Citation
Denver Commons : a mixed use development

Material Information

Title:
Denver Commons : a mixed use development
Creator:
Mosteller, Bruce
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Bruce Mosteller. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
Hi


ARCHTTECJLRE
°A MIXED LEE DEVEOVENE
E3S BRJCERMCSIHIBL DESIGNER
N*
0


Architecture Thesis
"The Architect as Developer"
A Mixed-Use Project in the Denver Skyline Urban Renewal Area University of Colorado at Denver, Spring/Fall Semester 1979-80
Presented by
Bruce R. Mosteller
Dali Due
3-7 .



• _ * i . • -


To my w i fe
made these
Jan, who, with her patience and understanding years in school possible.


Acknowledgement is made for the use of material, maps, and graphs to the following......
The Denver Planning Office
Skyline Urban Renewal Authority
N0AA Environmental Data Service
Denver Public Library
Real Estate Research Corp.


TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE
1 . INTRODUCTION
A. Statement of Intent 1
B . Purpose of Research 1
1 1 . SITE ANALYSIS
A. Locat i on 3
B . Topog raphy
C. Flood Plain 5
D. Climate 6
E . C i ty Zon i ng 9
F. Bui 1d i ng Code 9
G. Downtown Districts 11
H. Downtown Development Plan 11
1 . Skyline Land Use Plan 17
1 1 . MARKET ANALYSIS
A. Summary of Conclusions 18
B . Analysis of Market Conditions 19
C. Ongoing and Anticipated Deve1opements 28
D. Presentation of Market Recommendations 28
E. Application to Subject Site 29
IV. PROGRAMMING
A. User and Market 31
B. Dwelling Units and Commercial Space 31
C. Space Considerations 31
D. Bui 1di ng 33
E. Economi cs 3**
V. DESIGN ANALYSIS
A. Backg round 35
B . 1ssues 35
C. Cons i derat i ons 36


TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont.)
VI . DESIGN SCHEMAT ICS
A. Floor Plans
B. Sections
C. Axonometrics
VII. CONCLUSIONS
A. Coord i nate Unit
VIII. BIBLIOGRAPHY
PAGE
39
48
50
54
55


PAGE
8
21
22
24
25
26
27
3
A
5
7
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15
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39
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53
54
Normal Means and Extremes Comparison of Population Estimates Households by Income 1985, Projected Projection of Household Market Base CBD Floor Composition thru 1995 Employment Projections Vacancy Survey
Central Area Neighborhoods Topography Downtown Flood Plain Lower Downtown Solar swings on Site Land Zones
Land use and Density Land use and Mixed Use Design and Street Scape Transportat i on
Site Plan
Parking Upper Level
Parking Lower Level
Retail Street Level
Retail PIaza ILeve 1
Office Lower Level
Office Upper Level
Residential Lower Level
Residential Upper Level
Larimer/Market Streets Section
I6th/17th Streets Section
Exterior Axonometric
Interior Axonometric
Mechanical Schematic
Model Photograph from 16th Street
Model Photograph of Site Context


NOOTCQJ


1
INTRODUCTION
A. Statement of Intent
To act as the architect-entrepreneur in a mixed-use development near lower downtown Denver, in the Skyline Urban Renewal Area. The issues are contingent on John C. Portman's philosphy of real estate and architecture of 'creating an environment that is more responsive to the needs of the ordinary
person"......seems to grow "quite naturally out of designing for commercial
uses". Therefore the intent is to create a fine work of architecture and a better environment. The fact that the real estate industry is the major force shaping our surroundings, but has done little to recognize its responsibility to the environment, and since development accounts for more than two-thirds of all the building here, the architect needs to understand how different design changes the building's financial feasibility.
Purpose of Research
The improvement of raw land occurs through the development process, which can be a highly creative process analogous to design. In fact both the design process and the development process are quite intertwined in the physical ingredients of land and building. However there is not a complete environment created in which people can live, until the financial and marketing resourses are added. These many resourses are involved with a process which is quite synergistic, and in the end provides a complete environment which is economic cally sound, aesthetically pleasing, and responsive to the environment. The fundamentals which make up this process are marketing, finance, planning and design, construction, merchandising, and property management, and they must all work together to create an environment which can become a viable entity of i ts own.
Effective decision making is the key to the process, and is based on more than just an understanding of social and economic forces. There has to be a system-matic program of collecting and evaluating market financial and physical data which are directly related to the specific decision to be made. The beginning tools of evaluation are the market studies which forcast the future demand for the project, feasibility studies which determine the overall desirability of


2
proceeding with the project, and the appraisal, which has been limited to the inital estimate of value and is more than likely the first response to the total process. This initial market analysis as used today is used as a starting point, and is not to be construed for the full determination of the projects feasibility. However, this limitation reduces the opportunities to provide a full determination of the finished project during the initial stage.


SITE ANALYSE


3
II. SITE ANALYSIS A. location
The half-block parcel equally 48,510 square feet, consists of the southwest half of
block number three in the Skyline Urban Renewal area, located in the Union Station Neighborhood. It is one of the last parcels not under construction in the Skyline area. Note location on the Central Area Neighborhood Map.
SITE LOCATION
Map 1


*4
B. Topography
There is an even gradual slope down from the street. The parcel is used as a parking lot at the present time and is paved with asphalt.
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SITE LOCATION
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C. FIood Plain
The flood hazard area delineation for Cherry Creek indicates that no part of the Lower Downtown is in the 100 year flood plain. Current plans for improv-ments to the Cherry Creek channel from Cherry Creek dam to the confluence are under consideration.
FLOOD PLAIN
SITE
LOCATION
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6
D. Climate
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoonsof summer at lower altitudes. Wind is lessened by the proximity of the mountains. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver's weather: polar air from Canada and the far northwest; moist air from the from the Gulf of mexico, warm dry air from Mexico and southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage overland.
Spring is the wettest, cloudiest and the windiest season. Much of the 39% annual total precipitation that occurs in spring, falls as snow during the colder periods of the season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that removes previous snow cover. Severe storms usually arrive from the northeasterly winds.
Summer precipitation, particularly in July and August, usually falls from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day.
Autumn is the most pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are over and invasions of cold air and severe weather are still infrequent so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any other time of the year. Winter has less precipitation, only about 11^ of the annual total and almost all of it snow. There is more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than other seasons.


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KilTUDE 104 53’ ■
VATION (ground ) 5i-’H3 Feet
NORMALS, MEANS AND EXTREMES
(Table Revised 1968. Base Period for Climatological Normals: 1931-1960)
8
at'ire
Precipitation
Normal Extremes 6 - X> c tr 4 D •V E c z 7 , i *• >- ^ -E £ r* c - o y. e
E >■ § Q E D.,ly minimum | JZ c c y •u V c }■ 4 ? a. m w 6 r c V i « 4 >- 0 1 1 E .1 V E £ *> 0 y e •e «. >- h % N y 9. * | £ 1
lb) (b) (b) 8 8 (b) tb) 33 33 33 jjj
*2.1 1 * • 8 28.5 65 1966♦ i - 2 5 1 963 1 1 32 0.55 1 .** 1 9*8 0.01 1952 1 .02 1 962 8. 7 j
**.6 10.3 31.5 76 1 961 -IP l 962 938 0.69 1.66 I960 0.03 19*9 1.01 1 953 8. 3 1
*9.9 22.8 36.* e 3 1 963 - * 1 96? 887 1.2 1 2.89 1 9** 0.13 19*5 i .*e 1 959 12.61
60.5 12. 3 *6 . * 8* 1 965 1 3 1 966 558 2.11 *.17 1 9-2 0.03 1 963 3.25 1 967 ’•’i
70.5 *1.8 56.2 91 1 96* 26 1 967 2 88 2.70 7.31 1957 0. 3* 1 966 3.29 1 957 1 • 7 I
82.0 51.0 66.5 96 1 963 *0 1 961 66 1 .** *.69 196 7 0.10 19*0 2.77 1 965 ’ 1
88.* 57.* 72.9 99 1 96 3 ♦ *6 1 961 b 1.53 b.*l 1 965 0. 1 7 1939 2.*? 1965 0.0|
86.8 56.2 71.5 100 1 96? *1 1 96* 9 1.28 * • * 7 1 951 0.06 1 960 3.*3 1951 o.o!
79.0 *7.0 63.0 97 I960 29 1 961 117 1.13 *.67 1961 T 1 9** 2.** t 936 1.6
66.6 36.2 51 .* 8 7 l V67* 19 1 96* * ? 8 1 .01 3.-1 1 9*7 0.05 1962 1.71 1 9*7 2.9
51.7 23.6 37.7 7* 1 967* - 2 1 961 819 0.69 2.97 19*6 0.01 19*9 1.0? 1 9*6 7 . *
*5.2 18.0 31.6 71 1 96* -16 1 961 1035 0 . * 7 1.50 1 960 0.0* 19*6 0.70 19*1 5.8
AUG. JAN. MAV SEP. AUG.
6 3.9 35.0 *9.5 100 1962 -25 1 963 6 2 8 1 1 * . 6 1 7.31 1 957 T 19** 3.*3 1951 58.3
2 3.7| I 9*8
13•6|1950 0.3 1951
c.oj
•
2 I . 3 1 V >6 11.9 1959 39.1 1956 17.8 196-
NCV. 19-6
12.*'1962
9.5 195)
lfc.3 1952
1 7.), 1957 10.7!1950
0 . » ; 19 51
o.c I
0
19.- 19)6
9.2 19*2 15.5 19*6
8.6 195*
SIP. 1936
Relative humidity Wind X r
r Sunrise
Fastest mile 4 *> to
Ci > h. sunset
5,11 511 AM A M 1 PM 1 FV Standard t ime used: MOUNTAIN 1 i l Si K ~ TJ II, 1 o. r i in I d •i 4 . m fi. C. 1 IT 2 •" j 5 : 4 C y i j 0 . >- 5 o a. o •o 6 U
7 7 V » 19 15 1 8 1 8 18 19 » 33 3)
60 *7 61 9.6 s M NW 1951 73 5.* 10 10 1 1
67 *5 *6 66 9. 7 s *9 NW 1953 71 5.0 8 9 1 1
6P *2 *1 6* 10.3 s 53 NW 1 95 2 71 5.9 8 1 1 12
65 35 31 56 10.6 s 56 N> I960 65 6.1 6 1 1 1 3
66 37 36 58 9. « 5 - 1 Sw 1 964* 6* 6.3 <> 1 2 1 3
75 *2 *c 66 9. ) s *7 5 70 '•> 9 1 3 8
n 36 36 59 9. 7 s 56 Sw 1965 72 *.9 9 16 6
69 37 36 59 8.5 s *2 5- 1 96? 72 *.9 10 1* 7
71 *0 36 62 8.* * *7 N- i 955 75 *.3 1 3 ic 7
59 30 30 5* 8. 3 s *5 Nw 1950 76 *.? 1 3 1 0 B
t 7 *2 *8 6* 8.9 s *8 w 1962 66 5.2 1 1 10 9
65 ** 51 6* 9. 3 s 51 NC 1953 68 5.2 1 1 10 10
JUL .
67 39 *0 61 9. 3 s 56 Sw 1 96 6 ♦ 70 5.3 1 1* 1 36 1 1 5
Mean number of Hay*
c £
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uq
•i i
11;
Temperatur»9
«ls!
51 26 *1 26; • ! l-'
li For period August I960 through the current year.
Means and extremes in the above table are from the existing and comparable locations. Annual extremes have been exceeded at other locations as follows
Highest temperature 105 In August 1878. lowest temperature -30 In February 1936; maximum monthly precipitation 8 57 In May 1876, minimum monthly precipitation 0.00 In De NORMALS, MEANS AND EXTREMES
(Table Revised 1975. Base Period for Climatological Normals: 1941-1970)
Temperature. rF Norm,. Precaution in inches Relative humidity pet. Wind ? f M*«n number of daw — Avwraye station
" T > f pressure
“”~l E*t rrrw, Water equivalent Soo*. Ice rieiieti i 1 i 1 X 1 f eitett mile i t 5 Sunnae to aurnri ,? • c E 11 Ma» M - mb
i ; i X _ i l i J V b lb) Eiev
E ! f 1 E r E - E T f - S3 111 17 21 P | % * 6 > O £ t b 3332
_>!! <5 f 1 1 ■? i o f : 1 III i a r j > « ! ,c - i i r « u • 1 E £ h k > ll It > I i n Si 4 ► 1 £ 1 i k > 5 S k > I Hoc a nmr ) If II If i > i? 1! k • G > o k ? a. w 1 G c 1 l -a ° « ? 1 X J t x • * si l l hi C- t . o hi u b B lM m 11
1 —t 1 15 13 *0 *0 .0 *0 *0 1*| 1* 1* 1* 26 13 25 23 23 26 *0 *0 *0 *0 *0 *0 3* 1* i* i* »♦" *
*3.5 j 16.2 | 29.9 69 1971 -2 3 196 3 icee 0 0.61 1.** 19*8 1952 1.0? 1962 25.7 19*8 12.* 1962 63 |*3 48 63 9.2 S *6 SN 1969 72 5.3 13 10 11 6 2 0 > 0 7 30 3 833.6
*6.2 19.* 32.8 76 1963 - » 8 1962 902 c C . 6 7 1.66 i960 1970 1.01 1933 H.J I960 ».5 1931 1932 6 7 144 44 66 9.3 s 49 N» 1951 71 8 9 11 6 1 2 0 2’’ 1 135.3
50.: 23.P 1 7 . C 64 07 1 -4 1 9t 2 hftf c 1.21 2.89 19** 1 .*8 1939 29.2 1961 16.3 69 142 *1 65 9.9 s 53 N H 1*3? 70 6.1 ■ 10 11 4 • 1 0 26 1 8 30.7
61.0 33.9 47.5 6- i«t>' .973 . • 9* 19*1 0.03 196 :• 3.25 1 •*’ 28.3 193* J 7,1 1*37 68 78 7* 39 10.* s 56 N- I960 66 6.1 7 10 11 3 1 1 0 • 1* 0 8 32.9
70. J *3.6 37.0 93 1974 26 1«72 233 5 2.6* 7.31 1937 0,06 1974 19*0 3.33 1973 13.0 1930 1 10.7 193' 7 C 38 3b V .4 3 *1 5* 1964 6* 6.1 t ii 13 1C • • 7 814.3
80.1 1 31.9) 66.0 98 1971 3s H69 80 no 1.93 4.69 1967 0.10 3.16 1970 0.3 i 1951 0.5 1951 72,39|37 6 2 9.0 S * 1956 70 9 8 9 0 10 1 3 9 0 8 36.;
87.* 1 58.6 73.0 103 1«73 * 3 1972 0 2*8 1.78 6 . * 1 1963 0.17 1939 2. *2 1963 0.0 0.0 7 2 36 56 59 8.3 S 36 Sw 1.65 70 ’ 16 6 9 0 11 • 13 0 0 0 819.)
85. 3 57.4 1 71.6 100 I9ft9 • 1 i 964 0 2C8 1-29 1931 0.06 I960 3. *3 1931 0.0 0.0 70 ! 37 33 39 8.2 s S* 1972 72 10 1* 0 8 1 10 • 838.3
77.7' *7.8 i 62.8 97 10ftO 2: 1971 120 34 1.13 4.67 1961 T 19*4 2.** 1936 21.3 1936 19.* 1 9 J 6 72 *0 37 63 8.2 s NM 1955 74 *.* 11 10 7 6 • 3 1 2 0 ‘ 838.8
66,8 3 7.2 i 52.0 B 7 1973 j 1 969 *?l 5 1.13 *.17 1969 0.05 '1962 1.71 1 947 31.2 1969 12.* 196* 66 i 36 37 60 8-2 s *3 NW 1.56 72 13 10 8 6 1 1 1 0 • 838 . )
53.3 25.* 1 39.4 78 1973 -2 1961 76» 0 0.76 2.97 19*6 0.01 19-9 1.00 1946 39.1 1946 15.3 1946 70 44131 67 8.7 s *8 * 1962 63 11 9 10 5 2 • 1 0 2 26 " 833 . 1
*6.2 ; 18.9 32.6 73 1973 -i. 1972 100* 0 0. * 3 2.8* 1973 0.0* 19*6 1.38 1973 30.8 1973 11.8 1971 66 43 1 32 63 9.0 s 51 Nfc 1*33 68 3.2 11 10 10 5 2 0 1 0 5 30 ’ 833.9
6* . 0 36.2 ( 50.1 101 JUL 1973 -25 JAN 1963 6016 630 13.31 7.31 H*V 1957 T SE> 1944 3.53 HAY 1973 19.1 NOV 1946 SAP 19.* |1936 69 *0 i*l 62 9.0 s 36 s* JUL 1963 70 3.5 m 135 in 18 18 *1 10 13 22 16* 10 8)3.6
ins .ml eurfiM'S »r,. from csistiiK .„d comp.inblc
tVs' U-miHT.tur.. 10. in Au.uj t I/78. Ii-w.-st t.mi.. ,.nu
•c.pu.tton 0.1)0 i„ I.., 1881. Msinn nrnipusti
iuf.ll in .. hour ?'..o in April 1885; i.su-st mil. of
•xpo ures. Annu/il extremes have been exceeded at other sites in the locality as - fn ir February 1°36, maximum monthly precipitation 8.57 in Mav 1876, min invar in 2* hours 6.53 in Mav 1876, maximum monthly snowfall 57.4 in December 190, ind 65 from West in May 19J1.
foilows U month Iv max i.T.vari
REFERENCE NOTES APPLYING TO TABLES APPEAR ON THE PAGE FOLLOWING LAST TABLE
(Caution: Letters and symbols may have different meanings in 194 1 1970 tables than in earlier tables. See notes.)


9
E. City Zon i ng
The Skyline Urban renewal project area is entirely within the B-5 zone district. This zone permits the city's highest density of building development, allowing a building to be constructed with a square footage ten times its lot size and providing premiums of added allowable square footage for building design having either plazas, arcades, or upper level setbacks. Off-street parking within this zone is required for new apartment construction. The B-5 zone is presently built to roughly one-third of its zoned floorspace capacity.
Special requirements for multiple unit dwellings deal with minimum square footages which do not include the kitchen or bath. For one room units a minimum of 80 square feet, for two room units, 125 square feet, and 150 square feet for three or more rooms.
F. Denver Building Code
Location is Fire Zone one. Occupancy is FI, F2, and H2 with 200 square feet per occupant for residential, 100 square feet per occupant for office and 30 square feet per occupant for retail. Exits are located at a distance of 150 feet for retail and office with a maximum of 200 feet if sprinklered. Exits are located at a distance of 100 feet for residential with a maximum of 150 feet if sprinklered. Number of exits required are two if occupancy per floor is below 500. Number of stairs required are two minimum. Corridor width minimum is kk inches. Door width minimum is 3'"01'. Stairs must maintain a 36 inch width. Travel distance to dead-end corridor limit is 30 feet. Balcony rail heights are between 30"'-3^" above nosing. Toilet room fixture requirements are six toilet fixtures per 150 persons with additional fixtures per A0 persons. Skylight requirements are for noncombustible material, glass is wired or tempered.


10
SITE
LOCATION
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North
0


11
G. Downtown Districts
The major districts are broken down in the B~5 zone, already discussed.
The Auraria higher education center which is zoned B-5.
The Lower Downtown area which is zoned B-7, this zoning retains the existing uses in the area while adding numerous new activities including residential, offices and retail. The subject site is situated on this boundry line, and should show some consideration to this transition. The Skyline Urban Renewal project area is entirely within the B-5 zone district. However the new construction conforms to the Urban Renewal Plan first and then the B~5 zone.
The two significant features of the Plan are the linear park along Arapahoe street and the system of pedestrian bridges which are linked at the second level walkways.
H. Downtown Development Plan
1. Denver and the Region
The Downtown is the hub of the Denver area Commercial, governmental, and cultural activity. Downtown is a place of employment for over 80,000 people. And an additional 82,000 people come to downtown daily for business, shopping, conventions, entertainment, education. Downtown provides about 12% of the taxable property valuation of the city and county of Denver on less than 1% of Denver's land area.
2. Development Process
Denver's downtown is designed and built in increments. Each decision for change is made either by a building developer, governmental agency, invester, architect or a business manager. The major issue becomes how to coordinate this process of building a city center more responsive to the needs of the people who work, visit, live and invest there. Downtown gualities should serve not only the business and commercial needs of the city but also as an expression of urban living. Downtown should provide a stimulation in its density and diversity. There should be interesting places for people to be because of their unique combination of urban spaces, architecture and human activity.
3. General Land Use and Density
Keeping the core area a compact high density commercial district benefits the downtown, its employees and visitors. It provides easy pedestrian movement between businesses.


12
Continuous building frontage without the interruption of driveways.
More walkways activity and visual interest for pedestrians.
The strong retail, office core is the anchor for the other interrelated activities which make up downtown.
A. Transportation
The object of the transportation system is to provide people with appropriate access to downtown places.
Arrival to downtown should be by means of express bus service, regular bus service and automobile, with parking at the edge of the core area.
Internal movement should be by means of a shuttle transit on 161h street, regular bus service, and walkways.
On street loading zones should be consolidated on the named streets where the block length is greater, to minimize conflict with autos and bus movement. Redevelopment of downtown core should bring about the removal of those alleys which are inefficient as loading area, or thier redesign for pedestrian use.
5. Design and Streetscape
The core area should be extensively pedestrianized to provide a streetscape comfortable for people walking.
Major pedestrian linkages should be established between the Auraria Center the Commercial core area and the Civic Center public buildings. Additional linkages should emphasize walkway connection to the performing arts center federal center, bus terminal, the Skyline residential area, and the neighborhoods adjacent to downtown.
Sidewalk, plaza, and thru-block walkways function as extensions of building lobbies and retail shops.
Street design must respond to the higher standards of environmental design being established by newer, single ownership commercial centers.
6. Collaborative Design
Downtown development is very much a step by step process involving numerous participants, in terms of property ownership and maintenance.
The owners and managers of the 995 downtown property parcels, together with the managers of the public streets and transit systems form the downtown development team. Close communication is required to bring about unified development.


SITE LOCATION
Hap 6.
/
/
✓


L dew
NO 11VD03 31 IS


15
(---) MAJOR DOWNTOWN
---- FUNCTIONAL AREAS
Bill INTENSIVE PEDESTRIAN SYSTEM WITHIN FUNCTIONAL AREAS
PEDESTRIAN LINKAGES BETWEEN MAJOR FUNCTIONAL AREAS
SECONDARY PEDESTRIAN LINKAGES BETWEEN ACTIVITY CENTERS
PEDESTRIAN GATEWAYS TO ADJACENT NEIGHBORHOODS
Map 8.
North


16
TRANSIT TRANSFER POINTS
—p INTERNAL TRANSIT AND PEDESTRIAN SHUTTLE SERVICE
/\ MAJOR TRAFFIC -3 C ARTERIALS
-----SERVING PERIPHERAL
PARKING FACILITIES
A TRANSIT ACCESS TO TRANSFER POINTS
North
Map 9.
✓
%


17
Skyline Land Use Plan
The basic objectives of the land use plan are to encourage and control the development of land uses, building densities, open space, pedestrian and vehicular accomodations, and other related facilities, so as to create the best possible living and working environment with a high guality urban design and desirable economic commercial development.
Off-street parking, loading and building service facilities should be located at grade and sub-surface levels.
Primary uses such as open space and pedestrian circulation should be located at elevated plaza levels. Plaza design should also include provisions for pedestrian continuity across public rights of way between blocks.
Maximum residential density is to achieve one dwelling unit for each 200 square feet of disposition parcel area. This amounts to a maximum of 2^+3 units on the proposed site.
Land area coverage for multi-unit residential use shall not exceed 25% however b0% of the disposition parcel must be devoted to landscaped open space, and not more than 50% should be devoted to surface parking.
Floor area premiums are as follows....
Five square feet of additional floor area for each square foot of plaza. Three and one-half square feet of additional floor area for each square feet of unenclosed arcade.
Two square feet of additional floor area for each square foot of enclosed arcade.
Offstreet parking for multiple unit dwellings should provide at least one for each two dwellings units. This amounts to a minumum of 1^4 parking spaces for the propsed site for residential area.


MARKET ANALYSE


18
MARKET ANALYSIS (information based on report by Real Estate Research Corp.)
A. Summary of Conclusions
Projected market support for downtown Denver housing has been based primarily on current and projected downtown Denver employment, particularly employment in professional, technical, and managerial positions but also backed up by evidence of a rapidly expanding Denver area labor market.
Market support has been refined by adjusting income data provided in the 1970 census to determine the share of households with the strongest downtown orientation which would be able to afford the relative high cost of new housing. Becasue new quality housing was not available to meet the demand in 1977-79, some of the demand for housing is more or less lost. Those households have been forced to choose other locations and will not be recovered for a long time. Thus the reasonable absorption of higher density multi-family units in and adjacent to downtown Denver range from 535-&75, in 1978-1980, and from 1000 to 1250 from 1981-1985.
Projection is that by 1983 a maximum of 1000 regular market residential units which might be constructed on the Skyline Urban Renewal sites can be absorbed. Note that 310 units will be available by the end of 1981, and that another 600 units are waiting for financial approval, or just beginning construction.
The factors which were of greatest significance in affecting the housing demand can be listed briefly as follows....
Denver has a strong and growing economic base.
Denver can be expected to continue to attract office and plants related to the energy fields.
Population has increased by at least 25% since 1970 and can be expected to grow at this rate until the 1980's.
Many new downtown structures are beginning to provide an environment which is acceptable to persons desiring the convenience of a residence near their place of downtown employment.
A continuing reduction in average household size indicates that the increase in demand for new dwelling units is greater than would be expected by population growth alone. Adult households are on the increase which could constitute a prime source of demand for new housing in downtown.


19
Vacancy rates downtown and near to downtown housing are generally lower than for the metropolitan area as a whole.
Because of the availability of cleared land at lower cost the demand for downtown housing will occur initially in the Skyline Urban Renewal project. Pollution, crime, andccongestion will be no worse in an upgraded downtown location than in most of the higher density residential areas in the metro Denver area.
B. Analysis of Market Conditions
The tracking of population change in the Denver area is a comparison of com-ponets comprised of the U.S. Bureau of the Census, DRCOG, Colorado State Planning Office and the Denver Planning Office (DPO). From the trends observed in Denver the actual population figures are somewhere between the low figure projected by the Census Bureau and the high one estimated by the State of Colorado Planning Dept. The four variations are show in Table 2.
The 1970 Census indicated that 1*7.8% of all households consisted of only one or two persons. It is these small households which have a high probability of being drawn to b'rgher cost new housing near their jobs in the central city.
The other major percentage of households consisted of married couples with children, single parents with children or small number of other family combinations. These types of households do not generally seek downtown locations because of lack of outdoor play space, schools and the higher costs of housing.
The projection thru 1985 indicates that the three types of households having the tendency to seek central area residences will increase from an estimated 251,000 in 1977 to 280,000 in 19 80, and 325,000 in 19 85 - Those categories are expected to increase from 5**-6% to 58.9% in 1985. These figures would indicate that demand for new housing in the downtown area could be expected to grow at a faster rate than population if new dwelling units of competitive price, size and amenities are constructed in desirable downtown locations.
In 1977, 71% of the single person households were estimated to have incomes under $10,000 as compared with 91% in 19&9- Only 20% of the married couples without children under 18 had incomes under $10,000.


20
In 1977, single persons and other adult households with incomes of $15,000 or more would tend to be the groups most likely to support new unsubsidized housing in the central area.
Assuming a continuing high rate of inflation, incomes as well as an increasing proportion of adult households, the number of adult household projected to have incomes of $15,000 or more increases dramatically in 19 80 and 1985 - In 1980, a projection of 137,000 adult households in the Denver study area will have incomes of $15,000 or more which is an increase of 22.6? in three years.
In 1985, a projection of another 2*4? over the 1980 level will provide an increase of 170,000 households.
While inflation can be expected to continue, it is clear that there will be an increase in the base of adult households in the Denver area with incomes high enough to be able to afford new housing in downtown.
The Denver labor market area continue to fare much better than the nation with respect to unemployment trends, even while experiencing major additions to its labor force.
The demand for new conventionally financed housing in the CBD is highly correlated with the number of single persons living alone, unre 1atedrindividuals living together and childless couples with middle and higher incomes. The assumption is that those employed in professional, technical, managerial and administrative occupations are more likely to have the required income to be able to pay the generally higher rents asked for new housing.
Downtown Denver had a net increase of floor space of 19? in the period from 1970 to 1975, with about three-quarters of the new space in office buildings.
The expected increase from 1975 to 1980 is 16.*4?, with three-quarters again in the office area. This annual demand for office space should continue until at least 1983-
There is an annual recording of the new housing units authorized over the per* iod from 1968-77 for the Denver - Boulder SMSA as for the Denver city and county. The data shows that the peak years have been in 1971 and 1972. Increased multi-family construction was largely responsible for the major expansion of the


21
Skyline - Denver, Colorado
Table 2 COMPARISON OF POPULATION ESTIMATES
AND PROJECTIONS FOR DENVER CITY-COUNTY
1970-1980
1970 1975 1976 1977 1980
Bureau of the Census 514,678 484,531 481,500 N. A . N . A .
Denver Regional Council of Governments 514,000 527,100 523,700 522,100 N. A .
Denver City-County •
Planning Department N. A. 529,700 N. A. 520,200 538,900
State of Colorado Planning Department 517,045 553,435 N. A. N. A. 559,272
N. A.
Not Available


22
PROJECTED HOUSEHOLDS BY INCOME - 1985
1985 Income
Die 3
Under $10,000-
$10,000 $14,999
ngle Person House-Ids 75,039 23,762
her Unrelated rson Households 3,944 3,418
All Unrelated Households 78,983 27,180
.rried Couples Without lildren Under 18 26,008 22,540
her Families 29,492 27,223
All Families 55,500 49,763
All Households
$15,000- $19,999 $20,000-$24,999 $25,000 or More Total
12,506 6,253 7,504 125,064
4,732 3,944 10,254 26,292
17,238 10,197 17,758 151,356
31,209 26,008 67,619 173,384
45,372 34,029 90,744 226,860
76,581 60,037 158,363 400,244
551,600
>urce: Real Estate Research Corporation


23
number of units constructed in 1972. However the percentage and number of units have decreased significantly since that time. In fact in 1976 arid 1977, more than three-quarters of the units authorized for construction in the SMSA were in the single family dwelling units.
The overbuilding occured because employment and housing demand fell off faster than was anticipated by the housing industry. However, at this time with an increasing population and employment base as well as the lack of new multi -family (both condominium and rentals) construction in the area, the housing market is tightening up and vacancy rates are rapidly decreasing.
The multi-family vacancy rates were 11% for the five county area and 9-7% for the Denver county. In five areas around Denver, vacancy rates have shown a substantial decline. Downtown is 0.3%, Central Denver is 1.7%, Capital Hill is 2.7%, and East Denver is O.V%. Thses findings are not provided as being fully definitive of the occupancy vacancy position in the housing supply of the Denver area. However the large number of vacant units evident in 1975-76, have been absorbed into the market.
Studies of surveys has shown in other cities that the downtown and near downtown city dweller is either a single, young married, or childless couple with the head of household primarily in the professional or technical category, and retirees or those soon approaching retirement and desire less living area. From a survey of Denver area the average tenant living in the near downtown is more or less the typical empty nester getting away from home maintenance and responsibility by renting an apartment or buying a condominium in an area relatively close by to their place of business or to spend their time before and after retirement.


'able i*
PROJECTION .OF HOUSEHOLD MARKET BASE FOR RESIDENCES IN DOWNTOWN DENVER
Downtown Professional and Managerial Civilian Employment Percent of High Income Households with Highest Probability for Estimated Base Households Oriented to Downtown Housing by Virtue of Employment Therein, Occupation, Type of Household and Income Criteria
Low Estimate High Estimate Downtown Residence Low Estimate High Estimate
L977 23,600 24,200 44.0 10,384 10,648
Increase L970-1980 Number % 1,350 5.7 2,500 10.3 1,168 11.2 1,714 16.1
L980 24,950 26,700 46.3 11,552 12,362
Increase 1980-1985 I Number
j or
L985
2,550
10.2
27,500
3,500
13.6
30,200
2,198
16.0
2,738
22.0
13,750
15,100
Source: Real Estate Research Corporation
50.0


C.B. D, FLOOR SPACE COMPOSITION
1970 1975 1980+ 1985* 1990* 1995*
1. Office 7,770,000 33. 2X 10,853,060 40. 2X 13, 805,060 44. IX 15, 715,000 44. 9X 17, 603, 900 43.9 ; 19, 800, 000 44.OX
2. Hotel-Motel 4,024,000 17. IX 4,498,320 16. 5X 4, 635,320 14. 8X 4, 900, 000 14. OX 5, 814, 500 14. 5X 6, 435,000 14. 3X
3. Retail 2,543,000 10. 9S 2,510,000 9.3X 2, 605,000 8.3X 2, 765, 000 7. 9X 3, 208, 000 8.OX 3, 825,000 8. 5X
4. Government Facilities 2, 296,000 9.8X 2, 307, 200 8.5X 3, 291, 700 10.5X 4,095,000 11. 7X 4,731, £00 11. SX 5, 175,000 11.5H
5. Residential 1, 850,400 7.9X 2,013,600 7.4X 2, 1S3, 600 6.9X 2, 310,000 6. 6X 2,726, £00 6. SX 3,015,000 6. 7X
6. Wholesale Distribution, Manufacturing 1,231,000 5. 3X 1, 161, 800 4. 3X 1,099,000 3.5X 1, 120, 000 3. 2X 1,203,000 3.OX 1,260,000 2. SX
7. Auto Stores, Storage, Transportation Terminals 501,000 2. IX 481, 000 l.SX 439,600 1.4X 525,000* 1. 5X 601, 500 l.SX 630,000 1.4X
8. Commercial Services, Personal Services 452,000 1.9X 435,000 1. 6X 376, 800 1.2X 385,000 1. IX 441, 100 1. IX 540,000 1. 2X
9. Eating, Drinking, Recreation, Theaters 1,078,000 4. 6X 1, 110,400 4. IX 1, 315,400 4. 2% 1,435,000 4. IX 1,724, 300 4. 3X 1,980,000 4.4X
10. Civic, Social, Education, Non-profit, Charitable 1, 677,000 7. 2X 1, 692, 200 6.3X 1, 632,800 5.2X 1, 750, 000 5. OX 2,04 5, 100 5. IX 2, 340, 000 5. 2X
Total 23,422, 400 27,012, 580 31,400,000 35, 000,000 40, 100,000 45,000,000
5-Year Increase 3,570, 340 4, 387,4 20 3, 600,000 5, 100, 000 4, 900,000
Percent Increase in 5 Years 13. 2X 13.9X 10. 3X 12.7X 10. 9X
Notes: ♦ Estimated.
r\j
vn
1970: CCTP figures.
Source: Central Area Planning Section, Denver Planning Office - January 1975.
REAL estate kcsearch corporation


Table
6
EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS - DENVER CBD AND SMSA
_____________SELECTED YEARS 1970-1985______________
26
1970 1974
ENVER CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT Professional and Managerial Civilian Employment
1970 Census Definition (Tracts 17.01 and 17.02)-^ 12,584
1970 Census Definition (Tracts 17.01 and 17.02)—^ 20, 250* 22, 200*
1970 Denver Planning Office Definltlpn (Tracts 17.02 and parts of Tracts 16, 17.01, 20, 25, 26.01 and
27.01) 18,100* 21, 600*
Total Employment
1970 Census Definition—^ 42,281
1970 Census Definition—^ 67, 900 74, 384*
1970 Denver Planning Office Definition—^ 60,900 71,963
)ENVER STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA
1970 Census Definition (5 counties)—^ 474, 281
1970 Censu* Definition (5 counties) —^ 534,200 641,320*
) ENVER STUDY AREA (4 counties) -/ 488,020* 580,915*
1975 Percent Increase 1970-1975 1977 1980 Percent Increase 1975-1980 1983 Percent Increase 1980- 19SS
22, 650* 11.9* •J.60O* 24,950* 10. 2* 27,500* 10.2*
22,900* 26. 5* 24,200* 26,700* 16. 6* 30,200* 13.1*
76,000 11.9* 79,080* 83,700 10.1* 92,200 10.2*
76, 282* 25. 3* 80, 602
477,600 0.7* •
668, 100 25.1* 706, 140* 763, 200 14.2* 848,700 11.2*
604, 140* 23. 8* 637, 276* 686, 980* 13.7* 764,460* It. 3*
4ote*: _1/ U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1970 and 1975.
_2/ Denver Regional Council of Covemment projections at five-year Intervals -- Issued November 1977. _3/ Denver Planning Offices Maps showing employment by block 1970, 1974, and 1977.
* Real Estate Research Corporation estimates.


27
.ble '7 VACANCY SURVEY - RENTAL UNITS OVER ONE YEAR OLD*
Denver Metro. Area Denver Downtown Central Denver Denver-Capital Hill-Cherry Creek East Denver
Lme Period Vacant Units % Vacant Units % Vacant Units % Vacant Units % Vacant Units %
in. 15, 1976 2,340 8.9 269 11.9 84 5.6 305 7.7 62 5.0
3ril 15, 1976 2,324 8'. 8 276 12.9 71 4.7 290 7.6 55 4.5
:t. 15, 1976 1,676 7.46 183 10.2 30 2.7 197 7.1 42 3.4
pril 1977 1,579 5.2 92 7.6 78 3.9 108 3.6 15 1.2
ctober 1977 690 2.1 39 2.6 5 0.3 48 1.9 14 1.1
anuary 1978 787 2.5 12 0.9 15 1.7 •71 2.7 5 .4
Conducted by Capital Federal Savings , Denver, Colorado . Surveys reportedly represent better
than ten percent of the Denver Metropolitan Area apartment rentals.


28
C. Ongoing and Anticipated Developments
In the Skyline area there are three projects currently under construction.
The Sunset Towers provides 100 units for elderly housing Larimer Place provides 168 luxury condominiums.
Writer Sguare provides *42 town house condominiums.
Under contract with Dura with title conveyed as of November 30, 1979, are the following...
Windsor properties which will provide 16*4 luxury condominiums.
Urban Housing Assoc. II with 197 units of elderly housing.
The rest of the Skyline area will be developed as commercial and office space which will aide any new residential development.
Future residential developments in the near downtown are unknown at this time.
D. Presentation of Market Recommendations
It is fairly common knowledge that tenants of high rise housing tend to be characterized by small household size. The households are usually individuals living alone or with other unrelated individuals and childless couples.
Tenants of conventionally financed high rise housing are usually those in the higher income categories above $15,000.
In 1977 the categories of households comprising mainly of single persons unrelated persons and married couples without children under 18 years of age, accounted for *4*4% of all households with incomes of $15,000 or more. In 1980 these categories are expected to account for *46.3? of all households with incomes of $15,000 or more and in 1985, for about 50%.
Of great importance to a potential developer of downtown residential units is the knowledge that the residential market base is expected to grow at a faster rate than the employment base. This occurs because of the continuing


29
trend for adult households to account for an increase in the share of all households.
As increasing numbers of new dwelling units are added in the late 1970's and early 80's and as downtown achieves an improved image as a prestige area for upper income households, there should be an increasing proportion of households with a downtown orientation and will become interested in living within walking distance of their place of employments. And with the increase in transportation costs and energy costs, there is another incentive for seeking residences nearer to places of employment. Thus for 19 8 5, a projection of 50% increase in interest in living in downtown as compared with 1980. Under these assumptions a projection of the minimum conventional market for housing in downtown Denver in 1985 would range from 1,5^5 to 1,700 dwelling units.
Disposition of the market as to rental or sales componets would be mainly toward the former for the period to 1980 and a mixture of the two for the period from 1980-85. As the area becomes more acceptable to upper income households, some developments that are built as rental projects initally will probably be converted to condominium ownership in the middle 1980's.
In looking further into the future, the period from 1980 to 19 85, the increased demand from 680 to 1,520 new dwelling units is projected. This increase in demand averaged from a minimum estimate of 135 to a maximum estimate of 305 dwelling units annually in the same period. If there is no over building in the years up through 19 80, the absorption of 200 to 250 units annually would be a realistic estimate.
The estimated maximum 1000 regular market housing units which might be expected to be constructed on Skyline Urban Renewal land would be absorbed by 1983 at the latest. By 19 85, the projection is for about 500 to 900 additional new regular market units to be absorbed in other downtown or near to downtown locations.


30
E. Application to Subject Site
By isolating and identifying those characteristics of Denver's housing market with a traditional appeal to the city's residents, it is possible to strengthen the market for in-town housing. There is for example no reason to believe that the tremendous growth in the core area's working population will not be parralled by substantial increased demand for core-city market rate housing. It is the belief that there is room for a 200 unit project which is aided by the necessary facilities such as recreation, open space, and retail shops, and is with in the realm of feasibility.
Three basic types of units are in demand, the studio, one bedroom, and two bedroom units. Square footages may be smaller than normal due to the reduced need for area and upkeep, and individual needs.
The location of the project is just off the new 16th street transit way mall, which will provide direct access for tenents to the rest of Denver, and access to the site for shoppers, and office workers.


PROGRAIVMNG


31
IV. PROGRAMMING
A. User and Market
The market for residential units is basically in the single person or couple area, with medium incomes starting at $20,000. By using one rule of thumb for financing, the price range for these units would range from $1*5,000 per Studio to $100,000 for two bedrooms. If this range is to be realistic, square footages per unit will have to be reduced, which as the study reveals is in the interest of buyers. Thus through this analysis a studio will equal 450 square fee, a one bedroom wi1 equal 650 square feet, and a two bedroom will equal 850 square feet. Architecturally the problem is to provide more space visually than really exists in order to market the smaller square footages. However, with the energy situation, the smaller units will probably be more than welcome.
B. Dwelling Units and Commercial Space
This proposed building would contain 200 dwelling units, consisting of a~mix of 55 studios, 8l one bedrooms, and 64 two bedrooms. The mix of commercial space is proportion would be about 45,000 square feet, which is plenty to service the dwelling units as well as outside trade. Office space is limited to 70,000 square feet which will provide a mix for about two floors. Thus the first two levels will be retail, the next two would be office and the remaining levels, service and residential. At minimum the site would be 40% landscaped open space Underground parking ou 1 d provide 250 spaces for residential, and 110 spaces for retail and offi ce.
C. Space Considerations Res i dent i a 1:
Public area include the lobby and mail room at 1,500 S.F. and the pram room at 150 S.F.
Service areas include lodker storage at 6,000 S.F., receiving at 400 S.F. refuse room at 300 S.F., storage at 300 S.F., Transformer room at 800 S.F., and heat room at 500 S.F.


33
D . Bui 1d i ng
Typical construction features for a moderate type of building would include a reinforced concrete foundation system (pilings) fireproofed structural system, reinforced post-tensioned concrete columns and beams, floors and roof deck. Interior masonry non-loading bearing partition walls and metal stud partitions.
Individual units would have carpeting and resilient flooring, partial ceramic tile baths, drywall finish, ditchens with full appliances, average quality plumbing and electrical fixtures and central television antenna hookups.
Lobbies would have a commercial grade carpeting and average fixtures.
The building would have a combination individual through ceiling fan coil unit with central plant. The central plant consists of an evaporator, compressor, and Double bundle condensor connected to a Chiller. A hydronic econimizer cycle is used combined with hot and cold storage below the building. Backup is with a gas fired boiler. Retail and Office areas retain a partial economy cycle while the residential area recieves 100% economy.
There would be a fire alarm system, security intercom system, average speed automatic passenger and service elevators, sprinkler system, average quality entrance, and foyer, sauna, and exercise rooms. Three levels of underground parking and storage area. Average quality landscaping. A future pool and deck is planned for the upper roof deck.


3**
E. Economics
Cost estimates for proposed development:
Development Costs
Land: *<0,000 Square feet @ $5 a square foot 8,510 Square feet @ $11 a square foot $ 200,000 93,610
Bui 1di ng: 375 ,2*40 Square feet @ $58 a square foot 21 ,763,920
Park i ng: 1****,000 square feet @$22 a square foot 3,168,000
Total $ 25,225,530
Soft Costs
Design & Engineering fees Legal and Appraisal, et, Developer's fee Market i ng Mi seel 1aneous $ 2,000,000 300,000 200,000 200,000 200,000
Total $ 2,900,000
1n i ta1 1ncome
55 studio condominiums @ 500 square feet x $55,000 81 one bedroom condominiums @ 700 square feet x $77,000 6** two bedroom condominiums @ 850 square feet x $93,500 $ 3,025,000 6,237,000 5,98**,000
Total $ 1 5 ,2**6 ,000
Note: Square footages include exterior terraces and are averages
Annual Rents
Park i ng: 360 spaces at $70 per month $ 302 ,**00
Retail: **5,000 sf x .85 eff. x $19.5 per sf/yr. 877,500
0 f f i ce : 70,000 sf x .85 eff. x $17.5 per sf/yr. 1 ,225 ,000
Total $ 2,b0b,900


35
V. DESIGN ANALYSIS A. Background
Larimer Street back in the l860's was essentially a retail market area. The essence of what was then still remains in the boardwalks and arcades of the Larimer Square area. During the 1920's and 30's, Larimer street increased in density and variety with a court house near Speer Blvd., and a bank near 17th street. Hotels and apartments added to the scene. The facades of the time took on a stepped look as they casdaded into each other, and at street level, canopies provided protection and advertising. In particular the block between 161h and 17th streets, the buildings of that time were maihlyrretai1,-however the density increased as one went towards 18th or Speer.
Through the 1950's the facades of Larimer street went thru transition. Mutilation and demolition were quite apparent. And by the 1960's , complete demolition had occurred on the half block between 161h and 17th streets.
During the 1970's , the Skyline density creeped towards the lower downtown area, to the extent that highrises set a border between the low industrial, low density, and the office highrise, high density.
B. Issues
The site is a half block located in a transition area between lower downtown and the Skyline Urban Renewal area. The existing Market Center buildings located on the Market street half of the block, as well as an existing parking lot owned by Dave Cook's, are to remain. The concept is to pull together the existing elements and treat the remaining parcel in unison as a whole block complex, while paying special attention to the restoration involved in lower downtown, and the high density of the Skyline area.
Besides being in a transition situation, there are many elements affecting the site. For one, the alley facades of the Market Center office complex has been restored with new windows, and leaned brick, in keeping with the times.
However, the rest of the streets in the area provide only wall area with little pedestrain relationship.


36
The 161h street Mall will be a bustle of activity, and acts as a starting point at 161h and Larimer for commuters to the rest of Downtown Denver. This point is expanded, as shoppers entering the city can leave their cars nearby the transit center, and connect with buses from lower downtown.
The skyline plaza bridge system also starts at the transition point. The bridge system connects all the buildings in the Skyline area at a second level plaza providing access to plaza terraces, and interiors of buildings. At 161h and Larimer, this stepping up to the plazas begins, and acts as a connection with lower downtown.
On the 17th street side of Larimer, there is also a transition with the financial district. Office towers seem to line themselves all the way down 17th street, and some attention must be made to that connection.
Within walking distance are train and bus transportation, with Union Station and the new Bus Center only three blocks away. Denver's landmarks of the Spagetti Factory and the D & F Tower are only two blocks away. And the residential character of the lower downtown and Skyline area are also important factors.
The Market Center itself is primarily office space with connecting corridors thru each building. Within the Center are two restaurants with entrances on Market street, and the Alley. The Alley seems to be a problem at first, however it provides the connecting area necessary for a transition of the new and old. The existing parking lot, as it is unknown at this time what will happen there, is partially ignored from the standpoint of the complex.
Service becomes a serious problem when the alleyway is closed down. Hoaever shared facilities between the existing Market Center, and the new complex, located within the new complex, seems to provide the necessary solution.
The views from the site at the Skyline level are towards the west and north west. One can see Longs Peak to the northwest, and Mt. Evans to the west, when weather permits.


37
Cons i de rat i ons
Siting: Connection was made by glass to the newly restored brick of Market Center. Glass also canopies out from the complex to enclose the second level plaza walkway to provide an essence of the 1920's. Street plazas tend to set back the bull* of the building from the density that faces it while at the same time providing waiting and watching spaces for the transit mall. The connection to the skyline walkways occurs inside the interior open court which is sky-1i ghted.
Parki ng/ Serv i ce: Three levels of parking with entrances on 17th street, instantly removes the car from the pedestrian. The exit is on Larimer Street which is four feet below the pedestrian way. Service is removed from the site by utilizing the existing alley on 17th st reet.
Retail: The street level retail is serviced from the alley while pedestrian access is from 161h and Larimer streets. Inside is an open courtyard facing the alley facade of Market Center, with escalators up to the plaza level. The old alley is used as a street cafe space. At the plaza level there is a connection with the Market Center and three other buildings of the Skyline area. This connection to lower downtown can be entered from Market street by the existing resfeurants.
Office: The third and fourth levels provide office space which looks down on the interior court and remaining alleyway. It tends to step back or forward depending on where light is needed for the Market Center and the open courtyard. Exterior terraces are made out of the stepping.
Res i dent i a 1: The residential area provides a narrow tower which skips down to the interior courtyard. This stepping is utilized for exterior terraces for common use among residents. The interior of the tower is broken down into skip stop corridors with one exterior corridor acting as a^-double loaded interior corridor. From these corridors units are reached thru half flights of steps. Once inside the unit, another half flight of steps takes one to the bedrooms. The use of this system increases the vertical space automatically which breaking up the horizonta11ity inside and the exterior facade. The exterior glazing provides not only view and light but natural ventilation as well.


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CONCLUSIONS


CONCLUSION
A. Coordinate Unit quoted from John Portman's book, The Architect as Developer
"I have come to the conclusion that cities ought to be designed in a cellular pattern whose scale is the distance that an individual will walk before he thinks of wheels. What information and observations we have available on this question indicate that the average American is willing to walk from seven to ten minutes without looking for some form of transportaion. Using this time-distance factor as a radius gives a surprisingly large area.
If this area is developed into a total environment in which practically all of a person's needs are met, you have what I call a coordinate unit, a village where everything is within reach of the pedestrian. You could walk to work, school, church, recreation, shopping, entertainment, and so on without having to get into a car or any other kind of transit unless you were going outside the cellular unit. What great savings in evergy and time, what great convenience such a city design would produce.
For a coordinate unit to succeed, it must lift the human spirit; at the same time it must be economically feasible and follow a sensible, efficient plan.
In addition to providing places for work, residence, shopping, and recreation, it must draw on all the elements that I have been discussing: a strong sence of order, complemented by a variety of incident and unexpected change; light and color, nature and water to soften the constructed environment and make it more humane; shared space; and opportunities for people to watch people and all the movement entails. There must be a total life involvement."


BBLIOGRAPHY


55
VII. BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Evenson, Norma, Planning and Cities, Le Corbusier: The Machine and the Grand Des i gn. N.Y. , George B raz i1ler , Inc., 1969.
2. Hanford, Lloyd D. Sr., Feasibility Study Guidelines. Chicago, Institute of Real Estate Management, 1972.
3. Jacobs, Jane, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. N.Y., Vintage Books division of Random House, 1961.
k. Messner, Stephen D., Boyce, Trimble, Ward. Analyzing Real Estate Opportunities, Market and Feasibility Studies, Chicago, National Association of Realtors, 1977.
5. Phi Hippo, Gene, The Professional Guide to Real Estate Development, Homewood, IL Dow Jones-Irwin, 1976.
6. Portman, John. Arnett, Jonathon, The Architect as Developer, N.Y., McGraw Hill book co. 1976.
7. Smith, Tschappat, Racster, Real Estate Urban Development, Homewood, IL, Richard
D. Irwin, Inc., 1973.
8. Unger, Maurice, and Karvel, George, Real Estate Principles and Practices, Cincinnati, OH, South-Western Publishing Co., 1979-
9. H.U.D. Denver Metropolitan Area-Wide Environmental Impact Statement. Denver, Dept, of Housing and Urban Development, 1977.
10. U.S. Dept, of Commerce, Climatological Data, NOAA, Environmental Data Service, 1977.
11. Kusauada, and Ishii, NBS Building Science Series 96, "Hourly Radiation Data for Vertical and Horizontal Surfaces on Average Days". 1976.
12. "Housing Market Study for the Skyline Project, Denver, Colorado", Real Estate
Research Corp., Chicago, 1978.
13-"Downtown Denver Development Plan", Denver Planning Office, 1976.


56
1^4."Lower Downtown Development Guidelines", Denver Planning Office, 1978.
15. Macsai , John, Hous i ng, N.Y., John Wiley and Sons, 1976.
16. Sherwood, Roger, Modern Housing Prototypes, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1978.
17- Mackay , John, Multiple Family Housing, N.Y., Architecture Book PUB. Co. 1977.
18. "Denver Building Code1,' Denver, 1976.
19. "Skyline Urban Renewal Plan", Denver, 1976.
20. Kemper John, Architectural Handbook, N.y., Wiley and Sons, 1979.
21. Halprin, Lawrence, Cities, N.Y., Reinholt, 1963-
22. Procos, Dimitri, Mixed Land Use, N.Y., Community Dev. Series, Dowden, Hutch-enson, Ross, Inc. 1976.
23. Davern, Jeanne, Places for People, N.Y. Megraw-Hill, 1976.
2A. Watson, Donald, Energy Conservation through Building Design, N.Y., McGraw-Hill, 1979.
25. Nairn, Janet,"Bui lding Types: Office Buildings", Architectural Record, Marclj,1979.
26. Hoyt, Charles,"New perceptions of opportunity for cities", Architectural Record, December, 1979-
27. Villecco Marguerite,"Strategies of Daylight Design", AIA Journal, September, 1979-


57
VIII. INTERVIEWS
Bill Saslow of Wazee Design and Development, on November 23, 19 79 -Doug Goedert of the Denver Planning Office, on November 23, 19 79 *
Bruce Roof of the Housing and Urban Development on December 17, 1979-Rich March of the Housing and Urban Development on December 17, 1979-Gary Gaglier of the Denver Urban Renewal Area, on December 18, 1979-Bud Purves of Vi11ancentres Properties, on December 17, 1979-Gaylund McFadyen of the Skyline Urban Renewal Area, on February 8, 1980. Rich Nelson of Lombardi and Assoc., Architects, on Februaryl5, 1980.
Bill Casky of SOM, on February 1A, 1980.
Rich Smith of Barker, Rinker, Seacat, on February 18, 1980.
Ernest Pershe of RTD, on March 1*, 1980.
Bob Yeager, of Seracuse Lawler, on March A, 1980.


Full Text

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o CfNVER 0 . SoA MIXED USE CEVE .o THESIS B
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Architecture The sis 11The Architect as D eveloper11 A Mixed-Use Project in the Denver Skyline Urban Renewa l Area University of Colorado at Denver, Spring/Fall Semester 1979-80 Presented by Bruce R. Mostelle r .... Dlle Due 3-l ! t I ' i ..... . i ,_ .... .. • $ • • ... "'•

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wife Jan, who, with her patience and understanding made these years in school possible.

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Acknowl edgement is made for the use of material, maps, and graphs to the following ..... . The Denver Planning Office Skyline Urban Renewal Authority N8AA Environmental Data Service D enver Public Library Real E state Research Corp.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS I . INTRODUCTION II. Ill. IV. V. A. Statement of Intent B. Purpose of Research SITE ANALYSIS A. Location B. Topography C. Flood Plain D. Climate E. City Zoning F. Building Code G. Downto w n Districts H. Downtow n Deve lopm ent Plan I. Skyline L a nd Use Plan MARKET ANALYSIS A. Summary of Conclusions B. Analysis of Mark e t Conditions C. Ongoin g and Anticipate d D e v e lopements D. Presentation of Mark e t Recommendation s E. Application to Subject Site PROGRAMMING A. User and Marke t B. Dwelling Units and Commercial Space C. Space Considerations D. Building E . E con o m i cs DESIGN ANALYSIS A. B ackground B. Issues C . Cons i d e r a t i on s PAGE 3 4 5 6 9 9 11 11 17 18 19 28 28 29 31 31 31 33 34 35 35 36

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont.) PAGE VI. DESIGN SCHEMATICS A. Floor Plans 39 B. Sections 48 c. Axonome t r i cs 50 VII. CONCLUSIONS A. Coordinate Unit 54 VIII . BIBLIOGRAPHY 55

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ATTACHMENTS Tables Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Table 6. Table 7. Exhibits Hap 1 . Hap 2. Hap 3. Map 4. Map 5. Map 6. Hap 7. Hap 8. Map 9. Schematics No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. No. 5. No. 6. No. 7 . No. 8. No. 9. No.1 0. No. 11. No. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 16. Normal Means and Extremes Comparison of Population Estimates Households by Income 1985, Projected Projection of Household Market Base CBD Floor Composition thru 1995 Employment Projections Vacancy Survey Central Area Neighborhoods Topography Downtown Flood Plain Lower Downtown Solar swings on Site Land Zones Land use and Density Land use and Mixed Use Design and Street Scape Transportation Site Plan Parking Upper Level Parking L ower Level Retai 1 Street Level Retai 1 Plaza Level Office Lower Level Office Upper Level Residential Lower Level Residential Upper Level Larimer/Market Streets Section 16th/17th Streets Section Exterior Axonometric Interior Axonometric Mechanical Schematic Model Photograph from 16th Street Model Photograph of Site Context PAGE 8 21 22 24 25 26 27 3 4 5 7 10 1 3 14 15 16 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 so 51 52 53 54

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INTIDJLTO\J

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I. INTRODUCTION A. Statement of Intent To act as the architect-entrepreneur in a mixed-use development near lower downtown Denver, in the Skyline Urban Renewal Area. The issues are contingent on John C. Portman's philosphy of real estate and architecture of 'creating an environment that is more responsive to the needs of the ordinary person" ...... seems to grow "quite naturally out of designing for commercial uses". Therefore the intent is to create a fine work of architecture and a better environment. The fact that the real estate industry is the major force shaping our surroundings, but has done 1 i ttle to recognize its responsibility to the environment, and since development accounts for more than two-thirds of all the building here, the architect needs to understand how different design changes the bui !ding's financial feasibi 1 ity. B. Purpose of Research The improvemen t of raw land occurs through the development process, which can be a highly creative process analogous to design. In fact both the design process and the d evelopment process are quite intertwined in the physical ingredients of land and building. However there i s not a complete environment created i n which people can 1 ive, unti 1 the financial and marketing resourses are added. These many resourses are involved with a process which is quite synergistic, and in the end provides a complete environment which is cally sound, aesthetically pleasing, and responsive to the environment. The fundamentals which make up this process are marketing, finance , planning and design, construction, merchandising, and property management, and they must all work together to create an environment which can become a viable entity of its own. Effective decision making is the key to the process, and is based on more than just an understanding of social and economic forces. There has to be a systemmatic program of collecting and evaluating market financial and physical data which are directly related to the speci fie decision to be made. The beginning tools of evaluation are the market studies which forcast the future d e mand for the project, feasibility studies which determine the overal 1 desirability of

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2 proceeding with the project, and the appraisal, which has been limited to the inital estimate of value and i s mor e than likely the firs t response to the total process. This initial market analysis as used today is used as a starting point, and is not to be construed for the ful 1 determination of the projects feasibility. However, this limitation reduces the opportunities to provide a full determination of the finished project during the initial stage.

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SITE ANAlY3S

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I I. SITE ANALYSIS A. l.ocat ion The half-block parcel equally 48,510 square feet, consists of the southwest half of block number three in the Skyline Urban Renewal area, located in the Union Station Neighborhood. It is one of the last parcels not under construction in the Skyline area. Not e location on the Central Area Neighborhood Hap. Hap 1 . 3 North 0

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The parcel h street. B lopog r aphy down from t e . th as ph a 1 t. . adual slope d is paved w' . n even gr t time an There IS a the presen parking lot at SITE LOCATION Map 2. . used as a IS 4

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C. Flood Plain The flood hazard area delineation for Cherry Creek indicates that no part of the Lower Downtown is in the 100 year flood plain. Current plans for improvments to the Cherry Creek channel from Cherry Creek dam to the confluence are under consideration. SITE LOCATION FLOOD P'LAIN 5 Map 3. M(A CY SHALLOW FLOOOIN ' , -100,. flOOO !NOT IN 100,. fLOOO PLANI Noeth(?)

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D. C 1 i mate Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afte rn oo nsof summer at lower altitudes. Wind is lessened by the proximity of the mountains. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration. Air from at least four different sources influence Denver's weather: polar air from Canada and the far northwest; moist air from the from the Gulf of mexico, warm dry air from Mexico and southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage overland. Spring is the wettest, cloudiest and the windiest season. Much of the 39% annual total precipitation that occurs in spring, falls as snow during the colder periods of the season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that removes previous snow cover. Severe storms usually arrive from the northeasterly winds. Summer precipitation, particularly in July and August, usually falls from scattered loca l thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day. Autumn i s the most pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are over and invasions of cold air and severe weather are sti II infrequent so that there is less cloudiness. and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any time of the year. Winter has Jess precipitation, only about 11% of the annual total and almost all of it snow. There is more cloudiness and the relative h umidity averages higher than othe r seasons. 6

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l t . k , r ;u&.OliAT.O r•t . t;t"O!" AP ITUf•E :t•• 4 6 ' N 11•4 w NORMALS, MEANS AND EXTREMES VAT I O N (QrC\und) t t (Table Revised 1968 . Base Period for Climatological Normals: 1931-1960) -----Nf'rm.-1 l b l fbi ( b l .. 1 . 1 14.8 28.!) b!) 1966• 12"1 l'b) .... e. te. l JI.!) 7b t9bl -1e 1962 .. 9.9 12.8 1 )t .... 8 ) 196) 4 1'62 6 0 . ) JZ.) lo6.C. . .. ll l9bb 1 .. 1 . 8 9 1 tc,6,. • 2b J9e,7 11.0 . 0 bb. ') 9b Jh,) -.o 1961 88.4 1l.fl 99 IY6)• I '"" 19bl ao.al aoo JYt.1 '-I .. l9o 0 41o3 6)o0 97 JC.lbO 24 J9td bbo61 Jbol 87 : ::;: J961o 19blo ,-16 :::1 AUG. JAH. bl:' '"'"' 100 1962 196) c z fb i llH . ,. 887 "" 288 •• • • ll 7 .,. 819 l i) J 1 P le't::IJ.iii .. II O n f---r--------,.--1 .. : ! E E f 0 z ibl o . 0.6, l . 11 loll 1 . 10 1 ..... l . H lol l ).)) 1 .o1 O.b'i o .-.1 ;; g i [! ) ] . . ,... ' 41 lo.lo' 19')1 ... b l 1961 ) '"' 1941 .Z.97 l 'il-.6 1 • 19b0 ) ) < . ,... o.o t o.o } 1949 o . l ) 1 9 .. ., O .OJ 1961 o . )lo 1966 0 . I 0 1440 Ooll 14}9 Q .Ob 19b0 ' 19'-4 o.o!l tt6l o .oJ 19' 9 o . o,. l9'b S[P. 1944 1 P ol" p ertud Aut;\JSl 19611 thruugh the curreD\ Mean'> and e-xtremes In the a b < w e table are f 1 nna the exlsllnl{ and C'QIIIparable Jocat1Cins. Annual eJttretwors have been excreded at other locattnns as t.lhl5i lll 11 1 1 ll ll ll I ' • 10 l O 111 --------,-Me-10"\ numbet' ol d n 1 l < • .. " 1 1 10 'I 0 ' I I)) . • I ll) . ] IJO.l Ill . • 1 ) 4 , ) llo. o I llt. J t' l :)' IJI,, o 1 o '" I • 1 • ' llli. J 2 I 2o '" .1 ' I ) 0 ) i I)). ' I I llpo•l 10 1 1)5 •• REFERENCE NOTES APPLYING TO TABLES APPEAR ON THE PAGE FOLLOWING LAST TABLE. ( Caution: Letters and symbols may have di fferent mP.anings in 194 1 1970 tables than in earlier tables. See notes . I

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9 E. City Zoning The Skyline Urban renewal project area is entirely within the B-5 zone district. This zone permits the city's highest density of building development, allow-ing abuilding to be constructed with a square footage ten times its lot size and providing premiums of added allowable square footage for bui !ding design having either plazas, arcades, or upper level setbacks. Off-street parking within this zone is required for new apartment construction. The B-5 zone is presently built to roughly one-third of its zoned floorspace capacity. Special requirements for multiple unit dwellings deal with minimum square footages which do not include the kitchen or bath. For one room units a minimum of 80 square feet, for two room units, 125 square feet, and 150 square feet for three or more rooms . F. Denver Building Code Location is Fire Zone one. Occupancy is F1, F2, and H2 with 200 square feet per occupant for residential, 100 square feet per occupant for office and 30 square feet per occupant for retai 1. Exits are located at a distance of 150 feet for retai 1 and office with a maximum of 200 feet if sprinklered. Exits are located at a distance of 100 feet for residential with a maximum of 150 feet if sprinklered. Number of exits required are two if occupancy per floor is below 500. Number of stairs required are two minimum. Corri dor width minimum is 44 inches. Door width minimum is 3'-0' '. Stairs must maintain a 36 inch width. Travel distance to dead-end corridor limit is 30 feet. Balcony rai 1 heights are between 30m-34'' above nosing. Toilet room fixture requirements are six toilet fixtures per 1 50 persons with additional fixtures per 40 persons. Skylight requirements are for noncombustible material, glass is wired or tempered.

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SITE LOCATION Map 5. / I . _ , r , ... .. . . • '" U lllN Noeth 0 10

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G. Downtown Districts The major districts are broken down in the B-5 zone, already discussed. The Auraria higher education center which is zoned B-5. 1 1 The Lower Downtown area which is zoned B-7, this zoning retains the existing uses in the area while adding numerous new activities including r esidential, offices and retai 1. The subject site is situated on this boundry line, and should show some consideration to this transition. The Skyline Urban Renewal project area is entirely within the B-5 zone district. However the new construction conforms to the Urban R e n e wal Plan first and then the B-5 zone. The two significant features of the Plan are the linear park along Arapahoe street and the system of pedestrian bridges which are 1 inked at the second level walkways. H. Downtown Development Plan 1. Denver and the Region The Downtown is the hub of the Denv e r area Commercial, governmental, and cultural activity. Downtown is a place of employment for over 80,000 people. And an additional 82,000 people come to downtown daily for business, shopping, conventions, entertainment, education. Downtown provides about 12% of the taxable property valuation of the city and county of Denver on less than 1 % of Denv er's land area. 2. Development Process Denver's downtown is designed and bui It in increments. Each decision for change is made either by abuilding developer, governmental agency, invester, architect or a business manager. The major issue becomes how to coordinate this process of bui !ding a city center more responsive to the needs of the people who work, visit, live and invest there. Downtown qualities should serve not only the business and commercial needs of the city but also as an expression of urban living. Downtown should provide a stimulation in its density and diversity. There should be interesting places for people to be because of their unique combination of urban spaces, architecture and human activity. 3. General Land Use and Density Keeping the core area a compact high density commercial district benefits the downtown, its employees and visitors. It provides easy pedestrian movement betwee n

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Continuous building frontage without the interruption of driveways. More walkway s activity and visual interest for pedestrians. The strong retail, office core is the anchor for the other interrelated activities which make up downtown. 4. Transportation The object of the transportation system is to provide people with appropriate access to downtown places. Arrival to downtown should be by means of express bus service, regular bus service and automobile, with parking at the edge of the core area. Internal move m ent should be by m eans of a shuttle transit on 16th street, regular bus service, and walkways. On street loading zones should be consolidated on the named streets where 12 the block length is greater, to minimize conflict with autos and bus movement. Redevelopment of downtown core should bring about the removal of those alleys which are inefficient as loading area, or thier redesign for pedestrian use. 5. Design and Streetscape The core area should be extensive ly pedestrianized to provide a streetscape comfortable for people walking. Major pedestrian linkages should b e established between the Auraria Center the Commercial core area and the Civic Center public buildings. Additional linkages should emphasize walkway connection to the performing arts center federal center, bus terminal, the Skyline residential area, and the neighborhoods adjacent to downtown. Sidewalk, plaza, and thru-block walkways function as extensions of building lobbies and r etail shops. Street design must respond to the gigher standards of environmental design being establishe d by newer, single ownership commercial centers. 6. Collaborative Design Downtown development is very much a step by step process involving numerous participants, in terms of property ownership and maintenance. The owners and managers of the 995 downtown property parce1s, together with the managers of the public streets and transit systems form the dewntowA team. Close communication is required to bring about unified development.

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SITE LOCATION ( Map 6. / ... :.:, I'' ' : ; ; . .. •• .. Noeth (!) 13

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SITE LOCATION Map 7. :.:. .. . , , ,. ,. , • ' l t1 1 \ . \,.. . ' ' '•' I ' ' I 'I {I 1 I LJ . . I 14 ....,1 t .. n .. ..,,. ..... .....

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I I I I . /I \. II .. , ( . • li .: ' I I ... : ji . :'•,, ' . . ., ... . ,. ..... , . . Map 8. 1 • 1 • 1 , . ; 15 C) MAJOI UOWflOWI FUNCTIONAl AREAS IIIIINTEMSM: PEDESTRIAII SYSTEM WITIIII FUNCTIONAl ARUS PtDESTIIAII liNUCES IETWEDI MAJOR FUMCTIOIIAl ARUS SECOMDAIY PEDESTRIAII liNKAGES IETWEEII ACTIVITY CEIITERS PlDESTIIlll GATEWAYS TO ADJACENT MEIGHIORIIOODS North(!)

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SITE / Map 9 . I ... . I . . • I ' I . .. 16 TRANSIT TIANSFEI POINTS INTEIUl TUMSIT V AND PEDESUIAM SHUTTlE SEIYICE _5e MAIOI TlAFFIC __ UHIIALS SUVINC PEIINIAl PARIUNC FACILITIS TRANSIT ACCESS TO_ TUNSFEI POINTS Noeth(!)

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I. S kyli n e L a nd Use Pl a n The basic objectives of the land use plan are to encourage and control the dev e lopmen t o f land uses, building d ensities, open space , pedestrian and v ehicular accomodations, and othe r r elated facilities, s o as to create the best possi b l e living and working environment with a hig h quality urban design an d desirable economic commercial d e v elopment. Off-stree t parking, loading and building service facilitie s should be located at grade and sub-surface leve l s . Primary us e s s uch a s op e n space and p e destrian circulation should b e locate d at elevated plaza levels. Plaza design should also include provisions for pedestrian continuity across public rights of way between blocks. Maximu m residential density i s t o achi e v e on e dwelling unit for e ach 200 square feet of disposition parce l a rea. This amounts to a maxi mum of 243 units on the proposed site. Land area cov erage for multi-unit residential use shall n o t exceed 25 % howev e r 40 % o f the di s po sition p arce l m u s t b e d evote d to lands c a p e d open space, a nd not more than SO% should b e d evote d to surface parking. Floo r are a pre miums are as follows .... Five s qu a r e feet of additiona l floor are a for each square foot of plaza. Three and on e-half square feet o f additional floor area for each square feet of unenclose d arcade . 17 Two square feet of additional floor area for each square foot of enclosed arcade . Offstreet parking for multiple unit dwellings should provide at l e a s t one for each two dwellings units. This amount s to a minumum of 144 parking space s for the propse d site for residential area.

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MARKET ANAlYSIS

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I I I. MARKET ANALYSIS (Information base d on r eport b y Real Estate Research Corp.) A . Summary of Conclusions Projected market support for downtown Denver housing has been based primarily on current and projected downtown D e nv e r employment, particularly employment in professional, technical, and manag erial positions but also backed up by evidence of a rapidly expanding Denver area labor market. 18 Market support has been refined by adjusting income data provided in the 1970 census to determine the share of households with the strongest downtown orientation which would be able to afford the relative high cost of new housing. Becasue new quality housing was not available to meet the d e mand in 1977-79, some of the demand for housing is more or less lost. Those households have been forced to choose other locations and wi II not be recovered for a long time. Thus the reasonable absorption of higher density multi-family units in and adjacent to downtown Denver r a n ge from 535-675, in 1978-1980, and from 1000 to 1250 from 1981-1985. Projection is that by 1983 a maximum of 1000 regular market residential units which might be constructe d on the Skyline Urban Renewal sites can b e absorbed. Note that 310 units wi 11 b e avai !able by the e nd of 1981, and that anothe r 600 units are waiting for financial approval, or just b eginning construction. The factors which were of greates t significance in affecting the housing demand can be listed briefly as follows .... Denver has a strong and growing economic base. Denver can be expected to continue to attract office and plants related to the energy fields. Population has increased by at leas t 25 % since 1970 and can be expected to grow at this rate until the 1980's. Many new downtown structures are beginning to provide an environment which is acceptable to persons desiring the convenience of a residence near their place of downtown employment. A continuing reduction in av erage household size indicate s that the increas e in demand for n e w dwelling units is greate r tha n would b e e xp ecte d by population growth alone . Adult households a r e on the incre as e which could constitute a prime source of demand for new housing in downtown.

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Vacancy rates downtown and near to downtown housing are generally lower than for the metropolitan area as a whole. 19 Because of the availability of cleared land at lower cost the demand for downtown housing wi 11 occur initially in the Skyline Urban Renewal project. Pollution, crime, wi 11 be no worse in an upgraded downtown location than in most of the higher d ensity residential areas in the metro Denver area. B. Analysis of Market Conditions The tracking of population change in the Denver area is a comparison of componets comprised of the U.S. Bureau of the Census, DRCOG, Colorado State Planning Office and the Denver Planning Office (DPO). From the trends observed in Denver the actual population figures are somewhere between the low figure projected by the C ensus Bureau and the high one estimated by the State of Colorado Plarning Dept. The four variations are show in Table 2. The 1970 Census indicated that 47.8% of all households consisted of only one or two persons. It is these smal I households which have a brgh probabi Jity of being drawn to cost new housing near their jobs in the central city. The other major percentage of households consisted of married couples with children, single parents with childre n or small number of other family combinations. These types of households do not generally seek downtown locations because of lack of outdoor play space, schools and the higher costs of housing. The projection thru 1985 indicates that the three types of households having the tendency to seek central area residences wi I I increase from an estimated 251,000 in 1977 to 280,000 in 1980, and 325,000 in 1985. Those categories are expected to increase from 54.6% to 58.9% in 1985. These figures would indicate that demand for new housing in the downtown area could be expected to grow at a faster rate than population if new dwelling units of competitive price, size and amenities are constructed in desirable downtown locations. In 1977, 71% of the single person households were estimate d to have incomes under $10,000 as compared with 91% in 1969. Only 20 % of the married couples without children und e r 18 had incomes und e r $10,000.

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20 In 1977, single persons and other adult households with incomes of $15,000 or more would tend to be the groups most likely to support new unsubsidized housing in the central area. Assuming a continuing high rate of inflation, incomes as well as an increasing proportion of adult households, the number of adult household projected to have incomes of $15,000 or more increases dramatically in 1980 and 1985. In 1980, a projection of 137,000 adult households in the Denver study area wi 11 have incomes of $15,000 or more which is an increase of 22.6% in three years. In 1985, a projection of another 24 % over the 1980 level wi 11 provide an increase of 170,000 households. While inflation can be expected to continue, it is clear that there wil 1 be an increase in the base of adult households in the Denver area with incomes high enough to be able to afford new housing in downtown. The Denver labor market area continue to fare much better than the nation with respect to unemployment trends, even while experiencing major additions to its labor force. The demand for new conventionally financed housing in the CBD is highly correlated with the number of single persons living alone, unrelated: individuals living together and childless couples with middle and higher incomes. The assumption is that those employed in professional, technical, managerial and administrative occupations are more likely to have the required income to be able to pay the generally higher rents asked for new housing. Downtown Denver had a net increase of floor space of 19% in the period from 1970 to 1975, with about three-quarters of the new space in office buildings. The expected increase from 1975 to 1980 is 16.4%, with three-quarters again in the office area. This annual demand for office space should continue unti 1 at least 1983. There is an annual recording of the new housing units authorized over the iod from 1968-77 for the Denver-Boulder SMSA as for the Denver city and county. The data shows that the peak years have been in 1971 and 1972. Increased multifamily construction was largely responsible for the major expansion of the

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21 Skyline -Denver, Colorado Table 2 CO"PARISON OF POPULATION ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS FOR DENVER CITY-COUNTY 1970-1980 1970 1975 1976 1977 1980 Bureau of the Census 514,678 484,531 481,500 N.A. N.A. Denver Regional Council of Governments 514,000 527,100 523,700 522,100 N.A. Denver City-County Planning Department N.A. 529,700 N.A. 520,200 538,900 State of Colorado Planning Department 517,045 553,435 N.A. N.A. 559,272 N.A. = Not Available

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22 :>le 3 PROJECTED HOUSEHOLDS BY INCOME 1985 19R5 Income Under $10,000-$15,000$20,000-$25,000 $10,000 $14,999 $19,999 $2-1,999 or More Total ngle Person House-lds 75,039 23,762 12,506 6,253 7,504 125,064 her Unrelated rson Households 3,944 3,418 4,732 3,944 10,254 26,292 All Unrelated Households 78,983 27,180 17,238 10,197 17,758 151,356 .rried Couples Without 1ildren Under 18 26,008 22,510 31,209 26,008 67,,619 173,384 .her Families 29,492 27,223 45,372 34,029 90,744 226,860 All Families 55,500 49,763 76,581 60,037 158,363 400,244 All Households 551,600 1urce: Real Estate Research Corporation

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23 number of units constructed in 1972. However the percentage and number of units have decreased significantly since that time. In fact in 1976 and 1977, more than three-quarters of the units authorized for construction in the SMSA were in the single family dwelling units. The overbuilding occured because employment and housing demand fell off faster than was anticipated by the housing industry. However, at this time with an increasing population and employment base as well as the lack of new multifamily (both condominium and rentals) construction in the area, the housing market is tightening up and vacancy rates are rapidly decreasing. The multi-family vacancy rates were 11% for the five county area and 9.7% for the Denver county. In five areas around Denver, vacancy rates have shown a substantial decline. Downtown i s 0.9% , Central Denver is 1.7% , Capital Hi 11 is 2.7% , and East Denver is 0.4% . Thses findings are not provided as being fully definitive of the occupancy vacancy position in the housing supply of the Denver area. However the large number of vacant units evident in 1975-76, have been absorbed into the market. Studies of surveys has shown in other cities that the downtown and near down town city dweller is either a single, young married, or childless couple with the head of household primarily in the professional or technical category, and retirees or those soon approaching retirement and desire less living area. From a survey of Denver area the average tenant living in the near downtown is more or less the typical empty nester getting away from home maintenance and responsibility by renting an apartment or buying a condominium in an area relatively close by to their place of business or to spend their time before and after retirement.

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'able . 4 l977 [ncrease L970-19SO Number % l980 : lncrease [980-1985 Number L985 PROJECTION.OF HOUSEHOLD MJ\RKET BASE FOR HESIDENCES IN DOWNTOWN DENVER Downtown Professional and Managerial Civilian Employment Low Estimate High Estimate 23,600 1,350 5.7 24,95C? 2,550 10.2 27,500 24,200 2,500 10.3 26,700 3,500 13.6 30,200 Percent of High Income Households with Highest Probability for Downtown Residence 44.0 46.3 50.0 Source: Real Estate Research Corporation J ' I ) • . ) ' 24 Estimated Base Households Oriented to Downtown Housing by Virtue of Employment Therein, Occupation, .Type of Household and Income Criteria Low Estimate lligh Estimate 10,384 1,168 11.2 11,552 2,198 16.0 13,750 10,648 1,714 16.1 12,362 2,738 22.0 15,100

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C. B. 0, flOOR SPACE COMPOSITION 1970 1975 1980+ 1. Office 7,770,000 10,853,060 13,805,060 40.2" 44. 1" 2. Hotel-Motel 4,024, 000 4,498,320 4, 635,320 17.1" 16 : 5" 14. 8" 3. Retail 2, 543,000 2,510,000 2., 605, 000 10.9% 9. 3" 8. 3" 4. Government Faciliti es 2, 296,000 2, 307, 200 3,291, 700 9. 8" 8. 5" 10. 5" s. Residential 1, 850,400 2, 013, 6(X) 2, 153,6(X) 7. 9" 7. "" 6. 9" 6. Wholeul e 1,2.31,000 1, 161, 800 1, 099,000 Maouhcrunng 5. 3" 4. 3" 3. 5" 7. Auto Stores, 501,000 481,000 439,600 T:ansportati oo Terr.: :n:ol s 2. 1" 1. 8" 1.4" 8. Comr.urcial Serv i c es, 452,000 435,()(X) 376,800 Personal Ser.;ces 1. 9" 1. 6" 1. 2" 9. [atin&, Dri nk in&, Re creation, 1, 078,000 1, 110,400 1,315,400 Theaters 4.6" 4. 1" 4. 2" 10. Civic, S o c ial, 1, 677,000 1, 692, 200 1, 632,800 Norrpro!1t, Ch.uit.oble 7.2" 6. 3" 5.2% T otal 23, 422., 400 27,012,580 31,400,000 5-Year Increase 3, 570,340 4, 387,420 Percent Increase inS Notes: + utimated. 1970: CCTP figwes. S<:lurcc: Central Aru P!annin& Section, Denver Phnnin& Office January 1975. 1985+ 1990+ 15, 715,000 17, 603, 44. 43. ; 4,900,000 5,814,.500 14.5'l! 2, 765,000 3, 2oo, OC>O 4,095,000 4, 731,800 11. 11. 2,310,000 2, 726, soo 6.6% 6. 8" 1,120, 000 1, 203,000 3. 2% 525,0C>O• 601,500 1. 5" 1. 5" 38S,OC>O 441, 100 1. 1 % 1.1" 1,435,000 1, 724, 300 4.196 4. 396 1, 750,000 2, 04 s, 100 5.0% 5.196 35,000,000 40,100,000 3,6 5, 100,CX>O 10. 3" 12. 7" 1995+ 19' soo, {X)() 44. ()<: 6,435,000 14. 3 * 3, 825, ()(X) 8.5:i 5, 175, ()(X) 11. 3,015,000 6. 75-0 1, 260,000 2 . 8>: 630, ()(X) l.Ho 540,000 1. 2"'> 1,950,()(X) 4. 4;: 2, 340, ()(X) 45 , 0CX),000 4,900,000 10. N V1 REAl ESTATE RCSEt\RCH

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Table 6 EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS Df..NVER C8D AND SMSA SELECTED YEARS 1 9 70 1985 lncre;ue 1970 1974 1975 1 9 70-1 9 75 1977 ENV!J\ CDn'i'AL BUSINlSS DISTRICT Profe•loaal and Managerial Civilian Employment 1910 CeDSUs Ddlnltlon (Tracts 17.01 and 17.02).!/ 12,584 2/ 1910 Census Definition (Tracts 17.01 11nd 17.02)22, 200• .!3 • 6()()t' 1910 Denver Planning Office Deflnltlpn (Tracts 17.02 end parts of Tracts 16, 17.01, 20, 25, 26.01 and 27. 01) 22,900t 26. 5" 24, 20()tl Total Employment 1910 Census Definition.!/ 42,281 1910 Cenru.s Definition 11' 67,900 74, 384• 76,000 11. 9" 79,08()t 1970 Denver Planning Offlc:e Deflnltlonl/ 60,900 71, 963 76, 282• 25.3" 80 , 602 )NVR STANDARD METROPOUTAN STATISTICAL AREA 1970 Definition (5 counties).!/ 474,281 477,600 O . N 1970 CeD!Us Definition (5 counties) J:.! 534,200 668, tOO 25. t" 706, 14()t )ENV'ER STUDY A REA (4 counties) ?J 580, 915• 604, 23. 8" 637, 'Jotea: .!I U.S. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1910 and 1975 • 11 Denver Regional Council of Government projections at five-year Intervals--Issued November 1977. 11 Denver Planning Offices Maps showing employment by block 1970, 1974, and 1977 . • Real E state Research Cofllorat i on estimates, 26 Pereeat Increase 1980 1 97S1 98Q 19115 1 980-12!! 24,95()t tO.N 10.296 HU5" 30,200t n.t" 83,700 10. 1" 92,200 10.29C 763,200 14.N 848,700 ll.29C n. 1" 764,4ft0e U.1.c

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7 lme Period ln. 15, 1976 15, 1976 :t. 15, 1976 pril 1977 ctober 1977 anuary 1978 VACANCY SURVEY -RENTAL UNITS OVER ONE YEAR OLD• Denver Metro. Area Vacant Units _%_ 2, 340 2,324 1,676 1,579 690 787 8.9 8. 8 7.46 5.2 2 . 1 2.5 Denver Downtown Vacant Units % 269 11.9 276 12.9 183 10.2 92 7.6 39 2.6 12 0.9 Central Denver Vacant Units 84 71 30 78 5 15 _%_ 5.6 4.7 2.7 3.9 0.3 1.7 Denver-Capital Hill-Cherry Creek Vacant Units % 305 290 197 108 48 7.7 7.6 7.1 3.6 1.9 2.7 27 East Denver Vacant Units 2_ 62 55 42 15 14 5 5.0 4.5 3.4 1.2 1.1 .4 Conducted by Capital Federal Savings, Denver, Colorado. Surveys reportedly represent better than ten percent of the Denver Metropolitan Aren apartment rentals.

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C. Ongoing and Anticipated Developm ents In the Skyline area there are three projects currently und e r construction. The Sunset Towers provides 100 units for elderly housing Larime r Place provides 168 luxury condominiums . Writer Square provide s 42 town house condominiums. Under contract with Dura with ti tie conveyed as of Novembe r 30, 1979, are the fo 11 owing ... Wind sor properties which wi I I provide 164 luxury c ondominiums . Urban Housing Assoc. II with 197 units of elderly hou sing. The rest of the Skyline are a wi 11 b e d evelope d as commercial and office space which wil I aide any n e w residential d evelopment. Future r esidential d evelopments in the near downtown are unknow n at this time. D. Presentation of Market Recommendations It is fairly common knowledge that t enants of high rise housing tend to b e characterized by small household size . The households are usually individuals 1 iving alone or with other unrelate d individuals and childless couple s . T enants of conventionally finance d high rise housing are u s u ally those in the highe r incom e categorie s above $15,000. In 1977 the categories of households compri sing mainly 0f single persons unrelated p ersons and married couples without children und e r 18 years of age, accounte d for 44% of alI households with incomes of $15,000 or m ore. In 1980 these categorie s are expecte d to account for 46.3 % of alI households with incomes of $15,000 or more and in 1985, for about 50% . Of great importance to a potential develope r of downtown r esidential units is the knowledge that the residential mark e t base is e xp ecte d to grow at a fas t e r rate than the bas e . Thi s occurs b ecause of the continuing 28

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29 trend for adult households to account for an increase in the share of all households. As increasing numbers of new dwelling units are added in the late 1970's and early 80's and as downtown achieves an improved image as a prestige area for upper income households, there should be an increasing proportion of households with a downtown orientation and wi 11 become interested in living within walking distance of their place of employments. And with the increase in transportation costs and energy costs, there is another incentive for seeking residences nearer to places of employment. Thus for 1985, a projection of 50 % increase in interest in living in downtown as compared with 1980. Under these assumptions a projection of the minimum conventional market for housing in downtown Denver in 1985 would range from 1,545 to 1,700 dwelling units. Disposition of the market as to rental or sales componets would be mainly toward the former for the period to 1980 and a mixture of the two for the period from 1980-85. As the area b e comes more acceptable to upper income households, some developments that are bui It as rental projects inital ly wi II probably be converted to condominium ownership in the middle 1980's. In looking further into the future, the period from 1980 to 1985, the increased demand from 680 to 1,520 new dwelling units is projected. This increase in demand averaged from a minimum estimate of 135 to a maximum estimate of 305 dwelling units annually in the same p eriod. If there is no overbuilding in the years up through 1980, the absorption of 200 to 250 units annually would be a realistic estimate. The estimated maximum 1000 regular market housing units which might be expected to b e constructed on Sky 1 i ne Urban Renewa I I and wou I d be absorbe d by 1983 at the latest. By 1985, the projection is for about 500 to 900 additional new regu4ar market units to be absorbed in other downtown or near to downtown locations.

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30 E. Application to Subject Site By isolating and identifying those characteristics of Denver's housing market with a traditional appeal to the city's residents, it is possible to strengthen the market for in-town housing. There is for example no reason to believe that the tremendous growth in the core area's working population wil 1 not be parralled by substantial increased demand for core-city market rate housing. It is the belief that there is room for a 200 unit project which is aided by the necessary facilities such as recreation, open space, and retail shops, and is with in the realm of feasibility. Three basic types of units are in demand, the studio, one b edroom, and two b edroom units. Square footages may be smaller than normal due to the r educed need for area and upke ep, and individual needs. The location of the project is just off the new 16th street transit way mal 1, which wil 1 provide direct access for tenents to the rest of Denver, and access to the site for shoppers, and office workers.

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31 IV. PROGRAMMING A. User and Market The market for residential units is basically in the single person or couple area, with medium incomes starting at $20,000. By using one rule of thumb for financing, the price range for these units would range from $45,000 per Studio to $100,000 for two bedrooms. If this range is to be realistic, square footages per unit wi 11 have to be reduced, which as the study reveals is in the interest of buyers. Thus through this analysis a studio wi 11 equal 450 square fee, a one bedroom wil equal 650 square feet, and a two bedroom wi 11 equal 850 square feet. Architecturally the problem is to provide more space visually than really exists, in order to market the smaller square footages. However, with the energy situation, the smaller units wi 11 probably be more than welcome. B. Dwelling Units and Commercial Space This proposed building would contain 200 dwelling units, consisting of a mix of 55 studios, 81 one bedrooms, and 64 two bedrooms. The mix of commercial space is proportion would be about 45,000 square feet, which is plenty to service the dwelling units as well as outside trade. Office space is 1 imite d to 70,000 square feet which will provide a mix for about two floors. Thus the first two levels wi 11 be retai 1, the next two would be office and the remaining levels, service and residential. At minimum the site would be 40 % landscaped open space. Underground parking ould provide 250 spaces for residential, and 110 spaces for retai 1 and office. C. Space Considerations Residential: Public area include the lobby and mail room at 1,500 S.F. and the pram room at 150 S.F. Service areas include lodke r storage at 6,000 S.F., receiving at 400 S.F. r efuse r oom at 300 S.F., storage at 300 S.F., Transforme r room at 800 S.F., and h eat roo m at 500 S.F.

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D. Bui !ding Typical construction features for a moderate type of bui !ding would include a reinforced concrete foundation system (pi lings) fireproofed structural system, reinforced post-tensione d concrete columns and b eams, floors and roof deck. Interior masonry non-loading bearing partition wal Is and metal stud partitions. Individual units would have carpeting and resilient flooring, partial ceramic tile baths, drywall finish, ditche ns with full appliances, average quality plumbing and electrical fixture s and c entral television ante nna hookups. Lobbi e s would have a commercial grade carpeting and average fixtures. The building would have a combination individual through ceiling fan coil 33 unit with central plant. The central plant consists of an evaporator, compre ssor, and Double bundle conde n ser connected to a Chiller. A hydronic econimizer cycle is u sed combined with hot and cold storage below the building. Backup is with a gas fired boiler. R etail and Office areas retain a partial economy cycle while the residential are a recieves 100 % economy. There would be a fire alarm system, security intercom system, av erage speed automatic passenger and service elevators, sprinkler system, av erage quality entrance, and foyer, sauna, and exercise rooms. Three levels of underground parking and storage area. Average quality landscaping. A future pool and deck is planned for the upper roof d eck.

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E. Economics Cost estimates for proposed development: Development Costs Land: Bu i 1 ding: Parking: Soft Costs 40,000 Square f eet@ $5 a square foot 8,510 Square feet @ $11 a square foot 375,240 Square f eet@ $58 a square foot 144,000 square feet @ $22 a square foot Total Design & Engineering fees Legal and Appraisal, et, Deve 1 ope r' s fee Marketing Mi see 11 aneous Total lnital Income 55 studio condominiums@ 500 square feet x $55,000 81 one bedroom condominiums@ 700 square feet x $77,000 64 two bedroom condominiums @ 850 square feet x $93,500 Total Note: Square footages include exterior terraces and are averages. Annual R ents Parking: 360 spaces at $70 per month R ta i 1: 45,000 sf x .85 eff. x $19.5 per sf/yr. Office: 70,000 sf x .85 eff. x $17.5 per sf/yr. Total $ $ s $ 34 200,000 93,610 21,763,920 3,168,000 25,225,530 2,000,000 300,000 200,000 200,000 200,000 2,900,000 $ 3,025,000 6,237,000 5,984,000 $ 15,246,000 $ 302,400 877,500 1 ,225,000 $ 2,404,9 00

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35 V. DESIGN ANALYSIS A. Background Larimer Street back in the 1860's was essentially a retail market area. The essence of what was then still remains in the boardwalks and arcades of the Larimer Square area. During the 1920's and 3D's, Larimer street increased in density and variety with a court house near Speer Blvd., and a bank near 17th street. Hotels and apartments added to the scene. The facades of the time took on a stepped look as they casdaded into each other, and at street level, canopies provided protection and advertising. In particular the block between 16th and 17th streets, the buildings of that time were the density increased as one went towards 18th or Speer. Through the 1950's the facades of Larimer street went thru transition. Mutilation and demolition were quite apparent. And by the 1960's, complete demolition had occurred on the half block between 16th and 17th streets. During the 1970's, the Skyline density creeped towards the lower downto w n area, to the extent that highrises set a border between the low industrial, low density, and the office highrise, high density. B. Issues The site is a half block located in a transition area between lower downtown and the Skyline Urban Renewal area. The existing Market Center buildings located on the Market street half of the block, as well as an existing parking lot owned by Dave Cook's, are to remain. The concept is to pul 1 together the existing elements and treat the remaining parcel in unison as a whole block complex, while paying special attention to the restoration involved in lower downtown, and the high density of the Skyline area. Besides being in a transition situation, there are many elements affecting the site. For one, the alley facades of the Market Center office complex has been restored with new windows, and leane d brick, in keeping with the times. However, the rest of the streets in the area provide only wall area with 1 ittle pedestrain relationship.

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36 The 16 t h street Hall will be a b ustl e of activity, an d acts a s a s t arting point a t 16th a n d Larimer fo r commuter s to t h e rest of Downtow n D e nv er. This point i s expanded, a s s hopp ers entering the city can leave their cars nearby the transit c enter, a nd connect with buses from lower downtown. The s k yline plaza bridge system a l s o starts at the transition point. The bridge s y s tem con n ects all the bui !dings in t h e Skyline are a at a s econd l e v e l plaza providing access to plaza t erraces, a nd interiors of bui !dings. At 16th and Larimer, this stepping up to the plazas b egins, and acts a s a connection with lowe r do wntown. On the 17th street side of Larimer, t h e r e i s also a transition with t h e financial di strict. Office tow e r s seem t o line themselves alI the way down 17th street, and som e attention mus t b e m ad e to that connection. Within w a l king distance are train a nd b u s transportation, with Union Station and the new Bus C ente r only three blocks a way. D e nv er's landmarks o f the Spagetti Factory and the D & F Tower a r e only t w o blocks a way. And the res idential characte r of the lower d owntow n and Skyline are a are also important factors . The Mar ke t C enter itself i s primarily office space with connecting c orridors thru each b ui ! ding. Within the C ente r are two restaurants with entrances on Mark e t street, and the AI l e y . The AI l e y seems to be a proble m at first, however i t provide s the conn ecting a r e a n ecessary for a transition of the new and old. The existing park in g lot, a s it i s un known at this time what will happe n the r e , i s partially i gnore d from the standpoint of the complex. S ervice b ecomes a serious proble m w h e n the alleyway is closed do wn. shared faci I ities between the existing Mc.rket Center, and the n e w com pl ex, locate d within the new compl ex, seem s to provide the necessary solution. The vi ews from the site at the Skyline l e v e l are towards the wes t and north w est. One can see Longs P e ak to the northwest, and Ht. Evan s to the west, w h e n weather p e r mits.

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C. Considerations Siting: Parking/ Service: Retai 1: Office: Resident i a 1 : 37 Connection was made by glass to the newly restored brick of Market Center. Glass also canopies out from the complex to enclose the second level plaza walkway to provide an essence of the 1920's. Street plazas tend to set back the of the bui I ding from the density that faces it while at the same time providing waiting and watching spaces for the transit mall. The connection to the skyline walkways occurs inside the interior open court which is skylighted. Three levels of parking with entrances on 17th street, instantly removes the car from the pedestrian. The exit is on Larimer Street which is four feet below the pedestrian way. Service is removed from the site by utilizing the existing alley on 17th street. The street level retai 1 is serviced from the alley while pedestrian access is from 16th and Larimer streets. Inside is an open courtyard facing the alley facade of Market Center, with escalators up to the plaza level. The old alley is used as a street cafe space. At the plaza level there is a connection with the Market Center and three other bui !dings of the Skyline area. This connection to lower downtown can be entered from Market street by the existing restwrants. The third and fourth levels provide office space which looks down on the interior court and remaining alleyway. It tends to step back or forward depending on where light is needed for the Market Center and the open courtyard. Exterior terraces are made out of the stepping. The residential area provides a narrow tower which skips down to the interior courtyard. This stepping is utilized for exterior terraces for common use among residents. The interior of the tower is broken down into skip stop corridors with one exterior corridor acting as a :double loaded interior corridor. From these corridors units are reached thru half flights of steps. Once inside the unit, another half flight of steps takes one to the bedrooms. The use of this system increases the vertical space automatically which breaking up the horizontallity inside and the exterior facade. The exterior g lazing provides not only view and 1 ight but natural ventilation as wel 1.

PAGE 47

CfSIGN S:HEMATCS

PAGE 48

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CO\CLUSO\JS

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54 VI I . CONCLUSION A. Coordinate Unit quoted from John Portman's book, The Architect as Developer "I have come to the conclusion that cities ought to be designed in a cellular pattern whose scale is the distance that an individual wi I I walk before he thinks of wheels. What information and observations we have avai !able on this question indicate that the average American is willing to walk from seven to ten minutes without looking for some form of transportaion. Using this time-distance factor as a radius gives a surprisingly large area. If this area is developed into a total environment in which practically alI of a person's needs are met, you have what I call a coordinate unit, a vii 1-age where everything is within reach of the pedestrian. You could walk to work, school, church, recreation, shopping, entertainment, and so on without having to get into a car or any other kind of transit unless you were going outside the cellular unit. What great savings in evergy and time, what great convenience such a city design would produce. For a coordinate unit to succeed, it must lift the human spirit; at the same time it must be economically feasible and follow a sensible, efficient plan. In addition to providing places for work, residence, shopping, and recreation, it must draw on al 1 the elements that I have been discussing: a strong sence of order, complemented by a variety of incident and unexpected change; light and color, nature and water to soften the constructed environment and make it more humane; shared space; and opportunities for people to watch people and all the movement entails. There must be a total life involvement."

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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55 VII. BIBLIOGRAPHY I. Evenson, Norma, Planning and Cities, Le Corbusier: The Machine and the Grand Design. N.Y., George Braziller, Inc., 1969. 2. Hanford, Lloyd D. Sr., Feasibility Study Guidelines. Chicago, Institute of Real Estate Management, 1972. 3. Jacobs, Jane, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. N.Y., Vintage Books division of Random House, 1961. 4. Messner, Stephen D., Boyce, Trimble, Ward. Analyzing Real Estate Opportunities, Market and Feasibility Studies, Chicago, National Association of Realtors, 1977. 5. Phi llippo, Gene, The Professional Guide to Real Estate Development, Homewood, IL Dow Jones-Irwin, 1976. 6. Portman, John. Arnett, Jonathon, The Architect as Developer, N.Y., McGraw HilI book co. 1976. 7. Smith, Tschappat, Racster, Real Estate Urban Development, Homewood, IL, Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1973. 8. Unger, Maurice, and Karvel, George, Real Estate Principles and Practices, Cin cinnati, OH, South-Western Publishing Co., 1979. 9. H.U.D. Denver Metropolitan Area-Wide Environmental Impact Statement. Denver, Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, 1977. 10. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Climatological Data, NOAA, Environmental Data Service, 1977. 11. Kusauada, and Ishii, NBS Building Science Series 96, 11Hourly Radiation Data for Vertical and Horizontal Surfaces on Average Days••. 1976. 12.11Housing Market Study for the Skyline Project, Denver, Colorado11, Real Estate Research Corp., Chicago, 1978. 13.11Downtown Denver Development Plan11, Denver Planning Office, 1976.

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14.11Lower Downtown Development Guidelines11, Denver Planning Office, 1978. 15. Macsai, John, Housing, N.Y., John Wiley and Sons, 1976. 16. Sherwood, Roger, Modern Housing Prototypes, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1978. 56 17. Mackay, John, Multiple Family Housing, N.Y., Architecture Book PUB. Co. 1977. 18.11Denver Building Code1 , 1 Denver, 1976. 19.11Skyline Urban Renewal Plan11, Denver, 1976. 20. Kemper John, Architectural Handbook, N.y., Wiley and Sons, 1979. 21. Halprin, Lawrence, Cities, N.Y., Reinholt, 1963. 22. Procos, Dimitri, Mixed Land Use, N.Y., Community Dev. Series, Dowden, Hutchenson, Ross, Inc. 1976. 23. Davern, Jeanne, Places for People, N.Y. Megraw-Hill, 1976. 24. Watson, Donald, Energy Conservation through Bui !ding Design, N.Y., McGraw-Hi! 1, 1979. 25. Nairn, Janet,11Building Types: Office Buildings11, Architectural Record, 26, Hoyt, Charles,11New perceptions of opportunity for cities11, Architectural Record, December, 1979. 27. Villecco Marguerite,11Strategies of Daylight Design11, AlA Journal, September, 1979.

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VIII. INTERVIEWS Bi II Saslow of Wazee Design and Development, on November 23, 1979. Doug Goedert of the Denver Planning Office, on November 23, 1979. Bruce Roof of the Housing and Urban Development on December 17, 1979. Rich March of the Housing and Urban Development on December 17, 1979. Gary Gaglier of the Denver Urban Renewal Area, on December 18, 1979. Bud Purves of Villancentres Properties, on December 17, 1979. Gaylund McFadyen of the Skyline Urban Renewal Area, on February 8, 1980. Rich Nelson of Lombardi and Assoc., Architects, on February15, 1980. Bi I I Casky of SOM, on February 14, 1980. Rich Smith of Barker, Rinker, Seacat, on February 18, 1980. Ernest Pershe of RTD, on March 4, 1980. Bob Yeager, of Seracuse Lawler, on March 4, 1980. 57