Citation
A New school of music for the University of Minnesota

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Title:
A New school of music for the University of Minnesota
Creator:
Levine-Rosen, Beth
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Committee Chair:
Long, Gary
Committee Members:
Capek, Leslie
Tabb, Phillip

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Source Institution:
Metropolitan State University of Denver Collections
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Beth Levine-Rosen. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
/
0CHOOL OF Tj\4t ISIC
Beth Levine-Reason Sprmu-198S


A
NEW SCHOOL OF MUSIC FOR THE
UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
An architectural thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
Ms. Beth Levine-Rosen Spring 1985


Thesis of
Ms. Beth Levine-Rosen
is approved
University of Colorado at Denver
May 15,
1985


TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Introduction
Thesis statement
II. Music and Form
(The thesis image)
A. Characteristics of Music
B. Form
C. Spirit and Image
III. History
A. Minnesota
B. University of Minnesota
C. Need for a new facility
IV. Spatial Needs
A. Activity Areas
B. Outdoor Spaces
V. Site Analysis
A. Location
B. Atmosphere
C. Views
VI. Acoustics
A. Sound Waves
B. Sound Distribution


VII. Interm Review Drawings
VIII. Final Project
IX. Conclusion Statement
X. Appendix
A. Climate Data
B. Codes
C. Soils Reports
XI
Bibliography


jr^NTROOPCncasI:


THESIS STATEMENT
"The Idea is Everything. It is
Abiding"<1>
0.M. Ungers
This thesis reflects an effort to fuse an image with reality. The image is the idea and grows from many desires. Reality is our built environment, the world of
architecture. Architecture is the art where refinement transcends the ideals of man into physical materials. "It is the presence of both which determines architectural form"<2)
I have chosen to design a New School of Music for the University of Minnesota because music is an image; a challenge, a thesis to be brought to reality.
"Toward an ideal form, music probably rises higher than any other art., The tonal stuff of music is of great sensuous appeal, it is surely the most plastic substance even to be molded into tangible forms; and in the creation of those forms the musician is absolved •from all immediate consideration of the physical appearances and properties of •’things'...While all art is no small measure abstraction, music if only because of its unconcern with physical appearances of things, is the most fortunate of all the arts in its quest for the perfection of form which is both a delight in itself and


the expression of an ideal of order."(3)
The thesis which I am proposing for the New School of Music is two-fold: first I wish to explore music as an image-a sense of spirit and second; I plan to explore the context of my site, the University of Minnesota.
The first goal, an image-a sense of spirit, is the heart and soul of the school.
"Musi cal training is a more
potent instrument than any
other, because rhythm and
harmony find their way into
the inward places of the
soul..." (4)
The New School of Music is the
; . the i mage of music, the
desires of education and the common bond with the music community. The building is a statement for both the university and the community; it is the focus, the image of music appreciation. The community has a rich history in music tradition and relies on the leadership of the university for coordination and development. The university is the single greatest music resource in the state and the new building is the formal committment to this leadership role. The spirit of the bulding will come from a love and understanding of music inaddition to the history and tradition of the community.
The second part of my thesis statement , the exploration of the context of my site, arises from the setting for the New School of Music. The site is ideally suited to the program because it combines


the natural -forces of the Mississippi River with the history and magestry of the University of Mi nnesota.
The site is located on the west bank of the Minneapolis campus and the west bank of the Mississsippi River. The Mississippi River is the division of the two banks of the Minneapolis campus, the east and west banks. The east bank is the older part of the campus and owes its formal axial configuration to the original university plan done by Cass Gilbet in 1910. The west bank of the campus is the expansion from the east bank and was begun in the 1950's. The New Music School site is the last buildable open space on the west bank. Contextually) the Music School must thus complete the whole - the infra structure of the west bank and the rhythm of the uni versi ty.
The east edge of the site is located 90 feet above the Mississippi River. The university and the Minneapolis Park Commission are planning the development of a park for summer music festivals on this portion of the river. The river is thus both a natural element and a physical catalyst which the school must reflect.
The New School of Music is the link; the image between nature and man, between the idea and reality. The building has two sides and must have two faces. The school is the ideal - the image of music. Therefore, my thesis is to address those two forces: the image of Music and the context of the University of Minnesota.


"Any building that is not a theme unto itself ia an intellectual triviality. It. may fulfill necessary purposes and needs and meet justified technological demands, but if it does not transcend the mere fulfillment of purpose to present. itself as idea as well, it defies architecture’s claim to be an expression of mental universality and
remains a banality."<5)
Q.li. Ungers


FOOTNOTES
1. Ungers, Q.M. (excerpted from a thesis by Diane Kasprowicz, University of Minnesota) Spring 1982.
2. Kasprowicz,
(University of Archi tectual University of Spring 1982.
Di ane. Minnesota Thesi s, Mi nnesota)
3. Ferguson, Donald M. Music as a Metaphor. (University of Minnesota Press, Mpls. MN) 1960.
4. Plato. (excerpted from a thesis by Peter Fu, University of Minnesota) Fall 1979.
5. Ungers, O.M. (Excerpted from a thesis by Diane Kasprowicz, University of Minnesota) Spring 1982.


II- M1^' AND pORM


CHARACTERISTICS OF MUSIC
"Music: is our oldest form of expression, older than language or art; it begins with the voice, and with our overwhelming need to reach out to others. In fact, music is man far more than words, for words are abstract symbols which convey factual meaning. Music touches our feeling more deeply than most words and makes us respond with our whole bei ng."(1)
Music, like language has developed its own structures, grammars and vocabularies. All of which exist both in nature and in man; in spirit and written notation. The spirit is the inner characteristics of music; the vibrations, overtones, the soul. The written notation is; the composition, the notes, the accents, the rests, the datum. The musical spirit can exist without the written notation, but the latter may not exist without the spirit.
Therefore, for my thesis I plan to concentrate on the characteristics of music which represent the heart and soul of music. For it is this is the heart and soul of my thesis.
"The music are
actual elements of tone and rhythm.
A11
composite parti al
musical tone is a of fundamental and vibrations, of


different frequencies ampli tudes....
and
Rhythm, the other really elemental factor in musical structure, is far more suggestive. It is fundamental for poetic and for graphic art as well, and is the abstract form in which motion is most clearly defined to consciousness.... Musical rhythm, particularly, is perceived as the very graph of motion - of a universally known, extramusical experience - and our actual awareness of rhythm, accordingly, is usually a considerably concrete presentation of motion imagery."(2)
Tone
backbone characteri the comp b1oc ks. of a seri sentance, ul ti mately or plot of rhythm and rhythm.
and rhythm structure sties of music, onents, the
are the of the Tone is bui1di ng
The order and arrangement, es of tones becomes the the paragraphs and the story. The movement the story rests with the the increment within the
Musical tone has four characteristics: duration, pitch, intensity and quality. Duration of a musical tone may be defined purely in terms of the time elapsing between its commencemt. and its cessation. The term pitch refers to the relative highness or lowness of a tone. Intensity is the measure of the loudness of a tone. And, quality of a musical tone is that element which enables us to distinguish between notes which , although they may posses the same pitch and intensity, are


produced by
different instruments
"The art of interpretation in largely the performance of each and every individual tone of
composition with what the player or singer deems to be its correct duration, pitch, intensity, and qual i ty " <3)
Tones in themselves are merely raw materials; it is not until they are arranged in some systematic manner that they produce what we call music. The core of the arrangement is our second major musical structure, rhythm.
"The perception of rhythm in music thus arises in a comparison of the duration of tones, or groups of tones; but inasmuch as these groups of tones are marked by stresses or accents, rhythm is concerned at the same time with accentuation."(4)
Rhythm is achieved through two basic modes of action; syncopation and tempo. Syncopation is the
stressing of one or more normally unaccented beats, and it is the oldest method of producing rhythmic interest. The rate at which groups of pulses progress is described by tempo. Tempo is the pace which the rhythm or system of stresses progresses.
The most frequently employed designations are:
Adagio - Very slow
Allegro - Fast, lively
Andante - Somewhat slow
Largo - Broad, stately
Presto - Quick
Vivace - Lively, animated(5)


FORM
form
"Toward an ideal -form, music probably rises higher than any other art. The tonal stuff of music is of great sensuous appeal; it is surely the most plastic substance ever to be molded into tangible forms; and in the creation of those forms the musician is absolved from all immediate consideration of the physical appearances and properties of 'things'. ... While all art is no small measure abstraction, music if only because of its unconcern with physical appearances of things, is the most fortunate of all the arts in its quest for the perfection of form which is both a delight in itself and the expression of an ideal of order."(6)
I have chosen to use the same quote of Mr. Ferguson's that I used in my thesis statement because this is the duality of architecture and music. Architectural form is the grouping of the building elements. Musical form is the combination of musical elements.
The elements of musical form are: The motive, the phase and the sentence. The smallest meaningful unit of musical thought is the motive - a compact group of notes having a pattern or design sufficiently unique to differentiate it from other groups. The phrase, the next larger unit, consists of either several repetitions of the same motive, or of several motives. Musical


phrases have a measure of self-subsistence, but they lack complete sense until they are arranged in a sentence or clause. The more conventional musical phrase is four measures long, and the more conventional musical sentence consists of two or more musical phrases.
Musical form has two broad interpretations; aesthetics and objectivety. Objectively music is judged by its structural composition. Aesthetically, musical composition possesses form when the ear perceives it as a unified and well - proportioned structure in sound in much the same way that one views and art work.
"So we see that in all the arts, the art of music and the art of forms, these is one law of proportion, expressed physically by different methods, one to appeal to the vision, and the other to the hearing. The designer or the composer of music uses this pattern of proportion to obtain harmonies if he wishes them, or disharmonies if he feels that they are needed to relieve or accent the harmonies. When he has become skilled by training he obtains what he wants without fumbling. The scale becomes second nature both to the designer and the musician."(7)
"In both the art of music and the art of forms, harmonies in their respective sensations are possible because a sound, or musical note, does not fade instantly


when the stimulus ceases. It lingers, it persists in memeory, and the quickly succeeding sensations overlap. Likewise in vision, which concerns perception of spatial areas, the element of tone is apparent. If we close our
eyes ofter glancing at. an object the sensation of form and color will remain for a time, and will overlap the succeeding sensations. Thus
consciousness has in itself the physical dimensions of time and space, the same laws Music and Form: proportion and numbers."<8)
and recognises of harmoney in the laws of the laws of


SPIRIT AND IMAGE
"Musi cal portrayal of builds itself, into an image appropriate to
Image...A feelings- that by inference, of experience the f eeli ng"(9)
The musical spirit and image is the force which gives the music building its soul. This is the quality which differentiates the New School of Music from a spec — office building.
Image is an inference, drawn from a presented fact of form, something which no two persons will perceive the same. My friend Scott Newland described his image of the music school as: "...a huge orchestral work, thematically developed (perhaps with some programmatic content), and in the spirit of the romantic period because that’s the sort of music that I like. I would be a fantastic work, unconcerned with extreme formalism because one thing that I don't want to create is a monostyle School of Music. The School itself isn’t like that. It accepts and promotes many musical directions rather than sticking to a singular dogma. I want the School's facility to be as diverse, even to the point of being a sort of pastiche. If my design for Ferguson Hall were music, it would be powerful and emotionally moving and would be remembered after being experienced because of these qual i t. i es ."<10)
The image that extrapolating is one of rhythm. Visually, I
movement of all types
I am movement, see the of music;


folk, jazz, bluegrass and classical. Because the school encompasses all manners of music. I hope to evoke movement around the site - between the university campus and the Mississippi River. For I feel that the image of my design is the complementing element of contextualism, my second thesis goal .
"Music represents a motion-impulse, not the physical achievement of that impulse. But the portrayal of that impulse can be very vivid, and if is does lead you outside the puremusical region - and you just admitted that it might do that -- then it is no longer purely musical. You said that motion is a function of any physical body, it is obviously a funci on of our own human bodies. Mayn't tone, in motion, which without motion stimulated imaginary visual and tactual and gustatony sensation, make your limbs, real or imaginary, enact motor i mpulses?"(11)


FOOTNOTES
1. Yehudi, Menuhin. The Music of
Man (Methuen Inc., N.Y.,N.Y.)
1979. p.l.
2. Ferguson, Donald M. Music as a
Metaphor (University of Minnesota Press, Mpls. MN) I960. p.7.
3. Bernstein, Martin.
Introduction to
(Prentice-Hall, Inc., N.Y.) p. 4.
4. IBID p. 28.
5. Yehudi, Menuhin. The Music of Man p.l.
6. Ferguson, Donald M. Music as a Metaphor p.
7. Gardnes, Robert Waterman; A Primer of Proportion in the Arts of Form and Music (N.Y., W. Herburn Inc.) 1945, p.19.
8. IBID p. 18.
9. Ferguson, Donald M. The Why of
Music (University of Minnesota
Press, Mpls. MN) 1969, p.43.
10. Newland, Scott. Architectural
Thesis (University of Minnesota,
Mpls., MN) Spring 1982, p.39.
11. Ferguson, Donald M. The Why of Music p.34.
An Musi c
1937.


Ill- HISTORY


MINNESOTA
Minnesota is rich in its musical traditions and in the talent o-f its people. The Twin Cities metropolitan area has become a cultural center with a world-wide reputation -for excellence, serving the entire Upper-Midwest region of the United States. Growth of musical activity of all kinds has attracted to this area people? with strong musical interests and talents.
Each of the following organisations carry international and national reputations in addition to their regional and local ones. All seek a continuing and active association with the music programs at the University and all offer the potential of contributing significantly to those same programs.
The Minnesota Orchestra The St. Paul Chamber Orchestra The Minnesota Opera The Schubert Club The Walker Art Center The Minnesota Dance Theater The Guthrie Theater The Children’s Theater The Minneapolis Institute of the Arts
In Addition, many
organisations of local and regional reputation that are located in the Twin Cities seek the same type of cooperative relationship and can also contribute to the University’s music programs. These include:
The Bach Society


The Minnesota Chorale The Minneapolis Civic Orchestra
The St. Paul Civic Orchestra The MacPhail Center for the Performing Arts All of the sister colleges and universities in the area
By the nature of the University of Minnesota (its size, the depth and breadth of its faculty resources, the critical mass of students that permit for activities not otherwise possible, and its library), it has been the expressed desire of the
professional organizations of the community that the University music programs assume a leadership role in the development and coordination of the broad and rich musical resources of the community both to create a richer educational environment and to assist in bringing a sharper focus to the diversity of activities and opportunities available here. These community goals and desires are totally compatible with and suited to the misssion of programs, the colleges they are a part, and the in general.
the music of which University


UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
The University of Minnesota was founded in February, 1951, but was forced to close during the Civil War. It was reopened in 1867 as a preparatory school and two years later, after a major reorganization, became a fullfledged institution. Today, its Twin Cities campus stands as the nation's largest single campus.
The School of Music is located on the Twin Cities campus/Minneapolis near the Mississippi River and presently has an enrollment of approximately 550 undergraduate and graduate students.
Organized in 1902 with a faculty of two, the University's music department initially offered four courses in music - two of them in theory. The first music education course was offered 1908 and the bachelor of arts degree was established in 1914. The music program moved into its present location of Scott Hall, named after Carlise Scott, faculty member and second chairman, in 1922. In 1947 the University established the Department of Music Education. The Department of Music Education and the Department of Music were formally merged into the School of Music in 1980.
The School of Music is a professional school designed to prepare students for a large number of diverse professionaly opportunities in the field of music. Both its undergraduate and


graduate programs necessarily require heavy concentrations in music study, but at the same time, expect breadth of intellectual experience and growth.
Students graduating from the School with the B.A. of the B.M. degree may find professional opportunities in performing, conducting, private teaching, arranging and composing, or they may pursue graduate study in music. Students completing the B.S. in Music Education are qualified to teach in the elementary and secondary schools. The B.S. degree in Music Therapy leads to certification as a music therapist. Numerous opportunities in variety of fields closely related to music,
i.e. in theatre, in the recording industry, as a consultant in the media, as a music reviewer, and in arts management of administration, are also appropriate goals for a student with a major in music.
The graduate study program in music enables students to increase skills and knowledge in their area(s) of specialisation. It also prepares students for teaching positions on the post-secondery level, research, performances, conduction positions or writing jobs as critics or reasearchers for scholarly journals, magazines of newspapers.
The School of Music is organized into five divisions: Applied Music; Composition/Theory;
Ensembles (Bands, Chamber Ensembles, Choruses, and Orchestra); Music Education/Therapy, and Musi cology/Ethnomusi coloty. The
music programs at the university are ainongs the major programs in


the nation. They are largely
professional1y oriented by also providing an important Liberal Arts service dimension. Degrees are offered in a variety of fields, from the undergraduate through doctoral levels. These include:
BA theory, composition, music history and literature, performance
BFA performance (all orchestral and band instrucments, piano, harpsichord,
organ,
guitar, and voice), and church music
BS music education and music therapy
MA theory, composition, musicology, music educat i on
MFA performance (all areas listed under the BFA, above), church music, and conducting
PhD theory, composition, musicology, music education
DMA clarinet, organ, piano, trumpet, voice
In addition to the academic commitments outlined above, the music programs present well over 100 performances each year which include recitals by faculty, guests, and students; as well as concert programs by the University Orchestra, choruses, bands, and an array of chamber ensembles. In addition, the music programs sponsor and co-sponsor variety of other services (mostly open to the public). Collectively, these
activities serve approximately 110-120,000 people each year. In addition, the Marching Band appears before a few hundred thousand people annually at athletic events


and in touring appearance.
A close communication exists with the professional performing arts community and numerous cooperative events are sponsored.
The mission of the Department is, ultimately, to disseminate, promote and increase the cultural benefits and enrichment music can provide in the lives of the inhabitants of the state and the nation. This task is approached by three different but. converging avenues:
1. By providing training for students interested in pursuing a variety of careers in music.
This group represents the strongest link between the University and the residents of the State since they function through direct contact invirtually every school and community in Minnesota as well as far beyond its borders, satisfying at the local through the national levels and the desire to learn about, participate in, or experience music.
2. By providing instruction for people interested in acquiring greater knowledge of and expression through music as an adjunct to other areas of concentration.
This group is equally important to our mission. The development of an aesthetic sense and a refined artistic perception for those who are not motivated toward professional activity in the art form can contribute to greater understanding of and sensitivity to human values and to a humane environment. In addition, such study can provide the basis for a lifetime avocational interest and activity of a highly constructive


and rewarding kind.
3. By providing opportunities •for all people within and beyond the University Community to experience a wide range o-f musical events.
The majority of these opportunities are offered to the public without charge. Beyond creating an audience for the aspiring or accomplished performer, these reources are made available in order that students and other interested persons who may have only limited acquaintance with the vast heritage of world music may
discover for infinite variety cultural
themselves its and broaden their horizon.


NEED FOR A NEW FACILITY
The University is the only institution in this State with a critical mass in terms of students to justify the diversity of faculty specialisations and breadth of curriculum necessary for a first-rate School of Music. The Univerity is the only institution in this State that can provide for the musical art the important advantages of crossfertilization with a vast array of related disciplines. The setting of this University makes it unique among the state supported Big Ten schools (and many others) in providing opportunities for faculty and students in music, music education and music therapy to interact within our own community on a continuing basis with international1y recognised practitioners of the music profesions. The University is well situated to address itself to the musical needs of, and preparation of teachers for, urban and inner-city schools. In the School of Music, we have a diverse faculty, many members of which have international reputations as performers, scholars, or composers.
Proposals that music be given ’the same recognition as other departments’ date from 1S96. A formal recommendation that music be established"...on the same plane with the work of any other depertment dates from 1902. The proposals were adopted and the first courses in music wre offered at the University in 1903 with classes being held in the basement of Pillsbury Hall. Scott Hall was built in 1922 and has since been


the principal building used by the music programs. But Scott Hall is no way suffices. The Music Programs currently use approximately eleven different buildings. These include: Scott Hall (complete use); Northrop Auditorium; Walling Hall; Science Classroom Building; Grace Episcopal Church; Holy Emanuel Church; Fraser Hall; Walter Library; University Baptist Church. None of these facilities is properly designed for music use either acoustically or c1imatical 1y. Together they constitute only a small portion of the space needed for current programs (which have been reduced approximately 25% in the past three years due to inadequate facilities, equipment, and faculty resources).
For
examp1e,
there
1 s
student-to-practice room ration of approximately 35:1 while the national average (for the size and type institution) is 12.8:1. Almost all of the large parttime faculty teach at their homes or private studios because the University cannot provide teaching space for them.
The current music programs have the honor of having faculty members who are widely recognized as leaders in their fields. They include a Pulitzer Prize winner, faculty whose books have been translated into other languages, faculty whose compositions have been performed throughout the world, faculty who have performed internationally and have won coveted international prizes as performing artists, faculty whose compositons and performances have been recorded and distributed widely, and faculty who are widely recognized as devoted and respected teachers.


But despite all this, the location and quality of the facilities almost precludes the development of strong audience support and is inhibiting to attnedance at the many public events presented and sponsored by the music programs.
A new facility will provide the serious pursuit for the establishment of a nationally prominent Summer Performing Arts Festival. With such a facility, it would be possible to develope summer program analogous to those at such places as Wolf Trap Farm Park; Ravinia; Meadowbrook; Tanglewood; Aspen; and many others. Such a festival of the performing arts would place the University at the center of the summer cultural activities in the Twin Cities and the upper mid-west region and would bring immediate and continuing national attention to its cultural contributions (radio and television coverage on a regular basis is a reasonable expectation).
If the above goals are realised, it is probable that the music programs would serve as many as 200-300,000 people each summer (apart from other routine summer and academic year activities). This program has been positively received by representatives of the Minneapolis Park Board, the Minneapolis River Corridor Development Office, and by a number of prominent business leaders from the community, further reinforcing the potential cultural outreach contributions which could be made by the music programs in particular and the University in general.


(This section is -footnoted forms PROGRAM FOR A NEW SCHOOL OF MUSIC at the University of Minnesota. Ety the Music Building Advisory Committee, Dr. Arturo Madrid, Chairman. February 1979.)


IV SPATIAL NHH1)S


ACTIVITIES AREAS
The following pages show the breakdown of the spatial requirements for the New School of Music. This information was extracted from the University of Minnesota Music School Program.

The major spaces are: (sq. f t. )
Administrative Offices 2, 200
Academic Facility 4,450
Classrooms 12,000
Concert Hall, etc. 30,975
Practice Rooms 5,765
Teaching Studios 7,525
Support Facilities 6j.9ig 69,735
Circulation 12^000
81,735


ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES
The Administrative Offices should be located near the main entrance to the building and set off a large corridor to permit for an easy flow of a large amount of traffic. They should also be in close proximity to concert facilities and reception areas (commons room). It is believed that the offices should be divided into two fairly distinct but connected general f ac i 1 i t. i es-the Main Office and Duplicating/Col1 ating Room, and the Administrative officers offices (chairman, assistant, DBS, etc.as described herein).
TOTAL: 2,200 sq ft

Chairman’s Office 275 sq ft
Administrative Office small conference room
Reception Area 200 sq ft
at entrance to Administrative Office complex
Conference Room 250 sq ft
in or near Adm. Of. complex with direct access to hall. Adjacent to kitchenette
Kitchenette 75 sq ft
Main Office 400 sq ft
will handle large flow of student and faculty office traffic. Entrance to Main Dept. Offices.



Administrative Assistant Office 200 sq ft
Public Relations Office 200 sq ft
Office for meeting people -faculty and students- to plan programs etc. Should be off the main reception area.
Office for the Executive Secretary 150 sq ft
adjacent to the Chairman's Office
Office for the Director of Graduate Studies 175 sq ft
Office for Budget Clerk/Typist 125 sq ft
adjacent to Excutive Secretary’s Office
Duplicating/Col1 ating Room 150 sq ft
adjacent to Main Office


ACADEMIC FACULTY OFFICES
Offices for the academic faculty should generally be located together in a relative quiet section of the building :cept where otherwise noted). Unless specifically advised otherwise, they should have natural lighting. These offices should be placed as near to the music library as possible.
TOTAL: 4,450 sq ft
6 Music Education Professor's Offices 200 sq ft ea.
should be close to one another and adjacent to Music Ed. Resource Center.
4 Adacemic Offices, Musicology 200 sq ft ea.
Academic Office Musicology 200 sq ft
office for instruction, preferably near opera shops and auditorium.
Adacemic Office/Ethnomusicology 200 sq ft
adjacent to Ethnomusicology Storage Room
Storage - Ethnic Instruments 150 sq ft
5 Academic Offices/Theory
200 sq ft ea.
Academic Office, Studio 200 sq ft
(Theory/Electromic Music) separate from Electronic Music Fac:i 1 i ty
\0m\


4 Academic Offices
175 sq ft ea.
iu|


CLASSROOMS
1/dwcMl I
yc)mhm\

Classrooms represent a large flow of traffic and therefore, should be situated in such a manner as to reduce disruptive activity for other facilities, i.e., away from adacemic offices (except where otherwise noted), and from rehearsal and performance rooms.
TOTAL: 12,000 sq ft
Lecture Hall 1,800 sq ft
for 120 persons, lectures and reci tals.
Classroom for Music Education Elementary Methods 1050 sq ft
Gen. Music This room will be used extensively for bodily movement
Classroom 1050 sq ft
(for various Music Classes)
Classroom/Lab 600 sq ft
early music classroom/lab and other music
2 Classrooms
600 sq ft ea.
4 Classrooms
350 sq ft ea.
Music Therapy Lab 750 sq ft
Electronic Music Facility 750 sq ft



Piano Lab #1 900 sq ft
25 piano in adjacent area to Piano Lab #2 and Martha Hi 1 ley's studio.
Piano Lab #2 600 sq ft
Seminar Room 300 sq ft
exclusively for graduate semi nars
Ensemble Room 350 sq ft
reherasal of chamber ensembles, near other rehearsal spaces.
Ensemble Room 550 sq ft
reherasal of chamber ensembles, near other rehearsal spaces.
Rehearsal Room and/or Ensemble Room 700 sq ft
•for string, woodwind, brass, percussion techniques classes in Music Ed. Near instrument storage for Music Ed. (U. owned) instruments. Near other rehearsal rooms.


TEACHING STUDIOS
ickcwi
Unless specified otherwise -for a given studio, it would be desirable to place the teaching studios in the same general area of the building and to have them kept together by teaching area (i.e., piano studios together, and voice studios together, etc.). It would be better to place them nearer to rehearsal and performance facilities than to a library or other academic faculty officies. If possible, some accommodations should be provided in the halls outside studios for students waiting for lessons.
TOTAL 7,525 sq ft
Harp Studio 225 sq ft
with other studios
Harpsichord Studio 250 sq ft
near performance area or audi tori urn
6 Instrumental Studios 275 sq ft ea
near ensemble rooms
Organ Studio 800 sq ft
for 1-50 persons. High ceiling required
9 Part-time Instrumental Studios 150 sq ft ea
Percussion Studio 400 sq ft
near percussion storage
Ihlaml tomritfahoin


•facilities in rehearsal hall(s).

6 Piano Teaching Studios 250 sq -ft ea
Piano Teaching Studio 250 sq ft
near Piano Lab. Office for Martha Hi 1 ley.
4 Voice Studios 275 sq ft ea
ceiling minimum of 12 ft. Adjoining classroom (for 20 people) for two classes and small ensemble and performance groups -convenient to Recital Hall and Conference Rooms.
^motion-'


PRACTICE ROOMS

Practice Rooms should be located together in one clearly definable section of the building. They should have outside controlled access which permits monitoring either from the main section of the building (during weekday working hours) or from the outside during the evenings and weekends. The practice area should be able to be secured from the main section of the building permitting access without providing access to the other areas of the buildiong. There should be lavatories available in the practice area. Lockers should also be provided in the practice room area (along the walls or in a special locker location). Rooms should have
windows into the corridor. It
would be desirable room area can be easy and quick principal rehearsal maintaining the
if the practice located within access to the hall area while separation and
security suggested above.
TOTAL 5,600 sq ft
25-34 Practice Rooms 50 sq ft ea
16 Practice Rooms 75 sq ft ea
2 Harp Practice Rooms 75 sq ft ea
Harpsichord Practice Room 125 sq ft ea
2-4 Organ Practice Rooms 175 sq ft ea




CONCERT HALLS/REHEARSAL HALLS
VWlL>
The rehearsal halls for the large ensembles should be located together with shared storage space (where appropriate) and should be near the performance halls and the practice rooms. They must have high ceilings and convenient library and storage space adjacent. If possible, it would be desirable to have smal1-capacity balconies in each rehearsal hall with quiet access from an inconspicuous location to permit students and guest to observe rehearsals in progress without distrubing the work in progress. Offices of ensemble directors should be adjacent to the repective halls.
TOTAL: 30,975 sq ft
Concert Hal 1
17.000 sq ft
For 1000 persons. Large corridors, adjacent to Recital Hall, near Adrni ni strat i ve Offices, adjacent to Opera Shops, Dressing Rooms, Green Room.
2 Opera Shops
1.000 sq ft ea
for construction of sets and constumes for opera productions.
2,000
Recital Hall sq ft
for ISO persons. For recitals and lectures. Near Concert Hall (to share some
£WvitZrf-Hoia


facilities.)
2 Control/Recording Rooms 125 sq ft ea
adjacent to recital and concert, halls.
Choral/Instrumental Office 240 sq ft
near Band, Chorus and Orchestra Directors’ Offices (for one secretary)
Equipment Manager/
Instrument Repair Shop 240 sq ft
for minor repairs. Near Band Instrument Storage Room.
Orchestra Director’s Office 250 sq ft
next to Orchestra Rehearsal Room, near Instrument 'Storage.
Orchestra Library 225 sq ft
adjacent to Orch. Director’s Office (connecting) and Rehearsal Room.
Orchestra Instrument Storage 400 sq ft
next to Orch. Rehearsal Room
Orchestra Rehearsal Room 2,640 sq ft
(ceiling 22’ to 30’)
2 Band Director’s Offices 240 sq ft ea
near Band Rehearsal Room
Band Music Library 600 sq ft
near E Band Instrument Storage Room
700 sq ft


V \\
Band Rehearsal Room 2,600 sq -ft
no parallel walls. Should have high ceilings and be near the auditorium. (65x40x30)
Choral Director's Office/
Studi o 225 sq -ft
adjacent to Choral Library, close to other Choral Faculty. To be used -for auditions and lessons as well as office war k.
Choral Library 500 sq -ft
adjacent to Choral Rehearsal Hall and Choral Director's Off i ce.
Choral Rehearsal Room 1,400 sq -ft


SUPPORT FACILITIES
Reaching Assistant's Off i ci es 760 sq ft
for 22 T.A.s (on a rotating schedule/near Faculty Offices and Library)-
General Storage 1,300 sq ft
near Administrative Offices.
Commons-Reception Area
1.000 sq ft
near Concert and Recital Halls (also near or containing Kitchenette)
5 Staelite Storage Areas 100 sq ft ea
for class supplies. Sould be close to Classrooms
A/V Service Office 250 sq ft
to store A/V equipment and provide office space for A/V T.A.s. Convienient to large number of classrooms.
Piano Workshop 400 sq ft
for fixing pianos, Convenient to pianos (stage pianos esp.)
Music Education Resources
Center
500 sq ft
adjacent to Music Ed. Faculty Offices.
Toilets for Concert Hall area
1.000 sq ft
Toilets for all other areas of facility 1,200 sq ft


Circulation
12,000 sq -ft


OUTDOOR SPACES
Two major outdoor spaces are to be considered for the New School of Music: an amphitheater and a plaza space. The amphitherater will be located below the school on the river parkway. The plaza space will contain an underground library and museum and will be the central space of the West Bank. Both spaces will not be included in this thesis, but architectural1y the building should reflect these forces.





THE SITE
The University of Minnesota is among the largest Universities in the world. The Minneapolis campus is divided by the Mississippi River into the West Bank campus and the older and larger East Bank campus. The major -feature on the East Bank campus is the Jeffersonian mall with Northrup Auditorium and Coffman Union as its foci. With ensuing construction this formality has gradually been broken down in other parts of the campus camfarming perhaps to today’s less strict attitude towards the concept of a university education.
Any university is made up of several diciplines, often each being represented by some physical entity whether a building, a part of a building or a group of buildings. Just how descript a particular discipline’s representing structure is depends on the discipline and the planning principles of the university.
On the mall the governing form principles were order and symmetry - presenting a image for 'higher education-’ in general , rather than trying to express architectural1y the individual functions of the buildings (other than by the fact that each function is a separate building). This has given the campus a strong cohesive core off of which more individualized structures have been able to grow. Still all new architecture should owe? something to its more normal university origins in terms of respect and recognition of the mall area as the formal core off of


which the rest of the university grows, and in terms of its dependence on the university system for its support: the buildings must work together. There should be some rational governing which functions act as focal points "University Planning
Recommendations
With regard to these aspects of campus context, the University of Minnesota has set forth a series of recommendation in the 1976 Long Range Development Plan. The
university expresses its concern over the 'left over' spaces between buildings for which no one in particular is responsible. It
encourages the development of a ’comprehensible and extensive system of outdoor spaces,’ and stresses the need for open access ways to the river flats, for open vistas along the river, and for ’street1andscapes’ on Washington Avenue and Pleasant Street.
In addition, emphasis is placed on the pedestrian:
The campus should be organised in a series of pedestrian precincts, as free of noise and vehicular


conflicts as possible. Traffic should flow only around and between these precincts. Beautiful open spaces such as the Knoll and the river edge, not fully incorporated into the life of the campus, should be further exploited so as to become as effectively integrated into the life of the campus as is the Mai 1.
Finally, the Long Range Develeopment Plan strongly suggested that:
...Further building construction and renovation should maintain the ’European City’ scale and character of the majority of the campus. Particular attention should be paid to the relationships of building to their site, and to free and interesting pedestrian activity at grade."(1)


LOCATION
The University of Minnesota is divided into two campuses, the Minneapolis campus and the St. Paul Campus. The Minneapolis campus is conveniently located near the intersection of several major freeways serving the Twin Cities and on major bus lines running between the two central business district areas.
The Minneapolis campus is divided into two areas by the Mississippi River. The two areas are the east and west bank as described previously.
The site for the New School of Music is located on the west bank of the campus directly above the Mississippi River. The site is indeed a keystone in the completion of the west bank of the campus.


CAMPUS LOCATION


SITE LOCATION


ATMOSPHERE
The chosen site for the New School of Music is perfect for the art and form of music, forethere is much inherent atmosphere. To the east, of the site is the Mississippi River and the flavor of nature. The west bank of the campus has a character of its own and is very different from the classical east bank. Most of the buildings are standard 1950's design, but all of which are enhanced by special buildings such as Ralph Rapson's Rarig Center. To the west of the campus is the west bank community, the commercial district. This area is rich in music and artistic spirit, both in the people and the architecture.
The following site descriptions were excerted from a thesis by Kate Schneider.(2)


RIVER-MAN IMAGERY
Barges, historic docks, bouies all -form
steamboats, associ ati ve
imagery- What and what has Mi nneapoli s’s distant places; ■for man and his
is the River to man it been ? It’s visual link to a natural artery goods.
Vast coal piles, gravel piles, warehouses, smoke stacks, grain elevators, bridges o-f great structral grace; all these things indicate the history o-f Minneapolis's relationship with the River. And while the coal piles are going to become a parkway one can’t ignore a certain visual and intrinsic beauty and how they relate somehow to an intuitive, or archaic sense o-f history.
Often the most touching poetry in the built environment is made unintentionally. This melancholy fellow waits with arms outstretched for barges from faraway ports. Perhaps rustic contextural imagery such as this could be alluded to in new architecture.


NATURAL POETRY
This tree is situated east, of Anderson Hall and is a member of the pop 1ar fami1y. When in fu11
foliage it makes the most glorious should as the breeze passes through i t s 1 e a v e s „ C1 o s e r u s t1 e s b 1 e n d
with more distant rustles executing a breathtaking natural symphony. What heaven might one created if the entrance path to the Music F ac i1ity were 1in ed w i t h mus i ca1 i n st r ument. s suc h as these!
Desp :i. te the precipitous si ope o f t he b1uf f, t h ese t rees h ave f 1 o u r i s h e d t. h r o u g h t h e y e a r s
forming a delicate, leggy forest. Shou 1 d the new bui 1 di ng cut. down into this slope, and if so, how could it do so with keeping and woking with much of the beauty a 1 ready 11")ere?


RARIG CENTER


VIEWS
The site -for the New School of Music is very centrally located, thus an abundance o-f views exist from the site inaddition to a number of site lines existing to the site.
The following view analysis has been excerted from a thesis by Kate Schneider.(3)


31IS 3H± D1 SM3IA




11


VIEWS FROM THE SITE






SITE ANALYSIS
The site analysis contained in this section includes:
1- University o-f Minnesota statistics <4>
2. Circulation; pedestrian, bikes and cars (5)
3. Adjacent parking (6)
4. Existing vegetation (7)
5. Topography (8)
6. Edges and Voids (9)
7. Shadows (10)


UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
campus land use


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PARKING


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EDGES AND VOIDS


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FOOTNOTES
1. Kasprowicz, Diane.
Architectural Thesis (University o-f Minnesota, Mpls., MN) Spring 1982, p.23.
2. Schneider, Kate. Architectural Thesis (University o-f Minnesota, Mpls., MN) Spring 1983, p.45-48.
3. IBID p.36-41.
4. Fu, Peter. Architectural Thesis
(University of Minnesota, Mpls., MN) Fall 1979, p. 6.63-6.68.
5. IBID P- 2.18-2
6. IBID p. o Ol jL â–  J. â– 
7. IBID P- 2.26.
8. Schneider, p.45
9. IBID p. 35 m
10 . Fu, P- 2. 24.


\/[. ACQUSTICS


SOUND WAVES
REFLECTION, DIFFUSION AND
DIFFRACTION
Reflection is the return of a sould wave from a surface. If the surface is large compared with the wavelength of sould the angle of incidence "i" will be equal to the angle of reflection "r". For example, 100 Hz (the average frequency of human speech) corresponds to a wavelength of 1 ft so that surface dimensions of 4 or 4 ft will reflect would at 1000 Hz or above.
Diffusion is the scattering or random distribution of a sould wave from a surface. I occurs when the surface size equals the wavelength of the sound. Diffusion does not "break up" sound; it merely changes its direction when it strikes a hard surfaced material.
Diffraction is the bending or flowing of a sound wave around a object or through an opening.


SOUND DISTRIBUTION
DISTRIBUTION OF REFLECTED SOUND
Poor: Concave sound-refecting surfaces such as barrel vaulted ceilings and curved auditorium rear walls can focus sound, causing echoes. Because concave surfaces focus sound, they are also poor distributors of sound energy.
Best


CEILING REFLECTIONS IN AUDITORIA
A properly shaped ceiling relector will provide uniform sound energy distribution over the romote rows. A poorly shaped ceiling will create acoustically poor spots.
Good
Poor


C. J
BALCONY DESIGN
Graphic analysis is an important tool in checking the acoustical performance of an auditori urn.
In a concert hall D should not exceed H because symphonic music requires considerable reverberant sound as well as diffusion of the sound.
ood
Poor


SIDE WALL SHAPE
.ect angular Shape
Any diagram analysis is also important in the horizontal plane for study of side wall sound reflections. These relections are very important in creating subjective impression of space. The dashed lines in the example rectangular shape below indicate a preferred side wall orientation to provide useful sound reflections.
Pan Shape


Pdor
ECHO CONTROL
Substantial echo-producing surfaces should be treated with effecient sound absorbing materials or shaped s shown below, where the foreward ceiling is located and reoriented to provide useful ref 1ecti ons.
Flutter Echo is ususally caused by the interreflection of sound between apposing parallel or concave surfaces. Flutter is normally heard as a high frequency "ringing" or "buzzing". Flutter can be prevented by (1) reshaping to avaid parallel surfaces, (2) providing sound-absorbing treatment, or (3) surface breakup with splayed elements. a 1:10 splay (or tilt) of one of the sides will normally provide sufficient flutter control.


CURVED FORMS
fVobleras
Circular forms can cause annoying focusing problems, which can be corrected various methods.
Focused sound
Creep
Larg surface diffusion ref 1ected
e-scale,
undulati on to minimize sould.
random-si zed s provide
focusing of
Acoust i cal 1y material (e.g., grill) conceals which can be
transparent wood or metal actual enclosure, treated with
sound-absorbing material


EVIEW-




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Full Text

PAGE 2

A NEW SCHOOL OF MUSIC FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA An architectural thesis presented to the College of Design and University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture Ms. Beth Levine-Rosen Spring 1985

PAGE 3

Thesis of Ms. Beth Levine-Rosen is approved Long University of Colorado at Denver May 15, 1985

PAGE 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Introduction Thesis statement II. Music and Form
PAGE 5

VII. Inter-m Review Dr-awings VIII. Final Pr-oject IX. Conclusion Statement X. Appendb: A . Climate Data B. Codes c. Soils Repor-ts XI. Bibliogr-aphy

PAGE 6

_,..

PAGE 7

THESIS STATEMENT "The Idea is Ever-ything. It is Abiding" <1 > O.M. Unger-s This thesis r-eflects an effor-t to fuse an image with reality. The image is the idea and grows fr-om many desir-es. Reality is ourbuilt envir-onment, the wor-ld of ar-chitectur-e. Ar-chitectur-e is the ar-t where r-efinement tr-anscends the ideals of man into physical mater-ials. "It is the pr-esence of both which deter-mines ar-chitectur-al fonn" ( 2 > I have chosen to design a New School of Music forthe Univer-sity of Minnesota because music is an image; a challenge, a thesis to be br-ought to r-eality. "Towar-d an ideal for-m, music pr-obably rises higher than any otherThe tonal stuff of music is of great sensuous appeal, it is sur-ely the most plastic substance even to be molded into tangible for-ms; and in the cr-eation of those for-ms the musician is absolved fr-om all immediate consider-ation of the physical appear-ances and pr-oper-ties of "things' •.• While all ar-t is no small measur-e abstr-action, music if only because of its unconcer-n with physical appear-ances of things, is the most for-tunate of all the ar-ts in its quest for-the per-fection of form which is both a delight in itself and

PAGE 8

the expression of an ideal of order."(3) The thesis proposing for the Music is two-fold: which I am New School of first I wish to explore music as an imagea sense of spir-it and second; I plan to explore the context of my site, the University of Minnesota. The first goal, an image-a sense of spirit, is the heart and soul of the school. "Musical training is a potent instrument than other, because rhythm harmony find their way the inward places of soul ••. "(4) more any and into the The New School of Music is the ideal; .the image of music, the desires of education and the common bond with the music community. The building is a statement for both the university and the community; it is the focus, the image of music appreciation. The community has a rich history in music tradition and relies on the leadership of the university for coordination and development. The university is the single greatest music resource in the state and the new building is the formal committment to this leadership role. The spirit of the bulding will come from a love and understanding of music inaddition to the history and tradition of the community. The second part of my thesis statement , the exploration of the context of my site, arises from the setting for the New School of Music. The site is ideally suited to the program because it combines

PAGE 9

the natural forces of the Mississippi River with the history and magestry of the University of Minnesota. The site is located on the west bank of the Minneapolis campus and the west bank of the Mississsippi River. The Mississippi River is the division of the two banks of the Minneapolis campus, the east and west banks. The east bank is the older part of the campus and owes its formal axial configuration to the original university plan done by Cass Gilbet in 1910. The west bank of the campus is the expansion from the east bank and was begun in the 1950's. The New Music School site is the last buildable open space on the west bank. Contextually, the Music School must thus complete the whole -the infra structure of the west bank and the rhythm of the university. The east edge of the site is located 90 feet above the Mississippi River. The university and the Minneapolis Park Commission are planning the development of a park for summer music festivals on this portion of the river. The river is thus both a natural element and a physical catalyst which the school must reflect. The New School of Music is the link; the image between nature and man, between the idea and reality. The building has two sides and must have two faces. The school is the ideal the image of music. Therefore, my thesis is to address those two forces: the image of Music and the context of the University of Minnesota.

PAGE 10

"Any building that is not a theme unto itself i a an intellectual triviality. It. may fulfill necessary purposes and needs and meet justified technological demands, but if it does not transcend the mere fulfillment of purpose to present itself as idea as it defies architecture"s claim to be an expression of mental universality and remains a banality."(5) O.M. Ungers

PAGE 11

FOOTNOTES 1. Ungers, O.M.
PAGE 12

•l---J, -........ ,._ , I \,. II '\. 1'-I -\. I \.I l 1\. /1 • ,._, '--" '--" ..... ----..... ..... .. y ... --_ ... -

PAGE 13

CHARACTERISTICS OF MUSIC "1'1usic: is ouroldest for-m of expression, olderthan language or ar-t; it begins with the voice, and with our overwhelming need to r-each out to others. In fact, music is man far mor-e than words, forwor-ds ar-e abstract symbols which convey factual meaning. Music touches our feeling more deeply than most words and makes us respond with our whole being."(l) Music, 1 ike 1 anguage has developed its own str-uctures, gr-ammars and vocabular-ies. All of which exist both in natur-e and in man; in spir-it and wr-itten notation. The spir-it is the inner character-istics of music; the vibr-ations, over-tones, the soul. The wr-itten notation is; the composition, the notes, the accents, the r-ests, the datum. The musical spirit can exist without the wr-itten notation, but the latter may not exist without the spirit. Ther-efor-e, formy thesis I plan to concentr-ate on the char-acter-istics of music which represent the heart and soul of music. Forit is this is the heart and soul of my thesis. "The actual elements of music ar-e tone and rhythm. All musical tone composite of fundamental partial vibrations, is a and of

PAGE 14

different frequencies and amplitudes .••• Rhythm, the other really elemental factor in musical str-ucture, is far more suqgest.i ve. It. is for poetic and for graphic art as and is the abstract form in which motion is most clearly defined to consciousness.... Musical rhythm, particularly, is perceived as the very graph of motion of a universally known, extramusical experience and our actual awareness of rhythm, accordingly, is usually a considerably concrete presentation of m<:>t i on i ma. g er y. " ( 2) Tone backbone and r-hythm structure are of the the characteristics of music. Tone is the components, the building blocks. The order and arrangement of a series of tones becomes the sentance, the paragraphs and ultimately the story. The movement or plot of the story rests with the rhythm and the increment within the rhythm. Musical tone has four characteristics: duration, pitch, intensity and quality. Duration of a musical tone may be defined purely in terms of the time elapsing between its commencemt. and its cessation. The term pitch refers to the relative highness or lowness of a tone. Intensity is the measure of the loudness of a tone. And, quality of a musical tone is that element which enables us to distinguish between notes which , although they may posses the same pitch and intensity, are

PAGE 15

produced by different instruments. "The art of interpretation in largely the performance of each and every individual tone of composition with what the player or singer deems to be its correct pitch, intensity, and quality"(3) Tones in themselves are merely raw materials; it is not until they are arranged in some systematic manner that they produce what we call music:. The core of the arrangement is our second major musical structure, rhythm. "The perception of rhythm in music thus arises in a comparison of the duration of tones, or groups of tones; but inasmuch as these groups of tones are marked by or accents, rhythm is concerned at the same time with accentuation." (4) Rhythm is achieved through two basic modes of action: syncopation and tempo. Syncopation is the stressing of one or more normally unaccented beats, and it is the oldest method of producing rhythmic interest. The rate at which groups of pulses progress is described by tempo. Tempo is the pac:e which the rhythm or system of stresses progresses. The most frequently employed designations are: Adagio -Very slow Allegro -Fast, lively Andante Somewhat slow Largo -Broad, stately Pr-esto Oui ck Vivace -Lively, animated(5)

PAGE 16

---___ .-form -.,... __ , ' .---,._, ---M-I 1111 . ut N 11 • FORM "Toward an ideal form, music probably rises higher than any other art. The tonal stuff of music is of great sensuous appeal; it is surely the most plastic substance ever to be molded into tangible forms; and in the creation of those farms the musician is absolved from all immediate consideration of the physical appearances and properties of 'things'. While all art is no small measure abstraction, music if only because of its unconcern with physical appearances of things, is the most fortunate of all the arts in its quest for the perfection of form which is both a delight in itself and the expression of an ideal aforder."(6) I have chosen to use the same quote of Mr. Ferguson's that I used in my thesis statement because this is the duality of architecture and music. Architectural form is the grouping of the building elements. Musical form is the combination of musical elements. The elements of musical farm are: The motive, the phase and the sentence. The smallest meaningful unit of musical thought is the motive a compact group of notes having a pattern or design sufficiently unique to differentiate it from other groups. The phrase, the next larger unit, consists of either several repetitions of the same motive, or of several motives. Musical

PAGE 17

phrases have a measure of self-subsistence, but they lack complete sense until they are arranged in a sentence or clause. The more conventional musical phrase is four measures long, and the more conventional musical sentence consists of two or more musical phrases. Musical form has two broad interpretations; aesthetics and objectivety. Objectively music is judged by its structural composition. Aesthetically, musical composition possesses form when the ear perceives it as a unified and well proportioned structure in sound in much the same way that one views and art work. "So we see that in all the arts, the art of music and the art of forms, these is one law of proportion, expressed physically by different methods, one to appeal to the vision, and the other to the hearing. The designer or the composer of music uses this pattern of proportion to obtain harmonies if he wishes them, or disharmonies if he feels that they are needed to relieve or accent the harmonies. When he has become skilled by training he obtains what he wants without fumbling. The scale becomes second nature both to the desi(;)ner and the musician." (7) "In both the art of music and the art of forms, harmonies in their respective sensations are possible because a sound, or musical note, does not fade instantly

PAGE 18

when the stimulus ceases. It lingers, it persists in memeory, and the quickly succeeding sensations overlap. Likewise in vision, which concerns perception of spatial areas, the element of tone is apparent. If we close our eyes ofter glancing at an object the sensation of form and color will remain for a time, and will overlap the succeeding sensations. Thus consciousness has in itself the physical dimensions of time and space, and recognizes the same laws of harmoney in Music and Form: the laws of proportion and the laws of numbers."(8)

PAGE 19

SPIRIT AND IMAGE "Musical Image ••• A portrayal of that builds itself, by inference, into an image of experience appropriate to the The musical spirit and image is the force which gives the music building its soul. This is the quality which differentiates the New School of Music from a spec -office building. Image is an inference, drawn from a presented fact of form, something which no two persons will perceive the same. My friend Scott Newland described his image of the music school as: " . . . a huge orchestral work, thematically developed (per haps wi i:h some programmatic content), and in the spirit of the romantic period because that's the sort of music that I like. I would be a fantastic work, unconcerned with extreme formalism because one thing that I don" t want to create is a monostyle School of Music. The School itself isn't like that. It accepts and promotes many musical directions rather than sticking to a singular dogma. I want the School .. s facility to be as diverse, even to the point of being a sort of pastiche. If my design for Ferguson Hall were music, it would be powerful and emotionally moving and would be remembered after being experienced because of these qualities."< 10) The image that I am e :
PAGE 20

folk, jazz, bluegr-ass and classical. Because the school encompasses all manner-s of music. I hope to evoke movement ar-ound the site between the univer-sity campus and the Mississippi River-. ForI feel that the image of my design is the complementing element of contextualism, my second thesis goal. "Music r-epr-esents a motion-impulse, not the physical achievement of that impulse. But the por-tr-ayal of that impulse can be ver-y vivid, and if is does lead you outside the pur-emusical r-egion and you just admitted that it might do that -then it is no longer-pur-ely musical. You said that motion is a function of any physical body, it is obviously a funcion of ourown human bodies. Mayn't tone, in motion. which without motion stimulated imaginar-y visual and tactual and gustatony sensation, make your-limbs, r-eal or-imaginar-y, enact motor impulses?"(ll)

PAGE 21

FOOTNOTES 1 . MenLihin. Man 1960. The Music of N.Y.,N.Y.> Music as a of Minnesota p. 7 . 3.. Ber-nstein, Introduction p.19. 8. IBID p. 18. 9 . Ferguson, Donald M. The Why of Music p.43 . 10. Newland, Scott. Architectural Thesis Spring 1982, p. 39. 11. Ferguson, Donald M. The Why of Music p.3 4 .

PAGE 22

----. ---. ---..... -r----------------------.. . --. . . . E------------------------------____ . __ --___ --------JE'Te--n,-,. _ ___ . . . ---------=• _ :_-..:.:_ \..TT -R---1-

PAGE 23

MINNESOTA Minnesota is rich in its musical traditions and in the talent of its people. The Twin Cities metropolitan area has become a cultural center with a world-wide reputation the entire the United for serving Upper-Midwest region of States. Growth of musical activity attracted to this strong musical talents. of all kinds has area people with interests and Each of the following organizations carry international and national reputations in addition to their regional and local ones. All seek a continuing and active association with the music programs at the University and all offer the potential of contributing significantly to those same programs. The Minnesota Orchestra The St. Paul Chamber Orchestra The Minnesota Opera The Schubert Club The Walker Art Center The Minnesota Dance Theater The Guthrie Theater The Children's Theater The Minneapolis Institute of the Arts In Addition, many organizations of local and regional reputation that are located in the Twin Cities seek the same type of cooperative relationship and can also contribute to the University"s music programs. These include: The Bach Society

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The Minnesota Chorale The Minneapolis Civic Orchestra The St. Paul Civic Orchestra The MacPhail Center for the Performing Arts All of the sister colleges and universities jn the area By the nature of the University of Minnesota (its size, the depth and breadth of its faculty resources, the critical mass of students that permit for activities not otherwise possible, and its library>, it has been the e xpressed desire of the professional organizations of the community that the University music programs assume a leadership role in the development and coordination of the broad and rich musical resources of the community bot h to create a richer educationa l environment and to assis t in bringing a sharper focus to the diversity of activities and opportunities available here. These goals and desires are totally compatible with and suited to the mission of the music programs, the colleges of which they are a part, and the University i n general.

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UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA The of Minnesota was founded in 1951, but was to close the Civil It was in 1867 as a school and two after a became a fullfledged institution. Today, its Twin Cities campus stands as the nation's single campus. The School of Music is located on the Twin Cities campus/Minneapolis the Mississippi and has an of 550 and students. in 1902 with a faculty of two, the University•s music initially in music two of them in The first music education was 1908 and the of was established in 1914. The music moved into its location of Scott Hall, named Scott, faculty and second chairman, in 1922. In 1947 the established the of Music Education. The of Music Education and the of Music into the School of Music in 1980. The School of school students of in Music is a designed to a the field of music. Both its and

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graduate programs necessarily require heavy concentrations in music study, but at the same time, expect breadth of intellectual experience and growth. Students graduating from the School with the B.A. of the B.M. degree may find professional opportunities in performing, conducting, private teaching, arranging and composing, or they may pursue graduate study in music. Students completing the B.S. in Music Education are qualified to teach in the elementary and secondary schools. The B.S. degree in Music Therapy leads to certification as a music therapist. Numerous opportunities in variety of fields closely to music, i.e. in theatre, in the recorc1ing industry, as a consultant in the media, as a music reviewer, and in arts management of administration, are also appropriate goals for a student with a major in music. graduate study program in music enables students to increase skills and knowledge in their area(s) of specialization. It also prepares students for teaching positions on the post-secondary level, research, performances, conduction positions or writing jobs as critics or reasearchers for scholarly journals, magazines of newspaper-s. The School of Music is organized into five divisions: Applied Music; Composition/Theory; Ensembles (Bands, Chamber Ensembles, Choruses, and Orchestra>; Music Education/Therapy, and Musicology/Ethnomusicoloty. The music programs at the university are amongs the major programs in

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the nation. They are largely professionally oriented by also providing an important Liberal Arts service dimension. Degrees are offered in a variety of fields, from the undergraduate through doctoral levels. These include: BA theory, composition, music history and literature, performance BFA performance (all orchestral and band organ, piano, harpsichord, guitar, and voice), and church music BS music education and music therapy MA theory, composition, musicology, musiF education MFA performance (all areas listed under the BFA, above>, church music, and conducting PhD theory, composition, musicology, music education DMA clarinet, organ, piano, trumpet, voice In addition to the academic commitments outlined above, the music programs present well over 100 performances each year which include recitals by faculty, guests, and students; as well as concert programs by the University Orchestra, choruses, bands, and an array of chamber ensembles. In addition, the music programs sponsor and co-sponsor variety of other services (mostly open to the public). Collectively, these activities serve approximately 110-120,000 people each year. In addition, the Marching Band appears before a few hundred thousand people annually at athletic events

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and in touring appearance. A close communication exists with the professional performing arts community and numerous cooperative events are sponsored. The mission of the Department is, ultimately, to disseminate, promote and increase the cultural benefits and enrichment music can provide in the lives of the inhabitants of the state and the nation. This task is approached by three different but converging avenues: 1. By providing training for students interested in pursuing a variety of careers in music. This group represents the strongest link between the University and the residents of the State since they function through direct contact invirtually every school and community in Minnesota as well as far beyond its borders, satisfying at the local through the national levels and the desire to learn about, participate in, or experience music. 2. By providing instruction for people interested in acquiring greater knowledge of and expression through music as an adjunct to other areas of concentration. This group is equally important to our mission. The development of an aesthetic sense and a refined artistic perception for those who are not motivated toward professional activity in the art form can contribute to greater understanding of and sensitivity to human values and to a humane environment. In addition, such study can provide the basis for a lifetime avocational interest and activity of a highly constructive

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and rewarding kind. 3. By providing opportunities for all people within and beyond the University Community to experience a wide range of musical events. The majority of these opportunities are offered to the public without charge. creating an audience Beyond for the aspiring or accomplished performer, these reources are made available in order that students and other interested persons who may have only limited acquaintance with the vast heritage of world music may discover for themselves its infinite variety and broaden their cultural horizon.

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NEED FOR A NEW FACILITY The University is the only institution in this State with a critical mass in terms of students to justify the diversity of faculty specializations and breadth of curriculum necessary for a first-rate School of Music. The Univerity is the only institution in this State that can provide for the musical art the important advantages of crossfertilization with a vast array of related disciplines. The setting of this University makes it unique among the state supported Big Ten schools (and many others) in providing opportunities for faculty and students in music education and music therapy to interact within our own community on a continuing basis with internationally recognized practitioners of the music profesians. The University is well situated to address itself to the musical needs and preparation of teachers urban and inner-city schools. In the School of we have a diverse many members of which have international reputations as scholars, or composers. Proposals that music be given "the same recognition as other departments• date from 1896. A formal recommendation that music be established" •.• on the same plane with the work of any other depertment dates from 1902. The proposals were adopted and the first courses in music wre offered at the University in 1903 with classes being held in the basement of Pillsbury Hall. Scott Hall was built in 1922 and has since been

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the principal building used by the music programs. But Scott Hall is no way suffices. The Music Programs currently use approximately eleven different buildings. These include: Scott Hall ; Northrop Auditorium; Welling Hall; Science Classroom Building; Grace Episcopal Church; Holy Emanuel Church; Fraser Ha l l ; Walter Library; University Baptist Church. None of these facilities is properly designed for music use either acoustically or climatically. Together they constitute only a small portion of the space needed for current programs is 12.8:1. Almost all of the large parttime faculty teach at their homes or private studios because the University cannot provide teaching space for them. The current music programs have the honor of having faculty members who are widely recognized as leaders in their fields. They include a Pulitzer Prize winner, faculty whose books have been translated into other languages, faculty whose compositions have been performed throughout the world, faculty who have performed internationally and have won coveted international prizes as performing artists, faculty whose compositons and performances have been recorded and distributed widely, and faculty who are widely recognized as devoted and respected teachers.

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But despite all the location and quality of the facilities almost precludes the development of strong audience support and is inhibiting to attnedance at the many public events presented and sponsored by the music programs. A new facility will provide the serious pursuit for the establishment of a nationally prominent Summer Performing Arts Festival. With such a it would be possible to develope summer program analogous to those at suc h places as Wolf Trap Farm Park; Ravinia; Meadowbrook; Tanglewood; A spen; and many others. Suc h a festival of the performing arts would place the University at the center of the summer cultural activities in the Twin Cities and the upper mid-west region and would bring immediate and continuing national attention to its cultural contributions (radio and television coverage on a regular basis i s a reasonable e xpectation>. If the above goals are realized, it is probable that the music programs would serve as many as people each summer (apart from other routine summer and academic year activities). This program has been positively received by representatives of the Minneapolis Park the Minneapolis River Corridor Development and by a number of prominent business leaders from the community, further reinforcing the potential cultural outreach contributions which could be made by the music programs in particular and the University in general.

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ACTIVITIES AREAS The following pages show the breakdown of the spatial requirements for the New School of Music. This information was extracted from the University of Minnesota Music School Program. The major spaces are: Administrative Offices Academic Facility Classrooms Concert Hall, etc. Practice Rooms Teaching Studios Support Facilities Circulation (sq. ft.) 2,200 4,450 12,000 30,975 5,765 7,525 69,735 81,735

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ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES The Administrative Offices should be located near the main entrance to the building and set off a large corridor to permit for an easy flow of a large amount of traffic. They should also be in close proximity to concert facilities and reception areas (commons room). It is believed that the offices should be divided into two fairly distinct but connected general facilities-the Main Office and Duplicating/Collating Room, and the Administrative officers offices (chairman, assistant, DBS, etc.as described herein). TOTAL: 2,200 sq ft Chairman's Office 275 sq ft Administrative Office small conference room Reception Area 200 sq ft at entrance to Administrative Office comp 1 e:-: Conference Room 250 sq ft in or near Adm. Of. complex with direct access to hall. Adjacent to kitchenette Kitchenette 75 sq ft Main Office 400 sq ft will handle large flow of student and faculty office traffic. Entrance to Main Dept. Offices.

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Administrative Assistant Office 200 sq ft Public Relations Office 200 sq ft Office for meeting people -faculty and students-to plan programs etc. Should be off the main reception area. Office for the Executive Secretary 150 sq ft adjacent to the Chairman • s D ffi ce Office for the Director of Graduate Studies 175 sq ft Office for Budget Clerk/Typist 125 sq ft adjacent to Excutive Secretary's Office Duplicating/Collating Room 150 sq ft adjacent to Main Office

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ACADEMIC FACULTY OFFICES Offices for the academic faculty should generally be located together in a relative quiet section of the building (except wher e otherwise noted>. Unless specifically advised otherwise, they should have natural lighting. These offices should be placed as near to the music library as possible. TOTAL: 4,450 sq ft 6 Music Education Professor's Offices 200 sq ft ea. should be close to one another and adjacent to Music Ed. Resource Center. 4 Adacemic Offices, Musicology 200 sq ft ea. Academic Office Musicology 200 sq ft office for instruction, preferably near opera shops and auditorium. Adacemic Office/Ethnomusicology 200 sq ft adjacent to Ethnomusicology Storage Room Storage -Ethnic Instruments 150 sq ft 5 Academic Offices/Theory 200 sq ft ea. Academic Office, Studio 200 sq ft
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4 Academic Offices 175 sq ft ea.

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CLASSROOMS Classrooms represent a large flow of traffic and therefore, should be situated in such a manner as to reduce disruptive activity for other facilities, i.e., a way from adacemic offices (except where otherwise noted) , and from rehearsal and performance rooms. TOTAL: 12,000 sq ft Lecture Hall 1,800 sq ft for 120 persons, lectures and recitals. Classroom for Music Education Elementary Methods 1050 sq ft Gen. Music This room will be used extensively for bodily movement Classroom 1 050 sq ft (for various Music Classes> Classroom/Lab 600 sq ft early music classroom/lab and other music 2 Classrooms 600 sq ft ea. 4 Classrooms 350 sq ft ea. Music Therapy Lab 750 sq ft Electronic Music Facility 750 sq ft

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Piano Lab #1 900 sq ft 25 piano in adjacent area to Piano Lab #2 and Martha Hilley•s studio. Piano Lab #2 600 sq ft Seminar Room 300 sq ft exclusively for graduate seminars Ensemble Room 350 sq ft reherasal of chamber ensembles, near other rehearsal spaces. Ensemble Room 550 sq ft reherasal of chamber ensembles, near other rehearsal spaces. Rehearsal Room and/or Ensemble Room 700 sq f . t for string, woodwind, brass, percussion techniques classes in Music Ed. Near instrument storage for Music Ed. (U. owned) instruments. Near other rehearsal rooms.

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TEACHING STUDIOS Unless specified otherwise for a given it would be desirable to place the teaching studios in the same general area of the building and to have them kept together by teaching area piano studios together, and voice studios etc.). It would be better to place them nearer to rehearsal and performance facilities than to a library or other academic faculty officies. If some accommodations should be provided in the halls outside studios for students waiting for lessons. TOTAL 7,525 sq ft Harp Studio 225 sq ft with other studios Harpsichord Studio 250 sq ft near performance area or auditorium 6 Instrumental Studios 275 sq ft ea near ensemble rooms Organ Studio 800 sq ft for 1-50 persons. High ceiling required 9 Part-time Instrumental Studios 150 sq ft ea Percussion Studio 400 sq ft near percussion storage

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facilities in hall(s}. 6 Piano Teaching Studios 250 sq ft ea Piano Teaching Studio 250 sq ft Piano Lab. Office Hi 11 ey. 4 Voice Studios 275 sq ft ea ceiling minimum of 12 ft. Adjoining 20 people> two classes and small ensemble and groups -convenient to Recital Hall and Rooms.

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PRACTICE ROOMS Practice Rooms should be located together in one clearly definable section of the building. They should have outside controlled access which permits monitoring either from the main section of the building (during weekday working hours) or from the outside during the evenings and weekends. The practice area should be able to be secured from the main section of the building permitting access without providing access to the other areas of the buildiong. There should be lavatories available in the practice area. Lockers should also be provided in the practice room area (along the walls or in a special locker location). Rooms should have windows into the corridor. It would be desirable if the practic e room area can be located within easy and quick access to the principal rehearsal hall area while maintaining the separation and security suggested above. TOTAL 5,600 sq ft 25-34 Practice Rooms 50 sq ft ea 16 Practice Rooms 75 sq ft ea 2 Harp Practice Rooms 75 sq ft ea Harpsichord Practice Room 125 sq ft ea 2-4 Organ Practice Rooms 175 sq ft ea

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:"' 4 Percussion Practice Rooms 75 sq ft ea 10 Grand Piano Pracitice Rooms 150 sq ft ea

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,I CONCERT HALLS/REHEARSAL HALLS The rehearsal halls for the large ensembles should be located together with shared storage space
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facil i ties.) 2 Control/Recording Rooms 125 sq ft ea a djacen t to r ecital and concert. h alls . Choral/Instrumental Office 240 sq ft near Band, C horus and Orchestra D i rectors' Offices (for one secretary) Equipment Manager/ Instrument Repair Shop 240 sq ft for m i nor repairs. Near Band Instrument Storage Room. Orchestra Director's Office 250 sq ft next to Orchestra Rehearsal Room, near Ins trumen t •storage. Orchestra L ibrary 225 sq ft to Orch. Director's Office (connecting) and Re hear-sal Room. Orchestra Instrument Storage 400 sq ft next to O r c h . R e hearsal Room Orchestra Rehearsal Room 2,640 sq ft (ceiling 22" to 30') 2 Band Director•s Offices 240 sq ft ea near Band Rehearsal R oom Band Music Library 600 sq ft near Band R ehearsa l Room . Band Instrument Storage Room 700 sq ft

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Band Rehearsal Room 2,600 sq ft no parallel walls. Should have high ceilings and be near the auditor i urn. (65> : 40>: 30) Choral Director's Office/ Studio I v225 sq ft adjacent to Choral close to other Choral Faculty. To be used for auditions and lessons as well as office wor k. Choral Library 500 sq ft adjacent to Choral Rehearsal Hall and Choral Director•s Office. Choral Rehearsal Room 1,400 sq ft

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SUPPORT FACILITIES Reaching Assistant's Officies 760 sq ft for 22 T.A.s (on a rotating schedule/near Faculty Offices and Library). General Storage 1,300 sq ft near Administrative Offices. Commons-Reception Area 1, 000 sq ft near Concert and Reci t a l Halls (also near or containing Kitchenette) 5 Staelite Storage Areas 100 sq ft ea for class supplies. Sould be close to Classrooms A/V Service Office 250 sq ft to store A/V equipment and provide office space for A/V T.A.s. Convienient to large number of classrooms. Piano Workshop 400 sq ft for fixing pianos, Convenient to pianos
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Circulation 12,000 sq ft

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OUTDOOR SPACES Two major outdoor spaces are to be considered for the New School of Music: an amphitheater and a plaza space. The amphitherater will be located below the school on the river parkway. The plaza space will contain an underground library and museum and will be the central space of the West Bank. Both spaces will not be included in this but architecturally the building should reflect these for-ces.

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THE SITE The University of Minnesota is among the largest Universities in the world. The Minneapolis campus is divided by the Mississippi River into the West Bank campus and the older and larger East Bank campus. The major feature on the East Bank campus is the Jeffersonian mall with Northrup Auditorium and Coffman Union as its foci. With ensuing construction this formality has gradually been broken down in other parts of the campus comforming perhaps to today's less strict attitude towards the concept of a university education. Any university is made up of several often each being represented by some physical entity whether a a part of a building or a group of Just how descript a particular discipline's representing structure is depends on the discipline and the planning principles of the university. On the mall the governing form principles were order and symmetry -presenting a image for •higher education' in rather than trying to express architecturally the individual functions of the buildings (other than by the fact that each function is a separate building). This has given the campus a strong cohesive core off of which more individualized structures have been able to grow. Still all new.architecture should owe something to its more normal university origins in terms of respect and recognition of the mall area as the formal core off of

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which the rest of the university grows, and in terms of its dependence on the university system for its support: the buildings must work together. There should be some rational governing which functions act as focal points (i.e. the major auditorium, the major library, the student union etc.). because the music building could draw hundreds of thousands of people to the university annually it has a uniquely important place in the community and university which could and should affect its orientation and but a balance must always be maintained between dominance and submission in relation to surrounding buidings and the campus in general. "University Recommendations Planning With regard to these aspects of campus context, the University of Minnesota has set forth a series of recommendation in the 1976 Long Range Development Plan. The university expresses its concern over the "left over• spaces between buildings for which no one in particular is responsible. It encourages the development of a •comprehensible and extensive system of outdoor spaces,• and stresses the need for open access ways to the river flats, for open vistas along the river, and for •streetlandscapes• on Washington Avenue and Pleasant Street. In addition, emphasis is placed on the pedestrian: The campus should be organized in a series of pedestrian precincts, as free of noise and vehicular

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/ . ? conflicts as possible. Traffic should flow only around and between these precincts. Beautiful open spaces such as the Knoll and the river edge, not fully incorporated into the life of the campus, should be further exploited so as to become as effectively integrated into the life of the campus as is the Finally, the Develeopment Plan suggested that: Long Range stron(;J 1 y .•. Further building construction and renovation should maintain the 'European City' scale and character of the majority of the campus. Particular attention should be paid to the relationships of building to their site, and to free and interesting peqestrian activity at grade. " ( 1)

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LOCATION The University of Minnesota is divided into two campuses, the Minneapolis campus and the St. Paul Campus. The Minneapolis campus is conveniently located near the intersection of s everal major freeways serving the Twin Cities and on major bus lines running between the two central business d istrict areas. The Minneapolis campus is divided into two areas by the Mississippi R iver. The two areas are the east and west bank as described previously. The site for the New School of is located on the w est bank of the campus directly above the Mississippi River. The site is indeed a keystone in the completion of the west bank of the campus.

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CAMPUS LOCATION

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/ LOCATION SITE ...... , . '....._ .... : .... ' . . ,. I> P I R , I \f t II

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ATMOSPHERE The chosen site for the New School of Music is perfect for the art and form of forethere is much inherent atmosphere. To the east of the site is the Mississippi River and the flavor of nature. The west bank of the campus has a character of its own and is very different from the classical east bank. Most of the buildings are standard 1950's but all of which are enhanced by special buildings such as Ralph Rapson's Rarig Center. To the west of the campus is the west bank community, the commercial district. This area is rich in music and artistic spirit, both in the people and the architecture. The following site descriptions were excerted from a thesis by Kate Schneider. (2)

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RIVER-MAN IMAGERY Barges, historic steamboats, docks, bouies all form associative imagery. What is the River to man and what has it been ? It"s Minneapol.is"s di!:;tant places; for man .:md his visual link to a natural artery goods. Vast coal piles, gravel piles, warehouses, smoke stacks, grain elevators, bridges of great structral. grace; all these things indicate the history of Minneapolis"s relationship with the River. And while the coal piles are going to become a parkway one can•t ignore a certain visual and intrinsic beauty and how they relate somehow to an intuitive, or archaic sense of history. Often the most touching poetry in the built environment is made unintentionally. This melancholy fellow wait s with arms outstretched for barges from faraway ports. Perhaps rustic contextural imagery sue h as t t1 :i s c: ou 1 d be a 11 ud ed to i n new architecture.

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NATURAL POETRY This tree is situated east of Anderson H all and is a member of the poplar family. When in full foliage it makes the most glorious should as the breeze passes through its leaves. Close rustles blend with more distant rustles executing a breathtaking natura l symphony. What heaven might one created if the entrance path to the Music Facility were lined with musical instruments such as these! Despite the precipitous slope of the bluff, these trees have flourished through the years forming a delicate, leggy forest. Should the n ew building cut down into this s lope, and if so, h ow could it d o so with keeping and waking with much of the beauty already there?

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RARIG CENTER

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VIEWS The site for the New School of Music i s very centrally located, thus an abundance of views exist from the site inaddition to a number of site lines existing to the site. The following view analysis has been excerted from a thesis by Kate Schneider. ( 3 )

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VIEWS TO THE SITE

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D I . I e , ih•' lurt Sitt o I H ti tnatltult 1 ----i I I • I I I I reu;l = • J: c: • til • ID rs:J L--------h •t. s . Parking / -Future parking Ramp Rulg Center I ---------___ J VIEWS FROM THE SITE

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SITE ANALYSIS The site analysis contained in this section includes: 1. University of statistics (4) Minnesota 2 . Circulation; bikes and cars (5) 3. Adjacent parking (6) 4. E:dsting vegetation ( 7) <::" ...J. Topography ( 8) 6. Edges and Voids (9) 7. Shadows ( 10)

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t7: 1 \ V rUJtN t..Vf4!)1 ti'U\,. IIL1F'f I f I I ' .:::-:.::::/:.' . ' ---:---. _ 1 II A e t'P ' . _...------:---_____ I r . c.::: .. ..-.. _::::.... . --. . -: .. I rl-. , . . i .\'\-''2.-i ; ..-0=' :-y ' "*.:-": : .... , . . t! •• • .. '.PO .. It: . .. _...-,. ::;::n.1:_u .,.. .. .. L___ p; :r. u. ;: t : J :jl .......... _ __........-1 :.1lo t ;ttc MEREDITH WILSON LIBRARY . ., .... .-. .. , . .. ..... . . . '.' .... : . -r/:;;;:1:.\ :• .. ..... : ... .. ::: .:,..: .... ...... : ... -. . : . J . . tOf ; ' . . \ :l \ . 4. ......... : .... .:) jJ I / t 1-..:--"' . SCIENCES \\ vQ i\ v , 7 ' • • ' ............... .... :.) --. ; , -, ( /'/ : . ... t;..'f:'f: .. v, . ,,= •;. ........... ............ :::.J-. . . . . =--....... . . ' r;: [' .... :. ....... . .':,> I '\; -....: •" .---1 \ ' l .t::!iU '!-;....-&: ::.-;; .. ..., I I ':.} . .':: :!:%:-::-:-::: ...... . . . 0 0 ., ... .-.. ::.-_::.: . I ... 'f'\ .. ,..!J i \ \ 0 • . • • i , , :; . . : .. ,:.. t::;, .. J ---I' ')" ...... \ ....... . ta:r--_ --.-:r ___ --l .. :i:_..--' \ 1 1 0 .-4_.:..1 RARIG CENTER ,.:: ; , .,.,... \ . . zi..::::/::: . \\ fi . . . . ;;; E-. J _ . . , ... r .......... 0 ... />;-.-.... . .... "i ............. i. \\\ . I t: \ . . I .. . .::. ' : .. .. .. :-. .. .. \ 'll . . . ...... ; . ::J.J.;.>:.,. .._-; ::. .. ..... \ ; : -Ll P . L. . c _ --. ..,. . . . .. -\ \ r1 I I :::::. ' . ""-:;f.::::?:,.: .. \ ... Q,L=• =.J'-'9r::::; " P4 1 :::.:.---:.:..-:.;:_ -.: -.................... ... . ... S): .... -f:.Wlf.c-.: .r 2 '27 > .. .. .. ::.::::.:::: ,j L-:f.:"'. .. .. ;:;,;... vi .. . ll.,_i ::':' I . , .. • r• , 1 I ' I . .,_ J : I I . ;;; .. .. p .. ::, -.. 'l I I I ' w 1 . .:;:. . , 1 , • • > • I • I I ' i I ' \ 'I ;; ' ' .:: . ?\{', i I /"-..... 1 ! i I !.., .. :-,. . I ' ;.; 1 I ; . , / ... , _ 1 , .. , .:-, I : .• I I ) ,.::;.... . . . . . \•'' .. ,.. .. _, ET+iJ1H. ' . -C/lf' . . . . . . ... , . .... , ..--, I ...... 0-so m o 2\)\) "" , • l(...._AI .. , . , 1 _._.:.,-:,c,' '\,I • • • • • •• •• .. , • • , ---, • ... . • . ' .\' " . ... ... J . ,< rn (j) H -1 I> -1 H 0 z

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0 D D D ' , . I I ' TOPOGRAPHY J I ' , ' .. ' ' I ' l l I \ \ \ I I ,.. I ,..,., -.. , .. , I' ,.-, \ \ 1.' \ 1 \ ..... I I 1 I" IT'll I I ' I I .. 1 I ' ' \ ,' " \_.,. I ... ' / , --.. _,,. \ c,--, \ \ l \ \ \ \ ' \ \ ' ' ' ... I I ........... ' \ \

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EDGES AND VOIDS

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Q) .c h rarig center = -------.

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FOOTNOTES 1. Kasprowicz, Architectural Thesis of Minnesota, Mpls., 1982, p.23. Diane. Fall p. 6.63-6.68. 5 .. IBID p. 2. 18-2.20. 6. IBID p. 2.21. 7. IBID p. 2.26. 8. Schnei dF.!r, p. 45. 9 . I BID p • 35. 10. Fu, p. 2.24.

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.:I_:.:._T _ --: -_ -. J\ -------: -----------------------------\: : 1 ----_-L.l cor 1srrrrs---___ -__ _ 1l I e I , \:::;). -j_--j_--b . y .... .A. ' ...

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SOUND WAVES REFLECTION, DIFFUSION AND DIFFRACTION Reflection is the return of a sould wave from a surface. If the surface is large compared with the wavelength of sould the angle of incidence 11 i 11 wi 11 be eqLtal to the angle of reflection 11r11• For e>:ample, 100 Hz
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I I , ! , ( ./) SOUND DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION OF REFLECTED SOUND Poor: Concave sound-refecting surfaces such as barrel vaulted ceilings and curved auditorium rear walls can focus sound. causing echoes. Because concave surfaces focus sound, they are also poor distributors of sound energy. Good: Convex and flat-shaped hard-surfaced elements can be effective sound distributing forms. Best

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Good Poor CEILING REFLECTIONS IN AUDITORIA A properly shaped ceiling relector will provide uniform sound energy distribution over the remote rows. A poorly shaped ceiling will create acoustically poor spots.

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Foor BALCONY DESIGN analysis is an tool in checking the acoustical of an In a hall D should not exceed H sound as sound. because symphonic music well as diffusion of the

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:ect.angular Shape ran Shape • SIDE WALL SHAPE Any diagram analysis is also important in the horizontal plane for study of side wall sound reflections. These relections are very important in creating subjective impression of space. The dashed lines in the example rectangular shape below indicate a preferred side wall orientation to provide useful sound reflections.

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Peo r Good (I) (Z.) ECHO CONTROL Substantial echo-producing surfaces should be treated with effecient sound absorbing materials or shaped s shown below, where the foreward ceiling is located and reoriented to provide useful reflecticms. Flufter Echo is ususally caused by the interreflection of sound between opposing parallel or concave surfaces. Flutter is normally heard as a high frequency "ringing" or "buzzing". Flutter can be prevented by (1) reshaping to avaid parallel surfaces, (2) providin g sound-absorbing treatment, or (3) surface breakup with splayed elements. a 1:10 splay of one of the sides will normally provide sufficient flutter control.

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Problems ... -/ ' / I I \ \ ' / -' \ \ I I I I' CURVED FORMS Circular forms can cause annoying focusing problems, which can be corrected various methods. Focused sound Large-scale, random-sized surface undulations provide diffusion to minimize focusing of reflected sould . Acoustically transparent material (e.g., wood or metal grill> conceals actual enclosure, which can be treated with sound-absorbing material.

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...... T ---... -J ' I . -cac -ERM -----. ... , '. . , -> ?'

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\ . --------...., -r-., I I I I I I I I I I . -

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r / I I y , , J A -

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\ I \

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I . l i ! (! t I . ' ' I ! , 1 i i I I ' I 1 \ . . f I I n,___----, I I ! I ["-.., 1 / f::::P

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F l -.t-./ \ = ;..-+---< I \ r := n I I I =t> ------------J--+-l--+-J._

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1

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--r f--F-: -

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,. ....

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Campus Entry Plaza ' ' PARTI STRUCTURE ACOUST I CS MECIIANICAI. Concept Diagrams ............ --'---MASTER'S THESIS .. -SPRING-1985-----:.

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! l i

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Stage \ \ . \ 8\\.\i \ . i . ' '\ . i \ . 'S' '' I ' . I \ \ . " Storage c ------

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Concert Hall Piano Service Instrument Workshop Office Storage c Ground Level Plan NE} i'"'L..J I 0 1 0 2 0 40

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Concert Hall Piano Lab 1 L A c Second Level Plan

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B Third Level Plan NE)

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.. ! / Section A-A Nor.th Elevation II J ! II II II ]

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Section B-B . West Elevation .

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',1 f-... : J I 1----"'------1,,' I! l ==: j i ; Section C-C -----. ... _.

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t c ---_.-,....,--rr--r,_..._.. : :.__; -..--. . r. r r n East E Jcvation .. ----:::::::=: ----. ' -_ _ _., __ ---_ ----,_..----------------------------r----,.....-----L -----= _,... rt .::: -.::-:::::.;::.= r: ;::: __ ...:.-_ -=---------r--...---

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t:.: Section D-D , . ---1! I li I I • i , . ' i I : :! ' South Elevation J 0 10 !0

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I, I .. River Parkway ' ', ,---MUSIC-----____ .;..-._ --. ----------. -------ROSEN ---SPRING-1985 -. . -------. . . ---

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j){: @eNCLUS10N

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CONCLUSION STATEMENT I yEEtl'" <:\•.;,o Un •J b fo)Q c:tn !AJi th fiiy Et the;;i. quot:E! aJ d f 1 rcim D .. l"i .. ''ThE? Ic:le,::t EvE:I'"ythinq., II:: :i {ii:J:i. clint;)" " lhroughout my thesi s I always grew from and with my ideas. Now tha.t. I hc:-tve , ... th? ''r:.•ncl' ' n, ... '' ccinc:lu.!:;ion'' CJf my J r ,.::•.Vf? come to respect the true meaning i n thf? abi d:i ng :i dE?a, my tJ , c!:;i 1 1 always continue a s ideas always continue. An thesis 1 s not h )I ;:J Ci t.l"t ;;:• <;:; i f:; but t•-;:\t .hPr-and a vehicl e by which one learns to love the abiding idea. The t wo :ideas which I postulated my thesis upon were: on• ."!, .::.\ dc;••::. i t"'Q t.o Eo•i
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Rhythmically, I chose three materials; brick, concrete and met c:-•.1 ,,-oo+ :i. n q to :i. n tp 1 D . y l ".' : i . t : h n cl JUxtapose aga i n s t each other. ThE' :i c lr::<=! c::.f tTtU!, ; i c: shot.t.:J cl continue from the point described above. I feel that I could use music theory to develope rhythms and movements with m v materials. For example, the rhythm of th8 columns and windows on the w est allude to a p articular music score or crescendo to the atrium. The atriu m should be a s tronger --a bold '!1'.. t ,;:;, t. "::;;m,:o•rt t vJJ, :i. c: h 1 d be obvious from all anqles. The student spaces should form accent marks on the exterior as well as the interior of the corridors. All t . h C Jl i::\rt () E •:; J c:J , :id cJ t . h ( , ? n E1! : t level of detail which the building i !:> 1 .;:,ck:i. nq. I b elieve that I developed my second idea, t.ne exploration of the site, more extensively than the f i dec:\" f c.<.c:t th;:,t. I thE'! t::: This resulted from the was very familiar wit h attachment t o it. First, I unified the plaza with my building; this culminated the spacial sequence of the West B,;,nk. St:?C:ond I ,rr:::i. ni:orc:(:?d thf:i ! dichotomy within the site, the campus and the river, while leaving a connecting path for the students and thE:.' pul::: lic:. It :i.!=; t h : i .!; point where I would enjoy further exploration of my ideas. The outdoor connection which I created, the amphitheater, has always been a difficult element iTI C• • J • J y r .. t :i. CWI n CH
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por-t :i. on. the lower portion c:..r i , .. i c1 i : ''P cl t:., n t building e lement and be more i ntegrated with the site. ful i '/ I.I E:•>:L , J t h e interior s i t e corrido r developed in the atrium_ This area needs greater detail and more organizing elements. And la":;tly!, l the? path outside the school so that it parallels the angle of Anderson Hall directly. By doing that, I c ould better integrate the vegitation on the north side o f the amphitheater into the area in front of the west side of the building. The idea c a n always be refined and enlightened. The beauty and t i1e:. t.-?n j oymr0 n t I f.'•C:: .:-? :i. Vf.0cl f r om rny ' thesi s brought all of my ideas to the same level and documented my design process in time. But my documents will always be secondary to the process itself. With this , I feel I have concluded a sequence of events in my abiding architectural education.

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._.. ...... .. "L v: --I I I '-I I I /'-I "• I 1l . .-.... A. ...... ..... ....

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/ ..... CLIMATE DATA St. Paul/Minneapolis Minnesota Latitude: Longitude: Altitude: 44 5' N 93 1' w 822 Ft. Minnesota Design Criteria Heating Degree Days Cooling Degree Days Winter Design Temp. Summer Design Temp. Dry Bulb Wet Bulb Recommended "U" Values Walls (over3 stories) Walls (3 stor-ies under-) Roof 8159 -10 F 89 F 75 F 0.28 (). 23 0.06

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H o urs of Sun s hine Possi e % J anuary 290 February 296 6 1 March 371 6 1 Apri 1 400 63 May 449 t June 452 66 Jul y 438 70 Aug ust 437 64 Septembe r 374 64 October 344 64 November 297 58 December 287 JJ

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14J. t:J" [),;-;.tc:?./T:l iiiE! ?'PI'" i 1 l I !3t?p t 21. l3 4pm 9 a . m / 3pm 10 .?.\ill I 2prn l l C::\m/ lpin 12:: (l(l noor, June 21 8 ;:un/ 4pm 9 .:: <.rn I m 10 <:tm/ 2pm ll .::1m/ 1pm 00 noon Dr.::>c E?.mb 8 1 ' 2 1 8 am/ 4pm 9 am/ :::::pm l.O am/ 2pm l:l am/ lpm 12:00 noon Solar Angles {!,lt:ltudP A;:mith .-; l t. ,-, lCl ..,.. l c:.-C"" _:, ,_J,_J /.l.i. j . ;-, 1 ( .. ) -:ra:::-85 ._:•J 46 c::-I ._I C! '-c:-t_j.._J ... -b7 \ . . ) -:: -: .. -w-:0 l I 4 1 J. l 7 --?Ci ,;_ I 2 l :l r: w '-1-:r ..;:.. _) 0

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Wind Analysis Monthl y Wind Speeds 1'1PH Januat""y 11.2 1 :l. 7 Mar c h 12. El Apt'i 1 14. 1. May 13. 4 June July 1.0.6 August 10. 1 Septernbet"" 11. 7 October 11.7 November 1 0 DeG?.tnb< .. 11.4 Wind direction Not""t h / Northwest

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' Precipitation Ana lysis 1"1ost {1ve Lea.st 6. ' '-=!" 7 1 c:: 0 -. . ,.) 7. 5 '";'' D 0. r= . ..: . . ...J -, 9 El 0. C) ' . -'"" l 1'1ar c:h 7 0 -=! ,, l () I . . ..::. . C:) l ,-, 0 c I . . . .:: . -, C) ''=!' ( ) 9 / . "Mol . -" fj 6 4 2 0 :, . . . ,.;:. July Auqust 10.4 Lj .• ::::; 0.6 t (::rnb ev 14.5 0. 1 [I C t 0 11.4 0.3 10.0 ::::.o Dt-?c: emb e1'-1.0 ::::.4 o.
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CODE ANALYSIS CodE' Cocle nequ.i 19!3:2 Uni+otm Uui .lcJinl) Oc:c:up:\nc:y G r -oup:: {-):1. 1::::1 (Cl E;ui 1 c:l:i Type of Construction: Oc::c:upc:-•. r .. ,c:y' L.o.:,\c:ls ::
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The State of Minnesota has adopted a set of requirements and standards for virtually every a spect of the material design af a bu: i . l cl:i. n t J . rilE ' ' com p t c;:: hc -:1nsi Vf2 of these is the Uniform Building Code, which covers the fire, and s;t.:ructur,;:tl all bu:i.ldiniJ':5 .. Clt'"E' of-flC:l<.'d safpt.:y aspects of In o.<.c:lclit.i ot .. ,, thf?re codebooks for mechan: i c:E-1 1 sec Llr" i L y, !::> Y'E: t erns; :1 !':> t. a , ... , d s:, p.l u mbi nt;) ,_ s;.i. enE:-?t'gy en '"'nd accessibi] ily tor the handicapped. I zc,:?cl tl ;oc:;!? C:\ 1 a i::•c: t of t h 0! UDC. i.i: : h me:( y h.:. lif:0 !5o me ef -f c-?c t cxi th!? c:(c:tur:o 1 dE?si. q r,. According to the system of C: 1 i:<. S > S i f i C: c3. t :i Cll" i b y US 2 f Dr occupancy, the project would follow the requirements for a Group A , Div:i.!:;ion 2 .. .1. tJui.ldi.nq,, : i ... E ' .. , , ''any building o r portion of a buildin g havinq assembly room with a n occupant load of 300 or more without a stage, including such buildings used for educational ••. " All of section s 502, 505, 507, 603, and 605 under the Group A Division 2.1 classification have been summarized below. All of sections 508, 510, 606, 607, and 608 provide detailed information which also applies to this building t ype. The building construction type wa s determined from char t 5 D on page 6 0 , whic h indicated t hat any building of this classification must b e of T y p e 1 ceon!:>tn .. tct:icm i + : i t. t ... Ji.ll be fot.tr stories or more. A s hort description o f T ype 1 regulations 1 f o 1 J .. Fire Protection of Exterior Walls All walls should have a fire resistive rating of

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hours when located less than tt:?n (10 ) -f(:?ct : +1om th.:-:: property line, and a one fire rating w alls les s than five feet hour F"or f i ' ''D!ll the p roperty line, t h e r e m a y b E! no f'ivE between five and ten f eet away m ust have protected openings . ?lllow< :iblE' Floo r I .. IE!i qht f.)cr:ord:i.r .. , q to r.;h.::\l'"t:S c: .. r .. t c l '.::i ' ) . . buildings of T y p e l constructi o n mav u nlimited floor and hE-?i ght. F'u.l::i 1 : l c P t e c: (;,: , ; ; s The building must o r -fl ' ont upo11 a pul:, l:t c which i s a minimum af 20 f eet wide. T 'he m,:;,in E . ntJrr.:tr ,c::e m u •::;t be locate d on this street o r c c: f2 \Ak l y " Light, Ventilation and Sanitation F o r all enclosed a reas, one must provide either openings for natural ligh t at 1/10 floor a rea, and natura l ventilation at 1 / 2 0 floor area, or artificia l liqht and m e c hanical ventilation w hich s upplies 5 cubic feet of fre s h air/ m inute and a total circulation rate of 15 cubic f:!et I mi nutE • .. Other Sections Which 504 Location o n Property (How to determine propert y lines) !.5 0 i3 F: j. r 12 Substitution (of ::; :l 0 i t at :l Dn barriers between k itch(:Jn) !:;t:l ve p , ... i 1 ... , k 1 E ? r-s; ) ( p nJ v i d f:.; s f cn -b<:'lt:h and

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604 ENi t Faci l ities (gen e ral requirem e nts--see chapter 33) 608 Special Hazard s Pd. l ot.ht:?.r p,::,r t.=; o+ t :hi:?. UBC would apply to this project type, but the followin g information w a s selected f o r its direct application to m y desi g n L i V ( Lo.:icl ;:Dir FrelimlnE:•I-;' Sizing of St.uctural Members i .. i v (::• l....o ioi cl J. y w ith fixed seating o t he•i ' L. i b a r i E s (::?
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requir2ments fro m chapter 33: stor-y f 1 DCHr mu.s.;t C:l. b D 'v' E2 h C:( \/(,l ' ' ) .. :.. s o tha t : e> : t hE: i . r E•.t r .. i:l. n q eel cl i. t. h ;.:,;.n :l I :2 t J. OOr". is not 1 t h e diago n a l o f t h e The m aximu m distance to a n e x i t or encl osed passage way mus t equa l 150 ft. or 200 ft. W i t h p 1 : i l"i k J. E? I '" • Tht-" :,..; i d th o f e:: : i t dc;DI'" s; mu b e not less tha n 3 ft.; n o door lea f b e i n g q reater t han 4 ft. Exit corridors and 1111 .. t ! S t ln2 4'1 i n .. i . cl f :: • The appropria t e con stuc1lo n c:l<:•.!ss :ific:;:..t ion :i. s T r ' Pf:? 1., :.-Jh.lc:h means that the majo r struct ural elements a r e of steel, concrete, or m asonry. All e x c ept partitions mus t noncombustible and h ave a rating of one t o two hours. J .rron, w.:1ll!:; t:.. f j l'"t.'? All of the information in the book Accessible Architecture (an illustrate d handbook based o n Minnesota State Building Code , chapter 55) appliesto this type of projec t . F'at -ki.nq GE? n et'" C:':i ll y, -For-y spaces, there s h ould be on space 1 2 feet wide reserved for the h andicapped. Exterior

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er-,try n ius;t:. bf:? 4 f eet wide with a E!>: c: eecJ in <;::1 1 :: ::'0. Doors and Land i ngs at J f.':?as;t. !:;1 opE: not All doors must have a clear opening cf 3 1 i nches. Where the door swings into a landing, the landing must t E nrJ l '' -0 1 1 p C:\ t hE? door '. Indo o r Ramps and Elevators A l l floors must be accessible by r ,:;;_ mp CJJ E 1 E?V a t. or • Th f? slopr mu s t not exceed D.n d f Cll'" y ::::011 , . i f.:', t. h f.? I' . f."" must b e a 5'landing. T o p rrtust. bE? <::•.11d hot .t:on li:":\nclings 6'. T hen:=. f:!l to ambulance i:\C: CC"!fllOcJ,::itP a. t , ... e t c 11 <"',. .. The dOO I'""'S I') : • •,,)_,;. II !=.>tai t !:; [-3t dii'"!S t.hc":\r, 4-f.J '1 mu; t have railings on each side. than Bt31 1 an i ;.::o.te r ;;l:ll l vi nq neither side greater than 44'. c.:;l clncJ A t least one pedestria n aisle or lane must be 31' wide. f.is ; !:;f ::rn b J. y !-3E•,:It. :i ng According to Table auditorium of 500 !' C:\n 01' " 1 (?55 seats requires 5 view ing positions on a level surface on the main f loor. ro:i. 1 et f
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hand : i . c: E1p p f?d f:3uch bt:;: tvi.th ! 5uq E''::;t. E.'-'rJ 11 unDb !::. t I " u c t space in front of the toilet. Urinals and sinks must have a c J. I' -<'iC: c: v-J : i . d t: h o f :1. 11 •

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. . SOILS ANALYSIS t .,pic::c:tl. E10 1 O:::liJ '/ 1 '3 H t . Peter Sandstone. F'•:=?tc•t Sandstone provides a n optimum environment for low-cost tunne l ] ing ar .. , cJ l.tr , clet-t;:tt'" oun c:l <::teE? development ••• Pieces can be broken by h and, c:tnd the formation 1 0 commonly excava t e d rapidly b y a l.•Jhj.ch I'"Pclt . . lC::(?.!:.; t l";[> I'"DC.:k tu a sand slurry removablE' by p j pelinP and slurry pum p •.. T h e for developing underground s pacP in the St. PEter Sandst o n e are i.?r .. , l -, <::..n c b y thE' pic c:• •:>f t h (? overlying Glenwood S h ale and Platteville Formation, which forms a. rt .:::i t u.t' .. c:d . r oo+ + ot-t-::i : c: <:<...fa. t. i on s:, :i. n t hf? 11 ThP following pages are f:?i: F.::• I '" p t s; f r -Dirt t. h ('! 11 nep 0 1r t of Subsurface Exploration for the Proposed Mus i c Building, Minneapolis Campus, Minneapolis, b y thE? !:)oil Corr q :::o;;-,ny.

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OFFICES IN: WATERLOO , lA MANKATO, MN ROCHESTER , MN ST. PAUL , MN --------------REPORT OF SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION PROPOSED MUSIC BUILDING MINNEAPOLIS CAMPUS MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA -----------------------------------------. SOIL eXPLORatiOn BISMARCK . NO FARGO , NO GRAND F ORKS. NO MINOT , NO COIT1Par1'w' RAPID CITY , SO S IOUX FALLS . SO APPl. ETON . WI EALI CLAIRE , WI I LA CROSSE, WI WAUSAU , WI CASPER . WY G ILLETIE, WY

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REPORT OF SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION PROPOSED MUSIC BUILDING MINNEAPOLIS CAMPUS MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA #120-6560 ---.... " ...... .... .._ .............

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SOIL eXPLORatiOn CCII_ .... 662 CROMWELL AVENUE ST. PAUL, MN 55114 PHONE 612 /645 644 6 a sister corporation to TWIN CITY TESTING AND ENGINEERING LABORATORY INC . September 30, 1980 University of Minnesota Engineering & Division 26 Folwell Hall 9 Pleasant Street S.E. Minneapolis, MN 55455 Attn: Howard Heck Gentlemen Subj: Proposed Building Minneapolis Campus University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota #120-6560 Attached herewith are two copies of our report covering the sub surface exploration for the proposed building. Additional copies of this report will be sent as noted below. This work was conducted in accordance with our proposal dated August 25, 1980 and your subsequent purchase order #J 08458 dated September 5, 1980. About 50% of the soil samples will be held at this office for one month and then will be discarded unless we are notified to hold them for a longer period of time. The opinionS expressed in this report are based on the conditions observed at the test boring locations. If different conditions are encountered during construction, we request that you notify us so that the new conditions can be reviewed. Very truly yours Steven D. Koenes, P.E. SDK/pj 1 Enc cc: 3 Close Associates OFFICERS : CHARLES W . BRITZ I US chairman of the board NORMAN E . HENNING pres i dent ROBERT F . WITIMAN execut ive v i ce pres i de n t CLINTON R . EUE secreta ry/t reasu rer HOME OFFICE : ST. PAUL , MN OFFICES IN : BISMARCK . NO FARGO , NO GRAND FORKS, NO MINOT, NO MANKATO, MN ROCHESTER . MN APPLETON , WI EAU CLAIRE , WI LA CROSSE. W I WAUSAU, W I RAPID CITY . SD SIOU X FALLS , SD WATERLOO . lA CASPER . WY I . I

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REPORT OF SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION PROPOSED MUSIC BUILDING MINNEAPOLIS CAMPUS MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA #120-6560 INTRODUCTION The proposed building will be three stories with the lower floor at elevation 812'. The building will be L-shaped with length of 450' and 165' and a width varying from about 90' in the north to 50' in the . south. In accordance with your purchase order J 08458, we have performed the subsurface soil exploration. The exploration included 19 soil test borings put down at the locations staked by you in the field, or put down approximately at the locations indicated on the site plan furnished to us. The borings were taken to approximately the depths indicated on the site plan furnished to us. Two of the borings number 1 and 15 were extended to obstruction on what we believed was limestone. The resultant data was then reviewed with respect to potential foundation types and depths, allowable soil pressures and possible design considerations that could be influenced by the subsurface conditions. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the subsurface soil exploration and present our comments, opinions and recommendations based on our view of this data. SOIL eXDLORatiOn

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Page 2 # 120-6560 EXPLORATION PROGRAM RESULTS Surface Conditions The site is located on the west bank of the Minneapolis campus of the University of Minnesota. The proposed building is located south of Anderson Hall (Building #205); and east of the Rarig Center (Building #209). Vacated West River Road bounds a portion of the eastern side of the building area and the Mississippi River is located further east and substantially below the elevation of the site. The site contains several sidewalk areas and is landscaped with several trees and shrubs. The surface elevations at the boring locations varied from 819.5' at boring #2 to 832.8' at boring #14, indicating that the site slopes downward in a northerly direction Subsurface Conditions The subsurface conditions encountered at each test location are illustrated on the attached test boring logs. A review of these logs suggests a generalized subsurface soil profile consisting of a few feet of fill and/or topsoil , underlain by about 5' to 15' of water-deposited sand and silty sand, in turn underlain by silty sand or clay sand glacial till. The northern portion of the site did encounter a few feet of silt between the water deposited sand and underlying glacial till. The thickness and type of fill material was extremely variable across the site. The majority oi the fill silty sand, sand and sandy clay with some silty clay. I I I I • l I

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., Page 3 #120-6560 The penetration resistance (N value) within the fill varied from about 2-30 blows per foot, indicating a density varying from very loose to very dense. The water deposited sand and silty sand was also somewhat variable, with N values varying from about 4 in the upper portion of the strata to in excess of 30 blows per foot. The majority of water-deposited sand and silty sand was loose to dense. The fine alluvial silts encountered in the northern end of the site were generally medium dense to dense (based on N value). The silty sand glacial till was generally dense to very dense and the clayey sand glacial till was rather stiff. It should be noted that the area of the borings in relation to the entire area is very small. Conditions between borings or below the depth of our borings may differ considerably from the conditions encountered in the borings. For these reasons, we do not warrant conditions below the depth of our borings, or that the strata logged in our borings are necessarily typical of the entire site. WATER LEVEL OBSERVATION Water was observed in borings #1, #7 and #15 at the time of the exploration. The water level measurement data is indicated on the attached boring logs. Based on our interpetation of the water level data, it is our judgment the water level on the site is below elevation 797'. The ground water table should be expected to fluctuate both seasonally and annually. LABORATORY TEST At your request, we have determined the pH of selected samples in borings 17, 18 and 19. The results of the laboratory tests are indicated on the SOIL exPLORatiOn

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...., .. Page. 4 #120-6560 attached boring logs, opposite the samples on which the tests were performed. ENGINEERING REVIEW Project Information The following data represents our understanding of the project. It comprises an important part of our engineering review. If, as the project develops, there are changes from the stated values, we request that you contact us for additional review. We understand the proposed building will be three stories in height and cover an L-shaped area with lengths of about 450' and 165'; and a width varying from about 90' in the north to 50' in the south. A portion of the planned building (concert hall) will be a future addition. The building will be precast concrete with masonry and brick exterior. We understand from your structural engineers that the building will be primarily wallbearing with loads of about 25 Kips per lineal foot of bearing wall. The lower floor elevation will be at approximately 813'. We have no information _ regarding floor loads however, assumed floor loads will not exceed -;.:.' 200 psf. Foundation Recommendations Based on our interpretation of the field data, it is our judgment that the proposed building can be supported on a spread footing foundation system designed for an allowable bearing pressure of up to 5000 psf {pounds per square foot).

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Page 5 #120-6560 The soils encountered below elevation 8131 should be capable of supporting 5000 psf footing loads. The footings can therefore be supported on the existing soils below elevation 8131 at minimum depth below the floor slab or at minimum frost depth below exterior grade. The 5000 psf bearings pressure should allow for a factor of safety of at least three against shear failure and limit settlement to less Excavation Precautions Sandy silt or silt may be encountered at some footing . locations in the northern end of the site. Extreme care should be taken during excavating for the footings to avoid disturbance of these soils. If the soils are disturbed, they may lose strength and.therefore, require subcutting and lowering the foundation to the undisturbed underlying soils. Floor Slab The natural soils encountered below planned lower floor elevation (8131 } should be capable of supporting anticipated floor loads. We recommend any backfill placed around foundations or in utility trenches be compacted to a minimum of , 95% of ASTM: 0698-78 (standard Proctor). In areas where silty sand or silts are encountered at the planned floor elevation, the area should be subcut to a depth of 611 below planned bottom of floor elevation. The subcut areas should then be filled clean granular soil having less than 5 % passing the #200 sieve. Material of this type should reduce the capillary rise of any ground water and therefore, reduce

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Page 6 #120-6560 dampness of the lower floor slab. We further recommend a plastic membrane be placed between the bottom of the slab and the underlying soils. Drain Tile System The apparent water level on the site is somewhat below planned floor elevation. We do however recommend a perimeter drain tile be installed around the perimeter of the building. The drain tile should provide rapid drainage of the backfill and therefore reduce lateral pressure on the foundation wall and also reduce dampness of the foundation wall. Exterior Backfill We recommend a clean sand be used as exterior backfill around the building. The on site soils classified as sand, medium gra in d-(SP) should be suitable for use as exterior backfill. The backfill should be compacted to a minimum of 90% Standard Proctor in all areas except where sidewalks and roadways are planned. These areas should be compacted to 95% of standard Proctor. Lateral Pressures on Foundation Walls The foundation walls will be subjected to lateral loads from the backfill. :.;.' above recommendations call for a clean granular backfill and a perimeter drain tile system. The drain tile system and clean sand should assure the The backfill soils will remain drained at all times, thus reducing laterall wall pressure. We recommend the foundation walls be designed based on a coefficient of at-rest pressure 0.40, density of 115 pcf and a coefficient of friction between soil and concrete of 0.35. SOIL eXPLORatiOn cnrn .. IIOJ I I I I I . I I ' I • . J .I l I l ' \ '

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Page 7 #120-6560 OBSERVATION AND TESTING Because of the possible variation of soil conditions between boring locations, we recommend all footing areas be observed by a soil engineer prior to foundation placement. The exploration should include several shallow hand auger borings to compare soil conditions at footing locations with those encountered at the boring locations. Moisture-density test should also be taken in any compacted fill placed as backfill along the foundation walls or as backfill under the lower floor slab. FIELD EXPLORATION PROCEDURES Test Borings Nineteen soil test borings were put down between the dates of September 11 and September 18, 1980. The majority of the borings were put down at the locations staked by you in the field. The borings that were located by our field crew are noted on the attached sketch. Thes e borings were put down approximately at the locations indicated by the site plan furnished to us. Borings #14 and #15 were moved slightly north because of steep slopes near the planned boring location; The attached sketch indicates a direction and location of the moved ..... boring. The surface elevations were supplied to us by your surveyors. Soil Samp 1 i ngs Soil sampling was done in accordance with ASTM; D 1586-67. Using this pro cedure, a 2" 0.0. split barrel sampler is driven into the soil by a 140 lb weight falling 30". After an initial set of 6", the number of blows required to drive the sampler an additional 12" is known as the penetration SOIL E!XPLORatiOn ccrns •...,

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Page 8 #120-6560 resistance or N value. The N value is an index of the relative density of cohesionless soils and the consistency of cohesive soils. Soil Classifications As the samples were obtained in the field, they were visually and manually classified by the crew chief in accordance with ASTM: D 2488-69. Repre-sentative portions of the samples were then . returned to the laboratory for further examination and for verification of the field classification. In addition, selected samples were submitted to a program of laboratory tests. Logs of the borings indicating the depth and identification of the various strata, the N value, the laboratory test data, water level information and pertinent information regarding the method of maintaining and advancing the drill holes are attached. Charts illustrating the soil classification procedure, the descriptive terminology, and symbols used on the boring logs are also attached. 1 hereby certify that this plan, specification, wos prepared by me or under my direct supervision and that I om o duly Reg istered Profe,.ionol cnginesr • 0. KOENES Date 9JO -80 Registration 1-!o. 13181 SOIL eXPlORatiOn COfTlFOan'wl I j '( I r 1. . r f l , ' I r l

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.. n , Intr-oduction I ' ' J ,;,,, , . t. i n • to P , n t1us i c 2. Ferguson, Donald M.. Music as Metaphor-(Uni tv o f 1v1i n n ,;:,.::; o t a Pr-ess, Mpls, MN> 1960. F E?l" q' .t n , Don<-..<.] c! I'•!. Th e Why o f Music of t , J.r ,nf:!<::iDLi.\ l""'l p l ;:;. !"1 1 '1) 1'-:/t.;r:.;: .. 4. A Pr-imer of Pr-oportion in the Ar-ts of For-m Music.
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!"IN) F .:d. 1 :l 9'7 '1'. :LO. Kasprowicz, Architectural Thesis of Minnesota, Mpls., MN) D:i. ,::me . (LJrli ty Fall 1.902 .. 11. Knudsen, Ver-n and l-l"itt'"t'" :i. s, Cyril. Acoustical Designing in Architecture (Acoustical Society of America) 1950 .. 12. Maxi-Audit Man ual for EN-00067-01; State of Minnesota, 1'-'linne<::;ot a Ent:' rqy Agency .. (St. Faul, MN> December 1979 .. 13.. Newland, Scott. Architectural Thesis (University of Minnesota, l"'pls., I"IN> Fall FIB::. 14. Program for a New Music Building at the University of Mimmesota Twin Cities Campus, by the Music Bu ilding Advisory Dr. Arturo Madrid, Chairman. 15. Schneider, Kate. Architectural Thesis Spring 1983. MAGAZINE ARTICLES 16. University of East Anglia: Music Center. Architectural Review Vol 157, no ciT!, l v i.:H ch p. 130-1:39 u 17. S warghmore College: l.. .. <:;c.nq t 1us i . c Gi urt;JDl a. Building. Mitchell P rogressive Architecture .. 12. Decembe r 1974 . p.54-67 .. no. 18. ftom Eut r ope" , b::2c:tural l::;:ec:c>rd .. Vol. 16.!J mid-Auqust. :1.9'/9. p .. 1 oB-1

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INTERVIEWS 19. l"leyer-s, Jeffry. Director of Space Programing and (University of Minnesota) August 23, 1Cf84 ..