Citation
Highland Terrace

Material Information

Title:
Highland Terrace
Creator:
Nardin, William
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright William Nardin. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
Terrace
MASTER'S THESIS UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
WILLIAM NARDIN MAY 7, 1981
t—*______:________________________________________________r
RCHIVES
.D
. 190 *72 l9S1 437


Table of Contents
Page
Part I Concerns and Goals 1
Part II Site and Climate Analysis 4
1. Location 5
2. Topography, Size, and Configuration 5
3. Views 5
4. Access 9
5. Utilities and Drainage 9
6. Soil Conditions 11
7. Sun 11
8. 1979 UBC Requirements 12
9. Zoning 19
10. Present, Past, and Future Use 23
11. Community 24
12. Economic Potential 25
13. Climate 27
Part III Conclusions and Program 28
1. Use of Site 29
2. Program 31
Part IV Solution 35
Part V Appendix 50
Thesis Committee 51
Schedule for Thesis Semester 52
List of Contacts 53
Bibliography 54
List of Illustrations
Vicinity Map 6
Contour Map 7
View Analysis 8
Traffic Analysis 10
Division of Site 31


CONCERNS & GOALS


The thesis site I have chosen to develop is on a 4.96 acre parcel of land in Northwest Denver. The site is one of many which, because of their proximity to downtown Denver and the deteriorating condition of the existing structures on them, are ripe for redevelopment in the area along 1-25 between Mile High Stadium and the 23rd Street viaduct. The way these sites are developed, including both the use of the land and the height and quality of the buildings constructed, will probably determine the future of the neighborhoods of Northwest Denver. These neighborhoods are the homes of many long-standing Denver residents, including a large segment of the Chicano community. The neighborhoods are modest, being composed primarily of small brick homes among mature trees. Interspersed with the homes are small neighborhood businesses, a product of a past time when the automobile was not such an indispensible part of everyday life and when zoning laws did not restrict the intermixing of business and residential development.
If these neighborhoods do not survive, large numbers of people will be displaced, and the city will lose a significant part of its history.
The development of the two-block area as suggested in this report would strengthen the residential character of Northwest Denver, hopefully establishing a precedent for future development along 1-25. The use I am suggesting for this site, which is contained within the boundaries of West 29th Avenue, Zuni Street, Speer Boulevard, and Firth Court, is primarily residential, with only a small portion along Speer Blvd. being reserved for compatible commercial development.
The housing will, like the older housing in the area, be modest in scale and sound in construction. It will be of medium height and density.
To develop this site for affluent dwellers might start a trend which would push out both the people who live in adjoining neighborhoods and the modest homes which were built there. To build for low income residents in an area already populated by a significant number of low-income households might push the area into a downward spiral which could destroy it. The middle income residents who would likely


inhabit the new dwellings would probably be clerical and semi-professional people who work downtown. The influx of these moderate-income people into the existing neighborhood would hopefully create an environment enabling both older and newer residents to live peacefully in a stable neighborhood without the threat of dense, urban encroachment. Additionally, there seems to be a need for middle income housing in and near the downtown area, as present development of downtown housing, particularly along Larimer Street, is planned primarily for the high-income market.
The central concern for this thesis problem, then, is first, the stability of the neighborhood and second, the need for middle-income housing near downtown. The two issues, as I indicated above, are not unrelated. One problem connected to these concerns is the economic feasibility of such a project; the land in question is relatively expensive, and although housing could be built on the site profitably, the profit, I strongly suspect, would be less than what would be realized with a larger, more commercial, downtown-type development. Because of economic necessity, I have established a goal for about 50 units/acre, which is somewhat more dense than I would otherwise desire. Related goals include developing a pleasant environment, both inside and outside the condominiums, by capitalizing on the views, the hillside site, and Denver sunshine. Another goal is energy efficiency, to which the orientation of the site and the density of the development should both contribute.


SITE & CLIMATE


1. Location. The site is 1.4 miles northwest of Denver's Central Business District. The boundaries are on the north, West 29th Ave.; on the East, Zuni St.; on the south, Speer Blvd.; and on the west, Firth Court.
2a. The site is located on a hillside sloping, roughly from the northwest to the southwest, down toward the Platte River. The highest point (at the intersection of W. 29th Ave. and Firth Court) is at elevation 5,288, and the lowest point (at the intersection of Speer and Zuni) is at elevation 5,252. At 29th and Zuni, the elevation is 5,277, and at Speer and Firth, 5,259.
2b. Size and Configuration. The two blocks enclosed by the boundaries of the site contain approximately 4.96 acres. The dimensions of the parcel are 570 feet on the north, 650 feet on the east, 250 feet on the south, and 704 feet on the west. Both dimensions and acreage include that part of West 28th Ave. running between Zuni St. and Firth Ct. Twenty-eighth Ave. does not cross either Zuni or Firth and carries virtually no traffic. The city is willing to vacate the street when the area is redeveloped.
3. Views from the site. The views are excellent. To the east and southeast is the entire Denver skyline, and to the south and southwest the front range is visible from ground level. The views from upper floors in buildings on this site might even be spectacular.




3°
5 o
0> i f 1
â– o i \
N \
< / t) f 1 \cn ,N
#\ V 1c »0


\
\
\
\
^ l\ I v>'» i
v i'i 1; 11 i'
>", i ‘I11'1'!
M , // / Illi1
I 1 la /I i 1//i i
I 1 ////////
) 1 I //////// /
/ I ////// I \ i/ / / ii i ^
,'! u v /
/
')v '
/
\ v>
\v „
M
_&
Ij
>
<
CONTOUR MAP


GROUND-LEVEL VIEWS


4. Access. City Streets: Three of the four streets on the boundaries of the property carry more than just neighborhood traffic.
(1) Speer Blvd. is classified as an arterial street, that is, one carrying "rapid and relatively unimpeded traffic ... throughout the city and serving as the primary link between communities and major land use elements." Average weekday traffic on this section of Speer Blvd. is 37,600 vehicles.
(2) West 29th Ave. and Zuni St. are classified as collector streets, which "have the function of collecting and distributing traffic . . . within the community." West 29th carries about 3,600 vehicles daily and Zuni carries 10,200 vehicles. The Highland Neighborhood Plan suggests that West 29th Ave. rush hour traffic should be minimized (in favor of Speer Blvd.) to reduce the danger to students at Valdez Elementary School, which is located in the block adjacent to the site.
RTD Bus Routes: The site is served by two east-west routes, the 23 and 28/28A bus routes, both of which run on streets which serve as site boundaries. Additionally, a north-south route is available on Federal Blvd., 5 blocks to the west. Driving times to major facilities are as follows:
North High School: 1 minute
Central Business District: 5 minutes
Auraria Campus: 5 minutes
Mile High Stadium: 3 minutes
State Capitol: 10 minutes
Denver General Hospital: 10 minutes
5. Utilities/Drainage: Electricity and gas lines are located along Speer Blvd., Zuni St., and W. 29th Ave. Water is available from Denver Water Board mains located in the three above streets and also in W. 28th Ave.
The City and County of Denver provides sewer service along Speer Blvd., Zuni St., and W. 29th Ave. Zuni St. also has a storm sewer.


£.Lg.ME.NTART SCHOQL-ADJACeNT euocx 3KTH HlfeH SCHOOL-TtsiO 6LOGK3
2^TH AVE., - 5,600 •
15-TH. & leTH.SrT. VIADUCT


6. Soil Conditions:
The soil conditions on the site are likely to be similar to those on
the North High School campus. A firm of "consulting engineers, geologists,
and environmental scientists"(I was asked not to use the firm's name.)
prepared a report which was presented to the Denver Public Schools on
August 8, 1979. The report states:
Our test holes and test pits showed up to 1\ feet of man-made fill;
3 feet of medium dense to dense, slightly silty to silty sands; 4 feet of medium dense, clayey to very clayey sands; and 16 feet of stiff to very stiff, sandy clays over firm to medium hard claystone bedrock at depths ranging from 3% to 16 feet. One test hole showed a hard to very hard sandstone layer, 3 feet thick and 11 feet below ground surface, overlying the claystone bedrock.
Our experience in the area indicates that the claystone bedrock, clayey phases of the sandstone bedrock and some of the clays swell upon wetting. The expansive clays, claystone and clayey phases of the sandstone bedrock are stable at their natural moisture contents, however, if wetted will swell, causing movement of foundations placed thereon.
The upper sands and clays should support low to moderate loads and the claystone and sandstone bedrock high loads.
We measured free water in four of our test holes atdepths of 7% to 13 feet during drilling. We have no data on seasonal ground water fluctuations at the site. Additional data on ground water fluctuations during wetter seasons and wetter years should be checked. In the absence of such data, we suggest assuming free water levels could rise 3 feet above the highest levels meaasured in our test holes.
It appears ground water will have little effect on planned near-surface construction, but will affect pier drilling.
7. Sun:
Presently there are no buildings or natural geologic features which shade the site. Since the site is on a south-facing hillside, the opportunities for passive or active solar use on the site are considerable*, particularly given the 248 days of clear or partly cloudy days which Denver enjoys annually. Solar angles for various months are given in item 13, "climate."
11


8. 1979 Uniform Building Code Requirements: This code summary is
for residential multi-unit buildings, with some references to other types (garages, carports) in case these structures are part of the total design. References in brackets are all to sections of the 1979 UBC.
(1) Occupancy Classification: Group R, Division 1 /_ 1201_/
(2) Occupancy Separation Requirements: Three hours from Group R to garage (Group Bl) and one hour to restaurants, offices and stores (Groups B2, 3, and 4) / Table 5B_/
(3) Construction Types Permitted: Types I - V. See summary table on next page.
(4) Fire ratings, etc.: (d) One hour for exterior walls / Table 5 A_/
(b) If two stories of less in height, nonbearing walls need not be rated if common walls and corridors have one-hour rating.
/~1202(b)_7
(c) If higher than two-stories, floors, roofs, partitions, and structured frame must have one-hour rating if there is more than 3000 sq. ft. above the first story.
(d) If three or more stories and 15 or more apartments, a fire alarm is required.
(5) Number of Exits Required: (a) 2/dwelling for housing with occupancy over 10, based on 300 square feet/occupant.
[_ Table 33A_/ (b) Floors above first floor must have two exits if occupancy is greater than 10 / 3302(a)_/, three exits if occupancy of 501 to 1000, and four exits if over 1000. (c)
To compute number of exits needed for a floor, take the occupancy of that floor plus 50% of the occupancy of adjoining floors exiting through that floor plus 25% of the occupancy of the floor immediately above or below the adjacent floor(s).
(d) Every sleeping room below the fourth story must have one operable door or window with at least 5.7 sq. ft. of opening at least 24 inches wide and high and no more than 44 inches above the floor.
(6) Exit Door Width Requirements: Occupant load divided by 50 = exit width in feet /""3302(b)_7. Minimum size for individual doors: 3'-0" x 6'-8" /“3302(3) 7


Types of Construction Floor Area^l^’^ /Height 2 5 7 Area if ’ ’' Bldq over 1 story Rating of Area ^ Separation Walls
I - FR Unlimited Unlimited 4 HR
II - FR 29,900 sq. ft./12 stories 59,800 sq. ft. 4 HR
II - ONE HR. 13,500/4 27,000 2 HR
II - N0N-RATED 9,100/2 18,000 2 HR
III - ONE HR. 13,500/4 27,000 4 HR
Ill - N0N-RATED 9,100/2 18,200 4 HR
IV - HEAVY TIMBER 13,500/4 27,000 4 HR
IV - ONE HR. 10,500/3 21,000 2 HR
V - N0N-RATED 6,000/2 12,000 2 HR
Maximum floor area of one story bldg.
2
Maximum floor area
^Consider portions of buildings thusly separated as separate buildings. Sec 505(d)
4
May be tripled if sprinkled
^May be doubled if sprinkled
^May be increased by one story unless allowable floor area is increased due to sprinking per Sec sprinkling provided in lieu of fire-resistive construction per Sec 508.
^Increases in floor areas are permitted if the building is separated from other buildings by open streets, or yards of 20 feet or greater in width. For open area on two sides of the building, permitted for each foot the open space exceeds 20 feet, to a maximum of 50%. For buildings adjoining open space on three sides, a 2%% increase per foot over 20 feet is permitted (maximum 100%) and for open space on four sides, a 5% increase per foot over 20 feet (maximum 100%)
506 or unless
public space, 1%% increase is
W REF: Sec 505, 506, 507, Table 50C, and Table 50D, UBC. .


(7) Stair Width Requirements: 44 inches minimum if occupancy
load over 50. 36 inch minimum if occupancy under 50 / 3305(b)_/
(8) Corridor Width Requirements: 44 inches minimum occupancy
over 10. 36 inches minimum for R-l j_ 3304(b)_/
(9) Stair Landing Requirements: Landing equal to width of stair
/ 3305(g)_/, 4'-0" maximum landing if stair has a straight run.
A door swinging over a landing shall not reduce the landing to less than one half its required width.
(10) Dead End Corridor Limits: 20 feet / 3304(e)_/
(11) Door Swing Requirements: In the direction of exit travel
r.3303(b)_7
(12) Riser Tread Limits: Riser 4 to 7% inches. Tread at least 10 inches / 3305(e)_/
(13) Ramp Requirements: 44" wide / 3306(b)_/; 1:12 slope / 3306(c)_/; 5'0" landing at top one^'-O'1 intermediate landing for each 5
feet of rise, 6'0" bottom landing, all with rough surface. Railings required.
(14) Vertical Openings Limit and Fire Ratings:
(a) Fire ratings for shaft enclosures are 2 hour for Types I and II fire resistive buildings and 1 hour for all others. /“Table 17A_7
(b) Gas vents and non-combustible piping installed in wall of buildings passing through three floors or less (four if equipped with automatic sprinkler system), need not be rated. /“l706(a)_7
(c) Every interior opening into a shaft enclosure shall be protected by a self-closing fire assembly having a rating of 1 hour if in a one-hour wall and 1% hours if in a two-hour wall. / 1706(b)_7
(d) Rubbish and linen chutes shall terminate in rooms separated from the remainder of the building by a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation. Openings into the chutes shall not be located in exit corridors or stairways.
/“1706(c)_7
(e) Elevator shafts extending through more than two stores shall be vented to the outside. The area of vents shall be not less than 3%?o of the area of the shaft with a
14


minimum of 3 square feet per elevator. / 1706(d)_/
(f) Stairs in open parking garages need not be enclosed
/~3308(a)_7
(g) Walls enclosing exits shall be rated not less than two-hour in buildings over 4 stories and one-hour elsewhere
7~3308(b)_7
(h) A stairway in an exit enclosure shall not continue below the grade level exit unless an approved barrier is provided at the ground floor level. /_ 3308(e)_/
(i) There shall be no enclosed usable space under stairways
in an exit enclosure, nor shall the open space under such stairways be used for any purpose. / 3308(f)__/
(15) Exit Lighting Requirements:
(a) Exits shall be illuminated when the building is occupied with light having an intensity of not less than one foot-candle at floor level. /~3312(a)_/
(b) In Group R Division 1 buildings housing over 50 persons at every required exit doorway and wherever otherwise required to indicate the direction of egress, an exit sign with letters having a principal stroke not less than 3/4 inch wide and at least 6 inches high shall be provided. /_ 3312(b)_/ Garages shall have such signs if occupancy is over 100.
(c) Exit signs shall be lighted with two electric lamps of not less than 15 watts each on separate circuits, one of which shall be separated from all other circuits in the building and be independently controlled. / 3312(c)__/
(16) Ceiling Height Minimums: Ceiling height miminums are 7'6"
/ 1207(a)_/ except in kitchens, halls, baths, and exit corridors, in which the minimum is 7'0" / 1207(a) and 3304(c)_/, and in stairways, in which the minimum is 6'6" from the nose
of the stair / 3305(p)_/
(17) Light and Ventilation Requirements: If ventilated through a window, the window opening shall be no less than 1/20 of the floor area of the room (five square feet minimum for all rooms except bath and laundry, for which 1% square feet is the minimum). If ventilated mechanically, all rooms shall have two
. air changes per hour except baths, which shall have five air changes per hour.


(18) Furnace/Boiler Room Restrictions: One hour fire wall.
r 1212_7
(19) Chimney Height and Construction Requirements: Chimneys shall extend at least 2'0" above the roof and at least 2'0"
above any part of the building within 10' 0" of the chimney. Chimney walls shall be at least 4 inches thick with 5/8 inch fire clay tile or 2% inch fire brick. / Table 37(b)_/
(20) Sprinkler Requirements:
(a) Sprinklers are required in every story or basement of over 1500 square feet in which there is not at least 20 square feet of opening entirely above the adjoining ground level in each 50 lineal feet or fraction thereof of exterior wall on at least one side of the building. Openings shall have a minimum dimension of 30 inches. Such openings shall not be obstructed in any manner so that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior. When openings are provided on only one side and the opposite wall is more than 75 feet from such openings, the story shall be provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system. If any portion of the basement is more than 75 feet from required openings, the basement shall be provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system. [_ 3802(b)lA__/
(b) Sprinklers are required at the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes extending through three or more floors shall have additional sprinkler heads installed within such chutes at alternate floors.
/—3802(b)lB_/
(21) Standpipe Requirements: In buildings 4 stories or more but less than 150 feet in height, Class I standpipe outlets shall be provided at every floor level landing of every required stairway and on each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit. There shall be a three-way outlet above the roof line when the roof has a slope of less than 4 inches in 12 inches. Class II standpipes shall be accessible and shall be located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet of a nozzle attached to 100 feet of hose. / 3803 /


(22) Handicap Access: There shall be one handicap accessible unit for 21 - 99 units and one additional unit for every hundred units or fraction thereof over the first hundred units.
(23) Sanitation: Every dwelling shall have a kitchen with a sink and a bathroom with a water closet, lavatory, and either a tub or a shower. / 1205(b)_/
(24) Limitations on Yards and Courts Having Required Window Openings [_ 1206_/:
(a) Yards: 3' wide for one- and two-story buildings
(b) 1' additional yard to be added for each additional story.
(c) Yards for buildings over 15 stories shall be computed on the basis of 15 stories.
(d) Courts: minimum 3'.
(e) Courts with windows on opposite sides: minimum 6'.
(f) Courts bounded on 3 or more sides by the walls of the building shall be not less than 10' in length unless bounded on one end by a street or yard. For buildings more than two stories in height, the court shall be increased one foot in width and two feet in length for each additional story. For buildings exceeding 14 stories, the required dimensions shall be computed on the basis of 14 stories.
(g) Every court more than 2 stories in height shall have a horizontal air intake at the bottom not less than 10 sq. ft. in area and leading to the exterior of the building. (Construction of intake to be one-hour fire resistive.)
(25) Room Dimensions /_ 1207_/:
(a) Minimum ceiling height: 7'- 6" (kitchen, halls, bathrooms, and toilet compartments may be 7' - 0", however.)
(b) Minimum ceiling height is required in only half the area of a room with a sloping ceiling.
(c) Every unit shall have at least one room with at least 150 sq. ft. of floor area. Other rooms, except kitchens, shall have a minimum area of 70 sq. ft.
(d) No habitable room other than a kitchen shall be less than 7' - 0" in any dimension.


(26) Smoke Detectors: Every dwelling unit shall have a smoke detector receiving primary power from the buildings wiring system. Detectors shall be mounted on the ceiling or wall at a point centrally located in the corridor or area giving access to rooms used for sleeping purposes. [_ 1210_7
(27) Heating: Every unit shall have a heating system capable of maintaining a 70° room temperature 3 feet above the floor in all habitable rooms. / 1211_/
(2) Carports:
(a) Windows between a carport and a dwelling shall be inoperable. / 1214_/
(b) Doors between a carport and a dwelling shall be self closing. / 1214_/


1
9. Zoning. The parcel is currently zoned B-4; however, both the Denver City Planning Office and the broker who listed the property for sale have indicated that the site could be used for a twenty-story building. Since the Denver Zoning Ordinance prohibits a maximum gross floor area of more than twice the area of the zone lot / .9-4(2)_/
I am using R-4 zoning restrictions, which permit larger gross floor areas. The specific requirements for R-4 zoning are as follows:
* Mutiple-unit dwellings / .5-3 (1) (h)_/, offices / .5-3 (1) (v)_/, and banks / .5-3 (i) (tt)_/ are among the permitted uses.
* Parking areas need not be enclosed. / .5-3 (1) (2) /
* Each zone lot shall
a. Have at least one front line
b. Be at least 50' wide at the front set back line and contain at least 6000 square feet if containing residential structures other than single family dwellings.
c. Have at least 20?o unobstructed open space excluding off-street parking areas, if the building is 1 - 3 habitable stories in height.
d. Have at least 30?o unobstructed open space excluding off-street parking, if the building is 4 or more habitable stories in height.
(Note: The unobstructed open space may be located either on the ground or on a roof deck with an average height of not more than 6' above grade.) /~.5-4 (1)_/
* The front setback shall be 10' from the front line of the zone lot, except for structures facing the longer side of an oblong (corner) lot, in which case the setback may be reduced to 5'. This setback shall not be used for the parking or vehicles. / .5-4 (2) (b)_/
* The rear setback shall be not less than 5' for all detached accessory structures and fixtures and 20' for all other structures. / .5-4 (2) (b) /
19


* The side setback for lots 30' or more in width shall be not less
than 7'6". /_.5 - 4 (2) (c) (c-3)_7
* The space resulting from the side above setback shall be used for landscaping and access ways but not for the parking of vehicles unless the building is 21' or more from the side line of the zone lot. r.5 - 4 (2) (c) (c-4)_7
* The following encroachments on setback space are permitted:
guoted from the Revised Municipal Code of the City and County of Denver,
.3-4(2)(d)(d—1). Belt courses, sills, lintels, and pilasters may project eighteen inches into front, rear and side setback spaces. (Ord. 467, Series 1939)
.5-4(2)(d)(d—2). Cornices, eaves and gutters may project three feet into front setback space, five feet into rear setback space and thirty-six inches into side setback space; provided, however, that if the side setback space is less than five feet in width then such projection shall not exceed one-half the width of the side setback space.
(Ord. 383, Series 1959)
.5-4(2)(d)(d-3). Outside stairways may project five feet into front setback space, ten feet into rear setback space and three feet into side setback space;
.5-4(2)(d)(d-4). Unwalled porches, terraces and balconies may be extended five feet into front and rear setback spaces;
.5-4(s)(d)(d-5). Chimneys not to exceed six feet in width may project eighteen inches into front, rear and side setback spaces. (Ord. 468, Series 1959)
.5-4(s)(d)(d-6). Building accessories designed and intended to control light entering a building and being a permanent part of such building may project five feet into front setback space, ten feet into rear setback space and three feet into side setback space;
.5-4(2)(d)(d-7). Building accessories designed and intended to control light entering a building and not being a permanent part of such building, by being removable therefrom and by not being attached to a load-bearing member thereof, may project any distance into any setback space.
.5-4(s)(d)(d-8). Canopies may project any distance into the front setback space. (Sec. 1(a), Ord. 16, Series 1958)
.5-4(2)(d)(d-9). Any structure or part thereof which is below the grade or any setback space may project any distance into such setback space. (Ord. 411, Series 1959)
.5-4(2)(d)(d-10). Gas and electric meters and transformers may project three feet into front, rear and side setback spaces if screened on all sides by a masonry wall. (Ord.
494, Series 1971)


5-4(2)(e). Fences, Walls and Retaining Walls. Fences,
Walls and Retaining Walls not exceeding 48 inches in height may be erected on any part of the Zone Lot between the front line of the Zone Lot and the front setback line for structures and on any other part of the Zone Lot may be erected to a height of not to exceed 72 inches; provided, however, (1) retaining walls abutting public rights of way may be built to any height; (2) schools, public parks and/or playgrounds may erect open-mesh fences to any height on any part of the Zone Lot and (3) on a corner Zone Lot, fences and walls not exceeding 72 inches in height may be built on the rear line of the Zone Lot and on the front line of a Zone Lot from the rear line forward to the rear of any structure containing the Use by Right if the corner Zone Lot meets the following qualifications: (a) is located on a block oblong in shape;
(b) the structure thereon containing the Use by Right faces a longer dimension of the block; and (c) all Zone Lots on the same shorter dimension of the same block are either vacant or do not have thereon any structure containing a Use by Right which structure faces the shorter dimension of the block. The height of walls, fences and retaining walls shall be determined by measurement from the ground level at the lowest grade level within three feet of either side of such walls, fences or retaining walls; provided, however, that in computing the height of retaining walls there shall be omitted from such computation any open-mesh fence located on top of the retaining wall and not exceeding 48 inches in height. Fences, walls and retaining walls permitted hereunder shall not be included in computing compliance with Outside Area of Window Exposure. (Sec.
1(b), Ord. 39, Series 1958)
.5-4(3). Maximum Bulk of Structures. No part of any structure (except church spires, church towers, flagpoles, antennas, chimneys, flues, vents or accessory water tanks) shall project up through bulk limits which are defined by planes starting (1) at horizontal lines which are co-directional to the side line or lines of the Zone Lot and pass through points thirty feet above the mid-point of each such side line or lines, and (2) at horizontal lines which are co-directional to the center lines of all streets abutting the Zone Lot and pass through points thirty feet above the mid-point of such center lines between the boundary lines of the Zone Lot extended, and (3) at, if no alley abuts the Zone Lot, a horizontal line which is co-directional to the rear line of the Zone Lot and passes through a point thirty feet above the mid-point of such rear line of the Zone Lot; and if the rear line or lines of the Zone Lot are established by an abutting alley or alleys such plans shall start at horizontal lines which are co-directional to the center lines of such abutting alley or alleys and pass through points thirty feet above


the mid-point of such center lines between the boundary lines of the Zone Lot extended, and which planes extend up over the Zone Lot at an angle of sixty-three degrees and twenty- six minutes with respect to the horizontal (a pitch of two feet additional rise for each foot additional setback) until such planes intersect a vertical line thirty feet horizontally distant from the various points of beginning as above set forth, at which point the angle of the bulk plane shall change from sixty-three degrees and twenty-six minutes to ninety degrees or true vertical. (Ord. 279, Series 1970)
.5-4(4). Maximum Gross Floor Area in Structure. The sum total of the gross floor area of all structures on a Zone Lot, excluding garage space, shall not be greater than four times the area of the Zone Lot on which the structures are located.
.4-3(1)(b). A building wall of a multiple unit dwelling shall be located no closer to another building than a distance equal to the height of the taller building of the two, but in no case less than 23 feet; the building wall of a single unit dwelling shall be located no closer than 10 feet from another single unit dwelling. (Ord. 74, Series 1977)
.4-3(1)(d). Any open court area which otherwise complies with standards of minimum spacing and open area of window exposure must, in any case, leave at least 23 per cent of its perimeter free and unobstructed for access by emergency vehicles;
.4-3(1)(e). A building group may not be so arranged that any temporarily or permanently inhabited building is inaccessible by emergency vehicles.
.4-3(s)(b). A building wall shall be located no closer to another building than a distance equal to one-half the height of the taller building of the two, but in no case less than 25 feet; (Ord. 259, Series 1966)
.4-3(2)(c). (Repealed by Ord. 259, Series 1966)
.4-3(2)(d). Any open court area which otherwise complies with standards of minimum spacing and open area of window exposure must, in any case, leave at least 25 per cent of its perimeter free and unobstructed for access by emergency vehicles;
.4-3(2)(e). A building group may not be so arranged that any temporarily or permanently inhabited building is inaccessible by emergency vehicles.
.4. Amount of Off-Street Loading Space Required. At least the following amounts of off-street loading space shall be provided, plus an area or means adequate for maneuvering, ingress and egress: (Ord. 97, Series 1957)


.4-1. For structures containing less than 25,000 square feet of gross floor area, one berth for each 12,500 square feet of gross floor area or increment thereof. Each such berth shall have a net area of not less than one hundred and sixty square feet;
.4-2. For structures containing 25,000 or more square feet of gross floor area, the number of berths specified in the following table. Each such berth shall be at least ten feet wide, thirty-five feet long and fourteen feet high.
Square Feet of Gross Floor Area Required Number of Berths
25.000 up to and including 40,000 1
40.001 up to and including 100,000 2
100.001 up to and including 160,000 3
160.001 up to and including 240,000 4
240.001 up to and including 320,000 5
320.001 up to and including 400,000 6
For each additional 90,000 over 400,000 1 additional
*Parking and Loading Requirements.
*(a) The width, of off-street parking spaces shall be not less than 8.5' in parking structures. All other off-street parking spaces shall be at least 9' wide. / .6_/
*(b) There shall be 1% off-street parking spaces provided for each unit in a multiple unit -dwelling. / .6-l(l)_7 *(c) There shall be at least one off-street parking space for each 600 square feet of gross floor area in a 'bank./ .6-8(1) and .8-1(9)(g)_7
*(d) There shall be at least one off-street parking space provided for each 500 square feet of gross floor area in office buildings. / .6-9(1) and .8-l(9)(e)_7 * All materials or wastes which might cause fumes or dust or which constitute a fire hazard or which may be edible or otherwise attractive to rodents or insects shall be stored outside only in closed containers. f~.5-2(5) (d) 7
10. Present, Past and Future Use of the Site: Most of the site (about 3.8 acres) was the home of Griffith Motors, which vacated this site for a suburban location 2% years ago after 18% years in


1
Northwest Denver. The Griffith Motors parcel is completely paved and contains only one building, a one-story, 17,000 square foot concrete block structure on the corner of Speer Blvd. and Firth Court. This building was constructed by Fred Spallone on six-foot diameter caissons drilled into bedrock. (These caissons supposedly would support a ten story building.) On the corner of Speer and Zuni is an operating service station, and on 29th Avenue are three residential structures (two multi-family and one single family) which are currently occupied. One of these has a store-room on the ground floor, which is occupied by a small business.
A Canadian development corporation, Norcal, is presently acquiring the two blocks I am developing for my thesis plus an additional 5.76 acres west of Firth Court. Locally, Plan West, Inc., of Englewood is working with Norcal to develop this larger site.
On November 12, 1980, Plan West presented a tentative plan to the Highland Community for an office park of about 600,000 square feet with two buildings, each of which might have three towers of twelve, nine, and six stories. Community leaders at the meeting strongly opposed the plan for basically two reasons: the height of the buildings and the planned use. They felt that the office complex would add too much traffic to the neighborhood (probably over 2000 cars/day), and they do not feel a "downtown-type" development is compatible with their neighborhood and its schools. The representatives of Norcal and Plan West are restudying their proposal based on the neighborhood's feedback to their original idea.
11. Community: The site is located on the southern boundary of the Highland Neighborhood, an area of moderately priced, reasonably sound housing, some of which is blighted. The area began to develop in the 1880's and 1890's and was annexed to Denver in 1896. Many of the older homes are built on 25-foot lots, and any block may contain houses representing the architecture of the 1890's, 1910's, 1920's, 1940's, and 1950's. Prior to World War II the area was primarily Italian.
By 1970, however, the largest ethnic population was Chicano, representing 47?o of Highland residents.
24


Although the neighborhood is primarily residential, the site is part of about 37 acres being used for commercial and office purposes in the neighborhood. The site is presently zoned B-4 and is located in this business-oriented portion of the neighborhood. The residential portion of Highland is almost exclusively one or more blocks to the north of the site. (Immediately to the north are various Denver City School facilities, including 27 acres of the North High School campus and the five-acre Valdez Elementary School facility. The portion of Highland to the east of the site (across Zuni St.) is mostly non-residential as is the area west of the site (across Firth Court). To the south of the site, across Speer Blvd., the area is commercial all the way to 24th Avenue, this area being occupied by the three-story Continental Terrace offices, the Continental Denver Hotel, and the Diamond Hill office complex.
Thus, although the sensitive development of this site must strive to harmonize with the small-scale residential neighborhood that grew to maturity from the 1890's to the 1940's, this task is somewhat simplified by the fact that the site does not physically abut these residential areas but is separated from them by one or more blocks of commercial or educational facilities.
12. Economic Potential.
Denver's rapid growth in recent years has established that there is a need for new dwelling units in the metropolitan area. Most of the growth seems to have been in suburban areas, but the resurgence of Capitol Hill and Washington Park —particularly the conversion of apartment to condo — shows that there is a demand for housing in the inner city. This demand is further evident by new, exclusive condominium developments along Larimer Street, some of which are nearly sold out even before construction is completed, and these units (specifically, Larimer Place) are in the $200,000 price range. The growth of the Central Business District and the energy shortage contribute to the need for near-downtown housing. Because of its proximity to downtown, the site I have chosen is a desirable potential location for housing, and because of the modest character of the Highland Neighborhood and the absence of new moderate-income housing downtown, I have


chosen to propose a moderate-income housing development for the site.
In an April 1979 study, Preliminary Highland Place Market Analysis of Redevelopment Potential, THK Associates stud-jer| the potential of a site just three blocks from the one under consideration by this study. THK reported that Denver has an annual demand for 3720 new dwelling units, 340 of these being in the Central area. They presented a profile of a successful rental project as 60?o one-bedroom and 40?o two-bedroom. A 630 sq. ft. typical one-bedroom apartment in this profile would rent for $300, while an 850 sq. ft. two-bedroom unit would rent for $380. Similar figures for condominimums show a 630-750 sq. ft., one-bedroom unit selling for $75/sq. ft.; an 850-950 sq. ft., two-bedroom unit for $70/sq. ft.; and a 100-1200 sq. ft., three-bedroom unit for $70/sq. ft. While these are profiles of potentially successful projects, the characteristics of existing con-
dominiums showed average one-bedroom, 1059 sq. ft. units selling for $62,853; two-bedroom, 1570 sq. ft. units, for $144,083; and three bedroom, 2797 sq. ft. units, for $238,551. THK's market study concluded that there is excessive competition among high-priced (over $60,000) condominiums, but that the most competitive price range is $40,000 to $67,200; in fact, units of these prices are in the price range that THK felt would create a demand for 340 new units annually in the central area.
The cost of the land is about $9.36/square foot. (This estimate is based on the September 1980 asking price for the Griffiths Motors property, $1,550,000.) As this is a rather high land cost, the possibility of a reasonable return for investors developing this site as proposed is perhaps uncertain.
26


13. Climate data for Denver:
Latitude: 39° 45'
Mean annual temperature: 50.2°
Winter design temperature: 3°
Summer design temperature: 89°
Heating degree days: 6016 Cooling degree days: 625 Annual precipitation: 14.56"
Annual snowfall: 59.9"
Average wind: 9.0 mph, prevailing from south
Winter wind: prevailing from northwest, infrequently high
Solar angle, June 21: 73.5°
Solar angle, Sept. 21: 50.0°
Solar angle, Dec. 21: 26.6°
Solar angle, March 21: 50.0°
27


CONCLUSIONS & PROGRAM


1. Use of the Site:
a. A number of factors studied in the site analysis seem to lead to planning of the site for mixed use. Among these are:
(1) The volume of traffic on Speer Blvd., which diminishes the desirability of the southern part of the site for residential use.
(2) The proximity of the Diamond Hill and Continental Terrace Office complexes to the south, which also diminishes the desirability of the southern part of the site for residential use and which have already established a commercial character along Speer Blvd.
(3) The school complex along 29th Avenue should be strong determinant for development of the whole site. Any use which would create a high volume of traffic along 29th Ave. would be highly incompatible.
(4) Use of the northern part of the site for residential development is highly desirable to ensure compatibility with the school complex. The existing residential area beyond (north) of the schools also leans toward residential development of the site. Although the area is less affluent than the average for Denver, the pride and community spirit within the Highland Neighborhood make the preservation of the neighborhood a desirable goal. To continue the Diamond Hill-Continental Terrace-type development northward into the neighborhood would increase the possibility of further commercial erosion of the residential character of the Highland area. Residential use would do the opposite.
b. The above factors have led me to suggest that the best use of the site would be mixed but predominately residential, with only the portion along Speer Blvd. being commercial. The commercial portion should be a small-scale business of some value to the residential neighborhood to the north. A charter for a bank in the community has recently been granted, and a bank would be an appropriate addition to the community. If located on the corner of Speer and Zuni, it would have excellent
29


visibility and would serve as a buffer between busy Speer Blvd. and residential use on the northern part of the site, and between existing office complexes and the Highland Community, including new residential developmenton the site.
c. The approximate portion of the site reserved for the bank site for this thesis will be lots seven through twenty in Block 14, Highland Park. The dimensions of this parcel would be approximately 250 feet along Zuni Street, 269 feet along Speer Blvd., 122 feet along Firth Court, and 253 feet along an east-west line parallel to and 170 feet south
of the center line of W. 28th Avenue. The bank site, then, would contain approximately 16,000 square feet in two - three stories and have parking for 28 cars. (It is probable that the final solution for the site planning will somehow combine the parking requirements of the bank and condominiums, so the exact parcel for the bank may not be so clearly defined as I suggested above.)
d. The remainder of the site, about 4.2 acres, is reserved for residential development.
The goal for residential portion of the site is to establish a condominium community of 220-250 units. The density resulting from such a project would be a maximum of 60 units/acre.
Roughly half of these would be one-bedroom units of about 650 square feet, and the other half would be two-bedroom units of approximately 800 square feet. Each unit will be provided with 1.5 parking spaces.
(2) Program:
a. The market to which these condominiums would most likely
appeal would be the urban dweller who works downtown and enjoys living in the city. These people would likely be single or childless married couples, but there might be some couples who have or plan to have one child, some single parents, and some single adults who might choose to share living quarters for an extended period of time. To satisfy the needs of these alternative life styles (i.e., alternative to "average" family consisting of parents and 2-3 children), I propose to provide one-bedroom apartments, one-bedroom apartments with dens, two-bedroom apartments
30


DIVISION OF SITE
AV£,
ZUNI grf.
I” =100’
NORTH
31


with one bathroom, and two-bedroom apartments with two bathrooms. The smallest unit will be about 600 square feet, and the largest, about 850-900 square feet. Approximate minimum space requirements for the units are summarized in the following table.


MINIMUM SQUARE FOOT REQUIREMENTS
FOR CONDOMINIUM SPACES
Smaller One Bedroom Larger One Bedroom Smaller Two Bedroom Larger Two Bedroom
Entry/coat closet'*' 30-50 sq. ft. 30-50 sq. ft. 30-50 sq. ft. 30-50 s
Living area^ 180 180 180 180
Dining area 80 80 80 80
Kitchen^ 70 70 70 70
Den — 150 — —
Master bedroom/closet^ 140 140 140 140
Second bedroom/closet — — 120 140
Master bathroom 40 40 40 40
Second bathroom — — — 40
Linen closet 5 5 '5 5
Storage 10 10 10 10
Circulation, as required Balcony/Patio 60 60 60 60
Entry may be separate room or part of living or dining area.
2
Smallest dimension of living area to be not less than twelve feet.
^Kitchen to have at least ten lineal feet of counter top workspace.
4
Closet to have at least eight lineal feet of clothes hanging space. ^Smallest dimension of balcony or patio to be not less than six feet.
33


c. Several amenities are located within walking distance
of the site. Among these are (1) the tennis courts, athletic fields, and playground for the city schools across 29th Avenue and (2) the new Triangle Park being built in the area enclosed by Federal Blvd., Speer Blvd., and 29th Avenue. The amenities I will try to include in the development are green space and a swimming pool, possibly enclosed.
d. Other considerations: The following list suggest some architectural goals for the project:
Abstract: Town Square, Organic, Summer Campfire, Contextural, Urban, Community, Geometry
Patterns: Sunlight in every home Wide-Angle Views Fresh air/outside living space Privacy Warmth Identity Car free
34


SOLUTION


SOLUTION
The solution consists of three types of buildings containing 169 one-and two-bedroom condominiums. Each building is three stories high with a parking level in the basement; the first floor of each building houses one-floor condominiums; the second floor contains the living areas of two-story units; and the third floor contains the bedrooms of the two-story units.
Building type 1 features units on each side of a double loaded corridor, a total of 24 units/building. A variation of type 1 occurs on the corner of 29th and Zuni where two type 1 buildings are linked together by a center section containing nine additional units. This large building encloses three sides of a courtyard and has a total of 57 units.
Building type 2 consists of repetitive sections made up of five different units, two one-floor and three two-floor plans. This building type is designed for garage entry and primary unit access from the north with living spaces and most large windows on the south. (One type 2 building is built parallel to Firth Ct. and thus does not face south).
Building type 3 consists of repetitive sections of six units, two one-floor plans and four two-floor plans. Unlike building type 2, though, these six units are not all different; rather, there are three different plans in each section of six - three pairs, each pair consisting of one which is the mirror image of its mate. Type 3 is designed for south entry for the garage and primary unit access from the north.
Like type 2, living spaces and most large windows face south.
Since the site is on a hillside, most pedestrian paths require steps at various points. The one exception is the major pathway which leads from the parking area along Firth Ct. to the swimming pool. This "path" is wide enough to allow vehicular access to the swimming pool, and its grade is gentle enough to allow handicap access not only to the pool and clubhouse area but also to the southernmost type 3 building,


the two one-floor units of which are designed for handicap (wheelchair) living, with 3'-0" doorways and enough space in bathroom and kitchen to allow for wheelchair maneuvering.
One unique circulation feature of the site is the pedestrian access from Zuni St. Pedestrians approaching from Zuni must first go up a set of stairs in the embankments around the two type 1 buildings closest to Zuni. Once at the top of these stairs, the walkways are level, and pedestrians cross over the automobile entrances to the buildings' garages on bridges. Two buildings actually have entries from these bridges.
The clubhouse adjacent to the pool is embedded in the hillside with a sod roof over it. On the upper level (same level as the pool outside) are a party room with a bar, a jacuzzi room, two restrooms and two shower/dressing rooms. The lower level has a billiard room with a bar, an office, storage, and mechanical rooms. The jacuzzi room is partly formed by a large bay window, the two side portions of which are glass block. The middle portion is a sliding glass door which may be covered with shutters. Thus the jacuzzi area may be completely closed for privacy or opened to the pool in the summer.
Each unit has space for a stacked washer-dryer combination, and each has its own electric hot water heater and reversible fan to provide circulation. Fresh air may be brought in from the attic in the winter, and in summer cool evening air may be drawn through the windows with warmer air being exhausted through the attic. Heating is provided by a boiler in each building which provides baseboard radiators in the units with hot water.
Structurally the buildings are masonry bearing walls with concrete slab floors and, in the case of type 1 buildings, interior concrete columns. Roofs are wood trusses.
The solution was heavily influenced by the following factors:
Neighborhood: The decision to use the site primarily for residential development was based largely on the proximity of the site to city schools and on the desires of the neighborhood. Additionally, the neighborhood's desire for low-rise buildings that would not overpower the existing
37


residential neighborhood or block existing views led to the series of three-story buildings making up the complex. The detailing of the buildings was designed to make them fit in with the older buildings nearby - specifically the pitched roofs (5:12), the use of brick and stucco exteriors, the soldier courses on the larger buildings, the bay windows, the arched windows and the round and arched ventilation louvers in the attic spaces.
Economics: The high cost of the land mandated the highest density possible within acceptable aesthetic limits. The 169 units represent a density of about 40/acre. The parking solution (basement parking) was greatly influenced by the need for high density, for to have surface parking would have greatly reduced the area available for building.
And to have a structured parking garage would have greatly increased development costs in what was to be a middle-income housing area.
Hillside: The sloping nature of the site lent itself gracefully to pleasant site development. Architectually, the buildings had to be adaptable to hillside building. Two of the buildings have level changes to step down with the hill, and all take advantage of the hill ta provide basement-level parking.
Southern Exposure and View: Nearly all single-loaded units have major living areas oriented to the south. Double-loaded units face either east or west. The best views are to the south and east.
Shape of the Site: The irregular shape of the parcel, determined by the curve of Firth Ct. and the angle of Speer Blvd., suggested the arrangement and type of buildings used. The larger, double-loaded buildings were less flexible (in terms of bending with the shape of the parcel and the hill) and so were placed on north and east portions of the site near 29th Ave. and Zuni St., the straight boundaries.
The smaller, single-loaded buildings were placed to the west where they could "bend" with Firth Ct.
Green Space/Summer Camp Fire Design Concept: The arrangement of the buildings to either face a green space or be linked to it through a green "corridor" was realized as all except two buildings either face into the court near the 29th/Zuni intersection or into the swimming


pool area. The two buildings which do not face these major green spaces (the buildings on the northwest and southwest corners of the site) are linked to the major green spaces by narrower green walkways, and they have a consolation amenity of facing an alternative open area - in one,29th Ave. and in the other, Speer Blvd. and the southern mountains beyond the bank parking area. As part of this greenspace/campfire concept, the clubhouse nestles into the hillside instead of projecting up into the space near the swimming pool.


W. 29TH AVE.
o




FAN AND BOILER ROOM
!t
JT
BASEMENT
MONTH
BUILDING TYPE 1
• 0 S 10 tt JO
Highland Terrace
MASTER'S THESIS UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
WILIAM NARDM MAY 7. 1881
4^
to


FIRST FLOOR
Highland Terrace
MASTER'S THESIS WLLUM NARDM
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER MAY 7, 1SS1
4*
W


SECOND FLOOR
HighCand Terrace
MASTER'S THESIS WS.UAM NARDM
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER MAY 7. 19S1
A
■£>



THIRD FLOOR
• 0 • 10 M 20
Highland Terrace
MASTER'S THESIS UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
WLLIAM NARDM MAY 7. 1981
-P>
Ui


BUILDING TYPE 2
LIVING AREA - UNIT E
J--------------------------------V.
Highland Terrace
MASTER'S THESIS UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO fT DENVER
WLLIAM NARDM MAY 7. 1SS1
O
s


BUILDING TYPE 2 i
t 0 » w> » to
SECOND FLOOR
Highland Terrace
MASTER'S THESIS WS.LIAM NARDM
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER MAY 7. 1961
â– F*
N


BUILDING TYPE 3
» o s io m ao
FIRST FLOOR
‘fa
J____
L^>
BASEMENT
Highland Terrace
MASTER'S THESIS UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
WILIAM NARDM MAY 7. 1081
*
00


BUILDING TYPE 3 t
• ®__•_"__*__* MOHT
$
j-------------------------“ v
Highland Terrace
MASTER'S THESIS UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
WILIAM NARDM MAY 7, 1SS1
S-------------------------------r


APPENDIX


THESIS COMMITTEE
Robert Kindig, College of Environmental Design Chalmers, G. Long, College of Environmental Design Ronald Treants, Seracuse, Lawler, and Partners, Inc. G. K. Vetter, College of Environmental Design
Additionally, Mr. Rudolph Castro of the City and County of Denver Planning Office and Mr. Brian Congleton, architect, have indicated that they may be available to offer assistance on occasion.


Schedule for Thesis Semester:
January 26, 1981
January 26 - February 27, 1981
March 2, 1981
March 3-20, 1981
March 21 - 29, 1981
March 30, 1981
May 4, 1981
Semester begins
Generation of alternative concepts
Select concept to develop
Develop concept
Spring break
Begin final drawings
Present thesis
52


LIST OF CONTACTS
1. Ms. Billie Bramhall, Community Development Agency Officer,
1425 Kalamath St., Denver, Colorado. 572-8121.
2. Mr. Salvadore Carpio, Denver City Councilman, 1525 W. 32nd Avenue, Denver, Colorado. 458-8960.
3. Mr. Rudolph F. Castro, Urban Planner, City and County of Denver Planning Office, 1445 Cleveland PI., Denver, Colorado. 575-3268.
4. Mr. Brian Congleton, Architect and Member of Highland Neighborhood Planning Team, 2729 Champa St., Denver, Colorado. 534-4718.
5. Mr. James Hahn, Denver Community Development Corporation Officer, '4142 Tejon St., Denver, Colorado, 433-8636.
6. Mr. Ronald R. Himstreet, Corporate Development Officer, J. Arthur Grull Realty Co., 441 Wadsworth Blvd., Denver, Colorado. 232-2222.
7. Mr. Frank Quintana, Chairman, Highland Neighborhood Planning Team and Denver Community Development Corporation Officer, 4142 Tejon St., Denver, Colorado. 433-4344.
53


BIBLIOGRAPHY
City and County of Denver, Zoning Ordinance, September 1978.
The Denver Planning Office. Highland Neighborhood Plan. 1976.
Lynch, Kevin. Site Planning. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1962.
The Marshall Valuation System. Los Angeles: Marshall and Swift Publication Company. Updated for Denver, Colorado, in January 1980 by D. C. Holder .
McGuiness, William F. and Benjamin Stein. Mechanical and Electric Eguipment for Buildings. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1971.
North High School Soil Report presented to the Denver Public Schools, August 8, 1979.
THK Associates. Preliminary Highland Place Market Analysis of Redevelopment Potential, April 1979.
Uniform Building Code, 1979.
U. S. Department of Commerce, National Climatic Center. Local
Climatological Data: Annual Summary with Comparative Data [_ for_/ Denver, Colorado! Ashville, North Carolina, 19/9.


Full Text

PAGE 1

[fli9hCand Terrace MASTER'S THESIS WII.L.h' :U: r Ui!RD!N ' ' 10 190 72 981 37 UNIVE R SITY . OF COLO: RADO AT DENVER MA'Y; 7, 1981 -. '

PAGE 2

Table of Contents Part I Concerns and Goals Part II Site and Climate Analysis 1. Location 2. Topography, Size, and Configuration 3. Views 4. Access 5. Utilities and Drainage 6. Soil Conditions 7. Sun 8. 1979 UBC Requirements 9. Zoning 10. Present, Past, and future Use 11. Community 12. Economic Potential 13. Climate Part III Conclusions and Program 1. Use of Site 2. Program Part IV Solution Part V Appendix Thesis Committee List Schedule for Thesis Semester List of Contacts Bibliography of Illustrations Vicinity Map Contour Map View Analysis Traffic Analysis Division of Site Page 1 4 5 5 5 9 9 11 11 12 19 23 24 25 27 28 29 31 35 50 51 52 53 54 6 7 8 10 31

PAGE 3

CONCERNS & GOALS

PAGE 4

The thesis site I have chosen to develop is on a 4.96 acre parcel of land in Northwest Denver. The site is one of many which, because of their proximity to downtown Denver and the deteriorating condition of the existing structures on them, are ripe for redevelopment in the area along I-25 between Mile High Stadium and the 23rd Street viaduct. The way these sites are developed, including both the use of the land and the height and quality of the buildings constructed, will probably determine the future of the neighborhoods of Northwest Denver. These neighborhoods are the homes of many long-standing Denver residents, including 9 large segment of the Chicano community. The neighborhoods are modest, being composed primarily of small brick homes among mature trees. Interspersed with the homes are small neighborhood businesses, a product of a past time when the automobile was not such an part of everyday life and when zoning laws did not restrict the intermixing of business and residential development. If these neighborhoods do not survive, large numbers of people will be displaced, and the city will lose a significant part of its history. The development of the two-block area as suggested in this report would strengthen the residential character of Northwest Denver, hopefully establishing a precedent for future development along I-25. The use I am suggesting for this site, which is contained within the boundaries of West 29th Avenue, Zuni Street, Speer Boulevard, and Firth Court, is primarily residential, with only a small portion along Speer Blvd. being reserved for compatible commercial development. The housing will, like the older housing in the area, be modest in scale and sound in construction. It will be of medium height and density. To develop this site for affluent dwellers might start a trend which would push out both the people who live in adjoining neighborhoods and the modest homes which were built there. To build for low income residents in an area already populated by a significant number of low-income households might push the area into a downward spiral which could destroy it. The middle income residents who would likely 2

PAGE 5

inhabit the new dwellings would probably be clerical and semiprofessional people who work downtown. The influx of these moderate income people into the existing neighborhood would hopefully create an environment enabling both older and newer residents to live peacefully in a stable neighborhood without the threat of dense, • urban Additionally, there seems to be a need for middle income housing in and near the downtown area, as present development of downtown housing, particularly alqng Larimer Street, is planned primarily for the high-income market. The central concern for this thesis problem, then, is first, the stability of the neighborhood and second, the need for middle-income housing near downtown. The two issues, as I indicated above, are not unrelated. Oneproblem connected to these concerns is the economic feasibility of such a project; the land in question is relatively expensive, and although housing could be built on the site profitably, the profit, I strongly suspect, would be less than what would be realized with a larger, more commercial, downtown-type development. Because of economic necessity, I have established a goal for about 50 units/acre, which is somewhat dense than I would otherwise desire. Related goals include developing a pleasant environment, both inside and outside the condominiums, by capitalizing on the views, the hillside site, and Denver sunshine. Another goal is energy efficiency, to which the orientation of the site and the density of the development should both contribute. 3

PAGE 6

SITE & CLIMATE

PAGE 7

1. Location. The site is 1.4 miles northwest of Denver's Central Business District. The boundaries are on the north, West 29th Ave.; on the East, Zuni St.; on the south, Speer Blvd.; and on the west, Firth Court. 2a. The site is located on a hillside sloping, roughly from the northwest to the southwest, down toward the Platte River. The highest point (at the intersection of W. 29th Ave. and Firth Court) is at elevation 5,288, and the lowest point (at the intersection of Speer and Zuni) is at elevation 5,252. At 29th and Zuni, the elevation is 5,277, and at Speer and Firth, 5,259. 2b. Size and Configuration. The two blocks enclosed by boundaries of the site contain approximately 4.96 acres. The dimensions of the parcel are 570 feet on the north, 650 feet on the east, 250 feet on the south, and 704 feet on the west. Both dimensions and acreage include that part of West 28th Ave. running between Zuni St. and Firth Ct. Twenty-eighth Ave. does not cross either Zuni or Firth and carries virtually no traffic. The city is willing to vacate the street when the area is redeveloped. 3. Views from the site. The views are excellent. To the east and southeast is the entire Denver skyline, and to the south and southwest the front range is visible from ground level. The views from upper floors in buildings on this site might even be spectacular. 5

PAGE 9

CONTOUR MAP ---/ ,----------........ .,. --------.......... ___ ..; ---------/ / ----...... ---____ , f , / t l I I ----,.........,--....._/ , , / -......._........_, / ' I I .r ----_ .........._ ......... -:::::._ ......_..._ .,!2ao ./ I ( /----....... ........... --/ /( -.................. ,, ; I l "'--, ...... ::_----_./I ' ....._ ___ _ I"= 100' INTERVAL: 527 0 ........... __ ,..... / ------,--........... ' "-... '-\AYE.. \ --...... \ "-......._ --" '-.. COUt(.l " ........... ' ' ........... '-........... ......... ......__ ......... -.. .......... -.. .._ ........ -52'-0 ; / --ZUNI Sf. 7

PAGE 10

GROUND-LEVEL VIEWS 5K.YL.INE. 1' N 8

PAGE 11

4. Access. City Streets: Three of the four streets on the boundaries .of the property carry more than just neighborhood traffic. (1) Speer Blvd. is classified as an arterial street, that is, . one carrying "rapid and relatively unimpeded traffic ... throughout the city and serving as the primary link between communities and major land use elements." Average weekday traffic on this section of Speer Blvd. is 37,600 vehicles. (2) West 29th Ave. and Zuni St. are classified as collector streets, which ''have the function of collecting and distributing traffic • • . within the community.'' West 29th carries about 5,600 vehicles daily and Zuni carries 10,200 vehicles. The Highland Neighborhood Plan suggests that West 29th Ave. rush hour traffic should be minimized (in favor of Speer Blvd.) to reduce the danger to students at Valdez Elementary School, which is located in the block adjacent to the site. RTD Bus Routes: The site is served by two east-west routes, the 23 and 28/28A bus routes, both of which run on streets which serve as site boundaries. Additionally, a north-south route is available on Federal Blvd., 5 blocks to the west. Driving timesto major facilities are as follows: North High . School: 1 minute Central Business District: 5 minutes Auraria Campus: 5 minutes Mile High Stadium: 5 minutes State Capitol: 10 minutes General Hospital: 10 minutes 5. Utilities/Drainage: Electricity and gas lines are located along Speer Blvd., Zuni St., and W. 29th Ave. Water is available from Denver Water Board mains located in the three above streets and also in W. 28th Ave. The City and County of Denver provides sewer service along Speer Blvd., Zuni St., and W. 29th Ave. Zuni St. also has a storm sewer. 9

PAGE 12

•1-0e.Z. ec.HOoLAOJACf.Ni' e1-0c..K :l"IH HleH &.Ho:>L1'WO 2C11H AV'f-, 5,b00 1..5' 1"H. &, I & 1"H, err". V IADUC..."F?) 28 1"H. AVJ!...U N I oo TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AVERAGE WEEKDAY TRAFFIC 1' N r:

PAGE 13

6. Soil Conditions: The soil conditions on the site are likely to be similar to those on the North High School campus. A firm of "consulting engineers, geologists, and environmental (I was asked not to use the firm's name.) prepared a report which was presented to the Denver Public Schools on August 8, 1979. The report states: Our test holes and test pits showed up to feet of man-made fill; 3 feet of medium dense to dense, slightly silty to silty sands; 4 feet of medium dense, clayey to very clayey sands; and 16 feet of stiff to very stiff, sandy clays over firm to medium hard claystone bedrock at depthsranging from to 16 feet. One test hole showed a hard to very hard sandstone layer, 5 feet thick and 11 feet below ground surface, overlying the claystone bedrock. Our experience in the area indicates that the claystone bedrock, clayey phases of the sandstone bedrock and some _of the clays swell upon wetting. The expansive clays, claystone and clayey phases of the sandstone bedrock are stable at their natural moisture contents, however, if wette. d will swell, causing movement of foundations placed thereon. The upper sands and clays should support low to moderate loads and the claystone and sandstone bedrock high loads. We measured free water in four of our test holes atdeptbs of to 13 feet during drilling. We have no data on seasonal ground water fluctuations at the site. Additional data on ground water fluctuations during wetter seasons and wetter years should be checked. In the absence of such data, we suggest assuming free water levels could rise 3 feet above the highest levels meaasured in our test holes. It appears ground water will have little effect on planned nearsurface construction, but will affect pier drilling. 7. Sun: Presently there are no buildings or natural geologic features which shade the site. Since the site is on a south-facing hillside, the opportunities for passive or active solar use on the site are considerablo, particularly given the 248 days of clear or partly cloudy days which Denver enjoys annually. Solar angles for various months are given in i tern 13, "climate." 1 1

PAGE 14

8. 1979 Uniform Building Code Requirements: 'This code summary is for residential multi-unit buildings, with some references to other types (garages, carports) in case these structures are part of the total design. References in brackets are all to sections of the 1979 usc. (1) Occupancy Classification: Group R, Division 1 /-1201_7 (2) Occupancy Separation Requirements: Three hours from Group R to garage (Group Bl) and one hour to restaurants, offices and stores (Groups 82, 3, and 4) L-Table 58_7 (3) Construction Types Permitted: Types I -V. See summary table on next page. (4) Fire ratings, etc.: (fi) One hour for exterior walls L-Table 5 A_7 (b) If two stories of less in height, nonbearing walls need not be rated if common walls and corridors have one-hour rati0g. L-1202(b)_7 (c) If higher than two-stories, floors, roofs, partitions, and structured frame must have one-hour rating if there is more than 3000 sq. ft. above the first story. (d) If three or more stories and 15 or more apartments, a fire alarm is required. (5) Number of Exits Required: (a) 2/dwelling for housing with occupancy over 10, based on 300 square feet/occupant. L-Table 33A_7 (b) Floors above first floor must have two exits if occupancy is greater than 10 L-3302(a)_7, three exits if occupancy of 501 to 1000, and four exits if over 1000. (c) To compute number of exits needed for a floor, take the occupancy of that floor plus 50% of the occupancy of adjoining floors exiting through that floor plus 25% of the occupancy of the floor immediately above or below the adjacent floor(s). (d) Every sleeping room below the fourth story must have one operable door or window with at least 5.7 sq. ft. of opening at least 24 inches wide and high and no more than 44 inches above the floor. (6) Exit Door Width Requirements: Occupant load divided by SO = exit width in feet Minimum size for individual doors: 3'-0" x 6'-8" L-3302(3)_7 12

PAGE 15

-1 4 7 A .f2,5, 7 Rating of Area 3 Floor Area 6 ' rea 1 Types of Constructio n /Height Bld g over 1 story Separation Walls I -FR Unlimited Unlimited 4 HR. II -FR 29,900 sq. ft. /12 stories 59,800 sq. ft. 4 HR II ONE HR. 13 , 5 00/4 27, 000 2 HR II NON-RATED 9,100/2 18,000 2 HR III ONE HR. 13,500/4 27,000 4 HR III NON-RATED 9 ,100/2 18,200 4 HR IV HEAVY TIMBER 13,500/4 27,000 4 HR IV ONE HR. 10,500/3 21,000 2 HR V NON-RATED 6,000/2 12 , 000 2 HR 1Maximum floor area of one story bldg. 2 M . fl ax1mum oar area 3consider portions o f buildings thusly separated as separate b uildings. Sec 505(d) 4 May be tripled if sprinkled 5 May be doubled if sprinkled 6May be increased by one story unless allo wable floor area is increased due to sprinking per Sec 506 or unless sprinkling provided in lieu o f fire-resistive c onstructio n per Sec 508. 7Increasrnin floor areas are permitted if the building is separated from other buildings by open public space, streets, or yards of 20 feet or greater in width. For open area o n two sides of the building, 1\% increase is permitted for each foot the open space exceeds 20 feet, to a maximum of 50%. For buildings adjoining open space on three sides, a increase per foot over 20 feet is permitted (maximum 100%) and for open space on four sides, a 5% increase per foot over 20 feet (maximum 100%) REF: Sec 505, 506, 507, Table SOC, and Table SOD, UBC.

PAGE 16

(7) Stair Width Requirements: 44 inches minimum if occupancy load over 50. 36 inch minimum if occupancy under 50 /-3305(b) 7 -(8) Corridor Width Requirements: 44 inches minimum occupancy over 10. 36 inches minimum for R-1 L-3304(b)_7 (9) Stair Landing Requirements: Landing equal to width of stair L-3305(g)J, 4'-0" maximum landing if stair has a straight run. A door swinging over a landing shall not reduce the landing to less than one half its required width. (10) Dead End Corridor Limits: 20 feet L-3304(e)_7 (11) Door Swing Requirements: In the direction of exit travel L-33o3(b)J (12) Riser Tread Limits: Riser 4 to 7\ inches. Tread at least 10 inches L-3305(e)_7 (13) Ramp Requirements: 44" wide L-3306(b)J; 1:12 slope L-3306(c)J; 5'0" landing at top one, 5'-0" intermediate landing for each 5 feet of rise, 6'0" bottom landing, all with rough surface. Railings required. (14) Vertical Openings Limit and Fire Ratings: (a) Fire ratings for shaft enclosures are 2 hour for Types I and II fire resistive buildings and 1 hour for all others. L-Table 17AJ (b) Gas vents and non-combustible piping installed in wall of buildings passing through three floors or less (four if equipped with automatic sprinkler not be rated. L-1706(a)J (c) Every interior opening into a shaft enclosure shall be protected_by a self-closing fire assembly having a rating of 1 hour if in a one-hour wall and 1\ hours if in a two hour wall. L-1706(b)_7 (d) Rubbish and linen chutes shall terminate in rooms separated from the remainder of the building by a one-hour fireresistive occupancy separation. Openings into the chutes shall not be located in exit corridors or stairways. L-1706(c)J (e) Elevator shafts extending through more than two stores shall be vented to the outside. The area of vents shall be not less than 3\% of the area of the shaft with a 14

PAGE 17

minimum of 3 square feet per elevator. L-1706(d)_7 (f) Stairs in open parking garages need not be enclosed L-3308(a)_7 (g) Walls enclosing exits shall be rated not less than two hour in buildings over 4 stories and one-hour elsewhere (h) A stairway in an exit enclosure shall not continue below the grade level exit unless an barrier is provided at 'the ground floor level. L-3308(e)_7 (i) There shall be no enclosed usable space under stairways in an exit enclosure, nor shall the open space under such stairways be used for any pur.pose. L-3308(f)_7 (15) Exit Lighting Requirements: (a) Exits shall be illuminated when the building is occupied with light having an intensity of not less than one footcandle at floor level. (b) In Group R Division 1 buildings housing over 50 persons at every required exit doorway and wherever otherwise required to indicate the direction of egress, an exit sign with letters having a principal stroke not less than 3/4 inch wide and at least 6 inches high shall be provided. L-3312(b)_7 Garages shall have such signs if occupancy is over 100. (c) Exit signs shall be lighted with two electric lamps of not less than 15 watts each on separate circuits, one of which shall be separated from all other circuits in the building and be independently controlled. (16) Ceiling Height Minimums: Ceiling height miminums are 7'6" L-1207(a)_7 except in kitchens, halls, baths, and exit corridors, in which the minimum is 7'0" I 1207(a) and 3304(c)_7, and in stairways, in which the minimum is 6'6" from the nose of the stair L-3305(p)_7 (17) Light and Ventilation Requirements: If ventilated through a window, the window opening shall be no less than 1/20 of the floor area of the room (five square feet minimum for all rooms except bath and laundry, for which square feet is the minimum). If ventilated mechanically, all rooms shall have two air changes per hour except baths, which shall have five air changes per hour. 15

PAGE 18

(18) Furnace/Boiler Room Restrictions: One hour fire wall. L-1212J (19) Chimney Height and Construction Requirements: Chimneys shall extend at least 2'0" above the roof and at least 2'0" above any part of the building within 10' 0" of the chimney. Chimhey walls shall be at least 4 inches thick with 5/8 inch fire clay tile or inch fire brick. L-Table 37(b)J (20) Sprinkler Requirements: (a) Sprinklers are required in every story or basement of over 1500 square feet in which there is not at least 20 square feet of opening entirely above the adjoining ground level in each 50 lineal feet or fraction thereof of exterior wall on at least one side of the building. Openings shall have a minimum dimension of 30 inches. Such openings shall not be obstructed in any manner so that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior. W hen openings are _provided on only one side and the opposite wall is more than 75 feet from such openings, the story shall be provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system. If any portion of the basement is more than 75 feet from required openings, the basement shall be provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system. L-3802(b)lAJ (b) Sprinklers are required at the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes extending through three or more floors shall have additional sprinkler heads installed within such chutes at alternate floors. L-3802(b)lB_7 (21) Standpipe Requirements: In buildings 4 stories or more but less than 150 feet in height, Class I standpipe outlets shall be provided at every floor level landing of every required stairway and on each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit. There shall be a three-way outlet above the roof line when the roof has a slope of less than 4 inches in 12 inches. Class II standpipes shall be accessible and shall be located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet of a nozzle attached to 100 feet of hose. L-3803_7 16

PAGE 19

(22) Handicap Access: There shall be one handicap accessible unit for 21 -99 units and one additional unit for every hundred units or fraction thereof over the first hundred units. (23) Sanitation: Every dwelling shall have a kitchen with a sink and a bathroom with a water closet, lavatory, and either a tub or a shower. L-1205(b)_7 (24) Limitations on Yards and Courts Having Required Window Openings L-1206_7: (a) Yards: 3' wide for one-and two-story buildings (b) 1' additional yard to be added for each additional story. (c) Yards for buildings over 15 storiesshall be computed on the basis of 15 stories. (d) Courts: minimum 3'. (e) Courts with windows on opposite sides: minimum 6'. (f) Courts bounded on 3 or more sides by the walls of the building shall be not less than 10' in length unless bounded on one end by a street or yard. For buildings more than two stories in height, the court shall be increased one foot in width and two feet in length for each additional story. For buildings exceeding 14 stories, the required dimensions shall be computed on the basis of 14 stories. (g) Every court more than 2 stories in height shall have a horizontal air intake at the bottom not less than 10 sq. ft. in area and leading to the exterior of the building. (Construction of intake to be one-hour fire resistive.) (25) Room Dimensions L-1207_7: (a) Minimum ceiling height: 7'6" (kitchen, halls, bathrooms, and toilet compartments may be 7' 0", however.) (b) Minimum ceiling height is required in only half the area of a room with a sloping ceiling. (c) Every unit shall have at least one room with at least 150 sq. ft. of floor area. Other rooms, except kitchens, shall have a minimum area of 70 sq. (d) No habitable room other than a kitchen shall be less than 7' 0" in any dimension. 17

PAGE 20

(26) Smoke Detectors: Every dwelling unit shall have a smoke detector receiving primary power from the buildings wiring system. Detectors shall be mounted on the ceiling or wall at a point centrally located in the corridor or area giving access to rooms used for sleeping purposes. L-1210_7 (27) Heating: Every unit shall have a heating system capable of maintaining a 70 room temperature 3 feet above the floor in all habitable rooms. L-1211_7 (2) Carports: (a) Windows between a carport and a dwelling shall be inoperable. L-1214_7 (b) Doors between a carport and a dwelling shall be self closing. L-1214_7 18

PAGE 21

9. Zoning. The parcel is currently zoned 8-4; however, both the Denver City Planning Office and the broker who listed the property for sale have indicated that the site could be used for a twenty-story building. Since the Denver Zoning Ordinance prohibits a maximum gross floor area of more than twice the area of the zone lot L-.9-4(2)_7 I am using R-4 zoning restrictions, which permit larger gross floor areas. The specific requirements for R-4 zoning are as follows: * dwellings L-.5-3 (1) (h)J, offices L-.5-3 (1) (v)_7, and banks L-.5-3 (i) (tt)_7 are among the permitted uses. * Parking areas need not be enclosed. L-.5-3 (1) (2)_7 * Each zone lot shall a. Have at least one front line b. Be at least 50' wide at the front set back line and contain at least 6000 square feet if containing residential structures other than single family dwellings. c. Have at least 20% unobstructed open space excluding off-street parking areas, if the building is 1 -3 habitable stories in height. d. Have at least 30% unobstructed open space excluding off-street parking, if the building is 4 or more habitable stories in height. (Note: The unobstructed open space may be located either on the ground or on a roof deck with an average height of not more than 6' above grade.) (1)_7 * The front setback shall be 10' from the front line of the zone lot, except for structures facing the longer side of an oblong (corner) lot, in which case the setback may be reduced to 5'. This setback shall not be used for the parking or vehicles. L-.5-4 (2) (b)_/ * The rear setback shall be not less than 5' for all detached accessory structures and fixtures and 20' for all other structures. L-.5-4 (2) (b)_7 19

PAGE 22

* The side setback for lots 30' or more in width shall be not less than 7'6". L-.5-4 (2) (c) (c-3)_7 * The space resulting from the side above setback shall be used for landscaping and access ways but not for the parking of vehicles unless the building is 21' or more from the side line of the zone lot. L-. 5 -4 (2) (c) (c-4)J * The following encroachments on setback space are permitted: quoted from the Revised Municipal Code of the City and County of Denver, .5-4(2)(d)(d-l). Belt courses, sills, lintels, and pilasters may project eighteen inches into front, rear and side setback spaces. (Ord. 467, Series 1959) .5-4(2)(d)(d-2). Cornices, eaves and gutters may project three into front setback space, five feet into rear setback space and thirty-six inches into side setback space; provided, however, that if the side setback space is less than five feet in .width then such projection shall not exceed one-half the width of the side setback space. (Ord. 383, Serie$ 1959) .5-4(2)(d)(d-3). Outside stairways may project five feet into front setback space, ten feet into rear setback space and three feet into side setback space; .5-4(2)(d)(d-4). Unwalled porches, terraces and balconies may be extended five feet into front and rear setback spaces; .5-4(s)(d)(d-5). Chimneys not to exceed six feet in width may project eighteen inches into front, rear and side setback spaces. (Ord. 468, Series 1959) .5-4(s)(d)(d-6). Building accessories designed and intended to control light entering a building and being a permanent part of such building may project five feet into frontset back space, ten feet into rear setback space and three feet into side setback space; .5-4(2)(d)(d-7). Building accessories designed and intended to control light entering a building and not being a permanent part of such building, by being removable therefrom and by not being attached to a load-bearing member thereof, may project any distance into any setback space . . 5-4(s)(d)(d-8). Canopies may project any distance into the front setback space. (Sec. l(a) , Ord. 16, Series 1958) .5-4(2)(d)(d-9). Any structure or part thereof which is below the grade or any setback space may project any distance into such setback space. (Ord. 411, Series 1959) .5-4(2)(d)(d-10) . . Gas and electric meters and transformers may project three feet into front, rear and side setback spaces if screened on all sides by a masonry wall. (Ord. 494, Series 1971) 20

PAGE 23

5-4(2)(e). Fences, Walls and Retaining Walls. Fences, Walls and Retaining Walls not exceeding 48 inches in height may be erected on any part of the Zone Lot between the front line of the Zone Lot and the front setback line for structures and on any other part of the Zone Lot may be erected to a height of not to exceed 72 inches; provided, however, (1) retaining walls abutting public rights of way may be built to any height; (2) schools, public parks and/or playgrounds may erect open-mesh fences to any height on any part of the Zone Lot and (3) on a corner Zone Lot, fences and walls not exceeding 72 inches in height may be built on the rear line of the Zone Lot and on the front line of a Zone Lot from the rear line forward to the rear of any structure containing the Use by Right if the corner Zone Lot meets the following qualifications: (a) is located on a block oblong in shape; (b) the structure thereon containing the Use by Right faces a longer dimension of the block; and (c ) all Zone Lots on the same shorter dimension of the same block are either vacant or do not have thereon any structure containing a Use by Right which structure faces the shorter dimension of the block. The height of fences and retaining walls shall be determined by measurement from the ground level at the lowest grade level within three feet of either side of such walls, fences or retaining walls; provided, however, that in computing the height of retaining walls there shall be omitted from such computation any open-mesh fence located on top of the retaining wall and not exceeding 48 inches in height. Fences, walls and retaining walls permitted hereunder shall not be included in computing compliance with Area of Window Exposure. (Sec. l(b), Drd. 39, Series 1958) .5-4(3). Maximum Bulk of Structures. No part of any structure (except church spires, church towers, flagpoles, antennas, chimneys, flues, vents or accessory water tanks) s.hall project up through bulk limits which are defined by planes starting (1) at horizontal .lines which are codirectional to the side line or lines of the Zone Lot and pass through points thirty feet above the mid-point of each such side line or lines, and _(2) at horizontal lines which are co-directional to the center lines of all streets abutting the Zone Lot and pass through points thirty feet above the mid-point of such center lines between the boundary lines of the Zone Lot extended, and (3) at, if no alley abuts the Zone Lot, a horizontal line which is codirectional to the rear line of the Zone Lot and passes through a point thirty feet above the mid-point of such rear line of the Zone Lot; and if the rear line or lines of the Zone Lot are established by an abutting alley or alleys such plans shall start at horizontal lines which are co-directional to the center lines of such abutting alley or alleys and pass through points thirty feet above 21

PAGE 24

the mid-point of such center lines between the boundary lines of the Zone Lot extended, and which planes extend up over the Zone Lot at an angle of sixty-three degrees and twenty-six minutes with respect to the horizontal (a pitch of two feet additional rise .for each foot additional setback) until such planes intersect a vertical line thirty feet horizontally distant from the various points of beginning as above set forth, at which point the angle of the bulk plane shall change from sixty-three degrees and twenty-six minutes to ninety degrees or true vertical. (Ord. 279, Series 1970) .5-4(4). Maximum Gross Floor Area in Structure. The sum total of the gross floor area of all structures on a Zone Lot, excluding garage space, shall not be greater than four times the area of the Zone Lot on which the structures are located . • 4-3(l)(b). A building wall of a multiple unit dwelling shall be located no closer to another building than a distance equal to the height of the taller building of the two, but in no case less than 25 feet; the building wall of a single unit dwelling shall be located no closer than 10 feet from another single unit dwelling. (Drd. 74, Series 1977) .4-3(l)(d). Any open court area which otherwise complies with standards of minimum spacing and open area of window exposure must, in any case, leave at least 25 per cent of its perimeter free and unobstructed for access by emergency vehicles; .4-3(l)(e). A building group may not be so arranged that any temporarily. or permanently inhabited building is inaccessible by emergency vehicles • . 4-3(s)(b). A building wall shall be located no closer to another building than a distance equal to one-half the height of the taller building of the two, but in no case less than 25 feet; (Drd. 259, Series 1966) .4-3(2)(c). (Repealed by Ord. 259, Series 1966) .4-3(2)(d). Any open court area which otherwise complies with standards of minimum spacing and open area of window exposure must, in any case, leave at least 25 per cent of its perimeter free and unobstructed for access by emergency vehicles; .4-3(2)(e). A building group may not be so arranged that any temporarily or permanently inhabited building is inaccessible by emergency vehicles • • 4. Amount of Off-Street Loading Space Required. At least the following amounts of off-street loading space shall be provided, plus an area or means adequate for maneuvering, ingress and egress: (Drd. 97, Series 1957) 22

PAGE 25

.4-1. For structures containing less than 25,000 square feet of gross floor area, one berth for each 12,500 square feet of gross floor area or increment thereof. Each such berth shall have a net area of not less than one hundred and sixty square feet; .4-2. For structures containing 25,000 or more square feet of gross floor area, the number of berths specified in the following table. Each such berth shall be at least ten feet wide, thirty-five feet long and fourteen feet high. Square Feet of Gross Floor Area Required Number of Berths 25,000 up to and including 40,000 l 40,001 up to and including lOQ,OOO 2 100,001 up to and including 160,000 3 160,001 up to and including 240, ooo 4 240,001 up to and including 320,000 5 320,001 up to and including 400,000 6 For each additional 90,000 over 400,000 1 additional *Parking and Loading Requirements. *(a) The width. of off-street parking spaces shall be not less than 8.5' in parking structures. All other off-street parking spaces shall be at least 9' wide. /-.6_7 *(b) There shall be off-street parking spaces provided for each unit in a multiple unit .dwelling. /-.6-1(1)_7 *(c) *(d) There shall be at least one off-street parking space for each 600 square feet of gross floor area in a 'bank./• 6-8 (1) and • 8-1 ( 9) ( g ) J There shall be at least one off-street parking space provided for each 500 square feet of gross floor area in office buildings. L-.6-9(1) and .8-1(9)(e)_7 *All materials or wastes which might cause fumes ordust or which constitute a fire hazard or which may be edible or otherwise attractive to rodents or insects shall be stored outside only in closed containers. L-. 5-2 c 5 ) < d) _7 10. Present, Past and Future Use of the Site: Most of the site (about 3.8 acres) was the home of Griffith Motors, which vacated this site for a suburban location years ago after years in 23

PAGE 26

, . Northwest Denver. The Griffith Motors parcel is completely paved and contains only one building, a one-story, 17,000 square foot concrete block structure on the corner of Speer Blvd. and Firth Court. This building was constructed by Fred Spallone on six-foot diameter caissons drilled into bedrock. (These caissons would support a ten story building.) On the corner of Speer and Zuni is an operating service station, and on 29th Avenue are three residential structures (two multi-family and one single family) which are currently occupied. One of these has a store-room on the ground floor, which is occupied by a small business. A Canadian development corporation, Norc _al, is presently acquiring the two blocks I am developing for my thesis plus an additional 5.76 acres west of Firth Court. Plan West, Inc., of Englewood is working with Norcal to develop this larger site. On November 12, 1980, Plan West presented a tentative plan to the Highland Community for an office park of about 600,000 square feet with two buildings, each of which might have three towers of twelve, nine, and six stories. Community leaders at the meeting strongly opposed the plan for basically two reasons: the height of the buildings and the planned use. They felt that. the office complex would add too much traffic to the neighborhood (probably over 2000 cars/day), and they do not feel a "downtown-type" development is compatible with their neighborhood and its schools. The representatives of Norcal and Plan West are restudying their proposal based on the neighborhood's feedback to their original idea. 11. Community: The site is located on the southern boundary of the Highland Neighborhood, an area of moderately priced, reasonably sound housing, some of which is blighted. The area began to develop in the 1880's and 1890's and was annexed to Denver in 1896. Many of the older homes are built on 25-foot lots, and any block may contain houses representing the architecture of the 1890's, 1910's, 1920's, 1940's, and 1950's. Prior to World War II the area was primarily Italian. By 1970, however, the largest ethnic population was Chicano, representing 47% of Highland residents. 24

PAGE 27

Although the neighborhood is primarily residential, the site is part of about 37 acres being used for commercial and office purposes in the neighborhood. The site is presently zoned B-4 and is located in this business-oriented portion of the neighborhood. The residential portion of Highland is almost exclusively one or more blocks to the north of the site. (Immediately to the north are various Denver City School facilities, including 27 acres of the North High School campus and the five-acre Valdez Elementary School facility. The portion of Highland to the east of the site (across Zuni St.) is mostly non-residential as is the area west of the site (across Firth Court). To the south of the site, across Speer Blvd., the area is commercial all the way to 24th Avenue, this area being occupied by the three-story Continental Terrace offices, the Continental Denver .Hotel, and the Diamond Hill office complex. Thus, although the sensitive development of this site must strive to harmonize with the small-scale residential neighborhood that grew to from the 1890's to the 1940's, this task is somewhat simplified by the fact that the site does not physically abut these residential areas but is separated from them by one or more blocks of commercial or educational facilities. 12. Economic Potential. Denver's rapid growth in recent years has established that there is a need for new dwelling units in the metropolitan area. Most of the growth seems to have been in suburban areas, but the resurgence of Capitol Hill and Washington Park --particularly the conversion of apartment to condo --shows that there is a demand for housing in the inner city. This demand is further evident by new, exclusive condo minium developments along Larimer some of which are nearly sold out even beforeconstruction is completed, and these units (specifically, Larimer Place) are in the $200,000 price range. The growth of the Central Business District and the energy shortage contribute to the need for near-downtown housing. Because of its proximity to downtown, the site I have chosen is a desirable potential location for housing, and because of the modest character of the Highland Neighbor hood and the absence of new moderate-income housing downtown, I have 25

PAGE 28

chosen to propose a moderate-income housing development for the site. In an April 1979 study, Preliminary Highland Place Market Analysis of Redevelopment Potential, THK Associates studierl the potential of a site just three blocks from the one under consideration by this study. THK reported that Denver has an annual demand for 3720 new dwelling units, 340 of these being in the Central area. They presented a profile of a successful rental project as 60% one-bedroom and 40% two-bedroom. A 650 sq. ft. typical one-bedroom apartment in this profile would rent for $300, while an 850 sq. ft. two-bedroom unit would rent for $380. Similar figures for condominimums show a 650-750 sq. ft., one-bedroom unit selling for $75/sq. ft.; an 850-950 sq. ft., two-bedroom unit for $70/sq. ft.; and a 100-1200 sq. ft., threebedroom unit for $70/sq. ft. While these are profiles of potentially successful projects, the characteristics of existing con-dominiums showed average 1059 sq. ft. units selling for $62,853; two-bedroom, 1570 sq. ft. units, for $144,083; and three bedroom, 2797 sq. ft. units, for $238,551. THK's market study concluded that there is excessive competition among high-priced (over $60,000) condominiums, but that the most competitive price range is $40,000 to $67,200; in fact, units of these prices are in the price range that THK felt would create a demand for 340 new units annually in the central area. The cost of the land is about $9.36/square foot • . (This estimate is based on the September 1980 asking price for the Griffiths Motors property, $1,550,000.) As this is a rather high land cost, the possibility of a reasonable return for investors developing this site as proposed is perhaps uncertain. 26

PAGE 29

13. Climate data for Denver: Latitude: 39 45' M 1 t t 50.20 ean annua empera ure: Winter design temperature: 3 Summer design temperature: 89 Heating degree days: 6016 Cooling degree 625 Annual precipitation: 14.56" Annual snowfall: 59.9" Average wind: 9.0 mph, prevailing from south Winter wind: prevailing from northwest, infrequently Solar angle, June 21: 73.5 Solar angle, Sept. 21: 50.0 Solar angle, Dec. 21: 26.6 Solar angle, March 21: 50.0 high 27

PAGE 30

CONCLUSIONS & PROGRAM

PAGE 31

1. Use of the Site: a. A number of factors studied in the site analysis seem to lead to planning of the site for mixed use. Among these are: (1) The volume of traffic on Speer Blvd., which diminishes the desirability of the southern part of the site for residential use. (2) The proximity of the Diamond Hill and Continental Terrace Office complexes to the south, which also diminishes the desirability of the southern part of the site for residential use and which have alreaayestablished a commercial character along Speer Blvd. (3) The school complex along 29th Avenue should be strong determinant for development of the whole site. Any use which would create a high volume of traffic along 29th Ave. would be highly incompatible. (4) Use of the northern part of the site for residential development is highly desirable to ensure compatibility with the school complex. The existing residential area beyond (north) of the schools also leans toward residential development of the site. Although the area is less affluent than the average for Denver, the pride and community spirit within the Highland Neighborhood make the preservation of the neighborhood a desirable goal. To continue the Diamond Hill Continental Terrace-type development northward into the neighborhood would increase the possibility of further commercial erosion of the residential character of the Highland area. Residential use would do the opposite. b. The above factors have led me to suggest that the best use of the site would be mixed but predominately residential, with only the portion along Speer Blvd. being commercial. The commercial portion should be a small-scale business of some value to the residential neighborhood to the north. A charter for a bank in the community has recently been granted, and a bank would be an appropriate addition to the community. If located on the corner of Speer and Zuni, it would have excellent 29

PAGE 32

visibility and would serve as a buffer between busy Speer Blvd. and residential use on the northern part of the site, and between existing office complexes and the Highland Community, including new residential developmenton the site. c . . The approximate portion of the site reserved for the bank site for this thesis will be lots seven through twenty in Block 14, Highland Park. The dimensions of this parcel would be approximately 250 feet along Zuni Street, 269 feet along Speer Blvd., 122 feet along Firth Court, and 253 feet along an east-west line parallel to and 170 feet south of the center line of W. 28th Avenue. The bank site, then, would contain approximately 16,000 square feet in two three stories and have parking for 2& cars. (It is probable that the final solution for the site planning will somehow bombine the parking requirements of the bank and condominiums, so the exact parcel for the bank may not be so clearly defined as I suggested above.) d. The remainder of the site, about 4.2 acres, is reserved for residential development. The goal for residential portion of the site is to establish a condominium community of 220-250 units. The density resulting from such a project would be a maximum of 60 units/acre. Roughly half of these would be one-bedroom units of about 650 square feet, and the other half would be two-bedroom units of approximately 800 square feet. Each unit will be provided with. 1.5 parking spaces. (2) Program: a. The market to which these condominiums would most likely appeal would be the urban dweller who works downtown and enjoys living in the city. These people. would likely be single or childless married couples, but there might be some couples who have or plan to have one child, some single parents, and some single adults who might choose to share living quarters for an extended period of time. To satisfy the needs of these alternative life styles (i.e., alternative to "average" famj.ly consisting of parents and 2-3 children) , I propose to provide one-bedroom apartments, one-bedroom apartments with dens, two-bedroom apartments 30

PAGE 33

DIVISION OF SITE (r/AI...L..i;.Y (1"0 13\::. '28 "T"H. AV'-. (i"o ee; V.A.C, A:reD) A\...1.-E. Y (-y-o VACA-r") 1-tOUSIN& 1"=100' 1 1 I --2511 I I l ''_ _ _ _ 2128 8 ;:-\\ l 'r--,_L_ 4 -==Jt--2..2 5 -21 I I b -NORTH t %:UNI e"i': 31

PAGE 34

with one bathroom, and two-bedroom apartments with two bathrooms. The smallest unit will be about 600 square feet, and the largest, about 850-900 square feet. b. Approximate minimum space requirements for the units are summarized in the following table. 32

PAGE 35

MINIMUM SQUARE FOOT REQUIREMENTS FOR SPACES Smaller Larger Smaller One One Two Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Entry /coat closet 1 30-50 sq. ft. 30-50 sq. ft. 30-50 sq. ft. Living 2 180 180 180 area Dining area 80 80 80 Kitchen 3 70 70 70 Den 150 . Master bedroom/closeb 4 140 140 140 Second bedroom/closet 120 Master bathroom 40 40 40 Second bathroom Linen closet 5 5 5 Storage 10 10 10 Circulation, as Balcony/Patio 5 60 60 60 1 Entry may be separate room or part of living or dining area. 2smallest dimension of living area to be not less than twelve feet. I 3 Kitchen to have at least ten lineal feet of counter top workspace. 4Closet to have at least eight lineal feet of clothes hanging space. 5smallest dimension of balcony or patio to be not less than six feet. Larger Two Bedroom 30-50 sq. ft. 180 80 70 140 140 40 40 5 10 60 33

PAGE 36

c. Several amenities are located within walking distance of the site. Among these are (1) the tennis courts, athletic fields, and playground for the city schools across 29th Avenue and (2) the new Park being built in the area enclosed by Federal Blvd., Speer Blvd., and 29th Avenue. The amenities I will try to include in the development are green space and a swimming pool, possibly enclosed. d. Other considerations: The following list suggest some architectural goals for the project: Abstract: Town Square, Organic, Summer Campfire, Contextural, Urban, Community, Geometry Patterns: Sunlight in every home Wide-Angle Views Fresh air/outside living space Privacy Warmth Identity Car free 34

PAGE 37

SOLUTION

PAGE 38

SOLUTION The solution consists of three types of buildings containing 169 one-and two-bedroom condominiums. Each building is three stories high with a parking level in the basement; the first floor of each building houses one-floor condominiums; the second floor contains the living areas of two-story units; and the third floor contains the bedrooms of the two-story units. Building type 1 features units on each side of a double loaded corridor, a total of 24 units/building. A variation of type 1 occurs on the corner of 29th and Zuni where two type 1 buildings are linked together by a center section containing nine additional units. This large building encloses three sides of a courtyard and has a total of 57 units. Building type 2 consists of repetitive sections made up of five different units, two one-floor and three two-floor plans. This building type is designed for garage entry and primary unit access from the north with living spaces and most large windows on the south. (One type 2 building is built parallel to Firth Ct. and thus does not face south). Building type 3 consists of repetitive sections of six units, two onefloor plans and four two-floor plans. Unlike building type 2, though, these six units are not all different; rather, there are three different plans in each section of six -three pairs, each pair consisting of one which is the mir.ror image of its mate. Type 3 is designed for south entry for the garage and primary unit access from the north. Like type 2, living spaces and most large windows face south. Since the site is on a hillside, most pedestrian paths require steps at various points. The one exception is the major pathway which leads from the parking area along Firth Ct. to the swimming pool. This "path" is wide enough to allow vehicular access to the swimming pool, and its grade is gentle enough to allow handicap access not only to the pool and clubhouse area but also to the southernmost type 3 building, 36

PAGE 39

the two one-floor units of which are designed for handicap (wheelchair) living, with 3'-0" doorways and enough space in bathroom and kitchen to allow for wheelchair maneuvering. One unique circulation feature of the site is the pedestrian access from Zuni St. Pedestrians approaching from Zuni must first go up a set of stairs in the embankments around the two type 1 buildings closest to Zuni. Once at the top of these stairs, the walkways are level, and pedestrians cross over the automobile entrances to the buildings' garages on bridges. Two buildings actually have entries from these bridges. The clubhouse adjacent to the pool is embedded in the hillside with a sod roof over it. On the upper level (same level as the pool outside) are a party room with a bar, a jacuzzi room, two restrooms and two shower/dressing rooms. The lower level has a billiard room with a bar, an office, storage, and mechanical rooms. The jacuzzi room is partly formed by a large bay window, the two side portions of which are glass block. The middle portion is a sliding glass door which may be covered with shutters. Thus the jacuzzi area may be completely closed for privacy or ppened to the pool in the summer. Each unit has space for a stacked washer-dryer combination, and each has its own electric hot water heater and reversible fan to provide circulation. Fresh air may be brought in from the attic in the winter, and in summer cool evening air may be drawn through the windows with warmer air being exhausted through the attic. Heating is provided by a boiler in each ' building which provides baseboard nadiators in the units with hot water. Structurally the buildings are masonry bearing walls with concrete slab floors and, in the case of type 1 buildings, interior concrete columns. Roofs are wood trusses. The solution was heavily influenced by the following factors: Neighborhood: The decision to use the site primarily for residential development was based largely on the proximity of the site to city schools and on the desires of the neighborhood. Additionally, t h e neighborhood's desire for low-rise buildings that would not overpower the existing 37

PAGE 40

residential neighborhood or block existing views led to the series of three-story buildings making up the complex. The detailing of the buildings was designed to make them fit in with the older buildings nearby -specifically the pitched roofs (5:12), the use of brick and stucco exteriors, the soldier courses on the larger buildings, the bay windows, the arched windows and the round and arched ventilation louvers in the attic spaces. Economics: The high cost of the land mandated the highest density possible within acceptable aesthetic limits. The 169 units represent a density of about 40/acre. The parking solution' (basement parking) was influenced by the need for high density, for to have surface parking would have greatly reduced the area available for building. And to have a structured parking garage would have greatly increased development costs.in what was to be a middle-income housing area. Hillside: The sloping nature of the site lent itself gracefully to pleasant site development. Architectually, the buildings had to be adaptable to hillside building. Two of the buildings have level changes to step down with the hill, and all take advantage of the hill provide basement-level parking. Southern Exposure and View: Nearly all single-loaded units have major living areas oriented to the south. Double-loaded units face either east or west. The best views are to the south and east. Shape of the Site: The shape of the parcel, determined by the curve of Firth Ct. and the angle of Speer Blvd., suggested the arrangement and type of buildings used. The larger, double-loaded buildings were less flexible (in terms of bending with the shape of the parcel and the hill) and so were placed on north and east portions of the site near 29th Ave. and Zuni St., the straight boundaries. The smaller, single-loaded buildings were placed to the west where they could "bend" with Firth Ct. Green Space/Summer Camp Fire Design Concept: The arrangement of the buildings to either face a green space or be linked to it through a green "corridor" was realized as all except two buildings either face into the court near the 29th/Zuni intersection or into the swimming 38

PAGE 41

pool area. The two buildings which do not face these major green spaces (the buildings on the northwest and southwest corners of the site) are linked to the major green spaces by narrower green walkways, and they have a consolation amenity of facing an alternative open area-in one,29th Ave. and in the other, Speer Blvd. and the southern mountains beyond the bank parking area. As part of this greenspace/campfire concept, the clubhouse nestles into the hillside instead of projecting up into the space near the swimming pool. 39

PAGE 42

WA8TER' 8 THEIII WILLIAM NARDIN PLAN CD UNIVERIITY Of COt.ORADO (o T DENVER W. 29TH AVE.. W. 28TH .AVE . .

PAGE 43

-

PAGE 44

F A N A N D BO&.EA R OO M B ASEMENT DJ[j I I I TO CAlli Ull AT eouTH IMOIW IAeT .... ------7 a TYPE 1 High(anc! Terrace WAITER'I THEI. WLUAWNAROIN UNIVERIITY OF C O LORADO AT OEi;VER WAY 1,1111 I . ) J ' ; . (

PAGE 45

A FIRST FLOOR ..... . BUILDING IYPE 1 MAITEII 'IT .... WLUAII IWIOiil ,._ , UIIIVEIIIITY OF COt.OIIADO DPYIII MAY f, 1111 SECTION A .. .

PAGE 46

ooo TTJJ SECOND FLOOR l BUILDING TYPE 1 SECTION 8 • . . , HighCancC Terrace YAill!ll' l THEa• WLUAMIIAIIOIII UNIVEIIIITY COI.OIIADO (o T IM!NVIII WAYJ, 1111 /. I I ' f IEJ!RNO . CONC . ILAB ..

PAGE 47

L / ! f BUILDING TYPE 1 A UVING AREA 4 UNIT I THIRD FLOOR

PAGE 48

BUILDING TYPE 2 UVING AREA UNIT E SECTION A SOUTH ELEVATION NORTH ELEVATION HighCand Terrace MAITER ' I TtiEI. WLI.IAM.._ UNM!IIIITY 01' COlOIIADO T HNVPI MAY 1, 1111

PAGE 49

BUILDING TYPE 2 i .FIRST FLOOR A BASEMENT SECOND FLOOR THIRD FLOOR HighCand Terrace MA8TER ' 8 THEM WLUAM...__ UNIVER81Ty M COt.ORADO j1 T DENVER MAY r , 1881

PAGE 50

BUILDING TYPE 3 I 0 I 10 • 10 SECTION C CLUBHOUSE .. SECTION A BASEMENT NORTH ELEVATION SOUTH ELEVATION HighCand MA8TER ' a THEM WU.IAMNA-UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER MAY 7, tlat ..

PAGE 51

BUILDING TYPE 3 i FIRST FLOOR SECOND FLOOR THIRD FLOOR HighCand Terrace MAITEII' I T .. M uiwaJIIITY CW COLOIIADO AT DENVEII WLUAM ..,._ MAY 7, IHI

PAGE 52

APPENDIX

PAGE 53

THESIS COMMITTEE Robert Kindig, College of Environmental Design Chalmers, G. Long, College of Environmental Design Ronald Treants, Seracuse, Lawler, and Partners, Inc. G. K. Vetter, College of Environmental Design Additionally, Mr. Rudolph Castro of the City and County of Denver Planning Office and Mr. Brian Congleton, architect, have indicated that they may be available to offer assistance on occasion. 51

PAGE 54

Schedule for Thesis Semester: January 26, 1981 January 26 -February 27' 1981 March 2, 1981 March 3 20, 1981 21 29, 1981 March 30, 1981 May 4, 1981 S emester begins of alternative concepts Select concept to develop Develop concept Spring break Begin final drawings Present thesis 52

PAGE 55

LIST OF CONTACTS 1. Ms. Billie Bramhall, Community Development Agency Officer, 1425 St., Denver, Colorado. 572-8121. 2. Mr. Salvadore Carpio, Denver City Councilman, 1525 W. 32nd Avenue, Denver, Colorado. 458-8960. 3. Mr. Rudolph F. Castro, Urban Planner, City and County of Denver Planning Office, 1445 Cleveland .Pl., Denver, Colorado. 575-3268. 4. Mr. Brian Congleton, Architect and Member of Highland Neighborhood Planning Team, 2729 Champa St., Denver, Colorado. 534-4718. 5. Mr. James Hahn, Denver Community Development Corporation Officer, 4142 Tejon St., Denver, Colorado, 433-8636. 6. Mr. Ronald R. Himstreet, Corporate Development Officer, J. Arthur Grull Realty Co., 441 Wadsworth Blvd., Denver, Colorado. 232-2222. 7. Mr. Frank Quintana, Chairman, Highland Neighborhood Planning Team and Denver Community Development Corporation Officer, 4142 Tejon St., Denver, Colorado. 433-4344.

PAGE 56

BIBLIOGRAPHY City and County of Denver, Zoning Ordinance, September 1978. The Denver Planning Office. Highland Neighborhood Plan. 1976. Lynch, Kevin. Site Planning. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1962. The Marshall Valuation System. Los Angeles: Marshall and Swift Publication Company. Updated for Denver, Colorado, in January 1980 by D. C. Holder . McGuiness, William F. and Benjamin Stein. Mechanical and Electric Equipment for Buildings. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1971. North High School Soil Report presented to the Denver Public Schools, August 8, 1979. THK Associates. Preliminary Highland Place Market Analysis of Redevelopment Potential, April 1979. Uniform Building Code, 1979. U. S. Department of Commerce, National Climatic Center. Local Climatolo ical Data: Annual Summary with Comparative Data L for_/ Denver, Colorado. S4