Citation
Cactus Valley Ditch, linear park

Material Information

Title:
Cactus Valley Ditch, linear park
Creator:
Horgan, Larry
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of landscape architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Landscape architecture

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Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Larry Horgan. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
CACTUS VALLEY
DITCH
U1A7D1 T7BSEt,4
silt, Colorado

UNEAR PARK


FINAL PROJECT
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER MASTER PROGRAM - LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE LARRY HORGAN SPRING 1981
This project was funded by the Division of Impact Assistance, State Department of Local Affairs under a contract with the Town of Silt.
Cooperating partners in the development and carrying out of the project include the Town of Silt, the Division of Impact Assistance, the Western Colorado Rural Communities Program, and the Center for Community Development and Design, University of Colorado at Denver.

CACTUS VALLEY DITCH
LINEAR PARK
i


A PRELIMINARY PLAN &
WORKBOOK


FORWARD
The purpose of this report is to develop a park design utilizing the approximately one mile stretch of the Cactus Valley Ditch running through the town of Silt, Colorado. In anticipation of oil shale growth, community leaders contacted the Center for Community Development and Design. This project was developed and funded through the Center. In conjunction with them, I worked with the town manager, Charley Hedgepeth, as my client throughout the project design.
I was approached to develop a recreation system along the Cactus Valley Ditch as a means to clean up the ditch area and make it a useful space for the town. The design is to act as a catalyst, to generate ideas for park development, to get the community thinking so they can evaluate this proposed development and implement as designed or changed to meet their specific needs.
It is, then, the major purpose of this report to generate public interest by development of this plan providing a set design from which the community can formulate strong opinions and become involved.
i


TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ............................................................. 1
History ............................................................ 1
Site Location ....................................................... 2
METHODOLOGY .............................................................. 2
Site Context ........................................................ 2
Inventory ...................................................... 4
Analysis ....................................................... 6
Concept ........................................................ 9
The Site .......................................................... 9
Inventory 9
Analysis ...................................................... 11
Goals ..........................................................11
Concept ........................................................13
Alternatives ...................................................13
PRELIMINARY PLAN .........................................................28
IMPLEMENTATION ..........................................................70
EVALUATION ..............................................................76
IV


INTRODUCTION
HISTORY
The town of Silt, Colorado leads us back to around the turn of the century when Henry Hasley, in 1908, laid out a town and named it Ferguson. This was a post office town on the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad route. Later, in July, 1915 the then forty acre site was incorporated, and the name was changed to Silt because of the silt deposits forming this portion of the Colorado River Basin.
Most of the early visitors saw this area as a vast wasteland with cactus and rattlesnakes. However, with the construction of the Cactus Valley Ditch in the late 1880's, farming became possible. Grain, hay and potatoes were the major crops of the area. The potential water brought to the farm land increased production, and also provided an excellent environment for cattle ranching.
By the late 1930's and early 1940's, Silt was a cattle and potato shipping point on the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. Today most production is in hay and cattle, although grain and potato crops are still present along with sheep ranching.
Today Silt, while surrounded by agriculture, is a bedroom community housing families working in nearby communities, coal mines, and soon, in oil shale development.
The current growth in oil shale development is causing a rapid population increase in this section of the state. This means Silt will grow from a present population of approximately 1,000 to nearly 2,500 in the next few years, more than doubling its present size.
1


SITE LOCATION (Map 1, Page 3 )
Silt sits on the north side of the Colorado River Basin at the east end of the semi-arid and mesa region of western Colorado. Silt is 18 miles west of Glenwood Springs, which is about 180 miles west of Denver.
METHODOLOGY
SITE CONTEXT
INVENTORY
ANALYSIS
CONCEPT
THE SITE
INVENTORY
ANALYSIS
GOALS
CONCEPT
ALTERNATIVES
PRELIMINARY PLAN
IMPLEMENTATION
EVALUATION
The process used to develop the preliminary plan was twofold. First I looked at the context of the ditch, or how the ditch relates to the surrounding area. And second, I looked at the ditch itself to understand the current problems and how development would or could solve these problems and what new problems this development would create.
SITE CONTEXT
Inventory - what's there Analysis - what does it mean Concept - a design idea
Before discussing the process, the reasons for understanding the site context are important to bring out. In designing a park or facility or any
2


GO
HD LAWTON MAP
MAP 1


element on the land, we must understand that design is the relationship between the physical and social setting at any given moment in time and space. We must be receptive to the social forces of the community, the power structure, the lines of communication, and the individuals and organizations that make up the community. We must also look at the physical setting of the site, putting it into perspective as to its influence on the site and on social behavior. These factors must be identified to assist in design development so the designer can achieve a more thorough understanding of the problems and, possibly more important, an idea of why the site is there, why it's important to the community, and what it can offer the community. I looked at these questions as a part of the site context analysis.
INVENTORY - what's there (Map 2, Page 5 )
Silt lies just north of the Colorado River and the transportation corridor comprised of the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad and Interstate Highway 70. To the north of town are steep slopes rising over one hundred feet to a mesa which will accommodate a new subdivision. The town layout is on a grid system with eighteen blocks running north and south - First Street to the west and Kim Drive to the east. There are five major blocks running east and west -Main Street to the south and Orchard Avenue to the north.
The community is divided into many sections including commercial, residential, open space, public buildings, and the Cactus Valley Ditch. The commercial consists of small retail stores along the Main Street. I split the residential into three areas - the old town or town core from First Street to Eleventh Street, and Main Street to approximately Orchard Avenue; and two newer areas - the trailer
4


park from Twelfth Street to Kim Drive south of Grand Avenue, and the trailer park and frame house mix area from the athletic field east and from Grand Avenue north. Open space is scattered throughout the town, including vacant lots along the ditch, an athletic field, and existing parks. The public buildings consist of the Post Office, Town Hall, School, and the Community Center. The Cactus Valley Ditch winds its way for a little over a mile through the town flowing from east to west.
ANALYSIS (Map 3, Page 7 )
Why is the site there?
Why is it important to the community?
Other important elements.
What can if offer the community?
WHY IS THE SITE THERE?
As stated earlier, the Cactus Valley Ditch was built for the purpose of irrigating a previously dry wasteland to allow for farming and ranching.
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO THE COMMUNITY?
This is the designer's or community's interpretation of past and present events. In the past, the ditch brought water to this southern slope of the Colorado River Basin changing cactus into hay and potatoes, thus making water a very unique resource to this semi-arid region. Realizing that the ditch was there previous to the town and the fact that the town developed around the ditch, I assume Silt was located where it is because of this availability of water from the ditch, while being out of the Colorado River flood plain. This assumption hints at the fact that the Cactus Valley Ditch was the major reason for the location of Silt. If this is true, then the ditch is of great historic importance and should be considered a valuable asset to the town. Presently,
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the ditch is still used extensively for irrigation in the Valley as well as by the home owner living along the ditch.
WHAT ARE OTHER IMPORTANT ELEMENTS?
In analyzing the area, other elements arise as important, such as the relationship of the ditch to the surrounding land uses and relationships to area-wide linkage corridors. First, the ditch provides good linkage to most of the town sections. It directly relates to the three residential areas, to much of the open space, to the School, Post Office, Community Center, and City Hall. The commercial area is the only section isolated from the ditch.
This can easily be resolved by linkage along Ninth Street and/or Seventh Street. The area linkages are defined by existing physical features. The steep slopes to the north limit the mesa access to Seventh Street, and the transportation corridor to the south limits the Colorado River access to Ninth Street.
Another element to be looked at is the idea of a town center. In many towns there is an area that tends to attract people and convey a feeling of strength and unity to that town. This may be a strongly defined commercial area, a park-post office-city hall complex or any combination of elements.
In observing Silt, I found this central strength or unity missing. The commercial area is roughly defined, while the City Hall, the Post Office and existing parks are scattered.
WHAT CAN THE DITCH OFFER THE TOWN?
By synthesizing the above information - i.e. the historic value, linkage, and town center elements - one may see how the ditch can have the opportunity to become a key element in the future of Silt. Development along the ditch has the opportunity to tie the town together, interpret history, and provide a
8


unity and possibly a unique town center. With these factors in mind, I developed a site context concept.
CONCEPT - an idea statement (Map 4, Page 10 )
THE CACTUS VALLEY DITCH, AS THE BACKBONE OF THE COMMUNITY, WILL PROVIDE IDENTITY AND UNITY TO SILT.
Upon understanding the site context and how the ditch can provide a very strong unifying element for the town, the next step in the process is moving down to the site level.
THE SITE
At the site level a more detailed process was involved.
Inventory - what's there Analysis - problem definition
Goals - what needs to be done to solve or minimize problems
Concept - a design idea
Alternatives - ideas to solve the problems
Preliminary Plan - choice of alternative
Implementation - how to install the plan
Evaluation - an ongoing process
INVENTORY
The area this project deals with is approximately a one mile section of the Cactus Valley Ditch from Fourth Street on the west end of town to Kim Drive on the east end. Included in the study area are a number of irregular shaped vacant lots which were givens and are a major part of this project. These land parcels are adjacent to the ditch and are located along the ditch segment from Fourth Street to Eleventh Street. The lots range in size from a sixteenth of an acre to a little over one acre.
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The ditch easement is nebulous, defined as "whatever is necessary to maintain the ditch." The ditch banks are not controlled and the width of the ditch varies from 9 to 13 feet. Vegetation along the ditch and in the vacant lots consists mostly of weedy grasses and perennials with occasional trees.
The ditch flows year round but the flow varies from about fifty cubic feet per second during the spring and summer to a little over a trickle during the winter.
ANALYSIS - problem definition
In analyzing the site, I first identified the more important site problems, and second, understood the consequence of each problem. Since this project is dealing with proposing some type of recreation use in existing unused areas, the problems were divided into existing, development, and other context problems. This is because with development of the ditch area, new problems arise that are mostly unrelated to the existing problems. Also,there are other problems related to the larger contextual setting to be understood separately. This separation of problems made it easier to identify the source of each problem and generate a clear sequence from problem to solution. These problems are organized in Chart 1 (Page 12), stating the problems and consequences.
GOALS
"Now at this third stage of the DESIGN PROCESS, we can build a bridge between the analyzed facts and attributes we have just discovered, and the alternatives/decision-making phase which is to follow."1
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CHART 1
PROBLEM______________________________CONSEQUENCE
EXISTING
Water seepage Water accumulation along the south side of the ditch in residential areas.
Cleaning Accumulation of silt on the ditch banks from yearly dredging.
Ditch separates the town Access limited to six vehicle crossings along the mile stretch of ditch.
Uncontrolled ditch and bank area Unsightly, weeds, and unsafe.
Non-utilization of a unique resource Missed opportunity to make a pleasant linear space out of a currently unused and unsightly area.
WITH DEVELOPMENT
Backyard conflict Development changes private backyard setting into a public thoroughfare.
Auto-Pedestrian conflict Six road-pathway intersections present high risk of accident.
Pedestrian-Bike conflict Problem more with single path in yielding right-of-way. With a double path the paths must be used as designated.
Safety Children in ditch, road crossings, and maintenance.
Maintenance Poor maintenance destroys any design.
Irrigation pumps and pipe Problem in areas where pipes would be located at the ditch or on homeowner side of path.
OTHER
Growth The town will more than double in the next few years; thus the demand for recreation will grow and will need to be addressed now!
Town identity It's difficult to determine any strong town focus which helps develop pride, community involvement, and town unity.
12


This bridge refers to goal setting, or the task of separating out the major issues of the project. I separated out five major issues or goals which are as follows:
1. To generate public involvement.
2. To provide the town with an alternative to the existing conditions.
3. To design with emphasis on the pedestrian.
4. To use the ditch to provide unity and become a central focus.
5. To solve or minimize the identified problems.
CONCEPT
To help guide the continuing process we must Drovide a statement, or concept (as the design professions refer to it), that will provide a filter through which all future decisions must pass. This concept grows out of the designer's past experience and understanding of the major project issues. At the area scale, I developed a concept relating the ditch to the town. At the site scale, I developed a concept relating to the three ditch elements and the area concept. This concept or idea is: TO CREATE A SERIES OF THEME PARKS CONNECTED BY A PATH SYSTEM TO FORM A SINGLE, CONTINUOUS PARK AS A UNIFYING ELEMENT AND BACKBONE OF SILT.
ALTERNATIVES
Alternatives provide a list of ideas for solving problems, reaching goals and fulfilling the concept(s). In developing alternatives, I divided the site into three categories which are the ditch, easement, and vacant lots. These helped to further define the sequence from problem to solution. In
13


addition it is important to develop ideas on how these separate elements can work together to form one continuous system which I termed design criteria.
DITCH ALTERNATIVES (Figure 1)
These alternatives looked at ways to improve the ditch visually, structurally (stabilize ditch sides and/or the complete ditch), and the seepage and cleaning problems. First I'll define these three ditch elements, then list and compare elements using a chart.
Visual - a value judgment which I define as using natural materials to line (complete or partial) the ditch.
Structural - ditch improvement adds strength to the ditch sides and/or complete ditch area.
Ditch problems - linings that solve or minimize the problems of seepage and cleaning.
The following chart (Chart 2, Page 17) lists the alternatives along the left side of the chart with the three ditch elements across the top. An x is placed in the boxes under each element if it pertains to the corresponding alternative. As an example, the alternatives that solve or minimize the cleaning problem are concrete lining with partial stone side walls, and concrete lining.
DITCH EASEMENT (OR PATHWAY) ALTERNATIVES
The pathway alternatives were divided into two groups, path paving and path layout. Path paving deals with the surfacing material alternatives, and the path layout deals with the linear alignment or where the path runs, or is located, from Fourth Street to Kim Drive.
14


FIGURE 1
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15


FIGURE 1 cont.


CLAW LINING*
tZtA(TCr& VslALL
16


CHART 2
Alternative Visual Structural Seepage Cleaning
Stone-complete lining or side X walls
Wood side walls X X
Clay lining X Grasscrete X X
Concrete lining with partial stone X side walls X X X
Plastic lining with soil or rock covering X X
Concrete lining X X X
Concrete side walls X
Gabions X
17


Path paving alternatives
These alternatives are illustrated in figure 2.
Asphalt, concrete, wood-path and bridging, crushed stone, flagstone, and brick.
Path layout alternatives
These alternatives are illustrated in figure 3.
Double path system - separating bicyclist and pedestrian, single path system - combining bicyclist and pedestrian, and a combination of single and double where and if applicable.
VACANT LOT (OR MINI PARK) ALTERNATIVES
Listed are some of the possible uses for these mini park areas.
Playground, nature study, exhibits, history interpretation, sculpture, seating (quiet, restful), gardens, education, basketball, horseshoes, and bicycle area.
DESIGN CRITERIA
This section deals with how the separate elements (ditch, path and mini parks) can be pulled together to form a single unified park system. Items such as signage, trash containers, bollards, fencing, benches and lighting, in conjunction with the park elements (paving and ditch lining) will be used as the unifying criteria.
These criteria will be illustrated and discussed in the preliminary plan of this document, (see pages 50-69)
18


FIGURE 2
Path Pavi li6
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CPDAHCD STONE



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19


FIGURE 3
e>iKe
walk
Path layout
DODbL& PATH
SIM6LD PATH
20


ALTERNATIVE SELECTION
Once the alternative search has been completed we must examine these alternatives in relation to the goals, concepts and problems, to select the most appropriate alternative(s). First, I charted the problems, their alternative solutions, and the evaluation of each solution, and second,
I selected what I felt to be the best solution(s).
Step One - alternative solutions and evaluation.
This step is illustrated in the following chart (Chart 3, pages 22-24 ).
Step Two - the solution.
By evaluating the alternatives, it becomes possible to select the best or at least the most viable solution. « The filters used to make this choice are based on the designer's personal values developed through previous experience. The following chart (Chart 4, pages 25-27 ) states the problem, the solution, and why that alternative was chosen.
21


CHART 3
STEP ONE
Problem
Alternative Solutions
Evaluation
EXISTING
Ditch
Seepage 1. Concrete lining with or without 1. 85% seepage control,
stone side walls. expensive.
2. Clay lining 2. Good seepage control, velosity and side slope are limiting.
3. Plastic lining 3. Can be punctured, relatively inexpensive, must have additional lining as protection.
4. Other linings 4. No seepage control.
Cleaning 1. Concrete lining with or without 1. Designed with water velosity
stone side walls. high enough to keep ditch clean.
2. Other linings 2. Difficult to prevent silt accumulation.
Ditch separates town 1. Bridges (pedestrian) 1. Allows many points for pedestrian crossing.
Path (Easement)
Nebulous Easement 1. Design with existing limitation 1. Path design depends on width of
of space. easement left by each home owner.
2. Reclaim area necessary to maintain 2. Possible irate home owners, but
the ditch - allowing for path is the only way to continue path along ditch.
Unused Resource 1. Develop pathway system a. double pathway a. Separates bicyclist and pedestrian is used properly, expensive to install and maintain.
b. single pathway b. Combines bicyclist and pedestrian causing some conflict - less expensive.


^imr\i j , mill.
STEP ONE
Problem Alternative Solution ___________ _______ Evaluation
Vacant Lots (Mini Parks)
Unused Resource 1. Develop mini parks 1. Parks become activity nodes along the linear park providing various recreational opportunities.
Other
Growth 1. Develop recreation with growth 1. Recreation more directly relates to needs but would develop after need occurs.
2. Develop recreation system prior to growth with the understanding of growth patterns to occur. 2. Works on a hypothesis that recreation systems can provide the unity and identity to facilitate and deal with raoid growth.
Town identity 1. Develop a linear park system. 1. Park becomes backbone and semi-town center or town identity.
2. Develop Seventh at Grand Avenue area. 2. Central area of town and has high visibility.
WITH DITCH DEVELOPMENT
Backyard conflict 1. Screening with fence and/or vegetation. 1. Can provide buffer between backyard and park system. Can create positive or negative experience.
2. Use single path to avoid backyards where possible by alternatinn ditch sides. 2. Minor or no screening required, although some vegetation may be wanted as a visual asset.
Auto-Pedestrian conflict 1. Signage, lighting, bollards, 1. Highly controlled intersections.
crosswalks, etc.


CHART 3, cont.
STEP ONE
Problem Alternative Solution Evaluation
Pedestrian-Bicycl ist Conflict 1. 2. 3. 4. Signage Sharp turns, bumps, dips, etc. Design for good visibility Separate paths 1. 2. 3. 4. Make pedestrian and biker aware of problem. Force biker to slow down. Pedestrian-biker visual contact. If used properly, it greatly reduces problem, but is expensive and doubles maintenance.
Safety 1. Design considering ease of getting out of ditch once someone gets in. 1. Decrease possibility of serious injury.
2. Educate, especially the young, in the dangers of the ditch 2. Helps prevent accident.
3. Develop recreation committee to evaluate safety. 3. Community interaction allows fast control of the problem(s).
Maintenance 1. Involve local groups, clubs, etc. 1. Get the public involved; it's their park - their image!
2. Develop recreation committee to evaluate safety and maintenance. 2. Allows community to have control of success or failure of park.
Irrigation pumps 1. Pump at ditch cutout 1. Risk of vandalism.
and pipe 2. Pump on or next to home owners property. 2. More vandalism control, easier maintenance.
3. Pipe buried emerging at ditch and pump. 3. Repair problems, out of sight of vandals.
4. Pipe in sleeve or trench drain under sidewalk, with sleeve extending underground to pump if desired. 4. Easier repair, pipe out of sight, ore expensive.


CHART 4
STEP TWO
Problem Solution Why

DITCH Seepage and Cleaning Concrete lining with stone side walls. Seepage control, stone added for visual effect, expensive but eliminates any major yearly cleaning, thus no backhoe or dumping of silt on the ditch banks.
Ditch Separates Town Pedestrian Bridges Allows pedestrian more access.
PATH (EASEMENT)
Nebulous Easement Design with existing space but retain the option to reclaim easement where necessary. Area between Grand Avenue and 13th Street is the area that has no or limited access, thus the only space where reclaiming is necessary.
Unused resource Develop park system single pathway Park system links town together, combines bike and pedestrian creating right-of-way conflict, but half the price of double path and requires half of the maintenance.
MINI PARKS (VACANT LOTS)
Unused resource Develop mini parks Parks become activity nodes along the linear park providing various recreational opportunities.


CHART 4, cont.
STEP TWO
Problem
Solution
Why
OTHER
Growth
Develop recreation system prior to growth with the knowledge of growth patterns to occur.
Works on hypothesis that recreation systems can provide the unity and identity to facilitate and deal with rapid growth.
Town Identity
Develop linear park system and Park become backbone and town
identity.
Develop Seventh at Grand area Central area of town, has high
visibility. Linkage with the linear park along Seventh has the potential to create a dynamic identity and town center.
WITH DITCH DEVELOPMENT
Backyard conflict
Use single path to avoid backyards Greatly reduce the cost of
where possible. screening, allows more variation
with plant materials used.
Auto-Pedestrian conflict Use signage, lightina, bollards, etc. Highly controlled intersections.
Pedestri an-Bi cycli st conflict Use signage, sharp turns, good design visibility. Make user aware of problem, and control use.
Safety Design safety into ditch, develop safety education program, and develop a recreation committee. Control and prevent accident, committee to encourage community interaction.


CHART 4, cont. STEP TWO
Problem Solution Why

Maintenance Involve local groups and extend responsibility of the recreation committee to maintenance. Allows community to have control of the success or failure of the park.
Irrigation pumps and pipe Pump on or next to property and pipe in complete sleeve. Easier maintenance; more vandal control; sleeve allows easy repair, and pipe is out of site, but more expensive.


PRELIMINARY PLAN
This section of the report is organized as follows:
1. General design comments
2. Five base maps illustrating the basic layout of the Cactus Valley
Ditch Linear Park System (Sheets 1-5, Pages 30-34 ).
3. Analysis chart of the seven mini parks.
4. Description of the mini parks and the plans of each.
5. Design criteria - details showing various design elements.
GENERAL DESIGN COMMENTS
In developing this mile section of the Cactus Valley Ditch there are a few design considerations that must be dealt with. These are the ditch patterns, future development, and current non-ditch linkages.
First, the ditch is divided into two separate patterns: the section from Fourth Street to Grand Avenue and the section from Grand Avenue to Kim Drive.
The first section, from Fourth to Grand, is comprised of wide easement areas and connects the seven mini parks. Thus this is the major section of concern in this project.
The second section, from Grand to Kim, is comprised of narrow or no ditch easement and there are no mini park areas. The plan shows the path alignment through this area, but the development of this section should not take place until future town growth expands to the east of Kim Drive.
28


Future development in the area will provide many new recreational opportunities which Silt can become a part of by understanding possible linkage corridors stemming from the linear park system. The new subdivision to the north can be linked via Seventh 'Street and linkages to Rifle and New Castle would best be along the Colorado River which can be connected via Ninth Street.
The current non-ditch linkages refer to bike lanes along the major streets and avenues. With major emphasis on development from Fourth to Grand, a few additional areas need linkages to connect with the linear park. These linkages would be bike lanes along Grand, to connect the east end of town and across to the west, and along Seventh and/or Ninth to connect the park with the commercial area.
29


CHART 5
RELATION TO EXISTING PARKS
RELATION TO LINEAR PARK
PARK LOCATION VISIBILITY ADJACENT LAND
OTHER____________CONCEPT(S)
#1 Fourth St. Med-Low and traffic Ballard flow Residential Across local street West end terminus of mini park proposed system Passive - quiet seating; beginning or end point
#2 Fifth St. Low Traffic and flow Orchard Residential Across ditch -one block along Fifth St. R.O.W. Activity node Active -out-of-the-way node; needs strong activity
#3 w Sixth St. Low and Ballard Residential One block along Ballard Activity nodewest terminus of proposed park #4 No through streets-road elbow Focal point active
c* p— Seventh St. High and Ballard Residential Two-three blocks across ditch along Ballard Activity node-central axis Linear vehicle movement intersecting site. Park is linear. Passive -formal statement
#5 Eighth St. Low and Ballard Residential Three blocks along ditch and Ballard Activity nodeeast terminus of proposed park #4 No through streets -road elbow Passive - active Focal point
#6 Along Medium School and Four-six blocks Activity node- Strong relation Education area -
Orchard between Ninth St. and Eleventh St. Residential along ditch and Ballard largest mini park - strong school relation to east residential area which has no existing park facilities Active area
TT~ Eleventh St. Low and Ballard Residential Six blocks along ditch and Ballard East end terminus of mini park proposed system No through streets -road elbow Passive -beginning or end point


The following is an explanation of the seven mini parks addressed in this recreation study. The seven parks are: Aphitheater, Bicycle, Playground, Allee, Willow, Educational/Playground, and Garden.
Park #1, or Amphitheater Park, is the west terminus to the series of mini parks. Thus it would be an entry of exit point for the park user.
For this reason this area should be a passive or quiet area with seating available and native vegetation. The steep slope off the ditch and the park's southern exposure affords a great opportunity for an amphitheater, taking advantage of the warm winter sun and shaded summer setting. (The amphitheater provides a warm sink in the winter and trees planted around the amphitheater allow for shaded conditions in the summer.) The plaza area, in conjunction with the amphitheater, provides an excellent space for a picnic, either group or individual.
Park #2, or Bicycle Park, is an out-of-the-way park without any strong identifying element to dictate its use. Located as it is, either a passive or active park would work in this area. Analyzing its relationship to the other mini parks helped develop the park concept. One block to the west is Amphitheater Park and one block to the southeast is Playground Park. Throughout the series of mini parks there are both passive and active parks relating largely to the pedestrian, yet the linear expanse of trail is for pedestrian and bicyclist alike; therefore it's only logical to expect an area off the main path for the bicyclist. Understanding this park's relationship to the other six parks and that the other six parks relate strongly to the surrounding land use or to adjacent parks leaves this park as the one area that could allow for bicycle use.
36


Park #3, or Playground Park, is located at Sixth and Ballard. It is the west terminus of Allee' Park with the ditch as the separation between the two. Understanding this relationship to Allee' Park provides the opportunity to develop this third park into a focal park with an active theme, thus Playground Park. The play structures provide the focal point and the active playground theme attracts attention to this focal park.
Park #4, or Allee' Park, is bisected by Seventh Street and is formed by the Ballard Avenue right-of-way which is discontinuous because of the ditch. The park runs perpendicular to Seventh Street and is at the approximate midpoint of the seven mini parks. The concept of the park is a formal allee' with a passive setting, as for seating, historic interpretation, flowering trees, sculpture and a wide plaza type walk. There are three reasons for this park theme. First, the reason for the formal setting is its central location among the rest of the parks; it has high visibility from Seventh which can provide a strong town image statement, and the formal linear aspect counteracts the strong form of the linear roadway (Seventh Street). Second, the allee theme adds an attractive accent to the linear form of the pathway (an allee' is a planting of trees forming two straight rows, with one row on each side of a path or roadway.) Covered bridges are at both ends of the park, creating focal points to further accent this park. Third, the passive setting compliments the formal allee', allowing areas for quiet contemplation in an aesthetically pleasing area.
37


Park #5 or Willow Park is located at Eighth Street and Ballard Avenue and was formed by the rights-of-way of these two roads cut off by the ditch. It is the east terminus of Allee Park separated by the ditch, providing another area as a focal point. In addition, a large specimen willow graces this small park. As a terminus area, the theme again tends toward a focal point, yet the specimen willow dictates quiet thought. Neither theme seemed to override the other; thus it has a name reflecting the willow with adjacent seating and a small active play area as a focal point in line with the bridge and pathway.
Park #6 or Education/Playground Park is located by the elementary school between Ninth Street and approximately Eleventh Street at Orchard Avenue, with the ditch forming its southern boundary and Orchard its northern boundary. The educational part of the theme was chosen for the park's western half because of the school's proximity. This area can be used for science experiments or any outdoor school activity, and tree massing can provide a screen from the play fields and can in addition provide a picnic area for summer use. The playground aspect of the theme relates the relationship of the park's eastern half to the east side of town, which at present has no recreational facilities.
This section of the park will provide small scale recreational facilities such as a play structure, horseshoe area, and a hard surface play area including basketball, four-square, hopscotch, and any others appropriate for small area play. One of the major design elements of Education/Playground Park is the Orchard Avenue road closure between Ninth Street and Eleventh Street. This was done for the school children's safety. By developing a path along the ditch and this sixth park there would be a great increase in children crossing Orchard Avenue to the park system. Although present traffic flow along Orchard Avenue
38


does not create an immediate hazard, future growth will steadily increase this flow, simultaneously increasing the safety hazard. Orchard Avenue is only two blocks from another major cross town road (Grand Avenue); thus closing off Orchard poses only a minimal driver inconvenience and creates a very pleasant and safe extension to the school grounds.
Park #7 or Garden Park is the east terminus of the mini park system and is also the smallest park of the seven, with about a sixteenth of an acre. As a beginning or end point along the series of mini parks, again it is seen as a passive node with quiet seating. The park would be planted with ornamental shrubs, ground covers and flowers to accent this small area and to provide pleasant surroundings for seating.
39


PARKS
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DESIGN
CRITERIA
50


DESIGN CRITERIA
The following detail drawings help to further explain the design, but again should be used to generate more ideas and get the community involved. Much of the work on the linear park can be accomplished by the community without outside assistance. A recreation committee is vital in organizing an effort to make this park a community project and a success.
51


RECREATION FACILILITIES EDUCATION/ PLAYGROUND

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Vegetation
The following is a list of possible plant materials that can be used in the parks. It is best to plant a variety of trees and shrubs to prevent disease from destroying large numbers of similar trees or shrubs.
Irees-
Shade- cottonless Cottonwood Green Ash Hackberry Honeylocust Silver & Norway Maple
Horsechestnut- plant away from roads St paths Boxelder
Burr, Red St English Oaks Small trees-
Alder Big Tooth Maple
Aspen Ginnala Maple
Rocky Mountain Birch Cutleaf St Staghorn ^urnac- suckers
Gambel's Oak
Russian Olive Ornamentals-
Crab Apple American Plum- suckers
Golden Rain Tree Eastern Redbud- protected area
Hawthorn
Japanese Pagoda
Japanese Tree Lilac
Mountain Ash
Bradford Pear Evergreens-
Scotch Pine
Austrian Pine
Ponderosa Pine
Eastern white Pine
Colorado spruce
White Fir
Juniperus scopulorum- many varieties
68


Shrubs
Deciduous-
Chokecherry Wild Rose Threeleaf iumac Buffaloberry Snowberry Redosier Dogwood Chokeberry
Siberian Peashrub *
Barberry
Buckthorn
Cotoneaster
Alpine Currant
Coralberry
Potentila
Sage
Evergreen-
Junipers- many varieties
There may be plants that the local nurseryman may suggest that are not on this list which is fine, but again try to use as many differant plants as possible even if it means waiting and shopping around.
Native Grass
All open ground areas in the mini parks and ditch easment shall be seeded with the following mix:
Kind of Seed
Luna Pubesent Wheatgrass Nordan Crested Wheatgrass Fairway Wheatgrass
Cover crop to be included 'Colorado 37' Oats 0
Germination Purity
85% 96%
88% 97%
82% 93%
Pounds of Pure Live Seed per 1000 Sq.Ft.
1.2
.3
.23
in mix:
.81 lbs. per 1000 square feet.
69


IMPLEMENTATION
Because of the town size and availability of funds the project will need to be constructed in phases to make such a development possible.
Rather than traditional phasing showing the exact sequence from start to finish, only a general order of construction will be suggested, leaving the exact order to the town's discretion.
The ditch and path are the two major elements of concern in the sequence of construction. These elements should be considered in sections from street crossing to street crossing, i.e. as from Fourth Street to Seventh Street. Once the ditch and path are completed for each section, the other park elements in that section may be completed or the sequence may continue on to a new section. The following is a list of the sections divided into two parts:
Part 1 (current construction)
Section 1 - Fourth Street to Seventh Street Section 2 - Seventh Street to Ninth Street Section 3 - Ninth Street to Grand Avenue Part 2 (future construction)
Section 4 - Grand Avenue to 13th Street Section 5 - 13th Street to 16th Street Section 6 - 16th Street to Kim Drive The following chart shows phasing per section with a rough estimation of cost for each section. Again these sections may be completed in any order as long as the ditch and path are completed first.
70


CHART 6
PHASING & PRELIMINARY COST ANALYSIS
ITEM QUANTITY UNIT COST TOTAL

SECTION I
Ditch -
concrete with 1,125 1 inear ft. $35/1 in.ft. $39,375
stone sides
Path -
10' wide asphalt 1 ,500 1 inear ft. $10/1 in.ft. 15,000
8‘ wide asohalt 110 linear ft. $10/1 in.ft. 1,100
15' wide concrete 420 linear ft. $20/1 in.ft. 8,400
Bridges -
10' x 14' 2 $2,000 ea. 4,000
i o X GJ O 1 $4,000 ea. 4,000
10' x 42' covered 1 $10,000 ea. 10,000
Native Grass - 31,500 sq. ft. $.05/sq.ft. 1,575
Trees -
deciduous shade 18 $300/tree 5,400
deciduous ornamental 20 $200/tree 4,000
Shrubs (estimated) -
5 gal. deciduous 100 $10 ea. 1,000
5 gal. evergreen 100 $18 ea. 1,800
Sand -
8" deep 98 cubic yds. $15/cu.yd. 1,470
TOTAL (SECTION I) $97,120
Play structure - (playground park)
cost varies greatly from catalog order to community built cost will be additional for section I.
71


CHART 6, cont.
PHASING AND PRELIMINARY COST ANALYSIS (CONT.)
ITEM___________________________QUANTITY_____________UNIT COST
SECTION II
Ditch -
Path -
Trees -
Shrubs
concrete with 615 1 inear ft. $35/1 in.ft.
stone sides
10' wide asphalt 570 1 inear ft. $10/1 in.ft.
15'wide concrete 150 linear ft. $20/1 in.ft.
10' x 42' covered 1 $10,000 ea.
10' x 14' 1 $ 2,000 ea.
grass - 10,( ». > O O CO -Q ft. $.05/sq./ft.
deciduous 9 $200/tree
ornamental
deciduous 5 gal. 160 $10/shrub
evergreen 5 gal. 15 $18/shrub
Park Plaza -
pre-cast concrete 960 sq. ft . $3/sq.ft.
pavers
TOTAL (SECTION II
Play structures (willow park)
*see play structure, Section I
TOTAL
$21,525
5,700
3.000
10,000
2.000
500
1,800
1,600
270
2,880
) $49,275
72


CHART 6, cont.
PHASING & PRELIMINARY COST ANALYSIS
ITEM___________________________QUANTITY______________UNIT COST__________TOTAL
SECTION III Ditch -
concrete with stone sides 1,110 1 inear ft. $35/1 in.ft. $38,850
Path -
Bridges 10' wide asphalt 1 ,830 linear ft. $10/1 in.ft. 18,300
10' x 14' 2 $2,000 ea. 4,000
6' x 14' 1 $1,200 ea. 1,200
Native grass - 64,000 sq.ft. $.05/sq.ft. 3,200
Trees -
deciduous shade 11 $300/tree 3,300
small deciduous 8 $100/tree 800
Shrubs evergreen 5' (estimated) - 14 $100/tree 1,400
5 gal. deciduous 100 $10/shrub 1,000
Sand -
8" deep 73 cubic yds. $15/cu.yd. 1,095
TOTAL (SECTION III) $73,145
Play structure
* see play structure, Section I
73


CHART 6, cont.
PHASING & PRELIMINARY COST ANALYSIS
ITEM___________________________QUANTITY_____________UNIT COST___________TOTAL
SECTION IV
Ditch - concrete with stone sides 375 linear ft. $35/1 in.ft. $13,125
Path - 10' wide asphalt 390 linear ft. $10/1 in.ft. 3,900
TOTAL $17,025
SECTION V
Sitch - concrete with stone sides 870 linear ft. $35/1 in.ft. 30,450
Path - 10' wide asphalt 885 linear ft. $10/1 in.ft. 8,850
Bridges 10' x 14' 2 add bridge at Cactus Drive $2,000 ea. 4,000
TOTAL $43,300
SECTION VI
Should not be constructed until new road crossing is built east of town.
Sections are planned from road crossing to road crossing because the concrete lining can be tied into the bridge structure to prevent undercutting of the ditch lining.
74


CHART 6, cont.
PHASING & PRELIMINARY COST ANALYSIS
ALTERNATIVE COSTS Ditch -
stone lining @ $25/1 inear ft.
plastic with stone lining @ $30/1 inear ft.
Plazas -
brick @ $7/sq.ft. concrete @ $2/sq.ft. asphalt @ $l/sq.ft.
Irrigation System -
sod area @ $.45/sq.ft. shrub area @ $.25/sq.ft. trees in shrub area $25 ea.
MISCELLANEOUS COSTS
Fencing 2 rail wood $9/1 inear ft.
Bollard lights $700 ea.
Pedestrian lights $450 ea.
Basketball backstop $450 ea.
Benches prefabricated $250 ea.
Bike rack $300 ea.
Earthwork $3/cubic yd.
75


%
EVALUATION
The level of detail of the preliminary design is rough and will need many more hours of work to bring it to a final design ready for construction bid. The preliminary cost estimate is only a rough estimated figure and should not be interpreted as a final cost.
At this point in the design process (i.e. preliminary plan), the community takes over. They now have the say as to what happens with the ditch area, whether it collects weeds for the next twenty years or whether it becomes a vital part of the community. The high cost of developing a linear park system is probably the most deterring element of the system's implementation, but the social and visual benefits may override the cost element, providing an enriched experience lasting a lifetime. The community must make that decision, understanding the costs and benefits of their decision.
The major purpose of this project is to develop ideas for a linear park system and generate public interest. Some ideas have been discussed in this paper which are only a small segment of possible solutions. It is now the task of the community to analyze and evaluate the preliminary plan, making it work for the community.
In conclusion, the Cactus Valley Ditch Linear Park System can become an integral part of the community, providing crosstown linkage and a visually pleasing space. It would be unfortunate not to take advantage of this unique resource, as the ditch can become the backbone of the community, providing unity and identity, and design guidelines for future park development in the Silt vicinity.
76


Full Text

PAGE 1

CACTUS VALLEY -----...... DITCH '-------' . . ' . . ... v • • . ' . . . . . . \ . . 0 .. ' ' ,, • . C1 • ' • \ t:l • . . 0 " • -: ' AURAR I A LIBRARYU18701 9735264 silt, colorado r z m )> :a ;g :a "

PAGE 2

FINAL PROJECT UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER MASTER PROGRAM LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE LARRY HORGAN SPRING 1981 CACTUS VALLEY DITCH LINEAR PARK Ci> ll ro, A 11' I q This project was funded by the Division of Impact Assistance, State Department of Local Affairs under a contract with the Town of Silt. Cooperating partners in the development and carrying out of the project include the Town of Silt, the Division of Impact Assistance, the Western Colorado Rural Communities Program, and the Center for Community Development and Design, University of Colorado at Denver. ED,.q . o.•A• .....

PAGE 3

A PRELIMINARY PLAN & WORKBOOK i i

PAGE 4

FORWARD The purpose of this report is to develop a park design utilizing the approximately one mile stretch of the Cactus Valley Ditch running throu9h the town of Silt, Colorado. In anticipation of oil shale growth, community leaders contacted the for Community Development and Design. This project was developed and funded through the Center. In conjunction with them, I worked with the town manager, Charley Hedgepeth, as my client through out the project design. I was approached to develop a recreation system along the Cactus Valley Ditch as a means to clean up the ditch area and make it a useful space for the town. The design is to act as a catalyst, to generate ideas for park develop ment, to get the community thinking so they can evaluate this proposed development -and implement as designed or changed to meet their specific needs. It is, then, the major purpose of this report to generate public interest by development of this plan providing a set design from which the community can formulate strong opinions and become involved. iii

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • . • 1 Hi story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Site Location ••••••••••..••••••.•.••.••••.•••••••..•••••••••••.••• 2 METHODOLOGY • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • • . • . • • • • • . • • • • • • • • . • . . • • • • . • • . . • • • • • • • • • • 2 Site Context • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • . . • • • • • • . • • • . • • • . • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 2 Inventory • • • • • • • • • • . • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • . • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4 Analysis ••••••••••••.•.•••.•..•.••..•••••••.•••.•••.••.•••.•• 6 Concept . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . . • • • • • • • • 9 The Site • • • • • • • . • • • . • . • . • • . . • . . • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • . . • • • . . • • • • • • • • . 9 Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Analysis ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••..••••••••••••• 11 Goa 1 s •.•••••.•.••••••••••.•••.•.......••.•.•...•..••.•.•••.•. 11 Concept •••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 13 Alternatives ••••••.•••.•••..•••••••••.•..••.••••.•••••••••••• 13 PRELIMINARY PLAN ••••••.•••••••••.•••••...•••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••• 28 IMPLEMENTATION •••.•••••••.•••.••••••.....••..•••.••••.••••.••.••••••.•• 70 EVALUATION ••••••••.•••••••••.•.•.•.•...••••..••••••••.••••••••••••..••• 76 iv

PAGE 6

INTRODUCTION HISTORY The town of Silt, Colorado leads us back to around the turn of the century when Henry Hasley, in 1908, laid out a town and named it Ferguson. This was a post office town on the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad route. Later, in July, 1915 the then forty acre site was incorporated, and the name was changed to Silt because of the silt deposits forming this portion of the Colorado River Basin. Most of the early visitors saw this area as a vast wasteland with cactus and rattlesnakes. However, with the construction of the Cactus Valley Ditch in the late 1880's, farming became possible. Grain, hay and potatoes were the major crops of the area. The potential water brought to the farm land increased production; and also provided an excellent environment for cattle ranching. By the late 1930's and early 1940's, Silt was a cattle and potato shipping point on the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. Today most production is in hay and cattle, although grain and potato crops are still present along with sheep ranching. Today Silt, while surrounded by agriculture, is a bedroom community housing families working in nearby communities, coal mines, and soon, in oil shale development. The current growth in oil shale development is causing a rapid population increase in this section of the state. This means Silt will grow from a present population of approximately 1,000 to nearly 2,500 in the next few years, more than doubling its present size. 1

PAGE 7

SITE LOCATION (Map 1, Page 3) Silt sits on the north side of the Colorado River Basin at the east end of the semi-arid and mesa region of western Colorado. Silt is 18 miles west of Glenwood Springs, which is about 180 miles west of Denver. METHODOLOGY SITE CONTEXT INVENTORY ANALYSIS CONCEPT THE SITE INVENTORY ANALYSIS GOALS .CONCEPT ALTERNATIVES PRELIMINARY PLAN IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION The process used to develop the preliminary plan was twofold. First I looked at the context of the ditch, or how the ditch relates to the surrounding area. And second, I looked at the ditch itself to understand the current problems and how development would or could solve these problems and what new problems this development would create. SITE CONTEXT Inventory -what's there Analysis -what does it mean Concept -a design idea Before discussing the process , the reasons for understanding the site context are important to bring out. In designing a park or facility or any 2

PAGE 8

MAP 1

PAGE 9

element on the land, we must understand that design is the relationship between the physical and social setting at any given moment in time and space. We must be receptive to the social forces of the community, the power structure, the lines of communication, and the individuals and organi zations that make up the community. We must also look at the physical setting of the site, putting it into perspective as to its influence on the site and on social behavior. These factors must be identified to assist in design development so the designer can achieve a more thorough understanding of the problems and, possibly more important, an idea of why the site is there, why it•s important to the community, and what it can offer the community. I looked at these questions as a part of the site context analysis. what•s there (Map 2, Page s ) Silt lies just north of the Colorado River and the trnnsportation corridor comprised of the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad and Interstate Highway 70. To the north of town are steep slopes rising over one hundred feet to a mesa which will accommodate a new subdivision. The town layout is on a grid system with eighteen blocks running north and south First Street to the west and Kim Drive to the east. There are five major blocks running east and west -Main Street to the south and Orchard Avenue to the north. The community is divided into many sections including commercial, residential, open space, public buildings, and the Cactus Valley Ditch. The commercial consists of small retail stores along the Main Street. I split the residential into three areas the old town or town core from First Street to Eleventh Street, and Main Street to approximately Orchard Avenue; and two newer areas the trailer 4

PAGE 10

park from Twelfth Street to Kim Drive south of Grand Avenue, and the trailer park and frame house mix area from the athletic field east and from Grand Avenue north. Open space is scattered throughout the town, including vacant lots along the ditch, an athletic field, and existing parks. The public buildings consist of the Post Office, Town Hall, School, and the Community Center. The Cactus Valley Ditch winds its way for a little over a mile through the town flowing from east to west. ANALYSIS (Map 3, Page 7 ) Why is the site there? Why is it important to the community? Other important elements. What can if offer the community? WHY IS THE SITE THERE? As stated earlier, the Cactus Valley Ditch was built for the purpose of irrigating a previously dry wasteland to allow for farming and ranching. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO THE COMMUNITY? This is the designer's or community's interpretation of past and present events. In the past, the ditch brought water to this southern slope of the Colorado River Basin changing cactus into hay and potatoes, thus making water a very unique resource to this semi-arid region. Realizing that the ditch was there previous to the town and the fact that the town developed around the ditch, I assume Silt was located where it is because of this availability of water from the ditch, while being out of the Colorado River flood plain. This assumption hints at the fact that the Cactus Valley Ditch was the major reason for the location of S1lt. If this is true, then the ditch is of great historic importance and should be considered a valuable asset to the town. Presently, 6

PAGE 11

the ditch is still used extensively for irrigation in the Valley as well as by the home owner living along the ditch. WHAT ARE OTHER IMPORTANT ELEMENTS? In analyzing the area, other elements arise as important, such as the relationship of the ditch to the surrounding land uses and relationships to area-wide linkage corridors. First, the ditch provides good linkage to most of the town sections. It directly relates to the three residential areas, to much of the open space, to the School, Post Office, Center, and City Hall. The commercial area is the only section isolated from the ditch. This can easily be resolved by linkage along Ninth Street and/or Seventh Street. The area linkages are defined by existing physical features. The steep slopes to the north l i mit the mesa access to Seventh Street, and the transportation corridor to the south limits the Colorado River access to Ninth Street. Another element to be looked at is the idea of a town center. In many towns there is an area that tends to attract people and convey a feeling of strength and unity to that town. This may be a strongly defined commercial area, a park-post office-city hall complex or any combination of elements. In observing Silt, I found this central strength or unity missing. The commercial area is roughly defined, while the City Hall, the Post Office and existing parks are scattered. WHAT CAN THE DITCH OFFER THE TOWN? By synthesizing the above information-i.e. the historic value, linkage, and town center elements -one may see how the ditch can have the opportunity to become a key element in the future of Silt. Development along the ditch has the opportunity to tie the town together, interpret history, and provide a 8

PAGE 12

unity and possibly a unique town center. With these factors in mind, I developed a site context concept. CONCEPTan idea statement (Map 4, Page10) THE CACTUS VALLEY DITCH, AS THE BACKBONE OF THE COMMUNITY, WILL PROVIDE IDENTITY AND UNITY TO SILT. Upon understanding the site context and how the ditch can provide a very strong unifying element for the town, the next step in the process is moving down to the site level. THE SITE At the site level a more detailed process was involved. Inventory what's there Analysis -problem definition Goals -what needs to be done to solve or minimize problems Concept -a design idea Alternatives ideas to solve the problems Preliminary Plan choice of alternative Implementation -how to install the plan Evaluation -an ongoing process INVENTORY The area this project deals with is approximately a one mile section of the Valley Ditch from Fourth Street on the west end of town to Kim Drive on the east end. Included in the study area are a number of irregular shaped vacant lots which were givens and are a major part of this project. These land parcels are adjacent to the ditch and are located along the ditch segment from Fourth Street to Eleventh Street. The lots range in size from a sixteenth of an acre to a little over one acre. 9

PAGE 13

The ditch easement is nebulous, defined as 11Whatever is necessary to maintain the ditch ... The ditch banks are not controlled and the width of the ditch varies from 9 to 13 feet. Vegetation along the ditch and in the vacant lots consists mostly of weedy grasses and perennials with occasional trees. The ditch flows year round but the flow varies from about fifty cubic feet per second during the spring and summer to a little over a trickle during the winter. ANALYSIS -problem definition In analyzing the site, I first identified the more important site problems, and second, understood the consequence of each problem. Since this project is dealing with proposing some type of recreation use in existing unused areas, the problems were divided into existing, development, and other context problems. This is because with development of the ditch area, new problems arise that are mostly unrelated to the existing problems. Also,there are other problems related to the larger contextual setting to be understood separately. This separation of problems made it easier to identify the source of each problem and generate a clear sequence from problem to solution. These problems are organized in Chart 1 (Page 12 ), stating the problems and consequences. GOALS 11Now at this third stage of the DESIGN PROCESS, we can build a bridge between the analyzed facts and attributes we have just discovered, and the alternatives/decision-making phase which is to follow. ul 11

PAGE 14

CHART 1 PROBLEM EXISTING Water seepage Cleaning Ditch separates the town Uncontrolled ditch and bank area Non-utilization of a unique resource WITH DEVELOPMENT Backyard Auto-Pedestrian conflict Pedestrian-Bike conflict Safety Maintenance Irrigation pumps and pipe OTHER Growth Town identity CONSEQUENCE Water accumulation along the south side of the ditch in residential areas. Accumulation of silt on the ditch banks from yearly dredging. Access limited to six vehicle crossings along the mile stretch of ditch . Unsightly, weeds, and unsafe. Missed opportunity to make a pleasant linear space out of a currently unused and unsightly area. Development changes private backyard setting into a public thoroughfare. Six road-pathway intersections present high risk of accident . Problem more with single path in yielding right-of-way. With a double path the paths must be used as designated. Children in ditch, road crossings, and maintenance. Poor maintenance deStroys any design. Problem in areas where p ipes would be located at the ditch or on homeowner side of path. The town will more than double in the next few years; thus the demand for recreation will grow and will need to be addressed now! It's difficult to determine any strong town focus which helps develop pride, community involvement, and town unity. 12

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This bridge refers to goal setting, or the task of separating out the major issues of the project. I separated out five major issues or goals which are as follows: 1. To generate public involvement. 2. To provide the town with an alternative to the existing conditions. 3. To design with emphasis on the pedestrian. 4. To use the ditch to provide unity and become a central focus. 5. To solve or minimize the identified problems. CONCEPT To help guide the continuing process we must provide a statement, or concept (as the design professions refer to it}, that will provide a filter through which all future decisions must pass. This concept grows out of the designer's past experience and understanding of the major project issues. At the area scale, I developed a concept relating the ditch to the town. At the site scale, I developed a concept relating to the three ditch elements and the area concept. This concept or idea is: TO CREATE A SERIES OF THEME PARKS CONNECTED BY A PATH SYSTEM TO FORM A SINGLE, CONTINUOUS PARK AS A UNIFYING ELEMENT AND BACKBONE OF SILT. ALTERNATIVES Alternatives provide a list of ideas for solving problems, reaching goals and fulfilling the concept(s). In developing alternatives, I divided the site into three categories which are the ditch, easement, and vacant lots. These helped to further define the sequence from problem to solution. In 13

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addition it is important to develop ideas on how these separate elements can work together to form one continuous system which I termed design criteria. DITCH ALTERNATIVES (Figure 1) These alternatives looked at ways to improve the ditch visually, structurally (stabilize ditch sides and/or the complete ditch), and the seepage and cleaning problems. First I'll define these three ditch elements, then list and compare elements using a chart. Visual -a value judgment which I define as using natural materials to line (complete or partial) the ditch . Structural ditch improvement adds strength to the ditch sides and/or complete ditch area . Ditch problems linings that solve or minimize the problems of seepage and cleaning. The following chart (Chart 2, Page 17) lists the alternatives along the left side of the chart with the three ditch elements across the top. An x is placed in the boxes under each element if it pertains to the corresponding alternative. As an example, the alternatives that solve or minimize the cleaning problem are concrete lining with partial stone side walls, and concrete lining. DITCH EASEMENT (OR PATHWAY) ALTERNATIVES The pathway alternatives were divided into two groups, path paving and path layout. Path paving deals with the surfacing material alternatives, and the path layout deals with the linear alignment or where the path runs, or is located, from Fourth Street to Kim Drive. 14

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FIGURE 1 15

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FIGURE 1 cont. l ...,.______.wz.o t:::>t'TZ:-H eeD CU..Y WNIN6 16

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CHART 2 Alternative Visual Structural Seepage Cleaning Stone-complete lining or side X walls Wood side walls X X Clay lining X X Grasscrete X Concrete lining with partial stone X X X X side walls Plastic lining with soil or rock covering X X Concrete lining X X X Concrete side walls X Gabions X 17

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Path paving alternatives These alternatives are illustrated in figure 2. Asphalt, concrete, wood-path and bridging, crushed stone, flagstone, and brick. Path layout alternatives These alternatives are illustrated in figure 3. Double path system-separating bicyclist and pedestrian , single path system combining bicyclist and pedestrian, and a combination of single and double where and if applicable. VACANT LOT (OR MINI PARK) ALTERNATIVES Listed are some of the possible uses for these mini park areas. Playground, nature study, exhibits, history interpretation, sculpture, seating (quiet, restful), gardens, education, basketball, horseshoes, and bicycle area. DESIGN CRITERIA This section deals with how the separate elements (ditch, path and mini parks) can be pulled together to form a single unified park system. Items such as signage, trash containers, bollards, fencing, benches and lighting, in conjunction with the park elements (paving and ditch lining) will be used as the unifying criteria. Thesecriteria will be illustrated and discussed in the preliminary plan of this document. (see pages 50-69) 18

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FIGURE 2 ,F='bTH FAVI bJG WCOD E 19

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FIGURE 3 f'ATH LA YOL)T 20

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ALTERNATIVE SELECTION Once the alternative search has been completed we must examine these alternatives in relation to the goals, concepts and problems, to select the most appropriate alternative(s). First, I charted the problems, their alternative solutions, and the evaluation of each solution, and second, I selected what I felt to be the best solution(s). Step One -alternative solutions and evaluation. This step is illustrated in the following chart (Chart 3, pages 22-24 ). Step Two the solution. By evaluating the alternatives, it becomes possible to select the best or at least the most viable solution. c The filters used to make this choice are based on the designer•s personal values developed through previous experience. The following chart (Chart 4, pages 25-27 ) states the problem, the solution, and why that alternative was chosen. 21

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CHART 3 Problem EXISTING Ditch Seepage Cleaning Ditch separates town Path (Easement) Nebulous Easement Unused Resource STEP ONE Alternative Solutions 1. Concrete lining with or without stone side walls. 2. Clay lining 3. Plastic lining 4. Other linings 1. Concrete lining with or without stone side walls. 2. Other linings 1. Bridges (pedestrian) 1. Design with existing limitation of space. 2. Reclaim area necessary to maintain the ditch allowing for path 1. Develop pathway system a. double pathway b. single pathway Evaluation 1. 85% seepage control, expensive. 2. Good seepage control, velosity and side slope are limiting. 3. Can be punctured, relatively inexpensive, must have additional lining as protection. 4. No seepage control. 1. Designed with water velosity high enough to keep ditch clean. 2. Difficult to prevent silt accumulation. 1. Allows many points for pedestrian crossing. l. Path design depends on width of easement left by each home owner. 2. Possible irate home owners, but is the only way to continue path along ditch. a. Separates bicyclist and pedestrian is used properly, expensive to install and maintain. b. Combines bicyclist and pedestrian causing some conflict -less expensive. --------------------

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vlll"\r>l J, I...Uffl.. Problem Vacant Lots (Mini Parks) Unused Resource Other Growth Town identity WITH DITCH DEVELOPMENT STEP ONE Alternative Solution 1. Develop mini parks 1. Develop recreation with growth 2. Develop recreation system prior to growth with the understanding of growth patterns to occur. 1. Develop a linear park system. 2. Develop Seventh at Grand Avenue area. Backyard conflict 1. Screening with fence and/or vegetation . 2. Use single path to avoid backyards where possible by alternatinn ditch sides. Auto-Pedestrian conflict 1. Signage, lighting, bollards, crosswalks , etc. Evaluation 1 . Parks become activity nodes along the linear park providing various recreational opportunities. 1. Recreation more directly relates to needs but would develop after need occurs. 2. Works on a hypothesis that recreation systems can provide the unity and identity to facilitate and deal with raoid growth . 1. Park becomes backbone and semi-town center or town identity. 2. Central area of town and has high visibility. 1. Can provide buffer between backyard and park system. Can create positive or negative experience. 2. Minor or no screening required, although some vegetation may be wanted as a visual asset. 1. Highly controlled intersections.

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CHART 3, cont. Problem Pedestrian-Bicyclist Conflict Safety Maintenance Irrigation pumps and pipe STEP ONE Alternative Solution 1. Signage 2. Sharp turns, bumps, dips, etc. 3. Design for good visibility 4. Separate paths 1. Design considering ease of getting out of ditch once someone gets in. 2. Educate, especially the young, in the dangers of the ditch 3. Develop recreation committee to evaluate safety. 1. Involve local groups, clubs, etc. 2. Develop recreation committee to evaluate safety and maintenance. 1. Pump at ditch cutout 2. Pump on or next to home owners property. 3. Pipe buried emerging at ditch and pump. 4. Pipe in sleeve or trench drain under sidewalk, with sleeve extending underground to pump if desired. Evaluation 1. Make pedestrian and biker aware of problem. 2. Force biker to slow down. 3. Pedestrian-biker visual contact. 4. If used properly, it greatly reduces problem, but is expensive and doubles maintenance. 1. Decrease possibility of serious injury. 2. Helps prevent accident. 3. Community interaction allows fast control of the problem(s). 1. Get the public involved; it•s their park -their image! 2. Allows community to have control of success or failure of park. 1. Risk of vandalism. 2. More vandalism control, easier maintenance. 3. Repair problems, out of sight of vandals. 4. E.asier repair, pipe out of sight, ore expensive.

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CHART 4 Problem DITCH Seepage and Cleaning Ditch Separates Town PATH (EASEMENT) Nebulous Easement Unused resource MINI PARKS (VACANT LOTS) Unused resource STEP TWO Solution Concrete lining with stone side walls. Pedestrian Bridges Design with existing space but retain the option to reclaim easement where necessary. Develop park system single pathway Develop mini parks Why Seepage control, stone added for visual effect, expensive but eliminates any major yearly cleaning, thus no backhoe or dumping of silt on the ditch banks. Allows pedestrian more access. Area between Grand Avenue and 13th Street is the area that has no or limited access, thus the only space where reclaiming is necessary . Park system links town together, combines bike and pedestrian creating right-of-way conflict, but half the price of double path and requires half of the maintenance. Parks become activity nodes along the linear park providing various recreational opportunities.

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N m CHART 4, cont. Problem OTHER Growth Town Identity WITH DITCH DEVELOPMENT Backyard conflict Auto-Pedestrian conflict Pedestrian-Bicyclist conflict Safety STEP TWO Solution Develop recreation system pr i or to growth with the knowledge of g rowth patterns to occur . Develop linear park syste m and Develop Seventh at Grand area Use single path to avoid backyards where possible. Use lightina, bollards, etc. Use signage, sharp turns, good design visibility. Design safety into ditch, develop safety education program, and develop a recreation committee. Why Works on hypothesis that recreation systems can provide the unity and identity to facilitate and deal with rapid growth. Park become backbone and town identity. Central area of town, has high visibility. Linkage with the linear park along Seventh has the potential to create a dynamic identity and town center. Greatly reduce the cost of screening, allows more variation with plant materials used. Hig hly controlled intersections. Make user aware of problem, and control use. Control and prevent accident, committee to encourage community interaction.

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CHART 4, cont. Problem Maintenance Irrigation pumps and pipe STEP TWO Solution Involve local groups and extend responsibility of the recreation committee to maintenance . Pump on or next to property and pipe in complete sleeve. Why Allows community to have control of the success or failure of the park. Easier maintenance; more vandal control; sleeve allows easy repair, and pipe is out of site, but more expensive.

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PRELIMINARY PLAN This section of the report is organized as follows: 1. General design comments 2. Five base maps illustrating the basic layout of the Cactus Valley Ditch Linear Park System (Sheets 1-5, Pages 30-34 ). 3 . Analysis chart of the seven mini parks. 4. Description of the mini parks and the plans of each. 5. Design criteria -details showing various design elements. GENERAL DESIGN COMMENTS In developing this mile section of the Cactus Valley Ditch there are a few design considerations that must be dealt with. These are the ditch patterns, future development, and current non-ditch linkages. First, the ditch is divided into two separate patterns: the from Fourth Street to Grand Avenue and the section from Grand Avenue to Kim Drive. The first section, from Fourth to Grand, is comprised of wide easement areas and connects the seven mini parks. Thus this is the major section of concern in this project. The second section, from Grand to Kim, is comprised of narrow or no ditch easement and there are no mini park areas. The plan shows the path alignment through this area, but the development of this section should not take until future town growth expands to the east of Kim Drive. 28

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Future development in the area will provide many new recreational opportunities which Silt can become a part of by understanding possible linkage corridors stemming from the linear park system. The new subdivision to the north can be linked via Seventh and linkages to Rifle and New Castle would best be along the Colorado River which can be connected via Ninth Street. The current non-ditch linkages refer to bike lanes along the major streets and avenues. With major emphasis on development from Fourth to Grand, a few additional areas need linkages to connect with the linear park. These linkages would be bike lanes along Grand, to connect the east end of town and across to the west, and along Seventh and/or Ninth to connect the park with commercial area. 29

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CHART 5 PARK LOCATION VISIBILITY # 1 # 2 # 3 (.) (/1 # 4 # 5 #6 #7 Fourth St. and Ballard Fifth St. and Orchard Sixth St . and Ballard Med-Low traffic flow Low Traffic flow Low Seventh St. High and Ballard Eighth St. Low and Ballard Along Medium Orchard between Ninth St. and Eleventh St. Eleventh St. Low and Ballard ADJACENT LAND Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential School and Residential Residential RELATION TO EXISTING PARKS Across local street Across ditch one block along Fifth St . R.O.W. One block a 1 ong Ballard Two-three blocks across ditch along Ballard Three blocks along ditch and Ballard Four-six blocks along ditch and Ballard Six blocks along ditch and Ballard RELATION TO LINEAR PARK West end terminus of mini park proposed system Activity node Activity node west terminus of proposed park #4 Activity node central axis Activity nodeeast terminus of proposed park #4 Activity nodelargest mini park strong school relation East end terminus of mini park proposed system OTHER No through streetsroad elbow Linear vehicle movement intersecting site. Park is linear. No through streets road elbow Strong relation to east residential area which has no existing park facilities No through streets road elbow CONCEPT(S) Passive quiet seating; beginning or end point Active out-of-the-way node; needs strong activity Focal point active Passive formal statement Passive active Focal point Education area Active area Passive beginning or end point

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The following is an explanation of the seven mini parks addressed in this recreation study. The seven parks are: Aphitheater, Bicycle, Playground, Allee, Willow, Educational/Playground, and Garden. Park #1, or Amphitheater Park, is the west terminus to the series of mini parks. Thus it would be an entry of exit point for the park user. For this reason this area should be a passive or quiet area with seating available and native vegetation. The steep slope off the ditch and the park's southern exposure affords a great opportunity for an amphitheater, taking ad vantage of the warm \'linter sun and shaded surmner setting. (The amphitheater provides a warm sink in the winter and trees planted around the amphitheater allow for shaded conditions in the summer.} The plaza area, in conjunction with the amphitheater, provides an excellent space for a picnic, either group or individual. Park #2, or Bicycle Park, is an out-of-the-way park without any strong identifying element to dictate its use. Located as it is, either a passive or active park would work in this area. Analyzing its relationship to the other mini parks helped develop the park concept. One block to the west is Amphitheater Park and one b 1 oc k to the southeast is Playground Park. Throughout the series of mini parks there are both I passive and active parks relating largely to the pedestrian, yet the linear expanse of trail is for pedestrian and bicyclist alike; therefore it's only logical to expect an area off the main path for the bicyclist. Understanding this park's relationship to the other six parks and that the other six parks relate strongly to the surrounding land use or to adjacent parks leaves this park as the one area that could allow for bicycle use. 36

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Park #3, or Playground Park, is located at Sixth and Ballard. It is the west terminus of Allee' Park with the ditch as the separation between the two. Understanding this relationship to Alleet Park provides the opportunity to develop this third park into a focal park with an active theme, thus Playground Park. The play structures provide the focal point and the active playground theme attracts attention to this focal park. Park #4, or Allee' Park, is bisected by Seventh Street and is formed by the Ballard Avenue right-of-way which is discontinuous because of the ditch. The park runs perpendicular to Seventh Street and is at the approximate midpoint of the seven mini parks. The concept of the park is a formal allee' with a passive setting, as for seating, historic interpretation, flowering trees, sculpture and a wide plaza type walk. There are three reasons for this park theme. First, the reason for the formal setting is its central location among the rest of the parks; it has high visibility from Seventh which can provide a strong town image statement, and the formal linear aspect counteracts the strong form of the linear roadway (Seventh Street). Second, the allee theme adds an attractive accent to the linear form of the pathway (an allee' is a planting of trees forming two straight rows, with one row on each side of a path or roadway.) Covered bridges are at both ends of the park, creating focal points to further accent this park. Third, the passive setting compliments the formal allowing areas for quiet contemplation in an aesthetically pleasing area. 37

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Park #5 or Willow Park is located at Eighth Street and Ballard Avenue and was formed by the rights-of-way of these two roads cut off by the ditch. It is the east terminus of Allee Park separated by the ditch, providing another area as a focal point. In addition, a large specimen willow graces this small park. As a terminus area, the theme again tends toward a focal point, yet the specimen willow dictates quiet thought. Neither theme seemed to override the other; thus it has a name reflecting the willow with adjacent seating and a small active play area as a focal point in line with the bridge and pathway. Park #6 or Education/Playground Park is located by the elementary school between Ninth Street and approximately Eleventh Street at Orchard Avenue, wit h the ditch forming its southern boundary and Orchard its northern boundary. The educational part of the theme was chosen for the park•s western half because of the school •s. proximity. This area can be used for science experiments or any outdoor school activity, and tree massing can provide a screen from the play fields and can in addition provide a picnic area for summer use. The playground aspect of the theme relates the relationship of the park•s eastern half to the east side of town, which at present has no recreational facilities. This section of the park will provide small scale recreational facilities such as a play structure, horseshoe area, and a hard surface play area including basketball, four-square, hopscotch, and any others appropriate for small area play. One of the major design elements of Education/Playground Park is the Orchard Avenue road closure between Ninth Street and Eleventh Street. This was done for the school children•s safety. By developing a path along the ditch and this sixth park there would be a great increase in children crossing Orchard Avenue to the park system. Although present traffic flow along Orchard Avenue 38

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does not create an immediate hazard, future growth will steadily increase this flow, simultaneously increasing the safety hazard. Orchard Avenue is only two blocks from another major cross town road (Grand Avenue); thus closing off Orchard poses only a minimal driver inconvenience and creates a very pleasan t and safe extension to the school grounds. Park #7 or Garden Park is the east terminus of the mini park system and is also the smallest park of the seven, with about a sixteenth of an acre. As a beginning or end point along the series of mini parks, again it is seen as a passive node with quiet seating. The park would be planted with ornamental shrubs, ground covers and flowers to accent this small area and to provide pleasant surroundings for seating. 39

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PARKS 40

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I I 1'':::: '?:JO I .. .. native grass D 41 en -1

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bicycle:ourse ORCHARD D project boundary BALLARD 42 AVE

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D TIMBERFORM play 43 ,... :r SCALE I"':::: ------

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covered bridge ....,_.,.J.._ • .. bridge 44 *4 • I I c •

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flowering low evergreen 0 covered bridge shrubs l ___ _.l 45 D D

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46 (J) -t F'Ar
PAGE 44

c::: Q) Q) ... C) (I) ... Q) . Q)Q) > ... Cl) .... 47 3 C1) c::: > Q) -...., u m en c • 9th ST

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play structure (X) I BIGTOYS1F I 1 . /I basketball & 1 other hard surface play • r.1lz 1 horseshoes --•--native grass path 01

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ditch I I flowering plants I 49 I I

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DESIGN CRITERIA 50

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DESIGN CRITERIA The following detail drawings help to further explain the design, but again should be used to generate more ideas and get the community involved. Much of the work on the linear park can be accomplished by the community without outside assistance. A recreation committee is vital in organizing an effort to make this park a community project and a success. 51

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RECREATION FACILILITIES EDUCATION/ PLAYGROUND r 1 I I 4 PLAl;d NO I 2 4 '3 FOUB JAY3E t-..lO 52 Vl 0 I 1 I 1 10 B 7 5 4 2. I .... -N -1 "' -
PAGE 50

AMPHITHEATER Z}y._z_' (t.PNc..rzen=; ) 53 . . . : ... .' . . : .; .: . . WN--L ffDH f-!-'IPHrn-n::AlC1 . . . .

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DITCH LINING l r l'b -ro ee t::r IHE: WfiH 1'--tOI me a_eANIN6 w ?>l.5f: .J> f7f5CH t?IT&H 54 ,_____ Aeor'HM.:r Ff:.-TH ; .. '

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UNDERWALK IRRIGATION SLEEVE -1'11-:----,E'!:__(Ij/=! , :==:=3• 1 -.:.J ' , I,__ I I:-1'1\: 1 1 _ _ , , \ o l -I\"---I -1\ ' l -I ' 1 I=. jil -:. I , ..... 1 . ,_, 11 i 1 := ?:J(!II--= -.-::::-___:_J. -==-, :;ecooN SINGLE PATH VIeW I 1 = -ill . ______..,. __, I ----1, . . , _ ==-=I 'I I'' I ' ,I ,l :I I' .I II q II If ,1 I I 55 --Plr:=fS ...,____ t?ITC-H aJ"0!->T IOA.IH ,AL'"TCPNA11:50 t?n-L-H t::::e6 A VOlt?INb r

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SIGN AGE 56 1 Yt;lli?W I P.,.C::J !-4" HAUHI NE: ,...,____ 4 '><4" PO'bT1 PENTA

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LIGHTING \ \ 57 \ \

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BENCH DETAIL CXALE: IY4" = 1'-0" 58 '))') '11)1 ; . ,,,,1 }11111 . I .1 : I I I I I I --4x.4' 41 4 cot:T 1711 n::t-m !J. ! :I I : . I , ' I I I i l . ' ... . ':'.' ! I ' J J I J f I:; I ! I I I I I I I I I I 1

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BOLLARD DETAIL 59

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CROSSWALK PAVING .J-E __ NC> 0tALe 60

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CROSSWALK DETAIL DITGH PlJ+d VIEW ; '?:1/t' II ::0 II-011. 61

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PATH PAVING ft:;?r'HAJ :r 62 ....,____._ ---

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2-RAIL FENCE 63 ::;,-----'2.!' ><. (o" w rn-1 lor' AiTAC.H E-D IN l n-1 TWO 8J I ZED +'x4-'1

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2 RAIL FENCE 4"x4"' ------.. 2."')( (Pu TOf L----.. 64

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FENCE POST DETAIL , . = -. . () a'' 65 .,-----1411 F'00T ATT"P-Ltit-Jlt::I'--.1T f'lfiJC r------e''x.e'' AeF---OITGH

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WILLOW PARK PLAY STRUCTURES G:1Jt.l1t21t>.J& 66

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COVERED BRIDGE SKETCH 67

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Vegetation The following is a list of possible plant materials that can be used in the parks. It is best to plant a variety of trees and shrubs to prevent disease from destroying large numbers of similar trees or shl-ubs. TreesShadecottonless Cottonwood Green Ash Hackberry Honeylocust Silver & Norway Maple Horsechestnut-plant away from roads & paths Boxelder Burr, Red & English Oaks Small trees-Alder Big Tooth Maple Aspen Ginnala Maple Rocky Mountain Birch Cutleaf & Staghorn Sumacsuckers Gambel's Oak Russian Olive OrnamentalsCrab Apple Golden Rain Tree Hawthorn Japanese Pagoda Japanese Tree Lilac Mountain Ash Bradforci Pear EvergreensScotch Pine Austrian Pine Ponderosa Pine Eastern Pine Colorado Spruce White Fir American Plumsuckers Eastern Redbud-protected area Juniperus scopulorum-many v arieties 68

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Shrubs Deciduous-Chokecherry i vild Rose Threeleaf S umac Buffalo berry S now berry Redosier D o gwood Chokeberry Peashrub B arberry Bucktborn Cotoneaster Alpine Currant Coralberry Potentila Sage EvergreenJunipers-m any varieties There m a y be plants that the local nurseryman may suggest that are not on this list w hich is fine , but again try to use a s m a ny differant plants a s possible even i f it means waiting and shopping around. i\'ative G r ass All open grormd areas in t h e mini p arks and ditch e asment s hall be seed e d with t h e following mix: Kind of Seed Pounds of Pure Live Germination Purity Seed per 1000 Sq.Ft. Luna Pubesent Wheatgrass 85% 96% 1.2 Nordan Crested Wheatgrass 88% 97% .3 Fairway Wheatgrass 82% 93% .23 Cover crop to be included in mix: 'Colorado 37' Oats @ .81 lbs. per 1000 square feet. 69

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IMPLEMENTATION Because of the town size and availability of funds the project will need to be constructed in phases to make such a development possible. Rather than traditional phasing showing the exact sequence from start to finish, only a general order of construction will be suggested, leaving the exact order to the town's discretion. The ditch and path are the two major elements of concern in the sequence of construction. These elements should be considered in sections from street crossing to street crossing, i.e. as from Fourth Street to Seventh Street. Once the ditch and path are completed for each section, the other park elements in that section may be completed or the sequence may continue on to a new section. The following is a list of the sections divided into two parts: Part 1 (current construction) Section 1 Fourth Street to Seventh Street Section 2 Seventh Street to Ninth Street Section 3 Ninth Street to Grand Avenue Part 2 (future construction) Section 4 -Grand Avenue to 13th Street Section 5 13th Street to 16th Street Section 6 16th Street to Kim Drive The following chart shows phasing per section with a rough estimation of cost for each section. Again these sections may be completed in any order as long as the ditch and path are completed first. 70

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CHART 6 PHASING & PRELIMINARY COST ANALYSIS ITEM SECTION I Ditch Path concrete with stone sides 101 wide asphalt 81 wide asohalt 151 wide concrete Bridges 101 X 141 10 I X 30 I 101 x 421 covered Native Grass Trees deciduous shade deciduous ornamental Shrubs (estimated) -Sand 5 gal. deciduous 5 gal. evergreen 8" deep QUANTITY 1,125 linear ft. 1,500 linear ft. 11 0 1 i near ft. 420 linear ft. 2 31,500 sq. ft. 18 20 100 100 98 cubic yds. UNIT COST $35/lin.ft. $10/lin.ft. $10/1 in. ft. $20/lin.ft. $2,000 ea. $4,000 ea. $10,000 ea. $.05/sq. ft. $300/tree $200/tree $10 ea. $18 ea. $15/cu.yd. TOTAL $39,375 15,000 1,100 8,400 4,000 4,000 10,000 1 ,575 5,400 4,000 1,000 1 ,800 1,470 TOTAL (SECTION I) $97,120 Play structure (playground park) cost varies greatly from catalog order to community built cost will be additional for section I. 71

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CHART 6, cont. PHASING AND PRELIMINARY COST ANALYSIS (CONT.) ITEM QUANTITY UNIT COST TOTAL SECTION I I Ditch concrete with 615 linear ft. $35/lin.ft. $21,525 stone sides Path 101 wide asphalt 570 linear ft. $10/lin.ft. 151wide concrete 1 50 1 i near ft. $20/lin.ft. 3,000 Bridges 10 I X 421 covered $10,000 ea. 10,000 10 I X 141 $ 2,000 ea. 2,000 Native grass 10,000 sq.ft. $.05/sq./ft. 500 Trees deciduous 9 $200/tree 1,800 ornamental Shrubs deciduous 5 gal. 160 $10/shrub 1,600 evergreen 5 gal. 15 $18/shrub 270 Willow Park Plaza pre-cast concrete 960 sq. ft. $3/sq.ft. 2,880 pavers TOTAL (SECTION II) $49,275 Play structures (willow park) *see play structure, Section I 72

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CHART 6, cont. PHASING & PRELIMINARY COST ANALYSIS ITEM QUANTITY UNIT COST TOTAL SECTION III Ditch concrete with 1,110 linear ft. $35/l in. ft. $38,850 stone sides Path 10 I wide asphalt 1,830 linear ft. $10/lin.ft. 18,300 Bridges 10 I X 14' 2 $2,000 ea. 4,000 6' X 14' 1 $1 ,200 ea. 1 ,200 Native grass 64,000 sq. ft. $.05/sq.ft. 3,200 Trees deciduous shade 11 $300/tree 3,300 sma 11 deciduous 8 $100/tree 800 evergreen 5' 14 $100/tree 1,400 Shrubs (estimated) 5 gal. deciduous 100 $10/shrub 1,000 Sand 8" deep 73 cubic yds. $15/cu.yd. 1,095 TOTAL (SECTION III) $73,145 Play structure * see play structure, Section I 73

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CHART 6, cont. PHASING & PRELIMINARY COST ANALYSIS ITEM SECTION IV Ditch concrete with stone sides Path 101 wide asphalt SECTION V Sitch Path concrete with stone sides 101 wide asphalt Bridges 101 X 141 SECTION VI QUANTITY 375 linear ft. 390 linear ft. 870 linear ft. 885 linear ft. 2 add bridge at Cactus Drive UNIT COST $35/lin.ft. $10/lin.ft. TOTAL $35/lin .ft. $1 0/l in. ft. $2,000 ea. TOTAL Should not be constructed until new road crossing is built east of town. TOTAL $13,125 3,900 $17,025 30,450 8,850 4,000 $43,300 Sections are planned from road crossing to road crossing because the concrete lining can be tied into the bridge structure to prevent undercutting of the ditch lining. 74

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CHART 6, cont. PHASING & PRELIMINARY COST ANALYSIS ALTERNATIVE COSTS Ditch stone lining @ $25/linear ft. plastic with stone lining@ $30/linear ft. Plazas brick @ $7/sq.ft. concrete@ $2/sq.ft. asphalt@ $1/sq.ft. Irrigation System -sod area@ $.45/sq.ft. shrub area @ $.25/sq.ft. trees in shrub area $25 ea. MISCELLANEOUS COSTS Fencing 2 rail wood Bollard lights Pedestrian lights Basketball backstop Benches prefabricated Bike rack Earthwork $9/linear ft. $700 ea. $450 ea. $450 ea. $250 ea. $300 ea. $3/cubic yd. 75

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EVALUATION The level of detail of the preliminary design is rough and will need many more hours of work to bring it to a final design ready for construction bid. The preliminary cost estimate is only a rough estimated figure and should not be interpreted as a final cost. At this point in the design process (i . e. preliminary plan), the community takes over. They now have the say as to what happens with the ditch area, whether it collects weeds for the next twenty years or whether it becomes a vital part of the community. The high cost of developing a linear park system is probably the most deterring element of the system•s implementation, but the social and visual benefits may override the cost element, providing an enriched experience lasting a lifetime. The community must make that decision, understanding the costs and benefits of their decision. The major purpose of this project is to develop ideas for a linear park system and generate public interest. Some ideas have been discussed in this paper which are only a small segment of possible solutions . It is now the task of the community to analyze and evaluate the preliminary plan , making it work for the community. In conclusion, the Cactus Valley Ditch Linear Park System can become an integral part of the community, providing crosstown linkage and a visually pleasing space. It would be unfortunate not to take advantage of this unique resource, as the ditch can become the backbone of the community, providing unity and identity, and design guidelines for future park development in the Silt vicinity. 76