Citation
A public / private mixed use development for Auraria Village, Platte Valley, Denver, CO

Material Information

Title:
A public / private mixed use development for Auraria Village, Platte Valley, Denver, CO
Creator:
Mueller, Marilyn
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Marilyn Mueller. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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A PUB L 1C / PR I V ATE MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT For Auraria Village • Platte Valley - Denver, Co.
Thesis
Master of Architecture in Urban Design University of Colorado at Denver
ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING
prepared by AURaria LIBRARY ^
Marilyn Mueller
R 5 Lookout Mountain Road, Golden, Co. 80401 May 1987

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A PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT For Auraria Village • Platte Valley - Denver, Co.
T he s i s
Master of Architecture in Urban Design University of Colorado at Denver
prepared by
Marilyn Mueller
9 5 Lookout Mountain Road, Golden, Co. 804 01


Urban Design is the deliberate, three dimensional interpretation o-f planning decisions. As such, it has to do with how a city looks as a whole and in parts, how it works, and how it feels to visitors and residents alike. Urban Design refers to the public art o-f making a community’s environment beautiful and inspiring, as well as functional and efficient. Urban Design involves intimate interactions between the disciplines of planning, architecture and landscape architecture.
Source
Unknown




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Acknowledgment is due to the many people in private practice and in the Denver Planning and Parks departments who provided me with opinions, guidance, names o-f others to talk to, maps and reports. Among these are:
Floyd Tanaka, THK Associates Don Hunt, Dan Daiziel, BRW
Paul Foster, Architect and Urban Designer
Bob Kronewitter, Head of Planning, Auraria Campus
Bob Karnes, Downtown Denver, Inc.
Sarah Jane Seward, Downtown Denver, Inc.
Denver Planning Department Gordon Appel 1 Will FIei ssi g Mary Roberts Paul Sehnert Chuck Perry
Special thanks to Professor Paul Heath for his positive input and encouragement as my faculty advisor for my thesis work.
Previous faculty who kept my interest kindled in Urban Design were John Prosser, Ron Straka, Herb Smith and Davis Holder, all of UCD. Also, Brian Goodey, exchange professor from Oxford Polytechnic, Headington, Oxford, England.
I would like to dedicate this project to my husband, Hellmut, who has continuously supported my interest and activities in architecture and urban design.


INDEX
Introduction..................................... 1
Regional Setting................................. 3
Climate.......................................... 4
History.......................................... 7
Regional Traffic................................. 9
Site Selection and Land Use......................11
Economic Factors.................................15
Main Factors in the Solution.....................17
The Plan.........................................18
Land Use Calculations............................21
Landscaping......................................24
Bibliography
Acknowledgments
Appendix


A PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT
For Auraria Village, A New District in the Platte Valley Denver, Colorado
Introduction
This thesis will present an example o-f mixed use development, with an emphasis on housing, located just south of Denver's historic lower downtown and adjacent to the Auraria Community Campus.
There is presently very little urban housing in or even around downtown Denver. This is due partly to a pattern of housing being on the edges of business and commercial areas, a lack of a sense of community identity in these areas, and relatively high land costs making the economics of development uncertain. Mixed use means also projecting a mixed market, so there is more uncertainty about public need and acceptance, interaction patterns and viable rent levels.
I would like to mention the general social, political and physical factors that indicate that this area is ready to become what a recent study has called Auraria Village.
We are living in a culture saturated with choices in almost all aspects of life. Since architecture and the urban form of our cities reflect the state of a Society, architects and planners find themselves challenged to meet this world in appropriate functions as well as forms.
Lifestyles have expanded beyond the norm of the nuclear family of husband, wife and children living in the single family house in the suburbs to a myriad of other living arrangements and combinations. Not only singles and single parent and empty nest households seek scaled down homes but cohabitation of unmarried adults and communal arrangements, religious or secular, are tolerated in many segments of today’s society. With the emergence of these many different lifestyles, market demand for urban housing is a reality that city planners and developers are beginning to address. Other cities in America and many in Europe have already built a variety of examples that have been well received. Higher populations and more crowded conditions have helped many of these existing projects into being. Although Denver has an expanding population, one could not really say that conditions are crowded. So attractiveness and desirability and affordability become very important here.
Many people have left the suburbs and the intense concern for ownership of their own mini-kingdom and the consequent heavy time demands for upkeep of house and garden. Neither do such people necessarily want an apartment in a block full of other apartments. The attraction is the proximity
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and experiential variety of people, shops, markets, art galleries, concerts, -film, theater, restaurants and street activities at a quality and quantity level much more intense than can be found in the suburbs.
Besides significant change in the social fabric of the housing market, four major events have occurred to favor the liklihood of a market for urban housing in Denver. These events are: 1.) The oil development and exploration boom in the 70's and early 80 brought rapid growth and bustling activity in downtown Denver 2.) The price of oil fell from $64/barrel to $10 or $12 causing an end to the oil activity boom. 3). Election of a new mayor, indicating favorable citizen attitude to change. 4.) Agreement by the railroads to clear out most of the track filling up the Platte River Valley and consolidate to one through line.
Before the oil boom, Denver was experiencing signs of decay and declining retail and business activity in the core city. A mood of revitalization had already begun, but progress was sluggish, redevelopment tentative. The boom generated a whole new brood of skyscrapers, giving the city a broad new image and strengthened land values.
The new Mayor proclaimed a theme of "Imagine a Great City" to the populace and promptly expanded the Planning Department, headed by a new director, who in turn, expanded and shifted staff. Sweet breezes of enthusiasm, energy and optimism wafted through the usually stuffy halls.
A spirit of cooperation appeared with the Burlington and Rio Grande railroads, who previously avoided any summit type conferences. The proposed removal of the tracks, switching stations and yards filling much of the Platte Valley means five hundred acres of land bordered by the Platte River, lower downtown and the Auraria Campus becomes attractive useful land instead of an outmoded rail and industrial wasteland.
Community development becomes a logical consideration. An intensive study completed in the Spring of 1986 by the Planning Department and a widely representative citizens committee including city council, business, chamber of commerce and neighborhood participants produced a concept plan for the Platte Valley. This is the plan which indicates residential and business use for the site studied in this thesis, named Auraria Village. *
* See Appendix: The Central PIatte Val1ey Denver Planning Department
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REGI O N A L
SETTING
Regionally, Denver is located uniquely in the middle of the United States at a point where the immense western plains meet the powerful Rocky Mountains. Called the Mile High City, because it lies at an altitude o-f 5200 feet, it exists amongst parameters of contrast. The plains are flat, hot and dry and moderately barren. The mountains are jagged, chilly and weather producing, rich in forests, plant and animal life.
The climate is dry and moderate, with the sun shining more than 300 days a year. Thus, work and recreation are seldom stopped because of weather, although the showers and snows generated by the mountains keep all outdoor plans flexible.
The city of Boulder to the North and Colorado Springs to the South, which also lie against the Rocky Mountains roughly define the extreme limits of Metropolitan Denver, with commuters coming from both cities, as well as other smaller cities on the plains such as Greeley and Brighton to the north and Castle Rock to the south.
The population of Denver itself is around 500,000; that of metropolitan Denver is more than 1.7 million.
Denver is a major transportation hub. The rail lines, which established Denver's prominence, still bring passengers to Union Station and distribute goods, and lately, coal to the region. It is a stop over destination point for rail, bus, auto, truck and air lines.
Stapleton International Airport is the sixth busiest in the world. Plans underway for a new airport anticipate expansion and facilities which will make it an international hub in addition to its present central hub position nati onal1y.
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Drawing: Hose Marie Wong and K. Roger Jensen Drawing: Joanne Barbarick-Sender
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CLIMATE
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny semi—arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountains without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm weather is usually of short duration.
Temperatures come from at least four different sources influencing Denver's weather: arctic air from Canada and warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west.
The climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds form over the City so that temperatures of 90 deg. or over are reached on an average of only thirty—two days of the year and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 deg. mark.
Clear skies season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate the temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt . On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the country never reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains, and currents resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of the cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude.
When outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches it peak in May.
Being a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by several mountain barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity and low average precipitation.
Late winter is the wettest, cloudiest and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs towards spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of that season. Cold periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow.
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Summer precipitation (about 32 percent o-f the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually comes -from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower.
Winter storms moving from the north usually carry little moisture. The frequency of such storms increases during the fall and winter months and decreases rapidly in the spring. The accompanying outbreaks of polar air
are responsible for the sudden drops in temperature often experienced in the plains sections of the state. Occasionally, these outbreaks are attended by strong northerly winds which come in contact with moist air from the south; the interaction of these air masses causes a heavy fall of snow and the most severe of all weather conditions of the high plains, the blizzard. The winter snowfall averages from 3 to 5 feet on the plains and from 5 to 7 feet in the foothills.
Winds are generally from the south and southwest. Strong winds occur frequently in winter and spring. These winds can have velocities as high as 80 to 100 miles an hour.Such winds tend to dry out soils, which are usually not well supplied with moisture because of the low annual precipitation. A wind phenomenon called the “Chinook" occurs frequently along the eastern edge of the Front Range during late winter and early spring. These winds, warmed by their rapid descent from high levels cause large and sudden temperature rises.
Ecological Implications: The variable and unpredictable weather of the Front Range coupled with low rainfall, low humidity, high evaporation and strong air movement combine to cause several landscape management problems. The annual precipitation is not great enough to sustain most tree and shrub species except a few hardy natives. With supplemental water many additional species can be grown. Without supplemental water, great care will have to be given to species and site selection.
The climate, as discussed above is the macroclimate, or the overall, general climate of the area. The microclimate is the climate of a small or very localized area such as under a particular tree or at ground line under grass cover, etc. The variable and unpredictable weather or macroclimate of the Front Range causes extreme variations in the mi croclimate.
Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic
Center, Asheville, N.C.
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ky Cover
Possible Sunshine “ 70*
115 Clear Day- /Year
131 Partly Cloudy Days/Year
113 Cloudy Days/Ycar
Ave. Dally Relative Humidity - TEM3ERATURES
Month Norma I
Jan.
Feb.
March
Aprl I
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Coe.
30
33
37
47
57
66
73
72
63
52
39
33
High
72
76
84
85
96 104 104 101
97 83 79 74
low
-25~
-30
-11
-2
22
30
43
41
20
3
-8
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HISTORY
The popularity o-f Western Movies and TV scenarios has given us some sense of the state o-f primitivity and wilderness that existed in the 18407s and 50’s when the history of Denver was beginning. Originally, it was a rendezvouz location for trading with the Indians and socializing with other hunters, trappers and guides or explorers who were the first to arrive, usually from the East, although some must have come from Mexico and Canada.
Comparing the present city, with its newly spawned batch of glossy glassy skyscrapers to a memory of a few scattered cabins and a cluster of Indian tepees brings up all the present ’catch’ words such as "awesome", "wow","incredible!" This is a memory that no European has or could have had for many centuries.
And so, besides the historical milestones listed here, I would like to point out the mental, experiential history that is a factor here. The conflict with the Indians, the pioneer toughness and mentality, ( an odd combination of stoicism and entrepeneurism ), activist personalities who were developers or outdoorsmen who were mostly realists and rationalists with just enough idealism to get them launched into their activities.
There was freedom, opportunity and little restriction here then.
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Today, compared to much of the rest of the country, those words still apply. Where we are now, however, requires some direction and orchestration. We have had enough history in 140 years to see the need for preservation and conservat i on.
There is much public awareness as well as professional focus and vocabulary on the actual buildings, residences and neighborhoods that comprise Denver’s historical heritage. Surveys have been compiled, evaluations have been recorder, designations assigned. Historical organizations and departments are effectively active.
Recent efforts of the Denver AIA Urban Design task force have produced introductory publications on the Platte Valley, Cherry Creek and a study on Denver’s heritage of Parks and Boulevards. A proposal for the revitalization of 38th Ave. in the North Neighborhood was put together and submitted for Grant funding.
Denver’s Park and Recreation Department is conducting a complete review of existing parks and a Master Plan for future utilization and expansion. Reforestation is a major study, Denver having lost many trees to Dutch Elm disease and street widening activities.
The old is being reviewed and new thinking energy is being directed to renovating and preserving past accomplishments and linking, completing and adding urban design coordination and expression to one of America’s newest Big Cities.
Speer Boulevard - Pictures from AIA Seeds Publication
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THE BEGINNINGS
Events That Have Created Downtown Denver
1858 Downtown founded as Denver City where Cherry Creek enters the South Platte River, a staging area for the Pike's Peak Gold Rush.
1870 Downtown Denver businessmen raise $300,000 to build a branchline to connect the 5,000-population "town" with the first transcontinental railroad at Cheyenne.
1893 The national silver crash ends the first mining boom, but by now the city has TOO,000-plus people and is an established regional center.
1900 In 1900 Denver becomes the regional repository fitr federal funds, confirming Downtown's role as the regional financial center.
1902 The City anil County of Denver is established by the stale legislature as a home-rule city, with Mayor Robert Speer shortly to begin pushing the "City Beautiful" movement.
1905 Cheesman Resenoir becomes the first major mountain water storage for Denver.
1906 The first automobile is licensed in Denver, and in the next year the first trolley reaches Littleton, beginning the "suburban” movement.
1908 The Denver Auditorium, largest municipal meeting facility west of Madison Square Garden, is dedicated and shortly hosts the Democratic National Convention.
1911-12 The D&F Tbwer goes up, the 20th Street Viaduct links Downtown to West Denver. Union Station is rebuilt, and somewhere someone makes Denver's first long-distance plume call.
1914-17 World Wtr I stimulates Downtown commerce while reform influences bring in Prohibition and the closing of Market Street's “cribs."
1923 Civic Center is completed. Denver has 250,000 people, 30,000 cars, a few thousand new Hispanic citizens who came to help in war-effort farming, and its first radio station.
1928 A downtown theatre shows the first sound film.
1929 Stapleton Airport is dedicated.
1930 The “Little Capitol" campaign is started to attract federal workers and regional headquarters to Denver. From 2000 employees at the start of the depression the number reaches 16,OCX) by the end of World War II.
I.
1935 Federal Depression programs improve Denier facilities, including Red Rocks and mountain parks. First Western Slope water to Denver in the next year.
1937 Transcontinental air service to Denver begins, as docs planning for Winter Park, the first latge mountain ski area.
193945 World War II brings to Denver an Ordinance Plant which by 1943 employs 20,000 people, half of them women. When America enters the war, Denver becomes host to floods of servicemen who form the base of postwar expansion.
1950 State auto registration is 564,000 — the last street railway car is taken out of senice. Denver has 415,786 people; the suburbs an additional 150,000 (Thirty years later, Denver has grown to 491,396, with the suburbs having an additional 1,120,000).
1952 Dwight Eisenhower opens his presidential campaign headquarters at the Brown Palace. Denver has its first television broadcast.
1956 Interstate Highway Act signed, with major intersection in Downtown Denver area.
1960 Denver Urban Renewal Authority begins planning for Skyline Project. At this point Denver has sis buildings higher than 320 feet; ten years later there are 18, and the building cnine is the state bird.
1964 Roberts Tunnel for trans-mountain water diversion completed, as is Currigan Hall Convention Center.
1965 Larimer Square historic restoration begins and historic preservation movement spreads.
1969 Bond issue for Auraria Higher Education Center passes, and the next year for Denver purchase of the bus system. The Regional Transportation District is formed in 1973.
1971 New An Museum built. Planrung begins for the Denver Center for the Performing Ans.
1974 Stale legislature passes Poundstone Amendment prohibiting Denver's further growth by annexation.
1976 Auraria Higher Education Center and Colorado Heritage Center are dedicated.
1982 16th Street Mall dedicated.


STREET NICHES are potential gathering places. They extend an invitation to linger and window shop.
Lower Downtown


STREET PLANTINGS help create human spaces. We readily relate to trees and flowers, which soften the hardness of urban en-vi ronment.
lower Downtown


TRAFFIC
REGIONAL
For the urban dweller, priorities in traffic become quite di-f-ferent -from the suburban counterpart. Particularly, i-f that person has been able to find employment in the core city, the priorities become:
1. Pedestrian walkways
2. Bikeways and other;(skateboards, rol1erskates.)
3. Shuttle Bus
4. RTD Busways
5. Rapid Mass Transit
6. Private Motor
7. Transcontinental Bus
8. Railway
Rapid Mass Transi t
As long as Denver's mass transit is confined to bus lines, it can never perform as mass transit does in other major cities. So far, population densities have not justified the expense of a rapid transit system. It is to be hoped that some form of limited rapid transit will be built in the next fifty years.
Two of the benefits from rapid transit would be bringing the metropolitan population quickly into the core city and reduction of automobile pollution.
Conversely, urban residents would be able to get about metropolitan Denver and not feel a long travel time barrier for such needs or pleasures.
Private Motor
The grid system existing in Denver and the geographic convenience of a very visible mountain range to the West make orientation and travel about the city very easy.
There are congested areas to be sure but improved traffic flows should soon occur as the interchanges along 1-25 are re-done and a system of Collector—Distributor roads is
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implemented. The Auraria Parkway will bring cars into Lower Downtown and is the initial part at a ring road plan tor the CBD. It is anticipated that Speer Boulevard will be realigned to the South side from Larimer Street on West and that it will come to grade somewhere in Mid Valley. The Larimer and Lawrence Street Viaducts will be removed.
Transcontinental Bus and Commuter/Local Service
The Bus Station is located very conveniently at 19th and Arapahoe/Curtis.
Rai1 way
Since the main line is to be consolidated Mid Valley, there may be a new station. Perhaps this line will include rail -for rapid transit. The site would be conveniently near any new central station as it is now to the existing Union Station at 17th and Wynkoop.^-
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' - / u
V.;._ ' MAJOR DESTINATION NODTS
FUTURE
W




SIT E SELECTION AND LAND USE
The site was selected because it is situated in an area that has just been reviewed and identified by the Denver Platte Valley Committee and given the name Auraria Village.
The site is the six blocks centrally located in Auraria Village between 8th and 11th Streets, all of which has sixty to eighty foot height limit. See Category 3, below.
y
The site is unusual for an urban site in that there are large areas of open space surrounding it at this time. To the southeast is the Auraria Campus and its tennis courts and athletic field. To the Northwest is over 200 acres of land in the process of being cleared of railroad tracks and a few industrial facilities. Another 300 acres to the north of Cherry Creek have also been cleared of tracks.
In the written material accompanying the comprehensive plan, the preferred land uses are: Office
Retail — concentrated on Wynkoop
Restaurants, Bars, especially concentrated along Wynkoop, 7th and 10th Streets
Residential
Hotel
Conference Facilities
Base Density is suggested at a Floor Area Ratio of 2:1, with additional retail F.A.R. along Wynkoop, with residential development.
In the Denver Comprehensive Plan the Platte Valley land has been roughly classified into three categories
“Category 1 -
Towers between 200' — 250' (IB to 20 stories) having relatively small floor plates of less than 22,000
square feet. These buildings should be clustered
so that they establish visual gateways, create special activity within the Valley, and minimize the
obstruction of major mountain vistas and the views
to the downtown core.
Category 2.
Mid-rise structures of 130' to 140’ (10 to 12 stories)
on smaller parcels, especially where the more
typical street grid pattern of zero lot line
development is desired. In some instances where
existing historic character is already in place
(e.g. along Wazee and in Lower Downtown), cornice
setbacks at 90’ to 100’ will help to maintain visual continuity from street level.
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Category 3.
Lower structures o-f 60?to 80’ (5 to
are located along water amenities, corridors, and/or contain back o-ffice, R&D, or employment center functions, be larger point tower buildings,
will also apply to those areas of
7 stories) that within key view warehouse Floor Plates may This category the Valley located
near neighborhood areas or development.
for lower scaled residential
The historic presence is a neighbor, but not a near neighbor and harmonious transitions would appear to be achievable in an easy relaxed manner.
The residential areas to the West and Northwest and what is called the West Neighborhood, which really goes south from Colfax to Ellsworth and from Broadway west to the river are separated by that river and the major trafficways which edge these districts.
West Denver has always been severely separated from the East by the Platte Valley. The changes in traffic and the clearing of the tracks bring an opportunity for transition that will unify the city and enhance it visually and make available the enjoyment of the Platte River.
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SITE INFORMATION
Taken -from the "Central Platte Valley Workbook" University of Colorado, 1983
" - Topography is generally flat, with no significant slope (slope =1/1)
— Exception is western bank (slope 4/1)
— West of the Central Platte Valley are low-lying bluffs (slopes range from about 8% to 30/1)
— Both South Platte River and Cherry Creek are channelized; they meet at mid-site.
— Platte River drainage is steeply banked north of the conf1uence
— South of confluence, the Platte drainage is flatter and shal1ow—banked
— Designated flood plain on South Platte, south of conf1uence
— Designated floodway in same area "
Our site is out of the presently determined flood plain.
Lack of significant slopes , high water table, presence of bedrock at rather shallow depths make drainage a problem and more than one level below grade not advisable.
Our area has had no new construction recently so that soil conditions, the amount of fill, are really not known.
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TOPOGRAPHY


AIR
QUALITY
Air pollution is a problem for all of Denver. The Platte Valley is in an area of high pollutants.
It will be assumed that increased study and regulation of automobile exhaust already underway will be successful. The desire for developing the Platte Valley could be a plus factor in the city getting really serious about pollution control.
Some large areas of enclosed controlled environment would be useful on days of highest pollution, which are in the winter when there is an inversion which keeps the cold bad air trapped by a higher layer of warm air. Such controlled environment is also enjoyable on hot and/or windy days also. The success of the enclosed shopping malls in the Denver area indicate the advisability and public popularity of such spaces.
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ECONOMIC FACTORS
General Comments
Any development in the Platte Valley must begin almost -from scratch with the basic in-fra structure costs o-f power, water and sewer lines, streets and lighting, since little of this is in place. Where it exists, it is quite fragmented.
Auraria Village has two advantages primarily one ownner and there are requiring demolition. Removal of miscellaneous concrete surfacing and necessary on over half the land.
in that the area has very few buildings railroad track and retaining walls is
Existence of the railroad track bordering the district to the West and Cherry Creek to the North will require bridges for the transportation and pedestrian links to neighboring districts.
The programatic desire for strong residential presence creates the need for some sort of incentives and assistance, since developers find that residential payback in urban locations seldom, if ever can equal costs or earn revenue. It is not unrealistic to assume twice as much revenue can be earned from retail/office as with residential.
It is an advantage that adjoining blacks, which have been designated Category 1, (200 to 250 height) could offer opportunity for profit which would offset the lower returns that can be expected from residential. This residential is likely to be largely rental, given the described transitional nature of the probable tenants.
Another economic problem is that even with the relatively low 2:1 F.A.R.,(the
area ratio of building to ground floor plate), required parking , computed at one space per 500 sq, ft. must be largely handled in structures and in the one level allowed below grade.
It was not possible to do an economic study relating property value, building costs and projected leasing revenues because there is not much close by to compare this development to. Right now, there is not even a need for more retail or office space, since near by downtown was overbuilt in the recent Oil Boom of the early 80"s.
Auraria College generates a need for both housing and support office and studio space. At this time, the idea of state funding is very remote, since legislators from other districts in the state have always apposed housing for
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Auraria, which might cause a drain on enrollment in their own local colleges.
A strong conlusion of this study was that there would be a need for convenient parking and that some of this parking should be public parking. Furthermore, the parking required for residential use would be an opportunity to introduce municipal assistance with the cost of this parking as an encouragement to the developer to consider substantial neighborhood development, and not just a few token units found at the top of some office building. .
There has been a very recent pilot study presented by The Denver Planning Dept. for possible funding sources and sequences to develop the district West of Union Station, called the Commons and the district between Cherry Creek and 16th Street, called Cherry Creek. This initial plan is included in the Appendix. A study of the plan shows a need for greatly appreciating land values and long development time 1i nes.
There have been various types of grants used for projects in Denver. Other funds have been created as matching money to the developer. Bridge financing has been approached as a separate item. In most instances, it is up to the developer to tailor his needs to fit the program. In the case of the Platte Valley, I think there will be a period of presenting the needs first and then seeking implementation methods to meet some of those needs.
Development of the Platte Valley will call for all kinds of creativity. Two words associated with creativity are risk and resourcefulness. The economics working in the Platte Valley will surely involve both of these.
-16-


MAIN
FACTORS
I N
THE
SOLUTION
The work on this project has been closely based on the 1985— 86 publication o-f “The Platte Valley Plan" put out by the Denver Planning Department. The directives and decisions made there, in regard to Auraria Village and its adjoining districts have been accepted and implemented.
Two of the ideas stated in the introductory General Statements which I used as departure for my proposal were:
"It will have an urban but somewhat different character than downtown, e.g., more"green" open space, different parking requirements, height restrictions and lower allowable densi t i es."
"This Plan attempts to strike an appropriate balance between the economic needs of various land owners and the public needs for housing, open space, and revenue-generating economic development. The overall objective is to create development in the Valley that is very different than any other development in the core of downtown or in the metropolitan area."
Constraints that were accepted were the obvious physical ones caused by the railroad tracks to the West, Cherry Creek to the North and the six to eight lane Auraria Parkway to the East.
Per the Platte Valley Plan, 7th Street would be the main collector street going North into the Rice Yards and to the River,and the only street to have a bridge.. 6th Street and 9th Street would be major pedestrianways with special landscaping. 9th Street would also include vehicular traffic. The Plan further states that Wynkoop should connect directly to Cherry Creek,(and into Lower Downtown) and that most of the activity should be focused on it. That activity would be professional and student supported. There should be concentrated and continuous retail on street level to support active pedestrian traffic. Parking shall be below grade or structures near the tracks.
The character of the development would include the continuance and completion of the grid as shown in proposals drawn up by Downtown Denver Inc. and another presented by the Denver AIA. The scale and the use of materials would be compatible to the existing brick commercial and warehouse structures along The Auraria Parkway and in nearby Lower Downtown.
Trees and other streetscape amenities would be an approved part of the planning.
-17-


THE
PLAN
The goals in creating the plan were:
1. To comply with the directives of the Platte Valley Plan
2. To have a mixed use development.
3. To have the residential units be of sufficient number and concentration that there would be a definite neighborhood identity.
4. Parking would be easy to find, easy to use and hopefully
less expensive than most downtown parking.
5. There would be a central Plaza, with a fountain for focus at 9th and Wynkoop.
6. Other landscaping and shrubs and flowers would be a part of the surroundings.
7. Residential units would not face North. Primary windows would face East to benefit from the pleasant morning light or West for afternoon light and perhaps a view of the mountains, depending on adjoining future construction. Actually, the true orientation is either Southeast or Northwest, which offers fairly good sunlight year 'round.
8. The district would be pedestrian friendly.
Please refer to the presentation drawings included in the
Append i x
By looking at the Plan and Section A A on sheets 6,7 and 8 one can immediately see the strong residential elements oriented around the newly created residential street, Wewatta Way. The ten foot, landscaped setback, the ground level entries, slightly elevated above the sidewalk level,the staggered placement of the units and the four story height all serve to create a simple fine grained backdrop for the avenue of trees that would shelter the walkways leading through the district and either south to the 6th Street pedestrianway or north to the Cherry creek pathways or to Lower Downtown and Union Station.
The six story units along the tracks are meant to act as a shielding wall to the neighborhood, with the residential units starting 25 feet above grade and some fifty feet back from the tracks. Ramping lengths and desire for simplicity required the full 300 foot use of the blocks.
As designed, each of these blocks to the West of Wewatta Way contain over 100 dwelling units in what is 1.18 acres with
-18-


110 parking spaces available.
If proximity to the railroad track should prove to be too much o-f a pollution or seismic problem a second scheme might be worked out to enlarge the street units to the permissible 60 dwelling units per acre and allow the rear 60 -feet for parking, either on grade or structured. Covering the track has been seriously suggested for some stretches of this railroad line but would have to be considered within a context of the whole distance of the mid valley alignment.
The blacks between Wynkoap and Wewatta Way are transitional, incorporating residential, office and retail as shown.
The space taken up by the Plaza and the Tree Grove, reduces the amount of area available in the one level of below grade parking. Total parking requirements are not fully met it this block. This should be balanced out considering both sides of Wynkoap and trying to reduce the build out. It is unlikely that everything will need to be built out at six to seven stories.
The section shows an attractive profile and the mix in the block seems most interesting, with the gated alleyway and the contrast between the street level 6-Plex units and the contrasting residential higher, over the office area.
The blacks between Wynkoap and the Auraria Parkway are designed to be retai1 on the ground floor with office above and a strong orientation along Wynkoap and the Parkway.The remaining space is needed for the large parking structures indicated. With a block size or 300 by 400 feet, giving an area of 120,000 sq. feet, the basic allowable Floor Area Ratio, F.A.R., would be 240,000. sq. ft.
Using the recommended ratio of one car per 500 sq. ft. gives us 480 required parking spaces. The design provides for 440 parking spaces in four levels, one below grade and three above using a simple ramp design. The suggestion would be that two levels be used for public parking and two for leased parking. The Platte Valley Plan makes mention of flexibility in parking assuming some student population without cars. .
This design integrates parking with the structures being served, allows for planting and bench seating in front of the planting along the sides of the structure and a fairly low height, with the top level being a roof level. If snow removal proves to be too much of a problem, this level may have to be roofed over.
A twelve foot wide planting area containing trees, shrubs and some flowers separates the sidewalk from the street traffic on 9th street. Trees are regularly spaced on
-19-


Wynkoop and Wewatta Way.
The Plaza utilizes a symbolic brick wall with -flat arches in memory and respect to the -fine brickwork to be seen in the area. Extensive use o-f slump block and split concrete block as well as epoxy stucco surfacing are likely to be more used than brick -for cost reasons.
The Tree Grove to the West o-f the Plaza is meant to provide an inviting shaded area to meet or in which to rest as well as to be an attractive backdrop to the Plaza and a buffer to the residential units.
The retail and commercial structures have not been designed but are only shown following the height and zero lot line guidelines. The charming variety that one experiences in Lower Downtown on Larimer street was brought about by different builders and owners each doing their own thing. The integration of parking and building in the design would require a single design/build effort and creating variety, with harmony within the block as well as across the street and between adjoining blocks would be a great opportunity and a great challenge.
Design Review is one of the mechanisms that is expected to function in the development of the Platte and under that review, I would recommend a 14 foot first floor level and attention to harmonious cornice lines along the facade and at the top of these buildings as well as building material compatabi1i ty.
The intention, overall is to have the building surfaces be masonry colors, beiges, tans, buffs, perhaps soft reds and siennas with the landscaping and street amenities and street activities providing the interest. Uniformity and simplicity would also make a stranger stand against the taller more dense developments which are immediately to the north and south.
20-


LAND
USE
CALCULATIONS
Following are the land use calculations o-f the three middle blocks shown in the Plan, which would be typical of the possibilities and requirements of the similar blacks to the North or South.
Block whose edges are: 9th and 10th Streets
West Property Line and Wewatta Way
Area: 172* x 300* = 51,600 sq. ft. = 1.18 Acres 1 Acre = 43,560 sq. ft.
6 Story Uni t, (Two Stori es Parkinq)
Typical Floor: 65* x 300* Four Floors Vesti bule = 19,500 = 78,000 200 sq. ft. per floor 78,200 sq. ft.
Each Floor 7 Units 26 x 28 = 728 sq.ft. 4 Units 1048 sq. ft. 7 Units 26 x 20 = 520 sq. ft.
6-Plexes on Wewatta Way 4 Units 20 x 34 = 680 sq. ft. 2 Units 2 Story =1360 sq. ft. Vestibule Area =1260 sq. ft. 6,700 sq . ft. per 6-Plex
3 Units 20,100 sq. ft.
Cafe Unit 1 level 30 x 60 2 levels 30 x 40 Residential 1,800 sq. ft. 2,400
Summary
Total Built sq. ft. 102,500
F.A.R. 2:1 51,600 x 2 103j200
Required Parking
92 Units x 1.5 138 cars
Provided 110
The 110 cars would probably be allowable assuming some student tenants.
21


Block whose edges are 9th and 10th Streets
Wewatta Way and Wynkoop
Area: 172’ x 300’ = 51,600 sq. ft. = 1.18 Acres Resi dent i al Units
24 Units in 4 6-Plexes @6,700 26,800 sq.ft.
40 Units over Retai1/Office
4 Floors @ 36 x 300 43,200
Retai1
1 Floor @ 65 x 300 19,500
Off i ce
2 Floors @ 65 x 300
1 Floor @ 28 x 300 47,400
Summary
Total Built sq. ft.
136,900 sq. ft.
F.A.R. 2:1 51,600 x 2 103,200
(Higher F.A.R. allowed with residential)
Requi red Parki nq 64 Residential x 1.5 Provi ded
96 Cars 100
Office/Retai1 would require an additional 133 are 16 surface parking spaces in this block, below grade. Some of the office/retai1 needs be distributed to the other blacks or the have to be reduced.
cars. There the rest to be would have to build out will
22


Block whose edges are 9th and 10th Streets
and Wynkoop and the Auraria Parkway
Area: 300 x 400 = 120,000 sq. ft.
To be all Retail and Office, No planned residential Retai1
On Wynkoop 40 x 300 x two floors 24,000 sq.ft
Thirsty1s 65 x 110 7, 150
At 10th and Auraria Parkway 65 x 150 x 2 Covered Concourse Total Retail 55,900 sq. ft. Off i ce 19,500 5,250
On Wynkoop 40 x 300 x 2 75 x 300 x 3 24,000 67,500
Thirsty's 2x7,150 14,300
At 10th and Auraria Parkway Four floors x 19,500 Summary 78,000
Total Built sq. footage F.A.R. 2:1 120,000 x 2 239,700 sq. ft 240,000
Parking Requirements 1 car per 500 sq. ft. 479 cars
Provided Surface 16 Structure 440 456
Built sq. footage can be adjusted or another floor added to Parking structure


THE PLATTE VALLEY PLAN
CITY OF DENY
DEPARTMENT)
’IT WILL HAVE~AN TflfBJWTBUT SOMEWHAT DIFFERENT CHARACIER-THAN DOWN - J TOWN.X.G., MORE GREEN OPEN SPACES^ DIFFERENT PARKING REQUIREMENTS, HE1GHT_R£STRICTI0NS,LOWER ALLOW -ABLE DENSITIES.”______ _ ____j
’’THIS^PLA^t^TEMPTS TO STRIKE ANT
ECONOMTCHNEED^OF VARIOUSXAND- ; OWNERS AND THE PUBLICNEED FOR HWSING70PEN SPACE, AND REVENUE GENERATING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS THE OVERALT OBJECTIVE IS TO CREATE DEVELOPMENT IN THE VALLEY THAT IS VERY DIFFERENT THAN ANY OTHER DE -VELOPMENT IN THE CORE OE DOWNTOWN ORTNTHE METROPOLITAN AREA
Cm OF DENVER
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SITE PLAN
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LANDSCAPING
Plans which are underway -for the Auraria Parkway being done by BRW include canopy trees on both sides of the parkway and a median strip planted in lower shrubs. Work which is underway to restore Speer Boulevard will replace trees and shrubs which are missing and complete planting where deemed proper.
Both of these landscape projects which are immediately adjacent to my site are part of a general revitalized interest in greening up the city.
With such precedence, the trees and planting have been indicated along 9th, Wynkoop and Wewatta Way to be in keeping with the direction indicated in the Platte Valley Plan that these newly developed districts shall have more green and more open space than other downtown areas.
Besides the Plaza, two other Parks have been placed. One is a strip park between lOth and 11th Streets on Wewatta Way. This park offers a meeting place or sitting area for nearby residents and a pleasant break in the regularity of the residential facades on both sides of the street. This park would also be attractive to office workers in the next high density blocks.
The other blocks in this district could contain towers for residential or hotel use. One very preliminary scheme by THK shows housing to the south of 7th which could be Category 2,( 130 to 140 foot height.)
For such high densities and in consideration of the needs of so much residential, a block park is shown just south of 7th street. There would be almost 200 feet needed for the incline of the bridge over the tracks in that block, which compromises its use for development, somewhat.
Landscaping also includes special paving, lighting, street furniture, public telephones, banners, etc.
The 9th street pedestrianway is an extension of a major pedestrianway coming from the Auraria Campus. If special paving has been used in Auraria, this paving should probably be used in Auraria Village. The Plaza also should have some special paving pattern and orchestration. Other than that, I think that normal concrete sidewalks would be acceptable. As buildings go up, accent areas may be put in place. Initially, it could be placed fairly far down on the priority list.
24


FOR
LAND
PUBLIC ASSISTANCE SCAPE NEEDS The degree o-f joint venture can best be worked out at the time o-f -further development. Planting of the initial trees and shrubs or park development will probably not be done all at one time.
One very important fact about landscaping is that after it is installed it must be watered and maintained. Although the city may carry such maintenance for street planting within one of their departments, it would be wise to have a supplementary Maintainance District formed when sufficient ownership within the development exists.
The city should also play a part,using the design review process in approval of the ten foot landscaped setbacks on Wewatta Way and in providing data on selection and choice of tree and plant material.
Work has been done for the Planning Department on specific research and recommendations for the Speer Boulevard Project. Most of this report is included in the appendix as an example of the kind of information which would be similarly needed for the districts of the Platte Valley.
Municipal input on these trees and plants and their placement will assure consistency and approved design as well as use of proper vegetation which will not only be visually proper, but which will best flourish in our capricious climate.
25


APPENDIX


UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING Graduate Divisions 1100 Fourteenth Street Denver, Colorado 80202 (303) 629-2755
ARCHITECTURE 501
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
CR OWELL/C R ONENWETT/S HUTTLEWORTH
PROBLEM NO. 5 BUILDING IN THE CITY PEARL AND L6TH ISSUED: APRIL U W DUE: MAY 6 S
DENVER BUILDING CODE:
CORRIDORS:
(Max. length / travel distance - from most remote point on floor)
Housing: 100'ft. (150 ft. if sprinkled)
Office: .150 ft. (200 ft. if sprinkled)
Retail: 150 ft. (200 ft. if sprinkled
EXIT WIDTH:
(Stairs and corridors)
I4.I4'* for office, retail and housing with more than 50 occupants 36" for housing with less than 50 occupants
DEAD END CORRIDORS:
20 ft. max.
50 ft. if sprinkled
OCCUPANT LOAD:
HOUSING: 300 ft2 / occupant
3.000 ft2 (3 housing units) = 10 occupants
300 ft2
2 or more exits required when occupancy exceeds 10 OFFICE: 100 ft2 / occupant
3.000 ft2 (office area) = 30 occupants
100 ft'2
2 or more exits required when occupancy exceeds 30


ARCHITECTURE $01 PROBLEM NO. 5 page 2
RETAIL:
Upper floors: 50 ft2 / occupant Ground level: 30 ft2 / occupant
Upper: 2,000 ft2 (retail area) = kO occupants ------------------56 ft2-------
Ground: 2,000 ft^ (retail area) = 66.6 occupants
__2
Upper floors: 2 exits required if occupancy exceeds 10
Ground level: 2 exits required if occupancy exceeds 30 (basement also)
STAIR DETAILS:
Min. tread = 10"
Min. riser = Yi"
Occupancy less than 10:
Min. tread = 9"
Min. riser = 8"
The width of landings mu3t = the width of the stair Corridor min. ht. = 7’-0"
ADDITIONAL CODE INFORMATION WE MAY NEED:
(SEE SUPPLEMENT: DENVER BUILDING CODE REVIEW AND UBC RESIDENTIAL CODE REVIEW)
1. Fire ratings on stair, wall, floor and ceiling assemblies
2. Distance between buildings Fire rattings on walls
% of open area (glass) allowed
3. Stair handrail height (28" to 3V)
I use 32"
l+. Exit width required
5. Fire ratings on structural members
6. Occupancy of 500 to 999 requires 3 exits
7. Mezzanines require 2 stairways to floor below if more than
2,000 ft2 or more than 60 ft. in any dimension.


AURARIA PARKWAY CORRIDOR (STUDY
CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER
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FLORES ASSOCIATES
MADISON. MADISON. INTERNATIONAL
FELSBUAG-HOLT-ULLEVIQ
HAMMER-SILER-OEOROE ASSOCIATES
ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS
— \
PROPOSED PARKWAY
LANDSCAPE CONCEPT
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FIGURE
44
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SPEER BOULEVARD/CHERRY CREEK PARKWAY PROPOSED STREET TREE GUIDELINES
PART I: GENERAL
1. RELATION TO GENERAL SPEER BOULEVARD/CHERRY CREEK PARKWAY GUIDELINES: These street tree guidelines should be interpreted and applied in light of the general guidelines, especially those guidelines relating to landscape design.
PART II: THE HISTORIC FOUNDATION
1. HISTORIC DEFINITION OF STREET TREES IN DENVER: An ensemble planting of deciduous trees of a single species closely spaced in a row, or rows, along and parallel to a roadway so as to provide a uniformity in shape, size, texture, and color and thereby to define and enhance tne linear quality and continuity of the streetscape.
2. HISTORIC STREET TREE ZONES ALONG SPEER BOULEVARD: There are five historic street tree zones along Speer Boulevard:
(1) The American Elm canopy zone: American Elms were initially planted in this zone on both sides of the roadway in single or double rows. The Elms remain in substantial numbers. This zone is generally on the north side of Speer Boulevard from University Boulevard to Lawrence Street and on the south side of Speer Boulevard from Colfax Avenue to West 8th Avenue. This zone can be further divided into four subzones based on the time of development of each: University to Downing, Downing to Broadway, and Colfax to Lawrence, all on the north side, and tolfax to 8th, on the south side.
(2) The Oak zone: This zone is on the south side, Generally from West 8th Avenue to Logan Street. Oaks were initially p’anfed here in single rows and remain in the median in substantial numbers. The line of Bur Oaks is clear between 5th and Broadway. The planting of Red Oak between Broadway and Logan is mixed with a deciduous forest planting and is thus less precise.
(3) The Forest Drive zone: Street trees have not historically been planted in this zone which extends, on the south side, generally from Logan Street to Downing Street Parkway.
(4) The mixed zone: American Elms, Silver Maples, and Green Ash were initially planted in this zone from Feoera! Boulevard to Irving Street.
(5) The balance of Speer Boulevard: This zone either has vet to be developed or no longer has street trees. Thus zone extends from University Boulevard to Colorado Boulevard (East 1st Avenue), from Lawrence Street to Federal Boulevard on the north side, and from Federal Boulevard into downtown to Colfax on the south side.


3. HISTORIC STREE TREES PLANTED ON SPEER BOULEVARD:
Tree
Approximate Earliest Planting Date
American Elm Bur Oak Red Oak Silver Poplar Silver Maple Green Ash
1910
1918
1918
1910 (none extant)
1900
1900
4. REPRESENTATIVE VARIETIES OF STREET TREES USED ON OTHER HISTORIC PARKWAYS AND BOULEVARDS IN DENVER: The following are representative varieties of street trees used on other historic parkways and boulevards in Denver. Additional varieties were used at other locations. Hence, this list is not exhaustive of the historic street tree varieties used in Denver.
Tree
Location and Approximate Date of Earliest Planting
Rock Elm Green Ash Honey Locust
Silver Maple Hackberry Sycamore Plains Cottonwood European Linden American Elm
Univ. Blvd.
Univ. Blvd. (1916)
Univ. 31vd.
W. 45th Ave. (1920)
Monaco (1920)
Univ. Blvd.
5. Marion (1913)
S. Marion (1912)
W. 45th
Franklin (1902) in Cheesman Park E. 17th (1913)
Monaco (1910)
Williams (1913)
E. 6th (1910)
Montview (1906)
Univ. Blvd. (1906)
Forest (1913)
6. SPACING: Street trees were, historically, planted as close as possible to each other, in ensemble, rather than as specimen trees. Historically, street trees were spaced uniformly along the roadway and were planted sufficiently far back from the curb to avoid any sight line problem (slant line problems have subsequently arisen from cutting the roadways closer to the lines of trees). The planting distance from the curb has varied depending on the size of the parking or median, placement of the sidewalk, etc. Representative center spacing^of steet trees along Speer Boulevard and along other historic Denver parkways and boulevards is as follows:
Tree
Center Spacing (distance from tree center to :~ee center)
Location


Green Ash Honey Locust
Univ. Blvd. Univ. Blvd. Monaco
30'-36‘
30-32'
32' (double row paired
Bur Oak American Elm
Speer Blvd. Univ. Blvd. Williams St.
centers)
31 '32'
3 O'3 2'
20740' (double row
Speer Blvd.
alternate centers) 25' (at Vine)
40' (at 9th)
E. 6th Ave. Monaco E. 17th Ave. Montview Speer Blvd.
S. Marion 5. Marion Franklin (in Cheesman Park)
48' (at Logan, alternating)
Silver Maple Hackberry Sycamore European Linden
40-42' 40-42' 40-42' 40-42' 16'18'
1 S' 19' 38'40'
40' (double row paired centers)
6. UNIFORMITY: The historic street tree plantings in Denver have utilized single species for entire parkways (e.g. the nortfi side of Speer Boulevard) or species changing every few blocks (e.g. University Boulevard), thereby providing a uniformity oi size, shape, texture, and color. Alternating species were only planted when one tree was a short lived nurse tree and the other was a Iona lived shade tree (e.g. the alternating Silver Poplars and American Elms on Speer Boulevard and on Montview' Boulevard).
PART III: INVENTORY AND MAINTENANCE: It is recommended that the following steps be taken before site and planting plans are prepared for Speer Boulevard street trees:
A. Develop an inventory of street trees currently in place. Such an
inventory should include at least the following information.
3. Develop a plan for the proper maintenance of both existino and anticipated (newly planted) street trees. Such a plan should” include at least trie following
1. Location
2. Species
3. Size (spread and caliper)
4. Evaluation of condition
5. Value
2.
3. Aeration (if compaction is a problem)
4. Proper pruning
5. Pest management and disease control
In connection with the above, it should be noted that the primary cause of


stress to urban trees is lack of water. The second most significant factor in urban tree stress is soil compaction (by people, machines, and vehicles). Other key factors which negatively impact urban street trees include street widening and road cuts; pavement; trenching for utility lines, sprinkler systems, etc.; automobile accidents; "lawn mower impactus"; pollution; insects; and disease. Also in connection with the above, it is recommended that site and planting plans for Speer Boulevard street trees take into account the data developed for the inventory and for the maintenance plan called for above.
PART IV: RECOMMENDED PALETTE AND SPACING GUIDELINES FOR THE REPLANTING OF SPEER BOULEVARD 5TREET TREES
A. THE AMERICAN ELM CANOPY ZONE: Under current circumstances, American Elms are not an appropriate street tree replacement. However, the size and canopy quality of the American Elms should be approximated to the extent possible. Accordingly, the followinq are recommeded for street tree replacements in this zone:
Hackberrv Summit Ash
B. THE OAK ZONE: In light of the early planting of Oaks, the following Oaks are recommended for planting fn this zone, both as street trees and as a part of the deciduous background forest:
Bur Oak Red Oak Enqlish Oak Scarlet Oak Swamp White Oak
C. THE FOREST DRIVE ZONE: All replanting should be consistent with the historic planting. Hence, no street trees should be planted in this zone. Note, however, that to the extent that the background evergreen forest is replaced, it should be replaced with Spruce if the space is to be heavily irrigated and Pine if the space is not to be heavily irrigated. In addition, Pine should be planted only when there is good drainage.
D. THE MIXED ZONE: Several varieties of street trees were planted, and exist, in this zone. Completion of the planting or replanting should follow' the same pattern. The following trees w'ould be appropriate:
Summit Ash
4


Autumn Purple Ash Marshall Seedless Ash Silver Linden Biqleaf Linden Littleleaf Linden American Linden
Honey Locust (so lone as the overall number is limited)
Hackberry
Oak (any of the varieties listed under subparagraph B. above) iurkish Hazel
E. THE UNPLANi ED ZONE: The choice and planting of street trees in this zone should, to the extent possible, mirror the classic canopy of the historic canopy zone. The choice of trees will in part depend on the confines of the space, thus:
For spacious areas, any of the street trees listed under subparagraphs A., B., and C. above would be appropriate.
For tiqht areas, where there is no walkway, the following additional large trees would be appropriate:
Amur Cork Tree Catalpa
Kentucky Coffeetree Yellow Buckeye Horse Chestnut
For tight areas, whether or not there is a walkway, the following small trees would be appropriate:
Hawthorn Russian Olive Ohio Buckeye
F. SPACING OF i REES: i he obiectives outlined in these guidelines can be achieved bv foLowing the following guidelines for the spacing of street'trees:
Large, columnar street trees: 30’-35' centers
Large, spreading street trees: 35'-4Q' centers
Small street trees: 25‘-30' centers


SPEER BOULEVARD/CHERRY CREEK PARKWAY PROPOSED VINE AND SHRUB GUIDELINES
1. RELATION TO GENERAL SDEER BOULEVARAD/CHERRY CREEK PARKWAY GUIDELINES: These vine and shrub guidelines should be interpreted and applied in light of the general guidelines, especially those guidelines relating to landscape design.
2. THE HISTORIC FOUNDATION: Planting should be designed and plant material should be selected to reinforce (by maintenance, rehabilitation, replacement, and addition) the historic planting designs and the historic plant material (including designs and material in place and designs and material which was once in place).
3. ZONES WHICH DO NOT CURRENTLY REFLECT TH
i- n:;
TORIC LEGACY: In
unplanted zones, and in zones which otherwise do not reflect the historic legacy of the resource, the development of specific planting designs and the selection of specific plant materials should reenforce the historic foundation of the Parkway. However, these specific plans will have to await the development of overall Parkw'ay design.
4. VINES AND SHRUBS: The following shrubs and vines are recommended for planting (some of which have already been introduced into the Parkway plantings):
VINES
Clematis Paniculate
Akebia
Boston Ivy
Japanese Honeysuckle Virginia Creeper
SHRUBS (all highly recommended, the na noted with an *)
Shrub Rose-Rosa Rubifciia Alpine Currant Lilac-Persian Dogwood-Red *
American Cranberry Bush
Spirea-VanHoutti Spirea-Prunifolia Silver Buffalo Berry*
Rocky Mountain Birch (large)* Ginnala Maple Viburnum-Lantana V iburnum-Arrow wood Sand Cherry*
Potent i 1 la-Jackaman Glossy Buckthorne Three Leaf Sumac*
Barberry


>LD CALKINS D L. HARKING
l. Wallace ii. r.c.
' L KIRBY 5. BAILEY. JH.. P.C.
Tims. r.c. r r. hckxish. r.c.
B SCHNOEDEK. r.C. J. HARKING VAN SCO YX E. DEACON RD ICENOCLE D L SHEARER W R DALTON ECKSTEIN JCX HUTT S E. NORTON . COOK
COUNSEL L r. KRAMER T. GRIM SHAW
L E. REIDY LEE KESSLER
Calkins, Kramer, Grimsiiaw & Barring
A LAW PARTNERSHIP
INCLUDING PROFESSIONAL CORPORATIONS SUITE 3800
ONE UNITED BANK CENTER 1700 LINCOLN STREET DENVER. COLORADO 80203
TELEPHONE (303) 039-3800 (Tkuecoptkr: 303-030-3030)
EDWARD.J BUE.HENER JAMES SERVES TED R BRIGHT HONDA L SANDQU19T MARK A NADIA!' VIRGINIA MOSES DALTON MARYJANE SIMMONS SUSAN E. BURCII RANDALL M. LIVINGSTON MICHAEL T. RAYMOND GARY R. WHITE LANG DON J. JORGENSEN MARX G WESTON T. SHAUN SULLIVAN CHARLES B. HECHT GREGORY S. BROWN
HOLLY !. HOLDER KIM J. SETER SUSAN G. HAINES JONAH M. ST AIDER KATHLEEN a LORD JAMES B BORGEL LAURA H. GREELEY NANCY L. BUCHANAN JANE T. HAMES CHRISTOPHER R. HERMANN HAMLET J BARRY III APRIL BENNETT STONE JOHN R. MOORE PATRICK B. AUGUSTINE DARLENE SISNEROS MARYANN M. McGEADY
MEMORANDUM
Central Platte Valley Development Committee Institutional Finance Subcommittee March 25, 1987
Summary of Financing Test Case
At the adoption of the Comprehensive Plan Amendment in August, 1986, the CPV Committee decided that a working subcommittee be formed to review and develop possible financial arrangements for application in the Platte Valley, intending to assist in defraying some of the costs of implementing the Plan. It is intended that the entire Committee review the selected possibilities and, if necessary, recommend changes before it goes for public review to the Planning Board, City Council and any other appropriate governmental agencies.
The Subcommittee consisted of:
Bill Lamont, Planning Office
Peter Neukirch, Mile-Hi Land Associates
John Moye, DURA Board Member
David Steele and Alan Durrant, DRGW/Anschutz Lloyd Goff, Platte Valley Landowners Assn.
Thomas Ragonetti, WSJV and DUT Fred Fisher, Glacier Park
(Councilwoman Stephanie Foote acted in a coordinating role, but did not participate in the drafting of this effort.)
Considerable assistance was also provided by Kirchner Moore and Company through James Kreidle and Doug Houston, Mr. Neukirch's offices through Martin Zemcek, and the City through Mr. Robert Cornwell.
NOTE: The attached preliminary draft of a Central
Platte Valley test case is simply one scenario developed for one area of the Platte Valley. It is intended to be generic in its form and application, and the adoption of this scenario for any one area of the Platte Valley will not preclude, but rather may enhance the financial arrangements for other areas in the Valley
TO : FROM: DATE: RE:


as well as their implementation. The particular development area chosen was selected by virtue of the maturity of the financial information available with respect to development costs and projected development activity.
The attachment consists of two distinct parts.
(1) A memorandum outlining the steps of analysis
taken and conclusions made;
(2) Three Exhibits:
(a) Schedule A, which outlines projected assessed valuation increases and potential tax revenues to be generated from both a 30 and 96 mill levy application;
(b) Schedule B, setting forth absorption estimations and projections generated by Mile-Hi Land Associates, as well as sales tax receipt projections generated based on assumptions set forth therein;
(c) An infrastructure construction schedule reflecting two phases of construction in 1989 and 1994.
The attachment addresses issues that require discussion and agreement on both philosophical and practical grounds before implementation may occur. It assumes that certain policies will be adopted and that certain agreements will be in place. The Subcommittee has come to no conclusion that these steps will in fact occur, though it recommends through this submittal that they do occur.


PRELIMINARY DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES ONLY
CENTRAL PLATTE VALLEY FINANCING TEST CASE:
(Cherry Creek, DUT, Denver Commons)
The following is an analysis, for review and discussion by the full CPV Committee, of one method of financing approximately $49 million in improvements in a projected first development area of the Central Platte Valley. It is suggested that financing be shared by a special district to be formed by the principal developers in this first project area and, if it deems it appropriate, the Denver Urban Renewal Authority which has tax increment financing capability. Participation by others is also contemplated.
In presenting this description, we have assumed agreement as to timing of and cost-sharing for the improvements discussed. Whatever may be said concerning the feasibility of moving forward with this or any other financing arrangement, all such arrangements are driven by actual development. Accordingly, we have assumed the presence of a development market as well. Finally, what follows requires consideration, through substantial review processes, by certain governmental and quasi-governmental entities. Nevertheless what is presented is a viable and flexible arrangement capable of meeting the initial needs of the CPV.
I. An analysis has been done of the current and expected assessed value relating to 75 acres in the CPV, located just west of and including the Denver Union Terminal. (See Schedule A).
A. 1988 assessed value is projected to be
$65,325, or $871 per acre.
B. 1992 assessed value is projected to be
$2,802,000 or $22,000 per acre, based on comparisons of raw, developable ground in the Denver Technological Center.
C. 2015 assessed value is projected to be $55.2
million.
1. Based on absorption schedules prepared by Mile High Land Associates. (See Schedule B) .
II. An analysis has been done to determine what improvements are necessary to open up this 75 acre tract. (See Schedule C).
A. Cost is $49 million over 10 years.
B. Cost in first 3 years (excluding contributions
intended to be generated only from other sources,) is approximately $11 million for the bare essentials.


III. Two analyses have been prepared to demonstrate the financing capabilities of a special district, and tax increment financing.
A. We have assumed that the mill levy from sour-
ces other than the proposed special district will remain at its current level of 96.
B. We have assumed that "market tolerance" will
allow an additional 35 mills on this 75 acres; 30 for debt service and 5 mills for administration.
C. See Schedule A.
IV. Financial Conclusions.
A. Tax Increment Financing ("TIF") generates sig-
nificant revenue:
1. Only after initial construction of infra-
structure and developer improvements; and
2. Not until 1993.
B. To start the increases in assessed value to
make TIF an option, other financing mechanisms are necessary to "up front" the public improvements.
V. Test Case.
A. Special district financing:
1. With appropriate credit enhancements, a
special district can finance and build the first $11 million in improvements.
2. 30 mills does not, however, cover the
debt service until the next century.
B. Solutions to this dilemma are:
1. A considerably higher mill levy, one at
which "market tolerance" is exhausted;
2. Substantial developer contributions to
debt service for admittedly "public improvements" ;
3. Contribution by the City;
2


4. Appropriately timed refinancings and, when viable, cost sharing by D.U.R.A. through TIF, which draws revenues through taxation of a slightly larger parcel of ground, a higher mill levy, and sales tax TIF revenues.
C. Result:
1. Special District Bond Issue No. 1 (1989).
A $16 million general obligation bond issue by a special district encompassing the 75 acre tract, to pay all start-up infrastructure costs, including those intended to be paid for, ultimately, through tax increment financing by the public.
a. Short-term (5 year) bonds, secured
by a developer letter of credit and carried by the developers for the 5 year term.
b. Generates $11.3 million plus all
costs of issuance.
c. To be refunded through a cooperative
financing by the special district and, presumably, D.U.R.A.
2. Special District Bond Issue No. 2 (1994).
A $15.2 million general obligation bond issue of the special district in 1994 intended to refund - in part - the 1989 issue and to fund an additional $3.1 million for new projects in Phase II (See Schedule C).
a. 20-year permanent bond issues.
b. Developer carried for approximately
6 years.
3. Tax Increment Bond Issue No. 1 (1994).
An $18.4 million bond issue, intended to be issued by D.U.R.A., generating $3.7 million to pay the special district for
D.U.R.A.'s share of the originally funded improvements, $7.2 million for new
3


Phase II projects, and $4.8 million to pay its share of other public funds that have been advanced pursuant to agreement by the City or other agencies for Phase I costs (See Schedule C).
4. Tax Increment Financing Bond Issue No. 2 (1997).
An additional $8.7 million in new funds for additional projects unspecified at this time.
VI. Beginning steps.
A. Approval of the concept by the full CPV
Committee and, ultimately, the City.
B. Designation, after appropriate review, of an
urban renewal area by D.U.R.A.
1. Adoption of an urban renewal plan, de-
signating use of tax-increment financing, by D.U.R.A.
2. Approval of urban renewal plan by City.
C. Formation of special district.
D. Pre-bond issue agreements:
1. Covering all of the inter-relationships
proposed in Schedule C.
2. Between:
a. Developer - City.
b. Developer - D.U.R.A.
c. Special district - D.U.R.A.
d. Special district - developer.
e. Others;
(1) Federal government.
(2) RTD.
(3) Highway Department.
4


SCHEDULE A-l
CENTRAL PLATTE VALLEY: CHERRY CREEK, DUT, AND DENVER COMMONS PROJECT AREA
Special District Revenue Projections Teat Case: 3/20/87
A 8 C D E F 6 H
RAILROAD LAND
REVENUE AVAILABLE FOR ASSESSED RAILROAD LAND NEW ASSESSED TOTAL SPECIAL DISTRICT
ELECTION DEVELOPMENT VALUATION ASSESSED VALUATION FROM ASSESSED DISTRICT PROPERTY TAX
YEAR (ACRES) PER ACRE VALUATION DEVELOPMENT VALUATION MILL LEVY REVENUE
1988 75.00 871 65,325 65,325 0 0
1989 55.00 871 47,905 47,905 30 1,437
1990 53.00 871 46,163 46,163 30 1,335
1991 53.00 871 46,163 46.163 30 1,385
1992 52.00 22,000 1,144,000 1,658,000 2,802,000 30 34,060
1993 49.00 22,000 1,078,000 4,328,000 5,406,000 30 162,130
1994 47.00 22,000 1,034,000 9,398,000 10,432,000 30 312,960
1995 45.00 22,000 990,000 9,398,000 10,388,000 30 311,640
1996 45.00 22,000 990,000 12,810,000 13,800,000 30 414,000
1997 40.00 22,000 880,000 13,980,000 14,360,000 30 445,800
1998 39.00 22,000 858,000 13,980,000 14,338,000 30 445,140
1999 37.00 22,000 814,000 16,174,000 16,988,000 30 509,640
2000 37.00 22,000 814,000 18,368,000 19,182,000 30 575,460
2001 35.00 22,000 770,000 21,730,000 22,550,000 30 676,500
2002 33.00 22,000 726,000 25,680,000 26,406,000 30 792,130
2003 30.00 22,000 660,000 28,800,000 29,460,000 30 383,800
2004 28.00 22,000 616,000 30,094,000 30,710,000 30 921,300
2005 26.00 22,000 572,000 34,481,000 35,053,000 30 1,051,590
2006 23.00 22,000 506,000 37,335,000 37,341,000 30 1,135,230
2007 20.00 22,000 440,000 33,455,000 38,895,000 30 1,166,350
2008 16.00 22,000 352,000 39,605,000 39,957,000 30 1,198,710
2009 13.00 22,000 286,000 40,005,000 40,291,000 30 1,208,730
2010 9.00 22,000 198,000 42,315,000 42,513,000 30 1,275,390
2011 7.00 22,000 154,000 44,381,000 44,535,000 30 1,336,050
2012 4.00 22,000 88,000 47,666,000 47,754,000 30 1,432,620
2013 3.00 22,000 66,000 50,591,000 50,657,000 30 1,519,710
2014 2.00 22,000 44,000 53,321,000 53,365,000 30 1,600,950
2015 0.00 22,000 0 55,271,000 55,271,000 30 1,658,130
2016 0.00 22,000 0 56,734,000 56,734,000 30 1,702,020
2017 0.00 22,000 0 58,050.000 58,050,000 30 1,741,500
24,566,347
Column Notes
A. Year revenue actually collected and available.
B. MHLA, DUT, and BN controlled developable land in the Cherry Creek and 16
areas. 75 acres assumed beginning total. Developable land decreases b
Preliminary Draft For Discussion Purposes Only
absorption schedule.
C. From MHLA data: 1988-1991 Assessed as RR @ $871/acre; 1990 on Improved @ $22,000/acre, based on Denver Tech Center comparables.
E. From Development and Projected Assessed Valuation schedule provided by MHLA (attached), for development of MHLA and DUT land in Cherry Creek and 16th-20th Commons areas.
G. Assumed Special District Levy of 30 mills. In 1991, it is estimated that an average acre of developable land in the CPV will carry an assessed value of $22,000, which at a one mill levy generates $22.00 of annual property tax revenue.
H. Total District property tax revenues available for debt service.


SCHEDULE A-2
CENTRAL PLATTE VALLEY: CHERRY CREEK, DUT, AND DENVER COMMONS PROJECT AREA
Tax Increment Revenue Projections
Test Case: 3/20/87
Preliminary Draft For Discussion
AA 6B CC DD EE
TIE AREA
REVENUE ASSESSED VALUE ASSESSED VALU TOTAL ASSESSED VALUE COLLECTION OF MHLA.DUT 4 EXISTING PROPASSESSED VALUE INCREMENT OVER
YEAR RAILROAD PROP. TIF AREA IN TIF AREA 6,243,465
1986 65,325 6,178,140 6,243,465 0
1989 47,905 6,178,140 6,226,045 (17,420)
1990 46,163 6,795,954 6,842.117 598,652
1991 46,163 7,475,549 7,521.712 1,278,247
1992 2,802,000 8,223,104 11,025,104 4,781.639
1993 5,406,000 8, j87i566 13,793,566 7,550,101
1994 10,432,000 8,555,318 18,987,318 12,743,853
1995 10,388,000 8,726,424 19,114,424 12,370,959
1996 13,800,000 8,900,953 22,700,953 16,457,488
1997 14,860,000 9,078,972 23,938,972 17,695,507
1998 14,838,000 9,260,551 24,098,551 17,855,086
1999 16,988,000 9,445,762 26,433,762 20,190,297
2000 19,182,000 9,634,677 28,816,677 22,573,212
2001 22,550,000 9,827,371 32,377,371 26,133,906
2002 26,406,000 10,023,918 36,429,918 30,186,45j
2003 29,460,000 10,224,397 39,634,397 , 33,440,932
2004 30,710,000 10,428,885 41,138,885 34,395,420
2005 35,053,000 10,637,462 45,690,462 39,446,997
2006 37,841,000 10,850,212 48,691,212 42,447,747
2007 38,895,000 11,067,216 49,962,216 43,718,751
2008 39,957,000 11,288,560 51,245,560 45,002,095
2009 40,291,000 11,514,331 51,805,331 45,561,866
2010 42,513,000 11,744,618 54,257,618 48,014,153
2011 44,535,000 11,979,510 56,514,510 50,271,045
2012 47,754,000 12,219,100 59,973,100 53,729,635
2013 50,657,000 12,463,482 63,120,482 56,377,017
2014 53,365,000 12,712,752 66,077,752 59,834,287
2015 55,271,000 12,967,007 68,238,007 61,994,542
2016 56,734,000 13,226,347 69,960,347 63,716,832
2017 58,050,000 13,490,874 71,540,874 65,297,409
Column Notes
FF GG HH II Purposes Only
PROJECTED
TIF SALES TAX TOTAL TOTAL PROPERTY TAX REVENUES TIF
MILL LEVY REVENUES (BASE = 0) REVENUES
0 0 0 0
96 (1,672) 0 (1,672)
96 57,471 0 57,471
96 122,712 262.500 335,212
96 459,037 525,000 934,037
96 724,310 1,050,000 1,774.310
96 1,223,410 1,050,000 2,273,410
96 1,235.612 1,050,000 2.285,612
96 1,579,919 1,050.000 2,629.919
96 1,698,769 1,050,000 2,743,769
96 1,714,088 1,050,000 2,764,088
96 1,938,269 1,050,000 2.988,269
96 2,167,028 1,050,000 3,217,028
96 2,508,855 1,050,000 3,558,855
96 2,397,900 1,443,750 4,341,650
96 3,210.329 1,443,750 4,654,079
96 3,349,960 1,837,500 5,137,460
96 3,786,912 1,837,500 5,624,412
96 4,074,984 1,837,500 5,912,484
96 4,197,000 1,837,500 6,0o41500
96 4,320,201 2,362,500 6,682,701
96 4,373,939 2,362,500 6,736,439
96 4,609,359 2,362,500 6,971,859
96 4,326,020 2,362,500 7,138,520
96 5,158,045 2,362,500 7,520,545
96 5,460,194 2,362.500 7,322,694
96 5,744,092 2,362,500 8,106,592
96 5,951,476 2,362,500 8,313,976
96 6,116,321 2,362,500 3,479,321
96 6,268,551 2.362,500 3,631,051
133,374,089 44,100,000 177,974,089
AA. Year in which revenue actually collected and available.
BB. Projected total AV from development of MHLA and DUT land in the Cherry Creek and 16th-20th Commons areas (from Column F of District projections).
CC. Assessed value of all non-MHLA/DUT property in the Cherry Creek and I6th-20th Commons areas. 1988 and 1989 show no increase over 1987 actual of $6,178,140; in 1990, 1991, and 1992, AV is increased 10%/year and from 1993 on, AV is increased 2%/year to reflect increased property values and renovation stimulated by MHLA and DUT development.
EE. Assumes TIF area formed in 1988 which freezes AV Q 1988 base year valuation. TIF area covers Cherry Creek, 16th-20th Commons, DUT, and portion of 16th Street extended to Blake.
FF. Current total levy from all taxing bodies, excluding proposed special district.
HH. Projected tax increment sales tax revehues from Sales Tax Schedule (attached).
II. Total TIF pledged revenues available for debt service.


SCHEDULE B-l
Preliminary Draft For Diacmaioo Pnrpoaea Only
Total Absorption 6,500,000 Square Feet March 17, 1987
CENTRAL PLATTE VALLEY: CHERRY CREEK, DUT, AND DENVER COMMONS PROJECT AREA DEVELOPMENT AND ASSESSED VALUATION
Description of Cevtlotwnt Capleted
AN4UAL ABSORPTICN
CUOATIYE ABSOR?TICN
ASSESSED VALUAU®
TOTAL ASSESSED VALUATIW
(In Thousands of Square Feet) (In Thousands of Square Feet) (Per Square Foot) (In Thxsands of Dollars)
YEAR t Building I D.U.T. Cherry Creek Camera TOTAL OFFICE RETAIL HOTEL OIHER/RES OFFICE RETAIL HOTEL OTHER/RES OFFICE RETAIL HOTEL OTHER/RC OFFICE RETAIL HOTEL 1 0THER/E5 TOTAL
1990 1 1. 2 1 la. 5 1 Rid Rise 110 170 0 0 0 170 0 0 0 19.75 J7.50 36.50 64.00 31.658 $0 30 to 31.858
1991 i 3. 4 QJT Retail & Mid Rise 320 120 200 0 0 290 200 0 0 39.75 31.50 36.50 34.00 $2,828 $1,500 30 30 34.329
1992 3 5. 6 1 taint Tower 1 Hid Rise 520 520 « 0 0 910 200 0 0 39.75 37.50 35.50 34.00 31.699 $1,500 30 30 39.398
1993 4 0 0 0 0 0 910 200 0 0 39.75 37.50 39.50 14.00 $7,898 $1,500 30 SO $9,398
1994 5 1 1 Tower 350 3541 0 0 0 1.190 200 0 0 39.75 37.50 39.50 34.00 $11,310 $1,500 10 to 312.810
1995 9 1 1 Mid Rise 120 120 0 0 0 1.290 200 0 0 39.75 37.50 36.50 MOO $12,460 >1.500 $0 to 313.990
1996 1 0 0 0 0 0 1.290 200 0 0 39.75 31.50 36.50 34.00 $12,480 $1,500 so to $13,980
1991 9 9 1 lower 225 225 0 0 0 1.505 200 0 0 39.75 37.50 36.50 34.00 $14,674 31.500 30 to 316.174
1959 9 10 1 lexer 225 225 0 0 0 1.730 200 0 0 39.75 31.50 36.50 34.00 318.688 31.500 SO 30 318,369
1999 10 II 1 taint lexer 350 350 0 0 0 2.090 200 0 0 39.75 37.50 38.50 34.00 $20,280 $1,500 so so $21,780
2000 II 12 1 taint lower 400 400 0 0 0 2.490 200 0 0 39.75 37.50 38.50 34 00 $24,180 $1,500 30 to $25,680
2001 12 13 1 taint lexer 320 320 0 0 0 2.900 200 0 0 39.75 37.50 38.50 34.00 127,300 $1,500 so so $?8.800
2002 13 14 Mixaj Use ISO 75 75 0 0 2.575 275 0 0 39.75 37.50 36.50 34.00 128.031 $2,063 SO so $30,094
2003 14 15. 15 1 lower 1 Rid Rise 450 450 0 0 0 3,325 275 0 0 39.75 37.50 39.50 34.00 $32,419 $2,063 SO 30 334.491
2004 15 11. 19 1 Mid Rise MiA&i Use 310 235 75 0 0 3.590 350 0 0 39.75 37.50 36.50 M 00 334.710 32.625 30 to $37,335
2005 15 19 290 OUs 290 0 0 0 290 3.590 350 0 790 39.75 31.50 38.50 M 00 $34,710 $2,625 SO 31.120 $38,455
2009 11 20. 21 100 as 5 ieteil 200 0 100 0 100 3,590 450 0 390 39.75 >7.50 38.50 34.00 $34,110 >3.315 30 31.520 $39,605
2001 19 22 100 Os 100 0 0 0 100 3.590 450 0 460 39.75 J7.50 38.50 $4.00 $34,710 $3,375 30 $1,920 $40,005
2009 19 23. 24 90 [Ds i Tower 290 200 0 0 90 3.790 450 0 530 39.75 31.50 38 50 $4.00 $39,680 $3,375 30 $2,260 342.315
2009 20 25. 25 SO CUs fit Mid Rise 255 175 0 0 90 3,935 450 0 690 39.75 37.50 38.50 34.00 138.388 33.375 30 32.640 M4.381
2010 21 21. 25 90 0* 5 Io«r 390 300 0 0 90 4,735 450 0 750 39.75 31.50 38.50 34.00 341.291 $3,375 SO $3,000 347.689
2011 22 29 1 Ia*r 300 300 0 0 0 4.535 450 0 750 39.75 31.50 36.50 M .00 344.218 $3,375 30 33.000 350,591
2012 23 30 l Tower 290 290 0 0 0 4.915 450 0 750 39 75 31.50 38.50 MOO 348.948 $3,375 SO $3,000 $53,321
2013 24 31 l Tcwer 200 200 0 0 0 5,015 450 0 750 39.75 37.50 38.50 34.00 M8.896 $3,375 $0 $3,000 $55,211
20 M 25 32 1 Mid Rise 150 150 0 0 0 5.165 450 0 750 39.75 37.50 38.50 M .03 $50,359 $3,375 so 33.000 156.734
2015 2c 33 1 Mid Rise 135 135 0 0 0 5.300 450 0 750 39.75 37.50 38.50 34.03 $51,675 13.375 30 33.000 358.050
2015 21 0 0 0 0 0 5.300 450 0 750 39 75 37.50 38.50 M 00 $51,675 33.375 so 33.000 $58,050
2011 29 0 0 0 0 0 5,300 450 0 750 39.75 37.50 38.50 34.00 $51,675 $3,375 $0 33.000 $58,050
2019 2S 0 0 0 0 0 5,300 450 0 750 39.75 37.50 36.50 M .00 $51,675 33.375 so $3,000 $58,050
2019 30 0 0 0 0 0 5.300 450 0 750 39.75 37.50 38.50 M .00 351.675 $3,375 $0 $3,000 $58,050
TOTALS 5,500 5.300 450 0 750 5.300 450 0 750 1924.2S1 373.125 to 339.480 11,038.858
Source: Mile High Land Associates Projection 3/17/87


SCHEDULE B-2
CENTRAL PLATTE VALLEY CHERRY CREEK, DUT, AND DENVER COMMONS PROJECT AREA
Tax Increment Sales Tax Projections
Test Case: 3/20/87
Preliminary Draft For Discussion Purposes Only
A B C D E
SQUARE FEEI SALES/ TOTAL CUT SALES CUT SALES
TEAR IN SALES SQUARE EDOI SALES TAX RATE TAX REVS
1988 0 150 0 3.501 0
|«W 0 150 0 3.501 0
1990 0 150 0 3.501 0
1991 50,000 150 7,500,000 3.501 262,500
1992 100,000 150 15.000,000 3.501 525,000
1993 200,000 150 30,000,000 3.50Z 1,050,000
1994 200,000 150 30,000,000 3.50Z 1,050,000
1995 200,000 150 30,000,000 3.50Z 1,050,000
1996 200,000 150 30,000,000 3.50Z 1,050,000
1997 200,000 150 30,000,000 3.50Z 1,050,000
1998 200,000 150 30,000,000 3.50Z 1,050,000
1999 200,000 150 30,000,000 3.50Z 1,050,000
2000 200,000 150 30,000,000 3.50Z 1,050,000
2001 200,000 150 30,000,000 3.50Z 1,050,000
2002 275,000 150 41,250,000 3.50Z 1,443,750
2003 275,000 150 41,250,000 3.50Z 1,443,750
2004 350,000 150 52,500,000 3.50Z 1,837,500
2005 350,000 150 52,500,000 3.50Z 1,837,500
2006 350,000 150 52,500,000 3.50Z 1,337,500
2007 350,000 150 52,500,000 3.50Z 1,837,500
2008 450,000 150 67,500,000 3.50Z 2,362,500
2009 450,000 150 67,500,000 3.50Z 2,362,500
2010 450,000 150 67.SOO.OOO 3.50Z 2,362,500
2011 450,000 150 67,500,000 3.50Z 2,362,500
2012 450,000 150 67,500,000 3.50Z 2,362,500
2013 450,000 150 67,500,000 3.50Z 2,362,500
2014 450,000 150 67,500,000 3.50Z 2,362,500
2015 450,000 150 67,500,000 3.50Z 2,362.500
2016 450,000 150 67,500,000 3.50Z 2.362,500
2017 450,000 150 67,500,000 3.50Z 2,362.500
44,100,000
Column Notes
A. From MHLA Absorption Schedule dated 3/17/87; 1991, 1992, 1993 adjusted for three-year phase in of leases.
B. Assumed sales/SF of $150.
D. City of Denver sales tax rate.
E. Total incremental sales tax revenues. Assumes no existing sales tax base revenues at time TIF base is frozen.


CENTRAL PLATTE VALLEY: CHERRY CREEK, DDT, AND COMMONS PROJECT AREA Dbcnasion
Test Case 3/20/87 Purpoees Only
SOURCE OF FUNDS
PHASE I INFRASTRUCTURE SCHEDULE District Bond Issue
Projects Total Costs Total Dist. Bond Issue TIF Share District Share Other Sources
Roads
o Wewatta, 15th to 18th o 16th St., Blake to Delgany o 18th St., Wewatta to Chestnut $1,600,000 2,400,000 800,000 $1,600,000 1,600,000 800,000 $ 534,000 (1/3) 800,000 (1/3) -0- $1,066,000 (2/3) 800.000 (1/3) 800.000 $ 800,000 (1/3)(1)
Total Roads 4,800,000 4,000,000 1,334,000 2,666,000 800,000
Amenities 3.530.000 p| 2.870.000 (3)
o Commons Park—Land Acquisition o Commons Park 6c Plaza Improvement o Wewatta Amenities, 15th to 18th o Temporary Amenities—1st Phase 3.530.000 2.870.000 1,000,000 1.250.000 1,000,000 1,250,000 500,000 (1/2) -0- 500,000 (1/2) 1,250,000
Total Amenities 8,650,000 2,250,000 500,000 1,750,000 6,400,000
Utilities
o North Overlot Grading—1st Phase o Commons Storm Drainage o Commons Sewer o Commons 6c Cherry Crk Water—1st Phase o North Electric 6c Telephone Trunks 200,000 500.000 360.000 1,800,000 1,000,000 200,000 500.000 360.000 1,800,000 1,000,000 200,000 500.000 360.000 1,800,000 1,000,000
Total Utilities 3,860,000 3,860,000 -0- 3,860,000 -0-
Other o Main Line Land Cost o Track Removal 6c Relocation o Rockmont Park Acquisition 3,500,000 16,000,000 2,000,000 3,500,000 p| 16.000. 000 P| 2.000. 000 (5)
Total Other 21,500,000 -0- -0- -0- 21,500,000
Subtotal 10% Contingency 6c Overhead 38,810,000 3,880,000 10,110,000 1,011,000 1,834,000 183,000 8,276,000 827,000 28,700,000 2,870,000
TOTAL $42,690,000 $11,121,000 (6) $2,017,000 $9,103,000 $31,570,000
Federal, RTD, or other public funds P| Future purchase using T1F
P| Public funds: buy-back using TIF revenues in later phase P| Glacier Park
P| TIF or other public/private funds ' Net proceeds only; does not include costs of issuance


SCHEDULE C-2
CENTRAL PLATTE VALLEY: CHERRY CREEK, 1)UT, AND COMMONS PROJECT AREA
Test Case 3/20/87
PHASE n INFRASTRUCTURE SCHEDULE
Total District
Projects Costs
Roads
o Wewatta Bridge at Cherry Creek $2,600,000
o Wewatta, Speer to 15th 250,000
o Wewatta, 18th to 20th 500,000
o Chestnut, 18th to 20th 800,000
Total Roads 4,150,000
Amenities
o Cherry Creek Improvements
o Wewatta Amenities Speer to 15th 250,000
o Wewatta Amenities, 18th to 20th 500,000
o Rockinont Park Improvements 5,500,000
Total Amenities 6,250,000
Utilities
o North Overlot Grading—2nd Phase 200,000
o Cherry Creek Storm Drainage 180,000
o Cherry Creek Sewer 250,000
o Commons &c Cherry Crk Water—2nd Phase 800,000
Total Utilities 1,430,000
TOTALS $6,330,000
_________SOURCE OF FUNDS
Other
Bond Issue TTF Bond Issue
$167,000 (2/3)
334.000 (2/3)
800.000
1,301,000
125.000 (1/2)
250.000 (1/2)
375,000
200,000
180,000
250.000
800.000
1,430,000 $3,106,000 {2)
$2,600,000
83,000 (1/3) 166,000 (1/3)
2,849,000
4,000,000
125.000 (1/2)
250.000 (1/2)
4,375,000
-0-
$7,224,000 (2)
Preliminary Draft For Discussion Purposes Only
Sources
-0-
$5,500,000 (1) 5,500,000
-0-
$5,500,000
TIF or other public private source ' Net proceeds only; does not include costs of issuance


THE CENTRAL PLATTE VALLEY DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE POLICIES FOR A CONCEPT PLAN.
DENVER PLANNING DEPARTMENT, 1986.


1
1.0 GENERAL STATEMENTS
The Central Platte Valley area of approximately 500 acres (see attached map of study area) represents one of the greatest opportunities for economic development, change in character and image, and opportunity for mixed use, housing and open space in the core area of Denver and the city as a whole.
1.1 The Central Platte Valley development will have a mixed use urban character integrated with an open space system.
Access to and use of the Platte River and Cherry Creek will be emphasized as major amenities, The land use mix should maximize the economic development potential for the entire City in terms of new jobs, direct and indirect tax revenues, new downtown residents, and new amenities that will serve not only Platte Valley users, but also nearby residents, other residents, workers, and visitors to Denver.
1.2 It will have an urban but somewhat different character than downtown, e.g., more "green" open space, different parking requirements, height restrictions, and lower allowable densities.
1.3 Rather than one single image for development, several sub-^ districts have been formed, each having its own land use emphasis, focus, and character.
1.4 Connections between sub-districts, the downtown, Auraria Higher Education Center, and adjacent neighborhood areas must be planned and developed for pedestrians, bicyclists, mass transit riders, and auto users.
1.5 The ultimate buildout for the Platte Valley will take more than 20 years, and as such, the phasing for public improvements must be carefully planned to ensure that the sub-areas of the Valley can stand alone, and are developed in an orderly and timely fashion.
1.6 It is expected that other implementation documents (e.g. zoning, specific development plans, etc.) will be produced in the future that more specifically spell out public and private responsibilities for developing the Central Platte.
2.0 LAND USES, DENSITY, AND DESIGN CHARACTER
The Platte Valley offers a vast array of choices to restitch a new piece of urban Denver onto the existing Lower Downtown area and Auraria. It also presents an incredible opportunity to reconnect the northwest neighborhoods and downtown to one another using the South Platte River and new open space as common places to both areas.


2
The combination of land forms, geology and location of the waterways and roadway creates irregular development patterns for the Platte Valley.
Consequently, the proposed land use and design character reflects certain givens, eg. flood plain areas, water edges, major arteries, connections, etc., within which several sub-areas, or districts, emerge. These districts each contain different emphases of land uses, and reflect densities based upon access, relationships with existing historic structures, and views of the mountains and neighborhoods. Connections between these, sub-areas is fundamental to the framework scheme.
This Plan attempts to strike an appropriate balance between ; the economic needs of various landowners and the public needs for housing, open space, and revenue-generating economic development. The overall objective is to create development in the Valley that is very different than any other development in the core of downtown or in the metropolitan area.
Land Use Policies
Base Floor Area Ratio (F.A.R.) throughout the Valley is 2:1 for any use excluding neighborhood areas of Highlands, Lower Highlands, Jefferson Park, and La Alma-Lincoln Park,- and the Auraria Business Park, which is 1:1 (typical business parks range from .5:1 - 1:1 F.A.R.).
2.11 Bonus F.A.R. varies by subarea depending on desired land use objectives and size of subarea.
2.12 This flexibility in the F.A.R. permits a variety of building types for several market users, while protecting the public concern of over-buildi’ng in the subarea or on a specific building parcel.
This means that the allowable density can be applied to the subarea in numerous combinations of building floor sizes, parking arrangements, height and open space.
The base F.A.R. which is permitted in any subarea may be internally transferred to other portions of that subarea.
(In some instances where property ownerships cover more than one subarea, base F.A.R. may be transferred between subareas. This provision may require special conditions to be addressed in subsequent planning documents.
2.13 Residential is a reser/ed use in portions of certain subareas in order to establish clustered, neighborhood activity.
S. •'.nT •
' f* £
u n £
\
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2.1


2.14 The base 2:1 density within a residential zone may be transferred to other areas within the subarea for any permitted uses. . When this occurs the land should be built for housing or deeded to the public for housing. However, where a mixed use structure is developed, the residential square footage should not count against the base F.A.R.
2.15 The development of "affordable" housing in the Central Platte Valley will be specifically required by both public and private entities.
Given the lack of design, financing, and institutional detail of this Plan as it now stands, additional studies will be completed before finalizing the housing requirement mechanisms.
2.16 Future zoning and other implementation documents should be designed to achieve an average maximum density of 60 DU/ACRE valley-wide to ensure a mix of high, mid and town-home scale development. Certain subareas may exceed this Valley-wide average due to the proximity of water and open space amenities, orientation, and/or market demand..
2.17 If land is reserved for public open space, the allowable base density applied to that area prior to dedication may be applied to other sites within the subarea. In some instances where property ownerships cover more than one subarea, base F.A.R. may be transferred between subareas.
If the City purchases land for open space, no permitted density should be transferred to another site.
NOTE: This provision may require special conditions to be’
addressed in the implementation phase.
2.18 Parcel ownerships of less than 50,000 square feet in the Valley may require different density rules and bonuses in order to achieve the character of development desired for the Platte Valley.
This especially applies where historic preservation and integrated parking structures are of paramount concern. 3:1 F.A.R. appears to be an adequate base, with added incentives for parking and preservation. Determination of both the Base F.A.R. and incentives of smaller parcels should be evaluated further in the implementation phase.
2.1.9 In the special case of historic buildings designated as
Denver Landmarks and/or on the National Register of Historic Places which have been renovated and preserved, the square footage of the historic structure should not be counted in F.A.R. calculations and can be transferred to other buildings in the same subdistrict.


4
2.1.10 Additional incentives should be considered for
development immediately adjacent to and over the railroad tracks.
2.2 Design Character
While this Plan does not discuss the designs of specific structures or even master plan schemes for the Platte Valley, general design principles should be applied to the Valley regardless of the subarea.
2.21 Ensure that new facades relate harmoniously with nearby facades and buildings.
2.22 Maintain the traditional street-to-buildir.g relationship
^ that characterizes the many areas in the downtown, City, and
Auraria grids.
2.23 Promote cornice setbacks in subareas having an existing character in order to maintain the continuity of predominant building heights along the street.
2.24 Use designs, materials, lighting and a continuity of pedestrian activities at the street level to create pedestrian movement and vitality.
2.25 Encourage the incorporation of publicly visible art works in new private development and in various public spaces. A percent for art program, for public and private projects, should be developed in the next planning phase for application in the Platte Valley.
2.26 The preservation, restoration, and reuse of individual historic buildings and groupings of buildings shall be
1/ encouraged for rehabilitation and infill development in
certain areas.
2.27 The height of development should:
(a) communicate the intensity and character of development in the different parts of the Valley;
^ (b) protect the light, air, and human scale qualities of
the street environment in areas of distinctive physical and/or historical character;
^ (c) provide transition to the edges of surrounding areas in
order to complement the physical form, features, and landmarks of the area in and surrounding the Valley.
(d) preserve significant views of downtown from the
neighborhoods, as well mountain vistas looking from the downtown.


5
2.23 Street level views of important natural and man-made features should be identified and designated as view corridors which will be protected by controlling actions within the public right-of-way and reasonable development standards for abutting property.
2.29 The form and arrangement of large buildings can be
controlled to reduce shadows and wind impacts at street levels and promote a strong physical and human scale relationship within the pedestrian environment.
2.2.10 Where tall buildings are developed in residential
areas, narrow floor plates are strongly preferred in order to maintain openness to light, air, and view of street level and reduce the perceived scale of the buildings.
2.3 Urban Design Review
Urban design review in the Platte Valley should be incorporated in subsequent policy documents in order to maintain the physical continuity of public spaces and infrastructure, as well as ensure that building projects within each subarea relate harmoniously to one another. The City, in agreement with Valley landowners, shall establish urban design review procedures and criteria for subdistricts reflecting the CPV Plan before development begins. Deviations from the criteria shall be resolved by negotiations between the City, landowners and developers (or designee) on a project basis.
2.4 Height Policies
The important factors in establishing building height are:
1. Character of subarea for particular mix of uses and user population;
2. Relationship to neighboring districts;
3. Topography;
4. Likely parcelization, floor plate sizes, parking layout, and density for a given subarea;
5. Desire to cluster higher structures rather than allowing a continuous "wall'' or random location of tall buildings;
6. To achieve the goal of establishing a transition between the downtown, Lower Downtown, Auraria and the adjacent neighborhoods. (Highlands, Lower Highlands, Je.ferson Park, La--Alma/Lincoln Park) ; and


6
To ensure that views are maintained and protected from downtown, Lower Downtown, and from the close-in neighborhoods back to the downtown core skyline.
41 This Plan does not generally identify specific building heights for individual parcels, but establishes :hree categories of maximum building heights for the Valley. These guidelines should be used in concert with other regulatory tools.


7
Category 1
Towers between 200' - 250' (18 - 22 stories) having relatively
small floor plates of less than 22,000 square feet. These buildings should be clustered so that they establish visual gateways, create special activity within the Valley, and minimize the obstruction of the major mountain vistas and views to the downtown core.
Category 2
Mid-rise structures of 130' - 140' (10- 12 stories) on smaller parcels, especially where the more typical street grid pattern of zero lot line development is desired. In some instances where existing historic character is already in place (e.g. along Wazee and in Lower Downtown), cornice setbacks at 90' - 100' will help to maintain visual continuity from street level.
Category 3
Lower structures of 60' - 30' (5-7 stories) that are located
along water amenities, within key view corridors, and/or contain back office, warehouse, R&D, or employment center functions.
Floor plates may be larger than point tower buildings. This category will also apply to those areas of the Valley located near neighborhood areas or for lower scaled residential development.
These height guidelines should not generally be exceeded; however, exceptions may be made on the basis of special circumstances and/or achieving public policy objectives, such as;
. Transfers of density from open space and residential
development results in taller buildings in the receiving parcels; and/or
. Design review process approves of excess height; and/or
. Achieving other public policy objectives (housing, water
amenities, preservation, open space, etc.) justifies greater height.
2.5 Parking Policy
The parking requirements in the land use subarea descriptions (below) are suggested guidelines on the amount of parking at the present time. As the Valley develops, these guidelines may be revised to reflect the maturing urban character and transportation needs of the Valley. In additional, parking should not be a use-by-right.


3
A Transportation Systems Management (TSM) policy in which there is a balance of autos, HOV, mass transit, ride sharing, and other methods of improving movement will be included as part of the development agreements made between she City, developers and property owners.


10
AURARIA VILLAGE
Between Auraria Parkway and the consolidated rail line, south of Speer to 1-25.
Similar to Westwood Village, Harvard Square, and Georgetown in intensity and type of uses: building facades along the streetwalks are 3-5 stories with (typically) retail on the ground floor; commercial/office on the next floors; and possibly residential on the top floor(s).
Requires some buffering from Auraria parkway and (if necessary) railroad tracks, with parking garages. Wynkoop becomes the "Mass. Ave.", "Westwood 3lvd." type of street, in that most of the activity is focused on Wynkoop and that activity is professional and student support. Wynkoop also connects directly to Cherry Creek. Concentrated and continuous retail on street level to support active pedestrian traffic. Parking below grade or structures near tracks.
APPROXIMATE BUILDABLE LAND AREA:
2,361,000 square feet (54.2 acres)
PREFERRED LAND USES-:
o Office
o Retail - concentrated on Wynkoop
o Restaurants, Bars, especially concentrated
along Wynkoop and 7th/10th Streets o Residential
o Houel
o Conference Facilities
BASE DENSITY: F.A.R. 2:1
POTENTIAL ADDITIONAL INCENTIVES:
Additional retail F.A.R. along Wynkoop (with residential development)
BUILDING ENVELOPE GUIDELINES:
Strong street orientation, zero lot line buildings
60-30 feet
Setback of 15-20 feet at 60 foot height level
140' at southern end of Wynkoop
200' - 250' concentrated near 7th Street and north of 10th Street
SUBAREA
LOCATION:
CHARACTER:


11
AURARIA VILLAGE
Pedestrian link to Cherry Creek Auraria/Tivoli
Pedestrian connections between Campus and Rice Yards on 6th and>4^:h Streets.
1 space per 500 square feet. Special consideration for student residential parking requirements tied to proximity to Campus and Downtown.
OTHER ISSUES/AMENITIES/IMPROVEMENTS:
Pedestrian connections between Campus and Rice Yards.
Encourage retail at ground level on Wynkoop.
7th Street acts to connect Rice Yards, Mid-Valley Roadway, and Colfax.
Phasing and cost of relocating industrial and manufacturing uses. (e.g. Liquid Air)
SUBAREA OPEN SPACE:
CONNECTIONS:
PARKING:


29
3.0 OPEN SPACE SYSTEM AND PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION
The Central Platte Valley can become the centerpiece and potential jewel of the regional open space system that extends along the South platte River from Brighton to Chatfield Lake.
It is essential to encourage the necessary up-grading of the Valley's open space for the benefit of the city and the metropolitan area. The objective of the Valley open space plan shall be to create a comprehensive network which:
o promotes an orderly, visually pleasing and active environment for workers, residents, neighbors, and visitors ?
o reinforces the desired land use patterns;
o provides links among areas within and surrounding the Valley;
o enhances pedestrian experience;
o reinforces existing and creates new public open space
which is for the enjoyment of all, enhances the residential development, and give public access to the waterways; and
o creates a special image.
The overall open space system should include a variety of activities and uses which are available for all age groups.
A primary and striking feature of the open space system in the Central Platte Valley is the existing waterways: the South Platte River and the Cherry Creek. These waterways are the focus and the major framework elements in the open space network functioning as amenities, as well as connections and linkages. Water should be included as an amenity throughout the development parcels.
The system should provide active and passive recreation and open space nodes along the Platte River and the Cherry Creek.
Major recreational trails should be developed for summer and winter uses, including, but not limited to, biking, hiking, jogging, and cross country skiing.


30
In addition to these major waterways, the secondary waterways and gulches should also be utilized to provide important secondary linkages and connections which connect adjacent neighborhoods, open spaces, and activities. This secondary system should be connected to and reinforce the primary system.
Pedestrian movement and the open space system are integrally tied together through the street system, private courts and plazas, the location of transit stations and parking garages, as well as the designated open space parks. This Plan outlines only the beginning of the system, much more detailed design work needs to be done in the coming months. However, such details should reflect the open space priorities of the Plan including: the expansion of the Platte River Greenway? the Cherry Creek Promenade; the Denver Common; and Rockmont Park.
(NOTE: Acreage amounts are approximate and will be
determined exactly in the implementation phase.)
3.1 The Platte River Greenway should be expanded to both sides of the River, extending from south of Colfax to 23rd/Fox on the north. The Greenway should include existing parks such as Confluence and Centennial, and additional SC acres +/- of new parkland directly tied into the Greenway system (the 80 acres +/- refers to Rockmont and Denver Common Parks.)
o Control of designated open space land (through
donation, dedication or acquisition) is emphasized in the first phase. Construction of improvements is expected as private development begins in each subdistrict. Some landscaping construction, however, should be started early on to help change rhe image in the Valley.
o The Plan endorses trading city owned parcels in return for private land in order to knit together the open space system.. Where those parcels are controlled by the Platte River Greenway Foundation, it is important to coordinate such trades in close cooperation with the Foundation.
o Width will vary but is assumed to be large enough to give a major feel of open space along the River (100'+/-). On the east side edge, construction should be "hard" (e.g. decks, balconies, promenades) where development and activities are adjacent to water's edge; and "soft" (landscaped) where the water and buildings are separated. Active and passive uses will vary with adjacent development.


31
o Hiking, biking, jogging, exercise and interpretive trail system enlargement and enhancement. In the section in the Prospect subarea, the uses should include a connection to the Rockmont Park.
.1 South of Speer 14 acres
.2 Prospect area 6.2 acres
3.2 Rice Yards Area park areas and open space pedestrian connection should include the following:
o Existing public open space includes Centennial Park (trade for open space in Denver Common)
6.3 acres
o Pedestrian open space connections along 6th and 10th Streets (80' R.O.W.) and at the River
2.5 acres
o
Roundhouse open space and market (focus for redevelopment)
3.6 acres
3.3 The Cherry Creek should feature promenades, pedestrian ways, plazas, landscaping, as well as retail and entertainment activities, creating a linear urban park that steps down to the Creek.
CHERRY CREEK WALK/NORTH
o Public open space access should be encouraged at ends of streets, edging Creek.
o Assumed to be 50' wide, minimum, open space at
Chestnut/Delgany Street ends. Hard surface, pedestrian promenade, open space component to Creek-side development.
2.5 acres
CHERRY CREEK SOUTH
o Where development occurs on south side of Creek should frame connections to the Creek.
o Enhancement and enlargement of hike/bike trail system and recreation stations, in R.O.W. of relocated Speer. Primarily landscaped berm for relocated Speer (80* wide). Connect to 14th/Larimer (.5 acres) and Confluence Park (existing = 1 acre).
5 acres


32
3.4 There should be a continuous amenity/pedestrian promenade developed in- conjunction with the major valley roadway in the Rice Yards.
This amenity is the major identity element which is the focus for the development in the Rice Yards and the other mid-valley subareas. This amenity should include pedestrian spaces and the potential for a "shuttle" transit r.o.w. in the Platte Valley.
In the design and development of this amenity, water elements should be incorporated wherever (and however) possible. In the development along this amenity, retail, pedestrian and residential uses should be encouraged wherever possible.
This amenity should connect to the (extended) 16th Street Mall.
This area is also being considered for the RR alignment. Adjustments in the physical design of the Valley would have to be considered should this occur.
3.5 The Denver Common should become the 30-40 acre "jewel" urban park as the focus for the metropolitan river greenway, and for development between the Creek and 20th Street.
As in other major urban parks like Central Park and Grant Park, the Denver Common will include active space for unstructured recreation as well as more passive, planted areas for picnicking, celebrations, frisbee tossing, sunbathing, etc. Cultural,.entertainment, restaurant and retail uses of low scale will flank the park's edges, similar to Tavern-on-the-Green in Central park.
o The focus - or theme - of the Denver Common should be the Waterfront Park which celebrates the river. The Common should have a series of areas which connect the Highlands neighborhood and the downtown.
o Regionally oriented, large, urban, park. Gathering
place, large, lawn area, with trees and other planting. Major pedestrian oriented features at key locations: 19th and 20th Streets; bend of the River; Confluence Park; 17th Street connection to Highland Terrace.
Continuation of River Trail at water's edge. Possible on-site commercial uses. Active playfields.
33 acres


33
3.6 Denver Union Terminal's area facing Wynkoop should be landscaped in an urban manner to facilitate a downtown/Platte Valley connection.
The area in front of the Terminal and any adjoining new development facing Wynkoop between 16th and 19th Streets to be landscaped in an urban manner to facilitate a downcown/Platte Valley connection. Mall extension on 16th Street. 18th Street pedestrian connection into The Common.
1- acres
3.7 Prospect Outdoor Plaza may be developed as a regional park which preserves, highlights, and ties together the historic buildings in this subarea. Focus could include market uses.
Prospect Plaza offers an opportunity to be developed as a . focus for the area. The Prospect Plaza could be a paved open space; and could function as a connection between the River open space, the historical buildings and Rockmont Park.
1.7 acres
3.3 Rockmont Park should become the primary neighborhood recreation park.
The Plan recommends that the building and site be acquired as a critical first step to controlling the site for park development. Burlington Northern's 10.6 acre holding to be donated, dedicated or acquired early on to begin the park construction along the River.
Ballfields and other active recrearion facilities should be constructed here (e.g. for soccer, tennis). The entire park should have active recreation uses. There should be multiple connections to the neighborhood from the Park, especially from 20th Street and where Inca intersects under 1-25.
ROCKMONT' PARK
21.2 acres
8.8 acres
10.3 acres
5.2 acres 1.4 acres
47.3 acres
BN
D&RGW
Rockmont
City
Private


3 4
3.9 A pedestrian connection should be developed'over 1-25 at 16th Street to better reconnect the west side neighborhoods to the amenities as well as to downtown.
The pedestrian connection over 1-25 at 16th Street needs further design. However, options include, but are not limited to: a widened viaduct; an additional pedestrian crossing; and decking with low scale development.
3.10 There should be developed a 6th Street Open Space Corridor
(NOTE: It is understood that the exact alignment of this linear park is dependent upon the detailed design of the new Walnut Viaduct (Auraria Parkway). Therefore, it is understood throughout this document that wherever there is reference to the "6th Street Linear Park" that park may be between 6th and 7th Streets in some portions.)
o At "Auraria Business Park" Landscaped linear hike/bike trail with passive sitting areas and picnic facilities.
o Connecting to neighborhoods south of Colfax.
2.3 acres
3.11 A neighborhood linear park should be built over time along Inca Street parallel to the D&RGW tracks which are located from Rockmont to the industrial area.
This linear park can provide a noise and visual barrier between the railroad r.o.w. and the residences. In order to achieve this, it is recommended that the area under the utility easement and the street r.o.w. be used.
A variety of mini-parks, with both active and passive uses should be incorporated into this linear park that ultimately could lead to Rockmont Park. Small recreation facilities such as basketball courts, horse shoe, shuffle board, etc. should be provided. These facilities should be based on neighborhood input.
This also has the potential future use of a light rail corridor.
Denver & Rio Grande informed the PVDC that this r.o.w. is in active use. However, portions of such a system (e.g. jogging paths) which buffer the neighborhood from the railroad corridor should be explored. At such time as the r.o.w. no longer is in active use, further park development should be explored.
D&RGW r.o.w. = 140' (to 44th Ave.) 11 acres


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3.12 Stadium
Extensive redevelopment of connection areas and landscaped areas at the Sports Complex should occur, taking into consideration the Sports Complex Master Plan.
3.13 Landscaping of 1-25
1-25 through the Central Platte Valley should be significantly up-graded and intensively landscaped, especially at the major entrances: Speer, Colfax, 17th Avenue, and 23rd/Fox. This section of 1-25 is the main front door to Denver. The improvements to this section of 1-25 should minimize noise and maximize views.
3.14 Primary Pedestrian Connections:
Platte River
16th Street extension as pedestrian and transit Mall.
13th Street pedestrian connection to the Common
Cherry Creek Promenade
Larimer Street connections
Wazee Street pedestrian connections
6th Street and 10th Street connection from Auraria to River
Pedestrian connection over 1-25 at 16th Street Promenade running the length of the Valley Roadway south of Speer
Pedestrian bridge to Sports Complex Inca connection
4.0 RAILROAD CORRIDOR AND BUFFER
It was agreed to early in this process that some kind of rail corridor needed to remain in the Valley. The Committee had to determine not only where the most acceptable alignment would be located, but how the corridor would be treated for noise, vibration, and visual pollution.
The PVDC investigated many alternatives for the best means of accommodating the railroad's operating requirements while, at the same time, maximizing the urban design requirements for adjacent development parcels and connections between areas in the Valley. Those alternatives which were considered were an alignment parallel to 1-25 through the Central Platte Valley,- a mid-Valley alignment which traveled roughly midway between the Platte River and Wynkoop Street, and the Denver Union Terminal alignment north of Speer and following the BN rail line south of Speer.


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The following policy statements reflect the inherent dilemma of trying to resolve the requirements of two very different needs. The Plan recognizes that compromise between the two are necessary for the Platte Valley to be opened up for development and usable open space.
4.1 The Committee originally selected the D.U.T. alignment for-the consolidated mainline corridor. In subsequent studies, a mid-valley alignment has received serious analysis.
Further urban design, cost, operational and phasing considerations need to be evaluated before one corridor is built. In either case, the consolidated mainline south of 20th Street should not be located closer than 500 feet from the eastern bank of the Platte River. The majority of the mainline should be 30 feet wide, except up to 100 feet wide where passenger service is located.
NOTE: The consolidated mainline combines the Burlington
Northern and Denver & Rio Grande lines.
4.2 In order to minimize the visual and physical barrier created by the rail corridor, the vertical elevatipn of the tracks should be depressed as much as reasonably possible consistent with safe rail operation.
The major objective in partially depressing the rail lines is to help establish efficient and more attractive interconnections between downtown Denver and the districts within the Central Platte Valley.
4.3 The railroad corridor must be. buffered from view to the greatest extent possible, using landscaped berms, parking garages, service areas to buildings, and in certain locations, decking and building construction over the tracks.
The determination of the most appropriate buffer will be made as part of the design guidelines as various subdistricts are master-planned. The terming should occur when the rail realignment and earth moving in the Valley occurs.
4.4 Provision should be made for a 30' transit corridor for possible connections between the Sports Complex, the Common,, as well as other future developments (e.g. Wards/Westrade and the Airport).
It is the City's position that this reserved transit_ corridor should be used exclusively for in-city destinations and not be used for regional transit routes that by-oass the core area.
If stops are required along the line, then a width of 50' will be necessary for the stops.


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5.0 AUTOMOBILE CIRCULATION. TRAFFIC IMPROVEMENTS. AND MASS TRANSIT
The access to and through the Central Platte Valley for automobiles and for buses is directly tied to improved access off of 1-25. As many long range improvements have been studied by the City and the State Highway Department, the Plan applies these studies to the Valley's specific land use plans. It is intended that the transportation policies in this Plan will be adopted by the City and State as to both the design and phasing of recommended improvements.
The Plan recognizes that for the near term, the automobile will continue to be the primary transportation mode for most people. However, the Platte Valley location offers excellent opportunities for using shuttle buses, high occupancy vehicles lanes, and forms of mass transit, as well as bicycles and walking, to get between areas in the Platte and Downtown or the neighborhoods to the west.
The designs of traffic improvements in the Platte must also improve access to downtown. Recognizing this dual requirement, the Plan attempts to achieve both objectives.
5.1 The 1-25 collector-distributor (C/D) concept proposed by the 1-25 CBD Access Study Task Force has been accepted by the Plan so long as direct access to Water Street, West Bank, the Common area and downtown is provided from 1-25.
This concept calls for the development of a C/D/ road system from I9th/20th to Colfax. No C/D system between 19th/20th and Fox/23rd appears to be necessary.
The above proviso regarding Water Street and West Bank also includes the requirement that such access be in the immediate vicinity of the Water Street site and the West Bank site, respectively.
5.2 A rebuilt Speer Boulevard should be located approximately 80 feet south of its present location to the eastern edge of the Platte bridge to roughly Lawrence Street, as long as the alignment is compatible with the Auraria Parkway design.
The deteriorating 14th Street Viaduct also needs to be replaced in the near future.
Recent engineering studies indicate that the 13th Street viaduct needs to be replaced. Possible on-grade connections between Speer Boulevard and the CPV Parkway and the Auraria Parkway will be studied as part of the Auraria Parkway design. The acquisition of an existing building(s) located on Wazee may be necessary to accommodate the Speer construction. Consideration shall be given to the historic character of any buildings subject to acquisition.


38
In addition, it may be necessary to obtain additional r.o.w. from the Auraria Campus. The area north of Speer along Cherry Creek will be landscaped and bermed as part of the Creek amenity.
Speer Boulevard should become a true Boulevard extending from Lawrence Street, through the Central Platte and continuing to Federal 3oulevard. As such, appropriate median, landscaping, berming, and building setbacks should be incorporated in the Speer design that maintains the boulevard feeling that exists east of Lawrence Street.
5.3 15th Street should continue to serve as a collector, minor arterial street between Lower Downtown, the Platte' Valley Development, and the Highlands neighborhood.
The decision whether to cross over or under the mainline rail corridor will be made depending upon the final elevation decision of the rail corridor.
5.4 The 16th Street Viaduct will be torn down. The Mall should be extended beyond Market Street.
It is critical to maintain a strong connection between Downtown, D.U.T. Station, the Common and across the River, via the 16th Street Mall.
Further possible extension of the 1.6th Street Mall to these areas should be considered. The design character and extended distance of the 16th Street Mall will be determined during the next planning phases.
An improved pedestrian path way should extend to the Westbank area. The 16th Street bridge over 1-25, however, is slated to be removed in order to accommodate highway improvements. The portion of the 16th Bridge which crosses the Platte River should be retained. A pedestrian connection across 1-25 in the vicinity of 16th Street should be retained or constructed.
5.5 It is a goal to provide an at-grade roadway from 1-25 to Lower Downtown and Downtown Denver. Presently, it is anticipated that the 20th Street Viaduct will be removed and replaced with an on-grade 20th Street wherever feasible, as an early action item.
This will serve as a major access to the Common Park and development, D.U.T. Station, Prospect, and downtown. Access to West Bank and Rockmont will also be provided from 20th Street. If desired, 20th Street will serve as H.O.V. access to downtown, coming south on 1-25.


39
5.6 The Fox/23rd Street Viaduct should be upgraded and a new fly over connection from 1-25 should be constructed to create the primary access into.Lower Downtown and the C3D from the North.
5.7 Interchange access patterns in the central portion of 1-25 will be modified as part of implementation of the Central I-25 CBD Access Study recommendation, subject to the same qualifications as stated in 5.1
The access to a rebuilt 17th Avenue interchange, access from Water Street to 1-25, and access to a portion of rebuilt 19th/20th interchange will be provided from separate collector/distributor lanes along 1-25. The City will continue to explore the option of a right turn in/right turn out connection between Water Street and Speer Boulevard.
5.8 The joint 1-25 north/HOV Lane Project should consider the land use and transportation concepts expressed by this Plan.
If the 16th Street Mall is extended to 1-25 at West Bank, this Plan recommends that there be no parking reservoir developed in conjunction with that extension in the West Bank subarea.
5.9 7th Street can connect Auraria Business Park and Auraria Village over the mainline tracks to the Rice Yards as a collector road.
This connection will establish the primary southern access to the Rice Yards from 1-25 as well as enable residents and workers to move between these subdistricts between the Platte Valley Greenway and various commercial/residential activities.
5.10 A 7th Street crossing of the Platte River is not a preferred alternative as long as a 17th Avenue crossing is provided early on.
It is recommended that a 17th Avenue crossing of the Platte be provided early on as the southern outlet for the Mile High Parkway. With such a connection, a bridge at 7th Street should be only a pedestrian and bicycle one.
If the 17th Avenue crossing is delayed, then the City, DURA, and property owners can explore an auto crossing at 7th Street over the Platte River.
5.11 A continuous roadway is intended as the major arterial road serving the Platte Valley Development, and its location, dimensions, and streetscaping will be determined upon the location and land uses of the subdistricts it traverses and the railroad alignment.


40
It is recommended that two sections of such a roadway be designed where the alignment varies due to adjacent land uses:
South of Speer
During the early phases of development, the roadway should connect to the 7th Street arterial east of the Platte River. In subsequent phases-, this roadway may serve as the potential connection to 1-25 at 17th Avenue, and extending north, connects to Speer Boulevard. This stretch of the roadway should act as a buffer to the rail mainline, thus being located as close to the existing BN rail lines as possible. Preliminary estimates are for a landscaped buffer of approximately 40* and a r.o.w. of 100'.
This roadway is made up of four lanes of moving traffic with the potential for parking on either side, including adequate width for "shuttle" transit. In addition, it should be designed and developed to incorporate a promenade referred to in the Open Space Policy 3.4.
North of Speer
The roadway north of Speer should respond to the tight urban fabric of these subareas. This stretch of the Roadway shall be developed in conjunction with the Denver Common and D.U.T. redevelopment. It should also encourage north-south pedestrian movement from the Common to the Cherry Creek.
The primary access through the Prospect subarea along the roadway should be a connection to the 23rd Street Viaduct at Delgany.
5.12 Bus Service and other forms of mass transit should be
planned to connect development within subdistricts and to areas outside the Central Platte area such that residents and workers will have convenient access to the Platte,
Cherry Creek, the Common, and Downtown.
A shuttle connection between the Rice Yards, Cherry Creek development, D.U.T., and Prospect with the Mall bus system represents an initial concept for further study.
Connections which also need to be considered are those to Merchants park, the Airport, and the Coliseum. Possible monorail service as part of the Stadium - Common line will also be examined.


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6.0 FLOOD CONTROL
Both the South Platte River and the Cherry Creek, which converge in the Central Platte Valley, have histories marked by flooding.
Improvements to the Cherry Creek Channel, as well as the completion of the Cherry Creek Dam and Reservoir by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, are understood to be sufficient to retain the 100 year flood within the existing channel.
CHERRY CREEK
6.1 As modifications to the Cherry Creek Channel are made to bring the adjacent redeveloped land uses into closer relationship to the waterway, and as a pedestrian promenade is developed along its right bank in the Central Platte Valley, care will be taken so as not to restrict the floodway. The replacement of railroad mainline bridges must be designed so as not to restrict the floodway.
6.2 The maintenance of the channel, river bank and trail will be coordinated with the Urban Drainage and Flood Control District, and with other appropriate agencies.
SOUTH PLATTE RIVER
In 1985 the Urban Drainage and Flood Control District completed a "Master Plan for the South Platte River" in cooperation with the local governments adjacent to the River. Planning has been closely coordinated with the City's planning for the Central Platte Valley development. Plans for improvements of the River channel through deepening and widening, as well as the removal of impediments to flood waters, are being formulated and tested for effect on the extent of the flooding and flood plain.
The objective is to design a series of improvements which, acting together, will result in removal of the flood hazard which currently exists in the Central Platte Valley.
It is not anticipated that the City and County of Denver will undertake these improvements. It is the policy of the City for landowners/developers to make the improvements necessary to provide for safe development of their land at their own expense. Designs for improvements must be approved by the City's Wastewater Management Division.
Three additional policies are recommended by the Platte Valley Development Committee:


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7.0 HISTORIC PRESERVATION
Although the Central Platte Valley is the area of Denver's earliest origins, there are few remaining structures which have historical or architectural significance. Forney Transportation Museum (old Tramway Power Plant) is the only Denver Landmark outside the Auraria Campus. On the Campus are the Tivoli Brewery, St. Elizabeth's Church, Emmanuel Chapel, St. Cajetan's Church, and the Ninth Street Historic District.
There are a few other structures listed on the National Register of Historic Places: The Denver Union Station, Moffat Station, Amos H. Root Building, and the Brewmasters house. Other structures that were on the National Register in 1982, but removed at the request of the owner, were Zang Brewery Stables and Rocky Mountain Hotel (now a bar and restaurant, Zang Brewery Company, which is not part of the original, historical brewery).
The Preservation Alliance (a coalition of Denver preservation organizations with private funding and assistance from the Colorado Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation) completed a thorough survey of the Central Platte Valley in 1983 and 1984. The survey identified a number of buildings ( approximately 16) which may be eligible for Denver Landmark Designation and/or National Register listing. The buildings include residential, commercial, and public buildings and are so widely scattered through the Valley that it would be difficult to create a unified historic district within the Valley.
The major unifying theme throughout the Valley is railroading. The importance of railroading in Denver's history and development can hardly be overstated. When the railroad yards and bridges over Cherry Creek are removed and the mainlines reconstructed little physical evidence of the over 100 years of railroading will be left in the Valley.
Undoubtedly, the most significant building is the Denver Union Station; it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Currently, however, it is not a Denver Landmark due to the objection of the owners.
7.1 The preservation of the main part of the railroad station (the main train room and the two-story wings with the sloped roof), or the integration of that portion of the Station into new development, is strongly encouraged. Any new adjacent development should respect the existing structures of the Denver Union Station.


44
7.2 The City and County of Denver should work cooperatively with the owners of historic buildings to ensure their preservation. Every effort should be made to encourage the preservation of the significant historic structures in the Central Platte Valley. Their significance to Colorado and to the Central Platte Valley should be duly recognized.
This Plan recognizes that there are several other historic structures in the Valley which are significant to the character of the future development of the Valley. Those buildings include, but are not limited to, the Moffat Station, The Colorado and Southern Roundhouse, and the Colorado and Southern Turntable.
The adaptive reuse of the Roundhouse and Turntable is encouraged. The integration of these structures and activities with the adjacent development (possibly retail and/or residential), and with the extended development of the Platte River Greenway and the Children's Museum is appropriate.
7.3 The encouragement of preserving historic structures in the Central Platte Valley should be applied to the buildings identified in the Architectural and Historical Survey of Downtown Denver (1983 - 1984) which were classified as eligible for Denver Landmark or National Register designation. (Survey is the same as referred to above).
7.4 Every reasonable effort shall be made to retain the Nineteenth Street Bridge at its present location and to preserve it as a pedestrian/bicycle bridge after its vehicular use is replaced.


7?/'o -GraruJe
The: Dezhvezr and Rio Grande Western Railroad Com
Denver, Colorado 00217
w. J. holtman
CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD and PRESIDENT
November 1, 1984

i


PLATTE VALLEY DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE
c/o Mr. William Lamont
Director Planning Office
City and County of Denver
1445 Cleveland
Denver, Colorado 80202
Dear Mr. Lamont:
This supplements my letter of July 19 in response to your July 9 letter concerning various aspects of railroad facilities and operations in the Central Platte Valley.
Our representative to the Railroad Subcommittee has indicated general agreement with the proposed alignment of a joint corridor with the Burlington Northern through DUT and thence southwest from Cherry Creek connecting with the existing BN -ATSF main line corridor.
While this appears to be the best solution on a shortterm basis (1-3 years) , we agree v/ith the Burlington Northern that an alignment parallel to the east side of 1-25 offers a number of long-term advantages and that a preliminary analysis is warranted.
We endorse that analysis and we are certainly willing to continue evaluation of that alignment.
Yours very truly,
cc: R. L. Buchanan


BIBLIOGRAPHY
"Pattern Language", Christopher Alexander Oxford University Press, 1977
"The Image of the City", Kevin Lynch Joint Center for Urban Studies, M.I.T.
1st Printing, I960; 16th Printing, 1982
"Maintaining the Spirit of Place, A Process for the Preservation of Town Character", Harry Launce Garnham PDA Publishers Corp., Mesa, Arizona, 1985
"The Form of Housing", Sam Davis Litton Educational Publishing Inc., 1977
"The Central Platte Valley Development Committee Policies for a Concept Plan", Denver Planning Department, 1986
"The Denver Downtown Area Plan," The Denver Partnership, Inc. and Denver Planning Office, 1986
"Denver’s Commi ttee, Central Platte Valley", Seeds Program, 1984 AIA Urban Desi gn
"Denver J s Speer Blvd., A Revitalization", AIA Urban Desi gn
Committee, Seeds Program, 1986
"Central Platte Valley Workbook", Center for Community
Development and Design, Divisions of Architecture and Planning, Paul Heath, Chairman, Univ. of Colorado at
Denver, Requested by Platte Valley Alliance of Neighbors. 1983
"Auraria Parkway Corridor Study", BRW, Denver, Co. 1986 "Downtown Denver Public Spaces Project"
8a Project Overview; 8b Framework Plan/General
Recommendations; 8c Improvement Proposals for Prioritized Public Spaces; 8d Downtown Public Spaces Handbook, Denver Partnership, Inc. 1983
"Denver in the Eighties", AIA Urban Design Committee, 1983
"Burlington Northern Concept Plan" Final Report of
Burlington Northern General Committee, 1976
"Lower Downtown", Urban Design Graduate Student Group
Project, Marilyn Mueller, Group Leader, 1976


Full Text

PAGE 1

I A+P LD 1190 A73 1987 M833 ........ A PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT For Auraria Village Platte Valley Denver, Co. Thesis Master of Architecture 1n Urban Design U ni v e r sit y of olorado at Denver prepared by Marilyn Mueller RCH\TECTURE & PI 1\NNJ". -....., AURAR\A UBRAR. " . qs Lookout Mountain Road, May 1987 Golden, Co. 60401 .,, ...... w• r ,..u. b<::>.. .... 1-----__,-----l TL:• '+----f--+-----+--'--!1 '.: l . 'I i -, ! ; I

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A P U B L I C I P R I V AT E . M I X E. D U S E D E V E LO P . M E N T / For Auraria Village Platte Valley Denver,. Co. Thesis Master of Architecture in Urban Design U ni v e r sit y of Co I or ado at Den v e r prepared . by Marilyn Mueller 'l' qs Lookout Mountain Road, Golden, Co. 80401 May 19 . 8 7 Date Due I--" -JUN .37995 ' --------I-I I -'...--_ , ! t. ,,,.,,,.,,, .. .. . " ! ! r . , • l__ -..... ! I I [ TI II . , I II I .. L ' .. ""r•• L. ! t:c f4_, f Rl. . o,,. ,,, Mo.-a0 , .,-.'i [>-kf I • '1tYTI>oiL ll&.1. 10""fiA . lb.!.,. a, W ll...,.,.ATT• k-1=?..-a .... IJ. .... .. . .. • .. .. . I J .. 1 .. " 11 --4 ••

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U R B A N D E 5 I G N Urban Design is the deliberate, three dimensional interpretation of planning decisions. As such, it has to do with how a cit y looks as a whole and in parts, how it works, and how it feels to visitors and residents alike. Urban Design refers to the public art of making a community,s environment beautiful and inspiring, as well as functional and efficient. Urban Design involves intimate interactions between the disciplines of planning, architecture and landscape architecture. Unknown Source

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A C K N 0 W L E D G M E N T S Acknowledgment is due to the many people in private practice and in the Denver Planning and Parks departments who provided me with opinions, guidance, names of others to talk to, maps and reports. Among these are: Floyd Tanaka, THK Associates Don Hunt, Dan Daiziel, BRW Paul Foster, Architect and Urban Designer Bob Kronewitter, Head of Planning, Auraria Campus Bob Karnes, Downtown Denver, Inc. Sarah Jane Seward, Downtown Denver, Inc. Denver Planning Department Gordon Appell Will Fleissig Mary Roberts Paul Sehnert Chuck Perry Special thanks tc Professor Paul Heath for his positive input and encouragement as my faculty advisor for my thesis work. Previous faculty who kept my interest kindled in Urban Design were John Prosser, Ron Straka, Herb Smith and Davis Holder, all of UCD. Also, Brian Goodey, exchange professor from Oxford Polytechnic, Headington, Oxford, England. I would like to dedicate this project Hellmut, who has continuously supported activities in architecture a n d urban design. to my husband, my interest and

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I N D E X Introduction .................................... 1 Regional Setting ................................ 3 Climate ......................................... 4 History ......................................... 7 Regional Traffic ........................•....... 9 Site Selection and Land Use ..................... 11 Economic Factors ....................•........... 15 Main Factors in the .................... 17 The Plan ........................................ 18 Land Use Calculations ........................... 21 Landscaping ..................................... 24 Bibliography Acknowledgments Appendix

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A PUBLIC/PRIVATE MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT For Auraria Village, A New District in the Platte Valley Denver, Colorado Introduction This thesis will present an example of mixed use development, with an emphasis on housing, located just south of historic lower downtown and adjacent to the Auraria Community Campus. There is presently very little urban housing in or even around downtown Denver. This is due partly to a pattern of housing being on the edges of business and commercial a lack of a sense of community identity in these areas, and relatively high land costs making the economics of development uncertain. Mixed use means also projecting a mixed market, so there is more uncertainty about public need and acceptance, interaction patterns and viable rent levels. I would like to mention the general social, political and physical factors that indicate that this area is ready to become what a recent study has called Auraria Village. We are living in a culture saturated with choices in almost all aspects of life. Since architecture and the urban form of our cities reflect the state of a Society, architects and planners find themselves challenged to meet this world in appropriate functions as well as forms. Lifestyles have expanded beyond the norm of the nuclear family of wife and children living in the single family house in the suburbs to a myriad of other living arrangements and combinations. Not only singles and single parent and empty nest households seek scaled down homes but cohabitation of unmarried adults and communal arrangements, religious or secular, are tolerated in many segments of today•s society. With the emergence of these many different lifestyles, market demand for urban housing is a reality that city planners and developers are beginning to address. Other cities in America and many in Europe have already built a variety of examples that have been well received. Higher populations and more crowded conditions have helped many of these existing projects into being. Although Denver has an population, one could not really say that conditions are crowded. So and desirability and affordability become very important here. Many people have left the suburbs and the intense concern for ownership of their own mini-kingdom and the consequent heavy time demands for upkeep of house and garden. Neither do such people necessarily want an apartment in a block full of other apartments. The attraction is the proximity -1-

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and experiential variety of people, galleries, concerts, film, activities at a quality and quantity than can be found in the suburbs. shops, markets, art restaurants and street level much more intense Besides significant change in the social fabric of the housing market, four major events have occurred to favor the liklihood of a market for urban housing in Denver. These events are: 1.) The oil development and exploration boom in the 707s and early 80 brought rapid growth and bustling activity in downtown Denver 2.> The price of oil fell from $64/barrel to $10 or $12 causing an end to the oil activity boom. 3). Election of a new mayor, indicating favorable citizen attitude to change. 4.> Agreement by the railroads to clear out most of the track filling up the Platte River Valley and consolidate to one through line. Before the oil boom, Denver was experiencing signs of decay and declining retail and business activity in the core city. A mood of revitalization had already begun, but progress was sluggish, redevelopment tentative. The boom generated a whole new brood of skyscrapers, giving the city a broad new image and strengthened land values. The new Mayor proclaimed a theme of "Imagine a Great City" to the populace and promptly expanded the Planning Department, headed by a new director, who in turn, expanded and shifted staff. Sweet breezes of enthusiasm, energy and optimism wafted through the usually stuffy halls. A spirit of cooperation appeared with the Burlington and Rio Grande railroads, who previously avoided any summit type conferences. The proposed r-elnova l of the tracks, switching stations and yards filling much of the Platte Valley means five hundred acres of land bordered by the Platte River, lower downtown and the Auraria Campus becomes attractive useful land instead of an outmoded rail and industrial wasteland. Community development becomes a logical consideration. An intensive study completed in the Spring of 1986 by the Planning Department and a widely representative citizens committee including city council, business, chamber of commerce and neighborhood participants produced a concept plan for the Platte Valley. This is the plan which indicates residential and business use for the site studied in this thesis, named Auraria Village. * * See Appendix: The Central Platte Denver Planning Department -2-

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R E G I 0 N A L S E T T I N G Regionally, Denver is located uniquely in the middle of the United States at a point where the immense western plains meet the powerful Rocky Mountains. Called the Mile High C ity, because it lies at an altitude of 5200 feet, it exists amongst parameters of contrast. The plains are flat, hot and dry and moderately barren. The mountains are jagged, chilly and weather producing, rich in forests, plant and animal 1 ife. The climate is dry and moderate, with the sun shining more than 300 days a year. Thus, work and recreation are seldom s topped because of weather, although the showers and snows generated by the mountains keep all outdoor plans flexible. The city of Boulder to the North and Colorado Springs to the South, which also lie against the Rocky Mountains roughly define the extreme limits of Metropolitan Denver, with commuters coming from both cities, as well as other smaller cities on the plains such as Greeley and Brighton to the north and Castle Rock to the south. The population of Denver itself is around 500,000; that of metropolitan Denver is more than 1.7 million. Denver is a major transportation hub. The rail lines, which established Denver' s prominence, still bring passengers to Union Station and distribute goods, and lately, coal to the region. It is a stop over destination point for rail, bus, auto, truck and air lines. Stapleton International Airport is the sixth busiest in the world. Plans underway for a new airport anticipate e xpansion and facilities which will make it an international hub in addition to its present central hub position nationally. I I J . 2 J . r . . -. r-f:" ... .. . . . • . l -. >.l\ ::,Y. . . . , \ LOCATION M!\f> Cl TY Or DEN V ER Copied from the Denver Downtown Area Plan -3-

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PAGE 11

T lC Dl.':-:vcr Pcsl/\VcJI•cslby, Sept. 26, 1 9 8 4 . . ----------... Pu\JD

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C L I M A T E Denver enjoys the mild, sunny semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountains without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm weather is usually of short duration. Temperatures come from at least four different sources influencing Denver's weather: arctic air from Canada and warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west. The climate results largely from Denver7S location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds form over the City so that temperatures of 90 deg. or over are reached on an average of only thirty-two days of the year and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 deg. mark. Clear skies season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate the temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north. intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt . On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the country never reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains, and currents resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of the cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude. When outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches it peak in May. Being a separated long from distance from any moisture source, and the Pacific source by several mountain barriers, Denver enjoys average precipitation. a low relative humidity and low Late winter is the wettest, cloudiest and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs towards spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of that season. Cold periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow. -4-

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Summer precipitation (about 32 percent particularly in July and August, scattered local thundershowers during of the annual total>, usually comes from the afternoon and Clouds often form sunshine at what of the day. Many evening. Mornings are clear and sunny. during early afternoon and cut off the would otherwise be the hottest part afternoons have a cooling shower. Winter storms moving from the north usually carry little moisture. The frequency of such storms increases during the fall and winter months and decreases rapidly in the spring. The accompanying outbreaks of polar air are responsible for the sudden drops in temperature often experienced in the plains sections of the state. these outbreaks are attended by strong northerly winds which come in contact with moist air from the south; the interaction of these air masses causes a heavy fall of snow and the most severe of all weather conditions of the high plains, the blizzard. The winter snowfall averages from 3 to 5 feet on the plains and from 5 to 7 feet in the foothills. Winds are generally from the south and southwest. Strong winds occur frequently in winter and spring. These winds can have velocities as high as 80 to 100 miles an hour.Such winds tend to dry out which are usually not well supplied with moisture because of the low annual precipitation. A wind phenomenon called the ''Chinook" occurs frequently along the eastern edge of the Front Range during late winter and early spring. These winds, warmed by their rapid descent from high levels cause large and sudden temperature rises. Ecological Implications: The variable and unpredictable weather of the Front Range coupled with low rainfall, low humidity, high evaporation and strong air movement combine to cause several landscape management problems. The annual precipitation is not great enough to sustain most tree and shrub species except a few hardy natives. With supplemental water many additional species can be grown. Without supplemental great care will have to be given to species and site selection. The climate. as discussed above is the macroclimate, or the general climate of the area. The microclimate is the climate of a small or very localized area such as under a particular tree or at ground line under grass cover, etc. ihe variable and unpredictable weather or macroclimate of the Front Range causes extreme variations in the microclimate. Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Center, N.C. -5-

PAGE 14

Cover hlne • Possible Suns. 'Year 115 Cle.lr Day. , , Oay5/Year tlv 131 Pu /Year 119 Cloudy Ool)S. Dally Reht.lve Ave. •o• • " • Jan. Feb. 1 b rc:h !-4ay June July Aug. 'sept. Oct. Nev. Ct:tc. :30 43 41 20 3 -a -18 '"' . . -:,. Storms Ave. 7 Thunder y ar . It I Days Per . u7) uc_ . .. I . ;_t; I; . . I .. / 1 , , : I . /; I I'.' I i /.: : . '11 I : I . I I , .''I 0 • , • 0 alent • 15"/Year \later Equ v 6i:t'/Year Snow and Ice • I ' I , I . ' . ' . I .. . • • I I ' . i • • . . I • • . I • /. • ' I , I l / . ' . .

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H I S T 0 R Y . , , '/:: • • • ........ 1 . ., ' . • • I • .... The popularity of Western Movies and TV scenarios has given us some sense of the state of primitivity and wilderness that existed in the 1840's and 50's when the history of Denver was beginning. Originally, it was a rendezvouz location for trading with the Indians and socializing with other hunters, trappers and guides or explorers who were the first to arrive, usually from the East, although some must have come from Mexico and Canada. Comparing the present city, with its newly spawned batch of glossy glassy skyscrapers to a memory of a few scattered cabins and a cluster of Indian tepees brings up all the present 'catch' words such as "awesome", "wow","incredible!" This is a memory that no European has or could have had for many centuries. And so, besides the historical milestones listed here, I would like to point out the mental, experiential history that is a factor here. The conflict with the Indians, the pioneer toughness and mentality, ( an odd combination of stoicism and entrepeneurism ), activist personalities who were developers or outdoorsmen who were mostly realists and rationalists with just enough idealism to get them launched into their activities. There was freedom, then. opportunity and little restriction here -7-

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Today, compared to much of the rest of the country, those words still apply. Where we arenow, however, requires some direction and orchestration. We have had enough history in 140 years to see the need for preservation and conservation. There is much public awareness as well as professional focus and vocabulary on the actual buildings, residences and neighborhoods that comprise historical heritage. Surveys have been evaluations have been recorder, designations assigned. H istorical organizations and departments are effectively active. Recent efforts of the Denver AlA Urban Design task force have produced introductory publications on the Platte Valley, Cherry Creek and a study on Denver's heritage of Parks and Boulevards. A proposal for the revitalization of 38th Ave. in the North Neighborhood was put together and submitted for Grant funding. Department. is conducting a and a Master Plan for Reforestation is a major to Dutch Elm disease Park and Recreation complete review of existing parks future utilization and expansion. study, Denver having lost many trees and street widening a ctivities. The old is being reviewed and new thinking energy is being directed to renovating and preserving past accomplishments and completing and adding urban design coordination and expression to one of newest Big Cities. .--_-==?' I • I 1 , I .I Speer Bo ulevard Pictures from AlA Seeds Publication -8-

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.. . . ' 1 \ ' I • ) . ' ,.i. l ...... , , , : I ' I ---w .... -. l : .. , [ 1 1 ' . ',, • . \1,1 t 11 I ' : ' ... n l t .,. .... , \ , ' • l . . . . , , I ) '! I , --. ..... . , . > ....... ' ) 1 ];-h-k' l U ! -..,. _ _ _ • ... ,r" I --:-.. . . _ -.....__ .._ --, • , ... ...... . ......._ .. ,. . ... J --......_ ----------------------, .... , . ........ . , ... , ' ' ..

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THE BEGINNINGS Events That Have Created Downtown Denver 1858 Do''"t0\1?1 founded as Dem u City where Clren)' Creek ell/crs tlrt• South Pia/It' Ril 't•r, a stag area for tire P ike:, Peak Gold Ru. , lr. 1870 D01vntmvn De111'er busint•ssmen raise $300.(XJO to build a bmnclrline to connect tire 5,000-popu/ation "town" with the first tmn scontin ental milroad at Cheyenne . 1893 77re nat ional sil1•er cmslr ends tire fir.w min ing boom, but by now tire city has 100 ,000-p/us people and is an established ngional n ma. 1900 In 1900 Denl'l'r hemmes tire regional rc pnsi tory Jhr fedeml funds, nmfinning Dou111ou11 :, role as tire regional jinwrcial cellln 1902 771f! City and Cow1ty of Dt• m er is e . wablislrcd by tire state legislature as a lumre-mle city , with Mayor Rohe11 Speer shortly to begin puslrin!( tire "City Beautiful" IIUII'emelll. 1905 Clrc•e, , llum Re . I ''11\Jir ht • cmnc . l tire .fin T major mou11ftlin \WITt•r sftlmge .fiJI Dtm ' t'l : 1906 1Jre firsT automobile is liccnst•cl in Dt• m t •r, and in Tire ne x t year The• firsT TnJIIt•y reaclrt•.1 Lilfleron, /)(•ginning Tire ".wburban" I/IOVl'melll. 1908 The Demer Auditorium, laf8est mw1icip11l meeting facility u es T of Madison Sc1rwre Garden. is dedimTed alit! sl/{/rt l\' hews tire Demonwic National Com • t • llfim;. 1911-12 111e D&F 1iJII'er goes up. Tlrt• 20Th STn•et ViaducT /inh Dmmtm1 n to Hb t Dt'lll ' t • r , Union STaTion i.1 rehuiiT , n111l somt•u lu n somt•ont• makes Dema 's ji r : w lcmg-tli . l rance plum e call. 1914-17 I#Jrld 1#/r I stimulates Dmmwu n commeln' 11'/ri!t• n'}inm hring in Prolri/JiTicm alit! The dosing of Mark et STreet:v "cribs." 1923 Cil ic Center is compleTecl . Denlt•r has 250,{)()() people, 30,000 ('(11:1' , a feu tl wu.wrul new Hi. 1pcmic 11'/ro cmnt• w lrdp in lmr-t1}i m fanning , C/1/{/ its.fin T nulio .I'Ttllicm. 1928 A clow11fou n tlremre s/wa: 1 Tlrt• first .wuntl film. 11)21) Staphton Aiqwrt is t!edimtccl. 1930 The "Uttle Capitol" campaign is swrted to attract fecleni l workers ancl regional headf/IWrtl'I'S io Demer. Fn>m 2000 emp loyt•t•s 111 the starr of th e depression the num/Jer reaches 16,000 by the end of 1#1r II. I 1935 Federal Depression programs improve Den-facilities, including Red !Wcks and moun win parks. FirsT Western Slope water to Dema in the next year. 1937 Transcontinental air service to Denver begim, as does planning for Winter Park, the first lar ge mo1mtain ski area. 1931).45 I#Jrld l#rr II brings to Demer an Ordinance PI alii which by 1943 employs 20,000 people, half r!f thrm 1\'0IIIl'll. When Amerim l'llll'rs the uar, Dem c • r ht•come.l h ost /tl jloocls of srnicemt'n ll'hO fimn thr base of postu•trr eXpCIII.I'itlll. 1950 State alllo r egisTratio n is 564,000 the last street milll'ay mr is wken 0111 of ser\'ice. Denver has 415, 786 people; the suburbs an additiona l 150 , 000. (fl1ir1y years later, Denl 'l'f has gm1V11 ro 491,396, with the suburbs lwl'inx w1 additional l,/20,000). 195:! Du'ight Eisenhou er opens his pn•sidenTial Clllllf}{lign h enclquaners attire Brown Palace. Dcr11er has its firsT television broadcast . 1956 lmerswte Hi ghway Act signed. wit h major intersec tion in Downto\VIJ D enver area. 1960 Dem'l'f Urban Renewal Authority begins planning for Sky line Project. AI this poilll Demc•r /111.1' six buildings higher than 320 feet; ten years /mer There are 18, and the buildi n g cmne is the state bird. 1964 Robert.1' 'limnd for trw1s-mounwin 1\'(/{t•r c/i, ersio n completed, as is Currigan Hall Conve ntion Cente1: 1965 Larimer Square historic restorati on begins am/ l'resen'Otion IIIOV'/IU'nt sprea ds . 1969 Bond issue for Auraria Hi gher Education Cemer passl'S, and the next year for Dem er purchase of the bus sys t em. 1J1e Regional Trcmspo11ation District is fonned in 1973. 1971 New A11 Museum buil t . Planning begins for the Dema Center for the PerfomJing A11s. 1974 Swte /egislawre passt•s Poundstone Amend ment prvhibiting Denver's further growth by annexation. 1976 Auraria Higher Education Center and Colorado H eritage Center are dedicated. 1982 16th Street Mall dedicated.

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STREET NICHES are potential gathering places. They extend an invitation to linger and window shop. Lower Downtown

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STREET PLANTINGS help create human spaces. We readily relate to trees and flmvers, which soften the hardne s s of urban en-vi ronment. (\....._ ____ _ lower Dm.,rn tm.,rn

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T R A F F I C R E G I 0 N A L For the urban dweller, priorities in traffic become quite different from the suburban Particularly, if that person has been able to find employment in the core city, the priorities become: 1. Pedestrian walkways 2. Bikeways and other; (skateboards, rollerskates.) 3. Shuttle Bus 4. RTD Busways 5. Rapid Mass Transit 6. Private Motor 7. Transcontinental Bus 8. Railway Rapid Mass Transit As long as Denver's mass transit is confined to bus lines, it can never perform as mass transit does in other major cities. So far, population densities have not justified the expense of a rapid transit system. It is to be hoped that some form of limited rapid transit will be built in the next fifty years. Two of the benefits from rapid transit would be bringing the metropolitan population quickly into the core city and reduction of automobile pollution. Conversely, urban residents metropolitan Denver and not for such needs or pleasures. Private Motor would be able to get about feel a long travel time barrier The grid system existing in Denver and the geographic convenience of a very visible mountain range to the West make orientation and travel about the city very easy. There are congested areas to be sure but improved traffic flows should soon occur as the interchanges along I-25 are re-done and a system of Collector-Distributor roads is -9-

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implemented. The Auraria Parkway will bring cars into Lower Downtown and is the initial part of a ring road plan for the CBD. It is anticipated that Speer Boulevard will be realigned to the South side from Larimer Street on West and that it will come to grade somewhere in Mid Valley. The Larimer and Lawrence Street Viaducts will be removed. Transcontinental Bus and Commuter/Local Service The Bus Station is located very conveniently at 19th and Arapahoe/Curtis. Railway Since the main line is to be consolidated Mid Valley, there may be a new station. Perhaps this line will include rail for rapid transit. The site would be conveniently near any new central station as it is now to the existing Union Station at 17th and Wynkoop.A -10-

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• . . . ' \Cherry • '\.. I ___ _ C o n v e n t . _ Center Creek D E S T I N AT I O __ N N 0 .0 S ,... '\ I . F U T U R. . E I \..• ,/

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S I T E S E L E C T I 0 N A N D L A N D U S E The site was selected because it is situated in an area that has just been reviewed and identified by the Denver Platte Valley and given the name Auraria Village. The site is the six block s centrally located in Aurari a Village between 8th and 11th Streets, all of which has sixty to eighty foot height limit. See Category below. y The site is unusual for an urban site in that there are large areas of open space surrounding it at this time. -To the southeast is the Auraria Campus and its tenni s courts and athletic field. To the Northwest is over 200 acres of land in the process of being cleare d of railroad tracks and a few industrial facilities. Another 300 a cres to the north of Cherry Creek have also been cleared of tracks. In the written material accompanying the comprehensive plan, the preferred land uses are: Off ice Retail -concentrated on Wynkoop Restaurants, Bars, especially concentrated along Wynkoop, 7th and l Oth Streets Residential Hotel Conference Facilities Base Density is suggested at a Floor Area Ratio of 2:1, with additional retail F.A.R. along Wynkoop, with residential development. In the Denver Comprehensive Plan the Platte Valley land has been roughly classified into three categories "Category h Towers between 200' 250' (18 to 20 stories ) having relatively small floor p lates of less than 22,000 square feet. These buildings should be clustered so that they establish visual gateways, create special activity within the Valley, and minimize the obstruction of major mountain vistas and the views to the downtown core. Category Mid-rise structures of 130' to 140' <10 to 12 stories) on smaller parcels, especially where the more typical street grid pattern of zero lot line development is desired. In some instances where existing historic character is already in place
PAGE 26

Category 3. Lower structures of 60"to 80' <5 to 7 stories) that are located along water amenities, within key view corridors, and/or contain back office, warehouse R&D, or employment center functions. Floor Plates may be larger point tower buildings. This category will also apply to those areas of the Valley located near neighborhood areas or for lower scaled residential development. The historic presence is a neighbor, but not a near neighbor and harmonious transitions would appear to be achievable in an easy relaxed manner. The residential areas to the West and Northwest and what is called the West Neighborhood, which really goes south from Colfax to Ellsworth and from Broadway west to the river are separated by that river and the major trafficways which edge these districts. West Denver has always been severely separated from the East by the Platte Valley. The changes in traffic and the clearing of the tracks bring an opportunity for transition that will unify the city and enhance it visually and make available the enjoyment of the Platte River. -12-

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S I T E I N F 0 R M A T I 0 N Taken from the "Central Platte Valley Workbook" of Colorado, 1983 University " -Topography is generally flat, with no significant slope (slope =1/.) Exception is western bank
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TOPOGRAPHY / -_ J ''--COLFAX

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A I R Q U A L I T Y Air pollution is a problem for all of Denver. Valley is in an area of high pollutants. The Platte It will automobile desire for factor in control. be assumed that increased study and regulation of exhaust already underway will be successful. The developing the Platte Valley could be a plus the city getting really serious about pollution Some large areas of enclosed controlled environment would be useful on days of highest pollution, which are in the winter when there is an inversion which keeps the cold bad air trapped by a higher layer of warm air. Such controlled environment is also enjoyable on hot and/or windy days also. The success of the enclosed shopping malls in the Denver area indicate the advisability and public popularity of such spaces. -14-

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ECONOMIC FACTORS General Comments Any development in the Platte Valley must begin almost from scratch with the basic infra structure costs of power, water and sewer lines, streets and lighting, since little of this is in place. Where it exists, it is quite fragmented. Auraria Village has two advantages primarily one ownner and there are requiring demolition. Removal of miscellaneous concrete surfacing and necessary on over half the land. in that the area has very few railroad buildings track and retaining walls is Existence of the railroad the West and Cherry Creek to for the transportation and districts. track bordering the district to the North will require bridges pedestrian links to neighboring The programatic desire for strong residential presence creates the need for some sort of incentives ar.d assistance, since developers find that residential payback in urban locations seldum, if ever can equal costs or earn revenue. It is not unrealistic to assume twice as much revenue can be earned from retail/office as with residential. It is an advantage that adjoining blocks, which have been designated Category 1, <200 to 250 t:eight) could offer opportunity for profit which would offset the lower returns that can be expected from residential. This residential is likely to be largely rental, given the described transitional nature of the probable tena n ts. Another economic problem is that even wit h the relatively low 2:1 F.A.R.,
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Auraria, which might own local colleges. cause a drain on enrollment in their A strong conlusion of this study was that there would be a need for convenient parking and that some of this parking should be public parking. Furthermore, the parking required for residential use would be an opportunity to introduce municipal assistance with the cost of this parking as an encouragement to the developer to consider substantial neighborhood development, and not just a few token units found at the top of some office building. There has been a very recent pilot study presented by The Denver Planning Dept. for possible funding sources and sequences to develop the district West of Union Station. called the Commons and the district between Cherry Creek and 16th Street, called Cherry Creek. This initial plan is included in the Appendix. A study of the plan shows a need for greatly appreciating land values and long development time lines. There have been various types of grants used for projects in Denver. Other funds have been created as matching money to the developer. Bridge financing has been approached as a separate item. In most instances, it is up to the developer to tailor his needs to fit the program. In the case of the Platte Valley, I think there will be a period of presenting the needs first and then seeking implementation methods to meet some of those needs. Development of the Platte Valley will call for all kinds of creativity. Two words associated with creativity are risk and resourcefulness. The economics working in the Platte Valley will surely involve both of these. -16-

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M A I N F A C T 0 R S I N T H E S 0 L U T I 0 N The work on this project has been closely based on the 1985-86 publication of "The Platte Valley Plan" put out by the Denver Planning Department. The directives and decisions made there, in regard to Auraria Village and its adjoining districts have been accepted and implemented. Two of the ideas stated in the introductory General Statements which I used as departure for my proposal were: "It will have an urban but somewhat different character than downtown, e.g., more"green" open space, different parking requirements, height restrictions and lower allowable densities." "This Plan attempts to strike an appropriate balance between the economic needs of various land owners and the public needs for housing, open space, and revenue-generating economic development. The overall objective is to create development in the Valley that is very different than any other development in the core of downtown or in the metropolitan area." Constraints that were accepted were the obvious physical ones caused by the railroad tracks to the West, Cherry Creek to the North and the six to eight lane Auraria Parkway to the East. Per the Platte Valley Plan, 7th Street would be the main collector street going North into the Rice Yards and to the River,and the only street to have a bridge .. 6th Street and 9th Street would be major pedestrianways with special landscaping. 9th Street would also include vehicular traffic. The Plan further states that Wynkoop should connect directly to Cherry Creek, (and into Lower Downtown) and that most of the activity should be focused on it. That activity would be professional and student supported. There should be concentrated and continuous retail on street level to support active pedestrian traffic. Parking shall be below grade or structures near the tracks. The character of the development would include the continuance and completion of the grid as shown in proposals drawn up by Downtown Denver Inc. and another presented by the Denver AlA. The scale and the use of materials would be compatible to the existing brick commercial and warehouse structures along The Auraria Parkway and in nearby Lower Downtown. Trees and other streetscape amenities would be an approved part of the planning. -17-

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T H E P L A N The goals in creating the plan were: 1. To comply with the directives of the Platte Valley Plan 2. To have a mixed use development. 3. To have the residential units be and concentration that there neighborhood identity. of sufficient number would be a definite 4. Parking would be easy to find, easy to use and hopefully less expensive than most downtown parking. 5. There would be a central focus at 9th and Wynkoop. with a fountain for 6. Other landscaping and shrubs and flowers would be a part of the surroundings. 7. Residential units would not face North. Primary windows would face East to benefit from the pleasant morning light or West for afternoon light and perhaps a view of the mountains, depending on adjoining future construction. Actually, the true orientation is either Southeast or Northwest, which offers fairly good sunlight year 'round. 8. The district would be pedestrian friendly. Please refer to the presentation drawings included Appendix in the By looking at the Plan and Section A A on sheets and 8 one can immediately see the strong residential elements oriented around the newly created residential street, Wewatta Way. The ten foot, landscaped setback, the ground level entries, slightly elevated above the sidewalk level,the staggered placement of the units and the four story height all serve to create a simple fine grained backdrop for the avenue of trees that would shelter the walkways leading through the district and either south to the 6th Street pedestrianway or north to the Cherry creek pathways or to Lower Downtown and Union Station. The six story units along the tracks are meant to act as a shielding wall to the neighborhood, with the residential units starting 25 feet above grade and some fifty feet back from the tracks. Ramping lengths and desire for simplicity required the full 300 foot use of the blocks. As designed, each of these blocks to the West of Wewatta Way contain over 100 dwelling units in what is 1.18 with -18-

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110 parking spaces available. If proximity to the railroad track should prove to be too much of a pollution or seismic problem a second scheme might be worked out to enlarge the street units to the permissible 60 dwelling units per acre and allow the rear 60 feet for parking, either on grade or structured. Covering the track has been seriously suggested for some stretches of this railroad line but would have to be considered within a context of the whole distance of the mid valley alignment. The blocks between Wynkoop and Wewatta Way are transitional, incorporating residential, office and r-etail as shown. The space taken up by the Plaza and the Tree Grove, reduces the amount of area available in the one level of below grade parking. Total parking requirements are not fully met it this block. This should be balanced out considering both sides of Wynkoop and trying to reduce the build out. It is unlikely that everything will need to be built out at six to seven stories. The section shows an attractive profile and the mix in the block seems most interesting, with the gated alleyway and the contrast between the street level 6-Plex units and the contrasting residential higher, over the office area. The blocks between Wynkoop and the Auraria Parkway are designed to be retail on the ground floor with office above and a strong orientation along Wynkoop and the Parkway.The remaining space is needed for the large parking structures indicated. With a block size or 300 by 400 feet, giving an area of 120,000 sq. feet, the basic allowable Floor Area Ratio, F.A.R., would be 240,000. sq. ft. Using the recommended ratio of one car per 500 sq. ft. gives us 480 required parking spaces. The design provides for 440 parking spaces in four levels, one below grade and three above using a simple ramp design. The suggestion would be that two levels be used for public parking and two for leased parking. The Platte Valley Plan makes mention of flexibility in parking assuming some student population without cars. This design integrates parking with the structures being served, allows for planting and bench seating in front of the planting along the sides of the structure and a fairly low height, with the top level being a roof level. If snow removal proves to be too much of a problem, this level may have to be roofed over. A twelve foot wide planting area containing trees, shrubs and some flowers separates the sidewalk from the street traffic on 9th street. Trees are regularly spaced on -19-

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Wynkoop and Wewatta Way. The Plaza utilizes a symbolic bric k wall with flat arches in memory and respect to the fine brickwork to be seen in the area. Extensive use of slump bloc k and split concrete block as well as epoxy stucco surfacing are likely to be more used than brick for cost reasons. The Tree Grove to the West of the Plaza is meant to provide an inviting shaded area to meet o r in which to rest as well as to be an attractive backdrop to the Plaza and a buffer to the residential units. The retail and commercial structures have not been designed but are only shown following the height and zero lot line guidelines. The charming variety that one experiences in Lower Downtown on Larimer street was brought about by different builders and owners each doing their own thing. The integration of parking and building in the design would require a single design/build effort and creating variety, with harmony within the block a s well as across the street and between adjoining blocks would be a great opportunity and a great challenge. Design Review is one of the mechanisms that is expected to function in the development of the Platte and under that review, I would recommend a 14 foot first floor level and attention to harmonious cornice lines along the facade and at the top of these buildings as well as building material compatability. The intention, overall is to have the building surfaces be masonry colors, beiges, tans, buffs, perhaps soft reds and siennas with the landscaping and street amenities and street activities providing the interest. Uniformity and simplicity would also make a stronger stand against the taller more dense developments which are immediately to the north and south. -20-

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L A N D U S E C A L C U L A T I 0 N S Following are the land use calculations of the three middle blocks shown in the Plan, which be typical of the possibilities and requirements of the similar blocks to the North or South. Block whose edges are: 9th and lOth Streets West Property Line and Wewatta Way Area: 172' x 300 ' = 51,600 sq. ft. = 1.18 Acres 1 Acre = 43,560 sq. ft. !Jnih J.Iwo Stories Parki!l9..l. Typical Floor: Four Floors Vestibule 65' x 300' = 19,500 sq. ft. per floor = 78,000 Each Floor 7 Units 4 Units 7 Units 26 x 28 = 728 sq.ft. 1048 sq. ft. 26 x 20 = 520 sq. ft. 6-Plexes on Wewatta Way 4 Units 20 x 34 = 680 sq. ft. 2 Units 2 Story =1360 sq. ft. Vestibule Area =1260 sq. ft. 3 Units Cafe Uni!;_ 1 1 eve 1 30 60 2 levels 30 x 40 Residential Summary Total Built sq. ft. F.A.R. 2:1 51,600 X 2 Required Parking 92 Units x 1. 5 Provided 200 78,200 sq. ft. 6,700 sq. ft. per 6-Plex 20,100 sq. ft. 1,800 sq. ft. 2,400 102,500 103,200 138 cars 110 The 110 cars would probably be allowable assuming some student tenants. 21

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Block whose edges are 9th and 10th Streets Wewatta Way and Wynkoop Area: 172' x 300' = sq. ft. = 1.18 Acres Residential Units 24 Units in 4 6-Plexes @6,700 40 Units over Retail/Office 4 Floors @ 36 x 300 Retail 1 Floor @ 65 x 300 Office 2 Floors @ 65 x 300 1 Floor @ 28 x 300 Summary Total Built sq. ft. 136,900 sq. ft. F.A.R. 2:1 51,600 X 2 Required Parking 64 Residential x 1.5 Provided sq.ft. 43,200 19,500 47,400 103,200 96 Cars 100 Office/Retail would require an additional 133 cars. There are 16 surface parking spaces in this block, the rest to be below grade. Some of the office/retail needs would have to be distributed to the other blocks or the build out will have to be reduced. 22

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Block whose edges are 9th and 10th Streets and Wynkoop and the Auraria Parkway Area: 300 x 400 = 120,000 sq. ft. To be all Retail and Office, No planned residential Retail On Wynkoop 40 x 300 x two floors Thirsty's 65 X 110 At 10th and Auraria Parkway 65 X 150 >: 2 Covered Concourse Total Retail Office On Wynkoop 40 >: 300 >: 2 75 >: 300 X 3 Thirsty's 2 X 7,150 55,900 sq. ft. At lOth and Auraria Parkway Four floors x 19,500 Summary Total Built sq. footage F.A.R. 2:1 120,000 X 2 Parking Requirements 1 car per 500 sq. ft. Provided Surface 16 Structure 440 24,000 sq.ft. 7,150 19,500 5,250 24,000 67,500 14,300 78,000 239,700 sq. ft. 240,000 479 cars 456 Built sq. footage can be adjusted or another floor added to Parking structure 23

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4URARIAVILLAGrf:' Views/ Build i ng Height: nlESIS S I TE. AUMil.IA VILLAG.I: nlHIS SITE. Dl NG_RE.QUI HEIGHT RESTFU.CJJONS.,..LOW .. n..J'U......_,......__::::_ ABLE Df:NSII.1Es..' _ ' _________ ____, ;,THIS ATTEMPTS'lO-sTRIKE APPROPRIATE BALANCrBETWEEN THE I FrOUSING , OPEN SPACE, AND R EVENUE I GENERATING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. nfE-0-vERAll O""B-nCTIVE l S TO -cR""EAIE D""EVELOPMENT IN THE-v.U r EY -THAriS VER'fDTFFERENT TH"AWANrOTHCR 1lEITlOPMENT lfrTHE CORE-oe-D OWNIOWN ... .. , -, ___ . ....__r_ ... ' =--::Space

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. : " !;: t,. -. . . IHCION.t.l HISTOA I. J:] I U IC.t.l .t.A[.t.S a • . . ,. ...• . ........ hit . ......... ...................... . .... .. -"""' ' ...... . 1 1 111111 IICt••tlflt llt t tll:t .••II lut•lll fii!UII "''' "'" '''•"'" '--/ • •• .

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L I I II I 'I I I . . . . ... 'Jj' ' 1--1--1-:., "' 'C! "' uJ <>I 1--tWE.V.. .... 'J' 'I' 'J' l t < 1 ,_ ,_ Ill ,_ 0 .... ' II ' .... '".',...... ________ .:._ __ _ ' : .... 2 ,...J.I..'' = .. ,.,T SITE : p LA.N .... 40'

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j 1J B • , F I -----I -I I ,-----.R..E:..'S I 0 'E:..H T I ,.. L----------. 1<-E: "7 l i/ e. NT l.t>-L-E:.LF-.V A T I c N --'--li. l >

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L A N D S C A P I N G Plans which are underway for the Auraria Parkway being done by BRW include canopy trees on both sides of the parkway and a median strip planted in lower shrubs. Work which is underway to restore Speer Boulevard will replace trees and shrubs which are missing and complete planting where deemed proper. Both of these landscape projects adjacent to my site are part of interest in greening up the city. which are a general immediately revitalized With such precedence, the trees and planting have been indicated along Wynkoop and Wewatta Way to be in keeping with the direction indicated in the Platte Valley Plan that these newly developed districts shall have more green and more open space than other downtown areas. Besides the two other Parks have been placed. One is a strip park between lOth and 11th Streets on Wewatta Way. This park offers a meeting place or sitting area for nearby residents and a pleasant break in the regularity of the residential facades on both sides of the street. This park would also be attractive to office workers in the next high density blocks. The other blocks in this district could contain towers for residential or hotel use. One very preliminary scheme by THK shows housing to the south of 7th which could be Category 2, ( 130 to 140 foot height.) For such high densities and in consideration of the needs of so much a block park is shown just south of 7th street. There would be almost 200 feet needed for the incline of the bridge over the tracks in that block, which compromises its use for development, somewhat. Landscaping also includes special paving, lighting, street public telephones, banners, etc. The 9th street pedestrianway is an extension of a major pedestrianway coming from the Auraria Campus. If special paving has been used in Auraria, this paving should probably be used in Auraria Village. The Plaza also should have some special paving pattern and orchestration. Other than that, I think that normal concrete sidewalks would be acceptable. As buildings go up, accent areas may be put in place. Initially, it could be placed fairly far down on the priority list. 24

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P U B L I C S C A P E ASS I STAN c E N E E D S F 0 R L A N D The degree of joint venture can best be worked out at the time of further development. Planting of the initial trees and shrubs or park development will probably not be done all at one time. One very important fact about landscaping is that after it is installed it must be watered and maintained. Although the city may carry suc h maintenance for street planting within one of their departments, it would be wise to have a supplementary Maintainance District formed when sufficient ownership within the development exists. The city should also play a part,using the design review process in approval of the ten foot landscaped setbacks on Wewatta Way and in providing data on selection and choice of tree and plant material. Work has been done for the Planning Department on specific research and recommendations for the Speer Boulevard Project. Most of this report is included in the appendix as an example of the kind of information which would be similarly needed for the districts of the Platte Valley. Municipal input on these trees and plants and their placement will assure consistency and approved design as well as use of proper vegetation which will not only be visually proper, but which will best flourish in our capricious climate. 25

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APPENDIX

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UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING Graduate Divisions 1100 Fourteenth Street Denver, Colorado 80202 (303) 629-2755 ARCHITECTURE S01 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN CROWELLICRONEN\-.'ETT ISHU'I'TLE\vORTH PROBLEM NO. S BUILDING IN THE CITY PEARL AND 16TH ISSUED: APRIL 4 W DUE: MAY 6 S DENVER BUILDING CODE: CORRIDORS: (Max. length I travel distance -from most remote point on floor) Housing: Office: Retail: EXIT WIIYI'H: 100 ft. (lSO ft. if sprinkled) 150ft. (200 ft. if sprinkled) 150 ft. (200 ft. if sprinkled (Stairs and corridors) 4411 for office, retail and housing with more than So occupants 3611 for housing with less than SO occupants DEAD END CORRIDORS: 20 ft. max. SO ft. if sprinkled OCCUPANT LOAD: HOUSING: 300 ft2 I occupant 3,000 ft2 (3 units) = 10 occupants 300 ft 2 or more exits required when occupancy exceeds 10 OFFICE: 100 ft2 I occupant 3,000 ft2 (office area) = 30 occupants 100 ft2 2 or more exits required when occupancy exceeds 30

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ARCHITECTURE 501 PROBLEM NO. 5 page 2 RETAIL: Upper floors: SO ft2 / occupant Ground level: 30 ft2 /occupant Upper: 2,000 ft2 (retail area) = 40 occupants 50 ft2 Ground: 2,000 ft2 (retail area) = 66.6 occupants 30ft2 Upper floors: 2 exits required if occupancy exceeds 10 Ground level: 2 exits required if occupancy exceeds 30 (basement also) STAIR DEI' AILS: Min. tread = lO" Min. riser = 7i" Occupancy less than 10: Min. tread = 911 Min. riser = 8" The width of landings must = the width of the stair Corridor min. ht. = 71-011 ADDITIONAL CODE INFORMATION WE MAY NEED: (SEE SUPPLEMENT: DENVER BUILDING CODE REVIEW AND UBC RESIDENTIAL C 0 DE REV IElt/ ) 1. Fire ratings on stair, wall. floor and ceiling assemblies 2. Distance between buildings Fire rattings on walls % of open area (glass) allowed 3. Stair handrail height (28" to 34") I use 32'! 4. Exit width required S. Fire ratings on structural members 6. Occupancy of $00 to 999 requires 3 exits 1. Mezzanines require 2 stairways to floor below if more than 2,000 ft2 or more than 60 ft. in any dimension.

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' I ) I ' . I : ,: : i . .' .' ' ; : . ' I .AURAR I A PARKWAY .ORBAN DESIGN STUDY 't , , A H D COUMfY 0 , 0 I H Y I I COlOIAOO I CONCEPT I . • . v: . . I H C . I 0 .... ............ ONE I A t A I I A! ,',0. .': INC. ...... WIll I A .. l A .. AS I 0 C t A 1 I I • I H C . . . . . . . .... .... ........ .... ,,_

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SPEER BOULEVARD/CHERRY CREEK PARKWAY PROPOSED STREET TREE GUIDELINES PART 1: GENERAL 1. RELATION TO GENERAL SPEER BOULEVARD/CHERRY CREEK PARKY./AY GUIDELINES: These street tree guidelines should be interpreted and appl ied in light of the . general guidelines, especially th ose guidelir1es relating to landscape des1gn . PART II: THE HISTORIC FOUNDATION 1. HISTORIC DEFINITION OF STREET TREES IN DENVER An ensemble plantinq of deciduous trees of a single species closely spaced in a row, or rows, along and parallel to a roadway so as to provide a uniformity in shape, size, texture, and co lor and thereby to define and enhance the 1 in ear quality and continuity of the streetscape. 2. HISTORIC STREET TREE ZONES ALONG SPEER BOULEVARD: There are five historic street tree zones along Speer Boulevard : ( 1) The American Elm canopy zone: American Elms were initially planted in this zone on both sides of the roadway in single or daub le rows. The Elms remain in substantial numbers. This zone is generally on the north side of Speer Boulevard from University Boulevard to Lawrence Street and on the south side of Speer Boulevard from Colfax Avenue to West 8th Avenue. This zone can be further divided into four subzones based on the time of development of each : University to Downing, Downinq to Broadway, and Colfax to Lawrence, all on the nortr, side, and tolfax to 8th, on the south side. (2) The Oak zone : This zone is on the south side, from West 8th Avenue to Logan Street. Oaks were in itially planLed here in single rows and remain in the median in substantial numbers . The line of Bur Oaks is clear between 8th and Brcadway. The p 1anting of P.ed Oak between Broadway and Logan is mixed with a deciduous forest planting and is thus less precise. (3) The Forest Drive zone : St:-eet trees not historically been planted in this zone which extends, on south side, oenerally from Looan Street to Downing Street Parkway. " .. (4) The mixed zone: American ::l ms , Silver f"'lacd es , and Green Asr1 we re initially plantej in this zone from 3oulevc:•d to Irving Street. (5) The bc:l ance of Speer ihis : or 1 e e itr1e! hcSJ'et to be Po ro 'r or c .:::o.:::oc ih•c-:-o od c: ,or; . or no tO.l9ha_ L ' ____ ....... -.... on_ -> .... en _ ,rom Unn _ , s,ty Boulevard to Colorado 5oulevar,.; ( ::a=t 1st . t . v:;-nue), f1om Lawrence Str eet to i="ederal Boulevard on the s ide, and f:orn Federal Boulevard into downtown to Colfax on the south side.

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3. HISTORIC STREE TREES PLANTED Ohl SPEER BOULEVARD: American Elm Bur Oak Red Oak Silver Poplar Silver Maple Green Ash Appr-oximate Earliest Planting Date 1910 19 18 1918 1 9 I 0 (none extant) 190 0 1900 4 . REPRESENTATIVE VARIETIES OF STREET TREES USED ON OTHC:R HISTORIC PARKWAYS AND BOULEVARDS IN DEI...JVER: The followino are representative varieties of street trees used on other historic parkways and bouievards in Denver . Additional varieties were used at other locations. Hence, this list is not exhaustive of trte historic street tree va;ieties used in Denver . Rock Elm Green Ash Honey Locust Silver Maple Hackberry Sycamore Plains Cottonwood European Linden American Elm Locat ion anc Aoo:oxirnate Date of Earliest Plant ina Univ . Blvd . Univ . Blvd . ( 1916) _ Univ . Blvd. W . 46th Ave . ( 1920) Monaco ( 1 920) Univ. Blvd. S. Mar ion (1913) S . Marion ( 1 9 12) W . 46th Franklin ( 1 902) in Cheesman Park E. 17th ( 1913) Monaco ( 1 9 1 0) Wi 11 i ams ( 1913) E.6th(1910) Montview ( i 906) Univ . Blvd _ ( 1 908) Forest (1913) 6. SPACING: Street trees were, historically, planted as close cs poss i b l e to each other, in ensemble, rather than as speci men trees . Historically , street trees were spaced uniformly alonq the roadway and were pian tej sufficiently far back from the curb to avoid any sigr,t line orob 1em (s ; gr , t line problems have subsequently arisen from cutting the ro21dwc:ys c ! Js-2: to the lines of trees) . The planting distance from tfte curb h2s depending on the size of the p2wkino or median, p l acement o f s lde '.v:::lk, etc. Representative center spacing .... of steet trees along Speer 5ou 1 e v 3r d and along other historic Denver parkway::. and boulevards is as fol l ows : Location Rock Elm Univ . Blvd . ') C + c:; . ',..- • . enLer _pacJno f rom tree t o ::--ee c enter) 31.

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Green Ash Honey Locust Bur Oak American Elm Silver Maple Hackberry Sycamore European Linden Univ. Blvd . Univ. Blvd. Monaco Speer Blvd . Univ . Blvd . Williams St. Speer Blvd . E. 6th Ave. Monaco E . 17th Ave. Montview Speer Blvd . S . Marion S. Marion Frank.lin (in Cheesman Park) 30"-36' 30'32' 32' (double row paired centers) 31'32' 30'32' 20'/40' (doujle row alternate centers) 25' (at Vine ) 40 ' (at 9th) 48' (at Loga n , alternat ing) 40'-42' 40'-42' 40'-42' 40'-42' 16'18' 18'19' 38 ' 40' 40' (double row paire d centers) 6 . UNIFORMITY: The historic street tree p lantings in Denver r ,ave uti l ized single species for entire parkways (e.g. the north side of Speer Boulevard) or species changing every few blocks (e. g . University Boulevard), thereby providing a uniformity of size, shape, texture, and color. Alternating species were only planted wr1en one tree was a short 1 ived nurse tree and the other was a long lived shade tree (e.g. the alternatinq Silver Poplars and American Elms on Speer 3oulevard and on Montview Boulevard) . PART Ill: INVENTORY AND MAINTENANCE: It is recommended that the following steps be taken before site and pianting plans are prepared for Speer Boulevard street trees: A Develop an inventory of street trees currently in place. Such an inventory should inc lude at least the following information. l. Location 2 . Species 3 . Size (soread and caliper) 4. Evaluation of condition 5 . Value B . Develop a plan for the oroper maintena nce of both existino a n d ant l .Clp::;tod (rle'1'lV p lant.o'rij rro.oc: Surh a p1ar-shoulo ' . ._ u--, , Vlo , 1 a ! ... __ , o..l _ ......... ._.___ '-" 1 ,, I include at le21st the followinc: i. Water2 . Dr21!"'.2o e ::. Aeration (if compaction is a problem) 4. ProDer pruning ...., Pest m a n agement and disease control In connect ion w itr1 the above , it shou ld be ;Joted t hat the primary cause of

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stress to urban trees is lack of water. The second most significant factor in urban tree stress is soil compaction (by people, machines, and vehicles). Other key factors which negatively impact urban street trees include street widening and road cuts; pavement; trenching for utility lines, sprinkler systems, etc. ; automobile ac cidents; "lawn mower impactus"; pollution; msects; and disease. Also in connection with the above, it is recommended that site and planting plans for Spee r Boulevard street trees take into account the data developed for tr1e inventory and for the maintenance plan called for above. PART IV: RECOMMENDED PALETTE FOR THE REPLANTING OF SPEER BOULEVARD STREET TREES A THE AMERICAN ELM CANOPY ZONE: Under current circumstances, American Elms are not an appropriate street tree replacement. However, the size and canopy qualitv of the American Elms st"1ouid be approximated to the extent possible. .t..ccordinaly, the following are recornmeded for street tree replacements in this zone: Hackberry Summit Ash B. THE OAK ZONE: In light of the early plant ina of Oaks, the following Oaks are recommended for planting In this zone, both as street trees and as a part of the deciduous background forest: Bur Oak Red Oak Enol ish Oak Scarlet Oak Swamp White Oak C. THE FOREST DRIVE All replanting should be consistent with the historic planting. Hence, no street trees should be planted in this zone . however, tr1at to tr1e extent tr.at backoround evergreen forest is replaced, it shouid be replacej with"'Spruce if tne space is to be heavily irriqatej and PinE if the space is not to be heavily irrigated. In addition, P ine should planted only when there is good drainage. D . THE 111XED Several varieties of street trees wete planted, and exist, in trtis zone . Completion of the pianting or replanting should follow the same pattern. The follow ing would be appropriate: • Summit Ash

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Autumn Pu1p l e Asr1 Marsha 11 Seed! ess A.sh Silver Linden Bigleaf Linden Liftleleaf Linden American Linden Honey Locust (so 1 onq as tr1e avera 11 number is limited) -I L. .. ..... I 0 I Oak (anv of the varieties listed under I ) o. above . Turkisrt Hazel E. THE ZOtE: The choice and planting of street trees in this zone srJould, to the extent possible, rnirror the classic canopy of the historic canopy zone . Trte choice oi trees wi I l in part depend on tr1e confines of the spa ce, thus: For spacious areas, any of tr1e street trees 1 is ted under subpa!aoraphs A, B., and C. above would be appropri'"'ate . For tiqrrt ar eas, wrrere tr1ere is no wall:wav, the foilowino additional large trees would be appropriate: A.mur Cork Tree Catal!:la Kentucky Coffeetree Ye !low Buckeye Horse Chestnut For tioht ar eas, wr1etrler or not there a waH:vJav. trte foliowincJ small trees would I • oJ be approp riate: Hawthorn Russian OJ ive Ohio Buck eye r . sc.A.CiNG Or TRE=:S: The outiined in trrese quidelines can be act"t ievec bv fo1 :''-'"ing the f o!lowinc Q1Jideline:; for trle . r . .. , . -' soac 1no o , sF eeL trees: I -::.rn.::. •:-c.::.c -::J, ::-,-!11 • • -J-..1 ---.... --:)0'-35 cerr:er s 35'-40' centers 25'30' centers

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SPEER BOULEVARD/CHERRY CREEK PARKWAY PROPOSED AND SHRUB GUIDELINES I. RELATION TO SDEER BOULEVAK.AD/CHERRY CREEK PARKWAY These vine anc shrub guidelines should be interpreted and applied in ligr,t of tr1e gene:-al especially those guidelines relating to l andscape desig n . 2 . THE HISTORIC Planting should be designed and plant material should be selected to reinforce (by maintenance, rehabilitation, replacement, and addition) the historic planting desigr:s and the historic plant material (including and material in and designs and material which was once in place). 3 . WHICH DO CURRENTLY H:STOR!C L : fj .ACY: In u nplanted zones, and in zones whicr: de: not r:::flect t:Oe historic legacy of the resource, tr1e development of spe : i f l c pl anting desjgns end t h e selection of specific plant materials should reenforce the historic f o undation of the Parkway . However, tr1ese specific plans wiil have to a wait the deve loprnent of avera 11 design . 4. A l\)D SHRUBS: The followino shrub3 and vines are rec:ornrnendej f o r planting (some of whicr, have alread y been intioduced into the Par k way plantings) : VINES Clematis Paniculata Al(ebia Boston Ivy Japanese Honeysuck J e Virginia Cr-eeper SHRUBS (a 11 recomrne: 1dec, iv-2 s:)e : : -2s :::ei:-: c notedwithan*) Shrub Rose-Rosa Rub if() 1 i a Alpine Currant Lilac-Persian Dogwood-Red ?: American Crant,erry 5\..!sh SpireaVanHout t i Spirea-Prunif o 1 ia Silver Buffalo Berry"' Rocky Mountain Bircr1 (large)* Ginnala f""iaple Viburnu:-n-Lanta:-121 Vib urnum-Arro\vwood Sane U1erry* Potent i 11 a-Jac:kaman Glossv Buckthorne J Three Leaf Sumac* Barberry

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)U) I:.A.UUSS CALKINS, KRAMER, GRIMSHAW & HARRING EDWA.MD .J. BUI:S'ZJ'rfEJt JAMES St:Hvt:."" HOUY I . HOLDER IC1JoC J . Srn:.H L WAl..J..ACE U , P . C . . L. K.IKJIY A LAW PARTNERSHIP INCLUDING PROFESSIONAL CORPORATIOSS SUITE 3800 TEO R . BM.1GIIT RONOA L. SA/'oo' DQ.l.'IST HAlt IC A. NAU t:AlJ V1JtCINLA HOSt:S DALTON KARYJAXE SlHMONS 5USAH E . 8 U MC1t llAHl>AU. H . uvtHGSTOH KJCHAI:L T , RAYMOND GARY R . WKTT'!: SUSA.H G . KAl. "fES JO,.,Nt H . S1'1\U...H. K.AntU:ES A. LOHO I . BAIL'\", JM . • P . C . nrrow . r.c . JAH.ES 8 . BOHCEL f F . Hc:.III"EJSH. P . C . a . SCK.Jt0DER. r . C . J . KAJUUNG .VAJIISCOY'K. ONE UNITED BA.."lK CENTER 1700 LINCOLN STREET DENVER, COLORADO 80203 I.At."MA .l.f. CREl.I:Y HA14CY L. BliCUAHA/4 JAJof!! T , HAMES CKRISTOrtfJ:R R. HER..H.AHN B.t\HLCT .I. &uurY U I E . DEACON AD ICr.HOOLE LANGDON J . JOMCEHSEH HA.R.K G . WESTON ArKIL I'IE.."f"N'rn' STOH'E JOHH R , HOOR.. D L S KZAJlEJt WA. DALTON &C&.ST!:ll'( TELEPHONE (303) 839 {TitL&COPJEJl: T . SHALI'J'rl S\ILUVAH CK.AJU..1! 5 e . UECtn' Ga.z.coRY S . PA1"RJC I B . Al.JCUSTlHJI! D."JU.L/r( E SlSN'I!ROS KARYAH'N H . HcGEADY JCJ: H\IJT S t: , ""OIIITON .COOl :oU'NSL LP, K..JII.AH"!.R T . CIUHSHAW L E . lli:IDY LE.E KUSL&.R MEMORANDUM TO: Central Platte Valley Development Committee FROM: Institutional Finance Subcommittee DATE: March 25, 1987 RE: Summary of Financing Test Case At the adoption of the Comprehensive Plan Amendment in August, 1986, the CPV Committee decided that a working subcommittee be formed to review and develop possible financial arrangements for application in the Platte Valley, intending to assist in defraying some of the costs of implementing the Plan. It is intended that the entire Committee review the selected possibilities and, if necessary, recommend changes before it goes for pqblic review to the Planning Board, City Council and any other appropriate governmental agencies. The Subcommittee consisted of: Bill Lamont, Planning Office Peter Neukirch, Mile-Hi Land Associates John Moye, DURA Board Member David Steele and Alan Durrant, DRGW/Anschutz Lloyd Goff, Platte Valley Landowners Assn. Thomas Ragonetti, WSJV and DUT Fred Fisher, Glacier Park (Councilwoman Stephanie Foote acted in a coordinating role, but did not participate in the drafting of this effort.) Considerable assistance was also provided by Kirchner Moore and Company through James Kreidle and Doug Houston, Mr. Neukirch's offices through Martin Zemcek, and the City through Mr. Robert Cornwell. NOTE: The attached preliminary draft of a Central Platte Valley test case is simply one scenario developed for one area of the Platte Valley. It is intended to be generic in its form and application, and the adoption of this scenario for any one area of the Platte Valley will not preclude, but rather may enhance the financial arrangements for other areas the Valley

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as well as their implementation. The particular development area chosen was selected by virtue of the maturity of the financial information available with respect to development costs and projected development activity. The attachment consists of two distinct parts. (1) A memorandum outlining the steps of analysis taken and conclusions made; (2) Three Exhibits: (a) Schedule A, which outlines projected assessed valuation increases and potential tax revenues to be generated from both a 30 and 96 mill levy application; (b) Schedule B, setting forth absorption estimations and projections generated by Mile-Hi Land Associates, as well as sales tax receipt projections generated based on assumptions set forth therein; (c) An infrastructure construction schedule reflecting two phases of construction in 1989 and 1994. The attachment addresses issues that require discussion and agreement on both philosophical and practical grounds before implementation may occur. It assumes that certain policies will be adopted and that certain will be in place. The Subcommittee has come to no conclusion that these steps will in fact occur, though it recommends through this submittal that they do occur.

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PRELIMINARY DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES ONLY CENTRAL PLATTE VALLEY FINANCING TEST CASE: (Cherry Creek, OUT, Denver Commons) The following is an analysis, for review and discussion by the full CPV Committee, of one method of financing approximately $49 million in improvements in a projected first development area of the Central Platte Valley. It is suggested that financing be shared by a special district to be formed by the principal developers in this first project area and, if it deems it appropriate, the Denver Urban Renewal Authority which has tax increment financing capability. Participation by others is also contemplated. In presenting this description, we have assumed agreement as to timing of and cost-sharing for the improvements discussed. Whatever may be said concerning the feasibility of moving forward with this or any other financing arrangement, all such arrangements are driven by actual development. Accordingly, we have assumed the presence of a development market as well. Finally, what follows requires consideration, through substantial review processes, by certain governmental and quasi-governmental entities. Nevertheless what is presented is a viable and flexible arrangement capable of meeting the initial needs of the CPV. I. An analysis has been done of the current and expected assessed value relating to 75 acres in the CPV, located just west of and including the Denver Union Terminal. (See Schedule A). A. 1988 assessed value is projected to be $65,325, or $871 per acre. B. 1992 assessed value is projected to be $2,802,000 or $22,000 per acre, based on comparisons of raw, developable ground in the Denver Technological Center. c. 2015 assessed value is projected to be $55.2 million. 1. Based on absorption schedules prepared by Mile High Land Associates. (See Schedule B). II. An analysis has been done to determine what improvements are necessary to open up this 75 acre t ract. (See Schedule C) . A. Cost is $49 million over 10 years. B. Cost in first 3 years (excluding contributions intended to be generated only from other sources,) is approximately $11 million for the bare essentials.

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III. Two analyses have been prepared to demonstrate the financing capabilities of a special district, and tax increment financing. A. We have assumed that the mill levy from sources other than the proposed special district will remain at its current level of 96. B. We have assumed that "market tolerance" will allow an additional 35 mills on this 75 acres; 30 for debt service and 5 mills for administration. C. See Schedule A. IV. Financial Conclusions. A. Tax Increment Financing ("TIF") generates significant revenue: 1. Only after initial construction of infrastructure and developer improvements; and 2. Not until 1993. B. To start the increases in assessed value to make TIF an option, other financing mechanisms are necessary to "up front" the public improvements. V. Test Case. A. Special district financing: 1. With appropriate credit enhancements, a special district can finance and build the first $11 million in improvements. 2. 30 mills does not, however, cover the debt service until the next century. B. Solutions to this dilemma are: 1. A considerably higher mill levy, one at which "market tolerance" is exhausted; 2. Substantial developer contributions to debt service for admittedly "public improvements"; 3. Contribution by the City; 2 -

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4. Appropriately timed refinancings and, when viable, cost sharing by D.U.R.A. through TIF, which draws revenues through taxation of a slightly larger parcel of ground, a higher mill levy, and sales tax TIF revenues. C. Result: 1. Special District Bond Issue No. 1 (1989). A $16 million general obligation bond issue by a special district encompassing the 75 acre tract, to pay all start-up infrastructure costs, including those intended to be paid for, ultimately, through tax increment financing by the public. a. Short-term (5 year) bonds, secured by a developer letter of credit and carried by the developers for the 5 year term. b. Generates $11.3 million plus all costs of issuance. c. To be refunded through a cooperative financing by the special district and, presumably, D.U.R. A . 2. Special District Bond Issue No. 2 (1994). A $15.2 million general obligation bond issue of the special district in 1994 intended to refund -in part -the 1989 issue and to fund an additional $3.1 million for new projects in Phase II (See Schedule C) . a. 20-year permanent bond issues. b. Developer carried for approximately 6 years. 3. Tax Increment Bond Issue No. 1 (1994). An $18.4 million bond issue, intended to be issued by D.U.R.A., generating $3.7 million to pay the special district for D.U.R.A.'s share of the originally fund improvements, $7.2 million for new 3 -

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Phase II projects, and $4.8 million to pay its share of other public funds that have been advanced pursuant to agreement by the City or other agencies for Phase I costs (See Schedule C) . 4. Tax Increment Financing Bond Issue No. 2 (1997). An additional $8.7 million in new funds for additional projects unspecified at this time. VI. Beginning steps. A. Approval of the concept by the full CPV Committee and, ultimately, the City. B. Designation, after appropriate review, of an urban renewal area by D.U.R.A. 1. Adoption of an urban renewal plan, designating use of tax-increment financing, b y D.U.R.A . 2. Approval of urban renewal plan by City. c. Formation of special district. D. Pre-bond issue agreements: 1. Covering all of the inter-relationships proposed in Schedule C. 2. Between: a. Developer -City. b. Developer D.U.R.A. c. Special district D . U.R.A . d. Special district -developer. e. Others; (1) Federal government. (2) RTD. (3) Highway Department. 4 -

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SCHEDULE A-1 CE."NTRAL PLATTE VALLEY: CHERRY CREEK, DUT, AND DENVER COMMONS PROJECT AREA Special District Revenue Projection.s A REVENUE COLLECTION YEAR 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 RAILROAD LAND AVAILABLE FOR OEVELOPHEHf (ACRES) 75.00 55.00 53.00 53.00 52.00 49.00 47.00 45.00 45.00 40.00 39.00 37.00 37.00 35.00 33.00 30.00 28.00 26.00 23.00 20.00 16.00 13.00 9.00 7 .00 4 .00 3.00 2.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 Column Notes c ASSESSED VALUA f ION PER ACRE 871 871 871 871 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 Test C8.3e: J/1.0/87 D E F RAILROAD LAND HEW ASSESSED TOTAL ASSESSED VALUATIO N FROH ASSESSED VALUATION DEVELOPHEHT VALUATION 65,325 47,905 46,163 46' 163 1' 144 '000 l, 078 '000 l, 034 '000 990,000 990,000 880,000 858,000 814,000 814,000 770,000 726' 000 660,000 616,000 572' 000 506,000 440,000 352,000 286,000 198,000 154,000 88,000 66,000 44,000 0 0 0 I, 658' 000 U28,ooo 9,398,000 9,398,000 12,810,000 13,980,000 13,980,000 16' 174,000 18,368,000 21,780,000 25,680,000 28,800,000 30,094,000 37,335,000 38,455,000 39,605.000 40,005,000 42,315,000 44,381.000 47,666.000 50,591,000 53,321,000 55,271,000 56,734,000 58,050.000 65,325 4 7. '}05 46' 163 46.16.3 2,802,000 5,406,000 10,432,000 10,388,000 Li, 800,000 14,860,000 14.838.000 16 ''}88' 000 1'},182,000 22,550,000 26.406,000 29,460,000 30,710.000 35.053,000 37,841,000 38,895,000 39,957,000 42,513,000 44,535,000 47' 754,000 50,657,000 53,365,000 55,271,000 56,734,000 58,050,000 A. Year revenue actually collected and available. 6 H SPECIAL DISTRICT O!SfR!Cf PROPERf'f fAX HILL .LEVY REVENUE 0 30 .JO .30 30 30 .30 .30 30 .30 30 30 30 .JO 30 3 0 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 3 0 30 3 0 3 0 0 1.m I. 385 1,385 34,060 162' 180 312,960 311,640 414,000 445.800 445,140 509,640 575,460 676,500 7?2,180 383,800 '?21 ,300 1. OS 1. S'JO 1.135,230 1.166.850 1.198' 710 1 .208,730 1.275,39 0 l, 336.050 1,432,620 1,519,710 1. 600' 950 1 '658' 130 1,?02.020 1,741 '500 24,566,347 Preliminary Drah For Dbct.J.:!I3ioo Purposes Only B. MHLA, DUT, and BN controlled developable land in the Cherry Creek and 16th-20th Commons areas. 75 acres assumed beginning total. Developable land decreases based upon MHLA absorption schedule. C. From MHLA data: 1988-1991 Assessed as RR $871/acre; 1990 on Improved $22,000/acre, based on Denver Tech Center comparables. E. From Development and Projected Assessed Valuation schedule provided by MHLA (attached), for development of MHLA and DUT land in Cherry Creek and 16th-20th Com mons areas. G. Assumed Special District Levy of 30 mills. In 1991, it is estimated that an average acre of developable land in the CPV will carry an assessed value of $22,000, which at a one mill levy generates $22.00 of annual property tax revenue. H. Total District property tax revenues available for debt service.

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SCHEDULE A-2 Cl:!NTRAL PLATTE VALLEY: CHERRY CREEK, DUT, AND DENVER COMMONS PROJECT AREA Tax Increment Revenue Projections Test C43e: J/20/87 Preliminary Draft For Discussion AA 88 cc DO EE FF 66 HH II Pu.rposes Only TIF AREA PROJECTED REVENUE ASSESSED VALUE ASSESSED VALU TOTAL ASSESSED VALUE TIF SALES TAX TOTAL COLLECTION OF & EXISTING PROPASSESSED VALUE !HCREHENT OVER TOTAL PROPERfY TAX REVENUES TIF YEAR RAILROAD PROP. TlF AREA IN TIF AREA 612431465 IHLL LEVY REVENUES (BASE : 0) REVENUES ----------------------------------------------........................... ----------............................. .. .......................... 1988 651325 611781140 612431465 0 0 0 0 0 l'.l89 471?05 61 1781140 6,2261045 (171420) % (1.672) 0 ( 11672) 1990 461163 617951954 61842.117 5981652 96 57 1m 0 1991 461 163 714751549 7,521.712 I. 278.247 % 122.712 262.500 ml212 1992 218021000 812231104 II. 025 4.781.639 % 4591037 5251000 98410.37 1993 5,406,000 8,387,566 1317931566 71550.101 % 724.810 1,0501000 1994 1014321000 815551318 1819871318 12.7431853 96 I. 0501000 212731410 1995 10,3881000 81726,424 19,1141424 1218701'}5? 96 11235.612 I. 0501000 212851612 1996 1318001000 819001953 22,7001953 1614571488 96 1,57?1919 I. 050.000 21h29.919 1997 141860,000 910781972 2319381972 l7 96 11698,769 1.0501000 21748176'} 1998 14,838,000 912601551 2410981551 1718551086 96 1.7141088 I. 0501000 217641088 1999 1619881000 91445,762 26' 433,762 201 190 t 2'}7 % 1,938,269 1,050.000 2.?88126' } 2000 1911821000 916341677 28,816,677 2215731212 96 2,1671028 1 .0501000 3,217 '028 2001 221550,000 9,8271371 32,377,371 2611331'}06 96 2.5081855 I. 0501000 31558,855 2002 26,4061000 10,023,918 3614291918 3011861453 96 218971100 1.443.750 .t,.J411650 2003 29,460,000 101224,397 39,684,397 3314401932 '}6 3,210.329 11443,750 t,654,079 2004 30,7101000 10,428,885 41,1381885 34,895,420 96 3,349,%0 1,3371500 51187,460 2005 35,053,000 1016371462 45,690,462 3914461?97 96 J 17861'.ll2 I. 8371500 516241412 2006 37,841,000 1018501212 481691.212 421H71747 96 4.0741984 1,837. 500 51912,484 2007 38,895,000 lll067 ,216 49,962,216 4317181751 % 4,197,000 118371500 61034,500 2008 391957,000 11 '288' 560 5112451560 4510021095 96 41320,201 213621500 61682.701 2009 40' 291 '000 11,514,331 51,805,331 451561.866 96 21362.500 6,736,439 2010 42,513,000 1l '744 ,618 54,257,618 4810141153 96 416091359 21.362.500 6 1971, 85' } 2011 44 '535 ,000 1119791510 5615141510 so 1271,045 96 41326,020 2,362.500 7,1881520 2012 47,7541000 121219,100 59,9731100 53172916.35 % 5.1581045 2.3621500 71520.545 2013 50,6571000 12,463,482 63' 1201482 5618771017 96 51 460,194 21362,500 713221694 2014 531365,000 121712,752 661077,752 591834,287 96 51744,092 213621500 811061592 2015 55,271,000 12,967,007 681238,007 61,9941542 96 51951,476 21362,500 813131976 2016 56,7341000 13,226,347 6919601347 63,716.882 96 611161821 21362.500 814791321 2017 58,0501000 13,490,874 71,5401874 651297,409 9 6 612681551 2.362,500 ------------------------------1331874,089 4411001000 1771974108'} Column Notes AA. Year in which revenue actually collected and available. 88. Projected total AV from development of MHLA and OUT land in the Cherry Creek and 16th20th Commons areas (from Column F of District projections). CC. Assessed value of all non-MHLA/DU'T property in the Cherry Creek and 16th-20th Com mons areas. 1988 and 1989 show no increase over 1987 actual of S6,178,140; in 1990, 1991, and 1992, AV is increased 10%/year and from 1993 on, A V is increased 2%/year to reflect increased property values and renovation stimulated by MHLA and OUT development. EE. Assumes TIF area formed in 1988 which freezes AV 1988 base year valuation. 'TIF area covers Cherry Creek, 16th-20th Commons, DUT, and portion of 16th Street extended to Blake. FF. Current total levy from all taxing bodies, excluding proposed special district. HH. Projected tax increment sales tax revenues from Sales Tax Schedule (attached). II. Total TIF pledged revenues available for debt service.

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SCHEDULE B-1 CENTRAL PLATTE VALLEY: CHERRY CREEK, DUT, AND DENVER COMMONS PROJECT AREA DEVELOPMENT AND ASSESSED VALUATION Total Abeorptlon 6,500,000 Square Feet Mareh 17, 1987 Drah For DlliC.-oG Pwe-Only (In llo..6a-ds of S;.oare Feet) (In llo..6a-ds of SQ."' Feet) (Per 5Q.rl! foot) (In llo..6a-ds of lhllars) I &Jfldirl;i I D.U. T. TOTAL CfFICI I!AIL HlTa OllfP,Il6 CfFICI lfTAIL IIlla 0llfJ1./!6 CfFICI I!AIL HlTa lfFICI I!AIL HJTa OTIR,Il6 TOTAL 19'10 1991 1992 1993 199l 199S 1996 1991 I!S8 1!199 2000 2001 2001 200) 2004 1005 2006 2001 2008 2009 2010 2011 101 1 lOll 1011 1JI5 2016 1011 2018 2019 10 II 11 13 II IS 16 ll 18 19 20 21 22 23 21 15 n 21 18 25 lO 1, 2 3, I s. 6 10 II 12 1l II IS, 16 11. II 19 20. 21 21 n . 21 2S, 26 11.26 25 JO ll 3 i 33 1 Low & 1 Mid Jlise nn leta il Mid Jlise I Point !Goer' I Mid Rise I M>int lGoer' M1xa::l Lise I I Mid Rise I M id Rise Mi> & feu il 100 UJs 1011.!..5 90 [Us !. ,.....,.. 90 UJs !. Jlise 90 [lJs & ,._. II"""" 11""" IT"""" I Kid Jlise i R1sc Source: Mile lligh !.and Associates Projection 3/17/87 110 320 S20 0 350 120 0 225 225 3SO coo l10 ISO ISO 310 280 200 100 290 26S 390 lOO 280 200 ISO 1 110 120 S20 0 350 120 D 225 22S 350 coo )20 15 ISO m 0 200 115 300 300 280 200 ISO !j) 6.SOO uoo 0 200 0 15 o 15 0 100 0 150 280 100 100 '10 90 90 150 110 290 110 110 1,1i0 1,280 1,280 1,505 1,130 2,080 2,110 2 ,800 2,115 3,325 3 ,5M 3,560 3,560 3 ,560 J , J&o 3 , 935 1 ,235 1,535 1 ,8lS S,OI5 S,I6S S ,lOO 5 ,300 S ,JOO S ,JOO 5,300 S.JOO 200 200 200. 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 215 215 350 350 ISO ISO ISO 150 ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO 280 3!0 180 SJO 6M 150 JSO 150 JSO 1SO JSO 150 150 150 150 150 IUS $1. so 18.50 IUS 11. SO 18.50 IUS $1.50 $8.50 IUS 11.50 18.50 IUS SJ.SO 18.50 sus 11.50 18.50 sus 11.50 18.50 sus $1.50 18.50 sus 1 1 .50 18.50 sus 11. so 18. 50 sus S1. 50 S8. 50 SUS Sl.SO 18.50 SU5 Sl.SO 18.50 sus !1.5 0 !8.50 IUS suo s a . so SUS Sl.SO !8.50 sus 11-50 18.50 sus S1.50 ss.so sus Sl. 50 18. so sus !1.50 1 8 .50 sus Sl. 50 18.50 sus !1.50 18. so sus 11.50 1 8 .50 sus 11.50 $8.50 sus suo se. so sus 11.50 s uo sus suo se.so SUS Sl.SO SS.SO sus 11. so S 8 . 50 SUS S1.SO 18.50 $4.00 $4.00 $4.00 $4.00 $4.00 suo $4.00 sc.oo $4.00 suo s.:.oo $4.00 $4.00 $4.00 $1.00 $1.00 $1.00 $-:.00 s.:.oo $4.00 1-t.OO $1.()(, $-:.00 $1.00 $4.00 Sl,658 $2,828 $1,898 $1.898 $11,310 Sl2,180 Sl2,180 S11.611 Sl6,868 S20,280 S 1 1,180 S21,JOO 128,031 Sl2.119 131,110 SJ.I,110 UUIO UUIO SJ6,660 138.366 SJ 1,291 14U16 $16,'1H SJ8.896 sso . m S51,61S I S 1.615 151.615 151,615 151,615 so 11.500 11.500 Sl,500 11,500 11,500 Sl,500 11.500 11.500 11.500 11.500 SI.SOO 12.063 12,063 12.625 12,625 Sl.J15 $3,)15 13.315 11,315 1 1.315 13,315 13.315 S3.J15 S3,J15 13.315 13.315 13.315 Sl.l1S Sl.315 1911,251 11l.12S so so so so so so so so so so so so so so so so so so so so so so so so s o so so so so so so so so so so so so so so so so so so so so $1,120 SI,S20 I 1.910 12,280 !1_6.(0 1 3 ,000 Sl.OOO Sl,OOO l l .OOC S 3 .00G I ).C!Xi S 3 .000 1 3 .000 13.000 13.00: 11.658 SJ ,32! $9.)98 S9.398 Sl2,110 Ill. 980 113.980 116,111 118.l68 121.180 125, 680 128.800 Sl0.091 131.111 Sl1,JJS $38,155 1:19.605 IJ0,005 SJ2.JIS 111.381 loll .666 ISO.S!I ISJ.l11 155.211 150. 1ll 158,050 sse.050 158,050 SSS.050 11.050 so m .cso S I.CJUS6

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SCHEDULE B-2 CENTRAL PLA ITE VALLEY CHERRY CREEK, DUT, AND DENVER COMMONS PROJECT AREA Tax Increment Sales Tax Projections Test Case: 3/20/87 Prelim i nary Draft For Purpoees Only A B c D E SOUARE FEfT SAlES/ TOTAl CITY SAlES CITY SAlES YEAR IH SAlES FOOl SAlES TAX WE TAX REVS ---------------------------.................... -------------------J9ij8 0 ISO 0 3 .50% 0 I Q99 0 ISO 0 3 .SOI 0 1990 0 150 0 J .SO% 0 1991 so,ooo ISO 7,SOO,OOO 3 .SO% 262,SOO 1992 100,000 ISO 15.000,000 3 .50% 52S,OOO 1993 200,000 ISO 30,000,000 3 .SO% l,OSO ,000 1994 200,000 ISO 30,000,000 3 .50% I,OSO,OOO !99S 200,000 ISO 30,000,000 3 .SO% I ,OSO,OOO 1996 200,000 ISO 30,000,000 3 .SOI I ,OSO,OOO 1997 200,000 ISO 30,000,000 3 .50% I. 050' 000 1998 200,000 ISO 30,000,000 3 . 50% I ,OSO,OOO 1999 200,000 ISO 30,000,000 3.50% I ,OSO,OOO 2000 200,000 ISO 30,000,000 3 .SO% l,OSO ,000 2001 200,000 150 30,000,000 3 .SO% I, OSO, 000 2002 27S,OOO ISO H ,250,000 3.50 % 1, H3, 750 2003 275,000 ISO 41,250,000 3.50% I ,H3,750 2004 350,000 ISO 52,SOO,OOO 3 .50% 1,337,SOO 2005 350,000 ISO 52,500,000 3 . 50% 1,837,SOO 2006 350,000 ISO 52,500,000 3.501 1,337' 500 2007 350,000 ISO 52,500,000 3.50% 1, 837 I SOD 2008 450,000 ISO 67,500,000 3.50% 2,3o2,SOO 2009 450,000 ISO 67,SOO,OOO 3 .50% 2,362,500 2010 4SO,OOO ISO 67,500,000 3 .50% 2,362,500 2011 450,000 ISO 67,500,000 3 .SOI 2,362,SOO 2012 450,000 ISO 67,SOO,OOO 3 .SO% 2,362,500 2013 450,000 ISO 67,500,000 3 .SOI 2,362,500 2014 4SO,OOO ISO 67,500,000 3 . 50% 2,362,SOO 2015 450,000 ISO 67,SOO,OOO .i.SOI 2,362.500 2016 450,000 ISO 67,500,000 3 .50% 2,362,500 2017 450,000 . ISO 67,SOO,OOO j _SOI 2,362.SOO ----------H, 100,000 Column Notes A. From MHLA Absorption Schedule dated 3/17/87; 1991, 1992, 1993 adjusted for three-year phase in of leases. B. Assumed sales/SF of $150. D. City of Denver sales tax rate. E. Total incremental sales tax revenues. Assumes no existing sales tax base revenues at time TIF base is frozen.

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CENTRAL PLATTE VALLEY: CHERRY CREEK, DUT, AND COMMONS PROJECT AREA Test Case 3/20/87 SOURCE OF FUNDS PRASE I INFRASTRUCTURE SCHEDULE Projects Roads -0 Wewatta, 15th to 18th 0 16th St., Alake to Delgany 0 18th St., Wewatta to Chestnut Total Roads Amenities 0 Commons Park-Land Acquisition 0 Commons Park&. Plaza Improvement 0 Wewatta Amenities, 15th to 18th 0 Temporary Amenities-1st Phase Total Amenities Utilities 0 North Overlot Grading-1st Phase 0 Com mons Storm Ora inage 0 Commons Sewer 0 Commons & Cherry Crk Wttter-1st Phase 0 North Electric &. Telephone Trunks Tolttl Utilities Other 0 Main Line Land Cost 0 Track nemoval &. n elocation 0 11ockmont Park Acquisition Total Other Subtotal 10% Contingency&. Overhead TOTAL (1) Federal, 11TD, or other puhlic funds (2) Future purchase using TlF Total Costs $1,600,000 2,400,000 800,000 4,800,000 3,530,000 2,870,000 1,000,000 1,250,000 8,650,000 200,000 500,000 360,000 1,800,000 1,000,000 3,860,000 3,500,000 16,000,000 2,000,000 21,500,000 38,810,000 3,880,000 $42,690,000 (3) Public funds: huy-back using TIF revenues in later phase ( 4) Glacier Park (5) TIF or other public/private funds (6) Net proceeds only; does not include costs of issuance District Bond Issue T otal Dist. District Bond Issue TIF Share Share $1,600,000 $ 534,000 (1/3) $1,066,000 (2/3) 1,600,000 800,000 (1/3) 800,000 (1/3) 800,000 -0-800,000 4,000,000 1,334,000 2,666,000 1,000,000 500,000 (1/2) 500,000 (1/2) 1,250,000 -0-1,250,000 2,250,000 500,000 1,750,000 200,000 200,000 500,000 500,000 360,000 360,000 1,800,000 1,800,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 3,860,000 -0-3,860,000 -0-0--0-10,110,000 1,834,000 8,276,000 1,011,000 183,000 827,000 $11,121,000 ( 6 ) $2,017,000 $9,103,000 --,., & --DL.ea81rion PUI"'J))8eS Only Other Sources $ 800,000 {1/3) ( 1 ) 800,000 (2) 3,530,000 (3) 2,870,000 6,400,000 -0(4) 3,500,000 (4) 16,000,000 (5) 2,000,000 21,500,000 28,700,000 2,870,000 $31,570,000

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SCHEDULE C-2 Preliminary Draft For CENTRAL PLATTE VALLEY: CHERRY CREEK, HUT, AND COMMONS PROJECT AREA Di3cu.ssion Purposes Only: Test Case 3/20/87 PHASE II INFRASTRUCTURE SCHEDULE SOURCE OF FUNDS Total District Other Projects Costs Bond Issue TIF Bond Issue Sources Roads 0 Wewatta Bridge at Cherry Creek $2,600,000 $2,600,000 0 Wewatta, Speer to 15th 250,000 $167,000 (2/3) 83,000 {1/3) 0 Wewatta, 18th to 20th 500,000 334,000 (2/3) 166,000 (1/3) 0 Chestnut, 18th to 20th 800,000 800,000 Total Roads 4,150,000 1,301,000 2,849,000 -0Amenities 0 Cherry Creek Improvements 4,000,000 0 Wewatta Amenities Speer to 15th 250,000 125,000 (l/2) 125,000 (1/2) 0 Wewatta Amenities, 18th to 20th 500,000 250,000 (I /2) 250,000 (1 /2) 0 Hockrnont Park Improvements 5,500,000 $5,500,000 ( 1 ) TotRI Amenities 6,250,000 375,000 4,375,000 5,500,000 Utilities 0 North Overlot Grading-2nd Phase 200,000 200,000 0 Cherry Creek Storm Drainage 180,000 180,000 0 Cherry Creek Sewer 250,000 250,000 0 Corn mons & Cherry Crk Water-2nd Phase 800,000 800,000 Total Utilities 1,430,000 1,430,000 -0-0-TOTALS $6,330,000 $3,106,000 ( 2 ) $7,224,000 ( 2 ) $5,500,000 (l) TIF or other public private source ( 2 ) Net proceeds only; does not include costs of issuance

PAGE 72

THE CENTRAL PLATTE V ALLEY DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE POLICIES FOR A CONCEPT PL A N . PLANNING DEPARTMENT, 1986.

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1 l.O GENERAL STATEMENTS The Central Valley area of approximately 300 acres (see attached map of study area) represents one of the for economic change in character and image, and opportunity for mixed use, housing and open space in the core area of Denver and the city as a whole. 1.1 The Cent=al Platte Valley development will have a mixed use urban character integrated with an open space system. Access to and use of the Platte River and Cherry Creek will be emphasized as major amenities, The land use mix should maximize the economic development potential for the entire City in terms of new jobs, direct and indirect tax revenues, new downtown residents, and new amenities that will serve not only Platte Valley users, but also nearby residents, other residents, workers, and visitors to Denver. 1.2 It will have an urban but somewhat different character than downtown, e.g., more "green" open space, different parking =equirements, height restrictions, and lower allowable densities. 1.3 Rather than one single image for development, several districts have been formed, each having its own land use emphasis, focus, and character. 1.4 Connections between sub-districts, the downtown, Auraria Higher Education Center, and adjacent neighborhood areas must be planned and developed for pedestrians, mass transit riders, and users. 1.5 The ultimate buildout for the Platte Valley will take more than 20 years, and as such, the phasing for public improvements must be carefully planned to ensure that the sub-areas of the Valley can stand alone, and are developed in an orderly and timely fashion. 1.6 It is expected that other implementation documents (e.g. zoning, specific development plans, etc.) will be produced in the future that more specifically spell out public and private responsibilities for developing the Central Platte. 2.0 LAND USES, DENSITY, AND DESIGN CHARACTER The Platte Valley offers a vast array of choices to restitch a new piece of urban Denver onto the existing Lower Downtown area and Auraria. It also presents an incredible opportunity to reconnect the northwest neighborhoods and downtown to one another using the South Platte River and new open space as common places to both areas.

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2 The combination of land forms, geology and location of the waterways and creates development patterns for the Platte Valley. consequently, the proposed land use and design character reflects certain givens, eg. flood plain areas, water e dges, major arteries, connections, etc., within which several subareas, or emerge. These each contain different emphases of land uses, and reflect densities based upon access, relationships with existing historic structures, and views o f the mountains and neighborhoods. Connections between these. sub-areas is fundamental to the framework scheme. This Plan attempts to strike an appropriate balance economic needs of various landowners and the public needs for housing, space, and revenue-generating economic development. The overall objective is to development in the Valley that is very different than any other development in the core of downtown or in the ) metropolitan area. -2.1 Tand Use Policies 9 ase Flo6r Area Ratio (F.A.R. ) throughout the Valley is 2:1 for any use excluding neighborhood areas of Highlands, Lower Highlands, Jefferson Park, and La Alma-Lincoln Park,. Auraria Business Park, which is 1:1 (typical business parks range from .5:1-1:1 F.A.R.). 2.11 3onus F.A.R. varies by subarea dependin g on desired land use objectives and size of suba rea. 2.12 This flexibility in the F.A. R . permits a variety of building types for several market users, while protecting the public concern of over-buildi'ng in the subarea or on a specific building parcel. This means that the allowable density c a n be applied to the subarea in numerous combinations of building floor sizes, parking arrangements, height and open space. The base F.A.R. which is permitted in any subarea may be internally t ransferre d t o other portions of that subarea. (In s ome instance s where property ownerships cover more tha n one subarea, base F .A.R. may be transferred between subareas. This provision may require special conditions to be addressed in subsequent planning 2.13 Re sidentia l is a reserved use in portions of certain subare a s in order t o esta blish clustered, neighborhood a c t ivity.

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2 .14 The base 2 : 1 density within a residential zone may be t ransferre d to other a reas within the subarea for any permitted uses. When occurs lan d should be built for housing or deeded to the public for h ousing. However, w h ere a mixed u s e structure is developed, the residential square footage shoul d not count against the base F . A . R . 2.15 The d evelopment of "affordable" housing in the Central Platte Valley will be specifically required by both public and private entities. Given the lack of design, financing, and institutional detail of this Plan as it n o w s tands, additional studies will be completed befor e finalizing the housing r equirement mechanisms. 2.16 Future zoning and other implementation documents should be designed to achieve an average maximum densit y of 60 DU/ACRE valley-wide to ensure a mix of high, mid and town-home scale development. C e r t ain subareas may exceed this Valley-wide average due to the proximity of water and open space amenities, orien t ation, andjor market demand . . 2.17 If land is reserved for public open space, the allowable base density applied to that area prior to dedication may be applied to other sites within the subarea. I n some instances where propert y ownerships cover more than one subarea, base F.A.R. b e transferred between subareas. If the City purchase s land for o pen space, no permitted density should be transferred to another site. N OTE: This provision may r eqliire speci a l conditions to be addressed in the implementation phase. 2.18 Parcel ownerships of less than 50,000 square feet in the Valley may require different density rules and bonuses in order to achieve the character of development desired for the Platte Valley. This especially applies where historic preservation and integ rated parking structures are o f p aramount concern. J:l F.A.R . appears to be an adequate base, with added incentives for parking and preservation. Determination of both the Base F.A.R. and incentives of smaller parcels should be evaluated further i n the implementation phase. 2.1. 9 In the special case of historic buildings designated as Denver Landmarks andjor on the National Register of Historic Places which have been renovated and preserved, the square footage of the histori c structure should not be counted in F . A . R. c alculations and can b e transferred to other buildings in the same sub district.

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t2.1.10 Additional incentives should be considered for development immediately adjacent to and over the railroad tracks. 2.2 Design Character 4 While this Plan does not discuss the designs of specific or even master plan schemes for the Platte Valley, general design principles should be to the Valley regardless of the subarea. 2.21 Ensure that new facades relate harmoniously with nearby facades and buildings. 2.22 Maintain the traditional street-to-building relationship that characterizes the many areas in the downtown, City, and Auraria grids. 2.23 Promote cornice setbacks in subareas having an existing character in order to maintain the continuity of predominant building heights along the street. 2.24 Use designs, materials, lighting and a continuity of pedestrian activities at the street level to create pedestrian movement and vitality. 2.25 Encourage the incorporation of publicly visible art works in new private development and in various public spaces. A percent for art program, for public and private projects, should be developed in the next planning phase for application in the Platte Valley. 2.26 The preservation, restoration, and reuse of individual historic buildings and groupings of buildings shall be V' encouraged for rehabilitation and infill development in certain areas. 2.27 The height of development should: (a) communicate the intensity and character of development in the different parts of the Valley; (b) (c) (d) protect the light, air, and human qualities of the street environment in areas of distinctive physical andjor historical character; provide transition to the edges of surrounding areas in order to complement the physical form, features, and landmarks of the area in and surrounding the Valley. preserve significant views of downtown from the neighborhoods, as well mountain vistas looking from the downtown.

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2.28 Street level views of important natural and man mad e features should be identified and designated a s view corridors which will be protected by controlling actions within the public right-of-way and reasonable development for abutting property. 2.29 The form and arrangement of large buildings can be controlled to reduce shadows and wind impacts at street levels and promote a strong physical and human scale relationship within the pedestrian environment. 2.2.10 Where tall buildings are in residential 5 areas, narrow floor plates are strongly preferred in order to maintain openness to light, air, and view of street l evel and reduce the perceived scale of the buildings. 2.3 Urban Desion Review Urban design review in the Platte Valle y should be incorporated in subseqlient policy documents in order to maintain the continuity of public spaces and infrastructure, as well as ensure that building projects within each subarea relate harmoniously to one another. The City, in agre.ement with Va+ley landowners, shall establish urban design review procedures and criteria for subdistricts reflecting the CPV Plan before development begins. Deviations from the criteria shall be resolved by negotiations between the City, landowners and developers (or designee) on a project basis. 2.4 Heioh t Policies The important factors in establishing building height a re: 1. Character of subarea for particula r mix of uses and user population; 2. Relationship to neighboring districts; 3. Topography; 4. Likely parcelization, floor plat e sizes, parking layout, and for a given subarea; 5. Desire to cluster higher structures rather than allowing a continuous "wall" or random .. location of tall buildings; 6. To achiev e the goal of establishing a transition between the downtown, Lower Downtown, Auraria and the adjacent neighborhoods. ( H ighlands, Lower H i ghlands, Je:...ferso n P ark, LaA lmajLincoln P a rk) ; and

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7 . To ensure that view s maintaine d and protece d f r o m downtown, Lower and from the close-in neighborhoods back to the downtown core skyline . 2.41 This Plan does n o t generally identify s pecific b uilding heights for individual parcels, but establishes -hree categories of maximum building heights for the Valley. These guidelines should be used in concert with other regulatory tool s . 6

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Category 1 Towers between 200' -250' (18 22 stories) having relatively small floor plates of less than 22,000 square feet. These buildings should be clustered so that they establish visual gateways, create special activity within the Valley, and minimize the obstruction of the major mountain vistas and views to the downtown core. Category 2 Mid-rise structures of 130' -140' (10-12 stories) on smaller parcels, especially where the more typical street grid pattern of zero lot line development is desired. In some instances where existing historic character is already in place (e.g. along Wazee and in Lower Downtown), cornice at 90' 100' will help to maintain visual continuity from street level. Category 3 Lower structures of 60' -80' (5 -7 stories) that are located along water amenities, within key view corridors, and/or contain back office, warehouse, R&D, or employment center functions. Floor plates may be larger than point tower buildings. This category will also apply to those areas of the Valley located near neighborhood areas or for lower scaled residential development. These height guidelines should not generally be exceeded; however, exceptions may be made on the basis of special circumstances and/or achieving public policy objectives, such as: Transfers of density from open space and residential development results in taller buildings in the receiving parcels; and/or Design review process approves of excess height; and/or Achieving other public policy objectives (housing, water amenities, preservation, open space, etc.) justifies greater height. 2.5 Parking Policy The parking requirements in the land use subarea descriptions (below) are suggested guidelines on the amount of parking at the present time. As the Valley develops, these guidelines may be revised to reflect the maturing urban character and transportation needs of the Valley. In parking should not be a use-by-right.

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8 A Transpo r tation S y stems Management (TSM) policy in t here i s a balance o f autos , H O V , mass transit, ride sharing, a n d other meth o d s of improving will be included as part o f the developmen t agreements made between che develo pers a n d pro perty owners.

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AURARIA VILLAGE SUBAREA LOCATION: CHARACTER: 10 Between Auraria Parkway and the consolidated rail line, of to I-25. Similar to West'tvood Village, Harvard Square, and Georgetown in intensity and type of uses: building facades along the st=eetwalks are 3-5 stories with (typically) retail on the ground floor; commercial/office on the next floors; and possibly residential on the top floor(s). Requires some buffering f=om Auraria parkway and (if necessary) railroad tracks, with parking garages. Wynkoop becomes the "Mass. Ave.", "Westr ..;ood Blvd." type of st=eet, in that most of the activity is focused on Wynkoop and that activity is professional and student support. Wynkoop also connects directly to Cherry Creek. Concentrated and continuous retail on street level to support active pedestrian traffic. Parking below grade or structures near tracks. APPROXIMATE BUILDABLE LAND AREA: 2,361,000 square feet (54.2 acres) PREFERRED LAND USES : o Office o Retail -concentrated on Wynkoop o Restaurants, Bars, especially along Wynkoop and 7th/lOth Streets o Residential o o Conference Facilities BASE DENSITY: F.A.R. 2:1 POTENTIAL ADDITIONAL INCENTIVES: Additional retail F.A.R. along Wynkoop (with residential development) BUILDING ENVELOPE GUIDELINES: Strong street orientation, zero lot line buildings 60 80 feet Setback of 15-20 feet at 60 foot height level 140' at end of Wynkoop 200' 250' concentrated near 7th Street and north of lOth Street

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AURARIA VILLAGE SUBAREA OPEN CONNECTIONS: PARKING: Pedestrian link to Cherry Creek Auraria/Tivoli Pedestrian connections between Campus and Rice Yards on 6th Streets. 1 space per 500 square feet. consideration for student residential parking requirements tied to proximity to Campus and Downtown. 1 1 OTHER ISSUES/AMENITIES/IMPROVEMENTS: Pedestrian connections between Campus and Rice Yards. Encourage retail at ground level on Wynkoop. 7th Street acts to connect Rice Yards, MidValley Roadway, and Colfax. Phasing and cost of relocating industrial and manufacturing uses. (e.g. Liquid Air)

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3.0 OPEN SYSTEM AND The Central Platte Valley can become the centerpiece and potential jewel of the regional open space system extends along the South platte River from Brighton to Lake. 29 It is essential to encourage the necessary up-grading of the Valley's open space for the benefit of the city and the metropolitan area. The objective of the Valley open space plan shall be to create a comprehensive network which: o promotes an orderly, visually pleasing and active environment for workers, residents, neighbors, and visitors; o reinforces the desired land use patterns; o provides links among areas within and surrounding the Valley; o enhances pedestrian o reinforces existing and creates new public open space which is for the enjoyment of all, enhances the residential development, and give public access to the waterways; and o creates a special image. The overall open space system should include a variety of activities and uses which are available :or all age groups. A primary and striking feature of the open space system in the Central Platte Valley is the existing waterways: the South Platte River and the Cherry Creek. These waterways are the focus and the major elements in the open space network functioning as amenities, as well as connections and linkages. Water should be included as an amenity throughout the development parcels. The system should provide active and passive recreation and open space nodes along the Platte River and the Cherry Creek. Major recreational trails should be developed for summer and winter uses, including, but not limited to, biking, hiking, jogging, and cross country skiing.

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JO In addition to these major waterways, the secondary waterways and gulches should also be utilized to provid e important secondary linkages and connections which connect adjacent neighborhoods, open spaces, and activities. This secondary system should be connected to and reinforce the primary sys't:em. Pedestrian movement and the open space system are integrally tied together through the street system, private courts and plazas, the location of transit stations and parking garages, as well as the designated open space parks. This Plan outlines only the beginning of the system, much more detailed design work needs to be done in the corning months. However, such details should reflect the ope n space priorities of the Plan including: the expansion of the Platte River Greenway; the Cherry Creek Promenade; the Denver Common; and Rockmont Park. (NOTE: Acreage amounts are approximate and will be determined exactly in the implementation phase.) 3.1 The Platte River Greenway should be expanded to both sides of the River, extending from south of Colfa x to 2JrdjFox on the north. The Greenway should include existing parks such as Confluence a n d Centennial, and additional 80 acres +/-of new parkland directly tied into the Greenway system (the ao acres+/-refers.to Rockmont and Denver Common Parks.) o Control of designated open space .land (through donation, dedication or acquisition) i s emphasized i n first phase. Construction of improveEents is expected as private development begins in each subdistrict. Some landscaping construction, however, should be started early on to help change image in the Valley. o The Plan endorses trading cityowned parccels in return for private land in order to knit together the open space system . . Where those parcels are controlled b y the Platte River Greenway Foundation, it is important to coordinate such trades in close cooperation with the Foundation. o Width will vary but is assumed to be large enough to give a rnaj or feel of open space along th e River (100'+/-). On the east side edge, constrmction should be "hard" (e.g. decks, balconies, promenarles) where development and activities are adjacent t o water's edge; and "soft" (landscaped) where the water and buildings are separated. Active and passive u ses w ill vary with adjacent development.

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o Hiking, biking, jogging, exercise and interpretive trail system enlargement and enhancement. In the section in the Prospect subarea, the uses should include a connection to the Rockmont Park. . 1 . 2 South of Speer Prospect area 14 acres 6.2 acres 3.2 Rice Yards Area park areas and open space pedestrian connection should include the following: o Existing public open space includes Centennial Park (trade for open space in Denver Common) 6.3 acres o Pedestrian open space connections along 6th and lOth Streets (80' R.O.W.) and at the River o Roundhouse open space and market (focus for redevelopment) 2.5 acres 3.6 acres 31 3.3 The Cherry Creek should feature promenades, pedestrian ways, plazas, landscaping, as well as retail and entertainment activities, creating a linear urban park that steps down to the Creek. CHERRY CREEK WALK/NORTH o Public open space access should be encouraged at ends of streets, edging Creek. o Assumed to be 50' wide, minimum, open space at Chestnut/Delgany Street ends. Hard surface, pedestrian promenade, open space component to Creek-side development. 2.5 acres CHERRY CREEK SOUTH o Where development occurs on south side of Creek should frame connections to the Creek. o Enhancement and enlargement of hike/bike trail system and recreation stations, in R.O.W. of relocated Speer. Primarily landscaped berm for relocated Speer (80' wide). Connect to 14th/Larimer (.5 acres) and Confluence Park (existing = 1 acre). 5 acres

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3.4 There should be a continuous amenity/pedestrian promenade developed in conjunction with the major roadwa y in the Rice Yards. 32 This amenity is the .maj 'or identity element which is the focus for the in the Rice Yards and the other mid-valley subareas. This amenity should include pedestrian spaces and the potential for a "shuttle" transit r.o.w. in the Platte Valley. In the design and development of this amenity, water elements should be incorporated wherever (and however) possible. In the development along this amenity, retail, pedestrian and residential uses should be encouraged wherever possible. This amenity should connect to the (extended) 16th Street Mall. This area is also being considered for the RR alignment. Adjustments in the design of the Valley would have to be considered should this occur. 3.5 The Denver Common should become the 30-40 acre "jewel" urban park as the focus for the metropolitan river greenway, and for development between the Creek and 20th Street. As in other major urban parks like Central Park and Grant Park, the Denver Common will include active space for unstructured recreation as well as more passive, planted areas for picnicking, celebrations, frisbee tossing, sunbathing, etc. Cultural, .entertainment, restaurant and retai l uses of low scale will flank the park's edges, similar to Tavern-on-the-Green in Central park. o The focus -or theme -of the Denver Common should be the Waterfront Park which celebrates the river. The Common should have a series of areas which connect the Highlands neighborhood and the downtown. o Regionally oriented, large, urban, park. Gathering place, large, lawn area, with trees and other planting. Major pedestrian oriented features at key locations: 19th and 20th Streets; bend of the River; Confluence Park; 17th Street connection to Highland Terrace. Continuation of River Trail at water's edge. Possible on-site commercial uses. Active playfields. JJ acres

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3.6 Denver Union Terminal's area facing Wynkoop should be landscaped in an urban manner to facilitate a downtown/Platte Valley connection. 33 The area in front of the Terminal and any adjoining new development facing Wynkoop between 16th and 19th Streets to be landscaped in an urban manner to facilitate a downcown/Platte Valley connection. Mall extension on 16th Street. 18th Street pedestrian connection into The Common. acres 3 . . 7 Prospect Outdoor Plaza may be developed as a regional park which preserves, highlights, and ties together the historic buildings in this subarea. Focus could include market uses. Prospect Plaza offers an opportunity to be developed as a focus for the area. The Prospect Plaza could be a paved open space: and could function as a connection between the River open space, the historical buildings and Rockmont Park. 1.7 acres 3.8 Rockmont Park should become the primary neighborhood recreation park. The Plan recommends that the building and site be acquired as a critical first step to the site for park development. Burlington Northern's 10.6 acre holding to be donated, dedicated or acquired early on to begin the park construction along the River. Ballfields and other active recreation facilities should be here (e.g. for.soccer, tennis). The entire park should have active recreation uses. There should be multiple connections to the neighborhood from the Park, especially.from 20th Street and where Inca intersects under I-25. ROCKMONT PARK BN D&RGW Rockmont City Private 21.2 acres 8.8 acres 10.8 acres 5.2 acres 1.4 acres 47.3 acres

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• 3.9 A ped estrian c o nnection should be developedove r I 2 5 a t 16th S t r eet to better reconnect the west side n eighborhoods to t h e amenities as well a s to downtown. The pedestrian con ection o v e r I-25 at 16th Street needs f urth e r design. However, options include, but are not limited to: . a widened viaduct; an additional pedestrian crossing; and decking with. l ow scale development. 3.10 There should be developed a 6th Street Open Space Corridor (NOTE: It is understood that the exac t alignment of this linear park is dependent upon the detailed design of the new Walnut Viaduct (Auraria Parkway). Therefore, it is understood throughout this d ocument that wherever there is reference to the "6th Street Linear Park" t hat park may be between 6th and 7th streets in some portions.) o At "Auraria Business Park" Landscaped linear hike/bike trail with passive sitting areas and facilities. o Connecting to neighborhoods south of Colfax. 2.8 acres 3.11 A neighborhood linear park should be built over time along Inca Street parallel to the D&RGW tracks which are located from Rockmont to the industrial area. This linear park can provide a noise and visual barrier betr.veen the railroad r. o. w. and the residences. In order to achieve this, it is recommended that the area under the ucility easement and the street r.o.w. be used. A variety of mini-parks, with both active and passive uses shoul d be incorporated into this linear park that ultimately could lead to Rockmont Park. Small recreation facilities such as basketball courts, horse shoe, shuffle board, etc. should be provided. These facilities should be based on neighborhood input. Thi s also has the potential future use of a light rail corridor. Denver & R i o Grande informed the PVDC that this r.o.w. lS in active use. However, portions of such a system (e.g. jogging paths) which buffer the neighborhood from t h e railroad corridor should be explored. At such time as the r.o.w. no longer is in active use, further park developmenc should be explored. D&aGW r.o.w. = 140' (to 44th Ave.) 1 1 acres

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35 3.12 Stadium Extensive redevelopment of connection areas and landscaped areas at the Sports Complex should occur, taking into consideration the Complex Master Plan. 3.13 Landscaping of I-25 I-25 the Central Platte Valley should be up-graded and intensively landscaped, especially at the major entrances: Speer, Colfax, 17th Avenue, and 23rd/Fox. This section of I-25 is the main front door to Denver. The improvements to this section of I-25 should minimize noise and maximize views. 3.14 Primary Pedestrian Connections: Platte River 16th Street extension as pedestrian and transit Mall. 18th Street pedestrian connection to the Common Cherry Creek Promenade Larimer Street connections Wazee Street pedestrian connections 6th Street and lOth Street connection from Auraria to River Pedestrian connection over I-25 at 16th Promenade running the length of the Valley Roadway south of Speer Pedestrian bridge to Sports Complex Inca connection 4.0 RAILROAD CORRIDOR AND BUFFER It was agreed to early in this process that some kind of rail corridor needed to remain in the Valley. The Committee had to determine not only where the most acceptable alignment would be located, but how the corridor would be treated for noise, vibration, and visual pollution. The PVDC investigated many alternatives for the best means of accommodating the railroad's operating requirements while, at the same time, maximizing the urban design requirements for adjacent development parcels and connections between areas in the Valley. Those alternatives which were considered were an alignment parallel to I-25 through the Central Platte Valley1 a mid-Valley alignment which traveled roughly midway between the Platte River and Wynkoop Street, and the Denver Union Terminal alignment north of Speer and following the BN rail line south of Speer.

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3 5 T h e following policy statements reflect the inherent dilemma of trying to resolve t h e requirements of two very different needs. The Plan that compromise between the two are necessary for the Platt.e Valley to be opened up for development and usable open space. 4.1 The Committee originally selected the D.U.T. a lignment forr the consolidated mainline corridor. In subsequent studies, a mid-valley alignmenthas received serious analysis. Further urban design, c ost, operational and phasing con s iderations need to be evaluated before one corridor is built . In either case, the consolidate d mainline south of 20th Street should not be located closer than 500 feet from t h e eastern bank of the Platte River. The majority of the mainline shoul d be 80 feet wide, except up to 100 f eet wide where passenger service is located. NOTE : The consolidated mainline combines the Burlington Northern and Denver & Rio Grande lines. 4 . 2 .In order to minimize the visual and physical barrier c reated by the rail corridor, the vertical elevatipn of the tracks should be depressed as much as reasonably possible consistent with safe rail operation. The major objective in partially depressing the rail lines is to help establish efficient and more attractive interconnections between downtown Denver and the districts within the Central Platte 4.J The railroad corridor must be. buffered from view to the greatest extent possible, using landscaped berms, parking garages, service areas to buildings, and in certain locations, decking and building construction over the tracks. The determination of the most appropriate buffer will be made as part of the design guidelines as various subdistricts are master-planned. The berming should occur when the rail realignment and in the Valley occurs. 4.4 Provision should be made for a JO' transit corridor for possible connections b etween the Sports Complex, the Common,, as well as future developments (e.g. WardsjWestrade and the Airport) . It is the City's position that this reserved transit corridor should be used exclusively for in-city destinations and not be used for reaional transit routes that by-pass the core area. If stops are required along the line, then a width of 50' will be necessary for the stops.

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5.0 AUTOMOBILE CIRCULATION, TRAFFIC IMPROVEMENTS, AND MASS TRANSIT 37 The access to and through the Central Platte Valley for automobiles and for buses i s directly tied to improved access off of I-25. As many long range improvements have been studied by the City and the State Highway Department, the Plan applies these studies to the Valley's specific land use plans. It is intended that the transportation policies in this Plan will be adopted by the City and State as to both the design and phasing of recommended improvements. The Plan recognizes that for the near term, the automobile will continue to be the primary transportation mode for most people. However, the Platte Valley location offers excellent opportunities for using shuttle buses, high occupancy vehicles lanes, and forms of mass transit, as well as bicycles and walking, to get between areas the Platte and Downtown or the neighborhoods to the west. The designs of traffic improvements in the Platte must also improve access to downtown. Recognizing this dual requirement, the Plan attempts to achieve both objectives. 5.1 The I-25 collector-distributor (C/D) concept proposed by the I-25 CBO Access Study Task Force has been accepted by the Plan .so long as direct access to Water Street, West Bank, the Common area and downtown is provided from I-25. This concept calls for the development of a C/0/ road system from 19th/20th to Colfax. No C / D system between 19th/20th and Foxj2Jrd appears to be necessary. The above proviso regarding Water Street and West Bank also includes the requirement that such access be in the immediate vicinity of the Water Street site and the West Bank site, respectively. 5.2 A rebuilt Speer Boulevard should be located approximately 80 feet south of its present location to the eastern edge of the Platte bridge to roughly Lawrence Street, as long as the alignment is compatible with the Auraria Parkway design. The deteriorating 14th Street Viaduct also needs to be replaced in the near future. Recent engineering studies indicate that the 13th Street viaduct needs to be replaced. Possible on-grade connections between Speer Boulevard and the CPV Parkway and the Auraria Parkway will be studied as part of the Auraria Parkway design. The acquisition of an existing building(s) located on Wazee may be necessary to accommodate the Speer construction. Consideration shall be given to the historic character of any buildings subject to acquisition.

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38 In a ddition, it may be necessary to obtain additional r.o.w. from the Aurari a Campus. The area north of Speer along Cherry creek will be and bermed a s part o f the Creek Speer Boulevard should become a true Boulevard extending from Lawrence Street1 through the Cent=al Platte and continuing to Federal B9ulevard. As such, appropriate median, land scaping, berming, and building setbacks should be incorporated in the Speer design that maintains the boulevard feeling that exists east of Lawrence Street. 5.3 15th Street should continue to serve as a collector, minor a rterial street between Lower Downtown, the Platte Valley Development, and the Highlands neighborhood. The decision whether to cross over or under the mainline rail corridor will be made depending upon the final elevation decision o f the rail corridor. 5.4 The 16th Street Viaduct will be torn down. The Mall should be e xtended beyond Market Street. It is critical to maintain a strong connection between Downtown, D.U.T. Station, the Common and across the River, via the 16th Street Mall. Further possible extension of the Street Mall to these areas should be considered. The design character and extended distance -of the 16th Street Mall will be determined during the next planning phases. An improved p edestrian path way should extend to the Westbank area. The 16th Street bridge over I-25, however, is slated to be removed in order to accommodate highway improvements. The portion of the 16th Bridge which crosses the Platte River should be retained. A pedestrian connection across I-25 in the vicinity of 16th Street should be retained or constructed. 5.5 It is a goal to provide an at-grade roadway from I-25 to Lower Downtown and Downtown Denver. Presently, it is anticipated that the 2 0th Street Viaduct will be removed and replaced with an on-grade 20th Street wherever feasible, as an early action item. This will serve as a major access to the Common Park and development, D.U.T. Station, Prospect, and downtown. Access to West Bank and Rockmont will also be provided from 20th street. If desired, 20th Street will serve as H.O.V. access to down town, coming south on I-25.

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39 5.6 The Foxj23rd Street Viaduct should be upgraded and a new fly over connection from I-25 should be constructed to create the primary access into.Lower Downtown and the CBD from the North. 5.7 Interchange access patterns in the central portion of I-25 will be modified as part of implementation of the Central I• 25 CBD Access Study recommendation, subject to the same qualifications as stated in 5.1 The access to a rebuilt 17th Avenue interchange, access from Water Street to I-25, and access to a portion of rebuilt 19th/20th interchange will be provided from separate collector/distributor lanes along I-25. The City w ill continue to explore the option of a right turn in/right turn out connection between Water Street and Speer Boulevard. 5.8 The joint I-25 north/HOV Lane Project should consider the land use and transportation concepts expressed by this Plan. If the 16th Street Mall is extended to I-25 at West Bank, this Plan recommends that there be no parking reservoir developed in conjunction with that extension in the West Bank subarea. 5.9 7th Street can connect Auraria Business Park and Auraria Village over the mainline tracks to the Rice Yards as a collector road. This connection will establish the primary southern access to the Rice Yards from I-25 as well as enable residents and workers to move between these subdistricts between the Platte Valley Greenway and various commercial/residential activities. 5.10 A 7th Street crossing of the Platte River is not a preferred alternative as long as a 17th Avenue crossing is provided early on. It is recommended that a 17th Avenue crossing of the Platte be provided early on as the southern outlet for the Mile High Parkway. With such a connection, a bridge at 7th Street should be only a pedestrian and bicycle one. If the 17th Avenue crossing is delayed, then the City, DURA, and property owners can explore an auto crossing at 7th Street over the Platte River. 5.11 A continuous roadway is intended as the major arterial road serving the Platte Valley Development, and its location, dimensions, and streetscaping will be determined upon the location and landuses of the subdistricts it traverses and the railroad alignment.

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I t is recommende d that two sections o f such a roadway be designed wh ere the alignment varies due to adjacent land uses: South of Speer 40 During the early phases of development, the roadway should connect to the 7th street arterial east of the Platte River. In subsequent phases , thi s roadway may serve as the potential connection to I-25 at 17th Avenue, and extending north, connects to Speer Boulevard. This stretch of the roadway should act as a buffer to the rail mainline, thus being located as close to_ the existing BN rail lines as possible. Preliminary estimates are for a landscaped buffer of approximately 40' and a r.o.w. 1001 • This roadway is made up of four lanes of moving traffic with the potential for parking on either side, including adequate width for "shuttle" transit. In addition, it should be designed and develope d to incorporate a promenade referred to in the Open Space Policy 3.4. North of Speer The roadway north of Speer should respond to the tight urban fabric of these subareas . . This stretch of the Roadway shall be developed in conjunction with the Denver Common and D.U.T. redevelopment. It should also encourage north-south pedestrian movem ent from the Common to the Cherry Creek. The primary access through the Prospect subarea along the .roadway should be a connection to the 23rd Street Viaduct at Delgany. 5.12 Bus Service and other forms of mass transit should be planned to connect development within subdistricts and to areas outside the Central Platte area such that residents and workers will have convenient access to the Platte, Cherry Creek, the Common, and Downtown. A shuttle connection between the Rice Yards, Cherry Creek development, D.U.T., and Prospect with the Mall bus system represents an initial concept for further study. Connections which also need to be considered are those to Merchants park, the Airport, and the Coliseum. Possible monorail service as part o f the Stadium Common line will also be examined.

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41 6.0 FLOOD CONTROL Both the South Platte River and the Cherry Creek, which converge in the Central Platte Valley, have histories marked by flooding. Improvements to the Cherry Creek Channel, as well as the completion of the Cherry Creek Dam and Reservoir by the u.s. Army Corps of Engineers, are understood to be sufficient to retain the 100 year flood within the existing channel. CHERRY CREEK 6.1 As modifications to the Cherry Creek Channel are made to bring the adjacent redeveloped land uses into closer relationship to the waterway, and as a pedestrian promenade is developed along its right bank in the Central Platte valley, care will be taken so as not to restrict the floodway. The replacement of railroad mainline bridges must be designed so as not to restrict the floodway. 6.2 The maintenance of the channel, river bank and trail will be coordinated with the Urban Drainage and Flood Control District, and with other appropriate agencies. SOUTH PLATTE RIVER In 1985 the Urban Drainage and Flood Control District completed a "Master Plan for the South Platte River" in cooperation with the local governments adjacent to the River. Planning has been closely coordinated with the City's planning for the Central Platte Valley development. Plans for improvements of the River channel through deepening and widening, as well as the removal of impediments to flood waters, are being formulated and tested for effect on the extent of the flooding and flood plain. The objective is to design a series of improvements which, acting together, will result in removal of the flood hazard which currently exists in the Central Platte Valley. It is not anticipated that the City and County of Denver will undertake these improvements. It is the policy of the City for landowners/developers to make the improvements necessary to provide for safe development of their land at their own expense. Designs for improvements must be approved by the City's Wastewater Management Division. Three additional policies are recommended by the Platte Valley Development Committee:

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43 7.0 HIS T O RIC PBESERVATXON Although the Central Platte Valley is the area o f De v er's earlies t o r igins, there are few remaining structure s which have historical or architectural significance. Forney Transportation Museum (old T ramway Power Plant) is the only D s nver Landmark outside the Auraria Campus. On the Campus are the Tivoli B r ew ery, St. Elizabeth's Church, Emmanuel Chapel, S t . C a j e t:an' s Church, and the Ninth Street Historic District. T here are a few other s tructures listed on the National Register of Historic Places: The Denver Union Station, Moffa t Station, H. Root Building, and the Brewmasters house. Oth e r structures that were on the National Register in 1982, but removed at the request of the owner, we r e Zang Brewery Stables and Rocky Mountain Hotel (now a bar and restaurant, Zang Brewery Company, which is not part of the original, h istorical brewery). The Preservation Alliance (a coalition of Denver pre s ervation o rganizations with private funding and assistanc e f r o m the Colorado of Archaeology and Historic PreseL vation) completed a thorough survey of the Central Platte Valley in 1983 and 1 984. The survey identified a number of buildings ( approximately 16) which ma y be e ligible for Denver Landmark Designation and/or N ational Register listing. The buildings include reside ntial, commercial, a n d pubiic buildings and are so widely s cattered through the Valle y that it would be difficult to create a unified h i s toric district within the Valley. The major unifying theme throughout the Valley is railroading. The importance of railroading in Denver's history and development can hardly be overstated. When the railroad yards and bridges over Cherry Cree k are removed and the mainlines reconstructed little physical evidence of the over 100 years of railroading will be left in the Valley. Undoubtedly, the most significant building is the Denver Un ion Station; it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. CUrrently, however, it i s not a Denver due to the objection of the owners. 7.1 The preservation of the main part of the railroad station (the main train room and the two-story wings with the sloped roof) , or the integration of that portion of the Station into new development, is strongly encouraged. Any new adjacent development should respect the existing structures of the Denver Union Station.

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44 7.2 The City and County of Denver $hould work cooperatively with the of historic to ensure their preservation. Every effort should be made to encourage the of the significant historic structures in the Central Platte Valley. Their significance to Colorado and to the Central Platte Valley should be duly recognized. This Plan recognizes that there are several other historic structures in the Valley which are significant to the character of the future development of the Valley. Those buildings include, but are not limited to, the Moffat Station, The Colorado and Southern Roundhouse, and the Colorado and Southern Turntable. The adaptive reuse of the Roundhouse and Turntable is encouraged. The integration of these structures and activities with the adjacent development (possibly retail and/or residential), and with the extended development of the Platte River Greenway and the Children's Museum is appropriate. 7.3 The encouragement of preserving historic structures in the Central Platte Valley should be applied to the buildings identified in the Architectural and Historical Survey of Downtown Denver (1983 -1984) which were classified as eligible for Denver Landmark or National Register designation. (Survey is the same as referred to above). 7.4 Every reasonable effort shall be made to retain the Nineteenth Street Bridge at its present location and to preserve it as a pedestrian/bicycle bridge after its vehicular use is replaced.

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Rio -Grande THE DENVER AND RIO GRANDE WESTERN RAILROAD COMPANY DENVER, COLORADO 80217 W • .J . HOLTMAN CHAIRMAN Ofl' THI! BOARD and PRe.SIOI!NT November 1, 1984 PLATTE VALLEY DEVELOPMENT c/o Mr. William Lamont Director Planning Office City and County of Denver 1445 Cleveland Denver, Colorado 80202 Dear Mr. Lamont: This supplements my letter of July 19 in response to your July 9 letter concerning various aspects of railroad facilities and operations in the Central Platte Valley. Our representative to the Railroad Subcommittee has indicated general agreement with the 9roposed alignment of a joint corridor with the Burlington Northern through DUT and thence southwest from Cherry Creek connecting with the existing BN ATSF main line corridor. While this appears to be the best solution on a shortterm basis (1-3 years), we agree with the Burlington Northern that an alignment parallel to the east side of I-25 offers a number of long-term advantages and that a preliminary analysis is warranted. We endorse that analysis and we are certainly willing to continue evaluation of that alignment. Yours very truly, cc: R. L. Buchanan

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B I B L I 0 G R A P H Y "Pattern Language", Christopher Al e>:ander Oxford University Press, 1977 "The Image of the Kevin Lynch Joint Center for Urban Studies, M.I.T. 1st Printing, 1960; 1 6th Printing, 1982 "Maintaining the Spir-it of Place, A Process for the Preservation of Town Character'', Harry Launce Garnham PDA Publishers Corp., Mesa, Arizona, 1985 "The Form of Housing", Sam Davis Litton Educational Publishing Inc., 1977 "The Central for a Concept Platte Valley Development Committee Policies Plan", Denver Planning Department, 1986 "The Denver Downtown Area Plan," Inc. and Denver Planning Office, The 1986 "Denver's Committee, Central Platte Valley", Seeds Program, 1984 Denver Partnership, AlA Urban Design "Denver's Speer Blvd., A Revitalization", AIA Urban Design Committee, Seeds Program, 1986 "Central Platte Valley Workbook", Development and Design, Divisions Planning, Paul Heath, Chairman, Denver, Requested by Platte Valley 1983 Center for Community of Architecture and Univ. of Colorado at Alliance of Neighbors. "Auraria Parkway Corridor Study", BRW, Denver, Co. 1986 "Downtown Denver Public Spaces Project" 8a Project Overview; Bb Framework Plan/General Recommendations; Be Improvement Proposals for Prioritized Public Spaces; Bd Downtown Public Spaces Handbook, Denver Partnership, Inc. 1983 "Denver in the Eighties", AlA Urban Design Committee, 1983 "Burlington Northern Concept Plan" Final Report of Burlington Northern General Committee, 1976 "Lower Doii'Jntown", Urban Design Graduate Project, Marilyn Mueller, Group Leader, 1976 Student Group