Citation
Westland Activity Center

Material Information

Title:
Westland Activity Center
Creator:
Kaiser, Theodore L.
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Committee Chair:
Prosser, John
Committee Members:
Long, Gary
Holder, Davis
Rinker, Ron
Saslow, Bill
deKeiffer, Robert

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Theodore Kaiser. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
WESTLAND
ACTIVITY
CENTER
A DEVELOPMENT PLAN and HOUSING PROJECT LAKEWOOD , COLORADO
A+P
i n
1190 A72
THESIS PROJECT UNIVERSITY of COLORADO DECEMBER 16, I980
.THEODORE L. KAISER


ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
AURARIA LIBRARY
Acknowledgements
The successful completion of this thesis project would not have been possible without.the continued support of a number of individuals In the Denver community.
I wish to thank the following people who served on my advisory board:
John Prosser, Dean
College of Environmental Design
Design and Urban Planning
Gary Long, Director of Architecture College of Environmental Design Design and Systems Integration
Davis Holder, Professor College of Environmental Design Structural
1204
00265 5646
Ron Rinker, Principal
Barker, Rinker, Seacat, Architects, Inc. Design of Mixed Use Developments, Economics
Bill Saslow
Blake Street Bath and Racquet Club Economics and Marketing
Robert deKeiffer, Researcher
Solar Energy Research Institute
Solar Energy, Active and Passive Application


Table of Contents
Part
Part
I: INTRODUCTION
A. Proposal and Orientation
1. Project Description
2. Issues
3. Goals and Objectives
4. Thesis Design Goals
5. Regional Map
B. Development Criteria for the Activity Center Westland Community
1. Urban Design Concepts and Factors
2. Major Design Concepts
FACTS SITE BUILDING
A. Spatial Circulation Existing land use on site
Views Neighborhood spatial characteristics
Photographs
B. Physical Climate Case Studies:
Topography Mechanical Systems
Soils Structural Systems
Utilities Retail Malls
Solar
Winds
Recreation
Existing Land Usability


SITE
BUILDING
Benefits and drawbacks of development and improvement
Micro-climate Vegetation Shading
D. Economical Cost breakdown
Cost per square foot
DRCOG "Colfax Corridor Study"
Projected city rev- Projected city enues revenues
Market analysis
E. Zoning
F. Codes
1. Uniform Building Codes
2. FHA Minimum Property Standards for Housing
Appropriate mixes of age groups, peopL background, etc. for different building types in a mixed-use development
C. Social and Biological
188 Part III: CONCEPTS
A. Activity Programming: "What is a mixed-use project?"
B. Functional Relationship Diagrams
C. Matrix
D. Bubble Diagrams
E. Site Concepts
F. Program Statement
G. Site Land Use Calculations


192 Part IV: NEEDS
A. Activity and User Requirements
B. Spatial Allocations
1. Commercial
2. Retail
3. Housing
4. Office
5. Open Space
6. RTD Bus Stop: Walk-n-Ride Shelter
7. Parking
197 Part V: PROBLEM STATEMENT
A. Final Definition of Problem: A Brief Summary
199 Part VI: SOLUTION 208 Part VII: BIBLIOGRAPHY


Zh-QCOODOI-----O


Proposal and Orientation
Project Description:
The project and its site exist as a specific and integral part of the proposed development for the Westland Community Activity Center which, as a complete parcel of suburban land, is located on the fringe of the metropolitan core, approximately eight miles west of Denver, Colorado. The entire regional community activity center is located in northwest Lakewood between 13th and 20th avenues and remains an important focal point on the east-west Colfax, Simms and Kipling arterials.
The specific thesis site, presently two-thirds of which exists today as a drive-in theater, and the lower third as a trailer home site, is bound by Colfax Avenue on the south,
Quail Street on the east, Robb Street on the west, and 17th Avenue on the north. The thesis project will specifically involve a mixed use proposal incorporating the development of housing, retail, commercial and open space within the boundaries stated above. The scope of the overall site is 15.2 acres and prior to any programming decisions, the project allows for more than 50,000 square feet of commercial space, 50,000 square feet of retail space and the remaining square footage for pedestrian circulation corridors, open space, housing, streets and parking.
©


Issues:
The proiect and its scope was chosen to expand my knowledge of neighborhood and urban design; to more fully expand the poten-tail of commercial, retail and residential developments as integral multi-use complexes; and finally, to provide an opportunity to
t,
synthesize a design process which embodies a growing personal conviction that the nature of a design process should preclude any preconceived ideas about the spirit, image or form of the final solution. It should, however, allow the essence of the solution to grow freely as a clear and orderly response to the project's program and the surrounding physical environment.
The following is a list of the issues which will have a major impact on this thesis project:
-practical application of passive solar techniques as alternatives to the conventional heating and cooling of housing and commercial/retail space.
-public versus private space.
-concept of neighborhood marketplace versus suburban shopping malls.
-pedestrian versus auto-dominated environment.
-ease of access, flexibility of environment for multiple uses.
-amenities: concept of open space, recreation and culture as catalysts for neighborhood identity.
-concept of urban living in a fringe neighborhood development .
©


Goals and Obiectives:
The proposed multi-use development of the thesis site, which incorporates a Walk-N-Ride facility, neighborhood commercial space, high and medium office space, retail space, housing, recreation and open space development, pedestrain circulation improvements and street changes are physical, capital improvements whose scale, location and quality of implementation will define the proiect.
The following represent a personal comprehensive set of objectives for this thesis project. This list is in addition to the design objectives already established by the planning team for Concept Lakewood and these are presented on the following pages.
1. Make the neighborhood multi-use development into living and working places which will encourage families to live there by creating an environment of multi-use quality which incorporates all of the uses for a range of incomes and ethnic backgrounds.
2. Maintain and strengthen existing and future services, qual ity of living environment, and an appropriate interface wi the existing community. As a neighborhood concept the following goals have been defined:
-develop intimate spaces for sheltered privacy ; -create housing which reflects variety in lifestyle ; -nurture potential for communication and activities ; -respect needs of children and the handicapped; -respect easy access to places of working, living, and playing .


-define neighborhood identity -respect pedestrian circulation corridors throuqh the site for those living on the perimeter of the project
-in terms of architectural design which responds appropriately to climate, views, topography, people's needs as well as regulatory guidelines.
3. Maintain and improve the suburban quality of the neighborhood by preserving scenic and recreational assets of the proposed greenbelt and provide increased opportunities for people to enjoy this amenity. In addition, maintain air, noise and water quality standards within state and federal regulations.
4. Avoid impediment of pedestrian circulation with delivery access of goods and services, i.e. trash removal, truck delivery, etc., yet maintain corridors for fire and emergency access.
5. Personal philosophy development: idea of designing within a contextural approach to lifestyle and the design process.
the act, process, manner in which the parts are created to form the whole.
©


Design Goals:
The following are the design goals for the Westland Community Activity Center. All proposed development in the activity center shall be tested for compliance with these design goals:
A. To maintain the Westland Community Activity Center as a focus for mixed regional and local activities.
B. To continue and reinforce the already established basic environmental elements of the Westland area.
C. To create a high quality area that will provide a sense of community identity.
D. To provide a community design alternative to the continued sprawl of existing development patterns
by encouraging efficient development and conservation of established urbanized area.
E. To accomplish superior site utilization with the incorporation of the natural features, physical and functional relationships into the surrounding areas.
F. To encourage and protect new and existing development in and immediately adjoining the area and to encourage the concentrated expansion and mixing of existing and new neighborhoods, moderate commercial, special industrial and medium-sized office functions within the area.
G. To further the stability and value of the property in and around the areas; to recycle distressed properties within the activity area.


H. To relieve vehicular and pedestrian traffic congestion and improve access to and circulation within the area by providing specific pedestrian crossings along Colfax and by fully developing a greenway system as
a major element at Westland.
I. To improve transportation by incorporating RTD Walk-N-Ride stops at such points that provide access to all parts of the center.
J. To reduce the effects of vehicles on the area by providing site, noise and view buffering.
K. To develop open spaces, plazas, greenery and other amenities in the areas, including pedestrian and bicycle circulation continuity across public rights-of-way .
L. To achieve energy conservation in new and existing development in the center.
M. To provide incentives for development of the area
to achieve a compact balanced commercial, employment, recreational/entertainment and residential area.




Area History
The City of Lakewood is one of the twenty-four municipal entities in the greater Denver metropolitan area. Occupying the western urban fringe of the metropolitan area, Lakewood has shared in the tremendous growth of the region over the past decade and is projected, based on studies conducted by the Long Range Planning Division, to be among the leaders of growth in the decade ahead.
Urban development patterns along the Denver Front Range have historically been dictated by economic considerations often to the detriment of the natural environment. Continuing urbanization alone is not the major problem; rather the form which urbanization imposes on the land and its subsequent impact have now been recognized as major problems confronting man's urban environment.
These development patterns in the Lakewood area have generally held that the most attractive parcels of land be developed first, leaving less attractive parcels temporarily vacant.
The term "leapfrog" development has been applied to this kind of urbanization which has left almost 30 percent of Lakewood in an unimproved state. This compares to an average metropolitan-wide figure for vacant land of 20 percent.
The consequence of "leapfrog" development in Lakewood has been a low-density sprawl continuing today to the south and west of the city. The by-products of this sprawl -- increased travel, excess energy use, increased costs for city services


and others — all diminish the quality of man's urban environment.
Finally, there is sufficient land in the Lakewood area, physically receptive to urbanization, which will accommodate a large population increase. Design techniques exist both to create a pleasant human environment and to use less land to do it. An improved urban environment requires a perspective which recognizes not only the economics value system, but also the importance of the physical and social value systems.


Development Criteria ior The weseland Community Activity Center An Ammendment to Concept Lakewood
URBAN DESIGN CONCEPTS AND FACTORS
A. Alternative to Urban Sprawl. In general, the Westland Community Center factors and design concepts offer Lakewood another extraordinary alternative to urban sprawl. This approach to planning is a means for reversing the explosion of unrealted, isolated and comprehensive splintered projects that demand an over-extension of roads, utilities, schools, services and cultural facilities until the urbanized area reaches obesity and cannot function effectively.
In the Westland Community Activity Center, with its vacant distressed or under-utilized land, in-place circulation system which is being upgraded, and existing support facilities, there is a great portential for long term economic and social benefits to be gained by the City through careful planning. Consolidated multi-purpose activity centers, like the Westland Community Activity Center, make it possible for goods and services to be provided and exchanged in the same place as, or within walking distance of peoples' homes and can aid in halting the fragmented outward expansion which has characterized recent growth in the Denver area.
B. Regional Planning, Air Pollution and Mass Transit. Westland is
part of the Colfax Corridor study area and it is designated as a Community Activity Center in Concept Lakewood. If the Activity Center is developed in conformity with this plan, reduction of air pollution and automobile trips and increased support of mass transit should occur.
C. Multi-use Intensive Activity Area. Westland, located in northwest Lakewood between 13th and 20th avenues, is an important focal point on the east-west Colfax, Simms and Kipling arterial. Because of its unique location and accessibility to major metropolitan Denver institutional, conmercial, cultural and recreational facilities, it has significant potential as a multi-use Community Activity Center. In particular, it has an outstanding capacity for residential, special industrial, neighborhood community and medium sized regional retail uses, as well as moderate office development. It is the most varied center in greater Denver.
D. Urban Quality. By reinforcing and adding to the unique characteristics already long established in the Westland district, the activity center here can evolve into a very special quality mixed use area. At Colfax, both Simms and Kipling streets on the east and west edges of the area could be developed as exceptional gateways into the center.
The hilltop at the north side and the railroad/floodway along the south boundary provides a suitable line of separation from adjacent land. Within these confines, the existing facilities and circulation systems in many instances need revitalization, expansion, and/or replacement (which would equal or exceed the quality of the shopping center itself, in top condition.)


Initially, it is essential that two major walk-ride RTD points be located on Colfax to serve the long east-west axis of the center. With two RTD stops on 20th avenue , all parts of the activity center are located within approximately a five minute walk of mass transit service. Four carefully planned pedestrian crossings of Colfax should be provided to connect the major work areas to shopping in the center core.
Particular emphasis must be given to upgrading the redevelopment of vacant and deteriorating areas outside the core. Throughout the center, a primary concern is to provide circulation, amenities, and extensive landscaping for pedestrians. Much effort is necessary to counteract the declining appearance of the activity center area with excellent site planning and design that compliments sensitive new buildings. Unusual care must be given to protecting long established stable adjacent residential neighborhoods.
With thorough consideration of all the various planning, urban design, architectural and landscape factors, the Westland Community Activity Center has the potential to be an outstanding example of urban conservation and recycling.
E. Oldest Regional Center of Lakewood . DRCOG and Lakewood Planning Studies verify that the Westland Area should be a major regional urban mixed use facility. This activity center is the oldest, most extensive, and diverse focal place in Lakewood and West Denver. It is one of the few regional centers in the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) that has rail freight service on site. Excellent bus service is already available to the center on Colfax, 20th , Kipling and Simms.
F. Colfax Avenue and the North-South Arterials. Since its inception, Colfax Avenue has been the automobile strip from Aurora to Golden. Starting at the foothills and spanning the entire South Platte Valley for an approximate thirty miles, it intercepts every major north -south trafficway including roads such as C-470 (proposed), 1-70, Kipling, Wadsworth, 1-25, Broadway, Colorado Boulevard,
Quebec, Havana, 1-225 and ultimately rejoins 1-70 on the eastern plains. Located near or adjacent to Colfax Avenue are such facilities as the School of Mines, "SERI" and the Denver West;
JCRS, St. Anthony's and Beth Israel Hospitals, Mile High Sports Complex, Auraria Higher Education Center, Denver Center for the Performing Arts, Downtown with the proposed 16th street mall, the Civic Center with Federal, Colorado and Denver political and cultural institutions, Midtown hospitals, City Park, Colrado Boulevard Hospitals, Colorado Women's College, Fitzsimmons, as well as many other community centers. Kipling is a major north-south areterial now and will be more significant once it continues through south of Alameda, which then completes the connection from Arvada and Wheat Ridge across Lakewood to Bowmar and Chatfield. Simms is
a secondary intracity arterial, and like Kipling it is a direct link from Westland to the Federal Center.


G. Residential Collector Route Through North Lakewood-20th Avenue.
This route should be maintained and reinforced as a low volume road serving housing areas as it primarily does now. Traffic from and to new higher density housing sites is spread onto new sections of Quaill leading to 20th and to Colfax.
Further balanced dispersal of residential traffic occurs on Oak, Robb, 17th and 18th Avenues, connecting to collector streets on the north and west as well as to Colfax on the South.
H. Collector Routes for Special Industrial Sites. Vehicular circulation to the industrial areas is channeled onto Quaill,
13th Avenue, 8th, and 6th Avenue service roads to the west, south and to Colfax away from residential neighborhoods.
I. RTD- Colfax Walk-N-Ride Facilities. Because there are existing and potential high living, shopping and working densities with converging pedestrian circulation routes within the Westland Community Activity Center, location here of RTD Walk-N-Ride stops is necessary. In relationship to orientation, topography, access, placement and compatabi1ity to adjacent activities,
the proposed sites are excellent for such RTD facilities.
11. Major Design Concepts.
A. Buffering-Total Center. On the perimeter of the Westland Community Activity Center, special emphasis should be placed on establishing gradual transitions into the adjacent residential neighborhoods from the mixed uses of the activity center. Green-ways should be used whenever possible to unify the existing developments with new development. From the outside of the center inward, progressive increases in densities, bulks, heights, and gradual changes in land use are recommended.
B. Mixed Uses - Total Center. Mixed uses are extremely important as is a great variety of activity functions within and around
the center. To be a successful center, both the public and private people spaces must be carefully designed.
C. Open Space - Total Center. Particular consideration should be given to providing adequate and varied open spaces within the center itself. Further, coordination of materials, exterior furniture and other amenities throughout the Westland Community Activity Center should enhance the desirability of such open space to the pedestrian.
D. Map of Core, Secondary and Perimeter Rings. Figure 1 illustrates how the Community Activity Center is designed around a core, a secondary ring and a perimeter ring.
E. Neighborhood and Activity Center Relationships - Circulation and Landscape. AS outlined in the previous discussion in
Concept Lakewood, the Community Activity Center should be a pedestrian-


Spatial Analysis:
The spatial characteristics of the thesis site are
particular to a neighborhood community which still shows
1
a visual relationship to its rural past. T^e designation or present use.of the site as a drive-in theater and as a mobile home 'marketplace' gives testimony to the fact that present planned uses of suburban land are short-sighted and inadequate. The implementation of past zoning practices have resulted today into an inadequate proportion between the scale of commercial and retail use of land and
that allotted for housing, open space, recreation, streets 3
and parking. The visual neighborhood "scape" reflects
the lack of culture, the displacement of American cultural
4
roots by rapid commercial and retail growth. The open spaces remaining to the north of the thesis site are a blessing for informal human recreational pursuits. However, certain circulation routes are beginning to define the uses of the vacated suburban land.^ The energy crisis is turning peoples attention toward a closer critical analysis of personal lifestyles and the new pedestrian circulation routes across the site (see site analysis diagrams) are an example of renewed interest in a more human and constructive neighborhood environment.
The most critical aspect of the present spatial organization of the Westland CAC Community remains (and for any planned future cluster developments) the definition of a neighborhood identity. The organization, the use of the


land bound by Quail St., Robb St., and Colfax Ave. should be defined in order that a proper hierarchy of public, semi-public, private and semi-private spaces are established. The present chaos or spatial displacement comes as a result of a lack of sensitivity to these needs of privacy, buffering, sheltering and security.


£|C£tAxn«rJ / fEfeHftTBR.


I
I


View of site:
Shows existing use as a drive in theatre with existing control booth in center of site. Site slopes toward Green Mountain (in background) in a southerly direction.
Green Mountain in background reinforces suburban/rural aspect of neighborhood. Photograph indicates a need for recreation and playground space. Site slope from 17th Ave. to Colfax is as much as 30'. Good potential for solar. Any development here would be horizontal in terms of physical appearance.
This photograph portrays typical physical forms surrounding the site. The low physical scale of the houses is typical of Lake-wood except for taller office structures in West-land, at the Federal Center and at the community planning offices on Union Street. Notice gable and arch treatment.
JHUll
F| ! 3. klM 111 III! ft - UatV ».— I



View east of site shows downtown Denver skyline and distance of site from center of town. This photograph reinforces potential of site as a neighborhood center. Suburban identity.
View looking east from site directly across Target store adjacent to site. Notice how recreation seems to play a minor role as the space for the swings is not buffered from sun or wind. Commercial activity seems to overrun the spatial needs of people.
View looking southeast from site. Predominance of automobiles, general spatial dis order and misuse of land. Open. Barren. Scarce. No people in view. Trees and foliage is restricted to low scale housing beyond Colfax Avenue.
(Tft)
AM


View looking northwest from site. The surrounding land ranges from undeveloped to developed in physical appearance. Notice drainage ditch alongside road.
All seven-story housing to right.
View looking west along northern edge of site. Blueberry Hill Apartments are in right background. Notice elm trees along fence line. Ecology is characteristic of prairie land.
View looking east along northern boundary of site. Green Mountain lies in background. Site slopes to south dropping 30' to 40' from 16th Ave. to Colfax. Horizontal landscape.
Slope staggers to site.


I
View looking east along southern boundary of site. The Colfax strip. Endless. A major corridor for auto circulation. An assessment of the economic viability of the Colfax corridor is undertaken in the DRCOG study.
View looking east behind existing Westland shopping center. View shows the encroachment of commercial activity onto adjacent land to the north (Kuntz site) without buffers. Drainage ditch is in direct foreground .
View looking northeast to pasture (rural land).
Good potential for housing and recreation. 17th Ave. in foreground will be closed north of drive in site under Concept Lake-wood. Drainage canal will proceed diagonally across Kuntz site in photograph.


erial view looking east show he site with drive-in theate n left foreground. Notice olfax Ave. corridor, Denver kyline and the relatively ow scale of buildings in oreground around thesis site TD Bus Maintenance facility and is in direct foreground.
1. Shows neighborhood "fringe" quality of the site. Almost like a point adjacent to a line radiating from the "hub" or Denver core.
erial view looking north a-ross Colfax Ave. and to the uburbs beyond. View shows ommercial activity to the ight and center foreground ith residential growth to he left and center back-round .
2. Shows rural/suburban nature of this neighborhood community center.


O thl
IT t
" S
jt
V»V ;•••>• •\’V5v:-r;:;A-:-v
•/:*Vf: U- U
Hit*



ol?ax£



_ I7th
_|
arttrr- â– '

16 th
fg ?«X pl.
jlfMI -
-irini

tU.tjr'',
3Jh pl.
rF^I
Tj-rr? i
VvlilLi Ur
.13 th
core
boundary
secondary development ring te::--;:-j perimeter development ring
250
250 500
westland community activity center
city of lakewood, Colorado
land use intensity ^


figure 3
â– HOH
!0 thZ
-J
17 th_
9
:>tnnmnni — 2—
16 th_
olfax Z
&
* •§
jrity-


rr
jui_t
JO 250 0 250 500
1/20/79
boundary
westland community activity center
city of lakewood, Colorado
street improvements



figure 4
20 th
:olfax
jrity
«3th_
imtrrriTTTlIl

.
JVl_r
O 250 O 260 500
arterial
collector
J L_J L_
boundary
westland community activity center
city of lakewood, Colorado
/Art l-f
street classification


figure 5
â– 
ifax
th pi.
17th
14 th
boundary
refer to text
3 250 O 250 500
westland community activity center
city of lakewood, Colorado
r20/79 -
generalized land use area




III. LAND USES IN THE WESTLAND COMMUNITY ACTIVITY CENTER
The use of the land in the Westland Community Activity Center should conform to the Westland Community Activity Center Land Use Map (Figure 5 ). The uses proposed for the various areas depicted on the map are described in the paragraphs that follow (paragraphs A through M) .
A. 1-4 Pedestrian Crossing Points
These four areas (A1-A4) provide for pedestrian crossings. The location of each of these crossings will be reinforced with a traffic light and with clearly marked pedestrian crosswalks i.e. different colored or textured pavement providing easy access across Colfax Avenue, thus connecting both sides of the Activity Center for the pedestrian.
B. Regional Shopping
Between Colfax and 17th, Owens and Miller is Area B, proposed to be expanded to regional shopping center size. Major department stores already exist in the shopping center while development, being in the core of the Activity Center, is encouraged to intensify. A regional shopping center generally has two or more department stores with a gross leasable area of at least 500,000 square feet.
C. Recreation and Community Commercial
Just west of the existing shopping center is Area C. This area will include Community Commercial facilities as well as Recreational and Special Commercial. Community shopping areas generally contain a supermarket and/or discount store with approximately 100,000 to 200,000 gross leasable area.
D. Neighborhood Commercial and Office
Located west of Area C is a proposed location for a neighborhood shopping center which would provide for the daily shopping needs of the area residents within convenient walking distance. In addition this area is proposed for office development.
E. Multi-Family Housing
Situated along the western side of the Community Activity Center, east of Simms is Area E, an area suitable for multi-family housing. Parts of this area in a deteriorating nature are already beginning to redevelop as multi-family. This area of low and medium density residential uses will buffer the low density residential area west of Area E from the more intensive uses in Area D. Housing for the elderly could also be included in Area f,.


F. Multi-Family Housing
This area situated in the northern portion of the Activity Center is an area suitable for multi-family housing due to its proximity to the very intense uses in the core. This area of high, medium, and low density residential uses will buffer the lower density residential areas surrounding Area F from the more intensive uses in Areas B, C, & D. Housing for the elderly will be allowed in this area.
G. Public Open Space
The YMCA park is designated as Area G. It serves as a converging point for the pedestrian ways throughout the Westland Community Activity Center and is linked directly to Area H. Areas G & H serve to buffer the existing lower density residential developments from the more intensive developments proposed for Area F. Areas G & H are linked together by a pedestrian way, contributing to the overall open space system.
H. Neighborhood "Pocket” Park
Area H is proposed for a small neighborhood park, tying this northeast portion into the Activity Center by use of the pedestrian ways. It will also buffer the lower density residential areas east and west of Area H from the more intensive uses of Area F.
I. Commercial and Entertainment
Area I situated along Colfax is proposed as the primary entertainment and eating center within the Westland Community Activity Center. In this area a unique lively, lighted "strip" would be created through redevelopment of the "marginal" commercial uses in existence along Colfax Avenue. The four pedestrian crossings (Areas A1-A4) will enable patrons easy access to both sides of the "strip." Office use is also suitable for Area I.
J. Neighborhood Park - "Tot Lot"
Area J is an excellent site for a small neighborhood park of "tot lot" due to its partial location within the flood plain.
In addition to being part of the pedestrian system, Area J will buffer the lower density residential areas to the south and southeast from the more intensive uses of Area I.


K. Housing for the Elderly
This area will provide an excellent site for housing for the elderly due to its location near existing shopping and other facilities. Neighborhood stores and recreational facilities to be allowed near the residential buildings will also serve as supportive uses for housing for elderly. Pedestrian/bicycle paths should be built to link the housing units to the enumerated facilities.
Housing for the elderly in this location would buffer the singlefamily housing south of Area K from the commercial activity to the north. Pedestiran/bicycle paths should be constructed through the housing for the elderly area to provide residents of the area with easy access to the commercial area of the Westland Community Activity Center.
L. Special Light Industrial
This area, south of Colfax and north of the railroad tracks is proposed for special light industrial use relating primarily to the automobile. It is a unique use area, found only in the Westland Community Activity Centers.
A major RTD maintenance facility is proposed within this area, complimenting the other allowable uses wihin this area.
M. Public Open Space
This site just east of Simms is proposed as part of the Westland Community Activity Center pedestrian/open space system. It serves the southwest portion of the Activity Center as a converging point for pedestrians. AreaM also serves as a tie across the Simms right-of-way to the existing bike/pedestrian way on the west side of Simms.
*


Physical Analysis:
The most repetitious characteristic of the physical nature of the thesis site is the horizontal representation of the surrounding dwellings and Green Mountain to the southwest. The one- and two-story homes to the east an and north reflect this attribute. The commercial activity in Westland Shopping Center is sprawling (see photographs and slides), while the only tall, vertical object is an 8-story office building due south of.the site.
The predominance of streets and the chaotic appearance of Colfax Avenue reflect the impact of the automobile on this fringe neighborhood community. As a result, the community has grown within the grid-like confines of the pattern established by communication and transportation routes.
One serious detriment to the neighborhood by the proliferation of asphalt cover is the increased run-off of rainwater which increases the demand on storm sewers and channels. The existing greenbelt does incorporate a 'drainage' ditch which, with proper planning and design, can become a positive feature for open space development.
The topography (see site contour map) shows a thesis site which steps down diagonally across the site from a top elevation of approximately 5632.0 to 5600, involving a drop in elevation of @32.0'.


Trees do exist on-site. Elm, cottonwood and some yet to be identified lower-scale deciduous trees offer a good contrast to the prairie-like nature of the land north of the site. The lack of evergreens is noticeable and their introduction to the edges of the site could offer a greatly needed buffer between commercial uses and recreational/housing uses of the land.




V-/
.-------------------fl-
$ D

V
Tu
*■ » »
â– ' //
S J
0
cf

%


4
Ur
\
•#
ot)
\r

!^a
%
&
*****
J
r

/
/
o-

$
/
\\
% %. . v %




£
»?

â– )i*jT
A^
^^3 E33

£
$Si
.
A 1 tp
ff 4*
B U .^! <>
Apf>a>»'m*{£ itf****"

eBSH
.*»•*
n - _£-uMArE- AMACt^fe''...:_:;..:
V *1^a4_E |«- Ico'-o”

#






Local Climatological Data
Lowest Recorded Temperature: -30 degrees F (February)
Mean Low Temperature: 16 degrees F (January)
Highest Recorded Temperature: 105 degrees F (July)
Daytine Relative Humidity: 20-30% on average, often much lower due to warming effects of downslope westerly air flow.
Nighttime Relative Humidity: often raises to 100% (New Point) casued by radiative cooling.
Mean Annual Percentage of Clear Days: 35 percent
Percent of Possible Sunshine: 70 percent
Mean Annual Precipitation: 13 inches
Maximum Annual Precipitation: 22 inches
Maximum Precipitation in 24 hrs. : 3.5 inches (May)
Mean Annual Snowfall: 50 inches
Prevailing Wind Direction: Southerly at 9 mph; direction of greatest winds usually have westerly components.
Normal Heating Degree Days (Base 65 degrees): 6016
Normal Cooling Degree Days (Base 65 degrees): 625
Wind, Fastest Mile (.1 minute value): 56 degrees NW and SW


Narrative Climatological Summary
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver's weather: arctic air from Canada and Alaska; warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west.
The good climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds so shade the City that temperatures of 90 degrees or over are reached on an average of only thirty-two days of the year, and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 degree mark.
In the cold season, the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains never reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent from the east face of the mountains, and Chinooks resulting from some of these


westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season.
These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude.
In the spring when outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches its peak in May.
Situated a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by several high mountain barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable sunshine.
Spring is the wettest, cloudiest and windiest season.
Much of the 37 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of that season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover.
Summer precipitation (about 32 percent of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually falls mainly from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise by the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower.
Autumn is the most pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are mostly over and invasions of cold air and severe
(1&


weather are infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any other time of the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipitation amounts to about 20 percent of the annual total.
Winter has least precipitation accumulation, only about 11 percent of the annual total, and almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however, is higher than in autumn. There is also more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but as a general rule the severity doesn't last
long.


P&Y &UL.C, TEMrEJWVKE-
plOc^clMATlc- CHART CrK°M Ot-G-YAT.)
\Z.O.~
IIO-“
Al
o
loo.. 9c..
loo


I
DIAGRAM I -SOLAR ELEVATION ANGLE .FOR LATITUDE 40°N
I II 21 31 10 20 2 12 22 1 11 2! 1 1| 21 31 10 20 30 10 20 30 9 19 29 8 18 20 8 18 28 7 17 27 7 17 ?7
| Jan. | Feb. | Mar. | "Apr. | May | June | July I Aug. | Sept. | Oct. | Nev. | Dec. . |


•t ■%
\


15-3
Natural Gas - Price/lOOft3 # 2 Fuel Oil-Price/Gallon Propane — Price/Gallon
Figure 15-1. Energy Cost per Million Btu for Natural Gas, Propane and No. 2 Fuel Oil.
, a -T)


APPROXIMATE ANNUAL WIND ROSE Stapleton Airport, Denver, Colorado
Based on five years of data, May 1950 - April 1955, taken from Climatography of the United States, No. 30-5 for Denver, by averaging monthly percentages.
Legend
percentage frequencies
mph


Average Temperature Heating Degree Days
Ywr 1J,n I Fab Apr | a»7| Jun# ] July Aug j S.pt foeq Nov | D»c Annual Saa»on [JulyjAug [fe.pt j Ocl Nov 'ST Jar |*p- !**•» Juna' Total
J*M 56.« "•3 .... 46.0 6C.1 *7.* 76.X 71.1 44 . 35.* 41.7 it.q Sl.l 1*96.39 14 4 ID* 347 724 • *t 10«1 *6 • .. 1 • 72 |7| 29 96*6
l*so H ‘’•1 31.« I “•1 ,6-1 *4.1 94.« .... 331 30.3 1*9*.*0 0 • 1*1 •** • 19 • 76 1191 115* 12 7 ... 243 >• • 26*
1**1 I6.X 56. « 46.1 >*.* *4.j Tl .1 • l.C 4*. 4 *5.4 33-4 30.4 •1*60-61 7 13 •0! 3*6 79* nr 1026 •2» • 04 • |0 2** 69 *0>4
i**2 *7.V 21.* 5*. l] 93,* 35.a 64.1 72.* 7 1 61.1 31.0 42.4 16.4 4*.3 1*41-42 14 0 27a. 43* ♦ R2 use Ull • 74 ♦ »4 *37 173 72 *•03
!•*> 53 • * 54.1 52.* 63.* 73.« 7..* 65.1 55.0 6P-.7 3* 1 91.* 1*42-63 0 1* 112 JJV .70 3 ♦6 1 U17 74* • *• 44 2 196 >0 >•26
1*9* 50.* J*.* 42.1 3R.0 67.0 71.9 72.* 65.0 34.5 40.7 30.7 4*. 7 1*43.64 6 7 27 229 6*C 112! ICS* 1C»2 962 • 43 2*0 72 *096
1**5 51. A .... "'1 41.9 ...» • t.A 71.* 9*.* 41.7 H 4*.6 1*4*.69 0 16 12aj >7* 743 •I’ *21 104* 110* Ml HI *3 • 0»o
1*46 51. J 55.* 44. a 59.1 51.4 *•.! 1 74.* 71.* 69.4 1 35.6 3*. • 91.2 1*65-46 • 7 2**! 307 649 92s 1122 1 01 T • *1 60* 2P4 • 2 3*00
n»*t 55.« 26.N 54.» 49.* 33.4 62.0 72.9 M.« 6s . 1 59,4 >6.4 33.1 4*.4 1*64-67 0 • *4 171 4*9 ie:i 954 »32 679 49* in 133 9464
1**» »«•. 26,6 51,4. 91 .* 9*.T 64.4 72.4 72.* 4f ,7 n.» 1*.* 4 *.» 1*67.46 4 14 106 36* 779 116 6 10*6 • • 9 731 653 3.3 3* 61*0
16.* 50.6, J*.» 49.X 57.0 6».a 72.4 7 1.4 45 .! 4*,* 4».* >2.9 4*.6 1*6 6 —4 * 10 >9 143 !*• >7i 111* *23 •21 1011 3-6 2* * 1** 6097
1*53 H .... .... *7. t 33.9 66.4 41.91 • ».* • 0.1 3*.* >•.? .... 10.6 1*6*.70 2 0 >6 ,0' 769 106* *69 632 200 7* *300
1*51 26.^ 55.* »*.» 4%,« 37.5 *r.« 75. « 70.7 61.9 4I.X 16. J 2*.«J 69.3 1*70-71 0 f> 1*6 944 770 *77 lr 1 a • 9« • 17 • 0« 329 29 •1*4
1*52 1 4 » * 35. *1 53.6 *•.2 3* . • 72.0 73.1 71.f 65.6 39.% 32.1 1? .6 90.1 1*71-72 24 0 2?a s'. 771 101* 1 p! 3 * 3 2 671 416 2*6 * 3«i*
1*53 >*.6 52.* 44.4 47.1 53.4 49.7 74.0 71.2 66.0 34.6 43. L 31.4 91.1 l*72-7> 42 19 107! 37' 46 0 12»* 11*2 •20 77 J 646 i.o 96 6904
1*54 »*• * 45.* 53.4 53.4 3*. 1 69.1 76.* 72.7 69.7 32.9 44.1 >•.7 33.3 1*73-74 * 0 1*6 >4 1 '56 1*29 * 2 ’7 *3i *71 *C ? 137 6’ 3772
1*55 ?7.« 2T., .... 50,li »*.C| 44.0 T».« ’M 69.* 34.0 36.X 35.4 90.2 1*74-73 0 9 19V 161 1") 10*3 102* *3 ? • 92 Ml Ml • 9 *90*
1*5* 54.3 2?.* *''.11 49. * *0 .* 75.* 72.|j 4*.7 • 3.5 35. J >7.jj 35.1! 31.3 1*73-76 0 4 1*> 50* • 40 • •3 1CC6 7s0 *59 469 ... 6* 9637
1*55 25.* AC,* 1*. 1! 4 1 ,4 31.* 6».« 7*. % 72.4 6 1.4 91.6 >6.* 39* 96.2 1*74-77 0 7 1*2 304 799 *C * 11-3 7s* 771 41* H’ 0 9900
1*51 12.* 5?.*. 53.6 *4,4 41.7 46. L 70. » 75.4 64.6 S3,* 60.4 33.• 31.4 1*77.76 2 14 >6 3J6 757 *20 1206 •3* •* * * 1 9 ... • 7 9735
1*5* 56.0 27.fc 3C.X 57.4 49.6 36.2 7C , • 72.4 75.0 61.3 46.1; 17.6 >6.9 9C.0 1*7*.79 ° 20 • 6 366 111 17*5
• 1**0 26.* 5*.li 3". *J 3 7.2 6 * . 3 75.2 75.4 69,0 32.0 39.* 26. f 4*.7
1**1 !*•? U.lj 1*.< 15.7 2*. * 5*. •. 34.*-, 46.0 5*.» 33.T 3*. • 66.1' 65.9 71,9 72.* 72.* 72.9 36.3 62.4 30.9 33.6 34. J 41.* 27.7 35. • 41.9 4*.7 Cooling Degree Days
1*63 1*64 1*65 l*.l| 50.*1 59.0 37.4, 34. iv 50,0 46.4 5 i.t 60.* 3*. *! 37.1 66.7 63.0 *3.« 65.* 62.9 35.7 *1.7 40.0 43.S 21.9 33.X >5.0 30.1 4*.7 49.6
27,4 2 7»4| 73.'» 72.7 70.4 70. X 32.7 S3, V Y.»r Jan F.t Mar ■Apr May [June July Aug 'Sept’ Oct Nov Dec Total
1 1*69 0 0 u P 35 ** 112 2*4 46 C 0 e 711
1 j 31.3
1**6 21.N 2*.* 4*. 4 *4.4 3 •. 7 6*.6 74.* TC.« 69.C 32.2 4 1.3 30.3 1*70 c 0 w P le *1 122 i»* *0 c 0 e 693
1*6? >4.0 55.1 47.* 4*. 2 32.6 60.4 • *, V 6 • . X 62,3 32.9, 40.9 261 49.4
i*e« 2* • * >•.* 40,4 41.0 31.7 6? . * 71. + • «.t *e.* 31.* 13.7 2*.* 41.9 1*71 0 0 c P 0 1*9 2CJ «4» 33 0 0 0 693
1*6 9 55.0 35,6 37.3 37.2 3*.» 61.* 7 4.T 75.* 64.9 1 *, 0 3* • 1 >2 9 49.9 1*72 0 0 0 6 6 no 21C 10’ 21 1 0 e 962
1**0 16.6 )>.6 33.9 43.7 5«.« 6».2 72.0 75.* 3*. 49.* 3*.I 35 . * 49.3 1*73 0 0 u P 2 13* 1** 270 21 1 0 0 4»1
4 7,*' 34.2! I 1*74 c 0 0 P 36 176 >07 137 39 c 0 e 711
1*71 >2.l! 5C ,» 37.9 6 * . 3 70.4 72.9 3*. 9 4*.4 39.1 31-3 49.9 1*73 0 0 0 6 3 69 2*6 1*2 19 3 0 0 53s
1*72 50.5 36.2 44. A 46. f 37.0 6* . 3 TC.t 71.0 62.3 32.1 3?.* 24.* 49.9
1*7J 27.» 15.5 3*.* *3,2 35.4 6?.* 71.0 75.5 3*.* 54,* >*.3 11 • * 49,9 1*76 0 0 u P } 112 324 174 32 0 c e 667
1*7* ».? 55. 2 44.5 4*.♦ 61.6 6l.* 74.7 4*.9 S',* 32,6 3».0 Sl-X 30.9 1 *'’7 c 0 u 2 lP 21* 2 * * 112 *3 0 0 e *9*
1*75 5C.6 37,4. *4.1' 34.3 6*. * T,.Tj TC.i 39.9 S!.t >6.* ”•* .... 1*71 0 0 V P 12 132 tea 171 1C| 2 0 c 749
1*76 51.5 3*.* 3*. 1* ‘9,2 36.7| 66.5 *9, A 70.* 61.* 4*,4> 3*.3 33.1 31.0
1*77 2*.r 36.n 3*,* 31.1 60.7 7:.* 7*.5 7C.X 64.6 33.9 46.1 39.1 32.3
1*76 MC0*D 25.i | 51.4 44.i JM 3*.6 6*.* 7..T, 4*.* 69.0 ^‘j 24.* 12.4 4*.7
MESS 56.1 52.* 3*,7 *»,! 36.* *6.7 ?2.7 71.5 62.7 51.6 l*.6 50.2
Si* .... 45,4 Si .* *<“.2 6 *, 9 10.* *6.9 • 3.0 74.* 65.9 32.6 44.7 63.4
m In IT..' 20,» 26, l! 34,* 43.* H.1 3 • . • |7.* 46.9 1?.* 26.* 1*.* 17.0
Precipitation
Snowfall
Year Jan ] Feb Mar Apr May 1 June \ July Aug j Sept Oct | Nov 1 D«c Annual Season July Augjs«pt;Oct Nov Jan Mar Apr May[june|Total
1*39 C.«2! l.i* 1.06 l.o« 1.23 1.0* 0.17 0.13' 0.2* C,*T 0.0*: 0.37, • .*3 1*39-40 0.0 0.0 0,0 7.6 0.3 6.9 13.7 6.1 11.7 T 0.0 o.e *6.3
1*40 1.01 0.6? 2.26 .... 1.** 0.10 >.*lj 2.93 1.2* 0.25 j 4.09 0.39( 0.76| 0,>6 14.90 1*40-41 0.0 o.e 0.0 O.P 7.0 6.0 ... 1.* 10.2 ... 0.0 ... ....
1*41 1.11 0.1* 1.29 )!• 1.2* i . •* 2.46 2.4* 0.62 0. *6 22.03 l* 1*42 C . 66 0.V1 0.66 *•17 1.12 J.pR 1.02 0.77 C.«l 2.*4 0.2 • 0.19; 16.3* 1*s2-43 c.c 0.0 0.4 4,6 4.1 6.3 3.C I.* 7.1 7 4.5 e.c >6.1
1*43 0.29 0.12 0.*9 1.04 2.*6 1.22 0.72 1.2» 0.07 c.27 0.41 0.37: 9. 12 1*43.44 0.0 0.0 0.0 l,p 2.3 l.C 12.1 3.3 It.2 23.6 7.9 e.e • 1.1
19.s 1.02 0.2* 2. •• 5.92 1.73 C * * 2 3.34 0.46 7 0.0. 0.51 C.37 13.94 :»**.*5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,* 9.5 5.9 12.2 6.2 3.0 23.0 T c.e 35.1
1*45 o.7o; 0.4* 0.19 2.1! 2.32 2.02 2.1* 2.39 1.17 0.7* 0.40 o.o*i 11.39
I I I j c.»a, 2.*7j 1*45-46 o.c 0.0 7 2.5 »• 0.1 10.2 •.* 3.2 T 0.1 o.e 21.7
1*46 C. 6* 0.2* 0.92 2.0* 1.*3 0.12 l.eo 1.3* 1.1« 0. V* 16.34 •l**6-4! 0.0 o.c 0.4 1.' 39.1 0.7 7. J 12.1 12.0 4.7 l.l 7 • 1.*
*1*47 0.37 o.«’ 1.04 1.30 4.6l 2*’6 1.3? 1.27 0.*1 i.*l 0.73' 0.271 1 * . 06 1*47_.8 0.0 o.c 0.0 3.1 6.* 6.4 !J.T 7.3 22.0 3.5 T e.e 74.4
1*42 1 . *6 0 . * 4 1.71 2.it 1.34 1.64 0.»p 0.41 0. *9 0.1* 0.65' 0.16 12.62 l*4«-a* 0.0 0.0 0.0 e,« 6.7 4.* lc.5 0.* 1*.2 12.’ T o.e •e.i
1949 1.1* 0. V9 2.2* 1.46 3.31 4.2T 1.3! 0.*I 0.2* 1.3* 0.C1j 0.33. 16.7« 1*«*-3C 0.0 0.0 0,0 7.2 0.0 6.0 l.l 2.9 3.4 9.0 1 J • 6 o.e 52.9
1*30 0. *7 O.io 0.31 1 » M0 3.32 0.3* 0.2*: 1.31 o.lij 1.00 1 i 0.62 13.*3 1*50-31 c.c O.P 0.0 0 , r> ii.9 9.9 13.7 10.3 17.6 C.O 0.3 ’S.•
1*31 0.«9 0.72 1 • * 7 2.01 1.7« 2.27 0.35 * .*7 0. *7 2.16 1.17 0.6* 19.43 1*31-32 0.0 O.P 4.2 7.7 14.3 11.2 0.1 10.2 2 5.2 11.1 T 0,0 It. 1
1*32 0.01I 0.6* 2.12 2.79 3.0* C • 1 2 1.06 i.«t 0.3* 0.1* l.lll c.l* 13.43 1*92-33 o.c 0.0 O.b 1.2 14.3 9.1 7.4 1*.» 11.1 12.0 1.7 C,0 6*.?
1*33 C. 3* 1.3* 1.19 1.2* 2.66 i.46 1.*! 1.23 0.20 0.** 1.00' 1.02 14.23 1*53-3* o.c 0.0 0.0 C.l 7.2 1... 2 •1 0.6 6.3 7.4 2.6 c.e 61.9
l*9s 0.25 0. v* 0.4* 0.3* C.6P C.*6 1.** 0.31 0.77 0.06 O.!’ 0. '1: 7.11 1*56-93 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,4 3.9 9.6 3.5 11.2 19.5 4.9 0.0 e.e 31.P
1*55 0.25 0.65 1.14 0.42 2•*Tj l.»» 2.»* 2.41 2.72 0.». 0.56 0.19 16.03
1 ! 1 1*35-56 0.0 0.0 o.o 6.1 7.3 2.9 6.3 10.3 13.0 3.7 7 e.e *7.1
1*96 0.3* 0.77 0. •* 0.72 2.36 0.4* *•17 1.33 0,01 0.2* 1.25: 0.62 13.72 1*46-97 c.c O.P 0.0 C.f 21.3 4.5 3.1 1.* • 9 25.9 l.l 0.0 71.1
1*3* 0.32 0.7* 1.0* 4.13 7.31 1.0* 1.2* 2.03 0.62 2.61 0.** 0.1.6 21. »• l*9?-36 c.c o.e T 3.9 l.C e. • 1.9 12.0 1*.* 14.1 C.C e.e 37.1
1*51 0.73 1.0P 1.4* 1.73 4.4* 1.47 3.30 1.17 1.31 0.37, 0.?4, C.«>* H.«0 1*36-9* c.o 0.0 7 2.6 9.7 7.7 17.4 17.3 2 6.6 I?.* 7 o.e *9.3
1*3* 1.24 1.3: 2 »* l.H 3.33 0.4* C.M 0.23 1.3? 2.*# 0.40 0.26 16.5. 1*!9-*C 0.0 0.0 12.9 11.2 9.3 2.7 1C.T 11.3 9.0 9.3 1 c.e • O.P
1*60 O.TV 1.66 0.6* 2.36 2.2*1 0«•> 1... 0.06 0.3* 2.**: 0.** 0.77' 0.93 l.»0j 14.9* 1*60-61 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.6 1.1 17.1 l.C 7.9 19.2 • .* • .* 0,0 • C . 6
1**1 0.07: 0.66 2.31 1.06 4.12 1,11 1.60 1.111 4.67 C.30 1*.01 1*61-62 o.c 0.0 5.6 6.2 11.4 9 . 1 17.1 11.> 6.1 10.e C.C o.c 71.9
1*62 1.33 1.09 0.31 1.10 C.M 1.92 0.34 C.46 0.1* 0.03 0.6* 0.17 • .*3 1*62-63 o.c O.P 0.7 O.P 3.0 1.2 9.1 l.l lt.O 0.2 o.c c.e >6.9
1*65 0.?1 0.2: 1.42 0.0* 0.6* 3.3* 0.9! 2.32 1.29 0.31, C.4! O.lij 12.21 1*63-6* c.o o.e 0.0 1.1 35 9.* 2.6 12.7 It. 4 12.1 l.C 0.0 37.1
1*64 0.2* 1.04 1.3* 1.2» 2.15 C••2 0.72 0.27 0.*1 0.1* 0.M c.*o 10. 14 1*64-63 0.0 0.0 0.0 7 6.0 4.* 13.2 17.1 14.9 0.1 7 e.e 31.9
1*63 1 .Cr l.JT 1.26 l.S« l.»2 4.14 1 6.*1 1.0*| Z.3» 0.*9 0.36 1 0.** 0.32 0.31, J 11.*7 1*69-66 0.0 o.e 9.3 O.P 3.3 1.6 .. I#.* 2.1 6.6 I.* o.e 4*.*
1*66 0. >0 1.12 0.3* 1.6* 0.3* 1.41 1.04 2.0* 1.19 0. I7! 10.«1 1966-6’ o.c e.p T 1.9 3.0 1.9 * » * . s 6.6 ».* 3.0 e.c 40.7
1*67 C. • 4 0.3* 0.7* 1.9* 4.77 4.6* 3.23 0 . • > 0.*R 1.13 1,01. 1.V6 23.31 1*6 7-6• 0.0 o.e 0.0 1.* 9.4 13.1 3.0 9.1 9.1 i».l 7 e.e !«.•
1*66 0.51! 0.74 0.35 2.1* 0.71 0.90 1.3* 2.39 0.3* 0.79 0.7l! O.M 12.13 l*6*-69 0.0 o.e 0.0 0,4 9.1 4.9 2 • • 4.2 13.2 T C.O c.e 31.9
1*6* 0.17j 0. *> 1.12 1.3» 6.12 J.** 1.11 C. 7* 1«*7 4,1* 0.6? C.R2 21.12 19 6 9 - 7C 0.0 e.e 0.0 31.2 1.1 5.1 0.9 o.» ro.» 6.7 * e.e • l.»
1*70 0. in 0.01 1.34 0.**| >••> 1.67 0.3* 2.*7 o.»* 1.1* I j c.o* 13.73 19*0-7 1 0.0 0.0 4.6 ».♦ „ e.9 M 11.* 9.6 .,c 7 ... ....
1*71 0.3* 0.7« 0.5* !.*• 1.3* C.2> 1.20 0 • • * M» 0.** 0.14 0.29 10.96 1971-72 0.0 o.e 17.6 3.1 1.* • .4 io.* 9.1 7.1 17.2 0.0 c.e 74.4
1*72 0.36 0.** O.IP 3.32 0.** 2-** 0.65 *.71 2.07 o.»t l.*» 0. 'o 16.«7 l**2-?3 o.c e.e 0.0 *.6 19.4 9.1 12.1 1.0 13.1 24.9 1.0 o.e • 4.9
1*71 1.31 0.16 1.76 1.73 J.D* 0.20 t.*7 1 • !• 2.M 0.*7, 0.13 2.«* 12. *6 1971-74 o.c o.e O.C 1.9 9.3 30. • 1.2 10. 3 11. • 17.* 0.0 7 *1.1
1*74 1.05 0.6? 1.3* 2.2* 0.0* 1.01 I- >• 0.16 C.*6 1 . •• 1.06 0.2* 1*.CI 1974-75 0.0 e.e 1.6 1.2 11.9 2.1 1.6 4.0 14.1 IO.* l.l c.o
1*73 o.„| 0.3* 0.34 1.1* 1.1* 2.10 2.11 j 2.7» -#' 0.1. -"I ‘-“I 0. *7 13.31 1979-7* 0.0 o.e 0.0 2,9 If.2 7.3 3.1 *.• It.7 l.» o.e e.e >4.9
1*56 0. I*1 1.34 1-»1 1.3* 0.6» 2.31 I.3P i.H 0.*3 0.32 0.16 13.*1 1979-7* o.c e.e 0.0 7,2 4.1 9.1 »* l.l 9.6 6.7 0.0 0,0 >4.4
1*77 0.1* 0.2* 1.24 2.19 0.3* 1.02 1 .** 1.00 0.1O 0.4* 0.3* 0.O3 10.3* 1977.7# o.c O.P c.o 3.9 4.1 e.9 l.l 6.2 1.6 4.6 13.3 o.e 4S.1
1*7# 0.1* 0.2* 1.07 1 . it ...» I.|T 0.9* 0.2*' 0.07 1.49 0.50, o.*i 11.70 197R-79 o.c o.e T 1,9 6.9 l*.l
*•C 3RD 1 1 1 | •irotp
Ml IN •■i 1.1P 2.01 *.!• 1.6* 1 ,.T0 ,.M| 1.11 ,-"l °'Ml 0.*1 1 16.30 ■ l*N o.c o.e l.T I. * 7.7 6.6 ’•7 11.* 9.6 1.3 7 39,P
R Indicates a statical »>'vr 01 rr local i««i n f In* .lawnts Sec St at on L •cat inn table .
Krrorrt awai, vclw > ihow »ir awai it. thruug* ttw curtrnt war f «>r th« prtlod beginning In IP?? for t»»|ifr#tur» «nrt pr*c 1 p 11 at j 01. , |9.»S for snowfall. T»*peratur» and arac ipt tat ion air trim C'ltv Office loratiiai* through 1*1-. Hasting drfrvr day* are 1 rom City Office total ions through Jure l®!1*. aru

Meteorological Data For The Current Year
DfNvfa, t*»L"«aOO JT8RLITON I NTE*N* T| ON At AP Standard time used MOUNTAIN Latitude 39* *3 N Longitude 10*’ 32 M FleveNon (ground) *283 Met Vaar l**t
• 2 3042______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
aaorwe Trnmmuw * f Dsgrea Bam PrscIpHetlan in Inches Relative humidity, pet Wind • 2 I li r >» *p &« n Number ol days * magi station pom mb
-- f itremea 5 Wats* aouhralent Snow Ice pellets ) 03 1 l 1 Lore! ? 17 lime ? 7) Resultant I h < e Fa Sundae to lurmet >! IS JN li Jl t 2 ?! t X i! T amcm> aturs F
Maximum Minimum
si si * i i l X 1 ! 1 r 1 r 3 ? K it n I 1 *- c i if u X t O i 1 6 I! If 5 f 6 l 0 i 0 £ i si a u « 1 a fbl hi ll Si 2i EMv 9992 Met mil.
>T.1 16.1 79.9 9* * 0 1 1706 0 0.27 0,11 13-lfe 9.5 2.3 23-2* 69 33 54 66 04 1.0 3.9 29 Nw 25 69 6.9 6 9 16 6 3 0 2 0 9 91 1 196.7
F'f *7.2 70. • 11 .a 64 21 7 1 7 936 0 0.2 7 0.11 1 1-1? 6.7 3.1 13-16 76 5a 54 73 04 1.8 7.2 18 Nf 20 73 6.6 4 1 1 13 2 0 8 0 7 78 0 833.*
eta 5 T. 0 29.6 *1.1 T 7 11 -1 a 663 0 1.07 0.67 72-21 8.6 *.3 2-3 60 19 13 33 3* 0.6 8.1 ?» w 16 84 6.* 9 8 14 4 2 1 0 1 1' 2 834.4
a*a 61.a 36.9 50.1 87 T 77 10 435 0 1.8? 0.86 9 * .6 4.2 9 6* 18 35 5 1 2* 1.7 10.3 *1 w l7 78 6.* 3 14 11 6 1 3 2 0 0 6 0 • 91.7
na 1 • 7.1 *1 .7 3a . a A* 15 23 7 339 17 3 .** 1.1? 10-1 13.9 8.9 3-6 69 * 3 40 61 17 1.7 9.1 9* SF 16 65 6.1 9 8 14 17 1 3 1 0 0 7 0 • J1.*
rm •o.a 51.1 66.9 9* 2* *1 1 8 7 13? 1.1* 0.43 *-5 0.0 0.0 65 39 34 34 16 2.0 7.1 18 N 7 67 9.7 10 9 1 1 0 7 0 n 0 0 0 897.9
jut 90 . • 39.9 7a.t »8 7* 90 71 0 108 0.3* 0.21 29 0.0 0.0 62 10 26 43 16 1 .* 8.1 34 NW 16 73 *.3 17 1* 3 9 0 1 1 1 2? 0 0 0 998.1
»ut IM 31.7 69.9 0* 17 aa 13 70 171 0.2* 0.1 1 2-3 0.01 0.0 63 31 30 3? 16 1.3 8.7 *2 N 1 73 *.7 10 1* 7 0 6 0 1 7 0 0 0 9 3*. 8
• 1.2 aa. 69.0 aa 6 12 71 96 103 0.07 0,07 19-20 T T 20 31 73 20 40 17 2.4 8.1 10 5 T 83 7.3 71 T 2 1 0 0 1 0 93T. 1
Or T 64.7 3’.9 31.1 • 6 1 71 73 166 2 1.0 1.24 ?l“27 7.7 1.7 22 3* 31 78 49 16 0.9 7.2 76 NF 4 74 4.0 19 3 7 2 0 0 0 0 8 0 • 39.3
W"V *«.l 73.7 37.9 t8 a • 77 eu 0 0.30 0.39 73-76 6.9 a.8 23-76 66 *3 46 63 0* 0.3 7.7 26 NW 28 96 6.0 1 1 6 13 5 2 0 4 0 3 2* 0 933.8
0*C 96. • 17.1 2*.6 57 a -to • 17*9 0 0.8? 0,38 3-6 l*.? 7.3 9-6 63 50 56 62 19 0.9 8.* 93 NF s 77 3.3 10 10 11 4 0 1 0 9 11 4 • 92.*
JUl prc OCT MAY wav
TMI 43.1 36.1 *9.7 9* 29 -10 8 670? 7* • 11.70 1.2* 21-2? 62.2 6.9 3-6 6* *0 38 56 16 0.6 8.0 94 SF 16 7? 3.* 126 119 17* 7* 21 39 70 52 91 146 7 • 99.6
Normals,
Means, And Extremes
Nmh and «itr«Mi aNrra ara from exiatin9 and comparable expoeuree. Annual extreae* hava baan exceeded at other altaa in the locality aa folloarei Blghmet temperature 105 in August 1870j aaxlnua monthly precipitation 1.57 in May 1876t minimum monthly prec ipl tst ion 0.00 in December 1881; maxlanua precipitation in 24 houra 6.53 in May L 0 7 6 r maximum monthly enowfall 57.4 in December Itlli utliea snowfall in 24 hour a 23.0 in April 10 8 5: fastest mile of wind 65 from Neat in May 1933k
(a) Lemfth 9* e*cer#, years, through the carrant year unless otherwise noted, based on January data.
(4) 70* in# above at Alaskan stations.
• less than erne half.
T Trace.
0OWiaiS - lesed on record for the 1941-1970 period.
DATE Of AA EXTREME - The most recent 1n cases of multiple occurrence.
PREVAILING WIND DIRECTION - Record through 1963.
WIN0 DIRfCTION - Numerals Indicate tens of deqrees clockwise from true north, 00 Indicates calm.
FASTEST MILE WIN0 - Speed is fastest observed 1-m1nute value when the direction Is In tens of degrees.


Soils and Investigation Report: #2314 Roger Barker
Chen & Associates
Consulting Engineers
Soil and Foundation Engineering
96 South Zuni
Denver, Colorado
Soil and Foundation Investigation for a Proposed Drive-in Theater W. Colfax and Robb Street Jefferson County, Colorado
Prepared for: Mel G. Glatz & Assoc.
8000 W. 14th Avenue
Denver, Colorado February 20, 1967
Job No. 2314
Conclusions:
Proposed structures should be founded with piers drilled into bedrock. Piers should be designed for maximum end pressure of 25,000 psf, skin friction of 2,500 pcf, and minimum dead load pressure of 15,000 psf.
Scope:
Report presents most desirable and safest type of foundation, allowable soil pressures, water table conditions and design and construction details.
Subsoil Conditions:
Uniform.
2' to 6' of stiff clay overlies hard sandstone and clay-stone bedrock.
In some areas, the upper one foot of bedrock is highly weathered. Stiff clays and the sandstone -clay bedrock possess low to moderate shelling potential as indicated by swell-consolidation curves, FIG. 3,4.


No free water was found in our exploratory holes at time of drilling.
Building Foundations
Proposal Concession Building:
1. Founded with straight shaft piers drilled into hard sandstone and claystone bedrock.
2. Piers: Designed for maximum end pressure of 25,000 psf., skin friction of 2,500 psf for the portion of pier in bedrock and a minimum deadload pressure of 15 000 psf.
3. Piers should penetrate hard bedrock a minimum of 4 ' .
4. If desired minimum deadload pressures cannot be obtained because of light structures, the piers should penetrate at least 6' into bedrock.
5. A minimum 4" air-space should be provided beneath grade beams and between the piers.
Foundation for Screen: An Analysis
The screen sturcture should be founded with piers drilled into bedrock, designed for maximum end pressure of 25,000 psf, and skin friction of 2,500 psf. for the portion of pier in bedrock. The piers should penetrate at least 6' into hard bedrock.
For wind load analysis, the piers should be designed for pressure soil resistance of 120 pcf equivalent fluid pressure for the portion of pier in bedrock and 60 pcf equivalent fluid pressure for the portion of pier on the up-
i,.:. r. i •'
per clays.


Interior Floor Slabs:
Precautions for construction of interior floor slabs:
1. All slabs should be separated from bearing walls.
2. All slabs should be well reinforced.
3. The conventional gravel layer beneath the slabs should be eliminated so that water from a single source will not spread over entire slab area.
4. All interim slab-bearing partitions should be provided with slip joints at the top so that in case of slab movement, the upper structure will not be affected.
5. Any fill under floor slabs should be compacted
to at least 90% proctor density at optimum moisture content.
Pavement:
Driveways: paved with 2" of asphalt with 4" base course drive-in area. Suggest that surface clays be treated with either emulsified or cutback asphalt, topped with gravel.
Surface Drainage: Precautions
1. Backfill around building should be moistened and well compacted.
2. Ground surface around the exterior of the building should be well sloped so that surface water will drain away from building.
3. Precautions should be taken against excessive wetting or drying of foundation soils during or after
excavation.


All roof downspouts and drains should be discharged well beyond the limits of all backfill.
Miscellaneous:
Our exploratory borings are spaced as closely as feasible in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the subsoil conditions. However, erratic soil conditions may occur between test hold.
Location Hole #1
Concession Bldg.
Hole #2 Left Screen
Hole #3 Right Screen
1. Clay (CL) sandy, brown, moist, stiff
2. Bedrock, claystone, sandstone, greenish-gray, moist, hard.
3. Clay (CL) weathered claystone, olive, moist, firm.
undisturbed soil sample. The symbol 20/3 indicates 20 blows of a 140 lb. hammer falling 30" were required to drive the sampler 3".
NOTES: 1. Test holes drilled Feb. 13, 1967.
2. No water found in test holes at time of investigation.
3. WC= water content %
DD= dry density (pcf)
UC= unconfined composition strength (psf)


Hole Depth (feet) Natural Moisture Natural Dry Density Unconfined Compressive Strength (psf) Soil Type
2 8.0 13.0 17.2 22.3 105.9 Claystone & sandstone
3 3.0 14.9 118.7
8.0 18.0 15.2 23.0 105.1 12,270 9,820
NOTE: Hole 3: Typical example of clay from hole #3
at depth 3'0" significant compression under constant pressure due to wetting.



Z T5 =
- U

ii
f r
2 2


Portland’s planners fell that a traffic-free area should serve as a background for pedestrian activities, rather than be a central attraction in itself. Accordingly, the design of the city’s Maine Way is very simple. The large plaza effect of the area is unified by an orderly sequence of large shade trees and wooden benches. Groups of round planters and a variety of paving textures provide variety in the mall’s appearance without diminishing its openness. The iesign of Maine Way encourages activities such as art shows, open-air •.ales booths and civic events, all of which draw more people into Portland’s downtown area.
136
1975. Maine Way Mall
PORTLAND ME
City Population 1970: 65,l 16
—| O ( • ' .V”M Jgk ^ \ 8x% o [F> a ON STREET IN L OTS IN GARAGES 1,000 2,300 1,200
ft LENGTH WIDTH BLOCKS 1,900 feel 3s feet 5
;• 0 0 1 99 Side streets Any time
7 STATE C1IY OTHER No specific legislation necessary
TOTAL CONSTRUCTION MAINTENANCE $1450,000 Federal: 100'.;, Information not available 1
IT 1 NAME ADDRESS PHONE Cl.A. Iloltenhoff 213 City Hall <^7> City Planning Portland, ML 775-5451 § Board 04111
137





’enn Square, half of which is a semi-mall allowing motor vehicles m restricted traffic lanes, is the focal point of downtown activity n Reading. Over 100,000 square feet of new pedestrian pavement las been set down, and hundreds of trees, shrubs and flowers have ieen placed throughout the mall area. Two fountains have been et into terraced areas, providing variety in the street level. The treets surrounding these fountains also serve as places to sit and elax. A number of ramps were incorporated into the mall’s design o insure that all public facilities would be available to the landicapped. A variety of lighting fixtures, including landscape iglits, add to the mail’s appeal.
138
1975 Penn Square
READING FA
City Population 1970: S7,643
44 90% kx)
4RH 7% L06Q©^ 444 ,
ON STREET IN LOTS IN GARAGES
700 2,500 1,360
LENGTH WIDTH BLOCKS
1,110 feet 160 feet ~)
XXXXX â– â– â– â– 
W 9s?
Bus Any time Any time
Taxi
NAME ADDRESS
D.E. Anderson Reading Redevelopment Authority
18 S. 5th St. Reading. FA 19602
PHONE
(215)
375-4291
139


As a result of sound planning and design policies, Rockford’s State Street Mall has drawn enough people downtown to increase business volume by ten percent. In addition to standard pedestrian design elements, such as new paving, lighting and landscaping, a large public square has been incorporated into the central section of the mall. The square, which includes a raised platform, serves as a focus for numerous civic events. The success of the State Street Mall has generated approximately $42 million worth of new construction in the downtown area.
140
1975. State Street Mall
City Population 1970: 147,370
f \
kxy
[~:]
c-ce©
IN LOTS
1,350
LLNGTH
1,190 feet
JliMif; iHiflit1
WIDTH
66 feet
Rear access

IN GARAGES
1,100
BLOCKS
4
Any time
STATE CITY OTHER
Home Rule jurisdiction
TOTAL CONSTRUCTION MAINTENANCE
$1,500,000 Urban Private: 64%
Renewal: 87% City: 36%
Voluntary
Assessment: 13%
NAME
Thomas Tullock Department of Community Renewal
ADDRESS
321 W. State St. Rockford, IL 61101
PHONE
(815)
987-5690
141


taltimore’s Old Town Mall is the heart of one of the city’s eighborhood commercial districts. More than SI million has >een invested by merchants along the mail’s two blocks, in an ttort to rehabilitate stores. Formerly vacant commercial stablishments are now occupied, and the mall has become a focal oint for community activities. The street has been repaved in rick, and landscaping and new lighting fixtures have been istalled. There are also several fountains, and a stage and facilities ar neighborhood entertainment.
142
i^/o uia iown iviaii
BALTIMORE MD
City Population l‘>70: 905,759
33.3% b-d
33.3% ♦** 33,,
ON STREET IN LOTS IN GARAGES
ISO 225
I
....-—I—:,..-,
LENGTH
1,500 fee l
WIDTH
45 led
BLOCKS
3
u
Rear access Any time
NAME
Michael Calvert Department of Housing & Urban Development
ADDRESS
222 E. Saratoga Street
Baltimore, MD 21202
PHONE
(301)
396-4233
143


I
The design ol Centralia’s Downtown Mall emphasizes greenery, creating a comfortable pedestrian space downtown. The mall is landscaped with numerous trees, and a grassy area with shrubbery runs down the center. Benches and lamp posts provide variety of scale. The mall has generated physical improvements to the stores and businesses along it, as well as the construction of a new parking lot for shoppers’ convenience. Streets adjacent to the Downtown Mall have been influenced by the plaza concept and have installed several new design elements, including new lighting, landscaping and street furniture.
rasu uowniuwri iviaii
CENTRAL! AIL
City Population 1970: 15,217
A 05% ky LI 00Q© 5'
0““0
ST ATI.
TOTAL
$50,000
Any time Any time
CITY OTHLR
Ordinance
CONSTRUCTION
Voluntary
Assessment: 100%
maintenance
Voluntary Assessment: 100%
NAME ADDRESS PHONE
I o 1 Michael Pierceall City Hall 222 S. Poplar St. Centraha, IL 62801 (618)
Ins 1 u 1 mmmmm Community Development 532-2125
50
51


Pittsburgh's East Liberty Mall is actually a system of interconnected transitways along three streets. Covering a total of fourteen blocks, the mall accommodates buses, mini-buses and taxi-cabs; there is also a lane for private traffic along the Highland section to make up for the lack of rear access along that street. However, the overall design emphasizes pedestrian comfort. The mall is landscaped with a variety of trees and shrubbery in round planters. There are numerous benches and shelters, which also serve as display units. Globe lighting fixtures have been installed, and paving has been laid in various patterns.
46
1969. East Liberty Mall
LENGTH
M :':x; Broad 900 feet
Penn 1,400 feet
Highland 1,400 feet

WIDTH
50 feet 100 feet 70 feet
BLOCKS
3
5
6
UU1
TRANSITWAY
Bus
Mini-bus ____Taxi__
« w
Any time
Any time
NAME
George l'erinis Urban
Redevelopment
Authority
ADDRESS
200 Ross St. Pittsburgh, PA I 52 19
PHONE
(4121
471-5659
47


C..,
Two blocks of downtown Spartanburg have been totally repaved and landscaped, creating a comfortably scaled pedestrian district. Green areas, with trees and plants, run the length of the mall, on either side ol a central walkway, which is lined with hanging globe lighting fixtures. Low wooden benches provide seating, and a centrally located pool and fountain serve as the focal point of the pedestrian area.
106
1974. Main Street Mall
SRARTANBURG SC
City 1* opulation 1970: 44,456
75% lo-<> ($b
il rzi 20% 00f5G 444
y,c
ON STREET IN LOTS
114 2,937
IN GARAGES
480
"S'1'
JR
iifi




• 1 1
|v':£ D 0


LENGTH
1,080 feet
WIDTH
85 feet
BLOCKS
a
m
Rear access Small carts on mall

Any tune
107




! (above)
1 Mattr#** Factory I Phase- Qm ot Anthony Main
buifefinp to b# ted to shops and
i restaurant ' frunaf«m«yitj ; ,
4 Croup of lunary townhoum to be txjitf
5 l%*K# Strict SufdSng to have comtominurfH Milled over e*H?tng structural tram#
b tlttonc Main Street Part of cay's massive refteveiopmeni program




35?%/










V




â– E â–  Ef.
S A.« Jv W |
' . A;* W&, :, , â–  B.j


Biological Analysis
I believe that the biological analysis of this thesis site can incorporate not only the nature/state of the ecology, but also the "health" of the people who live and work there. Since the site remains today primarily suburban in scale and charater, there has recently been a growth toward self-sufficiency. An example of the self-sufficient attitude can be seen in the close proximity of housing and commercial activity near the thesis site. Despite the automobile, people do flow across the northern suburban boundary of the site to the shopping opportunities along Colfax Ave.
When I speak of "people" and the "health" of their community, I am attempting to describe the influence of a culture which produces an opportunity for rich, warm and meaningful physical surroundings. This community does not possess any extraordinary vitality or any other form of extraordinary resource. Jane Jacobs, in her work The Death and Life of Great American Cities, poses important considerations in the design or resurrection of a city neighborhood.
1. "To approach a city, or even a city neighborhood, as if it were a larger architectural problem, capable of being given order by converting it into a disciplined work of art, is to make the mistake of attempting to substitute art for life."


I feel that the most profound challenge in this thesis project is the successful translation of community values and their inherent metaphors into a physical design for
the site.


19
Crime and vandalism appears to be a problem throughout the Corridor with higher levels of concern toward the eastern end. Identification of crime and vandalism as a major problem by 30 percent or more of the responses occurred only in Segment 5 and Segment 8. Each of these is an older neighborhood and the responses are believed to reflect conditions in these segments.
Suggestions offered by businesses. Specific suggestions which survey respondents had for ways in which the city might help improve business conditions included development of a realistic sign code, better litter control, police protection, redevelopment of remodeling incentives, tax reductions, sidewalk repair, more business participation in governmental decisions, improved traffic signalization, and better zoning. As is often the case with business surveys, comments indicate a degree of dissatisfaction with city government in terms of its accomplishment and intrusion into the business function. Traffic control recommendations were provided as inputs to the transportation study.
A complete listing of suggestions offered by the businesses is provided in Appendix B.
Sunnary
The socioeconomic characteristics of neighborhood residents in the vicinity of the West Colfax Corridor Study Area vary significantly along the Corridor. Household growth in the western neighborhoods has offset declining household sizes, resulting in overall population increases. As household growth rates have declined in the east portion of the Corridor, net population decreases have resulted. Incomes generally decrease from west to east along the Corridor. Other characteristics, such as the age of housing, housing costs, occupation and age distributions, are consistent with income indicators.
About two-thirds of the commercial firms in the study area are involved in retail trade. Nearly one-third of all retail establishments are automobile oriented businesses.
Business turnover is relatively low; over one-half of the businesses interviewed have been at their present location for more than five years. Two types of firms generally predominate in the study area: local convenience-oriented outlets which serve the local neighborhood and comparison goods businesses which serve the greater Denver Metropolitan Area and western suburbs.
Small firms predominate in the study area. More than one-half of respondents have less than five full time employees. About 58 percent of the firms occupy less than 3,000 square feet of space.
Less than one-third of the businesses surveyed own their facilities, and about one-half of these businesses pay a flat rental rate rather than one related to sales volume.
The study area businesses generally serve middle age and young adult customers, although a relatively large proportion serve customers of all ages. Nearly all customers arrive by car, and automobile patronage was generally higher in the western portions of the Corridor. Daily activity levels tend to be constant, rather than being punctuated by peak hours.


20
Trends in business activity among study area businesses have been ward during recent years. Nearly 80 percent reported increases in their sales activity. Three fourths of the outlets expect an increase in future business volumes.
About 35 percent of all businesses surveyed were relocated into the West Colfax Corridor Study Area from another location. Among the area locational factors noted as desirable were parking availability, access to Colfax, visibility from the arterial and good future growth prospects. Nearly 80 percent of the businesses indicated that they are definitely not planning to close or relocate out of the study area during the next five years.
Forty-four percent of the businesses have recently made improvements to their facilities, including remodeling, additions, exterior renovation, paving and landscaping.
Four problem areas were identified as concerns by businesses in the Corridor: availability of parking, access from the street, crime and vandalism and city regulations.
Among the suggestions offered by the survey respondents for ways in which the city might help them improve business conditions were the development of a realistic sign code, better litter control, increased police protection, public redevelopment or remodeling incentives, tax reductions, sidewalk repairs, business participation in governmental decisions, improvement of traffic signal ization and better zoning.
''-iT')


Economic Analysis
I am still pursuing an economic investigation of the Westland CAC neighborhood in further detail (sources listed below) but following are observations from my own field trips and photographic analysis;
1. Sources: Jefferson County Library @ Lakewood
20th and Youngfield.
Lakewood Planning Services
Denver Research at Denver Public Library
Colorado Heritage Center
2. Observations:
-Area appears to have a population with average income of $12,000 - $15,000 maximum. Those people living further north seem more affluent.
-The rural nature of the community is reinforced by the existence of small neighborhood farms which sell poultry products.
-Area inhabited by middle class whites with a recent influx of blacks. Other ethnic backgrounds include Hispanics.
-Lakewood is reputed as a whole to have a relatively high tax base. The people with higher incomes live further away from the Colfax "strip."


-The front one-third of the site is valued at $6.00 , while the back two-thirds
of the site are valued at $5.00 -Recognize that retail and commercial activity presently restricts itself to the Colfax "strip."


UNIT COSTS IN 1980 DOLLARS
I. Quail Blvd. Construction
$ 175.00 + 17.50 $ 192.50 + 19.25 $ 211.75
p.l.f. base cost engineering
contingency total p.l.f.
II. Quail St. and 15th Place Construction
$ 83.00
+ 8.30
? 91.30
+ 9.13
$ 100.43
p.l.f. base cost engineering
contingency total p.l.f.
III. Bridge Cost for Quail Blvd.
$ 75,000 + 7,500 $ 82,500 + 8,250 $ 90,750
base cost engineering
contingency
total
IV. Bridge Construction for Quail St.
$ 50,000 + 5,000 $ 55,000 + 5,500 $ 60,500
base cost engineering
contingency total cost
V. Removal of Asphalt
$ 3.00 sq. yd. base cost
+ .30 contingency 1? 3.30 total sq. yd. cost
Bike Path Construction (along ditch)
$ 10.00
+ 1.00
$ 11.00
+ 1.11 3 12.11
p.l.f. base cost engineering
contingency total p.l.f.
(for 8' wide path)
VI.


UNIT COSTS IN 1980 DOLLARS - Cont'd
VII. Removal of Structures
$ 2,500 base cost
+ 250 contingency
$ 2,750 total
VIII. Acquisition
$ 5.00 base cost
+ .50 legal
r- 5.50
+ .55 contingency
F" 6.05 sq. ft. total


ATTACHMENT F
Policy Report 80-100
7/15/80
ATTACHMENT F
CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT COSTS (1980 DOLLARS)
1981 1982
QUAIL BOULEVARD (Colfax to 15th Place)
Acquisition 90' x 300'
(27,000 sq. ft.) $163,350 0
Remove Existing Structure 2,750 0
Remove Existing Asphalt
(3,000 sq. yd.) 9,900 0
Construction 480 lin. ft.
(including landscaped median, curb, gutter1, sidewalk, signal ization, and rebuilding
intersection) 101,640 0
Construct Bridge over
Agricultural Ditch 90,750 0
TOTAL $368,390 0
QUAIL STREET (15th Place to 17th Avenue)
Acquisition 0 0 0 0
Construction 1100 lin. ft.
(including curb, gutter, and sidewalk) 0 $110,473 0 $110,473
Construct Bridge over Agricultural Ditch 0 60,500 0 60,500
1983
TOTAL
0
0
$163,350
2,750
9,900
0
0
101,640
90,750
$368,390
TOTAL
0
$170,973
0
$170,973


ATTACHMENT F
Page Two
Policy Report 80-100
1981 1982 1983 TOTAL
15TH PLACE (Pierson to Quail)
*Acquisition (310' x 60') 18,600 sq. ft. $112,530 0 0 $112,530
Remove Structure 2,750 0 0 2,750
Construction 310 lin. ft. (including curb, gutter, and S' sidewalk) 31 ,133 0 0 31 ,133
TOTAL $146,413 0 0 $146,413
15TH PLACE (Owens to Pierson)
Acquisition 0 0 0 0
Remove Asphalt 4266 sq. yds. 0 0 $ 14,078 $ 14,078
Construction 640 lin. ft. (curb, gutter and sidewalk) 0 0 64,275 64,275
TOTAL 0 0 $ 78,353 $ 78,353
BICYCLE PATH (1800 lin. ft.) (Agricultural Ditch) 0 0 $ 21,780 $ 21,780
GRAND TOTAL $514,803 $170,973 $100,133 $785,909
*Acquisition may or may not be necessary pending right-of-way research.
ASSUMPTIONS
These preliminary costs are based upon the assumptions that: 1) Target will dedicate the necessary right-cf-way, and 2) the Agricultural Ditch Company will grant the City a bike/pedestrian easement in exchange for City maintenance of the affected portion of the ditch.


ATTACHMENT G
Policy Report 80-100
ATTACHMENT G
REVENUES (1980 DOLLARS)
CITY OF LAKEWOOD 1981 1982 1983 (and after)
Sales Tax $143,000 $458,000 $615,000
Building Permit Fees 27,500 0 0
Property Tax 5,300 5,300 5,300
NEW REVENUE TO CITY/YEAR $175,800 $463,300 $620,300
ALL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES 1981 1982 1983 (and after
Sales Tax
(1/2%) RTD $ 35,800 $114,500 $153,800
(1/2%) Jefferson Co. Open
Space 35,800 114,500 153,800
(2%) City of Lakewood 143,000 458,000 615,000
(3%) State of Colorado 101,000 348,800 585,000
$315,600 $1,035,800 $1,507,600
PROPERTY TAX OF MAJOR GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
1983 (and after)
(3.26) City of Lakewood $ 5,300
(15.00) Jefferson County 24,400
(50.52) R-l School District 82,100
(8.22) Lakewood Fire Protection District 13,400
$125,200
Assuming that 25% of total revenue from proposed shopping center will replace revenue from existing Lakewood businesses.
<£>


LAKEWOOD
1979 HOUSEHOLD INCOME PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION
Planning Area Less than $7,500 $7,500 to $14,999 $15,000 to $24,999
Ci ty 7% 13% 29%
1 14 15 33
2 8 16 30
3 12 12 22
4 9 16 28
5 9 16 28
6 15 17 24
7 17 18 24
8 6 14 30
9 7 13 24
11 7 18 29
12 7 18 29
13 5 6 33
14 4 12 29
15 8 15 28
16 7 15 30
17 4 12 29
18 3 10 33
19 6 15 31
20 6 8 24
21 2 6 28
22 0 3 28
23 6 8 24
24 ★ ★ ★
25 ★ ★ ★
$25,000 to $34,999 $35,000 to $49,999 $50,000 Plus Median
24% 17% 10% $25,000
21 13 3 21,000
23 16 7 24,000
19 22 13 27,000
26 12 9 24,000
26 12 9 24,000
20 14 10 23,000
20 12 8 21,000
25 17 8 25,000
22 21 13 28,000
24 11 11 24,000
24 11 11 24,000
26 26 4 27,000
25 22 8 27,000
23 19 7 25,000
25 , 15 6 24,000
28 18 9 27,000
28 19 7 26,000
31 11 6 24,000
20 21 21 31,000
22 22 20 32,000
25 28 16 33,000
20 21 21 31,000
★ ★ ★ *
★ ★ ★ *
information not available for Planning Areas 24 and 25 due to insufficient population size.
SOURCE:
Lakewood Planning Division;
National Planning Data Corporation 1978 Income Data.
September 1979 RW/lb


CITY OF LAKEWOOD
CITY STATISTICS
Population (January I, 1979)
Annual Population Increase (Average 1975-1979) Annual Percentage Increase (Average 1975-1979)
Area (July 1, 1979)
Total Housing Units Single Family Duplexes Multi-Family
35.6 Square Miles
40,735
27,483
1,666
11,586
Residential Building Permits Issued During 1978
Median Housing Price (December, 1978) Percentage Increase During 1978
Median Age (1970 Census)
Median School Years Completed (1970 Census) Employment (1976)
Retail Sales During 1978 Median Household Income - 1979
129,500
2,500
2.1%
67.5%
4.1%
28.4%
1263 Units
$66,250
19.2%
26.9 Years
12.7 Years
4,232 Firms 46,625 Employees
$919,740,000
$ 25,000
Planning Division September, 1979


TABLE ONE
LAKEWOOD POPULATION PROJECTION
1979 1979-1985 AVERAGE Annual Increase 1985 1985-1990 AVERACE Annual Increase 1990 1990-2000 AVERAGE Annual Increase 2000
Absolute Percentage Absolute Percentage Absolute Percentage
Within present City boundaries 129,500 2920 2.1 147,000 3060 2.0 162,300 2770 1.6 190,000
Outside present City Boundaries 10,600 730 5.5 16,000 940 5.3 20,700 930 3.8 30,000
Total-Development Plan Area 141,100 3650 2.4 163,000 4000 2.3 183,000 3700 1.9 220,000
LAKEWOOD PLANNING DIVISION; NOVEMBER, 1979


NUMBER OF DWELLING UNITS
IN LAKEWOOD January 1, 1980
Planning Area Single Family (Detached) Units Duplex Units Multi Family Units Total Units
City 27,906 1,726 11,959 41,591
1 808 134 910 1,852
2 1,495 248 626 2,369
3 2,137 74 525 2,736
4 837 10 323 1,170
5 580 122 560 1,262
6 1,201 90 1,276 2,567
7 1,148 186 1,288 2,622
8 1,484 416 771 2,671
9 10 1,454 66 110 1,630
11 114 52 669 835
12 1,338 32 279 1,649
13 2,512 4 430 2,946
14 1,497 18 198 1,713
15 1,230 62 326 1,618
16 1,117 84 707 1,908
17 2,568 46 533 ' 3,147
18 2,540 0 1,025 3,565
19 926 0 0 926
20 2,070 82 200 2,352
21 197 0 190 387
22 100 0 260 360
23 504 0 753 1,257
24 1 0 0 1
25 48 0 0 48
LAKEWOOD POPULATION ESTIMATE - JANUARY 1, 1980
Single Family (Detached) Units Duplex Units Multi Family Units Total Household Population Group Quarter Population Total Population
Julation 96,538 4,902 27,433 128,873 ' 1,760 130,633
:ancy Rate 2.0% 2.4% 2.8%
)ulation/ ahold 3.53 2.91 2.36


TABLE A-l. SELECTED 1970 SOCIOECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS FOR LAKEWOOD
AND THE DENVER METROPOLITAN AREA
Characteristic City of Lakewood Denver Metropolitan Area
Population 92,757 1 ,227,529
Households 27,501 392,060
Persons per Household 3.33 3.1
Median Age 26.9 26.4
Median School Years Completed 12.7 12.5
Income (1969):
Median Family Income $12,432 $10,777
Mean Family Income $13,605 $12,156
Percent with Income $15,000 or More 32.1 24.8
Housing:
Percent Owner Occupied 72.3 58.7
Median Value Owner Occupied Units $22,900 $19,100
Median Contract Rent $130 $105
Employment:
Percent in White Collar Occupations* 67.1 59.2
Percent Government Workers 19.2 18.1
Percent in Manufacturing Industries 15.5 17.0
*Persons employed as professionals, managers, sales workers and clerical workers are classified as white collar workers.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1970 Census of Population and Housing, selected reports.


TABLE 2. PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED BY BUSINESSES AND PROPERTY OWNERS IN THE STUDY AREA
Problem Area No Problem Percent of Minor Problem Total Businesses Responding Major No Problem Response Total Combined Scores* Percent of 280 Point Maximum
Availability of parking 58.6% 25.7% 15.7% 100.0% 80 28.6%
Access from the street 63.6 20.7 15.7 -- 100.0 73 26.1
Upkeep of area 62.9 25.7 10.7 0.7% 100.0 66 23.6
Vacant buildings 89.3 5.0 5.7 -- 100.0 23 8.2
Crime and vandalism 46.4 38.6 14.3 0.7 100.0 64 22.9
Rent 52.1 20.0 4.3 23.6 100.0 40 14.3
Traffic congestion 58.6 30.7 9.3 1.4 100.0 69 24.6
Condition of streets 77.1 17.1 5.0 0.7 99.9 38 13.6
Condition of sidewalks 71.4 12.1 8.6 7.9 100.0 41 14.6
City regulations 59.3 22.9 16.4 1.4 100.0 78 27.9
*For comparison purposes, scores were combined on a scale received a zero, "minor problem" a value of one and "major problem" lem" for any of the variables, the problem area would have received
where "no a two; if a maximum
problem," "no response," or all 140 firms had indicated of 280 points.
"don't know" "major prob-


TABLE A-2. LAKEWOOD AND JEFFERSON COUNTY MAJOR EMPLOYERS
Employer Employment
Lakewood
Villa Italia 1,750
Denver Federal Center 6,840
Park West Office Park (estimate) 600
Safeco Division Office 250
American Express 275
Jefferson County School District R-l
Administrative Offices 520
Westland Shopping Center 700
Rocky Mountain Bank Note Company 250
Statitrol 250
Cobe Laboratories 1,200
Other Jefferson County
Martin Marietta 4,190
Johns Manville 1,910
Rockwell International 3,260
Denver West 1,000
Coors 8,000
Source: BBC survey of major area employers, December 1978 and February 1979.


LAKEWOOD HOUSING PRICES BY PLANNING DISTRICT
Houses Sold - November and December 1979
PLANNING DISTRICT
I II III IV V VI VII TOTAL |
Under $55,000 17% 0% 0% 1% 3% 0% 0% 4%
$55,000 to $64,999 21% 14% 67% 17% 20% 0% 35% 20%
$65,000 to $74,999 35% 14% 33% 41% 43% 52% 22% 38%
$75,000 to $84,999 3% 10% 0% 28% 19% 28% 13% 18%
$85,000 to $94,999 7% 10% 0% 7% 9% 20% 4% 8%
Over $95,000 17% 52% 0% 5% 5% 0% 26% 12%
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Number of Houses Sold 29 21 9 58 77 25 23 241
Mean $73,600 $101,500 $64,500 $74,250 $72,000 $76,500 $77,900 $76,390
Median $67,000 $ 95,000 $63,000 $73,000 $70,000 $74,500 $70,000 $71,900
Median December 1978 $58,500 $ 88,750 $68,250 $68,000 $60,000 $66,500 $78,500 $66,250
PREPARED BY: City of Lakewood Planning Division, April 7, 1980
SOURCE: Multilist Sold Properties Catalog, November, December, 1979; and December 1978
(S


]
§2 s
_4__—^ ^'l.l'.BX-T“!»t-‘1»-? ~ H-JL„*:B.ft'*-r '***««•» «. ' —I .-'
^CF®4SE^rw a; i ~m 1 m a fell I
252S*. »-,,W5i+-:.''i 'in; vo'^f- n iia. mftin iL-rsn ai

K^'lf ^-P |
rSTV* -^-»:.•=••• J.~f"] I , r»


City of Lakewood
Policy Report Ho. 80-ioo
WESTLAND ACTIVITY CENTER INITIAL IMPLEMENTATION PROPOSAL
Recommendation
It is recommended that:
1. City Council reaffirm its policies regarding the encouragement of development as long as it is in accordance with the development plan for the City;
2. City Council recognize that the proposed development in the Westland Activity Center is consistent with the economic goals of the City and the Westland Plan;
3. The City cooperate with owners of adjacent property on the acquisition, financing, design, and construction of Quail Street and 15th Place;
4. City Council direct staff to examine alternative financing methods to construct needed improvements to facilitate the proposed development ;
5. City Council direct staff to work with developer in the creation of Industrial Revenue Bonds to finance portions of this development.
Background
As part of the ongoing Long Range Planning Program, the Westland Community Activity Center Plan was adopted in December, 1979, as an amendment to Concept Lakewood. The Westland area is now at a crucial point in its development. The opportunity exists through cooperation with the private sector in construction of recommended improvements to direct and greatly influence development, thereby giving the attached significant retail proposal (Exhibit A) the impetus needed to develop. The Westland Community Activity Center Plan (Exhibit B) is attached to show the relationship of the proposal to the Westland area and the master plan.
Ever since 1975 when Concept Lakewood was adopted, and through all subsequent updates, the Planning Commission and City Council have supported policies encouraging properly located commercial development. Further support of these policies was expressed by City Council last year by their approval of the Colfax Corridor Economic and Urban Design Analysis, together with its recommendations (Exhibit D).


Policy Report 80-100
Page 2
These two documents give strong support to the concept of City participation in the physical development of its commercial areas which conform to Concept Lakewood. Goal Number 15 and the subsequent recommendation Number 29(a) give specific direction for the City to follow (Exhibit C).
The consultant who prepared the West Colfax Corridor Study makes specific recommendations regarding City participation in both the financing and building of public improvements. Pages 146 and 147 contain specifics regarding public improvements as well as the areas where these activities should be concentrated.
Further impetus to the idea of City participation is given in the recently published DRCOG report entitled "An Evaluation of Designated Regional Activity Center in the Denver Metropolitan Area." Pages 169, 198, and 199 (Exhibit E) of this report recommend specific strategies to aid in the development of Villa Italia and Westland Activity Centers. Among them is the building of capital improvements, Page 198.
During the past month, the Department of Community Development was approached by a long-established local developer seeking to determine the extent to which the City would implement the above policies and thereby cause a major addition to the Westland Activity Center to become feasible.
Project Description
The proposed project is located within the boundaries of the Westland Community Activity Center, generally on the property now occupied by the drive-in theatre. The proposal is for building a shopping center of approximately 175,000 sq. ft. of gross leasable area. Two major "anchor tenants" are proposed for this center; one of them a supermarket of 50,000 sq. ft., and the other a two-story 60,000 sq. ft. catalog sales outlet. The rest of the space will be taken up by neighborhood oriented convenience stores and offices. The Colfax frontage will contain some fast food outlets arranged in a cluster sharing driveways, parking, and landscaping.
The developer has a good reputation in the metro area and has assured the staff of his intentions of building a high quality development. It is important that the quality of the neighborhood center be significantly above the "typical" centers of this size and that it be well integrated into the overall plan for the Westland Activity Center.
From a strictly construction standpoint, additional retail development could occur on Colfax at Robb Street. This incremental approach to the development of the site would, from a planning standpoint, not maximize the benefits to the City and preclude the achievement of the Westland Activity Center Plan. Such an approach would not be in our, or the developer's, best long-term interests and would continue the haphazard development pattern along Colfax as well as preclude additional positive developments at the activity center.


Policy Report 80-100
Page 3
Planning Considerations
1. Urban Form
The adopted urban form for Lakewood calls for the development of activity centers at designated locations and with specific land use mixes. The proposed development fits well within the guidelines for land usage in this activity center and, as presented, ties in very well with existing and planned developments.
2. Transportation and Circulation
The new neighborhood center is proposed to be constructed as an integral part of the Westland Activity Center rather than merely another extension to the Colfax strip. In order to achieve this desirable goal, it will be necessary to extend Quail Street to the north across Colfax to 17th Street. This extension is a logical and needed addition to the overall street network, and represents an extension of the previously proposed Quail Street S.I.D. project south of Colfax Avenue. Also, in order to realize the Westland transportation system, 15th Place needs to be extended to the west from Owens Street to Robb Street. This allows activity center traffic to circulate without having to get on and off Colfax and literally ties the activity center together.
The developer is willing to construct all of 15th Place adjacent to his property and redevelop the entire Colfax frontage along his site. He would also pay for his share of necessary improvements along Robb Street from Colfax to 15th Place. In order to achieve the overall development goals, the City would have to construct Quail Street from Colfax to 17th, and 15th Place from Owens to Quail (extended). The developer will provide most of the right-of-way for Quail, but needs our assistance on additional acquisitions. It is important to note that if we decide to achieve the Activity Center Plan, we are going to have to play a role in the construction of the Quail Street and collector roadway. It will be much easier (and less expensive) to construct Quail in cooperation with the private sector.
3. Need
From a marketing standpoint, the proposed land use will serve to fill the definite vacuum created in the Westland area by the relocation of the Safeway store. This demand could just as easily be met by the same type of land use located outside the City limits.
Financial Considerations
1. Cost
The suggested Lakewood share for the cost of acquisition of rights-of-way, and building of improvements totals $785,900 (see Exhibit F for detailed Breakdown). These costs are preliminary in nature and are subject to revision as more detailed engineering is done on


Policy Report 80-100
Page 4
this project. Depending on the financing method and phasing, these costs could be spread over a number of years.
2. Revenue
The revenue projections the City may expect from this development are detailed in Exhibit G and are expected to be $620,300 per year at full development.
3. Land Acquisition and Legal Costs
Because there will be a need to acquire some right-of-way, there is the possibility of condemnation. Other legal costs will be involved depending on the financing method chosen and the type of agreements that may be necessary with the various property owners. Resources for these costs have^included in the project budget to cover these contingencies.
Policy Considerations
1. Past Actions
Throughout the City’s history, at various times, public monies have been spent to implement or facilitate development consistent with Concept Lakewood. Related to activity centers, these actions include:
a. the Colfax median
b. Alameda Parkway beautification
c. locating City Hall at Villa Italia
d. purchase of and development plan for Belmar Park
e. purchase of parkland at Weir Gulch and Pierce
f. expenditure of fund for consultant to prepare land use, circulation, and development criteria for all proposed activity centers
g. acquisition of park land at 14th Place and Miller Street in the Westland Activity Center
h. the Wadsworth/Alameda intersection
i. the RTD transit center proposed at Villa Italia
j. the RTD operations center at Westland
2. Future Actions
In the future, City Council will be asked to continue the policy of using public funds to effect development in accordance with the Development Plan for the City. These actions include:
a. the construction of arterial streets
b. park purchases
c. acquisition of rights-of-way
d. construction of drainage improvements
e. expenditure of funds to litigate cases attacking Concept Lakewood


Policy Report 80-100
Page 5
Such action-s and support of development should probably focus on the activity centers due to limited funding and not establish a precedent applicable to all commercial development throughout the City.
Other Considerations
This project should act as a catalyst to begin major redevelopment within the Westland Activity Center. Without the City's commitment toward the proposed improvements, this project becomes economically unfeasible and, therefore, will not develop. In view of the current state of the economy, this project will benefit Lakewood greatly and will begin to fulfill the plans of the Westland Activity Center. Furthermore, the competition for sales from business outside the City is becoming more severe. The absence of a major supermarket in the Westland area creates an imbalance in the land use of this activity center.
Submitted by: Reviewed by:




'Goals and Recommenda tions
ATTACHMENT C /
Policy Report 80-100
Page 5
25. The City shall examine all of the land within Lakewood for its degree of suitability for urbanization in order to identify areas that should be protected from urbanization.
25. The City shall recognize the need for cluster development 1n and near the designated activity centers.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
THE GOALS
14. - To achieve a degree of diversified employment in the community which will allow a balanced economy which will support an adequate level of services.
15. To develop an economic climate for Lakewood which would encourage the improvement of traditional existing businesses and the establishment of properly located and designed new businesses which will be of benefit to the community.
16. To expand existing employment centers or locate new employment centers in a way to best make use of the available human resources in the city.
17. To reinforce the position of the City as a contributing member of a balanced and stable regional economic community.
18. To regulate commerce and industry in such a way that they can fulfill their economic function and will, in addition, be environmentally and aesthetically compatible with the other uses in the community.
THE RECOMMENDATIONS
27. The City shall conduct a study of its economic base to complement and update the present study and develop a means of keeping the information updated onayearly basis. Upon the completion of such study, the City shall establish and implement an economic development plan.
27a. The City shall undertake as part of its economic base study, an analysis of the mass transit corridors. This will be done 1n order to identify those which are best suited for designation as employment center needs.
28. The City shall promote tourist-oriented industry in order to take advantage of tourism.
29. The City shall pursue an active economic development policy.
Such policy may consist of:
(a) The anticipation of economically desirable kinds of development, such as office complexes, light industrial, and intensive commercial, through the establishment of specific areas and the proper provision of services for such development.


Full Text

PAGE 1

WESTLAND ACTIVITY CENTER A DEVELOPMENT PLAN and HOUSING PROJECT LAKEWOOD,COLORADO THESIS PROJECT UNIVERSITY of COLORADO _ DECEMBER 16, 1980 _THEODORE L. KAISER

PAGE 2

Acknowledgements ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY 11111111111111111111 1 1111111111111111111111111111111 1 11111111111 3 1204 00265 5646 The successful completion of this thesis project would not have been possible continued support of a number of the I wish to thank the following people who served on my advisory board: John Prosser, Dean College of Environmental Design Design and Urban Planning Gary Long, Director of Architecture College of Environmental Design Design and Systems Integration Davis Holder, Professor College of Environmental Design Structural Ron Rinker, Principal Barker, Rinker, Seacat, Architects, Inc. Design of Mixed Use Developments, Economics Bill Saslow Blake Street Bath and Racquet Club Economics and Marketing Robert deKeiffer, Researcher Solar Energy Research Institute Solar Energy, Active and Passive Application

PAGE 3

Table of Contents 1 Part I: INTRODUCTION A. Proposal and Orientation 1. Project Description 2. Issues 3. Goals and Objectives 4 . Thesis Design Goals 5 . Regional Map B. Development Criteria for the Westland Community Activity Center 1. Urban Design Concepts and Factors 2. Major Design Concepts 13 Part II: FACTS SITE A. Spatial Circulation Views Photographs B. Physical Climate Topography Soils Utilities Solar Winds Recreation BUILDING Existing land use on site Neighborhood spatial characteristics Case Studies: Mechanical Systems Structural Systems Retail Malls Existing Land Usability

PAGE 4

C. Social and Biological D. Economical SITE Benefits and drawbacks of development and improvement Micro-climate Vegetation Shading Cost breakdown Cost per square foot DRCOG "Colfax Corridor Study" BUILDING Appropriate mixes of age groups, peopl' background, etc. for different building types in a mixed-use development Projected city rev-Projected city enues revenues Market analysis E. Zoning F. Codes 1. Uniform Building Codes 2. FHA Minimum Property Standards for Housing 188 Part I I I: CONCEPTS A. Activity Programming: "What is a mixed-use project?" B. Functional Relationship Diagrams c. Matrix D. Bubble Diagrams E. Site Concepts F. Program Statement G. Site Land Use Calculations

PAGE 5

192 Part IV: NEEDS A. Activity and User Requirements B. Spatial Allocations 1. Corrunercial 2. Retail 3. Housing 4. Office 5. Open Space 6. RTD Bus Stop: Walk-n-Ride Shelter 7. Parking 197 Part V: PROBLEM STATEMENT A. Final Definition of Problem: A Brief Surrunary 199 Part VI: SOLUTION 208 Part VII: BIBLIOGRAPHY

PAGE 6

. I N T R 0 D . u c T I 0 N

PAGE 7

Proposal and Orientation Project Description: The project and its site exist as a specific and integral part of the proposed development for the Westland Community Activity Center which, as a complete parcel of suburban land, is located on the fringe of the metropolitan core, approximately eight miles west of Denver, Colorado. The entire regional community activity center is located in northwest Lakewood between 13th and 20th avenues and remains an important focal point on the east-west Colfax, Simms and Kipling arterials. The specific thesis site, presently two-thirds of which exists today as a drive-in theater, and the lower third as a trailer home site, is bound by Colfax Avenue on the south, Quail Street on the east, Robb Street on the west, and 17th Avenue on the north. The thesis project will specifically involve a mixed use proposal incorporating the development of housing, retail, commercial and open space within the boundaries stated above. The s cope of the overall site is 15. 2 acres and prior to any programming decisions, the project allows for more than 50,000 square feet of commercial space, 50,000 square feet of retail space and the remaining square footage for pedestrian circulation corridors, open space, housing, streets and parking.

PAGE 8

Issues: The proiect and its scope was chosen to expand my knowledge of neighborhood and urban desiqn; to more fully expand the patentail of commercial, retail and residential developments as integral multi-use complexes; and finally, to provide an opportunity to synthesize a design process which embodies a growing personal conviction that the nature of a design process should preclude any preconceived ideas about the spirit, image or form of the final solution. It should, however, allow the essence of the solution to grow freely as a clear and orderly response to the project's program and the surrounding physical environment. The following is a list of the issues which will have a major impact on this thesis proiect: -practical application of passive solar techniques as alternatives to the conventional heating and cooling of housing and commercial/retail space. -public versus private space. -concept of neighborhood marketplace versus suburban shopping malls. -pedestrian versus auto-dominated environment. -ease of access, flexibility of environmen t for mul-tiple uses. -amenities: concept of open space, recreation and culture as catalysts for neighborhood identity. -concept of urban living in a fringe neighborhood development.

PAGE 9

Goals and Obiectives: The proposed multi-use development of the thesis site, which incorporates a Walk-N-Ride facility, neighborhood commercial space, high and medium office space, retail space, housing, recreation and open space development, pedestrain circulation improvements and street changes are physical, capital improvements whose scale, location and quality of implementation will define the proiect. The following represent a personal comprehensive set of objectives for this thesis proiect. This list is in addition to the design obiectives already established by the planning team for Concept Lakewood and these are presented on the following pages. 1. Make the neighborhood multi-use development into living and working places which will encourage families to live there by creating an environment of multi-use quality which incorporates all of the uses for a range of incomes and ethnic backgrounds. 2. Maintain and strengthen existing and future services, quality of living environment, and an appropriate interface with the existing community. As a neighborhood concept the following goals have been defined: -develop intimate spaces for sheltered privacy; -create housing which reflects variety in lifestyle; -nurture potential for communication and activities; -respect needs of children and the handicapped; -respect easy access to places of working, living, and playing.

PAGE 10

-define neighborhood identity -respect pedestrian circulation corridors through the site for those living on the peri-meter of the project -in terms of architectural design which responds appropriately to climate, views, topography, people's needs as well as regulatory guidelines. 3. Maintain and improve the suburban quality of the neighborhood by preserving scenic and recreational assets of the proposed greenbelt and provide in-creased opportunities for people to enjoy this amen-ity. In addition, maintain air, noise and water quality standards within state and federal regulations. 4. Avoid impediment of pedestrian circulation with delivery access of goods and services, i.e. trash re-moval, truck delivery, etc., yet maintain corridors for fire and emergency access. 5. Personal philosophy development: idea of designing * within a contextural approach to lifestyle and the design process. * the act, process, manner in which the parts are created to form the whole.

PAGE 11

Design Goals: The following are the design goals for the Westland Community Activity Center. All proposed development in the activity center shall be tested for compliance with these design goals: A. To maintain the Westland Community Activity Center as a focus for mixed regional and local activities. B. To continue and reinforce the already established basic environmental elements of the Westland area. C. To create a high quality area that will provide a sense of community identity. D. To provide a community design alternative to the continued sprawl of existing development patterns by encouraging efficient development and conservation of established urbanized area. E. To accomplish superior site utilization with the incorporation of the natural features, physical and functional relationships into the surrounding areas. F. To encourage and protect new and existing development in and immediately adjoining the area and to encourage the concentrated expansion and mixing of existing and new neighborhoods, moderate commercial, special industrial and medium-sized office functions within the area. G. To further the stability and value of the property in and around the areas; to recycle distressed properties within the activity area.

PAGE 12

H. To relieve vehicular and pedestrian traffic congestion and improve access to and circulation within the area by providing specific pedestrian crossings along Colfax and by fully developing a greenway system as a major element at Westland. I. To improve transportation by incorporating RTD WalkN-Ride stops at such points that provide access to all parts of the center. J. To reduce the effects of vehicles on the area by providing site, noise and view buffering. K. To develop open spaces, plazas, greenery and other amenities in the areas, including pedestrian and bicycle circulation continuity across public rightsof-way. L. To achieve energy conservation in new and existing development in the center. M. To provide incentives for development of the area to achieve a compact balanced commercial, employment, recreational/entertainment and residential area.

PAGE 13

Regional Hap Aerial View of Site tI I I I I I I 'h-4+-H-

PAGE 14

Area History The City of Lakewood is one of the twenty-four municipal entities in the greater Denver metropolitan area. Occupying the western urban fringe of the metropolitan area, Lakewood has shared in the tremendous growth of the region over the past decade and is projected, based on studies conducted by the Long Range Planning Division, to be among the leaders of growth in the decade ahead. Urban development patterns along the Denver Front Range have historically been dictated by economic considerations of to the detriment of the natural environment. Continuing urbanization alone is not the major problem; rather the form which urbanization imposes on the land and its subsequent impact have now been recognized as major problems confronting man's urban environment. These development patterns in the Lakewood area have generally held that the most attractive parcels of land be developed first, leaving less attractive parcels temporarily vacant. The term "leapfrog" development has been applied to this kind of urbanization which has left almost 30 percent of Lakewood in an unimproved state. This compares to an average metropolitan-wide figure for vacant land of 20 percent. The consequence of "leapfrog" development in Lakewood has been a low-density sprawl continuing today to the south and west of the city. The by-products of this sprawl increased travel, excess energy use, increased costs for city services

PAGE 15

and others --all diminish the quality of man's urban environment. Finally, there is sufficient land in the Lakewood area, physically receptive to urbanization, which will accommodate a large population increase. Design techniques exist both to create a pleasant human environment and to use less land to do it. An improved urban environment requires a perspective which recognizes not only the economics value system, but also the importance of the physical and social value systems.

PAGE 16

j / I. C r1ter1a ro r l and Community Activity Center An Ammendment to Concept Lakewood URBAN DESIGN CONCEPTS AND FACTORS A. Alternative to Urban Sprawl. In general, the Westland Community Center factors and design concepts offer lakewood another extraordinary alternative to urban sprawl. This approach to planning is a means for reversing the explosion of unrealted, isolated and comprehensive splintered projects that demand an over-extensi o n of roads, utilities, schools, services and cultural facilities until the urbanized area reaches obesity and cannot function effectively. In the Westland Community Activity Center, with its vacant distressed or under-utilized land, in-place circulation system which is being upgraded, and existing support facilities, there is a great portential for long term economic and social benefits to be gained by the City through careful planning. Consolidated multi-purpose activity centers, like the Westland Community Activity Center, make it possible for goods and services to be provided and exchanged in the same place as, or within walking distance of peoples' homes and can aid in halting the fragmented outward expansion which has characterized recent growth in the Denver area. B. Regional Planning, Air Pollution and Mass Transit. Westland is part of the Colfax Corridor study area and it is designated as a Community Activity Center in Concept lakewood. If the Activity Center is developed in conformity with this plan, reduction of air pollution and automobile trips and increased support of mass transit should occur. C. Multi-use Intensive Activity Area. Westland, located in north west Lakewood between 13th and 20th avenues, is an important focal point on the east-west Colfax, Simms and Kipling arterial. Because of its unique location and accessibility to major metro politan Denver institutional, commercial, cultural and recreational facilities, it has significant potential as a multi-use Community Activity Center. In particular, it has an outstanding capacity for residential, special industrial, neighborhood community and medium sized regional retail uses, as well as moderate office development. It is the most varied center in greater Denver. D. Urban Quality. By reinforcing and adding to the unique characteristics already long established in the Westland district, the activity center here can evolve into a very special quality mixed use area. At Colfax, both Simms and Kipling streets on the east and west edges of the area could be developed as exceptional gateways into the center. The hilltop at the north side and the railroad/floodway along the south boundary provides a suitable line of separation from adjacent land. Within these confines, the existing facilities and circulation systems in many instances need revitalization, expansion, and/or replacement (which would equal or exceed the quality of the shopping center itself, in top condition.)

PAGE 17

\ , E. Initially, it is essential that two major walk-ride RTD points be located on Colfax to serve the long east-west axis of the center. With two RTD stops on 20th avenue , all parts of the activity center are located within apprc : : imately a five minute walk of mass transit service. Four carefully planned pedestrian crossings of Colfax should be provided to connect the major work areas to shopp1ng in the center core. Particular e m phasis must be given to upgrading the redevelopment of vacant and deteriorating areas outside the core. Throu ghout the center, a primary concern is to provide circulation, amenities, and extensive landscaping for pedestrians. Much effort is necessary to counteract the declining appearance of the activity center area with excellent site planning and design that compliments sensitive new buildings. Unusual care must be given to protecting long established stable adjacent residential neighborhoods. With thorough consideration of all the various planning, urban design, architectural and landscape factors, the Westland Comm unity Activity Center has the potential to be an outstanding example of urban conservation and recycling. Oldest Regional Center of Lakewood . DRCOG and Lakewood Plann ing Studies verify that the Westland Area should be a major reg ional urban mixed use facility. This activity center is the old est, most extensive, and diverse focal place in Lakewood and West Denver. It is one of the few regional centers in the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) that has rail freight service on site. Excellent bus service is already available to the center on Colfax, 20th , Kipling and Simms. F. Colfax Avenue a n d the North-South Arterials. Since its inception, Colfax Avenue has been the automobile strip from Aurora to Golden. Starting at the foothills and spanning the entire South Platte Valley for an approximate thirty miles, it intercepts every major north -south trafficway including roads such as C-470 (proposed), I-70, Kipling, Wadsworth, I-25, Broadway, Colorado Boulevard, Quebec, Havana, I-225 and ultimately rejoins I-70 on the eastern plains. Located near or adjacent to Colfax Avenue are such facilities as the School of Mines, 11SERI11 and the Denver West; JCRS, St. Anthony's and Beth Israel Hospitals, Mile High Sports Complex, Auraria Higher Education Center, Denver Center for the Performing Arts, Downtown with the proposed 16th street mall, the Civic Center with Federal, Colorado and Denver political and cultural institutions, Midtown hospitals, City Park, Colrado Boulevard Hospitals, Colorado Women's College, Fitzsimmons, as well as many other community centers. Kipling is a major north-south areterial now and will be more significant once it continues through south of Alameda, which then completes the connection from Arvada and Wheat Ridge across Lakewood to Bowmar and Chatfield. Simms is a secondary intracity arterial, and like Kipling it is a direct link from Westland to the Federal Center.

PAGE 18

G. Residential Collector Route Through North Lakewood-20th Avenue. This route should be maintained and reinforced as a low volume road serving housing areas as it primarily does now. Traffic from and to new higher density housing sites is spread onto new sections of Quaill leading to 20th and to Colfax. Further balanced dispersal of residential traffic occurs on Oak, Robb, 17th and 18th Avenues, connecting to collector streets on the north and west as well as to Colfax on the South. H. Collector Routes for Special Industrial Sites. Vehicular circulation to the industrial areas is channeled onto Quaill, 13th Avenue, 8th, and 6th Avenue service roads to the west, south and to Colfax away from residential neighborhoods. I. RTDColfax Walk-N-Ride Facilities. Because there are existing and potential high living, shopping and working densities with converging pedestrian circulation r o utes within the Westland Community Activity Center, location here of RTD Walk-N-Ride stops is necessary. In relationship to orientation, topography, access, placement and compatability to adjacent activities, the proposed sites are excellent for such RTD facilities. 11. Major Design Concepts. A. Buffering-Total Center. On the perimeter of the Westland Comm unity Activity Center, special emphasis should be placed on establishing gradual transitions into the adjacent residential neighborhoods from the mixed uses of the activity center. Greenways should be used whenever possible to unify the existing developments with new development. From the outside of the center inward, progressive increases in densities, bulks, heights, and gradual changes in land use are recommended. B. Mixed Uses Total Center. Mixed uses are extremely important as is a great variety of activity functions within and around the center. To be a successful center, both the public and private people spaces must be carefully designed. C. Open Space Total Center. Particular consideration should be given to providing adequate and varied open spaces within the center itself. Further, coordination of materials, exterior furniture and other amenities throughout the Westland Community Activity Center should enhance the desirability of such open space to the pedestrian. D. Map of Core, Secondary and Perimeter Rings. Figure 1 illustrates how the Community Activity Center is designed around a core, a secondary ring and a perimeter ring. E. Neighborhood and Activity Center Relationships Circulation and Landscape. AS outlined in the previous discussion in . Concept Lakewood, the Community Activity Center should be a pedestr1an@

PAGE 19

Spatial Analysis: The spatial characteristics of the thesis site are particular to a neighborhood community which still shows 1 a visual relationship to its rural past. The designation or present use.of the site as a drive-in theater and as a mobile horne 'marketplace' gives testimony to the fact that present planned uses of suburban land are short-sighted d . d 2 an lna equate. The implementation of past zoning prac-tices have resulted today into an inadequate propQrtion between the scale of commercial and retail use of land and that allotted for housing, open space, recreation, streets d k . 3 an par lng. The visual neighborhood "scape" reflects the lack of culture, the displacement of American cultural 4 roots by rapid commercial and retail growth. The open spaces remaining to the north of the thesis site are a blessing for informal human recreational pursuits. However, certain circulation routes are beginning to define the uses of the vacated suburban land.5 The energy crisis is turning peoples attention toward a closer critical anal-ysis of personal lifestyles and the new pedestrian circu-lation routes across the site (see site analysis diagrams) are an example of renewed interest in a more human and constructive neighborhood environment. The most critical aspect of the present spatial organ-ization of the Westland CAC Community remains (and for any planned future cluster developments) the definition of a neighborhood identity. The organization, the use of the

PAGE 20

land bound by Quail St., Robb St., and Colfax Ave. should be defined in order that a proper hierarchy of public, semi-public, private and semi-private spaces are established. The present chaos or spatial displacement comes as a result of a lack of sensitivity to these needs of privacy, buffering, sheltering and security.

PAGE 21

-===

PAGE 22

. . ----

PAGE 23

View of site: Shows existing use as a drive in theatre with existing control booth in center of site. Site slopes toward Green Mountain (in background) i n a southerly direction. Green Mountain in background reinforces suburban/rural aspect of neighborhood. Photograph indicates a need for recreation and playground space. Site slope from 17th Ave. to Colfax is as much as 30'. Good potential for solar. Any development here would be horizontal in terms of physical appearance. This photograph portrays typical physical forms surrounding t h e site. T h e low physical scale of the houses is typical of Lakewood except for taller office structures in Westland, at the Federal Center, and at t h e community planning offices on U nion Street. Notice gable and arch treatment.

PAGE 24

View east of site shows downtown Denver skyline and distance of site from center of town. This photograph reinforces potential of site as a neighborhood center. Suburban identity. View looking east from site directly across Target store adjacent to site. Notice how recreation seems to play a minor role as the space for the swings is not buffered from sun or wind. Commercial activity seems to i overrun the spatial needs of people. View looking southeast from site. Predominance of auto-mobiles, general spatial order and misuse of land. Open. Barren. Scarce . No people in view. Trees and foliage is restricted to low scale housing beyond Colfax Avenue.

PAGE 25

View looking northwest site. Th surroundin g l a n d rang s from undeveloped t o develop d in physical appearance. Notice drainage ditch alongside road. All seven-story housing to right. View looking west along northern edge of site. Blueb rry Hill Apartments r in right background . Notic elm tre s along fenc line. Ecology is characteristic of prairie land. View looking east along northern boundary of site. Green Mountain lies i n background. Site slope s to south dropping 30' to 4 0 ' from 16th Ave. to Colfax. Horizontal landscape. Slope staggers to site.

PAGE 26

View looking east along southern boundary of site. The Colfax strip. Endless. A major corridor for auto circulation. An assessment of the economic viability of the Colfax corridor is undertaken in the DRCOG study. View looking east behind existing Westland shopping center. View shows the encroachment of commercial activity onto adjacent land to the north (Kuntz site) without buffers. Drainage ditch is in direct foreground. View looking northeast to pasture (rural land). Good potential for housing and recreation . 17th Ave . in foreground will be closed north of drive in site under Concept Lakewood. Drainage canal will proceed diagonally across Kuntz site in photograph.

PAGE 27

erial view looking east s how he site with drive-in t heat e n left foreground. Notice olfax Ave . corridor, Denve r kyline and the relativel y ow scale of buildings in oreground around thesis site TO Bus Maintenance facility and is in direct foreground. erial view looking north aross Colfax Ave. and to the uburbs beyond. View shows ommercial activity to t h e ight and center foreground ith residential growth t o he left and center backround. 1. Shows neighborhood "fringe" quality of the site. Almost like a point adjacent to a line radiating from the "hub" or Denver core. 2. Shows rural/suburban nature of this neighborhood community center.

PAGE 28

figure 1 01 ct) E '-.___..J '----' l J "-._.) "---..) 1..__) J e E Ill :> 250 0 250 500 ., :> a core ............. se 'condary development r i ng 1 > ;:}.:'\-;:y. : :.)_:J perimeter development ring westland community activity center city of lakewood, colorado . land use intensitv rw

PAGE 29

------• • • -fi ure 3 IIIII 11111111 17th ""IJ 16 thiJ D D . ::::pl. -, ______ ] L ___ ---.) '---' ----.-Jf olfj: 3 s[ nee] 14th pl . row th].,...._,____ rity r -c .. .. • • J< 0 0 i .! 01 • • .. .. .s :> 0 .. 0 e .! rr c E a. :;: IIIIUIIIIIII boundary refer to text westland community activity center .. city of lakewood, colorado . . . 250 0 250 500 /20/79 street. ' improvements . . . . .... ...... ... . } ..... ...

PAGE 30

figure 4 ------.. --IIIII 11111111 th pl . th pl. rr "" .. 0 .. .. ., i .! c 0'1 e .!! :;; Q. u; :i2 \ 111111" arterial ._,.......,.-.. collector ............... boundary _j LJ l_ local I I westland community activity center city of lakewood, . colorado . 0 250 0 250 500 . \ ; Street classification . ... . , -.

PAGE 31

figure 5 -----........ Ill ..... . . . ... 17th c .. .. .. 0 0 i c .. .. Ill :> 0 ;; 0 E J!. :it
PAGE 32

Ill E 20 17 c. c.. I I I . ;-1 I l'A I I sc.. I I __ ,_ 51-1 figure 7 -I I .... ,,.,,_-t..o-L.J:7.N OFF I C. I:: Mf-lw-1PICAL. FfiL.IL-ITY MO-fv\DIUM OfFIC.G H0-H14l-l oFF tC.E •••••• i ; e J? .;; f,U?Ji'JC.SS :i , 171h : 16th -MME.RCiAv EC-f.NTE:fl-IC l-AND , C.OMMUI\1 ITY 1 \C.. PA-PAIZKINC{ rDfZ ue;,t:.'=> AI I ON GEIJ Tt::f2. . •RI•uu boundary lAtJP -,;:n:. westland community activity center city of lakewood, colorado ' :....• . land

PAGE 33

III. LAND USES IN THE WESTLAND COMMUNITY ACTIVITY CENTER The use of the land in the Westland Community Activity Center should conform to the Westland Community Activity Center Land Use Map (Figure 5 ). The uses proposed for the various areas depicted on the map are described in the paragraphs that follow (paragraphs A through M). A. 1-4 Pedestrian Crossing Points These four areas (Al-A4) provide for pedestrian crossings. The location of each of these crossings will be reinforced with a traffic light and with clearly marked pedestrian crosswalks i.e. different colored or textured pavement providing easy access across Colfax Avenue, thus connecting both sides of the Activity Center for the pedestrian. B. Regional Shopping Between Colfax and 17th, Owens and Miller is Area B, proposed to be expanded to regional shopping center size. Major department stores already exist in the shopping center while development, being in the core of the Activity Center, is encouraged to intensify. A regional shopping center generally has two or more department stores with a gross leasable area of at least 500,000 square feet. C. Recreation and Community Commercial Just west of the existing shopping center is Area C. This area will include Community Commercial facilities as well as Recreational and Special Commercial. Community shopping areas generally contain a discount store with approximately 100,000 to 200,000 gross leasable area. D. Neighborhood Commercial and Office Located west of Area C is a proposed location for a neighborhood shopping center which would provide for the daily shopping needs of the area residents within convenient walking distance. In addition this area is proposed for office development. E. Multi-Family Housing Situated along the western side of the Community Activity Center, east of Simms is Area E, an area suitable for multi-family housing. Parts of this area in a deteriorating nature are already beginning to redevelop as multi -family. This area of low and medium density residential uses will buffer the low density residential area west of Area E from the more intensive uses i n Area D. Housing for the elderly could also be included in Area f...

PAGE 34

F. Multi-Family Housing This area situated in the northern portion of the Activity Center is an area suitable for multi-family housing due to its proximity to the very intense uses in the core. This area of high, medium, and low density residential uses will buffer the lower density residential areas surrounding Area F from the more intensive uses in Areas B, C, & D. Housing for the elderly will be allowed in this area. G. Public Open Space The YMCA park is designated as Area G. It serves as a converging point for the pedestrian ways throughout the Westland Community Activity Center and is linked directly to Area H. Areas G & H serve to buffer the existing lower density residential developments from the more intensive developments proposed for Area F. Areas G & H are linked together by a pedestrian way, contributing to the overall open space system. H. Neighborhood "Pocket" Park Area H is proposed for a small neighborhood park, tying this northeast portion into the Activity Center by use of the pedestrian ways. It will also buffer the lower density residential areas east and west of Area H from the more intensive uses of Area F. I. Commercial and Entertainment Area I situated along Colfax is proposed as the primary entertainment and eating center within the Westland Community Activity Center. In this area a unique lively, lighted "strip" would be created through redevelopment of the "marginal" commercial uses in existence along Colfax Avenue. The four pedestrian crossings (Areas Al-A4) will enable patrons easy access to both sides of the "strip." Office use is also suitable for Area I. J . Neighborhood Park"Tot Lot" Area J is an excellent site for a small neighborhood park of "tot lot" due to its partial location within the flood plain. In addition to being part of the pedestrian s ystem, Area J will buffer the lower density residential areas to the south and southeast from the more intensive uses of Area I .

PAGE 35

K. Housing for the Elderly This area will provide an excellent site f o r housing for the elderly due to its location near existing shopping and other facilities. Neighborhood stores and recreational facilities to be allowed near the residential buildings will also serve as supportive uses for housing for elderly. Pedestrian/bicycle paths should be built to link the housing units to the enumerated facilities. Housing for the elderly in this location would buffer the singlefamily housing south of Ar?a K from the commercial activity to the north. Pedestiran/bicycle paths should be constructed through the housing for the elderly area to provide residents of the area with easy access to the commercial area of the Westland Community Activity CPnter. 1. Special Light Industrial This area, south of Colfax and north of the railroad tracks is proposed for special light industrial use primarily to the automobile. It is a unique use area, found only in the Westland Community Activity Centers. A major RTD maintenance facility is proposed within this area, complimenting the other allowable uses wihin this area. M. Public Open Space This site just east of Simms is proposed as part of the Westland Community Activity Center pedestrian/open space system. It serves the southwest portion of the Activity Center as a converging point for pedestrians. AreaM also serves as a tie across the Simms right-ofway to the existing bike/pedestrian way on the west side of Simms.

PAGE 36

Physical Analysis: The most repetitious characteristic of the physical nature of the thesis site is the horizontal representation of the surrounding dwellings and Green Mountain to the southwest. The one-and two-story homes to the east an and north reflect this attribute. The commercial activity in Westland Shopping Center is sprawling (see photographs and slides), while the only tall, vertical object is an 8-story office building due south of.the site. The predominance of streets and the chaotic appearance of Colfax Avenue reflect the impact of the automobile on this fringe neighborhood community. As a result, the community has grown within the grid-like confines of the pattern established by communication and transportat ion routes. One serious detriment to the neighborhood by the proliferation of asphalt cover is the increased run-off of rainwater which increases the demand on storm sewers and channels. The existing greenbelt does incorporate a 'drainage' ditch which, with proper planning and design, can become a positive feature for open space development. The topography (see site contour map) shows a thesis site which steps down diagonally across the site from a top elevation of approximately 5632.0 to 5600, involving a drop in elevation of @32.0'.

PAGE 37

Trees do exist on-site. Elm, cottonwood and some yet to be identified lower-scale deciduous trees offer a good contrast to the prairie-like nature of the land north of the site. The lack of evergreens is noticeable and their introduction to the edges of the site could offer a greatly needed buffer between commercial uses and recreational/housing uses of the land.

PAGE 38

_j I I I I I . -I I : ----:-:-----:-:---I ID1 I I I I I I I I l j . I . I I j I I l I I I I I l I .J . I < r l l

PAGE 39

/ . I : \ '-------B-0 --./ D & [I I I1 '-A. ./' lJ ..;' . II' Q . .jf'' // -GPv
PAGE 40

_j" .1 W 1 '!1 9 .. =-=-::.=-=-=-=-______ _ _ 17 1 / . II .t ' t: /------/ ' : / ' r ' I I . I L I r T-----------t--• I I I I I I I I I --i -::-. ....U:l:--Tt>---.{., I I l I I I I I I ' : I I If\ I J : i l I , , I I I I r ----------------------,-_ T _! __ I I ' ---I \ : kv. .. I . [,_, . + . 1..* t1W -.!l. I I u eUele'P --I '.,') I 1 _15 -----T----1 ; * I i f 1 ll 1 -+---+-__,..-t. --+-! -oI C:..l.fW' .. ' . @)

PAGE 41

---------srrE aaJerir fl'!Dt'1 ' HoWE.VSR., 1"1-E-'!>tTE: To ni-JFfi!.<:> 1'1 5L. Er1" )'Er l!;lcf'O"J.afi!o m ::7:.7 ' I /.
PAGE 42

Local Climatological Data Lowest Recorded Temperature: Mean Low Temperature: Highest Recorded Temperature: Daytine Relative Humidity: Nighttime Relative Humidity: Mean Annual Percentage of Clear Days: Percent of Possible Sunshine: Mean Annual Precipitation: Maximum Annual Precipitation: -30 degrees F (February) 16 degrees F (January) 105 degrees F (July) 20-30% on average, often much lower due to warming effects of downslope westerly air flow. often raises to 100% (New Point) casued by radiative cooling. 35 percent 70 percent 13 inches 22 inches Maximum Precipitation in 24 hrs.: 3.5 inches (May) Mean Annual Snowfall: Prevailing Wind Direction: Normal Heating Degree Days (Base 65 degrees) : Normal Cooling Degree Days (Base 65 degrees) Wind, Fastest Mile (.1 minut e value) 50 inches Southerly at 9 mph; dir ection of greatest winds usually have westerly components. 6016 625 56 degrees NW and SW

PAGE 43

Narrative Climatological Summary Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration. Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver's weather: arctic air from Canada and Alaska; warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west. The good climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the R cky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds so shade the City that temperatures of 90 degrees or over are reached on an average of only thirtytwo days of the year, and in only one year in five d o e s the mercury very briefly reach the 100 degree mark. In the cold season, the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains never reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent from the east face of the mountains, and chinooks resulting from some of these

PAGE 44

westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude. In the spring when outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches its peak in May. Situated a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by several high mountain barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable sunshine. Spring is the wettest, cloudiest and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, ear-lier period of that season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover. Summer precipitation (about 32 percent of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually falls mainly from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise by the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower. Autumn is the most pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are mostly over and invasions of cold air and severe

PAGE 45

weather are infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any other time of the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipitation amounts to about 20 percent of the annual total. Winter has least precipitation accumulation, only about ll percent of the annual total, and almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however, is higher than in autumn. There is also more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but as a general rule the severity doesn't last long.

PAGE 46

lL 0 ILl tl ! !/ :r >-.t A OL-r:t-YA.Y) 110 ----.. -loo 9o 60 1o 60 e;o -f-o 80 0 too R.E-L.-ATI VE HUM lPlrY trfo

PAGE 47

DIAGRAM . . I 1-SOLA R ELEVAT19N ANGL. E 1FOR LAT.JTUDE 40N to" CJ) 10" w w a: (!) 70" Note : Number! en r.-:un e.nd alter noon, t::u-, _ 0 -1 --= . w 0 60" z :J (/) SO" LL 0 w •oo ....J (.? z 30" z 0 10" c:t > ,.,. ..u ..J 1J 0' -10" • lr::\i ' . . f . , \

PAGE 48

:::J CD c: 0 4) a. "' 0 0 Cl "' 0 u >.. 0' 4) c: w 15-3 16 I I I l 1/ 11 Furnace Efficiency 60% ;% I I I I J 50% / 7 '; 80% I II I 14 12 E 4) .s:::. ...... ,0 4) a. I I I/ I v / // /160% Furnace v / Efficiency 50 /oj 1/ / / I I I ;/' / ;' I /70% / / vGo•y V/; / v // /' / 1/ / / "' 0 u >.. 0' 8 4) c: w I / // / . . li ;/' // // '/ 0 0 6 >.. .CJ 4) "C > Cl 4 I{IJ / // I j/ /; 'li v / // // ;;' 1/ [/;' v / / / v /;, v V/ Natural Gas Energy Content v i s Assumed to be 880 Btu I ft3 w __ #2 Fuel Oil Energy Content -is Assumed to be 140,000 Btu/gal r-J -v ----Propane Energy Content is Assumed to be 90,000 Btu/gal 2 I .. -------------.-0 1 , 0 0.10 0.20 0.40 0 .50 0 .60 0 .70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 Dollars/ Energy Unit Natural Gas-Pr ice/ 100ft3 # 2 Fuel OilPrice /Gallon Propane-Price /Gallon Figure 15-1. Energy Cost per Million Btu for Natural Gas, Pro p ane and No. 2 Fuel Oil.

PAGE 49

A P PR OXIMATE WIND ROSE Stapleton Airport, Denver, Colorado Based on five years of data, May 1950 -April 1955, taken from Climatography of the United States, No. 30-5 for Denver, b y averaging monthly percentages. poe ific a i r m::>deroted 0 .... '-41 ... .... ..f "' f f Legend p e rcentage frequencies m p h over ._,. IJ I 0.1 , _ , I,, I I I I I ... 0 I , C l ... o \ . -"? .... ':: 24 mph

PAGE 50

Averaee Temperature Heating Degree Days _ .., S...OnJ July !Au& [&eptJ Oct J No. J Dec j Ja" l Feb J IIarJ Apr YNr I Jen j f.t> I liar I Apr I May I JuMI Jul)' I Aua I &ept I Oct I ""•I o.c !Annual , ... ... l .o.a '' i ,.,, llo t lhO ,., .,. ., "J ... " , .. ... ••• ,,, IOol I l'' l ... ••• ... ... '' •.. " " ... ..... ... ... JOo6 lhl " llo •.. ... ::J " '' . . . u.a ... ::: l ... , )h) " ' l ... ... :::l ,., ... u.d ... ft,t l••• ... "'l ... ,. 'j "l " " ... , ... ... ... ' 1'-' II• ,., ., .J ... ,., ••• " u. " i ,., J ... ••• .... 1'-• ••• ••• ... ... " . .. ;:: l " ... . . . ... •' fJ ol ' 1'"' ... , .. ... ... ... " ... ... .... )hi , .. ... , • . ;J . . . " , . . ... , 1''' ... j . . . , ... J .I. " " u.zl •••• 41, :!: J .... ltiJ u . ... •• 0 ... • I . ... , •• 111 ... lOot 1'11 ... ... ,, . ,n,J I ,., •' o I " ... tl o! ... , .. .... ttJZ ... , : ; ... ::: ::: ,,, 11 65, 1 ... , . . •o • t•u . . . Tt., Cl' ... .., ,., .. tl.l, )loolli fl, . l'h ... . , . ., '' . . ,, ; ... , ... sz.' . .. ' , . . ' , , , ltH " 21, i , .. J n ,l.' . .. •• a ,., ... ,., IOol I , . i l'H ... ,,,. •"' ... t O,. ... " •• 0 ... , . . Slo J 1''' " . . . , )4,1. • : , . . .... " " 1• JloW .. .. ... t o. 1: lftl u . .: ,,,. u.a, •• ,to: U ,'1' ••' L ,, ., .. Jlo4 1•• :::l l Ooft ""' ., ... '' t l C , . " " ; ::: :::= s o.o •1•• o , ... )11,1 1 ... , ,, ,I! ... "J ,,, .. ... UoO . .. , I " ••• J ".i I > o . J z d lftl ,,, , ... l l t I ... J• 0 .... , .. , , . . z •,• ho"i '' . ,,_' ll.J t z, illl ,,, .. ... ... ' t•n ,., ,., .. , 1 '''I t O,' ... ' ... ., ,.,,. Ito to. 1 t•• t l o'J ... " •' 0 ll • I t 1 0 , . ., I .. SJ •? . o.o ))o l . . . , 1 .. '' " ,, .1 "j " 1 o. r , "., Ud ,,,, ::: i .... I ... I , •• J ... t•u " ..... , . . , •• 0 ,, . . fto r tlo ... ' lh7 ,., ••• t :::l ••• f 'J'd.' U• .... lfU z•. ' .... ' i .,,, ••. c . . . II• •••• 1 ... J) i u,,: e11.• ,., "" ... , Jf,oj J•.t! II• ' .... lt'tO ... ... ,, , ... ... , " " " , .. , )t, I .,, "''I 1 ''l U; 1 0 •'\ )II," .,, • •. J ••. :1 . . . H, , ... ' , •• 1 11• .... lf'U Jo. ••II ••• fill • • , I ... . " n.q Ud! sz. t * •••• 1''7J ,, ,,,. a•. .t.l' ,, ... j . , ' " n., , . . ,., ••• J Jl• "'' l''-u . Jt.t-"' ' .ta. ..... ''l , . . -,,. Jl,q ll•f J c'' 1 • .,, " . J o ... ,,,, '" ) ... . " j , .. j ,.t; ,.,J ,,, ... . i .. . J 1 t l e u. ,., '" t ... ... " , .. j , .. ,., JloO l''Tl "'1 , .. , ,.,. 5 1,1: l L t ,. 0 l G . I. ... , , . ; U. " ' l'" I ... . .... " ! , .... , . ... ... . , •. I . . . . ,,,a Helj ,,, l • • ... , UtO l 1 JZ. J I I u J ... : .,.J MU"' J• • ., ... :u ... ., S l otl , ... J Ool ... "'' " .. •"'. ao. . .. , " e5.1 . . . . ... . ••• 11-' a o ,., z•,li u,e; ... ' JZ 0 ,., . . ..... ,,,-.' 1 '' ,.o ,., .. ,.' h • , ... ... ,., .. l 'lotl tal ••l j , , u lu" tt•••O 0 • 1'1 .,. Itt n. 1111 au• . .. ,., I .. . .. lfiO•Il ' 11 • • ••• .,,. 1\11 lOU •z• a o . 1 ... , .. u t o h lt"'l•U ,. • Ill .,. o n z l U O h l l ,,. ... , .., , , ,. tiO J •• l 0 It lll ,, .lOJ ... h 11 ltl ••• .. , ,,. •• ,.,. t .,, .... • . ,. 11• 1 ... 1\H 1 0 " }Oii tl2 .. , 1>0 ,. 'C) h l.,. •• ., 0 I• lh n• ,., ... Oil .,, ,., .. •o•"' , . . , ... • ' , .. ••• tU •h H U 101'1 ttl ' ••• , . . .. Jton 1 .,. ••• , 0 • tl u q ••• 1 0 1 1 .,, ,, .,. ... Jll I U .. .. \ ... ., .. , • h , .. ... '"' ' l " l'"" ... , , , , . , I , .. .. t l t o lhl-t'i 10 ,. , .. 1 , .. 1 1'1 111• tu • u 1011 I" , . . , ... . ,,., , ...... 1 0 I 0 •• 1 0 11 , ... , ... IO"' l I .,,. • .. '" 100 " 1100 t t"J O .. 'U 0 n , .. 1 ... I ,.,.,, l oll, '"I"'' I O I '" " l l h "' 1 ,. " IU -.T • , ... , :;; I . Sill 1f1Z-'J) ., .. 107 ... ,, s•n'' • 0 :::i a.: I ... , 1 '1'1 ''" '''I 1>7 , , ,,, 1.,. .. ., 0 • .. , 1 0 lO h '' ' j u z 1 ... , U l .. no• , . , , .. ,. 0 . , .. ... tml ... f:; I hJ1 , . .., .. ,., 0 , 1;!1 >u• .,. ,Of'\ t t , .. ,. l h ,, I ,, •zc , 1 1 0 • ••• I ,.,, •• , I ,, ..,, ,,, ttn.n 0 1 n .. I ,.,.I Ill lPU Cooling Degree Days lht 0 • " • , ... Jl2 I "'I c 0 • '" I f 'TO 0 0 u ' 10 .,lzuluz 0 0 • ., 1t11 0 0 0 " 0 I " I Z O ) hi I ,, 0 0 0 ... , ,.,2 0 0 0 . • 1 1 0 ••• 1 .. 1 0 • ... l t'fJ 0 • u • I lJI 1 " n o Zl 1 0 0 .,, , . .,. • u • .. ITo , J O ' I I'' .. 0 0 : I '11 tt'U • " . J .., 1 .. ' " .. ' 0 ,. . ,.,. • u • • 111 JH tnl 12 0 0 • . ., 0 u I I I 11 • 1 zt" 112 I tJ 1 0 0 0 , .. , ,,.. 0 • u • ll tSZ I ) 0 1 l'JJ l lC J I 0 • ... I I I I Prec ipit ation Snowfall YNr I Jan I Feb I Mar i Apr I M•y j June I July I A ue I Sept I Oct I No. I Dec j Annu•l Su>on I July I Au& lsept l Oct I No• I Dec I J a n ! Feb : Mor j Apr j ltJ9 •" I 1 .1• 1 1 .o•1 , ... , t. u , 1.o•; Oo!TI o.UI o.z• • c;,t'91 .... , g , . n l 1,., 1 f )f0 o.o •.• I 0.01 ' .. ""lia.,l . . ' lll'l , 10.0 o,e I"'' lhO I. 011 o ,•TI , ,,.1 , ... 1 ''" I o.1o ' ' " I Oo.U , 4,0 5 1 " ! o . o . " I 1• .so z I lol•l lf•O•ofll o.o ••• . . . , . ••.••.• •. , 1 •.• 0,0 0 , 0 ., • • ),,,, •• '71 : ... 1 .. 1 l. 1 1 ),zt, 1•"1 1.41 , .... , o.••. UoO J :ht-u c.o ... , l t . z 1,11 1.0 11.' , •• ; •' 1.1 o,e ••• 1h2 o.•• o.w1 • 1'1 1 • 1 2 Jot:ll l oOI Oo1ll o.11; z ••• u.s• 1 •• , • ., o.o . . . ... ... t . l tot1,,o1l.•,T.JI , • ' O , C , Jt, I lh) o.ul o.u1 z , loZZ I o, 'Z Ioli i •;•'i o.z.,. '! t,u 1 ••••• , o.o o.o •.• I ,,. lot f,O 1a,l I , J ! Uol,H,I T,, 0,0 I 11,1 1••• ::::1 o-HI 2 . l•l ,,, . cotl, J,h 0••1 o. o• OoH1 c.,,, 11,14 t ••••' o.c ... ••• . .. ,,, '' !"'' •. , 1 ••• 1,... , o,o i "' lhJ o.•• o .u j ' " I z , u '.oz , z . u loJJ ''' I o. '' o.•ol o.••l u.n ,,.,1 o.u: l f4S•U o.e o.o ' '' f , l o. 1 .lo.z j • J.z , O,f :::In:: lht o ••• Oo f.,.! o.u1 , ... , 10 1 )II loll .... , l •olofl 1 1 ..... ., ... o .o ... . . . tt. l • . ' I •. J lZ . J I " 0 0 I • 0' l,J •lh'P o.J, • " I 1 ' 1 l ) 0 • 1 : 1 .,. l o H l•Z" ).•t 1•o• 1 • • ., .... o.o I ... o.o ... . . . • • j ZJ,, l,t lt.o l t.S , lh8 1.•• :::; 1 1.11 r . u , lol• 1 .... OoiO co•l' ;:! "I o,lll!t; lZoU ' "' o . o I ... o. o o,• . . ' •• l o . J o.• jl•ol,U.' , o,o •c.t lht 1.11, l .Zti 1 ••, ),Jll . . ,,. ,,,, Ootl' O,ll l ooot o . " I 1• ,., tt•••JO ••• o. o o.o '' . . . •• o I''' ... '''I 1 ,0 u.a o.o 11.• l'Jt'l o . • , '"I o . ,,, z .t• ZoiO l , , ,, ! g,Jt ::::1 ::::, o.u l ::::1 o. ill 1 z .otl ltSOU o . o ... o . u ... 11.1 '' u., '"' ' " ' u . • o : o 0,1 1t,l 1'' 1 o. 71 1 • ' } . .,.; a .z1 : OoiJ z .1• o.•• . 1' ltJ 1 " o.o ... •. z ', h . ! 11.11 •' 10,1 u.z 11.1 ' G ,O I 14, 1 1•u Do•• z . u ' . " Joo•, Qoll l 1.011 1 •"I ), Jl u . • , 1 , ,_, o.c ... o.u '' 1 • ' 1.1 '' 1•.• jll.t,u.o I,' I Its) o. Jtj loJ• 1-lfl lollt , . . . 1 I • e loU o.•• 1.oo , t• . u 1.,.,. o.o ... o .o .. : , , , , •.• ,,, •.• , • . , ! '' ' ' l•t• o . u Q,IJ• I u .•• , o.u o •• o . o ••• , ... , OoHI 0, 'T'JI o .oa, o. '' o. ' 1 " 1., .... ,, o. o ... ••• •• • , J , • ••• ,,, 11 , 1 lf,J .... . o.o o , . , .... l'H o. 211 .... , lol• t 0''1 1'' 1 lo)f J ,tt '•l i z. " I .... ! o.Jei O, I J lt,OJ 1.•1•' 1 0.t ,u.ol '' ,,,,1 I tt, ... u o.o o.o o.u .. ' ', , o ,o .,, • lth o. ,. o.n o. n l o. '' o • •• , •ol' I•U j 0,011 '"I o.•1 u.n ttu.J'7 o.o o.o 0.11 o, .. fl,J • .• I,,, IL• i I ' I " ' ' t , l • . • I ,,1 1'" o. ,,. , '.o• •.a• , ,,Jl 1 • o• I •l' ! 0."2 0•1 o.u• : I loti t t P -tf o.o. o . o l •• 1 a.o •• • 1 • • • 1,2.. !" . . , . . , e.o 0,0 Jlol lUI 0. , , ::::1 1" ..... . . , . ),tq o,,,1 c . 1 . 1 o.o.j llo I O 1 .,. .. ,. o.o ... , z.,. • . ., '' "' "' "'' ! "' ' o,o ••• , l'''il l.h t.Jt : '''I loJJ' o.nl "'"I 1.11 o.u1 1• ,. ,., ... , o.o o . o llo'l 11 •• ... 1,1 l o,, 11.1 too t , J ' c.o 10.1"1 t••o o. " I 1 •• , o .•• , ' ''I ' ' ' I o.••l 1 1 1 OD'i " ! t.>o l l••• I •.•• ! lo"' I l h 0. . . ... o,u ... t.l I ' • ' loO l,f Jt,l l,t . . . 0,0 i I O, t l h l 0,0' Z . H t.o•l
    • 1. •• l,J). c;.az, o. ,, •"! o.u, o.• o 10. }4 lh,..U o.o .. . o.u l . . . . . . u . a t'Jol h.t . . . , ... , " . . l'U 1 .r .. l' " l.lfl 1 .o•l loll' I •1 " 1 • • l l•D' ' " o ... , "I u.n ::::i ,,) o ••• I 1 , , , .... o.o o.o '' ... .. ' , .. , .. 1 • a.' . .. z . • o.o •to t lht o . J o 0.)1 1 ••, o . ,. lo•l lO• lo o•, o.u1 o. , , lOoll , ..... ., o .c ... , ... 1 .0 1.• !:: I l ::; . . . J,O o,o •o. ' 1 •• ., e.•• u • .,. . .... .. '', •' i JoU o.u , loiJI l"'' ' u.u 1h1-ll o . o ... o. o '' . . . llol lf,l .:rT::: lftl o . J 1 o.l• ' .. , Oo " 1 : :::1 lh I • U t o . , , •• >tl Uol ) thl o.o ... ••• . .. ' ' ... , .. . .. Uol l 1••• o . u o • •• J,Jt .olf I loti o . ,, 1''1 •1'' o . u l 1\.H ttte.10 o.o ... o.o Jl.t f,l 1,1 o.• 0, 1 to.J I . . ' ' o,o •••• 1''70 o . In OoLil lo f61 O'' 0 •• , .... 1 1•" .. ''I •'' ::::1 '"' I lf,U , ... 1 , ... ! lflO'U o.o ... ... . . . '' . . . ••• Jl.' ... • • c ' o,o ' •• ,1 o . , • " I ; : :! ; 1oJO o.ui lO ofl tnl-n o.o ... Jl,l ••• lo 0 ... loot '' ,,, 11. r o.e o.o I h . • I'"' o .,. oo••l t . u l o ••• l.O ' I o.•r 1•• , u.n 1na ... n ••• ... . .. ... u.• 1 , 1 11.1 1 ,0 Uol hoi 1.0 0,0 I ''• ' .. .,. ooi• l. "' . . ,., J.o•' , . . ., loll z . u , •"' I o.u, ' .. , ..... , . , ... ,. o.o . . . . .. . . . . . . .... , .. , 10. ) u.1 llo. o.o ., ''' ,,.,. o.u ) ... , 1 1' o.o•1 I • J• Doll c ... , 1 ... , 1.o•: ::!;! 1•.o1 , . ., .. ,, o.o ... '' '•' ll. t .. ' ... •. 0 "' ' u.• ..1 o,o , .... , t•n 0.11 .. .. , l.l• ',,. , , ... , loll , ... , a.o o l : :::1 o ,Joj loU u.u o. " ' ,., .. ,. ••• ... . .. ••• 11 . 1 '' a.a . . . u., l.Z o . o o,o ' .. .,. C . It o . ... : :::1 1 1'1 11 o ••• J .)l 1 .to c.tt, o . u llofl1 , , , .. .,, o.o ... o.u '' . . , . . ' . . . 1.1 !:! I ::: o.o c,o .... ,.,., c.u o.z'. loll 0 '"1 l oOll ' '' , ... , 0,10 o .•l o . J• o,ut1 tO.h ,,.,,_.,, ... ... . . . . . . t.l . . ' ••• '' "' c,o • • • • 1"' o.l' •.•• 1 1.0'9 • " I . ... lo I ' I 0• 1 o.,.1 'I '" j o.Jo o.u llo 10 ,,,._,. o.o ... ' r,• at COlD I • . • J tUOlO z . o 1 l I ... tor ""I o.l•l lolf'l ••' I • •' I lo '0 ,, ''I 1.111 t.oo 1 .... 1 l•.lo ....... o . o . . . 1.1 ••• ' ., .... '' ' ' u . • . . . l Jt,ft I I • a •ta l tc" ..,, .,.r t I U 1 r•f S r r l(oca ttron tablr. k r•••rrl -•• • v a lu. .. .... . , ...... ... tf"tt I'U11 ... t •H t rnl f • • : tho P"' lod be-t. inn in, I n Jfl '] (("t 1-J W r AIUN' pr.r1t>ltattC'Ill , )q'' lur ant•vfa)J. t-p.r a tl,lr r -.d rn•cbftta t lC.I Ottw,.,t ... u .. ..,f . arr fro.. At q .. • n lC'c a ttf'lfl • .

    PAGE 51

    Meteorological Data For The Current Year -OfN'I(I, (_,\.,.100 • z•o.z -I if 1:" l f H j • r.-! 1 ! PtKtolt.tkJn Jrol tne:t .... Dopoodrn e.. e5 . , Snow , Jet pel., .s • I r ! f! ! ! j e ,._ CJ<': 0 MOUNTAIN ........ humid ltv. pet Wind rnt.-n m il.! f'e1Uit ll"t l I l l --I ---., II I l J ti i H H i e Ito.:.! 11'"-l > 0 ., E 0 0 ------1--, .. Jl., 14.1 .tJ ,, • 0 I lZOI!I 0 o.z1 o . 1) ll16 ', 2.J 2J-l4 •• 5J ,. .. o • 1.o '' 29 HW " ••• •z. z ze. t Jt •• •• , 1 11 .,. 0 o.z7 o. 11 Jl-n ., J. 1 15-1! ,. ,. ,. 1J o• r . e ' 2 18 zo ... '' .o , ... 41. J ,, Jl J • .., 0 I .01 o.e.1 7Z-ZJ . . . .. ' 2-J 60 30 J3 53 3 • o •• e , I 1' w •• ••• ., .. 16.' ,o. J 11 ' l1 10 415 0 l.l!ll o: 8 6 • . -. • • z • • • 30 35 '1 2• 1,1 10.3 .. w 11 "" tl.l ,, • 'f , . ... •' 15 lJ 1 ))5 1 2 ).4 6 1 , 12 '\0-1 I J , 5 . . . ,_. • • ., • o 61 1' 1,7 9, I ,. iF I . , ... e o. • ,, , I ..... ,, z• •I I I T IH loP o ... , o.o o.o ., )9 ,. ,. 16 l.o 1, I )8 N ' Jill. ... . , . . . 14,1 ,, Zl 50 lJ 0 )01 o. '4 0,21 l9 o.o o.o b2 J O zo ., r • 1,. J J• PIW ,. '"" "' ,, . ' .... .. I' .. 15 zo 111 o. ztr. O,ll Z-J ... 0,0 b) Jl 30 H r• 1,3 8,1 • 1 N 1 , .. ''"' ..... • , . o .. • 1l II •• I O J o . o ' 0,01 1 •-z o f ' 20 51 25 2 0 •• 11 z • • • ,I ) 0 ' ' on ••• t J ' " " t •• I ll l3 •• 2 1"' 1 ,24 71-U l.1 I,T Zl ,. H l8 •• t• 0,9 7,2 1 0 H F . " " ' ..... . 11.' . , . . , . I • " 8 II 0 o . , o a: l' l'""l" ... . . . l'-lb •• . , •• 6 ) •• 0,) 1,1 lb "" lO o•t ... . 11.1 24.1; ,, • -10 I IH' 0 o. l l 0,18 , • • z ' J 6 ., 10 ,. 6 2 I" ••• . .. )5 HF . JUl OH 0( f HIY •n ,,. .. ••• • •••• " '" •• ,, -10 I tZOZ HI II. 70 1,14 71-Z? e,2 . z I , 9 s-o •• • o .. ,. ., ••• ••• .. H 16 Normals, Means, And Extremes 'rwclo lt.thJn M t.umldl tv pet 0.0,.0 drrt h--n r .,,, .... equlot•lent Snow . Ice J)IUeb l f l r 1 j I !I f E J H lJ r J 1 ., ll Hit H Jt j ! • l H • n • • • • floeal time) ,. z ,. > > > > ... •• •• .. •• •• •• .. II II II II IO I :::1 ro.z ''' ,, .,. ,, IUJ loll 0 o.•t l •• •••• o.ol .. ,, leO I ... , f), T •••• "'' l''" .. ., •• ., to I • .... •z. 1 '• .., JO lUI tOl 0 o •• , lo66 lf6U o,ol I ttO ltOI tUJ ll. J lt60 '' .. , •• . , •z •• • •• . 10 " .. n.o .. .,, II lf lbl .,0 -JJl tl H . :i !I l:"i H ' 6 l i L L 0 0 --r-.. -. • • 16 • J 0 l 0 • Jl I 7) - • II 13 . l 0 • 0 1 u 0 •• - • • I• . • l 1 0 I I' 2 18 ... ' •• II • I ' l 0 0 • 0 , , • • I I • e r • I 11 J , 1 0 0 l 0 " ' ' 10 • II 1 0 1 0 t1 0 0 u ,, 3 11 I' ' • 0 II I ll 0 0 0 1J 1 1 0 14 1 ' 0 6 ll 0 0 0 ., 1 . !' 11 , l ' 0 I ' 0 1 0 ,. • ,0 19 , 1 , l 0 0 0 • 0 • • 6,0 II • 1J , l 0 0 , ''[ : I 1l 5,) 10 10 II 1 • 0 0 • Jl zol 11 ' ' 1 2 6 ll' IH ,. II , Sl 11 ,.. Wind . r t. FM'tft't mUe ! SuM ... to..,...., H li " ...... --I h I J lbl f :I ;; Ji i d f! ll !I • 1 i j • 0 > 0 .. " 0 ,. II z• J o .. .. •• .. •• .. Jl II I' •• II OJ • lOll lZ ,, ' I O • II • r 0 I 0 • 10 • .. •• . .,, 11 ' .. • ' II • z • r 0 • I' I II HW . .,, 10 •tl I IO u • • . I 0 • z• I .. •• •••o •' ... • I O II ' ' I I 0 • II . ,. Jl 19!1 ., • •• • IZ II IO . • I • • I 0 01 s I'" Tl ltl • II I • • 10 • • 0 0 • .. •• IOU Tl ••• ' u • ' 0 II • I I • 0 • •a H I'" " ... 10 I• 1 • 0 I I IO • 0 • ., NIP lUI " • •• II 10 ' • . • I r • I 0 ., •• .. ,. , ... I• • • ' I I I 0 • ' • .. • lUI ., ,, . II • 10 ' z • I 0 I ,, • ., HI .. , .. .. ' II 10 10 J I 0 I 0 I 10 I .. •• , . ,, s IU Ill Ill .. II II 10 II II '" • -_... E .... HJl "''-' .... ' tJJ.• ..... I J 1. T ., . . IJ7 , 5 ..... IJI, I IJ'. l I J • . ' '" . IJ2,1t ., ... -... -....... ...... f .... w• 'ft..& I . • ::::1 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... '"•' '"' ..... Ulot . ....

    PAGE 52

    Soils and Investigation Report: #2314 Roger Barker Chen & Associates Consulting Engineers Soil and Foundation Engineering 96 South Zuni Denver, Colorado Soil and Foundation Investigation for a Proposed Drive-in Theater W. Colfax and Robb Street Jefferson County, Colorado Prepared for: Mel G. Glatz & Assoc. 8000 W. 14th Avenue Denver, Colorado Conclusions: February 20, 1967 Job No. 2314 Proposed structures should be founded with piers drilled into bedrock. Piers should be designed for maximum end pressure of 25,000 psf, skin friction of 2,500 pcf, and minimum dead load pressure of 15,000 psf. Scope: Report presents most desirable and safest type of foundation, allowable soil pressures, water table conditions and design and construction details. Subsoil Conditions: Uniform. 2' to 6' of stiff clay overlies hard sandstone and clay-stone bedrock. In some areas, the upper one foot of bedrock is highly weathered. Stiff clays and the sandstone -clay bedrock possess low to moderate shelling potential as indicated by swell-consolidation curves, FIG. 3,4.

    PAGE 53

    No free water was found in our exploratory holes at time of drilling. Building Foundations Proposal Concession Building: 1. Founded with straight shaft piers drilled into hard sandstone and claystone bedrock. 2. Piers: Designed for maximum end pressure of 25,000 psf., skin friction of 2,500 psf for the portion of pier in bedrock and a minimum deadload pressure of 15 000 psf. 3. Piers should penetrate hard bedrock a minimum of 4'. 4. If desired minimum deadload pressures cannot be obtained because of light structures, the piers should penetrate at least 6' into bedrock. 5. A minimum 4" air-space should be provided beneath grade beams and between the piers. Foundation for Screen: An Analysis The screen sturcture should be founded with pier s drilled into bedrock, designed for maximum end pressure of 25,000 psf, and skin friction of 2,500 psf. for the portion of pier in bedrock. The piers should penetrate at least 6' into hard bedrock. For wind load analysis, the piers should be designed for pressure soil resistance of 120 pcf equivalent fluid pressure for the portion of pier in bedrock and 60 pcf equivalent fluid pressure for the portion of pier on the up-per clays. J _ _ _ _ , '

    PAGE 54

    Interior Floor Slabs: Precautions for construction of interior floor slabs: Pavement: 1. All slabs should be separated from bearing walls. 2. All slabs should be well reinforced. 3. The conventional gravel layer beneath the slabs should be eliminated so that water from a single source will not spread over entire slab area. 4. All interim slab-bearing partitions should be provided with slip joints at the top so that in case of slab movement, the upper structure will not be affected. 5. Any fill under floor slabs should be compacted to at least 90% proctor density at optimum moisture content. Driveways: paved with 2" of asphalt with 4" base course drive-in area. Suggest that surface clays be treated with either emulsified or cutback asphalt, topped with gravel. Surface Drainage: Precautions l. Backfill around building should be moistened and well compacted. 2. Ground surface around the exterior of the building should be well sloped so that surface water will drain away from building. 3. Precautions should be taken against excessive wetting or drying of foundation soils during or after excavation.

    PAGE 55

    All roof downspouts and drains should be discharged well beyond the limits of all backfill. Miscellaneous: Our exploratory borings are spaced as closely as feasible in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the subsoil conditions. However, erratic soil conditions may occur between test hold. Location Hole #1 Concession Bldg. Hole #2 Left Screen 1. Clay (CL) sandy, brown, moist, stiff Hole #3 Right Screen 2. Bedrock, claystone, sandstone, greenish-gray, moist, hard. 3. Clay (CL) weathered claystone, olive, moist, firm. undisturbed soil sample. The symbol 20/3 indicates 20 blows of a 140 lb. hammer falling 30" were required to drive the sampler 3". NOTES: 1. Test holes drilled Feb. 13, 1967. 2. No water found in test holes at time of investigation. 3. WC= water content % DD= dry density (pcf) UC= unconfined composition strength (psf)

    PAGE 56

    Hole 2 3 Depth (feet) 8.0 13.0 3.0 8 . 0 18.0 Natural Moisture 17.2 22.3 14.9 15.2 23.0 Natural Dry Density 105.9 118.7 105. 1 Unconfined Compressive Strength (psf) 12,270 9,820 Soil Type Clay s tone & sandstone NOTE: Hole 3: Typical example of clay from hole #3 at depth 3'0" significant compression under constant pressure due to wetting.

    PAGE 58

    Portl and's pi:.Jnncr s f e lt tha t a trafficfr e e :.Jrt'a should serve a s :.1 D
    PAGE 59

    ' enn S q u a r e hic h i s a se mi-m all allowing m o tor vl:!hi c le s m t raffic l a nes, i s the focal p o in t o f downtow n adivity n Readin g . Ova I 00, 000 squa r e feet o f n e w p e destri a n pav e m ent b ee n se t dm n , a n d hundre u s o r trees, shrubs and llowe r s h a v e •ee n p lace I t hroug hout t h e m all a r e a . Two r ounwins h a v e been e t into tcrraced a r e a s , p r oviding arie t y i n the strl!et kvel. The treet s urround in g thesc f ounta in s a lso serv e a s p laces t o s it and e l a x . A number o r ramps w e r e incorpo r a t e d into the mall's desi g n o that all p ublic fa ci lities w o ulu be av ailabl e to the IJJH.Iicappeu . A a r iety o r lighting fixtures , in cl u d in g land ca p e 1 ght , ado t o the m all's appeal. 13 8 1975, Penn Square C it y Populatio n t 970: • Y O % 7 % ON S T R EE T 700 L E N GTH 1 , 1 I 0 f ee t Bu s Taxi ST A T E P e r mit f r o m D c p a rrmcnt of T ra nsporta t io n I Y75 TOTAL $ 1 ,600,000 N A M E D . E. Anderson R eading R e J c v c lopm.:nt Aut hority Q IN LOTS 2,500 WIDTH 1 6 0 feet •••• ,.. , Any time C I T Y Ordina nce CONSlRUCTION Sta t e : Ci t y : 3 0 % Assessment D i t r i c t : II% Othe r : 9 % ADDRES S 1 8 S. 5th St. Readin g , PA 19602 13 9 C?Jr!) H+ 3'' t G IN GAR AGE S 1 , 360 BLOC KS Any time OTH R City: 10 0 % PHO N (2 1 5) 375-4 :!9 1

    PAGE 60

    _ ..... As a result or sound planning and Lks i g n poliL ies , Rockford's State Srrect M all has drawn e nough peopk d owntown to incrL ' J se bu::.ine::.s o lumc by ten percent. In additio n t o ::.tamLm l pedestrian 1.ic::.ign d ements , ::.Lh.:il Js n e w pJving . lig h ti n g and landscaping, a large public ::.qu:ne has bt:L'n incorporated into the centr;il section of the mall. The sq u a re. whic h includes a raised pl atform, se r ves as a f ocu::. for numerous civic events. The suLcess of the S t a t e Street Mall h a . generate d approximate l y S-1-:2 million w orth or IICW con struction in the downtown area. 140 City Population 1970 : 147,370 • S8 % 1 2 '1<-ON STREET 800 L E NGTH ! , !YO feet STATE TOTAL $ 1 ,500,000 NAME Th0111as Tullod Department o f Community R e newal Q -, J IN LOTS I ,350 WIDTH 66 feet •••• ,.., Rear access CJTY Home Rule j uri sdic tion CONSTR.t JCTION Urban Renewal : 87'A, V olunta ry A t : I ADDRESS 321 W . Stat..: S t. 141 R o kfortl , IL 61101 fl ; , ;. IN GARAGE S 1 , 100 BLOCKS 4 Any tim e OTH E R l\WNTENANCE Private: 64% Cny: 36% PHON E (81 5 ) 987-5690

    PAGE 61

    l alrimo r t:'s Old T own M all i s the heart of o n e of th e c ity's 1eighborhood comme r c ial di stricts. M o r e tha n $ 1 milli o n h as in ves t e d by m e r c h ants a l o n g th e m all's two block s , in a n f f ort t o r e h a bili L 3 t e s t o r es. Formerly t comm e r c i a l s Lablishmcnts a r e n o w occu p i e d , a nd t h e m all h as becom e a focal oint f o r community activiti es. The s treet h as been repaved in ric k , and landscapin g and new l ighti n g fixtures h ave b ee n lSt a lkd. There a r e a lso :.e v e r al f ounta ins, a mi a s t age a nd facilities ) r n e i ghborhood t:'nte rr ainment. 142 City P opula ti o n 1970: 905, 7 59 33.3% 33.3% L E NGTH I ,500 f ee t STATE TOTA L $2,509,.000 NAME Mich a e l Calvert Department o f H o using & Urban D e v e lopm ent IN LO T S 225 WID T H 45 feet '' Rear access C I T Y Ordina nce OONSTRUCTION Urban Renewal : 75% Ci t y : 25% ADDR ESS 222 E. S a r a toga Strc.: t MD 2 J 2 0 L 14 3 33 . 3';( I N GAR AGE S BLO CKS . 3 "' Any t im.: OTI I E R MAINTENANCE Ci t y : 1 0 0 % P HO NE (30 I ) 3%-4 233

    PAGE 62

    The J.: i g n o r D owntown etnphas i z e s g rL:enery, cr.:atmg a c omto rr a bl e spac e d owntown. T h e m all i s hmJscap c d with numerou s trees, :md a g rassy area with shrubbery runs d _ own the center. B c n.:hcs ;Jfld lamp post s pro vid e v ariety o f s c a le . fhc m all h as generated physiLa l improvements t o the stores and busine:.scs a l o n g it , a s w ell as the con structio n o f a n.:w parking lot f o r :.hoppe r s ' c o n ve ni e nce. Streets a dj a c ent t o the D owntown M all have been intlue nced b y the plaza concept and have m s t alkd sevcr J I n e w dL'S i g n elem ents, in cluding n e w ligiiLi n g , l andscaping and sLrel..'l furniture . 5 0 c uown1own tvtan . City Population 1 970: 15 ,217 • ' ) 5 % Q O N ST R EET LENGTH 400 f ee t STATE TOTAL NAME Mic h a el Pi e r call Community D e v e lopm ent Q c5\!) H+ c: I N L OTS I N GAR AGES 400 W IDTH BLOCKS 70 f ee t Any time Any tim.: CITY O T H E R OrJina ncc CONSTRLJCnON l\1AlNTENANCE V olunta ry V oluntary A ssessment: 100% ADDRESS C it y llalJ 222 . l'o pl a r St. Centraha, IL 62801 5 1 P H ONE (61 ) 532-21 25

    PAGE 63

    E a s t M all i s actually a syst e m of inte n :onnect e J tra n sitwa y s al o n g three streets . Cov erit1g a t o t al of b lock s , the m all accommodates bus e s , m ini-buses and taxi -c a bs ; i s a lso a f o r priv a t e tra ffi c along Hi ghland section t o make up f o r the lack o f r ea r along tha t street. H o w e v e r , t h e d es i g n emphas i z e s pe d es tri a n comfort. The mall i s landsca p e d with a v a ri c:ty o f anJ shrubbe r y in round plant e r s . Thae a r e nume r o u s a nd s h e lt e r s , whi c h a l s o s e r e as units . G lobe lighting fix tun: s h a v e b e e n in s t alle d , and p a vin g has been l aid in va r io u s p atte rn s. 46 Cit y Popu lation I 970 : 5 25,275 • 8 0 % 1 8 % O N S T R EE T 400 L E N G TH Broad P e nn Hi g hl a n d YOO f .:e t I ,400 fee t I ,40 0 feet T R A NS I T W A Y Bu s Minib u s Taxi STA T E TOTAL $ 2 , 459, 449 NAME Geor ge P c rinis Urban Redev e lopm e n t Autho r ity (-<::! IN LOTS 1 , 500 WIDTH 5 0 feet I 00 ft:t:t 70 fee t •••• ,.., Any time CITY Ordina nce 1 % +++ I,, , G IN GARAG E S 1 0 0 BLO CKS 3 5 6 Any t i me O T H E R CONSTRUCTI
    PAGE 64

    Two blocks of downtown Spartanburg have been totally r epaved a n Ll landscaped, ere a ring a com bly scaled pedestrian dis rrict. Green with tr ees and plants, run the length of the mall on of a c l!ntral walkway, whi ch is lined with hanging l1ghlln g IJ>..lures . Low wooden provide seating, and a .::entrally lo ca t e d pool and fountain serve as th e foca l point of the area. 10 6 1974 . Ma i n Street Mall Cit y Population 1970 : 44,456 • 75% 20% ON STREET 114 L EN GTH 1 , 0 & 0 k.:l STATE Enabling TOTAL $700,000 NAME Timo th y K.:uthcr D.:parlm e nt o f Ci ty Planning IN LOTS 2,937 WIDTH 85 fe.:t S 111:dl cans on mall CITY CONSTRUCTION lmprovo.:mt:nt Otstrict: 100% ADDR SS PO B o x 1749 Spartanburg, SC 29304 107 H+ -cLN GARAGES -1!50 BLOCKS Any tunc OTHER MAINTENANCE Ci ty : 10 / G PHONE (X03) 585--4361 ext. 282

    PAGE 65

    Hin Psy< lwlogy, lt'.ll.Jlll m I vholl ' lu: in th<• .\/h'c ial world elf rt•toiliu ' II\ .\'e11 \ \/din

    PAGE 74

    Biological Analysis I believe that the biological analysis of this thesis site can incorporate not only the nature/state of the ecology, but also the "health" of the people who live and work Since the site remains today primarily suburban in scale and charater, there has recently been a growth toward self-sufficiency. An example of the self-sufficient attitude can be seen in the close proximity of housing and commercial activity near the.thesis site. Despite the automobile, people do flow across the northern suburban boundary of the site to the shopping opportunities along Colfax Ave. When I speak of "people" and the "health" of their community, I am attempting to describe the influence of a culture which produces an opportunity for rich, warm and meaningful physical surroundings. This community does not possess any extraordinary vitality or any other form of extraordinary resource. Jane Jacobs, in her work The Death and Life of Great American Cities, poses impor-tant considerations i n the design or resurrection of a city neighborhood. 1. "To approach a city, or even a city neighborhood, as if it were a larger architectural problem, capable of being given order by converting it into a disciplined work of art, is to make the mistake of attempting to substitute art for life."

    PAGE 75

    I feel that the most profound challenge in this thesis project is the successful translation of community values and their inherent metaphors into a physical design for the site.

    PAGE 76

    19 Crime and vandalism appears to be a problem throughout the Corridor Nith higher levels of concern toward the eastern end. Identification of crime and vandalism as a major problem by 30 percent or more of the responses occurred only in Segment 5 and Segment 8. Each of these is an older neighborhood and the responses are believed to reflect conditions in these segments. offered by businesses. Specific suggestions which survey respondentsad for ways in which the city might help improve business conditions included development of a realistic sign code, better litter control, police protection, redevelopment of remodeling incentives, tax reductions, sidewalk repair, more business participation in governmental decisions, improved traffic signalization, and better zoning. As is often the case with business surveys, comments indicate a degree of dissatisfaction with city government in terms of its accomplishment and intrusion into the business function. Traffic control recommendations were provided as inputs to the transportation study. A complete listing of suggestions offered by the businesses is pro vided in Appendix B. Sunmary The socioeconomic characteristics of neighborhood residents in the vicinity of the West Colfax Corridor Study Area vary significantly along the Corridor. Household growth in the western neighborhoods has offset declining household sizes, resulting in overall population increases. As household growth rates have declined in the east portion of the Corridor, net population decreases have resulted. Incomes generally decrease from west to east along the Corridor. Other characteristics, such as the age of housing, housing costs, occupation and age distributions, are consistent with income indicators. About two-thirds of the commercial firms in the study area are involved in retail trade. Nearly one-third of all retail establishments are automobile oriented businesses. Business turnover is relatively low; over one-half of the businesses interviewed have been at their present location for more than five years. Two types of firms generally predominate in the study area: local convenience oriented outlets which serve the local neighborhood and comparison goods businesses which serve the greater Denver Metropolitan Area and western suburbs. Small firms predominate in the study area. respondents have less than five full time employees. firms occupy less than 3,000 square feet of space. More than one-half of About 58 percent of the Less than one-third of the businesses surveyed own their facilities, and about one-half of these businesses pay a flat rental rate rather than one related to sales volume. The study area businesses generally serve middle age and young adult customers, although a relatively large proportion serve customers of all ages. Nearly all customers arrive by car, and automobile patronage was generally higher in the western portions of the Corridor. Daily activity levels tend to be constant, rather than being punctuated by peak hours.

    PAGE 77

    20 Trends in business activity among study area businesses have been ward during recent years. Nearly 80 percent reported increases in their sales activity. Three fourths of the outlets expect an increase in future business volumes. About 35 percent of all businesses surveyed were relocated into the West Colfax Corridor Study Area from another location. Among the area locational factors noted as desirable were parking availability, access to Colfax, visibility from the arterial and good future growth prospects. Nearly 80 percent of the businesses indicated that they are definitely not planning to close or relocate out of the study area during the next five years. Forty-four percent of the businesses have recently made improvements to their facilities, including remodeling, additions, exterior renovation, paving and landscaping. Four problem areas were identified as concerns by businesses in the Corridor: availability of parking, access from the street, crime and vandalis m and city regulations. Among the suggestions offered by the survey respondents for ways in which the city might help them improve business conditions were the development of a realistic sign code, better litter control, increased police protection , public redevelopment or remodeling incentives, tax reductions, sidewalk repairs, business participation in governmental decisions, improvement of traffic signalization and better zoning.

    PAGE 78

    Economic Analysis I am still pursuing an economic investigation of the Westland CAC neighborhood in further detail (sources listed below) but following are observations from my own field trips and photographic analysis: 1. Sources: Jefferson County Library @ Lakewood 20th and Youngfield. Lakewood Planning Services Denver Research at Denver Public-Library Colorado Heritage Center 2. Observations: -Area appears to have a population with average income of $12,000 $15,000 maximum. Those people living further north seem more affluent. -The rural nature of the community is reinforced by the existence of small neighborhood farms which sell poultry products. -Area inhabited by middle class whites with a recent influx of blacks. Other ethnic backgrounds include Hispanics. -Lakewood is reputed as a whole to have a relatively high tax base. The people with higher incomes live further away from the Colfax "strip."

    PAGE 79

    -The front one-third of the site is valued at $6.00 , while the back two-thirds of the site are valued at $5.00 -Recognize that retail and commercial activity presently restricts itself to the Colfax "strip."

    PAGE 80

    UNIT COSTS IN 1980 DOLLARS I. Quail Blvd. Construction $ 175.00 + 17.50 $ 192.50 + 19.25 $ 211.75 p.l.f. base cost engineering contingency total p.l. f . II. Quail St. and 15th Place Construction $ 83.00 + 8.30 $ 91.30 + 9.13 $ 100.43 p.l.f. base cost engineering contingency total p .1. f. III. Bridge Cost for Quail Blvd. $ 75,000 + 7,500 $ 82,500 + 8,250 $ 90,750 IV. Bridge $ 50,000 + 5,000 $ 55,000 + 5,500 $ 60,500 base cost engineering contingency total Construction for Quail St. base cost engineering contingency total cost V. Removal of Asphalt $ $ 3.00 + . 30 3.30 sq. yd. base cost contingency total sq. yd. cost VI. Bike Path Construction (along ditch) $ 10.00 + 1. 00 $ 11.00 + 1.11 $ 12.11 p.l.f. base cost (for 8' wide path) engineering contingency total p.l.f.

    PAGE 81

    UNIT COSTS IN 1980 DOLLARS -Cont'd. VII. Removal of Structures $ 2,500 + 250 $ 2,750 base cost contingency total VIII. Acquisition $ $ $ 5.00 + .50 5.50 + .55 6.05 base cost legal contingency sq. ft. total

    PAGE 82

    ATTACHMENT F CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT COSTS (19BO DOLLARS) QUAIL BOULEVARD (Colfa x to 15th Place) Acquisition 90' x 300' 198 1 (27,00 0 sq. ft.) $163 ,350 Remove Existing Structure 2 ,750 Remove Existing Asphalt (3,000 sq. yd.) 9,900 Construction 480 lin. ft. (including landscaped median, curb, gutter , sidewalk, signalization, and rebuilding intersection) 101,640 Construct B ridge over Agricultural Ditch 90,750 TOTAL $36 8,390 QUAIL STREET (15th Place to 17th Avenue) Acquisition Construction 1100 lin. ft. (including cur b , gutter, and s i dew a 1 k) Construct Bridge over Agricultural Ditch TOTAL 0 0 0 0 1982 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 $110,473 60,500 $170,973 ATTACHHENT F Policy Report 80-100 1983 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7/15/80 TOTAL $163 ,350 2,75 0 9,900 101,640 90,750 $368,390 0 $ 110,473 60,500 $170,973

    PAGE 83

    ATTACHMENT F Page Two Policy Report 80-100 1981 1982 1983 TOTAL 15TH PLACE (Pierson to Quail) *Acquisition (3101 X 601 ) 18,600 sq. ft. $112' 530 0 0 $112,530 Remove Structure 2,750 0 0 2,750 Construction 310 lin. ft. (including curb, gutter, and 8 1 s i dew a 1 k) 31 ' 133 0 0 31 'l 33 TOTAL $ 146,413 0 0 $146,413 15TH PLACE (Owens to Pierson) Acquisition 0 0 0 0 Remove Asphalt 4266 sq. yds. 0 0 $ 14,07 8 $ 14,078 Construction 640 lin. ft. (curb, gutter and sidewalk) 0 0 64 '275 64,275 TOTAL 0 0 $ 78,353 $ 7 8,353 BICYCLE PATH (1800 lin. ft.) (Agri cultura 1 Ditch) 0 0 ---$ 21 '780 $ 21 ' 7 8 0 GRAND TOTAL $514,803 $170,973 $100,133 $785,909 *Acquisition may or may not be necessa ry pending right-of-way research. ASSUMPTIONS These preliminary costs are based upon the assumptions that: l) Target will dedicate the necessary right-of-way, and 2) the Agricultural Ditch Company will grant th e City a easement i n exchange for City maintenance of the affected portion of the ditch.

    PAGE 84

    I. I. ATTACHMENT G REVENUE S (1980 DOLLARS ) CITY OF LAKEWOOD 1981 Sales Tax $ 143, 000 Building P ermit Fees 2 7,500 Property Tax 5,300 * NEW REVENUE TO CITY/YEAR $175,800 ALL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES 1981 Sales Tax ( l I 2 % ) RTD $ 35,80 0 ( l I 2 % ) Jefferson Co. Open Space 35,800 (2% ) City of Lakevwod 143,000 (3% ) State of Colorado 101,0 0 0 $31 5,60 0 1982 $458,000 0 5,300 $463,300 1982 $114,500 114,500 458 ,000 348,80 0 $ 1,035,800 ATTACHMENT G Policy Report 80-100 1983 (and after) $61 5,000 0 5,300 $620,300 198 3 (and after $153,800 153,800 615,000 585,000 $1,507,600 PROPERTY TAX OF MAJOR GOVERNMENT AGENCIES (3.26) City of Lakewood (15.00) Jefferson County (50.52) R-1 School District (8.22) Lakewood Fire Protection District 1983 (and after) $ 5,300 24,400 82,100 13,400 $125,200 * Assuming that 25% of total revenue from proposed shopping center will replace revenue from existing Lakewood busi nesses .

    PAGE 85

    LAKEWOOD 1979 HOUSEHOLD INCOME PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION Planning Less than $ 7,500 to $15,000 to $25,000 to $35,000 to $ 50,000 Area $7,500 $14,999 $24,999 $34,999 $49,999 Plus Median City 7 % 13% 29% 24% 17% 10% $25,000 1 14 15 33 21 13 3 21,000 2 8 16 30 23 16 7 24,000 3 12 12 22 19 22 13 27,000 4 9 16 28 26 12 9 24,000 5 9 16 28 26 12 9 24,000 6 15 17 24 20 14 10 23,000 7 17 18 24 20 12 8 21,000 8 6 14 30 25 17 8 25,000 9 7 13 24 22 21 13 28,000 11 7 18 29 24 11 11 24,00 0 12 7 18 29 24 11 11 24,000 13 5 6 33 26 26 4 27,0 0 0 14 4 12 29 25 22 8 27,00 0 15 8 15 28 23 19 7 25,000 16 7 15 30 25 15 6 24,000 17 4 12 29 28 18 9 27,000 18 3 10 33 28 1 9 7 26,00 0 19 6 15 31 31 11 6 24,000 20 6 8 24 20 21 21 31,00 0 21 2 6 28 22 22 20 32,00 0 22 0 3 28 25 28 16 33,000 23 6 8 24 20 21 21 31,000 24 * * * * * * * 25 * * * * * * * *Information not available for Planning Areas 24 and 25 due to insufficient population size. SOURCE: Lakewood Planning Division; Nati ona 1 Planning Data Corporation 1978 Income Data. September 1979 RW/1b

    PAGE 86

    CITY OF LAKEWOOD CITY STATISTICS Population (January 1, 1979) Annual Population Increase (Average 1975-1979) Annual Percentage Increase (Average 1975-1979) Area (July l, 1979) Total Housing Units Single Family Duplexes Multi-Family 35.6 Square Miles 40,735 27,483 1 ,666 ll '586 Residential Building Permits Issued During 1978 Median Housing Price (December, 1978) Percentage I ncrease During 1978 Median Age {1970 Census) Median School Years Completed (1970 Census) Employm ent (1976) Retail Sales During 1978 Median Household Income 1979 Planning Division Septe m ber, 1979 129' 500 2,500 2. l % 67.5 % 4.1% 28.4 % 1263 Units $66,250 19.2 % 26.9 Years 12.7 Years 4,232 Firm s 46,625 Employees $919,740,000 $ 25,000

    PAGE 87

    TABLE ONE LAKEWOOD POPULATION PROJECTION 1979-1985 1985-1990 1990-2000 AVERAGE AVERAGE AVERAGE 1979 Annual Increase 1985 Annual Increase 1990 Annual Increase 2000 Absolute Percentage Absolute Percentage Absolute Percentage Within present City boundaries 2920 2.1 147,000 3060 2.0 162,300 2770 1.6 190,000 Outside present City Boundaries 10,600 730 5.5 16,000 940 5.3 20,700 930 3.8 30,000 Total-Development I Plan Area 141,100 3650 2.4 163,000 4000 2.3 183,000 3700 1.9 220,000 ' LAKEWOOD PLANNING DIVISION; NOVEMBER, 1979

    PAGE 88

    NUMBER OF DWELLING UNITS IN LAKEWOOD January 1, 1980 Single Family Multi Planning (Detached) Duplex Family Total Area Units Units Units Units City 27,906 1,726 11,959 41,591 1 808 134 910 1, 852 2 1,495 2q8 626 2,369 3 2,137 74 5 2 5 2,736 4 837 10 323 1,170 5 580 122 560 1,262 6 1,201 90 1,276 2,567 7 1,148 186 1,288 2,622 8 1,484 416 771 2, 671 9 1,454 66 110 1,630 10 11 114 52 669 835 12 1,338 32 279 1,649 13 2,512 4 430 2,946 14 1,497 18 198 1, 713 15 1,230 62 326 1,618 16 1,117 84 707 1,908 17 2,568 46 533 , 3,147 18 2,540 0 1,025 3,565 19 926 0 0 926 20 2,070 82 200 2,352 21 197 0 190 387 22 100 0 260 360 23 504 0 753 1,257 24 1 0 0 1 25 48 0 0 48 LAKEI.JOOD POPULATION ESTIMATE JANUARY 1, 1980 Single Family Hulti Total Group (Detached) Duplex Family Household Quarter Total Units Units Units Population Population Population Jula tion 96,538 4,902 27,433 128,873 1,760 130,633 :ancy Rate 2.0% 2.4% 2.8% lulation/ 3.53 2.91 2.36

    PAGE 89

    TABLE A-1. SELECTED 1970 SOCIOECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS FOR LAKEWOOD AND THE DENVER METROPOLITAN AREA Characteristic Population Households Persons per Household Age Median School Years Completed Income (1969): Median Family Income Mean Family Income Percent with Income $15,000 or More Housing: Percent Owner Occupied Median Value Owner Occupied Units M edian Contract Rent Employment: Percent in White Collar Occupations* Percent Government Workers Percent in Manufacturing Industries City of Lakewood 92,757 27,501 3.33 26.9 12.7 $13,605 32.1 72.3 $22,900 $130 67.1 19.2 15.5 Denver Metropoli tan Area 1,227,529 392,060 3.1 26.4 12.5 $10,777 $12,156 24.8 58.7 $19 '1 00 $105 59.2 18.1 17.0 *Persons employed as professionals, managers, sales workers and clerical workers are classified as white collar workers. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1970 Census of Population and Housing, selected reports.

    PAGE 90

    TABLE 2. PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED BY BUSINESSES AND PROPERTY OWNERS IN THE STUDY AREA Percent of Total Businesses Percent of No nor Major No Combined 280 Point Problem Area Problem Proble m Problem Total Scores* Maximum Availability of parking 58.6 % 25. 7 % 15.7 % 100.0 % 8 0 28.6 % Access from the street 63.6 20.7 15.7 100.0 73 26.1 Upkeep of area 62.9 25.7 10.7 0.7 % 100.0 66 23.6 Vacant buildings 89.3 5.0 5.7 100.0 23 8.2 Crime and vandalism 46. 4 38.6 14.3 0.7 100.0 64 22.9 Rent 52.1 20.0 4.3 23.6 100.0 40 14.3 Traffic congestion 58.6 30.7 9.3 1.4 100.0 69 24.6 Condition of streets 77.1 17. 1 5.0 0.7 99.9 38 13.6 Condition of sidewalks 71.4 12. 1 8.6 7.9 100.0 41 14.6 City regulations 59.3 22.9 16.4 1.4 100.0 78 27.9 *For comparison purposes, scores were combined on a scale where "no problem," "no response," or "don't know" received a zero, "minor prob 1 em" a va 1 ue of one and "major prob 1 em" a two; if all 140 firms had indicated "major problem" for any of the variables, the problem area would have received a maximum of 280 points.

    PAGE 91

    TABLE A-2. LAKEWOOD AND JEFFERSON COUNTY MAJOR EMPLOYERS Employer Employment Lakewood Villa Italia Denver Federal Center Park West Office Park (estimate) Safeco Division Office American Express Jefferson County School District R-1 Administrative Offices Westland Shopping Center Rocky Mountain Bank Note Company Statitrol Cobe Laboratories Other Jefferson County Martin Marietta Johns Manville Rockwell International Denver West Coors 1,750 6,840 600 250 275 520 700 250 250 l ,200 4,190 1,910 3,260 1,000 8,000 Source: BBC survey of major area employers, December 1978 and February 1979.

    PAGE 92

    LAKEWOOD HOUSING PRICES BY PLANNING DISTRICT Houses Sold November and December 1979 PLANNING DISTRICT I II III IV v VI VII TOTAL 1 Under $55,000 17% 0 % 0 % 1% 3% 0 % 0 % 4 % $55,000 to $64,999 21% 14% 67% 17% 20 % 0% 35% 20% $65,000 to $74,999 35% 14 % 337. 41% 43% 52% 22% 38% $75,000 to $84,999 3 % 10% 0 % 28 % 19% 28 % 13 % 18% $85,000 to $94,999 7% 10% 0 % 7 % 9 % 20% 4 % 8 % Over $95,000 17% 52 % 0 % 5 % 5 % 0 % 267. 1 2 % 100% 100 % 100 % 1007. 100 % 100 % 100 % 100% Number of Houses Sold 29 21 9 58 77 25 23 2 41 Mea n $73,600 $101,500 $64,500 $74,250 $72,000 $76,500 $77.900 $76 , 390 Median $67 , 000 $ 95,000 $63,000 $73,000 $ 70 , 000 $74,500 $70,000 $71 , 900 Median Dec ember 1978 $58,500 $ 88,750 $68,250 $68,000 $60,000 $66,500 $78 , 5 00 $66 , 250 PREPARED BY: City of Lak ewood Planning Division, April 7, 1980 SOURCE: Mul tili.st Sold Properties Catalog, November, December, 1979 ; and December 1978

    PAGE 93

    ...,

    PAGE 94

    City of Lakewood l cy .eport o. 80-100 WESTLAND ACTIVITY CENTER INITIAL IMPLEMENTATION PROPOSAL Recommendation It is recommefided that: 1. City Council reaffirm its policies regarding the encouragement of development as long as it is in accordance with the development plan for the 2. City council recognize that the proposed development in the Westland Activity Center is consistent with the economic goals of the City and the Westland Plan; 3. The City cooperate with owners of adjacent property on the acqu1s1-tion, financing, design, and construction of Quail Street and 15th Place; 4. City Council direct staff to examine alternative financing methods to construct needed improvements to facilitate the proposed development; 5. City Council direct staff to work with developer in the creati on of Industrial Revenue B onds to finance portions of this development. Background As part of the ongoing Long Range Planning Program, the Westland Community Activity Center Plan was adopted in December, 1979, as an amendment to Concept Lakewood. The Westland area is now at a crucial point in its development. The opportunity exists through cooperation with the private sector in construction of recommended improvements to direct and greatly influence development, thereby giving the attached significant retail proposal (Exhibit A) the impetus needed to develop. The Westland Community Activity Center Plan (Exhibit B) is attached to show the relationship of the proposal to the Westland area and the master plan. Ever since 1975 when Concept Lakewood was adopted, and through all subsequent updates, the Planning Commission and City Council have supported policies encouraging properly located commercial development. Further support of these policies was expressed by City Council last year by their approvai of the Colfax Corridor Economic and Urban Design Analysis, together with its recommendations (Exhibit D).

    PAGE 95

    Policy Report 80-100 Page 2 These two documents give strong support to the concept of City participation in the physical development of its commercial areas which conform to Concept Lakewo od. Goal Number 15 and the subsequent recommendation Number 29(a) give specific direction for the City to follow (Exhibi t C). The consultant who prepared the West Colfax Corridor Study makes specific recommendations regarding City participation in both the financing and building of public improvements. Pages 146 and 147 contain specifics regarding public improvements as well as the areas where these activities should be concentrated. Further impetus to the idea of City participation is given in the recently published DRCOG report entitled "An Evaluation of Designated Regional Activity Center in the Denver Metropolitan Area. " Pages 169, 198, and 199 (Exhibit E) of this report recommend specific strategies to aid in the development of Villa Italia and Westland Activity Centers. Among them is the building of capital improvements, Page 198 . During the past month, the Department o f Community Development was approached by a long-established local developer seeking to determine the extent to which the City would implemen t the above policies and thereby cause a major addition to the Westland Activity Center to become feasible. Project Description The proposed project is located within the boundaries of the Westland Community Activity Center, generally on the property now occupied by the drive-in theatre. The proposal is for building a shopping center of approximately 175,000 sq. ft. of gross leasable area. Two major "anchor tenants" are proposed for this center; one of them a supermarket of 50,000 sq. ft., and the other a tw o-story 60,000 sq. ft. catalog sales outlet. The rest of the space will be taken up by neighborhood oriented convenience stores and offices. The frontage will contain some fast food outlets arranged in a cluster sharing driveways, parking, and landscaping. The developer has a good reputation in the metro area and has assured the staff of his intentions of building a high quality development. It is important that the quality of the neighborhood center be significantly above the "typical" centers of this size.and that it be well integrated into the overal l plan for the Westland Activity Center. From a strictly construction standpoint, additional retail development could occur on Colfax at Robb Street. This incremental approach to the development of the site would, from a planning standpoint, not maximize the benefits to the City and preclude the achievement of the Westland Activity Center Plan. Such an approach would not be in our, or the developer's, best long-term interests and would continue the haphazard development pattern along Colfax as well as preclude additional positive developments at the activity

    PAGE 96

    Planning Considerations 1. Urban Form Policy Report 80-100 Page 3 The adopted urban form for Lakewood calls for the development of activity centers at designated locations and with specific land use mixes. The proposed development fits well within the guidelines for land usage in this activity center and, as presented, ties in very well with existing and planned developments. 2. Transportation and Circulation The new neighborhood center is proposed to be constructed as an integral part of the Westland Activity Center rather than merely another extension to the Colfax strip. In order to achieve this desirable goal, it will be necessary to extend Quail Street to the north across Colfax to 17th Street. This extension is a logical and needed addition to the overall street network, and represents an extension of the previously proposed Quail Street S.I.D. project south of Colfax Avenue. Also, in order to realize the Westland transport2tion system, 15th Place needs to be extended to the west from Owens Street to Robb Street. This allows activity center traffic to circulate without having to get on and off Colfax and literally ties the activity center together. The developer is willing to construct all of 15th Place adjacent to his property and redevelop the entire Colfax frontage along his site. He would also pay for his share of necessary improvements along Robb Street from Colfax to 15th Place. In order to achieve the overall development goals, the City would have to construct Quail Street from Colfax to 17th, and 15th Place from Owens to Quail (extended). The developer will provide most of the right-ofway for Quail, but needs our assistance on additional acquisitions. It is important to note that if we decide to achieve the Activity Center Plan, we are going to have to play a role in the construction of the Quail Street and collector roadway. It will be much easier (and less expensive) to construct Quail in cooperation with the private sector. 3. Need From a marketing standpoint, the proposed land use will serve to fill the definite vacuum created in the Westland area by the relocation of the Safeway store. This demand could just as easily be met by the same type of land use located outside the City limits. Financial Considerations 1. Cost The suggested Lakewood share for the cost of acquisition of rightsof-way, and building of improvements totals $785,900 (see Exhibit F for detailed oreikdown). These costs are preliminary in nature and are subject to revision as more detailed engineering is done on

    PAGE 97

    Policy Report 80-100 Page 4 this project. Depending on the financing method and phasing, these costs could be spread over a number of years. 2. Revenue The revenue projections the City may expect from this development are detailed in Exhibit G and are expected to be $620,300 per year at full development. 3. Land Acquisition and Legal Costs Because there will be a need to acquire some right-of-way, there is the possibility of condemnation. Other legal costs will be involved depending on the financing method chosen and the type of agreements that may be necessa\y with the various property owners. Resources for these costs in the project budget to ccver these , . contingencies. Policy Considerations 1. Past Actions Throughout the City's history, at various times, public monies have been spent to implement or facilitate development consistent with Concept Lakewood. Related to activity centers, these actions include: a. the Colfax median b. Alameda Parkway beautification c. locating City Hall at Villa Italia d. . purchase of and development plan for Belmar Park e. purchase of parkland at Weir Gulch and Pierce f. expenditure of fund for consultant to prepare land use, circulation, and development criteria for all proposed activity centers g. acquisition of park land at 14th Place and Miller Street in the Westland Activity Center h. the Wadsworth/Alameda intersection 1. the RTD transit center proposed at Villa Italia j. the RTD operations center at Westland 2. Future Actions In the future, City Council will be asked to continue the policy of using public funds to effect development in accordance with the Development Plan for the City. These actions include: a. the construction of arterial streets b. park c. acquisition of rights-of-way d. construction of drainage improvements e. expenditure of funds to litigate cases attacking Concept Lakewood

    PAGE 98

    Policy Report 80-100 Page 5 Such actions and support of development should probably focus on the activity centers due to limited funding and not establish a precedent applicable to all commercial development throughout the City. Other Considerations This project should act as a catalyst to begin major redevelopment within the Westland Activity Center. Without the City's commitment toward the proposed improvements, this project becomes economically unfeasible and, therefore, will not develop. In view of the current state of the economy, this project will benefit Lakewood greatly and will begin to fulfill the plans of the Westland Activity Center. Furthermore, the competition for sales from business outside the City is becoming more severe. !he absence of a major supermarket in the Westland area creates an imbalance in the land use of this activity center. Submitted by: Reviewed by: Kay E. aune Acting City Administrator July 18, 1980

    PAGE 99

    5&1 M IJ) E E .. " a g "' o EE ., " " c :;; IJ) 250 0 250 10/79 f2f.S IDSNII..'\L ,"1\R-MEPIUM tN'.ER.CJAt-SC..Sf' E.C.'-IAl-COM ME.R C IAJ....-EC-f:.NTE.f< TA IN JY\1'-ff COMM E R.C.;A LNL-HOOD COMMG:RC\AlCL-C.OJ'Illv\(1 N Y COMM fi
    PAGE 100

    'GoJ I •,
    PAGE 101

    ATTACHMENT C Page Two Policy Report 80-100 Goals and Page 6 (b) The protection of the integrity of these areas by prohibiting non-compatible uses. (c) The City shall publicize its economic and aesthetic strengths to help development. 30. The City shall endeavor to attract development that is compatible with the character and skills of Lakewood's work force. 31. The City shall further study the sufficiency, availability and suitability of highway and rail transportation to warrant industrial area development. 32. The City shall develop design criteria that increase the compatibility of commercial and industrial areas with less intensive land uses. In addition to design criteria, the City shall also develop performance standards that will aid in making all kinds of development environmentally compatible. 33. The City shall endeavor to diversify and to achieve a more balanced economy. Given its basic character as a retailing Lakewood must take active step s to develop more office complexes and light industrial parks. 34. The City shall use and refine its Public Finance Model and Land Use Allocation Model to 9o cost/benefit analysis of new development and to determine the cost impact to the City of varying patterns of development. LOCAL THE GOALS 19. To assume the responsibility for providing a full range of municipal services to all of the citizens of Lakewood. 20. To provide, on an equitable basis, the highest level of services the citizens are willing to support. 21. To foster citizen interest and participation in the deci sianmaking by continuing to provide citizens with pertinent information about governmental actions and opportunities for input. 22. To develop a positive and t rusting relationship between the citizen and his public officials. 23. To achieve intergovernment a l harmony through closer cooperation with other units of government 1n thP metropolitan area. 24. To maintain a respect for human needs and individual freedom while exercising those controls which are in the best interest 6f the total community.

    PAGE 102

    ATTACHMENT D ./ Policy Report 80-loo WEST COLFAX CORRIDOR TRANSPORTATION AND ECONOMIC STUDY Economic and Urban Design Analysis Pre pared for The City of Lakewood, Colorado Prep are d by -John M. Gunyou, Richard J. Kirkwood and James R. Lincoln Bickert, Browne, Coddington & Associates, Inc. 100 South Madison Street Denver, Colorado 80209 with Josh Comfort Brooks Waldman Associates and Larry Gibson Oe Leuv1,_ Cather & Company June 1979

    PAGE 103

    ATTACHMENT D Page Two Policy Report 80-100 The Denver Re ional Counci 1 of Governments (DRCOG) should recognize the needs o ax us1nesses an res1 ents in all regional transportation and land use planning activities. Transportation system projects planned for improvements in traffic safety, capacity and circulation should accommodate as much as possible the access, visibility and parking needs of study area businesses. The DRCOG should continue to support the activity center c o ncept as it re ates to the future devel o p m ent of the design a ted Westland and JCRS Activity Centers. The City and C ounty of Denver shou 1 d consider the prepar ation of a neighborhood plan for the Colfax Neighb o rhood which fronts on Colfax Avenue. Monitoring of housing conditions, reha bilitation activity and other ind icators of housing disinvestm ent in other Denver neighb o rhoods in the vic inity of the study area is recommended. Denver should r e examine the existing policy of perserving single family development along Sloa n s L ake Park. Multifamily developmen t potent i al in the area i s strong. Denver should encour age exis t ing b u s i nesses along Colfax to improve their physical condition and city development regulations should provide for such improvements. The provision of additional parking space is especially critical. Denver zoning policy should allow for the long term development potential of West Colfax as it relates to the Denver Central District. Denver should cons i der the designation of the West Colfax C orridor as a commercial redevelopment area. The City of Lakewood should amend current policies to reflect the continu ing market feasibility of e xisting strip commercial developments in t h e study area. The continuation of a linear pattern of commercial uses along Colfax frontage is both desirable and consistent with existing trends. The city should recognize a strip commercial form which will further the public interest while encouraging intensification of development at nodal locations. General Lakewood redevelopment efforts should be directed toward the improvement of objectionable conditions and encouragement of private redevelopment efforts when developer interest exists and matches public objectives. lie improvements can further enhance redevelopment potential by improvin access, par 1ng, v1sua aspects an tra 1c ow a ong t e orr1 or. arge sea e urban renewal efforts are neither economically feasible nor practical at the present time. Busi nesses in the study area are generally healthy and private market mechanisms are currently initiating redevelopment activities.

    PAGE 104

    ATTACHMENT D Page Three Policy Re port 80-100 Lakewood should examine its various regulatory mechanisms for their real effects on the achievement of city goals for West Colfax. S o m e regulations intended to improve current conditions may have the real effect o f discouraging improvement. For example, Planning Commis sion Policy No. 20 might be improved by specifying a reasonable cost relationship between the activity for 'flhich the bui lding permit is required and the cos t of the public improvement. Lakewood should reexamine curr e nt zoning throughout the Corridor. Down zonin g of vacant C-1 propertie s which e x tend into residential areas and the extension o f comnercial zoning which wil l result in more re adily d e velopable parcels should be considered. Rezoni n g s for com mercial activities off West Colfax between 6th Avenue and 2 6th Avenue shou ld be restricted to increase development pressure on Colfa x . Lakewood should tak e positive corridor-wide steps to improve visual conditions. Establishment of a joint c ity-private progr a m providin g matching f unds for landscaping improvement s o n West Col fax private frontag e s s h ould be considered. Other public improve ments could include facade improvement pro g rams, the provision of trash r ecepta c les, benches and public restrooms, building set-backs, pocket parks and other lan d scaping activities. Benches and other street furniture can be prov ided , i nclu ding seas o nal planters and bicy c le racks. Lakewood should des i gnate a Colfax area redevelopment coordinator staff position within the Lakewood Corrrnunity Development Department. Such a position would serve as a familiar and cooper ative point of contact between Colfax Corridor businesses and residents with the city government. The position would act as a liaison between the city, Chamber of Commerce, West Colfax business groups and other interested parties. The coordinator would guide development and redevelopment applicants through the regulatory and permitting process per i od. Lakewood should encoura g e the formation of a Local Development Company (LDC) in accordance vlith the S mall Business Administration's program regulations. The LDC can serve as a catalyst for the redevelopment of the study a rea by acting as a lending company to local businesses. Aside from debt and equity financing, the LDC can also organize management seminars and training programs, provide technical assistance to businesses and publish informational brochures outlining the various redevelopment programs available to study area businesses. Lakewood redevelopment activities should be concentrated at relatively small four to six block areas where potential is greatest. -sy this concentration, visible results are more likely to be achieved within a reasonable time and the success of redevelopment can spread to adjoining areas. Redevelopment efforts should be focused at the Westland Activity Center, JCRS Activity Center and at least one other location. The selection of additional areas for concentrating city and should be chosen using the recommended criteria. l I I : I I J , : ! I d I t . . • i ,, ' ''I ''i

    PAGE 105

    A T TACHMENT D Pag e Four Polic y Report 80-100 Lakewood should coordinate the preparation of a urban design plan for each designated redevelopment area, including each of the recommended elements. Lakewood should assist in the establishment of merchant associations in appropriate areas. The associations would be primarily concerned with joint advertising, image improvement, joint development or redevelopment activiti es and promotion of local businesses. Lakewood should assist lo c al businesses in the full participation of available public and private financin g programs. One of the financing techniques best syited to the West Colfax Corridor Study Area is the Small Business Administration 502 Program. The program provides loan guarantees and funds at reason able interest rates to loc a l development com panies (LDC) for the purchase of land, the construction, expansion or remodeling of buildings and the purchase of operating machinery or equipment. Othe r financing techn i ques outl ined in the economic analysis should al s o be consid e red.

    PAGE 106

    /.'l'TAl' J Ir•lL JT 1.:: l 'oJ 1 r::y F•. ' J,ort 80-10 0 AN EVALUATION. OF DESIGNATED • • I ,, I • ' • REGIONAL! _.:ACTIVITY CENTERS IN • :• ' r , , ' . ., • THE DENVER METROPOLITAN AREA ' : , . I • . ,' , • ' • 1 ' . . . . . . . . ' . . . .. . ' . .. •' . ' , . ' ' I . , , .. . • I . Regional Council of Governments . r ! . ' "' . . ,. , , , ..

    PAGE 107

    ATTACHNENT E Page Two Policy Report 80-10 0 In summary I Lakewood has been very active in encouraging development of the Villa Italia Activity Center and the center has the possibility of developing into a model activity center for the rest of the region. DR COG is encouraged by the innovative work which has been done by Lakewood to develop the Villa Italia Activity Center I and all indications are that the area will develop as a multi-purpose regional activity center as planned by the City of Lakewood. The following actions are suggested to Lakewood for furthering implementation of the Villa Italia Activity Center: 1. Concentrate development in the two regional designated activity centers--V.festland and Villa Italia. 2. Consider funding major public improvements for the activity center if needed to encourage development of the center. 3. Encourage appropriate d evelopments to occur in the designate d regiona l activity c enters r ather than in other areas of the City. -169-I !1.; [, I ' I . [ ; j.; I. I ' I I ' I I

    PAGE 108

    3. 4 . 5. ATTACHMENT E Page Three Policy Report 80-100 To encourage timely development 1 consider granting zoning which has time limits during which construction must be started. If not started by the set time I the zoning would be revoked. Staging should be encouraged through zoning and the design review process. Consider general initial project review and specific subsequent site plan reviews as the project develops. T6 encourage intense multi-use developments I use incentives such as easing parking requirements if parking will be provided underground o r possibly b y giving parking in city-funded parking structures. Developers could be encouraged to leave open space or construct plazas and landscaping if the local government provides density or other bonuses. 6. Local governments could encourage activity c enters by down zoning existing areas which encourage similar types of development as activity centers and by refusing to rezone property for potentially competing uses that would adversely impact activity cente r development. 7. Local governments shoul d refuse developments in activity centers that are n<;:>t of appropriate scale and density. This will require developing criteria as to appropriate uses and densities. 8. Zoning could be used to promote land assemblage -high densitic.c .. more choices in uses and parking coul d be provided for areas abm:.a certain size. 9. Local governments can utilize their review procedure s t o reduce ro< . . blocks to development i n activity centers. A one-stop service whereby large scal e I multi -use developments in activity centers are expedited through reduced review requirements may induce appropriat e development. CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS l. The role of the local government in providing capital t.o the activity center will vary according to available funding sources I prior committments I development trends in the activity center and cost/benefit considerations. However I some form of capital improvement p rogram in activity centers will be required to facilitate development. In some cases costs of pu blic can be split with d evelopers; however, in areas whici \ have not -198-

    PAGE 109

    ATTACHMENT E Page Four Policy Report 80-100 "taken off" I local governments may need to bear total costs of important initial facilities or utilities. Providing public facilities in the activity centers will result in public benefits which may not be derived in other locations due to: proximity of population that will use facilities I ability to add to existing facilities in the area rather than construct totally new facilities I and increased tax revenues over low density I single purpose development. 2. Staging of public facilities with private developer's timing needs will be critical. Also location of facilities and utilities will need to be closely coordinated w ith developers. 3. Consider funding the followi ng type s of capital improvements: external and internal roads • internal public transit o water and sewer lines and facilities s storm drainage o p a rking garages • museums • libraries • city halls o convention facilities and civic centers • meeting halls • cultural c enters o multi -purpose centers I including social s ervices • pedestrian/bike trails and greenways • malls • parks • skyways between buildings 4. Work with public agencies such as State and the Federal government to locate public buildi ngs in the activity center. For example I post offices are a potential use which benefits residents I businesses and the post office itself . . INSTITUTIONS* There are various institutional approaches which could be used depending on local circumstunccs . , Some of the major alternatives are listed below. *Sources include: Tax Lead Time Study I Briscoe I Maphis I Murray and L umont I 19 7 4 Colorado Revised Stututes, Stute of Colorado 1973 as amended -193-

    PAGE 110

    \ G HAH I ur LAI'JU. u"t:. Ht:.UULI-\ I IU.,\:> ..... 1-< fJ Q ..... Vl w a: V) Vl w z ..... Vl. ::> "' ..... ...: 1-< u ..... ii:. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) j) westland communi t y acti vity center DWELLING I!ElGIIT SETBACKS ALTERNATE USESa) UNITS/ACRE tlin. & & Hin. ALLOWED USES BSPA OR FLOOR Hax.d)e)i) GROUND PARKWG ARTER-ADDITIONAL USESb) MIXED USESc:) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 1 9 20 AREA RATIO COVERAGE RATIO IALS COLL. FRT. REAR Low Rise LR 7.5-15 DU 0-35' 70 1.5/DU 50 30 10' 10 171 18 7 Low Rise Elderly LE (25) 10-30 DU 0-35' 60 .75/DU so 30 10 10 1, 17 1 18 7' 14 tledium Rise tlR (75) 15-30 DU 30-65' 60 1. 5/DU 50 30 10 10 1, 2, 17, 18 7' 11 Medium Rise Elderly HE (45) 30-50 DU 30-65' 50 .75/DU 50 30 10 10 1, 2, 3, 17' 18 7' 11, 14 High Rise , IIR (75)+ 30+ DU 40-110' 50 1. 5/DU 50 30 10 10 3, 4, 6, 17, 18 1' 2, 7' 11' 14 lligh Rise Elderly HE 50+ DU 40-110' 40 .75/DU 50 30 10 10 3, 4, 5' 17' 18 1, 2' 7' 11' 14 Low Rise Office; LO 4/1000 GBAf) Medical Office HF . 5: 1 FAR 0-45' 90 50 20 0 10 3, 4 I 17 1' 2' 11 11edium Rise Office tlO • 1: 1 FAR 40-85' 80 4/1000 GBA 50 20 0 10 51 6, 7' 17 1,2,3,4,11,12,13 lligh Rise Office 110 2:1 FAR 70-175' 70 4/1000 GBA 50 20 0 10 5' 6, 8 1' 2, 3, 4, 7' 11 121 13' 17, 19 Special Industrial SI 1: 1 FAR 0-85' 80 2/1000 GBA ,SO 20 0 10 19 7, 8, 11, 12, 17 Recreational Commercial llB 1.00:1 FAll 45' 90 3/1000 GBA 50 0 0 10 11' 1 ' 2' 12 Special Commercial sc .50:1 FAR 45' 60 5.5/1000 GBA 50 0 0 10 8' 9' 11' 17 3' 4' 7 Entertainment EC .50:1 FAR 45' 60 1/3 SEATS 50 0 0 10 11 J' 4, 11' 17 Ne i Commercia 1 NC . 50: 1 FAR 60' 45 5.5/1000 GBA 50 0 0 10 7' 8, II 1. 2, 3, 4, )7 Community Commercial LL . Jj: l i l \i1. 60' ,::. '.J.JtlOO U CIJ."l .;() 0 0 10 8 :,, tt, I, 11, 13 Regional Commercial RC • 50: 1 FAll 30-80'g) 75 5/1000 GBA 50 0 0 10 19, 20 5,6,8,9,11,12,13 Recreation Open Space . ) OS N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 0 0 10 18 Schools, Community, p N/A N/A N/A 1/3 SEATS 50 50 0 0 17 Transportation Center RT N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 0 0 10 A -See HotP'-& 1\cgional C onllll . Parking for respective PA N/A 40' 80 N/A 50 15 15 15 by right to uses serve u ses allowed Alternative Uses are allowed as long as the overall result Additional Uses may be for the Allowed Uses or Nixed Uses may be substituted for Allowed Uses as follows: other uses in the Nixed Use column may be substituted up to maximum of housing uses and other uses. A bonus of of Mixed Use that is substituted for an Allowed Use. on the pa rce 1. will be a mixed use development. may be mixed in any proportion with the Allowed and Additional Uses. Housing uses in the Mixed Uses column may be substitute d up to a maximum of 251, a maximum of 15%, or housing and other mixed uses may be combined up to a of permitted density or floor area is allowed in any area for each percent Loading requirements are existing Lakewood Zoning Ratios (see Section 3-2(11) of the Lakewood Zoning Ordinance). Parking requirements for Low, Medium and High Density Elderly uses will be reduced to 0.5 spaces per dwelling unit if the housing is limited to occupancy by low and/or moderate income elderly residents. Parking requirements for the Medical Office Use will be five spaces per 1,000 square feet of Gross Duilding Area. Buildings with a minimum of two floors will be required in areas designated for Regional Commercial Use. Bus stops shall be allowed in any area so long as they are appropriately designed and constructed, and conveniently located for the bus riders. rcqtril'ement will not-apply to-deve -lopment ouut!ll!'Of-(ne7\ct1VrtyCl!ntl! " of li•"lopmellt (ue-Fi-gu-re-1, -and Fi gure-7, Community Public Land Uses may be applicable on any parcel(s) deemed appropriate for such uses.'

    PAGE 111

    i I I I . . . . .... _-. -d' . _ ...... _::_ ___ _ _ .. ___ __::__ q-:t=: ' . I , '" -1 . /1' " / !,:1 p ,n I I ;'/ ll : ', I II II I : i! : ', il II I ,, • I + .I

    PAGE 112

    •

    PAGE 113

    V. REGULATORY GUIDELINES The following Regulatory Guidelines should be applied to new development in order to attain the design goals. Rezonings. within the regulatory Planned development zoning is encouraged for rezonings Westland Community Activity Center so that the following guidelines can be accomplished. The regulatory guidelines have been devised for the undeveloped land in the A ctivity Center. In considering rezonings for developed or partially developed land, some allowances may need to be made. Signs. The regulatory gu idelines for signs have been written in the context of establishing a common basis for Comprehensive Sign the Westland Community Activity Center. Areas o ver twenty acres in size will have to have a comprehensive sign plan. Such plans are provided for in the City's Sign Code, page 3-3-20 of the Zoning Ordinance. A. Chart of Land Use Regulations. The basic regulatory document is the following chart of Land Use Regulations with accompanying definitions, which describes the various categories of land use that should be allowed (Figure 6) in the Westland Community Activity Center. It also lists Additional and Mixed Uses that are allowed i n each of the use categories. Specifications by type of use are shown for density, height, ground coverage; parking ratios and setbacks. B. Design Guidelines. l. Purpose. Owners, tenants, architects, contractors and many others will be continually affecting the physical characteristics of the land, circulation systems and buildings within and adjacent to the community activity centers. The purpose of these guidelines is to assist in understanding the unique qualities and composition of these areas and to generate future developments in the centers that balance economic benefits for the users with their environmental concerns. The guidelines are to serve as a means of establishing the best planning and design approach for project solutions to be soundly located and harmoniously related to the activity center overall. The guidelines are intended to encourage the development of well-designed complexes, buildings and The specific criteria provide directions; suggest positive benefits for respecting the indigenous environment; and provide a means to achieving exce1lent planning, fine design and good construction techniques. These guidelines are not intended to inhibit creative expression. The intent is to provide a context for diverse, but harmonious planning, urban design, architecture and landscape. . . . , @

    PAGE 114

    2. Site Setback and Open Space. drainage regulations.) Site conditions (also see existing a. Property lines adjacent to public parks, parkways and * greenways, bikeways, etc. (rights-of-way are not included unless they also include greenways, bikeways, etc.) shall tbe subJeCt to the follow1ng: 1) 2) For all buildings, the setback is to be ten feet minimum from the property line. From an average height level of ten feet above grade at the property line, a plane at 45 shall extend into the property through which no enclosed building is to penetrate for more than forty percent of the length of the respective property line adjacent to the park, parkway, greenway, bikeway, etc. This is to keep the areas adjacent to the designated in scale with the pedestrian, and .to allow adequate light and air currents to enter the walkways. b. Landscaping 1) For all property, an area equal to eight percent .:in addi.t;ion te setbaell will be developed as "landscaped" area open to sky or if enclosed, open to sky lights. These areas are to be accessible to the public. A.-i...IO At(!" ,',J A CQ1 / o-v TO (Jc..,; , Ut.,-.. . ' , /....l-1 {B(.,.e ,t;r.JO FJ,..} O 1 If s:5T 6"/Jr::/K L/.') T'.l " r - • r , \ . "' .. ""' .,_) c /,.. / '-..... . .r > /2 C( U'i/J.,J::: m

    PAGE 115

    2) Properties adjacent to public parks, parkways, and greenways, bikeways, etc. (see E.2.a. Site Setback and Open Space) are to provide landscaped buffering with one-foot average height earth or change in grade in the required setback area. 3. Parking a. When a single use or building located in the "core" area requires over two hundred parking spaces, fifty percent of the total proposed parking shall be in structured parking. b. Exposed parking areas and decks that are next to front or rear property lines or adjacent to side property lines facing public rights-of-way are to be buffered by a minimum two foot average height landscaped earth berm, wall or permanent screen, but not to be accomplished by fencing. c. A minimum of-a two and one-half inch caliper deciduous tree or an eight to ten foot (8-10") evergreen tree is to be provided for every ten parking spaces within parking area. d. In general, parking facilities and garages are to be physically connected and designed as integral parts of the building(s) served. e. Loading docks, outdoor storage and trash collection areas are to be screened by fences or walls (with no metal slats) with one-half or greater solid facing and/or buildings on three sides to a height of at least five feet. Landscape screening of these areas is also highly desired. f. On-street parking maybe restricted within the Community Activity Center area on dedicated rights-of-way. g. To help encourage and promote joint use of parking areas by different owners and/or land uses (excluding residential uses), the basic parking requirement for each site can be reduced by ten percent if parking spaces (nonassigned public spaces only) equal to the number of spaces represented by the ten percent quantity are available in other off-street parking facilities within five hundred (500) feet of walk-line of the main entrance to the building on each of the sites involved. This is to promote more effective placement, layout, design and use of parking facilities by different land owners and/or uses. h. Parking facilities, service areas and access on-grade will have poured concrete edges.

    PAGE 116

    i. Property owners submitting a planned development shall submit a parking plan. 4. Circulation a. Separation of pedestrians, bikers, vehicles, services and utilities is required, to the extent possible. b. All parcels will be required to prepare a plan showing how that parcel will connect or comply with the "Pedestrian Plan," (Figure 2 , page 6). Bicycle racks are to b e provided. Public open spaces and landscaped areas shall be designed so they connect to and compliment the overall pedestrian and open space networks. c. All utility lines are to be underground. d. Public Shuttle Service within and between activity center(s) is_encouraged. 5. Building Requirements a. Building requirements in the "core area." b. 1) Any commercial use of less than 6,000 square feet of gross building area shall be integrated into a structure that is larger than 6,000 encourage the grouping of like uses and Activity Center) discourage strip franch1se development. --r--Floors / -------1) Floor Area Premium Purpose -In addition to the floor area perm itted directly as floor area ratios, premiums of additional floor area may be granted upon approval by the City of Lakewood of development plans that provide for pedestrian walkways, plazas, arcades and open spaces which separate, depress and/or elevate pedestrian accommodations from vehicularly-oriented facilities. 2) Floor area premiums may be allowed_as follows, with a maximum premium of twenty-five percent (25%) of the basic floor area allowed. This is calculated befor e the mixed use bonuses are applied. i Five square feet of additional floor area for each square foot of plaza which: Is open and readily available to the publi c at all times from at least two separate access points, and;

    PAGE 117

    Is unobstructed from its lowest level to the sky, and; Is attractively designed for maximum pedestrian utilization and maintained by the property owner on a continuing basis. Three and one-half square feet of additional floor area for each square foot of unenclosed arcade which: Is open to the public at all times on at least twenty-five percent of its perimeter. Has a minimum dimension of twelve feet in width and height. Two square feet of additional floor area for each square foot of enclosed arcade which: Provides access to a plaza and is open to the public at all times, and; Has less than twenty-five percent of its perimeter open to a plaza but at least two separate access points with minimum dimensions of twenty feet in width and twelve feet in height. 3) Floor materials for pedestrian open plazas, arcades, walkways and public sidewalks, except bike paths shall conform to the following: For durability and appearance, outside permanent walking finishing surfaces of concrete pavers, stained con crete, concrete and stamped large patterned (one foot squares or larger) materials are required. Light to medium tones are encouraged. (Exposed aggregate concrete is not permitted because of local weather Colors of materials used should be dominantly native natural earth or vegetation tones. Bright hues and light values should be used only as accents. Light to medium finish textures are encouraged. (Broom, float, and sweat finishes).

    PAGE 118

    c. Walls 1) Areas, Bulks, Volumes Separation between individual building units and bulk requirements: One through forty-five (1-45) feet in height no required space. Forty-five through one hundred (45-100) feet in height, twenty (20) feet minimum between any building elements including stairs, balconies, elevator columns, fireplaces, etc. Over one hundred and ten feet ( 110) in height -forth ( 40) feet minimum between building elements. ---=----2) Solar easements are applicable to all property 3) lines on the northeast to north to northwest directional sides; from an average height-level of thirty-five feet above grade at the applicable property line a plane of 33.3 to the horizontal shall extend into the property through which no building element may penetrate for more than forty percent of the respective property line Wall surface materials. Large surface areas may be brick, split block ribbed block, stucco, exposed aggregate concrete/ limestone, and granite, with the deletion of exposed concrete block unfinished. Brick masonry is to be similar to Sears & May D & F. Other access structural members, trims, and finishes such as wood, metal are limited to fifteen percent of the total wall areas except in residential construction. Plastics may be used in windows, skylights and signs (imitation materials are not permitted in general). Colors and texture finishes as described in floor materials should be applied to wall areas as well. (See S.b.3) -Floor Materials.

    PAGE 119

    d. Roofs 1) Roofed porches, galleries, collonades, arcades, walkways, waiting areas, and entrances are highly desired. 2) In low and medium density residential, twenty-five percent of. the roofed edges of each structure shall have an ove 'rhang of two feet. 3) The screening of mechanical equipment from all views, both at-grade and from view from adjacent buildings shall be required. 6. Signage a. Signage shall be in concrete with the City of Lakewood's ordinance regulations for signs, and will be applied to each use as appropriate to the particular standard zone category in-which each use appears at the time of application for Phase III approval. In lieu of the preceding, the developer has the ability to present a Comprehensive Sign Plan for a minimum area of twenty acres over which be maintains control at the point of plan submittal. Signs shall be limited in location to the premises on which the use is located and must be clearly associated with, incidental and customary to the operation of the permitted use. Subject matter on signs shall be limited to identification of the name, owner, operator, manager, leassor, leassee of the premises or establishment and the general type of products and/or services offered. Signs may be illuminated only from a concealed source, and red or green illuminated signs shall not be permitted within fifty (50) feet of a street or intersection. Signs with flashing, animated or intermittent illumination shall be prohibited. b. A height of thirty-five (35) feet shall be the highest level for the placement of a sign on a building. 7. Street, Plaza, Furniture, Fixtures and Lighting a. Throughout the public areas, a consistent style of benches, drinking fountains, bollards, planters, telephones, bicycle racks, bus shelters, posting kiosks, trash receptacles, banners, pennants, lighting fixtures should be approved by the City to give identity and continuity throughout the center. b. All of the public street fixtures must be suitable for use by the handicapped.

    PAGE 120

    8. Design Principles a. To assure liveliness as well as quality, particular care must be given to basic creative concerns of massing, proportion, scale, texture and pattern, facade alignments and contrasts so as to relate to the pedestrian experience. b. Basic amenities that enhance the users sensitivities o f sound, sight, smell, touch, and taste, through fountains, sculpture, plants and music should be included in the centers. C. Design Standards Within the context of other prov1s1ons contained in the Community Activity Center plans, the City may establish additional guideline s which will be applicable to all development, for buildings and open spaces, vehicular and pedestrian movement and access, landscaping, fine art works, street and exterior furnishings and other such elements as are necessary for the proper development of the Activity Center area.

    PAGE 121

    BUILDING ())DES REX;)UIREMENTS BASED 00 rtion of a building separated by one or rrore area separation walls may be considered a separate building, provided the area separation walls rreet the follc:Ming require:rcents: 1. Area separation walls shall be oot less than four-hour fireresistive construction in Types I, II-F.R., III and IV buildings arrl 0\o hour fire-resistive construction in '!ypes II One-hour, II -N or V buildings. The total width of all openings in such walls shall not exceed 25 percent of the length of the wall in each story. All openings shall be protected by a fire assenbly having a three-h:rur fire-protection rating in four-hour fire-resistive walls and one and one-half-lxmr fire protection rating in two-mur fire-resistive walls.

    PAGE 122

    2. Area. separation walls need not exterrl to the outer edges of horizontal projecting elerents such as balconies, roof overhangs, caJX)pies, marquees or architectural projections, provided the exterior wall at the tennination of the area separation wall and the projecting elerents above are n::>t less than onehour fire-resistive construction for a width equal to the depth of the projecting elerrents. Wall openings within such widths shall be protected by asserrblies having a three-fourths-hour fire-protection rating. 3. Area separation walls shall extend fran the foundation to a point at least 30 inches above the roof. EXCEPTIOOS: 1. Area separation walls may terminate at the roof soffit, provided the roof is of at least two-hour fireresistive construction. 2. 'IWO-hour area separation walls may tenninate at the underside of roof sheathing, provided that the roof has at least one-hour fire-resistive time period for a width of not less than 5 feet on each side of the area separation wall termination. 3. 'IWO-hour area separation walls may terminate at roofs of entirely non-cc:mbustible construction. 4. Where an area separation wall separates portions of a building having different heights, such wall may terminate at a point 30 inches above the laver roof level, provided the exterior wall for a height of 10 feet above the roof is of one-hour fire-resistive construction with openings protected by asserrblies having a three-fourths-hour fire-protection rating.

    PAGE 123

    EXCEPTICN: 'Ihe area separation wall nay terminate at the sheathing of the lc:Mer roof, provided the roof is of at least fire-resistive construction for a width of 10 feet without openings measured fran the wall. See Chapters 6 to 12 inclusive for special occupancy provisions.

    PAGE 124

    Allc:Mable Area Increases: Sec. 506. (a) General. The floor areas specified in Section 505 nay be increased by one of the following: 1. Separation on two sides. Where public space, streets or yards more than 20 feet in width extend along and adjoin two sides of the building, floor areas may be increased at a rate of 1 1/4 :percent for each foot by which the rnininrum width exceeds 20 feet, but the increase shall not exceed 50 :percent. 2. Separation on three sides. Where public space, streets or yards rrore than 20 feet in width extend. along and adjoin three sides of the building, floor areas may be increased at a rate of 2 1/2 :percent for each foot by which the minimum width exceeds 20 feet, but the increase shall not exceed 100 :percent. 3. Separation on all sides. Where public space, streets or yards rrore than 20 feet in width exterrl on all sides of a building and adjoin the entire :peri.rreter, floor areas may be increased at a rate of 5 :percent for each foot by which the mini.m.lrn width exceeds 20 feet. Such increases shall not exceed 100 :percent, except for buildings not exceeding two stories in height of Group B, Division 4 Occupancy and one-story buildings housing aircraft storage hangars and as further limited in Section 1002 (b) for aircraft repair hangars. (b) Unlimited Area. The area of any one-or two-story building of Group B and Group H , Division 5 Occupancies shall not be limited if the building is provided with an approved autana.tic sprinkler system throogh out, as specified in Chapter 38, arrl entirely surrrounded and adjoined by public space, streets or yards oot less than 60 feet in width.

    PAGE 125

    (c) Autanatic Sprinkler systan. 'Ihe area specified in Section 505 nay be tripled in one-story buildings an::1 doubled in buildings of rrore than one story if the building is provided with an approved autaratic sprinkler systan throughout. The area increases penni tted in this sub section nay be carpourrled with that specified in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of Subsection (a) of this section. The increases pennitted in this sub section shall not apply when the autanatic sprinkler systans are installed under the follCMing provisions: 1. Section 507 for an increase in allcwable number of stories. 2. Section 3802 (b) for Group H, Divisions 1 and 2 Occupancies. 3. Substitution for one-hour fire-resistive construction pursuant to Section 508.

    PAGE 126

    Maximum Height of Buildings arrl Increases: Sec. 507. The m:ndnrum height and nurrber of stories of every building shall be deperrlent upon the character of the occupancy and the type of ronstruction and shall not exceed the limits set forth in Table No. 5-D, except as provided in this section and as specified in Section 503 (a) for mixed occupancy buildings. '!he limits set forth in Table No. 5-D may be increased by one story if the building is provided with an approved autana.tic sprinkler system throughout. The increase in the number of stories for autanatic sprinkler systems shall not apply when the autcrratic sprinkler systems throughout are installed under the follCMing provisions: 1. Section 3802 (b) 5 for Group H, Divisions 1 arrl 2 Occupancies. 2. Section 506, for an increase in allowable area. 3. Substitution for one-hour fire-resistive ronstruction pursuant to Section 508. EXCEPTIONS : 1. 'I"oNers, spires and steeples erected as a part of a building and not used for habitation or storage are limited as to height only by structural design if can pletel y of non-canbustible materials, or may exterrl not to exceed 20 feet above the height liroi t in Table No. 5-D if of canbustible materials. 2. '!he height of one-story aircraft hangars shall not be limited if the building is provided with autanatic sprinkler systems throughout as specified in Chapter 38 and is entirely surrounded by public space, streets or yards not less in width than one and one-half tines the height of the building.

    PAGE 127

    Arcades: Sec. 509. Arcades connecting buildings a.rrl used exclusively as passageways need not be considered as adjacent buildings for the provisions of this chapter, provided that the walls of the wilding adjoining the the arcades are finished with the sarre construction as required for the exterior walls of the building, with no ccmrunicating openings between the arcades a.rrl the building, except doors; and provided that the arcades are of not less than one-hour fire resistive construction or of noncxrnbust ible fire-retardant treated or of heavy timber construction with 2-inch naninal sheathing. Sanitation: sec. 510. A roan in which a water closet is located shall be separated from food preparation or storage roans by a tight-fitting door. canpressed Gases: Sec. 511. The storage and handling of canpressed gases shall canply with the Fire Code.

    PAGE 128

    TABlE NO. 5-A TYPES II mE-HOUR, II-NAND V CNLY Group R See Also Section 1202 Description of Occupancy 3 IMellings and IDdging Houses Fire Resistance of Exterior Walls 1 hour less than 3 feet Openings in Exterior Not penni tted less than 3 feet

    PAGE 129

    RB;JUIREMENTS FDR GroUP B cxx:m>ANCIES Open Parking Garages: Sec. 709. (a) Scope. Except where specific provisions are made in the follCMing subsections, other requi.rarents of this ccrle shall apply. (b) Definition. For the purfOSe of this section, an open parking garage is a structure of Type I or II construction which is open on two or :rrore sides totaling oot less than 40 percent of the building perirreter and which is used exclusively for parking or storage or private pleasure cars. For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings distributed along the side shall be oot less than 50 percent of the exterior area of the side at each tier. The area of openings may be reduced belCM the minimum 50 percent for 40 percent of the perirreter, provided the percentage of the perirreter in 'Which the openings are contained is increased prop::>rtionately. EXCEPTION: The grade level tier may contain an office, waiting arrl toilet roan having a total area of oot :rrore than 1000 square feet arrl such area need rot be separated fran the open parking garage. apen parking garages are further classified as either rarrp-access or rrechanical-access. Ramp-access open parking garages are those anploying a series of continuously rising floors or a series of interconnecting rarrps between floors penni tting the rroverent of vehicles urrler their CMn power fran and to the street level. M=chanical-access parking garages are th:>se arploying parking machines, lifts, elevators or other mechanical devices for vehicles JIOV'ing fran arrl to street level and in which public

    PAGE 130

    occupancy is prohibited above the street level. (c) Construction. Construction shall be of mncanbustible materials. Op:m pa.rk:ing garages shall rreet the design requirem=nts of Chapter 23. Adequate curbs and rail:ings shall be provided at every opening. (d) Area and Height. Area and height of open parking garages shall be limited as set forth in Table No. 7-A except for increases allCMed by Subsection (e) . In structures hav:ing a spiral or sloping floor, the mrizontal pro jection of the structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the case of a structure hav:ing a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches of height or portion thereof shall be considered as a tier. 'Ihe clear height of a park:ing tier shall be mt less than 7 feet, except that a lesser clear height may be penni tted in mechanical-access open parking garages when approved by the building official. (e) Area and Height Increases. The area and height of structures with cross ventilation throughout may be increased in accordance with provisions of this subsection. In structures with sides open (as defined in Sub section (b) ) three-fourths of the building perirreter may be increased 25 percent in area and one tier in height. Structures with sides open (as defined in Subsection (b) ) around the entire build:ing perirreter may be increased 50 percent in area and one tier in height. Open parking garages constructed to heights less than the maxirm.mls established by Table No. 7-A may have irrlividual tier areas exceeding those otherwise penni tted, provided the gross tier area of the structure does mt exceed that pennitted for the higher structure. At least three

    PAGE 131

    sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous oorizontal openings not less than 30 inches in clear height extending for at least 80 percent of the length of the sides an::1 oo part of such larger tier shall be nore .. than 200 feet horizontally fran such an opening. In addition, each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a street with a width of at least 30 feet for the full length of the opening and standpipes shall be provided in each such tier. (f) Location on Property. When located adjacent to interior property lines, exterior walls shall be of the degree of fire resistance set forth in Table No. 7-B and such walls shall be witl:out openings. (g) Stairs and Exits. Where persons other than parking attendants are permitted, stairs and exits shall rreet the requirarents of Chapter 33, based on an occupant load of 200 square feet per occupant. Where no persons other than parking attendants are penni tted there shall be not less than o-.u stairs 3 feet wide. Lifts nay be installed for use of errployees only, provided they are conpletely enclosed by noncanl::ustible rraterials. (h) Stan::lpipes. Standpipes shall be installed when required by the provisions of Chapter 38. (i) Sprinkler Systems. When required by other provisions of this code, autrnatic sprinkler systems and stan::lpipes shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 38, ( j) Enclosure of Vertical Openings. Enclosure shall not be required for vertical openings except as specified in Subsection {g) for stairs, exits and lifts.

    PAGE 132

    (k) Ventilation. Ventilation, other than the percentage of openings specified in SUbsection (b), shall oot be required. (1) Prohibitions. 'Ihe follCMing uses and alterations are oot per-mitted: 1. Autarobile repair \\Urk. 2. Parking of busses, trucks an:l similar vehicles. 3. Partial or CCJTplete closing of openings in exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other rreans.

    PAGE 133

    TABlE 00. 7-AOPEN PARKING GARAGE'S AREA AND HEIGHT TYPE OF AREA PER TIER
    PAGE 134

    TABLE NO. 7-BOPEN Gi'\RAGE'S EXTERIOR WALLS Distance Fran Property Line to Building 0' 20' Wall Construction One-Hour

    PAGE 135

    FOR GroUP E cx:x:m>ANCIES Division 3. Arr:f building used for day care purposes for rrore than six children. For Occupancy separations, see Table No. 5-B. For occupant load, see Section 3301. Construction, Height arrl Allc:Mable Areas: Sec. 802. (a) General. Buildings or parts of buildings classed in GrOup E because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be limited to the types of oonstruction set forth in Tables No. 5-c and. No. 5-D and. shall oot exceed, in area or height, the limits specified in Sections 505, 506 arrl 507, except that the area may be increased by 50 percent when the rna.xinulm travel distance specified in Section 3302 (d) is reduced by 50 percent. (b)At:rrospheric Separation Requirerents. 1. Definitions. For the purpose of this chapter 1 the follc:Ming definitions are applicable: ro-M:N A'IM:>SPHERE. A camon at:rrosphere exists between roans 1 spaces or areas within a building which are not separated by an approved srroke an::1 draft stop barrier. SEPARA'IE A'IM)SPHERE. A separate at:rrosphere exists between roans, spaces or areas that are separated by an approved srroke or draft stop barrier. SM)KE AND DRA?I' BARRIER. A srroke and draft barrier oonsists of walls, partitions, floors an:1 openings therein of such oonstruction as will prevent the transmission of srroke or gases through the construction.

    PAGE 136

    2. General Provisions. 'Ihe provisions of this subsection shall apply only to the requirements for providing separate abrospheres. walls, partitions and floors fanning all of, or part of, an atnos pheric separation shall be of materials consistent with the requirE!'l'ents for the type of construction, but of construction not less effective than a &reke or draft stop barrier. Glass lights of approved wired glass set in steel frames may be installed in such walls or partitions. Every door opening therein shall be protected with a fire assE!lbly as required elsewhere in the ccx]e, but not less than a self-closing or autanatic-closing, tight-fitting srroke barrier and fire assembly having a fire-protection rating of rot less than 20 minutes when tested in accordance with U.B.C. Standard No. 43-2 without the oose stream test. All autanatic-closing fire assE!lblies installed in the atnospheric separation shall be activated by approved detectors of products of canbustion other than heat. The specific require-rents of this section are rot intended to prevent the design or use of other systans, equiprent or techniques which will effectively prevent the prciiucts of ccmbustion fran breaching the atnos pheric separation.

    PAGE 137

    REXJUIREMENT5 FOR GroUP M cx:n.JPANCIES Division 1. Private garages, carports Division 2. Fences over 6 feet high, tanks arrl towers Construction, Height arrl Allc:Mable Area: Sec. 1102. (a) General. Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group M, Division 1 because of the use or character of the occupancy shall oot exceed 1000 square feet in area or one story in height except as pro vided in this section. Any building or portion thereof that exceeds the limit specified in this chapter shall be classed in the occupancy group other than Group M, Division 1 that it rrost nearly resarbles. For a mixed occupancy building, the total area of private garages used exclusively for the J?O.rking of passenger rrotor vehicles having a capacity of not rrore than nine persons per vehicle may be 3000 square feet, provided the exterior wall arrl opening protection are as required for the major occupancy of the building. 'lbe allc:Mable floor area of the building shall be as permitted for the major occupancy of the building. Each portion of a building separated as specified in Section 505 may be considered a separate building. Such increase in area may apply to a single-occupancy building, provided the use of the 'b.rilding is as specified and the exterior wall and 9pening protection are as required for a Group R, Division 1
    PAGE 138

    IDeation on Property: Sec. 1103. For fire-resistive protection of exterior walls arrl openings, as detennined by location on property, see Section 504 arrl Part IV. Special Hazards: Sec. 1104. Chimneys arrl reating apparatus shall conform to the requirerents of Chapter 37 arrl the Code. Under nJ circumstances shall a private garage have any opening into a rcx:m used for sleeping purposes. Flamnable liquids shall DJt be stored, handled or used in Group M OXUpancies unless such storage or harrlling shall ccrrply with U.B.C. standard No. 9-1. Garage Floor Surfaces: sec. 1105. In areas where rrotor vehicles are stored or operated, floor surfaces shall be of ooncanbustible materials or asphaltic paving materials. Agricultural Buildings: Sec. 1106. Where applicable (see Section 103) • For agricultural buildings, see Appendix Chapter 11.

    PAGE 139

    REJ;)UIREMENTS roR GroUP R CXXUPANCIFS Division 1. Aparbrent Houses Division 3 • IMellings an:1 !J:rlging Houses. For occupancy separations, see Table No. 5B! For occupant load, see Section 3301, Construction, Height and Allc:Wclble Area: Sec. 1202. (a) General. Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group R because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be limited to the types of construction set forth in Tables No. 5-c and No. 5-D and shall oot exceed, in area or height, the limits specified in Sections 505, 506 and 507. (b) Special Provisions. Group R, Division 1 Occupancies rrore than stories' height or having nore than 3000 square feet of floor area abJve the first story, shall be not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction through:mt. EXCEPTICN: !Melling units within an apart::Irent house oot over stories in height nay have oonbearing walls of unprotected construction, provided the units are separated fran each other an:1 fran corridors by construction having a fire-resistance rating of oot less than one 'OOur. Openings to such corridors shall be equipped with doors confonning to Section 3304 (h) regardless of the occupant load served. Every apartment rouse three stories or rrore in height and containing rrore than 15 apart:rrents, and every hotel three stories or rrore in height

    PAGE 140

    oont.aininJ 20 or nnre guest roans, shall have an awroved fire alanu system as specified in the Fire Code. For Group R, Division 1 O:cupan::ies with a Group B, Divis-ion 1 parking garage in the basarent or first floor, see Section 702 . F'or attic space partitions arrl draft stops, see Section 3205.

    PAGE 141

    r.ocation on Property: Sec. 1203. For fire-resistive protection of exterior walls arrl openings, as detennined by location on property, see Section 504 arrl Part IV. Exit Facilities: Sec. 1204. Stairs, exits arrl Slll)keproof enclosures shall be as spec ified in Chapter 33. Every sleeping roan belCM the fourth story shall have at least one ot:erable windCM or exterior door approved for e:rergen::y egress or rescue. 'lbe units shall be operable fran the inside to provide a full clear opening without the use of separate tools. All egress or rescue windCMS fran sleeping roans shall have a minirrn.lm net clear opening of 5. 7 square feet. The minirrn.lm net clear opening height d:irrension shall be 24 inches. The minirrn.lm net clear opening width dirrension shall be 20 inches. Where wi.ndcMs are provided as a rreans of egress or rescue they shall have a finished sill height rot rrore than 44 inches above the floor.

    PAGE 142

    Light, Ventilation and Sanitation: Sec. 1205. (a) Light and Ventilation. All guest roans, donnitories and habitable roans within a dwelling unit shall beprovided with natural light by rreans of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than onetenth of the floor area of such roans with a minimum of 10 square feet. All bathroans, water closet carpart::nents, laurrlry rocms and similar roans shall be provided with natural ventilation by rreans of openable exterior openings with an area not less than one-twentieth of the floor area of such roans with a minimum of 1 1/2 square feet. All guest roans, dormitories and habitable roans within a dwelling unit shall be provided with natural ventilqtion by rreans of apenable exterior openings with an area of not less than one-twentieth of the floor area of such rc:x:rns with a minimum of 5 square feet. In lieu of required exterior openings for natural ventilation, a rrecha.nical ventilating system may be provided. Such system shall be capable of providing air changes per hour in all guest roans, donnitories, habitable roans and in public corridors. One-fifth of the air supply shall be taken fran the outside. In bathroans, water closet a:npartments, laurrlry roans and similar roans a rrechanical ventilation system connected directly to the outside, capable of providing five air changes per hour, shall be provided. For the purpose of detennining light and ventilation requirerrents, any roan may be considered as a portion of an adjoining rocrn when one-half of the area of the camon wall is open and und:>structed andprovides an

    PAGE 143

    an c:pening of oot less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior roan or 25 square feet, whichever is greater. Required exterior openings for natural light and ventilation shall open directly onto a street or public alley or a yard or court located on the sane lot as the building. EXCEPTICNS: Required windo.vs may open into a roofed porch where the porch: 1. Abuts a street, yard, or court; and 2. Has a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet; and 3. Has the longer side at least 65 percent open and unobstructed. (b) Sanitation. Every building shall be provided with at least one water closet. Every hotel or sul:x:livision thereof where both sexes are acccmrodated shall contain at least two separate toilet facilities which are conspicuously identified for male or female use, each of which contains at least one water closet. Additional water closets shall be provided on each floor for each sex at the rate of one for every additional 10 guests, or fractional part thereof, in excess of 10. Every dwelling unit shall be provided with a kitchen equipped with a kitchen sink and with a ba.thrOClll equipped with facilities consisting of a water closet, lavatory and either a bathtub or Each sink, lavatory arrl bathtub or shaver shall be equipped with hot and cold running water necessary for its oonnal operation. For other requirenents on water closets, see Sections 510 and 1711.

    PAGE 144

    Yards and Courts: Sec. 1206. (a) Scope. This section shall apply to yards and courts having required windows opening therein. (b) Yards. Every yard shall be oot less than 3 feet in width for one story and two-story buildings. For buildings m::::>re than two stories in height the minimum width of the yard shall be iocreased at the rate of 1 foot for each additional story. For buildings exceeding 14 stories in height, the required width of yard shall be carq:mted on the basis of 14 stories. (c) Courts. Every court shall be not less than 3 feet in width. Courts having wirrlc:Ms oepning on opposite sides shall be not less than 6 feet in width. Courts bourrled on three or m::::>re sides by the walls of the building shall be oot less than 10 feet in len:;th unless bounded on one errl by a street or yard. For ruildings m::::>re than two stories in height the court shall be increased 1 foot in width and 2 feet in length for each additional story. For buildings exceeding 14 stories in height, the required dirrensions shall be carq:mted on the basis of 14 stories. Adequate access shall be provided to the bottan of all courts for cleaning purposes. Every court m::::>re than two stories in height shall be provided with a oorizontal air intake at the bottan not less than 10 square feet in area and leading to the exterior of the building unless abutting a yard or public space. The construction of the air intake shall be as required for the court walls of the building, but in no case shall be less than one-hour fire-resistive.

    PAGE 145

    (d) Projection into Yards. Eaves and oornices nay project into aey re::IUired yard n:>t rrore than 2 inches for each foot of yard width. Unroofed larrlings, :p:>rches and stairs nay project into any required yard, provided no portion except for guardrails exterrls above the floor level of a habitable rcx:rn and provided further that n:> such projection shall obstruct a required exitway.

    PAGE 146

    Roan Dimensions: Sec. 1207. (a) Ceiling Heights. Habitable space shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches except as otherwise permitted in this section. Kitchens, halls, bathroans and toilet cc:rnpart:ments may have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet rreasured to the l<:Mest projection fran the ceiling. Where exposed beam ceiling rrenbers are spaced at less than 48 inches on center, ceiling height shall be rreasured to the bottan of these rrenbers. Where exposed beam ceiling rranbers are spaced at 48 inches or rrore on center, ceiling height shall be rreasured to the bottan of the deck supported by these rranbers, provided that the bottan of the rranbers is not less than 7 feet above the floor. If any roan in a building has a sloping ceiling, the prescribed ceiling height for the roan is required in only one-half the area thereof. No portion of the roan rreasuring less than 5 feet fran the finished floor to the finished ceiling shall be included in any cc:nputation of the minimum area thereof. If any roan has a furred ceiling, the prescribed ceiling height is required in n..u-thirds the area thereof, but in no case shall the height of the furred ceiling be less than 7 feet. (b) Floor Area. Every dwelling unit shall have at least one roan \\hich shall have not less than 150 square feet of floor area. other habit able rocrns except kitchens shall have an area of not less than 70 square feet. Efficiency dwelling units shall a::nply with the of Section 1208. (c) Width. No habitable roan other than a kitchen shall be less than 7 feet in any dimension.

    PAGE 147

    Efficiency !Melling Units: Sec. 1208. An efficiency dwelling unit shall confonn to the requirements of the cede except as herein provided: 1. 'Ihe unit shall have a living roan of not less than 220 square feet of superficial floor area. An additional 100 square feet of superficial floor area shall be provided for each occupant of such unit in excess of 2. 'Ihe unit shall be provided with a separate closet. 3. The unit shall be provided with a kitchen sink, cooking appliance curl refrigeration facilities, each having a clear YK>rking space of not less than 30 inches in front. Light curl ventilation confonning to this code shall be provided. 4. 'Ihe unit shall be provided with a separate bathrocm containing a water closet, lavatory and bathtub or shaver. Shaft Enclosures: Sec. 1209. Exits shall be enclosed as specified in Chapter 33. Elevator shafts, vent shafts, duml::Wcriter shafts, clothes chutes and other vertical openings shall be enclosed and the enclosure shall be as specified in Section 1706.

    PAGE 148

    Fire-wanring and Sprinkler Systans: Sec. 1210. (a) Fire-warning Systans. Every dwelling unit and every guest rcx:tn in a ootel or lodging house used for sleeping purposes shall be provided with sroke detectors ronfinning to U.B.C. Standard NO. 43-6. In dwelling units, detectors shall be rrounted on the ceiling or wall at a point centrally located in the rorridor or area giving access to rcx:tnS used for sleeping purposes. In an efficiency dwelling unit, hotel sleeping rocm and in hotel suites, the detector shall be centrally located on the ceiling of the main rcx:tn or hotel sleeping roan. Where sleeping roans are on an upper level, the detector shall be placed at the center of the ceiling directly above the stairway. All detectors shall be lcx:::ated in accordance with approved manufacturer's instructions. When actuated, the detector shall provide an alarm in the dwelling unit or guest rcx:tn. 'When alterations, repairs or additions requiring a pennit and having a valuation in excess of $1000 occur, or when one or nore sleeping roans are added or created in existing Group R, Division 3 Occupancies, the entire building shall be provided with sroke detectors located as required for new Group R, Division 3 Occupancies. In n.e11 ronstruction, required srroke detectors shall receive their primary fran the building wiring when such wiring is served fran a cc::mrercial source. Wiring shall be pennanent and wi trout a disronnecting switch other than those required for overcurrent protection. detectors may be battery operated when installed in existing buildings, or in buildings without c:x:mrercial or in buildings which undergo

    PAGE 149

    alterations, repairs or additions regulated by the second paragraph of this section. (b) Sprinkler SystEms. When required. by other provisions of this cx:x:le, autanatic sprinkler systens and standpipes shall be installed. as specified. in Chapter 38. Heating: Sec. 1211. Every dwelling unit and guest roan shall be provided. with heating facilities capable of maintaining a rcx:rn tanperature of 70F. at a point 3 feet al:xwe the floor in all habitable rcx:rns.

    PAGE 150

    Special Hazards: Sec. 1212. and heating a:pparatus shall confonn to the requ.irarents of Chapter 37 of this code and the M:chanical Code. 'Ihe storage and handling of gasoline, fuel oil and other flanmable liquids in Division 1 Occupancies shall be in accordance with U.B.C. Standard No. 9-1. In Division 1 Occupancies, doors leading into rocms in which volatile flanmable liquids are stored or used shall be protected by a fire assembly having a one-hour fire-protection rating. Such fire assembly shall be self-closing and shall be posted with a sign on each side of the door in l-inch block letters stating: "FIRE IXX)R --KEEP CLOSED." EVe.Iy roan containing a boiler or central heating plant in Division 1 Occupancies shall be separated fran the rest of the building by not less than a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation. EXCEPTION: A separation shall rot be required for such roans with equipnent serving only one d\...lelling unit.

    PAGE 151

    Access to Buildings arrl Facilities: Sec. 1213. Buildings containing rrore than 20 dwelling units or 20 guest rcx:ms shall be accessible to the physically handicapped by a level entry, rarrp or elevator. 'Ihe number of dwelling units or guest roans accessible to the physically handicapped shall be not less than the follrs may be of any type, provided that any sash used in a door be fixed; doors between a dwelling arrl a carport shall be self-closing. Existing Buildings: Sec. 1215. For existing buildings housing Division 1 Occupancies, see Apperrlix, Section 1215.

    PAGE 152

    will follow guidelines of Unifonn Building Code for: R:X>fs Folding, Portable or M:wable Partitions Walls Fronting on Streets or Yards Parapets Water Closet Ccrtpart:Irents and Sh.<:Mers Toilet Roam Facilities Water Fountains Guardrails

    PAGE 153

    STAIR3, EXITS AND CCCUPANT IJJA:OO General: Sec. 3301. (a) Pu:qx)se. 'lhe p.rrp::>se of this chapter is to detennine occupant loads arrl to provide rnininrum sta.rrlards of egress facilities for ocx:=upants of J:::uildings, reviewing starrls, bleachers and grandstands. (b) Scope. Every J:::uilding or portion thereof shall be provided with exits as required by this chapter. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific require:nent for an in::'li vidual occupancy, the specific require:nent shall be applicable. (c) Definitions. For the purpose of this chapter, certain tenns are defined as follows: BA.ICCl'N, EXTERIOR EXIT, is a landing or porch projecting fra:n the wall of a building and which serves as a required means of egress. 'Ihe long side shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the guardrail shall be so distributed as to prevent the aCCUim.llation of srroke or toxic gases. EXIT is a continuous and uoobstructed means of egress to a public wa y and shall include intervening doors, doorways, corridors, exterior exit balconies, rarrps, stairways, snokeproof enclosures, oorizontal exits, exit passageways, exit courts arrl yards. EXIT OJURI' is a yard or court providing egress to a public way for Offi or nore raruired exits.

    PAGE 154

    EXIT PASSAGEWAY is an enclosed rreans of egress to a public way for one or n:ore required exits. HORIZCNTAL EXIT is a way of passage fran one buildinJ into another building on approximately the sarre level or is a way of passage through or arourrl a wall constructed as re::xuired for a two-oour occupancy separation and which cx:npletel y divides a floor into two or n:ore separate areas so as to establish an area of refuge according safety fran fire or eroke cx:ming fran the area fran which escape is rrade. OC'CUP.ANT LOAD is the total nurrber of persons that may occupy a building or :p:>rtion thereof at any one tine. PANIC HARI:WARE is a door-latching assembly incor:p:>rating an unlatching device, the activating :p:>rtion of which exten::ls across at least one-half the width of the door leaf on which it is installed. PRIVA'IE STAIIW\Y is a stairway serving one tenant only. PUBLIC WAY is any street, alley or similar parcel of land essentially unobstructed fran the grourrl to the sky which is deeded, dedicated or otherwise pernanenUy appropriated to the public for public use and having a clear width of oot less than 10 feet. SPIRAL is a stairway having a closerl circular fonn in its plan view with tmifonn section shaperl treads attacherl to and radiating about a minimum diarreter S\lH)Orting colUim. The effective tread is delineated by the oosing radius line, the exterior arc (center line of railinJ) , and the overlap radius line (oosing radius line of tread alove) . Effective tread d:irren.sions are taken along a line perpen:licular to the center line of the tread.

    PAGE 155

    (d) Detenn:i.nation of Occupant wad. 'Ihe occupant load permitted in any builcli.nJ or portion thereof shall be detennined by dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the square feet per occupant as set forth in Table No. 33-A. EXCEPTICNS: 1. 'lhe occupant load of an area having fixed seats shall be determined by the nurrber of fixed seats installed. Aisles serving the fixed seats arrl not used for any other purpose shall not be assurred as adding to the occupant load. 2. 'lhe occupant load penni tted in a building or portion thereof rna.y be increased a1:xJve that specified in this section if the necessary exits are provided. An approved aisle or seating diagram rna.y be req:uired by the building official to substantiate an increase in occupant load. When the square feet per occupant are not given for a particular occupancy, they sha.ll be detennined by the building official, based on the area given for an occupancy which it rrost nearly resanbles. In detennining the occupant load, all portions of a building shall be presurred to be occupied at the sarre ti.rre. EXCEPI'ICN: Accessory use areas which ordinarily are used only by persons who occupy the rna.in areas of an occupancy shall be provided with exits as though they were ccropletely occupied, but their occupant load need IX)t be included in C(ll'pJting the total nurrber of occupants for the building.

    PAGE 156

    (el. 'Ibe I1UITi::ler of occupants of any building or portion thereof shall not exceed the penni tted or posted capacity. (_f) . Benches, Pews, Bcx:>ths. Where benches or pews are used, the nl.liTber of seats shall be based on one person for each 18 inches of length of the pews or benches. Where booths are used in dining areas, the number of seats will be based on one person for each 24 inches or major portion thereof of length of booth. (g) Mixed Occupancies. 'Ihe capacity of a building containing mixed occupancies shall be detennined by addinJ the number of occupants of various portions as set forth in Table No. 33-A. (h) MJre Than One Purpose. For detennining exit requirarents the capacity of a building or portion thereof is used for different purposes shall. be detennined by the occupant load which gives the largest number of persons. (i) Exit Obstruction. No obstructions shall be placed in the required width of an exit except projections permitted by this chapter. ( j) Posting of Roan capacity. Any roan having an occupant load of rrore than 50 where fixed seats are not installed, and which is used for classroc:m, assanbly or similar purpose, shall have the capacity of the rocm posted in a conspicuous place near the main exit fran the roc:m. Approved signs shall be maintained in a legible manner by the owner or his authorized agent and shall irrlicate the nurrber of occupants penni tted for each roan use.

    PAGE 157

    Exits Iequired: sec. 3302. Nurrber of Exits. Every b.rllding or usable portion thereof shall have at least one exit arrl shall have not less than two exits where required by Table No. 33-A. In all occupancies, floors al:ove the first story havin:J an occupant load of rrore than 10 shall have not less than two exits. EXCEPTICNS: 1. Except as provided in Table No. 33-A, only one exit shall be required fran a secorrl floor area within an individual dwelling unit. Refer to Section 1204 for erer gency exit requirarents fran sleeping roans. 2. 'IWo or rrore dwelling units on the secorrl story may have access to only one cx:mron exit when the total occupant load does not exceed 10. Each rrezzanine used for other than storage purposes, if greater in area than 2000 square feet or if rrore than 60 feet in any dirrension, shall have not less than two stairways to an adjacent floor. For special requirarents for Groups A, E, H, arrl I Occupancies arrl open parking garages, see Sections 3315, 3316, 3317, 3318, 3319 arrl 709 (g). For stage exits, see Section 3907. EVery story or portion thereof having an occupant load of rrore than 1000 shall have not less than four exits. Every story or portion therof having an occupant load of 501 to 1000 shall have oot less than three exits. 'lhe number of exits required fran any story of a building shall be detennined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of floors which exit the level u.rrler consideration, as-follows:

    PAGE 158

    1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story a1::xJve (and the first adjacent story belCM, when a story belCM exits through the level urrler oonsideration). 2. 'IWenty-five percent of the occupant load in the story irrmediately beyorrl the first adjacent story. 'Ihe rnax.inrum nmnber of exits required for any story shall be nain tained until egress is provided fran the structure. (See Section 3311.) :For purposes of this section, basarents and occupied roofs shall be provided with exits as required for stories. Floors above the second story arrl baserrents shall have oot less than exits except where such floors or basarents are uSed exclusively for the service of the b..rilding. EXCE?I'ICN: Except as provided in Table No. 33-A, only one exit shall be required fran a basement within an individual dwelling unit. (b) Width. 'll1e total width of exits in feet shall be not less than the total occupant load served divided by 50. Such width of exits shall be divided approximately equally anong the separate exits. The total exit width required fran any story of a b..rilding shall be detennined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level urrler consideration, as follCMS: 1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story . al::ove (and the first adjacent story belCM, when a story belCM exits through the level urrler oonsideration).

    PAGE 159

    2. '!Wenty-five percent of the occupant load in the story inm:rliately beyond the first story. 'Ihe maximum exit width required fran any story of a building shall be naintained. (c) Arrangarent of Exits. If only two exits are required they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall dlagonal diirension of the building or area to be served rreasured in a straight line between the exits. EXCEPI'ION: Where exit enclosures are provided as the required rreans of egress and are interconnected by a corridor conforming to the requirarents of Section 3304 (g), exit separations nay be rreasured in a direct line of travel within the exit corridor. Enclosure walls shall be not less than 30 feet apart at any point in a direct line of rreasurarent. Where three or rrore exits are required, they shall be arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one bea:xres blocked the others will be available. (d) Distance to Exits. 'Ihe maximum distance of travel fran any point to an exterior exit door, horizontal exit, exit passageway or an enclosed stairway in a building not equipped with an autare.tic sprinkler system throughout shall IX>t exceed 150 feet or 200 feet in a building equipped with an autare.tic sprinkler system throughout. These distances may be increased 100 feet when the last 150 feet is within a corridor, canplying with section 3304. See Section 3317 for Group E Occupancy travel distances.

    PAGE 160

    In a Group B, Division 4 Occupancy classified as a factocy or warehouse and in one-story hangars the exit travel distance may be increased to 400 feet if the building is equipped with an autcnatic sprinkler systan throughout arrl provided with sm::>ke arrl heat ventilation as specified in Section 3206. In an open parking garage, as defined in Section 709, the exit travel distance may be increased to 250 feet. (e) Exits '111rough Adjoining or Accessory Areas. Exits fran a room may open into an adjoining or intervening rcx::rn or area, provided such adjoining rcx::rn is accessocy to the area served and provides a direct rreans of egress to an exit oorridor, exit stail:way, exterior exit, horizontal exit, exterior exit baloony or exit passageway. EXCEPTIOO: Exits are not to pass through kitchens, store rcx::rns, restroans, closets or spaces used for similar purposes. Foyers, lcbbies and reception roans constructed as required for oorridors shall not be oonstrued as intervening roans. (f) Entrances to Buildings. Main exits fran buildings requiring access by the physically handicapped, as listed in Table No. 33-A, shal be usable by individuals in wheelchairs arrl be on a level that would make the elevators accessible where provided.

    PAGE 161

    Dx>rs: Sec. 3303. (a) General. 'Ihl.s section shall apply to every exit door serving an area having an occupant load of rrore than 10, or serving hazardous roans or areas, except that SUbsections (p), (il and (j) shall apply to all exit doors regardless of load. Buildings or structures used for human occupancy shall have at least one exit door that :rreets the requirarents of Subsection (e). (b) Swing. Exit doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel when serving any hazardous area or when serving an occupant load of 50 or rrore. Double-acting doors shall not be used as exits serving a tributary occupant load of rrore than 100 oor shall they be used as a part of a fire asserrbl y nor equipperl with panic hardware. A double-acting door shall be provided with a view panel of not less than 200 square inches. (c) Type of Lock or Latch. Exit doors shall be openable fran the inside without the use of a key or any special knc:Mledge or effort. EXCEPTICNS: 1. This requirerrent shall not apply to exterior exit doors in a Group B Occupancy if there is a readily visible, durable sign on or adjacent to the door stating "'IHIS IXX>R 'IO REMAIN lJNI.(Xl(ED DUIUN'G BUSINESS HOURS. " The sign shall be in letters rot less than 1 inch high on a contrasting background. The locking device must be of a type that will be readily distinjuishable as locked. The use of this exception may be revoked by the building official for due cause.

    PAGE 162

    2. Exit doors fran buildings or roans having an cxx:upant load of 10 or less may be provided with a night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided such devices are openable fran the inside without the use of a key, special kn<:Mledge or effort and rrotmted at a height not to exceed 48 inches above the finished floor. Manually operated edge-or surface-rrormted flush bolts arrl surface bolts are prohibited. When exit doors are used in pairs and approved autanatic flush bolts are used, the door leaf having the autanatic flush bolts shall have ro door knob or surface-rrormted hardware. 'lhe tmlatching of any leaf shall rot require rrore than one operation. EXCEPTICN: Group R, Division 3 Occupancies. (d) Panic Hardware. Panic hardware, when installed, shall cc:rcpl y with the rEqtli.rarents of U.B.C. Standard No. 33-4 and the activating nanber shall be rrormted at a height of not less than 30 inches nor rrore than 44 inches above the floor. 'lhe tmlatching force shall rot exceed 15 pounds when applied in the direction of exit travel. (e) Width and Height. Every required exit doorway shall be of a size as to penni t the installation of a door rot less than 3 feet in width and not less than 6 feet 8 inches in height. When installed in exit doorways, exit doors shall be capable of opening at least 90 degrees and shall be so rrounted that the clear width of the exitway is not less than 32 inches. In CXIT'If'Uting the exit width required by Section 3302 (b), the net dim:msion of the exitway shall be used.

    PAGE 163

    (f) IXx:>r Leaf Width. No leaf of an exit door shall exceed 4 feet in width. (g) Special IXx:>rs. Revolving, sliding arrl overhead dOO.rs shall not be used as required exits. Power operated doors cx:rrpl ying with U. B, C. Starrlard No. 33-1 may be used for exit purposes. (h) Egress fran IXx:>r. Every exit door required by this section shall give imrediate access to an approved rreans of egress fran the building. (i) Change in Floor Level at r.oors. Regardless of the occupant load, there shall be a floor or larrling on each side of a door. The floor or landing shall be not rrore than 1 inch lCMer than the threshold of the door way. Where doors open over landings, the larrling shall have a length of not less than 5 feet. EXCEPTICNS: 1. Where the door opens into a stair of a srroke proof enclosure, the landing need not have a length of 5 feet. 2. In Group R, Division 3 Occupancies arrl within individual units of Group R, Division 1 Occupancies, a door may open on the tap step of a flight of stairs or an exterior landing, provided the door does not swing over the tap step or exterior landing arrl the landing is oot rrore than 7 1/2 inches belCM the floor level. 3. In Group R, Division 3 Occupancies, screen doors arrl stonn doors may swing over stairs or steps.

    PAGE 164

    4. In Group R, Division 3 Occupancies and private garages and sheds mere a door opens over a landing, the landing shall have a length equal to the width of the door. (j) IXx::>r Identification. Glass doors shall confonn to the require ments specified in Section 5406. Exit doors shall be so marked that they are readily distinguishable fran the adjacent construction. (k) .Additional IXlors. When additional doors are provided for egress purposes, they shall oonfonn to all provisions of this chapter. EXCEPTIOO: Approved revolving doors having leaves which will oollapse urrler opposi.DJ pressures may be used in exit situations,. provided: 1. Such doors have a minimum width of 6 feet 6 inches. 2. They are rot used in occupancies where exits are required to be with panic hardware. 3. At least one oonfonning exit door is located adjacent to each revolving door installed in a ruilding. 4. 'lbe revolving door shall rot be oonsidered to provide any exit width.

    PAGE 165

    (.d) Projections. '!he required width of corridors shall be UIX>bstructed. EXCEPTICN: Harrlrails arrl doors, when fully opened r shall not reduce the re:.JUired width by rrore than 7 inches, IX:x:>rs in any tx>Si tion shall not reduce the required width by rrore than one-half. other ronstructural projections such as trim arrl similar decorative features may project into required width 1 1/2 inches on each side. (e) Access to Exits. When rrore than ore exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is tx>Ssible to go in either direction fran any p:>int in a corridor to a separate exit, except for dead ends not exceeding 20 feet in length. (f) Changes in Elevation. When a corridor or exterior exit balcony is accessible to an elevator, changes in elevation of the floor shall be made by rreans of a ranp. (g) Construction. Walls of corridors serving an occupant load of 30 or rrore shall be of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction and the ceilings shall be not less than that re:.JUired for a one-hour fire resistive floor or roof system. EXCEPI'ICNS: 1. One-story buildings housing Group B, Division 4 Occupancies. 2. Corridors nore than 30 feet in width where occupancies served by such corridors have at least one exit irrleperrlent fran the corridor. 3. Exterior sides of exterior exit balconies.

    PAGE 166

    Corridors arrl Exterior Exit Balconies: Sec. 3304. (a) General. This se::tion shall apply to every corridor serving as a required exit for an occupant load of 10 or nore except as provided in Subsection (b) for Group R,. Divisions 1 and 3 Occupancies. For the purposes of the section, the tenn "corridor" shall include "exterior exit balconies" and any covered or enclosed exit passageway, including walkways, turmels and rralls. Partitions, rails, counters and similar space dividers not over 5 feet, 9 inches in height alx>ve the floor shall not be considered to fonn corridors. Exit corridors shall be continuous until egress is provded fran the building arrl shall not be interrupted by intervening roans. EXCEPTICN: Foyers, lobbies or reception rocrns constructed as required for corridors shall not be construed as inter vening roans. (b) Width. Every corridor serving an occupant load of 10 or rrore shall be not less in width than 44 inches. Regardless of occupant load, corridors in Group R, Division 3 Occupancies and within units in Group R, Division 1 Occupancies shall have a minimum width of 36 inches. For special requirerents for Groups E and I Occupancies, see Sections 3317 and 3319. (c) Height. Corridors and exterior exit balconies shall have a clear height of oot less than 7 feet rreasured to the lowest projection fran the ceiling. •

    PAGE 167

    'When the ceiling of the entire story is an elerrent of a one-h:Jur fire-resistive floor or roof system, the rorridor wall may tenninate at the ceiling. When the roan side fire-resistive nenbrance of the rorridor wall is carried through to the urrlerside of a fire-resistive floor or roof ab:Jve, the corridor side of the ceiling may be protected by the use of ceiling materials as required for one-hour floor or roof system construction or the oorridor ceiling may be of the sarre construction as the rorridor walls. Ceilings of noncx:mbustible ronstruction may be susperrled below the fire-resistive ceiling. For wall and ceiling finish requirements, see Table No. 42-B. (h) Openings. Where rorridor walls are required to be of one-hour fire-resistive ronstruction by SUbsection (g) ab:Jve, every door opening shall be protected by a tight-fitting snoke and draft rontrol door assembly having a fire-protection rating of not less than 20 minutes when tested in acrordance with U.B.C. standard No. 43-2 without the hose stream test. 'rtle door and frarre shall bear an approved label' or other identification shc:Ming the rating thereof, the narre of the manufacturer and the identification of the service rorrlucting the inspection of materials and work manship at the factory during fabrication and assembly. Doors shall be maintained self-closing or shall be autanatic closing in acrordance with Section 4306 (b) 2. Srroke and draft control door asserrblies shall be pro vided with a gasket so installed as to provide a seal where the door meets the stop on boths sides and across the top. Other interior openings shall

    PAGE 168

    will be fixed arrl protected by approved 1/2-inch-thick wired glass installed in steel frarres. The total area of all openings, other than doors, in any FOrtion of an interior oorridor shall rot exceed 25 percent of the area of the oorridor wall of the rcx::rn which it is separating fran the oor ridor. For duct see Section 4306. Viewports nay be installed if they require a hole rot larger than 1 inch in diarreter throogh the door, have at least a 1/4-inch-thick glass disc and the holder is of netal which will rot malt out when subject to terperatures of 1700F. EXCEPTIOO: Protection of openings in the interior walls of exterior exit baloonies is rot required. (i) Location on Property. Exterior Exit baloonies shall rot be located in an area where openings are required to be protected due to location on the property.

    PAGE 169

    Stail:ways: Sec. 3305. (a) General. Every stail:way serving any ruilc:linJ or portion thereof shall oonfonn to the requ:irarents of this section. EXCEPl'ICN: Stairs or ladders used only to atterrl equiprent are exercpt fran the requ:irarents of this section. (b) Width. Stail:ways serving an occupant load of nore than 50 shall re rot less in width than 44 inches. Stail:ways serving an occupant load of 50 or less may re 36 inches wide. Private stail:ways serving an occupant load of less than 10 may be 30 inches wide. Harrlrails may project into the required width a distance of 3 1/2 inches frc:rn each side of a stail:way. Other nonstructural projections such as trim arrl similar deoorative features may project into required width 1 1/2 inches on each side. (c) Rise arrl Run. The rise of every step in a stail:way shall be not less than 4 inches nor greater than 7 1/2 inches. Except as penni tted in Subsections (d) arrl(f), the nm shall be not less than 10 inches as neasured horizontally between the vertical planes of the furt.henrost pro jection of adjacent treads. Except as pennitted in Subsections (d)_, (e) and (f), the largest tread run within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the srrallest by nore than 3/8 inch. The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall rot exceed the srrallest by nore than 3/8 inch. EXCEPTICNS: 1. Private stail:ways serving an occupant load of less than 10 and stail:ways to l.ll'X.)CCUf>ied roofs may be constructed with an 8-inch maxinrum rise arrl 9-inch minfmum nm.

    PAGE 170

    2. Where the bottan rise adjoins a sloping public wa:y, walk or driveway having an established grade arrl serving as a larrling, a variation in height of the bottan rise of oot nore than 3 inches in every 3 feet of stairway width is FDfli tterl. (d) Winding Stairways. In Group R, Division 3 Occupancies an::1 in private stairways in Group R, Division 1 Occupancies, w:i..rrlers may be used if the required width of nm is provided at a point not rrore than 12 inches frcm the side of the stairway where' the treads are the narrower, rut in no case shall any width of nm be less than 6 inches at any point. (e) Circular Stairways. Circular stairs may be used as an exit, provided the rninirm.nn width of nm is not less than 10 inches arrl the srraller radius is not less than twice the width of the stall:way. The largest tread width or riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the gnallest by rrore than 3/8 inch. (f) Spiral Stairways. In Group R, Division 3 Occupancies arrl in private stairways within individual units of Group R, Division 1 O:cupancies, spiral stairways may be installed. SUch stairways nay be used for required exits when the area served is limited to 400 feet. 'I11e tread nrust provide a clear walking area neasuring at least 26 inches fran the outer edge of the supporting columnto the inner edge of the harrl rail. A run of at least 7 1/2 inches is to be provided at a point 12 inches fran where the tread is the narrowest. The rise nrust be sufficient to provide 6-foot 6-inch headroan. The rise shall not exceed 9 1/2 inches.

    PAGE 171

    (g) Larrlings. Every laming shall have a cl:iJrension neasured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such cl:iJrension need :oot exceed 4 feet when the stair has a straight run. A door swinging over a landing shall oot rerluce the width of the larrling to less than one half its required width at any position in its swing nor by rrore than 7 inches when fully o:pen. See Section 3303 (i) .

    PAGE 172

    Horizontal Exit: Sec. 3307. (.a} Used as a Required Exit. If confonning to the pro visions of this chapter, a oorizontal exit may be considered as a required exit. (b) Openings. All openings in fire-resistive wall which provides a oorizontal exit shall re protected by a fire assenbly having a fire-resistance rating of oot less than one and one-half hours. Such. fire assanbly shall be autanatic closing as provided in Section 4306 {b) utX>n actuation of a snoke detector. {c) Discharge Areas. A oorizontal exit shall lead into a floor area having capacity for an occupant load not less than the occupant load served by such exit. 'Ihe capacity shall be detennined by allCMing 3 square feet of net clear floor area per ambulatory occupant airl 30 square feet per nonarrbulatory occupant. The area into which the oorizontal exit leads shall be provided with exits other than additional oorizontal exits as required by Section 3302.

    PAGE 173

    Srtokeproof Enclosures: Sec. 3309. (a) General. A srrokeproof enclosure shall consist of a vestibule arrl continoous stairway enclosed fran the highest point to the point by walls of h-Jo-hour fire-resistive construction. 'Ihe supfOrting frame shall be protected as set forth in Table No. 17-A. (p) Where Required. Where a floor of any story is located nore than 75 feet above the highest grade, one of the required exits shall be a srrokeproof enclosure. When a srrokeproof enclosure is required it shall be userl to meet the requirerents of Section 3305 (o) . (c) Construction. Stairs in srrokeproof enclosures shall be of non ccrrbustible construction. (d) OUtlet. A srrokeproof enclosure shall exit into a public way or into an exit passageway leading to a public way. 'Ihe exit passageway shall be without other openings and shall have walls, floors arrl ceiling of two-hour fire resistance. (e) Barrier. A stairway in a srrokeproof enclosure shall not continue below the grade level unless an approved barrier is providerl at the ground level to prevent persons fran accidentally continuing into the basarent. lf) Access. Access to the stairway shall be by way of a vestibule or by way of an open exterior balcony of noncarbustible materials. (g) Srrokeproof Enclosures by Natural Ventilation. 1. IX>ors. IX>ors to both the vestib.Ile and to the stairway shall have a one-hour fireresistive rating and have closing devices as specifierl in Section 3309 (h) 6.

    PAGE 174

    2. vestibule. 'lbe vestibule shall have a min.innm1 of 16 squa,re feet of opening in a wall facing an exterior court, yard or public way at least 20 feet in width. (h) Srrok.eproof Enclosures by Ventilation. 1. IXx:>rs. The door fran the building into the vestibule shall have a one and one-half-hour fire-resistive rating and have closing devices as specified in Section 3309 (h) 6. 'lbe door fran the vestibule to the stail:way shall be a tight-fitting smoke and draft control door having a 20-minute fire-resistive rating. Wired glass, if provided, shall not exceed 100 inches in area and shall be set in a steel frarre. 'lbe door shall be provided with a drop sill or other provision to minimize air leakage. 2. Vestibule Size. The vestibule shall have a minimum di:rrension of 44 inches in width and 72 inches in direction of exit travel. 3. Vestibule ventilation. 'lbe vestibule shall be provided with rot less than one air change per minute supply and exhaust at a rate sufficient to maintain an underpressure relative to the abrosphere of 0.05 inch of water column and 0.10 inch of water column relative to the stair shaft. SUpply air shall enter and exhaust air shall discharge fran the vestibule throogh separate, tightlY constructed ducts used only for that purpose. Supply air shall enter the vestibule within 6 inches of the floor level. 'lbe top of the exhaust register shall be located at the top of the srroke trap but no rrore than 6 inches ClaYn fran the top of the trap and shall be entirely within the smoke trap area. IXx:>rs, when in the open position,

    PAGE 175

    shall not oostruct duct openings. Duct opel'linJs may be provided with oontrolling darrpers, if needed, to rreet the design requirerents but are not otherwise required. NOI'E: For buildings where such air chan:Jes would result in excessively large duct and bl<:Mer requirerents, a specially engineered systan nay be used. Such an engineered system shall provide 2500 cfrn exhaust fran a vestibule when in energency operation and shall be sized to handle three vestibules siroul taneousl y and the srroke detector located outside each vestibule shall release to open the supply and exhaust duct darrpers in that affected vestibule. 4. Snoke trap. 'Ihe vestibule ceiling shall be at least 20 inches higher than the door opening into the vestibule to serve as a srroke and heat trap and to provide an upward-rroving air column. 5. Stair shaft air rrovanent system. The stair shaft shall be provided with a danpered relief opening at the top arrl supplied rrechanicall y with sufficient air to discharge a mini.rnurn of 2500 cubic feet per minute through the relief opening while naintaining a mini.rnurn positive pressure of 0.05 inch of water column in the shaft relative to atrrosphere with all doors closed. 6. IXx:>r-closing devices. The exit doors into the vestibule and into the stair shalft shall close autcrraticall y Y
    PAGE 176

    they will close in the event of a pc:Mer failure. 7. Operation of ventilating equipnent. Vestibule and stair shaft mechanical ventilation may be inactive or may operate at reduced levels for oonnal operations as approved by the building official; but when the detectors referred to in paragraph 6 either fail or are activated, the rrechanical equiprent shall operate at the levels specified in paragraphs 3 and 5. 8. Standby paver. M=chanical ventilation equiprent shall be provided by an approved self-a:mtained generator set to operate whenever there is a loss of paver in the nonnal house current. '!be generator shall be in a separate roan having a rninirrn..nn one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation and shall have a mininrum fuel supply adequate to operate the equiprent for two hours. 9. Acceptance and testing. Before the mechanical equiprent is accepted by the building official, it shall be tested in his presence to confirm that the mechanical equiprent is operating in CCJipliance with these requirerents. 10. Erergency lighting. 'Ihe stair shaft and the vestibule shall be provided with emrrgency lighting. 'llie starrlby generator which is installed for the srokeproof enclosure mechanical ventilation equiprent may be used for standby emrrgency lighting p::Mer supply. 11. Air-conditioned buildings. In buildings with air-oondi tioning systems or pressure air supply serving nore than one story, a detector

    PAGE 177

    of products of
    PAGE 178

    Exit Courts: Sec. 3310. (.a) General. Every exit coort shall discharge into a public way or exit passageway. (b)_ Width. Exit oourt rninimtun widths shall be determinerl in accordance with provisions of Section 3302 baserl on the tributary occupant load, and such required width shall be unobstructed to a height of 7 feet, except for projections permitted in corridors by Section 3304. The -mininrum exit court width shall be not less than 44 inches. Where the width is reduced fran any cause the reduction shall be effected gradually by a guardrail at least 3 feet in height and making an angle of not rrore than 30 degrees with the axis of the exit OJUrt.. (c) Number of Exits. Every exit OJUrt. shall be provided with exits as determined by section 3302. (d) Construction and Openings. Where an exit oourt serving a building or portion thereof havi.n:J an occupant load of rrore than 10 is less than 10 feet in width the exit OJUrt. walls shall be a rninimtun of one-hour fire resistive construction for a distance of 10 feet al:xJve the floor of the court and all openings therein shall be protected by fire assemblies having a fire-protection rating of not less than three-fourths hour. 7.

    PAGE 179

    Exit Passageways: Sec. 3311. (a) Discharge. 'Ihe walls of exit passageways shall be without openings other than required exits and shall have walls, floors and ceilings of the sarre period of fire resistance as required for the walls, floors and ceilings of the building served with a minimum of one-hour fire-resistive construction. Exit openings throughout the enclosing walls of exit passageways shall be protected by fire assanblies having a threefourths-hour fire-protection rating.

    PAGE 180

    FIRE-EXTINGUISHING . SYSTEM) SCXJpe: Sec. 3801. (a) General. All fire-extinguishing systans re::ruired in this code shall be installed in accordance with the requi.rel'rents of this chapter. Fire hose threads used in oonnection wi. th fire-extinguishing systems shall be National Standard hose thread or as approved by the fire depart rrent. (b) Approvals. All fire-extinguising systems including autanatic sprinkler systems, Classes I, II and III and
    PAGE 181

    Class II. For use by the building occupant until the arrival of the fire depart:Jrent (1 1/2-inch' hose) • Class III. For use by either the fire depart:rrent and those trained in handling heavy hose streams or by. the building occupants. carbined System. A c:x:::nbined system is one where the water piping serves both 2 1/2-inch outlets for fire depart:rrent use arrl outlets for autaratic sprinklers. FIRE DEPARIMENT HC6E cc.NNEX:TICN is a connection through which the fire departrrent can pump water. Atm.:MATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHJNG SYSTEM is an approved system of devices and equi:prent which autaratically detects a fire and discharges an approved fire-extinguishing agent onto or in the area of a fire. (d) Starrlards. Fire-extinguishing systems shall c.:x::nply with U.B.C. Standards Nos. 38-1, 38-2 and 38-3. EXCEPTICNS: 1. Autaratic fire-extinguishing systems not covered by U.B.C. Standard No. 38-1, 38-2 or 38-3 shall be approved and installed in accordance with the Fire Code. 2. Autanatic sprinkler systems may be cormected to the dan estic water supply main when approved by the building official if the dc!restic water supply is of adequate pressure, capacity and sizi.n:; for the c:x:::nbined darestic and sprinkler requirem:mts. In such case, the sprinkler system connection shall be made between the public water main or rreter and the building shutoff

    PAGE 182

    valve, am there shall oot be intervening valves or oonnections. '!he fire depart:Irent oonnecticn nay be ani tted when awrove:l by the fire department.

    PAGE 183

    Autanatic Sprinkler Systems: Sec. 3802. (a) General. Autanatic sprinkler systems shall be provided in accx::>rdance with the provisions of this section. (b) Where Re ired. Autanatic sprinkler systems shall be installed and naintained in operable rorrlition as specified in this chapter in the following locations: 1. All occupancies except Group R, Division 3, and Group M. A. In every story or basenent of all buildings 'When the floor area exceeds 1500 square feet and there is not provided at least 20 square feet of opening entirely above the adjoining grourrl level in each 50 lineal feet or fraction thereof of exterior wall in the story or basenent on at least one side of the building. Openings shall have a minimum clllrension of not less than 30 inches. SUch openings shall be accessible to the fire depa.rt::nent frcm the exterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or rescue cannot be acccmplished frcm the exterior. When openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of such story is rrore than 75 feet frcm such openings, the story shall be provided with an approved autaratic sprinkler systan, or openings as specified al:xwe shall be provided on at least sides of an exterior wall of the story. If any p:>rtion of a basenent is located rrore than 75 feet frcm openings ra:JUired in this section, the basarent shall be provided with an awroved autaratic sprinkler systan.

    PAGE 184

    ' .. B. At the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their terminal roc::rrs. Chutes exterrling through three or nore floors shall have additional sprinkler heads installed within such chutes at alternate floors. Sprinkler heads shall be accessible for servicing. c. All roans where nitrate film is stored or handled shall be equipped with an approved autanatic sprinkler system as specified in U.B.C. Standard No. 48-1. D. In protected catbustible fiber storage vaults as defined in the Fire Code. 2. Group A Ocuupancies A. In basarents larger than 150-0 square feet in floor area. B. When the occupancy has over 12,000 square feet of floor area which can be used for exhibition or display p.rrposes. c. In any enclosed usable space below or over a stairway in Group A,Divisions 2, 2.1, 3 and 4 Occupancies. See Section 3308 (f).. D. Urrlel;' the roof and gridiron, in the tie and fly galleries and in all places behind the proscenium wall of stages; over enclosed plat-fonns in excess of 500 square feet in area; and in dressing roans, workshops and storeroc:ms accesso:ry to such stages or enclosed platfonns. EXCEPTICNS: 1 Stages or enclosed platfonns open to the auditorium roan on three or nore sides. 2. Altars, pulpits or similar platfonns and their accessory rocrns .

    PAGE 185

    3. Stage gridirons when side-wall sprinklers with 135 F. rated heads with heat-baffle plates are installed arourrl the entire perimeter of the stage at points oot IIDre than 30 inches belCM the gridiron nor IIDre than 6 inches belCM the baffle plate. 4. Urrler stage or un::ler enclosed platfonn areas less than 4 feet in clear height used exclusively for chair or table storage and lined on the inside with rraterials approved for one-hour fire-resistive construction. 3. Group E Occupancies A. In baserrents larger than 1500 square feet in floor area. B. In any enclosed usable space belCM or over a stainvay. See Section 3308 (f) • 4. Group I Occupancies EXCE?ITCNS: 1. In hospitals of Types I, II Fire-resistive and II One-hour construction, the autanatic sprinkler system rna.y be ani tted fran operating, deli very, cardiac, X-ray arrl intensive care rcx::rns and patient sleeping roans not exceeding 450 square feet in area when each such roan is provided with StOke detectors connected to a continuously atterrled station or location within the building. Increases for area arrl height specified in Section 506 (c) and 507 shall not apply when this exception is used.

    PAGE 186

    2. In jails, prisons and refonratories, the piping system may be dcy, provided a manually operated valve is installed at a continuously rronitored location. Opening of the valve will cause the piping systan to be charged. Sprinkler heads in such systems shall be a:jllipped with fusible elerrents or the systan shall :oe designed as required for deluge systans in U.B.C. Standard No. 38-1. 5. Group H Occupancies A. In Group H, Divisions 1 and 2 Occupancies larger than 1500 square feet in floor area. B. In Group H, Division 3 Occupancies larger than 3000 square feet in floor area. C. In Group H, Division 4 Occupancies rrore than one story in height. D. In roans where flamnable or canbustible liquids are stored or handled in excess of the quantities set forth in Table No. 9-A, or any cx:nbination of flarrrnable liquids totaling 240 gallons, as defined in the Fire Code. E. For paint spray booths or roans and for special provisions on hazardous chemicals and magnesium, and calcium carbide, see the Fire Code. 6. Group B, Division 2 Occupancies. A. In retail sales roans classed as Group B, Division 2 Occupancies where the floor area exceeds 12,000 feet on any floor or 24, 000 square feet on all floors.

    PAGE 187

    B. In l::uild.l.DJs userl for high-piled CXI!lbustible stora.ge, fire l?ro tection shall be in acoordance with the Fire Code. (c) Alarms. When serving rrore than 100 sprinklers, autanatic sprinkler systems shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or rerrOte station seiVi.ce or a local alann which will give an audible signal at a constant! y atterrled location. (d) Pennissible emissions. Subject to the approval of the building official with the ooncurrence of the chief of the fire department, sprinklers may be ani tted in roans or areas as follo.vs: 1. Where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents or in roans or areas which are of noncanbustible construction with wholly noncarbustible contents arrl which are not exposed by other areas. Sprinklers shall not be anitted fran any roan rrerely because it is dartp or of fire-resistive construction. 2. Sprinklers shall not be installed where the application of water or flarre arrl water to the contents may constitute a serious life or fire hazard, as in the manufacture or storage of quantities of alurnim.:rrn pc:Mder, calcium carbide, calcium ph::>sphide, rretallic sodium arrl potassium, quick line, magnesium pc:Mder arrl sodium peroxide. 3. safe deposit or other vaults of fire-resistive construction, when used for the storage of reoords, files and other documents, when stored in metal cabinets. 4. camnmication equiprent areas urrler the exclusive control of a public camrunication utility agency, provided:

    PAGE 188

    A. 'Ille equiprent areas are separaterl fran the rernairrler of the building by one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation; arrl B. SUch areas are used exclusively for such equipnent; and C. An approved autaratic srroke detection systan is installerl in such areas and is superviserl by an approved central, proprietary or rarote station service or a local alann which will give an audible signal at a oonstantly attenderl location; arrl D. Other approved fire-protection equipnent such as portable fire extinguishers or Class II standpipes are installerl in such areas. 5. Other approved autanatic fire-extinguishing systans may be installerl to protect special hazards or occupancies in lieu of autanatic sprinklers.

    PAGE 189

    Standpipes: Sec. 3803. (a) General. Standpipes shall carrply with the re:_ruirerrents of this section and in accordance with U.B.C. Starrlard No. 38-3. (b) Where Required. Standpipe systems shall be provided as set forth in Table No. 38-A. {c) IDeation of Class I Standpipes. There shall be a Class I standpipe outlet connection at every floor level landing of every required stairway and on each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit. CXltlets at enclosed stai.:rways shall be located within the enclosures. EXcept in wildings e:_ruipped with an approved autanatic sprinkler system, risers and laterals of Class I standpipe systans oot located within an enclosed stairway or srrokeproof enclosure shall be protected by a degree of fire resistance e:_rual to that required for vertical enclosures in the building in which they are located. 'lbere shall be a three-way outlet above the roof line when the roof has a slope of less than 4 inches in 12 inches. In buildings where nore than one starrlpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be inter'cx)nnected at the bottan. {d) IDeation of Class II Stan:lpipes. Class II starrlpipes shall be accessible and shall be located so that all portions of the Wilding are within 30 feet of a oozzle attached to 100 feet of oose. In Group A, Divisions 1, 2 and 2.1 Occupancies, with occupant loads of nore than 1000, outlets shall be located on each side of any stage,

    PAGE 190

    on each side of the rear of the auditorium arrl on each side of the balcony. Fire-resistant protection of risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required. (e1 location of Class III Starrlpipes. Class III starrlpipe systems shall have outlets for Class I standpipes located as required in Section 3803 (c) and shall have Class II outlets as required in Section 3803 (d) • Except in buildings equipped with an approved autaPatic sprinkler systan, portions of Class III standpipe systerns,excluding extensions for Class II standpipe outlets, oot within an enclosed stairway or srrokeproof enclosure shall be protected by a degree of fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the buildings in which they are located. In buildings where rrore than one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected at the oottan.

    PAGE 191

    Buildings 'IJrrler Construction: Sec. 3804. (a). General. During the ronstruction of a building and until the pennanent fire-extinguishing system has been installed and is in service fire protecticn shall be provided in acrordance with this section. (b) Where Required. Every l::uilding six stories or nore in height shall be provided with not less than one Class I standpipe for use during construction. SUch starilpipes shall be installed when the progress of construction is not nore than 50 feet in height above grade. SUch standpipe shall be provided with fire department inlet ronnections at accessible locations adjacent to usable stairs. SUch standpipe systems shall be exterrled as ronstruction progresses to within one floor of the highest point of construction having secured decking or flooring. In each floor there shall be provided a 2 1/2-inch valve outlet for fire department use. Where construction height requires installation of a Class II standpipe, fire pmrps and water nain rormections shall be provided to serve the standpipe. (c) Terlporary Starilpipes. standpipes nay be provided in place of pennanent syste:ns if they are designed to furnish 75 gallons of water per minute at 50 pourrls per square inch pressure with a standpipe size of oot less than 4 inches. All outlets shall be not less than 2 1/2 i.rx::hes. Pwping equipnent sufficient to provide this pressure an:1 volume shall be available at all times when a Class III standpipe system is

    PAGE 192

    (d) Detailed Requiranents. Standpipe systems for Wildings urrler oonstru.ction shall be isntalled as required for pennanent starrlpipe systans. Ba.sercent Pipe Inlets: Sec. 3805. For basarent pipe inlet see Appendix Section 3805.

    PAGE 193

    TABLE NO. 38-A S'rnNDPIPE REX:}UIREMENI.'S 1. Occupancies exceeding 150 ft. in height and nore than one story 2. Occupancies 4 stories or nore but less than 150 ft. in height, except Group R, Div. 3 3. Group A
    PAGE 195

    c 0 N c E p T s

    PAGE 197

    Ml'\jo'".. --------------( f , , -t ltoiH>•i.."'J Cov!Z.I {'Z.LcotrO!l' • """""'"-! -=a [ I u "D./ ro II " " { IL ll-1'1 • loc •-o • ffi, : .:CCOO Jb @ . I • .61 :JID!ir..T Je,i.K" 1b 1Zl v.e:. ----{> ---------ePJ>Ao-o<• ,...,-.,e l • .i:>i'T!= : l'lr J1>o A (Is;_, 4::-.F. )CJ31 aoo . ..,.... !orill .... 6 . t.CJ% __ ;_-

    PAGE 198

    I. '!F' ""'",.,"';."' ii, "'"" ' . puTOTYft.. ----. . . . : . I I . I . . _1 -t."'D '7.MO Jtl 'l."'c:> HJOc,t> Tt. Q s: t-1 lis : . 1 • • : (If" L6NS . __ ... "'A ..... .,..,.I\)Oit. --. _... -t'"O t ?.>n( : IO>S3,'1eo

    PAGE 199

    . . . ' IJ::,oe:. • 1 • i----__ ..:...-, . .': ED Cot-bwtvN-l'l;;. lot:>' -o" V15i1A1 .;:';-----iP -... . ..... ____ ... -----. .. -.... -.. -__ .. _ ---I +-* /':;::::3 / 4-----I

    PAGE 200

    I .. 11 -loo -o• I I ' n lh HJl!. wiv tc: CI.C';4;Q. Cf' ....., . .,. 1&1{1lt ""'f"Pfllr1 .,..:' .. It> "(. M.t..}'. ; --.... . . .... . . . r--, I I I I J I L_ _, tr=========-... ':\ .. fl-<'riJIIE1'f . -=-=. L-r-re..r'f ..... ..._ . '

    PAGE 201

    N E E D s

    PAGE 202

    Needs Ranges of Spatial Requirements: Commercial: 45,000 s.f. King Soopers Retail: Housing: Office: 40,000 to 45,000 s.f. Catalog Sales 2-story Final range: up to 110,000 s.f. Efficiency-65%; 5% mechanical 20,000 to 50,000 s.f. (See Concept Lakewood for accepted stores and uses) . Efficiency 65-70%; 5-7% mechanical 30 to 35 units an acre maximum Costs at 2000,000 an acre make housing development on raw ground impractical. Need to combine housing, retail and open space activity into workable solution. Housing: medium rise. Attempt to include low income at 10% of projected development. See following breakdown. 10% efficiency: Singles, professionals young adults 20% 1-bdrm: 30% 2-bdrm: 40% 3-bdrm: Elderly Young families, elderly Families, 2 adults, 2 to 3 children Final square footage for office dependent upon commercial, retail and housing mix. Attempt 6,000 to 15,000 s.f. range 5% mechanical; 85 % efficiency Open Space: 8% minimum requirement of each allowable use. Develop greenbelt. Note costs of construction under economics section.

    PAGE 203

    Needs -cont'd. Open Space: Parking: RTD: Concept Lakewood requirement: Area = 8% of surface of respective site. Areas to be accessible to public and are in addition to building and parking area, foliage and landscaping setback requirements See Zoning Diagrams. See Land Use Regulations: Residential: Medium rise: 1.5 /DU Office: Retail: Medium rise elderly: .75/DU Medium rise: 4/1000 GBA Neighborhood Commercial 5.5/1000 GBA Notice possibilities for reducing parking requirement. See Land Use Regulations. Bus Shelter: 2,000 to 3,000 s.f. Landscaped Provide drop-off/pick-up area

    PAGE 204

    Retail: Allowed Uses Neighborhood Commercial: up to 100,000 s.f. allowed Supermarket Bakery Drug Stationery Restaurant Barber Beauty Laundry and Dry Cleaner Hardware Deli Ladies Specialty Hobby Package Liquor Store

    PAGE 205

    Checklist: Offices: up to 50,000 s.f. allowed Office functions can be catalogued into one of these six groups: Note: Management Finance Sales General Services Technical Services Production Structural plan for general use, 30 x 30 bay.

    PAGE 206

    p R 0 B L . E M s T A T E M E N T

    PAGE 207

    PROBLEM STATEMENT A. Function 1. Housing a. Since demand for housing appears to call for townhome walk-up units in an affordable price range commensurate with local neighborhood standards, the plan will be developed for 30 -35 units per acre with a maximum of 450 units and a minimum of 85 units. b. Since the development involves proper planning of public, semi-public, private and semi-private spaces, as well as secure entrances and exits, the plan must balance perimeter uses and throughcirculation routes which link the proposed development with the surrounding neighborhood. 2. Commercial, Retail and Office a. Since the site is bounded by major traffic arteries and adjacent to Westland Commercial and Retail Center, the new facilities should minimize the pedestrian-vehicle conflict. b. S ince the commercial and retail spaces (functions) generate a requirement for service, delivery and trash vehicles, the site must accommodate maneuverability and accress to service areas without interfering with normal auto and pedestrian flow patterns.

    PAGE 208

    B. Form 1. Since the development will be medium density with commercial /retail uses competing for outdoor space use with housing needs, the plan must identify "places" and "methods" for creating a sense of community. 2. Since the development must be compatible with the site's natural environment, the plan will identify responses and relationships between existing site features and potential building areas. C. Economy Because of the community's interest in "economy of means," and because of the numerous functions to be provided within a medium unit cost of 42.50 sq. ft., the solution should strive for economy and multiuse space (where possible) . D. Time Because the development will be used by the community on a continuous, on-going basis, the solution should capture the "spirit" of a 24-hour concourse. Since the plan must be flexible to respond to change, a planning framework must be established to structure development.

    PAGE 209

    s 0 L u T I 0 N

    PAGE 210

    Colfu ,_.._ 5I te Cin:ullll ion rif\ WESTLAND \J7 ACTIVITY ..,.., , ,20() CENTER 1

    PAGE 211

    . I I I ...--+---+ I I -I I I j ==:::::; , -r-------, -I" c I I I I .-.. irdQ 10 GJ [;]O I D 1 I I I . I I I I I I BD t-------_ __ _ J t I I c I I I , I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i I I i.J. . . I o j_Q JjBH 0 . . _,_..,.,Pail f----. .......... Auk>Cilc t=:====:l &.IW WESTLAND . ACTIVITY CENTER .-.., m . . . . .. . ' 2 " .

    PAGE 212

    . ' . ' ' i .. ... := I ; . ' I . • . j . c .... -=F, . . ,'' WESTLAND ACTIVITY CENTER 3 . • .

    PAGE 213

    ;. . : i. . i wESTLAND ACTIVITY CENTER 4

    PAGE 214

    I : I I i -.. f --t . I . i . t 1 • t : I . 1-L .. I ------. ., I -. I ------. . 1 : __ )----. --. . . ..... :'' / --l-.....1.-J._.,': I . . i '..) I-OJSN3 ZON: Node , • f'uoeslnan Ln< ,/ I / c::ct-IM:FCIAl zo..IE j i ' i' I • I : : \ : \! l -: AetaoiSoaoe OllceSpJCe Pall
    PAGE 215

    -; j] • I i I : . i I I I I I . I ; I : I • : I i I I I I I I I : . ' -T I l I I . WESTLAND : ACTIVITY . . . CENTER . . I• i • • 6

    PAGE 216

    ! I I ' I: ... oc ..... teo ' I ' ' ' I . • r i I ' ' I I I \ ;: I . . ' I I f ! I ' ; i I , I I I i I .. ' . ; i . I ' ; I ' I ' wESTLAND ACTIVITY CENTER I . . ' . ; ' ' . I j.: I II[ j l , 7

    PAGE 217

    .... &.MI .... . . ............... "I • WESTLAND ACTIVITY CENTER

    PAGE 218

    PTTl (:]. ' r bj . . h1 (5;T m -rn I4J::1. EB '. ... -............. -..... _ .. _Iiiio ____ ... _____ ..,..,. ___ _ A .. ---...... _..,... ___ _..,,... ... ___ _.... ... __ _ ,...__ ... WESTLAND . ACTIVITY CENTER 0 • • 9

    PAGE 219

    s I . B L I 0 G R A p H y

    PAGE 220

    Bibliography 1. Alexander, Christopher, and Serge Chermayeff. Community and Privacy, Doubleday and Co., 1963. 2. Bacon, Edmund N. Design of Cities, Penguin Books Ltd., New York, New York, 1967. 3. Braden, Spruille III. Graphic Standards of Solar CBI Publishing Company, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts, 1973. 4. Callender, John Hancock. Time Savers Standards for Building Types, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, New New York, 1973. 5. Ching, Francis, D.K. Architecture: Form, Space and Order, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, New York, 1973. 6. Olgiyay, Victor. Design with Climate, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1973. 7. Pena, William. Problem Seeking, Cahners Books International, Wall Company Inc., Houston, Texas, 1977. 8. Redstone, Louis G. New Dimensions in Shopping Centers a n d Stores, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, New York, 1973. 9. u.s. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Barrie r Free Site Design, U.S. Government Press, 1975. 10. u.s. D epartment of Housing and Urban Development, Design Guidelines for Creating Defensible Space, U.S. Government Press, 1977.