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A Kinetic ecological framework for landscape architecture/planning : a paradigm for the future

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Title:
A Kinetic ecological framework for landscape architecture/planning : a paradigm for the future
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Kasza, Cathy
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Denver, CO
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University of Colorado Denver
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English

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Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Committee Chair:
Young, Daniel B.

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University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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Copyright Cathy Kasza. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
A KINETIC ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE/PLANNING: A PARADIGM FOR THE FUTURE
An Inquiry Into the Philosophy and Values of the Profession
by
CATHY KASZA
May 1984


A KINETIC ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE/PLANNING: A PARADIGM FOR THE FUTURE
An Inquiry Into the Philosophy and Values of the Profession
by
CATHY KASZA
This Thesis is Submitted as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for a Master of Landscape Architecture Degree
at the
Graduate Division of Landscape Architecture College of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver
May 1984


THIS THESIS IS SUBMITTED AS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR A MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DEGREE AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING GRADUATE PROGRAM OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE


Definition of Terms
KINETIC : intrinsically dynamic; marked by continuous change or motion that is a natural tendency inherent in all things and situations; implies the unexpected and the unpredictable.
ECOLOGICAL : a holistic point of view, supported by modern science (in particular the systems approach) but rooted in a perception of reality that goes beyond the scientific framework to an intuitive, spiritual awareness of the oneness of all life and of the interdependence of its many manifestations, and of its cycles of change and t rans f ormat i on.
PARADIGM : the thoughts, perceptions, and values that form a particular vision of reality; a particular world view internalized by a society so that it unconsciously affects each individual's actions, perceptions and beliefs.


" This we know. The earth does not belong to man. This we know. All things are connected like the blood which unites one family. All things are connected. Whatever befalls the earth befalls the sons of earth. Man did not weave the web of life, he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself."
Ch i e f Seattle
"The views of nature held by any people determine all its institutions."
Ralph Waldo Emerson


TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWARD
A Personal Journey..................................... 1
INTRODUCTION
Context of Thesis...................................... 3
Nature of Thesis....................................... 4
Intention of Thesis.................................... 7
SYNOPS IS.................................................. 8
OUTLINE OF PROCESS......................................... 9
ASSLMPTIONS............................................... 12
INVENTORY / ANALYSIS
History, Philosophy, Environmental Studies
Cultural Paradigms................................ 14
Crisis of Perception.............................. !7
New Paradigm...................................... 20
Natural and Physical Science
Ecology, Biogeography, Geology, Soil Science...... 22
Phys ics.......................................... 26
Systems Theory.................................... 28
Thermodynamics: The Law of Entropy................ 29


INVENTORY / ANALYSIS (continued)
Landscape Architecture/Planning
Implications for the Profession.................. 30
Historical Overview.............................. 31
Dilerrma of the Profession....................... 34
SYNTHESIS / SOLUTION..................................... 3 7
Outline of Philosophical Framework................... 38
APPLICATION
Overview............................................. 41
"Design Guidelines".................................. 42
A Design for a Curriculum............................ 46
A Curriculum "Master Plan"....................... 48
A Curriculum "Design"............................ 54
CONCLUSION............................................... 68
BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................. 70
Appendix A
76


FOREWARD
A PERSONAL JOURNEY
I came down from the mountains to study Landscape Architecture in Denver because I was increasingly troubled by the disharmony in our society's attitude toward the natural world --by the rampant sprawling growth of the Front Range, the ever-increasing pall of air pollution and the empty materialism of people's lives. It seemed to me that our attitude toward, and use of, the land was a critical factor in what I saw happening in the Front Range.
I grew up in the Front Range of Colorado, as did my parents and my grandparents before them. It has been said that the Rocky Mountain West is the only geographic region in North America that is defined not by its people, but by the land itself. My perception of reality grew unconsciously out of the prairie rolling eastward to infinity and forested slopes rising westward to alpine tundra 14,000 feet high, all bound by an endless expanse of blue sky and fleeting thunderheads. I grew up loving the earth, though it was such a part of me that I would not have expressed it consciously.
Since I can remember I have been on a "vision quest" of
sorts, seeking knowledge, wondering why things are the way they are, what the point of it all is and how everything fits together. As an undergraduate, I studied psychology and philosophy, literature and anthropology, seeking answers. But there seemed to be only more pieces to the puzzle. My search led me out into the world as I began to travel and live in other cultures. I came to know and feel at home with the Kpelle people of Africa, the Mayan Indians of Central America, the Eskimos of Alaska; and the preconceptions of our culture began to fall away.
My work led me back to the land, first as a construction
laborer and tree-cutter, then in experiential outdoor
education. I grew to know the natural world without the
filters imposed upon it by our culture, spending years living under the stars with no more than a tarp or a snow shelter between myself and my environment and my only cultural implements those I could carry on my back, until I felt totally at home and at peace wandering the high tundra,
1


traversing a snow slope or climbing a rock face. Out of the perceptions and values of more "primitive" cultures and out of the lessons of nature I began to piece the puzzle together. But the more I understood the more troubled I was by the disparity between our society's attitude toward the natural world and an intuitive, mystical knowledge and kinship with nature. We seemed to be getting it all wrong.
Now, at the end of more formal education, I have learned the skills and the techniques of the profession of landscape architecture and planning. I have learned to think as a "designer" and the world will never look quite the same to me again. I have affirmed my sense of how critical is our feeling for and use of the land and what a pivotal (if still latent) role landscape architects/p1anners can play in that awareness. I am still troubled, but I see a direction for myself as I continue my "vision quest". I believe the answers to the staggering problems we face are to be found in the philosophy that underlies the practice.
This thesis is but the first step of a continuing journey. 1 thank the faculty --Dan, Jerry, Tom and Laurie-- and especially my fellow students -Ruth, Margot, Terri, Jacquie, Diane, Wayne, Dick, Andy and Robert- for sharing of themselves and helping me along my path.
2


INTRODUCTION
CONTEXT OF THESIS
Se 1 f-ref 1 ection and analysis have always marked the discipline of landscape architecture/p1anning in America. We ponder our significance and society's perception of our role. And, from Olmstead to McHarg, we have contemplated the philosophical basis of our practice. Recent authors are no exception. This thesis was sparked by Dunstan's (1983) call for a new set of values as the major issue confronting the profession and society today, and is in the nature of the theoretical work of Jusuck Koh (1982) who was offering a new paradigm, a fundamental restructuring of the philosophy underlying the profession.
3


INTRODUCTION
NATURE OF THESIS
The components that make up the discipline of architecture/ planning can be generally grouped following three categories (as shown in fig. 1):
1) philosophy, value system and ethics;
2) techniques, methodologies and skills;
3) practice, implementation and solutions.
NATURE OF THESIS
Philosophical/Theoretical
Fig. 1
l andscape into the
4


Component 1) addresses the realm of "why", component 2) the realm of "how" and component 3) the actual "doing" in the profession. Each component is integral to one another and to the practice of the profession as a whole. For "doing" depends equally on "why" and on "how". Knowing "how" can provide options for solving a problem, while knowing "why" offers a basis for decision-making.
The following thesis is an inquiry into the philosophy that underlies the practice of landscape architecture/ planning. It is concerned with the realm of "why".
There is a particular urgency today in addressing this facet of the practice. For as our technology rapidly becomes more sophisticated and powerful, decision-making becomes more complex and more critical. And the more complex the problems become the more the profession seeks the assistance of technology. As McHarg's and others' models of landscape ana 1ysis/p1anning are widely adopted and expanded to the computer and to remote sensing technology, the goal becomes to collect and quantify all components of the natural and cultural world to aid in that decision-making. Yet as Dunstan (1983) pointed out, we are becoming addicted to our maps and the technology behind them, accepting techniques and skills without acceptance (or understanding) of the philosophy behind them. We have led ourselves to believe that we can "design with nature" in an objective and rational manner. Yet in reality every design and planning decision requires a subjective judgement. Professions, after all, like societies, are not made up of facts and techniques; they are a way of looking at life. The integrity of every profession is bound up in its particular value and belief system.
It is the contention of this thesis that skills and techniques alone are unable to address the complex problems of the profession today. The answers are more likely to be found in an inquiry into the philosophy that forms a framework for the technology and the practice. The need for a "transformation of values" was the issue confronting McHarg when he wrote his classic textbook in the field of environmental planning and design, Design With Nature. in 1969 (Dunstan, 1983). Fifteen years later, the question of values continues to be the major issue facing society and the profession of landscape architecture/ planning.
Aldo Leopold perhaps expressed this point best in "The State of the Profession", The Journal of Wildlife Management, July
5


1940 (Schoenfeld et al 1972). Though he was speaking of his own profession of wildlife management, paraphrased for the profession of landscape architecture/ planning, the message is equally re 1evant:
Our profession began with the job of designing the landscape. However important that may seem to us, it is not very important to the emancipated moderns who no longer feel soil between their toes. We find that we cannot design a desirable landscape until the landowner changes his ways of using land, and he in turn cannot change his ways until his teachers, bankers, customers, editors and governors change their ideas about what land is for. To change ideas about what land is for is to change ideas about what anything is for. Thus the profession started out to move a straw and ends up with the job of moving a mountain.
6


INTRODUCTION
INTENTION OF THESIS
The basic intention of this thesis is to address the issue of philosophy and values in the practice of landscape architec-ture/p1anning. Through the following means an attempt was made to fulfill that intention:
1) conducting a broad literature review of many disciplines seeking an understanding and a basis for a va1ue-system;
2) developing a philosophical framework to guide decision-making in the profession;
3) designing a graduate curriculum as an application and incorporation of that framework.
7


SYNOPSIS OF THESIS
This thesis acknowledges the role of values in the profession of landscape architecture/p1anning, and emphasizes the importance of a world view (or paradigm) in providing a basis for decision-making in the discipline. An analysis of the dramatic changes in perception occurring in the natural and physical sciences reinforces the contention that we are in the midst of a profound paradigm shift in our society. The thesis proposes that the profession of landscape architec-ture/planning --from its conception in America-- is of the new "kinetic, ecological" paradigm that is emerging to replace the rational, mechanistic paradigm that has dominated our society for the last three hundred years. Through a synthesis of the newly-emerging awareness, a philosophical framework for the profession is developed that compares the rational, mechanistic paradigm to the kinetic, ecological paradigm. The framework is then applied to the design of a curriculum for a graduate program in landscape architec-ture/p 1 anning. Ultimately, the thesis calls for a reevaluation of values and challenges the profession to accept its role in the transformation.
8


OUTLINE OF PROCESS
The general approach taken in this thesis is indicated by the "outline of process" (as shown in fig.2). While the process appears to be a linear one, it is in fact circular and complex. Or as McHarg (1969) said in describing the "process" of his life:
I have found that it has been my instincts that have directed my paths and that my reason is employed after the fact, to explain where I find myself.
DEFINITION OF PROBLEM
The thesis began with the "definition of problem" as:
There is a need for a philosophical framework to guide decision-making in the discipline of landscape architecture/planning.
INVENTORY
The second step was that of "inventory". A broad literature review was conducted in the realms of natural science, physical science, philosophy, history, landscape planning and environmentalism (see fig. 3), seeking an understanding and a basis for a philosophical framework for the discipline.
ANALYSIS l SYNTHES IS
Each of the components inventoried was "analyzed" in the context of the problem and then a "synthesis" of the individual components v/as sought, or the determination of interconnections (see fig. 3).
SOLUTION j_ APPLICATION
The "solution" to the problem emerged as a philosophical framework, a construct of ideas. The philosophical framework was then "applied" to a design for a graduate landscape architecture/ planning curriculum and to the development of design guidelines for such a curriculum.
9


OUTLINE OF PROCESS
Definition of Problem
"the need for a philosophical framework to guide decisionmaking in the discipline'
Inventory
'literature review*
Analysis
*in the context of the problem'
Synthesis
‘interconnections*
Solution
‘a philosophical framework* (a construct of ideas)
Application
*a design for a graduate curriculum*
Fig. 2
10


Analysis
Inventory
Synthesis
Fig. 3
11


ASSUMPTIONS
The statement that "there is a need for a philosophical framework to guide decision-making" does not mean to imply that there is currently no philosophical framework in the profession. Rather it is based on two assumptions:
1) that something is basically wrong with the way we are going about our business in the world today, as a society and as a profession; it is the contention of many that we are in the midst of a profound mu 11i-dimensiona1 world-wide crisis that has critical implications for societies, professions and individuals alike.
2) that the root of the problems we are facing lies in the predominant philosophy, the value system, the world view or paradigm of society, of professions and of individuals.
The evidence for these assumptions can be seen on a global or a local level. From a global perspective, the symptoms of the problems facing the world today are recorded every day in the news and have been documented by many authors. Whether we talk about crime, cancer, pollution, nuclear weapons, inflation or an energy shortage, the dynamics underlying each are the same. Fritjof Capra (1982) describes our condition as a state of profound world-wide crisis, a complex, multidimensional crisis whose facets touch every aspect of our lives --our health and livelihood, the quality of our environment and our social relationships, our economy, technology and politics. It is a crisis of intellectual, moral and spiritual dimensions, a crisis of a scale and urgency unprecedented in recorded human history. We are living in a situation so paradoxical it borders on insanity. We can control soft landings of spacecraft on distant planets, but we are unable to control the polluting fumes from ours cars and factories that are poisoning the air we breath and destroying millions of acres of forest world-wide. We propose Utopian space colonies, yet cannot create any semblance of quality of life in our cities. For the first time we face the very real threat of extinction of the human race and of all life on this planet.
Looking a little closer to home, the Front Range of Colorado
12


represents in microcosm the crisis facing the world today. Neal Pierce and Jerry Hagstrom in The Book of America (1983) title their chapter on Colorado, " A Tragedy in the Making ". Pierce and Hagstrom pay homage to the breathtaking scenery of Colorado, the jobs available and the friendly relaxed lifestyle. Yet behind the glitter of the energy boom and the ski resorts, and the pristine beauty of the national forests, they see massive problems lurking that Coloradoans as a society seem unwilling to address. Perhaps the worst problem, they say, is that because no stark degradation or shocking environmental disaster exist, people have been lulled into thinking that there will be no crisis, that a solution can be found to all the growth problems. Pierce and Hagstrom, however, sense a gathering crisis of deeply disturbing proportions: the gradual decline in the quality of life , a steady loss of agricultural land, open space, wildlife habitat, and landscape diversity, all accompanied by worsening traffic and air quality . The tragedy they see looming is that in this model of the progressive, "developed" western state in America, a once-in-a-1ifetime opportunity to build a resilient, conserving society in one of the most exquisite places on earth will have been lost forever.
And finally, a specific illustration of the problem in Boulder County was outlined in a recent article in the Boulder Camera (Malmsbury 1984). Wi 1 1 iam Weber , curator of the University of Colorado Herbarium and author of "the definitive book" on Front Range plants, describes the area as having one of the richest assortments of plants on the continent. A typical midwestern county might have 300 species of plants, while Boulder County has more than 1,500. Weber and many others are concerned, though, about the effect the rapidly growing Front Range population will have on the native plants. Already, many are being threatened by invasions of exotic plants and weeds that can quickly crowd out the more delicate natives. And there's little that anyone can do about it after the fact. According to Weber, "It's very difficult to revegetate to a (natural) stage that's taken hundreds of years to develop." Reclamation projects, in fact, often introduce exotic species that take over and crowd out the natives. "It's time for Colorado to think about native plants or we're going to lose them," says Tedd Beegle of the Colorado Native Plant Society. "Once the land is altered, it's altered for good.
13


INVENTORY / ANALYSIS
HISTORY, PHILOSOPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
Cultural Par ad i gms:
An inquiry into the philosophy underlying the profession of landscape architecture/p1anning requires an understanding of the broader context of a cultural paradigm. For the substance, the very essence, of a society is its beliefs, its philosophies, its perception of the world. The need to construct a frame of reference to explain the how and why of daily existence has been the essential cultural ingredient of every society (Rifkin, 1980).
Historians have documented the patterns of change in culture as continual and unpredictable; and correspondingly the world view of societies has fluctuated greatly over the 10,000 years that recent civilization has existed. We must realize that our particular notion of reality is a relatively recent invention. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of a society's world view is that its individual adherents are, for the most part, unconscious of how it affects the way they do things and the way they perceive reality. A world view is successful, then, to the extent that it is so internalized, from childhood on, that it goes unquestioned (Rifkin, 1980).
Capra (1982) has suggested that the patterns of change in cultural growth parallel the kinetic rhythm that has been observed throughout the ages as the fundamental dynamic of the universe. Ancient Chinese philosophers believed that all manifestations of reality are generated by the dynamic interplay between two polar forces --the yin and the yang--polar opposites of a single whole that set the limits for the cycles of change. The natural order was believed to be one of dynamic balance in the continuous movement between these polar forces.
This ancient view of reality can be extended to the two modes of consciousness, or ways of knowing, which have been recognized as characteristic of the human mind throughout its evolution (Capra 1982). These two modes are usually called the "intuitive”, traditionally associated with mysticism and religion, and the "rational", associated with science.
14


Rational thinking is linear, focused and analytic. Belonging to the realm of the intellect, its function is to discriminate, measure, and categorize. Rational knowledge tends to be fragmented as its approach requires reducing a whole into its component parts for analysis. Intuitive knowledge on the other hand, is based on a direct, non-intellectual experience of reality arising in an expanded state of awareness. It tends to be synthesizing, holistic and non-linear. Rational knowledge is likely to generate self or ego-centered, "yang" activity, whereas intuitive wisdom is the basis for "yin", environmentally oriented activity (see fig. 4).
WORLD VIEWS (PARADIGMS)
• Organic
• Holistic
• Ego-oriented
Fig. 4
Two profound cultural transformations mark the history of western culture: 1) the rise of civilization with the emergence of the Agricultural Age 10,000 years ago and 2) the transition to the Scientific/Industria 1 Age three hundred years ago. The Agricultural Age was dominated by an intuitive, organic view of reality in which the human purpose
15


was not to "achieve things" through material growth and gain, but to seek spiritual enlightenment and transcendence. Towards this end, society was viewed as a kind of divinely directed moral organism in which each person had a part to play as they prepared for life beyond the earthly plane (Rifkin 1980).
The Scientific/1ndustria 1 Age of the past three hundred years has, on the other hand, been dominated by a rational, mechanistic paradigm --our modern world view. Among other things that world view has led us to believe that nature has an order to it, that scientific observation is objective and that the world is progressing toward a more valuable state as a result of the steady accumulation of human knowledge and technology (Rifkin 1980). The Scientific/Industria 1 Age is the machine age; precision and predictability are the premier values. The universe is seen as a grand machine, set in motion aeons ago by the supreme technician, God, but ruled by the laws of mathematics which reduces all the qualities of life to tasteless, colorless, odorless quantities. Science and technology become the tools to bring the order of the universe to the more primeval and chaotic nature of life on earth. Society becomes properly materialistic and individualistic as its sole purpose is to protect and allow for the increase of the property of its members. And the role of the state is to promote the subjugation of nature so that people might acquire the material prosperity necessary for fulfillment. Progress is seen, then, as the process by which the "less ordered" natural world is harnessed by humans to create a more ordered material environment (Rifkin 1980).
"Humanism" has become our guiding philosophy as we have transformed our previous faith in a higher authority to unquestioning faith in the power of reason and in our own omnipotence. The "arrogance of humanism" has led us to believe that no problem is insoluble with enough reason (and its tool, technology) applied, that we can manage Nature and plan the future, and even has us believing that the law of gravity exists in order to make it easier for us to sit down (Ehrenfeld 1978).


Crisis of Percept ion:
The modern cultural paradigm that claims to explain the world we experience --the rational, mechanical world view; the world view of mathematics, science and technology; the world view of materialism and progress-- has begun to unravel and fall apart. It is the contention of many that we are in the midst of another major paradigm shift and thus the crisis we are facing today in the world is a "crisis of perception". Deloria compares the perception of reality in any civilization undergoing change to the pieces of a mosaic (Samples 1981). At a certain point in the process of replacing one piece with another, we no longer have a clear picture of what we had, and we do not yet have a clear picture of the new pattern we are creating. There is a
dreadful middle ground in this process of transformation in which we simply substitute meaningless pieces over and over again (see fig. 5).
The crisis we find ourselves in is based in trying to apply the concepts of an outdated world view --the mechanistic
“new reality”
“old reality”
Fig. 5
17


paradigm of Cartesian/Newtonian science, that has dominated the western world for the past three hundred years -- to a reality that can no longer be understood in terms of those concepts. Our culture has been giving us reason when we need myth, separateness when we need unity and straight lines when we need circles.
The gravity and global extent of the current crisis indicate to many that we are in the midst of a profound paradigm shift that is likely to result in a transformation of unprecedented dimensions. Our old ways of thinking, old formulas, dogmas, and ideologies, no matter how cherished or useful in the past, no longer fit the facts. The world that is fast emerging from the clash of new values and technologies, new geopolitical relationships, new life-styles and modes of communication, demands wholly new ideas and analogies, classifications and concepts. We cannot cram the embryonic world of tomorrow into yesterday's conventional cubbyho1e s.
Toffler (1980) uses the metaphor of colliding waves of change to describe the paradigm shift we are experiencing (see fig. 6).
Colliding Waves of Change
Fig. 6
Until now the human race has undergone two great waves of change, each one obliterating earlier cultures or civilizations and replacing them with ways of life inconceivable to those to those who came before. The First Wave of change --


the agricultural revolution-- took thousands of years to play itself out. The Second Wave --the rise of industrial civilization-- took a mere three hundred years. Today history is even more accelerative, and it is likely that the Third Wave will sweep across history and complete itself in a few decades.


New Paradi gm;
Our recent rational, intellectual development, a one-sided evolution, has led us to an alarming state of imbalance. It is the contention of many that we are entering a period of kinetic balance between the intuitive and the rational way of knowing, an intermediate, synthesizing stage which represents their harmonious blending (see fig. 7).
WORLD VIEWS (PARADIGMS)
Fig. 7
Tending to attain the highest and noblest expressions of the rational and the intuitive, the intermediate stage produces balance, integration and aesthetic fulfillment. We are in the midst of a paradigm shift that will result in an "ecological"


"ecological" view of reality says Capra (1982). This holistic
point of view is supported by the knowledge of modern
science, but rooted in the ancient mystical v/isdom that recognized the oneness of all life, the interdependence of its multiple manifestations and its continuous cycles of change.
As Schumacher (1973) says, it is becoming apparent that the whole crux of life is that it constantly requires
reconciliation of opposites v/hich in strict logic are irreconcilable --whether that dichotomy is between emotion and reason, or between the ego-centered needs of every thing and the interconnectedness of all things, or is in
Schumacher's own dictate of "thinking globally and acting local 1 y".
Basic to the new paradigm that is emerging is the awareness of the "kinetic" nature of the universe --the unexpected and the unpredictable nature of Nature-- in which all manifestations of reality are seen as intrinsically dynamic, marked by continuous change or motion that is a natural tendency inherent in all things and situations (Capra 1982). That awareness is a key component in the profound changes in perception that have occurred this century in physics, ecology and other disciplines, discussed later.
We are entering an age,then, of knowing science through a mystic's mind. Modern ecological wisdom demands a new orientation of science and technology towards the organic, the gentle, the non-violent, the elegant, the beautiful (Schumacher 1973). Ecological wisdom does not exist so that we can outwit nature --an impossible task-- but rather to comprehend it and guide ourselves accordingly. Science, after all, is within not without man. Its roots are as ancient as he. From the beginning his great occupation, aside from maintaining life and indeed necessary to that, has been to make some kind of sense out of himself and the world around h im.
21


INVENTORY / ANALYSIS
NATURAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE
Eco 1ogy , Biogeography , Geo logy , So i 1 Sc i ence :
A review and analysis of literature on successional theory reveals a dramatic change in perception in the fields of ecology, biogeography, geology and soil science that closely parallels the emergence of the new world paradigm discussed above ( see also Appendix A).
Ecology, like all other fields, has been affected by swinging pendulums of opinion, though it only emerged as a distinct scientific discipline at the end of the 19th century. Ecology very early turned to a study of vegetation dynamics and succession. The early empirical, often intuitive, field ecology of America came under the influence of the dominant world view at the turn of the century --a mechanistic, reductionist, deterministic perspective. Thus ecological thought at the turn of the century was nearly all in what might be called closed systems of one kind or another, with some sort of balance or near balance the ultimate goal. Plant succession was thought to follow landform development and was followed itself by soil profile development.
The classical models of that time are referred to as "developmental" because they emphasize progressive evolution through discrete stages of landscape and vegetation on stable sites toward a stable unchanging endpoint. They are also referred to as "deterministic" because that sequence of change is assumed to be highly predictable and orderly (see fig. 8 ) .
Classically, the "climax" is considered to be the ultimate goal in plant corrmunity development representing a fully adjusted, unchanging and self-perpetuating system in a time phase of great stability, and with maximum diversity, biomass and production, and other specific attributes. Implicitly, or explicitly, the majority of other plant species and conmunities are relegated to "successional" status with less than maximum "fitness". These ideas represent beliefs that have been v/idely recognized and applied by many disciplines including landscape architecture/p1anning.
22


Yet recent research findings are contradicting the assumptions and generalizations of the classical theories, The interpretation of succession as the development of vegetation through discrete stages culminating in a predictable regional climax has been abandoned by modern ecologists. As the role of periodic natural disturbance in vegetation dynamics is increasingly recognized, developmental models of succession with their assumptions of long-term stability are being abandoned in favor of non-equilibrium models which accept as normal the instability of site and of associated vegetation. The term "kinetic" has been suggested for those schemes of succession which emphasize continuous change as an essential part of complex, fluctuating systems and do not require the existence of stable endpoints (see fig. 8 ) .
ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION THEORY
Classical Model
“closed system' "developmental"
progressive evolution through discrete stages
“deterministic
predictable, orderly
ultimate goal- “climax'
fully-adjusted, self-perpetuating, unchanging, balanced maximum diversity
“static'
New View
“open system'
analyze processes of change
uncertainty, flexability, adjustablility
no “ultimate goal'
does not require existence of stable endpoint no consistent trend toward balance
“kinetic*
Fig. 8
Such a change in the perception of succession has shifted attention from the search for largely non-existent selfreplacing climaxes and the identification of discrete stages of successional stages, to the analysis of the actual processes of vegetation change. Numerous studies following disturbances of a site through such mechanisms as landslides, wind or human intervention suggest that all species of trees,


including those which make up the "climax" forest, were present from the start, indicating that a single group of species is not predestined to inhabit an area and seriously questioning the notion of "successiona 1 " species modifying the environment to make it more "fit" for the "climax" species.
An example is a recent model based on an aspen community in western Montana with the following species: aspen, lodgepole pine, larch, engleman spruce and douglas fir. The model suggests that with inter-fire periods of 20-130 years a corrmunity containing a mix of all 5 species occurs. If the inter-fire period increases aspen becomes inconspicuous and soon after (approximately 150 years) lodgepole disappears. An inter-fire period of 150-180 years will result in lodgepole regeneration from surviving cones but aspen density will be considerably reduced. If an inter-fire period of greater than 300 years occurs, larch will also be lost from the community, but will regenerate when a fire eventually occurs. If very short inter-fire periods (less than 20 years) occur the lodgepole will not have time to reach maturity and restore seed stocks and will be lost from the community, usually with aspen increasing in density.
Studies also show that in southern Wisconsin, the entire forest area is stable and diverse because of disturbance and subsequent reestablishment. Patches of different successional e n v i r o nme nts are continually changing size, position and geographic relationship depending on the disturbance regime. The assortment of species into different positions in the successional gradient is seen, then, as part of a complex dynamic regional process rather than as a single site pattern.
Research has also shown that the notion of maximum diversity in the climax state is an unrealistic view. A study of a northern hardwood forest area showed that the flood plain, which was subject to repeated ravages and destruction by high water and therefore was the youngest and most unstable surface, actually supports the most diverse forests in comparison to the more stable slopes and ridgetops surrounding it. And conversely, an evaluation of the ancient Redwood forests of the Pacific Northwest, a classic example of a climax community, indicates a relatively low diversity of spec i es.
Similar kinetic schemes are being presented for landscape
24


development as well. A current theory postulates that the surface features of the land are shaped by the opposing forces of uplift and erosion, and sees landforms as dynamic systems which continually adjust erosion and deposition (Pickett, 1976). Kinetic schemes are also being suggested in soil classification. The evidence is mounting now in all these disciplines that the systems are open, not closed, and that there is probably no consistent trend towards balance. Raup (1964) suggests that in the present state of our knowledge, we should instead think in terms of massive uncertainty, flexability and adjustability.


Physics:
Dramatic changes in perception have also occurred in the field of physics since the beginning of this century. The broad nature of the conceptual upheavals in the physical and natural sciences have profound implications for the practice of landscape architecture and planning. For as Paul Sears (1966) has written, the use of the land is to ecology what engineering is to physics. As an applied discipline that meshes land use planning and engineering with physical design, landscape architecture/p1anning is dependent on the knowledge of the physical and natural sciences for wise decision-making (see also Appendix A.)
As described by Fritjof Capra (1982), a physicist and author of The Tao of Physics and The Turning Point, the exploration of the atomic and subatomic world in the early 1900's brought scientists in contact with a strange and unexpected reality that shattered the foundations of their view of the world and forced them to think in entirely new ways. The assumptions of the dominant world view, that of the universe being a giant machine made up of a multitude of separate objects, simply did not fit the new reality. Every time they asked nature a question in an atomic experiment, nature answered with a paradox. The scientists became painfully aware that their basic concepts, their language, their whole way of thinking were inadequate to describe the atomic phenomena they were observing. Their problem was not merely intellectual but amounted to an intense emotional and even existential crisis. Because the new physics necessitated profound changes in the concepts of space, time, matter, object, and cause and effect, which are so fundamental to our experiencing of the world, their transformation came as a great shock.
A few examples will clarify the nature of the transformation. Experimental investigations revealed that matter and light can be, at the same time , both a particle and a wave, a situation hopelessly paradoxical under the classical concepts. The situation required a new way of thinking, in which an electron, for instance, may show partic1e-1ike aspects in some situations and wave-like aspects in others, each manifestation at the expense of the other, thus undergoing continual transformations in its nature. The implication, then, is that the neutron or any other atomic "object" has no intrinsic properties independent of its environment, nor does it have any objective properties independent of the observer's mind (Capra 1982).
o a.


The resolution of the partic1e/wave paradox forced physicists to accept an aspect of reality that called into question the very foundation of the mechanistic world view --the concept of the reality of matter. At the subatomic level, matter shows only "tendencies to exist" and atomic events show only "tendencies to occur". It follows that we can never predict an atomic event with certainty; we can only predict the likelihood of its happening. Further, subatomic particles are seen not as "things" but as interconnections between "things" which in turn are interconnections between other "things".
Thus modern physics reveals the basic oneness of the universe and shows we cannot reduce the world into independently existing smallest units. Nature, the physicists found, does not show us isolated building blocks of matter but rather appears as a complicated web of intrinsically dynamic relations between the various parts of a unified whole. It follows that no part of the universe can be understood as a separate entity, but rather must be defined by its relations to other things (Capra 1982).
In one last example, the classical view of the universe reduced the world into parts and then arranged them according to causal laws in a deterministic picture of nature as a giant clockwork with the properties of the parts determining those of the whole. In the new physics, however, individual events were found to not always have a well-defined cause, especially one brought about by a local connection. Rather, the behavior of any part is determined by its non-local connections to the whole, and because those connections are farther removed and much more complex, causality can not be known with any degree of certainty. In essence, it is actually the whole that determines the behavior of the parts (Capra 1982).
The dramatic change in concepts and ideas that shook physics in the early 1900's shattered all the principle concepts of the mechanistic paradigm and led to an organic, ecological view of the world which shows great similarities to the views of mystics of all ages and traditions. It took the physicists many years to overcome their crisis of perception, but in the end they were rewarded with deep insights into the nature of matter and its relation to the human mind. For they saw that we can never speak of nature again without at the same time speaking of ourselves (Capra 1982). The world today finds itself in a similar crisis; the opportunities for insight are equally profound.
27


Systems Theory:
Another recent development in the study of ecology represents well the transformation sweeping through science in this century. The discipline of "systems ecology" emerged in the past twenty years as a means of balancing the scientific trend toward reductionism and the need for holism in environmental analysis of an increasingly complex world. It is a point of view that represents a radical departure from the mechanistic, linear assumptions of the Cartesian/Newton-ian paradigm that has dominated for the last three hundred years. Systems ecology seeks to understand the bewildering complexity of ecosystems by analyzing their development, dynamics, and disruption. And consistent with the new views of physics, successional theory and landform development, two basic tenets of systems ecology are: the unexpected can be expected; and unpredictable change is a part of every natural system (Shoemaker 1983).
9 Q


Thermodynamics j_ The Law of Entropy
Inherent in the emerging intuitive, ecological world view, also, is a renewed comprehension of the Law of Entropy and its implications for human behavior. The Entropy Law is the second law of of thermodynamics. The first law states that all matter and energy in the universe is constant, that it cannot be created or destroyed; only its form can change but never its essence. The second law, the Entropy Law, states that matter and energy can only be changed in one direction, from usable to unusable or from available to unavailable. Thus it is said that the total material entropy of the universe is increasing (as entropy is a measure of the extent of decrease in available energy). In essence the Entropy Law says that everything in the entire universe began with structure and value and is irrevocably moving in the direction of random chaos and waste (Rifkin 1980).
According to the Entropy Law, any local decrease in entropy (or creation of order) will be at the expense of increasing the overall entropy of the surrounding environment (causing even greater disorder). Although all living things are dependent upon moving toward equilibrium (or negative entropy, by absorbing free energy from the surrounding environment) to stay alive, even the tiniest plant maintains its own order at the expense of creating greater disorder in the overall environment. Though we have all been taught that matter recycles itself, we have generally failed to recognize that a price is paid each time in terms of a decrease in "available" energy. That unavailable energy is what pollution is all about (Rifkin 1980).
The principle of entropy is one that needs to be felt as much understood intellectually; it requires an intuitive awareness. For it transcends the assumptions of the rational, mechanistic world view we have been operating under for the past three hundred years. The Entropy Law shatters the notion that science and technology create a more orderly world. The Entropy Law destroys the notion that there are no physical limits that place constraints on human action or material acquisition in the world. The Law of Entropy suggests that we abandon pride for humility and says that more of a good thing is not better (Rifkin 1980).
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INVENTORY / ANALYSIS
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
Imp 1icat ions for the Profession
The evidence is overwhelming that we are in the midst of dramatic change in the way we perceive and make sense of the world and in the way we organize our notion of reality. The implications for the practice of landscape architecture/p 1 an-ning are profound. For professions, like societies, are not made up of facts and techniques; they are a way of looking at life. Every profession is founded on and guided by a particular belief system. That belief system typically mirrors the dominant paradigm of the time. From its beginning in America, though, the profession of landscape architec-ture/p1anning has been something of an anomaly.
It is important to realize that although our culture has been dominated by a mechanistic, reductionist, rational paradigm for the last three hundred years, an undercurrent of awareness of another reality has always been present. A major upswelling of that awareness --a precursor of the new paradigm emerging-- occurred in the latter 1800's in America with the ideas of Emerson, Thoreau and the "Transcendental-ists", and the Conservation Movement that followed establishing the first national parks and forests. The wave of awareness reached new heights in the 1960's with the broadsweeping environmental movement and the resulting national environmental protection legislation. Now, as we enter the last two decades of the century, that wave is poised to engulf the old view as the new paradigm emerges.
It is my contention that the profession of landscape architecture/p1anning in America is of this new paradigm. For landscape architecture came into being in the upswelling of the latter 1800's, led by Fredrick Law Olmstead. Landscape planning came to the forefront in the ecological awareness of the I960's led by Ian McHarg, at the height of a movement calling for a balance of the rational and the intuitive. And now in the 1980's, others in the profession are bringing the awareness of our role in the transformation to the forefront.


Historical Overview
One of the key indicators of a society's values is its attitude toward the land. Those values are typically reflected by the professions who presume to design, plan and manage the land and its resources. In the tracing the history of landscape architecture/p1anning in western society, however, a curious anomaly is noticed (see fig. 9).
HISTORY OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE/PLANNING
Mechanistic Ecological
Paradigm________ Paradigm
17th Century
Villas & Gardens of France & Italy
18th Century
English Landscape Design
19th Century
American Landscape Architecture
20th Century
American Landscape Planning
Fig. 9
Let us look first at the practice of landscape design at the time of the emergence of the rational, mechanistic paradigm. The assumption of power by man during the Renaissance, rejecting the cosmography of the Middle Ages, was reflected in the early landscape design of villas and gardens in Italy and France. In these designs the authority of man over a base nature was made visible by the imposition of the supreme laws of geometry upon the landscape (McHarg 1969). In the western tradition, landscape design has since been identified with


garden-making in which decorative plants are arranged in a simple geometry as a comprehensible symbol of a submissive and orderly world, created by man. Here the ornamental qualities of plants are paramount -- no ecological concepts of community or association, viability or sustainability, confound the objective of the designer. The dominant world view --the mechanistic, rational paradigm-- is reflected in such garden making, for it is only man who believes himself apart from nature who needs such a garden (McHarg 1969).
An alternative philosophy --an undercurrent of the new awareness emerging in society today-- appeared in English landscape design in the 18th century, counter to the world view that dominated western society (see fig. 10). A handful of landscape architects took the images of writers, poets and painters of the period and the hints of a quite different order and accomplished a beneficent transformation of the denuded landscape of their nation. They believed that some unity of man-nature was possible and could not only be created but idealized. It is a testimony to the prescience of these landscape architects that, lacking a science of ecology, they used native plants to create communities that so well reflected natural processes that their creations have endured and are self-perpetuating. Their ruling principle --"nature is the gardener's best designer" -- founded applied ecology as the basis for function and aesthetics in the landscape (McHarg 1969).
This entirely new view did not enter the American consciousness until the middle 1800's, and it was not until the end of the century that it found a worthy advocate in Frederick Law Olmstead. Olmstead was a pioneer in the new -for America - profession of Landscape Architecture with his creation of New York's Central Park in the 18 6 0 ' s. A man with the imagination and sensitivity of an artist and the iron will of an executive, Olmstead was a complex character -- an idealist and a perfectionist with a driving social conscience who remained uncertain for many years about the choice of a career. At the age of 26 he took up scientific farming and then writing. His first book, Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England, reflected his almost passionate response to the English countryside and foreshadowed his life work (Brooks 1980).
An ardent advocate of both city parks and wilderness preservation, Olmstead's leadership was critical in the preservation of Yosemite valley. As a writer, an


administrator or a designer of the landscape , he demonstrated a deeply sensitive response to nature and a fierce conviction in his beliefs. His amazing accomplishments were in shaping and refining not only the land itself, but also the American public's attitude toward it. Olmstead was ahead of his time in recognizing man's joy in nature as an integral part of his culture. He v/as an idealist who dreamed of a harmonious relationship between man and nature that has yet to be realized. The essence of Olmstead's theory of e n v i r o nme ntal planning was a reverence for the fund ame n t a 1 characteristics of all living matter and a belief that if ecological laws were violated, there was little basis for the social planning that was assumed to be a rational relationship between human beings and the physical environment (Brooks 1980).


Dilemma of the Profession
Olmstead was part of an undercurrent of awareness, beginning with Emerson, Thoreau and the "Transcendenta 1ists" in the 1830's that ran counter to the prevailing philosophy of the time. For only in the smallest part was the American attitude toward the land affected by the ideas of Olmstead and his companions. The West had been opened and the great depredations were not to be halted (McHarg 1969). The early landscape architects attempted to make the public aware of the folly in failing to recognize the natural world as an inseparable part of the cultural world, and in failing to integrate the rational and the intuitive. In doing so they were at the forefront of the profound wave of change we are experiencing today.
Landscape architecture in America from its conception, then, was a part of the leading edge of a new vision of reality. The discipline was conceived as one of synthesis and integration, based on scientific principles but deeply reverent of the natural world. Continuing that philosophy, the early 1900's saw the development of a landscape and ecological emphasis in regional planning --a radical change in perspective. For in the dominant view of our culture, the location, form and growth of development on the land is prescribed by the social sciences, especially the principles of economics. The new view, aided by the national resource conservation movement of the turn of the century, declared that the natural sciences --particularly ecology-- provide the single indispensable basis for landscape architec-ture/p1anning (Anderson 1980).
The profession was caught in a dilenma, however, for it was functioning in a society whose guiding philosophies were rational, mechanistic, reductionist and linear. Small wonder, then, that the practitioners, for all their intentions and intuitions in entering the profession, often fell in line with the dominant paradigm in their practice (see also Appendix A). Landscape architecture began to move away from its roots in the 1920's. The practice began to be regarded as a fine art and the national professional association, ASLA, made a concerted and successful effort to get the profession's academic programs transferred from science-oriented colleges to colleges of fine arts or architecture. The result was a reinforcement of the reductionist view of the environment held by society. The move also developed an exclusive and elitist view of environmental design


exclusive in that the designer's focus was on high art and elitist not only in that the designers were always presumed to know better, but in that they believed they were the only ones who could and should shape and determine our living environment (Koh 1982).
Again, though, in the 1960's the undercurrent of the new paradigm reached an even higher level of intensity, and a landscape architect, Ian McHArg, was instrumental in awaking the general public to such notions as the inter-connectedness of all things and the dark side of unbridled technology. McHarg, one of the initiators of landscape planning as it is practiced today, was as impassioned in his sensitivity to the natural world and as firm in his conviction as was Olmstead a century before. He recognized that the failure of the western world lies in its prevailing values:
Show me man-oriented society in which it is believed that reality exists only because man can perceive it, that the cosmos is a structure erected to support man on its pinnacle, that man exclusively is divine and given dominion over all things ... and I will predict the nature of its cities and landscapes ... this is the image of the anthropomorphic man; he seeks not unity with nature but conquest (McHarg 1969).
McHarg (1969) stressed that in times past, when man represented no significant power to change nature, it mattered little to the world what views he held. Today, when he has emerged as potentially the most destructive force in nature and its great exploiter, it matters very much indeed.
McHarg's great strength and power --measured by the profound influence his ideas have had, not only in the profession, but far beyond-- is found in his philosophy and in his broad concerns, and in his ability to combine the rational with the intuitive (as Olmstead did one hundred years before). More than anyone else, McHarg brought an increased awareness of environmental factors to regional analysis of landscapes (Anderson 1980). He sought out the experts in ecology and the other natural and physical sciences for an accurate model of the world and ourselves --and the interaction between the two-- and utilized their knowledge in his approach to landscape planning. Above all, he called for a transformation of values, in the profession and in society as a whole.
As the profession enters the I980's, there is yet again a new wave of awareness that we have not yet achieved that


transformation. Dunstan (1983) claims that the profession has adopted McHarg's techniques and skills (the rational component) and ignored the emotional and spiritual dimension, the philosophy and value system (the intuitive component) of his concepts and practice. Koh (1982), in an examination of the philosophy of the design professions, rejects the assumptions of the mechanistic paradigm as a model for practice and offers a new "eco1ogica1" paradigm for design.


SYNTHESIS / SOLUTION
A c ommo n thread links the philosophical, historical, environmental and scientific literature and ideas reviewed earlier. A synthesis of the new concepts in such diverse fields as physics and ecological succession theory, in the context of changing world views, was found to lead the profession of landscape architecture/p1anning back to its roots. By looking at the interconnections between all of the components inventoried and analyzed, seeking the essence of each, it was possible to develop a philosophical framework to guide decision-making in the practice of landscape architecture/p1anning as we enter a new age.
The philosophical framework is outlined as a comparison between the mechanistic paradigm and the kinetic ecological paradigm. It is organized into the following components:
l) general characteristics
2 ) genera 1 at t i tude
3) nature of knowledge
4) view of history
5 ) nature of soc iety
6) purpose of life
7 ) nature of sc i ence
8) view of nature
9) view of reality.
The outline of the philosophical framework, the "solution" to the "problem" set out in this thesis, follows.


OUTLINE OF PHILOSOPHICAL FRAMEWORK :
Comparison of Mechanistic Paradigm and Kinetic Ecological Paradigm
Genera 1 Character ist ics
Genera 1 Attitude
Nature of Knowledge
View of Hi story
Nature of Society
Purpose of Life
Mechanistic Paradigm
1. Reductionist, linear, rational, unbalanced, di s integrat i ng.
1. The "arrogance of Human-i sm"; supreme faith in human reason and ability to avoid limits of nature.
2. "Doing"
1. Committed to the "how" of things.
2. Rational, objective understanding that can be made available in the marketplace.
I. A cumulative progression toward perfection, through growth and material gain.
1. Materialistic and i nd i v i duaIi s t i c.
I. Material production and consumpt i on
Kinetic Ecological Paradigm
I. Synthesizing, holistic, balanced, integrating.
1. Abandons pride for humility and reverence; accept limits (Law of Entropy) on human activity.
2. "Being"
I. Asks the "why" of things.
2. Kinetic ecological awareness that must be built into the wisdom of the human race.
1. An ever repeating cycle moving from order/perfection to ent ropy/chaos.
i. Spiritualistic; balancing ego-centered and environment oriented act ivi ty.
1. To move toward becoming one with the meta-physical universe.
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OUTLINE OF PHILOSOPHICAL FRAMEVMDRK :
Mechanistic Paradigm Kinetic Ecological Paradigm
Nature of Sc i ence i. Purpose is to develop knowledge so man can use nature for material gain. I. Exists so that we can comprehend nature and guide ourselves accordingly.
2. Scientific observation is objective and absolutely repeatab1e. 2. An "object" has no intrinsic properties independent of its e n v i r o nme n t. An "object" has no objective properties independent of its observer's mind. Nothing is observable in the same manner twice.
3. Science replaces mysticism and ethics. 3. Science embraces mysticism and ethics.
View of Nature 1. The universe is a machine, simply matter in motion. 1. Nature appears as a complicated web of intrinsically dynamic relations between the various parts of a whole.
2. Man is separate from Nature. 2. We cannot speak of nature without speaking of ourselves.
3. Nature is only of value when it is transformed by man to a productive state. 3. Everything has an inherent and unalienable right to life by the virtue of its existence.
4. Nature must be subjugated so individuals can prosper. 4. We must integrate ourselves harmoniously into nature.
5. Nature was given to us to have dominion over. 5. The notion of stewardship implies condescension toward the rest of nature.
39


OUTLINE OF PHILOSOPHICAL FRAMEWORK :
View of Reality
Mechanistic Paradigm
1. Reduced to that which can be measured, quantified and tested.
2. There are universal laws and order established by mathematical formulas and scientific knowledge.
3. All phenomena are isolated, fixed components of matter.
4. The universe must be reduced into "things" to be understood.
5. The parts define the whole.
6. Causality is well-defined; any set of initial conditions can lead to one and only one final state.
7. The universe is predict-ab1e and orderly.
Kinetic Ecological Paradigm
1. Incorporates the qualitative, the mystical and the metaphysical.
2. Every event is unique; its own occurrence distinguishes it from all other events.
3. Everything is part of a
dynamic flow, always in the process of becoming.
4. "Things" must be defined by their relations and interconnections with other "things".
5. The whole determines the behavior of the parts.
6. Causality is not well-defined; a given set of initial conditions can lead to several possible alternative states.
7. Unexpected, unpredictable change is part of nature; we can only think in terms of probabi1i t ies.
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APPLICATION
OVERVIEW
Throughout the history of our culture, educational
environments have served as the catalyst for new ideas in society. An academic institution provides the opportunities to search, reflect, ponder and question. For this reason, the decision was made to apply the philosophical framework to a design for a graduate landscape architecture/p1anning
curriculum. V/hat better way to reach the broadest audience in raising the awareness of the new paradigm emerging in society and in fostering the opportunity to participate in the transformation. For, typically, the lessons learned in an academic program lay a powerful groundwork for the philosophy, methodologies and techniques employed by professionals for the remainder of their careers. Because of that potential influence, it becomes critical that educational environments not cling to outmoded ways of operating, but rather remain responsive to the ideas that will serve students, and society, best in the challenges of the future.
The application of the philosophical framework to a graduate landscape architecture/p1anning program has two components:
1) "Design Guidelines" --for any program seeking to follow the outline of the kinetic ecological
pa r ad i gm.
2) a particular "Design for a Curriculum" within the parameters of the philosophical framework.
A description and outline of each follows.
41


APPLICATION
"DESIGN GUIDELINES"
The first component outlines overall guidelines that establish the parameters for any graduate architecture/plann-ing program seeking to follow the concepts of the kinetic ecological philosophical framework. The design guidelines are organized with the following components:
1) approach to learning
2) emphasis of teaching
3) role of inst ructor
4) role of s tudent
5) method of assessing appropriateness
6) approach to design
7) role of research
8) outreach approach.
The complete outline of "design guidelines" for a graduate landscape architecture/p1anning curriculum follows.


"DESIGN GUIDELINES"
FOR A GRADUATE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE/PLANNING PROGRAM
APPROACH TO LEARNING 1. A broad holistic approach to knowledge. 2. Learning viewed as a method to better understand how to live within the 1imi ts set by nature.
3. The perception of learning as "progress" replaced by learning as a "process of becoming".
EMPHASIS OF TEACHING 1. Know "why", not just "how". 2. Focus on "process", not "product" and on "interconnections", not "things".
3. Integration and synthesis of all parts of the whole.
4. Experiential education (learning through experiencing and guided d i scovery).
5. Experimentation, not exercises.
6. Cooperation and coordination between faculty and students.
7. As a means not an end.
ROLE OF INSTRUCTOR 1. Co-worker, facilitator, coordinator, student (not "studio-master", critic, director).
ROLE OF STUDENT 1. Shares responsibility for education (from defining problems to determining their solutions).
43


"DESIGN GUIDELINES"
ROLE OF STUDENT (cont.) 2. Facilitator, coordinator (for other students, instructors, clients, users and public).
METHOD OF ASSESSING APPROPRIATENESS 1. Evaluated against philosophical framework. 2. Proven success as judged by users/ public in post-project evaluation.
3. By relative, not objective, criteria (by context of people, place and environment; not by line, form, space)
APPROACH TO DESIGN 1. Emphasis on "process" and "context" rather than on "artifact" and "form and space".
2. As a means not an end.
3. To avoid becoming professionally excellent but socially irrelevant, alienating to users and unresponsive to the ecosystem/bioregion.
4. A kinetic view; accept and anticipate change over time and probabilities of impacts; understand the dynamics of a project (natura 1/cu 11ura 1).
5. The whole defines the parts.
6. Avoid inflexible hierarchy in user/de-signer relationships (and similarly in instructor/student and inter-disciplinary relationships).


"DESIGN GUIDELINES"
ROLE OF RESEARCH 1. Emphasis on engaging faculty and students in a broad, holistic approach to theoretical and applied research. 2. Emphasis on cooperation with other disciplines to direct nature of research to address mutual needs.
OUTREACH APPROACH 1. Emphasis on internships (paid or unpaid, for credit or not) as a means of apprenticeship and of service. 2. Focus on seminars, workshops, service projects, continuing education, etc. involving with the corrmunity at large (including schools --from preschools to undergraduate programs-- the business corrmunity, civic organizations, etc.).
45


APPLICATION
A DESIGN FOR A CURRICULUM
The second component is a specific design for a landscape architecture/p1anning curriculum that both fulfill the intentions of the "design guidelines" acknowledge and put into practice the tenets of the ecological paradigm.
graduate seeks to and to k i ne t i c
The curriculum design makes the following assumptions:
1) the graduate program is directed toward those with undergraduate degrees in fields other than landscape arch i tecture;
2) the program consists of six semesters, each fifteen weeks in length;
3) the program operates under a "block approach" whereby a "block" of time is utilized exclusively to study or focus on one subject or realm of endeavor (in contrast to the more typical approach of tackling up to half a dozen classes in assorted subjects at one time during a semester).
In the curriculum design, each semester has an overall goal and is then divided into several components or "blocks" of time within the semester. Each component has a particular purpose and is designed to achieve the overall goal. The curriculum design is then organized in the following manner for each component:
1 ) purpose
2 ) ass ump t i o n
3) attitude
4) means (of achieving the desired purpose)
5) skills and abilities developed.
An overview or "master plan" for the curriculum design follows first. It outlines the components of each semester


with an explanation of the overall goal of the semester and the purpose of each component. Following that is a more detailed outline or "design details" of the curriculum describing purpose, assumptions, attitude, means and skills and abilities developed for each component.


A "MASTER PLAN"
FOR A GRADUATE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE/PLANNING CURRICULUM
SEMESTER 1 (I5 weeks) FALL
OVERALL GOAL To clarify an individual value system that will serve as a framework for decisionmaking in the practice of the profession.
COMPONENT 1: a 4 wk. block --2 wks. in the Plains, 2 wks. in the mountains.
Purpose To gain knowledge of and sensitivity to the natural environment.
COMPONENT 2: a 3 wk. block --in the desert; the entire school participates.
Purpose A "Vision Quest" --a journey of selfexploration, seeking to tap unused resources, develop intuitive abilities, expand awareness and synthesize the rational and intuitive ways of knowing.
COMPONENT 3: a 5 wk. block --at school.
Purpose To review and analyze philosophies and value systems throughout history, with particular emphasis on how they have influenced human use and design of the land; also incorporating the role of landscape architects/p1anners into that context.
COMPONENT 4: a 2 wk. block --at school.
Purpose To develop a personal philosophical framework --a value system-- as a basis for decisionmaking; also to develop a definition of the role of the profession in society.
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A CURRICULUM "MASTER PLAN"
SEMESTER 2
OVERALL GOAL
COMPONENT 1: Purpose
COMPONENT 2: Purpose
COMPONENT 3: Purpose
COMPONENT 4: Purpose
( 15 weeks) SPRING
To develop conmunicat ion, facilitation, problem-defining and problem-solving abilities.
a 4 wk. block --at school.
To understand basic human psychology and the nature of perception; also to develop an ethic of conmunicat ion and presentation.
a 3 wk. block --at school.
To develop methods of communication.
a 5 wk. block --at school.
To explore various approaches to problemdefining and problem-solving.
a 2 wk. block --at school.
To explore methods of research, finding information and "net-working".


A CURRICULUM "MASTER PLAN"
SEMESTER 3 (
OVERALL GOAL
COMPONENT 1 : Purpose
COMPONENT 2: Purpose
weeks) SIMvER
To integrate the knowledge and awareness gained in the 1st and 2nd semesters into the process of planning and designing projects.
3 wk. block --in the field.
To expand ecological knowledge to familiarity with plants (their characteristics, needs, etc.)
12 wk. block --at school and in the field.
To become aware of the process a "real-life" project goes through from its conception to planning, design and engineering to postproject eva1uat i on.


A CURRICULUM "MASTER PLAN"
SEMESTER 4 (15 weeks) FALL
OVERALL GOAL To expand the knowledge gained in semester 3 into the completion of integrated, comprehen sive "real" projects; also to complete preliminary planning of thesis.
COMPONENT 1: a 13 wk. block --at school and in the field.
Purpose To complete a variety of p 1 anning/design projects, focusing on various stages of the total process.
COMPONENT 2: a 2 wk. block --at school.
Purpose To complete the preliminary phase of thesis.
COMPONENT 3: (opt iona1) a 3 wk. block (concurrent) --in the canyon count ry
Purpose Assist in facilitating the "Vision Quest" of 1 s t year s t udent s.


A CURRICULUM "MASTER PLAN"
SEMESTER 5 (15 weeks) SPRING
OVERALL GOAL To expand the knowledge, awareness and skills developed in the previous 4 semesters through internships/apprenticeships; also the continuation of thesis.
COMPONENT 1: a 15 wk. block --outside school.
Purpose The completion of one or more internships/ apprenticeships (paid or unpaid) and the sharing of that experience with fellow students and faculty.
COMPONENT 2: a 15 wk. block (concurrent) --at school and/or e1sewhere.
Purpose The continuation of literature review, research, etc. for thesis.
52


A CURRICULUM "MASTER PLAN"
SEMESTER 6
OVERALL GOAL
COMPONENT 1: Purpose
COMPONENT 2: Purpose
15 weeks) SLMvIER
The same as above for semester 5 (internships); completion of thesis.
a 15 wk. block --outside school.
The same as component 1 of semester 5.
(internship/apprenticeship).
a 15 wk. block (concurrent) -- at school and/or e1sewhere.
The completion of thesis.
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A CURRICULUM DESIGN
FOR A GRADUATE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE/PLANNING PROGRAM
SEMESTER l 1 115 weeks) FALL
OVERALL GOAL To clarify an individual value system that will serve as a framework for decisionmaking in the practice of the profession.
COMPONENT 1: a 4 wk. block --2 wks. in the Plains, 2 wks. in the mountains.
Purpose 1. To gain knowledge of, and develop sensitivity to, the natural environment.
As sump t i on 1. This ability is essential to the effective practice of landscape architecture/p1ann- i ng. 2. To truly comprehend the natural world it is helpful to remove as many of the filters imposed by culture as possible.
At t i t ude 1. Environment-oriented. 2. From a kinetic perspective. 3. Seeking "interconnections", not "things". 4. Realizing that the whole defines the parts. 5. emphasizing "process", not merely "product".
Means 1. Live at a field site, utilizing such camps as the VVr ight-I ngraham Institute and the Leadville Outward Bound Center. 2. Utilize regional resources by inviting guest lecturers (from universities and private centers) for an intensive course in natural and physical science, focusing on historical context, interconnections and the current state of knowledge.
54


A CURRICULUM DESIGN
SEMESTER 1 -Me a n s (c o n t.
Ski 1 Is/ Abilities Deve1 oped
COMPONENT 2: Purpose
As sump t i on
At t i t ude Means
-COMPONENT 1 (cont.)
) 3. Utilize an experiential approach to
learning (through guided discovery and experience) as well as reading,discuss-ions, and 1ectures.
1. An understanding of the basics of ecology and of engineering from a dynamic sense.
2. Analysis and comprehension of complex, interconnected systems.
a 3 wk. block --in the canyon country.
i. A "Vision Quest" --a journey of selfexploration seeking to tap unused resources, develop intuitive abilities, expand awareness and creativity and synthesize the intuitive and rational ways of knowing.
1. This awareness is pivotal to creativity and the ability to design well.
2. To gain self-awareness it is helpful to remove as many of culture's distractions as pos s i b1e.
1. "Ego"-oriented.
1. Utilize the format of an Outward Bound course, spending the full time in the field.
2. Through guided discovery (an experiential approach to education).
3. Facilitated by outside staff with psychic development, as well as outdoor, skills.
55


A CURRICULUM DESIGN
SEMESTER 1
Skills/ Abilities Developed
COMPONENT 3 Purpose
Assumpt ion
At t i t ude
Means
Skills/ Abilities Deve1 oped
-COMPONENT 2 (cont.)
1. Heightened perception, expanded self-
awareness and confidence, clarity of mind and purpose, development of creativity.
a 5 wk. block --at school.
1. To review and analyze philosophies and value systems throughout history, with particular emphasis on how they have influenced human use and design of the land; also incorporating the role of landscape architects/p1anners into that context.
1. A broad perspective and comprehension of cultural changes over time is critical to developing a personal philosophical framework.
1. From a "cross-cultural" perspective.
2. With a kinetic perspective.
3. Seeking "interconnections".
4. Emphasizing "process", not merely "product".
1. Literature review, discussion, presentations (by staff, guest lecturers, students), creation of models, role-playing, writing.
2. Through guided discovery (an experiential approach).
1. Develop analytical and synthesizing ski 1 Is.
2. Understand the broader context of the profession of landscape architecture/ planning.
56


A CURRICULUM DESIGN
SEMESTER 1 (cont.)
COMPONENT 4: a 2 wk. block --at school.
Purpose 1. To develop and document a personal philosophical framework --a value system--as a basis for decision-making. 2. To develop and document a sense of the role of the profession in society.
As sump t i on 1. Every planning and design decision requires a subjective judgement.
At t i t ude 1 . Syn thes i z i ng. 2. Holistic.
Means 1. Small group discussions, individual counseling, written and graphic documentation, presentation to others. 2. Through guided discovery.
Ski 1 Is/ Ab i1i t i es Deve1 oped 1. Ability to analyze and synthesize. 2. Communication skills.


A CURRICULUM DESIGN
SEMESTER 2 (
OVERALL GOAL
COMPONENT 1: Purpose
Assumpt ion
At t i t ude Means
Ski 1 Is/ Abilities Developed
COMPONENT 2: Purpose
15 weeks) SPRING
To develop communication, facilitation, problem-defining and problem-solving abilities.
a 4 wk. block --at school.
1. To understand basic human psychology and the nature of perception.
2. To develop an ethic of corrmunicat ion and presentation as a groundwork for acquiring corrmun i ca t i on skills.
1. This understanding and awareness is critical to the effective and ethical practice of the profession.
1. From a "cross-cultural" perspective.
1. Literature review, discussions, presentations, experiments.
2. Through guided discovery.
1. The ability to analyze and synthesize.
2. Communication skills.
a 3 wk. block --at school.
1. To develop effective methods of commun-i ca tion.
58


A CURRICULUM DESIGN
SEMESTER 2 Assumpt i on
At t i t ude
Means
Skills/
Ab i1i t i es Deve1 oped
COMPONENT 3 Purpose
As s ump t i on
At t i t ude
Means
-COMPONENT 2 (cont.)
1. Without effective communication skills, all other capabilities are minimized.
Service-oriented; focused on the needs and perceptions of others (the audience).
1. Explore drawing, writing, speaking, photography, videography, computers, graphics and multi-media methods.
2. Through guided discovery.
3. Exposure to the "state of the art" in the profess ion.
1. Prob1em-defining/so1ving.
2. Facilitation, communication
a 5 wk. block --at school.
1. To explore various approaches to
problem-defining and problem-solving.
1. Defining a problem correctly is 90% of solving it effectively and wisely.
1. Take nothing for granted and make no ass ump t i o n s.
i. Exposure to tools for managing information --computer-aided analysis and design, participatory design, gaming simulation, systems modelling.


A CURRICULUM DESIGN
SEMESTER 2 --COMPONENT 3 (cont.)
Means (cont.) 2. Literature review, discussion, presentations (by staff, guest lecturers, students), creation of models, role-playing, experimentation.
3. Through guided discovery (an experiential approach).
Skills/ 1. Problem-defining and problem-solving.
Abilities
Developed
COMPONENT 4: a 2 wk. block --at school.
Purpose 1. To explore methods of research, finding information and "net-working".
Assumpt ion 1 . Ma s t e r y only to but for of these skills is critical not successful completion of thesis all* endeavors in the profession.
At t i t ude 1. Seeking inter-connect ions.
Means 1. Through pro j ec t s sharing of faculty research •
2. Through guided discovery.
Ski 1 Is/ Abilities Developed 1 . Inquiry, skills. documentation, organizational
60


A CURRICULUM DESIGN
SEMESTER 3 (i
OVERALL GOAL
COMPONENT l: Purpose
Assumpt i on
At t i t ude Means
Ski 1 Is/ Abilities Deve 1 oped
COMPONENT 2: Purpose
5 weeks ) SUIvMER
To integrate the knowledge and awareness gained in the 1st and 2nd sernesters into the process of planning and designing projects.
3 wk. block --in the field.
1. To expand ecological knowledge to
familiarity with plants (their characteristics, needs, etc.)
1. Comprehension of plant dynamics is vital to designing viable, sustainable landscapes .
1. From a dynamic and holistic perspective.
1. Through field study, lectures, discussions.
1. Comprehension of plants and plant dynamics.
12 wk. block --at school and in the field.
1. To become aware of the process a "real-life" broad scale project goes through from its conception to planning, design, engineering and post-project evaluation.
61


A CURRICULUM DESIGN
SEMESTER 3 - --COMPONENT 2 (cont.)
As sump t i on 1. The whole defines the parts.
At t i t ude 1. Holistic, synthesizing, integrating. 2. Seeking interconnections.
Means 1. By analyzing a "real" project from conception through the political process to design and implementation. 2. Utilizing comparisons of the processes of various types of projects. 3. Through lecture, demonstration and discussion of and experimentation with the various components of a project (fiscal planning, engineering, etc.) 4. Through completion of a studio project.
Ski 1 Is/ Ab i 1 i t i es Developed 1. The ability to analyze and synthesize. 2. Development of design and engineering ski 1 Is.
62


A CURRICULUM DESIGN
SEMESTER 4 (
OVERALL GOAL
COMPONENT 1: Purpose
As sump t i on At t i t ude
Means
Ski 1 Is/ Abilities Deve1 oped
COMPONENT 2:
Purpose
15 weeks) FALL
To expand the knowledge gained in semester 3 into the completion of integrated, comprehensive "real" projects; also to complete preliminary planning of thesis.
a 13 wk. block --at school and in the field.
1. To complete a variety of planning/design projects, focusing on various stages of the total process.
1. The whole defines the parts.
1. Holistic, synthesizing, integrating.
2. Seeking interconnections.
1. Through the undertaking of several "real" projects from problem-definition, analysis, solution and presentation.
2. Utilizing comparisons of the processes of the various types of projects under-t aken.
3. Through lecture, demonstration and discussion of and experimentation with the various components of the projects.
1. The ability to analyze and synthesize.
2. Development of design, engineering and communication skills.
a 2 wk. block --at school.
1. To complete the preliminary phase of thesis.
63


A CURRICULUM DESIGN
SEMESTER 4
As sump t i on
At t i t ude Means
Skills/ Abilities Deve1 oped
COMPONENT 3 (opt i ona1)
Purposed
As s ump t i on
At t i t ude Me a n s
-COMPONENT 2 (cont.)
1. A thesis allows the opportunity to
synthesize the knowledge gained in the program and go one step further to original research or creative projects.
1. Thesis can be of a research, design,
theoretical or community service nature.
1. Review of "cutting edge" research and theory.
2. Assess personal interests and goals.
3. Determine v/hat there are needs for and what services could be provided.
i. Synthesis, creativity, originality.
a 3 wk. block (concurrent) --in the canyon country
1. Assist in planning and facilitating the "Vision Quest" of 1st year students.
1. The best lessons are learned through teaching others.
1. Service-oriented.
1. Utilize the format of an Outward Bound course, spending the full time in the field.
64


A CURRICULUM DESIGN
SEMESTER 4 --COMPONENT 3 (cont.)
Means (cont.) 2. Through guided discovery (an experiential
approach to education).
Skills/ Abilities Deve1 oped
1. Heightened perception, expanded self-awareness and confidence, clarity of mind and purpose, development of creativity,
2. Communication and facilitation skills.
65


A CURRICULUM DESIGN
SEMESTER 5
OVERALL GOAL
COMPONENT 1: Purpose
As s ump t i ons
Attitude
Means
Skills/
Abilities
Developed
COMPONENT 2:
Purpose
(15 weeks) SPRING
To expand the knowledge, awareness and skills developed in the previous 4 semesters through internships/apprenticeships; also the contin-uat ion of thes i s.
a 15 wk. block --outside school.
1. The completion of one or more internships/ apprenticeships (paid or unpaid) and the sharing of that experience with fellow students and faculty.
1. Internships offer the opportunity to
expand knowledge and skills into a "real-world" context and to gain valuable experience and exposure to particular areas of interest.
1. Bringing ideals to the "real world".
1. Through part-time to full-time work.
2. Through presentations and discussions with other students.
1. Fine-tune all the skills developed in the program.
a 15 wk. block (concurrent) --at school and/or e1sewhere.
1. The continuation of literature review, research (whatever appropriate) for thesis.
66


A CURRICULUM DESIGN
SEMESTER 5 -
As s ump t i on
Attitude
Means
Skills/ Abilities Deve1 oped
SEMESTER 6
OVERALL GOAL
COMPONENT 1: Purpose
COMPONENT 2:
Purpose
COMPONENT 2 (cont.)
1. A thesis allows the opportunity to
synthesize the knowledge gained in the program and go one step further to original research or creative projects.
1. Thesis can be of a research, design,
theoretical or community service nature.
1. Dependent on nature of thesis.
1. Synthesis, creativity, originality.
15 weeks) SUvMER
The same as above for semester 5 (internships); completion of thesis.
a 15 wk. block --outside school.
The same as component 1 of semester 5.
(internship/apprent iceship).
a 15 wk. block (concurrent) -- at school and/or e1sewhere.
The completion of thesis.
67


CONCLUSION
The dramatic shift from a rational, mechanistic world view to a kinetic ecological paradigm is not something that is hypothesized to happen in the future. It is real and it is happening right now --in science and in professions, in individual and in societal attitudes and values. The new paradigm will be familiar to many as it is not an entirely new philosophy; rather, it is the reviving of an awareness that is a part of our cultural heritage. What is new is the extension of the ecological vision to a planetary level. It is perhaps only fitting that it took the technology of the mechanistic era to send men into space, giving us an image of "spaceship earth" and creating a spiritual intuitive awareness on a global level.
The transformation cannot be prevented and should not be opposed. Rather we should prepare for it by a deep reexamination of our assumptions, our perceptions and our values, rejecting those no longer found useful and reawakening some of the values we have suppressed or discarded in previous periods of our cultural history. THE MOST IKPORTANT THING IS TO LEARN TO THINK IN A NEW WAY. If we are to make peace with the forces of nature, that peace must begin in our minds.
As landscape architects/planners it is imperative that we become aware of and accept our role in the transformation. To follow our destiny will require a broad and a bold approach. We must lead the way in establishing a land use ethic and in educating others in a new way to think about "what land is for...what anything is for".
The profession is often baffled by the general public's lack of appreciation of its contributions. We cannot, however, simply wait for the rest of the world to catch up and recognize and appreciate us for what we intuitively know (but may not always be putting into practice ourselves). If we wait, as a profession, for the transformation to be completed, we will very likely find that another group of people will have filled the gap left by our acquiescence. And the profession of landscape architecture/p 1 anning, by failing its destiny, will have withered and died. The coroner's report will read: Death Due to Social Insignificance and I r re 1 evance.
68


In this thesis I have sought to raise awareness in a small way, at the very least my own awareness. It is only the beginning of the dawn of a new age; we can yet "move a mountain" and change a society's ideas about "what land is for...what anything is for".
69


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Tregarthen, T. D. (1978). Food, Fuel, and Shelter: A
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75


A KINETIC ECOLOGICAL APPROACH
TO LANDSCAPE PLANNING
Cathy Kasza
5 December 1983


The connection between ecology and landscape planning could likely be dated to the Environmental Awareness movement that swept across the United States in the 1960's and 1970's with a flurry of concern for the quality of the environment. Of course, the connection existed in many ways and in many cultures throughout history but it wasn't until the early 1960's that the words "ecology" and "landscape planning" (or land use planning) and some notion of their relationship, permeated the general consciousness of the American public.
H. J. Lutz in a 1957 article, "Applications of Ecology in Forest Management" stated that one of the most important contributions of ecology is what may be termed the ecological point of view--the seeking of cause and effect relations between the environment on the one hand and vegetation on the other. Marston Bates (1957), in an article in the same series, saw a crying need for ecological thinking of the sort in which Patrick Geddes and Lewis Mumford were pioneers as town and regional planners.
By 1969 Dr. Stanly Cain, a former Assistant Secretary of the Interior, was stating that insights stemming from ecological investigations have led more and more people to look beyond single and immediate objectives and to think of the environment as more than topography, soil and climate. Planners and natural resource managers he felt, were being led to ask what sequence of changes our developmental actions will cause and what indirect effect these


2
will have on our environment.
Perhaps the most significant progress in the application of the principles of ecology to regional planning and resource management was made by Ian McHarg with the 1969 publication of Design With Nature. The landscape architect stated, "Where else can we turn for an accurate model of the world and ourselves but to science? We can accept that scientific knowledge is incomplete and will forever be so, but it is the best we have and it has that great merit, which religions lack, of being self-correcting . . . when
our preoccupation is with the interactions of organisms and environment, then we must turn to ecologists, for that is their competence."
A number of recent works are representative of the continuing trend. William Marsh, in Landscape Planning: Environmental Applications (1983) sees the overriding goal in landscape palnning being to provide a rational basis for guiding land use change, which requires an understanding of the pre-development landscape and of the nature of forces imposed on it when development takes place. Chris C.
Park, in Ecology and Environmental Management (1980) was looking for an approach which is not solely or even primarily environmental or human, but founded on one and written for the other.
Yet doubts of the effectiveness of this connection are also being raised. Jusuck Koh, in a 1982 article,


3
"Ecological Design: a Post Modern Paradigm of Holistic Philosophy and Evolutionary Ethic" is sceptical: "Despite an increased awareness of the importance of the holistic evolutionary approach to the solution of complex human problems of Post-Industrial society, current design education still suffers from the lack of a necessary philosophical synthesis of the principles of ecology . . . with the
principles of design." Park (1980) recognized that the science of ecology is developing very quickly, but there is a time lag between the discoveries that ecologists make and the spread of information to people who need to be well informed (he unfortunately fell victim to that time lag himself, as will be discussed later).
Ecology, like all other fields, is affected by the swinging pendulum of opinion. A review of one part of ecology, vegetation dynamics and successional theory, is indicative of this. Vegetation dynamics includes both successional change and regeneration dynamics. In its widest sense succession refers to observed sequences of vegetative associations or animal groups, whether in space (i.e., a sequence of vegetation zones over the slope of a mountain) or in time (i.e., a sequence of vegetation types occurring after an "old field" or a gravel pit is abandoned). In ecological literature the term succession is usually used to imply sequences in time. However, only short term change can be observed directly and most descriptions of


4
long-term changes are based on observation of spatial sequences (Drury and Nesbit, 1973). Regeneration dynamics involve the changes in stand structure associated with regeneration of dominant plants.
Descriptions of zones of vegetation and changes in vegetation on one site were recorded by Theophratus in 300 B.C. Several authors during the 19th Century noted the same phenomena without formulating a model for the ecological events involved. Thoreau, in 1863, recognized that pine stands on upland soils in central New England were followed after logging by even-aged handwood stands#which today are the main forest type of the region. He named the trend he observed forest succession. In 1885 Hult recognized "developmental changes" in vegetation, but it was the work of Cowles (from 1899 to 1911) which formulated the concept of succession. The brilliant and exhaustive work of Clements (from 1905 to 1936) was then responsible for the concept's general acceptance (Drury and Nisbet, 1973).
The classical scheme of vegetation development represented by Clements paralleled the view of landscape development of the time represented by Davis, a geomorphologist. Both are commonly called "dynamic" (Clement's own term) models but are more accurately referred to as "developmental" because they emphasize progressive change in landscape and vegetation on stable sites towards a stable endpoint, and "deterministic" because that sequence of change is


5
postulated to be highly predictable and orderly (Drury and Nesbit, 1973).
Ecological thought at the turn of the century was also nearly all in what might be called closed systems of one kind or another,with some sort of balance or near balance to be achieved. The geologists had their peneplains, the ecologists visualized a self-perpetuating climax and the soil scientists (soil being the direct connection between landscape and vegetation development) proposed a thoroughly mature soil profile, which would become a sort of balanced organism in itself. All were undoubtedly influenced by social Darwinism,which dominated the thinking of the times with its assumptions of determinism and of social and economic evolution toward a balance of political power and stability (Raup, 1965).
Following Clements, ecologists were for several decades preoccupied with mapping and monitering the natural communities of North America while strongly divergent schools of thought developed regarding the nature of succession and of plant and animal communities. By the late 1960's Clements' assumptions were no longer generally accepted,but considerable agreement on the general trends of "community development" was developing,to form the basis for a contemporary successional model as typified by Odum's "Strategy of Ecosystem Development" (1969). Odum's model, though shifting the emphasis to succession being community


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controlled, is still "developmental" and highly "deterministic" with the driving force behind succession assumed to be increased control of, or homeostasis with, the physical environment.
Odum felt there were profound implications of his successional theory for landscape planning--"an understanding of ecological succession provides a basis for resolving man's conflict with nature" (1969). And his ideas were widely accepted and applied in a .variety of fields. McHarg (1969) presented a version of ecosystem attributes with evolution and retrogression that parallelled Odum's (1969) table of trends to be expected in the development of ecosystems and which postulated the advanced state as being complex, diverse and stable, and thus most creative.
McHarg even offered his own version of the driving force behind succession: "I can think of no better way of looking at the world and its processes than as if these were a timeless yearning, occurring in a milieu with a proclivity for evolution and for life, in which the environment is fit and may be made more fit—in which the test is the capacity to adapt the environment and one's self" . . . and "the measure of fitness and fitting is evolutionary survival (and) success of the species or ecosystem" (1969).
Going back to the other landscape planning literature quoted, Lutz (1957) explicitly stated that knowledge of the climax and natural succession are basic to sound forest


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management with his concept of the climax being a self-perpetuating, terminal plant community, representing a time phase of great stability. Bates (1957), on the other hand, felt biological ecologists were overly preoccupied with the processes of equilibrium and static notions of the "climax," or stable communities.
Of the most recent texts, Marsh (1983), for all his stated intentions, merely breaks down natural processes into separate components (including sun angles, seasonal ground frost and storm water discharge) for application with no attempt at addressing interrelations or dynamics or a successional theory of any nature. And Park (1980) in his chapter on Successional Development of Ecosystems not only quotes Odum extensively, especially in a discussion of relevance to environmental management, but refers frequently to Clements1theories in his discussion of the nature of succession. So much for his attempt to compensate for the time lag between current research and the spread of the information to landscape planners and others.
For, in the past decade or so, the classical interpretation of succession as development of vegetation through discrete stages culminating in a regional climax has been abandoned by modern ecologists (Pickett, 1976). The assumptions from which classical theories were deductively reasoned are being rejected as ecologists shift to a more empirical approach that points out their inadequacies and discrepancies.


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The recognition of periodic disturbance has fundamentally altered the way in which vegetation changes are portrayed.
No complete contemporary model has evolved yet, but as the assumption of long-term constancy of the environment has been rejected, non-equilibrium views of plant succession are being proposed." Drury and Nesbit (1971) suggest the term "kinetic" for these theoretical schemes which emphasize continuous change and do not require the existence of an end-point.
Similar kinetic schemes are being presented for landscape development as well. Gilbert postulates that the surface features of the land are shaped by the opposing forces of uplift and erosion and sees landforms as dynamic systems which continually adjust erosion and deposition (Pickett, 1976). In soil classification, also, kinetic schemes are being suggested. The evidence is mounting now in all of these fields that the systems are open, not closed, and that there is probably no consistent trend towards balance. Raup (1964) suggests that in the present state of our knowledge, we should think, instead, in terms of massive uncertainty, flexability and adjustability.
A moving equilibrium is the characteristic "steady state" in an open system say Drury and Nisbet (1971).
In seeking applications of the developing kinetic theory of succession to landscape planning, one recent work stands out. Forest Island Dynamics in Man-Dominated


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Landscapes, ed. Robert L. Burgess and David M. Sharpe (1981) is a collection of studies, self-described as being the first to present regional ecological dynamics based on analyses of forest fragments--"forest islands in a sea of urban and agricultural land uses." Correlating studies of entire regions and individual forest islands, the volume describes the impact of man on ecosystems, communities and populations. Implications for the management of nature reserves and of whole landscapes are addressed.
A 3-year project on "Forest Succession and Landscape Pattern," that grew out of the International Biological Program, identified and brought together much of the preliminary work leading to the volume. By 1974, a body of research began to indicate that certain processes ascribed to large areas of relatively undisturbed deciduous forest were not necessarily applicable to the present landscape of eastern North America. For the previously contiguous forest had been fragmented over time through settlement and the continually increasing demands of agriculture, industry and urbanization, until forest patches or "islands" exist today in most of the eastern U.S. surrounded by a matrix of non-forest land uses.
McArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography (1967) stimulated a great deal of research concerning its potential • appreciation for "forest islands" in a "sea" of


10
man-dominated landscapes. Questions of migration and extinction, succession rates and processes, species diversity and the optimal size of nature reserves were raised. Burgess and Sharpe's volume had its beginnings in a seminar organized in 1977 to address this array of concerns.
Pickett (1976), a significant figure in the kinetic theory literature, saw similar "island" analogies. He described disturbance creating patches of successional environments whose size depends on the type and severity of disturbance. These patches are analagous to islands and as on true islands, speed of invasion, maximum population sizes and species richness of various successional patches may be found to depend on the age of the patch, its size and its distance from other patches. Pickett suggested that patches of different successional environments are continually changing size, position and geographic relationship, depending on the disturbance regime. Successional gradients and the evolutionary and functional responses of populations on them were seen to be part of a dynamic, regional process rather than a single site pattern.
The authors in Forest Island Dynamics in Man-Dominated Landscapes, equally recognize the ideas of the kinetic theorists. Burgess and Sharpe, in the introduction, refer to Raup's (1937) discussion of natural and other anthropogenic disturbance creating openings and a general park-like


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aspect in some regions of the deciduous forest of the northeastern U.S. They go on to say the dynamics of the forested areas were paced by patterns of disturbance that spanned the spectrum from gap phase replacement (Watt, 1947) to region-wide fire, insect infestation, and hurricane damage (Heinselman, 1973; Swain, 19780;
Spurr, 1956; Sprugel, 1976) which created an ecological stability at the regional scale (Loucks, 1970). Botkin (1980) is referred to as pointing out there is no a priori equilibrium state for regional ecosystems. Rather each region had a characteristic disturbance regime that resulted in an individual mosaic of regional ecosystems (Bormann and Likens, 1979). Burgess and Sharpe feel that today the sequence of perturbations that creates a stable regional ecosystem has been superseded by a disturbance pattern tied to changing human land use, land ownership patterns and the social forces that bring about landscape change.
Sullivan, in a discussion of the ecology of dominance, states that the predictability of the effect of change on ecosystems is not as good as once thought. Referring to Odum (1969) he says successional theory held that a directional and apparently purposeful progression of species populated a disturbed system. Problems with the theory were anticipated by Raup (1964) and discussed by Drury and Nisbet (1973) he goes on to say. Sullivan then presents


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the idea of artificial succession, or managed dynamic vegetation, through management of the geography and phenology of farms and forests, coupled with urban preservation schemes.
Levenson, in a study of woodlots as biogeographic islands, found disturbance, whether natural or man-induced, to be a major variable controlling woody species richness. Hoene, looking at the groundlayer vegetation of forest islands, saw similar effects of disturbance on presence, density and frequency of species. Heavy human usage, according to Levenson, maintains a continual state of disturbance resulting in increased edge effect and high species richness. Community development, then, is viewed as series of extinctions and colonizations. In a study of the importance of edge in the structure and dynamics of forest islands, Ranney, et al., determined that forest composition of island landscapes is dependent not only on island size and equilibrium but also on frequency and extent of perturbations.
The interaction of landscape pattern and ecology is the central theme of Forest Island Dynamics in Man-Dominated Landscapes. The scientific and practical issues of landscapes of fragmented natural communities and their ecology are numerous. The emerging kinetic theories of vegetation dynamics and succession are central to these issues. A summary of the volume with a discussion of two of its studies follows.


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Burgess and Sharpe view their volume as a catalyst. Ecologists and landscape planners have an exciting opportunity to work together to use the empirical and theoretical studies presented as a springboard for new studies, theories and applications that will be critical to the future well-being of mankind and the environment. Perhaps nowhere in the U.S. is this a more timely issue than the Front Range of Colorado. Neal Pierce, co-author of The Book of America (1983), describes Colorado as "a tragedy in the making" as its natural landscape, far more vulnerable than that of the eastern U.S., is being rapidly fragmented. Perhaps with a kinetic ecological approach to landscape planning, Pierce's prophecy may not be realized.


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A Summary of Forest Islands Dynamics in Man-Dominated Landscapes
ed. Robert L. Burgess and David M. Sharpe
INTRODUCTION
A vast experiment is underway, claim Burgess and Sharpe. It's unplanned and unwitting design is changing the spatial and temporal structure of terrestrial ecosystems. In our arrogance we trace the beginnings of the experiment in the eastern U.S. to European settlement and its continuation in other parts of the world to the spread of western technology. In reality, human impact on the biosphere has occurred over millenia.
As Botkin (1980) points out, there is no a priori equilibrium state for regional ecosystems. Since .the circumborcal Arcotertiary forest clothed the North American continent, functioning ecosystems have been subject to disruption, migration, perturbation and evolution.
When Europeans colonized the eastern seaboard of North America, the vast region we now call the Deciduous Forest Biome was dominated by forest vegetation. Burgess and Sharpe state that patches of land were cultivated by Indians, however, (Day, 1953) and natural and other anthropogenic disturbance created openings and a general parklike aspect in some regions (Baup, 1937). Edaphic, climatic and historic conditions created sizable areas of non-forest, such as the prairie peninsula (Transeau, 1935;


15
Bochert, 1950). The dynamics of the forested areas were paced by patterns of disturbance that spanned the spectrum from gap phase replacement (Watt, 1947) to region-wide fire, insect infestation and hurricane damage (Heinselman, 1973; Swain, 1980; Spur, 1956; Sprugel, 1976) which created an ecological stability at the regional scale (Loucks, 1970). Each region had a characteristic disturbance regime that resulted in an individualistic mosaic of regional ecosystems (Bormann and Likens, 1979).
In the New World, European settlers continued the work of a millenium that had led to widespread removal of the forests of the British Isles and Europe (Darby, 1956) .
The landscape patterns that emerged were, however, indicative of unusually rapid change. Removal of over 90% of the natural habitats in southcentral Wisconsin in less than a century (Curtis, 1956) and similar clearing followed by large scale secondary forest reversion along the eastern seaboard (Raup, 1937, 1966; Bond and Spiller, 1935) may be ecological perturbations that are unprecedented in rate, intensity and extent, according to Burgess and Sharpe.
The location of remnant forest is far from stable even in regions not undergoing wholesale deforestation or reforestation. Burgess and Sharpe claim that throughout the Biome the pattern of natural vegetation is unnotable to varying degrees. The sequence of transient perturbations that creates a stable regional ecosystem


16
envisioned for a natural landscape by Loucks (1970) has been superceded by a disturbance pattern tied to changing land use. The mix of perturbation agents, their frequency, intensity and a real extent, now modify the characteristics of natural landscapes by a combination of factors tied to human land use, land ownership patterns, the social forces that bring about landscape change.
The impact of man on the pattern of forest vegetation in Wisconsin was described by Curtis in 1956: "Instead of an essentially continuous forest cover, . . . the landscape now represents the aspect of a savanna, with isolated trees, small clumps or clusters of trees, or small groves scattered in a matrix of artificial grassland of grains and pasture grasses . . .". Curtis (1956) graphically portrayed how deforestation in southcentral Wisconsin had reduced the forest area by 70% by 1882, 90% by 1902, 95% by 1935 and more than 96% by 1950 (Fig. 1-1). Such aggregrate values fail, however, to capture the essence of forest island landscapes--the small size, exposure, isolation and increase of edge per unit of the remnant forest patches, as shown by the variables in Table 1-1.
Burgess and Sharpe see this pattern repeated in much of the eastern U.S. (Burgess, 1978), impressed on the landscapes of Europe (Darby, 1956; Falinski, 1976, 1977; Olaczek and Sowa, 1976) and now being created in the tropics (Gomez-Pompa, et al., 1972; Banjitsinh, 1979).


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Much former regional forest now exists as forest islands in a sea of agricultural urban and other land uses.
The analogy between islands in seascapes and remnant forest in man-dominated landscapes has suggested the extension of equilibrium island biogeographic concepts to the new circumstances. McArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography (1967) stimulated thinking and a great deal of research raising questions of migration and extinction, succession rates and processes, species diversity and optimal size of terrestrial nature reserves.
According to Burgess and Sharpe the hopes of transferring equilibrium island biogeographic concepts to forest islands in man-dominated landscapes is frustrated by the structural complexity of their pattern, their transcience and the residual impact of previous landscape states. And unlike islands in seascapes, these forest islands are not surrounded by a matrix that is defacto alien to their terrestrial biota. These complexities have called into question how closely the relationship between species richness and island size and isolation applies to forest islands.
Further, there is a paucity of time series data both on landscape patterns and on the species composition of forest tracts during the course of forest fragmentation and reforestation, so that the response of the biota is difficult to assess. Burgess and Sharpe feel that explanations of the few extant observations are frustrated by the


Full Text

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A KINETIC ECOLOO I CAL F'RAME.Vt{RK FOR LAI'DSCAPE AROi I TECflJRE/PLANN lNG: A PARAD ICM FOR THE FUfURE An Inquiry Into the Philosophy and Values of the Profession by CA1HY KASZA May 1984

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A KINETIC ECOLOGICAL FRAMEV\ORK FOR LANDSCAPE ARG-:IITECTURE/PLANNING: A P ARAD I CM FOR THE FUTURE An Inquiry Into the Philosophy and Values of the Profession by CATHY KASZA This Thesis is Submitted as Partial fulfillment of the Requirements for a Master of Landscape Architecture Degree at the Graduate Division of Landscape Architecture Col lege of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver May 1984

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THIS THESIS IS SUBMITTED AS PARTIAL FULFILLI-tEiH OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR A i-\ASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DEGREE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING GRADUATE PROGRAM OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE ACCEPTED:

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Definition of Terms KINETIC intrinsically dynamic; marked by continuous change or mot ion that i s a nat u r a I tendency i n here n t i n a I I t hi n g s and s i t u at i on s ; imp I i e s the u n expected and the unpredictable. ECOLOGICAL a holistic point of view, supported by modern science (in particular the systems approach) b ut rooted in a perception of reality that goes beyond the scientific framework to an intuitive, spiritual awareness of the oneness of all life and of the interdependence of its many manifestations, and of its cycles of change and transformation. PARADIGM the thoughts, perceptions, and values that form a particular vision of reality; a particular world view internalized by a society so that it unconsciously affects each individual's actions, perceptions and beliefs.

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"This we know . The earth does not belong to rna n. Th i s we know. A I I t hi n g s are connected I ike the blood which unites one f am i I y • A I I t h i n g s a r e c o n n e c t e d • Vvhatever befalls the earth befalls the son s o f ear t h • r vla n d i d no t weave the web of I ife, he is merely a strand in it. he does to the web, he does to himself." Chief Seattle "The views of nature held by any people determine all its institutions." _Ralph Waldo Emerson

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TABLE Of Ca-ITENTS FOREWARD A Personal journey ••.•..•.•••••.....•••..••..••.•.... I NTRODUL T I ON Con t ex t o f The s i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Nature of Thesis ..................................... 4 Intention of Thesis .................................. 7 SYmP S I S . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 OUfL I NE OF PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 ASSLMJT IONS. . • . . . . • . . . . • . . . . . • . . . . . • . • • . . . • . • . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 I NVENfORY I ANALYSIS History, Philosophy, Environmental Studies Cultural Paradigms Crisis of Perception. New Paradigm •••• ................................. Natural and Physical Science 1 4 1 7 2 0 Ecology Physics B i o g eo g r a ph y , Ge o I o g y , So i I S c i en c e • • • • • 2 2 2 6 Systems Theory. 2 8 Thermodynamics The Law of Entropy ••••••••••••••• 2 9

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INVENTORY I ANALYSIS (continued) Landscape Architecture/Planning Implications for the Profession. 30 H i s t o r i c a I Ov e r v i ew. • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . 3 I D i I enma of the Profess ion. • • • • . . . • • • • . • . • • • • • • • • • 3 4 SYNfHES Is I SOLlJf I (J\J. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 3 7 Out! ine of Philosophical Framework •••••••..••.••••••. 3 8 APPL ICAT J(J\J Overview ••.•.• "Design Guidelines". A Design for a Cur r i cuI urn •.••• A Curriculum "Master Plan" 4 I 42 46 48 A Cur r i c u 1 urn "Des I g n" . • . . . . . • . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 COf\l:L US I (J\J. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 6 8 B I BL I
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FORE.WARD A PERSONAL JOURNEY came down from the mountains to study Landscape Architecture in Denver because I was increasingly troubled by the disharmony in our society's attitude toward the natural world --by the rampant sprawling growth of the front Range, the ever -i ncr e as i n g p a I I o f a i r p o I I u t i on and the emp t y material ism of people's I ives. It seemed to me that our attitude toward, and use of, the land was a critical factor in what I saw happening in the front Range. I grew up in the front Range of Colorado, as did my parents and my grandparents before them. It has been said that the Rocky Mountain West is the only geographic region in North America that is defined not by its people, but by the land itself. My perception of reality grew unconsciously out of the prairie rolling eastward to infinity and forested slopes rising westward to alpine tundra 14,000 feet high, a! I bound by an endless expanse of blue sky and fleeting thunderheads. I grew up loving the earth, though it was such a part of me that I would not have expressed it consciously. Since can remember I have been on a "vision quest" of sorts, seeking knowledge, wondering why things are the way they are, what the point of it all is and how everything fits together. As an undergraduate, I studied psychology and philosophy, literature and anthropology, seeking answers. But there seemed to be only more pieces to the puzzle. My search led me out into the world as I began to travel and live in other cultures. I came to know and feel at home with the Kpelle people of Africa, the Mayan Indians of Central Arne r i c a , t he E s k i mo s o f A I a s k a ; and t h e p r e co n c e p t i on s o f our culture began to fa! I away. My work led me back to the land, first as a construction laborer and tree-cutter, then in experiential outdoor education. I grew to know the natural world without the filters imposed upon it by our culture, spending years living under the stars with no more than a tarp or a snow shelter between myself and my environment and my only cultural implements those I could carry on my back, until I felt totally at home and at peace wandering the high tundra, 1

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traversing a snow slope or climbing a rock face. Out of the perceptions and values of more "primitive" cultures and out of the lessons of nature I began to piece the puzzle together. But the more I understood the more troubled I was by the disparity between our society's attitude toward the natural world and an intuitive, mystical knowledge and kinship with nature. We seemed to be getting it all wrong. Now, at the end of more formal education, I have learned the ski lis and the techniques of the profession of landscape architecture and planning. I have learned to think as a " des i g n e r " and t he wo r I d w i I l neve r I o o k q u i t e t he s arne t o me again. I have affirmed my sense of how critical is our feeling for and use of the land and what a pivotal (if still latent) role landscape architects/planners can play in that awareness. I am sti II troubled, but I see a direction for myself as I continue my "vision quest". I believe the answers to the staggering problems we face are to be found in the philosophy that underlies the practice. This thesis is but the first step of a continuing journey. thank the faculty --Dan, Jerry, Tom and Laurie--and especially my fellow students -Ruth, Margot, Terri, Jacquie, Diane, Wayne, Dick, Andy and Robert-for sharing of themselves and helping me along my path. 2

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I NIRoou::T I ON CONTEXT Of THESIS Self-reflection and analysis have always marked the discipline of landscape architecture/planning in America. We ponder our significance and society's perception of our role. And, from Olmstead to McHarg, we have contemplated the philosophical basis of our practice. Recent authors are no exception. This thesis was sparked by Dunstan's ( 1983) call for a new set of values as the major issue confronting the profession and society today, and is in the nature of the theoretical work of jusuck Koh ( 1982) who was offering a new a fundamental restructuring of the philosophy underlying the profession. 3

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I NIRaxx::T I ON NATURE OF THESIS The components that make up the discipline of architecture/ planning can be generally grouped f o l l ow i n g t h r e e c a t ego r i e s ( a s s h own i n f i g • 1 ) : 1) philosophy, value system and ethics; _ 2) techniques, methodologies and skills; 3) practice, implementation and solutions. NATURE OF THESIS PHLOSOPHY VALUE SYSTEM ETHICS TECHNIQUES METHODOLOGIES SKLLS PRACTICE IMPLEMENTATION SOLUTIONS Philosophical/Theoretical Fig. 1 4 landscape into the

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Component 1) addresses the realm of "why", component 2) the realm of "how" and component 3) the actual "doing" in the profession. Each component is integral to one another and to the practice of the profession as a whole. for "doing" depends equally on "why" and on "how". Knowing "how" can provide options for solving a problem, while knowing "why" offers a basis for decision-making. The following thesis is an inquiry into the philosophy that underlies the practice of landscape architecture/ planning. It is concerned with the realm of "why". There is a particular urgency today in addressing this facet of the practice. for as our technology rapidly becomes more sophisticated and powerful, decision-making becomes more complex and more critical. And the more complex the problems become the more the profession seeks the assistance of technology. As McHarg's and others' models of landscape analysis/planning are widely adopted and expanded to the computer and to remote sensing technology, the goal becomes to collect and quantify al 1 components of the natural and cultural world to aid in that decision-making. Yet as Dunstan ( 1983) pointed out, we are becoming addicted to our maps and the technology behind them, accepting techniques and ski lis without acceptance (or understanding) of the philosophy behind them. We have led ourselves to believe that we can "design with nature" in an objective and rational manner. Yet in reality every design and planning decision requires a subjective judgement. Professions, after all, like societies, are not made up of facts and techniques; they are a way of looking at life. The integrity of every profession is bound up in its particular value and belief system. It is the contention of this thesis that skills and techniques alone are unable to address the complex problems of the profession today. The answers are more likely to be found in an inquiry into the philosophy that forms a framework for the technology and the practice. The need for a "transformation of values" was the issue confronting McHarg when he wrote his classic textbook in the field of environmental planning and design, DesigB With Nature, in 1969 (Dunstan, 1983). fifteen years later, the question of values continues to be the major issue facing society and the profession of landscape architecture/ planning. Aldo Leopold perhaps expressed this point best in "The State of the Profession", The Journal of Wildlife Management, July 5

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1940 (Schoenfeld et al 1972). Though he was speaking of his own profession of wildlife management, paraphrased for the profession of landscape architecture/ planning, the message is equally relevant: Our profession began with the job of designing the I and s cape • Howe v e r imp or t an t t h a t rna y seem t o us , i t is not very important to the emancipated moderns who no longer feel soil between their toes. W e find that we cannot design a desirable landscape until the landowner changes his ways of using land, and he in turn cannot change his ways until his teachers, bankers, customers, editors and governors change their ideas about what land is for. To change ideas about what land is for is to change ideas about what anything is for. Thus the profession started out to move a straw and ends up with the job of moving a mountain. 6

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I NIRODl.CT I ON INTENTION Of THESIS The basic intention of this thesis is to address the issue of philosophy and values in the practice of landscape architecture/planning. Through the following means an attempt was made to fulfil I that intention: 1) conducting a broad literature review of many disciplines seeking an understanding and a basis for a value-system; 2) developing a philosophical framework to guide decision-making in the profession; 3) designing a graduate curriculum as an application and incorporation of that framework. 7

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SYNOPSIS OF THESIS This thesis acknowledges the role of values in the profession of landscape architecture/planning, and emphasizes the importance of a world view (or paradigm) in providing a basis for decision-making in the discipline. An analysis of the dramatic changes in perception occurring in the natural and physical sciences reinforces the contention that we are in the midst of a profound paradigm shift in our society. The thesis proposes that the profession of landscape architecture I p I ann i n g -from i t s concept ion i n Arne r i c a--i s o f the new "kinetic, ecological" paradigm that is emerging to rep I ace the rat ion a I , me chan i s t i c par ad i gm t h a t has d om i nate d our society for the last three hundred years. Through a synthesis of the newly-emerging awareness, a philosophical framework for the profession is developed that compares the rational, mechanistic paradigm to the kinetic, ecolog i cal par ad i gm. The f r amewo r k i s t hen a p p I i e d t o t he des i g n o f a curriculum for a graduate program in landscape architecture I p I ann in g • U I t i rna t e I y, t he the s i s c a I I s for a reevaluation of values and chat lenges the profession to accept its role in the transformation. 8

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OUTLINE Of PROCESS The general approach taken in this thesis is indicated by the "outline of process" (as shown in fig.2). VVhile the process appears to be a linear one, it is in fact circular and complex. Or as 1 lcHarg ( 1969) said in describing the "process" of his life: I have found that it has been my instincts that directed my paths and that my reason is employed the fact, to explain where I find myself. have after DEfiNITION Of PROBLEM The t he s i s began w i t h t he " de f i n i t i on o f p rob I em" a s : There is a need for a philosophical framework to guide decision-making in the discipline of landscape architecture/planning. INVENTORY The second step was that of "inventory". A broad literature review was conducted in the realms of natural science, physical science, philosophy, history, landscape planning and environmentalism (see fig. 3), seeking an understanding and a bas i s for a ph i I o sop h i c a I framework for the d i s c i p I i n e. ANALYSIS 1 SYNTHESIS Each of the components inventoried context of the problem and then individual components was sought, interconnections (see fig. 3). SOLUTION L APPLICATION wa s "analyzed" in a "synthesis" of or the determination the the of The "solution" to the problem emerged as a philosophical framework, a construct of ideas. The philosophical framework was then "applied" to a design for a graduate landscape architecture/ planning curriculum and to the development of design guidelines for such a curriculum. 9

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OUTLINE OF PROCESS Definition of Problem I Inventory I Analysis .Synthesis I Solution Application I I I Fig. 2 10 "the need for a philosophical framework to guide decision-making in the discipline • "literature review" "in the context of the problem" "interconnections • "a philosophical framework • (a construct of ideas) "a design for a graduate curriculum"

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I inventory I I Analysis I I Synthesis I History Fig. 3 11 Environmental Natural Science

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ASSUMPTIONS The statement that "there is a need for a philosophical framework to guide decision-making" does not mean to imply that there is currently no philosophical framework in the profession. Rather it is based on two assumptions: 1) that something is basically wrong with the way we are going about our business in the world today, as a society and as a profession; it is the contention of many that we are in the midst of a profound multi-dimensional world-wide crisis that has critical implications for societies, professions and individuals alike. 2) that the root of the problems we are facing lies in the predominant philosophy, the value system, the world view or paradigm of society, of professions and of individuals. The evidence for these assumptions can be seen on a global or a local level. from a global perspective, the symptoms of the problems facing the world today are recorded every day in the news and have been documented by many authors. we talk about crime, cancer, pollution, nuclear weapons, inflation or an energy shortage, the dynamics underlying each are the same. fritjof Capra ( 1982) describes our condition as a state of profound world-wide crisis, a complex, multidimensional crisis whose facets touch every aspect of our lives --our health and livelihood, the quality of our environment and our social relationships, our economy, technology and poiitics. It is a crisis of intellectual, moral and spiritual dimensions, a crisis of a scale and urgency unprecedented in recorded human history. We are living in a situation so paradoxical it borders on insanity. We can control soft landings of spacecraft on distant planets, but we are unable to control the pol luting fumes from ours cars and factories that are poisoning the air we breath and destroying millions of acres of forest world-wide. We propose Utopian space colonies, yet cannot create any semblance of quality of life in our cities. for the first time we face the very real threat of extinction of the human race and of a! I life on this planet. Looking a little closer to home, the front Range of Colorado 12

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represents in microcosm the crisis facing the world today. Neal Pierce and jerry Hagstrom in The Book of America ( 1983) title their chapter on Colorado, "A Tragedy in the Making" Pierce and Hagstrom pay homage to the breathtaking scenery of Colorado, the jobs avai Jable and the friendly relaxed lifestyle. Yet behind the glitter of the energy boom and the ski resorts, and the pristine beauty of the national forests, they see massive problems lurking that Coloradoans as a society seem unwilling to address. Perhaps the worst problem, they say, is that because no stark degradation or shocking environmental disaster exist, people have been lulled into thinking that there wil I be no crisis, that a solution can be found to all the growth problems. Pierce and Hagstrom, however, sense a gathering crisis of deeply disturbing proportions: the gradual decline in the quality of life, a steady Joss of agricultural land, open space, wildlife habitat, and landscape diversity, all accompanied by worsening traffic and air quality. The tragedy they see looming is that in this model of the progressive, "developed" western state in America, a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to build a resilient, conserving society in one of the most exquisite places on earth wil I have been lost forever. And finally, a specific illustration of the problem in Boulder County was outlined in a recent article in the Boulder Camera (Malmsbury 1984). William Weber, curator of the University of Colorado Herbarium and author of "the definitive book" on Front Range plants, describes the area as having one of the richest assortments of plants on the continent. A typical midwestern county might have 300 species of plants, while Boulder County has more than 1,500. Weber and many others are concerned, though, about the effect the rapidly growing Front Range population will have on the native plants. Already, many are being threatened by invasions of exotic plants and weeds that can quickly crowd out the more delicate natives. And there's I ittle that anyone can do about it after the fact. According to Weber, "It's very difficult to revegetate to a (natural) stage that's taken hundreds of years to develop." Reclamation projects, in fact, often introduce exotic species that take over and crowd out the natives. "It's time for Colorado to think about native plants or we're going to lose them," says Tedd Beegle of the Colorado Native Plant Society. "Once the land is altered, it's altered for good. 13

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INVENTORY I ANALYSIS HISTORY, PHILOSOPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES Cultural Paradigms: An inquiry into the philosophy underlying the profession of landscape architecture/planning requires an understanding of the broader context of a cultural for the substance, the very essence, of a society is its beliefs, its philosophies, its perception of the world. The need to construct a frrume of reference to explain the how and why of daily existence has been the essential cultural ingredient of every society (Rifkin, 1980). Historians have documented the patterns of change in culture as continual and unpredictable; and correspondingly the world view of societies has fluctuated greatly over the 10,000 years that recent civilization has existed. We must realize that our particular notion of reality is a relatively recent invention. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of a society's world view is that its individual adherents are, for the most part, unconscious of how it affects the way they do things and the way they perceive reality. A world view is successful, then, to the extent that it is so internalized, from childhood on, that it goes unquestioned (Rifkin, 1980). Capra ( 1982) has suggested that the patterns of change in cultural growth para! lei the kinetic rhythm that has been observed throughout the ages as the fundamental dynrunic of the universe. Ancient Chinese philosophers believed that all manifestations of reality are generated by the dynamic interplay between two polar forces --the yin and the yang-polar opposites of a single whole that set the limits for the cycles of change. The natural order was believed to be one of dynamic balance in the continuous movement between these polar forces. This ancient view of reality can be extended to the two modes of consciousness, or ways of knowing, which have been recognized as characteristic of the human mind throughout its evolution (Capra 1982). These two modes are usually called the "intuitive", traditionally associated with mysticism and religion, and the "rational", associated with science. 14

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Rational thinking is I inear, focused and analytic. Belonging to the realm of the intellect, its function is to discriminate, measure, and categorize. Rational knowledge tends to be fragmented as its approach requires reducing a whole into its component parts for analysis. Intuitive knowledge on the other hand, is based on a direct, nonintellectual experience of reality arising in an expanded state of awareness. It tends to be synthesizing, holistic and non-linear. Rational knowledge is likely to generate self or ego-centered, "yang" activity, whereas intuitive wisdom is the basis for "yin", environmentally oriented activity (see fig. 4). WORLD VIEWS (PARADIGMS) • Mechanistic • Reductionist • Ego-oriented Fig. 4 • Organic • Holistic • Environmentoriented Two profound cultural transformations mark the history of we s t e r n c u I t u r e : 1 ) t he r i s e o f c i v i I i z a t i o n w i t h t h e emergence of the Agricultural Age 10,000 years ago and 2) the transition to the Scientific/Industrial Age three hundred years ago. The Agricultural Age was dominated by an intuitive, organic view of reality in which the human purpose 15

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was not to "achieve things" through material growth and gain, but to seek spiritual enlightenment and transcendence. Towards this end, society was viewed as a kind of divinely directed moral organism in which each person had a part to play as they prepared for life beyond the earthly plane (Rifkin 1980). The Scientific/Industrial Age of the past three hundred years has, on the other hand, been dominated by a rational, mechanistic paradigm --our modern world view. Among other things that world view has led us to believe that nature has an order to it, that scientific observation is objective and that the world is progressing toward a more valuable state as a result of the steady accumulation of human knowledge and technology (Rifkin 1980). The Scientific/Industrial Age is the machine age; precision and predictability are the premier values. The universe is seen as a grand machine, set in motion aeons ago by the supreme technician, God, but ruled by the laws of mathematics which reduces al 1 the qualities of life to tasteless, colorless, odorless quantities. Science and technology become the tools to bring the order of the universe to the more primeval and chaotic nature of life on earth. Society becomes properly materialistic and individualistic as its sole purpose is to protect and allow for the increase of the property of its members. And the role of the state is to promote the subjugation of nature so that people might acquire the material prosperity necessary for f u 1 f i I 1 men t • Progress i s seen , then , as the pro c e s s by wh i c h the "less ordered" natural world is harnessed by humans to create a more ordered material environment (Rifkin 1980). "Humanism" has become our guiding philosophy as we have transformed our previous faith in a higher authority to unquestioning faith in the power of reason and in our own omnipotence. The "arrogance of humanism" has led us to believe that no problem is insoluble with enough reason (and its tool, technology) applied, that we can manage Nature and plan the future, and even has us believing that the law o f gravity exists in order to make it easier for us to sit down (Ehrenfeld 1978).

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Crisis of Perception: The modern cultural that claims to explain the world we experience --the rational, mechanical world view; the world view of mathematics, science and technology; the world view of materialism and progress--has begun to unravel and fall apart. It is the contention of many that we are in the midst of another major paradigm shift and thus the crisis we are facing today in the world is a "crisis of perception". Deloria compares the perception of reality in any civilization undergoing change to the pieces of a mosaic (Srunples 1981). At a certain point in the process of replacing one piece with another, we no longer a clear picture of what we had, and we do not yet have a clear picture of the new pattern we are creating. There is a dreadful middle ground in this process of transformation in which we simply substitute meaningless pieces over and over again (see fig. 5). The the unew reality" reality" Fig. 5 crisis we find ourselves in is based concepts of an outdated world view 17 in trying to apply --the mechanistic

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of Cartesian/Newtonian science, that has dominated the western world for the past three hundred years --to a reality that can no longer be understood in terms of those concepts. Our culture has been giving us reason when we need myth, separateness when we need unity and straight lines when we need circles. The gravity and global extent of the current crisis indicate to many that we are in the midst of a profound paradigm shift that is likely to result in a transformation of unprecedented dimensions. Our old ways of thinking, old formulas, and ideologies, no matter how cherished or use f u l i n the pas t , no l on g e r f i t the fact s • The wo r l d t h a t is fast emerging from the clash of new values and technologies, new geopolitical relationships, new life-styles and modes of communication, demands wholly new ideas and analogies, classifications and concepts. We cannot cram the embryonic world of tomorrow into yesterday's conventional cubbyholes. Toffler ( 1980) uses the metaphor of colliding waves of change to describe the paradigm shift we are experiencing (see fig. 6) • Colliding Waves of Change Fig. 6 Until now the human race has undergone two great waves of change, each one obliterating earlier cultures or civilizations and replacing them with ways of life inconceivable to those to those who carne before. The first Wave of change --1 Q

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the agricultural revolution--took thousands of years to play itself out. The Second Wave --the rise of industrial civilization--took a mere three hundred years. Today history is even more accelerative, and it is I ikely that the Third Wave wil I sweep across history and complete itself in a few decades.

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New Paradigm: Our recent rational, intellectual development, a one-sided evolution, has led us to an alarming state of imbalance. It is the contention of many that we are entering a period of kinetic balance between the intuitive and the rational way of knowing, an intermediate, synthesizing stage which represents their harmonious blending (see fig. 7). Tendi ng rational balance, midst of WORLD VIEWS (PARADIGMS) Kinetic Ecological Fig. 7 to attain the highest and noblest expressions of the and the intuitive, the intermediate stage integration and aesthetic fulfillment. W e are in the a p a r a d i gm s h i f t t h a t w i I I r e s u I t i n an " e co I o g i c a I "

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"ecological" view of reality says Capra (1982). This holistic point of view is supported by the knowledge of modern science, but rooted in the ancient mystical wisdom that recognized the oneness of a! I life, the interdependence of its multiple manifestations and its continuous cycles of change. As Schumacher ( 1973) says, it is becoming apparent that the whole crux of life is that it constantly requires reconciliation of opposites which in strict logic are irreconcilable --whether that dichotomy is between e motion and reason, or between the ego-centered needs of every thing and the interconnectedness of a! I things, or is in Schumacher's own dictate of "thinking globally and acting locally". Basic to the new paradigm that is emerging is the awareness of the "kinetic" nature of the universe --the unexpected and the unpredictable nature of Nature--in which a! I manifestations of reality are seen as intrinsically dynamic, marked by continuous change or motion that is a natural tendency inherent in a! I things and situations (Capra 1982). That awareness is a key component in the profound changes in perception that have occurred this century in physics, ecology and other disciplines, discussed later. W e are entering an age,tnen, of knowing science through a mystic's mind. t vlodern ecological wisdom demands a new orientation of science and technology towards the organic, the gentle, the non-violent, the elegant, the beautiful (Schumacher 1973). Ecological wisdom does not exist so that we can outwit nature --an impossible task--but rather to comprehend it and guide ourselves accordingly. Science, after alI, is within not without man. Its roots are as ancient as he. From the beginning his great occupation, aside from maintaining life and indeed necessary to that, has been to make some kind of sense out of himself and the world around him. 21

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INVENTORY I ANALYSIS NATURAL AND PHYS I CAL SCIENCE Ecology, Biogeography, Geology, Soi I Science: A review and analysis of I iterature on successional theory reveals a dramatic change in perception in the fields of ecology, biogeography, geology and soi I science that closely para! leis the emergence of the new world paradigm discussed above ( see also Appendix A). Ecology, I ike all other fields, has been affected by swinging pendulums of opinion, though it only emerged as a distinct scientific discipline at the end of the 19th century. Ecology very early turned to a study of vegetation dynamics and succession. The early empirical, often intuitive, field ecology of America came under the influence of the dominant world view at the turn of the century --a mechanistic, reductionist, deterministic perspective. Thus ecological thought at the turn of the century was nearly all in what might be called closed systems of one kind or another, with some sort of balance or near balance the ultimate goal. Plant succession was thought to follow landform development and was f o I I owed i t s e I f by so i I pro f i I e de v e I o pme n t. The classical models of that time are referred to as "developmental" because they emphasize progressive evolution through discrete stages of landscape and vegetation on stable sites toward a stable unchanging endpoint. are also referred to as "deterministic" because that sequence of change is assumed to be highly predictable and orderly (see fig. 8). Classically, the "climax" is considered to be the ultimate goal in plant community development representing a fully adjusted, unchanging and self-perpetuating system in a time phase of great stability, and with maximum diversity, biomass and production, and other specific attributes. Implicitly, or explicitly, the majority of other plant species and communities are relegated to "successional" status with less than maximum "fitness". These ideas represent beliefs that have been widely recognized and applied by many disciplines including landscape architecture/planning. 22

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Yet recent research findings are contradicting the assumptions and generalizations of the classical theories, The interpretation of succession as the development of vegetation through discrete stages culminating in a predictable regional climax has been abandoned by modern ecologists. As the role of periodic natural disturbance in vegetation dynamics is increasingly recognized, developmental models of succession with their assumptions of long-term stability are being abandoned in favor of non-equilibrium models which accept as normal the instability of site and of associated vegetation. The term "kinetic" has been suggested for those schemes of succession which emphasize continuous change as an essential part of complex, fluctuating systems and do not require the existence of stable endpoints (see fig. 8). ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION THEORY Classical Model system" progressive evolution through discrete stages "deterministic " predictable, orderly ultimate goalclimax" fully-adjusted self-perpetualing, unchanging, balanced maximum dlvarsity Fig. 8 New View •open system analyze processes of change uncertainty I flexability I adjustablillty no ultimate goal" does not require existence of stable endpoint no coneietant trend toward balance •kinetic" Such a change in the perception of succession has shifted attention from the search for largely non-existent selfreplacing climaxes and the identification of discrete stages of successional stages, to the analysis of the actual processes of vegetation change. Numerous studies following disturbances of a site through such mechanisms as landslides, wind or human intervention suggest that a! I species of trees,

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i n c I u d i n g t hose wh i c h rna k e up t he "c I i rna x" fore s t , were present from the start, indicating that a single group of species is not predestined to inhabit an area and seriously questioning the notion of "successional" species modifying the environment to make it more "fit" for the "climax" species. An example is a recent model based on an aspen community in we s t ern M o n tan a w i t h the f o I I ow i n g spec i e s : aspen , I o d g e p o I e pine, larch, engleman spruce and douglas fir. The model suggests that with inter-fire periods of 20-130 years a containing a mix of a! I 5 species occurs. If the inter-fire period increases aspen becomes inconspicuous and soon after (approximately 150 years) lodgepole disappears. An inter-fire period of 150-180 years wil I result in lodgepole r e g e n e r a t i on f r om s u r v i v i n g c one s b u t a s pen d e n s i t y w i I I be considerably reduced. If an inter-fire period of greater than 3 0 0 years occur s , I arch w i I I a I so be I o s t f rom t he c ommu n i t y , but will regenerate when a fire eventu!3-lly occurs. If very short inter-fire periods (less than 20 years) occur the lodgepole will not have time to reach maturity and restore seed s to c k s and w i I I be I o s t f rom t he c ommu n i t y , u sua I I y w i t h aspen increasing in density. Studies also show that in southern vVisconsin, the entire forest area is stable and diverse because of disturbance and subsequent reestablishment. Patches of different successional environments are continually changing size, position and geographic relationship depending on the disturbance regime. The assortment of species into different positions in the successional gradient is seen, then, as part of a complex dynamic regional process rather than as a single site pattern. Research has also shown that the notion of maximum diversity i n t he c I i rna x s t a t e i s an u n rea I i s t i c v i ew. A s t u d y o f a northern hardwood forest area showed that the flood plain, which was subject to repeated ravages and destruction by high water and therefore was the youngest and most unstable surface, actually supports the most diverse forests in comparison to the more stable slopes and ridgetops surrounding it. And conversely, an evaluation of the ancient Redwood forests of the Pacific Northwest, a classic example of a climax community, indicates 8 relatively low diversity of species. Similar kinetic schemes are being presented for landscape 24

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development as well. A current theory postulates that the surface features of the land are shaped by the opposing forces of up! ift and erosion, and sees landforms as dynamic systems which continually adjust erosion and deposition (Pickett, 1976). Kinetic schemes are also being suggested i n soil classification. The evidence is mounting now in a! I these disciplines that the systems are open, not closed, and that there is probably no consistent trend towards balance. Raup ( 1964) suggests that in the present state of our knowledge, we should instead think in terms of massive uncertainty, flexability and adjustability.

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Physics: Dramatic changes in perception have also occurred in the field of physics since the beginning of this century. The broad nature of the conceptual upheavals in the physical and natural sciences have profound implications for the practice of landscape architecture and planning. For as Paul Sears (1966) has written, the use of the land is to ecology what engineering is to physics. As an applied discipline that meshes land use planning and engineering with physical design, landscape architecture/planning is dependent on the knowledge of the physical and natural sciences for wise decision-making (see also Appendix A.) As described by Fritjof Capra ( 1982), a physicist and author of The Tao of Physics and The Turning Point, the exploration of the atomic and subatomic world in the early 1900's brought scientists in contact with a strange and unexpected reality that shattered the foundations of their view of the world and forced them to think in entirely new ways. The assumptions of the dominant world view, that of the universe being a giant machine made up of a multitude of separate objects, simply did not fit the new reality. Every time they asked nature a question in an atomic experiment, nature answered with a paradox. The scientists became painfully aware that their basic concepts, their language, their whole way of thinking were inadequate to describe the atomic phenomena they were observing. Their problem was not merely intellectual but amounted to an intense emotional and even existential crisis. Because the new physics necessitated profound changes in the concepts of space, time, matter, object, and cause and effect, which are so fundamental to our experiencing of the world, their transformation came as a great shock. A few examples wil I clarify the nature of the transformation. Experimental investigations revealed that matter and light can be, at the same time , both a particle and a wave, a situation hopelessly paradoxical under the classical concepts. The situation required a new way of thinking, in which an electron, for instance, may show particle-like aspects in some situations and wave-like aspects in others, each manifestation at the expense of the other, thus undergoing continual transformations in its nature. The implication, then, is that the neutron or any other atomic "object" has no intrinsic properties independent of its environment, nor does it have any objective properties independent of the observer's mind (Capra 1982).

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The resolution of the particle/wave paradox forced physicists to accept an aspect of reality that called into question the very foundation of the mechanistic world view --the concept of the reality of matter. At the subatomic level, matter shows only "tendencies to exist" and atomic events show only "tendencies to occur". It follows that we can never predict an atomic event with certainty; we can only predict the likelihood of its happening. Further, subatomic particles are seen not as "things" but as interconnections between "things" which .in turn are interconnections between other "things". Thus modern physics reveals the basic oneness of the universe and shows we cannot reduce the world into independently existing smallest units. Nature, the physicists found, does not show us isolated building blocks of matter but rather appears as a complicated web of intrinsically dynamic relations between the various parts of a unified whole. It follows that no part of the universe can be understood as a separate entity, but rather must be defined by its relations to other things (Capra 1982). In one last example, the classical view of the universe reduced the world into parts and then arranged them according to causal laws in a deterministic picture of nature as a giant clockwork with the properties of the parts determining those of the whole. In the new physics, however, individual events were found to not always have a well-defined cause, especially one brought about by a local connection. Rather, the behavior of any part is determined by its non-local connections to the whole, and because those connections are farther removed and much more complex, causality can not be known with any degree of certainty. In essence, it is actually the whole that determines the behavior of the parts (Capra 1982). The dramatic change in concepts and ideas that shook physics in the early 1900's shattered all the principle concepts of the mechanistic and led to an organic, ecological view of the world which shows great similarities to the views of mystics of all ages and traditions. It took the physicists many years to overcome their crisis of perception, but in the end they were rewarded with deep insights into the nature of matter and its relation to the human mind. For they saw that we can never speak of nature again without at the same time speaking of ourselves (Capra 1982). The world today finds itself in a similar crisis; the opportunities for insight are equally profound. 27

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Systems Theory: Another recent development in the study of ecology represents well the transformation sweeping through science in this century. The discipline of "systems ecology" emerged in the past twenty years as a means of balancing the scientific trend toward reductionism and the need for holism in environmental analysis of an increasingly complex world. It is a point of view that represents a radical departure from the mechanistic, linear assumptions of the Cartesian/Newtonian paradigm that has dominated for the last three hundred years. Systems ecology seeks to understand the bewildering complexity of ecosystems by analyzing their development, dynamics, and disruption. And consistent with the new views of physics, successional theory and landform development, two basic tenets of systems ecology are: the unexpected can be expected; and unpredictable change is a part of every natural system (Shoemaker 1983). ? Q

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Thermodynamics Law Qi Entropy Inherent in the emerging intuitive, ecological world view, also, is a renewed comprehension of the Law of Entropy and its implications for human behavior. The Entropy Law is the second law of of thermodynamics. The first law states that all matter and energy in the universe is constant, that it cannot be created or destroyed; only its form can change but never its essence. The second law, the Entropy Law, states that matter and energy can only be changed in one direction, from usable to unusable or from available to unavailable. Thus it is said that the total material entropy of the universe is increasing (as entropy is a measure of the extent of decrease in available energy). In essence the Entropy Law says that everything in the entire universe began with structure and value and is irrevocably moving in the direction of random chaos and waste (Rifkin 1980). According to the Entropy Law, any local decrease in entropy (or creation of order) wil 1 be at the expense of increasing the overall entropy of the surrounding environment (causing even greater disorder). Although all living things are dependent upon moving toward equilibrium (or negative entropy, by absorbing free energy from the surrounding environment) to stay alive, even the tiniest plant maintains its own order at the expense of creating greater disorder in the overall environment. Though we have all been taught that matter recycles itself, we have generally failed to recognize that a price is paid each time in terms of a decrease in "available" energy. That unavailable energy is what pollution is all about (Rifkin 1980). The principle of entropy is one that needs to be felt as much understood intellectually; it requires an intuitive awareness. For it transcends the assumptions of the rational, mechanistic world view we have been operating under for the past three hundred years. The Entropy Law shatters the notion that science and technology create a more orderly world. The Entropy Law destroys the notion that there are no physical limits that place constraints on human action or material acquisition in the world. The Law of Entropy suggests that we abandon pride for humility and says that more of a good thing is not better (Rifkin 1980). 29

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INVENTORY I ANALYSIS AR(}IITECTURE/PLANNI N G Implications for the Profession The evidence is overwhelming that we are in the midst of dramatic change in the way we perceive and make sense of the world and in the way we organize our notion of reality. The implications for the practice of landscape ning are profound. for professions, like societies, are not made up of facts and techniques; they are a way of looking at life. Every profession is founded on and guided by a particular belief system. That belief system typically mirrors the dominant paradigm of the time. from its beginning in America, though, the profession of landscape architec-ture/planning has been something of an anomaly. It is important to realize that although our culture has been dominated by a mechanistic, reductionist, rational paradigm for the last three hundred years, an undercurrent of awareness of another reality has always been present. A major upswelling of that awareness --a precursor of the new paradigm emerging--occurred in the latter 1800's in America with the ideas of Emerson, Thoreau and the "Transcendentalists", and the Conservation Movement that followed establishing the first national parks and forests. The wave of awareness reached new heights in the 1960's with the broadsweeping environmental movement and the resulting national environmental protection legislation. Now, as we enter the last two decades of the century, that wave is poised to engulf the old view as the new paradigm emerges. It is my contention that the profession of landscape architecture/planning in America is of this new paradigm. for landscape architecture came into being in the upswelling of the latter 1800's, led by fredrick Law Olmstead. Landscape planning came to the forefront in the ecological awareness of the 1960's led by Ian McHarg, at the height of a movement calling for a balance of the rational and the intuitive. And now in the 1980's, others in the profession are bringing the awareness of our role in the transformation to the forefront.

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Historical Overview One of the key indicators of a society's values is its attitude toward the land. Those values are typically reflected by the professions who presume to design, plan and manage the land and its resources. In the tracing the history of landscape architecture/planning in western society, however, a curious anomaly is noticed (see fig. 9). HISTORY OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE/PLANNING Mechanistic Paradigm 17th Century Villas & Gardens of France & Italy Fig. 9 Ecological Paradtgm 18th Century English Landscape Design 19th Century American Landscape Architecture 20th Century American Landscape Planning Let us look first at the practice of landscape design at the time of the emergence of the rational, mechanistic The asswnption of power by man during the Renaissance, rejecting the cosmography of the Middle Ages, was reflected in the early landscape design of villas and gardens in Italy and France. In these designs the authority of man over a base nature was made visible by the imposition of the supreme laws of geometry upon the landscape (McHarg 1969). In the western tradition, landscape design has since been identified with " 1

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garden-making in which decorative plants are arranged in a simple geometry as a comprehensible symbol of a submissive and orderly world, created by man. Here the ornamental qualities of plants are paramount --no ecological concepts of community or association, viability or sustainabil ity, confound the objective of the designer. The dominant world view --the mechanistic, rational paradigm--is reflected in such garden making, for it is only man who believes himself apart from nature who needs such a garden ( McHarg 1969). An alternative philosophy --an undercurrent of the new awareness emerging in society today--appeared in English landscape design in the 18th century, counter to the world view that dominated western society (see fig. 10). A handful of landscape architects took the images of writers, poets and painters the period and the hints of a quite different order and accomplished a beneficent transformation of the denuded landscape of their nation. They believed that some unity of man-nature was possible and could not only be created b u t i de a I i zed. I t i s a t e s t i mo n y t o t he pres c i en c e o f these landscape architects that, lacking a science of ecology, they used native plants to create communities that so wei I reflected natural processes that their creations have endured and are self-perpetuating. Their ruling principle-"nature is the gardener's best designer"--founded applied ecology as the basis for function and aesthetics in the I and s c ape (lvicH a r g 1 9 6 9 ) • This entirely new view did not enter the American cons c i o usn e s s u n t i I the m i d d I e 18 0 0 ' s , and i t was not u n t i I the end of the century that it found a worthy advocate in Frederick Law Olmstead. Olmstead was a pioneer in the newfor America -profession of Landscape Architecture with his creation of New York's Central Park in the 1860's. A man with the imagination and sensitivity of an artist and the iron wi II of an executive, Olmstead was a complex character --an idealist and a perfectionist with a driving social conscience who remained uncertain for many years about the choice of a career. At the age of 26 he took up scientific farming and then writing. His first book, Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England, reflected his almost passionate response to the English countryside and foreshadowed his life work (Brooks 1980). An ardent advocate of both city preservation, Olmstead's leadership p r e s e r v a t i on o f Yo s em i t e v a I I e y • parks and wilderness was critical in the As a wr i t e r , an

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administrator or a designer of the landscape , he demonstrated a deeply sensitive response to nature and a fierce conviction in his beliefs. Hts amazing accomplishments were in shaping and refining not only the land itself, but also the American public's attitude toward it. Olmstead was ahead of his time in recognizing man's joy in nature as an integral part of his culture. He was an idealist who dreamed of a harmonious relationship between man and nature that has yet to be realized. The essence of Olmstead's theory of environmentnl planning was a reverence for the fundamental characteristics of all 1 iving matter and a belief that if ecological laws were violated, there was 1 ittle basis for the social planning that was assumed to be a rational relationship between human beings and the physical environment (Brooks 1980).

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Dilemma of the Profession Olmstead was part of an undercurrent of awareness, beginning with Emerson, Thoreau and the "Transcendentalists" in the 1830's that ran counter to the prevailing philosophy of the time. For only in the smallest part was the American attitude toward the land affected by the ideas of Olmstead and his companions. The West had been opened and the great depredations were not to be halted (McHarg 1969). The early landscape architects attempted to make the public aware of the folly in failing to recognize the natural world as an inseparable part of the cultural world, and in failing to integrate the rational and the intuitive. In doing so they were at the forefront of the profound wave of change we are experiencing today. Landscape architecture in America from its conception, then, was a part of the leading edge of a new vision of reality. The discipline was conceived as one of synthesis and integration, based on scientific principles but deeply reverent of the natural world. Continuing that philosophy, the early 1900's saw the development of a landscape and ecological emphasis in regional planning --a radical change in perspective. For in the dominant view of our culture, the location, form and growth of development on the land is prescribed by the social sciences, especially the principles of economics. The new view, aided by the national resource conservation movement of the turn of the century, declared that the natural sciences --particularly ecology--provide the single indispensable basis for landscape architecture/planning (Anderson 1980). The profession was caught in a dilemma, however, for it was functioning in a society whose guiding philosophies were rational, mechanistic, reductionist and linear. Small wonder, then, that the practitioners, for all their intentions and intuitions in entering the profession, often fell in line with the dominant paradigm in their practice (see also Appendix A). Landscape architecture began to move away from its roots in the 1920's. The practice began to be regarded as a fine art and the national professional association, ASLA, made a concerted and successful effort to get the profession's academic programs transferred from scienceoriented colleges to colleges of fine arts or architecture. The result was a reinforcement of the reductionist view of the environment held by society. The move also developed an exclusive and elitist view of environmental design

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exclusive in that the designer's focus was on high art and elitist not only in that the designers were always presumed to know better, but in that they believed they were the only ones who could and should shape and determine our living environment (Koh 1982). Again, though, in the 1960's the undercurrent of the new paradigm reached an even higher level of intensity, and a landscape architect, Ian McHArg, was instrumental in awaking the general public to such notions as the inter-connectedness of a! I things and the dark side of unbridled technology. McHarg, one of the initiators of landscape planning as it is practiced today, was as impassioned in his sensitivity to the natural world and as firm in his conviction as was Olmstead a century before. He recognized that the failure of the western world lies in its prevailing values: Show me man-oriented society in which it is believed that reality exists only because man can perceive it, that the cosmos is a structure erected to support man on its pinnacle, that man exclusively is divine and g i v en d om i n i o n o v e r a I I t h i n g s • • • a n d I w i I l p r e d i c t the nature of its cities and landscapes ••• this is the image of the anthropomorphic man; he seeks not unity with nature but conquest (McHarg 1969). McHarg (1969) stressed that in times past, when man represented no significant power to change nature, it mattered little to the world what views he held. Today, when he has emerged as potentially the most destructive force in nature and its great exploiter, it matters very much indeed. McHarg's great strength and power --measured by the profound influence his ideas have had, not only in the profession, but far beyond--is found in his philosophy and in his broad concerns, and in his ability to combine the rational with the intuitive (as Olmstead did one hundred years before). More than anyone else, McHarg brought an increased awareness of environmental factors to regional analysis of landscapes (Anderson 1980). He sought out the experts in ecology and the other natural and physical sciences for an accurate model of the world and ourselves --and the interaction between the two--and utilized their knowledge in his approach to landscape planning. Above all, he called for a transformation of values, in the profession and in society as a whole. As the profession enters the 1980's, there is yet again a new wave of awareness that we have not yet achieved that

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transformation. Dunstan (1983) claims that the profession has adopted McHarg's techniques and skills (the rational component) and ignored the emotional and spiritual dimension, the philosophy and value system (the intuitive component) of his concepts and practice. Koh (1982), in an examination of the philosophy of the design professions, rejects the assumptions of the mechanistic paradigm as a model for practice and offers a new "ecological" paradigm for design.

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SYNrHES IS I SOLUf ION A c o1m1o n t h r e a d 1 i n k s t h e p h i I o s o p h i c a 1 , h i s t o r i c a I , environmental and scientific I iterature and ideas reviewed earlier. A synthesis of the new concepts i n such diverse fields as physics and ecological succession theory, in the context of changing world views, was found to lead the profession of landscape architecture/planning back to its roots. By looking at the interconnections between alI of the components inventoried and analyzed, seeking the essence of each, it was possible to develop a philosophical framework to g uide decis i o n -making in the practice of landscape architecture/planning as we enter a new age. The ph i I o sop h i c a I framework i s out I in e d as a c omp a r i son between the mechanistic paradigm and the kinetic ecological paradigm. I t is organized into the following components: l ) general characteristics 2 ) genera l attitude 3 ) natur e of k nowledge 4) view of history 5) nature of society 6 ) purpose of I i f e 7 ) nature o f science 8) view of nature 9 ) view of reality. The out I i n e of the ph i I o sop h i c a I framework, the "so I u t i on" to t h e " p r o b I em" s e t o u t i n t h i s t h e s i s , f o I I ow s •

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Ol.ITL I NE Of PH 1 LOSOPH 1 CAL fRAME\\ORK Comparison of Paradigm and Kinetic Ecological Paradigm General Character! s tIcs General Attitude Nature of Know! edge VIew of History Nature of Society Purpose of LIfe Mechanistic Paradigm I. Reductlonlst, linear, rational, unbalanced, disintegrating. I. The "arrogance of Human-Ism"; supreme fa I t h In human reason and ab i I It y to avoid limIts of nature. 2. "Doing" I. Corrrn i t t e d to the "how" of things. 2. Ration a I, objective under-standing that can be made avai I able In the market-place. I I • A cumulative progression toward perfection, through growth and material gaIn. I. Materialistic and individualistic. I. Material production and consumption 3 8 Kinetic Ecological Paradigm I. Synthesizing, holistic, balanced, Integrating. I. Abandons pride for h umi I it y and reverence; accept I iml t s (Law of Entropy) on human activity. 2. "Being" I. Asks the "why" 0 f things. 2. Kinetic ecological awareness that must be b u i I t into the wl sdom of the human race. I • An ever repeating cycle mov-lng from order/perfection to entropy/chaos. I. Spiritualistic; balancing ego-centered and environmentoriented activity. I. To move toward becoming one with the meta-physical universe.

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OUTLINE Of PHILOSOPHICAL FRAMEWORK Nature Science View of Nature of 1. Purpose Is to develop knowledge so man can use nature for material gaIn. 2. Scientific observation Is objective and absolutely repeatable. 3. Science replaces mystic-Ism and ethics. I. The universe Is a machine, simply matter In motion. 2. Is separate from Nature. 3. Nature Is only of value when it Is t .ransformed by man to a productive state. 4. Nature must be subjugated so Individuals can prosper. 5. Nature was given to us to have dominion over. 39 Kinetic Ecological I • Exists so that we can com-prehend nature and guide ourselves accordingly. 2. An "object" has no Intrinsic properties Independent of I t s environment. An "object" has no objective properties Independent of I t s observer's mind. Nothing Is observable In the same manner twice. 3. Science embraces mysticism and ethics. I • N a t u r e a p p e a r s a s a c om p I I -cat e d web of I n t r I n s I c a I I y dynamic relations between the various parts of a whole. 2. We cannot speak of nature without speaking of ourselves. 3. Everything has an Inherent and unalienable right to life by the virtue of Its existence. 4. We must Integrate ourselves harmoniously into nature. 5. The notion of stewardship Implies condescension toward the rest of nature.

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OlJfL I NE OF PH I LOSOPH I CAL FRAME\\ORK View of Rea II ty Mechanistic I. Reduced to that which can be measured, quantified and tested. 2 • There are u n Ivers a I I aw s and order established by mathematical formulas and scientific knowledge. 3. All phenomena are Isolated, fixed components of matter. 4. The universe must be reduced Into "things" to be understood. 5. The parts define the whole. 6. Causality is well-defined; any set of Initial conditions can lead to one and only one final state, 7, The universe is predictable and orderly. 40 Kinetic Ecological 1. Incorporates the qualitative, the mystical and the metaphysical. 2. Every event Is unique; Its own occurrence distinguishes It from at I other events. 3. Everything Is part of a dynamic flow, always in the process of becoming. 4. "Things" must be defined by their relations and interconnections with other "things". 5. The whole determines the behavior of the parts. 6. Causa I I t y I s not we I I -de f i ned; a given set of initial conditions can lead to several possible alternative states. 7. Unexpected, unpredictable change Is part of nature; we can only think In terms of probablll ties.

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APPLICATION OVERVIEW Throughout the history of our culture, educational environments have served as the catalyst for new ideas in society. An academic institution provides the opportunities to search, reflect, ponder and question. for this reason, the decision was made to apply the philosophical framework to a design for a graduate landscape architecture/planning curriculum. What better way to reach the broadest audience in raising the awareness of the new paradigm emerging in society and in fostering the opportunity to participate in the transformation. for, typically, the lessons learned in an academic program Jay a powerful groundwork for the philosophy, methodologies and techniques employed by professionals for the remainder of their careers. Because of that potential influence, it becomes critical that educational environments not cling to outmoded ways of operating, but rather remain responsive to the ideas that will serve students, and society, best in the challenges of the future. The application of the phi Josophical framework to a graduate landscape architecture/planning program has two components: l) noesign Guidelinesn --for any program seeking to follow the outline of the kinetic ecological paradigm. 2) a particular noesign for a Curriculumn within the parameters of the philosophical framework. A description and outline of each follows. 41

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APPLICATION "DESIGN GUIDELINES" The first component outlines overall guide! ines that establish the parameters for any graduate architecture/planning program seeking to follow the concepts of the kinetic ecological philosophical framework. The design guidelines are organized with the following components: l ) approach to learning 2 ) emphasis o f teaching 3 ) role of instructor 4) role o f student 5 ) m ethod of assessing appropriateness 6 ) approach to design 7) role of research 8 ) outreach approach. The complete outline of "design guidelines" for a graduate landscape architecture/planning curriculum follows • . ,.,

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"DESIGN GUIDELINES" fOR A GRADUATE LANDSCAPE ARCHITE CTURE/PLANNI N G APPROAQ-I TO LEARNING EMPHASIS Of TEAOIING ROLE OF INSTRUCTOR ROLE OF STIJDENT 1 • A broad h o I i s t i c approach t o know I edge. 2. Learning viewed as a method to better understand how to live within the limits set by nature. 3. The perception of learning as "progress" replaced by learning as a "process of becoming". I. Know "why", not just "how". 2. focus on "process", not "product" and on "interconnections", not "things". 3. Integration and synthesis of all parts of the w ho I e. 4. Experiential education (learning through experiencing and guided discovery). 5. Experimentation, not exercises. 6. Cooperation and coordination between faculty and students. 7. As a means not an end. 1. Co-worker, facilitator, coordinator, student (not "studio-master", critic, director). I. Shares responsibility for educati on (from defining problems to determini ng their solutions) . 43

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ROLE Of STUDENT (cont.) METHOD Of ASSESSING APPROPRIATENESS APPROAGI TO DESIGN "DESIGN GUIDELINES" 2. facilitator, coordinator (for other students, instructors, clients, users and public). 1. E v a I u a t e d a g a i n s t p h i I o s o ph i c a I f r am e -work. 2. Proven success as judged by users/ public in post-project evaluation. 3. By relative, not objective, criteria (by context of people, place and en vi r o nme n t ; no t by I i n e , form, space ) • i. Emphasis on "process" and "context" rather than on "artifact" and "form and space". 2. As a means not an end. 3. To avoid becoming professionally excellent but socially irrelevant, alienating to users and unresponsive to the ecosystem/bioregion. 4. A kinetic view; accept and anticipate change over time and probabi I it ies of impacts; understand the dynamics of a project (natural/cultural). 5. The whole defines the parts. 6. Avoid inflexible hierarchy in user/designer relationships (and similarly in instructor/student and inter-disciplinary relationships). 1111

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ROLE Of RESEARG-I OurREAG-I APPROAG-I "DESIGN GUIDELINES" 1. Emphasis on engaging faculty and students in a broad, holistic approach to theoretical and applied research. 2. Emphasis on cooperation with other disciplines to direct nature of research to address mutual needs. 1. Emphasis on internships (paid or unpaid, for credit or not) as a means of apprenticeship and of service. 2. focus on seminars, workshops, service projects, continuing education, etc. involving with the community at large (including schools --from preschools to undergraduate programs--the business communi t y, c i vic organ i z at ions , etc. ) • 45

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APPLICATION A DESIGN FOR A CURRICULUVl -------The second component is a specific design for a landscape architecture/planning curriculum that both fulfill the intentions of the 11design guidelines11 acknowledge and put into practice the tenets of the ecological paradigm. graduate seeks to and to kinetic The curriculum design makes the following assumptions: 1) the graduate program is directed toward those with undergraduate degrees in fields other than landscape architecture; 2) the program consists of six semesters, each fifteen weeks in length; 3 ) t he p r o g r am o p e r a t e s u n de r a " b I o c k a p p r o a c h 11 w he r e by a "block11 of time is utilized exclusively to study or focus on one subject or realm of endeavor (in contrast to the more typical approach of tackling up to half a dozen classes in assorted subjects at one time during a semester). In the curriculum design, each semester has an overal I goal and is then divided into several components or 11blocks" of time within the semester. Each component has a particular purpose and is designed to achieve the overall goal. The curriculum design is then organized in the following manner for each component: 1) purpose 2) assumption 3) attitude 4) means (of achieving the desired purpose) 5) ski lis and abilities developed. An overview or f o I I ow s f i r s t • "master plan11 for the curriculum I t o u t I i n e s the c omp one n t s o f each 4.f) design semester

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with an explanation of the avera! I goal of the semester and the purpose of each component. following that is a more detailed out! ine or "design details" of the curriculum describing purpose, assumptions, attitude, means and ski I Is and abilities developed for each component.

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A "MASTER PLAN" FOR A GRADUATE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE/PLANNING CURRICULLM SEMESTER 1 OVERALL GOAL ( 15 weeks) FALL To clarify an individual value system that will serve as a framework for decisionmaking in the practice of the profession. COvPONENT 1: a 4 wk. block --2 wks. in the Plains, 2 wks. in the mountains. Purpose To gain knowledge of and sensitivity to the natural environment. CO\tPONENT 2: a 3 wk. block --in the desert; the entire school participates. Purpose A "Vision Quest" --a journey of selfexploration, seeking to tap unused resources, develop intuitive abilities, expand awareness and synthesize the rational and intuitive ways of knowing. 3: a 5 wk. block --at school. Purpose To review and analyze philosophies and value systems throughout history, with particular emphasis on how they have influenced human use and design of the land; also incorporating the role of landscape architects/planners into that context. COVIPONENT 4: a 2 wk. block --at school. Purpose To develop a personal philosophical framework --a value system--as a basis for decisionmaking; also to develop a definition of the role of the profession in society. 48

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SaSTER 2 OVERALL GOAL A a..RRICULlM "MASTER PLAN" (15 weeks) SPRING To develop communication, facilitation, problem-defining and problem-solving abilities. COMPONENT 1: a 4 wk. block --at school. Purpose To understand basic hwnan psychology and the nature of perception; also to develop an ethic of communication and presentation. COMPONENT 2: a 3 wk. block --at school. Purpose To develop methods of communication. COMPONENT 3: a 5 wk. block --at school. Purpose To explore various approaches to problemdefining and problem-solving. COMPONENT 4: a 2 wk. block --at school. Purpose To explore methods of research, finding information and "net-working".

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A CURRICULlM "M\STER PLAN" SEMESTER 3 (15 weeks) SUvMER OVERALL GOAL To integrate the knowledge and awareness gained in the 1st and 2nd semesters into the process of planning and designing projects. CQVPONENT 1: a 3 wk. block --in the field. Purpose To expand ecological knowledge to familiarity with plants (their characteristics, needs, etc.) CQWONENT 2: a 12 wk. block --at school and in the field. Purpose To become aware of the process a "real-life" project goes through from its conception to planning, design and engineering to postproject evaluation. s n

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A CURRICULLM "M\STER PLAN" SEMESTER 4 (15 weeks) FALL OVERALL GOAL To expand the knowledge gained in semester 3 into the completion of integrated, comprehensive "real" projects; also to complete preliminary planning of thesis. 1: a 13 wk. block --at school and in the field. Purpose To complete a variety of planning/design projects, focusing on various stages of the total process. COVJPONENT 2 : a 2 w k • b 1 o c k --a t s c h o o I • Purpose To complete the preliminary phase of thesis. COvlPONEl\JT 3: a 3 wk. block (concurrent) --in the canyon (optional) country Purpose Assist in facilitating the "Vision Quest" of 1st year students. C 1

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SaSTER 5 OVERALL GOAL A ClRR 1 CULl.M "M4.STER PLAN" ( 15 weeks) SPRING To expand the knowledge, awareness and skills developed in the previous 4 semesters through internships/apprenticeships; also the continuation of thesis. COMPONENT 1: a 15 wk. block --outside school. Purpose The completion of one or more internships/ apprenticeships (paid or unpaid) and the sharing of that experience with fellow students and faculty. COMPONENT 2: a 15 wk. block (concurrent) --at school and/or elsewhere. Purpose The continuation of literature review, research, etc. for thesis. 52

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A ClJRRICULLM "MASTER PLAN" SEMESTER 6 ( 1 5 weeks ) SlMvlER OVERALL GOAL The srune as above for semester 5 (internships); completion of thesis. COMPONENT 1: a 15 wk. block --outside school. Purpose The srune as component 1 of semester 5. (internship/apprenticeship). 2: a 15 wk. block (concurrent) --at school and/or elsewhere. Purpose The completion of thesis. 53

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A ClJRR I CULLM DESIGN FOR A GRADUATE ARCHITECTURE/PLANNING SEMESTER 1 OVERALL GOAL (15 weeks) FALL To clarify an individual value system that wil I serve as a framework for decisionmaking in the practice of the profession. COv1PONENT 1: a 4 wk. block --2 wks . in the Plains, 2 wks. in the mountains. Purpose Assumption Attitude Means 1. To gain knowledge of, and develop sensitivity to, the natural environment. 1. This ability is essential to the effective practice of landscape architecture/planning. 2. To truly comprehend the natural world it is helpful to remove as many of the filters imposed by culture as possible. 1. Environment-oriented. 2. From a kinetic perspective. 3. Seeking "interconnections11, not "things". 4 . Realizing that the whole defines the parts. 5. emphasizing 11process", not merely "product11• 1. Live at a field site, utilizing such camps as the Wright-Ingraham Institute and the Leadville Outward Bound Center. 2. Utilize regional resources by inviting guest lecturers (from universities and private centers) for an intensive course in natural and physical science, focusing on historical context, interconnections and the current state of knowledge. 54

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A CURRICULlM DESIGN SEMESTER 1 --COMPONENT 1 (cont.) Me an s ( co n t • ) Skills/ Abilities Developed 3. Utilize an experiential approach to learning (through guided discovery and experience) as wei l as reading,discussions, and lectures. 1. An understanding of the basics of ecology and of engineering from a dynamic sense. 2. Analysis and comprehension of complex, interconnected systems. COMPONENT 2: a 3 wk. block --in the canyon country. Purpose Assumption Attitude Means 1. A "Vision Quest" --a journey of selfexploration seeking to tap unused resources, develop intuitive abilities, expand awareness and creativity and synthesize the intuitive and rational ways of knowing. 1. This awareness is pivotal to creativity and the ability to design well. 2. To gain self-awareness it is helpful to remove as many of culture's distractions as possible. 1. "Ego"-oriented. 1. Utilize the format of an Outward Bound course, spending the full time in the field. 2. Through guided discovery (an experiential approach to education). 3. facilitated by outside staff with psychic development, as wei l as outdoor, skills. 55

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A CURRICULlM DESIGN SEMESTER 1 --COMPONENT 2 (cont.) Skills/ Ab i l i t i e s Developed 1. Heightened perception, expanded selfawareness and confidence, clarity of mind and purpose, development of creativity. COMPONENT 3: a 5 wk. block --at school. Purpose Assumption Attitude Means Skills/ Ab i 1 i t i e s Developed 1. To review and analyze philosophies and value systems throughout history, with particular emphasis on how they have influenced human use and design of the land; also incprporating the role of landscape architects/planners into that context. 1. A broad perspective and comprehension of cultural changes over time is critical to developing a personal philosophical framework. 1. from a "cross-cultural" perspective. 2. With a kinetic perspective. 3. Seeking "interconnections". 4. Emphasizing "process", not merely "product". 1. Literature review, discussion, presentations (by staff, guest lecturers, students), creation of models, roleplaying, writing. 2. Through guided discovery (an experiential approach). 1. Develop analytical and synthesizing skills. 2. Understand the broader context of the profession of landscape architecture/ planning. 56

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A CURRICULLM DESIGN SEMESTER 1 (cont.) CCMPONENT 4: a 2 wk. block --at school. Purpose Assumption Attitude Means Skills/ Ab i 1 i t i e s Developed l. To develop and document a personal ph i I o sop h i c a I f r amewo r k --a v a I u e s y s t em-as a basis for decision-making. 2. To develop and document a sense of the role of the profession in society. I. Every planning and design decision requires a subjective judgement. 1. Synthesizing. 2 • Ho I i s t i c. l. Smal I group discussions, individual counseling, written and graphic documentation, presentation to others. 2. Through guided discovery. 1. Ability to analyze and synthesize. 2. Communication ski! Is.

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A CURRICULlM DESIGN SEMESTER 2 ( 15 weeks) SPRING OVERALL GOAL To develop communication, facilitation, problem-defining and problem-solving abilities. COMPONENT 1: a 4 wk. block --at school. Purpose Assumption Attitude Means Skills/ Ab i l i t i e s Developed 1. To understand basic human psychology and the nature of perception. 2. To develop an ethic of corrn 1unication and presentation as a groundwork for acquiring corrmunicat ion ski II s. 1. This understanding and awareness is critical to the effective and ethical practice of the profession. 1. from a "cross-cultural" perspective. 1. Literature review, discussions, presentations, experiments. 2. Through guided discovery. 1. The ability to analyze and synthesize. 2. Cornmu n i cat ion s k i l l s • COMPONENT 2: a 3 wk. block --at school. Purpose l. To develop effective methods of communication. 5 8

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A CURRICULlM DESIGN SEMESTER 2 --COMPONENT 2 (cont.) Assumption Attitude Means Skills/ Ab i I it i e s Developed l. Without effective communication ski! Is, all other capabilities are minimized. I. Service-oriented; focused on the needs and perceptions of others (the audience). I. Explore drawing, writing, speaking, photography, videography, computers, graphics and multi-media methods. 2. Through guided discovery. 3 • Exposure to the 11 state of the a r t 11 i n the profession. 1. Problem-defining/solving. 2. facilitation, communication CClv1PONENT 3: a 5 wk. block --at school. Purpose Assumption Attitude Means 1. To explore various approaches to problem-defining and problem-solving . 1. Defining a problem correctly is 90 % of solving it effectively and wisely. l. Take nothing for granted and make no assumptions. l. Exposure to tools for managing information --computer-aided analysis and design, participatory design, gaming simulation, systems model I ing.

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A CURRICULlM DESIGN SEMESTER 2 --COMPONENT 3 (cont.) Me an s ( co n t • ) Skills/ Ab i 1 it i e s Developed 2. Literature review, discussion, presentations (by staff, guest lecturers, students), creation of models, roleplaying, experimentation. 3. Through guided discovery (an experiential approach). 1. Problem-defining and problem-solving. COMPONENT 4: a 2 wk. block --at school. Purpose Assumption Attitude Means Skills/ Ab i I i t i e s Developed 1. To explore methods of research, finding information and "net-working". 1. Mastery of these ski 1 Is is critical not only to successful completion of thesis but for all endeavors in the profession. l. Seeking inter-connections. l. Through sharing of faculty research projects. 2. Through guided discovery. l. Inquiry, documentation, organizational skills. 60

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A CURR I CULLM DESIGN SE1v1ESTER 3 ( 15 weeks) SUlvfv lER OVERALL GOAL To integrate the knowledge and awareness gained in the 1st and 2nd semesters into the process of planning and designing projects. COMPONENT 1: a 3 wk. block --in the field. Purpose Assumption Attitude Means Skills/ Ab i 1 it i e s Developed 1. To expand ecological knowledge to familiarity with plants (their characteristics, needs, etc.) 1. Comprehension of plant dynamics is vital to designing viable, sustainable landscapes. 1. From a dynamic and holistic perspective. 1. Through field study, lectures, discussions. 1. Comprehension of plants and plant dynamics. COMPONENT 2: a 12 wk. block --at school and in the field. Purpose l. To become aware of the process a "real life" broad scale project goes through from its conception to planning, design, engineering and post-project evaluation. 61

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A CURRICULlM DESIGN SEMESTER 3 --COMPONENT 2 (cont.) Assumption Attitude Means Skills/ Ab i I i t i e s Developed 1. The whole defines the parts. 1. Holistic, synthesizing , integrating. 2. Seeking interconnections. 1. By analyzing a project from conception through the political process to design and implementation. 2. Utilizing comparisons of the processes of various types of projects. 3. Through lecture, demonstration and discussion of and experimentation with the various components of a project (fiscal planning, engineering , etc.) 4. Through completion of a studio project. 1. The ability to analyze and synthesize. 2. Development of design and engineering skills. 62

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A CURRICULUM DESIGN SEMESTER 4 ( 15 weeks) FALL OVERALL GOAL To expand the knowledge gained in semester 3 into the completion of integrated, comprehens i v e " r e a I " p r o j e c t s ; a I s o t o com p I e t e p r e -liminary planning of thesis. COMPONENT 1: a 13 wk. block --at school and in the field. Purpose Assumption Attitude Means Skills/ Ab i I i t i e s Developed 1. To complete a variety of planning/design projects, focusing on various stages of the total process. 1. The whole defines the parts. 1. Holistic, synthesizing, integrating. 2. Seeking interconnections. I. Through the undertaking of several "real" projects from problem-definition, analysis, solution and presentation. 2. Utilizing comparisons of the processes of the various types of projects undertaken. 3. Through lecture, demonstration and discussion of and experimentation with the various components of the projects. 1. The ability to analyze and synthesize. 2. Development of design, engineering and communication ski lis. CGAPONENT 2 : a 2 w k • b I o c k -a t s c h o o I • Purpose 1. To complete the preliminary phase of thesis. 63

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A CURRICULUM DESIGN SEMESTER 4 --COMPONENT 2 (cont.) Assumption Attitude Means Skills/ Abilities Developed l. A thesis allows the opportunity to synthesize the knowledge gained in the program and go one step further to original research or creative projects. l. Thesis can be of a research, design, theoretical or community service nature. l. Review of "cutting edge" research and theory. 2. Assess personal interests and goals. 3. Determine what there are needs for and what services could be provided. l. Synthesis, creativity, originality. COMPONENT 3: a 3 wk. block (concurrent) --in the canyon (optional) country Purposed Assumption Attitude Means 1. Assist in planning and facilitating the "Vision Quest" of lst year students. 1. The best lessons are learned through teaching others. 1. Service-oriented. 1. Utilize the format of an Outward Bound course, spending the ful I time in the f i e I d •

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A CURRICULLM DESIGN SEMESTER 4 3 (cont.) M e an s ( con t • ) Skills/ Ab i I i t i e s Developed 2. Through guided discovery (an experiential approach to education). 1. Heightened perception, expanded selfawareness and confidence, clarity of mind and purpose, development of creativity, 2 • Comnu n i cat i on and fa c i I i t at i on s k i I I s • 65

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SEMESTER 5 OVERALL GOAL A CURRICULlM DESIGN (15 weeks) SPRING To expand the knowledge, awareness and ski lis developed in the previous 4 semesters through internships/apprenticeships; also the continuation of thesis. COvlPONENT 1: a 15 wk. block --outside school. Purpose Assumptions Attitude Means Skills/ Ab i 1 i t i e s Developed 1. The completion of one or more internships/ apprenticeships (paid or unpaid) and the sharing of that experience with fellow students and faculty. 1. Internships offer the opportunity to expand knowledge and skills into a "realworld" context and to gain valuable experience and exposure to particular areas of interest. 1. Bringing ideals to the "real world". 1. Through part-time to ful 1-time work. 2. Through presentations and discussions with other students. 1. Fine-tune all the skills developed in the program. COMPONENT 2: a 15 wk. block (concurrent) --at school and/or elsewhere. Purpose 1. The continuation of literature review, research (whatever appropriate) for thesis. 66

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A ClRR I CULlM DESIGN SEMESTER 5 -COv lPONENT 2 (cont.) Assumption Attitude Means Skills/ Ab i I i t i e s Developed 1. A thesis allows the opportunity to synthesize the knowledge gained in the program and go one step further to original research or creative projects. 1. Thesis can be of a research, design, theoretical or community service nature. 1. Dependent on nature of thesis. 1. Synthesis, creativity, originality. SaESTER 6 ( 15 weeks) SUvMER OVERALL GOAL The same as above for semester 5 (internships); completion of thesis. CQVIPONENT 1: a 15 wk. block --outside school. Purpose The same as component 1 of semester 5. (internship/apprenticeship). CONIPONENT 2: a 15 wk. block (concurrent) --at school and/or elsewhere. Purpose The completion of thesis. 67

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CONCLUSION The dramatic shift from a rational, mechanistic world view to a kinetic ecological paradigm is not something that is hypothesized to happen in the future. It is real and it is happening right now --in science and in professions, in individual and in societal attitudes and values. The new paradigm will be familiar to many as it is not an entirely new philosophy; rather, it is the reviving of an awareness that i s a par t of our c u I t u r a I her i tag e. What i s new i s the extension of the ecological vision to a planetary level. It is perhaps only fitting that it took the technology of the mechanistic era to send men into space, giving us an image of "spaceship earth" and creating a spiritual intuitive awareness on a global level. The transformation cannot be prevented and should not be opposed. Rather we should prepare for it by a deep reexamination of our assumptions, our perceptions and our values, rejecting those no longer found useful and reawakening some of the values we have suppressed or discarded in previous p e r i o d s o f o u r c u I t u r a I h i s t o r y • THE v DS T Il v'lPOR T ANT T H I N G I S TO LEARN TO THINK IN A NEVV WAY. If we are to make peace with the forces of nature, that peace must begin in our minds. As landscape architects/planners it is imperative that we become aware of and accept our role in the transformation. To f o I I ow our des t i n y w i I I r e q u i r e a broad and a b o I d a p p roach • vile mu s t I e ad the way i n e s tab I i s hi n g a I and use e t h i c and in educating others in a new way to think about "what land is for ••• wh a t any t h i n g i s for 11 • The profession is often baffled by the general public's lack of appreciation of its contributions. \ V e cannot, however, simply wait for the rest of the world to catch up and recognize and appreciate us for what w e intuitively k now (but may not always be putting into practice ourselves). If we wait, as a profession, for the transformation to be completed, we wil I very I ikely find that another group of people wi I I have fi lied the gap left by our acquiescence. And the profession of landscape architecture/planning, by failing its destiny, wil I have withered and died. The coroner's report will read: Death Due to Social Insignificance and Irrelevance. 68

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In this thesis I have sought to way, at the very least my own beginning of the dawn of a new mountain" and change a society's for ••• what anything is for". 69 raise awareness in awareness. It is age; we can yet ideas about " what a sma 1 I only the " move a land is

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B I BL I cx;RAPHY Anderson, P. f. ( 1980). Regional Landscape Analysis. Environmental Design Press, Reston, Virginia. Austin, R . L. ( 1984). Designing the Natural L andscape. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., N ew York. Bates, M . (1975). Applications of e cology t o public health . Ecolog y 3 8 : 60-63. B a t e s on , G. ( 1 9 7 9 } • M i n d a n d I a t u r e • Ban t am B o o k s , T o r o n t o • Bormann, f.H. & Likens, G. E . ( 1979}. Catastrophic disturbances and t h e steady sta t e i n northern hardwood forests. Am. Sci. 67(6}:660-669. Brooks, P. ( 1980}. Speaking for Nature. Sierra Club B oo ks, San francisco. Brown , L. R. ( 1 9 8 1 ) • B u i 1 d i n g a Sus t a i nab 1 e Soc i e t y. W . V . Norton & Co., N ew York. Burgess, R. L. & Sharpe, D. NI. ed. (1981). forest Island Dynamics.!....!:! Man-Dominated Landscapes. Springer-Verlag , N ew York . Cain, S. (1972). Ecology: its place in resource management. Interpreting Environmental Issues (Ed. by C . Schoenfeld, A. Murray, j. Ross, K . Stamm & W . Witt), pp. 80-83. Dunbar Educational Research Services, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin. Callenbach, E . ( 1975). Ecotopia. Banyan Tree Books, Berkeley, Ca I i for n i a • Capra, f . (1982). The Turning Point: Science, Society and the Rising Culture. Bantam Boo ks, Toronto. Carson, R. ( 1962). Silent Spring. Fawcett Crest, N e w York . Chadwick, D. 0. ( 1957). forest developments in North America following major d isturbances. forest Ecology and M anage ment 3:153-168. 70

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Chisholm, A. ( 1972). Philosophers of the Earth: Conversations with Ecologists. E. P. Dutton & Co.-,--Inc., New York. Corrrnoner, B. ( 1971). The Closing Circle. Bantam Books, New York. Cannel I, ]. H. & Slatyer, R. 0. ( 1977). Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization. American t atural ist Ill: 1119-1144. Co s t e I I o , D. F • ( I 9 57 ) • A p p I i c a t i on o f e co I o g y t o r an g e management. Ecology 38:49-53. Drury, W. H. & Nisbet, I. C. T. (1971). Inter-relations between developmental models in geomorphology, plant ecology, and animal ecology. General Systems 151:57-68. Drury, W , H. & Nisbet, I. C. T. (1973). Succession.]. Arnold Arboretum 54(3):331-368. Dubas, R. ( 1978). The Resilience of Ecosystems; An Ecological View of Environmental Restoration. Colorado Assoc. ------University Press, Boulder. Dubas, R. ( 1980). The Wooing of Earth. Scribner's Sons, New York. Dunstan, j. C. ( 1983). Design with nature: 14 years later. Landscape Architecture Eckholm, E. P. ( 1982). Down to Earth: Environment and Human Needs. W . W . Norton & Co.,New York. Eiseley, L. ( 1957). The Immense journey. Vintag e Books, New York. E i s e I e y , L • ( I 9 6 9 ) • The U n ex p e c t e d U n i v e r s e • H a r v e s t I HB J , New York. Egler, F. E. (1954). Vegetation science concepts. I. Initial floristic composition, a factor in old-field vegetation development. Vegetatio 4:412-417. Ehrenfeld, D. ( 1978). The Arrogance of Humanism. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 71

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Ellison, L. ( 1957). Applications of ecology --Concluding statement. Ecology 38:63-64. farb, P. ( 1970). Ecology. Time-Life Books, N e w York. ferguson, M . ( 1980). The Aquariam Conspiracy: Personal and Social the l9801s. ]. P . Tarcher, Inc., Los Angeles. Hickie, P. (1957). The application of ecology to wildlife management. Ecology 3 8:53-56. Horn, H. S. ( 1976). forest succession. Scientific American 232(5):90-98. Koh, ]. ( 1982). Ecological design: a post-modern paradigm of holistic philosophy and evolutionary ethic. Landscape journal 1(2):76-84. Loucks, 0. L. ( 1970). Evolution of diversity, efficiency and comnunity stability. Am. Zoo!. 10:17-25. Lutz, H . ]. ( 1957). Applications of ecology in forest management. Ecology 38:46-49. 1/ia r g a I e f , R . ( 1 9 6 3 ) • On c e r t a i n u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p I e s i n ecology. Amer. Natur. 97:357-372. ivla r s h , W . ( 1 9 8 3 ) • Landscape P I ann i n g : En v i r o nme n t a I Ap p I i cat i on s • Add i son-W e s I e y , Read i n g , !vias sac h use t t s • Marshall, L. L. ed. ( 1982). Landscape Architecture Into the 21st Century. A Special Task force Report from The American Society of Landscape Architects. May, R . M., ed. ( 1976). Theoretical Ecology, Principles and Applications. W . B . Saunders Co., Philadelphia. Malmsbury, T . ( 1984). Wildflowers abloom. Daily Camera. july 5:Bl-3. McHarg, I. ( 1969). Design With Nature. Doubleday, New York. McRobie, G. ( 1981). Smal 1 Is Possible. Harper & R ow, Cambridge. 72

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Mollison, B. & Holmgren, D. ( 1978). Permaculture One: A Perennial Agriculture for Human Settlements. Transworld Pub I i she r s , Au s t r a I i a. Mollison, B._ (1979). Permaculture Two: Practical Design for Town and Country lQ Permanent Agriculture. Tagari Community Books, Australia. Mute!, C. f. { 1976). from Grassland To Glacier: An Ecology 2.1.. Boulder County, Colorado. johnson Publishing Co., Boulder, Colorado. N a s h , R • ( 1 9 6 7 ) • W i I de r n e s s a n d t he Arne r i c a n M i n d • Y a 1 e University Press, New Haven & London. Noble, I. R . & Slatyer, R. 0. (1980). The use of vital attributes to predict successional changes in plant communities subject to recurrent disturbances. Vegetatio 43:5-21. Odum, E. P. ( 1959). fundamentals of Ecology. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Odum, E. P . ( 1969). The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164:262-270. Oliver, C. D. (1981). forest development in North America following major disturbances. forest Ecology and Management 3:153-168. Park, C. ( 1980). Ecology and Environmental ; ranagement. Dawson, folkstone, England. Pickett, S. T . A. (1976). Succesion: an evolutionary i n t e r pre t at i on • Arne r i can N a t u r a I i s t l 1 0 : 1 0 7-1 1 9 . Pickett, S. T . A. ( 1980). Non-equilibrium coexistence of plants. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 107(2): 238-248. Pierce, N. R . & Hagstrom, ]. ( 1983). The Book of America: Inside 50 States Today. W . W . Norton & Co., N ew York. Raup, H . M . ( 1937). Recent changes of climate and vegetation in southern New England and adjacent N ew York. ]. Arnold Arboretum 18:79-117. 73

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Raup, H. M . (1964). Some problems in ecological theory and the i r r e 1 at ion to cons e r vat ion, J • Ec o 1 • 52 : 1 9-2 8. Raup, H . M . ( 1966). The view from john Sanderson's farm: A perspective for the use of the land. for. Hist. Apri 1: 2-1 1 • Rifkin, j. ( 1980). Entropy: A N ew World View. Bantam New Age Books, Toronto. Samples, R. ( 1981). Mind of Our Addison-V'Iesley, New York. Schumacher, E. F . ( 1973). Smal 1 Harper & Row, New York. Sears, P . B . ( 1966). The Living Landscape. Basic Books Inc., New York. Shoemaker, T. ( 1983). A Brief Overview: Systems, Systems Ecology, Systems Modeling. Environment Research & Technology, Inc., Ft. Collins, Colorado (unpublished). Singular, S. (1984). Finding the West in Unaweep Canyon. The Denver Post Magazine, january 15:20-21. Sprugel, D. A. ( 1976). Dynamic structure of wave-generated Abies balsamea forests in the northeastern United States. J • Ec o 1 • 6 4 ( 3) : 8 8 9-9 1 1. Sprugel, D. A. & Borman, F. H. ( 1981). Natural disturbance and the steady state in high-altitude balsam fir forests. Science 211:390-393. Spurr, S. H. ( 1956). Forest associations in the Harvard fore s t • Ec o I • Mono g r • 2 6 ( 3 ) : 2 4 5-2 6 2 • Stone Jr., E . L. (1957). The contribution of ecology to wildland soi 1 management. Ecology 38:57-60. Thomas, L. ( 1974). The Lives of a Cel 1: Notes of a Biology Watcher. Bantam Books, Toronto:Toffler, A. ( 1980). The Third Wave. Bantam Books, Toronto. 74

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Tregarthen, T. D. ( 1978). Food, Fuel, and Shelter: A W a t e r s he d An a I y s i s 2....f_ La n d -Us e T r a de -0 ff s i n a S em i -A r i d Region. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. Veblen, T. T., Donoso, C.Z., Schlegel, F. 1\l., Escobar, B . R . (1981). Forest d y na mics in south-central Chile. journa l of Biogeography 8:211-247. Villeneuve, R . de, ed. ( 1973). Viewpoints: The A Rational Look at the Env ironmental Problem. Winston Press, rvlinnesota. Watt, A. S. ( 1947). Pattern and process in the plant c orrrnu n i t y • J • Ec o I • 3 5 : 1 2 2 2 • vThitmore, T. C. ( 1982). On pattern and process in forests. The Plant C orrrnunit y a s a Working Mechanism (Ed. b y E. I. Newman), pp.45-59. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. Whitney, G. ( 1983). Colorado Front Range: Divided. Johnson Publishing Co., Boulder, Colorado. Whittaker, R . H. ( 1953). A consideration of climax theory: the climax as a population and pattern. Ecol. 23: 41-78. Zube, E . H. ( 1980). Environmental Evaluation: Perception and Public Policy. Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., Monterey, Ca I i f o r n i a • 75

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A KINETIC ECOLOGICAL APPROACH TO LANDSCAPE PLANNING Cathy Kasza 5 December 1983

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The connection between ecology and landscape planning could likely be dated to the Environmental Awareness movement that swept across the United States in the 1960's and 1970's with a flurry of concern for the quality of the environment. Of course, the connection existed in many ways and in many cultures throughout history but it wasn't until the early 1960's that the words "ecology" and "landscape planning" (or land use planning) and some notion of their relationship, permeated the general consciousness of the American public. H. J. Lutz in a 1957 article, "Applications of Ecology in Forest Management" stated that one of the most important contributions of ecology is what may be termed the ecological point of view--the seeking of cause and effect relations between the environment on the one hand and vegetation on the other. Marston Bates (1957), in an article in the same series, saw a crying need for ecological thinking of the sort in which Patrick Geddes and Lewis Mumford were pioneers as town and regional planners. By 1969 Dr. Stanly Cain, a former Assistant Secretary of the Interior, was stating that insights stemming from ecological investigations have led more and more people to look beyond single and immediate objectives and to think of the environment as more than topography, soil and climate. Planners and natural resource managers he felt, were being led to ask what sequence of changes our developmental actions will cause and what indirect effect these

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2 will have on our environment. Perhaps the most significant progress in the application of the principles of ecology to regional planning and resource management was made by Ian McHarg with the 1969 publication of Nature. The landscape architect stated, "Where else can we turn for an accurate model of the world and ourselves but to science? We can accept that scientific knowledge is incomplete and will forever b e so, but it is the best we have and it has that great merit, which religions lack, of being self-correcting . . when our preoccupation is with the interactions of organisms and environment, then we must turn to ecologists, for that is their competence." A number of recent works are representative of the continuing trend. William Marsh, in Planninq: Environmental Applications (1983) sees the overriding goal in landscape palnning being to provide a rational basis for guiding land use change, which requires an understanding of the pre-development landscape and of the nature of forces imposed on it when development takes place. Chris C. Park, in Ecology and Environmental Management (1980) was looking for an approach which is not solely or even primarily environmental or human, but founded on one and written for the other. Yet doubts of the effectiveness of this connection are also beinq raised. Jusuck Koh, in a 1982 article,

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"Ecological Design: a Post Hodern Paradigm of Holistic Philosophy and Evolutionary Ethic" is sceptical: "Despite 3 an increased awareness of the importance of the holistic evolutionary approach to the solution of complex human problems of Post-Industrial society, current design education still suffers from the lack of a necessary philosophical synthesis of the principles of ecology . . with the principles of design." Park (1980) recognized that the science of ecology is developing very quickly, but there is a time lag between the discoveries that ecologists make and the spread of information to people who need to be well informed (he unfortunately fell victim to that time lag himself, as will be discussed later). Ecology, like all other fields, is affected by the swinging pendulum of opinion. A review of one part of ecology, vegetation dynamics and successional theory , is indicative of this. Vegetation dynamics includes both successional change and regeneration dynamics. In its widest sense succession refers to observed sequences of vegetative associations or animal groups, whether in space (i.e., a sequence of vegetation zones over the slope of a mountain) or in time (i.e., a sequence of vegetation types occurring after an "old field" or a gravel pit is abandoned). In ecological literature the term succession is usually used to imply sequences in time. However, only short term change can be observed directly and most descriptions of

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4 long-term changes are based on observation of spatial sequences {Drury and Nesbit, 1973). Regeneration dynamics involve the changes in stand structure associated with regeneration of dominant plants. Descriptions of zones of vegetation and changes in vegetation on one site were recorded by Theophratus in 300 B.C. Several authors during the 19th Century noted the same phenomena without formulating a model for the ecologi-cal events involved. Thoreau, in 1863, recognized that pine stands on upland soils in central New England were followed after logging by even-aged handwood stands,which today are the main forest type of the region. He named the trend he observed forest succession. In 1885 Hult recognized "d.evelopmental changes" in vegetation, but it was the work of Cowles {from 1899 to 1911) which formulated the concept of succession. The brilliant and exhaustive work of Clements {from 1905 to 1936) was then responsible I for the concepts general acceptance {Drury and Nisbet, 1973). The classical schem e of vegetation development repre-sented by Clements paralleled the view of landscape development of the time represented by Davis, a geomorphologist. Both are commonly called "dynamic" {Clement's own term) models but are more accurately referred to as "developmental" because they emphasize progressive change in landscape and vegetation on stable sites towards a stable endpoint, and "deterministic" because that sequence of change is

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postulated to be highly predictable and orderly (Drury and Nesbit, 1973). 5 Ecological thought at the turn of the century was also nearly all in what might be called closed systems of one kind or another,with some sort of balance or near balance to be achieved. The geologists had their peneplains, the ecologists visualized a self-perpetuating climax and the soil scientists (soil being the direct connection between landscape and vegetation development) proposed a thoroughly mature soil profile, which would become a sort of balanced organism in itself. All were undoubtedly influenced by social Darwinism,which dominated the thinking of the times with its assumptions of determinism and of social and economic evolution toward a balance of political power and stability (Raup, 1965). Following Clements, ecologists were for several decades preoccupied with mapping and monitering the natural communities of North America while strongly divergent schools of thought developed regarding the nature of succession and of plant and animal communities. By the late 1960's Clements' assumptions were no longer generally accepted,but considerable agreement on the general trends of "community development" was developing,to form the basis for a contemporary successional model as typified by Odum's "Strategy of Ecosystem Development" (1969). Odum's model, though shifting the emphasis to succession being community

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6 controlled, is still "developmental" and highly "deterministic" with the driving force behind succession assumed to be increased control of, or homeostasis with, the physical environment. Odum felt there were profound implications of his successional theory for landscape planning--"an understanding of ecological succession provides a basis for resolving man's conflict with nature" (1969). And his ideas were widely accepted and applied in a yariety of fields. McHarg (1969) presented a version of ecosystem attributes with evolution and retrogression that parallelled Odum's (1969) table of trends to be expected in the development of ecos ystems and which postulated the advanced state as being complex, diverse and stable, and thus most creative. McHarg even offered his own version of the driving force behind succession: "I can think of no better way of looking at the world and its processes than as if these were a timeless yearning, occurring in a milieu with a proclivity for evolution and for life, in which the environment is fit and may be made more fit--in which the test is the capacity to adapt the environment and one's self" . and "the measure of fitness and fitting is evolutionary survival (and) success of the species or ecosystem" (1969). Going back to the other landscape planning literature quoted, Lutz (1957) explicitly stated that knowledge of the climax and natural succession are basic to sound forest

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7 management with his concept of the climax being a self-perpetuating, terminal plant community, representing a time phase of great stability. Bates (1957), on the other hand, felt biological ecologists were overly preoccupied with the processes of equilibrium and static notions of the "climax," or stable communities. Of the most recent texts, Marsh (1983), for all his stated intentions, merely breaks down natural processes into separate components (including sun angles, seasonal ground frost and storm water discharge) for application with no attempt at addressing interrelations or dynamics or a successional theory of any nature. And Park (1980) in his chapter on Successional Development of Ecosystems not only quotes Odum extensively, especially in a discussion of relevance to environmental management, but refers frequently to Clements1theories in his discussion of the nature of succession. So much for his attempt to compensate for the time lag between current research and the spread of the information to landscape planners and others. For, in the past decade or so, the classical interpretation of succession as development of vegetation through discrete stages culminating in a regional climax has been abandoned by modern ecologists (Pickett, 1976). The assumptions from which classical theories were deductively reasoned are being rejected as ecologists shift to a more empirical approach that points out their inadequacies and discrepancies.

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8 The recognition of periodic disturbance has fundamentally altered the way in which vegetation changes are portrayed. No complete contemporary model has evolved yet, but as the assumption of long-term constancy of the environment has been rejected, non-equilibrium views of plant succession are being proposed." Drury and Nesbit (1971) suggest the term "kinetic" for these theoretical schemes which emphasize continuous change and do not require the existence of an end-point. Similar kinetic schemes are being presented for landscape development as well. Gilbert postulates that the surface features of the land are shaped by the opposing forces of uplift and erosion and sees landforms as dynamic systems which continually adjust erosion and deposition (Pickett, 1976). In soil classification, also, kinetic schemes are being suggested. The evidence is mounting now in all of these fields that the systems are open, not closed, and that there is probably no consistent trend towards balance. Raup (1964) suggests that in the present state of our knowledge, we should think, instead, in terms of massive uncertainty, flexability and adjustability. A moving equilibrium is the characteristic "steady state" in an open system say Drury and Nisbet (1971). In seeking applications of the developing kinetic theory of succession to landscape planning, one recent work stands out. Forest Island Dynamics in Man -Dominated

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9 Landscapes, ed. Robert L . Burgess and David M. Sharpe (1981) is a collection of studies, self-described as being the first to present regional ecological dynamics based on analyses of forest fragments--"forest islands in a sea of urban and agricultural land uses." Correlating studies of entire regions and individual forest islands, the volume describes the impact of man on ecosystems, communities and populations. Implications for the manage-ment of nature reserves and of whole landscapes are addressed. A 3 -year project on "Forest Succession and Landscape Pattern, " that grew out of the International Biological Program, identified and brought together much of the preliminary work leading to the volume. By 1974, a body of research began to indicate that certain processes ascribed to large areas of relatively undisturbed deciduous forest were not necessarily applicable to the present landscape of eastern North America. For the previously contiguous forest had been fragmented over time through settlement and the continually increasing. demands of agriculture, industry and urbanization, until forest patches or "islands" exist today in most of the eastern U.S. surrounded by a matrix of non-forest land uses. McArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography (1967) stimulated a great deal of research concerning its ,..._.... -'\....... potential -app'i-eJ;cirti-Bn for 11 forest islands" in a 11 sea 11 of

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man-dominated landscapes. Questions of migration and extinction, succession rates and processes, species diversity and the optimal size of nature reserves were raised. Burgess and Sharpe's volume had its beginnings in a seminar organized in 1977 to address this array of concerns. Pickett (1976), a significant figure in the kinetic theory literature, saw similar ''island" analogies. He described disturbance creating patches of successional environments whose size depends on the type and severity of disturbance. These patches are analagous to islands 10 and as on true islands, speed of invasion, maximum population sizes and species richness of various successional patches may be found to depend on the age of the patch, its size and its distance from other patches. Pickett suggested that patches of different successional environments are continually changing size, position and geographic relation-ship, depending on the disturbance regime. Successional gradients and the evolutionary and functional responses of populations on them were seen to be part of a dynamic, regional process rather than a single site pattern. The authors in Forest Island D ynamics in Man-Dominated Landscapes, equally recognize the ideas of the kinetic theorists. Burgess and Sharpe, in the introduction, refer to Raup's (1937) discussion of natural and other anthropogenic disturbance creating openings and a general park-like

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aspect in some regions of the deciduous forest of the northeastern U.S. They go on to say the dynamics of the forested areas were paced b y patterns of disturbance that spanned the spectrum from gap phase replacement (Watt, 1947) to region-wide fire, insect infestation, and hurricane damage (Heinselman, 1973; Swain, 19780; Spurr, 1956; Sprugel, 1976) which created an ecological stability at the regional scale (Loucks, 1970). Botkin (1980) is referred to as pointing out there is no a priori equilibrium state for regional ecosystems. Rather each region had a characteristic disturbance regime that resulted in an individual mosaic of regional ecosystems (Bormann and Likens, 1979). Burgess and Sharpe feel that today the sequence of perturbations that creates a stable regional ecosystem has been superseded by a disturbance pattern tied to changing human land use, land ownership patterns and the social forces that bring about landscape change. 11 Sullivan, in a discussion of the ecolosy of dominance, states that the predictability of the effect of change on ecosystems is not as good as once thought. Referring to Odum (1969) he says successional theory held that a directional and apparently purposeful progression of species populated a disturbed system. Problems with the theory were anticipated b y Raup (1964) and discussed by Drury and Nisbet (1973) he goes on to say. Sullivan then presents

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12 the idea of artificial succession, or managed dynamic vegetation, through management of the geography and phenology of farms and forests, coupled with urban preservation schemes. Levenson, in a study of woodlots as biogeographic islands, found disturbance, whether natural or man-induced, to be a major variable controlling woody species richness. Hoene, looking at the groundlayer vegetation of forest islands, saw similar effects of disturbance on presence, density and frequency of species. Heavy human usage, according to Levenson, maintains a continual state of disturbance resulting in increased edge effect and high species richness. Community development, then, is viewed as series of extinctions and colonizations. In a study of the importance of edge in the structure and dynamics of forest islands, Ranney, et al., determined that forest composition of island landscapes is dependent not only on island size and equilibrium but also on frequency and extent of perturbations. The interaction of landscape pattern and ecology is the central theme of Forest Island Dynamics in Man-Dominated Landscapes. The scientific and practical issues of land-scapes of fragmented natural communities and their ecology are numerous. The emerging kinetic theories of vegetation dynamics and succession are central to these issues. A summary of the volume with a discussion of two of its studies follows.

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13 Burgess and Sharpe view their volume as a catalyst. Ecologists and landscape planners have an exciting opportunity to work together to use the empirical and theoretical studies presented as a springboard for new studies, theories and applications that will be critical to the future well-being of mankind and the environment. Perhaps nowhere in the U.S. is this a more timely issue than the Front Range of Colorado. Neal Pierce, co-author of The Book of America (1983), describes Colorado as "a tragedy in the making" as its natural landscape, far more vulnerable than that of the eastern U.S., is being rapidly fragmented. Perhaps with a kinetic ecological approach to landscape planning, Pierce's prophecy may not be realized.

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A Summary of Forest Islands Dynamics in Man-Dominated Landscapes ed. Robert L. Burgess and David M. Sharpe INTRODUCTION A vast experiment is underway, claim Burgess and Sharpe. It's unplanned and unwitting design is changing the spatial and temporal structure of terrestrial ecosys-terns. In our arrogance we trace the beginnings of the experiment in the eastern U.S. to European settlement and 14 its continuation in other parts of the world to the spread of western technology. In reality, human impact on the biosphere has occurred over millenia. As Botkin (1980) points out, there is no a priori equilibrium state for regional ecosystems. Since .the circumborcal Arcotertiary forest clothed the North American continent, functioning ecosystems have been subject to disruption, migration, perturbation and evolution. When Europeans colonized the eastern seaboard of North America, the vast region we now call the Deciduous Forest Biome was dominated by forest vegetation. Burgess and Sharpe state that patches of land were cultivated by Indians, however, (Day, 1953) and natural and other anthropogenic disturbance created openings and a general parklike aspect in some regions (Baup, 1937). Edaphic, climatic and historic conditions created sizable areas of non-forest, such as the prairie peninsula (Transeau, 1935;

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15 Bochert, 1950). The dynamics of the forested areas were paced by patterns of disturbance that spanned the spectrum from gap phase replacement (Watt, 1947) to region-wide fire, insect infestation and hurricane damage (Heinselman, 1973; Swain, 1980; Spur, 1956; Sprugel, 1976) which created an ecological stability at the regional scale (Loucks, 1970). Each region had a characteristic disturbance regime that resulted in an individualistic mosaic of regional ecosystems (Bormann and Likens, 1979). In the New World, European settlers continued the work of a millenium that had led to widespread removal of the forests of the British Isles and Europe (Darby , 1956). The landscape patterns that emerged were, however, indicative of unusually rapid change. Removal of over 90% of the natural habitats in southcentral Wisconsin in less than a century (Curtis, 1956) and similar clearing followed by large scale secondary forest reversion along the eastern seaboard (Raup, 1937, 1966; Bond and Spiller, 1935) may be ecological perturbations that are unprecedented in rate, intensity and extent, according to Burgess and Sharpe. The location of remnant forest is far from stable even in regions not undergoing wholesale deforestation or reforestation. Burgess and Sharpe claim that throughout the Biome the pattern of natural vegetation is unnotable to varying degrees. The sequence of transient perturbations that creates a stable regional ecos ystem

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16 envisioned for a natural landscape by Loucks (1970) has been superceded by a disturbance pattern tied to changing land use. The mix of perturbation agents, their frequency, intensity and a real extent, now modify the characteristics of natural landscapes by a combination of factors tied to human land use, land ownership patterns, the social forces that bring about landscape change. The impact of man on the pattern of forest vegetation in Wisconsin was described by Curtis in 1956: "Instead of an essentially continuous forest cover, . the landscape now represents the aspect of a savanna, with isolated trees, small clumps or clusters of trees, or small groves scattered in a matrix of artificial grassland of grains and pasture grasses . . ". Curtis (1956) graphically portrayed how deforestation in southcentral Wisconsin had reduced the forest area by 70% by 1882, 90% by 1902, 95% by 1935 and more than 96% by 1950 (Fig. 1-1). Such aggregrate values fail, however, to capture the essence of forest island landscapes--the small size, exposure, isolation and increase of edge per unit of the remnant forest patches, as shown by the variables in Table 1-1. Burgess and Sharpe see this pattern repeated in much of the eastern U.S. (Burgess, 1978), impressed on the landscapes of Europe (Darby, 1956; Falinski, 1976, 1977; Olaczek and Sowa, 1976) and now being created in the tropics (Gomez-Pompa, et al., 1972; Banjitsinh, 1979).

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Much former regional forest now e xists as forest islands in a sea of agricultural urban and other land uses. 17 The analogy between islands in seascapes and remnant forest in man-dominated landscapes has suggested the extension of equilibrium island biogeographic concepts to the new circumstances. McArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography (1967) stimulated thinking and a great deal of research raising questions of migration and extinction, succession rates and processes, species diversity and optimal size of terrestrial nature reserves. According to Burgess and sharpe the hopes of transferring equilibrium island biogeographic concepts to forest islands in man-dominated landscapes is frustrated by the structural complexity of their pattern, their transcience and the residual impact of previous landscape states. And unlike islands in seascapes, these forest islands are not surrounded b y a matrix that is defacto alien to their terrestrial biota. These complexities have called into question how closely the relationship between species richness and island size and isolation applies to forest islands. Further, there is a paucity of time series data both on landscape patterns and on the species composition of forest tracts during the course of forest fragmentation and reforestation, so that the response of the biota is difficult to assess. Burgess and Sharpe feel that explanations of the few extant observations are frustrated by the

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complexity of ecological phenomena within islands and of interisland linkages. 18 The studies that comprise this volume address these issues. Several chapters deal with forest islands in southeastern Wisconsin. Overstory and shrub composition (Levenson), herbs (Hoene) and mammal populations (Matthiae and Stearns) are considered. The enhanced importance of forest edge communities in such highly fragmented landscapes is presented by Ranney, Bruner and Levonson. The impact of decreased seed dispersal between forest islands on invasion rates is studied using stand level stimulations by Johnson, et al. West central Minnesota has scattered woodlots that were planted by European settlers in the mid-1880's, as well as remnant patches of natural forest and former savanna that has reverted to closed forest with fire protection. Scanlan studied the floral richness of these as a function of their size and distance from blocks of extensive forest. Eastern Maryland has a forest island landscape-much like that of Wisconsin. Here, removal of a large proportion of the regional forest has altered the habits of neotropical migratory birds, and the avian species composition of these forest habitats has changed accordingly, as documented b y Whitcomb, et al., and modeled by May.

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19 Finally, a series of chapters stresses the management of forest island landscapes in the eastern U.S. Lovejoy and Oren explore the minimum size of habitat islands that will meet specific ecological goals. Sullivan makes the point that planning needs to look toward specific ecological values of such landscapes. A modeling strategy to optimize the location and sizes of forest islands to meet specific objectives is discussed by Rudis and Ek. DISCUSSION OF TWO STUDIES Following are discussions of two of the studies highlighting the conclusions and implications for land-scape planning: ' "Woodlots as Biogeographic Islands in Southeastern Wisconsin," James B. Levenson. Levenson set out to extend the application of the island biogeography concepts to isolated woodlots and parks in an agro-urban mix. He postulates that in the metropolitan Milwaukee, Wisconsin, area major alterations of the landscape pattern, such as the addition or deletion of islands, resulting in changes in interisland distances and matrix qualities, are caused by human activity. In the process, the rates of colonization and extinction are continually altered. In natural communities, succession is a mechanism for such change. However, successional

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patterns resulting from urban influences ma y differ from those expected under natural conditions. Specific objectives of the study were (l) to survey and assess the forest plant communities that are embedded 20 and isolated from each other in non-forest matrix; (2) to test the applicability of the concepts of island biogeography that relate island size to species richness of the forested "habitat island"; and (3) to provide concepts useful for regional landscape planning and resource management. Methods Forest island selection was based on several criteria. Each forest island ideally should: l. be isolated from other islands, surrounded b y a matrix of urban or agricultural land. 2. contain sugar maple in combinations representative of the southern mesic forest type (Curtis, 1959). 3. be a remnant of original upland vegetation, not a newly established stand. 4. include all structural vegetation layers. 5. have no evidence of recent major disturbance. 6. have existed as a discrete unit long enough to have developed a mature forest edge. The vegetation of each island was sampled using the stratified-random line strip method (modified from Lindsey, 1955). Tables of species attributes were calculated for each structural stratum of each site (Levenson, 1976).

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21 Interisland comparisons were made using a hierarchal cluster analysis. Finally, non-linear regression analysis was performed to test the various models proposed by McArthur and Wilson (1967), when examining the relationships between island size and degree of isolation with species richness. Conclusions Levinson concluded that the richness of woody species in isolated woodlots is largely a function of disturbance, whether natural or human-induced. Heavy human usage of the urban islands maintains a continual state of disturbance resulting in an increased edge effect, a high species richness from colonization of less tolerant species, and a retardation of the island's transition to mor e mesic species. In rural areas, where islands are under less human pressure and disturbances are more random, an island can redevelop successionally resulting in more frequent of intolerant species and a lower overall species richness in the mesic interior. Levinson found that the classic species-area relationship was shown to be incapable of predicting the number of woody plant species as a function of island size for the southern mesic forests of Wisconsin. Species richness for trees and woody plants generally increased with island size to approximately 2.3 ha. Islands smaller than 2.3 ha. functioned essentially as edge communities composed of a mix of intolerant and residual tolerant species. Islands

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larger than 2.3 ha. showed a general decline in species richness as interior, mesic conditions became established with only tolerant species persisting. 22 White ash is a vigorous, opportunistic competitor in the forest islands of metropolitan Milwaukee that responds to disturbance and appears to be replacing the elms as a major community component. Levinson also determined that sugar maple seedling densities were often lower in the urban and heavily disturbed sites. Locally heavy rabbit browsing and seedbeds unsuitable for sugar maple have been suggested to account for its low numbers. Further investigation is needed as this relationship has a direct bearing on the successional dynamics and future composition of the urban forest. Community development, viewed as a series of extinctions and colonizations, is a function of the distance to the seed source of each component species. Levinson suggested that encouraging the use of local ecotypes of upland trees and shrubs as street and yard plantings in the urban system could help to reduce interstand distance by providing seed sources. In rural areas, the retention of fencerows, smaller islands and other environmental corridors could provide the much needed "stepping-stones'' for dispersal. A top priority should include research programs and management strategies for American beech and other species with specialized or low dispersal potential since once eliminated from an island, natural re-establishment is not possible.

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23 Management priorities must also include protecting the large (> 4 ha), less-disturbed woodlots as,Levinson concluded, only they have the potential to provide selfperpetuating examples of the once regional southern mesic environment. This management strategy runs somewhat counter to the notion of obtaining maximum species diversity in the landscape that is much in vogue, since the mesic forest is characterized by a relatively low species diversity. A rational approach would maintain forested islands large enough to support the region's stable natural community as "they are more 'typical' than a selection of particularly species-rich sites" (Usher, 1979). "The Importance of Edge in the Structure and Dynamics of Forest Islands," J. W. Ranney, M. C. Bruner, James B. Levenson. Two recent studies (Wales, 1972; Levenson, 1976) have shown that the edges of small (4-6 ha) forest islands may play a particularly important role in the development of individual forest islands. Bruner, Levenson and Ranney postulate that such a role has far-reaching implications for the population dynamics of individual tree species and for forest composition for a region. The complexity of the environment of forest island edges is suggested by the literature on edge effects, recently reviewed by Ranney (1977). In general, forest edges

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24 generate microclimatic gradients which result in a physical environment that differs from both open field and inferior forest and this difference is amplified by various plant responses to environmental gradients. Forest edges have also been seen as locations of heavy use b y wildlife. Because edge has high cover density (Schreiber, et al., 1976; Johnson, et al., 1979) and represents the convergence of contrasting habitats (Odum, 1959; States, 1976), both seed predation and the opportunity for seed dispersal are enhanced (McDiarmid, et al., 1977; Thompson and Willson, 1978). However, the many factors influencing the dynamics and importance of edge ecotones in man-dominated landscapes have made the identification of edge processes difficult. Bruner, and Ranney address some of these issues as t h e y relate forest characteristics to interactions between edges and interiors of forest islands and carry conclusions on to development within a landscape of forest islands. Effects o f island size, orientation, isolation, site conditions and rates of forest disturbance are discussed in order to relate the dynamics of forests on a regional scale. Methods In order to minimize the number of factors encountered in the study , islands were selected according to strict criteria from the 43 islands of L evenson (discussed earlier).

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Woody vegetation was sampled using a modified line-strip method (Lindsey , 1955). Ages of all edges sampled were determined from increment borings of selected trees. 25 Data was divided into two groups. The first was used to determine edge composition, structure and function. The second group was used to validate models constructed from the first data group. Several important questions about the role of edges in forest island ecosystems remained unanswered after the direct analysis of field data. They ranged from: can equilibrium in species composition be expected to develop along edges? and what is the effect of edges on species composition in island interiors in contrast to similar interiors imbedded completely in a large forest matrix? to will interisland seed rain modified by the contribution of forest edges cause changes in development of other forest islands? and can edge and interior forest development be related to island size or other factors which allow generalizations to be made concerning regional forest dynamics, i.e., can these factors be used to predict how forests may change under regimes of management and modification? Bruner, Levenson and Ranney used a computer model, FOREST , which stimulates forest growth and accepts propagule inputs (Ek and Monserud, 1974) to answer such questions and infer long range trends.

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26 Conclusions Bruner, Levenson and Ranney analyzed island comparisons, general edge charactistics, patterns in tree species distributions, forest edge structural, possible edge effects on regional forest composition and effects of edge on forest island differences were found to exist in structure and species composition between forest island edges and inter-iros. The general division of species into xeric, shade-intolerant species and music, shado-tolerant species according to Curtis (1959) and Harper, et al., (1970) was found useful in elaborating the differences between forest edges and interiors. Edges were found to be more pioneer and less mesic in composition than forest interiors regardless of interior composition. Trends in species richness and stern density were found to have a pattern of general decrease through the outer 10-15 rn of the edge and a leveling off interior to that point suggesting the functional edge is 10 to 15 rn in depth. However, a 30 rn or greater depth was indicated on the west edges sampled, with land use effects and other complex factors postulated as being responsible for the difference. Species found within forest islands were divided into characteristic groups: strongly edge-oriented, moderately edge-oriented, interior-oriented and ubiquitous species. Many of the edge-oriented species have propagules that are

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27 wind and bird dispersed. The strongly edge-oriented group are the most and rarely extend into mexic forest interiors. These species {including hickories, hawthornes, most oaks, birch, willows and poplars) are favored along south and west aspects. Species favored along north-and east-facing edges {including basswood, ash and elms) are more shade-tolerant and may extend into island interiors. The interior-oriented group is composed of beech and sugar maple, the most mesic and the dominant equilibrium species of the region. The group is characterized by hop hornbeam and wild cherry and distribution is relatively homogenous within islands. The proportions of each of these catagories in a forest island is dependent on the shape, orientation and minimum width of that island {with the exception of the ubiquitous species who are affected little by these characteristics). The interior-oriented group is most affected b y island size as islands less than 2-3 ha may prevent the full development of interior forest conditions causing the group to decline. Island width is another critical factor for interior-oriented species . . For example, if islands were less than about 30 m wide {no matter what their length) the chance of beech surviving in the region as a self-sustaining population would be extremely low even if the islands were left undisturbed. For this reason, hedgerows and very narrow forested corridors are believed

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28 to be unimportant as "safe" sites in the population dynamics of interior oriented species (slightly over 100 m in width is recommended to permanently sustain beech and about 30 m to sustain sugar maple). Orientation and shape of forest islands influence the edge-oriented group. South and west island edges provide a permanent xeric habitat which allows shade-intolerant species to occur in otherwise mesic islands. Irregularly shaped islands will have a high component of all edge-oriented species. In analysing the dynamics of forest edge development computer modeling was used to predict a number of attributes of forest islands. In the well-developed islands of this study , newly created edges were dependent on propagule input from other silands. Once established, edges themselves act as a source of propagules for edge-oriented species and invade adjacent forest interiors far in excess of interisland dispersal levels for the same species. Simulation indicated that the interaction of edges with interiors is a function of island size and increasAs the proportion of moderately shade-tolerant species in the interior. The forest composition of island landscapes was also shown to be dependent on the frequency and extent of island perturbations. Results of this study are directly applicable to land management and environmental impact assessment. Edges are artifacts of man -dominated landscapes which are permanent, yet dynamic. It has been conclusively shown that there is

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29 a selective effect on tree composition and forest island dynamics when edges are created. With knowledge of such effects based on the dynamics of individual woodlots, landscapes can be planned and managed to obtain desired results on a regional basis. Another important consideration in the management of forest islands is that the creation of new edges or the disruption of an intact edge will lead to a regression from mature, mesic conditions in the interior to dryer, pioneer conditions. If the objective is to preserve patches of mesic forest in the mature state, the protection of the edge from disturbance is at least as important as the protection of the interior. Planting strategies using native, semi-natural or introduced species can minimize the damage caused b y the creation of a new forest edge. Ultimately, by perceiving regional changes in forest composition from the perspective of naturally functioning but artifically maintained forest islands, planners can connect human intent with ecological wisdom in landscapes already dominated by man . CONCLUSIONS The surface of our planet is being developed at a quickening tempo. Vast segments of natural areas are disappearing while much of the remainder is being frag-mented. Sullivan feels that human domination of the world's landscapes takes many forms but perhaps the most noticeable

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30 is the change in vegetation. The creation of new successional patterns of plants, and consequently of animals, is a major result of human population expansion. The question of longterm benefit of these artificial assemblages is yet to be answered states Sullivan. Changes in the density, distribution and composition of native tree species have altered population dynamics and forest development considerably according to Bruner, Levenson and Ranney. As fewer, more-isolated forested islands remain, their condition and dynamics become critical to sustaining a region's natural forest resource and, very importantly, a region's genetic base for tree species. Curtis (1956) expressed concern for changed balances of plant species and the possible extinction of some species. Gomez-Pompa, et al. (1972) fear that the wholesale removal of forests will devastate the rich genetic pool of the humid tropics. Burgess and Sharpe thus feel the concern is worldwide and transcends species, biomes and nations. We are learning that fragmented ecosystems still play a vital role in the ecology of a region, according to Burgess and Sharpe. Lovejoy and Oren suggest that if protection efforts are to be successful and significant, not only must the fragments be protected but also they must be able to maintain their biological integrity over reasonable periods of time--or if not, at least no illusion to the contrary should be operating.

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31 Burgess and Sharpe feel it is no longer possible to look at "the ways things should be" in regional landscapes. Sullivan states that ecologists, planners, and politicians must deal with things as they are. Ecologists normally have great affection for systems in which mankind is not dominant while lawmakers and policy planners often have great affection for the social systems they have helped build. Both the prevalence of man-dominated landscapes and the ecological values derived from them make their understanding and management a vital goal according to Burgess and Sullivan. Clearly, it is timely to direct attention to the regional ecology of man-dominated landscapes. The research summarized in this section is on aspects of forest dynamics in man-dominated landscapes in the eastern United States. Burgess and Sharpe see these landscapes, however, as laboratories in which ecological theories can be applied and tested, and view the landscape dynamics and their ecological consequences as analogies for many regions throughout the world. They speculate that ecological dynamics of regions may prove to be an important new direction for ecosystem research and suggest that these dynamics are inseparably linked to the patterns of landscape components, both in space and in time. There are many important questions yet to be answered. And answered they must be, say Lovejoy and Oren, if the function and structure of ecosystems are to be understood, and if twenty-first century biology is to consist of more

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32 than paleontology, the biology of weedy species, laboratory and zoo biology and what Scott McVay calls the science of pickled parts."

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33 REFERENCES Bates, M. ( 1957). Applications of ecology to public health. Ecology 38:60-63. Bochert, J. R . (1950). The climate of the central North American grassland. Ann . Assoc. Am. Georgr. 40:1-39. Bond, H. E. & Spiller, A. R. (1935). Use of land for forests in the lower Piedmont region of Georgia. Occas. Paper 53. USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, Louisiana. Bormann, F. H. & Likens, G. E. (1979). Catastrophic disturbances and the steady state in northern hardwood forests. Am. Sci. 67(6) :660-669. Botkin, D. B. (1980). A grandfather clock down the staircase: Stability and disturbance in natural ecosystems. Forests: Fresh Perspectives from Ecosystem Analysis (ed. R. H . Proc. 40th Annual Biology Colloquim. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oregon. Burgess, R. L. America. (1978). The changing face of eastern North Frontiers 42(3) :8-11. Burgess, R. L. & Sharpe, D. M. ed. (1981). Forest Island Dynamics in Man-Dominated Landscapes. Springer Verlag, New York. Cain, S. (1972). Ecology: its place in resource management. Interpreting Environmental Issues (Ed. by C. Schoenfeld, A. Murray, J. Ross, K. Stamm & W. Witt), pp. 80-83. Dunbar Educational Research Services, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin. Curtis, J. T. (1956). The modification of mid-latitude grasslands and forests by man. Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth (ed. by W . L. Thomas), pp. 721-736. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Carby , H. c. (1956). The clearing of the woodland in Europe. Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth (ed. by w. L. Thomas), pp. 183-216. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Da y , G . M. (1953). The Indian as an ecological factor in the northeastern forest. Ecology 34:329-346.

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34 Drury, W. H. & Nisbet, I. C. T . (1971). Inter-relations between developmental models in geomorphology, plant ecology, and animal ecology. General Systems 151:57-68. Drury, W. H. & Nisbet, I. C. T. (1973). Succession. J. Arnold Arboretum 54(3) :331-368. Ek, A. R. & Monsened , R. A. (1974). FOREST : A computer model for simulating the growth and reproduction of mixed species forest stands. Research Report R-2635, School of Natural Resources, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Falinski, J. B. (1976). Durability of forest relics in the agricultural landscape in light of investigations on permanent plots. Phytocoenosis 5:213-224. Falinski, J. B. (1977). Research on vegetation and plant population dynamics conducted by Bialowieza Geobotanical Station of the Warsaw University in the Bialowieza primeval forest 1952-1977. Phytocoenosis :1-145. Gomez-Pompa, A. , Vazzuez-Yanes, C. & Guevara, S. (1972). The tropical rain forest, a non-renewable resource. Science 177:762-765. Heinselman, M. L. (1973). Five in the virgin forests of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Minnesota. Quat. Res. 3:329-382. Johnson, W. C., Schrieber, R . K. & Burgess, R. L. (1979). Diversity of small mammals in a powerline right-of-way and adjacent forest in east Tennessee. Am. Midl. Nat. 101(1) :231-235. Koh, J. (1982). Ecological design: a post-modern paradigm of holistic philosophy and evolutionary ethic. Landscape Journal. Levenson, J. B. (1976). Forested woodlots as biogeographic islands in an urban-agricultural matrix . Ph.D. Thesis. University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Lindsey, A. A. (1955). Testing the line-strip method against full tallies in diverse forest types. Ecology 36: 485-495. Loucks, 0. L. (1970). Evolution of diversity , efficiency and community stability. Am. Zool. 10:1725 .

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Lutz, H. J. (1957). Applications of ecology in forest management. Ecology 38:46-49. MacArthur, R. H. & Wilson, E. 0. (1967). The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 35 Marsh, W. (1983). Landscape Planning: Environmental Applications. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts. McDiarmid, R. W., Rickleys, R. R. & Foster, M. S. (1977). Dispersal of Stemmadenia donnel-smithii (Apocynaceae) by birds. Biotropica 9:9-25. McHarg, I. (1969). Design With Nature. Doubleday , New York. Odum, E. P. (1959). Fundamentals of Ecology. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Odum, E. P. (1969). The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164:262-270. Olaczek, R. & Sowa, R. (1976). Dying out of native flora in urbanizing areas on the example of the forest reservation "Polesie Konstantinowskie" in the city of Lodz. Phytocoenosis 5(3/4) :291-299. Park, C. (1980). Ecology and Environmental Management. Dawson, Folkstone, England. Pickett, S. T. A. (1976). Succession: an evolutionary interpretation. American Naturalist 110:107-119. Pierce, N. (1983). The Book of America. Ranjitsinh, M. K. (1979). Forest destruction in Asia and the South Pacific. Ambio 8(5) :192-201. Ranney, J. W. (1977). Forest island edges--their structure, development, and importance to regional forest ecosystem dynamics. EDFB/IBP-77/1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oa k Ridge, Tennessee. Raup, H. M. (1937). Recent changes of climate and vegetation in southern New England and adjacent New York. J. Arnold Arboretum 18:79-117. Raup, H. M . (1964). Some problems in ecological theory and their relation to conservation. J. Ecol . 52:19-28.

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Raup, H. M . (1966). The view from John Sanderson's farm: A perspective for the use of the land. For. Hist. April:2-ll. 36 Schreiber, R. K., Johnson, W. C., Storey, J. D., Wenzel, C. & Kitchings, J. T. (1976). Effects of powerline rightsof-way on small nongame mammal community structure. Proc. 1st National Symposium on Environmental Concerns in Rights-of-Way Management, pp. 263-273. Mississippi State University, Mississippi State. Sprugel, D. G. (1976). Dynamic structure of wave-regenerated Abies balsamea forests in the northeastern United Sates. J. 64(3) :889-911. Spurr, S. H. (1956). Forest associations in the Harvard Forest. Ecol. Monogr. 26(3) :245-262. States, J. B. (1976). Local adaptations in chipmunk (Eutamias amoenus) populations and evolutionary potential at species borders. Ecol. Monogr. Swain, A. M. (1980). Landscape patterns and forest history in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Minnesota: a pollen study from Lake Hug. Ecology 61:747-754. Thompson, J. N . & Willson, M . F. (1978). Disturbance and the dispersal of fleshy fruits. Science 200:1161-1163. Transeau, E. N. (1935). The prairie peninsula. Ecology 16:423-437. Usher, M. B. (1979). Changes in the species-area relations of higher plants on nature preserves. J. Appl. Ecol. 16:213-125. Wales, B. A. (1972). Vegetation analysis of north and south edges in a mature oak-hickory forest. Ecol. Monogr. 42:451-471. Watt, A . S. (1947). Pattern and process in the plant community. J. Ecol. 35:12-22.