Citation
The Basic medical research center of the National Cheng-Kung University

Material Information

Title:
The Basic medical research center of the National Cheng-Kung University
Creator:
Liu, Anping
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Committee Chair:
Long, Gary
Committee Members:
Wong, Jam F.
Nagel, Chester

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Anping Liu. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
THE
BASIC MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTER
OF
NATIONAL CHENG-KUNG UNIVERSITY
AN ARCHITECTURAL THESIS BY
ANPING LIU SPRING 1984


THE
BASIC MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTER
OF
NATIONAL CHENG-KUNG UNIVERSITY


An Architectural Thesis presented to
the College of Design and Planning
of
the University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for
The Degree of Master of Architecture Anping Liu
Spring 1984


The Thesis of
University
Anping Liu____________ is approved.
Chester Nagel ( Advisor ) of Colorado at Denver
May 18, 1984


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to extend my deep thanks to Mark Frauenglass for his time, suggestion, and help in the finial touch of this thesis.
I would like to thank Dr, Leland Chung, associate professor in the College of Pharmacy of the University of Colorado, for his friendly assistance in procuring the necessary information and research material, and in perceiving the performance of basic medical research .
Most of all, I will extend my irrepressible gratitude to my advisors, Gary Long, Jam F. Wong, and Chester Nagel, their ever so candid and persisting presence exposed me to an attitude and outlook toward the architectural field far beyond the reaches of this thesis.


Dedicated to my wife, Maje
for her love and encouragement


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
A) INTRODUCTION .................................................. 1
B) SITE AND CLIMATIC ANALYSIS .................................... 4
(1) Location, Size, and Configuration ....................... 4
(2) Access .................................................. 5
(3) Utilities / Drainage ................................... 10
(4) Soil ................................................... 10
(5) Climatic Data and Analysis ............................. 12
1. Climatic data ...................................... 12
2, Climatic graph ..................................... 16
3. Mahoney tables ..................................... 17
4, Design guidelines .................................. 21
C) BUILDING CODE ................................................ 25
D) PROGRAM OF REQUIREMENTS ...................................... 31
(1) General ................................................ 31
(2) Design Considerations of Research Laboratory
and Animal Quarters .................................... 32
(3) Functional and Space Requirements ...................... 47
(4) Structural and Construction Materials .................. 73
(5) Use of Site ............................................ 77
E) DESIGN ANALYSIS .............................................. 79
F) DESIGN SOLUTION .............................................. 95
G) BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................ 107


INTRODUCTION


INTRODUCTION
The reasons why the government authorities, Taiwan, Republic of China, establish the Medical School of National Cheng-Kung University are:
1. to balance the distribution of teaching hospitals in Taiwan area,
2. to increase the amount of physicans and related medical staff, and
3. to promote the health care level in Tainan-Chiayi area, a large and populous area including the counties between Tainan and Chiayi area in southern Taiwan district.
To meet above requirements, the whole project, the School of Medicine of National Cheng-Kung University, will include the University Hospital, the School of Medicine, and the Medical Research Centre. The University Hospital will totally accommodate 800 wards. The Medical School will train 300 students relating to medicine every year. The Medical Research Centre will contain the Basic Medical Research Center, the Clinical Medical Research Center ( a part of the University Hospital ), and other specialized research centers. This Medical Center with associated institutions will form a major health care system in southern Taiwan district to serve the Tainan-Chiayi area.
It is a common complaint that most hospitals, around this area,
1


don't do enough research work. And the doctors understand that one must keep up with the latest medical development since one learned five years ago is already outdated. Therefore, in order to assure the hospitals' high standard of health care to patients, this Medical Center should provide excellent opportunities and research environments to medical staff for on-the-job research and training. University Hospital and Medical Research Center will meet this needs - education, research, and service.
The Basic Medical Research Center is a part of the Medical Research Center. It has somewhat relationship with the University Hospital and the Medical School, but it also is an independent institute itself. This institute includes the Department of Biochemistry, the Department of Physiology, the Department of Pathology, the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, the Department of Pharmocology. Other spaces affiliated are animal quarters, administration, common-use facilities, library, workshop, and mechanical room, etc. The gross building area is about 9807 square meters. The functions of the Basic Medical Research Center are for the advancement of knowledge and the training of investigators, teachers, students, officials, p’nysicans, and other workers in the general field of medicine.
For a Basic Medical Research Laboratory design, the building must have the capability to satisfy research operational needs allowing for variation both in research projects and in occupancy, and for the current and future use. It is apparent that adaptability is a very important factor in this design. Adaptability is relevant to flexi-
2


bility, capability, and expansibility. This project will consider these three factors through entire design processes to achieve an ideal working surroundings. This program, of course, will simultaneously concern the possible future development of the whole project.
3


SITE
&
CLIMATIC
ANALYSIS


SITE AND CLIMATIC ANALYSIS
(1) Location, Size, and Configuration
The National Cheng-Kung University is located in the northeastern district of Tainan city - an old-line city in Taiwan, R.O.C. The campus of Cheng-Kung University is right behind the Tainan Railroad Station.
The downtown Tainan, central business district and high density residential zone, is adjacent to the university campus at its northeastern boundary. The other areas, neighboring the university campus, are middle-density and low-density residential zone. The population of Tainan city, now, is about 620,000 persons.
The building site, a northern portion of Cheng-Kung University campus, is surrounded by Shaotung Road ( 40 m wide ), Tungfeng Road ( planned 60 m wide ), and Shengli Road (. 15 m wide ), totaling 2.8 hectares, less or more. It is, across the Shengli Road, opposite to the planned site of the Medical School and the University Hospital.
The west abutting area is the Army 804 General Hospital. The northern side, across the Tungfeng Road, is middle-density residential zone (
50 housing units per hectare, and the building's height must be lower than 20 m ). The southern rim, across the Shaotung Road, is the main campus of Cheng-Kung University. The site, by now, is temporarily used by the Taiwan Bus Transportation Company as an open-air garage and tune-up shop. The land slope is very flat from northwest to southeast
4


( about 0.5 % ).
(2) Access
The traffic is very convenient to reach this site. The Tainan Railroad Station is about 800 meters away from this site ( about 15 minute walking time ). The regional transportation bus stops are along the Shaotung Road.
The northern portion of Tainan-Chiayi area can arrive at this site through Kungyuan North Road and Tungfeng Road, or through Kaiyuan Road and Tungfeng Road. The southern region can go through Tatung Road, Poai Road, and Peimen Road, or through Fuchiang Road and Shengli Road to reach this site.
The Bureau of Health and Hygiene of Tainan city and the Provincial Tainan General Hospital are within a radius of 1,000 meters. Most public or private clinic or hospitals are within 3,000 meter circle.
5


6


U PROPOSED SITE HH RAILROAD STATION P CITY PARA
* THE BUREAU OF HEALTH & HYGIENE % TAINAN GENERAL HOSPITAL
MAP
OF
TAINAN CITY


8




(3) Utilities/Drainage
The infrastructure are well-developed within this district. Therefore electric power supply system, water supply system, sewage system, public drainage system, and telephone service are very convenient and located at the enclosing roads right-of-way. The waste water should be treated appropriately, and then merged into public sewage system.
(4 ) So il
The geology of this area is the alluvial silty sand, from fine to coarse, with some gravel.
The properties of silty sand are:
1. Angle of internal friction (_ $ ) = 33 - 38° .
2. Cohesion = 0.
3. Density ( f ) = 2.0 - 2.1 tons/cubic meter.
( 125 - 130 pcf )
4. Blow count ( N ) =20-40 /30 cm ( medium dense to dense ).
5. Allowable bearing capacity (_ with 2.5 cm settlement )
q = 14 “ 24 tons/square meter.
( 3,000 - 5,000 psf )
Some other engineering properties which should be concerned are :
1. In earthquake area the liquafaction potential ( loss of strength due to shaking ) should be checked if the ground water level is relatively high.
10


2. Either footing or pile could be used as foundation, depending on the loading. Usually footing costs less, especially if the structure be placed above the ground water table.
3. If pile foundation ( i-e. H pile or R.C. pile ) is used, an allowable bearing capacity of 30 - 50 tons could be achieved for length of 90 cm or larger.
1 1


(5) Climatic Data And Analysis
Location : Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C
Latitude : 22° 57' N.
Longitude 120°12' E.
Elevation : 16 m.
Sub-tropical region.
Island climate.
1. Climatic data
a) Air Temperature ( °C )
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV OEC YR
NORMAL DAILY MAX. 22.2 24.4 25.6 27.8 29.3 29.5 32.4 34.5 31.3 29.3 26.7 24.7 34.5
OAILY MIN. 5.0 9.2 13.6 16.6 21.5 24.1 23.2 22.5 21.8 19.7 15.5 9.6 5.0
AVERAGE 13.6 16.3 19.6 22.2 25.4 26.8 27.8 28.5 26.5 24.5 21.1 17.1 22.5
EXTREME HIGHEST 32.4 32.2 36.1 35.3 36.4 37.8 36.7 36.7 36.7 35.7 35.1 32 .1 37.8
LOWEST 2.6 2.4 5.1 8.9 14.7 18.7 21.1 21.1 15.4 12.5 2.7 4.5 2.4
b) Relative Humidity ( % )
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV OEC YR
MONTHLY MAX. A.M. 92.0 93.6 93.4 99.0 99.0 96.2 96.2 99.2 98.0 96.8 93.6 96.2 96.1
MONTHLY MIN. P.M. 70.0 67.0 66.0 64.0 65.0 68.0 69.0 67.0 70.8 69.0 69.0 69.0 67.8
AVERAGE 81.0 80.3 79.7 81.5 82.0 82.1 82.6 83.1 84.4 82.7 81.5 82.7 82.0
12


c) Rainfall ( mm )
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YR
RAINFALL 20.8 37.4 44.4 65.0 172.8 365.7 3774 443.5 158.7 29.5 16.5 17.0 1748.3
* The rainy season is from April to September and the amount of precipitation is about 78 % of whole year.
* The annual rainfall intensity is 16.7 mm in 24 hours.
* The extreme rainfall intensity in an hour is 55.0 mm on August ( recorded ).
d) Wind C m/s )
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV OEC YR
MAX. MEAN SPEED 10.5 11.5 10.8 10.8 10.1 11.5 n.i 12.7 11.7 n.i 11.5 10.6 11.2
PREVAILING DIRECTION NE NE NE N SW SW SW SW NE NE NE NE ■■ —
* The extreme maximum speed is 14.8 m/s during seasonal northeaster ( cold wind in winter ).
* The mean wind speed is 3 m/s.
e) Percentage of possible sunshine and rediation on a horizontal surface ( cal/square cm )
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YR
PCT. OF SUNSHINE 48 21.5 39.2 37 53 47 47 65 57 70 42 37 47
13


MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV OEC YR
TOTAL RADIATION 7234 4952 7113 7784 11787 9942 10695 12675 12437 9504 6537 5455 106115
DAILY RADIATION DAILY MIN. 61 56 47 38 112 87 71 78 94 51 37 17 —
DAILY MAY. 398 407 471 595 641 538 589 594 553 507 415 356 —
AVERAGE 233 176 229 259 380 331 345 408 414 306 217 175 —
f) Sun angles
TIME SUMMER SOLSTICE EQUINOX WINTER SOLSTICE
A.M. P.M. AZ. AL. AZ. AL. AZ. AL.
12 0 180° 00' 89°33 180° 00' 67°00 180° OO’ 43°33'
11 1 85° 17’ 76° 12 145°55 62° 46’ 161°34’ 41° 1 9’
10 2 83° 19' 62° 28' 124° 21’ 52°52 145°52 35° 10’
3 3 81°07' 48°47' 1H°42' 40° 25' 133°42 26° 12'
8 4 76°45' 35°17’ 103°07’ 27°12 124° 27' 15° 30
7 5 73°42' 21°52’ 96° 18 13°45 117° 26' 3 27'
S 42 518 - - - - 115°37 0°00
8 8 68°15’ 8a55’ 90*00' 0°00' - -
518 642 64° 21' 0°00’ - - - -
14


R H.
TEMPERATURE
RADIATION
R A INF ALL ( mm)
Climatic graph


3. Mahoney table
Location TAINAN, TAIWAN. REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Longitude 120.2° E
Latitude 22 .95° N
Altitude 16 *
Air temperature: ”C
J F M A M J J A S 0 N — 0
Monthly mean max. 22.2 24.4 25.6 27.8 29.3 29.5 32.4 34.5 31.3 29.3 26.7 24.7
Monthly mean min. 5.0 9.2 13.6 16.6 21.5 24.1 23.2 22.5 21.8 19.7 15.5 9.6
Monthly mean range 13.6 16.8 19.6 22.2 25.4 26.8 27.8 28.5 26.5 24.5 21.1 17.1
High AMT
34.5 19.7
5.0 29.5
Low AMR
Relative humidity: %
Monthly mean max. a.m. 92.0 93.6 93.4 1 99.0 199.0 96.2 96.2 j 99.2 98.0 96.8 93.6 96.2
Monthly mean min. p.m. 70.0 67.0 66.0 64,0i 65.0 68.0 69.0 67.0 70.8 69.0 69.0 169.0
Average 81.0 80.3 79.7 81.5 82.0 82.1 82.6183.1 84.4 82.7 81.5 82.7
Humidity group 4 4 4 4 | 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Humidity group: 1 If average RH: below 30%
2 30-50%
3 50-70%
4 above 70%
Ram and wind
Rainfall, mm
ro O bo 37.4 4 4.4)65.0 \]72.8\365J\377A\443.5 158.7 29.5 16.5 17.0
lj748^
Total
1 Wind, prevailing NE NE : NE i sw SW sw SW I NE NE NE NE
i Wind, secondary - ! " “ -
j F | M 1 A M J J A S 0 N D
17


AMT over 20*C AMT 15— 20*C AMT below 15*C
Comfort limits â–¡ay Night Day Night Oay Night
Humidity group: i 26-34 17-25 23-32 14-23 21-30 12-21
2 25-31 17-24 22-30 14-22 20-27 12-20
3 23-29 17-23 21-28 14-21 19-26 12-19
4 22-27 17-21 20-25 14-20 16-24 12-18
Diagnosis: "C J F M A M J J A s 0 N D
Monthly mean max. 22.2 24.4 ! 25.6 27.8 29.3 29.5 32.4 34.5 31.3 29.3 26.7 24.7
Day comfort: upper 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 2.5
lower 20 20 r 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
Monthly mean min. 5-0 9.2 113.6 16.6 21.5 24.1 23.2 22.5 21.8 19.7 15.5 9.6
Night comfort: upper 20 20 1 | 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
lower 14 14 1 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14
Thermal stress: dav 0 0 H H H H H H H H H 0
night C c C 0 H H H H H a 0 c
19.7
Indicators
Humid: H1 v/ s/ n/ n/ v/ v' s/ s/
H2 v/ n/ •V
H3 >/ n/ n/
Arid: A1
A2
A3
wricri Meaning: indicator Thermal stress Humidity Monthly
Day Night group mean range
Air movement essential HI H 4
H 2. 3 Less than 10'
Air movement desirable H2 0 4
Ram protection necessary H3 Over 200 mm
Thermal capacity necessary At 1. 2. 3 More than 10"
Out-door sleeping desirable A2 H 1 2
O X 1. 2 More than 10‘
Protection from cold A3 C
AMT
Totals
18


Indicator totals from table 2 TABLE 3 Recommended specifications
H1 H2 H3 A1 A2 A3
9 3 3 0 a 0
Layout
r 0-10 1 Orientation north and south (long axis east-west)
11.12 5-12 s/
0--1 2 Compact courtyard planning
Spacing
11. 12 | 3 Open spacing for breeze penetration
2-10 I n/ 4 As 3, but protection from hot and cold wind
0. 1 I 5 Compact lay-out of estates
Air movement
3-12 ✓ 6 Rooms single banked, permanent provision for air movement
1, 2 0-5
6-12 7 Double banked rooms, temporary provision for air movement
0 2-12
0.1 8 No air movement requirement
Openings
0. 1 0 ✓ 9 Large openings, 40-80%
11. 12 0. 1 10 Very small openings. 10-20%
Any other conditions 11 Medium openings, 20-40%
Walls
0-2 >/ 12 Light walls, short time-lag
3-12 13 Heavy external and internal walls
Roofs
0-5 x/ 14 Light, insulated roofs
6-12 15 Heavy roofs, over 8 h time-lag
Out-door sleeping
| 2-12 I 16 Space for out-door sleeping required
Rain protection
3-12 I x/; 17 Protection from heavy rain necessary
19


Indicator totals from table 2
H1 H2 H3 A1 A2 A3
9 3 3 0 0 0
TABLE 4 Detail recommendations
Size of opening
0. 1 ° 1 Large: 40-80%
1-12 2 Medium: 25—40%
2-5
6-10 3 Small: 15-25%
11,12 0-3 4 Very small: 10-20%
4-12 5 Medium: 25—40%
Position of openings
3-12 v/ 6 In north and south walls at body height on windward side
1-2 0-5
6-12 7 As above, cpenings also in internal walls
0 2-12
Protection of openings
0-2 3 Exclude direct sunlight
2-12 n/ 9 Provide protection from ram
Walls and floors
0-2 S/ 10 Light, low thermal capacity
I 3-12 11 Heavy, over 8 h time-lag
Roofs
10-12 0-2 12 Light, reflective surface, cavity
3-12 V' 13 Light, well insulated
0-9 0-5
6-12 14 Heavy, over 8 h time-lag
External features
1-12 15 Space for out-door sleeping
1-12 16 Adequate rainwater drainage
20


4. Design guidelines
The relatively higher insolation at day, high relative humidity, and much rain are primary and serious problems in this area. Buildings with, appropriate shading devices and orientation, good insulation, and well-designed cross-ventilation can reduce the liabilities of weather.
The recommended design guidelines are :
* Building orientation
Buildings are preferably orientated on an east-west axis. The long elevation facing south and north will reduce exposure to the sun.
* Roofs
The roof has greatest exposure to sun, and will absorb a lot of heat during the day. This absorbed heat will cause the problem of thermal stress in building members and the penetration of heat to the interior. The thermal stress will produce cracks on the building members. The conductive heat, will raise the indoor temperature affecting interior comfortable condition. Increase of mass will only increase the heat lag, and prolong high temperature during hours of sleep in summer. Therefore a light, well-insulated roof with low thermal capacity is preferable.
* Openings and walls
The window aperture should be large enough to admit cooling
21


breeze at body height. It is between 40—80 % of the south and north walls. It also should be free from the direct sunlight, sky glare, and rain. The possible ways of sun protection for openings are balconies, horizontal overhangs, external blinds, vertical screen, adjustable louvres, and pierced canopies. Pierced canopies and horizontal overhangs are preferable ways.
Internal walls should be heavy and massive, where any occurrence of hot-humidity conditions is combined with a large annual mean range of temperature ( over 20°C ).
External walls should be light with low thermal capacity.
Both openings and walls located on N, NE, NW should be well-insulated to avoid the invasion of cold wind.
* Rain protection
The rainy season is from April to September and brings a lot of rain.
Buildings should have rain protections against frequent and heavy rain. Deep verandahs, wide overhangs, and covered passanges are good resolution.
Surface water drainage for rainwater should be sufficient to cope with maximum conditions. Roof drainage also should be carefully considered.
* Ventilation
22


The wind penetration is needed only for part of the year. Rooms should be single banked with windows in the south and north walls to ensure air movement by ample crossventilation. But provision must be made for protection from cold or dusty wind.
* Spacing
The minimum two hours sunlight in winter solstice is regulated by the building code.
Coefficient of building spacing (& ) = cotH-cosA where H = solar altitude.
A = solar azimuth.
& in winter solstice, at 23°N, is listed below:
hours of sunshine 2hr. 4hr. 6hr.
£. 1.08 1.19 1.41
The building spacing ( L ) = £•H
where H = effective height of frontal building.
The preferable coefficient of building spacing is 2.0 or larger for good cross-ventilation.
* Other important features of weather should be concerned are:
a) Thundershower
Sometimes intense electrical storms will occure during rainy season. Therefore buildings should have lighting conductors as a protection against lighting.
23


b) Typhoon
Typhoons always come in the period from July to September. Buildings should be designed to withstand typhoon forces in any direction. The basic consideration of well-designed buildings are:
1. Careful attention should be given to all connecting details of buildings.
2. Window glass should be strong enough and protected against flying debris by wire mesh, but wire mesh should be adequate in itself to withstand the wind pressure.
The minimum wind pressure should satisfy the requirements of building code.
The earthquake-proof consideration also should meet the provisions of code.
Generally speaking, careful design and detailings of all parts of a building are necessary,and good workmanship is essential.
24


BUILDING CODE


Summaries of building code:
1. The classification of land use by zoning is cultural and educational zone.
2. The classification of building by occupancy is medical research laboratory.
3. The ratio of maximum horizontal projected floor areas to the site area shall not exceed 40 %.
4. The floor area index is not provided in this area by code.
5. The actural building line shall set back 3 m from property line.
6. The maximum height of buildings should not exceed 35 m.
7. The minimum effective daylight period affected by neighboring buildings in winter solstice is 2 hours.
3. Ceiling height shall be not less than 210 cm.
9. The rainwater existed in site shall have sufficient storm drain system, and then drain into the public drainage.
10. The waste and soil water produced in site shall have adequate treatment, and then merge into public drainage.
11. The structure of overbridge should meet the requirements listed below:
a. Shall be of fire-resistive structure, and uses noncombustible materials.
b. The height of side walls shall be not less than 150 cm.
c. Side walls should not use fragible materials ( such as glass )
25


as finishings.
d. The minimum height of overbridges above the street shall be not less than 460 cm.
12. Stairways
a. The width of stairway and landing shall be not less than 140 cm.
b. The maximum height of risers is 18 cm.
c. The depth of tread shall exceed 26 cm.
d. The distance between landings shall be less than 300 cm.
e. The vertical clearance of required stairways shall be not less than 190 cm.
13. Handrails
a. Stairways should have handrails on each side.
b. Handrails shall be placed not less than 75 cm above the nosing of the treads.
c. Every stairway required to be more than 300 cm shall be provided with not less than one intermediate handrail for each 300 cm of required width. These intermediate handrails shall be spaced approximately equally within the entire width of the stairways.
14. Ramps
a. Ramps shall not exceed a slope of one vertical to 8 horizontal.
b. The width of ramps shall be as required for stairways.
c. The surface of ramps shall be roughened or shall be of nonslip
26


materials.
15. Guardrails shall be not less than 100 cm in height for two story high buildings, 110 cm in height for buildings between 3 and 9 stories, and 120 cm in height for buildings higher than 10 stories.
16. The horizontal clearance of openings on exterior wall shall be not less than 200 cm.
17. Sound transmission control
a. All seperating walls and floor-ceiling assemblies shall provide an airborne sound insulation equal to that required by code.
b. Penetrations or openings in construction assemblies for mechanical services shall be sealed, lined, insulated or otherwise treated to maintain the required ratings requlated by code.
18. Sanitary facilities
The required quantities of toilet facilities are listed below:
shall increase one per 40 persons if over 150 persons.
Urinals shall be installed for one unit per 25 men.
Water closet
occupants quantities
1- 15 1
16- 35 2
36- 55 3
56- 80 4
81-110 t; —/
111-150 6
27


shall increase one per 45 persons if over 125 persons.
19. The ventilation, septic tank, and finishings shall meet the requirements of code.
20. Parking space
The parking space provided by the buildings shall meet the requirements as below:
Total floor areas ( sq m ) Cars stored
- 1,000 unlimited
1,001- 2,000 Add 1 per 200 sq m
2,001- 4,000 Add 1 per 250 sq m
4,001-10,000 Add 1 per 300 sq m
10,001- Add 1 per 400 sq m
21. Parking area for one car is 250 cm by 600 cm.
22. The minimum width of driveway is 350 cm for one-way, and 550 cm for two-way.
23. The inside radius of curvature shall be not less than 5 m.
24. The slope of ramps for parking garages shall be not less than one vertical to 6 horizontal.
25. The vertical clearance of parking garage shall be not less than 210 cm.
Lavatories
occupants quantities
1- 15 1
16- 35 2
36- 60 3
61- 90 4
91-125 5
28


26. Fire-proof requirements
a. Buildings shall be of fire-resistive construction.
b. The fire-resistant period and materials used in the main structure of buildings shall meet the requirements of code.
c. The fire seperations ( such as fire-walls, fire-slabs, and fire-openings ) shall have at least one hour fire-resistive period.
d. The interior finishings shall be of non-combustible and nonexplosive materials.
e. Fire dampers shall be provided in duct system.
27. Fire exits
a. Every building shall have not less than two exits with different directions to the horizontal exit level.
b. The width of every exit shall be not less than 120 cm.
c. The maximum distance of travel from any point to an exterior exit door, horizontal exit, or enclosed stairways shall not exceed 30 m.
d. The arrangement of exits shall be placed in a distance apart equal to not less than 1/2 of the length of the maximum diagonal dimension of the buildings.
e. Other detailed regulations and calculation of egress facilities provided by code shall be met.
28. Emergency lighting should be provided in the stair-shaft and the
vestibule.
29


29. Fire-extinguishing systems shall meet the detailed provisions of code.
30. Corridors
a. The width of corridor shall be not less than 160 cm.
b. Changes in elevation shall be served by ramps. The slope of ramps shall not exceed one vertical to 10 horizontal.
31. Mechanical services shall meet the requirements of code of mechanical systems.
30


PROGRAM
OF
REQUIREMENTS


PROGRAM OF REQUIREMENTS
(1) General
" If there is one thing we know, it is that we do not know now what we will be doing ten years from now. " This statement indicates the nature of research, the diversification of research project, which will influence the quality and quantity of the space use of research laboratories. Therefore, for laboratory establishments which will contain many different research projects, it is obviously essential that a standard laboratory unit be used so that the changing needs of these research may be met with the least possible inconvenient, installation cost, and loss of time. It is also apparent that the greatest proportion of the cost of scientific research lies in staff salaries. Any saving in staff time represents a very much larger saving than a simple economy made in laboratory building. Hence any economical laboratory unit must be aimed at reducing the proportion of non-usable space to usable floor area and at increasing the amount of working space which can be serviced with a given length of sub-main service systems.
This design project is to get an efficient research laboratory design in terms of adequate arrangement of space, sufficient considerations of mechanical systems, and comfortable environment for the research workers.
31


(2) Design Considerations of Research Laboratory And Animal Quarters
Research laboratories
There are two different standpoints for laboratory planning -open system and close system.
1) Open system
Open system called pool system uses ancillary rooms to accommodate specialized common activities at each department such as dark rooms, balance rooms. Special instruments are in the individual laboratory units. The advantages of pool system are economy and space saving. The disadvantage is that it is difficult to maintain these communal instruments.
2) Close system
Close system is that every laboratory has its own instruments. These instruments are not communal. The advantages of close system are very convenient to use instruments and easy to maintain these instruments. The disadvantages are large spaces occupied, and repetitious instruments at every laboratory units - very wasteful.
The pool system will be used in this project to save the initial cost and required spaces, and to provide more chance for research communication.
Since an inevitable result of research is change, the design characteristics - flexibility, capability, and expansibility, of
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research laboratory buildings should be taken into account in planning as early as possible. If these interactive factors can be carefully considered, the research laboratory will be an efficient one, and will advance the communicative chance of much research with their increasingly interdisciplinary nature.
1) Flexibility
Flexibility should be the first consideration in the design processes, since the pace of change is accelerating, and laboratory requirements and techniques will almost certainly be subject to change long before the economic life of the building is over.
The concept of flexibility is to develop comprehensive systems which will relate the needs of various research projects and disciplines and provide ways of sharing certain facilities such as conference rooms directly associated with research areas. This comprehensive system also consists of a regular module derived from the considerations of space uses, and an integrated systems of structure and services. Acturally, if the building design is approached with care and understanding, flexibility can reduce the initial cost by reducing the quantity and scope of services that otherwise might have to be installed in such a building, i.e. flexibility is already incorporated in new buildings without measureable increase in cost. So flexibility is demanded in research laboratory planning.
2) Capability
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The utility systems are major features of laboratory and will eventually occupy the research laboratory buildings. Capability is a measure of the utility distribution layout which should meet the operational needs of the research programs and future development. Therefore, the capability of mechanical systems should consider the possible adequate location and utilization so that it will meet the needs of different research functions, and the needs of different concentrations with various time and areas without the need to reposition those distribution lines within the building.
In order to achieve good design of mechanical services, capability should be the second critical factor in research laboratory design.
3) Expansibility
The present planning of the building only represents the latest thinking of current staff. If programs and faculty members change, the equipments and instruments of research requirements will be modified. Therefore a rational program of expansion must be given careful consideration before detailed design development.
" How convenient is it to extend a new research extent ? " is a judgement of the expansibility of a research laboratory. It should be stressed by the ability of flexible space use and the potentiality of structural extension in the building.
The above three interactive characteristics can be achieved by various simultaneous considerations listed below:
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1) Structural considerations
The structure should be able to meet a variety of functional needs, rather than the specific requirements of a single group of occupants.
The module plan as the basis for a grid pattern is the most useful way. This concept is very suitable for structural flexibility and growth needs as well as for engineering capability. The module is the smallest repetitive unit of space. It must be complete in its repetition of the characteristics that enclose and serve this space. The characteristics of this repetitive element is its three dimentions: its architectural, mechanical, electrical and structural features; as well as the services that may be added for the convenience of its occupant.
1. Module
From anthropometric data, the ideal space between two benches is 150 cm. It is the distance for one person to pass through another working place without risk of collision. The width of. bench is 75 cm; this dimension is satisfied to all different used benches.
A module of 330 cm will be used to form a basic grid pattern.
It is the distance of the width of benches, the width of passway, and the width of service strips. It also is the distance between the center of one partition and the center of the next.
The module width = 2 work spaces + central passway + 2 service
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strips
330 cm = 2 X 75 cm + 150 cm + 2 x 15 cm
This square grid pattern ( 330 cm by 330 cm ) allows more flexibility than rectangular one in terms of bench arrangement and permits the introduction of required back-up facilities and free-standing equipments. It also can easily form several different laboratory sizes.
The module depth is 330 cm.
The building height is 400 cm.
The corridor is 210 cm wide.
The window width is 240 cm.
This module also can be used in office planning.
2. Space ( structural ) module
The structural module uses 330 cm by 660 cm; it is very economical in terms of structural framing, construction cost and repetitive window size, and works out well in a great variety of combination in use.
3. A standarized grid of holes, vertical and horizontal for services, through the structure, which is accordant with structural system should be carefully considered. So that the laboratory unit pattern becomes a run of parallel service lines spaced on the grid dimension.
4. The basic structure should provide a minimum of weightbearing walls in any space of the building. Interior
36


partitions are all non-bearing, demountable, and interchangeable so that partitions can be altered with required work uses.
5. Each department preferably has an open end so that individual extension can be made without affecting other departments. Where the site permits, each building should also be extensible.
2) Mechanical considerations
The key to adapability in the use and alteration of research laboratories is the mechanical systems of the building. The basic considerations must be given to ensure that all services can be distributed to any point in the building. These services normally include cold and hot water, steam, gas, compressed air, vacuum, oxygen, HVAC systems, electricity ( 110 and 220 V AC and 110 V DC current ), exhaust duct connections, sewage drainage, and communication systems.
In general, there are two mechanical system installations of utility corridor system:
1. Vertical sub-main system.
2. Horizontal sub-main system.
The vertical sub-main system has a main service corridor on the corridor wall, from which all sub-service may be extended, and spaced at the lateral grid dimension combined with bench runs. It is expensive viable for buildings of less than six or seven stories.
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The horizontal sub-main system has services in corridor ceiling ( rather than in corridor floor ) and running bench lines down corridor walls and into the bench runs in the same way as for vertical sub-main. It will require large spaces in voids.
It is obvious that a main service corridor will be used in this project. Since a large part of the extensive and time-consuming installation work can be proceeded in the service corridor independently of the completion of the laboratories themselves. Also the maintenance of service lines plays an important part in the efficient running of a research establishment. The alterations or repairs of the service mains can be undertaken in the service corridor without interfering with the laboratory or the traffic corridors.
The service distribution should consider three important facets:
1. Service runs should be minimal in length.
2. Easy alteration in the location of services should be possible for long-term flexibility in the use of space.
3. Service outlets of different types need to be dispersed throughout the building.
All services should be demountable, interchangeable, and exposed. These utilities also should be kept off interior partitions as far as possible to allow future alterations.
1. The direct demand for steam is in the process of sterilization. Because of the relatively high cost of maintenance of steam mains it is important to keep runs as short as possible.
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2. Cold and hot water are needed at the sinks. Drains should be
of acid-resistant materials rather than ordinary cast iron, but still have to be replaced at intervals of years.
3. Compressed air, gas, and vacuum are from central sources should come up vertically through the utility shaft with the water and drain lines. These service lines should be attached to walls in an exposed fashion.
4. Electricity should have the ability to supply power from high concentrations to any localized area wiyhout the need to reposition electric distribution lines in the building. Transformers and rectifiers may be located in the floor electric closet near utility chase. Each laboratory should have its own circuit-breaker cabinet with provision for new circuits to be added. All outlets should be well grounded and available at every benches.
The emergency power system should be carefully concerned with different supporting facilities and laboratories. Emergency power needs a special panel in the electrical closet with a seperate distribution circuit and breaker.
5. Drainage is a gravity system, gradients are therefore essential and have a greater importance in generating floor to floor height.
6. HVAC system and exhaust duct systems in different concentrations with time in various areas in the building should be taken into account, because these systems are the most
39


expensive items in remodeling.
7. Waste are important issues in research laboratories. There are three types of waste in laboratories.
a. Normal acid waste.
b. Bio-hazardous waste.
c. Radioactive waste.
A seperate acid waste system is necessary for areas of the building where lots of acids are used. This system should empty into a neutralization and dilution sump prior to discharge into the sewer. Acid-resisting piping materials should be used in all drainage systems serving laboratories in which acids will be used.
If bench waste system is used, it should consider the drip cups, bottle traps, interception and dilution of waste by running traps or receivers before entering main waste pipe or stack.
Fume hoods are required for discharge of toxic fumes and volatile solvents, and for work with many isotopes and infectious agents. The fume hood should be located next to the utility chase so that the workers in the laboratory do not have to pass it to reach the corridor door in case of fire.
The fan should be on the roof in the penthouse to reduce the chance for back-flow or reflux into the laboratory. It is desirable to have only one hood for each duct, so the utility chase should be sized carefully. If chemicals and isotopes
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are used, the duct should have to be washed down, and it should be of stainless stell. If aerosols containing highly infectious agents may be exhausted, the air should pass through an incinerator unit which is gas-fired. If isotopes with any appreciable half-life are used, a micropore filter should be installed. This filter will serve instead of an incinerator for certain infectious agents as well. The design of hood system should be careful to allow ready change of filters without contamination of the laboratory. In some laboratories where tissue culture work is done or fertile eggs may be inoculated, desk-top laminar-flow hoods with integral filter should be used.
8. Communications
A comprehensive system of communication is essential. A communication through running horizontally above the ceiling in the central corridor will permit ready installation of phones or intercom circuits in any laboratories or offices on either side or both as required. These services include telephones, fire alarms, radio and televosion, general dictation, and special point to point.
9. Other services should be concerned simultaneously are:
a. Fire protection
Automatic detectors, automatic or manual protective system should be installed. The use of fire extinguisher should suit the classification of fire from which special chemical
41


hazard protection is needed,
b. Eyeball-washing unit
This unit is advised at a sink. If the risk is small, a unit in the corridor will serve several laboratories.
3) Facility considerations
A number of specialized facilities will be needed for support of the activities of research work. These facilities having similar function should be allocated as close as possible, and be accessible from all laboratory units.
Because medical science faculties are highly individualistic and prefer a secretary familiar with the vocabulary and pattern of work concerned with specific field. Large secretarial pools crossing departmental lines usually are not effective. Small secretarial pools serving several faculty members will be more effective, and should be concerned. Concerning the typing of grant proposals and reports, and research papers, it is desirable to have a pool of typist in the central administration.
Animal Quarters
The animal facilities are particularly useful for research projects in medical research laboratories, and call for high standards of accommodation and environment. The design of facilities should provide protection of the housed animals from infections carried by
42


other loose, stray, or wild animals and from diseases carried by the general publics. The surrounding environment and the community should also be protected by proper disposal of animal waste generated in the facilities and carcasses.
The types of housing and caging for animals used for breeding or held over long periods of time need to consider from the behavioral point of view. Flexibility and expansibility also are very important characteristics in the planning of animal housing because of the increasing and changing need for a large variety of species of animals.
The barrier principle is a very important concept for the highest standards of general animal health with the exclusion of extraneous infection. There are two headings within this spectrum - convential and specific-pathogen-free ( SPF ).
The conventional animal houses use the following characteristics to contribute to the barrier:
1. The inside of the animal rooms is maintained at a positive pressure to the ambient air. This is the fundamental and chief means of preventing the entry of infection.
2. The filtration of the supply air and the high rates of air change are necessary. These ways assist the barrier and reduce the animal odour.
3. The arrangement of the plan and circulation should avoid the proximity and cross flow of clean and dirty animals and goods.
4. The need for staff and visitors to change into protective top clothing.
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5. The provision of adequate cage and bottle washing and sterilizing facilities.
The barrier features used by SPF is more rigorous than conventional animal houses and is summarised as follows:
1. In addition to positive air pressure and high air change rates, the supply air will be finely filtered.
2. All animals and goods will be passed into and out of the SPF zone via air locks, dunk tanks, and autoclaves or gas chambers.
3. Staff visitors will be required to take a shower and change into clean clothing on entering the SPF zone.
4. Cages and bottles, etc., will be sterlizing in the autoclaves linking the SPF and outer zones.
Since hazards will always be present no matter how many precautions are taken and perhaps the greatest of these is the human factor. A less rigorous approach is adopted in the animal quarters. 3arrier Maintained Units that consider the practical circumstance will be the preferable method and will be used in this project.
The following points of planning should be taken into account:
1. The circulation must be arranged to minimize the contact
between clean and dirty animals and goods, thereby reducing the risk of cross-infection. Two-corridor system to serve the animal rooms will be adopted whereby clean animals and goods enter at one end and leave via a dirty corridor at the other end.
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2. The animal house excluding plant rooms is preferably planned on one level because of the considerations of operational efficiency.
3. Accommodation which represents potential infection hazards,
i.e. Quarantine Rooms, Infected Animal Rooms, etc., should be located away from the other animal rooms and should be directly associated with the dirty circulation route to the cage cleaning and disposal areas.
4. Unnecessary movement of large animals within the animal houses should be avoided and their accommodation should be closely related to the operating theatre suite.
5. Animals should be protected from either continuous or sudden source of noise, both of which will affect their breeding performance and general health.
6. Except for offices, staff rooms, and some animal rooms ( cats, primates, etc. ) windows are not necessary. If windows are provided in animal areas, they should be located to have the least effect on temperature control.
7. Fire exits should be provided and not be conflict with the achievement of the barrier.
8. In order to limit the spread of potential infection it is preferable to use a large number of small rooms for animals rather than a small number of large rooms. It should also be possible to accommodate the majority of animal population of an animal house in rooms of standard size, no matter how
45


varied the species.
Another consideration should be taken into account is the psychological effect . To sustain the worker's spirit, the psychological effect of the surroundings upon the researcher will be an important factor in laboratory design. The environment should be pleasing and free from distraction. The laboratory must be accessible to workers, but not too accessible for those who do not regularly work there. It must provide good communication on the one hand and make possible nearly monastic seclusion on the other.
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(3) Functional And Space Requirements
The Basic Medical Research Center is to bring togather several divisional research activities produced by Biochemistry, Physiology, Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, and Pharmocology, and to provide comprehensive affiliated research environment for advanced communication. The Department of Anatomy is provided by the University Hospital. This research center also will be served as a major disciplinary and educational institute for the School of Medicine. Most active members of the staff will hold faculty positions at the School of Medicine. And the great majority of physicans of the University Hospital will be involved in this advanced educational and training program of this Medical Centre.
This research establishment is divided into the following functional space blocks:
1) Administrat ion
2) Common use facilities
3) Library
4) Department of Biochemistry
5) Department of Physiology
6) Department of Pathology
7) Department of Microbiology And Immunology
8) Department of Pharmocology
9) Animal Quarters
10) Workshops
ID Mechanical rooms
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Schedule of Area Requirements
Description Area ( m2 )
Department of Biochemistry 1155
Department of Physiology 1020
Department of Pathology 1035
Department of Microbiology & Immunology 1145
Department of Pharmacology 1055
Animal quarters 1010
Common-use facilities & Library 1200
Administration, Workshops & Mechanical Rm. 830
Sub-total 8450 10 % circulation & rest room, etc. 1690 Total 10140
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'O
STAFF
FUNCTIONAL SPACE BLOCK DIAGRAM


1] Research laboratories
The core objectives of the Department of Biochemistry are to aim at studying the chemical basis of human physiological processes, and to help medical staff to use advanced biochemical principles in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease.
Physiology
Physiology is the fundamental science of the functional activities of the human body, i,e. physiology is the scope of biological science which applies the principles and methodologies of physics, chemistry, and mathematical analysis to biomedical problems. So this is a pure science of great challenge, because of the complexity of its prohlems and its extensive interaction with mathematical, physical, biochemical, and engineering sciences, as well as other branches of biology.
The study of this field will cover a wide range from the basic physiochemical processes of cellular functions to the understanding of all environmental factors affecting human life.
Pathology
Pathology is the science of the structural and functional alternations of the production Qf disease, It is concerned with both the morphological changes that take place in disease and the fundamental mechanism underlying disease processes. The study of disease mechanism is the spring that feeds diagnosis and
50


therapy. It has Become Indispensable for proper delivery of health care, Without it, progress in medicine is virtually impossible .
Within this department, the research programs will touch widely from the fundamental principles of disease to the actural case studies.
Microbiology and Immunology
In this department emphasis is on the study of ( 1 ) microbial research - the genetics and molecular regulation in bacteria, animal cells, and their viruses, ( 2 ) the invasive organisms which cause disease in human, ( 3 ) immunological research - the nature, scope, and mechanisms of normal ( and abnormal ) response to the invaders, with the special emphasis on the role of immune system,
Pharmocology
The rational use of drugs represents one of the principal means of controlling illness and preserving health. Pharmocology is the scientific study of the effects of drugs and the factors of influencing these effects. So it stress the study of the rational use of drugs in the diagnosis, prevention, and especially, treatment of disease because drug will modify physiological and biochemical processes in health and disease.
The extent of research projects will include ( 1 ) the systematic study of the effect of drugs in normal and pathological states,
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C 2 ) the mechanism By which these effects are exerted and the factors influencing their absorption, distribution, and biological disposition, ( 3 ] the hazards of environmental chemicals affecting living processes, Also it will study the medical and social problems created by the increasing use of drugs by both the medical profession and the public.
Requirements of some supporting facilities
1, Instrument room
/
Expensive and infrequently used pieces of equipment will be shared by multiple workers in this space. These equipment probably are optical, and analytical instruments, They should not be affected by structure-borne vibration, heat or humidity, and do not need specially built-in benches or special environmental conditions in this room. Adequate ventilation is preferable,
2. Dark room
Photographic processes will take place in this area. The room need cold water, power service, and waste drainage. Socket outlets should be mounted above the bench at frequent intervals at a uniform height for various process, A red warning light to indicate that dark conditions are operating should be provided outside the room above or near the door. Artiflcal ventilation is required when in use.
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3, Chromatography room
Chromatography is a technique used to seperate mixture of compounds and is especially helpful in the study of complex organic substances, the identification of compounds, and in concentrating materials contaminated by large amount of foreign substances, as well as in analysis. Because large quantities of flammable solvents will be used, the space should have temperature control and fume extraction Fume cupboards are required to exhaust unpleasant solvent fumes. Static electricity should also be concerned because its charges mast be drawn off and grounded, Headroom, supports and drainage for equipment must be correctly designed,
4, Cold room
The room temperature is very low, so it should be air-locked to minimise the temperature loss when the door is open. Safety systems for people locked inside should be provided, Door opening onto a main corridor should be recessed. Insulated doors with interior insulation can be used as required. Package unit can be adopted. The floor slab should be depressed so that the entrance to the corridor is level with it for movement of carts, The best finish is stainless steel, Bench with sink, or table, and shelves for storage of material are necessary,
5. Centrifuge room
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This--must Be prevented from affecting sensitive apparatus. Mechanical ventilation is required to dissipate the heat emitted By the centrifuges. Malls and doors may need to be lined with sound-absorbing material depending on the location of the room. Wall mounted socket outlets at suitable intervals should be provided to serve the centrifuges. Clear door width should be a minimum of 135 cm,
6, Freezer room
A number of large freezers will be accommodated, Mechanical ventilation is needed to dissipate the heat produced by the refrigerating machinery,
7, Electron microscope room
This area must be free from vibration - preferably by means of structure independence, The machine must keep out of electrostatic or magnetic fields. Cleaned and cooled water are required, Air conditioning is needed to draw off the heat generated by the machine. Dust and dirt particles should be eliminated,
8, Tissue culture room
This space should have a preparation room with it, These two rooms should have mechanical ventilation under positive pressure, Windows should be sealed. The air filtration in both rooms should be under the order of 0.2 microns.
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Schedule of space and area requirements
C Biochemistry )
Description unit area 0*5 units total area
Laboratory 40 12 480
Instrument room 15 1 15
Dark room 15 1 15
Cold room 20 2 40
Freezer room 15 1 15
Constant temperature room 20 2 40
Glass washing & sterilizing room 30 1 30
Chromatography room 30 1 30
Centrifuge room 30 1 30
Animal room 40 1 40
Stock room 15 1 15
Storage room 30 1 30
Office 20 16 320
Secretary office 15 1 15
Conference room 40 1 40
Total gross area 1155
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Schedule of space area requirements
C Physiology )
Description unit area C tn*) units total area
Laboratory 40 10 400
Dark room 15 1 15
Cold room 20 2 40
Balance room 15 1 15
Constant temperature room 30 1 30
Special project room 30 2 60
Animal room 40 1 40
Stock room 15 1 15
Storage room 30 1 30
Storage ( future facilities ) 20 1 20
Office 20 14 280
Secretary office 15 1 15
Conference room 40 1 40
Total gross area 1020
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Schedule of space and area requirements
C Pathology )
Description unit area O*) units total area
Laboratory 40 10 400
Instrument room 15 1 15
Dark room 15 1 15
Cold room 20 2 40
Freezer room 20 1 20
Balance room 15 1 15
Tissue staining & embedding room 20 1 20
Clean-up room 20 1 20
Animal room 30 1 30
Stock room 15 1 15
Storage 30 1 30
Office 20 14 280
Secretary office 15 1 15
Conference room 40 1 40
Special project room 40 1 40
Total gross area 1035
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Schedule of space and area requirements
C Microbiology - Immunology )
Desdrlption unit area C^) unit total area
Laboratory 40 12 480
Instrument room 15 1 15
Dark room 15 1 15
Cold room 20 2 40
Tissue culture room 30 1 30
Tissue staining & embedding room 15 1 15
Clean-up room 15 1 15
Sterile room 30 1 30
Glass washing & steriling room 30 1 30
Electron microscope room 15 1 15
Animal room 40 1 40
Stock room 15 1 15
Storage room 30 1 30
Office 20 16 320
Secretary office 15 1 15
Conference room 40 1 40
TTotal gross area 1145
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Schedule of space and area requirements
C Pharmacology )
Description unit area C®1) unit total area
Laboratory 40 10 400
Instrument room 15 1 15
Dark room 15 1 15
Cold room 20 2 40
Balance room 15 1 15
Refrigerate room 15 1 15
Centrifuge room 25 1 25
Special project room 30 2 60
Animal room 40 1 40
Stock room 15 1 15
Storage room 30 2 60
Storage ( future facility ) 20 1 20
Office 20 14- 280
Secretary office 15 1 15
Conference room 40 1 40
Total gross area 1055
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2} Animal quarter*
1, Animal rooms
a) Small animal room
Small animals used in research laboratories are mice,
rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits, ferrets, etc.
These animals will be housed in cage racks.
This space forms the greatest part of the animal accommodation in animal house. The main considerations are :
a, Rooms should be planned identically and be relatively small to limit the spread of infection.
b, Cage racks should be arranged to achieve adequate and consistent ventilation to all cages,
c, Dimension between cage racks must allow a technician with a trolley to maneuver freely in order to service cages and animals, i.e, cleaning, watering, feeding, etc.
d, A sink for bottle washing and filling and a bench for minor operative procedures on small animals should be included.
e, The height of the room should allow for the proper functioning of the ventilation system relative to animal cages, A minimum of 275 cm is recommended.
b) Large animal room
Large animals used in research laboratories are pigs,
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sheep , goats,- cats, primates, etc. These animals will be normally housed in individual pens divided by in—situ, half'^height partitions and served by a central corridor,
A number of these animals may be Included in one room,
The main considerations are i
a. The service corridor must be wide enough for the animals to be maneuvered on trolleys,
b. The pen partitions should be strong enough or removable. These partitions and all surfaces should be capable of being regularly washed down,
c. Drainage normally is via a continuous floor channel in the corridor with a removable grating, This can be served either by gullys with removable or by flushing gullys for the direct disposal of faeces.
d. Low temperature underfloor heating is desirable, perhaps with a raised section of the floor to act as a bed.
e. Celling or high level wall fixings must be over pen for infra-red heater. Power outlets should be provided at approximate 250 cm above floor level for automatic shears, cleaning equipments, etc.
f. Rooms should be acoustically treated to reduce noise transmission internally, and externally,
g. writing surface is required in the animal rooms.
h. Sink and bench facilities are more suitably located in
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an adjacent common area,
2, Animal reception and examination room
Animals will be examined in this room on arrival, and then will either be moved into the quarantine area or directly move to animal rooms. Recommended features are ;
a. A sink and wall benching,
b. A peninsular bench or free standing table for all-round examination and shearing of large animals.
c. An in-situ animal pen with flexible shower fitting for washing large animals,
d. A ceiling ring for hoisting large animals,
e. Washable surfaces and floor drainage,
f. Power outlets should be at approximate 250 cm high above floor level.
g. This space will include small animal rooms and large animal rooms acting as animal despatch room.
3, Animal quarantine room
All in-coming animals must be quarantined, This area must be divided into a series of small rooms for flexible use and to limit the spread of infection, Quarantine rooms and washing and changing lobby are main elements-. The requirements are :
a. The quarantine area must have direct external and internal access. Both entries should be arranged as air locks with- electrically interlocking pairs of doors,
b. Washing and changing lobby should contain a lavatory
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basin and. space for changing Into protective top clothing,
c. Animal rooms should Include a cold water faucet for filling drinking bottles, etc,
4. Air lock
Air locks are required at entry points to certain types of accommodation and as part of the barrier in Barrier Maintained Units. Double doors enclosing air locks should be controlled by electrical interlocking devices to ensure that only one door is ever opened at a time, The size of air lock should be large enough to pass through for trolley, and mobile cage racks. The air lock can include a lavatory basin and hooks for protective top clothing if necessary.
5. Goods storage room
This storage room should open from delivery areas designed to receive goods directly from goods vehicles, Seperated rooms should be provided for food, bedding and cages. And this space should be duplicated in the clean areas where goods have been sterilized. Internal access points to this area should be protected by air locks,
6. Food preparation room
The space should be provided to prepare minced and cooked diet for certain cats, dogs, and primates, A suitably equipped work top with either a seperate cooker or built in cooking rings is required. Sink, storage cupboards, shelves, refrigerator, freezer cabinet are required.
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7, Cage cleaning room
The sterilization of cages will take place in the pass*-through autoclaves linking the barrier maintained unit and outer zones. The used cages progress from a dirty end to a clean end, the clean end should have direct access to clean cage storage. Tunnel cage washer will be used to wash dirty cages first.
II
II
II partition
II
II
*
clean
cage
storage
clean zone
A cage hosing; bay can be adopted in the dirty zone to enable encrusted dirt to be removed prior to passing through the washing machine.
The sterilization of bottles, food, and bedding also will take place in this area. Bottle washing machines are required and closely associated with the cage cleaning areas.
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8. Staff changing room
This area includes staff entrance, locker rooms, changing rooms, toilets, showers, and pass through shower suits. Pass through shower suits comprising shower cubicles form an essential part of the barrier between barrier maintained zones and the outer dirty zone,
Operating theatre suite
This suite is used for surgery on large animals and primates.
The following spaces will be included in this suite.
9. Anaesthetic room
This room is provided for preparation of animals, including shaving and induction of anesthesia for operation,
10, Preparation room
This area is for clean-up and sterilization of instruments, preparation of packs, and dressing and gowning.
11, Recovery room
This space should open off the operating rooms.
12, Surgical suite
This suite should include 2 small operating rooms providing for research to individual faculty working with one or two other people on special experiments. Movable animal operating tables and fixed ceiling lights should be provided. The entire area should have conductive flooring, explosion-proof electrical outlets, and humidity control.
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13. X-rray room
This room should provide a diagnostic X-^ray machine, fluoro-scope, and have capability for developing films.


Schedule of space and area requirements
( Animal quarter )
Description unit area C ml) unit total area
Staff changing room 40 1 40
Office 30 1 30
Animal reception & exam, room 30 1 30
Animal quarantine room 30 2 60
Goods reception room 25 1 25
Goods storage room 40 1 40
Disposal room 20 1 20
Common area ( dirty zone ) 50 1 50
Common area ( clean zone ) 40 1 40
Cage cleaning area 60 1 60
Clean cage storage 40 1 V 40
Foof preparation room 20 1 20
Food storage ( clean zone ) 20 1 20
Small animal room 25 8 200
Large animal room 40 3 120
Infected animal room 30 1 30
Insulated room 30 1 30
Diagnostic laboratory 30 1 30
Anaesthetic room 15 1 15
Preparation room 15 1 15
Changing room 10 1 10
Recovery room 10 2 20
Surgical room 20 2 40
X-ray room 15 1 15
Dark room 10 1 10
Total gross area 1010
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o
00
Staff changing rooms
Office________________________
Staff facilities______________
Animal reception & exam, room Animal quarantine room
Goods reception room__________
Goods storage room____________
Disposal room______
Common area________
Cage cleaning room
Clean storage room____
Food preparation room Small animal rooms Large animal rooms Infected animal room
Insulated room________
Diagnostic laboratory
Anaesthetic room______
Preparation room______
Changing room_________
Recovery room_________
Surgical room_________
X-ray room
Dark room_______
Mechanical room Air locks
very close connection
O close connection O no connection
MATRIX OF FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS


31 Common-use facilities- and Library
1, Computer room
This is for communal use of computer to proceed the data analysis and the preparation of chart. Acoustic treatment and air conditioning are necessary,
2, Snack bar
Host people will bring their own lunch, and food can be dangerous in certain types of laboratory research. A place for lunch use should be provided at which researchers can eat away from his place of work.
The snack bar with limited food service’ serves as an informal meeting place, and is open for restricted hours-* A vending machine serving for 24 hours per day is necessary and should be close with snack bar.
3, Library
Open-stack will be adopted as design concept. Book stacks and reading spaces should carefully arrange to enhance the atmosphere of study. Air conditioning is necessary,
69


Schedule of space and area requirements
C Common-use facilities and Library )
Description unit area C m‘) unit total area
Unassigned laboratory 40 2 80
Unassigned office 20 3 60
Unassigned conference room 20 1 20
30 1 30
40 1 40
50 2 100
60 1 60
Computer room 60 1 60
Storage 30 2 60
Subtotal 510
Lecture room 240 1 240
Guest room 20 1 20
Subtotal 260
Library 250 1 250
Study cubicles 10 6 60
Office 40 1 40
Storage 20 1 20
Subtotal 370
Snack bar 60 1 60
Total gross area 1200
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4) Administration, Workshop, and Mechanical room
1, Space for secretarial pools and typing pools should be provided in administration office, and will act as central record room.
2, File room will store research materials, reprints, and related materials,
3, Printing shop is for bulk production of laboratory manuals, booklets, news releases, letters and forms. Sprinkler system should be provided,
4, Maintenance shops should provide spaces for wood, metal-** working, electrical, painting, and plumbing,
5, Receiving and. stores should have direct access to perimeter road, Explosionrproof rooms for flammable liquids, solvents, and anesthetic gas are required. Loading dock should have a hydraulic lift at one point to bring heavy objects. The freight elevator for vertical movement of supplies is necessary,
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Schedule of space and area requirements
C Administration, Workshop, and Mech, room )
Description unit area ( m') unit total area
Deanfs office 30 1 30
Deputy deanfs office 30 1 30
Secretary office 20 1 20
Conference room 50 1 50
Administration office 100 1 100
Security office 15 1 15
Central monitor room 40 1 40
Service room 15 1 15
Cleaner^s room 10 1 10
Mail processing room 10 1 10
File room 30 2 60
Storage 40 1 40
Subtotal 420
Printshop 50 1 50
Loading dock 30 1 30
Office 20 1 20
Storage 50 1 50
Maintenance shop 80 1 80
Subtotal 190
Power plant 60 1 60
A/C room 50 1 50
Mech, room 60 1 6Q
Subtotal 170
Total gross area 830
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(4j Structure and Con structure Materials
Since the possible damages to the Building result from earthquakes or typhoons in Taiwan area,, this project will adopt the reinforced concrete framing as the basic building structure for all included buildings, C Reinforced concrete structure is a very prevalent construction type in Taiwan, R.O.C, )
Red brick will be used as filling for exterior walls or as inter-ior partitions.
The space between sill-level and shading devices will use tempered glazed windows in aluminum framing following the module.
Research laboratory
1, Finishes
a, All Interior materials and finishings should be in relation to the particular function of the research being undertaken,
b. Finishings should be standardized as far as possible to simply maintenance and replacement,
2. Ceiling
a. Celling in laboratories need not be finished, only a good quality of emulsion paint, so utility runs can remain exposed for reduction in cost and easy of maintenance,
b. Gloss paint or sprayed plastic finish can be used if a high degree of cleanliness is required.
73


3, Floors
a. Flooring materials should have the usual properties of durability and ease of maintenance but, in addition, they should be resistant to most chemicals likely to be spilled and should be easily washable,
b. Resilent flooring such as vinyle or vinyl--asbestos tile having well welded joints is preferable. Quarry tile and terrazzo, resistant to chemicals and spills, are also suitable,
c. Floors should idearly be jointless or have as few joints as possible and avoid speeage from these joints to the subfloor or ceiling void below,
Joinyless floor such as epoxy resine is costly, only limited to special areas as required.
4. Walls
a. Partitions between rooms should be easily movable without great expense.
b. Brick walls and removable metal partitions can be used but metal partitions are rather expensive.
5. Laboratory worktops
Many different materials such as solid teak, particle board with laminated plastics veneers, linleum, p.v.c,, polythene, vitreous tile, epoxy resins, stainless steel, can be used on benchtops depending on the type of work being carried out.
74


Animal quarters
1, Finishes
a. Finishes should he robust, washable , and easy to maintain.
b. All surfaces must be accessible for cleaning.
c, Flooding and leakage should be taken into account.
d, Exposed electrical conduit should be fixed on distant pieces,
2, Ceiling
a, Gloss paint finishes are preferable,
b. False celling should be avoided.
3, Floors
a. Sometimes concrete floors will appear cracks, it is not satisfactory,
b. Terrazzo tile is a good material for flooring in animal facilities, but it will become slippery when wet,
c. A layer of water proof material or a diaphram should be laid underneath the floor ,
d. The floor should have an adequate slope to the floor drain because floor drain is essential in any room for large animals.
4, Walls
a. Walls should have a hard and water-resistant finish.
b. Concrete finished cement enamel or tile are preferable. Sprayed plastic film also can cocoon the internal surfaces and is relied upon to provide a seal across cracks which
75


may occur.
c, The wall to floor junction should be covered, to eliminate one crack which is particularly likely to be attractive to cockroaches and other vermin,
d. In the corridors a curbing at the bottom of the wall should be provided to protect the paint from the assault of racks and other movable equipments being propelled by energentic personnel.
5, Doors
a. All seams should be welded to prevent infestation by arthropods â–º
b. External doors and some interal doors and corridors should have removable barriers to prevent the entry and movement of wild rodent ,
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(5) Use of site
The primary objectives of the Basic Medical Research Center are education, research, and service, So the site is chosen to close the School of Medicine and the University Hospital, i.e. in the left side of the proposed Medical Centre.
The allocation has dual advantages of facilitating cooperation between the research organizations and the medical staff on special problems, and making easily available special courses and advanced study to the research personnel.
There is only one research center - the Basic Medical Research Center in this site. The clinical research center and the anatomic laboratory are parts of the University Hospital, The public health research center is in the School of Medicine. A continuous overbridge or underpass will be used in future to uni unite the University Hospital, the School of Medicine, and the Research Center into a complete medical complex.
The land use category of this site is cultural and educational zone. The maximum horizontal projected area of the building to the site is 40 % . The parking lot will adopt surface parking . The parking area must meet the requirements of building code.
Site planning should consider the different activities and occupancies of every buildings, the entrance ofv visitors, staff staff, animals, and services, and the climatic and environ*-mental factors.
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The qualitative analysis of the main entry of site is shown below!
Discription East South North
Traffic flow of frontal road o • ©
Accessibility from downtown area o • £
Accessibility from suburban area o © ©
The width of frontal road • © o
Noise © • o
Cold wind protection © o ©
Continuity to medical complex o © ©
• Heavy, unconvenient
© Medium
o Light, convenient
The main entrance to site should be from east side ( Shengli Road ),
78


DESIGN
ANALYSIS


SITE
The basic goals of this research center are :
1, education
2, research
3, service.
Therefore, it should be easily accessible for the faculties and the students of the School of Medicine, the physicians of the University Hospital, and the relative medical staff from other institutions and hospitals.
Overbridge is used to link this research center and the School of Medicine, The public mass transportation go along the Shao-tung road ( south side of this site ). People from main campus also will use the intersection on the southeast corner of this site,
Services are from west side ( private fire alley, 8 m wide ).
RELATED MEDICAL STAFF
THE UNIVERSITY
SERVICE
SITE
HOSPITAL &
THE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE
RELATED MEDICAL STAFF & PEOPLE FROM MAIN CAMPUS
79


Therefore, a direct access from the southeast corner to this research center should he taken into account.
MAIN CAMPUS
A planned plaza on the southeast corner will provide both a transition from the busy street to this research center and a pleasant place relating to entire building.
Building will be allocated around the plaza.
To seperate the vehicular zone from the pedestrian area ( plaza ) , grounding parking lot is on the north side of the building.
80


PARKING LOT
PLAZA
45 car spaces are minimal requirement by code.
There are two ways to treat the plaza :
1, open corner ( direct access through plaza ),
2. close corner ( indirect access around plaza ),
DIRECT ACCESS
INDIRECT ACCESS


The shortcomings of close corner method are :
1, It forces people to use remote route, This is not coordinated with human nature - like short cut,
2. People will not have directive chance to participate, and to enjoy the plaza, although the close corner method will make a complete corner space,
A direct access through the plaza, therefore, will be adopted in the plaza design. To relief the regid feeling of rectangular space, circular shape will be introduced into the plaza design, too.
BUILDING
The principal function of this research center is for advancement of knowledge and training of relative medical staff. Therefore, how to achieve a comfortable environment will be the main concern of this design.
Generally speaking, an ideal research work surroundings includes 2 important aspects :
1. Humanistic side - the relationship of people to people.
2. Scientific side - the relationship of people to work.
How to increase the chance of communication among researchers is the main topics of humanistic side, i,e, how to provide regular and informal meeting spaces for the researchers through the adequate arrangement of spaces,
Reqular meeting spaces are conference rooms, and lecture room.
82


Informal meeting spaces- are lounge, library, multipurpose-use room, and snack bar, etc.
Considering psychological effect, the best science take place if the researchers interact under relaxed condition, Therefore, a suitable allocation of lounge should be concerned with care,
Most researchers will spend about 6 hours per day in laboratory work, The lounge area, therefore, should be easy to access from laboratories , i,e, lounge area has a close tie with laboratories,
The main issues of scientific side is how to reach the sufficient considerations of medical systems. An efficient research laboratory design should consider adaptability - means the building must have the capability to satisfy the research operational needs, allowing for variations both in research projects and in occupancy,
There are 3 interactive factors ;
1. flexibility - space use pattern,
2. capability - utility systems,
3. expansibility - space and utilities for future extension.
Module is adopted in this design to meet above considerations. Basic module is 330 cm by 330 cm. One laboratory unit contains two basic modules.
83


PASSWAY
1
2
Benches can be expanded to minimize the passway zone, and to
increase bench space.
PASSWAY
MINIMAL DISTANCE BY CODE OR EMPIRICAL CRITERIA
A recommended bench space per person is 3.5 - 4.5 linear meters.
Every laboratory unit will house at least 3 persons, one research leader, one assistant, and one graduate student.
Every four laboratory units form a laboratory cluster, and circle a service shaft. Demountable partitions are used in between.
84


Fume hood chases are clustered with two laboratory units and are
on the opposed with service shaft,
SERVICE MAINS
The service spin system allows considerable variations to be made to the layout of the bench with minimal inconvenient.
85


HVAC system runs along corridors and passways,
Every laboratory unit can be expanded in two directions if that is required by projects or occupancies,
The selection of utility distribution systems strongly influence the configuration of laboratory building design and cost.
The schematic diagram of exhaust duct for hume cupboards.
86


The schematic diagram of mechanical service shaft.
5
4 Ti i
3 i
2 *r 1 1 i
1 _r~l i
BASEMENT ( SERVICE CHANNEL )
Acid water or other polluted liquid will be treated first ( at mechanical room on the basement ), and then drain away into sewer drainage system.
Concepts derived from above considerations will have four advantages :
1. compact plan to reduce cost,
2. short mechanical runs,
3. short walking distance of laboratory work, and
4. easy to installation, maintenance, and alteration.
Another important idea that should be concerned is pool system. Space having similar function should be put together to save initial cost and required space.
Laboratory building comprises 5 primary spaces :
1. laboratories,
2. laboratory supports - ancillary speciallized rooms and
controlled environment rooms.
87


3, offices,
4, lounge,
5, utility systems.
Other secondary spaces are :
1. circulation - stair, fire exit,elevations for people,
freight, and animals, and any space used for access,
2. stores,
3. service and staff rooms - cleaner's room, rest room, changing
room, etc.
The vertical space relationship derived from the concept of space blocks is :
88


VERTICAL CIRCULATION
ROOFTOP MECH. RM.
5
4
3
2
1
B
PHARMACOLOGY
PHYSIOLOGY
PATHOLOGY
BIOCHEMISTRY
MICROBIOLOGY - IMMUNOLOGY
COMMONr-USE FACILITIES
LECTURE RM. LIBRARY
ADMINISTRATION, ANIMAL QUARTERS
WORKSHOP, MECH. RM., 4 PRINTSHOP
Main lobby should be easily accessible from three ways:
1. plaza,
2. parking lot,
3. pedestrian along east side ( Shengli Road ),
ANIMAL QUARTERS
How to use barrier to seperate animal quarters into dirty zone and clean zone should be considered first. Air locks are the main elements of barrier, other are autoclaves, etc,
89


Full Text

PAGE 1

THE BASIC MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTER OF NATIONAl CHENG-KUNG UNIVERSITY AN ARCHITECTURAL THESIS BY AN PING Ll U SPRING 1984

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THE BASIC MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTER OF NATIONAL CHENG-KUNG UNIVERSITY

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An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning of the University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for The Degree of Master of Architecture Anping Liu Spring 1984

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Chester Nagel ( Advisor ) University of Colorado at Denver May 18, 1984

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to extend my deep thanks to Mark Frauenglass for his time, suggestion, and help in the finial touch of this thesis. I would like to thank Dr. Leland Chung, associate professor in the College of Pharmacy of the University of Colorado, for his friendly assistance in procuring the necessary information and research material, and in perceiving the performance of basic medical research . Most of all, I will extend my irrepressible gratitude to my advisors, Gary Long, Jam F. Wong, and Chester Nagel, their ever so candid and persisting presence exposed me to an attitude and outlook toward the architectural field far beyond the reaches of this thesis,

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Dedicated to my wife, Maje, for her love and encouragement ....

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A ) B) C) D) E) TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .... SITE AND CLIMATIC ANALYSIS ............................... . Page 1 4 (1) Location, Size, and Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 (2) Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 (3) Utilities I Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 (4) Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 (5) Climatic Data and Analysis ........................... 12 1. Climatic data 2, Climatic graph .................................. . 3. 4. Mahoney tables Design guidelines ............................... . BUILDING CODE ............................................ . PROGRAM OF REQUIREMENTS .................................. . 12 16 17 21 25 31 (1) General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 (2) Design Considerations of Research Laboratory and Animal Quarters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 (3) Functional and Space Requirements .................... 47 (4) Structural and Construction Materials ................ 73 (5) Use of Site ......................................... . DESIGN ANALYSIS 77 79 F) DESIGN SOLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 G) BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................. 107

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INTRODUCTION

PAGE 9

INTRODUCTION The reasons why the government authorities, Taiwan, Republic of China, establish the Medical School of National Cheng Kung University are: 1. to balance the distribution of teaching hospitals in Taiwan area, 2. to increase the amount of physicans and related medical staff, and 3. to promote the health care level in Tainan-Chiayi area, a large and populous area including the counties between Tainan and Chiayi area in southern Taiwan district. To meet above requirements, the whole project, the School of Medicine of National Cheng Kung University, will include the University Hospital, the School of Medicine, and the Medical Research Centre. The University Hospital will totally accommodate 800 wards. The Medical School will train 300 students relating to medicine every year. The Medical Research Centre will contain the Basic Medical Research Center, the Clinical Medical Research Center ( a part of the University Hospital ) , and other specialized research centers. This Medical Center with associated institutions will form a major health care system in southern Taiwan district to serve the Tainan-Chiayi area. It is a common complaint that most hospitals, around this area,

PAGE 10

don't do enough research work. And the doctors understand that one must keep up with the latest medical development since one learned five years ago is already outdated. Therefore, in order to assure the hospitals' high standard of health care to patients, this Medical Center should provide excellent opportunities and research environments to medical staff for on-the-job research and training. University Hospital and Medical Research Center will meet this needs -education, research, and service. The Basic Medical Research Center is a part of the Medical Research Center. It has somewhat relationship with the University Hospital and the Medical School, but it also is an independent institute itself. This institute includes the Department of Biochemistry, the Department of Physiology, the Department of Pathology, the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, the Department of Pharmacology. Other spaces affiliated are animal quarters, administration, common-use facilities, library, workshop, and mechanical room, etc. The gross building area is about 9807 square meters. The functions of the Basic Medical Research Center are for the advancement of knowledge and the training of investigators, teachers, students, officials, physicans, and other workers in the general field of medicine. For a Basic Medical Research Laboratory design, the building must have the capability to satisfy research operational needs allowing for variation both in research projects and in occupancy, and for the current and future use. It is apparent that adaptability is a very important factor in this design. Adaptability is relevant to flexi-2

PAGE 11

bility, capability, and expansibility. This project will consider these three factors through entire design processes to achieve an ideal working surroundings. This program, of course, will simultaneously concern the possible future development of the whole project. 3

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SITE & CLIMATIC ANALYSIS

PAGE 13

SITE AND CLIMATIC ANALYSIS (1) Location, Size, and Configuration The National Cheng-Kung University is located in the northeastern district of Tainan city-an old-line city in Taiwan, R.O.C. T h e campus of Cheng-Kung University is right behind the Tainan Railroad Station. The downtown Tainan, central business district and high density residential zone, is adjacent to the university campus at its northeastern boundary. The other areas, neighboring t h e university campus, are middle-density and low-density residential zone. The population of Tainan city, now, is about 620,000 persons. The building site, a northern portion of Chen g Kung University campus, is surrounded by Shaotung Road ( 40 m wide) , Tungfeng Road ( planned 60 m wide ) , and Shengli Road ( 15 m wide ) , totaling2.8 hectares, less or more. It is, across the Shengli Road, opposite to t h e planned site of the Medical School and the University Hospital. The west abutting area is the A rmy 804 General Hospital. The northern side, across. t h e Tungfeng Road, is middle-density residential zone ( 50 housing units per hectare, and the building's height must be lower than 20m). The southern rim, across the Shaotung Road, is the main campus of Cheng-Kung University . The site, by now, is temporarily used b y the Taiwan Bus Transportation C ompany as an open-air garage and tune-up shop. The land slope i s very flat f rom northwest to southeast 4

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(about 0.5 % ). (_2) Access The traffic is very convenient to reach this site. The Tainan Railroad Station is about 800 meters away from this site ( about 15 minute walking time ). The regional transportation bus stops are along the Shaotung Road. The northern portion of Tainan-Chiayi area can arrive at this site through Kungyuan North Road and Tungfeng Road, or through Kaiyuan Road and Tungfeng Road. The southern region can go through Tatung Road, Poai Road, and Peimen Road, or through Fuchiang Road and Shengli Road to reach this site. The Bureau of Health and Hygiene of Tainan city and the Provincial Tainan General Hospital are within a radius of 1,000 meters. Most public or private clinic or hospitals are within 3,000 meter circle. 5

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• N @ COUNTY BOUNDA R Y SERVICE AREA MAIN CITY LOCATION • TAICHUNG ' ' I I / i . ( ' "'\ . .1 -...r ) 1.... . ( 1 . ) J"T. ./ -.-! .r --/ ../ I { ...-.i ..... / ! \. / ,.._. ( 6 ( I \ I _lliL T.RO .. Pil. OLCANCER 23 . 5 N REPUBLIC OF CHINA ON TAIWAN

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I I I I N @ / " " / Ill I I m 0 100 200 400 800 GJ PROPOSED SITE RAILROAD STATION CITY PARK • THE BUREAU OF HEALT H & HYGIENE * TAINAN GENERAL HOSPITAL 7 MAP OF TAINAN CITY '

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N @ I I I I I m o ro 200 400 soo CJ PROPOSEO SITE CIRCULATION MAIN STREET RAILROAD STATION SYSTEM 8

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NATIONAL CHENG-KUNG UNIVERSITY 9 UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL & SCHOOL OF MEDICINE

PAGE 19

(3) Utilities/Drainage The infrastructure are well-developed within this district. Therefore electric power supply system, water supply system, sewage system, public drainage system, and telephone service are very con-venient and located at the enclosing roads right-of-way. The waste water should be treated appropriately, and then merged into public sewage system. (_4) Soil The geology of this area is the alluvial silty sand, from fine to coarse, with some gravel. The properties of silty sand are: 1. Angle of internal friction (_


PAGE 20

2. Either footing or pile could be used as foundation, depending on the loading. Usually footing costs less, especially if the structure be placed above the ground water table. 3. If pile foundation ( i.e. H pile or R.C. pile ) is used, an allowable bearing capacity of 30 50 tons could be achieved for length of 90 em or larger. 11

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(5) Climatic Data And Analysis Location Tainan, Taiwan, R .O.C. Latitude Longitude Elevation 16 m. Sub-tropical region. Island climate. 1. Climatic data a) Air Temperature ( C ) MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV OEC YR OAilY MAX. 22 . 2 24. 4 25.6 27. 8 29.3 29. 5 32.4 34. 5 31.3 29 . 3 26.7 24.7 34 . 5 -OAILY MIN. 5.0 9.2 13. 6 16.6 21.5 24 . 1 23. 2 22 . 5 21. 8 19.7 15.5 9 . 6 5 . 0 a cc:: = :z: AVERAGE 13.6 16.8 19.6 22 . 2 25 . 4 2 6 . 8 27.8 28.5 26.5 24 . 5 21.1 17 . 1 22.5 ..... HIGHEST 32.4 :::E 32.2 36. 1 35 . 3 36.4 37.8 36.7 36.7 36.7 35.7 35.1 32.1 378 ..... cc:: ,__ -LOWEST 2 . 6 2.4 5.1 8 . 9 14.7 1 8 . 7 21.1 21.1 15.4 12.5 2 . 7 4 . 5 2.4 ..... b) Relative Humidity ( % ) MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV OEC YR MONTHLY MAX. A.M. 92. 0 93 . 6 93 . 4 99. 0 99.0 96.2 96.2 99. 2 98. 0 96. 8 93 . 6 96 . 2 96.1 MONTHLY MIN. P .M. 70.0 67. 0 66.0 64. 0 65. 0 68.0 69. 0 67. 0 70. 8 69. 0 69.0 69.0 67. 8 AVERAGE 81.0 80.3 79 . 7 81.5 82 . 0 82. 1 82.6 83 . 1 8 4.4 82.7 81.5 82.7 82. 0 12

PAGE 22

c) Rainfall ( mm ) MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV OEC YR RAIN FALL 20. 8 37 : 4 44.4 65.0 172. 8 365.7 377.4 443.5 158.7 29.5 16.5 17 . 0 1748.8 * The rainy season is from April to September and the amount of precipitation is about 78 % of whole year. * The annual rainfall intensity is 16.7 mm in 24 hours. * The extreme rainfall intensity in an hour is 55.0 mm on August ( recorded ). d) Wind ( m/ s ) MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV OEC YR MAX. MEAN SPEED 10.5 11.5 10.8 10. 8 10 . 1 11.5 11.1 12.7 11.7 11.1 11.5 10 . 6 11.2 PREVAILING DIRECTION NE NE NE N sw sw sw sw HE NE HE HE -* The extreme maximum speed is 14.8 m/s during seasonal northeaster (cold wind in winter) . * The mean wind speed is 3 m/s. e) Percentage of possible sunshine and rediation on a horizontal surface ( cal/square em ) MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV OEC YR PCT. OF SUNSHINE 48 21.5 39 . 2 37 53 47 47 65 57 70 42 37 47 13

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MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV OEC YR TOTAL RADIATION 7234 4952 7113 7784 11787 9942 10695 12675 12437 9504 6537 5455 106115 DAILY MIN. 61 56 47 38 112 87 71 78 94 51 37 1 7 :z: = -DAILY MAX. 398 >--...... 407 471 595 641 538 589 594 553 507 415 356 -= --=a: AVERAGE 233 176 229 259 380 331 345 408 414 306 217 175 -f) Sun angles TIME SUMMER SOLSTICE EOUINOX WINTER SOLSTICE A.M. P.M. AZ. AL. AZ. AL. AZ. AL. 12 0 180 oo 89.33 ' 180 oo' 67oo' 180 00 . 43 3 ' 11 I 85 17' 76 12. 145 ' 626 . 161 ' 41 19 ' I 0 2 83 19' 62 28 ' 124' 52 52 145 35 10' 9 3 81 07' 48 47' 111 42' 40' 1 33 42' 26 12' 8 4 76' 35 ' 103 ' 27' 12427 1530 7 5 73 42' 21 ' 96 ' 13 ' 117 ' 3 27 6 =42 5 =18 --115 0 00' 6 6 68' 8 55' 90' 0' -5 : 18 6 :42 6l21' 0' ---14

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2. Climatic graph __ EX' REME -f------__ 1--c;--30 MEt N MU . . .. k c > . ••.
PAGE 25

3. Mahoney table TABLE 1 Location TAINAN, TAIWAN, REPUBLIC OF CHINA Longitude 120. 2 E Latitude 22 .95 N Altitude lG M Air temperature: c J F M A M J J A Monthly mean max . 22.2 24.4 25.6 27.8 29. 3 29.5 32.4 34 . 5 Monthly mean min. 5.0 9.2 13. 6 16.6 21.5 24.1 23.2 22 . 5 Monthly mean range 13.6 16. 8 19. 6 22.2 25.4 26.8 27.8 28. 5 Relat i ve humidity: % Monthly mean max . a . m . 92.0 93 .6 93.4 99. 0 99. 0 96. 2 96.2 99 . 2 Monthly mean min . p . m . 70.0 67. 0 66.0 64. 0 65 . 0 68.0 69. 0 67.0 Average 81.0 80.3 79.7 81:5 82.0 82.1 82.6 83.1 Humidity group 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Humidity group: If average RH: below 30% 2 30-50% 3 50-7 0% 4 above 70% Ratn and wind Rai nfall . mm Wind, preva il ing NE ME ME N sw sw sw sw Wind. secondary -----I J F M A I M J J A 17 s 0 31. 3 29.3 21.8 19.7 26.5 24.5 I 98.0 96 . 8 70. 8 69.0 84.4 82.7 4 4 I NE NE -s 0 N 26.7 15.5 21.1 93. 6 69 .o 81.5 4 NE -N 0 24.7 9 . 6 17. 1 96.2 69.0 82.7 4 HE 0 High AMT RB Low A M R

PAGE 26

AMT over 20"C AMT 15-20"C AMT below 1 5 c Comfort li m i ts Day Noght Day Night Day Night Humidity group: 26-34 17-25 23-32 14-23 21-30 12-21 2 25-31 17-24 22-30 14-22 2 0--27 12-20 3 23-29 17 23 2 1-28 14-21 19-26 12-19 4 22-27 1 7 -21 20--25 14-20 16-24 12-18 T ABLE 2 M l D ia gnosis : c J F M A J J A s 0 N D Monthly mea n max . 22 . 2 24.4 125. 6 27. 8 29.3 2 9 . 5 32. 4 34. 5 31.3 29 . 3 I 2 6 . 7 24.7 119.71 AMT Day comfort: upper 25 25 2 5 2 5 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 2.5 lo w er 2 0 20 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 20 2 0 I 20 2 0 2 0 20 I Monthly mean min. 5.0 9.2 13. 6 16. 6 21.5 24 . 1 23. 2 22 . 5 21.8 1 9.7 I 15. 5 9.6 Night comfort: upper 2 0 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 1 20 20 20 lower 14 14 I 14 I 14 1 4 I 14 14 14 14 I 14 14 14 Thermal s tress : day 0 0 I H H H I H H I H H H H 0 night c c c 0 H H H H H 0 0 c Indi cators Humid: H1 v v v v v v v v v H2 v v v H3 v ../ v And: A1 A2 A3 Aophcaote when Thet"mal s1ress Hum • a•rv MonU'liV ln
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Indica t or tota l s fr o m tab le 2 H1 H2 H3 A1 I A2 ! 9 3 0 I 0 ' 3 I I 0-10 1 ! 11. 121 I 11. 12 I 2-10 0. 1 I 3-12 0-5 1 . 2 6-12 ' 2-12 0 0. 1 I I 0 . 1 l 11. 12 I Any other co n di tion s I 0-2 I I 3-12 ! I I 0-5 ' I I i 6-12 I i 1 2 12 A3 0 I 1 V" I 5-12 i 0--4 I 2 I 3 v' 4 5 v 6 7 I i I 8 0 v ' 9 0 . 1 10 11 v' 1 2 13 I v ! 14 I 1 5 Layout TABLE 3 Recommended specifications O rientation north and s o uth (long axis east-west) Compact courtyard plann1ng Spacing Ope n spacing f or breeze penetration As 3 . but protection from hot and cold wind Compact lay-out of estates Air m o vement Rooms single banked . perma nent provision for a i r moveme n t Doub:e banked rooms . t emporary provis1on f or a ir movem ent No air movement requirement Ope n i n gs Large open i ngs . 40-80% Very s mall open i ngs . 1 0-2 0 % Medium openmgs. 20-4 0 % Walls Light walls. s hort time l a g Heavy e xt e rnal a n d i nternal walls Roofs L ight. i n s ulated roofs Heavy roofs . ov e r 8 h time-lag Out-door sleeping Space f or out-door sleeping r e qUired Ram prote c t ion Protection f rom h e avy r a m nece ssary 1 9

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Indicator totals from table 2 TABLE 4 H 1 I H2 H3 A1 A2 A3 Detail r ecomme ndations 9 I 3 3 0 0 0 Size of opening 0 v 1 Large : 40-80% 0 . 1 1-12 2 Medium: 25-40% 2-5 6-10 3 Small : 1 5 25 % 0-3 4 Very small : 10-20% 11. 12 4-12 5 Medium: 25-40% Position of open i ngs 3-12 v 6 In north and south walls a t body heig h t on windward side 0-5 1-2 6-12 7 As ab o ve . c pen i ngs a lso i n i nternal walls 0 2-12 Protection of openings 0-2 8 Exclude direct sunlight 2-12 v 9 Provide protection f rom rain Walls a nd flo ors 0-2 v 10 L i ght. lo w thermal capacity 3-12 11 Hea vy. over 8 h ti me -lag Roofs 0-2 12 Light, reflective s u rface . cavity 10-12 3-12 v 13 L i ght. wel l i ns u lated 0-5 0 9 6-12 14 Heavy . over 8 h time -lag External f eatures 1-12 15 Space f or out-door s leep i ng 1-12 v 16 A dequa te rainwater dra•nage 2 0

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4. Design guidelines The relatively higher insolation a t day, high relative humidit y , and much rain are primary and serious problems in this area. Buildings with appropriate shading devices ahd orientation, go od insulation, and well-designed cross-vencilation can reduce the liabilities of weather. The recommended design guidelines are * Building orientation Buildings are preferably orientated on an east-west axis. The long elevation facing south and north will reduce exposure to the sun. * Roofs The roof has greatest exposure to sun, and will absorb a lot of heat during the day. This absorbed heat will cause the problem of thermal stress in building members and the penetration of heat to the interior. The thermal stress will produce cracks on the building members. The conductive heat . will raise the indoor temperature affecting interior comfortable condition. Increase of mass will only increase the heat lag, and prolong high temperature during hours of sleep in summer. Therefore a light, well-insulated roof with low thermal capacity is preferable. * Openings and walls The window aperture should be large enough to admit cooling 21

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* breeze at body height. It is between 40-80 % of the south and north walls. It also should be free from the direct sunlight, sky glare, and rain. The possible ways of sun protection for openings are balconies, horizontal overhangs, external blinds, vertical screen, adjustable louvres, and pierced canopies. Pierced canopies and horiz.ontal overhangs are preferable ways. Internal walls should be heavy and massive, where any occurrence of hot-humidity conditions is combined with a large annual mean range of temperature (over 20C ). External walls should be light with low thermal capacity. Both openings and walls located on N, NE, NW should be well-insulated to avoid the invasion of cold wind. Rain protection The rainy season is from April to September and brings a lot of rain. Buildings should have rain protections against frequent and heavy rain. Deep verandahs, wide overhangs, and covered passanges are good resolution. Surface water drainage for rainwater should be sufficient to cope with maximum conditions. Roof drainage also should be carefully considered. * Ventilation 22

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* The wind penetration is needed only for part of the year. Rooms should be single banked with windows in the south and north walls to ensure air movement by ample crossventilation. But provision must be made for protection from cold or dusty wind. Spacing The minimum two hours sunlight in winter solstice is regulated by the building code. Coefficient of building spacing = cotHcosA where H = solar altitude. A solar azimuth. e in winter solstice, at 23N , is listed below: hours of sunshine 2hr. 4hr. 6hr. E. 1.08 1.19 1.41 The building spacing ( L ) = . • H where H = effective height of frontal building. The preferable coefficient of building spacing is 2.0 or larger for good cross-ventilation. * Other important features of weather should be concerned are: a) Thundershower Sometimes intense electrical storms will occure during rainy season. Therefore buildings should have lighting conductors as a protection against lighting. 23

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b) Typhoon Typhoons always come in the period from July to September. Buildings should be designed to withstand typhoon forces in any direction. The basic consideration of well-designed buildings are: 1. Careful attention should be given to all connecting of buildings. 2. Window glass should be strong enough and protected against flying debris by wire mesh, but wire mesh should be adequate in itself to withstand t h e wind pressure. The minimum wind pressure should satisfy the requirements of building code. The earthquake-proof consideration also should meet the provisions of code. Generally speaking, careful design and detaili n g s of a l l parts o f a building are necessary,and good workmanship is essential. 24

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BUILDING CODE

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Summaries of building code: 1. The classification of land use by zoning is cultural and educational zone. 2. The classification of building by occupancy is medical research laboratory. 3. The ratio of maximum horizontal projected floor areas to the site area shall not exceed 40 % . 4. The floor area index is not provided in this area by code. 5. The actural building line shall set back 3 m from property line. 6. The maximum height of buildings should not exceed 35 m. 7. The minimum effective daylight period affected by neighboring buildings in winter solstice is 2 hours. 8. Ceiling height shall be not less than 210 em. 9. The rainwater existed in site shall have sufficient storm drain system, and then drain into the public drainage. 10. The waste and soil water produced in site shall have adequate treatment, and then merge into public drainage. 11. The structure of overbridge should meet the requirements listed below: a. Shall be of fire-resistive structure, and uses noncombustible materials. b. Th. e height of side shall be not less than 150 em. c. Side walls should not use fragible materials ( such as glass ) 25

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as finishings. d . The minimum height of overbridges above the street shall be not less than 460 em. 12. Stairways a . The width of stairway and landing shall be not less than 140 em. b. The maximum height of r:itsers is 18 em. c. The depth of tread shall exceed 26 em. d. The distanc e between landings shall be less than 300 em. e . Th e vertical clearance of required stairways shall be not less than 190 em. 13. Handrails a. Stairways should have handrails on each side. b . Handrails shall be placed not less than 75 em above the nosing of the treads. c. Every stairway required to be more than 300 em shall be provided with not less than one intermediate handrail for each 300 em of required width. These intermediate handrails shall be spaced approximately equally within the entire width of the stairways. 14 . Ramps a . Ramps shall not exceed a slope of one vertical to 8 horizontal. b . The width of ramps shall be as required for stairways. c. The surface of ramps shall be roughened or shall be of nonslip 26

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materials. 15. Guardrails shall be not less than 100 em in height for two story high buildings, 110 em in height for buildings between 3 and 9 stories, and 120 em in height for buildings higher than 10 stories. 16. The horizontal clearance of openings on exterior wall shall be not less than 200 em. 17. Sound transmission control a. All seperating walls and floor-ceiling assemblies shall provide an airborne sound insulation equal to that required b y code. b. Penetrations or in construction assemblies for mechan-ical services shall be sealed, lined, insulated or otherwise treated to maintain the required ratings requlated by code. 18. Sanitary facilities The required quantities of toilet facilities are listed below: Hater closet occupants quantities 1-15 1 shall increase one per 40 persons 16-35 2 36-55 3 if over 150 persons. 5680 4 81-110 .J 111-150 6 Urinals shall be installed for one unit per 25 men. 27

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Lavatories occupants 1 15 16-35 3660 6190 91-125 quantities 1 2 3 4 5 shall increase one per 45 persons if over 125 persons. 19. The ventilation, septic tank, and finishings shall meet the requirements of code. 20. Parking space The parking space provided by the buildings shall meet the require-ments as below: Total floor areas ( sq m ) Cars stored 1,000 unlimited 1,001-2,000 Add 1 per 200 sq m 2,001-4,000 A dd 1 per 250 sq m 4,001-10,000 Add 1 per 300 sq m 10,001A dd 1 per 400 sq m 21. Parking area for one car is 2 50 em by 600 em. 22. The minimum width of driveway is 350 em for one-way, and 550 em for two-way. 23. The inside radius of curvature shall be not less than 5 m . 24. The slope of ramps for parking garages shall be not less than one vertical to 6 horizontal. 25. The vertical clearance of parking garage shall be not less than 210 em. 2 8

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26. Fire-proof requirements a. Buildings shall be of fire-resistive construction. b. The fire-resistant period and materials used in the main structure of buildings shall meet the requirements of code. c. The fire seperations ( such as fire-walls, fire-slabs, and fire-openings ) shall have at least one hour fire-resistive period. d. The interior finishings shall be of non-combustible and nonexplosive materials. e. Fire dampers shall be provided in duct system. 27. Fire exits a. Every building shall have not less than two exits with different directions to the horizontal exit level. b. The width of every exit shall be not less than 120 em. c. The maximum distance of travel from any point to an exterior exit door, horizontal exit, or enclosed stairway s shall not exceed 30 m. d. The arrangement of exits shall be placed in a distance apart equal to not less than 1/2 of the length of the maximum diagonal dimension of the buildings. e. Other detailed regulations and calculation of egress facilities provided by code shall be met. 28. Emergency lighting should be provided in the stair-shaft and the vestibule. 29

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29. Fire-extinguishing systems shall meet the detailed provisions of code. 30. Corridors a. The width of corridor shall be not less than 160 em. b. Changes in elevation shall be served by ramps. The slope of ramps shall not exceed one vertical to 10 horizontal. 31 . Mechanical services shall meet the requirements of code of mechanical systems. 30

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PROGRAM OF REOUIREMENTS

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PROGRAM OF (1) General 11 If there is one thing we know, it is that we do not know now what we will be doing ten years from now. 11 This statement indicates the nature of research, the diversification of research project, which will influence the quality and quantity of the space use of research laboratories. Therefore, for laboratory establishments which will contain many different research projects, it is obviously essential that a standard laboratory unit be used so that the changing needs of these research may be met with the least possible inconvenient, installation cost, and loss of time. It is also apparent that the greatest proportion of the cost of scientific research lies in staff salaries. Any saving in staff time represents a very much larger saving than a simple economy made in laboratory building. Hence any economical laboratory unit must be aimed at reducing the proportion of non-usable space to usable floor area and at increasing the amount of working space which can be serviced with a given length of sub-main service systems. This design project is to get an efficient research laboratory design in terms of adequate arrangement of space, sufficient considerations of mechanical s ystems, and comfortable environment for the research workers. 31

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(2) Design Considerations of Research Laboratory And Animal Quarters Research laboratories There are two different standpoints for laboratory planning -open system and close system. 1) Open system Open system called pool system uses ancillary rooms to accommodate specialized common activities at each department such as dark rooms, balance rooms, Special instruments are in the individual laboratory units. The advantages of pool system are economy and space saving. The disadvantage is that it is difficult to maintain these communal instruments. 2) Close system Close system is that every laboratory has its own instruments. These instruments are not communal. The advantages of close system are very convenient to use instruments and easy to maintain these instruments. The disadvantages are large spaces occupied, and repetitious instruments at every laboratory units -very wasteful. The pool system will be used in this project to save the initial cost and required spaces, and to provide more chance for research communication. Since an inevitable result of research is change, the design characteristics -flexibility, capability, and expansibility, of 32

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research laboratory buildings should be taken into account in planning as early as possible. If these interactive factors can be carefully considered, the research laboratory will be an efficient one, and will advance the communicative chance of much research with their increasingly interdisciplinary nature. 1) Flexibility Flexibility should be the first consideration in the design processes, since the pace of change is accelerating, and laboratory requirements and techniques will almost certainly be subject to change long before the economic life of the building is over. The concept of flexibility is to develop comprehensive systems which will relate the needs of various research projects and disciplines and provide ways of sharing certain facilities such as conference rooms directly associated with research areas. This comprehensive system also consists of a regular aodule derived from the considerations of space uses, and an integrated systems of structure and services. Acturally, if the building design is approached with care and understanding, flexibility can reduce the initial cost by reducing the quantity and scope of services that otherwise might have to be installed in such a building, i.e. flexibility is already incorporated in new buildings without measureable increase in cost. So flexibility is demanded in research laboratory planning. 22 Capability 33

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The utility systems are major features of laboratory and will eventually occupy the research laboratory buildings. Capability is a measure of the utility distribution layout which should meet the operational needs of the research programs and future development. Therefore, the capability of mechanical systems should consider the possible adequate location and utilization so that it will meet the needs of different research functions, and the needs of different concentrations with various time and areas without the need to reposition those distribution lines within the building. In order to achieve good design of mechanical services, capability should be the second critical factor in research laboratory design. 3) Expansibility The present planning of the building only represents the latest thinking of current staff. If programs and faculty members change, the equipments and instruments of research requirements will be modified. Therefore a rational program of expansion must be given careful consideration before detailed design development. 11 How convenient is it to extend a new research extent ? " is a judgement of the expansibility of a research laboratory. It should be stressed by the ability of flexible space use and the potentiality of structural extension in the building. The above three interactive characteristics can be achieved by various simultaneous considerations listed below: 34

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1) Structural considerations The structure should be able to meet a variety of functional needs, rather than the specific requirements of a single group of occupants. The module plan as the basis for a grid pattern is the most useful way . This concept is very suitable for structural flexibility and growth needs as well as for engineering capability. The module is the smallest repetitive unit of space. It must be complete in its repetition of the characteristics that enclose and serve this space. The characteristics of this repetitive element is its three dimentions: its architectural, mechanical, electrical and structural features; as well as the services that may be added for the convenience of its occupant. 1 . Module From anthropometric data, the ideal space between two benches is 150 em. It is the distance for one person to pass through another working place without risk of collisioR. The width of. bench is 75 em; this dimension is satisfied to all different used benches. A module of 330 em will be used to form a basic grid pattern. It is the distance of the width of benches, the width of passway, and the width of service strips. It also is the distance between the center of one partition and the center of the next. The module width 2 work spaces + central passt.;ay + 2 service 35

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strips 330 em 2 X 7 5 em + 150 em + 2 x 15 em This square grid pattern ( 330 em by 330 em ) allows more flexibility than rectangular one in terms of bench arrangement and permits the introduction of required back-up facilities and free-standing equipments. It also can easily form several different laboratory sizes. The module depth is 33 0 em. The building height is 400 em. The corridor is 210 em wide. The window width is 240 em. This module also can be used in office planning. 2. Space ( structural ) module The structural module uses 330 em by 660 em; it is very economical in terms of structural framing, construction cost and repetitive window size, and works out well in a great variety of combination in use. 3. A standarized grid of holes, vertical and horizontal for services, through the structure, which is accordant with structural system should be carefully considered. So that the laboratory unit pattern becomes a run of parallel service lines spaced on the grid dimension. 4 . The basic structure should provide a minimum of weightbearing walls in any space of the building. Interior 36

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partitions are all non-bearing, demountable, and interchangeable so that partitions can be altered with required work uses. 5. Each department preferably has an open end so that individual extension can be made without affecting other departments. vfuere the site permits, each building should also be extensible. 2} Mechanical considerations The key to adapability in the use and alteration of research laboratories is the mechanical systems of the building. The basic considerations must be given to ensure that all services can be distributed to any point in the building. These services normall y include cold and hot water, steam, gas, compressed air, vacuum, oxygen, HVAC systems, electricity ( 110 and 220 V AC and 110 V DC current), exhaust duct connections, sewage drainage, and communication s ystems. In general, there are two mechanical system installations of utility corridor system: 1. Vertical sub-main system. 2. Horizontal sub-main system. The vertical sub-main system has a main service corridor on the corridor wall, from which all sub-service may be extended, and spaced at the lateral grid dimension combined with bench runs. It is expensive viable for buildings of less than six or seven stories. 37

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The aorizontal sub-main system has services in corridor ceiling ( rather than in corridor floor ) and running bench lines down corridor walls and into the bench runs in the same way as for vertical sub-main. It will require large spaces in voids. Lt is obvious that a main service corridor will be used in this project. Since a large part of the extensive and time-consuming installation work can be proceeded in the service corridor independently of the completion of the laboratories themselves. Also the maintenance of service lines plays an important part in the efficient running of a research establishment. The alterations or repairs of the service mains can be undertaken in the service corridor without interfering with the laboratory or the traffic corridors. The service distribution should consider three important facets: 1. Service runs should be minimal in length. 2. Easy alteration in the location of services should be possible for long-term flexibility in the use of space. 3. Service outlets of different types need to be dispersed throughout the building. All services should be demountable, interchangeable, and exposed. These utilities also should be kept off interior partitions as far as possible to allow future alterations. 1. The direct demand for steam is in the process of sterilization. Because of the relatively high cost of maintenance of steam mains it is important to keep runs as short as possible. 38

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2. Cold and hot water are needed at the sinks. Drains should be of acid-resistant materials rather than ordinary cast iron, but still have to be replaced at intervals of years. 3. Compressed air, gas, and vacuum are from central sources should come up vertically through the utility shaft with'the water and drain lines. These service lines should be attached to walls in an exposed fashion. 4. Electricity should have the ability to supply power from high concentrations to any localized area wiyhout the need to reposition electric distribution lines in the building. Transformers and rectifiers may be located in the floor electric closet near utility chase. Each laboratory should have its circuit-breaker cabinet with provision for new circuits to be added. All outlets should be well grounded and available at every benches. The emergency power system should be carefully concerned with different supporting facilities and laboratories. Emergency power needs a special panel in the electrical closet with a seperate distribution circuit and breaker. 5. Drainage is a gravity system, gradients are therefore essential and have a greater importance in generating floor to floor height. 6. HVAC system and exhaust duct systems in different concentrations with time in various areas in the building should be taken into account, because these systems are the most 39

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expensive items in remodeling. 7. Waste are important issues in research laboratories. There are three types of Haste in laboratories. a. normal acid waste; b. Bio-hazardous waste. c. Radioactive waste. A seperate acid waste system is necessary for areas of the building where lots of acids are used. This system should empty into a neutralization and dilution sump prior to discharge into the sewer. Acid-resisting piping materials should be used in all drainage systems serving laboratories in which acids will be used. If bench waste system is used, it should consider the drip cups, bottle traps, interception and dilution of waste by running traps or receivers before entering main waste pipe or stack. Fume hoods are required for discharge of toxic fumes and volatile solvents, and for work with many isotopes and infectious agents. The fume hood should be located next to the utility chase so that the workers in the laboratory do not have to pass it to reach the corridor door in case of fire. The fan should be on the roof in the penthouse to reduce the chance for back-flow or reflux into the laboratory. It is desirable to have only one hood for each duct, so the utility chase should be sized carefully. If chemicals and isotopes 40

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are used, the duct should have to be washed down, and it should be of stainless stell. If aerosols containing highly infectious agents may be exhausted, the air should pass through an incinerator unit which is gas-fired. If isotopes with any appreciable half-life are used, a micropore filter should be installed. This filter will serve instead of an incinerator for certain infectious agents as well. The design of hood system should be careful to allow ready change of filters without contamination of the laboratory. In some laboratories where tissue culture work is done or fertile eggs may be inoculated, desk-top laminar-flow hoods with integral filter should be used. 8. Communications A comprehensive system of communication is essential. A communication through running horizontally above the ceiling in the central corridor will permit ready installation of phones or intercom circuits in any laboratories or offices on either side or both as required. These services include telephones, fire alarms, radio and televosion, general dictation, and special point to point. 9. Other services should be concerned simultaneously are: a. Fire protection Automatic detectors, automatic or manual protective system should be installed. The use of fire extinguisher should suit the classification of fire from which special chemical 41

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hazard protection is needed. b. Eyeball-washing unit This unit is advised at a sink. If the risk is small, a unit in the corridor will serve several laboratories. 3) Facility considerations A number of specialized facilities will be needed for support of the activities of research work. These facilities having similar function should be allocated as close as possible, and be accessible from all laboratory units. Because medical science faculties are highly individualistic and prefer a secretary familiar with the vocabulary and pattern of work concerned with specific field. Large secretarial pools crossing departmental lines usually are not effective. Small secretarial pools serving several faculty members will be more effective, and should be concerned. Concerning the typing of grant proposals and reports, and research papers, it is desirable to have a pool of typist in the central administration. Animal Quarters The animal facilities are particularly useful for research projects in medical research laboratories, and call for high standards of accommodation and environment. The design of facilities should provide protection of the housed animals from infections carried by 42

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other loose, stray, or wild animals and from diseases carried by the general publics. The surrounding environment and the communit y should also be protected by proper disposal of animal waste generated in the facilities and carcasses. The types of housing and caging for animals used for breeding or held over long periods of time need to consider from the behavioral point of view. Flexibility and expansibility also are very important characteristics in the planning of animal housing because of the increasing and changing need for a large variety of species of animals. The barrier principle is a very important concept for the highest standards of general animal health with the exclusion of extraneous infection. There are two headings within this spectrum -convential and specific-pathogen-free ( SPF ). The conventional animal houses use the following characteristics to contribute to the barrier: 1. The inside of the animal rooms is maintained at a positive pressure to the ambient air. This is the fundamental and chief means of preventing the entry of infection. 2. The filtration of the supply air and the high rates of air change are necessary. These ways assist the barrier and reduce the animal odour. 3. The arrangement of the plan and circulation should avoid the proximity and cross flow of clean and dirty animals and goods. 4. The need for staff and visitors to change into protective top clothing. 43

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5. The provision of adequate cage and bottle washing and sterilizing facilities. The barrier features used by SPF is more rigorous than conventional animal houses and is summarised as follows: 1. In addition to positive air pressure and high air change rates, the supply air will be finely filtered. 2. All animals and goods will be passed into and out of the SPF zone via air locks, dunk tanks, and autoclaves or gas chambers. 3. Staff visitors will be required to take a shower and change into clean clothing on entering the SPF zone. 4. Cages and bottles, etc., will be sterlizing in the autoclaves linking the SPF and outer zones. Since hazards will alway s be present no matter how many precautions are taken and perhaps the greatest of these is the human factor. A less rigorous approach is adopted in the animal quarters. Barrier Maintained Units that consider the practical circumstance will be the preferable method and will be used in this project. The following points of planning should be taken into account: 1. The circulation must be arranged to minimize the contact between clean and dirty animals and goods, thereby reducing the risk of cross-infection. Two-corridor system to serve the animal rooms will be adopted whereby clean animals and goods enter at one end and leave via a dirty corridor at the other end. 44

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2. The animal house excluding plant rooms is preferably planned on one level because of the considerations of operational efficiency. 3. Accommodation which represents potential infection hazards, i.e. Quarantine Rooms, Infected Animal Rooms, etc., should be located away from the other animal rooms and should be directly associated with the dirty circulation route to the cage cleaning and disposal areas. 4. Unnecessary movement of large animals within the animal houses should be avoided and their accommodation should be closely related to the operating theatre suite. 5. Animals should be protected from either continuous or sudden source of noise, both of which will affect their breeding performance and general health. 6. Except for offices, staff rooms, and some animal rooms ( cats, primates, etc. ) windows are not necessary. If windows are provided in animal areas, they should be located to have the least effect on temperature control. 7 . Fire exits should be provided and not be conflict with the achievement of the barrier. 8. In order to limit the spread of potential infection it is preferable to use a large number of small rooms for animals rather than a small number of large rooms. It should also be possible to accommodate the majority of animal populatiGn of an animal house in rooms of standard size, no matter how 45

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varied the species. Another consideration should be taken into account is the psychological effect . To sustain the worker's spirit, the psychological effect of the surroundings upon the researcher will be an important factor in laboratory design. The environment should be pleasing and free from distraction. The laboratory must be accessible to workers, but not too accessible for those who do not regularly work there. It must provide good communication on the one hand and make possible nearly monastic seclusion on the other. 46

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(3) Functional And Space Requirements The Basic Medical Research Center is to bring togather several divisional research activities produced by Biochemistry, Physiology, Pathology, and Immunology, and Pharmacology, and to provide comprehensive affiliated research environment for advanced communication. The Department of Anatomy is provided by the Univer sity Hospital. This research center also will be served as a major disciplinary and educational institute for the School of Medicine. Most active members of the staff will hold faculty positions at the School of Medicine. And the great majority of physicans of the University Hospital will be involved in this advanced educational and training of this Medical Centre. This research establishment is divided into the following functional space blocks: 1) Administration 2) Common use facilities 3) Library 4) Department of Biochemistry 5) Department of Physiology 6) Department of Pathology 7) Department of Hicrobiology And Immunology 8) Department of Pharmacology 9) Animal Quarters 10) Workshops 11) Hechanical rooms 47

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Schedule of Area Requirements Description Department of Biochemistry Department of Physiology Department of Pathology Department of Uicrobiology & Immunology Department of Pharmacology Animal quarters Common-use facilities & Library Administration, Workshops & Mechanical Rm. Sub-total 10 % circulation & rest room, etc. Total 48 Area ( 1155 1020 1035 1145 1055 1010 1200 830 8450 1690 10140 m2 )

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GOOOS-WORkSHOP LIBRARY COMMON-USE FACILITIES ADMINISTRATION ...... STAFF I l DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY MECHANICAL ROOM f.--DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY f.--DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY ANIMAL QUARTERS t--DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY & IMMUNOLOGY I--...... ............ STAFF ANIMALS GOODS DEPARTMENT OF PHARMOCOLOGY I--FUNCTIONAL SPACE BLOCK DIAGRAM

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1 2 Researc'ft la Etorator :te-s Biochemistry The core objectives of the Department of Biochemistry are to aim at studying the chemical basis of human physiological processes, and to help medical staff to use advanced biochemical principles in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, Physiology Physiology is the fundamental science of the functional activities of the human body, i,e. physiology is the scope of biological science which applies the principles and methodologies of physics, chemistry, and mathematical analysis to biomedical problems, So this is a pure science of great challenge, because of the complexity of its problems and its extensive interaction with mathematical, physical, biochemical, and engineering sci ences, as well as other branches of biology. The study of this field will cover a wide range from the basic physiochemical processes of cellular functions to the understanding of all environmental factors affecting human life. Pathology Pathology is the science of the structural and functional alternations of the production of disease, It is concerned with both the morpho logical changes that take place in disease and the fundamental mechanism underlying disease processes. The study of disease mechanism is the spring that feeds diagnosis and 50

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therapy, It has oeccrme indispensable for proper delivery of health care. t.J'lthout it, progress in medicine is virtually impossible. Within this department, the research programs will touch widely fr01!1 the fundamental principles of disease to the actural case studies. Microbiology and Immunology In this department emphasis is on the study of ( 1 ) microbial research the genetics and molecular regulation in bacteria, animal cells, and their viruses, ( 2 ) hhe invasive organisms which cause disease in human, ( 3 ) immunological research the nature, scope, and mechanisms of normal ( and abnormal ) response to the invaders, with the special emphasis onthe role of immune system, Pharmocology The rational use of drugs represents one of the principal means of controlling illness and preserving health. Pharmacology is the scientific study of the effects of drugs and the factors of influencing these effects. So it stress the study of the rational use of drugs in the diagnosis, prevention, and especially, treat-mentof disease because drug will modify physiological and biochemical processes in health and disease. The extent of research proiects will include ( 1 ) the systematic study of the effect of drugs in normal and pathological states, 51

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( 2 ) the mechanism oy which these effects are exerted and the factors influencing their distribution, and biological disposition, ( 3 ) the hazards of environmental chemicals affect ing living processes, Also it will study the medical and social created oy the increasing use of drugs by both the medical profession and the public, Requirements of some supporting facilities 1, Instrument room Expensive and infrequently used pieces of equipment will be shared by multiple workers in this space. These equipment probably are optical_ and analytical instruments, They should not be affected by structure-borne vibration, heat or humidity, and do not need specially built-in benches or special environmental conditions in this room. Adequate ventilation is preferable, 2. Dark room Photographic processes will take place in this area. The room need cold water, power service, and waste drainage. Socket outlets should be mounted above the bench at frequent intervals at a uniform height for various process, A red warning light to indicate that dark conditions are operating should be provided outside the room above or near the door. Artifical ventilation is required when in use. 52

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" 3, Cn:romat'Ograyny '1:"ncrm Chromatography a technique used to seperate mixture of compounds and is especially helpful in the study of complex organic substances,. the identification of compounds, and in concentrating materials-contaminated by large• amount of foreign substances, as well as in analysis. Because large quantities of flammable solvents will be used, the space should have temperature control and fume extraction Fume cupboards are required to exhaust unpleasant solvent fumes. Static elect.ricity should also be concerned because its charges mast be drawn off and grounded, Headroom, supports and drainage for equipment must be correctly designed, 4, Cold room The room temperature is very low, so it should be air-locked to minimise the temperature loss when the door is open. Safety for people locked inside should be provided, Door opening onto a main corridor should be recessed. Ins-ulated doors with interior insulation can be used as required. Package unit can be adopted. The floor slab should be depressed so that the entrance to the corridor is level with it for movement of carts, The best finish i s stainless steel, Bench with sink, or table, and shelves for storage of material are necessary, 5. Centrifuge room 53

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11!Us-t oe prevented from affecting sensitive apparatus. Mechanical ventilation is required to dissipate the heat emitted oy the centrifuges. Walls and doors may need to be lined with sound-absorbing material depending on the location of t -he room. Wall mounted socket outlets at suitable intervals should be provided to serve the centrifuges. Clear door width should be a minimum of 135 em. 6, Freezer room A number of large freezers will be accommodated, Mechanical ventilation is needed to dissipate the heat produced by the refrigerating machinery, 7, Electron microscope room This area must be free from vibration preferably by means of structure independence, The machine must keep out of electrostatic or magnetic fields, Cleaned and cooled water are required, Air conditioning is needed to draw off the heat generated by the machine, Dust and dirt particles should be eliminated, 8, Tissue culture room This space should have a preparation room with it, These two rooms should have mechanical ventilation under positive pressure, Windm.;rs should be sealed, The air filtration in both rooms should be under the order of 0,2 microns, 54

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Schedule of space and ( Biochemistry ) Description Laboratory Instrument room Dark room Cold room Freezer room Constant temperature room Glass washing & sterilizing room Chromatography room Centrifuge room Animal room Stock room Storage room Office Secretary office Conference room Total gross area 55 unit area C m-z.) 40 15 15 20 15 20 30 30 30 40 15 30 20 15 40 units 12 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 1 1 total area 480 15 15 40 15 40 30 30 30 40 15 30 320 15 40 1155

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Schedule of space area requirements ( Physiology ) Description unit total area units ( area Laboratory 40 10 400 Dark room 15 1 15 Cold room 20 2 40 Balance room 15 1 15 Constant temperature room 30 1 30 Special project room 30 2 60 Animal room 40 1 40 Stock room 15 1 15 Storage room 30 1 30 Storage ( future facilities ) 20 1 20 Office 20 14 280 Secretary office 15 1 15 Conference room 40 1 40 Total gross area 1020 56

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Schedule of space and area requirements ( Pathology ) Description Laboratory Instrument room Dark room Cold room Freeze-r room Balance room Tissue staining & embedding room Clean-up room Animal room Stock room Storage Office Secretary office Conference room Special project room Total gross area 57 unit area C m " ) 40 15 15 20 20 15 20 20 30 15 30 20 15 40 40 units 10 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 1 1 1 total area 400 15 15 40 20 15 20 2 0 30 15 30 280 15 40 40 1035

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Schedule of space and area requirements ( Microbiology Immunology ) Desdription Laboratory Instrument room Dark room Cold room Tissue culture room staining & embedding room Clean-up room Sterile room Glass washing & steriling Electron microscope room Animal room Stock room Storage room Office Secretary office Conference room TTotal gross area 58 unit area C m'") 40 15 15 20 30 15 15 30 30 15 40 15 30 20 15 40 unit 12 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 1 1 total area 480 15 15 40 30 15 15 30 30 15 40 15 30 320 15 40 1145

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Schedule of space and area requirements C Pharmacology ) Description unit total area unit C m") area Laboratory 40 10 400 Instrument room 15 1 15 Dark room 15 1 15 Cold room 20 2 40 Balance room 15 1 15 Refrigerate room 15 1 15 Centrifuge room 25 1 25 Special project room 30 2 60 Animal room 40 1 40 Stock room 15 1 15 Storage room 30 2 60 Storage (future facility ) 20 2 0 .L Office 20 14-, 280 Secretary office 15 1 15 Conference room 40 1 40 Total gross area 1055 59

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2 2 An:t;mal 1. Animal rocrms a) Small animal rocrm Small animals used in research laboratories are mice, rats, guinea pigs, ferrets, etc. These animals will be housed in cage racks. This space forms the greatest part of the animal accommodation in animal house. The main considerations are : a. Rooms should be identically and be relatively small to limit the spread of infection, b. Cage racks should be arranged to achieve adequate and consistent ventilation to all cages, c, Dimension between cage racks must allow a technician with a trolley to maneuver freely in order to service cages anQ animals, i,e, cleaning, watering, feeding, etc, d, A sink for bottle washing and filling and a bench for minor operative procedures on small animals should be included, e, The height of the room should allow for the proper functioning of the ventilation system relative to animal cages, A minimum of 275 em is recommended. b) Large animal room Large animals used in research laboratories are pigs, 60

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sheep , goats, cats, prtmates, etc. These animals will be normally housed. in individual pens divided by and served by a central corridor, A number of animals may be included in one room, The main considerations are 1 a, The service corridor must be wide enough for the animals to be maneuvered on trolleys, b, The pen partitions should be strong enough or removable, These partitions and all surfaces should be capable of being regularly washed down, c! Drainage normally is via a continuous floor channel in the corridor with a removable grating, This can be served either by gullys with removable or by flushing gullys for the direct disposal of faeces. d. Low temperature underfloor heating is desirable, perhaps with a raised section of the floor to act as a bed. e. Ceiling or high level wall fixings must be over pen for infra-red heater, Power outlets should be provided at approximate 250 em above floor level for automatic shears, cleaning equipments, etc. f. Rooms should be acoustically treated to reduce noise transmission internally, and externally. g, writing surface is required in the animal rooms. h, Sink and bench facilities are more suitably located in 61

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an adjacent ccrmmon 2, Animal reception and examination room Animals will. be. examined in this room on arrival, and then will either be.mov.ed into the quarantine area or directly move to animal rooms, Reccrmmended features are : a, A sink and wall benching, b. A peninsular bench or free standing table for all-round examination and shearing of large animals. c, An in-situ animal pen with flexible shower fitting for washing large animals, d. A ceiling ring.for hoisting large animals, e, Washable surfaces and floor drainage, f, Power outlets should be at approximate 250 em high above floor level,_ g , This space will include small animal rooms and large animal rooms acting as animal despatch room. 3, Animal quarantine room All in-coming animals must be quarantined. This area must be divided into a series of small rooms for flexible use and to limit the spread of infection, Quarantine rooms and washing and changing lobby are main elements, The requirements are : a. The quarantine area must have direct external and internal access. Both entries should be arranged as air locks with. electrically interlocking pairs of doors, b, Washing and changing lobby should contain a lavatory 62

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oas-in and . . 3'pac.e for changing into protective top clothing. c. Animal should include a cold water faucet for fill ing drinking bottles, etc, 4. Air lock Air locks are required at entry points to certain types of accommodation and as part of the barrier in Barrier Maintained Units. Double doors enclosing air locks should be controlled by electrical interlocking devices to ensure that only one door is ever opened at a time, The size of air lock should be large enough to pass through for trolley, and mobile cage racks, The air. lock can include a lavatory basin and hooks for protective top clothing if necessary. 5, Goods storage room This storage. rocrm should open from delivery areas designed to receive goods.directly from goods vehicles, Seperated rooms should be provided for food, bedding and cages, And this space should be duplicated in the clean areas where goods have been sterilized. Internal access points to this area should be protected by air locks, 6. Food preparation room The space should be provided to prepare minced and cooked diet for certain cats, dogs, and primates, A suitably equipped work top with either a seperate cooker or built in cooking rings is required. Sink, storage cupboards, shelves, refrigerator, freezer cabinet are required. 63

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7, Cage cleaning The o . f cages will take place in the pass ... autoclaves. linking the maintained unit and outer zones. The used cages from a dirty end to a clean end, the clean end should have direct access to clean cage storage. Tunnel cage washer will be used to wash dirty cages first. tunnel ... ... cage , washer used ----1 cages if still dirty washing cycle dirty zone II II II partition II II II pass-through autoclaves II II II II II II II II II II II II clean cage storage clean zone A cage hosing; bay can be ado p t ed in the dirty zone to enable encrusted dirt to be removed prior to passing through the washing machine, The sterilization of bottles, food, and bedding also will take place in this area. Bottle washing machines are required and closely associated with the cage cleaning areas. 64

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8, Staff changing room . Tl'l.:ts-a-rea s-taff ent-rance, locke-r rooms, changing rooms, toilets, s . howe-rs, and pass th-rough shower suits, Pass through shower suits-comprising shower cubicles form an essential part of the ba-r-rier between barrier maintained zones and the outer dirty zone, Operating theatre suite This suite is used for surgery on large animals and primates. The following spaces will be included in this suite. 9. Anaesthetic room This room is provided for preparation of animals, including shaving and induction of anesthesia for 10, Preparation room This area is for clean-up and sterilization of instruments, preparation of packs, and dressing and gowning. 11, Recovery room This space should open off the operating rooms. 12. Surgical suite This suite should include 2 small operating rooms providing for research to individual faculty working with one or two other people on special experiments. Movable animal operating tables and fixed ceiling lights should be provided. The entire area should have conductive flooring, proof electrical outlets, and humidity control, 65

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13 , X -.:-ray room room should provide a diagnostic machine, fluoroscope, and have capability for developing films. 66

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Schedule of space and area requirements ( Animal quarter ) Description Staff changing room Office Animal reception & exam, room Animal quarantine room Goods reception room Goods storage room Disposal room Common area ( dirty zone ) Common area C clean zone ) Cage cleaning area Clean cage storage Foof preparation room Food storage ( clean zone ) Small animal room Large animal room Infected animal room Insulated room Diagnostic laboratory Anaesthetic room Preparation room Changing room Recovery room Surgical room X-ray room Dark room Total gross area 67 unit area C mt.) 40 30 30 30 25 40 20 50 40 60 40 20 20 25 40 30 30 30 15 15 10 10 20 15 10 unit 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 total area 40 30 30 60 25 4 0 20 50 40 60 40 2 0 20 200 1 2 0 30 30 30 15 15 10 20 40 15 10 1010

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oco Staff chan ing rooms Office Staff facilities Food oreoaration room Small animal rooms Lar e animal rooms Infected animal room X-ray room Dark room M e chanical room Air locl(s 41 very close connection close connection 0 no connection MATRIX OF FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS

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31 and l, Computer room This is for communal use of computer to proceed the data analysis and the preparation of chart, Acoustic treatment and air conditioning are necessary, 2, Snack bar Most people will bring their own lunch, and food can be dangerous in certain types of laboratory research. A place for lunch usa should be provided at which researchers can eat away from his place of work. The snack bar with limited food service serves as an informal meeting place, and is open for restricted hours, A vending machine serving for 24 hours per day is necessary and should be close with snack bar. 3. Library Open-stack will be adopted as design concept. Book stacks and reading spaces should carefully arrange to enhance the atmosphere of study. Air conditioning is necessary, 69

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Schedule of 3pace and area requirements ( Common-us-e facilities and Library ) Description unit area total ( mz) unit area Unassigned laboratory 40 2 80 Unassigned office 20 3 60 Unassigned conference room 20 1 20 30 1 30 40 1 40 50 2 100 60 1 60 Computer room 60 1 60 Storage 30 2 60 Subtotal 510 Lecture room 240 1 240 Guest room 20 1 20 Subtotal 260 Library 250 1 250 Study cubicles 10 6 60 Office 40 1 40 Storage 20 1 20 Subtotal 370 Snack bar 60 1 60 Total gross area 1200 70

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4} Workshop, and Mechanical room l, Space for secretarial pools and typing pools should be provided in administration office, and will act as central record room, 2, File room will store research materials, reprints, and related materials, 3. Printing shop is for bulk production of laboratory manuals, booklets, news releases, letters and forms. Sprinkler system should be provided, 4. Maintenance shops should provide spaces for wood, metalworking, electrical, and plumbing, 5! Receiving and. store3" s hould have direct access to perimeter road, rooms for flammable solvents, and anesthetic gas are required. Loading dock should havaa hydraulic lift at.one point to bring heavy objects. The freight elevator for vertical movement o f supplies is necessary, 71

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Schedule of and area requirements (Administration, Workshop, and Mech, room ) Description Deants office Deputy deants office Secretary office Conference room Administration office Security office Central monitor room Service room room Mail processing room File room Storage Subtotal Print shop Loading dock Office Storage Maintenance shop Subtotal Power plant A/C room Mech. room Subtotal Total gross area 72 unit area C 30 30 20 50 100 15 40 15 10 10 30 40 50 30 20 ' 50 80 60 50 60 unit 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 total area 30 30 20 so 100 15 40 15 10 10 60 40 420 50 30 20 50 80 190 60 50 60 170 830

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(41 and Materials Since the possiola damagea to the building result from earthquakes or typhoons in Taiwan area,.. this project will adopt the reinforced concrete framing as the. basic building structure for all included buildings, (Reinforced concrete structure is a very prevalent construction type in Taiwan, ) Red brick will be used as filling for exterior walls or as ior partitions. The space between. sill-level and shading devices will use tempered glazed windows in aluminum framing following the module, Research laboratory 1, Finishes a, All interior materials and finishings should be in relation to. the particular function of the research being undertaken, b. Finishings should be standardized as far as possible to simply maintenance and replacement, 2. Ceiling a, Ceiling in laboratories need not be finished, only a good quality of emulsion paint, so utility runs can remain exposed for reduction in cost and easy of maintenance. b, Gloss paint or sprayed plastic finish can be used if a high degree of cleanliness is required. 73

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3, a. Flooring materials should have the usual properties of durability and of maintenance but, in addition, they be to most chemicals likely to be 3pilled and should oe easily washable, b, Resilent flooring such as vinyle or vinyl....asbestos tile having well welded joints is preferable. Quarry tile and terrazzo, resistant to chemicals and spills, are also suitable,. c. Floors should idearly be jointless or have as few joints as possible and avoid speeage from these joints to the subfloor or ceiling void below, Joinyless floor such as epoxy. resine is costly J only limited to special areas as required. 4. Walls a, Partitions between rooms should be easily movable without great expense. b. Brick walls and removable metal partitions can be used but metal partitions are rather expensive, 5. Laboratory worktops Many different materials such as solid teak, particle board with laminated plastics veneers, linleum, p.v.c,, polythene, vitreous tile, epoxy resins, stainless steel, can be used on benchtops depending on the type of work being carried out. 74

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Animal 1, a, Finishes should be robust, washable , and easy to maintain. b. All surfaces must be accessible for cleaning, c, Flooding and leakage should be taken into account. d, Exposed electrical conduit should be fixed on distant pieces, 2. Ceiling a, Gloss paint finishes are preferable, b. False ceiling should be avoided, 3, Floors a. Sometimes concrete floors will appear cracks, it is not satisfactory, b. Terrazzo tile is a good material for flooring in animal facilities,. but it will become slippery when wet, c. A layer of proof material or a diaphram should be laid underneath the floor , d. The floor should have an adequate slope to the floor drain because floor drain is essential in any room for large animals. 4, Walls a, Walls should have a hard and finish. b. Concrete finished cement enamel or tile are preferable. Sprayed plastic film also can cocoon the internal surfaces and is relied upon to provide a seal across cracks which 75

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may occur. c, The wall to floor junction should be covered, to eliminate one crack which is particularly likely to be attract ive to and other vermin, d! In the corridors a curbing at the bottom of the wall should be provided to protect the paint from the assault of racks and other movable equiprnents being propelled by energentic personnel. 5, Doors a. All seams should be welded to prevent infestation by arthropods .. b, External doors and some interal doors and corridors should have removable barriers to prevent the entry and movement of wild rodent , 76

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(5) Use of site The primary objectives of the Basic Medical Research Center are education, research, and s ervice, So the site is chosen to close the School of Medicine and the University Hospital, i.e. in the left side of the proposed Medical Centre, The allocation has dual advantages of facilitating cooperation between the research organizations and the medical staff on special problems, and making easily available special courses and advanced study to the research personnel, There is only one research center the Basic Medical Research Center in this site. The clinical research center and the anatomic laboratory are parts of the University Hospital, The public health research center is in the School of A continuous overbridge or underpass will be used in future to uni unite the University Hospital, the School of Medicine, and the Research Center into a complete medical complex. The land use category of this site is cultural and educational zone. The maximum horizontal projected area of the building to the site is 40 % . The parking lot will adopt surface parking . The parking area must meet the requirements of building code. Site planning should consider the different activities and occupancies of every buildings, the entrance ofv visitors, staff staff, animals, and services, and the climatic and environ mental factors, 77

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Th e qualitative analysis of the mai n entr y of site is shown belowt Discription East South North Traffic flow of frontal road 0 • • Accessibility from downtown area 0 • • Accessibility from suburban area 0 • • The width of frontal road • 0 Noise • 0 Cold wind protection 0 Continuity to medical complex 0 • Heavy, unconvenient Medium 0 JJight' convenient The main entrance to site should be from east side ( Shengli Road ) • 78

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DESIGN ANALYSIS

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SITE The basic goals of this research center are 1. education 2. research 3, service, Therefore, it should be easily accessible for the faculties and the students of the School of Medicine, the physicians of the University Hospital, and the relative medical staff from other institutions and hospitals. Overbridge is used to link this research center and the School of Medicine, The public mass transportation go along the Shaotung road (south side of this site). People from main campus also will use the intersection on the southeast corner of this site, Services are from west side (private fire alley, 8 m wide). SERVICE RELATED MEDICAL STAFF SITE THE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL & THE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE RELATED MEDICAL STAFF & PEOPLE FROM MAIN CAMPUS 79

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Therefore, a direct access from the southeast corner to this research center should oe taken into account, SITE ' r::J:'\ v _.. .. SHAOTUNG ROAD MAIN CAMPUS A planned plaza on the southeast corner will provide both a transition from the busy street to this research center and a pleasant place relating to entire building. Building will be allocated around the plaza. To seperate the vehicular zone from the pedestrian area (plaza), grounding parking lot is on the north side of the building. 80

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PARKING LOT PLAZA 45 car spaces are minimal requirement by code. There are two ways to treat the plaza : 1. open corner (direct access through plaza )1 2. close corner (indirect access around plaza). DIRECT ACCESS INDIRECT ACCESS 81

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The shortcomings of close corner method are : 1. It forces people to remote route, This is not cooridi nated with human nature -like short cut, 2. People will not nave directive chance to participate, and to enjoy the plaza, although the close corner method will make a complete corner space, A direct access through the plaza, therefore, will be adopted in the plaza design. To relief the regid feeling of rectangular space, circular shape will be introduced into the plaza design, too. BUILDING The principal function of this research center is for advancement of knowledge and training of relative medical staff. Therefore, how to achieve a comfortable environment will be the main concern of this design. Generally speaking, an ideal research work surroundings includes 2 important aspects 1. Humanistic side -the relationship of people to people. 2. Scientific side -the relationship of people to work. How to increase the chance of communication among researchers is the main topics of humanistic side, i,e, how to provide regular and informal meeting spaces for the researchers through the adequate arrangement of spaces, Reqular meeting spaces are conference rooms, and lecture room, 82

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Informa-l meeting spaces are lounge, liorary, multipurpose-use room, and snack oar, etc, Considering psychological effect, the nest science take place if the researchers interact under relaxed condition, Therefore, a suitable allocation of lounge should De concerned with care, Most researchers will spend about 6 hours per day in laboratory work, The lounge area, therefore, should be easy to access from laboratories, i,e, lounge area has a close tie with laboratories, The main issues of scientific side is how to reach the sufficient considerations of medical systems. An efficient research laboratory design should consider adaptability means the building must have the capaoility to satisfy the research operational needs, allowing for variations Doth in research projects and in occupancy, There are 3 interactive factors 1. flexibility -space use pattern, 2. capability -utility systems, 3. expansibility -space and utilities for future extension. Module is adopted in this design to meet above considerations. Basic module is 330 em by 330 em, One laboratory unit contains two basic modules. 83

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PAS SHAY 1 2 Benches can be expanded to minimize the passway zone, and to increase bench space, PASSWAY MINIMAL DIS TANCE BY CODE OR EMPIRICAL CRITERIA 1 I ' 1 ' 2 A recommended bench space per person is 3.5 4.5 linear meters, I ,,, I . . ,: ' Every laboratory unit will house at least 3 persons, one resear-ch leader, one assistant, and one graduate student. Every four laboratory units form a laboratory cluster, and circle a service shaft. Demountable partitions are used in between. 84

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Fume hood chases are clustered with two laboratory units and are on the opposed with service shaft, SERVICE MAINS The service spin system allows considerable variations to be made to the layout of the bench with minimal inconvenient. MECH. ROOM & POWER PLANT HORIZONTAL SUB VERTICAL MAIN 85

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HVAC system runs along corridors and passways, Every laboratory unit can be expanded in two directions if that is required by projects or occupancies, The selection of utility distribution systems strongly influence the configuration of laboratory building design and cost. The schematic diagram of exhaust duct for hume cupboards. ) I TO FILTER ( OR TREATMENTS ) l ROOFTOP 5 4 3 2 1 86

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The schematic diagram of mechanical service shaft. 5 4 3 2 1 1 BASEMENT ( SERVICE CHANNEL ) Acid water or other polluted liquid will oe treated first ( at mechanical room on the basement ), and then drain away into sewer drainage system. Concepts derived from above considerations will have four advantages 1, compact plan to reduce cost, 2 . short mechanical runs, 3. short walking distance of laboratory work, and 4. easy to installation, maintenance, and alteration. Another important idea that should be concerned is pool system. Space having similar function should be put together to save initial cost and required space, Laboratory building comprises 5 primary spaces 1. laboratories, 2 . laboratory supports -ancillary speciallized rooms and controlled environment rooms. 87

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3. offices, 4. lounge, 5. utility systems, LOUNGE .... I .... LABORATORIES OFFICES .... _A,.. I l .... UTILITY LAB SYSTEM SUPPORTS Other secondary spaces are : 1. circulation-stair, fire exit,elevations for people, freight, and animals, and any space used for access. 2 . stores, 3 . service and staff rooms -cleaner's room, rest room, changing room, etc. The vertical space relationship derived from the concept of space blocks is : 88

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VERTICAL CIRCULATION ROOFTOP MECH. RM. 5 PHARMACOLOGY 4 PHYSIOLOGY 3 PATHOLOGY FACILITIES 2 BIOCHEMISTRY LECTURE RM, LIBRARY 1 MICROBIOLOG' ... IMMUNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, ANIMAL QUARTERS B NORKSHOP, MECH, RM., & PRINTSHOP Main lobby should be easily accessible from three ways: 1. plaza, 2 parking lot, 3. pedestrian along east side ( Shengli Road), ANIMAL QUARTERS How to use barrier to seperate animal quarters into dirty zone and clean zone should be considered first, Air locks are the main elements of barrier, other are autoclaves, etc, 89

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BARRIER ENTRANCE ANIMAL RECEPTION ANIMALS 1" . ANIMAL y QUARANTINE OFFICE Cfi.ANGING { } ROOM i / OPERATING THEATER SUITE ANIMAL ROOMS GOODS GOODS RECEPTION GOODS STORAGE > CLEANING ROOM CLEAN STORAGE RM. l FOOD PREPARATION ROOM SPACE RELATIONSHIP OF ANIMAL QUARTERS 90

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HVAC SYSTEM. : Central station air conditioning system services laboratories and surrounding areas, individual package systems are used in library and lecture room, Animal quarters also have individual HVAC system to meet the requirements of complete environmental control. Return air also will be carefully considered ( exhaust or not, depending on space features and requirements). STRUCTURAL SYSTEM All space will follow basic modular grid 330 em by 330 em, Basic structural module is 660 em by 660 em. Alterative space module is 330 em by 660 em if it is required by architectural functions. Reinforced concrete framing with construction method is the main structural. system, 91

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COOLING TOWER ROOF CONDENSER REFRIGERANT CYCLE COMPRESSOR CHILLER HOT WATER [ ElECTRIC SOURCE BOILER CENTRAL STATION [ A T ROOF I I I I I I I I SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF HVAC SYSTEM TWO FANS AT EACH FLOOR [ INTERNAL ZONE & EXTERNAl ZONE I INDIVIDUAl FANS FOR ANIMAL OUARTER. LIBRARY. & LECTURE ROOM. ----------------• ITO OR FROM L-----------A I C ROOM AT EACH FLOOR I L,.__ __ __Jt----+-HWR---------PREHEAT COOLING COil COIL REHEAT COil AIR HANDLING UNIT [AT EACH FlOOR I SUPPLY FAN HUMIDIFIER CONDITIONED AIR nnr ' ' '

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2 2 2 2 '() w 3 2 2 2 2 1 LAIHATIIRY • STICK Ill . 2 OfFICE 10 IIFIIGEIIATU. Ill. 3 CIWEIEIICE Rll. u CEIITRIFUGE IW. 4 LOUIIGE 12 STIUiil e IWK Ill. 13 STIRAGE (FUTURE FACILITY l • WAIICE Rll. 14 AIIIIIAL RM. 1 COLD Rll. 11 SPECIAL PROJECT Ill . • SECRETARY OFFICE 1 • AIC Rll. 2 2 2 2 EXTERNAL FAN ZONES .AIR RETURN THRU CEILING PLENUM. LABORATORY ZONES, A I R EXHAUST FROM FUME HOODS. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF MECH. SYSTEM ( FIFTH FLOOR PLAN) • VAV BOX INTERNAL ZONE FAN IIIII EXTERNAL ZONE FAN INT. ZONE DUCTS XT. ZONE DUCTS . 121 FUME HOOD CHASE m PIPE CHASE PIPING SERVICES C8:l AIR CHASE

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Research center is as a place to think, Theref o re, the a rcl].itec..-. ture should somehow encourage interdisciplinary discussions and the casual meeting of diverse groups, things which do not necessarily occur during the course of work, And a successive architectural design o f research laboratories is that architecture to good research. It,therefore, should solve technical needs in a humanisti c way, Design solution of this project will put its best in achieving goals stated above. 94

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DESIGN SOLUTION

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Tu&FEJG MIAO .... .. GEIURAl IIDSPITAL D SIIAUTIIIIG ROAD SITE PLAN BASIC MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTER NAT'L CHENG-KUNG UNIVERSITY, TAIWAN, ROC 95 0 . . . 5 11 21 . UNIVERSITY Of COLORADO AT DENVER SPRING. 1984 ANPING LIU

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SliVICE EMTUIICE t •L.\IIIAATDIIY 10FFit( ICIIIFUutE IM. •LDUIIGl • 0.\RI( lit tHECTI[MitiiOStOPt: IUil t CILDIIIl •STOCK 1M. MIIIUIIEOlTIII 1111. IITISSUESTMIIIJiilliiiiiBIOIIGIUII. 11STIJIAGl •ICLU M UPIIW. ,.STERilE Rill 11.\Noo.J.IN. ".Vt lit KIIITOI Ill •l.US WASIIIIG llol IIIIIAiti'RDCESS RM. 20 liU.\MIIIFtE "DUM'S OFFICE nii(I'UfYill . tJrs DfFIU :QIJti.\SUiiiEDDffi:E I TTP!IIi mHI 2e Allllll.\l IIEtEI'TIIIII (IAMIII.\TIIN n UIIAI.OU..wJITliiE 2tSTMF CIIAIIGIN G liM. 7tt.\liEQ.E MII & 11M. ,, IIIAGIIISTJC lAI , I IU IM. n UMIM. :J.OAIIAUflllltllltl :)&JI[COYU'f Rll :MPRW.RAIIlNIUil. USURGk:.tJ.IM. x KHtll • wCUAISTt'II.\SE .oSM All .umw RW. ••LANiEAIIM,\liiM , .,JIIfECHD ,UIIM.U Rlri4. FIRST FLOOR PLAN BASIC MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTER NAT'L CliNG-KUNG UNIVERSITY, TAIWAN, ROC 96 0 ...... '1 2 34 . II . , . UNIVERSITY O F COLORADO AT DENVER SPruNG. 1984 ANPilli LIU

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D j 0 r-• UMDIIIi AREA • o\/CIDOM . . tOffiCl 'MIITIPUII'IIU ROOM l WIIIKSHOP •SIACIW • I Utll. 1100111 •STOI.Ui! IOF/l(lll. BASEMENT r=== J--I:JJ 1 t!Ilt!Ilt!Il .r= r== 1 Tt1 l l.lilll Fro r=== ()) II ,, ---.j-A A SECTION I L l .lo (f) r== F= eEl IJ. b ,----hit. V71Ail l o h>n u 4M 6 1(!)1 I I I t """' II oo lr B B SECT ION BASIC MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTER UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER SPRING, 1984 NAT'L CHENG-KUNG UNIVERSITY, TAIWAN, ROC ...... . • ANPING LIU 112 145 II " 100

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BASIC MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTER IIAT'L CHEIIG-KUIIG UIIIVERSITY, TAIWAII, ROC 101 ...... II ZlH NORTH ELEVATION WEST ELEVAT ION SOUTH ELEVATION EAST ELEVATION . . 15 ll1 U NIVERSITY Of COLORAOO AT OE•VER SPRIIIG. 1984 ANPIN G LIU

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• ===<{) ...... SWTICE 1r I SUWWII SOU:TtE
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... ... $DUTIC f-!0 I IV> W IU sasta BASIC MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTER NAT'L CHENG-KUNG UNIVERSITY, TAIWAN, ROC 103 ELEVATION L.o PlAN ELEVATION 1PlAN SIJ,!t.I( R SILSHCE NORTH FACADE SUMI.IER /SilSTICf J SECTION AT1PM.Silllll SECTION EAST & SOUTH FACADE FENESTRATION STUDY ( 1) UNIVERSITY OF COLORAOO AT OE!VER SPRING. 1984 . . l , . A!PIIIi UU

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1n

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APPENDIX

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BIBLIOc;RAPRY Bell, George H, ; 11 Hospital & Medical School Design "', vol, 1 & 2; E. & S. Livington Ltd,; London ; 1962 Bennett, Robert ; n Sun Angles for Design 't; Robert Bennett; Bala Cynwyd, PA ; 1978 De Chiara, Joseph ( ed, ) ; " Time-Saver Standard for Building Types" ; ; New York, N.Y. ; 1973 Dodge, F.W. ; " Building for Research w ; F,W, Dodge Co, 1958 u.s.A. Dixon, John ; " Architectural Des-ign Review "' ; Reinhold Publishing Co, ; New York, N.Y. 1962 Fry, Maxwell & Jean Drew '' Tropical Architecture in The Dry & Humid Zones " ; Reinhold Publishing Co, ; New York, N.Y. ; 1964 Frasca, Robert J. ; "Don't Call It Post.-Modern " Technology ; Spring 1984 ; p. 6-13 Architectural Harris, David ; " Planning & Designing The Office Environment " Van Nostrand Reinhold Co, ; New York, N.Y. ; 1981 Harrell, George T, ; tl Planning Medical Center Facilities rt State Univ, Press ; University Park, Penn, ; 1974 The Penn, Haines, Charles ; 11 Planning The Scientific Laboratory " Co, ; 1950 F,W. Dodge Jensen, Robert ; " Research Laboratories " 1969 ; p, 135-141 107 Architectural Record

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Kleczkowski, B ,M, & R, 'Pi.Douleau ; Appreaches to Planning & Design of Health Care Facilities in Developing Areas \1 1 val, 1 ; World Health Organization ; Geneva 1976 Mills, Edward ; " Planning "" Building for Health, Wealfare, & Religion " ; Robert E, Y.rieger PuBlishing Co, ; New York, N.Y. 1976 Mills, Edward '' Planning Building for Education, Culture, & Science " Robert E. Krieger Publishing Co, ; New York, N.Y. 1976 McCoy , Esther l l Salt Inatitute " ; p.27-34 Architectural Forum Redstone, Louis " Hospitals & Health Care Facilities " & Son ; New York, N,Y, ; 1967 October 1966 John Wiley " Flexible Partitions for Utilities AIA Journal; January 1971 p. 54 " Imagery & Symbol in Research " Architectural Record August 1969, p. 142 .... 145 " Logic & Art in Precast Concrete " Architectural Record September 1959, p. 233 " Research Raised on High " p. 72-76 Architectural Forum 108 October 1966 ,