditorium. An audio-visual package including a projection room, large roll-up movie screen and sound system will greatly enhance flexibility. Several components to be included in the support facilities are as follows: Three (3) holding tanks -Two (2) quarantine tanks -Food preparation -Trainer•s room Storage Portable hoist G. MISCELLANEOUS EXHIBITS 1. Discovery Center This area is located adjacent to the entrance lobby and provides a place for school groups to organize, hold demonstations and explore the world of water from a number of points-of-view. A touch tank will allow both young and old to sit among rocks at the edge of a tide pool and touch starfish, hermit crabs, mussels, sea cucumbers and other creatures. Video displays illustrate behavior traits not normally visible in an Aquarium, or allow the visitor to travel to various aquatic habitats such as the Arctic, Antarctica, a coral reef, the Galapagos Islands. hiding coping. Small displays present adaptations to the water world such as techniques, moving, feeding, schooling and other methods of 2. Water In The West A final exhibit will make clear the importance of water in the West both now andhistorically. This exhibit will utilize photography, quotations, artifacts and live displays

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93 H. WATER CYCLE SHOW Adjacent to the stream exhibit, the visitor can enter a small theater which presents a 2-3 minute multi-image audio-visual show which depicts the concept of the hydrologic cycle, an endless renewal in which water is never used up. I t is an endless processing of water from the mountains to the sea, carving great canyons, scouring rock and depositing silt across the land. The visitor glimpses this process at work from melting ice, to storms, dripping water, rushing streams, flooding courses and occasionally dry river beds and parched earth. Finally, it reaches the sea. This is the journey which the visitor will now embark upon following water from the Continental Divide to the Atlantic and to the Pacific. The visitor may choose to either travel west first, or east, as we shall do in the illustrative description.

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II. PUBLIC AREA Recent Aquariums have placed as high priority the provision of quality of the public space. The emphasis is to provide aesthetic 94 and attractive interior observation areas, always recognizing that thru beauty should be found within the wild life exhibited. Therefore, the areas are meant to create a pleasure in which the public can interact and relate with the aquatic inhabitants. In regards to circulation patterns, a controlled visitor flow seems to be the preferred concept by contemporary Aquarium designers. More specifically, the public observation spaces are designed so that the visitors view the exhibits one at a time and in a controlled progressional order. This becomes crucial if the displays tell a successive story or are interrelated. A design solution that has been used in contemporary schemes is to provide looped bypasses of cretain exhibits, as some people might find contain creatures objectionable. Finally, the Aquarium staff needs a limited interface with the visiting public to function in their daily routine, and therefore, do not necessarily need public access to accomplish their tasks. This is important not only for staff efficiency, but also helps to focus and not distract the attentions of the visiting public. Additional parameters applicable to the circulation scheme should be considered; one of which is the need to confine exhibits to only one side of the public corridors. This concept eliminates the need for back-tracking through the exhibitions. Also, this type of viewing scheme will aid in the control of reflections and ambient light levels while helping to focus the visitor's attention. The overall effect sought for the circulation scheme is to create a sense of procession, adventure, and surprise through the exhibits and public spaces. By using level changes and by inviting visitors through the spaces while presenting new vistas of major exhibits, a sense of the intuitive path can be developed. Additionally, square corners should be avoided since they do not appear in nature; instead the use of curvilinear junctions should be an intention. It is hoped that all these techniques will establish the illusion of a natural pathway as opposed to the feeling of a one-way street scheme.

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95 Denver's Aquarium should be designed to handle not less than 1,000,000 visitors per year. In as much as the Zoo can draw 20,000 25,000 people in an eight hour period at peak times, thl building should be able to accommodate 2,500 3,500 visitors per hour. Within the circulation scheme, there will be a need for a centralized entrance hall with access from both the main entry and the service/receiving area . Located within the entry space are the following functions: Cashiers and ticket-takers -Public restrooms Public telephones Drinking fountains -Security guard post, first aid, lost and found, information desk -Gift shop and book store Seating areas, lounge, and cloak room -Janitorial closets Restaurant The gift shop should be assimilated into the circulation flow so that visitors pass through it at some point during their tour of the aquarium. The more subtle the assimilation, the more successful the presentation. Finally, it is important to include attractive and efficient retail space in the gift shop to enhance the consumer experience. The restaurant can provide an exciting amenity to the aquarium facility. It has the potential of attracting evening visitors to the aquarium or at the least, affording the aquarium the potential of being leased and catered for social functions. If handled properly the two possibilities could provide substantive income for the aquarium . The restaurant's most obvious requirements are a public entrance and service entrance from outside of the aquarium. A strong visual link between the restaurant and the aquarium is also a positive addition to the ambiance of the restaurant. The restaurant, located on the building's upper floor, should be versatile enough to interest use for evening parties, receptions, etc. It should be accessible directly by elevator for the evening patrons. A full service bar-restaurant which seats 150 people would expand Note: 1. Flynn, 1985

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96 the Aquarium's services and enhance revenue production . Aquariums have demonstrated their popularity and ability to generate income through being booked for private parties with cocktails and dinner . included. This aspect of the Aquarium's potential should be fully exploited. Should the restaurant not prove successful, a catering kitchen would be retained and the remainder of the space could be converted into an Insectrarium. A possible design concept might include locating the restaurant on a cantilevered balcony over the porpoise amphitheatre so that patrons could see the animals and/or view the front range of the Rockies. Entrance to the Aquarium could be conspicuously attractive with the remainder of the structure obscured by plantings. Use of reflecting pools containing fish and water lilies and/or a sculputre piece should be considered as site enhancements.

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97 III. COMMON SERVICE FACILITIES There are several facilities that are anticipated as being required for the Aquarium Complex. Many of these elements could be located in a cnetral basement area which allow the staff unhindered access to the different habitats. A. CENTRAL COMMISSARY Recognizing the great distance of Denver from commercial fishing, it will be necessary to purchase sea food when supplies are seasonally plentiful and affordable. There is a need for bulk processing and storage facilities to handle the long term supplies of food stuffs for the exhibition animals. This will be the primary role of the central commissar y . Most of daily food preparation and short-term storage will be done at the various habitat work stations. Within this central commissary space, the following elements are needed: Office -Workroom with scales and work stations Short-term refrigerator Short-term freezer Long-term freezer Elevator (dumb-waiter) B. WATER RESERVOIRS All water used in the aquarium system, whether in the fresh or marine environments, will require various levels of initial processing prior to being placed in the aquatic systems. Some of these processes and their spatial elements are listed below: Sedimentation filters Diatomaceous earth filters Dechlorination equipment -Salination equip m ent Mechanical equip m ent Aeration equipment Ozone generation equipment

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98 C. BACK-UP POWER GENERATION FACILITIES A power failure of any type would place all aquatic creatures in peril; therfore, it is necessary to have back-up electrical generation capabilities on site. It may also prove necessary to have propane storage available as well. These funcitons could be isolated fro the main body of the Aquarium to reduce the risk of fire or explosion. Potential service elements of the generator facility are as follows: Disel or Natural Gas Generators (2 or 3 would be prudent) Combustible storage for diesel and propane gas Control console Circuit Breaker Room D. STAFF FACILITIES: These areas constitute staff support areas that will serve the needs of the Aquarium on a functional level. Such spaces should be pleasant, attractive and whereever possible, provide access to windows and the outdoors. Lockers and showers -Toilets -Supervisor's office -Breakroom with kitchen E. WORKSHOPS These shop facilities could be either located separately or could share a common work area with limited isolation of some functions. The work areas would be used for exhibits design preparation, fabrication and repair. Shops could also be used for fabrication and maintenance of components for mechanical and life support systems.

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F. GRAPHICS WORKROOM This workroom would be used to implement and maintain the various types of signage and multi-media information that would be used throughout the Aquarium. Even with the availability of outside consultants and graphics labs, it will still be necessary 99 to have a workroom and storage facility for the graphic/communication program. G. LOADING AND STORAGE AREAS The loading dock requires semi-tractor trailer access, with a large cargo door and trailer dock. There should be provided at least a small portable hoist, although a small electric fork lift would be better. This loading and storage area must have a direct and unhindered access to the fright elevator. The storage facility will be for nonperishable supplies. Notes: Some information adopted from the program compiled by Cambridge Seven Associates, Boston, January 1985/July 1986

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052. LINKAGE SYSTEM 11 Jf VISITO R 100

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053. SPACE PROGRAM I. EXHIBITS AND PUBLIC CIRCULATION Ex hi bit Exhibit Description Space A. Orientation Shows 1,150 B. Rocky Mountains Glacial Ice Habitat (D) Alpine Lake Trout Stream (D) The Stream (Small Tanks) Beaver Pond (D) Pond Life (ST) Mountain White Fish C. Atlantic Drainage Basin Platte River Prairie March (Otter) (D) The Marsh (ST) Grassland Waterhole (D) Game Fish (Pike, Miskie) Missouri River (Paddlefish) Mississippi River Community Oxbow Lake (Bass, Sunfish) Bayou (Alligator Gar, Softshell Turtles) 200 50 750 60 300 60 50 1,470 100 500 60 75 50 150 300 100 Reptile Gridwall/Bayou Gridwall Alligator Snapping Turtle Alligator Beach (D) 100 60 50 200 50 100 Mangrove (D) Gulf Waters Altantic Coral Reef The Reef (ST) Shark Tank Artie Atlantic 1' 500 120 1 '400 300 5 ,215 Reserve Space 25 100 100 100 100 25 450 50 100 100 15 25 75 100 50 50 100 25 100 25 50 500 100 250 100 1,815 Life Support 25 75 25 50 25 25 225 50 50 25 10 25 75 50 50 50 25 10 25 25 50 300 50 300 50 1, 220 (D) Represents a habitat exhibit (diorama) with both above and below water viewing. 101 Public Space 75 500 200 150 200 75 1, 200 200 200 200 150 75 150 200 150 150 200 75 200 100 150 900 400 900 200 4,650 (ST)Small tank exhibits displaying insects, reptiles, amphibians, plants representative of the particular community

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102 Exhibit Reserve Life Public Ex hi bit Description Space Space Support Space D. Pacific Drainage Basin South Bear Lake (Bonneville) 75 50 25 100 Desert Hot Springs 50 25 .25 100 Colorado River 75 50 25 100 Baja (2 Tanks) 75 25 25 100 275 150 100 400 E. Pacific Drainage Basin North Columbia River Salmon (D) 350 100 50 400 Pacific N.W. Coastal Community 200 100 50 200 Inter-tidal Zone (ST) 60 50 25 200 Giant Octopus 50 25 25 100 King Crabs 50 25 25 75 Channel Islands Kelp Forest 200 100 50 200 Sea Otters (D) 750 200 150 750 1,160 600 375 1,925 SUBTOTAL: (Item IA-E) 9,270 3,015 1 '920 8,175 F. Poreosie Pools and Amehitheatre Exhibit Area 1,500 Public Seating 7,000 Service 1,750 10,250 G. Miscellanceous Exhibits Water in the West 1,000 Discovery Center 2,500 3,500 H. Water Show Sit down theatre for 50 1 '000 Projection 400 1,400 I. Exhibit Work seace 10,000 TOTAL EXHIBITS AND PUBLIC CIRCULATION:

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II. Public Area Queue Ticket Area Members Entrance Lobby Coat Room Lobby Storage Public Restrooms First Aid/Security Wheel Chair/Cart Storage Gift Shop (unpaid) Gift Shop Storage Gift Shop Office Restaurant Kitchen Kitchen Office Kitchen Staff Restrooms Information Theater I I I. Audi tori urn Ha 11 (300-350 ) Preparation Room Projection Room Storage IV. Curatorial Areas Laboratory Senior Aquarist Biologist Food Preparation Freezer/Cooler Cutting Room Storage Diver Locker Rooms (2 @ 150) Diver Restrooms (2 @ 150) Quarantine Rooms 675 450 300 900 450 250 2,000 200 200 2, 700 2,000 150 3,000 750 300 150 200 2,000 16,675 3,000 250 150 250 3,650 400 150 150 425 425 200 300 300 300 1' 500 4,150 103

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v. Education Workshop/Classroom (divisible) 2 Education Work Room (3) Storage Education Office Education Secretary Volunteer Coordinator Library Volunteers Room Volunteers Lounge/Meeting Room/Lockers VI. Administration Aquarium Director Secretary/Administrative Assistant Director of Operations Operations Secretary Waiting Area Conference Room (30) Public Services Office Director of Curatorial Services Curatorial Secretary General Secretarial Area (3) Switchboard Library Cash Room/Office Volunteers (3) Staff Lunch Room Kitchen Staff Restrooms Staff Lockers Membership Development Marketing Purchasing Computer Services Accounting Vicitor Services/Personnel Office 2,000 500 500 200 150 150 800 l, 000 1, 000 6,300 300 150 250 150 200 350 250 250 150 400 150 300 400 250 300 200 800 350 150 150 150 200 250 300 150 6,550 104

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VII. Exhibit Work Areas Workshop (s) Spray Room As semb 1 y Room Audio/Visual Room Graphics Work Room Darkroom Storage VIII. Service Loading (exterior) Loading (interior) Receiving Trash Storage (exterior) IX. Maintenance Chief Engineer1S Office Central Control Room Custodial Office Custodial Storgae General Storage Workshop X. Mechanical Systems XI. General Building/Circulation TOTAL PROPOSED GROSS AREA: 1,000 135 135 250 250 150 1 '250 3,170 1 '000 300 1 '200 350 2,850 200 500 150 300 1,200 l. 000 3,350 10,000 10,000 105 114,225 SQ.FT. Note: The Space Program is based on the conceptual development of the Aquarium which was developed by Cambridge Seven Associates, The Denver Zoological Foundation, the Denver Zoo, and the Office of Project Manage ment.

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06. SYNTHESIS "There is, one knows not what sweet mystery about this sea, whose gently awful strings seem to speak of some hidden soul beneath." Herman Melville

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061. CONTEXT Denver is the largest urban center in the Mountain West. It is a city of 500,000 people, within a metropolitian area of more than 1.7 million. Downtown Denver is located at the confluence of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek at an elevation of 5,280 feet -a mile high, at the foot of the Rocky Mountains. These areas and the scenery attract 4.5 million people during the winter for skiing and another 15.5 million throughout the summer for hiking, camping, fishing, touring and sightseeing. Denver1s climate is a major attribute. The sun shines more than 300 days a year, making outdoor activities and people-watching enjoyable year round. Lower Downtown1S Union Station is one of the to the 16th. Street Mall. To strengthen the anchor and complete the connection of the 107 Mall to the river, the Mall should be extended to a redeveloped Union Station and then beyond it to the proposed Denver Common and the Platte River. The extension of the 16th. Street Mall, through lower Downtown to the Central Platte Valley is a key element in connecting the Valley to Downtown. The new Denver Aquarium with a large urban park should be developed behind Union Station, the Symbolic heart of lower Downtown, to strenghten Downtown1S connection as a strong activity center to the waterfront at the Platte River. This space would be a recreational amenity to both Downtown and adjacent neighborhoods, and should heighten the sense of Denver1S identity and recall its history by reclaiming a powerful image at the river. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT place is described by nouns How are the boundaries which define the place? Landscape thing and character are dimensions of the earth. The spirit and mood of a place lies in its landscape. The landscape currently achieves identity only in the course of existence. The landscape becomes dynamic through the cycles of weather, vegetation and tidal activity.

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Horizon the meeting between earth and sky. It can be the edge of a continuous sky -dome; or it can be foreshortened by weather to give a false perspective of enclosure. Skyorder and light are determined by the sky. The effect of sky becomes important because of the constitutuion of the sky itself; quality of light and colour and the presence of characteristic clouds. Also the sky becomes important through its relationship to the ground and how it appears from below. Time -the dimension of constancy and change. It makes space and character part of a living reality, which at any moment is given as a particular place. SPATIAL CONTEXT space is designated by prepositions Space is a syste m of relations: Direction and Rhythm (nodes of activity and paths between) -across, along, around, by means of, by way of, like, onto, over, to,toward, under, unlike, up, with. Proximity above, about, after, along with, apart from, around, before, behind , below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, in front of,near, past, underneath, until, up to, upon. Inside/Outside -except, in, inside, into, out, out of, outside, through, throughout, within, without. The essence of a "place", as difined previously lies in the experien c e of an 'inside' that is distinct from an outside. To be inside a place is to belong to it and identify w i t h it. There will ee a creation of spaces for com ing to gether, to celebrate, spaces for solitude, spaces that never change and are always as memory depicted them. 108

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MANMADE character is denoted by adjectives Man made character is determined by: Articulation determines how a building stands and rises, and how it receives light. big, changing, characteristic, closed, compact, contemplative, continuous, dominating, enclosing, grand, hidden, integral, irregular, isolated, open, rooted, small. soaring, solitary, spreading, submissive, subtle. Modes of Construction -An investigation of place should comprise the basic architectural styles and their relationship to the former component of articulation. -communal, cultural, eclectic, individual, irregular, local, piecemeal, proportional, rural, timeless, unorthodox. Activities the human activities characteristic of a specific place. 109 creative, destructive, passive, communal, individual, cultural

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110 062. DESIGN FACTOR A. Space Organization B . Space Quality

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111 C. Functional Composition D. Forma 1 Image

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112 E. Reversible Element

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113 F. New Aquarium

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114 G. Green Space

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Note: CPV Infrastructure Projec t (prepared by CRS Sirrine, Inc.) from Denver Planning Office, October, 1986 115

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07. DESIGN PROPOSAL "Design is poetry as it associates forms into new meanings. The work of designer is only worth his ability to understand the lows of nature, the character of people and their needs, plus his own ideas and imagination, in short, only as much of a poet as he has in mind." Paul Jacques Grillo Form, Function, and Design

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117 071. SITE PAST

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PRESENT ----: . • ------------yI I • / \ f • ( . \-:;;':--' \.--\\. (i .. -'<-j / ' ----/----. ---....______.-.. -',, -----r-----I I I I I I ..... ________ _ I I \ ------\ \ \ . _J \..._. _ _ _;. ____ .... .. ,, ' 118

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119 FUTURE OD DO Platte R

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072. CONCEPT PROGRAM STRUCTURE • ... r ... -..... ' ' I CIRCULATION ENTRANCE • • I ' I I ' (. • • ::.) . ' • • • • • • • • , / • • • , / , ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' -.L -----------, / , 120

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VISTA Good views into the site from freeway and highland neighborhood OD DO Platte Ri Good views into commons area and Rocky mountains "High Image" building serve as a focal point to 16th St. Mall 121

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122 ACCESS OD DO PlatteR' . . . . . -

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073. PROCESS AND EVALUATION DESIGN PROCESS 123

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124 trY< .. ;<;..r.-.. 0#

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125 074. SITE J J I -

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126 075. PLAN

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127

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128 ' . . . .,

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18th ST. ELEVATION PARK SIDE ElEVATION w

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SECTIONA SECTIONB (/) I"Tl n -i t--1 0 z w N

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134 INTERIOR

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3: 0 0 rrl I w U1

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08. SYSTEM SYNTHESIS .

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137 081. STRUCTURAL SYSTEM The design set provides the maximum flexibility of space that is mandated, while allowing for an aesthetic and pleasing space at the same time. With in mind I present my solution of a reinforced concrete structure and GRANITE exterior for the Denver Aquarium. The general breakdown for reinforced concete structural system follows: Advantages and desirable points Concrete provides a relatively low cost compared to a steel type of structural system -Durability and permanence of the structure both are important allowing for justification physically and economically Concrete structures are very fire resistent as compared with other types of systems -With reinforced concrete structures there are flexibility in the design of forms -Reinforced concrete structural systems allow for simplicity in maintenance procedures -Disadvantages and undesirable points There is a great dead load factor to consider possibly resulting in: -Greater depth of beams -A shorter spanning capability -A large section for the resulting columns -Inspection often becomes difficult when structural tension members are embedded with concrete topping Crude construction practices are often common with concrete type of construction as a result of easy coverup with the nature of the material Physical and aesthetic properties deterate with cracking and partial destruction due to: Tension Creep -Temperature differential With concrete construction, there is diffficulty in reformation, repair and patching -Construction with concrete is basically a slow process, thus acting as a deterent for its actual usage There are considerable disadvantages besides its advantages in reinforced concrete structural system as I analysed above. However, most of disadvantages can be eliminated with careful design and construction process. Using 30 feet by 30 feet structure grid system. (Refer to page 120 and page 128)

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138 082. MECHNICAL SYSTEM Climatic design is the process of designing in such a way that the building enclosure responds positively to climate and comfort requirments. In most climates, it is not possible to produce a totally passive design, hence heating, cooling and other mechanical system form an integral part of most building. For the Denver Aquarium, the roof top self contained Variable Air Volumn (V.A.V.) air conditioning system will be used for the best control of indoor climate. With the system, it is possible to produce the best comfort with low cost through the dynamic control of use time and air volumn. The advantage of the system follow: Less construction cost Easy maintenance Save energy through variable air volumn and use time control Less duct space 1 Room 1 I ;supp 1 y lr-rl -----; Return air --1 Cooling coil : ... . Filter an air uct Conceptual Diagram of Air Handling Unit with V.A.V. System

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139 CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM OF H.V.A.C. AND WATER SYSTEM Air H l ino l1ni.t . 1 . T r '::I . ,• , ftl;:_l J t. ., Roof f r; t---1 . 1 1 / . :1 .. .... , l j I l ! I r--'f--o 'r) ..,.. I . &q l I . , Third level I : ,: ......... i + .. ......... ..J , ; ) l 1 .,.h I Fish :{. , Air j . Tank ' Duct Second level I t I ..... r r ....... ' ... I I } ' ' • C I i ( I : Mezzanine . ' '• . . . : : ' rT 1 r ' : , • I I lobby } I . Jit ...... . .. . .. .. ... . I ,--. L ' 1 . 0. . .. Basement .. . ..... . : .. Boiler Ciller Pumps and Fi lteration for Salt and Fresh Water Systems ( Refer to 02.RESEARCH for the Water System and Lighting )

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09. PRESENTATION

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c

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-8 I BLI OGRAPHY

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3IBLIOGRAPHY \lexander, Christopher, A Pattern Language, Oxford University Press, New York, 1978 lridges, William, Water World; The New York Aquarium, New York Zoological Heritage Press, New York, 1970 : ambridge Seven Associates, Inc., Program Developement for the Proposed Denver Aquarium, Boston, Ma., July, 1976 ansdale, George and Yeadon, John, "Modern Aquarium Lighting", International Zoo Yearbook, Vol II, 1971, Pg. 74 lark, John, Shark Frenzy. Grosset & Dunlap Publishers, New York, 1975 esign Engineering Division, City & County of Denver, Design Serive for an Aquarium for the Denver Zoological Gardens, Project No. 84-198, 1984 ixon, John M., "Profile: Cambridge Seven Associates", Progressive Architecture, December 1972, PG. 56 ames, Charles, "National Fisheries Center and Aquarium, Washington, D.C.," Architectural Record, May 1968, Pg. 161-162 ersh, Harry, The Animals Next Door: A Guide to Zoos and Aquariums of the World, New York, Fleet Academic Editions, 1971 reer, Nora Richter, "Another Powerful Harborside Attraction: The Cambridge Seven•s National Aquarium in Baltimore", AlA Journal, Mid-May 1982, Pg. 170-175 "osvenor, Gilbert H. "Face and Floor of the Peaceful Sea", National Geographic Magazine, October 1069, Vol. 136, No. 4, Pg. 496-499 1ncocks, David, Animals and Architecture, London, Hugh Evelyn Limited, 1971 >rner, Wes, Interview with the HOH Associates Architectural principal working in conjunction with Cambridge Seven Associates, Conducted October 16, 1986

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Montgomery, James M., Marine Life Support Systems, Pasadena, California, JMM, Consulting Engineers, Inc. Palmer, Mickey A. The Architect1S Guide To Facility Programming, The American Institute of Architects, Washington, D.C., 1981 I Pereira & Luckman, 11Marineland; Palos Verdes, California11, Progressive Architecture, October, 1955, Pg. 106-111 Pitcher, Frederick William, Identification Guide to Marine Tropical Fish, Area Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1977 Schmertz, Mildred F. , 11A New Aquarium For Cannery Row; Monterey Bay Aquarium11, Architectural Record, February 1985, Pg. 114-123 Silverstein, Murray and Jacobson, Max, 11 Restructuring the Hidden Program: Toward an Architectural of Social Change11, Facility Programming, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, Pa., Pg. 7-26 Smith,Eleanor, 11Monterey1s National Aquarium: The Fish Came Back to Cannery Roy11, Oceans, November 1984, Pg. 8-13 Spotte, Stephen H. Fish and Invertebrate Culture: Water Manafement in Closed Systems, New York, Wiley-Interscience, John Wi ey and Sons, Inc., 1970 Spotte, Stephen H. Seawater Aquariums: The Captive Environment, New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1979 Stevenson, R9bert A., Jr., The Complete Book of Saltwater Aquariums, Funk & Wagnalls, New York, 1974 Strauss, Carl A. 11Memorial Aquarium; Zoological Gardens, Cincinnati, Ohio11 Architectural Record, October 1951, Pg. 138-140 The Denver Partnership, Inc. Downtow n Area Plan: A Plan for the Future of Denver, Spring 1986 Twelfth Annual Design Awards, 11Citation: New England Aquarium for the New England Aquarium Corporation, Boston, MA11, Progressive Architecture, January 1965, Pg. 152-153 Voelker, William, AlA, 11Psychological Aspects of the Design Process11, The Design Process, Pg. 6-12 White, Edward T. Space Adjacency Analysis, Architectural Media LTD., Tucson, Arizona

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Wolf, Robert L. and Tymitz, Barbara L., "Studying Visitor Perceptions of Zoo Environments" A Naturalist View", International Zoo Yearbook, Vol. 21, 1981, Pg. 49-52

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APPENDIX

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CITY OF BAL TJMORE National Aquarium In 1978, the city of Baltimore began construction of a S20 million aq uarium complex housed in a multi-story building. The aquarium will co nt ain numerous sea water exhibits includi ng a dolphin tank, a shark tank and a co ral reef tank adding up to 1 million gallo ns in volume . The sea water will be artificially manufactured, and continuously treated and recovered in a sophisticated closed-loop process which will include mechanicaJ filtration, biological removal of ammonia and BOD , aeration/deaeration, uJtraviolet sterilization, chlorination, ozonation, and heating and cooling. Cambridg e Seven Associates of Cambridge , Massachusetts are the architects for the project.

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; f '--":-..... -----1 i--:.. WATER TREATMENT DIAGRAM .m&. "SHARI\ EXHIBil SE-\ \\ORI.IJ.FLA . SEA WORL D OF FLORIDA Fresh and Salt W ater T reatment Facilities The Sea World Park in Orlando, Florida, has a million gallon whale and dolphin stadium, a seal and penguin stadium, a large marine aquarium, bat ray exhibit and numerous independent salt and fresh water exhibits. This marine park is the largest of its kind in the world in which the concept of artificial sea water is utilized. The water systems conceived and designed by JMM include recirculation, aeration, b io logical removal of ammonia and organic wastes, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, chlorination, and ozonation and co oling. A filter backwash recovery system in the 15 mgd capacity main treatment plant minimizes use of expensive artificial sea water, allowing 99.9% recycling. R.G. Whee ler Associates of San Diego was the Architect for the project.

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H ANNA/BARBER A MARINELAND RANCHO PALOS VERDES, CALIFORNIA Various Exhi b its In 1979, Marineland opened to the public a 300,000-gallon sea water facility known as "The Baja Rct('!f," where visitors are allowed to swim through the marine habitat. The water treatment system designed by JMM consists of mechanical filtration, ultravio let sterilization, ozonation and aeration providing a water C?f exceptional quality for the delicate marine life of the reef.

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SEA WORLD O F SAN DIEGO Var ious Exhibits Since 1972, JMM has worked with Sea World and its architectural consultants in the design of modifications and additions to this marine park. The projects in which JMM was involved were reh abilitat ion of intake filters, a new intake facility , an addition of a whale holding tank, a pinniped exhibit, and a shark exhib it. The shark exhibit with larg e underwater viewing windows was the first and largest of its kind in the world , containing 400,000 gallons of sea water and a 4-million-gallon-per day water treatment facility which can be operated as a closed system. Other exhibits include a 20, 000-gallon tide pool , a 7-million-dollar "Penguin Encounter," housing antarctic penguins , tempe rat e penguins and alcidae.

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MISCELLANEOUS AQUARIUM PROJECTS Walt Disney Enterprises (Florida). The S ea Pavilion, a $30 million attraction which will be the largest single underwater exhibit in the world and which will include a human undersea habitat (under design). Holmes Enterprises. Preliminary design of water show for hotel theater in Las Vegas . Daido Steel (Japan). Consulting Work in the design of two private marine mammal exhibits and the Chita Aquarium. City of New York. Preliminary design of the Coney Island aquarium. MGM. Design and construction supervision of one-million-gallon underwater facility for the movie production of "The Deep" in Bermuda. Fontainebleau Hotel (Florida). Design of a 6,000-gallon aquarium with large acrylic viewing panels. 007 Productions. A 2.5 million gallon underwater filming pool in Bermuda for the filming of two new James Bond movies (presently under design). U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Facility (Point Lorna, California). Design water preand post-treatment for marine mammal facility.

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WALT DISNEY ENTERPRISES Living S e a s Pavilion for EPCOT C enter Walt D isney World, Florid a James M. Montgomery, Consulting Engineers, Inc. was retained as the prime architectural/engineering contractor for the detailed design of the $60 million Living Seas Pavilion for the new EPCOT Center at Walt Disney World , Florida. The pavilion is a 150, 0 00 square-foot building including a 6.5 MG center aquarium with several smaller aquariums for animal training, display a n d maintenance. Along with the pavilion a 5 0 mgd salt water life support system was included which synthetically makes salt water and removes animal waste/contaminants from the water on recycling. The main aquarium simulates a coral reef e-nvironment and allows spectator vision by numerous acrylic tunnels and large windows . The r em aining portion of the building is devot ed to Disney audio electronics and show scenery . The pavilion can claim numerous world distinctions including the largest aluminum roof, the larg est aquarium, the largest quantity of structural acrylic, and the largest life support system. JMM as prime contractor used ma jor subcontractors in architecture , electric al, and heating air conditio ning and v e ntilation. Spec ial consultants were also utilized in show /set design , lighting d esign, acoustics, corrosion, foundation and lightning protection. JMM controlled, coordinated and l e d the team as well as taking full design responsibilit y for structural, life support facilities, and instrumentation. The design team accepted the conceptua l design from Disney often from sketches, renderings and models. Coordination and change was required continuously through the design to allow set design compatibility and artistic modification throughout the design period.