Citation
Metro-rail station, Government Center, Miami, Florida

Material Information

Title:
Metro-rail station, Government Center, Miami, Florida
Creator:
Rodriguez, Michael W.
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Michael W. Rodriguez. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
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THESIS
MICHAEL W RODRIGUEZ
UNIV OF COLORADO DENVER
METRO-RAIL STATION
GOVERNMENT CENTER
MIAMI, FLORIDA
PROGRAMMING & FINAL DESIGN
MAY 1, 1981
archives
LD
1190
A72
1981
R62
ARCH STUDENT PAPER 282


Contents
Section 1 - Program Background
Section 2 - Proposed Guidelines for Development
Section 3 “ Site Plans
Section - Architectural and Urban Design Criteria Supplement 1 - Saftey and Security
Section 5 “ Final Design Presentation


SECTION 1


Program Background
The new Dade County Administration Building will soon be part of Miami’s sky line* It will also be a dominating element of the Metro-Dade County and City of Miami Government and Civic Center* This area has become one of America's most ambitious urban renewal projects*
On the adjacent site of the new 600»000 square foot, 50 story, Dade County AdministrationBuilding, will be«
- The new Metro Rail high speed transit and new downtown People Mover overlay-point - 60,000 sq* ft*
- Retal space - 40,000 sq* ft*
Approximately 25,000 people will pass through this site every morning* This makes the feasibility of retail and restaurant sales in the area possible. The retail portions of the project should have a strong sence of identity*
Consideration of a cafe/retail component under the DPM platform area is essential to the rroject* A major statement in the form of a cafe, with the use of strong graphics, is important in the path of potential commuters*
Also a possible enclosed atrium should be a main emphasis to the retail area* Primary fashion and giftware retail should not be the main attraction of the site* Due to this type of conventional retail and merchandise categories are handled substantially in other areas of Miami.
This area is a high potential for a varied amount of food services*
There is a large population of office personal in the area as well as the transit commuters. Therfcre, this project should be the Incentive for a dominate expression in the form of food services.


Schedule For Thesis Semester
Week
1-5 Generation of Alternative Design Concepts
6-8 Selection of Preferred Alternate
9-12 Preparation of Presentation (Design and Development) 13-16 Presentation


LEGEND
1- DADELAND SOUTH
2- DADELAND NORTH
3- SOUTH MIAMI
4- UNIVERSITY
5- DOUGLAS ROAD
6- COCONUT GROVE
7- VIZCAYA
8- BRICKELL
* 9-GOVERNMENT CENTER
10-WASHINGT0N HEIGHTS
11- CULMER
12- CIVIC CENTER
13- SANTA CLARA
14- ALLAPATTAH
15- EARLINGTON HEIGHTS
16- BROWNSVILLE
17- GLADEVIEW
18- N0RTHSIDE
19- HIALEAH
20- 0KEECH0BEE
STAGE 1 ALIGNMENT
STATIONS and STATION GROUPS
NO SCALE


$

SECTION 2


Development Guldllnes
The following Proposed Guldllnes for Development, prepaired by Geddes Brecher Qualls Cunningham* Architects, is a more indepth study of the Downtown Government Center*


Design Plan
Downtown Government Center
Miami, Florida

■*Sicrmi*AV‘>'!-'t *> *ssXt*T»' •'<•:.
Proposed Guidelines for Development
Prepared for
Metropolitan Dade County Prepared by
Geddes Brecher Qualli Cunningham: Architects
12 Nassau Street
Princeton, New Jersey 08540
March 1980


Table of Contents
Downtown Government Center Plan 1
Introduction 1
Architectural Issues 4
Transportation 1. Vehicular Circulation New NW 1st Avenue Street Circulation 6
Parking Garages 2- Rapid Transit Lines
3. Buses 4. Downtown People Mover Station Design
- Open Space 9
Information 11
The State of Florida Precinct 12
The City of Miami Precinct ’ • 13
The Dade County Precinct 15
Other Governmental Uses 18


fip*U M N
Downtown Government Center
(Viiilos Bn\ hor Qualls CiinnimiKiri) February 19HO
I I I
0 100


Introduction
1
Government today is extremely complex. Ideally it should also be humanist and capable of responding to a range of activities and of public and civic needs.
The Downtown Government Center (DGC) should be open and democratic, capable of change and growth. It should effectively accommodate the physical and symbolic needs of several governmental bodies. The Design Plan achieves the physical expression of unity out of this diversity by bringing together a group of precincts, each devoted mainly to one governmental body, in and around a central Greenpark.
The precincts, which will be described at greater length later in this report, are as follows:
— State of Florida (Block B)
— City of Miami (Blocks A, C, E, G)
— Dade County (Blocks D, F, H, I, J, K, L)
The Greenpark, which acts as the focus for the overall design, is not the only element common to the whole DGC. Other such elements are:
— The tree-shaded streets
— The pedestrian movement system though and around the DGC
— The consistent organization of vehicle movement, parking and service
— The coordinated harmony of several architectural elements
Building materials Cornice lines
Massing of buildings in relation to each other and to open space Landscape planting materials
The DGC is an important component of the core of the Miami region both symbolically and physically. Located next to the downtown, it becomes a relaxed part of everyday life and avoids the reputation for isolation so often attached to government. It is closely linked to the region and to the downtown by the following modes of transportation which converge at the DGC rapid transit station:
— The North-South and East-West rapid transit lines which arrive at the station, where they intersect, 30 to 50 feet above ground


2
— Intracity buses
— The Downtown People Mover (DPM)
People who emerge from this transportation complex find the DGC immediately to the west and the downtown area immediately to the east. The DGC station is therefore a major entry point to both.
The interweaving of the DGC with the fabric of the city is further exemplified by the extension of the basic street gridiron throughout the DGC. Only NW 1st Street runs without interruption through the Center itself, but the alignments of NW 2nd, 3rd and 4th Streets and NW 2nd Avenue are used as a framework for both buildings and walkways.
The pedestrian movement system of the downtown streets is thereby carried through to the pedestrian movement system of the DGC, with one important addition—the Greenpark. On-grade sidewalks and arcades are common to both the downtown and the DGC, but the Greenpark in the Government Center also allows people to walk informally through landscaped surroundings.
The DGC pedestrian system contains two special elements in addition to the walkways which cross it from east to west. On the western side of the Greenpark, tree-shaded paths parallel a north-south boulevard. On the eastern side, an arcade runs for 900 feet north and south.
The arcade is 28 feet high and has two levels of pedestrian walkways. The second level has trellises on the west side with climbing plants for shade. As required, the arcade carries utilities in the floor of the second level. It borders the Greenpark on the east, serving as a connector between the State of Florida precinct (Block B) in the north and the Cultural Center (Block J) to the south which it reaches by crossing NW 1st Street as a bridge. On the north side of the Dade County office building (Block H), the arcade abuts the rapid transit station and gives access to shops and transit concourses on both levels.
The arcade meets several practical needs:
— It affords a means by which to distribute some utilities above ground


3
to the various buildings
— It shelters people from sun and rain as they make their way between the buildings and the rapid transit station
— It is the location of a number of special places devoted to particular functions
Day care centers Restaurants Specialty shops Gatherings
Two aspects of the Government Center of the utmost importance to users are taken into account at every step of the design:
— Security, both in the buildings themselves and in the open space
— Access by the handicapped to all buildings and facilities
\


Architectural Issues
4
The goal is not uniformity, but rather a sense of harmony in diversity achieved by a common vocabulary of texture and color. Some relevant considerations are:
Surface Finish
The surface finish of buildings in the DGC should be a varied, harmonious selection of matte masonry such as keystone, concrete, limestone, travertine, stucco and tile.
Rooftops
The design of rooftops is particularly important because first, the DGC will be seen and experienced from places above ground, e.g. the expressway, tall buildings and raised walkways, and second, because the climate precludes exposed rooftop parking. Rooftops will therefore be designed with particular attention to appropriate finish materials and such features as trellises and water reservoirs.
Parking Lots
On-grade parking lots will be screened by low walls and dense planting. The most up-to-date security methods will ensure the safety of those who use them.
Energy
Buildings that conserve energy and yet are compatible with the Florida climate pose a challenge. We suggest as a beginning that buildings in the DGC should incorporate the following elements:
— Sunshades
— Operating sashes
— Appropriate landscape elements to protect ground floors and pedestrian areas from the sun
Roof Lines
The overall unity of the DGC will be fostered if the cornice lines of the new buildings relate to each other. Thus the cornice line of the Dade County Library in Block J and the roof line of the existing City of Miami Police Headquarters in Block A will serve as generating lines for the massing, bulk and cornice lines of the DGC's western zone. In the


5
eastern zone, the roof lines of buildings in Blocks D and F will relate to the existing State of Florida buildings in Block B.


Transportation
6
Overall transit consultants are the Kaiser Transit Group. A team from Harry Weese Associates, working for Kaiser, has set design standards and criteria to fit train and people-moving requirements. The transit system has four main elements: private vehicles, rapid transit lines, buses and the Downtown People Mover.
Vehicular Circulation
New NW 1st Avenue
We recommend that a new street be created (provisionally named New NW 1st Avenue) to run north and south from the intersection of NW 1st Avenue and NW 5th Street to the intersection of NW 1st Avenue and NW 1st Street.
This street, four lanes wide, will provide
— The eastern edge of the DGC
— An access road to the DGC
— A north-south connector bypassing the DGC
— Four nearly uniform blocks for private development on its eastern side which may possibly contain offices, shops, theaters and restaurants
— A series of parking and loading bays for intracity buses
Street Circulation
Bordering the DGC, vehicular traffic will run:
— North and south
To the east. New NW 1st Avenue and its continuations to the north and south on NW 1st Avenue To the west, NW 3rd Avenue To the west, I-95
— East and west
To the north, NW 5th Street To the south, Flagler Street
Within the DGC, vehicular circulation will be limited to:


7
— NW 1st Street, running east and west
— Loop roadways and culs-de-sac
Parking Garages
Parking garages will be located:
— At the southern end of the DGC in Block I, connected by a pedestrian bridge to the Cultural Center in Block J
— On the western side of the DGC at Blocks G and C
— On the eastern side of the DGC at Block D
A landscaped parking courtyard will be built on the southern portion of Block F to give access to the County office building between NW 1st and 2nd Streets (Block H). The courtyard is especially designed for County officials and distinguished visitors to the Government Center.
2. Rapid Transit Lines c-. -
A North-South rapid transit line will run parallel to the Florida East Coast Railroad right-of-way on the eastern edge of the DBC and will be constructed immediately. Its southern terminus will be Kendall (SW 104th Street) and its northern terminus will be Hialeah.
An East-West line, to be constructed in the future, will run across the DGC on a line with NW 2nd Street. It will run from Miami International Airport via Downtown Miami to points north and northeast. The lines will run 25 to 30 feet above the ground except at higher crossings of rivers and expressways.
Where the lines intersect at the Government Center, a major transit station will be built. The architect is the Cambridge 7, working with Harry Weese Associates and the Kaiser Transit Group. The station has four levels. The first level, on-grade, has access for buses. The second level is that of the Downtown People Mover. The East-West rapid transit line arrives on the third level and the North South line on the fourth level. Stairs, elevators, ramps and escalators connect the various levels of the station to the ground.


8
3. Buses
A bus concourse is to run along New NW 1st Avenue from NW 1st to NW 3rd Streets, with access to the rapid transit station, the DPM and the Government Center.
4. The Downtown People Mover (DPM)
The proposed DPM, running on an elevated guideway, will provide intracity transit service. The integration of the DPM into the DGC rapid transit station links it to the regional transportation system.
Station Design
The design of the station is crucial to the successful integration of the Government Center and the downtown area. It is an attractive, humane place, full of shops and governmental offices that serve people's needs. r The shops are located on the first and second levels and are directly connected to the transit and DPM platforms.


Open Space
9
The bringing together of a group of precincts, focused on a central Greenpark, creates a physical expression of unity out of diversity. Open space in the DGC, and particularly the Greenpark, is used as an armature or network for the whole composition. Within the overall setting, there is a wide variety of places for people to use and to shelter in, such as arcades, pergolas and groups of trees.
Among the factors of importance to the design of the DGC's open space are:
— The climate and its demands
— Security, as important in the open space as in the buildings
— The need for flexibility and adoptability to meet changes over time in people's interests and pursuits out of doors
— The need for the richest possible variety of plant materials to give a diversity of texture, color and shade
The open space takes three main forms:
1. The tree shaded streets
The shade trees on the streets ore planned consistently throughout the DGC. Royal palms line New NW 1st Avenue and Flagler Streets.
Black olives and other shade trees are planted elsewhere according to an overall plan.
2. The Greenpark
The Greenpark consists of a series of elements each of which is designed for passive recreation such as lunchtime gatherings and contact with nature. These include landscape details of various scales—trees, shrubs, pools, sculpture gardens, etc. The predominant use of shade trees is on the western side of the Greenpark where they line a boulevard and paths running north and south.
3. Small-scale places
Directly associated with buildings and entrances, such special, small-scale places include:
— A plaza at the entrance to the County office building on NW 1st Street (Block H)


10
— The landscaped parking courtyard north of the County office building (Block F)
— The landscaped plaza off NW 5th Street adjacent to the State of Florida buildings (Block B)
— The landscaped plaza on the eastern side of the City of Miami office building, just west of the tree-lined boulevard (Block E)
— The existing park in the interior of Block C
— The patio of the Cultural Center (Block J)


Information
11
People who visit the DGC need immediate, precise and clearly intelligible information. Signage for the DGC should be closely related to the new downtown signage.
Signs on the city streets should tell visitors:
— Where to park
— The relation of parking garages to the whole DGC
— The identity of each building and the location of its entrance
— The location of access for the handicapped to each building
— The location of service areas for each building
Signs in the parking garages should tell visitors:
— The relation of their point of entry to the whole DGC
— The identity of each building and the location of its entrance
— Circulation routes between the buildings
— The location of access for the handicapped to each building ■>—
Similar information should be available at points of pedestrian access to the DGC and at the rapid transit and bus stations.
Within each building, information on the location of various offices should be available immediately adjacent to each entrance and on each floor by elevators, ramps and stairways.
Large-scale signs on building facades above the ground floor will not be allowed. Appropriate signs, graphics and symbolic emblems will be designed to convey the necessary information both inside and outside the DGC and each of its buildings. Signs which involve words will be in both Spanish and English: graphics and symbols will take cultural diversity into account.


The State of Florida Precinct
12
The State of Florida Precinct (Block B) is located south of NW 5th Street between the North-South rapid transit line and NW 2nd Avenue.
It covers 3.9 acres including the abandoned right-of-way of NW 4th Street at its southern boundary.
A 167,000 square foot administration building for the State of Florida exists on the site, facing the Greenpark. The architect was Russell,
Martinez and Holt. Plans for later phases of development include further administration buildings and a landscaped plaza at the main vehicular entrance off NW 5th Street. This plaza and the Greenpark south of the precinct afford adequate open space.
Vehicular access is from NW 5th Street and NW 4th Street from the ' r*'' east.
Pedestrian access is from NW 4th and 5th Streets, the Greenpark and I the arcade. Visitors who arrive at the rapid transit station will walk north along the sheltered arcade to the precinct.


The City of Miami Precinct
13
The City of Miami Precinct (Blocks A, C, E, G) is located between NW 1st and NW 5th Streets. Its western boundary is NW 3rd Avenue and 1-95. Its eastern boundary is the Greenpark. The precinct contains 11.34 acres.
Block A
Two buildings constructed during the initial phase of DGC development already exist in Block A which is located between NW 4th and 5th Streets. They are the City of Miami Police Headquarters and Garage designed by Pancoast/Bouterse, Borrelli & Albaisa, Architects, in a venture.
Block E P.lork E x
\
An office building for the City was designed by Pancoast, Borrelli & Albaisa, Architects, during the first phase of DGC development on the western portion of Block E between NW 2nd and 3rd Streets. During a later phase of development, a second office building for the City's administration will be built on the eastern section of the block with a landscaped plaza between the building and the Greenpark. The cornice lines of this building which face the Greenpark will match those of the Police Headquarters and the Dade County Library.
Blocks C and G
Blocks C and G which flank Block E between NW 3rd and 4th and NW 1st and 2nd Streets respectively are subjects of an agreement entered into by Dade County and the City of Miami which will convey these blocks (less the eastern 145 feet) to the City at such time as the City is prepared to proceed with garage construction as planned.These blocks will ultimately be the location of buildings for additional County courts and Federal or other public agency offices and parking garages. As these buildings are designed, they will fit into the pedestrian network and relate architecturally to the Greenpark and the cornice lines of other buildings at its western edge.
The precinct's location on the Greenpark gives it access to the park's open space. An existing, tree shaded park on the interior of Block C will remain.


14
Vehicular access to the precinct is from NW 1st and 5th Streets and from an access road off NW 3rd Avenue at NW 3rd Street. This road will run east to the Greenpark and then become a tree-lined boulevard running north and south with landscaped turnarounds at each end. No parking will be permitted, but the road will give access to all buildings in the precinct on the western edge of the Greenpark.
Pedestrian access from the rapid transit station is by sheltered walkway across the Greenpark. From the west, access is by the walkway which runs under I-95 and the East-West transit line at NW 2nd Street between Blocks E and G.


The Dade County Precinct
15
The Dade County Precinct consists of office buildings and parking garages (Blocks D, F, H), the Dade County Cultural Center (Block J), a Central Support Facility for the entire DGC and a parking garage above it (Block I), the Dade County Courthouse (Block K) and a newly acquired Dade Administration Building (Block L). The Courthouse and Administration Building are located outside the DGC proper but are related to it by function. The future use of the Courthouse exclusively for local judicial purposes brings it into a particularly important relationship to the DGC.
Blocks D, F and H cover 5.36 acres and lie between the North-South rapid transit line on the east, the Greenpark on the west, NW 1st Street on the south and NW 4th Street on the north. At present, no DGC building exists in the area. Future development will be as follows:
Block D
A large parking garage will be built in Block D between NW 3rd and 4th Streets. Access will be from NW 4th Street. An office building will be built over the parking garage initially or at a later stage.
Block F
A future office building for Dade County is planned for the northern section of Block F at NW 3rd Street. It will be built in a future development phase of the DGC. In the southern portion of the block there will be a landscaped parking courtyard, reached by a loop road from NW 3rd Street which will run under the future office building. Important visitors to the Dade County office building (Block H) will arrive here and enter the building through the public areas at its base. The parking courtyard will be built in conjunction with the new Dade County Administration Building.
Block H
Hugh Stubbins Associates and Collaborative 3, Architects, have designed the Dade County Council Chambers and a thirty-story office tower for the Dade County administration in Block H. The block encompasses the East-West rapid transit line near its northern boundary and is bounded by NW 1st Street on the south, New NW 1st Avenue


16
on the east and the Greenpark on the west The office tower will adjoin the rapid transit station and will have associated shops and lobby facilities at the ground and DPM levels. The North-South rapid transit station and structural elements for the East-West line and the DPM will be designed by the Cambridge 7, Architects.
Open space for these blocks is provided by the Greenpark, the parking courtyard and a landscaped plaza off NW 1st Street associated with the office tower and Dade County Council Chambers.
Vehicular access to the three blocks is by extensions of NW 3rd and 4th Streets. A service dock and yard, reached from the NW 3rd Street extension, provides service access to the County office tower and the shops in its base.
Pedestrian access from the north is through the Greenpark and the arcade; from the west, along the walkway under the East-West transit line; from the south, through the NW 1st Street plaza and the bridge from the Cultural Center.
Blocks D, F and H are open to easy pedestrian access from the city streets. A major point of access, however, both for pedestrians and people arriving by bus, DPM and rapid transit, is the Government Center rapid transit station. Stairs, elevators, ramps and escalators lead from the rapid transit line platforms to the ground and DPM levels where the shopping areas give access to the office tower.
The arcade borders the western boundaries of all three blocks and forms a transition to the Greenpark. It provides shelter for pedestrians as they walk from the transit station to all the buildings on the eastern side of the Government Center. It also gives a welcome continuity to the eastern margin of the Greenpark and will eventually be the location of such activities as restaurants, information centers and day-care centers.
Block I
Block I is located between NW 2nd and 3rd Avenues and NW 1st and Flagler Streets. No DGC building exists on this block at present. A


17
combined Central Support Facility and parking for 600 cars will be built during the second state of DGC development. The architect is Ferendino, Grafton, Spillis, Candela. A bridge at the second level of this building will lead across NW 2nd Avenue to the main plaza level of the Cultural Center.
Block J
Located between NW 1st Street, Flagler Street, NW 2nd and NW 1st Avenues, Block J will be the location of the Dade County Cultural Center. Blocks I and J together cover 6.03 acres.
No DGC building exists on Block J at present. During the second phase of DGC development, the Dade County Library, Center for the Fine Arts and Natural History Museum will be built. The architect is Johnson/Burgee with Connell, Metcalf and Eddy. These buildings which comprise the Dade County Cultural Center will be clustered around a plaza fourteen feet above the street
Open spaces will consist of the central plaza and a landscaped area on NW 1st Avenue facing the Dade County Courthouse.
Vehicular access is from Flagler and NW 1st Streets and NW 2nd Avenue. Service access is by a road leading to a service portal in the eastern facade of the Cultural Center.
Pedestrian access to the museums and library is from:
— A grand stair and a ramp from Flagler Street and two stairways from NW 1st Street, all leading to the main plaza level
— A bridge across NW 2nd Avenue from the parking garage
— A bridge carrying the arcade walkway at the DPM level over NW 1st Street


Other Governmental Uses
18
Federal Building (existing)
Located between Flagler and SW 1st Streets facing NW 1st Avenue, the Federal Building is related to the DGC because it is diagonally across the Flagler-NW Avenue intersection from the Cultural Center.



• SECTION 3


Site Plans
The first fold out site plan shows an overall view of the area and its boundries. The second shows a closer and more detailed view of the new Dade County Administration Building and its relationship to the site.


SECTION 4


Architectural and Urban Design Criteria
This final section contains most of the overall architectural and urban design criteria pertinant to the site* Draft Milestone - 7 Report was prepaired by Kaiser Engineering in March, 1975* Although this report is over 5 years old, most of the information is still valid and will be a major influence on the design decisions for my thesis*


DRAFT MILESTONE-7
REPORT
%
ARCHITECTURAL
AND
URBAN DESIGN
DADE COUNTY TRANSIT IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
ENGINEERS
IN ASSOCIATION WITH:
WILBUR SMITH AND ASSOCIATES POST. BUCKLEY. SCHUH I JERNIGAM, INC. CONNELL ASSOCIATES. INC.
CARR SMITH AND ASSOCIATES. INC. DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH ASSOCIATES BOOZ*ALLcN APPLIED RESEARCH
CONSULTANTS:
HANK AN6YER ASSOCIATES. INC. EV CUT ASSOCIATES. INC.
MARCH, 1975


FOREWORD
Recognizing the need for improved transportation facilities to accommodate the rapidly increasing population of Dade County, the County began in 1968 a series of planning studies to identify the facilities required to meet this need. These studies, completed in 1972, recommended the development of a rapid transit system and tentatively identified the scope and magnitude of such a system. On the basis of these studies, the voters of Dade County, in an election in November 1972, approved the issuance of bonds in the amount of $132.5 million to provide the local share of the cost of constructing a rapid transit system. "
With this approval by the people, the County proceeded with the second step in the development of the Program: the conduct of preliminary engineering to define the system with sufficient accuracy to permit an application for federal funds for final detailed design and construction of the system. To perform the preliminary engineering, the County, in October 1973, engaged the services of Kaiser Engineers as engineering consultant, in association with:
Wilbur Smith and Associates
Post, Buckley, Schuh and Jernigan, Inc.
Connell Associates
Carr Smith and Associates
Development Research Associates
Booz-Allen Applied Research
The preliminary engineering program is being conducted under the direction of the Dade County Transportation Coordinator, Dr. John Dyer.
This report is the seventh in a series of eight Milestone (Interim) reports covering the various aspects of the program and culminating in a final report setting forth the results of the entire program. This report, Architectural and Urban Design deals with concept and criteria to be used for the future planning of architectural designs of stations and station sites and the future planning of land use and urban designs of station areas.
i


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword page i
List of Figures i 1 i
L1 st of Tables V
I. Introduction/Summary I-la
A. The Preliminary Engineering Program I -1 a
B. Part 1 - Architectural Design C. Part 2 - Station Area Planning and Design I-la I-lw
II. Conclus ions/Recommendations 11 -1 *
A. Part 1 - Architectural Design B. Part 2 - Station Area Planning and Design I I - 1 a Il-lb
III. 0 E.LETED
PART 1 - ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
Aesthetic Value In Transit IV-1«
Basic Concept V -1«
A. Introduction V-U
B. Public Oriented v-u
C. Unification v-lte
D. Community Influence v-u
E. Atmosphere V-2*
F. Appearance V-2 %
G. Circulation V-2W
Site Criteria V I - 1 a
A. Introduction Vl-lb
B. Facilities for the Elderly and Handi capped VI-1 a
C. Pedestrian Access V I - 2 a
D. Bus Facilities VI-3 *
E. Kiss-and-Ride Facilities VI-4 *
F. Park-and-Ride Facilities VI-4 b
G. Site Signage VI-5 a
H. Landscaping VI -5 *>
J. Site Lighting VI-8*
Station Criteria V11 - u
A. Introduction V11 -1 ft
B. Access Vll-lb
C. Entrances V11 - 2 ft
D. Concourse V11-2b
E. Platform VII-3b
F. Roof Structure VII-4 b
G. Structural Material VII-5*
H. Materials and Finishes V11 - 7 b
J. Service Rooms VH-llb


\
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
page
R. Station Attendant VI I-12a
L. Fare Collection V11 -14
M. Vertical Movement VI1-14 v>
N. Facilities for the Elderly and Handicapped VII-16 a
0. Barri ers VI1-18b
P. Furnishings VI1-20 *
Q. Station Lighting VII-21V
R. Acoustics VII-23 a
S. Graphi cs VII-24 *
T. _Advertising ' VI1-25 b
U. Station Design Influence VII-26 ft
Station Outline Drawings Glossary IX-1 ft
PART 2 - STATION AREA PLANNING & DESIGN
Introduction to Station Area Planning X-l ft
A. Issues: Transit Station Impacts and X-l a
Development Planning
B. The Station Planning Task X-l v>
1. Development and Land Use Policies X-l b
2. Development of Station Planning X-2 a
Approach
3. Selection and Analysis of Six Station X-2a Locations
4. Development of Land Use, Urban X-2fe,
Design & Zoning Recommendations
Approach and Methodology XI-1«*
A. Approach Summary XI-la
B. Station Operational and Development XI-lb
Rationale
C. Station Influence Zone Determination XI - 3
1. Impact Zones at Stations XI-3ft
2. Influence Zone Selection Criteria XI - 4 *
3. Application of Influence Zone Criteria XI - 9 V»
D. Market Demand XI-10\j
1. Overview of Methodology XI -10\»
2. Review of Methodology XI-10to
E. Inventory of Existing Conditions XI-15b
1. Existing Land Use Patterns XI - 15b
2. Accessibility and Movement Pattern XI -16<\
F. Analysis of Opportunities and Constraints XI -17ft
1. Community Characteristics XI-17«\
2. Design Resources and Limitations XI -17V>
Prototypical Station Investigations XII-1ft
A. Introduction to the Six Prototypes X11 -1 ft
B. The Scope of Analysis XII-3*
C. Regional Overview X11-3 V>
1. Development Patterns XI1-3b


2. Regional Demand Socio-Economic Summary â– Convention Ccnte-r-Stafr-i-cn-
Introduction Market Demand Potential Existing Land Use Patterns and Zoning Access and Movement lommunity Characteristics â– sign Resources and Limitations 7. Recommended Development Concepts N.W. 2\th Avenue and N.W. 62nd Streel Station
1. Introduction
2. Market Xemand Potential
3. Existing N-and Use Patterns aiy6 Zoning
4. Access ana\Movement
5. Community Characteristics
6. Desiqn Resources and Limitations
7. Recommended DCvvel opment/Concepts
S.W. 1st Street arC 16th Avenue
1. Introduction
2. Market Demand Pot^nt/fal
3. Existing Land Use Mtterns and Zoning
4. Access and Movement
5. Community Charac/eri s Vi cs
6. Design Resources and Limitations
7. Recommended D^vel opment^Concepts Douglas Road an/ S.W. 22nd Street
1. Introductii
2. Market Demand Potential
3. Existing/Cand Use Patterns ari/ Zoning
4. Access Ind Movement
5. Community Characteristics
6. Desi/n Resources and Limitations
7. Recommended Development Concepts Dadel/nd
1. Introduction
larket Demand Potential Existing Land Use Patterns and Zoning Access and Movement Community Characteristies
6. Design Resources and Limitations —Recommended Dovel-opment Concepts--------
Government Center
1. Introduction
2. Market Demand Potential
3. Existing Land Use Patterns and Zoning
4. Access and Movement
5. Community Characteristics
6. Design Resources and Limitations
7. Recommended Development Concepts
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★ ★★
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
PART 1 - ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
VI-I Prototypical Site Plan
VI-2 Landscaping Sections
VI-3 Landscaping Plan
VI-4 Site Lighting Fixtures
VI- 5 Site Lighting Plan
VII- 1 Station Design Influence Chart
VI11 -1 A-la Prototypical Concourses and Platforms V111 - 2 A-lb..Prototypi cal Concourses and Platforms V111 - 3 B-la Aerial Platform-at grade Concourse (at grade access) (Plans)
V111 -4 B-lb Aerial Platform-at grade Concourse (at grade access) (Sections)
V111 - 5 B-lc Aerial Platform-at grade Concourse (underground access) (Plans)
V111 - 6 B-ld Aerial Platform-at grade Concourse (underground access) (Sections)
V111 - 7 B-2a Aerial Platform-Aerial Concourse (aerial access) Plans
VIII- 8 B-2 b Aerial Platform-Aerial Concourse
(aerial access) Sections V111- 9 B-3a At Grade Platform-Aerial Concourse (two sided access) Plans VIII-10 B-3b At Grade PIatform-Aerial Concourse (two sided access) Sections VIII-11 B-4a Underground Platform & Concourse (at grade access) Plans VIII-12 B-4b Underground Platform & Concourse (at grade access) Sections VIII-13 C-la Typical Platform & Concourse Plans (side Platforms)
VIII-14 C-lb Typical Platform & Concourse Sections (side Platforms)
V111 -1 5 Aerial View
VI11-1 6 Underground Access
VI11 -1 7 Aerial Access
VI11-1 8 Concourse - Free Area
VI11-19 Concourse - Paid Area
V111-20 PI atform
PART 2 - STATION AREA PLANNING & OESIGN XII-1 Selected Station Sites


LIST OF TABLES
Tabl e XI-1 XII-1 XI1-2 XI1-3 XII -4 XI1-5 XI1-6
PART 2 - STATION AREA PLANNING & DESIGN Attractiveness Index Weightings by Land Use Type
Employment By Industry in the Miami Metropolitan Area, 1960 and 1970 Employment by Occupational Categories Miami Metropolitan Area 1960 - 1970 Manufacturing Employment in Dade County, 1963 - 1972
Manufacturing Plants in Dade County,
1963 - 1972
Value Added by Manufacturing in Dade County, 1963 - 1972
Demand Deposits Held in Banks in Major United States Cities
Summary of Social and Economic Conditions
â–  Attracti
rs—Description- Convention
11-14
Center
Development Attractiveness Index $^rting .at the Convention Center
stracti veness Description 62/rd Street anaN27th Avenue DeveTbsiment Attractivene>^ Index Rating at NW 27^41 Avenue and Jtw 62nd Street Attractiveness Description SW 1st Stree(t and 16th AverHip Development AttXactiveness Index Rating at SW 1st Stp^et aed 16th Avenue Attracti vejress Description Sough Douglajs and 22nd^street
fvelopment Attractiveness Ind^x Rating 'at the South Douglas Attractiveness Description Dadelan Development Attractiveness Index Rat
X11-17 Anticipated Development Without Transit XI1-18 Attractiveness Description Government Center
X11 -19 Development Attractiveness Index Rating at the Government Center
★ ★★
V


Ultimate- Development Concept SW 22nd Strej and 37 Avenue
|85 Development Concept SW 22 St ana^Z Avenue
in SW 22 Street D a d e 1 a n
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37 Avenue
Ci rcula Influence Existing Land Zoning Dadelan
Communi ty CJrtTracteri stT^s. Dadeland DesigivJiiHources Dadeland Exj^-inng Massing Dadeland
timate Development Concept Dade 1985 Development Concept Dadeland
Circulation Dadeland--------------
Invluence Zone Government Center Existing Land Use Government Center Zoning Government Center
Community Characteristics Government Center Design Resources Government Center Existing Massing Government Center Ultimate Development Concept Government Center
1985 Development Concept Government Center Circulation Government Center
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INTRODUCTION / SUMMARY
THE PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING PROGRAM A
The Preliminary Engineering Program consists of a series of planning and engineering studies which will result in the definition and preliminary design of all of the many elements making up the transit system, including the transit corridors and routes to be established, the types of vehicles to be used, the locations and types of transit stations and other facilities, and the pattern of land use and development in the vicinity of transit stations and corridors.
The program has been designed to provide an orderly process for development of the system characteristics. As alternative concepts are developed by the consultants for the various system elements, the public will be afforded the opportunity to review these concepts, together with the source material used in their development, and to provide its input to the decisions to be made.
The most important decisions in the Program are called Milestones. The Program has been structured to provide eight Milestone decision points, leading to the ultimate system definition. These are:
General System Concept and Criteria,
Vehicle Technology,
Development and Land Use Policy,
Relocation Policies,
Final Route Alignment,
Safety and Security,
Architectural and Urban Design,
Final System Concept.
The seventh Milestone Architectura1 and Urban Design is presented in two parts; Part 1, Architectural Design and Part 2, Station Area Planning and Design. All aspects of this Milestone will be presented and discussed with the public through the Citizens Participation Program. Toward the success of this Milestone we urge citizens to voice their ideas and opinions which can be taken into consideration by the County when final concepts, criteria and designs are developed.
PART 1 - ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN B
Now that the statistics are compiled, the topography investigated, the utilities spotted, the vehicle technologies analyzed and the most direct route found, it becomes the architects role in the development process. As a member
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of the team it is he who is most interested and qualified in pleading the case of the patron. His training and approach is a logical rallying point for the problems of people and their perception and reactions.
Milestone 7 presents the architectural designs of stations and station sites and defines the criteria for the major architectural features. The material contained in Part 1 includes recommended concept and criteria and a presentation of design drawings. The subject of this report, is in part an extension of Milestone 1, General System Concept and Cri teria and has its roots in the service goals and objec-tives of passenger convenience,comfort, security and safety.
Section V is the key section which establishes basic concept and becomes the design matrix from which all elements should grow. All future decisions should constantly be checked and tested against these concepts for proof of adherence.
Sections VI and VII present basic criteria to follow in the development of the major architectural features of the stations and station sites. These criteria will become the basis for the more detailed architectural criteria manual which will be issued to the architects of the individual stations.
Section VIII presents station design drawings utilizing the basic concepts and criteria as recommended and represent "prototype" designs which will be used to guide the future planning and design process of all stations.
The material is presented in general terms, its details will be developed in the course of designing individual elements of the system. In process some recommendations will be expanded, some will be improved and some will undoubtedly be amended in the light of developing realities.
The size and complexity of the system and the wide variety of conditions along the various routes point to the need for a simple set of rules. It is intended that this Milestone, without in any way restricting fresh approaches, will expedite the design process and help to achieve for the entire system a unified and attractive architecture.
PART 2 - STATION AREA PLANNING AND DESIGN C
This portion of the Milestone report is devoted to a second phase of the transit station area planning task of the Preliminary Engineering program. It follows the preparation of Development and Land Use Policies in Milestone 3. With these policies as a base, a series of detailed station area examinations has been made of six selected sites from the proposed
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system. The ultimate result of the station area planning sequence has been the development of conceptual land use and urban design plans for the six areas. Appropriate zoning recommendations are forthcoming in a separate report.
Part 2 of this Milestone consists of two principal sections, dealing with an overall planning approach for station areas, and the analysis and recommendations on the six station areas themselves. The first section establishes the planning approach, and traces the sequence through its various market and site analysis stages and through the recommendations. With appropriate revisions, and further detail to be supplied as a working paper, the approach can be used as guidance in the future planning of all station areas in the system. This "methodology" section reviews influence zone determination, market demand potentials, and physical resources analyses that need to be conducted for each station.
The second section focuses on the six specific station areas chosen for detailed study. The analyses presented here cover the station location and its perceived operational role in the system, the metropolitan development function the station might play, the impact zones around the station site, the "natural" and station-induced market demand for different types of development activity, existing land use patterns and accessibility characteristics of the subject areas.
This analysis, along with the policies put forth in Milestone 3, have been used as inputs to an urban design process culminating in six area conceptual plans and a series of rendered plans of possible urban design treatments.

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CONCLUSIONS / RECOMMENDATIONS II
PART 1 - ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN A
Certain rapid transit systems have established a policy of making each station's architecture as different as possible from each other station in the system; the intent of this policy is to allow each architect total freedom in developing station concepts and designs. While this policy offers some advantages, frequently this practice leads to a lack of sufficient guidelines for the final design stage. As a result, the final design architect is left unaware and unsure of what the preliminary design architect intended. In our opinion this situation creates a highly fragmented architectural style with few, if any, unified elements, creating a rather disjointed system image. Also, it often results in "gimmick" designs and unnecessary novelty details.
At the other end of the spectrum, several transit systems have strived to make all the stations look as alike as possible in the interest of establishing a very "standardized" system in which conformity to rigid criteria is mandatory. This policy prevents any real participation by the individual architects in the design of the stations, and results in an impersonal, "official" style of architecture.
There are strong arguments (on both sides) for each of the above approaches. In the preliminary design of stations for Dade County's Rapid Transit System the best elements of both approaches have been brought together to provide a "balanced" architectural design. The basic concepts for this design are described in detail in Chapter V of this report. Also, architectural criteria to aid in the design of each site and station are included in Chapter VI and VII.
Since the concepts and criteria for architectural and urban design will apply to the entire transit system, residents taking part in the Citizen Participation Program have been asked to submit their comments and suggestions in terms of what they feel will best meet the goal of a balanced architectural style (i.e., one that will allow stations to be individually designed to fit the character of surrounding neighborhoods, yet still convey an image of a unified transit system). Using this yardstick as a guide, Public Forum members were asked to focus their discussion on site and station criteria and to reach agreement on which items they wish to modify, delete or add. To give citizens a visual example of how these criteria might be applied to station design, a series of drawings and renderings were presented.


Through the review process a total of ninety four (94) comments were received. As a result fifteen percent (15%) of the citizens comments caused changes to the criteria ranging from clarification to additional criteria. Also an additional fourteen percent (14%) of the citizens comments were duly noted for input consideration to future work.
Based on this review and the consultants' further analysis, a general conclusion was reached which formed the basis for a fundamental recommendation.
Favorable comments were received in response to the request for particular attention to the goal of a "balanced architectural style". While the general response to this approach was favorable, some comments were interpreted to indicate a desire for more standardization without restricting the desirable influences of the community and the individual architect.
Therefore, the recommendation is that the basic fundamental concepts and criteria as amended by the citizens' comments be adopted as guidelines for the final designs of stations and station sites. Added to and in support of this recommendation, it is felt that serious consideration be given to the formation of a review committee for monitoring the final design and construction phase of the Transit Improvement Program.
PART 2 - STATION AREA PLANNING AND DESIGN___________________B
The basic recommendations of Part 2, Station Area Planning and Design, are in terms of both process and products. In one respect, the overall planning approach that is offered 1n Section XI provides a sequence that leads to a series of recommended plans for six station areas. This approach will be detailed further in a working paper to be produced at a later date, but the basic elements of inventory and analysis remain as recommended in this report.
The more specific information in this report is oriented toward the development decisions concerning the six station areas under investigation. Since this portion of the report is very product oriented on the basis of the six station areas the recommendations found in section XII are not necessarily the land use relationships or design decisions that are applicable to all stations. More system-wide conclusions and recommendations concerning station area planning principles were offered in Milestone 3, Development and Land Use Policy.
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Citizen comments concerning station area planning matters in the Presentation of Data Report were primarily concerned with stations becoming focal points of community development activity, and with the potential for joint development activity at stations. These thoughts are consistent with the system-wide policy statements 1n Milestone 3. As illustrated in the station concept 1n section XII, this principle has been applied to each of the stations. All of the stations have become focal points of community, and often county-wide development. Most have also indicated the potential for joint development activity, including air rights development in several instances.
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PART 1
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN


AESTHETIC VALUE IN TRANSIT
IV
AESTHETICS: The branch of philosophy dealing with the beautiful, chiefly with respect to theories of its essential character, tests by which it may be judged, and its relation to the human mind. True aesthetic value in transit is identified with the environment, and the feeling one has in experiencing a trip. Elements of form, pattern and texture contribute only in detail to this value. Our goal is to seek an aesthetic value which will make transit architecture accountable to the behavioral and physical sciences and to the persuasive demands for social needs.
To establish a basis for this aesthetic we begin by borrowing from the atmosphere of Dade County's picturesque environment, a unique environment characterized as scenic and outdoor oriented.
Two aesthetic considerations are given to the creation of a transit system environment. The first consideration of environment is its impact on the neighbor, the bystander, the community; the second its effect on the rider. The total aesthetic character of the system should be a composite of these two major considerations rather than aesthetics for its own sake.
The aesthetic value of the community must assume its proper importance in the program. Rapid transit, following its own exclusive right-of-way, must create the environment that its neighbors share, and this permanent environment becomes a lasting community value and influence.
Thus, the job is one of integrating into an existing neighborhood with minimal disruption. Here's where an alignment might be elevated to allow linear park development underneath rather than a fenced in at grade division.
Perhaps an alignment could be shifted slightly to follow an existing boundary, and avoid creating a new division; and perhaps a wider right-of-way would allow neighbors to look at a landscaped slope rather than at a retaining wall. These are true aesthetic considerations that everyone can and must take part in.
For the rider, aesthetic value goes beyond the merely decorative. It is one's excitement of anticipation, one's feeling of belonging and one's sense of well being that will determine the success of the system aesthetically. Comfortable seats, clean floors, clear information, and visual order are high in the list of considerations.
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So, it is the job of everyone to find the most attractive expression for the greatest part of the population. If there is a solid basis to build on, many refinements can be developed and much work done to perfect the system as the rider sees it and as the neighbor lives with it. What can be done is to maintain consistency of design thereby creating a character for the system that will belong to no other. In a more fundamental way, the character of the system itself must be established within the whole area it will serve.

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BASIC CONCEPT


BASIC CONCEPTS
V
INTRODUCTION
A
In our search for the current state of the art, through the vocabulary or modern transit systems, we have taken advantage of their ideas and experiences and have developed concepts for the Dade County System. These concepts are fundamental to all station designs and represent a new human spirit which is essential for today's transit systems.
Our interpretation and evaluation has processed them into aspirations particularly suited to the local environment and specific needs. Their strengths will be the foundation from which all of the criteria and design will grow.
These concepts transform the transit stations into a public-oriented system, unified together as a large family of stations and responsive to the outdoor character of the atmosphere. Further, the concepts demand that the stations have a functional image incorporating simplistic circulation patterns. These concepts will all be achieved through an integration with the community at large in an attempt to create a widely accepted and responsive system.
PUBLIC ORIENTED
B
The public-oriented system provides an environment not unlike that of public buildings. Rapid transit being a public enterprise, performing a public function should therefore identify with the public sector. Though serving all manner of individual interests, its own interest and image are on the public side. Dade County is a relatively young community, a community in transition and in many ways unfinished.
Since rapid transit will have a great influence on the formation of the desired urban character, the system pattern should incorporate aspects of desirable future developments. Commercial activity such as concessions and private entrances whether immediately adjacent to the right-of-way, sharing the right-of-way or attached physically as in air rights, could be incorporated, however, the main approach must be reserved to the public right-of-way or public open space, bringing the most riders closest to their destinations.
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UNIFICATION
C
All the elements of the transit system conform to a continuity of function. It is, therefore, only natural that the entire system be unified aesthetically as well as functionally. This is very essential so as to integrate the travel patterns of patrons in the region through commonalties of function.
This unification should be achieved in order to establish an identity for the transit system as a whole, thus enabling the patrons to find their way easily even in a station new to them. The key to achieving this uniformity lies in adherence to“certain solution patterns of various design elements by all the transit stations, each of which can be identified as a member of the total family of stations.
COMMUNITY INFLUENCE
D
Each station will become an integral part of the community in which it is located, both influencing and being influenced by the community. Knowing this, we should make positive allowance in the design and planning of the stations so that they will reflect the unique elements of the community, yet still maintain unification with the system and the "family of stations".
The station design should welcome those aspects of the community that are positive and deserve recognition. In doing so, the station can reinforce existing neighborhood pride and possibly even act as a catalyst to generate a spirit of appreciation.
There are several ways that community character might be brought to the core of the station which will tend to establish or reinforce the special identity of each station.
Riders will quickly adjust to these station identities which will add to their orientation along with system maps and graphics.
Stations names might be chosen from geographical or symbolic names rather than a street or number designation. An example would be El Portal Station, Buena Vista Station, etc. Neighborhood maps should be provided which will quickly orient the rider to the immediate area and to points of interest or historic significance. Station areas should be planned to contain displays and bulletin boards. Announcements of local events and presentation of local exhibits are encouraged. Areas which might relate to the entrances could be programmed to provide local garden club features and activity.
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Photo-murals taken from the neighborhood surrounding the station in which it appears, could play a vital role in the station design. These photo-murals will aid in orienting the transit patron as he goes from station to station.
Strong individual identity such as these can provide a much more meaningful variety to the system than those variations exemplified in architectural structure, finish or various details, items which too often are unable to adequately fulfill for each station a "sense of place".
ATMOSPHERE
E
The atmosphere of the stations will be associated with the outdoors. Fresh air and natural materials will contribute to this feeling. The stations will be as open as possible with large sheltering elements to protect the people from the sun and frequent summer rains, yet allow ventilating breezes to sweep the public areas.
As in all public spaces, an inviting image of comfort, cleanliness and openness will create a friendly atmosphere which will reinforce the experience and encourage frequent use. Spacious and open areas are synonymous with a warm climate and public use. It will be basic then to our concept that the public areas of the stations be designed to optimum dimensions rather than the minimum.
The openness of the station combined with the elevated platform will render colorful changing vistas at each location, which will aid in orienting the passengers and add to the kinetic quality of the transit experience.
The atmosphere will be such that the experience of rapid transit travel for the public will be as pleasant, safe and comfortable as possible.
APPEARANCE
F
The architectural appearance should be such that a function based architecture be created avoiding any imposition of official style. Design should flow from the profession to the government.
Within the bounds of the general concepts and criteria defined herein it will be the responsibility of the architect to develop an individual design for each station. Unique site conditions, entrance considerations and the character
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of the individual neighborhoods served by the transit facility are major influences which will direct transformation of conceptual designs into final design. Exploitation of unique opportunities compatible with and advancing the concepts are to be encouraged.
Honest architectural expressions through the use of major structural and functional elements should be encouraged. Wherever possible the structure itself becomes the architecture, exposed to exploit the strength and honesty of the material.
CIRCULATION
G
The rapid pedestrian movement inherent in transit facilities demands that patron circulation be simple, direct, and open. Unnecessary barriers, turns, or transitions between the rider and the vehicle must be avoided. Major functional areas should be as spatially and as visually related as possible in order that a patron entering the station be immediately oriented and aware of all vertical and horizontal movements. The rider must always know in the fullest sense where he is and where he is going.
Entrances should be clearly visible. Because the environment is exterior, access into the concourse area should be free of doors or gates during operating hours. Riders must be given the benefit of the doubt. High detention-like fencing and exit turnstiles are not compatible with image of the clientele of a modern system. Although paid areas must be physically separated from free or unpaid areas, it is desirable to visually de-emphasize the separation by designing a low and transparent type of barrier thus maintaining visual continuity.

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SITE CRITERIA


SITE CRITERIA
VI
INTRODUCTION
A
The purpose of preparing this site criteria is to create an integrated approach to site organization in response to the site impacts and system goals. While each station site will have unique and characteristic impacts and generally different requirements the basic goals of convenience and safety for the arriving and departing transit patrons should always be met. These criteria will address vehicular and pedestrian circulation, parking and site facilities.
In each of the following sections the concern will be primarily for internal site circu1ation and priority of access to the station. Internal circulation will be a function of the station vehicular access modes in relation to the actual site geography and will require concerned analysis of each site. Generally the best site planning techniques should prevail and the modes of circulation should be separated wherever possible.
The priority of access to the station refers to the convenience of access to the station entrance from the vehicular modes. Obviously all vehicular modes cannot be given equal access in terms of convenience or proximity to the station entrance. For this reason the following priorities have been established in order of convenience.
1. Bus loading and unloading.
2. Kiss-and-Ride drop-off and pick-up.
3. Park-and-Ride.
The site facilities discussed in this section will address those items and concepts which should be system standards and are related directly to the site organization.
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VI-U


FACILITIES FOR THE ELDERLY AND HANDICAPPED
B
These provisions are intended to make all station sites and facilities used by the public accessible to and functional for, the physically handicapped and elderly without loss of function, space, or facility where the general public is concerned. Toward this end all provisions in the American Standard Specifications A117.1 - 1961 "Specifications for Making Buildings and Facilities Accessible to, and Usable by, the Physically Handicapped" shall be met or exceeded.
A detailed description of those disabilities considered may be found irv-the Station Criteria section. The following criteria deals with the basic guidelines for station site development.
CRITERIA
101 Parking spaces in close proximity to the station entrance should be set aside and identified for use by individuals with physical disabilities.
102 Parking spaces open on one side should allow room for individuals in wheelchairs or individuals on braces and crutches to get in and out of an automobile on to a level surface, suitable for wheeling and walking.
103 Parking spaces for individuals with physical disabilities when placed between two conventional diagonal or head-on parking spaces should be 12 feet wide.
104 Care in planning of walk-way should be exercised so
that individuals in wheelchairs or on braces and crutches are not compelled to wheel or walk behind parked cars.
105 All walkways should be at least 60 inches wide and should not have a gradient greater than 5%.
106 The grading of the site should be such that it will make the facility accessible to individuals with physical d isabi1i ti es .
107 Ramps and curb-cuts shall be provided as required to provide safe convenient circulation by the physically disabled to and from the staion.
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PEDESTRIAN ACCESS
C
The relative importance of pedestrian access will vary from one site to another depending on location and function of the station. In all cases, however, the pedestrian access to the station should be as direct and safe as possible. Remembering that the stations are oriented to the public sector all pedestrian access will be through public spaces.
All travel modes ultimately become pedestrian for entry into the system.
In developing the criteria for this section, the safety and convenience for the pedestrian were the main objectives fol1 owed.
CRITERIA
110 Direct and safe approach should be provided from adjacent streets into the station area. Minimum unobstructed width of walks should be 5'-0".
111 Pedestrian cross-walks should be emphasized with a contrasting change in paving material. The width of the crossing should be at least equal to the width of the adjacent pedestrian walk, but not less than 7 1 -0".
112 A pedestrian bridge should not be less thanlO'-O" in width. If certain site conditions require a pedestrian tunnel, it should not be less than 12'-0" wide.
113 No pedestrian ramp should have a slope greater than 5%.
114 Pedestrian crossings must have good visibility both for pedestrians and drivers.
115 Pedestrian crossing at streets wider than four lanes should have a refuge area at least 4'-0" wide.
116 Pedestrian overpasses and underpasses should be as open and as well lighted as possible avoiding all unnecessary turns or hidden areas.
117 Pedestrians should have right-of-way over vehicles at selected crossings for internal circulation.
118 Isolated and remote or hidden pedestrian walkways should be avoided. Where avoidance is not feasible, they should be as open as possible and well lighted.
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119 Barriers should be provided to control pedestrian cir culation from the hazards of vehicular movement.
120 Parking areas should be arranged so as to minimize number of pedestrian crossings of streets which carry vehicular traffic.
121 Signalized crossings should be considered where pedes trians are required to cross more than one lane of traffic.
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BUS FACILITIES
D
As the transfer from bus to rapid transit is a breakpoint in a journey, it involves penalties in travel time and inconvenience. Thus everything within reason should be done to make the transfer quick and easy.
Bus service may operate adjacent to, through or terminate at the station. In all cases, however, the bus facility should have prime access to the station entrance.
The layout of the bus service will be dictated by the amount of bus traffic, possible points of access and the site conditions. The objectives, however, shall remain convenience and safety for the transferring passenger.
CRITERIA
130 Bus passengers should not be required to cross traffic lanes for loading/unloading purposes.
131 Exclusive bus access should be provided where conditions warrant; however, in all cases, buses should be able
to enter, load, unload, and exit with minimum delay.
132 All bus roads should permit passing of standing buses.
133 Buses never should be required to back-up in station areas.
134 All bus stops should be designed for right-hand loading and unloading.
135 A quick and easy transfer between bus and Rapid Transit should be achieved by making the path from the bus loading and unloading area to the station entrance as short and direct as possible.
136 Bus stops on adjacent public streets should be located outside of driving lanes.
137 For through buses, parallel off-site type stops should be used since they also provide sufficient frontage for both the eventual increase in number of buses and possible variations in the size of the buses.
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138 Saw tooth loading berths should be used for on-site bus stops. The advantages of this configuration are that it permits buses to pull out of any loading berth and pass the buses ahead, in a considerably shorter space than would be needed if the buses lined up along a straight platform. Thus, it reduces walking distance and in addition, makes it easier for the driver to get both doors up to the platform edge.
139 Provisions for a holding area should be provided for buses waiting to be loaded.
140 For maximum comfort, passengers waiting for buses should be provided with bench seating, and shelters. Wherever possible the aerial structure should be used for this purpose.
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VX-3V)


KISS-AND-RIDE FACILITIES
E
Facilities should be made available for spouse-driven and taxi passengers at all stations except those close to the downtown areas. These facilities rank second in access priority after buses. Space requirements will vary with the time of the day. Relatively little space is needed in the mornings for drop-off, but during the evening rush hours, the full space for waiting cars is required.
Convenience and safety remain the prime objectives in developing the criteria for this section.
CRITERIA
150 This facility should be laid out for one-way traffic only, preferably with passenger loading on the right-hand side.
151 The Kiss-and-Ride facility should be clearly from the park and ride areas and bus areas. separated
152 A drop-off area close to the station entrance provided in the Kiss-and-Ride facility. Good and egress for this area is mandatory. should be access
153 Persons waiting to pick-up passengers should be oriented towards and have good visibility of the station exit. This area should permit easy recirculation.
1 54 Consideration should be given to possible use and-Ride parking area for short-term parking etc.) during the daytime off-peak hours. of Kiss-(shoppers,
155 Traffic for the Kiss-and-Ride facility should routed through the park ride area. not be

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VI-


PARK AND RIDE FACILITIES
F
Generally speaking, parking is desired at stations outside of the high density downtown areas. The amount of parking space at a particular station will depend upon the traffic potential, the ability of the street system to feed the station, and availability of land.
These criteria relate to the organization of the park and ride areas and are based on the objectives of convenience and safety as well as good traffic engineering practice.
CRITERIA
160 Parking capacities should be scaled to approach roadway capacities, as well as to parking demands and bus service potentials.
161 Ninety degree parking is preferred and should be used wherever possible.
162 Provisions should be made for safe parking of bicycles and scooters as close to the station as possible.
163 Street access to parking areas should be designed in keeping with good traffic engineering and planning practice. Internal circulation for parking areas should be separate from other vehicular modes.
164 Large parking lots should be sub-divided into sections to reduce the scale. Walkways and landscaping may be used for this purpose.
165 If paid parking is incorporated in the park and ride areas payment for parking should be made when the vehicle exits the area.
166 It is preferred that the parking aisles are laid out parallel to the direction of pedestrian traffic.
167 The parking areas should be open for good surveillance.
168 The facilities for park and ride should be designed for self-parki ng.
169 Curbs should be kept straight and continuous as much as possible. Inside corners, saw tooth lines for car parking, tree bins and individual wheel stops are to be avoided to permit ease of maintenance.
170 The dimensions of parking spaces must meet the minimum requirements as set forth by the Metropolitan Dade County regulations.
* ***
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SITE SIGNAGE
G
Large, clear, distinctively identifiable signage is essential at all major points of decision and should serve to guide the driver through the site in an orderly and uncomplicated sequence with a minimum amount of hesitation.
The main objectives of site signage are as follows:
(a) Designation of all choices
(b) Maximum visibility and simplicity
(c) Presentation of only essential information in areas of traffic circulation.
CRITERIA
180 Directional system symbol signs should be placed along major traffic routes leading to station parking facilities.
181 Non-directiona1 system symbol signs should be placed within reasonable proximity to every station entrance.
It should be clearly identified at a distance of 300
f eet.
182 Identification and directional signs should separate and direct all major traffic within the site to the appropriate area (Parking, Kiss-and-Ride, Bus Only).
183 Regulatory and Instructional signs required for such information as "stop", "do not enter", "10 miles per hour", "exit", "one-way", etc., should be indicated as much as possible by pavement markings. Where such markings are not adequate, signs should be used. These signs and markings must be consistent with traffic safety standards and should be coordinated into the form of the site signage system.
184 Other types of signs, symbols or information include such conditions as, pedestrian crosswalks, bike-crossing, handicapped parking spaces, bus schedules and maps, no parking, etc., should be incorporated as required.
185 It is recommended that for night conditions the system symbol signs and identification and directional signs be specially 1ighted.
* **

VI- 5
V


LANDSCAPING
H
Landscaping plays a great part in the impact of a system on both the neighborhood and the rider in different ways. Careful preservation of vistas from the train may be as important as planting trees to screen and humanize a parking lot. Landscaping should serve to ensure the harmonious integration of the transit facilities (both functionally and aesthetically) into the planned development of the areas in which they are 1ocated.
Landscaping consists of the following or combination of material such as, grass, ground covers, shrubs, vines, hedges, trees or palms; and non-living durable material commonly used in landscaping such as pebbles, sand, planters, retaining or screen walls. It may also include, under special conditions, the creation of ponds, lakes, water displays ,'etc.
The main objectives of landscaping installations are as follows:
(a) Provide attractive community approaches.
(b) Merge stations and parking areas with their surroundings.
(c) Plantings should match, complement and supplement areas of good natural growth.
(d) Display the better scenery and views with openings left or cleared within the right-of-way or station approaches.
(e) Select simple, strong and unostentatious landscape installation.
(f) Design spaces and select materials with minimum maintenance cost and the vandalism threat constantly in mind.
(g) Insure coordination and cooperation with all responsible public agencies and private groups along the routes.
CRITERIA
We have concerned ourselves with three basic functional areas; the route, stations and parking areas. The recommended criteria for each are as follows:
The Route
The route traverses districts varying widely in landscape quality, from the natural beauty of waterways and countryside
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VI- 5


to areas of intensive urban development. It is intended to integrate each section of the route as directly and simply as possible into the surrounding environs. The transit-way is to be designed as a wel1-modulated viewing frame for the passengers, providing evolving sequences of pleasant views from the vehicles and agreeable prospects of the transit route and structures from the adjacent neighborhoods.
190 All landscape treatment should occur within the right-of-way .
191 Planting along the line should be utilized for ground cover erosion control, and beautification consistent with security provisions.
192 All tree branches or other foliage should be kept at least 8 feet from the outer limits of the vehicle when the tracks are at grade, and 6 feet from the outer limits of elevated structures.
193 The nearest tree trunk should be no closer to the vehicle center line than 15 feet, except for elevated sections
of the track.
194 In elevated sections of the route a minimum of 6 feet should be allowed between the top of trees or shrubs of mature height and the bottom of the lowest member of the overhead structure.
195 The tops of the shrub masses and/or the lower branches
of trees within 30 feet of the vehicle center line should be kept free of the zone extending 2 feet above and below the eye level of a person within the vehicle seated or standing.
196 Because of the speed of the vehicle the route plantings should be confined generally to lineal mass plantings.
197 Landscape planting along the route will receive a minimum of maintenance and should, therefore, consist of hardy, drought and disease-resistant plant materials.
198 Planting and design should consider the possible installations of bikeways and footpaths and their interface with rapid transit stations, adjacent communities and other bikeways.
Stations
Stations serve as community gateways and focal points. They should be given landscape development in keeping with the quality of the station architecture and also in keeping with the unique character of each site. H-ere the use of the more
VI - Q> V


refined landscape construction materials would be fitting, as would specimen plants of larger initial size.
199 Extend architectural planes, forms and materials to give simple and unified site-structure composition.
200 Provide volumetric definition. Spaces should be defined through the use of landscaping (size, shape, texture, color, etc.) to best ex Dress their specific functions (parking, kiss-and-ride, entrances, etc.)
201 Reinforce, visually, the lines of vehicular and pedes-trial movement.
202 Promote safety by insuring adequate sight lines and installing protective hedge plantings where required.
203 Open to, and enframe, the more desirable views, divert attention from the less desirable views and features.
204 Provide shade for user comfort and relief from solar glare.
205 Select plant materials for optimum year-round attractiveness of form, foliage, bark, fruit and seasonal variations in color. Large fruit varieties which would pose a maintenance problem should be excluded.
206 Avoid large areas of paving. Smaller areas may be defined with plantings or change of materials.
Parking Areas
The purpose of landscape improvement of compounds for the storage of motor vehicles is to protect and preserve the appearance, character and value of the surrounding neighborhoods and thereby promote the general welfare by providing for installation and maintenance of landscaping for screening and aesthetic qualities.
207 An essential requirement of the landscape planning will be close coordination and integration with the site lighting design.
208 Emphasize the directional lines of desired vehicular movement and the parking lot entrance-egress points.
209 In general, landscape planting should be massed rather than scattered thinly throughout the lot.
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210 Provide shaded pedestrian ways and places. Intercept the afternoon sun where appropriate.
211 Provide "good neighbor" screen walls, earth mounding and plantings.
212 Surface textures other than grass should be considered.
A change of surface texture may be used to denote pedes-trial paths at crosswalks and within parking areas. Vast areas of asphalt or concrete should be relieved by introducing contrasting material. Concrete and asphalt may
be used together.
i
213 Landscape barriers at least 10 feet wide should separate the parking area from adjacent streets. Special cases, particularly in residential areas, may require greater width. Vertical screens or fences may be needed to protect the privacy of neighboring parcels.
214 Landscaping other than trees should not exceed three feet in height for both security and safety reasons.
LINEAR PARK CONCEPT
In addition to the criteria recommended for landscaping along the route we would like to present the concept for the possibility of further development in the form of a linear parkway.
The concept for the linear park is to treat the area under the rapid transit guideway structure as a continuous meandering path for pedestrian walks and bikeways. The pathways, periodically developed for sitting areas, play lots and places of assembly serve to tie together areas of the surrounding community and provide linkage with adjacent public and social activities along the edge of the transit line.
This concept stresses the development of areas adjacent to the rapid transit stations for public assembly. At the intersection of the linear park with major streets, the parkway concept calls for the establishment of focal points. The on-grade spaces in the rapid transit right-of-way can be grouped into four visual categories:
• The right-of-way as it adjoins and parallels a major city street;
• The right-of-way as it adjoins the rear property lines of residential, commercial or industrial land uses;
• The right-of-way as it approaches and penetrates station areas. (In the station areas, the transit right-of-way is considerably larger, incorporating the station, related pedestrian and vehicular circulation areas, and large parking lots); and
VI- 7*


• The right-of-way as it adjoins or is adjacent to existing public facilities such as parks and schools, which provide an opportunity for linkage or a functional complement to the linear park.
The aerial structure will remain the dominant visual element, but the landscaped and special activity areas should provide a transition to the neighborhood and to a human scale. The major objective of the linear park is to make the structure more aesthetically acceptable to the communities in which it is located and offer a more attractive view to the commuter. This beautification should tend to offset any anticipated negative impact on residential property values that might logically have been expected by the introduction of an elevated transft structure through residential neighborhoods.
Greater benefits in linear parkways should be derived if these multiple-use objectives are considered from the beginning in right-of-way planning and acquisition.
7
VX-1


SITE LIGHTING
J
The basic concept for lighting are set forth in the lighting section of the Station Criteria and is applicable to the following criteria which is specifically recommended for exterior site areas.
CRITERIA
Genera 1
220 Lighting arrangement of exterior spaces shall make the pedestrian and driver aware of the organization of the area. The lighting shall be organized as a natural lead-in to the station entrance.
221 Lighting levels should be established (by accepted standards for safety and comfort) for similar areas throughout the system and should be standardized. General illumination levels should produce an environment free from disorderly, irrelevant patterns of light. Once standardized these levels should not preclude variations in illumination levels to add interest, accent or promote ori entati on.
222 Lighting fixtures and components should be standardized throughout the system to the maximum extent possible. Standard items would include poles, enclosures, lamp types and parts. Lamps should be readily accessible for replacement. Fixtures should be readily accessible for maintenance and service and should be designed to be easily replaceable.
223 The threat of vandalism and personal injury should be of prime concern in the design of light fixtures and components particularly those which might be within reach of pedestrians. Globes and lenses should be made of shatter resistant materials.
224 All wiring for exterior lighting fixtures should be buried. Overhead wiring should not be permitted.
225 The color quality of all exterior light sources should be compatible with one another and should afford as much true color identification properties as possible.
Parking Areas
226 Lighting arrangement should utilize a minimum number of poles located in the perimeter of the parking area away from the station entrance. This arrangement should be coordinated with the landscaping to avoid light blockage.
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227 A clean daytime profile should be obtained by providing a housing atop the poles which will unify the unequal number of fixtures and differing aiming angles.
228 The light fixtures should be selected on the basis of highly controllable and well defined beam spreads, as well as high intensity, to insure even and adequate lighting of the whole area and to avoid light spillage and glare into the surrounding neighborhood.
Pedestrian Walkways
229 Lighting arrangement for pedestrians should be in scale to the human figure. Numbers of low intensity lights are recommended to a few high intensity sources.
230 Rows of lights should be used to indicate direction or define paths.
231 Additional surface directed light and accent light should be considered for pedestrian areas where ambient light from adjacent sources is sufficient to impart a sense of security but insufficient to provide for total safety.
232 For major pedestrian walkways incandescent lamps are recommended for its more pleasing softer, warmer light and for its maximum color identification properties.
Clear sparkling globes and clear lamps are recommended for minimum glare and maximum light.
Roadway & Kiss-and-Ride
233 Light fixtures should be selected on the basis of featuring a full glare cut-off design which directs all light downward, avoiding near horizontal light spillage into adjacent pedestrians, streets or neighborhoods.
Signs
234 Specially lighted signs should be backlit whenever possible as they are more easily seen at night than surface illuminated signs.
Bus Loading
235 Shelters should be provided with additional lighting supplementing that which is provided for major pedestrian areas. It is recommended that these fixtures be coordinated within the shelter structure.
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1-8
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LEGEND
System Symbol Sign.......................
Primary Pedestrian Walk Light Fixture... Secondary Pedestrian Walk Light Fixture
Roadway Light Fixture....................
Parking Lot Light Fixture................
Si te Signage............................
Bus Shelter..............................
Pedestrian Crosswalk.....................
Pedestrian Barrier.......................
Parking Lot Control Gates................
Handicapped Spaces.......................
Parking Spaces...........................
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Motorcycles
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B i eye 1es
Kiss-and-Ride (morning drop-off) Ki ss-and-Ride (evening waiting)..
Bus Bay..........................
Aeri al Gu i deway...............
Property Line ...................
Traffic Direction................
Landscaping......................
Seati ng.........................
Statue ..........................
To Community Activity............
Pavement.........................
VI


STATION CRITERIA


STATION CRITERIA
VII
INTRODUCTION
A
The following sections relate to the architectural design of the transit stations and major related components. The purpose of this criteria is to provide coordination of all elements that affect the security, comfort, safety, and convenience within the station proper.
It is the intent of this criteria to establish fundamental guidelines for the development of station architecture which should be consistent with the goals and standards of the system being responsive to the unique site conditions and to the individual character of the neighboring environment. These criteria should insure that the basic concepts are met and that all of the stations are functionally and operationally related.
In conjunction with this criteria various interrelated conditions and requirements will determine the configuration that the relative parts of the station ultimately assume. The station configuration is not an arbitrary decision, it will respond to site conditions, right-of-way, physical barriers, the position of the guideway, and service requirements emerging as a part of the total design.

VTT- \ VI


ACCESS
B
The most economical and direct access to a station is the at-grade concourse with direct at-grade access. It is evident that this configuration requires the least number of vertical circulation elements and has the shortest travel distance. Therefore -this configuration is preferred and should be used wherever possible.
Where physical barriers prevent direct access, for example when a station is located in the median of a street, access must be either under the barrier or over it. The underpass and overpays both will require additional vertical circulation elements and longer travel distance for pedestrians.
CRITERIA
240 Where no physical barriers exist access should be as direct as possible.
241 Where there is a physical barrier on one side of the station access should' be from the free side and as direct as possible.
242 Where there are physical barriers on both sides of the station access should be either via an underpass or via an aerial overpass. The underpass is preferred due to shorter travel distances and less visual impact. However, where the barrier is such that the underpass is unfeasible the aerial overpass should be used. An aerial overpass requires an aerial concourse. An underpass requires that the concourse is located at-grade.
243 The at-grade platform configuration will automatically require an aerial overpass access, since the guideway creates a barrier on each side of the platform. Aerial access via overpass is the logical configuration for this particular type because the underground concourse is both undesirable and economically not recommended.

V3L-


ENTRANCES
C
All traffic modes will have become pedestrian at the entrance to a station.
Entrances may occur immediately adjacent to the concourse where access is at ground level or remotely located connected to the concourse by passageways where access is above ground or below ground. In all cases, however, a true effort should be made to architecturally incorporate the entrance into the total station design.
CRITERIA
250 All station entrances should be immediately recognizable and should be directly accessible from the public sector.
251 The station entrance should be identifed by having the station name and system symbol in a prominent location.
252 The station entrance should be well lighted for night use.
253 The station entrance should be large enough to handle all expected ingress and egress requirements without crowd i ng.
254 The station entrance should be functionally oriented and positioned with relationship to its site functions and should reinforce normal flow patterns.
255 Wherever possible the station entrance should be located beneath the quideway and platform to take advantage of the weather protection offered by the structure.
256 Covered waiting areas related to the station entrance should be provided.
257 The station entrance should be closed to public use during non-operating hours.

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CONCOURSE
D
The concourse is the control space in the station configuration. It is an activity area with strict functional requirements. The primary function being to house the fare collection equipment, thereby separating the free and paid areas of the station.
The location of the concourse, relative to the other parts of the station, shall be determined by the location of the platform and site conditions.
The following are the basic objectives used in creating the criteria for concourses:
(a) The concourse is an activity area and should have simple direct flow patterns and a minimum of intrusions into the flow patterns.
(b) Maintain a consistent approach to weather control and provide a comfortable environment for the system user.
(c) Proper safety and security measures shall be considered in the planning and layout of the concourse.
CRITERIA
260 Flow patterns in the concourse should maintain right-hand orientation wherever possible and should be as simple and direct as possible.
261 The concourse is an activity area. No benches or waiting areas should be provided. Waiting should be on the platform or outside of the station proper.
262 Other than those machines required for the fare collection system, no vending machines should be allowed in the concourse area.
263 Provisions should be made to incorporate photo murals and community displays in the paid area of the concourse.
264 The concourse area, except in below grade configurations, should be as open as possible to allow ventilating breezes yet protect the patrons and machines from the sun and rain.
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26 5 The at-grade concourse should be enclosed with a
screen wall for security and station control. The design should allow maximum natural light and ventilation and visibility to the adjacent surroundings.
266 A high curb wall should be provided at the base of the screen wall to prevent debris from being blown-in and to aid maintenance. Its height should be coordinated with other components in the concourse.
267 The minimum ceiling height for concourse areas should be 12 feet.
268 The station attendants booth should be located in the concourse area, so that the station attendant has visual control of both the free and paid areas and of the elevators, escalators and entrances to the service rooms.
269 At those station configurations where the concourse is at grade with a major street or railroad line directly adjacent to the station, the concourse level should be 3 feet higher than the street or track level for safety purposes.

vm - 3 VI


PLATFORM
E
The platform is the heart of the transit station. Each train in turn will stop at the platform to load and unload passengers. It is the arrival of a train, that changes the function of the platform from a waiting area to an activity area. To be successful the platform must handle these opposite functions equally well.
The position of the platform, whether aerial or at ground level is dependent on the corresponding position of the gu i deway.
CENTER PLATFORM
<5IDE PLATFORM
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Stations on two-track lines are of two types: center platform and side platform. Center platforms are preferred because they offer more efficient use of platform space, furnishings, and vertical circulation. Center platforms result in a more efficient layout with a cleaner straight-through circulation path than is possible with side platforms. The passenger need not make his decision as to train direction until he reaches the platform instead of in the concourse where space is more restricted and other activities, such as fare collection, must occur.
However, in certain areas physical conditions at or near the station site will have a strong constraint u.pon the track alignment and require the use of side platforms. In special cases, of a particularly heavy interchange movement, a side platform layout could be required to permit easy cross-platform transfer to buses.
The following are the main objectives used in developing the criteria for platforms:
(a) The platform is alternately a waiting area and an activity area; during the waiting mode the passengers
should be comfortable and protected from adverse elements.
(b) For maximum security and safety the platform should be as open as possible with a minimum of visual obstructions.
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VTT-SVd


CRITERIA
280 The platform area, except in below grade stations, shall be as open as possible to allow natural ventilation and maximum visibility to the surrounding cityscape.
281 The entire platform shall be covered with a roof to provide the patrons with protection from the sun and rain.
282 Sufficient overhang of the roof shall be provided so that passengers boarding and exiting the vehicles, do not get wet from rain.
283 The roof structure over the platform should be full span No columns should be allowed on the platform.
284 To provide as much clear open platform space as possible only transit related components should be located on
the platform and their number held to a minimum.
285 Components such as trash receptacles, graphic and information centers, emergency phones, etc. should be grouped together and should be designed with a low profile.
286 Main seating areas should be provided at the ends
of the platform and should be provided with clear wind screens.
287 A minimum ceiling height of 10 feet shall be provided on the platform.
288 The platform edge should be accentuated to draw attention to a potentially hazardous area. An 18 inch wide edge band should be provided at the platform edqes to delineate the danger zone. It should be of a lignt colored material, contrasting with the darker trackbed
and should have a non-slip surface. This edge band should be a system standard.
289 A minimum horizontal distance of a'-O" should be provided between the platform edge and any other fixed object on the platform. This dimension allows 2 people traveling in opposite directions to pass a standing person without entering the platform edge danger zone.
290 To accommodate future increased ridership, the platform shall be designed so that either end or both ends may be extended to increase the platform length.


VII


ROOF STRUCTURE
F
For the aerial platform station and to a great degree for all aboveground stations, the roof structure will be the most predominant feature of the station design. For this reason it is being addressed as a separate element.
The main objectives used in developing the criteria for roof structure are as follows:
(a) The roof structure shall be an element of uniformity for the station design throughout the system.
(b) The roof structure shall be such that variety and character can be introduced where needed and such that the various station configurations may be accommodated, equally well.
CRITERIA
300 As previously stated in the Basic Concepts: The structure should be the architecture, exposed to exploit the strength and honesty of the material.
301 False ceilings shall be avoided.
302 All roof structures shall be constructed of the same material to provide a degree of uniformity within varying designs.
303 Lighting, sound systems, electric conduits and graphics shall be integrated into the roof structure. No exposed conduit shall be allowed.
304 Design consideration should be given to the use of skylights in the roof structure to provide for a light and open feeling on the platform.
4
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STRUCTURAL MATERIAL
G
An open exposed structure, places special emphasis on the material selected. To ensure that the basic concept of unification is achieved we are recommending that a single material be selected and used for the structure of the stations throughout the system.
The following objectives were considered in the selection of a Structural Material:
(a) The structural material should be a non-combustible material that does not require additional fireproofing.
(b) The structural material should be a strong material capable of withstanding hurricane forces.
(c) The structural material should be a durable material with an indefinite life span, requiring a minimum of maintenance for exposed application in South Florida.
(d) The structural material should be compatible with the structural construction of the guideway and other parts of the system.
(e) The structural material should be a well-known, readily available and widely used material in South Florida construction.
(f) The structural material should allow sufficient flexibility of design to allow variety in the station designs
(g) Material itself (exposed) should have aesthetic and self-protecting qualities which preclude added treatment such as veneers and painting.
CRITERIA
310 Concrete is hereby recommended for the structural
material for the stations. It should be exposed con Crete and may be either poured in place or pre-cast.
The following sketches represent a sampling of possible roof configurations.
VIC-s*
VII


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barrel vault
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WAFFLE SLAB
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OPEN
BARREL VAULT
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FOLDED PLATE
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VI


MATERIALS AND FINISHES
H
The purpose of this section is to specify the basic criteria and requirements which have been established for the materials and finishes in the public areas of the stations. These criteria will ensure that the quality levels and maintenance requirements of all stations are consistent throughout.
The main objectives for materials and finishes are as follows:
(a) Safety
â– 1. Fire Resistance and Smoke Generation: The objective should be to reduce hazards from fire by using materials with minimum burning rate and smoke generation characteristics for all station finishes, consistent with Code requirements.
2. Hazards from dislodgement due to temperature change, wind, or other causes, should be eliminated by using proper attachments of adequate bond strengths.
3. Pedestrian safety should be increased by use of non-slip properties in high-hazard locations such as platform edges, stairways, ramps, and entrances.
(b) Durability
A basic aspect of all rapid transit systems is extreme longevity. Materials chosen for the stations should have an indefinite lifespan; more specifically, the basic structures should be composed of materials having a life expectancy of at least fifty years.
(c) Ease of Maintenance
An important aspect for all transit systems is the requirement of large initial investment in a public facility which will receive continuous and excessive heavy use and must survive with minimum attention to maintenance.
1. Cleaning: To reduce cleaning costs by using materials which do not soil easily, which have surfaces that are easy to clean in a single operation, and on which minor soiling is not apparent.
VX -7b
-7


2. Repairs and Replacements: To reduce maintenance costs by materials which, if damaged, are easily repaired or replaced without undue interference with the system operation.
(d) Outdoor Exposure
The materials employed in the stations shall be those which are normally considered suitable for outdoor use. The entire system shall, for practical purposes, be considered outdoor space.
(e) Visual Quality
To create a feeling of warmth, attractiveness and good quality in the stations and to provide a pleasant atmosphere that encourages civic responsibility and a resultant decrease in abuse.
(f) Availability
Material chosen should reflect considerations of local availability of material both during construction as well as for future replacement.
CRITERIA
Surface
320 Hard, dense, non-porous, non-staining, acid and alkali resistant and low maintenance. However, where a less-hard material seems desirable for noise control and comfort, it may be used if durability maintenance and appearance requirements are met.
Color
321 The selection of exterior materials should produce a
unifying family of natural warm toned colors throughout the system. Color selection should favor materials which are predominantly medium to light in tone to aid in attaining desired illumination levels, but with sufficent contrast and accents (minor variations between units) to provide visual interest and to conceal minor soiling.
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VI


Texture
322 Wall surfaces: Where the material selected is extremely hard and dense, such as granite, a highly polished surface should be used. Not only does the richness of the material tend to intimidate and discourage abuse, but this type of surface can be quickly and easily cleaned of the most predominant form of graffitti, aerosol spray paint.
Where a more porous material is selected, such as concrete, a deeply textured surface should be used to discourage abuse. While a rough texture like this is more difficult -to clean once defaced its inherent nature tends to limit graf f ftti.
Flooring materials should have a surface texture that meets two basic requirements;
(a) Smooth and even enough to allow ease of cleaning.
(b) Rough enough to provide sufficient traction for safe pedestri-an movement, even when wet.
In general surface textures should exhibit enough variation to conceal minor soiling and damage without complicated maintenance procedures.
Unit Size
323 Monolithic materials should be discouraged because of difficulty in’ repairs. In general unit size should be large enough to minimize the number of joints. Unit size for materials subject to heavy use should be sufficiently small enough to help break up the surface and hide soiling, scratches, etc., and to make the unit easy to replace if damaged. Flooring unit size should not be less than 6".
Patterns may vary from station to station but should be identical and regular throughout all the public areas of an individual station.
The following represents a variety of patterns derived from four basic shapes.
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Joints
324 Joints shall be minimized, made as small and as flush as possible, and shall be composed of materials of high durability. All joints shall have uniform width.
RECOMMENDED SELECTIONS
The following recommended selections are examples of typical materials found in modern transit systems. In the interest of unifying the station architecture we are recommending that the palette of materials be limited to the best of the acceptable materials listed. Undesirable materials are listed for comparison.
Those materials marked thus * indicate,in the opinion of the consultants, acceptable materials which best meet the objectives.
Floors
325 Acceptable floor materials are as follows:
* (a) Brick pavers
(b) Granite
(c) Quarry tile
(d) Marble
(e) High-density concrete pavers
♦ (f) Clay tile pavers
9
VTL-S v,


326 Undesirable floor materials are as follows:
(a) Monolithic concrete
(b) Terrazzo
(c) Bituminous toppings
(d) Synthetic resin toppings
(e) Resilient tile and sheet products
(f) Polished stone
(g) Wood or wood products
(H) Carpet
Interi or Walls
327 Acceptable Wall Materials
* (a) Exposed concrete
(b) Ceramic tile
(c) Facing tile
(d) Marble
* (e) Granite
(f) Stainless Steel
* (g) Glazed brick
00 Porcelain enamel panels
(j) Bronze
00 High-pressure laminated plastics (restricted
locations)
328 Undesirable Wall Materials
(a) Plaster
(b) Exposed Steel
VI - 10a
VII


(c) Gypsum Board
(d) Aluminum Panels
(e) Baked enamel metal panels
(f) Acrylic Plastics
(g) Pai nt
(H) Vinyl wall coverings
(j) Colored Glass
00 Asbestos Cement Sheet
Ceilings
329 Acceptable ceiling materials
★ (a) Exposed concrete
* (b) Cement plaster with integral color
(c) Solid metal panels
(d) Perforated acoustic metal panels
330 Undesirable ceiling materials
(a) Lay-in ceilings systems
(b) Sprayed-on finishes
(c) Gypsum plaster
(d) Acoustic tiles
Miscellaneous Metals
331 A single metal should be selected throughout the system for surfaces subject to public contact such as railings, handrails and hardware. Acceptable metals would include bronze and stainless steel.
332 The number of metal types and finishes should be minimized to the greatest possible extent.
VU - 10 v?


Exposed Concrete Finishes
333 Most surfaces in the station area should be of exposed structural concrete, cast-in-place or precast.
334 All exposed concrete surfaces in station areas shall be of uniform composition, color and texture. Contrasting textures in certain areas may be permitted, if visually pieas i ng.

VI
VII


SERVICE ROOMS
J
At each station provisions will be made to house all of the ancillary facilities and equipment necessary for the operation of the system. These rooms will be separate from the public spaces and not accessible by the public. The following are the main objectives of this section:
(a) An orderly,well designed appearance should be presented to the public view.
(b) Access to the service rooms should be controlled.
(c) The location of the service rooms should be located for each configuration so that service and access to these areas is optimum.
CRITERIA
340 Arrange the service rooms so that the number of doors exposed to the public view is minimized. (This also gives the added benefit of increased security.)
341 Louvers and roof appurtenances should be concealed from public view so that the effect is an integrated part of the design.
342 Wherever possible the doors to the service rooms should be visible from the station attendants booth.
343 For each station configuration the location of the service rooms should be as close to at grade as possible so that service and access are as direct as possible.
344 A minimum of two (2) single person toilets should be provided for each station located within the paid area of the concourse in close proximity to the station attendants booth and under his/her visual or electronic surveillance. The restroom door should be equipped with an electronic lock controlled by the station attendant to admit a patron. Facilities in the toilet room shall be useable by handicapped persons.
345 The service rooms should be sized so that there is adequate room for the equipment and the servicing thereof.
346 Provisions should be made for the separate storage of first-aid equipment accessible to and under the control of the station attendant.
11
V3L-U


STATION ATTENDANT
K
Station Attendant - A representative of the system at the station who has constant contact with the public and whose responsibilities include the carrying out of most of the station functions of supervision, administration and commun i -cati on.
He becomes the most important person in the day-to-day operation of the stations since he is one of the few human contacts the public will have with the system. He is the main representative of the rapid transit system to the patrons. The System "image" is very dependent upon him.
The optimum location for the attendant should be in a booth clearly visible from all parts of the concourse area so that people in need of help can easily find him. From this point of view the most efficient and effective location of the booth should be in line with the fare collection array separating the "free" and the "paid" areas in order that both sides may be served. The position of the booth should be centrally located with respect to the fare gates. In certain cases where limited space is available or where patron circulation dictates, the booth may be located to the right of the fare gates.
The Station Attendant is uniformed and readily identified.
As an administrator, he should be able to assume authority, and to demonstrate both initiative and responsibility. He should be able to deal pleasantly and efficiently with the public.
Work should normally be performed without direct supervision. Supervision should be conducted through oral and written reports and frequent observations.
The main objectives of the station attendant are as follows:
(a) To provide for public safety.
(b) To ensure efficient administration and operation of the station.
(c) To provide adequate personal service to patrons.
(d) To deter crime and vandalism.
(e) To accomplish the above with a minimum of manpower by utilizing automatic devices and equipment.
VX - Vic
VII


CRITERIA
The duties and responsibilities of the station attendant may
include the following:
350 Maintaining visual contact with all public areas of the station, using both the normal range of the human eye and closed circuit television equipment installed for that purpose;
351 Observing the passenger flow through the station, noting unusual looking character!'sties ;
352 Assisting passengers in negotiating the stations, fare collection equipment, route information and such other assistance as may be required;
353 Controlling entrance and exit of special personnel and public officials, handicapped passengers, etc. through a special service gate.
354 Reporting immediately to the command center all unusual occurrences such as fire alarms, vandalism, public disturbances, equipment malfunctions, etc;
355 Making announcements to the public, via the public address system, concerning any information required to assist the public in the use of the transit system;
356 Controlling access and use of public toilets;
357 Providing assistance to public safety officials (fire, police, rescue) in the performance of their duties;
358 Monitoring the operation of escalators and elevators through the use of annunciator panels;
359 Monitoring the status of all fire detection equipment throughout the station;
360 Reporting to the command center prior to leaving the kiosk unattended and immediately upon return;
361 Storing and recording lost and found articles;
362 Handling complaints;
363 Recording all such occurrences in the format required;
364 Maintaining a courteous and -attentive attitude to the patrons of the transit system, providing every assistance possible to assure a pleasant trip.
12


Attendants Booth
365 The external design of the booth should make it easy to identify, and should be in keeping with the station arch i tecture.
366 The attendants booth should be standardized throughout the system.
367 It should be glass-enclosed on all sides for visual continuity of both the attendant and the patron.
368 There should be a means of communication between the attendant and patron from both the free and paid areas. This may be accomplished by a two-way speaker device plus a pass-through for maps, schedules, etc.
369 The booth should have room to stand, move or sit comfortably. The floor level should be elevated above the mezzanine level to allow the station attendant to be able to see over the heads of patrons.
370 Interior dimensions should be adequate to accommodate physically handicapped persons, as described by ANSI 117.1 - 1961.
371 The physical environment should include the following characteri sties:
(a) Thermostatically controlled air conditioning.
(b) Dimmer controlled lighting.
(c) Sound control from outside noise.
372 The station attendants booth may contain the following i terns:
(a) TV monitor screens for electronic surveillance.
(b) Normal and emergency operation indicators and controls for various equipment (escalators, elevators, fare gates, etc.)
(c) Public address microphone and speaker.
(d) Emergency and intercom telephones.
(e) A mechanical ticket reader, for use in case of complaint or question.
VI - 1 3 VI


Full Text

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THESIS MICHAEL W RODRIGUEZ METRORAIL GOVERNMENT CENTER MIAMI, FLORIDA ARCHIVES LD 1190 A72 1981 R62 ARCH STUDENT PAPER 282 UNIV OF COLORADO DENVER PROGRAMMING & FINAL DESIGN MAY 1, 1981

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Contents Section 1 Progru Background Section 2Proposed Section 3 -Site Plans Section 4 Architectural and Urban Design Criteria Supplement 1 Saftey and Security Section 5 Final Design

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SECTION 1

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Program Ba kground The new Dade County Administration Building will soon be part of Miami' s sky line• It will also be a dominating element of the Metro Dade County and City of Miami Government and C ivic Center. This area has become one of America ' s most ambitious urban renewal projects• On the adjacent site of the new 6oo,ooo quare foo t , 50 story, Dade County Ad inistrationBuilding, will bet -The new M tro Rail high speed transi t and new downtown P ople "" " 'Mover ovetlay-p61at ' ' • 60 , 000 Sq • ft. -Retal space 40,000 sq. ft• Approximately 25,000 people will pass through this site every morning • This makes the feasibility of retail and restaurant sales in the area possible• The retail portions of the project should have a strong ;, sence of identity. Consideration of a cafe/retail compo ent under the DPM platform area is essential to the uroject . A major statement in the of a cafe, with the use of strong graphics, is important in the path of potential commuters• Also a possible enclosed atriu should be a main e i. to the re a 1 area• Primary fashion d giftware rPtail should not b e t he main attraction o the site• Due to this type of conventional retail and arch and se categor es are an led substan ially n othe areas of Miami• This area is a high potential for a varied amount of food serv es• There is a large population of office personal in the area as wel l as the t ransit co mmuters • Therfore, his project should be t e incentive for a do nate expression in the form of food services•

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Schedule For Thesis Semester Week 1 5 Generation of Alternative Design Concepts 6-8 Selection of Preferred Alternate 9-12 Preparation of Presentation (Design and Development) 13-16 Presentation

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YARD AND SHOP SITE e ' L U I• IT • lottll IT . . . . ' . LEGEND 1-DADELAND SOUTH 2-DADELAND NORTH J-SOUTH MIAMI 4-UN IVERS ITY 5-DOUGLAS ROAD 6-COCONUT GROVE 7-VIZCAY A 8-BRICKELL • 9-GOVERNMENT CENTER 10-WASHINGTON HEIGHTS STAGE 1 ALIGNMENT STATIONS and STATION GROUPS 11-CULMER 12-CIVIC CENTER 13-SANTA CLARA 14-ALLAPATTAH 15-EARLINGTON HEIGHTS 16-BROWNSVILLE 17-GLADEVIEW 18-NORTHSIDE 19-HIALEAH 20-0KEECHOBEE NO

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SECTION 2

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Developm ent Guidlines The following Proposed Guidlines f o r Develo p ment1 prepaired by Geddes Brecher QMalls Cunnin ghama Architects, is a more indepth study of the Downtown Government Center•

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• sign Plan Downtown Government Center Miami, Florida o os d Gui elines o 0 ment Prepared for Metropolitan Dade County Prepared by Geddes Bre c her Oualls CunninghAm : Architec ts 12 Nassau Street Princeton , New Jersey 08540 M a rc h 1980

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Table of Contents Downtown Government Center Plan Introduction Architectural Issues Transportation 1. Vehicular Circulation New NW 1st Street Circulation Parking Garages 2. Rapid Transit Lines 3.Buses 4. Downtown People Mover Station Oe$ign Open Space Information The State of Florida Precinct The City of Miami Precinct The Dade County Precinct Other Governmental Uses 1 4 e 9 11 12 13 15 18

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Downtown Government Center I I 0 10

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Introduction Government today is extremely complex. Ideally it should also be humanist and capable of responding to a range of activities and of public and civic needs. The Downtown Government Center (DGC) should be open and democratic, capable of change and growth. It should effectively 1 -accommodate the physical and symbolic needs of several governmental bodies. The Design Plan achieves the physical expression . of unity out of this diversity by bringing together a group of precincts, each devoted mainly to one governmental body, in and around a central Greenpark. The precincts, which will be described at greater length later in this report, are as follows: -State of Florida (Block B) -City of Miami (Blocks A, C, E, G) Dade County (Blocks D, F, H, I, J, K, L) The Greenpark, which acts as the focus for the overall design, is not the ()nly element common to the whole DGC. Other such eleme . nts are: .. _ . . . : -The tree-shaded streets -The pedestrian movement system though and around the DGC -The consistent organization of vehicle movement, parking and service -The coordinated harmony of several architectural elements Building materials Cornice lines Massing of buildings in relation to each other and to open space . landscape planting materials The DGC is an important component of the core of the Miami region both symbolically and physically. located next to the downtown, it becomes a relaxed part of everyday life and avoids the reputation for isolation so often attached to government. It is closely linked to the region and to the downtown by the following modes of transportation which converge at the DGC r41pid transit station: -The North-South and East West rapid transit lines which arrive at the station, where they intersect, 30 to 50 f eet above ground

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Intracity buses -The Downtown People Mover (DPM} People who emerge from this transportation complex find the DGC Jmmediately to the west and the downtown area immediately to the east. The DGC station is therefore a major entry point to both . . 2 The interweaving of the DGC with the fabric of the city is further exemplified by the extension of the basic street gridiron throughout the DGC. Only NW 1st Street runs without interruption through the Center itself, but the alignments of NW 2nd, 3rd and 4th Streets and NW 2nd Avenue are used as a framework for both buildings and walkways. The pedestrian movement system of the downtown streets is thereby carried through to the pedestrian movement system of the DGC, with one important addition-the Greenpark. On grade sidewalks and arcades are common to both the downtown and the DGC, but the Greenpark in the Government Center also allows people to walk informally through landscaped surroundings. The DGC pedestrian system contains two special elements in addition to the walkways which cross it from east to west. On the western side of the Greenpark, tree-shaded paths parallel a north-south . boulevard. On the eastern side, an arcade runs for 900 feet north and south. The arcade is 28 feet high and has two levels of pedestrian wa lkways. The second level has trellises on the west side with climbing plants for shade. As required, the arcade carries utilities in the floor of the second level. It borders the Greenpark on the east, serving as a connector between the State of Florida precinct (Block B) in the north and the Cultural Center (Block J) to the south which it reaches by crossing NW 1st Street as a bridge. On the north side of the Dade County office building (Block H), the arcade abuts the rapid transit station and gives access to shops and transit concourses on both levels. The arcade meets several practical needs : It affords a means by which to distribute some utilities above ground

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3 to the various buildings It shelters people from sun and rain as they make the ir way between the buildings and the rapid transit station It is the location of a number of special places devoted to particular functions Day care centers Restaurants Specialty shops Gatherings Two aspects of the Government Center of the utmost importance to users are taken into account at every step of the design: Security, both in the buildings themselves and in the open space Access by the handicapped to all buildings and facilities

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Architectural Issues 4 The goal is not uniformity, but rather a sense of harmony in diversity achieved by a common vocabulary of texture and color. Some relevant considerations are: Surface Finish The surface finish of buildings in the DGC should be a varied, harmonious selection of matte masonry such as keystone, concrete, limestone, travertine, stucco and tile. Rooftops The design of rooftops is particularly important because first, the DGC will be seen and experienced from places above ground, e.g. the expressway, tall buildings and raised walkways, and second, because the climate precludes exposed rooftop parking. Rooftops will therefore be designed with particular attention to appropriate finish materials and such features as trellises and water reservoirs •.. ] .. .J. :; I ... Parking Lots Ongrade parking lots will be screened by low walls and dense planting. The most upto-date security methods will ensure the safety of those who use them. Energy Buildings that conserve energy and yet are compatible with the Florida climate pose a challenge. We suggest as a beginning that buildings in the DGC should incorporate the following elemen ts: -Sunshades -Operating sashes -Appropriate landscape elements to protect ground floors and pedestrian areas from the sun Roof Lines The overall unity of the DGC will be foster e d if the cornice lin_es of the new buildings relate to each other. Thus the cornice line of the Dade County Library in Block J and the roof line of the existing City of Miami Police Headquarters in Block A will serve as generating lines for the massing, bulk and cornice lines of the DGC's western zone. In the

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5 eastern zone, the roof lines of buildings in Blocks 0 and F will relate to the existing State of Florida buildin g s in Block B.

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Transportation Overall transit consultants are the Kaiser Transit Group. A team from Harry Weese Associates, working for Kaiser, has set design standards and criteria to fit train and peoplemoving requirements. The transit system has four main elements: private vehicles, rapid transit lines, buses and the Downtown People Mover. 1. Vehicular Circulation New NW 1st Avenue 6 We recommend that a new street be created (provisionally named New NW 1st Avenue) to run north and south from the intersection of NW 1st Avenue and NW 5th Street to the intersection of NW 1st Avenue and NW 1st Street. This street, four lan es wide, will provide .. : _ .. _ ' -The eastern edge of the DGC -An access road to the DGC -A north-south connector bypassing the DGC -Four nearly uniform blocks for private development on its eastern side which may possibly contain offices, shops, theaters and restaurants -A series of parking and loading bays for intracity buses Street Circulation Bordering the DGC, vehicular traffic will run: North and south To the east, New NW 1st Avenue and its continuations to the north and south on NW 1st Avenue To the west, NW 3rd Avenue To the west, J -95 East and west To the north, NW 5th Street To the south, Flagler Street Within the DGC, vehicular circulation will be limited to:

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-NW 1st Street, running east and west -loop roadways and cuts-de-sac Parking Garages Parking garages will be located: -At the southern end of the DGC in Block I, connected by a pedestrian bridge to the Cultural Center in Block J On the western side of the DGC at Blocks G and C On the eastern side of the DGC at Block D 7 A landscaped parking courtyard will be built on the southern portion of Block F to give a ccess to the County office building between NW 1st and 2nd Streets (Block H). The courtyard is especially designed for County official s and distinguished visitors to the Government Center. 2. Rapid Transit Lines .... -.. _ . .•• ...... A North -South rapid transit line will run parallel to the Florida East Coast Railroad right of-way on the eastern edge of the DBC and will be constructed immediately. Its southern terminus will be Kendall (SW 104th Street) and its northern terminus will be Hialeah . An East West line, to be constructed in the future, will run across the DGC on a line with NW 2nd Street. It will run from Miami Inter national Airport via Downtown Miami to points north and northeast. The lines will run 25 to 30 feet above the ground except at higher crossings of rivers and expressways. Where the lines intersect at the Government Center, a major transit station will be built. The architect is the Cambridge 7, working with Harry Weese Associates an d the Kaiser Transit Group. The station has four levels. The first level, ongrade, has access for buses. The second level is that of the Downtown People Mover. The East West rapid transit line arrives on the third level and the North -South line on the fourth level. Stairs, elevators, ramps and escalators connect the various levels of the station to the ground.

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3. Buses A bus concourse is to run along New NW 1st Avenue from NW 1st to NW 3rd with access to the rapid transit station, the DPM and the Government Center. 4. The Downtown People Mover (DPM) 8 The proposed DPM, running on an elevated guideway, will provide intracity transit service. The integration of the DPM into the DGC rapid transit station links it to the regional transportation s yste m. Station Design The design of the station is crucial to the successful integration of the Government Center and the downtown area. It is an attractive, humane place, full of shops and governmental offices that serve people's needs. : ,.,..,. The shops are located on the first and second levels a n d are directly connected to the transit and DPM platforms.

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. Open Space 9 The bringing together of a group of precincts, focused on a central Greenpark, creates a physical expression of unity out of diversity. Open space in the DGC, and particularly the Greenpark, is used as an armature or network for the whole composition. Within the overall setting, there is a wide variety of places for people to use an9 to in, such as arcades, pergolas and groups of trees. Among the factors of importance to the d e sign of the DGC's open space are: -The climate and its demands -Security, as important in the open space as in the buildings -The need for flexibility and adoptability to meet changes over time in people's interests and pursuits out of_doors _ _____ _ -The need for the richest possible variety of plant materials to give a diversity of texture, color and shade The open space takes three main forms: 1. The tree-shaded streets The shade trees on the streets are planned consistently throughout the DGC. Royal palms line New NW 1st Avenue and Flagler Streets. Black olives and other shade trees are planted elsewhere according to an overall plan. 2. The Greenpark The Greenpark consists of a series of elements e a ch of which is designed for passive recreation such as lunchtime gatherings and contact with nature. These include landscape details of various scales-trees, shrubs, pools, sculpture gardens, etc. The predominant use of shade trees is on the western side of the Greenpark where they line a boulevard and paths running north and south. 3. Small scale places Directly associated with buildings and entrances , such special, small scale places include: A plaza at the entrance to the County office building on NW 1st Street (Block H)

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-The landscaped parking courtyard north of the County office building (Block F) -The landscaped plaza off NW 5th Street adjzcent to the State of Florida buildings (Block B) 10 -The landscaped plaza on the eastern side of the City of Miami office building, just west of the treelined boulevard (Block E) -The existing park in the interior of Block C -The patio of the Cultural Center (Block J)

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Information 11 People who visit the DGC need immediate, precise and clearly intelligible information. Signage for the DGC should be closely related to the new downtown signage. Signs on the city streets should tell visitors: Where to park -The relation of parking garages to the whole DGC -The identity of each building and the location of its entrance -The location of access for the handicapped to each building -The location of service areas for each building Signs in the parking garages should tell visitors: -The relation of their point of entry to the whole DGC -The identity of each building and the location of its entrance Circulation routes between the buildings • 1 -. f • . -The location of access for the handicapped to each building ' •n '' :L,d .... -. Similar information should be available at points of pedestrian access to the DGC and at the rapid transit and bus stations. Within each building, information on the location of various offices should be available immediately adjacent to each entrance and on each floor by elevators, ramps and stairways. Large scale signs on building facad e s above the ground floor will not be allowed. Appropriate signs, graphics and symbolic emblems will be designed to convey the necessary information both inside and outside the DGC and each of its buildings. Signs which involve words will be in both Spanish and English: graphics and symbols will take cultural diversity into account.

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The State of Florida Precinct 12 The State of Florida Precinct (Block 8) is located south of NW 5th Street between the North-South rapid transit line and NW 2nd Avenue. It covers 3.9 acres including the abandoned right of-way of NW 4th Street at its southern bo11ndary. A '167,000 square foot admin i stration building for the State of Florida exists on the site, facing the Greenpark. The architect was Russell, Martinez and Holt. Plans for later phases of development include further administration buildings and a landscaped plaza a t the main vehicular entrance off NW 5th Street. This plaza and the Greenpark south of the p r ecinct afford adequate o p en space. Vehicular access is from NW 5th Street and NW 4th Street from the -r. _ __ • east. Ped e strian acc ess is from NW 4th and 5th Streets, the G re enp ark and the arcade. Visitors who arrive at the rapid transit statio n will walk north along the sheltered arcade to the precinct.

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The City of Miami Precinct 13 The City of Miami Precinct (Blocks A; C, E, G) is located between NW 1st and NW 5th Streets. Its western boundary is NW 3rd Avenue and 1 95. Its eastern boundary is the Greenpark. The precinct contains 11.34 acres. Block A Two buildings constructed during the initial phase of f?GC development already exist in Block A which is located between NW 4th and 5th Streets. They are the City of Miami Police Headquarters and Garage designed by Pancoast/Bouterse, Borrelli & Albaisa, Architects, in a venture. Block E E ) An office building for the City was designed by Pancoast, Borrelli & Albaisa, Architects, during the first phase of DGC development on the western portion of Block E between NW 2nd and 3rd Streets. During a later phase of development, a second office building for the City's administration will be built on the eastern section of the block with a landscaped plaza between the building and the Greenpark. The cornice lines of this building which face the Greenpark will match those of the Police Headquarters and the Dade County Library. Blocks C and G Blocks C and G which flank Block E between NW 3rd and 4th and NW 1st and 2nd Streets respectively are subjects of an agreement entered into by Dade County and the City of Miami which will convey these blocks (less the eastern 145 feet) to the City at such time as the City is prepared to proceed with garage construction as planned. These blocks will ultimately be the location of buildings for additional County courts and Federal or other public agency offices and parking garages. As these buildings are designed, they will fit into the pedestrian network and relate architecturally to the Greenpark and the cornice lines of other buildings at its western edge. The precinct's location on the gives it access to the park's open space. An existing, treeshaded park on the interior of Block C will remain.

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14 Vehicular access to the precinct is from NW 1st and 5th Streets and from an access road off NW 3rd Avenue at NW 3rd Street. This road will run east to the Greenpark and then become a treelined boulevard running north and south with landscaped turnarounds at each end. No parking will be perm'itted, but the road will give access to all buildings in the precinct on the western edge of the Greenpark. Pedestrian access from the rapid transit station is by sheltered walkway across the Gree npark . From the west, access is by the walkway which runs under 1 -95 and the East West transit line at NW 2nd Street between Blocks E and G.

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The Dade County Precinct The Dade County Precinct consists of office buildings and parking garages (Blocks D, F, H), the Dade County Cultural Center (Block J), 15 a Central Support Facility for the entire DGC and a parking garage above it (Block 1), the Dade County Courthouse (Block K) and a newly acquired Dade Administration Building (Block L). The Courthouse and Administration Bui lding are located outside the DGC proper but are related to it by function. The future use of the Courthouse exclusively for local judicial purposes brings it into a particularly important relationship to the DGC. Blocks D, F and H cover 5.36 acres .and lie between the North-South rapid transit line on the east, the Greenpa_rk on the west, NW 1st Street on the soutltand NW 4th Street on the north: At present, no : ,. ' :r; DGC building exists in the area. Future development will be as follows: Block D A large parking garage will be built in Block D between NW 3rd and 4th Streets. Access will be from NW 4th Street. An office building will be built over the parking garage initially or at a later stage. Block F A future office building for Dade County is planned for the northern section of Block F at NW 3rd Street. It will be built in a futu re development phase of the DGC. In the southern portion of the block there will be a landscaped parking courtyard, reached by a loop road from NW 3rd Street which will run under the future office building. Important visitors to the Dade County office building (Block H) will arrive here and enter the building through the public areas at its base. The parking courtyard will be built in conjunction with the new Dade County Administration Building. Block H Hugh Stubbins Associates and Collaborative 3, Architects, have designed the Dade County Council Chamb ers and a thirty-story office tower for the Dade County administration in Block H. The block encompasses the East West rapid transit line near its northern boundary and is bounded by NW 1st Street on the south, New NW 1st Avenue

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16 on the east and the Greenpark on the west. The office tower will adjoin the rapid transit station and will have associated shops and lobby faciliti e s at the ground and DPM levels. The North-South rapid transit station and structural elements for the East West line and the DPM will be d e s i gned by the Cambridge 7, Architects. Open space for these blocks is provided by the Greenpark, the parking courtya rd and a landscaped plaza off NW 1st Street with the office tower and Dade County Council Chambers. Vehicular access to the three blocks is by extensions of NW 3rd and 4th Streets. A service dock and yard, r e ached from the NW 3rd Street exten sion, provides serv ice acc e ss to the County office tower and the shops in its base. P e d es trian access from the north is through the Greenpark and the arcade; from the we st, along the walkway under the East West transit line; from the south, through the NW 1st Street plaza and the bridge from the Cultural Center. Blocks D, F and H are open to e a sy pedestrian access from the city streets. A major point of access, however, both for pede strians and people arriving by bus, OPM and rapid transit, is the Government Center rapid transit station. Stairs, elevators, ramps and escalators lead from the rapid transit line platforms to the ground and DPM levels where the shoppi ng areas g i ve access to the office tower. The a rc ade borders the western boundaries of all three blocks and forms a transition to the Greenpark. It provides shelter for pedestrians as they walk from the transit station to all the buildings on the eastern side of the Government Center. It also gives a welcome continuity to the eastern margin of the Greenpnrk and will eventually be the location of such activities as restaurants, information centers and day care centers. Block I Block I is located betwe en NW 2nd and 3rd Avenues and NW 1st and Flagler Streets. No DGC buildi n g exists on this block at present. A

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17 combined Central Support Facility and parking for 600 cars will be built during the second state of DGC development. The architect is Fcrendino, Grafton, Spillis, Candela. A bridge at the second level of this building will lead across NW 2nd Avenue to the main plaza level of the Cultural Center. Block J Located between NW 1st Street, Flagler Street, NW 2nd and NW 1st Avenues, Block J wil _ l be the location of the Dade County Cultural Center. Blocks I and J together cover 6.03 acres. No DGC building exists on Block J at present. During the second phase of DGC development, the Dade County Library, Center for the Fine Arts and Natural History Museum will be built. The architect is ' Johnson/Burgee with Connell, Metcalf and Eddy. These buildings which comprise the Dade County Cultural Center will be clustered around a plaza fourteen feet above the street. Open spaces will consist of the central plaza and a landscaped area on NW 1st Avenue facing the Dade County Courthouse. Vehicular access is from Flagler and NW 1st Streets and NW 2nd Avenue. Service access is by a road leading to a service portal in the eastern facade of the Cultural Center. Pedestrian access to the museums and library is from: -A grand stair and a ramp from Flagler Street and two stairways from NW 1st Street,
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Other Governmental Uses 18 Federal Building (existing) located between Flagler and SW 1st Streets facing NW 1st Avenue, the Federal Building is related to the DGC because it is diagonally across the Flagler-NW Avenue intersection from the Cultural Center.

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SECTION 3

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Site Plans The first fold out site plan shows an overall view o f t e area a nd its boundries. The second shows a c oser and more detailed view of the new Dade County Administration Building and its relationship to the site.

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SECTION 4

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I Architectural and Urban Design Criteria This final section contains most of the overall architectural an d Urban design criteria pertinant to the site • Draft Milestone -7 Report was p repaired by Kaiser Engineering i n March, 197 5 • Although this report'is over 5 years old, most of the information is still valid and will b e a major influence on the design decisions for my thesis•

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DRAFT MILESTONE-? REPORT ARCHITECTURAL AND URBAN DESIGN DADE COUNTY TRANSIT iMPROVEMENT PROGRAM KAISER ENGINEERS IN ASSOCIA r/ON WITH: WILBUR SMITH AND ASSOCIATES POST. BUCKLEY. SCHUH I JEJUUW. UIC. CONNEll ASSOCIATES. INC. CARR SMITH AND ASSOCIATES. UIC. DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH ASSOClATU BOOZ • AllEN APPUED RESEARCH CONSULTANTS: HAliK MEYER ASSOCIATU. IIIC. EY CU Y ASSOClA TEl. IIIC. MARCH, 1975

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FOREWORD Recognizing the need for improved transportation facilities to accommodate the rapidly increasing population of Dade County, the County began in 1968 a series of planning studies to identify the facilities required to meet this need. These studies, completed in 1972, recommended the development of a rapid transit system and tentatively identified the scope and magnitude of such a system. On the basis of these studies, the voters of Dade County, in an election in November 1972, approved the issuance of bonds in the amount of $132.5 million to provide the local share of the cost of constructing a rapid transit system. With this approval by the people, the County proceeded with the second step in the development of the Program: the conduct of preliminary engineering to define the system with sufficient accuracy to permit an application for federal funds for final. detailed design and construction of the system. To perform the preliminary engineering, the County, in October 1973, engaged the services of Kaiser Engineers as engineering consultant, in association with: Wilbur Smith and Associates Post, Buckley, Schuh and Jernigan, Inc. Connell Associates Carr Smith and Associates Development Research Associates Booz-Allen Applied Research The preliminary engineering program is being conducted under the direction of the Dade County Transportation Coordinator, Dr. John Oyer. This report is the in a series of eight Mil estone (Interim) reports covering the various aspects of the program and culminating in a final report setting forth the results of the entire program. This report, Architectural and Urban Design deals with concept and criteria to be used for the future planning of architectural designs of stations and station sites and the future planning of land use and urban designs of station areas. 1

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword List of Figures List of Tables I. Introduction/Summary A. The Preliminary Engineering Program B. Part 1 -Architectural Design C. Part 2 -Station Area Planning and Design II. Conclusions/Recom mendations III. IV. v. VI. VI I. A. Part 1 -Architectural Design B. Part 2 -Station Area Planning and Design t)E.LE.TEO PART 1 -ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN Aesthetic Value In Transit Basic Concept A. -Introduction B. Public Oriented C. Unification D. Community Influence E. Atmosphere F. Appearance G. Circulation Site Criteria A. Introduction B. Facilities for the Elderly and Handicapped C. Pedestrian Access D. Bus Facilities E. Kiss-and-Ride Facilities F. Park-and-Ride Facilities G. Site Signage H. Landscaping J. Site Lighting Station Criteria A. Introduction B. Access C. Entrances D. Concourse E. Platform F. Roof Structure G. Structural Material H. Materials and Finishes J. Service Rooms page i i 1 1 v I-1Q I-1o. 1-1\o II-1, II-1 .. II-1b V-1 .. V-1-. V-1, V-1b V-b,. V-2 .. V-2" V-2\7 VI -1 VI-1 b VI -1• VI -2 VI -3-. VI-4Q, VI -4 b VI-So. VI-S\> VI -8 a. VII-1Q, VII-1 .. VII-2, VII-2ta VII-3b VI!-4b VII-5• VII-7b VII-l1b

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VI I I. IX. X. XI. X I I. K. Station Attendant L. Fare Collection M. Vertical Movement N. Facilities for the Elderly and Handicapped 0. Barriers P. Furnishings Q. Station Lighting R. Acoustics S. Graphics T. _Advertising, U. Station Design Influence Station Outline Drawings Glossary PART 2 -STATION AREA PLANNING & DESIGN Introduction to Station Area Planning A. Issues: Transit Station Impacts and Development Planning B. The Station Planning Task 1. Development and Land Use Policies 2. Development of Station Planning Approach 3. Selection and Analysis of Six Station Locations 4. Development of Land Use, Urban Design & Zoning Recommendations Approach and Methodology A. Approach Summary B. Station Operational and Development Rationale C. Station Influence Zone Determination 1. Impact Zones at Stations 2. Influence Zone Selection Criteria 3. Application of Influence Zone Criteria D. Market Demand 1. Overview of Methodology 2. Review of Methodology E. Inventory of Existing Conditions 1. Existing Land Use Patterns 2. Accessibility and Movement Pattern F. Analysis of Opportunities and Constraints 1. Community Characteristics 2. Design Resources and Limitations Prototypical Station Investigations A. Introduction to the Six Prototypes B. The Scope of Analysis C. Regional Overview 1. Development Patterns page VII-12a VII-14a. VII-14b VII-164 VII-18\> VII-20 4 VII-23" VII-24 a. VII-26" IX-1 " X-1 X-1 " X-1 \> X-1 b X-2 a. X-2 Cl X-2 XI-1a. XI-14 XI-1b Xl-34 XI-3" XI -4 Q XI-9b XI-10" XI-10\t X I -1 Ob XI-15b XI-15b XI-16o. XI-17q XI-17'\ , XI-17b XII-1 q XII-lq XII-3"-I XII-3b XII-3b

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2. Regional Demand D. Socio-Economic Summary J. Introduction Market Demand Potential . Existing Land Use Patterns and Zoning Access and Movement ommunity Characteristics sign Resources and Limitations 7. Re ommended Development Concepts N.W. 2 th Avenue and N.W. 62nd Stree Station 1. I nt ro 2. Market emand Potential 3. Existing Use Patterns a 4. Access an Movement 5. Community C aracteristics 6. Desion Resou ces and Limi ations 7. Recommended D velopment oncepts S.W. 1st Street an 16th 1. Introduction 2. Market Demand Pot 3. Existing Land Use Zoning 4. Access and Moveme 5. Community Chara 6. Design Resourc and L 7. Recommended D velopment oncepts Douglas Road an S.W. 22nd S reet 1. Introducti 2. Market De Potential 3. Existing and Use Patterns an 4. Access nd Movement 5. Commu ty Characteristics 6. Desi Resources and Limitations 7. Rec mmended Development Concepts Dade 1 nd 1. traduction 2. arket Demand Potential 3 Existing Land Use Patterns and Zoning Access and Movement Community Characteristics Design Resources and Limitations Government Center 1. Introduction 2. Market Demand Potential 3. Existing Land Use Patterns and Zoning 4. Access and Movement 5. Community Characteristics 6. Design Resources and Limitations 7. Recommended Development Concepts *** page XII-4 XII-10 XII-2 XII-2 XII-3 X II -3 XII-3 X II -3 XII-3 XII-4 XII-4 XII-4 XII-4 XII-4 X II -5 X II -5 XII-5 XII-6 XII-6 XII-6 XII-6 XII-6 XII-6 X II -7 XII-7 XII-7 XII-7 XII-7 II -8 X I -8 XI -8 XIIXII-95" XII-95b XII-99o XII-101(\ XII-105a. X I I -1 OS" XII-108 b i i

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure VI-1 VI-2 VI-3 VI-4 VI-S VII-1 VIII-1 VIII-2 VIII-3 PART 1 -ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN Prototypical Site Plan Landscaping Sections Landscaping Plan Site Lighting Fixtures Site Lighting Plan Station Design Influence Chart A-la Prototypical Concourses and Platforms A-lb.-Prototypical Concourses and Pla tforms B-la Aerial Platform-at grade Concourse (at grade access) (Plans) VIII-4 B-lb Aerial Platform-at grade Concourse (at grade access) (Sections) VIII-5 8-lc Aerial Platform-at grade Concourse (underground access) (Plans) V III-6 8-ld Aerial Platform-at grade Concourse (underground access) (Sections) VIII-7 8-2a Aerial Platform-Aerial Concourse (aerial access) Plans VIII-8 8-2b Aerial Platform-Aerial Concourse (aerial access) Sections VIII-9 8-3a At Grade Platform-Aerial Concourse (two sided access) Plans VIII-10 B-3b At Grade Platform-Aerial Concourse (two sided access) Sections VIII-11 8-4a Underground Platform & Concourse (at grade access) Plans VIII-12 8-4b Underground Platform & Concourse (at grade access) Sections VIII-13 C-la Typical Platform & Concourse Plans (side Platforms) VIII-14 C-lb Typical Platform & Concourse Sections (side Platforms) VI I I -1 5 Ae ria 1 View VIII-16 Underground Access VIII-17 Aerial Access VIII-18 Concourse Free Area VIII-19 Concourse Paid Area VIII-20 Platform PART 2 -STATION AREA PLANNING & DESIGN XII-1 Selected 5t.ation Sites

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LIST OF TABLES . Table XI-1 XII-1 XII-2 XII-3 XII-4 XII-5 Xll-6 Xll-7 11-10 II-10A II-11 II-12 Il-13 II -14 XII-17 XII-18 XII-19 PART 2 STATION AREA PLANNING & DESIGN Attractiveness Index Weightings by Land Use Type Employment By Industry in the Miami Metropolitan Area, 1960 and 1970 Employment by Occupational Categories Miami Metropolitan Area 1960 1970 Manufacturing Employment in Dade County, 1963 1972 Manufacturing Plants in Dade County, 1963 1972 Value Added by Manufacturing in Dade County, 1963 1972 Demand Deposits Held in Banks in Major United States Cities Summary of Social and Economic Conditions . . . . Rating Dougla Anticipated Development Without Transit Attractiveness Description Government Center Development Attractiveness Index Rating at the Government Center *** v

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II-37 II -38 II -39 II-40 II-41 II-42 II-43 II -44 I XII-47 XII-48 XII-49 XII-50 XII-51 XII-52 XII-53 XII-54 XII-55 Invluence Zone Government Center Existing Land Use Government Center Zoning Government Center Community Characteristics Government Center Design Resources Government Center Existing Massing Government Center Ultimate Development Concept Government Center 1985 Development Concept Government Center Circulation Government Center ***

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INTRODUCTION I SUMMARY THE PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING PROGRAM A The Preliminary Engineering Program consists of a series of planning and engi neering studies which will result in the definition and preliminary design of all of the many elements making up the transit system, including the transit corridors. and routes to be established, the types of vehicles to be used, the locations and types of transit stations and other facilities, and the pattern of land use and development in the vicinity of transit stations and corridors. The program has been designed to provide an orderly process for development of the system characteristics. As alternative concepts are developed by the consultants for the various system elements, the public will be afforded the opportunity to review these concepts, together with the source material used in their development, and to provide its input to the decisions to be made. The most important decisions in the Program are called Milestones. The Program has been structured to provide eight Milestone decision points, leading to the ultimate system definition. These are: General System Concept and Criteria, Vehicle Technology, Development and Land Use Policy, Relocation Policies, Final Route Alignment, Safety and Security, Architectural and Urban Design, Final System Concept. The seventh Milestone Architectural and Urban Design is presented in two parts; Part 1, Architectural Design and Part 2, Station Area Planning and Design. All aspects of this Milestone will be presented and discussed with the public through the Citizens Participation Program. Toward the success of this Milestone we urge citizens to voice their ideas and opinions which can be taken into consideration by the County when final concepts, criteria and designs are developed. PART 1 -ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN Now that the statistics are compiled, the topography investigated, the utilities spotted, the vehi.cle technologies analyzed and the most direct route found, it becomes the architects role in the development process. As a member B

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l of the team it is he who is most interested and qualified in pleading the case of the patron. His training and approach is d logical rallying point for the problems of people and their perception and reactions. Milestone 7 presents the architectural designs of stations and station sites and defines the criteria for the major architectural features. The material contained in Part 1 includes recommended concept and criteria and a presentation of design drawings. The subject of this report, is in part an extension of Milestone 1, General System Concept and Criteria and has its roots in the service goals and objec tiveJ of passenger tonvenience,comfort, and safety. Section V is the key section which establishes basic concept and becomes the design matrix from which all elements should grow. All future decisions should constantly be checked and tested against these concepts for proof of adherence. Sections VI ana VII present basic criteria to follow in the development of the major architectural features of the stations and station sites. These criteria will become the basis for the more detailed architectural criteria manual which will be issued to the architects of the individual stations. Section VIII presents station design drawings utilizing the basic concepts and criteria as recommended and represent "prototype" designs which will be used to guide the future planning and design process of all stations. The material is presented in general terms, its details will be developed in the course of designing individual elements of the system. In process some recommendations will be expanded, some will be improved and some will undoubtedly be amended in the light of developing realities. The size and complexity of the system and the wide variety of conditions along the various routes point to the need for a simple set of rules. It is intended that this Milestone, without in any way restricting fresh approaches, will expedite the design process and help to achieve for the entire system a unified and attractive architecture. PART 2 STATION AREA PLANNING AND DESIGN c This portion of the Milestone report is devoted to a second phase of the transit station area planning task of the Pre liminary Engineering program. It follows the preparation of Development and Land Use Policies in Milestone 3. With these policies as a base, a series of detailed station area examinations has been made of six selected sites from the proposed :r -I b

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system. The ultimate result of the station area planning sequence has been the of conceptual land use and urban design plans for the six areas. Appropriate zoning recommendations are forthcoming in a separate report. Part 2 of this Milestone consists of two principal sections, dealing with an overall planning approach for station areas, and the analysis and recommendations on the six station areas themselves. The first section establishes the planning approach, and traces the sequence through its various market and site analysis stages and through the recommendations. With appropriate revisions, and further detail to be supplied as a working paper, the approach can be used as guidance in the future planning of all station areas in the system. This ••methodology" section reviews influence zone determination, market demand potentials, and physical re sources analyses that need to be conducted for each station. The second section focuses on the six specific station areas chosen for detailed study. The analyses presented here cover the station location and its perceived operational role in the system, the metropolitan development function the station might play, the impact zones around the station site, the "natural" and station-induced market demand for different types of development activity, existing land use patterns and accessibility characteristics of the subject areas. This analysis, along with the policies put forth in Milestone 3, have been used as inputs to an urban design process cul minating in six area conceptual plans and a series of rendered plans of possible urban design treatments. ***

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CONCLUSIONS l RECOMMENDATIONS II PART 1 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN Certain rapid transit systems have established a policy of making each station's architecture as different as possible from each other station in the system; the intent of this policy is to allow each architect total freedom in developing station concepts and designs. While this policy offers some advantages, frequently this practice leads to a lack A of sufficient guidelines for the final design stage. As a result, the final design architect is left unaware and unsure of what the preliminary design architect intended. In our opinion this situation creates a highly fragmented architectural style with few, if any, unified elements, creating a rather disjointed system image. Also, it often results in "gimmick" designs and unnecessary novelty details. At the other end of the spectrum, several transit systems have strived to make all the stations look as alike as pas-s i b.l e i n the i n teres t of est a b 1 i s hi n g a very 11 standard i zed 11 system in which conformity to rigid criteria is mandatory. This policy prevents any real participation by the individual architects in the design of the stations, and results in an impersonal, 110fficial11 style of architecture. There are strong arguments (on both sides) for each of the above approaches. In the preliminary design of stations for Dade County's Rapid Transit System the best elements of both approaches have been brought together to provide a 11balanced11 architectural design. The basic concepts for this design are described in detail in Chapter V of this report. Also, architectural criteria to aid in the design of each site and station are included in Chapter VI and VII. Since the concepts and criteria for architectural and urban design will apply to the entire transit system, residents taking part in the Citizen Participation Program have been asked to submit their comments and suggestions in terms of what they feel will best meet the goal of a balanced architectural style (i.e., one that will allow stat1ons to be individually designed to fit the character of surrounding neighborhoods, yet still convey an image of a unified transit system). Using this yardstick as a guide, Public Forum members were asked to focus their discussion on site and station criteria and to reach agreement on which items they wish to modify, delete or add. To give citizens a visual example of how these criteria might be applied to station design, a series of drawings and renderings were presented. I I

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. 1 Through the review process a total of ninety four (94) comments were received. As a result fifteen percent (15%) of the citizens comments caused changes to the criteria ranging from clarification to additional criteria. Also an additional fourteen percent (14%) of the citizens comments were duly noted for input consideration to future work. Based on this review and the consultants• further analysis, a general conclusion was reached which formed the basis for a fundamental recommendation. Favorable comments were received in response to the request for particular attention to the goal of a "balanced architectural style". While the general respon-se to this approach was favorable, some comments were interpreted to indicate a desire for more standardization without restricting the desirable influences of the community and the individual architect. Therefore, the recommendation is that basic fundamental concepts and criteria as amended by the citizens• comments be adopted as guidelines for the final designs of stations and station sites. Added to and in support of this recommendation, it is felt that serious consideration be given to the formation of a review committee for monitoring the final design and construction phase of the Transit Improvement Program. PART 2 STATION AREA PLANNING AND DESIGN 8 The basic recommendations of Part 2, Station Area Planning and Design, are in terms of both process and products. In one respect, the overall planning approach that is offered in Section XI provides a sequence that leads to a series of recommended plans for six station areas. -This approach will be detailed further in a working paper to be produced at a later date, but the basic elements of inventory and analysis remain as recommended in this report. The more specific information in this report is oriented toward the development decisions concerning the six station areas under investigation. Since this portion of the report is very product oriented on the basis of the six station areas the recommendations found in section XII are not necessarily the land use relationships or design decisions that are applicable to all stations. More systemwide conclusions and recommendations concerning station area planning principles were offered in Milestone 3, Development and Land Use Policy. JL-' b

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Citiz•n comments concerning station area planning matters in the Presentation of Data Report were primarily concerned with stations becoming focal points of community development activity, and with the potential for joint development activity at stations. These thoughts are consistent with the system-wide policy statements in Milestone 3. As illustrated in the station concept in section XII, this principle has been applied to each of the stations. All of the stations have become focal points of community, and often county-wide development. Most have also indicated the potential for joint development activity, including air rights development in several instances. *** I I

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PART 1 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

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AESTHETIC VALUE IN TRANSIT IV AESTHETICS: The branch of philosophy dealing with the beautiful, chiefly with respect to theories of its essential character, tests by which it may be judged, and its relation to the human mind. True aesthetic value in transit is identified with the environment, and the feeling one has in experiencing a trip. Elements of form, pattern and texture contribute only in detail to this value. Our goal is to seek an aesthetic value which will make transit architecture accountable to the behavioral and physical sciences and to the persuasive demands for social needs. To establish a basis for this aesthetic we begin by borrowing from the atmosphere of Dade County•s picturesque environment, a unique environment characterized as scenic and outdoor oriented. Two aesthetic considerations are given to the creation of a transit system environment. The first consideration of environment is its impact on the neighbor, the bystander, the community; the second its effect on the rider. The total aesthetic character of the system should be a composite of these two major considerations rather than aesthetics for its own sake. The aesthetic value of the community must assume its proper importance in the program. Rapid transit, following its own exclusive right-of-way, must create the environment that its neighbors share, and this permanent environment becomes a lasting community value and influence. Thus, the job is one of integrating into an existing neighborhood with minimal disruption. Here•s where an alignment might be elevated to allow linear park development underneath rather than a fenced in at grade division. Perhaps an alignment could be shifted slightly to follow an existing boundary, and avoid creating a new division; and perhaps a wider right-of-way would allow neighbors to look at a landscaped slope rather than at a retaining wall. These are true aesthetic considerations that everyone can and must take part in. For the rider, aesthetic value goes beyond the merely decorative. It is one•s excitement of anticipation, one•s feeling of belonging and one•s sense of well being that will determine the success of the system aesthetically. Comfortable seats, clean floors, clear information, and visual order are high in the list of considerations. JY.-lo. IV-

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So, it is the job of everyone to find the most attractive expression for the greatest part of the population. If there is a solid basis to build on, many refinements can be developed and much work done to perfect the system as the rider sees it and as the neighbor lives with it. What can be done is to maintain consistency of design thereby creating a character for the system that will belong to no other. In a more fundamental way, the character of the system itself must be established within the whole area it will serve. ... ......

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BASIC CONCEPT

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BASIC CONCEPTS v INTRODUCTION A In our search for the current state of the art, through the vocabulary or modern transit systems, we have taken advantage of their ideas and experiences and have developed concepts for the Dade County System. These concepts are fundamental to all station designs and represent a new human spirit which is essential for today's transit systems. Our interpretation and evaluation has processed them into aspirations particularly suited to the local environment and specific needs. Their strengths will be the foundation from which all of the criteria and design will grow. These concepts transform transit stations into a publicoriented system, unified together as a large family of stations and responsive to the outdoor character of the atmosphere. Further, the concepts demand that the stations have a functional image inGorporating simplistic circulation patterns. These concepts will all be achieved through an integration with the community at large in an attempt to create a widely accepted and responsive system. PUBLIC ORIENTED B The public-oriented system provides an environment not unlike that of public buildings. Rapid transit being a public enterprise, performing a public function should therefore identify with the public sector. Though serving all manner of individual interests, its own interest and image are on the public side. Dade County is a relatively young community, a community in transition and in many ways unfinished. Since rapid transit will have a great influence on the formation of the desired urban character, the system pattern should incorporate aspects of desirable future developments. Commercial activity such as concessions and private entrances whether immediately adjacent to the right-of-way, sharing the right-of-way or attached physically as in air rights, could be incorporated, however, the main approach must be reserved to the public right-of-way or public open space, bringing the most riders closest to their destinations. v\c. V -

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UNIFICATION All the elements of the transit system conform to a continuity of function. It is, therefore, only natural that the entire system be unified aesthetically as well as functionally. This is very essential so as to integrate the travel patterns of patrons in the region through commonalties of function. c This unification should be achieved in order to establish an identity for the transit system as a whole, thus enabling the patrons to find their way easily even in a station new to The key to achieving this uniformity lies in adherence to-certain solution patterns of various design elements by all the transit stations, each of which can be identified as a member of the total family of stations. COMMUNITY INFLUENCE 0 Each station will become an integral part of the community in which it is located, both influencing and being influenced by the community. Knowing this, we should make positive allowance in the design and planning of the stations so that they will reflect the unique elements of the community, yet still maintain unification with the system and the "family of stations". The station design should welcome those aspects of the com munity that are positive and deserve-recognition. In doing so, the station can reinforce existing neighborhood pride and possibly even act as a catalyst to generate a spirit of appreciation. There are several ways that community character might be brought to the core of the station which will tend to establish or reinforce the special identity of each station. Riders will quickly adjust to these station identities which will add to their orientation along with system maps and graphics. Stations names might be chosen from geographical or symbolic names rather than a street or number designation. An example would be El Portal Station, Buena Vista Station, etc. Neigh borhood maps should be provided which will quickly orient the rider to the immediate area and to points of interest or historic significance. Station areas should be planned to contain displays and bulletin boards. Announcements of local events and presentation of local exhibits are encouraged. Areas which might relate to the entrances could be programmed to provide local garden club features and activity. v -\ b

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Photo-murals taken from the neighborhood surrounding the station in which it appears, could play a vital role in the station design. These photo-murals will aid in orienting the transit patron as he goes from station to station. Strong individual identity such as these can provide a much more meaningful variety to the system than those variations exemplified in architectural structure, finish or various details, items which too often are unable to adequately fulfill for each station a 11Sense of place11• ATMOSPHERE The atmosphere of the stations will be associated with the outdoors. Fresh air and natural materials will contribute to this feeling. The stations will be as open as possible with. large sheltering elements to protect the people from the sun and frequent summer rains, yet allow ventilating breezes to sweep the public areas. E As in all public spaces, an inviting image of comfort, cleanliness and openness will create a friendly atmosphere which will reinforce the experience and encourage frequent use. Spacious and open areas are synonymous with a warm climate and public use. It will be basic then to our concept that the public areas of the stations be designed to optimum dimensions rather than the minimum. The openness of the station combined with the elevated platform will render colorful changing vistas at each location, which will aid in orienting the passengers and add to the kinetic quality of the transit experience. The atmosphere will be such that the experience of rapid transit travel for the public will be as pleasant, safe and comfortable as possible. APPEARANCE F The architectural appearance should be such that a function based architecture be created avoiding any imposition of official style. Design should flow from the profession to the government. Within the bounds of the general concepts and criteria defined herein it will be the responsibility of the architect to develop an individual design for each station. Unique site conditions, entrance considerations and the character v2 01. V-

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of the individual neighborhoods served by the transit facility are major influences which will direct transformation of conceptual designs into final design. Exploitation of unique opportunities compatible with and advancing the concepts are to be encouraged. Honest architectural expressions through the use of major structural and functional elements should be encouraged. Wherever possible the structure itself becomes the architecture, exposed to exploit the strength and honesty of the material. CIRCULATION G The rapid pedestrian movement inherent in transit facilities demands that patron circulation be simple, direct, and open. Unnecessary barriers, turns, or transitions between the rider and the vehicle must be avoided. Major functional areas should be as spatially and as visually related as possible in order that a patron entering the station be immediately oriented and aware of all vertical and horizontal movements. The rider must always know in the fullest sense where he is and where he is going. Entrances should be clearly visible. Because the environ ment is exterior, access into the concourse area should be free of doors or gates during operating hours. Riders must be given the benefit of the doubt. High detention-like fencing and exit turnstiles are not compatible with image of the clientele of a modern system. Although paid areas must be physically separated from free or unpaid areas, it is desirable to visually de-emphasize the separation by designing a low and transparent type of barrier thus maintaining visual continuity . •••

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SITE CRITERIA

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SITE CRITERIA VI INTRODUCTION A The purpose of preparing thi s site criteria is to create an integrated approach to site organization in response to the site impacts and system goals. While each station site will have unique and characteristic impacts and generally different requirements the basic goals of convenience and safety for the arriving and departing transit patrons should always be met. These criteria will address vehicular and pedestrian circulation, parking and site facilities. In each of the following sections the concern will be primarily for internal site circulation and priority of access to the station. Internai circulation will be a function of the station vehicular access modes in relation to the actual site geography and will require concerned analysis of each site. Generally the best site planning techniques should prevail and the modes of circulation should be separated wherever possible. The priority of access to the station refers to the convenience of access to the station entrance from the vehicular modes. Obviously all vehicular modes cannot be given equal access in terms of convenience or proximity to the station entrance. For this reason the following priorities have been established in order of convenience. 1. Bus loading and unloading. 2. Kiss-and-Ride drop-off and pick-up. 3. Park-and-Ride. The site facilities discussed in this section will address those items and concepts which should be system standards and are related directly to the site organization.

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-1 FACILITIES FOR THE ELDERLY AND HANDICAPPED B These provisions are intended to make all station sites and facilities used by the public accessible to and functional for, the physically handicapped and elderly without loss of function, space, or facility where the general public is concerned. Toward this end all provisions in the American Standard Specifications All?. 1 1961 "Specifications for Making Buildings and Facilities Accessible to, and Usable by, the Physically Handicapped" shall be met or exceeded. A detailed description of those disabilities considered may be fo und in-the Station criteria section. The following criteria deals with the basic guidelines for station site development. CRITERIA 101 Parking spaces in close proximity to the station entrance should be set aside and identified for use by individuals with physical disabilities. 102 Parking spaces open on one side should allow room for individuals in wheelchairs or individuals on braces and crutches to get in and out of an automobile on to a level surface, suitable for wheeling and walking. 103 Parking spaces for individuals with physical disabilities when placed between two conventional diagonal or head-on parking spaces should be 12 feet wide. 104 Care in planning of walk-way should be exercised so that individuals in wheelchairs or on braces and crutches are not compelled to wheel or walk behind parked cars. 105 All walkways should be at least 60 inches wide and should not have a gradient greater than 5%. 106 The grading of the site shou l d be such that it will make the facility accessible to individuals with physical disabilities. 107 Ramps and curb-cuts shall be provided as required to provide safe convenient circulation by the phys ically disabled to and from the staion. v-:t.-lb

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PEDESTRIAN ACCESS The relative importance of pedestrian access will vary from one site to another depending on location and function of the station. In all cases, however, the pedestrian access c to the station should be as direct and safe as possible. Remembering that the stations are oriented to the public sector all pedestrian access will be through public spaces. All travel modes ultimately become pedestrian for entry into the system. In developing the criteria for this section, the safety and convenience for the pedestrian were the main objectives followed. CRITERIA 110 Direct and safe approach should be provided from adjacent streets into the station area. Minimum unobstructed width of walks should be 5'-0". 111 Pedestrian cross-walks should be emphasized with a contrasting change in paving material. The width of the crossing should be at least equal to the width of the adjacent pedestrian walk, but not less than 7'-0". 112 A pedestrian bridge should not be less than 10'-0" in width. If certain site conditions require a pedestrian tunnel, it should not be less than 12'-0" wide. 113 No pedestrian ramp should have a slope greater than 5 % . 114 Pedestrian crossings must have good visibility both for pedestrians and drivers. 115 Pedestrian crossing at streets wider than four lanes should have a refuge area at least 4'-0" wide. 116 Pedestrian overpasses and underpasses should be as open and as well lighted as possible avoiding all unnecessary turns or hidden areas. 117 Pedestrians should have right-of-way over vehicles at selected crossings far internal circulation. 118 Isolated and remote or hidden pedestrian walkways should be avoided. Where avoidance is not feasible, they should be as open as possible and well lighted . . v

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-2 119 Barriers should be provided to control pedestrian circulation from the hazards of vehicular movement. 120 Parking areas should be arranged so as to minimize number of pedestrian crossings of streets which carry vehicular traffic. 121 Signalized crossings should be considered where pedestrians are required to cross more than one lane of traffic.

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BUS FACILITIES 0 As the transfer from bus to rapid transit is a breakpoint in a journey, it involves penalties in travel time and inconvenience. Thus everything within reason should be done to make the transfer quick and easy. Bus service may operate adjacent to, through or terminate at the station. In all cases, however, the bus facility should have prime access to the station entrance. ihe layout of the bus service will be dictated by the amount of bus traffic, possible points of access and the site conditions. The objectives, however, shall remain convenience and safety for the transferring passenger. CRITERIA 130 Bus passengers should not be required to cross traffic lanes for loading/unloading purposes. 131 Exclusive bus access should be provided where conditions warrant; however, in all cases, buses should be able to enter, load, unload, and exit with minimum delay. 132 All bus roads should permit passing of standing buses. 133 Buses never should be required to back-up in station areas. 134 All bus stops should be designed for right-hand loading and unloading. 135 A quick and easy transfer between bus and Rapid Transit should be achieved by making the path from the bus loading and unloading area to the station entrance as short and direct as possible. 136 Bus stops on adjacent public streets should be located outs1de of driving lanes. 137 For through buses, parallel off-site type stops should be used since they also provide sufficient frontage for both the eventual increase in number of buses and possible variations in the size of the buses. v

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-3 138 Saw tooth loading berths shouTd be used for on-site bus stops. The advantages of this configuration are that it permits buses to pull out of any loading berth and pass the buses ahead, in a considerably shorter space than would be needed if the buses lined up along a straight platform. Thus, it reduces walking distance and .in addition, makes it easier for the driver to get both doors up to the platform edge. 139 Provisions for a holding area should be provided for buses waiting to be loaded. 140 For maximum comfort, passengers waiting for buses be providedwith bench and shelters. Wherever possible the aerial structure should be used for this purpose. VL-3b

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KISS-AND-RIDE F A CILITIES E Facilities should be made available for spouse-driven and taxi passengers at all stations except those close to the downtown areas. These facilities rank second in access priority after buses. Space requirements will vary with the time of the day. Relatively little space i s needed in the mornings for drop-off, but during the evening rush hours, the full space for waiting cars is required. Convenience and safety remain the prime objectives in developing the criteria for this section. CRITERIA 150 This facility should be laid out for one-way traffic only, preferably with passenger loading on the righthand side. 151 The Kiss-and-Ride facility should be clearly separated from the park and ride areas and bus areas. 152 A drop-off area close to the station entrance should be provided in the Kiss-and-Ride facility. Good access and egress for this area is mandatory. 153 Persons waiting to pick-up passengers should be oriented towards and have good visibility of the station exit. This area should permit easy recirculation. 154 Consideration should be given to possible use of Kissand-Ride parking area for short-term parking (shoppers, etc.) during the daytime off-peak hours. 155 Traffic for the Kiss-and-Ride facility should not be routed through the park ride area. VI

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PARK AND RIDE FACILITIES Generally speaking, parking is desired at stations outside of the high density downtown areas. The amount of parking space at a particular station will depend upon the traffic potential, the ability of the street system to feed the station, and availability of land. These criteria relate to the organization of the park and ride areas and are based on the objectives of convenience and safety as well as good traffic engineering practice. CRITERIA F 160 Parking capacities should be scaled to approach roadway capacities, as well as to parking demands and bus service potentials. 161 Ninety degree parking is preferred and should be used wherever possible. 162 Provisions should be made for safe parking of bicycles and scooters as close to the station as possible. 163 Street access to areas should be designed in keeping with good traffic engineering and planning practice. Internal circulation for parking areas should be separate from other vehicular modes. 164 Large parking lots should be sub-divided into sections to reduce the scale. Walkways and landscaping may be used for this purpose. 165 If paid parking is incorporated in the park and ride areas payment for parking should be made when the vehicle exits the area. 166 It is preferred that the parking aisles are laid out parallel to the direction of pedestrian traffic. 167 The parking areas should be open for good surveillance. 168 The facilities for park and ride should be designed for self-parking. 169 Curbs should be kept straight and continuous as much as possible. Inside corners, saw tooth lines for car parking, tree bins and individual wheel stops are to be avoided to permit ease of maintenance. 170 The dimensions of parking spaces must meet the m1n1mum requirements as set forth by the Metropolitan Dade County regulations. • ••

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SITE SIGNAGE G Large, clear, distinctively identifiable signage is essential at all major points of decision and should serve to guide the driver through the site in an orderly and uncomplicated se quencewith a minimum amount of hesitation. The main objectives of site signage are as follows: (a) Designation of all choices (b) Maximum visibility and simplicity (c) Presentation of only essential information in areas of traffic circulation. CRITERIA 180 Directional system symbol signs should be placed along major traffic routes leading to station parking facilities. 181 Non-directional system symbol signs should be placed within reasonable proximity to every station entrance. It should be clearly identified at a distance of 300 feet. 182 Identification and directional signs should separate and direct all major traffic within the site to the appropriate area (Parking, Kiss-and-Ride, Bus Only). 183 Regulatory and Instructional signs required for such information as 11StOp11, 11do not enter .. , 1110 miles per hour .. , ,.exit11, 110ne-way11, etc., should be indicated as much as possible by pavement markings. Where such markings are not adequate, signs should be used. These signs and markings must be consistent with traffic safety standards and should be coordinated into the form of the site signage system. 184 Other types of signs, symbols or information include such conditions as, pedestrian crosswalks, bike-crossing, handicapped parking spaces, bus schedules and maps, no parking, etc., should be incorporated as required. 185 It is recommended that for night conditions the system symbol signs and identification and directional signs be specially lighted. v

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-5 LANDSCAPING H Landscaping plays a great part in the impact of a system on both the and tne rider in different ways. Care ful preservation of vistas from the train may be as important as planting trees to screen and humanize a parking lot. Landscaping should serve to ensure the harmonious integration of the transit facilities (both functionally and aesthetically) into the planned development of the areas in which they are located. Landscaping consists of the following or combination of material such as, ground covers, shrubs, vines, hedges, trees or palms; and non-living durable material commonly used in landscaping such as pebbles, sand, planters, retaining or screen walls. It may also include, under special conditions, the creation of ponds, lakes, water displays, etc. The main objectives of landscaping installations are as follows: (a) Provide attractive community approaches. (b) Merge stations and parking areas with their surroundings. (c) Plantings should match, complement and supplement areas of good natural growth. (d) Display the better scenery and views with openings left or cleared within the right-of-way or station approaches. (e) Select simple, strong and unostentatious landscape installation. (f) Design spaces and select materials with minimum maintenance cost and the vandalism threat constantly in mind. (g) Insure coordination and cooperation with all responsible public agencies and private groups along the routes. CRITERIA We have concerned ourselves with three basic functional areas; the route, stations and parking areas. The recommended criteria for each are as follows: The Route The route traverses districts varying widely in landscape quality, from the natural beauty of waterways and countryside

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to areas of intensive urban development. It is intended to integrate each sectionof the route as directly and simply as possible into the surrounding environs. The transit-way is to be designed as a well-modulated viewing frame for the passengers, providing evolving sequences of pleasant views from the vehicles and agreeable prospects of the transit route and structures from the adjacent neighborhoods. 190 All landscape treatment should occur within the right of-way. 191 Planting along the line should be utilized for ground cover erosion control, and beautification consistent with security provisions. 192 All tree branches or other foliage should be kept at least 8 feet from the outer limits of the vehicle when the tracks are at grade, and 6 feet from the outer limits of elevated structures. 193 The nearest tree trunk should be no closer to the vehicle center line than 15 feet, except for elevated sections of the track. 194 In elevated sections of the route a m1n1mum of 6 feet should be allowed between the top of trees or shrubs of mature height and the bottom of the lowest member of the overhead structure; 195 The tops of the shrub masses and/or the lower branches of trees within 30 feet of the vehicle center line should be kept free of the zone extending 2 feet above and be low the eye level of a person within the vehicle seated or standing. 196 Because of the speed of the vehicle the route plantings should be confined generally to lineal mass plantings. 197 Landscape planting along the route will receive a mini mum of maintenance and should, therefore, consist of hardy, drought and disease-resistant plant materials. 198 Planting and design should consider the possible installations of bikeways and footpaths and their interface with rapid transit stations, adjacent communities and other bikeways. Stations Stations serve as community gateways and focal points. They should be given landscape development in keeping with the quality of the station architecture and also in keeping with the unique character of each site. Hre the use of the more v

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I-6 refined landscape construction materials would be fitting, as would specimen plants of larger initial size. 199 Extend architectural planes, forms and materials to give simple and unified site-structure composition. 200 Provide volumetric definition. Spaces should be defined through the use of landscaping (size, shape, texture, color, etc.) to best express their specific functions kiss-and-ride, entrances, etc.) 201 Reinforce, visually, the lines of vehicular and pedestrial movement. 202 Promote safety by insuring adequate sight lines and installing protective hedge plantings where required. 203 Open to, and enframe, the more desirable views, divert attention from the less desirable views and features. 204 Provide shade for user comfort and relief from solar glare. 205 Select plant materials for optimum year-round attractiveness of form, foliage, bark, fruit and seasonal variations in color. Large fruit varieties which would pose a maintenance problem should be excluded. 206 Avoid large areas of paving. Smaller areas may be defined with plantings or change of materials. Parking Areas The purpose of landscape improvement of compounds for the storage of motor vehicles is to protect and preserve the appearance, character and value of the surrounding neighborhoods !nd thereby promote the general welfare by providing for installation and maintenance of landscaping for screening and aesthetic qualities. 207 An essential requirement of the landscape planning will be close coordination and integration with the site lighting design. 208 Emphasize the directional lines of desired vehicular movement and the parking lot entrance-egress points. 209 In general, landscape planting should be massed rather than scattered thinly throughout the lot.

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210 Provide shaded pedestrian ways and places. Intercept the afternoon sun where appropriate. 211 Provide 11good neighboru screen walls, earth mounding and plantings. 212 Surface textures other than grass should be considered. A change of surface texture may be used to denote pedestrial paths at crosswalks and within parking areas. Vast areas of asphalt or concrete should be relieved by introducing contrasting material. Concrete and asphalt may be used together. 213 Landscape barriers at least 10 feet wide should separate the parking area from adjacent streets. Special cases, particularly in residential areas, may require greater width. Vertical screens or fences may be needed to protect the privacy of neighboring parcels. 214 Landscaping other than trees should not exceed three feet in height for both security and safety reasons. LINEAR PARK CONCEPT In addition to the criteria recommended for landscaping along the route we would like to present the concept for the possibility of further development in the form of a linear parkway. The concept for the linear park is to treat the area under the rapid transit guideway structure as a continuous meandering path for pedestrian walks and bikeways. The pathways, periodically developed for sitting areas, play lots and places of assembly serve to tie together areas of the surrounding community and provide linkage with adjacent public and social activities along the edge of the transit line. This concept stresses the development of areas adjacent to the rapid transit stations for public assembly. At the intersection of the linear park with major streets, the parkway concept calls for the establishment of focal points. The on-grade spaces in the rapid transit right-of-way can be grouped into four visual categories: 1 The right-of-way as it adjoins and parallels a major city street; 1 The right-of-way as it adjoins the rear property lines of residential, commercial or industrial land uses; • The right-of-way as it approaches and penetrates station areas. (In the station areas, the transit right-of-way is considerably larger, incorporating the station, related pedestrian and vehicular circulation areas, and large parking lots); and V'T. -7 VI

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7 • The right-of-way as it adjoins or is adjacent to existing public facilities such as parks and schools, which provide an opportunity for linkage or a functional complement to the linear park. The aerial structure will remain the dominant visual element, but the landscaped and special activity areas should provide a transition to the neighborhood and to a human scale. The major objective of the linear park is to make the structure more aesthetically acceptable to the communities in which it is located and offer a more attractive view to the commuter. This beautification should tend to offset any anticipated negative impact on residential property values that might logically have been expected by the of an elevated transit structure through residential neighborhoods. Greater benefits in linear parkways should be derived if these multiple-use objectives are considered from the beginning in right-of-way planning and acquisition.

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SITE LIGHTING J The basic concept for lighting are set forth the lighting section of the Station Criteria and is applicaole to the following criteria which is specifically recommended for exterior site areas. CRITERIA General 220 Lighting arrangement of exterior spaces shall make the pedestrian and driver aware of the organization of the area. The lighting shall be organized as a natural lead-in to the station entrance. 221 Lighting levels should be establi shed (by accepted standards for safety and comfort) for similar areas throughout the system and should be standardized. General illumination levels should produce an environment free from disorderly, irrelevant patterns of light. Once standardized these levels should not preclude variations in illumination levels to add interest, accent or promote orientation. 222 Lighting fixtures and components should be standardized throughout the system to the maximum extent possible. Standard items would include poles, enclosures, lamp types and parts. Lamps should be readily accessible for replacement. Fixtures should be readily accessible for maintenance and service and should be designed to be easily replaceable. 223 The threat of vandalism and personal injury should be of prime concern in the design of light fixtures and components particularly those which might be within reach of pedestrians. Globes and lenses should be made of shatter resistant materials. 224 All wiring for exterior lighting fixtures should be buried. Overhead wiring should not be permitted. 225 The color quality of all exterior light sources shouid be compatible with one another and should afford as much true color identification properties as possible. Parking Areas 226 L ighting arrangement should utilize a m inimum number of poles located in the perimeter of t h e parking area a w ay from the station entrance. This arrangement should be coordinated with the landscaping to avoid light blockage.

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I-8 227 A clean daytime profile should be obtained by providing a housing atop the poles which will unify the unequal number of fixtures and differing aiming angles. 228 The light fixtures should be selected on the basis of highly controllable and well defined beam spreads, as well as high intensity, to insure even and adequate lighting of the whole area and to avoid light spillage and glare into the surrounding neighborhood. Pedestrian Walkways 229 Lighting arrangement for pedestrians should be in scale to human figure. Numbers of low intensity lights are recommended to a few high intensity sources. 230 Rows of lights should be used to indicate direction or define paths. 231 Additional surface directed light and accent light should be considered for pedestrian areas where ambient light from adjacent sources is sufficient to impart a sense of security but insufficient to provide for total safety. 232 For major pedestrian walkways incandescent lamps are recommended for its more pleasing softer, warmer light and for its maximum color identification properties. Clear sparkling globes and clear lamps are recommended for minimum glare and maximum light. Roadway & Kiss-and-Ride 233 Light fixtures should be selected on the basis of featuring a full glare cut-off design which directs all light downward, avoiding near horizontal light spillage into adjacent pedestrians, streets or neighborhoods. Signs 234 Specially lighted signs should be backlit whenever possible as they are more easily seen at night than surface illuminated signs. Bus Loading 235 Shelters should be provided with additional lighting supplementing that which is provided for major pedestrian areas. It is recommended that these fixtures be coordinated within the shelter structure.

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LEGEND System Symbol Sign........................................... . .......... IE Primary Pedestrian Walk Light Fixture ................ . ...... . Secondary Pedestrian Walk Light Fixture .................... . Roadway Light Fixture ..................... . ............ ....... .. . . . .. . Parking Lot Light Fixture .................................... .. .. . . Site Signage ..... , ............. ................. . . .. . ..................... . Bus Shelter ........................................... . .. .......... .. . .. . .. . Pedestrian Crosswalk ................... ............... ........... .... .. Pedestrian Barrier ................ . ..................... ............ . .. . Parking Lot Control Gates .. . ...................................... .. Handicapped Spaces ................... . ............ , ..... ............... . Parking Spaces ........................... ........ . ... . . .. . . . .. ........... . 0 0 . + I I + I I I I I 1 111111 Motorcycles ................................................................. j l llillllll

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B i eye 1 e s 111111111111111111111 Kiss-and-Ride (morning drop-off) ............................... . Kiss-and-Ri.de (evening waiting) .................. : . ....... . . .. . . . Bus Bay .............................................. . ....... . ............ .... _,.....-___. Aerial Guideway ................. ............. . ...... ........ .. ........ . . . Property Line .............................. .................. Traffic Direction ........................................... . .......... . • Landscaping ................................................................ . L Seating ..................................................................... .. . Statue ......... ......... . ... ................. ...... . .............. . . . ......... . To Community Activity................................................. ) Pavement........................... . .. .............................. .......... ...

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STATION CRITERIA

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STATION CRITERIA VII INTRODUCTION A The following sections relate to the architectural design of the transit stations and major related components. The pur of this criteria is to provide coordination of all elements that affect the security, comfort, safety, and convenience within the station proper. It is the intent of this criteria to establish fundamental guidelines for the development of station architecture which should be consistent with the goals and standards of the system being responsive to the unique site conditions and to the individual character of the neighboring environment. These criteria should insure that the basic concepts are met and that all of the stations are functionally and operationally related. In conjunction with this criteria various interrelated conditions and requirements will determine the configuration that the relative parts of the station ultimately assume. The station configuration is not an arbitrary decision, it will respond to site conditions, right-of-way, physical barriers, tha position of the guideway, and service requirements emerg a part of the total design. Vlf-\a. VI

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-1 ACCESS B The most economical and direct access to a station is the at-grade concourse with direct at-grade access. I t is evident that this configuration requires the least number of vertical circulation elements and has the s hortest travel d i s t a n c e . T h e ref ore . t h i s co n f i g u rat i on i s preferred a n d should be used wherever possible. Where physical barriers prevent direct access, for example when a station is located in the median of a street, access must be either under t h e barrier or over 1t. The underpass and both will require additional vertical circulation elements and longer travel distance for pedestrians. CRITERIA 240 Where no physical barriers exist access should be as direct as possible. 241 Where there is a physical barrier on one side of the station access be from the free side and as direct as possible. 242 Where there are physical barriers on both sides of the station access should be either via an underpass or via an aerial overpass. The underpass is preferred due to shorter travel distances and less visual impact. However, where the barrier is such that the underpass is unfeasible the aerial overpass should be used . An aerial overpass requires an aerial concourse. An underpass requires that the concourse is located atgrade. 243 The at-grade platform configuration will automatically require an aerial overpass access, since the guideway creates a barrier on each side of the platform. Aerial access via overpass is the logical configuration for this particular type because the underground concourse is both undesirable and economically not recommended. VJI.-I 'o

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ENTRANCES All traffic modes will have become pedestrian at the entrance to a station. c Entrances may occur immediately adjacent to the concourse where access is at ground level or remotely located connected to the concourse by passageways where access is above ground or below ground. In all cases, however, a true effort should be made to architecturally incorporate the entrance into the total station design. CRITERIA 250 All station entrances should be immediately recognizable and should be directly accessible from the public sector. 251 The station entrance should be identifed by having the station name and system symbol in a prominent location. 252 The station entrance should be well lighted for night use. 253 The station entrance should be large enough to handle all expected ingress and egress requirements without crowding. 254 The station entrance should be functionally oriented and positioned with relationship to its site functions and should reinforce normal flow patterns. 255 Wherever possible the station entrance should be located beneath the quideway and platform to take advantage of the weather protection offered by the structure. 256 Covered waiting areas related to the station entrance should be provided. 257 The station entrance should be closed to public use during non-operating hours. VI l

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CONCOURSE 0 The concourse is the control space in the station configuration. It is an activity area with strict functional requirements. The primary function being to house the fare collection equipment, thereby separating the free and paid areas of the station. The location of the concourse, relative to the other parts of the station, shall be determined by the location of the platform and site conditions. The followtng are the basic objectives used in creating the criteria for concourses: (a) The concourse is an activity area and should have simple direct flow patterns and a minimum of intrusions into the flow patterns. (b) Maintain a consistent approach to weather control and provide a comfortable environment for the system user. (c) Proper safety and security measures shall be considered in the planning and layout of the concourse. CRITERIA 260 261 262 263 264 Flow patterns in the concourse should maintain righthand orientation wherever possible and should be as simple and direct as possible. The concourse is an activity area. No benches or waiting areas should be provided. Waiting should be on the platform or outside of the station proper. Other than those machines required for the fare collection system, no vending machines should be allowed in the concourse area. Provisions should be made to incorporate photo murals and community displays in the paid area of the concourse. The concourse area, except in below grade configurations, should be as open as possible to allow ventilating breezes yet protect the patrons and machines from the sun and rain. VlL-b

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265 The at-grade concourse should be enclosed with a screen wall for security and station control. The design should allow maximum natural light and ventilation and visibility to the adjacent surroundings. 266 A high curb wall should be provided at the base of the screen wall to prevent debris from being blown-in and to aid maintenance. Its height should be coordinated with other components in the concourse. 267 The minimum ceiling height for concourse areas should be 12 feet. 268 The station attendants booth should be located in the concourse area, so that the station attendant has visual control of both the free and paid areas and of the elevators, escalators and entrances to the service rooms. 269 At those station configurations where the concourse is at grade with a major street or railroad line directly adjacent to the station, the concourse level should be 3 feet higher than the street or track level for safety purposes. VI

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I-3 PLATFORM The platform is the heart of the transit station. Each train in turn will stoo at the olatform to load and unload passengers. It is the arrival of a train, that changes the function of the platform from a waiting area to an activity area. To be successful the platform must handle these opposite functions equally well. The position of the platform, whether aerial or at ground level is dependent on the corresponding position of the guideway. PLATFDP,M '?IDE PLATF'OF\M --t-1...:+ fI \ , 1 \ I \ I-+;_ I 1 l I I +-,......_, I I I I I i7\ I I I I I + I I I I I I I I I tlllll\;11 . 1 . 1 E Stations on two-track lines are of two types: center platform and side platform. Center platforms are preferred because they offer more efficient use of platform space, furnishings, and vertical circulation. Center platforms result in a more efficient layout with a cleaner straight-through circulation path than is possible with side platforms. The passenger need not make his decision as to train direction until he reaches the platform instead of in the concourse where space is more restricted and other activities, such as fare collection, must OCCIJr. However, in certain areas physical conditions at or near the s t a t i o n s i t e w i 1 1 h a v e a s t r o n g co n s t r a i n t u.p o n t h e t r a c k a 1 i g n ment and require the use of side platforms. In special cases, of a particularly heavy interchange movement, a side platform layout could be required to permit easy cross-platform transfer to buses. The following are the main objectives used in developing the criteria for platforms: (a) (b) The platform is alternately a waiting area and an activity area; during the waiting mode the passengers should be comfortable and protected from adverse elements. For maximum security and safety the platform should be as open as possible with a minimum of visual obstructions. v:n:-3 'o

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CRITERIA 280 The platform area, except in below grade stations, shall be as open as possible to allow natural ventilation and maximum visibility to the surrounding cityscape. 281 The entire platform shall be covered with a roof to provide the patrons with protection from the sun and rain. 282 Sufficient overhang of the roof shall be provided so that passengers boarding and exiting the vehicles, do not get wet from rain. 283 The roof structure over the platform should be full span No columns should be allowed on the platform. 284 provide as much clear open platform space as possible only transit related components should be located on the platform and their number held to a minimum. 285 Components such as trash receptacles, graphic and information centers, emergency phones, etc. should be grouped together and should be designed with a low profile. 286 Main seating areas should be provided at the ends of the platform and should be provided with clear wind screens. 287 A minimum ceiling height of 10 feet shall be provided on the platform. 288 The platform edge should be accentuated to draw attention to a potentially hazardous area. An 18 inch wide edqe band should be provided at olatfQrm edqes to delineate the danger zone. It should be of a lignt colored material, contrasting with the darker trackbed and should non-slip surface. This edge band should be a system standard. 289 A minimum horizontal distance of 81-011 should be pro between the platform edge and any other fixed object on the platform. This dimension allows 2 people traveling in opposite directions to pass a standing person without entering the platform edge danger zone. 290 To accommodate future increased ridership, the platform shall be designed so that either end or both ends may be extended to increase the platform length . ......... VI I

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4 ROOF STRUCTURE For the aerial platform station and to a great degree for all aboveground stations, the roof structure will be the most predominant feature of the station design. For this reason it is being addressed as a separate element. F The main objectives used in developing the criteria for roof structure are as follows: (a) The roof structure shall be an element of uniformity for the station design throughout the system. . . (b) The roof structure shall be such that variety and character can be introduced where needed and such that the various station configurations may be accommodated, equally well . • CRITERIA 300 As previously stated in the Basic Concepts: The structure should be the architecture, exposed to exploit the strength and honesty of the material. 301 False ceilings shall be avoided. 302 All roof structures shall be constructed of the same material to provide a degree of uniformity within varying designs. 303 Lighting, sound systems, electric conduits anQ graphics shall be integrated into the roof structure. No exposed conduit shall be allowed. 304 Design consideration should be given to the use of skylights in the roof structure to provide for a light and open feeling on the platform . •••

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STRUCTURAL MATERIAL An open exposed structure, places special emphasis on the material selected. To ensure that the basic concept of unification is achieved we are recommending that a single material be selected and used for the structure of the stations throughout the G The following objectives were considered in the selection of a Structural Material: (a) The structural material should be a non-combustible material that does not require additional fireproofing. (b) The structural material should be a strong material capable of withstanding hurricane forces. (c) The structural material should be a durable material with an indefinite life span, requiring a minimum of maintenance for exposed application in South Florida. (d) The structural material should be compatible with the structural construction of the guideway and other parts of the system. (e) The structural material should be a well-known, readily available and widely used material in South Florida construction. (f) The structural material should allow sufficient flexibility of design to allow variety in the station designs (g) Material itself (exposed) should have aesthetic and self-protecting qualities which preclude added treatment such as veneers and painting. CRITERIA 310 Concrete is hereby recommended for the structural material for the stations. It should be exposed concrete and may be either poured in place or pre-cast. The following sketches represent a sampling of possible roof configurations. V1I-5o. VI I

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BARREL VAULT f3.?TTON1 VIeW fOP V!E.W WAFFLE SLAB 5

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CPEN BARREL VAULT EOTfOM VIEW TRUSS AND TILE

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FOLDED PLATE WAFFLE SLAB

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FOLDED PLATE ' WARPED SURFACE VI

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-7 MATERIALS AND FINISHES H The purpose of this section is to specify the basic criteria and requirements which have been established for the materials and finishes in the public areas of the stations. These criteria will ensure that the quality levels and maintenance requirements of all stations are consistent throughout. The main objectives for materials and finishes are as follows: (a) Safety . Fire Resistance and Smoke Generation: The objecfive should be to reduce hazards from fire by using materials with minimum burning rate and smoke generation characteristics for all station finishes, consistent with Code requirements. 2. Hazards from dislodgement due to temperature change, wind, or other causes, should be eliminated by using proper attachments of adequate bond strengths. 3. Pedestrian safety should be increased by use of non-slip properties in high-hazard locations such as platform edges, stairways, ramps, and entrances. (b) Durability A basic aspect of all rapid transit systems is extreme longevity. Materials chosen for the stations should have an indefinite lifespan; more specifically, the basic structures should be composed of materials having a life expectancy of at least fifty years. (c) Ease of Maintenance An important aspect for all transit systems is the requirement of large initial investment in a public facility which will receive continuous and excessive heavy use and must survive with minimum attention to maintenance. 1. Cleaning: To reduce cleaning costs by using materials which do not soil easily, which have surfaces that are easy to clean in a single operation, and on which minor soiling is not apparent.

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2. Repairs and Replacements: To reduce maintenance costs by materials which, if damaged, are easily repaired or replaced without undue interference with the system operation. (d) Outdoor Exposure The materials employed in the stations shall be those which are normally considered suitable for outdoor use. The entire system shall, for practical purposes, be considered outdoor space. (e) Visual Quality To create a feeling of warmth, attractiveness and good quality in the stations and to provide a pleasant atmosphere that encourages civic responsibility and a resultant decrease in abuse. (f) Availability Material chosen should reflect considerations of local availability of material both during construction as well as for future replacement. CRITERIA Surface 320 Hard, dense, non-porous, non-staining, acid and alkali resistant and low maintenance. However, where a lesshard material seems desirable for noise control and comfort, it may be used if durability maintenance and appearance requirements are met. Color 321 The selection of exterior materials should produce a unifying family of natural warm toned colors throughout the system. Color selection should favor materials which are predominantly medium to light in tone to aid in attaining desired illumination levels, but with sufficent contrast and accents (minor variations be tween units) to provide visual interest and to conceal minor soiling. VI

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Texture 322 Wall surfaces: Where the material selected is extremely hard and dense, such as granite, a highly polished surface should be used. Not only does the richness of the material tend to intimidate and discourage abuse, but this type of surface can be quickly and easily cleaned of the most predominant form of graffitti, aerosol spray paint. Where a more porous material is selected, such as concrete, a deeply textured surface should be used to discourage abuse. While a rough texture like this is more difficult -to clean once defaced its inherent nature tends to limit graffftti. Flooring materials should have a surface texture that meets two basic requirements; (a) Smooth and even enough to allow ease of cleaning. (b) Rough enough to provide sufficient traction for safe pedestrian movement, even when wet. In general surface textures should exhibit enough variation to conceal minor soiling and damage without complicated maintenance procedures. u n it size 323 Monolithic materials should be discouraged because of difficulty in repairs. In general unit size should be large enough to minimize the number of joints. Unit size for materials subject to heavy use should be sufficiently small enough to help break up the surface and hide soiling, scratches, etc., and to make the unit easy to replace if damaged. Flooring unit size should not be less than 611• Patterns may vary from station to station but should be identical and regular throughout all the public areas of an individual station. Tl;e following represents a variety of patterns derived from four basic shapes. VlL-b

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0 0 D ! I I ! SQI.JARE 11 I I -r r--. I ,.. \ r i , ! ' I j • , i 6A5l
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9 Joints 324 Joints shall be minimized, made as small and as flush as possible, and shall be composed of materials of high durability. All joints shall have uniform width. RECOMMENDED SELECTIONS The following recommended selections are examples of typical materials found in modern transit systems. In the interest of unifying the station architecture we are recommending that the palette of materials be limited to the best of the acceptable materials listed. Undesirable materials are listed for c ompartson. Those materials marked thus * indicate,in the op1n1on of the consultants, acceptable materials which best meet the objectives. Floors 325 Acceptable floor materials are as follows: .. (a} Brick pavers ( b} Granite (c) Quarry tile (d) Marble (e) High-density concrete pavers .. (f) Clay tile pavers V1I.9 b

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326 Undesirable floor materials are as follows: (a) Monolithic concrete . (b) Terrazzo (c) Bituminous toppings (d) Synthetic resin toppings (e) Resilient tile and sheet (f) Polished stone (g) Wood or wood products (h) Carpet Interior Walls 327 Acceptable Wall Materials (a) Exposed concrete (b) Ceramic tile (c) Facing tile (d) Marble • (e) Granite (f) Stainless Steel • (g) Glazed brick Porcelain enamel panels Bronze I products (h) ( j ) ( k) High-pressure laminated plastics (restricted locati ons) 328 Undesirable Wall Materials (a) Plaster (b) Exposed Steel VII

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1 0 (c) Gypsum Board (d) Aluminum Panels (e) Baked enamel metal panels (f) Acrylic Plastics (g) Paint (h) Vinyl wall coverings (j) Colored Glass (k) Cement Sheet Ceilings 329 Acceptable ceiling materials * (a) Exposed concrete * (b) Cement plaster with integral color (c) Solid metal panels {d) Perforated acoustic metal 330 Undesirable ceiling materials (a) Lay-in ceilings systems (b) Sprayed-on finishes (c) Gypsum plaster (d) Acoustic tiles Miscellaneous Metals panels 331 A single metal should be selected throughout the system for surfaces subject to public contact such as railings, handrails and hardware. Acceptable metals would include bronze and stainless steel. 332 The number of metal types and finishes should be minimized to the greatest possible extent. VJl-\O \,

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Exposed Concrete Finishes 333 Most surfaces in the station area should be of exposed structural concrete, cast-in-place or precast. 334 All exposed concrete surfaces in station areas shall be of uniform composition, color and texture. Contrasting textures in certain areas may be permitted, if visually pleasing. VII

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SERVICE ROOMS J At each station prov1s1ons will be made to house all of the ancillary facilities and equipment necessary for the operation of the system. These rooms will be separate from the public spaces and not accessible by the public. The following are the main objectives of this section: (a) An orderly,well designed appearance should be presented to the public view. (b) Access to the service rooms should be controlled. (c) The location of the service rooms should be located for each configuration so that service and access to these areas is optimum. CRITERIA 340 Arrange the service rooms so that the number of doors exposed to the public view is minimized. (This also gives the added benefit of increased security.) 341 Louvers and roof appurtenances should be concealed from public view so that the effect is an integrated part of the d e s i . g n • 342 Wherever possible the doors to the service rooms should be visible from the station attendants booth. 343 For each station configuration the location of the service rooms should be as close to at grade as possible so that service and access are as direct as possible. 344 A minimum of two (2) single person toilets should be provided for each station located within the paid area of the concourse in close proximity to the station attendants booth and under his/her visual or electronic surveillance. The restroom door should be equipped with an electronic lock controlled by the station attendant to admit a patron. Facilities in the toilet room shall be useable by handicapped persons. 345 The service rooms should be sized so that there is adequate room for the equipment and the servicing thereof. 346 Provisions should be made for the separate storage of first-aid equipment accessible to and under the control of the station attendant. 1 1 ..,. ..,. ..,. VII..-n \:7

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STATION ATTENDANT K Station Attendant . A representative of the system at the station who has constant contact with the public and whose responsibi\ities include the carrying out of most of the. station functions of supervision, administration and communication. He becomes the most important person in the day-to-day operation of the stations since he is one of the few human contacts the public will have with the system. He is the main representative of the rapid transit system to the patrons. The System "imagen is very dependent upon him. The optimum location for the attendant should be in a booth clearly visible from all parts of the concourse area so that people in need of help can easily find him. From this point of view the most efficient and effective location of the booth should be in line with the fare collection array separating the "free" and the "paid" areas in order that both sides may be served. The position of the booth should be centrally located with respect to the fare gates. In certain cases where limited space is available or where patron circulation dictates, the booth may be located to the right of the fare gates. The Station Attendant is uniformed and readily identified. As an administrator, he should be able to assume authority, and to demonstrate both initiative and responsibility. He should be able to deal pleasantly and efficiently with the public. Work should normally be performed without direct supervision. Supervision should be conducted through oral and written reports and frequent observations. The main objectives of the station attendant are as follows: (a) To provide for public safety. (b) To ensure efficient administration and operation of the station. (c) To provide adequate personal service to patrons. (d) To deter crime and vandalism. (e) To accomplish the above with a m1n1mum of manpower by utilizing automatic devices and equipment. '11t \).a. VI I

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CRITERIA The duties and responsibilities of the station may include the following: 350 visual contact with all public areas of the station, using both the normal range of the human eye and closed circuit television equipment installed for that purpose; 351 Observing the passenger flow through the station, noting unusual looking characteristics; 352 Assisting passengers in negotiating the stations, fare collection equipment, route information and such other assistance as may be required; 353 Controlling entrance and exit of special personnel and public officials, handicapped passengers, etc. through a special service gate. 354 Reporting immediately to the command center all unusual occurrences such as fire alarms, vandalism, public disturbances, equipment malfunctions, etc; 355 Making announcements to the public, via the public address system, concerning any information required to assist the public in the use of the transit system; 356 Controlling access and use of public toilets; 357 Providing assistance to public safety officials (fire, police, rescue) in the performance of their duties; 358 Monitoring the operation of escalators and elevators through the use of annunciator panels; 359 Monitoring the status of all fire detection equipment throughout the station; 360 Reporting to the command center prior to leaving the kiosk unattended and immediately upon return; 361 Storing and recording lost and found articles; 362 Handling complaints; 363 Recording all such occurrences in the format required; 364 Maintaining a courteous and -attentive attitude to the patrons of the transit system, providing every assistance possible to assure a pleasant trip. 12 VJI-\'l.b

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Attendants Booth 365 The external design of the booth should make it easy to identify, and should be in keeping with the station architecture. 366 The attendants booth should be standardized throughout the system. 367 It should be glass-enclosed on all sides for visual continuity of both the attendant and the patron. 368 There should be a means of communication between the attendant and patron from both the free and paid areas. This may be accomplished by a two-way speaker device plus a pass-through for maps, schedules, etc. 369 The booth should have room to stand, move or sit comfortably. The floor level should be elevated above the mezzan1ne level to allow the station attendant to be able to see over the heads of patrons. 370 Interior dimensions should be adequate to accommodate physically handicapped persons, as described by ANSI 117.1 -1961. 371 The physical environment should include the following characteristics: (a} Thermostatically controlled air conditioning. (b) Dimmer controlled lighting. (c) Sound control from outside noise. 372 The station attendants booth may contain the following items: (a) TV monitor screens for electronic surveillance. (b) Normal and emergency operation indicators and controls for various equipment (escalators, elevators, fare gates, etc.) (c) Public address microphone and speaker. (d) Emergency and intercom telephones. (e) A mechanical ticket reader, for use in case of complaint or question. V1[-\3c.. VI

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-13 (f) Electrical control for doors to public toilets, and service gate. (g) Minor emergency equipment (fire extinguisher, first aid kit, etc.} (h) Storage space for brochures, maps, and other informational material. (j} Small storage units (possible locked drawers} for attendant•s personal belongings. (k} Storage space tor lost and articles, etc. 373 A minimum of one (1) attendants booth should be provided for each station. V1L-'o

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FARE COLLECTION The proposed system of fare collection which will recommend fare structures, exact procedures and a description of the different types of equipment and its operation will be included in the Milestone 8, Final System Concept. This section addresses the main principles and characteristics of fare collection and station control which impacts station design. L The main objective of fare collection is to provide a system by which fares are collected from patrons and by which passenger entry and exit movement is controlled between the "free" and "paid" areas of the station concourse. Items which are usually included in the fare collection array are the attendants booth, service gates, passenger "fare gates" and fixed barriers. Other components associated with fare collection may include change making machines, self-service ticketing machines, system and neighborhood maps, route maps, clocks and telephones. CRITERIA 380 The station concourse area should provide the passenger and fare collection equipment with a space protected from the elements in which fares can be paid and transfers issued. The layout of the area should be such as to provide quick ingress and egress. Adequate queuing and run-off space should be provided so that lines do not extend into circulation spaces or into unprotected areas. 381 Every attempt should be made to create an atmosphere of spaciousness. The physical separation of paid area from unpaid area should be achieved by using designs that allow visual continuity. 382 Railings, gates and barriers in the fare collection array should be designed so that their height relates to the vertical dimensions established by the fare gates. Other component materials should be consistent. 383 The location and arrangement of the fare collection system should allow maximum visual surveillance from the attendants booth. 384 All items and associated components of fare collection should be standardized throughout the system to the maxi-mum extent possible. ... ...... VJI.\4VI

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1 4 VERTICAL MOVEMENT M This chapter deals with the general criteria relevant to design of all vertical circulation items: elevators, stairs, escalators and pedestrian ramps. Safety, convenience and comfort are high on the list of considerations of any vertical circulation system. Vertical circulation machines are repeating system elements and should be standardized for maintenance and good operational practice. CRITERIA General 390 There should be at least one .elevator connecting all levels for use by the elderly and handicapped persons and monitored, by the station attendant. 391 There should be at least one pair of escalators at each station connecting each level. 392 One staircase should be included to serve in case of overloading, emergency, or use during escalator repairs. 393 Layout of vertical circulation elements should encourage the use of escalators over stairs. It should be possible to circulate by escalator to and from all levels from a singular access point. 394 The layout of the vertical circulation elements should be arranged so as to evenly distribute passengers onto the platform. Escalators 395 396 Runoff and Queueing Space: runoff and queuing space at (as the case may be) of the feet. There shall be a clear the top and/or the bottom escalators of at least 20 Minimum width should be 3211 and should be considered 11typical11 for use throughout the system. A 48" width may be used to meet higher capacity requirements in lieu of adding an extra escalator. VJt\ '\"

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397 Operation: Escalator controls should allow for automatic operation in either an up or down direction at either 120 or 150 f.p.m. There may, in addition, be a remote operating panel within the station attendant's booth. 398 All safety requirements of the manufacturer should meet local and national codes and should be incorporated in the details. Stairs 399 Public stairs shall have a m1n1mum width of 4'-8" and a minimum capacity calculated on the basis of 50 persons per minute. 400 No spiral stairs should be permitted for public use. 401 There should be a minimum headroom of 8'-0" at all times. 402 Handrails should be provided on all stairs. 403 Non-combustible materials should be used for stair construction. 404 All treads and nosings should have non-slip qualities. 405 Clear queuing and runoff space in front of stairs at entering and exiting should be 10'. Ramps 406 Minimum width of a ramp should be 5'. 407 Maximum grade should be not more than 5%. 408 There should be a landing at a maximum of 30'-0" intervals. 409 Clear runoff and queuing space at the top and bottom of the ramp should be at least 10'. 410 Capacity of the ramp should be calculated at 100 passengers per m i nut e for a 5 ' w i d t h . 411 Ramps should follow general criteria for staircases for all handrails, landings, headroom space, construction, etc. VI

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-15 Elevators 412 Access to the elevator and the trip should be under the direct supervision and control of the station attendant at all times. 413 The elevator may be monitored with the aid of a closed circuit TV. Operation of the elevator may be activated by a magnetic card issued to handicapped patrons. 414 Approaches to the elevators, interior car layouts, controls and graphics should be alike for all the stations to aid in system orientation. 415 The shaft and the elvator car should be as transparent as possible for increased security and visual continuity. 416 All elevator approaches should be weather protected with a minimum of 5'-0" clear space in front of the doors. 417 Elevator car interior size should be at least 5'-0" x 5'-3" to allow for two standard wheelchairs and have a clear door-opening of 3'-0". 418 Use of elevator, normally, is under the control of the station attendant. In addition, a key-operated switch should be provided on all levels for staff use . ••• YTI-\Sb

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FACILITIES FOR THE ELDERLY AND HANDICAPPED N These provisions are intended to make all stations and facilities used by the public accessible to and functional for, the physically handicapped and elderly without loss of function, space, or facility where the general public is concerned. Toward this end all provisions in the American Standard Specifications A117. 1 -1961 "Specifications for Making Buildings and Facilities Accessible to, and Usable by, the Physically Handicapped" shall be met or exceeded. The major classifications of disability that shall be considered in making design provisions are: (a) Sight Disabilities: Total blindness or impairments affecting sight to the extent that the individual functioning in public areas is insecure or exposed to danger. (b) Hearing Disabilities: Deafness or hearing handicaps that might make an individual insecure in publ i c areas due to an inability to communicate verbally or hear warning signals. (c) Incoordination Disabilities: Faulty coordination or palsy from brain, spinal or peripheral nerve injury. Persons with these disabilities are adversely affected by standard system operation which require a normal degree of coordination, such as: fare collection, rapid boarding, and platform circulation. Optimization of the general design criteria will aid those with such disabilities. (d) Aging: Those manifestations of the aging process that sign1ficantly reduce mobility, flexibility, coordination and perception, but are not accounted for in the other handicapped categories. (e) Semi-Ambulatory Disabilities: Impairments that cause individuals to require the use of braces or crutches such as amputees, arthritics, and spastics. Pregnant women, and those with pulmonary and cardiac ills may be considered semi-ambulatory for purposes of station design. (f) Non-Ambulatory: Impairments that, regardless of cause or manifestation, for all practical purposes confine individuals to wheelchairs. VI I

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1 6 Many of the general planning considerations and specific requirements described in other sections. , by virtue of the fact that they generally optimize entry/egress, circulation, user identification, etc., will provide access to and generally enhance use of the system for many classifications of handicapped. Included in this are planning considerations such as horizontal clearance minimums, avoidance of inconsistent and unnecessary level variations, adequate queuing space at fare collection areas, uniform design and layout of repeating system elements and avoidance of floor obstructions. Also included are devices such as escalators, ramps with landings for non-mechanical level change, handrails conforming to handicapped requirements, non-skid floor .surfaces , g.r a ph i c d i s p 1 a y s of t r a i n a r r i v a 1 s , s c he d u 1 e s a n d fare information. CRITERIA All stations should include the following specific facilities and design considerations. Elevators 420 Elevator access to all levels should be provided at each station. 421 Access to the elevators and all trip cycles should be under the direct supervision and control of a station attendant at all times. 422 Approaches to elevators, interior cab layouts, controls and graphics should be identical for all installations to aid in system orientation for the handicapped. 423 Both elevator cabs and lift shafts should be provided with transparent enclosures to the maximum practical extent to provide visual continuity and enhance actual and apparent security. 424 Approaches to elevators at street level should be protected from the weather. All elevator approaches s h o u 1 d m a i n t a i n 5 ' 0 11 u n o b s t r u c _ t e d s p a c e i n fro n t of the elevator doors. 425 Elevator cabs should be provided with a 3'-011 clear opening. Interior minimum fini shed dimensions should be 5'-311 x 5'-011 to allow for two standard wheelchairs. Handrails should be fixed to the side and rear walls 32 to 34 inches above the finished floor.

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426 Normally, trip cycles should be under the remote con trol of a station attendant. Patron controls should be limited to two-way intercom and an emergency alarm 3'-6" above the finished floor clearly indicated graph ically and in braille. A key operated control panel should be provided for system employees or other special use. 427 Both audible and visible signal indications should be provided at the elevator approaches to indicate that the cab is enroute or has arrived. 428 Elevator cabs should be equipped with a mat contact switch such that if a user fails to exit after the cycle is complete, or if someone else enters the cab before the doors close, the doors will remain open and require action by the Station Agent. If the elevator remains unoccupied, it will automatically close its. doors and return to its rest position. 429 Elevators should be designed to insure leveling accuracy within one quarter inch; the doors should remain open for at least seven seconds and doors should be equipped with the appropriate safety edge features. Graphics 430 Special graphics should be provided for identification of handicapped facilities including symbol and/or color methods as well as complete information systems to aid first-time users and visitors. It is especially important to be explicit and direct with these potentially insecure patrons. 431 These special graphics should include braille information systems to convey information about facilities and station floor layouts to the blind. 432 Emergency information should be transmitted via special graphic provisions to augment audio systems for those with hearing disabilities. Lighting 433 Special consideration should be given to achieving the highest lighting levels in areas where the greatest potential danger exists, such as at platform edges and at escalators to aid those with sight disabilities who are not totally blind. YJI. -\ '1 o. vr:

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• 1 7 Mechanical Devices 434 Mechanical devices should be designed for simplest possible operation in terms of the degree of strength and dexterity required to activate them. Clearances shall be sufficient to accommodate ambulatory handicapped. Telephone 435 At least one public telephone at every entrance should be placed at a height that can be used by people in wheelchairs. 436 "At least one public telephone should be equipped for those with hearing disabilities and so identified with instructions for use. Water Fountains 437 Water fountains should be accessible to and usable by the physically disabled. Toilet Room 438 It is essential that the toilet room be made accessible to and usable by, the physically handicapped. Identification 439 Appropriate identification of specific facilities used by the public, through the use of raised letters, is essential to the blind. 440 Doors that are not intended for normal use, and that might prove dangerous if a blind person were to exit or enter by them, should be made quickly identifiable to the touch by knurling the door knob or handle. Warning Signals 441 Audible warning signals should be accompanied by simultaneous visual signals for the benefit of those with hearing disabilities. 442 Visual signals should be accompanied by simultaneous audible signals for the benefit of the blind. Doors 443 Doors accessible to the public should have a clear opening of no less than 32 inches and shall be operable by a single effort. V1t\1 b

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Entrances 444 At least one primary entrance to each station should be usable by individuals in wheelchairs. Platform 445 A special band of paving should be on each platform directly at the elevator door and extending to each platform edge. It is intended that this band correspond to a vehicle door opening. Y1r.. -\ '6 VI

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BARRIERS 0 Barriers are physical controls to restrict undesirable move ment of people so as to maintain safety, security and to aid in the movement of patrons. The main objectives for barriers are: (a) Physically bar public access (b) Regulate and control public access. (c) patron movement (d) Separation from vertical openings at mezzanines, floors and stairwells. CRITERIA General 450 Safety is the key goal of most barriers. Therefore, all barriers should be designed such that they can withstand all loads that may act upon them. 451 Without restricting variations it is recommended for safety that a familiarity of design for all barriers providing a specific function be standardized throughout the system. Handrails 452 Height of all handrails on stairs should be 2'-811 measured vertically from the top of the tread, at the nosing, to the top of the handrail. This height should be 3'-611 minimum all other places. 453 Handrails may sometimes be used for protection of surfaces, (keeping people away from direct contact with surfaces.) 454 Handrails may not intrude into the minimum required width for staircases, passageways, ramps, etc. 455 Handrails should be continuous through landings for the full length of the staircase and be continuous at all floor openings. 456 A center handrail shou l d be provided, to aid circulation, ror all stairs and ramps wider than 7'-411• -1 8 y1[\ 'b

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Railings 457 standing barriers separating or controlling patron circulation should be designed as open as possible so that visual continuity of space is maintained. 458 All floor openings for stairs, escalators and open floor ends should be enclosed by railings with handrails. They should be 3'-6" high and continuous. 459 There are 4 basic types of railing designs. Any one of these may be used depending on the application or design. All minimum dimensions per code requirements shall be met. 6: .. . ' . ..... .•. . :. e . (a) A solid parapet may be 4" to 6" thick without a handrail. This parapet should be built integral with the floor. . .. • . :. . . . ... . , . . . . ' ... . .. .. . . . --:....:.._. ---.-.-:. . . . . . , • . & ... o , ... . o .'!: o . . _:__ :.._ -i-:' _ . : .;.....;; _ . . .. o • • . :" . . . ... 0 : 3 ' ... (b) A combinatidn solid parapet and handrail. 11 .-----. -------VJI''\"

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. I I -1 9 (c) Open Ballustrade. (d) Typical Pipe Railing. ] Site Fences 460 Where required for security or safety reasons fencing should be of vinyl coated chainlink with top rail. Maximum visibility, strenth and protection are the main criteria for selection of a chainlink fence. Concourse Screen Walls Enclosure 461 Screen walls shall have at least 50% free area for natural ventilation and light and for visual continuity. 462 Screen walls shall be constructed and designed so that they are compatible with the design of othef bairiers in the station. ... ...... V1L\ '\ 'o

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FURNISHINGS p In the spirit of creating a public-oriented station, more than the minimum requirements should be met. An important step in accomplishing this is the provision of those amenities we have called furnishings. These items are intended to enhance or encourage the transit experience. The main objectives, then of providing furnishings and this section are the following: (a} Comfort: to provide those amenities to the station which will add to the comfort, security or convenience of the system user. (b) Continuity: to provide a link which will identify each station as part of a larger family of stations. (c) Economy: to provide furnishings which are in keeping with the durability and maintenance policies of a public system. (d) Visual Quality: to provide a dignified and appealing environment thereby encouraging care by the users and provide for community participation. CRITERIA General 470 Furnishings should be of the same design for all stations. 471 Furnishings should be permanently mounted with vandalproof attachments wherever possible. 472 Items selected for furnishings should be from proven designs for durability in public use. 473 Colors of furnishings should be selected from natural tones and of a hue that will conceal minor soiling. The colors selected should be compatible with the colors of the graphics and station colors. Windbreaks 474 Windbreaks should be provided on all platforms exposed to natural elements.

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(-20 475 Windbreaks should be designed of transparent material and constructed such that they do not offer hiding places for people. 476 Windbreaks may, unless restricted by clearance requirements be incorporated into seating units. Seating Units 477 Seating units should be provided in all waiting areas. 478 Seating units should be combined together in multiple _groups. 479 Seating units should have armrests to designate the capacity of the seating group and to discourage sleeping. 480 The seating units should be of such a design as to prevent intentional concealment by persons. Clocks 481 A clock should be provided at all levels in the station. 482 Clocks should be 24 hour digital type with numerals compatible with the design of the station graphics. Waste Receptacles 483 Waste receptacles should be provided at all levels of all stations. 484 Waste receptacles should be sized so that frequent emptying is not required. 485 Waste receptacles should be of such a design as to accept standard plastic liner bags. Ash Receptacles 486 Ash receptacles should be provided in the free areas only. (No smoking permitted in the paid area of the system.) 487 Ash receptacles should be of a fireproof design constructed of a non-combustible material. 488 Ash receptacles should be sized so that frequent emptying is not required.

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Telephone Enclosures 489 Telephone enclosures should be constructed of a transparent material and should be of the minimum size to sheild only the upper torso and head area from noise. Drinking Fountains 490 A 'drinking fountain should be provided at each station. Its location should be inclose proximity to the entrance but outside of the concourse for 24-hour use. 491 Drinking fountains should dispense chilled water. 492 Drinking fountains should be of a sanitary and vandalproof design. 493 Drinking fountains should be accessible to adults, children and handicapped persons. Display Cases 494 Community display cases should be provided in the station proper upon the recommendation of the Station designer and approval of the System Authority • ••• VI

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-21 STATION LIGHTING Q Lighting is the means by which we percieve space, control color, establish atmosphere and mood. It is the most subtle of mediums. It has a wide range of emotional and subconscious impact. Its correct handling is vital to the achievement of the desired environment. The lighting design should be developed as an integral part of the total architectural concept with the purpose of creating an image consistent with the concepts of optimum comfort. Comfort implies freedom from visual noise, such as disorderly, irrele vantpattetns or overly bright lighting Light sources should be selected to provide the most attractive station environment consistent with functional requirements of the station and as related to the immediate neighborhood. It is a decision based on a balance in design between function and appearance. Light sources shall define the shape and extent of major areas. They shall be consistent with the architectural elements and shall not compete with the building definition. CRITERIA Lighting Levels 500 501 502 503 Lighting levels should be established (by accepted standards for safety and comfort) for similar areas throughout the system and should be standardized. General illumination levels should produce an environment free from disorderly, irrelevant patterns of light. Once standardized these levels should not preclude variations in illumination levels to add interest, accent or promote orientation. General illumination levels should not be established on the basis of uniformities the station, but rather with variations in level as may be required by the particular station functions and layout. A hierarchy of levels should be described serving purposes of circulation, safety and maintenance, and complimenting points of decision and transition and to assure that there will be no sudden transition from light to dark areas. Abrupt differences in lighting levels between exterior and interior should be avoided.

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Lighting Fixtures 504 Lighting fixtures and components should be standardized throughout the system to establish standard solutions to repetitive problems of illumination and lighting background which should unify the appearance of all system facilities despite differences in individual station designs, and at the same time should assist standardization of maintenance and warehousing techniques on a systemwide basis. Once standardized these fixtures should not preclude freedom of departure from the general lighting standards so that standard lamp types may be integrated into varying station structures in ways that reinforce the individuality of each design while maintaining system continuity. Lamp Systems 505 High-intensity discharge sources: This type is typically located overhead in the ceiling spot lighting directing light downward to the floor. It can be used indirectly from concea led locati ons reflecting light off the ceili ng. Only color-improved phosphor-coated lamps should be permitted for the mercury vapor and metallic halide types. Cold blue sources are not recommended. 506 Fluorescent sources: Of the three, this type is best adapted for continuous linear applications. The recom mended color is standard warm-white. 507 Incandescent This type has the best color rendition properties of all sources and is desired for its softer, warmer light. It is recommended as a direct light source which may be exposed within close proximity to the public. It often solves lighting problems where enveloping surfaces are minimum and there exists the need to define the full shape and extent of the architecture. Clear lamps inside clear globes are recommended to provide maximum light with minimum glare. Application 508 The lighting system should be integrated into the structure or combined with associated components such as acoustical installations or mechanical systems to form a systematic design. Arbitrary and purely decorative applications of general lighting should not be permitted. Raceways and conduit runs exposed to public view should be prohibited. Y1L-21 o-. VI l

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22 509 Concealment of light sources should be attempted wherever possible, particularly where there is a basic clarity of torm such as large wali and ceiling surfaces which can be emphasized by reflected light from concealed sources, and allowing in most cases an increase in the feeling of brightness with adequate general illumination. Concealed light fixtures are much less expensive than those which must be exposed to public view and at the same time they contribute to the elimination of 11Visual noise11• 510 Overhead light sources directing light to the floor should be recessed to minimize their number and bulk in the 511 Surface mounted sources should be positioned out of reach from the public. 512 Direct glare from lighting sources should be minimized by proper location, control of beam spreads, and shielding of luminaires. Care should be exercised to avoid specular reflections from adjacent sign surfaces or from display units. Special Lighting 513 The lighting designer should be granted freedom of departure (subject to approval) from the general lighting standards so that particular design features of individual stations may be accented through use of special lighting, beyond that used to give functional emphasis and general illumination. Accent lighting should be considered for certain orientation features such as graphic elements, murals, maps, etc. Danger/Decision Points 514 High levels of directed light should occur at potential danger areas (stairs, escalators, platform edges, and at decision areas (fare collection equipment, information graphics). Emergency Lighting 515 Emergency lighting should be required in all stations, located to provide approximately 10% of the normal lighting level with concentrations at danger areas . ......

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STATION ACOUSTICS This section is intended to outline a desirable acoustical environment in stations only. These criteria are based on the following major noise considerations: R (a) The problems of normal conversation from the standpoint of speech intelligibility. (b) The psychological effect of echoes due to emptiness. (c) The establishment of acceptable levels and durations of intermittent noise for comfort and safety. (d) Providing an environment in which amplified announce-ments are intelligible. Specific noise criterion values should be designated from further definition of the noise characteristics of specific spaces and suggested methods of realizing desired results at a later date. It is recognized that these results will depend on the many variables unique to the design of any given space. The main objective is to provide patrons with an acoustically comfortable and safe environment by maintaining noise levels within acceptable limits. CRITERIA 520 Reduction and control of noise should be considered at all three levels, i.e.: (a) At the source (b) Through isolation of the noise source (c) By use of materials that can absorb sound. 521 Attempts should be made at integrating sound systems into the total design. 522 Consideration should be given to sound reflecting and focusing qualities of the shapes and forms used in the design of the station. 523 Long distance echoes in an empty space should be made inaudible. VJI. 3 o-. VI I

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-23 524 Parallel surfaces, often, cause a sound flutter, which should be minimized. 525 Serious consideration must be given to the effect of system generated noises on the neighboring communities, and of street noises coming into the station.

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GRAPHICS s Graphics is the element which most engages the eye, has the greatest impact and immediacy, recognition, which works at conscious and subconscious levels. It is the element of personality. It covers a broad range of parameters including adjacent neighborhoods, station sites, stations, vehicles, publications, etc. Graphics is, in operational content, an extension of station architecture and system facilities and demands consistency and unification throughout the system. The objectives of Graphics is the presentation of information to the patron to allow maximum clarity and ease of movement in the following categories. (a) Symbolism: Graphics shall humanize the system by identifying its symbol, name, color, logo, type face, etc., and give it its recognizable image. (b) Circulation: Directional signage shall assist the move ment of travelers at each point of decision and shall serve to guide the patron through the System in an orderly and uncomplicated sequence with a amount of hesitation. (c) Orientation: Maps, diagrams and displays shall serve to orient the patron at all times to system-wide operations and to neighborhoods adjoining stations. (d) Identification: Signage shall identify transit equipment and facilities which relate to system and station usage. Supplementary to this shall be detailed information as the use of such station equipment as fare collection. CRITERIA General 530 All graphics should be the same throughout the system. 531 Signs should be kept to tne minimum necessary for patron guidance. Signs should reinforce architectural elements and landscaping in identifying entrances, exits, and traffic routes. V I I

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24 532 The message on each sign should simple for easy understanding. international signs and symbols ever possible. be concise, clear and The more widely known should be employed wher-533 Signs should occur at key points of separation and at intervals frequent enough to allow unsure patrons to find their way confidently. 534 Sign design and placement should be uniform throughout the system to aid in immediate recognition by the patron. 535 Individual signs should be flexible enough to accommodate that might occur to the rapid transit system. 536 Certain signs should have priority over other signs to achieve the prime goal of efficient movement of people. Symbol and Name 537 There should be a logo developed in conjunction with the selection of a name for the rapid transit system. This logo shall be a unifying and identifying graphic symbol which shall be used throughout the rapid transit system. (a) As an indicator of stations from outside the system. (b) On Uniforms (c) On Vehicles (d) On Printed Material (e) Wherever a symbol for the rapid transit system is appropriate. 538 The symbol should be simple and clear enough to be immediately recognizable at a distance. Lettering 539 A single typeface should be selected for use throughout the system for all graphics. The typeface may vary in size and/or color in order to achieve the necessary visual priority of signs. This does not apply to decorative or advertising graphics. Color Coding 540 The use of color on graphics should be uniform throughout the rapid transit system.

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541 The selection of colors for coding should be done to insure that the colors used are easily distinguished from one another. Maps 542 System Map This map should illustrate station locations, transfer points, lines and other information pertinent to system operations. This map should be geographically correct indicating major streets and major points of interest. 543 A system and neighborhood map should occur in the free and paid areas of the concourse. 544 Neighborhood Map This map should be a large scale map of the neighborhood surrounding each station. It should illustrate such local features as streets, points of interest and neighborhood transportation services. It should always be adjacent to the system map. 545 Line Map Signs There should be a schematic line map one for each line of the system, illustrating stations, transfer points, and other information pertinent to the line operation. It may be placed on the platform and within the vehicle. 546 A priority of signs should be established to achieve the goal of efficient movement of people. Higher priority signs should be given visual dominance over lesser signs which may occur in the same field of view. Examples of these signs may include Emergency signs, Directional s igns, Information, Warning signs and Public and Non-Public signs. ... ...... v-rr. v 1

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-25 ADVERTISING T Should advertising be permitted in the stations, several benefits may be derived, one of which is increased revenue for the system. Additional merits, are realized when advertising is used in a controlled and tasteful manner. Pro per advertising can offer a changing scenario to the daily travel for the commuter. It is therefore the purpose of this section to define the limits of advertising to ensure that it remains an asset using the following objectives: (a) To an advertising system that is attractive, controlled, tasteful, and in the public interest. (b) To ensure that advertising, by its placement and treatment, does not conflict with station directional and informational signing. ( c) To use advertisements as design elements rather than haphazard displays . (d) To provide revenue for the system. CRITERIA 550 Advertisements should be permitted only in selected and controlled areas. 551 Advertisements should be carefully located: adjacent to areas of heavy traffic, but out of the direct passenger flow, so that they do not obstruct or retard such flow. 552 Advertisements should be so placed that they cannot easily be defaced or damaged. 553 To assure variety and freshness, no permanent installations should be permitted (except for certain builtirr cases, in which displays should be regularly changed). Y1I. b

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STATION DESIGN INFLUENCE u Because of the multiplicities of conditions that exist in the design process which strongly influence and direct the final design of each station, the task of the architect is to search for honest artistic expression in station designs while maintaining continuity to the character of the neighborhood and at the same maintaining continuity to the character of the system. This chart is intended to typjfy major elements relative to the architectural design process. Other subsystems and technical conditions which have lesser influence on the visual character of the final design have been omitted. The aerial, center platform station in a suburban residential area is shown as an example of a s ingle combination which immediately suggests its individual character. The introduction of design elements leads further toward an individual station design. In order to obtain a high level of order, congruity, and uniformity of quality, materials, finishes and construction procedures, it is recommended that the criteria developed for those repeating system elements marked thus * be supplemented and enlarged upon by special consultants to become system standards. It is our opinion that the architectural success of this system will depend on the carefully controlled balance of all these conditions as they relate to both the neighborhood and to the system and which will ultimately afford unique designs among the Family of Stations. V1l-;u; a.. VI

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-26 A listing of major conditions for each design element which affects station design is shown as follows: Community Identity • Station name • Neighborhood map • Photo murals • Display areas 1 Landscaping features 1 Linear park development 1 Bikeways 1 F o o t p..a t h s Unigue Site Conditions • Views and vistas • Vehicular access • Pedestrian access 1 Mini-system interface 1 Existing, planned and future development 1 Existing utilities • Existing ecological conditions Entrance I Ridership loads I Number of entrances I Future entrances I Direction of access I Aerial at grade or below grade access I Weather protection I Adverse environmental control System Criteria • I I • • I I • I I I Structural systems Service room requirements Provisions for the elderly and handicapped Materials and finishes Furnishings* ,: a r e c o 11 e c t i o n * Elevators, escalators and stairs* Handrails, railings and fences Graphics and signage* Lighting* Acoustics

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STATION OUTLINE DRAWINGS

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PROTOTYPICAL CONCOURSES AND PLATFORMS Three basic types of Concourse have been identified. The type of Concourse plan to be used will depend on the patronage forecast for a specific station and the access direction from the site. 1 . NORMAL The drawing shows a normal concourse with an end-access along with a variation for a two-sided access. A normal concourse consists of at least one set of escalators. 2. SPLIT The split concourse plan responding to a large patronage shows a split entrance to the concourse with one set of escalators on each side. 3. EXTENDED An extended concourse shows a linear arrangement of sets of escalators for stations with larger patronage requirements. It is possible to extend this concourse longitudinally, should additional escalators be needed. The prototypical platform with slight variation is common to all three concourses shown herein. TYPICAL CONFIGURATIONS A

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Center platform stations are the recom mended typical confi guration since they avoid-duplication of vertical c irculatio n elements and complex flow patterns. Following configuration types have been found feasible for center platform depending on the site situations and guide way location. AERIAL PLATFORM -AT GRADE CONCOURSE In an at-grade access the patrons enter the concourse directly from the site. Ancillary facilities are provided at the grade level. In case of barriers such as a highway, an underground access is shown. The underground passage with skylights is reached from outside by escalators, stairs and at lease one elevator. AERIAL PLATFORM -AERIAL CONCOURSE Where presence of existing utilities beneath the ground surface proh ibit construction of an underground passage, an aerial platform station with an aerial concourse is recom mended. The Concourse is reached by a set of direct escalators, stairs, elevators and through covered bridges spanning over the guideways. A visual connection is established between the concourse and the platform below to strengthen the open feeling. AT GRADE PLATFORM -AERIAL CONCOURSE In cases where the guideway runs at grade level, it is desirable that the concourse be aerial. The patrons reach the concourse by means of escalators, stairs, elevators and through the covered bridges spanning over the guideways. Ancillary facilities are provided at the grade level. STATION CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS WITH CENTER PLATFORMS V III-4 8

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UNDERGROUND PLATFORM UNDERGROUND CONCOURSE An underground station incorporates a mezzanine concourse accessible from two sides. The underground passages to the concourse are reached from outside by escalators, stairs and elevators. The ends of the passage also incorporate skylights over them.

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I CONCOURSE AND PLATFORM PLANS The "Free" concourse area in a side platform station is similar to the concourse in center platform stations. The "paid" area, however, shows two sets of vertical circulation elements leading to the two side platforms. The upper half of the concourse plan shows the escalators and stairs leading to the platforms above (section D) and the lower half shows the escalators and stairs gofng down to the platforms below (sections A, B and C). SECTIONS Typical side platform cross-sections shaw the four possible configurations depending on the site conditions and the guideway locations. A. AERIAL PLATFORM -AT GRADE CONCOURSE B . AERIAL PLATFORM -AERIAL CONCOURSE c. AT GRADE PLATFORM -AERIAL CONCOURSE 0. UNDERGROUND PLATFORM -AT GRADE CONCOURSE Side platforms are not recommended since they result in duplication of vertical circulation elements and complex flow patterns. STATION CONFIGURATION CONCEPT WITH SIDE PLATFORM V!II-14 c

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GLOSSARY IX AERIAL STATION -A passenger station built on aerial structure so that passengers arrive at ground level and move up stairs, escalators, or elevators to the train platform. AERIAL STRUCTURE -A structure supported by columns, which carries a track or roadway above the surface of the ground or the water. ALIGNMENT -The horizontal location of a transit route as it would appear on an ordinary map. The alignment is usua lly described on the map by the use of technical data such as coordinates, bearings, curves, etc. ATTENDANT'S BOOTH Enclosed space located at stati ons occupied by a station attendant. BUSWAY -A roadway reserved for the exclusive use of buses. A busway may be a reserved lane of an existing street or highway, new lanes built alongside an existing highway, or an entirely new highway built for the use of buses. CANOPY -An overhanging roof structure covering a portion or all of the platform protecting patrons from rain and sun. CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT (CBD) -The downtown area of a city. CENTER PLATFORM -A single island type platform between inbound and outbound guideways. C 0 N C 0 U R S E -T h a t p u b 1 i c a rea , i n c 1 u d i n g b o t h f r e e a r e a " a n d "paid area", which lies between the station entrance and the circulation to the platform or platforms. It can be at grade, at a mezzanine level, or below grade. CONCOURSE ENCLOSURE -A security fence or wall which closes off the concourse area from grade or street level during operating hours. EASEMENT -A right acquired by one party to use or control property belonging to another party for a designated purpose. Easements are frequently associated with public utilities such as telephone lines, water lines, etc. Easements may also be used for streets, highways, or transit lines. END LOADED PLATFORM -Any platform arranged whereby vertical access to the platform is provided at either one or both ends of the platform. IX-

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. 1 FARE BARRIER -The separation device between the 11paid area11 and the 11free area11 in conjunction with the fare gates. FARE COLLECTION SYSTEM A system at stations which includes all equipment, wiring, controls, enclosures and instructions which provides the means for collection of money from patrons, the control of entry and exit modes and circulation, the secure collection and transport of funds and the development of support facilities and procedures for the maintenance and repair of the equipment. FARE GATE -At cassenger stations, a device which accepts fare and separates the paid and free areas of the station through which patrons will pass upon entering or leaving transit system. FARE VENDING MACHINES -Slot machines typically located in the concourse area used in the fare collection system for the purpose of making change, selling farecards (or 11tickets11) and transfer transactions. FINAL DESIGN -The engineering and architectural services performed by the Section Designer who primary task is to provide coordinated drawing and specification bid documents for the purpose of obtaining construction contracts. FINISH CONTRACT -Finish contracts are let subsequent to structural contracts. They include the installation of all finish materials such as wall finish, flooring, lighting, ventilation equipment, etc. FREE AREA -All areas of the station outside the paid area accessible to the general public, without paying transit fare. GRADE SEPARATED -A term used to described a physical arrangement of two transportation routes which permits them to cross each other without any actual physical interference. For example, when a railroad crosses a highway on an overpass, it is said to be 11grade separated.11 GUIDEWAY -The structure which guides and supports the transit vehicles. INTERFACE The junction between two systems or subsystems. A point where the characteristics of the systems or subsystems are common. KISS AND RIDE -The procedure whereby a patron has another person drive him to the station, drop him off and then drive away from the station. 1 X-\ b

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LINEAR PARK -A continuous landscaped parkway within the right-of-way underneath an aerial structure with pedestrian and bicycle paths and focal points for community activity. LOGO -An abbreviation for logotype, trademark or symbol. MASS TRANSIT -A generic term used to encompass all forms of public ground transportation designed to handle numbers of people in shared vehicles. Mass transit includes all traditional systems such as buses, rapid transit systems, trolley cars, etc. MEZZANINE LEVEL -An intermediate level within the station, between grade and platform level(s). MINI SYSTEM -A generic term used to describe relatively low capcity systems used to provide transportation over relatively short distances at low speeds. Moving sidewalks and small shuttle cars used within a shopping center or airport are examples. ON-GRADE STATION -A passenger station built at grade level along a grade installed guideway requiring patron access over or under the guideway. OFF-LINE STATION -A passenger station with areas provided to allow vehicles to traverse the station area without stopping and pass vehicles heading in the same direction but stopped in the station to load and unload. ON-LINE STATION -The area in which vehicles stop to load and unload passengers in a section of the main line over which all vehicles on the route must pass. PAID AREA -That portion of public space within a station which is accessible only to patrons who have passed through fare gates and have paid their transit fare. PARK AND RIDE -The procedure whereby a patron will drive a private auto to a station, park in the area provided for that purpose and ride the transit system to his PASSAGEWAY -An enclosed or structure traversing over or under traffic or other barriers for the convenient passage of patrons entering or exiting the system. It may connect to the paid or unpaid area. PEAK HOUR RIDERSHIP OR LOAD, A.M. or P.M. -The peak hour is the 60-minute period during an average weekday when the greatest number of people travel past a specific point in one direction on a specific route. The A.M. or P.M. peaks are in the morning and afternoon when demand for transportation service is heaviest. This figure is important in transit planning since it determines the capacity a system will be designed to handle. I X

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PLATFORM -That portion of the station directly adjacent to the tracks, where trains stop to load and unload passengers. The full platform is the length of the longest trains which will operate on the system. PLATFORM EDGE -Referring to that continuous portion of the plat. form edge adjacent to the train requiring special treatment for reasons of safety which calls attention to and alerts patrons to the dangers of boarding or moving trains. PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING OR PRELIMINARY DESIGN -That part of the overall development of a transit system during which the basic planning objectives are translated into specific, well criteria which can permit the Final Design process to begin. QUEUING SPACE Adequate space provided in the approach sides of fare vending machines, fare gates and escalators to prevent undue crowding of patrons. RAPID TRANSIT -A public transit facility operating on exclusive, grade-separated rights-of-way. Buses operating on exclusive grade-separated roadways are included in the term "rapid transit ... RIDERSHIP -The number of persons using the transit system within any given period; may be expressed as hour.ly, daily, or yearly. RIGHT-OF-WAY -Land or rights to land used or held for transit operations or for public way. RUNOFF SPACE Adequate space provided in the exiting areas of fare gates, entrances and escalators to prevent crowding of patrons. SAFETY WALK -A walking zone outside the dynamic outline of the vehicle along the guideway for use by maintenance personnel or by patrons in the event it is necessary to evacuate the vehicle. SECTION DESIGNER -Individual engineering or architecturalengineering (A/E) firms retained by the Transit Agency to prepare the design, contract drawings, specifications and cost estimates for certain sections of the rapid transit system and/or to inspect the work of the construction contractors. SERVICE GATE -A gate controlled by the station attendant through which materials and personnel may pass circum-venting the fare gates. SERVICE ROOMS Spaces which contain mechani cal, electrical, communications, train control and miscellaneous operational equipment installations.

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SIDE PLATFORM -A Platform located on either or both sides of the guideway. SIDEWALK ENTRANCE -An entrance to a transit station located in the sidewalk right-of-way, between the building line and the street curb line, and usually adjacent to the curb line. STAGE CONTRACT These contracts which include the procurement and installation of such items as trackwork, traction power equipment, centralized traffic control equipment, interlocking and train control, escalators and other major equipment which must be installed throughout an entire operating stage of the project or the entire system. STATION -The complex of structures and platforms and surrounding access areas including parking areas within the boundaries of the station site owned by the Trans i t Agency and built for the purpose of enabling patrons to enter and leave the rapid transit system. STATION ATTENDANT -A representative of the system at the station who has costant contact with the public and whose responsibilities include the carrying out of the most of the station functions of supervision, administration and communication. STORAGE FACILITY -A space reserved for storing vehicles while not in revenue service. STRUCTURAL CONTRACTS -Structural contracts involve mainly the heavy construction activities necessary in the construction of the system such as tunneling, cut and cover construction, utilities work, etc. The basic structure, installed under this type of contract, will be ready for the application of finish materials under a separate contract. SUBSTATION -A facility containing electrical equipment, such as transformers, and switchgear, providing electric power to stations, vehicles and the guideway. SUBSTRUCTURE All that part of an aerial s tructure or below the bridge seats, tops of piers, haunches of rigid frames, or below the springlines of arches. Backwalls and parapets of abutments and wingwalls of bridges shall be considered as parts of the substructure. SUBSSYTEM Major components of the Rapid Transit System, consisting specifically of the veh icle, control and communications, electrification and fare collection . . SUPERSTRUCTURE -All that part of an aeri al structure or br i dge above the br i dge seats, tops of piers, haunches of r i g i d frames, or above the springlines of arches, including the floor, and not including the substructure. I X

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TRAIN -One vehicle or two or more vehicles coupled together acting as a single unit. TRANSIT AGENCY -Identification of the group who will assume overall authority and responsibility for the development and operation of the rapid transit system for Metropolitan Dade County. TRANSIT IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM -A part of Metropolitan Dade County's 11Decade of Progress,. bond issue approved in November 1972, authorizing the development of a comprehensive, integrated balanced public transit system consisting of rapid transit, expanded bus service to trunk line and feeder buses, and mini-systems for local circulation at major transit centers. TRANSIT SYSTEM -The entire operating transit system including vehicles, stations guideway structures and subsystems, required to operate and maintain the system. VEHICLE Car designed to travel on the transit system. WAYSIDE -A term generally used to refer to the area along the path of a transit vehicle . ••• JX-3'o

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PART2 STATION AREA . PLANNING AND DESIGN

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X. INTRODUCTION TO STATION AREA PLANNING A. Issues: Transit Station Impacts and Planning In essence, the. rapid transit system proposed for Dade County is a massive public investment which improves transportation services; concurrently, it increases the ability of urban land to accommodate higher development densities by improving . the accessibility of these areas. This second factor has been demonstrated to be a key element in the development framework for an urban area. Experiences elsewhere, most recently in San Francisco, Montreal and Toronto, underline the scale and intensity of development activity that can accompany rapid transit improvements. ---Since a majority of these anticipated development pressures will be felt at the system•s access points (station locations), it is particularly significant that the transit improvement program is devoting a portion of its preliminary engineering program to an examination of the potential impact of transit stations on the development pattern. The development potential of transit station areas raises a series of county-wide issues that have a direct effect on the urban environment. Relatively dramatic impacts can be expected at certain locations in terms of density, land economics and urban design. Most important to this station area planning task is Dade County• ' s ability to deal with the complex development issues that will be faced. Proper management of the anticipated impacts a;e critical to: 1) An efficient use of transportation services; 2) The reinforcement and promotion of the planned development of the county (as illustrated in the Comprehensive Develop-ment Master Plan) and local neighborhoods; and 3) The quality of life in a number of local communities which will be directly impacted by the system. In brief, it is the expressed intent of this report and the station planning task to investigate both local and metropolitan scale issues of station Although local impacts of a station location are more pronounced, there are also cummulative effects on the intensity of metropolitan growth. Thus, an investment as the rapid transit system offers a unique opportunity not only to fullfill a transportation service function, but to also guide urban growth in a manner that efficiently and properly utilizes available resources and provides a desirable form for the urban environment. x-' Q. X

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B. The Station Planning Task In conducting the station area planning and design task of the Preliminary Engineering Program, the effort has been divided into four basic areas: 1 ) 2) 3) 4) The preparation of development and land use policies for the system; The development of a station planning methodology that can be used as a base for subsequent individual station planning efforts; The selection and analysis of six station Jocations alorig the recommended 1ransit corridors, and the application of the station planning process to locations; and The development of land use , urban design and zoning plans for these six locations. The following discussions review the purpose of each of the four efforts, and indicate how each has or will be accomplished. 1. Development and Land Use Policies As the initial step in station planning process, Milestone 3 investigated the implications of transit for both existing and new development, and offered a listing of broad development policies that can be used by citizens, public officials and planners as guidelines for predicting and managing potential changes in transit station areas in particular. The basic concept of the proposed policy structure is the establishment of a specific guidance framework which can be applied to the station situations in varying degrees, as circumstances dictate. Policy applications to appropriate station areas is considered to be a function of several elements: strong citizen participation, professional planning advice, and a responsible decision process on the part of public officials. The measure of continuity found throughout the policy state l.!ents is the p 1 a cement of the policies within the framework of the orooosed Comprehensive Development Master Plan for 1985. The policies follow the overall guidance offered by the development policy statemetns offered in Part 1, as well as the Environmental Guidelines and Development Master Plan offered in Parts 2 and 3. The policies in Milestone 3 will thus reinforce and implement the major development concepts outlined in the p lan. In turn, it is felt that the integration of these station development policies and plans with the metropolitan plan, and their )(\ b

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2. Development of Station Planning Approach As with the Development and Land Use Policies, the station planning approach presented in this Milestone is intended to offer guidance in the overall system planning effort. guidance is in terms of process, not solutions. The planning approach outlines the elements of the local community and Metropolitan Dade County that have a bearing on potential station development impacts, and how such elements can help define the nature and extent of the impacts as well as means of managing them. 3. Selection and Analysis of Six Station Locations A portion of the task contai ned in this Milestone Report is intended to select and examine six specific station locations on the proposed rapid transi t alignment in order to pinpoint i n detail the issues raised by transit station placement. As a part of this process, the following issues have been addressed. -The rational e of station placement; -The perceived function of the station with regard to system operations; -The role of the station area in the metropolitan development pattern; The potential developmental influence area of the station; Whether growth should be allowed, and why; -The 11natural11 demand for various development uses in the area; The potential impacts of such demand; The extent to which such impacts are conducive to existing or planned development, or counter productive; The type and location of development to be permitted and/or encouraged. The inventory and analysis portion of this report will examine: the physical, social, and economic characteristics of the station areas; both mar ket demand and design potential of the influcence area, and the ability of the station areas to absorb the anticipated impacts. X

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4. Development of Land Use, Urban Design & Zoning Recommendations As a final step in the process, the results of the analysis of the six selected stations have been used to formulate land use concept plans. These plans use as a base the market demand potentials defined herin. With the input of the site analyses that have been conducted, schemes for managing station area growth have also been prepared. To further illustrate these concepts, urban design plans have been developed to illustrate the scale of development and the design treatments possible in the station areas. Finally, as an implementation tool for the land use concepts and urban des i g n .. s o 1 u t i on s , g e n era 1 z on i n g r e co mm en d a t i on s a r e be i n g prepared. They will be forthcoming as a separate document.

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XI. APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY A. Approach Summary This portion of the Milestone report is intended to suggest a rational approach for addressing a number of issues that arise from the development impact potentials associated with transit stations. Some of these issues have been enumerated in the introduction of Part l, Section X. If the concepts that are to be developed for the transit station areas are to be logical outgrowths of local considerations as well as systemwide service and urban development objectives, then a coordinated, uniform listing of requisite decisions, inventories, analyses and standards must b e developed. While the final approach may be evolved over a series of design studies, beginning with the six s t a tions exami ned in the next section of this Milestone report, the general framework o ffered here acts as a departure point for further detailing. Portions of this approach and methodology will be finalized in greater detail, in subsequent work1ng p4pers. The general approach suggested for the station area planning task, as applied to the six prototype station areas and described here, is comprised of four broad areas of work effort, including station rationale and market potential, inventory of existing conditions, analysis of opportunities constraints, and recommendations . Thi.s .s....e..ction will concentrate on the Although this broad outline of the 4pproach does not fully identify either development policies or a meaningful citizen advisory process, these two elements are essential to the proper functioning of the design process. The emphasis that is placed on these elements is particularly evident in that the first task of the overall station planning work program for the transit improvement program was the development of a series of policy statements that were thoroughly reviewed by the citizen forums and districts. The four basic areas of work, and thei r appropriate subtasks are as follows: XI-l

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-1 Station Rationale and Market Potential This phase of the planning task is intended as an overview of the station's place in the transit system and the Metropolitan development. framework as well as an examination of the extent of potent1al impact in the designated influence or impact area. The three basic sub-areas of review include: -the determination of the operational and Metropolitan development role of the station in the overall -the determination of the primary impact zone around the station, as well as other applicable influence areas: and .. -the determination of market demand in the station area, both with and without the influence of transit. Inventory of Existing Conditions -Primarily the data base element of the planning task, this phase has several key areas of data examination: -the existing land use patterns in the area, including significant features about land concentrations that may have an influence on the type or intensity of development activity; -the general zoning patterns of the area, including the broad types and their effect on the development pattern, and the extent to which they reinforce the existing or proposed pattern; and -the movement patterns of the station vicinity, including both vehicular and pedestrian concentrations and the level of access afforded the site. Analysis of Opportunities and Constraints -This phase relates closely to the inventory of existing conditions phase and has two key of investigation: -the identification of community characteristics including statements regarding the qual ity, quantity, type, and inherent potential or constraints of existing development; and -the identification of design resources and limitations which define significant environmental or design features of the surrounding environment which may relate to, or influence, design decisions.

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Recommendations -This final phase of the planning task is the culmination of the previous inventories and analyses. In many respects, detailed judgements and analyses continue into this phase, ending with the followinq recommendations concerning the future development pattern, and the implementing strategies and actions necessary for such plans to be Land Use Concepts illustrating the development types and relationships that can be accommodated within the framework of existing conditions, metropolitan scale and neighborhood development strategies for the area, citizen desires, and market potential. -Urban Design Plans, indicating the design treatment of the development strategies pinpointed above, and -Zoning Recommendations, including other land manage ment techniques that may be applied to achieve the desired development types, intensity, and design quality. Each of the major subtasks under these work tasks will be discussed in somewhat greater detail in the following sections. These discussions will not necessarily obviate the need for further detail in the proposed methodology. B. Station Operationa and Development Rationale As a prelude to identifying potential station induced market impacts and the possible influence zone affected, it is essential that the station be examined with regard to its perceived role as an operational element of the transit system, as well as its development posture in relation to the Metropolitan scale development scheme. From an operational standpoint, both patronage levels and the modal splits estimated at a station can significantly affect the development posture that is possible in the station area. The higher and patronage, of course, the greater the potential intercept of persons needing commercia l services, etc. In terms of modes of access, stations which are predominantly pedestrian oriented may have greater development pressure (as related to overall ridership) than feeder bus or auto oriented stations due to the direct business exposure afforded to the patron as he approaches the station. Thus, this can lead to greater development potential for certain business uses may be higher. Each of the XI

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proposed stations have been c lassified as to an "Environment Type11 indicating the estimated pedestrian, bus, or auto access orientation of the transit users. In brief, the station types are classified as follows. Ridership estimates are available on a preli minary basis for most stations in the system and will be revised in later stages of system planning and design. From the standpoint of the metropolitan development pattern, there are perhaps more basic issues at stake. As indicated in previous milestones, the system has the potential to directly influence the direction, type, and intensity of development in corridor areas; as such, the system has the ability to influence tne location of major activity concentrations, or in deed, the degree to which such centers may exist. The important principle here is the role that a station, or a series o f stations, plays in reinforcing these planned concentrations of d eve l opment activity. Without an established plan comparing the station locations to the overall land use strategy, planned centers may not occur exactly as planned, or worse, may occur in places other than where planned. The preceding comments point to the need for a classification of each proposed station location according to the metropolitan role it should play. This should be interpreted to mean that this designation is representative of the planned impact of the station on the community. As the six prototypes have been studied, the local neighborhood function of many stations has also emerged as a very important factor. Not only must the macro scale picture be examined, but the micro scale as well. While most .stations will not be desig-nated a regional, metropolitan, or even sub-metropolitan scale activity center on the Countyw ide scale, some stations may serve a local activity center need that, in relative terms, may be equally, if not more, important. There arises no conflict between the two planning levels, as long as the needed neighborhood service development function is not abused by development pressure by becoming more than a local service situati on. These determinations raise add itional problems involving the ability of both citizens and planning professionals to adequately compare local neighborhood views on a station's service and development role to the conceptual role that it should play in the urban framework discussed above. It is obvious that the two views may not necessarily be identical.

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A series of tradeoffs must, therefore, be involved with regard to how the station and related uses should function as a part of the overall urban system and as a part of the neighborhood. While neither view may be totally "correct", this relationship must be understood and established prior to the beginning of detailed station area planning. There will, of course, be local constraints to certain aspects of station development, but its perceived function in the urban must be of tance. !r. essence, this role prov1des the framework 1n wh1ch development should occur at a station. C. Station Influence Zone Determination The designation of an influence area around a transit station is basic to examinations of the potential development impact of the station. Guidelines for determining such influence areas were originally included in Draft Milestone 3, Development and Land Use Policy, for informational purposes. Summaries of a revised listing of influence zone selection criteria are offered below. The criteria listed below are intended to illustrate the factors that need examination prior to selecting a study area for station planning purposes. It is obvious that various localized neighborhood conditions, as well as trans1t-induced factors, vary from station area to station area. For these reasons , the are a affected by the s tat i on fa c i 1 i t i e c; a r1 d related development will vary. Other transit systems have often used a variety of somewhat arbitrary distances to define the station influence zone, ranging from 700 to 2,500 feet from the station. While this discussion will concentrate on several key influence factors from the listing below, all of the criteria have potential application. No such typical distance is offered here for use on all stations. Not only will the criteria listed below define areas of different sizes at various stations, the influence zones may often be in shape. 1. Impact Zones at Stations A major consideration in this discussion centers about several levels of impact that may exist in the station "vicinity". Analysis has suggested that there may be three levels of impact or influence, each with various characteristics. Two zones are considered to define the area of potential physical development influence, while the third involves only very broad service influences. XI-'3 o.. XI

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3 Primary Impact Zone -The area most immediate to the station in which considerable changes in land use and development trends and patterns would likely occur as a direct result of the stations. This impact zone would be defined primarily by the high accessibility area within walking distance of the station, but, also, tempered by a majority of the criteria listed below. Secondary Influence Zone. This area is outside of the primary impact zone, and can be considered a transitional area in terms of station induced development impact. The zone would be by: second generation impacts due to the location of ancillary uses serving "transit related" development within the high accessibility primary impact zone, and second generation land use changes caused by impacts of station related or station induced development on surrounding areas. While outside the high accessibility area, spinoff effects from land use changes within the primary zone can some alterations in the surrounding development pattern. In reality, this influence zone would form a transitional zone to serve as a buffer to surrounding areas. Service Influence Area. This area is basically defined in the Accessibility and Service Area criterion below, including the overall transit service area, from which patrons are drawn by car or feeder bus primarily. This multi-level series of influence areas is useful in determining the level of planning, urban design, and zoning review activity necessary, and is also important in gauging the proper land management and urban design tools necessary at varying distances and for various areas around stations. Certain planning principles and development controls are more applicable to broad influence areas, while more specific principles and techniques such as incentive zoning, detailed urban design tools, and station design factors are more suited to the immediate impact areas.

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2. Influence Zone Selection Criteria The following discussions briefly describe the criteria to be considered in identifying station influence zones. As implied above, these criteria are particularly applicable to the primary impact zone, where physical development changes will be most pronounced. These criteria are adapted from discussions in Section VII of the draft Milestone 3 Report on Development and Land Use Policy, with revisions. Accessibility/Service Area. Perhaps the most broad ranging determinant of an influence area about a transit station is the level of accessibility provided to population, jobs, and activities. The specific limits of the influence zone are determined by the ability of the supporting population to reach the facility within acceptable time and convenience limitations, and the ability of the station to serve job locations or special activities at varying distances from the station facilities. Walking distances, discussed separately, comprise one aspect of this service area function, but are limited in scale. There are larger service area bands that delineate automobile and feeder bus accessibility to the station site. These service areas are quite fluid, depending primarily upon the road network serving the station and the relative ability of this network to move people to a station. Therefore, the proximity and ease of access to other stations. affects the final service area for automobile access in particular. Character istics of the area population, such as income, auto ownership, and age, influence the service area, because low auto ownership can effectively shift the emphasis to feeder bus or walking service area contours more than an auto-oriented contour. Tfte recommended criterion for Accessibility/Service Area is: • The extent of the overall transit service area, determined by the level of accessibility provided to population, employment , and special activities. Specifically, the area from which a majority of transit patrons are drawn, determined by population, environment, and activity characteristics of the area; the road network; and the level of transit service that is provided, given this accessibility. >

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-4 Walking Distances. Pedestrian walking distances are a prime determinant in identifying transit station influence zones, due to the role they play in plan configuration and as a measure of design service ability. This is especially true in the CBD and other highly dense areas. Since walking distances are a subjective human variable with varying distances accepted or rejected depending on the related circumstances, it is possible to determine influence zones only by using a relative range, based on a specific type of location. It is reasonable to assume that walking speeds range from 3.0 to feet per second and that trip times would average around 5 There are areas where; for certain types of trips, pedestrians may walk up to 10 minutes, but the average is considerably less. Since speeds, and therefore distances, vary according to pedestrian movement patterns, etc., a range of 1200 to 1800 feet is considered a reasonable walking area. This range includes a 10 minute walk at the lower walking speed as the tolerable limit to a walking trip in selected situations, while recognizing that a 5-minute trip at a medium walking pace is more typical. The outside limits would therefore define the effective maximum accessibility limits for transit induced development. For these a three-eights mile radius is considered a proper distance for use in this analysis. While this distance is an assumed maximum, there are a number of factors which will effectively adjust both the overall extent and the shape of this influence area: -The geometric makeup of the.street system; -The intensity of street activity or the volume of pedestrian flow through the area; -Principle types of trips made in the area; -The overall walking environment (the nature of surroundings and whether they add or subtract from the walking experience.); -Age characteristics of the area population; -The level of transit dependent population in the area; and -Lifestyle characteristics of the area popu-lation. ( some social or ethnic groups will tolerate longer walking distances. ) Particularly important are the street pattern and resident age or transit dependent characteristics. With reqard to the street geometry, the effective walking area is generally reduced slightly except along atreets leading directly from

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the station. Pedestrians cannot circulate out from a station in perfect radial lines, so a resulting irregular walking area is defined. Age characteristics of the population can effectively reduce this walking area if there is a larger than average concentration of the elderly in the area. Both the assumed walking rate and total time tolerated will be less than the maximums established above. In contrast to the effect of the elderly, concentrations of transit dependent population :an effectively expand the walking area by several hundred feet. The recommended criterion for walking distances is: •The pedestrian service area of a station, generally determined by the range of average walking distance in five (5) to ten (10) minutes, resulting in a maximum development impact area of approximately three-eights of a mil e from the station; the area is effectively adjusted by street geometry, intensity of pedestrian movement and street activity, the type of trips made most often in the area, the walking enviornment, and the age, transit dependent and lifestyle characteristics of area residents. Physical Barriers. Often the most basic of community elements, physical features (both natural and manmade) form some of the most clear boundries for a station influence zone. These impediments to development are often manifest in shorelines, rivers, canals, railway lines, freeways, or major arterial roadways, strip commercial, or other dense activity, as well as less apparent factors are such as poor soil conditions. While these may not always provide a definitive limit to development, they may provide sufficient hinderance to relegate station development influence to a secondary level beyong this "barrier". These physical hindrances influence the level of accessibility provided between separated areas. The frequency of the needed access between functiQns dictates the appropriate development intensity that can reasonably be accommodated. Therefore, limitations are necessarily placed on the influence of a station on areas beyond physical barriers. The recommended criterion for physical barriers is: •The physical constraints to all or certain types or intensities of development in station vicinities, including the effect of both manmade development and natural elements. XI

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5 Visual Intrusion . The area that is physically or visually dominated, or that is substantially affected by the visual presence of transit facilities broadly defines the area that is visually influenced by the system. Both the station and guideway are potentially significant development features that can be perceived at a given distance, and would become overbearing at a closer location. Even in theoretical terms, these limits are imprecise. In reality, the limits• to visual intrusion and/or influence are site specific to a large Both the location and relative scale of existing development alters the extent of a station's visual impact. In low density residential environments, the more extensive the influence zones are likely to be; tiut, the physical scale of development grows, and as elements are m;xed, the effective distance of visual interruption diminishes. This factor is often somewhat limiting to the overall influence area, but particularly along major arteries. The impact may extend as far or further than would other criteria. The recommended criterion for visual intrusion is: • The extent of station facility visibility, adjusted by the existence and location of other dominant physical elements and the relative scale and design of adjacent development. Proximity To Adjacent Stations. According to the established station spacing in the proposed transit system, there are instances where either influence or impact zones of adjacent stations may meet or overlap, thus affecting shape and extent. Certainly the broad service may over1ap, dS may the secondary influence zones for a series of stations. This introduces the potential for a development influence zone extending along the guideway; but, if the stations are spaced sufficiently close, even the primary impact zone of one or both stations may be appropriately altered. Considering the three-eights mile walking distance criterion, stations spaced less than one mile apart may have their respective primary impact zones adjusted. There are two major effects possible: (1) Either one of the closely spaced stations dominates the other station (s) by being a larger activity center, and thereby the develop-ment impact area and reduces the impact zone of the other station (s),or

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(2) The cummulat ive attractiveness of stations located close together may expand their respective development impact to cover the remaining area between them that might not otherwise be impacted and included in the primary impact zone. The recommended criterion for Station Proximity is: •The effects of abutting or overlapping impact zones on the respective station zones by virtue of the operational role or development potential of each station; and the potential effect of the cummulative attracttion of closely spaced stations on e xpanding the impact zone between the stations. Land Use, Public Policies and Plans. The land use aspects of the s tation area have potential multi-faceted effects on determining an impact zone, indicating the compatibility of station-related development with both existing and proposed development patterns or strategies. The broad considerations include: with Existing Land Use. Perhaps the most bas1c consideration is the definition of areas where potential changes are acceptable or not acceptable to the existing land use pattern. Areas of conflict represent one set of limits to station development influence, particularly when existing or long-range land use relationships need to be Conformance with Land Use Plans. As with existing land use patterns, the planned :evelopment pattern has areas that may be compatible or incompatible with potential station area development. Since comprehensive deve l opment plans serve as the framewor k for cha11neling future growth pressures, the y are a n essent i a l consideration here. I f the station i s being developed in a planned "activity node" area, then it is likely that planned higher intensity use areas may conform to potential needs in the station area. But if portions of the potential station impact area are planned for lower intensity development, then this factor may adjust the pri mary i mpact or secondary influence zone.

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-6 Activity Concentrations. Often there is and existing office/commercial .or other activity concentration directly adjacent to the defined impact zone that can effectively expand the zone, although the walking distance and other factors may not, in themselves, justify such an increase. Public Development Policies and Regulatory Tools. Public policy represents a valuable instrument in the hands of those who seek to use it as a determinant of station planning, in that it provides the basic framework within which and design is accomplished. Public policy defines parameters of public concern within which developers may operate, based upon clearly stated constraints as generally expressed in zoning patterns and other measures. This aspect could become important when it is realized that public policy limitations are usually accepted by real estate entrepreneurs as part of the ordinary ground rules of development. Thui, public policy provides the legal and administrative means of implementing adopted development plans and managing development. Most importantly, it provides the tools to define the physical limits of such development. The most commonly used tools include zoning, planned unit development, urban renewal, policies on community services expansion, and others. The degree to which these guiding policies or mechanisms will allow higher density development in a station area in effect defines the area to be influenced by the station. in individual station areas, these zoning laws or other measures may limit or expand the defined impact area. For example, a severely restricted area may be excluded from the impact zone, but a PUD or "urban renewal" type publice development/redevelopment area may justify an expanded impact zone that covers the area. The recommended criterion for Land Use, Public Policies and Plans is: •The acceptability of potential station related development to existing land use patterns and future plans in various station areas, reflected

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in the designation of areas sensitive to such potential changes (i.e., areas of potential conflicts) the effect of an existing commercial, office or residential activity center in expanding the effective influence of a station; the effect of policies, zoning, or other public development measures in either restricting or encouraging the development potential of areas around stations. Propensity for Land Use Change Or Redevelopment. A transit station1s influence zone will greatly depend upon land available for development in the area surrounding the station. The ease with which land may be acquired and assembled in proximity to a transit station will have bearing on the intensity and extent of development and therefore deter to a degree, the magnitude of the station' s influence zone. Several factors are involved here: Hard and Soft Areas. Influence areas will vary depending on how susceptible to change structures and properties are and how resistant to change certain areas are due to social and amenity considerations. Determining land availability in a station area necessitates obtaining an inventory of "hard" (indicating permanence} and "soft" (indicating transition potential) areas and their proximity to the station site. Considerations to determine the permanence or obsolescence in a particular area should be investigated and evaluated in the following objective categories: a. Age and physical condition of buildings; b. Size; c. Official landmarks, parks, and institutions; d. Major activity generators; and, e. Homogeneous residential and ethnic neighborhoods. Another major consideration here i s the ex istence of significant vacant parcels. If major open parcels exist just beyond the high accesibility area of a station, the impact or influence zones may include the area, since development would likely be attracted to the parcel and its ease of development. XI-'1 o..

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: I -7 Public and Private Ownership Patterns. Owner ship of land, public or private, will have some effect on station influence zones. One aspect is that in many station areas land ownership will be highly fractionalized. Areas such as these are usually not found containing large parcels of developable property under single ownership. Even single block ownership is a rarity. This inhibits the opportunity for private enterprise to assemble properties surrounding a station and developing them into a comprehensive and integrated plan that serves the public's needs, as well as private interests. But where such single owner holding are found in a station area, there is the possibility that these properties may have a greater than normal potential for development, and should be included in the impact zone. Public ownership of property in the station area also provides a reason for extending the anticipated impact area, since a variety of publicly sponsored,transit-related uses are possible. The recommended criterion for propensity for Land Use Change or Redevelopment is: •The availability, development condition or status (vacant, etc.) and ownership characteristics of properties in the station area, including the identification of "hard" and "soft" areas (indicating both degrees of permanence and prominance as well as availability) and public land holdings. Public Services and Facilities. The supportive services and factlities provided by the public sector form the underlying element of urban development, providing a framework within which the three dimensional aspects of the urban environment are defined. For this reason, they can be essential measures of the influence area of a rap i d transit system. Public Services. Public services encompass the utility network that is so vital to urban development Both the capacity and geometry of this network greatly affects the development pattern, simply by their presence.

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Significant for the rapid transit station area is the fact that the existing limits of utility service in a station area (both in physical coverage and capacity) define an area or a development intensity that can be served, i.e., an influence area. Equally as important is the ability of this influence zone to be expanded or otherwise drastically altered by the extension of services. In areas where a low intensity development profile is desirable and where there is limited utility capacity, the station influence area may be limited indeed. But to increase the capacity or to alter its extent or geometric layout automatically alters the effective area of station influence. Public Facilities. Public facilities have a d1rect effect on a station influence zone in two ways . First, the operation and effici ency of facilities such as schools, hospitals, daycare centers, etc., depend upon their own defined service areas just as does the transit station. The extent of the service areas of such facilities that are located in the vicinity of transit stations effectively expands the area of influence for the station, in that the system increases the accessibility of these facilities to their service population, and, therefore, assumes their overall sphere of influence. Secondly, the presence of a major public facility in the station area could cause the primary impact area to be expanded such that the facility is included. To reach such facilities, patrons may be willing to walk further, etc., and development could follow this increased accessibility. The recommended criterion for public services and facilities is: •The effects of utility services on the potential direction and intensity of station related or station influenced development pressures; and, the location and service area of significant public facilities (such as schools, community centers, etc.) that may be located near or in conjunction with station development. XI

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8 Air Pollution. A major benefit of the proposed rapid transit system is the potential reduction of automotive traffic which, in turn, reduces the total level of pollutants emitted. However, the concentrations of automotive and bus traffic that is likely to occur at certain station locations may have an adverse impact on the station area. Transitrelated activities that benefit from the increased accessibility may have an additional automotive impact on the area, by virtue of increased business activity that is reached by car. The possible increases in pollution levels will be most noticeable in areas which have had fairly light traffic problems in the past, such as low density residential neighborhoods. Vehicular activity in station areas will involve substantial acceleration, deceleration, and idling. Thus, while the influence area from this activity is generally rather confined, the circulation routes to the station area may also feel such effects, and may be in an impact zone. The recommended for Air Pollution is: •The area which air pollutants generated by vehicular activity in the station will affect, considering the nature of the pollutant, ambient levels, meteorological conditions (wind direction, speed, degree of chanelization, or inversion capacity) and developmental or physical effects on pollutant dispersal. Noise. The over which generated by rapid transit-related facilities at a station exceeds ambient levels effectively defines a potentially important influence area around stations. Particularly with noise-sensitive land uses such as low density residential, the effects could be a major factor in neighborhood degradation, etc. Although the noise influence concept is an extremely obvious one, the definition of a zone of influence is difficult, in that there are a number of variables that must be considered. The key elements include the identification of noise generators, the level of noise produced by these generators, its effective range, and the physical elements that affect the distribution of the noise over this range. Most transit stations have the potential to become major noise generators, not necessarily because of the transit facilities themselves, but primarily due to noise contributions by motor vehicles (feeder buses, private autos, and others.) Automo-

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biles and feeder buses, however, while discharging and picking up passengers, will contribute the most to the noise produced in station areas. The noise levels generated in the station area will decrease in proportion to the distance from the source. In most situations, however, the decrease can be more rapid because of atmospheric effects as well as the effects of buildings, other structures, and natural elements such as vegetation, all of which act as barriers. Ultimately, the perceived levels of noise at various distances from a station, and, therefore, the definition of an affected area, will be judged against ambient (existing bac k ground noise) levels. The recommended criterion for Noise is: •The effect of noise generator activities (transit vehicles, automotive traffic, etc.) on surrounding land patterns, in which development patterns, physical characteristics and potential sound abatement design influence these station generated noises and defines an area where ambient levels are exceeded. Land Values. The consideration of land values in defining an influence area must address itself to both existing values, which may have some influence, and to the effects that the placement of a station has on land values in the community. Experience indicates that as the transit station increases the accessibility of surrounding property (and, therefore the economic efficiency of these properties in relation to non-transit related ones), there is a resultant shift in activity. The demand for these properties thereby increases in the market system; this increased deman escalates land values and limits the feasible development alternatives to higher intensity uses. This area that may be influenced by increased land values is therefore c losely tied to the high accessibility area, i.e., the walking distance. The influence area can also be altered by present land values in the area, which can e -ffectively limit or encourage development or redevelopment activity. The recommended criterion for Land Value5 is: X

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•The limitations or opportunities provided by the relative costs of properties in station areas, considering the influence that such costs have on the availability and location of land for station-related development or redevelopment as well as the type, intensity, and location of development .likely to be necessitated by such costs . 3. Application of Influence Zone Criteria With the criteria established on the preceding pages, a primary impact zone can be defined for each station area. The s e q u e n c e o J f e r e d be 1 ow an d co n c e p t u a 1 1 y i l1 u s t r at e d i n t h e accompanying conceptual diagrams give some guidance in the application of selected criteria to station conditions. Establishment of Initial High Accessibility Area. A basic task is to define an area that will closely approximate the high accessibility area around a station, and then proceed to refine this area as appropriate. Since the walking distance criterion set forth above is the basis for the high accessibility that is important for development impact, a walking distance circle can be plotted (a three-eights mile radius modified by age, lifestyle and transit dependency characteristics of the area population). Alteration to this 11ideal11 area can then be made by considering the street geometry. This defines the high accessibility area adapted to local conditions. MAJOR ARTERIAL STREETS MILE WALKING RADIUS, OR AS APPROPRIATE LOCAL NEIGHBORHOOD CHARACTERISTICS AS GEOMETRY

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Refinements to the Impact Area. The application of the remaining criteria to this initial zone can result in both additions and deletions to the adjusted walking contour. As illustrated here, physical barrier, major vacant parcels and existing activity concentrations are three factors that most often affect the impact zone contour. While physical barriers or sensitive land use concentrations often limit the impact area somewhat, substantial vacant areas or existing activity areas in close proximity to the walking contour tend to expand the tolerable walking area. A final adjustment to the refined impact area simply involves the "generalization" of the boundary. As shown, the primary impact zone boundary should considered as a band of several hundred feet. RAILROAD MAJOR PHYSICAL BARRIER PRIMARY IMPACT AREA X

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0 D. Market Demand In analyzing the development potential at the six selected station sites, a methodology has been utilized that combines both qualitative and quantitative techniques. In utilizing this method, the same basic variables that influence investor development decisions at any potenti al location h ave been emphasized. A key assumption underlying this entire is thnt. the six stations will be built and operational during the 19801983 period and that the entire core system will be completed and operational by 1985. This includes the provision for an expanded bus operation to support the core fixed guide way system. 1. Overview of Methodology An assessment of the Dade County land use demand growth through 1985 were pro jected. Having identified the key var iables affecting deve l opment at a specific station location, interv1ews with local developers, bus i nessmen and puo11c officials and review of appropriate planning documents provided the base for ranking each station' s development po tential by land use type. This formed the basis for the 1985 land use demand projections. 2. Review of Methodology The following review of the methodology is organized into six major headings. These are: o Major land uses o Regional demand o Regional impact of the transit system o Key variables affecting development o Assumptions regarding transit impact for each land use o 1985 projections by land use type The methodology itself is the product of reviewing the station planning processes for several m a jor transit systems throughout the United States and Canada. The impact of transi t s tation locations and particular growth trends at the six prototype stations is the result of interviewing over three dozen local individuals in addition to several score interviews in other portions of the United States for similar projects. X!.-\O'o

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Major Land Uses. The major land uses evaluated in this were: o Hotel/Motel-overnight lodging facilities of at least 50 units o Residential-all types and tenures o Retail-both the neighborhood and the regional level were included fn the analysis o Office-primary focus was on first class space Industrial-primary focus was on light manufac-turing and distribution facilities o Public rnstitutional-primary emphasis was on public oriented office space. Other pub lic uses such as schools and safety in stallations were located on the basis of current Regional Demand. The intensity and type of land use demand at a particular station is the interactive product of a constellation of regional and site specific factors. One of the key regional factors is the general economic health of the region. The land use demand at a particular station is bounded by the total market demand for the region. The total demand for a particular land use at the regional scale is the product of a number of major economic factors including the growth of population, em ployment, and income, the function of Dade County in the southeastern U.S. economy and within the national econo-my and the function of Dade County in the economy of latin America. The first step involves a projection of land use demands for Dade County. Within this established general para meter the projections of demand at each station will be accomplished. Regional Imeact of the Transit System. The development of the transit system will most likely not generate addi tional demand for any particular type of land use in a regionally significant way. However, the transit sys-tem will, like any access system, alter the regional distribution of particular land uses. The transit sys tem will most likely have the impact of shifting demand into the transit corridors. The degree of shift will be roughly proportional to the degree that a particular land use is attracted by the transit system. As will be reviewed in a later section some types of land use are differentially impacted by the transit system. x :

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. 1 1 For the presence of a transit station in an urban system will not be a major attractor of a regional retail facility where there is little available land. However, the basic increase in accessibility which the transit system provides is relatively attractive for potential office space development because of the increased ease with which employees can reach the location. In summary, the major regional impact will be to increase the accessibility of the corridors which will create some shift in the location of future land The extent of the shift is largely dependent upon other regional and specific economic factors. Key Variables Affecting Development. The approach used in determining the relative attractiveness of each station site for each land use involved the identification of some key variables which affect development. The basis for increased developer interest in a transit station location is that the transit system generally increases three desirable economic characteristics. Accessibility. The regional accessibility of those areas within walking distance of the transit station is greatly increased. This type of effect is commonly seen in suburban areas when a major limited access highway is extended into a previously underdeveloped area. Since the accessibility provided by transit is slightly different from a highway extension, we can expect a different market attraction. Whereas a new highway would generally attract low density automobile oriented residential development, a new transit station attracts walking oriented high density uses. Increased accessibility should be a positive factor in increasing the attractiveness of such areas for high density residential, office development and to a more limited extent major retail development. Area Identification. The development of a transit station in a specific location increases the regional identification of that location and thereby potentially increases its marketability to a regional market. This is considered a positive factor for most real estate uses. An excellent recent example of the impact of area identification is Dadeland. The name of the shopping facility has become a shorthand name for the entire area .

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Transit Concentration of Buying Power. The existence of a transit station means that a large number of people will be forced to move through a limited area on a daily basis. The high visibility created can be a positive factor for retail operations located directly along the pedestrian route to the station. The development of a transit facility does improve the desirability of sites in the station area. However, there are a number of non-transit related factors which are of at least equal importance in affecting the development potential of a station area. Land Availability. Development potential in a station area is substantially affected by land availability considerations. For example, private development activity is likely to be constrained if ownership of land in the station area is highly fragmented. In addition, private development is likely to be inhibited when the costs of land acquisition and site preparation, which may involve the costs of demolition, preclude profitable development. Concentration of Buying Power. The size and relative affluence of the local population and the concentration of employees represent the strength of the economic base of the local community. ProTected Development. Land use decisions are heavily 1nf uenced py the immediate trends in land use and the near term likely changes in land use. Prospective developments in the station influence area nave a significant impact on future development. Developments which are likely to occur within a short period of time may adversely impact or greatly support prospective new development. For instance, if the development of a hotel is planned and during the planning process it is learned that another strongly competitive hotel is ready to begin construction and the general hotel demand is weak, then the development plans may be changed. Competing/Existing Development: Land use development occurs within the framework of ex1st1ng land uses. These existing uses are varied in their influence on future land use developments. For instance, if an area is predominantly deter1orated homes with poor access it is unlikely that a first class hotel would be an attractive development regardless of the price of the land. x :

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-12 There are many factors which enter into land use decision making. The introduction of a transit system into a region does not change the factors necessary for a successful development. It does provide for improved accessibility, area identification and a concentration of buying power. The positive influence of transit is seldom sufficient in and of itself to assure that development will occur. In order to provide a systematic approach to evaluating each station the factors discussed above were utilized fn establishing nine key variables against which assessment of station locations can be made. This is referred to as the "attractiveness index." The concentration of power was disaggregated into its constituent components of population density, income and employment. The nine variables used are: o regional accessibility o local accessibility o population density o income o employment o available land o area identification o projected development o competing/existing development Assumptions Regarding Transit Impact for Each Land Use: Each of the nine attractiveness index factors have a differ ential impact in the investment decision process for each particular land use type. Each of these land use types and the attractiveness index factors have been distributed on a hundred point basis indicating the relative impor-tance of the factors for that land use type. These are summarized on Table 1 and dfscussed fn the fo11owfng paragraphs. Hotel. The locational decisions for a hotel are sharply influenced by the regional location of the hotel. The axiom is that the three primary criteria for a hotel site are location, location and location. In this case the regional accessibility (25 pointsl, area indentifcation and employment concen1:rat1un account for 60% of tne we1qht. 1ne introduction ot the transit system is not of major importance to hotel locational decision making. The increase in access is largely to the benefit of the low paid employees. The hotel patrons themselves for the most part arrive by auto.

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Residential. The location of a residential development is influenced by the attractiveness and ease of access to the location to the potential tenants purchasers. Therefore the regional accessibility and area identification are very critical to the lo cational decision. These account for 43% of the total weight. For instance an area which is developed as an attractive single family area with an upper end orientation will loon create higher land values. Frequently the result is for increasingly higher den sity developments in the forms of townhouses or high rise units. The impact of an urban transit system is to support the increase in land value near the station location and thus. encourage the, development of higher density residential development. Low den sity residential developments are not to transit station locations primarily because the con sumers of low density units are seeking in part to be separated from intense activity and therefore prefer a moderate degree of inaccessibility. In addition, the cost and availability of the large tract of land necessary for low density developments are not likely to be found within moderately urbanized areas of the majority of the station locations. Retail. Two major components of retail will amined. The first major component is the regional shopping facility. The second component is the more neighborhood oriented shopping area frequently referred _to as convenience or support reta11. Most of the proposed stations and all six of the prototypical stations are located in urban areas which generally lack the extensive space (50 to 100 acres of vacant land) required for a regional shopping facility. Therefore the focus of this report will be on support retail facilities. These facilities can range from the small cigar store of 1,000 square feet immediately adjacent to the station up to a major grocery anchored neighborhood shopping facility of 10 to 25 acres. The location of retail facilities is heavily dependent upon the accessibility of the facility for the target population. The density and income of the target population is also very important. The transit. station provides a node for high density pedestrian traffic during particular hours of the day. This will generate a certain amount of retail demand. The amount of demand generated by the direct influence of the s t a t 1 o n • c a n be me a s u r e d i n the f o 11 ow i n g m a n n e r •

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14 When the projected pedestrian traffic resulting from the transit stations equals the projected pedestrian traffic without the transit station, the extent of incremental pedestrian traffic will have been delimited. This might be described graphically in the following manner. /' Incremental /. Pedestrian 1ransit Level Increase I / Traffic Normal Level / a b Distance from Station in Units As the distance from the station increases the a-mount of incremental pedestrian traffic decreases and thus the extent of the retail impact. It has been assumed that the major transit related retail impact will be in very close proximity to the transit station. Office. The location of office space is largely based on the factors of regional accessibility and area identification. Office space seeks out prestige areas which will reflect on the firms located therein. Office space also tends to cluster at selected points throughout a region. These are high access areas which if supported by the transit are reinforced as desirable office locations. Office space is the land use type most attracted to transit station locations because of the intensity of employees per unit of floor area. In both the Toronto and San Francisco rapid transit systems related development, the major incentives and major impacts have been in the office space land use type. However, in both cases additional incentives were utilized to further increase the attractiveness of the station locations as foci for office space development. Industrial. Industrial location is normally dominated by two major considerations. The first is the regional accessibility of the location . In particular, truck and rail accessibility are impor-

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tant. The second consideration is the availability of vacant land at reasonable prices. It is therefore typical and common to find industrial concentrations in areas located near major expressways at the urban fringe of the market or in specially zoned districts 1n the core. Industrial use generally demands extensive use of lower priced land. The availability of a labor force is also important. Most newly de veloped industrial development is not sufficiently benefited by a rapid transit system to be attracted to locate near a rapid transit station at an land cost. Public Institutional. Public institutional uses are widely varied in nature, ranging from law enforcement detention centers to office space. In this instance the focus and the factor weighting is for public institutional office space. While educational and li brary factlities are important public institutional uses, their locational characteristics differ. The public is likely to locate major office concentrations by taking into consideration the regional accessibility of the location for the convenience of employees and citizens. The image of the area is frequently an important consideration. Public institutional office space tends to become grouped into major centers such as the government center. While libraries, schools and other local service public institutional uses tend to cluster near population. densities and within the zones of service which are frequently administratively defined. For these uses. a primary issue is the availabilityof land within a locally accessible neighborhood. Each variable's relative weight for each land use type was estimated. These assessments have been guided by over two dozen interviews with local developers and public offi cials. The characteristics of each station area were tho roughly 1985 ProJections By Land Use Based on the assessment ,of each statlon a oroaaer evatUdtion of the regional role of the area in which the station is located the demand for each land use type projected in two forms. .. ---Y : ... ' f ,

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5 The first form is the amount of growth and development which would have occured for a particular land use with out the transit system. The second form is the incre mental land use change as a result of the location of the transit station. A factor in the projected development of land use changes in each of the areas is also dependent upon the exten siveness of the disruption to current land uses by the acquisition of right of way throughout the corridor. Therefore these estimates are in addition to the cur rently existing development. The extensiveness of the disruption by the right of way will be estimated during the ... final &rrban design phase of this The resulting projections of use demand for each .of the six prototypical stations is outlined on a sta tion by station basis following a discussion of regional demand. E. Inventory of Existing Conditions The inventory process is a procedure by which the establishment of a data base becomes a resource from which to arrive at decisions regarding future work efforts. Consequently, the level of detail regarding the inventory of existing conditions will affect the quality of future analysis work efforts. The key areas of investigation for this work envolve the identification of existing land use and zoning patterns, and the identification of accessibility and movement patterns. 1. Existing Land Use Patterns rhis defines general patterns of development existing and with a cognizance of significant features concerning land use and zoning concentrations which may influence the type or intensity of development activity. Specific elements to inventory include; Land Use Designations and Locations. A review and identification of existing patterns and how they might be issues or potentials with regard to reclassification or compatibility, if changed; Land Use Concentrations and their significance regarding i ssues of redevelopment or preservation; . .

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Land Ownership and Land Values, which a socioeconomic basis of judgement regarding community lifestyles and market demands; Vacant Land, in order to define spaces available as potential target areas of redevelopment based on the level of fragmentation or depletion of existing inventories in proxi mity to the transit Lot Sizes and their geometric characteristics with regard to any problems or potentials for aggregation in the achievement of large land areas for potential redevelopment or improvements; Recent Construction and its nature of ultimate density and massing with regard to how it may affect future planning and urban design decisions, as well as a means of judging the development potential of a number of geographic areas; Community Facilities and their locations and features a as public influence generators of activity, and the review of it; Zoning Patterns, and their predominating categories to establ judgements on growth potential or saturation. 2. Accessibility and Movement Patterns The inventory and review of existing transportation considerations within the approximate transit station influence zone, as well as expected demands generated during the design year (1985}, are necessary elements which affect ultimate land use or urban design recommendations. The scope of work accomplished in regard to this task is not intended to be a complete access evaluation pertaining to a specific transit station. However, in Task D-8 of the Transit Improvement Program, such full scale studies are going to give more detailed aspects of particular access problems and potentials. Procedures utilized in the preparation of this inventory work are patterned after techniques outlined previously in "Guidelines for Station Access Planning" for Task D-8. The following topics are discussed in the transportation evaluation of existing facilities within the station primary influence zone: Street Network. Highway facilities in the influence zone area, -their usage, special controls, and capabilities for efficient movement of people and goods. (Source: Field Inventories.)

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-16 Traffic and Pedestrian Volumes. Delineation of daily and peak-hour volumes of highways as well as pedestrian flows at key locations. (Source: Dade County Department of Traffic and Transportation.) Levels. Identification of key capacity in the impact area highway network and appropriate volume to capacity levels. (Source: Field inventories, as well as Dade County Department of Traffic and Transportation.) Delineation of available parking in the impact area. (Source: Inventories.) Public Transit. Evaluation of transit routes serving the impact area, the!i r schedules, headways, and rfdershfp. "Inventory and Analysis of Existing Transportation Fac1l1t1es, Dade County, Florida Task E-1-7" Wilbur Smith and Associates, 1974. ' Discussions of 1985 transportation characteristics in the influence zone area include: HighwaS Improvements. Scheduled improvements under availa le plans to 1980. (Source: "Construction Plan, July 1, 1973 through June 30, 1978", State of Florida Department of. Transportation, as well as Arterial and Secondary Road Improvement Program (Decade of Progress and State Secondary Road Program) "Milestone 5 Report Route Alignment and Station Kaiser Engineers.) Rapid Transit Passenger Demands. Evaluat{on of expected boarding and alighting passenger volumes at the station as well as estimated modes of access. (Source: estimates under D-2 Tasks developed for 723 zone study area, 60 station core rapid transit system (daily mean patronage values). Traffic Volumes. Expected 1985 traffic demands w1tnout the transit station as well as expected generatfon tion due to the station, itself. (Source: Judgmental application of past trends data coupled with Florida Department of Transportation traffic assignments for 1985 conditions.)

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F. Analysis of Opportunities and Constraints A major consequence of the inventory process is to gain a data . base from which to arrive at initial urban design statements for identified redevelopment or preservation areas. Additional inventories, more comprehensive in nature, will be required to realize an accurate feasibility and analysts picture before final implementation of any proposals is undertaken. The short-range planning context, defined by the year 1985, was established as the basts of judgment regarding the analysts work. This , analysis work essentially defines two items; Community characteristics;and desisn resources and limitations. The judgments made regardlng the nature of this effort is both a .site observation process and an assessment of existing written documentation. 1. Community Characteristics lhis defines broad areas based on their propensity for change by 1985. These identify "hard" and "soft" zones in relation to development or preservation potential. A checklist of elements to investigate include the following: Area in Transition. An identified area which contains land use and development characteristics that are changing or where or a of different land uses exists. Protection Areas. An area conducive to or suggest;ng by v;sual observation very little change in status in order to "protect" or preserve existing amenity features. Areas of Opportunity. Identified site.specific areas of primary significance for redevelopment within the station influence zone. Stable Areas. Identified areas which are resistant to change in the short-range planning context up to 1985. Open Space or Vacant Land. Recreational or non developed spatial areas that influence design decisions. Areas Subject to Redevelopment Pressures. Identified areas conducive to redevelopment influences

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17 but which may resist such changes in the shortterm planning context of 1985. Homogeneous Area. An area of sameness either in terms of building structures, landscaping, type of development or general character of maintenance, which is not disrupted by heavily used streets or major thoroughfares. Mixed Land Uses. An area characterized by many differing land uses in close proxmity to each other. -. It i's imp01"tant to note that judgments must be made concern-ing the distinguishing characteristics between areas which have a potential for preservation orprotection, and areas which are inherently "protected" because they are considered resistant to change by 1985. Statements regarding the quality, quantity, arid type of existing development should be made with regards to establishing general community characteristics • . 2. Design Resources and Limitations These elements are essentially site observation defining specific man-made or natural elements of the broadly identified areas described under the community character analysis. The of significant. elements of the environment which influence land use recommendations or which affect urban design can be investigated at two levels of detail. One level of detail covers a broad geographical study are_ a boundary and is primarily relate. d to land use decisions. The other covers a site-specific geographical boundary study area essentially .defined by the primary influence zone of the transit station and relates to immediate urban design decisions about achitecture. The . level of detail explored in this data presentation report covers a broad geographical study area and identifies elements at that scale so they might relate to site specific considerations for urban design decisions. Specific elements that ought to be considered include the identification of following: Places of Congestion. Points of conflict and confrontation between vehicular and -pedestrian movement patterns or vehicular movement patterns themselves. Major Movement Corridor. A primary access area heavily used by vehicular and/or pedestrian traffic.

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, . .. ! I ,., Proposed Communitl Improvement Area. Areas which have plans 1nit1a ly presented or approved for intensive or moderate localized improvements. These improvements may take .the form .of recreation parks,. open space buffer.s, or actual large-scale renewaL. ,. Bui,t Edge. An identified area framed by a building facade or a combination of structural facades which present a visual blockage of views at grade level. Phlsical Barrier. A natural or man-made feature wh. ch .influences and/or development . ures . . Views.' .Signifi.cant visual exposure angles . . or of An egress serves as a basis of initial visual impact for the identification of specific community identity areas by the pedestrian and/or vehicular traveler. Gateways existing elements are site specjfic. }. I o , • • • A featu.r. e , wh.i ch attention .of the pedes-trian • ' • I • . . t : . . . . ;. . . . ; ""\ .. . . .. . . , Significant .. Area I:nflu encing Design Decisions. An identified.dfstrict or community area which has unique features that affect design

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G. Development of Recommended land Use and Urban Design Concepts The concepts that are deveJoped for the transit station areas are dependent upon several major inputs from previous portions of the total area planning task. As a first step, . series of basic conclusions-are necessarilj drawn from the inventories and analyses of market demand forces, land use patterns and zoning,. patterns, physical and design resources. These conclusions help to provide basic insights 1ntb the development types and relationships that can and should be accomodated within the framework of existing conditions and the preceived role of the station in relation to the metropolitan development pattern. The conclusions are presented in the form of $trategy goals. They are often more complex statements than simple goals should be, but they are intended to represent the basic.guidelines used in structuring the concepts. A second major element is the broad guidance-offered by the developmen _ t and land use pol;cies presented in Milestone 3. These policies are intended to have selective application to various stations as appropriate. Along with these policy statements, a series of urban design princ1ples concerning massing of development, design treatments, etc., have also been utilized in translating the land use concepts into a rendered design plan. The ot goals_ and the land use policies to the influence zone of each station has produced a series of development plans. Two such plans _ need to-be developed, representing both the ultimate development pattern that should be pursued, as well as an illustration of the potential short-term pattern for 1985. The ultimate development plan is intended as ' a 11horizon year11 concept that is not tied to a specific calendar year. Rather, it provides an idea of the development pattern in the future, based on the overall goals mentioned above, but not constrained by near-term market demand trends or land uses. -rile market demand analyses have offered a general direction of growth potential, and this 18 has been amplified'into the future. The 1985 concept does reflect these market demand and existing land use constraints as appropriate, and is thus a relatively realistic look at what could happen by this target year. The illustrated urban design concepts represent a rendering of the type of development character that is desired, and the general types of design treatments necessary to acheive this character and accent the proposed uses.

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XII. PROTOTYPICAL STATION INVESTIGATIONS ! to the Six Prototypes The six specific station locations examined in this section are intended to offer an opportunity to apply the planning approach formalized in the preceding section, and to determine the issues that would be raised by a "typical" series of selected station locations from the . proposed alignment. While certain guiding principles (such as the Development and Land Use Policies presented in Milestone 3) .are to be. followed in developing solutions for the selected sites, this "prototype" Planning process is not intended to derive a set of station solutions that applied throughout the system. While the selected sites represent a series of typical situations from the proposed system . the Draft Milestone Report responds to a given set of circumstances that are They cannot, and should not, serve as design solutions for other than the specified location. Indeed, the process illustrated in the preceding section is oriented to defining and understanding the specific opportunities and constraints that are unique to each site; therefore, to view the six station plans as solutions to be applied elsewhere would subrogate this process. The selection of the six study sites was intended to identify a variety of existing and proposed development situations. The categories originally.considered included: High Density Urban Commercial, High Density Residential/Tourist, Suburban Residential, Employment/Activity Center, High Density Inner City Residential, and Open Space/Park. Through a series of discussions with both Metropolitan Dade County Planning Dept ment and others, classifications were revised to a less rigid set of site circumstances that are still typical of the range of development opportunities and constraints that are present in other stations along the proposed system.It should be noted that although they are considered to be "typical" station situations, the selected locations exhibit both shared or "typical", as well as "atypical" characteristics. The station sites were selected from a list of 24 potential situations, based on their existing use, the proposed character of the area in current plans, the special problems that may be illustrated by the area, and operational considerations of the transit system. The recommendations from the consultants for the six selected sites were reviewed and approved by the Office of the Transportation Coordinator.

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-1 The sites that were selected, and the basic characteristics that influenced their selection, are as follows: . , ' . . .. . . Urban activity center, nd-line termifial station, Heavy bus/auto intercept station, -Medium.to high density residential and tourist area, Elderly population. N • . W. 27th Avenu e and 62nd Street. This site is another station . tn a : minority community that has higher than average transit rates. In contrast to the higher commercial activity and medium density residential character of the Latin community site, thts area is low density, with only neighborhood s-ervlce comm. er'ci a 1. This a rea • s basic characteristics may be as ._ Low .to medium dens tty •inner ci ty• areas, High transit minority areas, ; Redevelopment areas. •:_ . ' ..... : S.W. Street and 16th Avenue. This Latin Community site is one of the two minority community stations chosen in transit dependent areas. Local service linear commercial with medium density residential uses comprise this "inner city• location. The area's major characteristics may be summarized as follows: -Medium density, "inner city• residential area, High transit dependent, minority area, Major commercial concentrations. Douglas Road and S. W. 22 nd. Street. This station is a service to a sub-metropolitan activity center, i.e.,. Coral Gables CBD. This station situation, and the sensitive urgan design treatments necessary, oresents constraints that will be found in other sensitive commercial and residential areas along the proposed routes. The major characteristics of this station area may be summarized as follows: Community CBD area -Sensitive urban design area -Medium and low density residential mix X'll-t \J

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. j DADE COUNTY -. -:; GOLDEN GLADES EXPWY. o. . u .s. 41 -N . KENDALL DR. . S . W . 184th ST. S . W . 58th ST. w 0 .... tu N . W . 36th ST. MIAMI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT CORAL WAY BISCAYNE BAY ATLANTIC OCEAN FIG. XB1 SELECTED STATION SITES 1. Miami Beach Convention Center 2. N.W. 27th Avenue and 62nd Street 3. S.W. 1st Street and 16th Avenue 4. Douglas Road and S.W. 22nd Street 5. Dadeland • 6. Downtown Government Center • Station Locations Fixed Guideway Alignment

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1-2 Dadeland • (South Dixie Highway/FEC railroad corridor, south of North Kendall Drive) This site represents a regional activity center in a suburban context. In operational terms, it is a feeder bus and auto intercept station that has a com panion station to the north of Kendall Drive. This station area's major characteristics may be summarized as follows: Regional scale commercial activity center Suburban development situation Major freeway access area -Heavy feeder bus/auto intercept station Strip commercial development situation Downtown Bovernment Center • One of two stations which exhibit urban activity center characteristics (along wtth the Miami Beach Convention Center Station), this station is adjacent to (or partially within) the proposed downtown com plex. This area, due to its present character and the requisite physical reshaping of the area for the complex, may be prin ciple redevelopment spur for the western and northwestern edge of the central business district. Its major characteristics may be summarized as follows: Urban employment and activity center -High density commercial business area -Main system transfer terminal, including busway interface Area prime for redevelopment -Pedestrian orientation As can be seen from the above descriptions, the situations represented by the selected sites include: ' -Low, medium, and medium high density residential areas -Metropolitar., sub-metropolitan and neighborhood activity centers Major'employment concentrations End line terminal and on line stations, and the main transfer station -Pedestrian oriented as well as bus/auto oriented stations -Minority/ethnic community areas -Preservation and redevelopment areas The characteristics are representative of a full range of conditions likely to be found along the proposed routes. In this regard, the six are proto-typical. Figure XI-1 illustrates the selected sites on the recommended alignment and station configuration from Draft Milestone 5.

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B. The Scope of Analysis This draft report concerns itself with the inventory of conditions in the area surrounding each of the selected s1tes, an estimation of the potential development demand in the area, and a discussion of the development concept pl!ns as solutions for the six station area. Items of 1nvest1gat1on are in the following format: -A brief description of tbe station location in operational terms, as well as the role that the station plays in the system-wide development pattern; -A description of the impact zorl'e and ar(y relevant site specific elements that affected its formation; -A discussion of market demand factors and potentials that determine the development impacts that are likely to occur naturally, and as a result of the transit station; -A discussion of existing land use and zoning patterns surrounding each stat1on locatTOn,IWfth consideration of such concerns as socio-economic factors, lot sizes, vacant land, recent construction. , residential patterns, and community facilities; -A discussion of community or physical character as determined byibuild1ng styles, cohesiveness, 1mage, maintenance, and the nature of broad areas defined in relation to redevelopment or preservation issues; -A discussion of design resources and limitations concerning site specific elements for-Qeveloping appropriate urban design responses to existing features; -A discussion of accessibility and movement patterns defining traffic and circulation issues, future demands, etc., within the approximate location of the primary influence zone of the station site; and -A brief description of the land use and urban design concepts developed for the stations, including the rationale of both land use relationships and the urban design treatments useQ, when appropriate. .. .... .. .. X1r -'3 ....

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-3 C. Regional Overview Prior to these station-specific reviews, a brief overview of regional considerations is in order. Included below are discussions of regional development patternsand market demand forces, and how they relate to site-specific station analyses to follow. 1. Development Patterns A major influence on the development that can and should occur at transit station areas will be the existing and proposed de veloement scheme for the Metropolitan area as a whole. As ment1oned the section, the of station development to Metropolitan growth is a two-way process. That is, the cummulative development decisions made at the local station level affect the overall growth pattern; but more signficant for the station area planning process, the proposed framework represented in the 1985 Comprehensive Development Master Plan should assist in the planning of the development role the station areas should play. The characteristic growth pattern in Dade County in recent decades has been similar to most urban areas: decentralization. Just in the ten years from 1960 to 1970, the urban land area increased by 41S, as compared to a 36S increase in population. The suburban development that produced such land increases has precipitated several harmful effects on the ubran pattern, including the rapid consumption of available land resources, encroachment on environmentally sensitive areas, and a of a unified or organized function of the urban development pattern. In an effort to re-establish an orderly urban framework, the proposed 1985 plan has proposed the strengthening of major ing activity centers, and the formation or upgrading . of several others. Higher intensity development, both residential and commercial/office in nature, is encouraged near these centers in order to strengthen their image as a center of development activity, as well as a means of optimizing public services and facilities and curbing urban sprawl. This proposed urban development framework, particularly the activity centers, has implications on transit station area de velopment. Where the proposed station locations are to become a major focal point of an activity center, there is a develop ment posture that the station area must assume if it is to properly reinforce the planned develo2ment scheme. The identified activity centers are designated by regional, metropolitan, or sub-metropolitan function. type its implications )('JL-3 . -\,.

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for station . . Even stations that are in areas not designated as activity centers may serve local neighborhood activity center functions. Such roles need to be identified as well. 2. Regional Demand This part of the report briefly reviews the major factors underlying the growth of Dade County. It provides an.esti mate of the projected future demand for the major land use categories as a framework for the six station site projec tions. Pooulation. One of the most all underlying future growth is the population. Dade County has been a rapidly expanding area for nearly 25 years. In 1950 County had just under half a million residents. 1970 it had nearly 1.3 million res1dents. The estimated 1973 population of represents a 46% increase since 1960 for an average annual growth rate of 3.5%. The projected 1985 population is 1,740,000 which represents an average annual growth rate of 2.5% since 1970. While the population growth rate has slowed, in terms of comparison with the OBERS projected national annual growth rate of 1.5% between 1970 and 1985 the Miami region is still one of the fastest growing areas in the nation. In addition to the growth of the general population, an analysis of the 1970 census figures reveals that the vast majority of the growth during the 1960s occured in the population 18-64. These figures vary from the national average primarily reflecting the importance of Dade County as a re tirement center. The 1970 population was estimated to be 61% white while 15% were Black and 24% were Spanish. The large Spanish speaking population reflects the impact of the the Cuban refugees on Dade County. In 1969 the mean house hold income of Dade County was $9,310. The median family income was $9,245 which was only slightly below the 1969 median family income level of By 1990 the OBERS projection is that Dade County's per capita income will be approximately 20% higher than the national average. This reflects the long term growth potential of Dade County. Economic Base. The Dade County is service oriented. The largest single employment group is "services" with nearly 150,000 employees of the 520,000 in 1970. In addition this group had the largest numerical increase between 1960 and 1970. It is also one of the fastest growing industry groups.

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-4 Much of th1s is attributable to Dade County;s internationally known climate, beauty and beaches which attract thousands of tourists annually. Tab.le XII-1 shows employment by type of industry fn both 1960 and 1970. As of the 1970 census 42 percent of the employed persons in Dade County were in occupations assoc1ated with office use. The number of clerical employees doubled from 54,000 in 1960 and 102,000 in 1970. Table XII-2 shows the type of occupations held by people in Dade County in both 1960 and 1970. One the employment sectors which is growing in a manner fs1nanufacturing. In the long run this is a most im portant economic factor. Dade County is subject to the na tional economic cycle. So that during periods of downturn such as the current period, tourism falls off and the local Dade County economy likewise suffers. Depending upon how the statistics are analyzed, Dade County is either the second or third largest garment industry center in the country. There are approximately 600 manufacturers employing an estimated 18,000 persons in this industry alone. There is virtually no heavy industry in Dade County. There fs however an increasing concentration of_lfght clean indus tries such as electronics. ootics. instruments, plastics and food processing. TablesXII-3, XII-4 and XII-5 outline thJs manufacturing base • . ' Financial Center. While Dade County is not typically thought of as a financial center it is rapidly gaining importance as such. This availabfl.ity of money has helped to fuel the rapid economic development which bas occurred in the last 15 years. Indications of the qroJLth of Dade as a financial center are seen in the growth of demand deposits. Table XII-6.displays . comparative data. Residential Market. In 1970 the 1,268,000 persons of Dade County resided in 450,000 dwelling units. Of these 56% were single-family homes. During the past the population growth of Dade County has fueled a considerable boom in the residential construction market. From 1968 to 1972 an average of 30,000 dwelling units were authorized by building permits to be built.

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TABLE XI I-1 Employment by Industry in the Miami Metropo 1 i tan Area, 1960 and 1970 Employment* Industry Agriculture, Forestry & Fisher . ies Mining Contract Construction Manufacturing Transportation, Communications and Utilities Wholesale and Retail Trade Finance, Insurance & Real Estate Services Public Administration Other Industries, combined Total *Employed labor force 14 years old and over 1960 8,737 452 24,297 41,623 38,771 . 79,841 22,268 96,755 15,865 : 40,225 368,382 Source: U.S. Census of Population, 1960 and 1970 1970 7,822 550 32,422 71,133 52,464 113,610 31,882 148,368 20,995 40,895 520,141

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TABLE XI I -2 Employment by Occupational Categories Miami Metropolitan Area 1960 1970 Occupational Category 1960 1970 .. . • Tech. a Kind. 39,225 68,665 Mgr. Offs. & Propr. 41,841 46,785 Clerical & Kind. 53,923 102,015 Sales Work 33,029 44,810 Craftsmen 46,977 69,745 Operatives 40,447 53,778. Priv. House Wks. 14,895 11,985 ' . Serv. Wkrs. 42,3 _72 67,770 Laborers 19,050 24,597 Transport equip. opt. 18,209. Farmers & farm mag.* 1,116 Farm Laborers 3,688 Occ. not rep. 28,338 .TOTAL** 360,097 513,164 1970 Percent 13.38 9.12 19.88 8.73 13.59 10.48 2.34 13.21 4.79 3.55 .22 .72 100.00 * ** Farm managers were included in managerial category in 1960 Employed labor force 16 years old and over Source: Census of Population, 1960 and 1970.

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TABLE XII-3 Manufacturing Employment in Dade County, 1963 -1972 Percentage Year Employment Change 1963 47,600 1964 50,100 +5.2% 1965 54,600 +8.9 1966 59,500 +8.9 1967 65,700 +10.4 1968 71,400 +8.6 1969 76,600 +7.2 197j) 75,700 -1.1 1971 76,300 +0.7 1972 83,400 +9.3 10 year increase +75.2% Source: Dade County, Finance Department

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TABLE XI I-4 Manufacturing Plants in Dade County, 1963 -1972 Percentage Year Plants Chang,e 1963 2,748 1964 2,794 +1.6% 1965 2,863 +2.4 1966 2,927 +2.2 1967 3,005 +2.6 1968 3,098 +3.0 1969 3,216 +3.8 1970 3,350 +4.1 1971 3,508 +4.7 1972 3,686 10 year increase +34.1% Source: Dade County, Finance Department

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TABLE XI I-5 Value Added by Manufacturing in Dade Countv, 1963 -1972 Year Value 1963 " $ 363,100,000 1964 388,000,000 1965 466,400,000 '1966 521,200,000 1967 589,400,000 .968 711,000,000 1969 833,800,000 . -1970 830,100,000 1971 963,800,000 1972 1,059,000,000 10 year increase Source: Dade County, Finance Department Percentage Change + 6.8 +20.2 +11.7 +13.0 +20.6 +17.2 0.4 +16.1. + 9.8 +191.6%

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BostOn Washington, D.C. Houston . Dallas . Pittsburgh Cleveland St • . LouiS . Miami TABLE X I I Demand Deposits-Held Banks fn Major United States Cities 1965 .:1972 . (000) (000) $2,906, lOS $3,990,879 " 1,935,755 3,346,539 1,868,455 3,226,938 1 ,576,108 2,940,315 2,06 , 9,457 2,866,169 1,795,788 2,487,251 1,8Z2,261 2,471,008 865,815 2,322,242 Source: Federal Reserve Bank Increase 361 73 72 87 42 38 36 168

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During 1973 the pace was even more rapid, until by mid-1974 industry experts were that there were approximately 35,000 dwelling units in Dade County that were vacant and on the market. The most prominent being the high rise condominium of which approximately 30% are currently estimated to be in default. While the market place may be in an overbuilt situation presently, there will be a continuing demand through the 1975-1985 decade for an increased number of dwelling units of all types to meet the growing population. It is reasonable to project that by 1985 there will be an increase of approxi mately 21% in the number of dwelling units in Dade County. As much as 70% of them will be clustered in multi-family units which are more suited for location at transit stations than single family homes. Retail Space. In 1972 there was estimated to have been '3.2 billion dollars in retail sales in Dade County. This supported an estimated 25 million square feet of retail space in major retail concentrations and perhaps as much as 20 million more square feet along strip commerical and less dense retail areas. The current estimates of retail demand indicate a total demand of approximately 55 to 60 million square feet of shopping facilities by 1985. This represents an increase of approxi mately 33% during the next few years. Currently the market suffers from the national economic downturn which has affected retail sales nattonally, and the recent surge of shop ping malls and centers. The 10 year outlook is for continued growth of integrated shopping areas focused on major markets at major points of accessiblitiy. Office Space. The offiie market in Dade County has recently a large increase in the total amount of space with the addition of the 40 story One Biscayne Tower and the 32 story First Federal Building in Downtown. Thus, for the most of 1975 the market will be in an overbuilt situation. The addition of nearly 1.05 million square feet in these two buildings results in an approximate total of 11.5 million square feet of office space fn 1974 compared with approximately 7.3 million square feet of office space in 1970. Industry economists. conservatively predict that by 1980 an additional 1.5 million square teet w111 be added and that by 1985 it appears likely that Dade County will have approximately 16 million square feet of office space. During 1960-1970, Dade County absorbed about 400,000 square feet annually. There are two important trends under way. One is that Dade County is gaining an increasing reputation as the entry spot into the Latin American market. Many major U.S. firms and • Xll-9"

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8 some internatinoal firms have located offices in the Miam1 area. Recent locations included Dow" Chemical, 3M. Alcoa InterAmerica and seven of the "Edge Act" banks including Bank of America and Chase Manhattan. Secondly as in many areas a . large numberof new office developments are located in subur-ban areas. Industrial Development. Dade County is heavily oriented toward governmental and service industry type occupations and emp)oyment. Among the top 28 employers in the County, only two are manufacturing firms. Both and manufacturing have been growing. By 1985 it is likely that manufacturing will represent the same. share of the curre . . nt employment that it currently The-increase in use demand for manufacturing industrial space has been conce _ntrated in a number of i ndus-trial parks generally located on the perimeter freeway net-work. The majority of the industrial development in the man ufacturing sector 1n the next decade will be located primarily. 1n these industrial parks and the surrounding industrial areas. Hotel County fs a servfce or1ented area, W1thnoteTs being one of the primary services provided. The County is a major national tourist attraction. Recently Dade County's appeal to the. international tourist has increased. In 1973 there were 976 hotels and motels with 66,943 rooms, according to the Dade County Tax Assessor's Office. During the next ten years there will be some major additions to the hotel market place in Dade County, but the major action will be tne removal of many current-rooms from the market. The outlook 1s for in creasing competition from Broward and Palm Counties and the Carribean Islands. Therefore wTthin the broad framework of the strong tourist economy in Dade County we view the the next ten years as being a period of hotel/motel consolidation. Open Space. In 1970 there were approximately 13,000 acres of parks devoted to recreation use in Dade County not including the Everglades National Park and the large water conservation areas. The Oade County Department of Planning estimates that there will be a continuing deficiency in park land in the developed sections of the County. The estimates are that by 1985 the County will need over 3,700 acres of additional neigh borhood and community parks in Dade County. Public Institutional. For these purposes of analysis we are considering the demand for additional office space for County and city employees. To a large extent this is a function of the growth in the governments of Dade County which is partially dependent upon the populatipn growth and economic conditions. Most of has been planned for in . the Government Center and the outlying activity centers.

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D. Socio-Economic Summa. ry Tab 1 e X II 7, on the pre c e d i n g page , p r e s en t s a s e r i e s of s o c i a 1 , economic and physical characteristics of the six proto-type station vicinities that follow. This summary table is intended to highlight certain key characteristics that may have particular value in the specific site analyses. Again, this table displays the variety of development poten tials and demographic conditions included in the six sites chosen.

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J. Government Center Station 1 . I n t ro duct i on The Government Center proposed for downtown Miami is designed to provide space for City, County, State and Federal offices and public facilities. The Center is planned for the area j ust west of the CBD bounded by Flagler on the south, 1-95 on the west, 5th Street on the north, and N.W. 1st Avenue on the east. The proposed station site is on the eastern edge of the Center. To the east, along Flagler Street to Biscayne Bay, is the Central Business District of Miami, containing retail, office, hotel and public buildings. Office space to the south is restricted by the downtown off-ramps to I-95. Access to the Government Center is both good and bad. The entire downtown is served by the main north-south freeway, I-95. Access to this freeway is difficult from the Govern ment Center because of the arrangement of the on-and offramps. Local access to the central business district is excel lent because of its immediate proximity and the existing one-way street patterns. The River makes local access to the south and west somewhat difficult beyond two or three blocks away. Bus service to this location is excellent. This station will primarily serve the proposed Government Center and existing County Court House. This station is a major destination point in downtown Miami. The Government Center station is projected to account for approximately 203,000 of the 1985 trip ends which represent 23% of all projected trip ends at the mean value level. It is located on the Flagler Street east/west line. The next station to the west is across the Miami River. The next to the east is on N.W. 1st Street just east of Miami Avenue. A secondary purpose is to serve office, retail and residential uses which may be attracted to this area by the Government Center development. In addition, the Downtown Plan suggests a personal rapid transit system for downtown, in which case the Government Center station would be the transfer point for the western edge of downtown. This station is the main transfer station for the system, and has busway interface. Of course downtown, particularly including the Government Center, is a regional center area. Both Goverome..nt Center complex and the transit system can serve to reinforce this vital activity center function. Due to the close station spacing to the east of the Government Center, to a lesser degree to the north, the primary impact area for the station is weighted to the south and west. The Miami River forms an effective barrier on the west. XI

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-95 2. Market Demand Potential Anticipated Development Without Transit.-The local governmental units involved, both Dade County and the City of Miami, are moving ahead with plans for the Downtown Government Center. The State and Federal will most likely participat e if the Center i s built , but will not take t he lead. The City i s expected tn contract during the first quarter of 1975 for the two police buildings scheduled to be built on the northwest two blocks of the Government center. These are estimated to contain 200,000 square feet at cost of over $20 million. The city has $5-6 million for a Government center. Money for the proposed library is available from Decade of P r o g : r e s s b . P n d f u n d s . T h e C o u n t y h a s a 1 1 o c a ted $ 1 m i 1 1 i o n f o r l and acquisition. The ultimate plan for the Government Center call s for 3,42 3 , 000 square feet o f space fo r the four governments involved, a s shown i n Table XI!-lh TABLE XII-17 Area in Thousands Building/Agency of square feet City Hall Police County State Federal Subtotal Convention Center (City) Library ( County) Communication/ infor-mation Cent Transi t Center Total Occup ied B uild ing 1973 2000 1 36 200 749 365 280 1 , 7 30 80 225 1 7 50 2 '1 02 403 200 1 , 7 4 0 546 362 3,051 80 225 1 7 50 3,423 Source: Downtown Government Center: Master Site Associates Inc., 1 973

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The Government Center Plan assumes that a transit station will be an integral part of the Center. It may be assumed for our purposes that at least the first phase will be built, even if transit not provided. Currently a new 125,000 square feet of private office is under construction within the impact area. The introduction of this large number of persons and employees will generate a demand for the upgrading of the existing retail facilities bordering on the government site. In addition the influence will be attractive to a large number of professionals who need to be located near the Government Center. Assuming that much of the center will be completed by 1985 there would be an increase in demand for retail, office and residential. The major problem with new development downtown is the need for adequate parking. Transit is designed to handle many work trips, and thus reduce the parking demand. Without transit, parking for the Government Center may be so difficult to provide that the projected expansjon to the year 2000 may be restricted, or located elsewhere. The 3,423 square feet of office space might be built only with Therefore for the purposes of this analysis we have assumed that most of the new development will occur with the encouragement of the transit system. Potential Transit Impact A summary of the attractiveness descriotion of the Government Center site is on Table XII-18. The attractiveness ratings are on Tab 1 e X I I -19. By the year lY85, additional development has been projected in the Downtown Plan, and allocated to the various subareas according to land availability and planning concepts. Transit is assumed for the entire downtown. In the Government Center Subarea, additional space projected .is for 250,000 square feet of office and 10,500 square feet of retail (in ground floors or office). For purposes of this analysis, it may be assumed that this additional development will not occur without transit. In that case, the advantages of the CBD and Brickell Avenue will keep new offices there. While no residential or hotel unit are projected for the Government Center itself, 700 multi family units are projected for the immediate vicinity. Most of the new development is projected for the areas closer to the Bay. Most of the retail demand will be absorbed by the existing retail establishment. However some of the demand will in the upgrading of nearby existing facilities and in the establishment of new facilities. The Downtown Plan projects approximately 10,500 square feet of additional space. This is probably conservative and an estimate of 20,000 square feet is more likely. Xl

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[-97 Projected Demand Government office Private office Retail Residential Without Transit 1,730,000 square feet 125,000 square feet 10,000 square feet 200 medium income multi-family Table XII-18 With Transit 2,300,000 square feet 350,000 square feet 20,000 square feet 700 medium income multifam i 1 y Description Government Center Regional Accessibility Local Accessibility Population Density Income Employment Available Land Area Identification Projected Development Competing/Existing Development Description East side of I-95 just north of CBO exits. Access to and from I-95 difficult at present. Bus service excellent Adjacent to CBO with good street network. Difficulties crossing Miami River Center of region, but little population immediately adjacent Lowest in region The major employment center in Miami -retail, finance, office, commercial Land for Government Center being acquired and existing uses removed. Land for private uses adjacent will require acquisition which may be difficult and costly. Has had poor image as run-down fringe of CBD. Will be improving as Government Center is built Government Center will have 850,000 square feet for City, County, State and Federal Miami CBO to east will be major site of downtown, regional development.

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3. Access and Movement Patterns Existing Characteristics. An inventory was made of all streets and roadways, traffic control devices, traffic and parking regulations, as well as public transit service in the vicinity of the proposed site. Street Network. Major facilities in the impact area (within two city blocks) include: (1) East-West streets. The downtown area is served by a series of one-way streets, which in conjunction with the CBD signal system, provide a good transportation potential. Streets within the station impact are include Flagler Street (three lanes, one-way westbound from Biscayne Boulevard to N.W. 1st Avenue); N.W. 1st Street (two lanes, one westbound except for one block immediately northeast of the station); N.W. 2nd Street (two lanes, one-way eastbound), and, N.W. 3rd Street (two lanes, one-way westbound). (2) North-South streets complimenting the grid street system is a series of north-south streets which are generally two-way in the station impact area. These include Miami Avenue (three lanes, one-way southbound to SW/SE 1st Street; N.W. 1st Avenue (two lanes, two way flow); N.W. 1st Court (two lanes, one-l'lay northbound between N.W. 1st Street and N.W. 2nd Street); N.W. 2nd Avenue ( three lanes, two-way flow). The downtown area offers unique transportation conditions not found in other parts of the County. Due to spatial restrictions, most streets do not possess turning lanes. The one-way nature of the CBD grid system has, however, minimized the problems inherent with that condition. Signal cycles tend to be longer since pedestrian phases (both directional and scramble) are provided at major intersections to accommodate the heavy pedestrian flows. Downtown Miami also serves as the focal point of MTA service, hence, buses constitute a significant portion df downtown vehicles. In fact, entire block-faces serve as linear bus stops to aid these vehicl es in providing maximum passenger service with minimum interruption of roadway traffic. Traffic and Pedestrian Volumes. Vehicular volumes around the site vary due to changing demands in the XI

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-99 downtown area their location within the grid system. General AOT ranges within the station impact area are 6,000-8,000 vehicles (Flagler and S.W. 1st Streets, Miami Avenue) 4,000 to 7,000 vehicles (N.W. 1st and N.W. 2nd Streets, N.W. 2nd Avenue) 2,000-5,000 vehicles (N.W. 1st Avenue and N.W. 1st Court). Peak demand hours generally occur between 7:30 A.M. and 8:30 A.M., as well as 4:30P.M. and 5:30P.M. The morning rush hour generally serves 9% of all daily traffic while the P.M. peak hour accommodates 11% . Traffic conditions are relatively unstable during key demand periods. The 4:00 P.M. to 5:00 P.M. and 5:00 P.M. to 6:00 P.M. hours are relatively equal in volume with peak demand generally 4:30 t . o 5 :30P.M. Unexpected conditions, such as traffic congestion, raised bascule bridges, accidents, etc., can readily shift this demand period. The volume of pedestrian traffic is highest i n the precinct bounded by the foll owing streets: South of N. 2nd Street, East of W. 1 s t A venue , North o f S. 2nd Street and W. of E. 3rd Avenue. During 1970, pedes trian counts were completed for e l even hour peri ods a l ong N. 1st Street, Flagler Street, and S. 1st Street between Miami Avenue and N.E. 1st Avenue. The total pedestrian traffic count in this area along N. 1st Street was 19,282, while the Flagler and S. 1st Streets counts totalled 33,450 and 14,994, respectively. Pedestrian activity in the site area is reduced since it is located to the west of the main precinct. Notable exceptions are during inbound and outbound flow phases at the Court House. Typical hourly pedestrian crossings at N.W. 1st Avenue and N.W. 1st Street, would, during peak hours, total 450 to 650 persons. Locations such as N.W. 1st Court and N.W. 2nd Street would vary from 300 to 500 persons per peak hour. Capacity Levels . Traffic signals are present in the CBD at virtually every intersection. They are, however, interconnected to a master control system which, in conjuction with the one-way system , assures relative l y comfortabl e m ovement condi tions during off-peak hours. Volumes greatl y exceed capacity dur ing morning and evening rush hours due not only to excessive numbers of vehicles, but streams of pedestrians as well. The streets within the impact area operate relatively smoothly, however, constraints are present at parking faciliti es and, outside of the study area, key exit

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routes from the CBD especially at entrance points'to Interstate Route 95. Detailed analyses during D-8 tasks will define capacity consideration at the micro level. Parking. Parking demand and supply within the CBO, tends to follow patterns similar to other major metropolitan areas. Supply exceeds demand in areas outside of major business districts, but availability of spaces within the downtown area is limited. High land values in the CBO, particularly in ll!iami 's case, demand that land usage be oriented toward ventures with higher rates of monetary return than parking vacilities. A survey of (59) off-street facilities, for instance, revealed average parking costs of $0.51 for one-half hour, $0.79 for one hour, $1.20 for two hours, $1.56 for three hours, $1.77 as a daily maximum, $8.00 per week, and $27.71 per month. The station site, being on the fringes of the core CBO, lies in the area of traditional parking space location. Within the impact area, 54 on-street spaces are available. 99 private off-street spaces, and 1,590 public off-street spaces for a total parking supply of 1,743 spaces. Pub 1 i c Trans i t. The C 10 , as the 1 o c a 1 poi n t of MT A bus service, is by virtually every route. Slightly under 2,000 daily buses are estimated to bring almost 34,700 passengers to the CBD. Flagler and S.W. 1st Streets, as a one-way pair, form major linear bus stops in the center city along several blocks, corresponding north-south service is rrovided by Miami Avenue and N.E./S.E. 1st Avenues. Future Characteristics. Estimates were derived for future (l98S) conditions in the impact area relative to scheduled street improvements, future traffic volumes and rapid transit passenger demands. Highway Improvements. No major roadway improvements are currently planned within the station impact area. Rapid Transit Passenger Demands. The Government Center Station i s located in a Type 1 Environment, that is, X1I. \OO a.

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1-100 no park-and-ride facilities will be provided at t h e site. The station, actually, reflects two separate technology demands; namely, the fixed guideway system and the Interstate Route 95 busway. It is estimated 82,000 daily passengers wil l board and alight the fixed guideway system at this station. O f the loadinding 42,000 persons, estimated access m odes are as follows: Walk 33,600; Feeder Bus -6,375; "Kiss-and-Ride" -1 ,680; and Other Modes -3 45. The Interstate Route 95 busway will service almost 31,000 persons during the morning and afternoon p eak demand periods. 'The peak hour of the day wi 11 '!ccommo date 7,700 persons of which almost 5,800 wil l in terchange w i t h t h c M i ami C B 0 . Modes o f access w i 1 1 predominate to walking (85% ) and f ee der bus (15%). Total peak hour demand for fixed guideway a s well a s busway, will include the foll owing: About 6 0 feeder buses, slightl y over 500 autos (kiss-and ride ) over 10,000 pedestri ans and 150 buses utiliz ing the Interstate Route 9 5 bus way . Traffic Volumes. The advent of rapid transit and its associated park1ng policies, will materially blunt the continuously increasing pattern of auto-commuters to the Miami CBD. Even with the service of the system, some increases in vehicle flows can be expected on downtown streets. This increase, however, is minor when compared to the effect on access roads to the CBD and circulatory facilities therein had planning for the rapid transit not taken place. ADT ranges for 1985 in the station impact area are expected to total: 8,000-10,000 vehicles (Flagler and S .W. 1st Streets, Miami Avenue) 6,000-8,000 vehicles, (N.W. 1st and N.W. 2nd Streets, N.W. 2nd Avenue) 3,000 6,000 vehicles (N. W . 1st Avenue and N.W. 1st Court). In add ition, rapi d transi t pas senger demands will be integrat ed with these vol umes and a plan derived ( Tas k 0 8 ) geared t o serv e the transit statio11 as well as abutting streets.

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4. Existing Land Use Patterns and Zoning Predominant land uses existing in the Government Center station area are illustrated by the accompanying Figure. This Figure does not represent a lot-by-lot inventory, but has been somewhat generalized to aid in its legibility. The generalization is exemplified in some of the residential areas where there are intermixtures of single-family and walk-up apartments which, due to their small size, do not appear on the Figure. Also, in some of the commercial areas there are occasionally apartments above stores which have not been represented, and areas of office and retail/commercial that have not been delineated in detail. Basically, four primary land uses characterize the Government Center area and they are as follows: (1) Residential, (2) Retail Commercial, (3) Office Commercial, and (4) Industrial. There are five residential land use areas which can be distinguished within the Government Center area. The first such area is south of Interstate 395 between the Florida East Coast Railroad and Interstate Route 95. Housing in this area is mixed, with both single-family detached and walk-up apartments repre sented in significant numbers. The residential density of the area averages around 40 people per gross acre. , Directly north of Interstate Route 395 is another residential area which is similar in character to the one previously discussed. The major exception is that this area seems to have considerably more industrial uses dispersed throughout. A third area of distinguishable residential land use lies within the downtown core and extends north to Interstate Route 395. The majority of the residences in this area are located south of the Florida East Coast Railroad and consist of apartments or retirement hotels. North of the Miami River and west of Interstate Route 95 is another area of residential uses. This area is composed of a mixture of single-family detached and walk-up apartment housing types, with an overall density of about 40 people per acre. Retail, entertainment, and services are fragmented and are found dispersed throughout the area. In the area south of the Miami River and west of Interstate Route 95 lies a fifth major concentration of residential 1and uses. This area is characterized by a mixture of apartments, duplexes, and single-family residences interspersed with strip commercial )<. -u: \0\ XII

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01 that serve the neighborhood. Most of the single-family land uses are confined to small lots surrounded by multi-family uses. Residential hotels also exist throughout the area, though most of them have been converted into low-income year-round housing. Commercial land uses in the Government Center area are concentrated in three areas which include the Downtown cBD, strip commercial along West Flagler Street, and strip commercial along N.W. 2nd Street. The Miami CBD area is generally located along Flagler Street, Miami Avenue, and N.E. and S.E. 1st Streets. The major concentration of office uses can be found in the vicinity of Flagler Street and S.E. 1st Street, although office actiyities are beginning to shift to the of East 2nd Avenue and south of Flagler near the County Court House. These areas have recently experienced new development and may cause a change in major office concentrations. Office intensities along Flagler Street range be tween F loor Area Ratios of 8 to 12 and building sizes are relatively small, averaging only about 150,000 square feet . The recent new cons truction east of East 2nd Avenue and near the County Court House reflect sizes more competative with that built in other cities. Activity within office concentrations presently is weighted toward financial activities, such as banking and savings and loan institutions. Ground floors are usually occupied by retail, service or banking establishments. The Flagler Street area is traditionally the retail center of Central Miami. A concentration of large department stores near the intersection of Miami Avenue and Flagler Street form the core of this area with apparel shops lying east along Flagler and along Miami Avenue. Other retail and service establishments are located along N.E. and S.E. 1st Streets and along streets intersecting Flagler. A strong iinear concentration of commercial land uses is located along West Flagler and extends from River Drive westward. These areas primarily serve the surrounding residents of the Little Havana area, and are structured to accommodate land uses compat ible to their ethnic demands . The commercial land uses along N.W. 2nd Street serve the same purpose for the black community as those on West Flagler do for the Cuban. Land uses in this area consist of retail, entertainment, and service establishments oriented to the local population.

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A majority of the industrial land use concentrations in the Government Center area lie along the Florida East Coast and Municipal Railroads. This area extends from the Municipal Railroad up to N.E. 14th Street. Warehousing i9 the predominant use within this area and at the present, much of it is vacant and underutilized. Other areas ot industrial land uses are found along the banks of the Miami River. Two major concentrations are situated south of the Interstate Route 95 interchange leading to the Miami CBD and one along the south river bank fronting on River Existing streets in the Government Center area form a rigid grid pattern which is typical throughout the Metropolitan area. This geometry has been somewhat interrupted in its interface with the Miami River and the Interstate Route 95 and Interstate Route 395 Expressways. Streets built t o service the riverfront have resulted in irregularities in the normal grid pattern. This has caused numerous offsets and . awkward intersections. The Interstate Route 95 and Interstate Route 395 Expressways are elevated and limited access, and thus do not interrupt street configurations except where interchanges occur: Interchange areas have required several streets to be term1nated or awkwardly diverted causing irregularities in numerous parcels. In the area containing the Government Center station, land owership is highly fragmented and predominantly privately owned, although several parcels are held in public ownership. These publicly owned parcels include the County Court House, U.S. Post Office, and site of the new Police Building. The County Govern ment also is presently in the process of assembling and purchasing numerous properties in the area bounded by Flagler Street, Interstate Route 95, N.W. 5th Street, and the Florida East Coast Railroad, to accommodate the proposed new Government Center complex. There is relatively little vacant land in the Government Center area, but there are considerable amounts of the existing land uses which are presently underutilized. The largest concentrations of these areas are in the manufacturing-wholesaling-warehousing district north of N.E. 6th Street, and the area west of the Florida East Coast Railroad along Flagler Street. These areas offer considerable potential for redevelopment or revitalization, as is exemplified by the large portion of this area already designated as the site for a new governmental complex. 'A.1t -\ Q 4-0.. xr:

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104 Lot sizes in the areas surrounding the Government Center station vary widely as a result of the numerous land uses which charac terize them. For example, in the areas of manufacturing and warehousing, lots are exceedingly large, whereas in the residen tial areas to the north, parcels are quite small. Commercial areas on the other hand, often have intermixtures of small and large parcels i n a single block. These inter-mixtures, if cor rectly used, can be a tool to give variety to the area•s make-up but they can also hinder endeavors requiring large or moderate assemblages of land. New construction in the Government Center area has been relatively non-existant during the past decade, though there has been con siderable . . building activity in the downtown area. Most of this development has been in the office sector and is primarily con centrated in two areas. One such area is near the southeast corner of the proposed Government Center complex, where two new highrise office structures have recentl y been completed. The other concentration is east of East 2nd Avenue, where a large office district is beginning to t ake shape. Community facilities and open space in the Government Center station area include Lummus Park, which is west of Interstate Route 95, between N.W. 2nd and N.W. 3rd Streets, and a school• related playground just east of the Expressway between N.W. 12th and N.W. 13th Streets. Booker T. Washington High School is in the northwest area bounded by N.W. 6th Avenue and the Seaboard Coastline Railroad, and Dade Community College, Downtown Campus is directly east of the station site, across from the U.S. Post Office on S.E. 1st Street. Zoning in the Government Center area is by three zoning districts. These include the I, R, and C categories designated by the Miami Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance. The I districts lie predominantly along the Florida East Coast Rail road and deal mainly with light industrial uses. R districts, delineating residentially zoned areas, are dominant in the areas rtorth, northwest, and southwest of the station area. These areas also contain C designations which allow for community/ commercial along several of the major neighborhood streets. C and R districts also characterize the i mmediate station area, presently allowing for medium density commercial and residential development. In the Miami CBD, east of the station area, C-3 zoning is pre dominant. This designation allows for a much greater intensity in land uses than found in the other C districts, thus enabling the CBD to serve all portions of the City providing specialized business and service facilities not available elsewhere.

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5. Community Characteristics The dominant characteristics of the area surrounding the Government Center station location is a combination of several transitional areas. These are generally identified by mixed land uses which vary considerably in quality of development. East of the North-South Expressway, areas of mixed development activity are visually disrupting and, in some cases, delapidated or abandoned structures exist. Further north and northwest of the station area are predominantly residential areas containing numerous wood frame and masonry structures most of which have been inadequately maintained. Mixtures of commercial, industrial, and residential are common place throughout the area and for this reason numerous Tand use conflicts occur with higher incidence. This same pattern is repeated to a lesser degree within identified transition areas below the Miami River and south of the Miami central business district. Most commercial devel opment, old and established in nature, is concentrated east of the Florida East Coast Railroad in the Miami central business district. Adjacent to this development along the waterfront, is a significant strip of park and recreational development that is nicely landscaped in most areas and used for special events during certain times of the year. Both these development areas exhibit characteristics of stability and are not likely to undergo significant localized improvements or larqe-scale renewal bv 1985. It should be noted, that certain areas of the central business district are undergoing a considerable amount of revitalization of the office sector. X I I

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105 6. Design Resources and Limitations The most significant design resource concerning the Govern ment Center station location revolves around development of the Government Center complex itself. The opportunity to establish a coordinated approach to joint development between the transit station and other functional structures holds real potential, and should influence design decisions. Generally, this area contains many physical barriers, movement corridors and places of congestion. These elements may be identified as primary constraints or limitations, and should be considered in any and urban des]gn solutions to deve 1 opmen t : Other less significant design resources concern the views from the elevated highway to the west, and large recreational or open space areas to the east. Development within the station location must be cognizant of the attractiveness of these park-like areas, since they may serve as points of destination by the transit rider. Therefore, appropriate pedestrian pathways linking these areas might be established in order to complement the accessibility of each form of development. In order to effectively realize the impact a mass transit system will have on the function, physical and aesthetic composition of an area in proximity to a transit station, an inventory of existing massing is essential in analytical procedure. Such an inventory is represented in the accompanying illustration which depicts the basic physical form and massing that exists within the Government Center station area. .Presently the massing in this particular area is fragmented, having little or no order in the arangement of high and low forms. A relatively high massing concentration seems to be evolving around the County Court House area, although there is little evidence of an ordering of high and low relationships. However, with the completion of the proposed Government Center directly west of the Court House, a considerable number of high e l ements will be induced into the city's overall f orm. The analysis of the Government Center massing and its relation to the other inventory information aids in the formulation of the basic principles by which station area development strategies may be established.

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XI

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7. Recommended Development Concepts The recommended future development concept that is presented in this section is based on a series of development strategy goals that have evolved from the preceding analyses and the design process. While some of the strategy goals listed below may be broad in scope, such as development policies in Milestone 3, they are none the less the basis for the land use and urban design concepts that have been developed. The development strategy gGals for the Government Center transit station influence zone are: the role of all downtown transit stations in terms of overall growth strategies for the downtown and concentrate land use activities in a manner that reinforces these roles; In the fulfillment of the above goal create at the government center a western focal point t o the CBO spine along Flagler Street. This should be accomp lished by creating an office core area that is complimentary to the government uses planned for the Government Center Complex; Create both medium and medium to high density residential developments that relate both to this new need for down town (and the station) and the amenities of the Miami River; -Provide, where possible, a totally separated pedestrian/ bike movement corridor linking the proposed station with the river and adjacent development concentrations; -Maintain a service commercial area that can easily serve both CBD retail commercial activities and the proposed office concentration; and, Encourage joint development use of the station area. The Land Use Concept. The bas i c concept for the Government Center station centers about the ro l e that the station can play in the overall Central Business District development strategy. Particularly with the downtown stations in such c l ose proximity to one another, the role that each station plays, and how it affects the role of other stations, is extremely In the development of the Government Center Concept, each of the stations in the general area were examined in terms of how i t would serve the area. xJI-

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In exam1n1ng the station locations o n e ither side of th e gov e r nment center station, the one to the north will clearly function as a serv ice element to the proposed residential development that could concentrate in the area. The recent plans for the downtown area presented by Wallace, McHarg, Roberts and Todd encourage the development of a major residential concentration in t he northwest area. Such a development strategy woul d be wel l served by the proposed alignment and station location. Indeed, the planned growth of residential in the area was one factor in the Milestone 5 recommendation for the station location and alignment in t h e area. Just as logically, the transit station to the east wil l be one of two serving the current heart of the M iami CBO. Particularly due to its relatively centrali zed location, this eastern station can become a commercially oriented station, along w ith the station proposed near the downtown camput of M iami-Dade Community College. Together, these t w o s t ations a l so serve the concentration of office buildings on t h e east end o f Flagler Stree t . The c ollege area s tation also serves tourist hotel development a l ong Biscayne Boulevard . The development of the government center (with city, county, and other functions) offers an opportunity to create a development node at the western edge of the downtown. The geographic area that comprises the downtown is rather distinctly confined on a four sides, particularly the West (I-95), South (1-95 ramps and Miami River) and East (Biscayne Bouldvard, the Bay and Bayfront Park). Flagler Street serves as the major commercial focal point, and is rather viable along its entire length from Biscayne Boulevard to the Court House. Whil e there is a major hub at the eastern end of this east-west oriented downtown area, the creation and proper utilization of the government center can create a western focal point to a strong CBD area. While other development concepts prepared for downtown have recognized the physical impact of the proposed government center, the ability of this massive public facility, in combination with a major transit station, to reshape the western end of the CBD has b een somewhat under emphasized. T he proposed government center f orms a hub of activity that, if proper l y u t ilized, ca n attract a grea t dea l o f complimentary office a c tivi t y that ca n p rov ide new balance t o the d e v e lopment p attern i n the CBO . The potenti a l for increased offi ce c onstruction away from t he eastern end of the CBD has recently been d emonstrated by the completion of two significant office structures in the area of the Court House. For these reasons, a significant concentration o f office x-u. ,,o a. X

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-110 development has been proposed to both the east and south of the proposed Center, with direct links with the station and the governmental activities by means of air rights development. The designated office areas are precisely defined such that the office functions will be closely related to each other and can have maximum access to the transit facility. Since this station is the main transfer terminal for the east-west and north-south lines (as well as the busway}, such access is even more important. Thus, the clustering of office activity in this immediate area is imperitive. The office concentrattan indicated to the south of the center represents an expanded office area only now beginning to compete with the "east end'' office_ needs. In the ultimate development strategy, the service. commercial activities found in the northern CBD area are to be retained, s i nce office functions are quite dependent on office supply and service operations. Since the services are necessary for commercial functions as well, this area is located in close proximity to the new office uses and the CBD commercial functions. The retail commercial core has been partially defined, indicating the extent of office and service function encroachment an the commercial activities in the area. To the north of the center and the proposed office development, medium to high density housing is planned, in concert with the current development strategies for downtown that hope to attract residential activity to the area. As these residential activities approach the northern transit station, the densities become higher. Other residential concentrations are proposed along the Miami River below Lummus Park and to the south of the I-95 off-ramps. These proposals are sound concepts that have been proposed in previous design studies for downtown. Particularly with the advent of the riverwalk, these plans will be even more attractive. In this latter area, the existing Florida Power and Light facility is considered a given and has been retained. Should this assumption ever be reversed, even more exciting residential activity could occur in the area. The 1985 concept plan, as with other stations, is a short term version of the development pattern that is expected. While the uses proposed are in concert with the ultimate development character of the station area, market demand constraints limit the amount of development that can be accommodated by 1985. Noticeably absent is the major office development to the east of the station. Current market demand indicators show suffi-

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cient strength to bolster the recently bold office concentration to the south of the center, but minimal activity can be assumed for the eastern complex. Additionally, much of the residential activity is not contemplated for this short-term period. The proposed circulation system is primarily oriented toward emphasizing the' potential pedestrian linkages that can be developed through the downtown. As illustrated in the circulatton diagram, the north-south transit line can provide a linear park tie with riverwalk development as well as the potenttally higher density residential that could locate along the river. Current plans for the Government Center, although schematic in some regards, plan for setbacks on the northern end of the center sufficient to provide a linear park tie to the Miami River area to the west. While this strip may initially be part ofat grade parking for the police facility: etc., the ultimate garaging of vehicles could allow this to become a majqr green space tie to the river area. These two ties, to the and south, as shown in the plans, connect the Government Center complex and the proposed offi ce development t o the bike and pedestrian pathways p l anned along the river. The northsouth transi t line a l so provides a much needed tie between the recently developed office concentration in the Court House area to the transit station/office development. This line also provides an extension of this linear park system northward from the Government Center Station to potential higher density residential development. While a direct linear park tie to the east of the Government Center is more difficult due to the density of business activity, de-emphasis of vehicular traffic on several streets could provide such a link to the Miami Dade Community College (and transit station nearby) as well as to Bayfront Park. While the feasibility of such a project has not been investigated as part of the Government Center station are a planning, such a scheme could be the focal point of a tourist entertainment district near its eastern end, adjacent to the hotel district along Biscayne Boulevard. Access to the site is pedestrian and feeder bus oriented, with the busway connection beneath the station complex providing t he necessary link . . The potential fo r a "mini-system" for movement of p eop l e within the Center has a lready been proposed by the center architects, and such a system could be logically extended to the eastern office development at a minimum. A direct tie to people-mover system serving the entire CBO is even more attractive. x:

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. -112 Urban Design Concepts. The plans illustrated in the flysheets attached to this report represent the type of development character that could develop in the immediate station vicinity. While not intended to be specific proposals for development action on a block by block basis, the renderings will hopefully provide an insight into the design treatments, the massing of development, and the joint development potential that could be realized by the implementation of the conceptual land use strategies. In the urban design plans, the government center transit station itself is partially integrated into pnystcal alaments of the complex, which have been changed only slightly in the illustrations in to . accommodate the alignment. A direct physical tie from the station itself to the office development contemplated on the east i s considered most imperative. The station will already represent a joint development effort (in i t s ultimate inclus ion i n the Gover n ment C enter c omplex}, and such a concept cou l d easily be extended to the east. This can perh aps reduce th e potent ial urban design conflicts of multi l e v e l guideways t raversing the area a t d ifficult angles with the current building patter and street geometry. While the illustrated urban design plan does not comtemplate extensive plaza development as illustrated in the current plans for the Government Center complex, major pedestrian ties are planned to interconnect the development in the area. ---This urban design treatment is imperative if the area is to function as a governmental and office core at the western end of the CBD. To develop otherwise, such as individual office buildings with no direct physical relationship to the Governmental Center complex or each would be to invite a disorganized development pattern, drastically overcrowded pedestrian move ments along the existing streets, and a dramatic change in urban scale from the multiple plazas of the Government Center to street oriented offices. Additional pedestrian ties are at upper levels in this scheme, reducing the amount of vertical movement required in the complex .

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SUPPLEMENT 1

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Safety and Secur ty Supplement f1 deals more in det il with the issues of safety and security in the station area• This is a portion of Draft Milestone -6 Repo r t by Kaiser Engineering, March , 1975•

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E. SAFETY CRITERIA This section presents the safety criteria for the transit system and is a direct result of the preliminary hazard analysis. Based on information gained from a literature search and direct contacts with transit safety personnel in several operating transit systems, an attempt has been made to develop criteria for frequently recurring accident situat1ons and those presenting high hazard levels. It has not been possible to fully assess the design ramifications of all recommended criteria. This assessment is in process and as system definition improves a complete evaluation of design implications will be possible. A number of the criteria listed below have been changed, and some criteria added in response to citizen's inputs as presented in the previous section. 1. General Safety Criteria Safety of the transit system has been established as an over riding and paramount design considerat ion. The following recommended criteria extend this objective into f our general top level areas: (a) Passenger safety in each potentfal accident category should exceed or at least be egual to that of the safest major rapid transit system now operating in North America. (b) Health and safety provisions for maintenance and oper ational personnel should exceed or at least be equal to those required by local, state, and federal regulatory authorities. (c) During construction, the highest safety standards and practices for major public works projects should be upheld and the public should not be exposed to extraordinary safety hazards. (d) The operational system should meet all safety related codes and regulations promulgated by appropriate local, state, and federal authorities. 2. Station Design Station design must consider safety in the initial planning stages. This is particularly true i n th ose desig n a spec t s for w hich th ere a re n ot a nalogous f eatures in other systems t o p rovide a safety baseline. Of primary importance is the ease of passenger flow to and from the vehicles. Passengers, including the elderly and handica pped all with varying degrees of mobility and system patronage, require equal safe ty p rovisions without compromising the ameni ties of any one individual due to his age o r mobility . II-25

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Guideway Trespass from Stations -Data from major transit properties indicates that the highest single source of transit fatalities is the result of guideway trespass, both willful and unwillful (a fall or push). Injury can result from vehicle impact, electrocution or a fall to the ground in the case of an elevated station. The recommended criterion for this item is a s follows: (2a)Provisions to eliminate easy access to vehicle g uideways from station platforms should be provided. These provisions should be designed to strongly discourage all but willful trespass on the guideway. (This criterion is subject to revision). Station Fires Fire in a transit station poses danger to passengers in the station and f urthermore is complicated by the poss i ble arrival of a train and the egress of passengers into a dangerous area. The recommended criteria for t his item are: (2b) Non c ombustible material s should be used in station constr ucti on. (2c) A station emergency escape-way should be avai la ble for use in case of fire. In addition there should b e an adequate number of emergency exits with illuminated signs. (2d) Elevators should have enough reserve power to return to ground level and open door should the primary power be disrupted. (2e) The train control system shou1d have the capability to have trains stop or by-pass stations which are on fire. (2f) Emergency provisions should include station attencant public address system, police, fire, first aid provisions and transit attendant communication systems for use by patrons. (2g) All transit system personnel, including station attendants, m aintenance personnel, security personnel, central control personnel, shall be thoroughly trained in emergency p rocedures for station fires. P assenger Movement and Direc tion a l I nformation -The design of all station facilities i ncluding mezzan ine area s , col lection devices, escalators, elevators, stainvells, etc. should allow for the highest anticipated peak perio d peopl e movements. Directional assist for incoming and o utgoing patrons i s also import ant to aintain safe unimpeded passenger flow, particularly during peak load periods, to avoid crowded situations leading to accidents. II-26

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The recommended criterion for this item is as f ollows: (2h) Station design, including directional signs with adequate illumination, should pay special attention to the location of stairs, escalators and elevators so that bottlenecks and misdirection is minimized. 3. Station Platform/Vehicle Interface H azards present themselves at the station platform/vehicle interface. Vehicles enter stations and move relative to passengers on the platform. Once vehicles are stopped, passengers are subject to injuries related to the relative alignment of vehicle and platform. The recommended criteria for this item are as follows: (3a)The h or iz onta l gap between the vehicle floor and statio n platform should b e m inimized within practical design 1 imitations. (3b)The vertical gap between the vehicle floor and statfon platform should be minimized within practical design 1 imitations. 4. Stationary Vehicle Functioning Equipment When a vehicle is stopped for ingress/egress of passengers, functioning equipment such as doors and vehicle propulsion equipment must be designed to eliminate hazards to passengers. The recommended criteria for this item are as follows: (4a)Vehicle doors should be interlocked with the vehicle propulsion and brake system so that the doors will open only when the vehicle is stopped. (4b)Vehicle doors should be interlocked with the propulsion and brake system so that the vehicle cannot accelerate until the doors are closed. ( 4c)Vehicle automatic door closing forces should be at such a lo w l evel that a patron struck by them will not be i n ju red. (4d)An emergency door manual m echanism s hould b e p rovided t o facilitate door opening should the automat i c d oor operator fail. The m anual should b e i nterlocked with the propulsion and brake system t o initiate emergency braking when the vehicle is i n moti on. The interlock should not allow the vehicle to accelerate s h ould the manual mechanism be act iva ted while the vehicle i s stopp ed. ri-27

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E. RECOt-t-1ENOED SECURITY CRITERIA No single design feature or operating procedure can be totally effective in creating a secure environ ment within a transit system. Neither can any such feature or procedure claim to be universally effective. A plan that successfully reduces crime on one transit system will not necessarily effect the same reduction on another, and the cost of implementing the security system may be totally unaccept able to the management of a third transit system. The cost of the following recommended criteria must be measured against the effect of the unlawful activities on the revenues of the transit system, and upon the persons using the system. The direct effect of a robbery of transit authority funds on revenues is easily determined. The cumulative effect of a series r:f crimes committed on patrons wi 11 have an over a 11 effect on ridership which is difficult to assess precisely. This effect may be very substantial. A number of the following criteria have been changed i n response to citizen's comments and one additional criterion has been added. The specific answers to citizens comments was given previous l y in some detail. In some cases related criteria in the Draft Milestone 7 Report were also changed because of the close tie between security and station design. 1. Station Security Design Station Attendant -Although no single design feature or operat1ng procedure can be totally effective in creating a secure station area, the provision of a station attendant is a key measure in achieving a high level of security in station areas. Therefore, it is deemed highly advisable to provide such an attendant at most stations for most hours of the operating day, on the grounds of security needs (there may be other significant reasons for, and functions to be performed by, station attendants). The following criterion is recommended: (1a) Station security measures should include the pro vision of station attendants at most stations for most hours of the operational day. N ote: If station attendants are not u tilized, then a central monitoring capability for station areas will become necessary. Such an approach would require a modification of various criterion in this section. Visibility -The primary security criterion for station de sign is to make people v isible. Making p a t rons m ore visible III-16

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to other patrons, transit authority employees, and the out side w orld , emoves much o f the opportunity for criminal activity. i n .he event that such activity does occur, improved visibility will facilitate immediate detection of crime and rapid response by law enfor(ement officers. The following station design criterion is recommended: (lb) Stations should feature as much open area as possible on both the platform and the concourse below. Long unbroken lines of sight should be the architectural design goal. Concessions -Manned concessions within stations are attractive targets for robberies, pocket picking and purse snatch ing. The following criterion is recommended: (lc) Manned concessions should be prohibited throuthout the transit syste m . Automati c vending m achines, suitably designed to thwart burglaries, may be l ocated i n free areas u nder the visual or electronic surveillances of the station attendant. Restrooms Public restrooms are primary attractions for narcotics users, and other undesirables. The following criterion is recommended: (ld)Since at least one restroom station will be required for the station attendant's use, it should be an airline or an airplane type (single occupancy). There should be a minimum of two such facilities located in close proximity to the station attendant's booth and under his/her visual or electronic surveillance. The restroom doors should be equipped with an electronic lock controlled by the station attendant to admit a patron. An emergency button within the facility should allow the patron to signal the attendant. Station Attendant's Booth -The following criterion is recommended: (le)The station attendant's booth should be positioned to give the attendant maximum visibility to patrons in need of assistance, and to permit visual surveillance of the entire concourse level. Electronic Surveillance Since visual surveillance of the platform level by the station attendant is impossible, surveillance must be accomplished by means of close circuit television cameras with m onitors l ocated in the station attendant's booth, In most cases, complete surveillance of the platform l evel may be accomplished by t h e proper positioning of two or three cameras, with input t o an auto matic s equential monitor. M anual o verride and pan i n zoom should be provided to allow th e station a ttendant t o 11close-in' ' o n suspicious persons or activities. III-17

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When the design of the concourse level is such that total visual surveillance is not possible from the stationattendant's booth, close circuit television cameras should be used. Cameras located on the concourse level should input into a separate sequential monitor, and remote pan and zoom should be provided. The use of mirrors to provide visual surveillance of blind spots is not recommended, since they offer attractive targets for vandalism. The recommended criterion are as follows: (lf)The system should employ electronic surveillance of platform, concourse area, and any passageways. Sequential monitors should be employed and pan and zoom features included where appropriate. Surveillance needs should be based upon station characteristics and location. (lg) All close circuit telev1s1on earners should be encased in tamper proof housing similar to those used i n cor rectional facilities to prevent vandalism and theft. The housing should include an easily replaced transparent lens cover to protect the lens from aerosol paint cans in the hands of vandals. (lh) Parking areas at stations should be under surveillance by low light level closed circuit television cameras with automatic panning and input into a separate sequential monitor. The planting of parking areas will de crease the effectiveness of this type of surveillance considerably, therefore planting should be coordinated with camera locations and lighting. (lj) All cameras should be mounted at the highest possible elevation to permit maximum visibility and reduce accessibility to vandalism. Wide angle lenses should be used whenever possible . (lk) No more than four cameras should input into a single sequential monitor, and no m ore than three monitors should be located in a station attendant's booth. (11) Consideration should be given to the equipping of some station attendants booths with a video device which can be activated to record from any camera or sequence of cameras. This . feature will permit an "instant re play" of the criminal act to provide an accurate des cription of the perpetrators to responding law enforcement officers and as evidence for use i n court. Lighting-The selective use of high lighting lev els i n stations can i ncrease patrons' feelings of security, while at the same time accentuating key design elements. High lighting levels such as those normally recommended by the Illumina ting Engineering Society (IES) also improve the effectiveness of both visual and electronic surveillance. III -18

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The following criterion is recommended: (1m) ' Illumination of various areas in the station as well as parking lots should be g uided by appli cable IES standards as well as specifications developed for modern systems such as BART (San Francisco) and WMATA (Washington, D.C.). Security should be a major design consideration in the selection of lighting levels. Lockers -Lockers have only marginal utility to transit pas sengers since most trips do not require leaving packages or luggage at a station for later pick up. Lockers are a security/saba tage problem of major proportions. The possibility of a bomb being placed in a locker has been graphically displayed by the recent tragic explosion at the Los Angeles airport. Bomb scares involving lockers could seriously curtail transit s erv ice . The following criterion i s recommended: (ln) Under no circumstances should lockers be provided i n tra i n stations and the presence of l ockers i n other facilities should be very carefully regulated in terms of potential sabotage. 2. Communications in Stations Communications are the key to effective response to crime and appre hension of criminals. Rapid communications also limits individual losses and damage to property. Attendant Address to Law Enforcement Agency -The following criterion is recommended: (2a)The station attendant should have direct communication with the responding law enforcement agency by hot line telephone from his booth. Patron Address to Law Enforcement Agency -The most efficient and economical means of communication between patron and responding law enforcement agency is by means of a standard pay telephone station, using the 911 universal emergency number with a coin free calling device. I n other words, the telephone should be equipped t o allow th e patron to dial 911 and c ontact th e police emergen.cy communication d esk without inserting a dime. This system has recently been adopted i n the city of New York with all pay stations throughout the N.Y. city subway system being converted to the 911 system. The State of Florida enacted in 1974 a statute, (Chapter 74-357) which requires that all telephones within the state adopt the universal emergency 911 number wit hin 24 m onths of th e effective date of the a ction. Within Dade County all but f our of th e jurisdiction s through which the III 1 9

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transit sytem routes will operate have their police agencies d i spatched by the Dade C ounty Public Safety Department. The four police departments which maintain their own police communications operations are the cities of Miami, Miami Beach, Hileah, and Coral Gables. All other municipalities in Dade County rely on the Dade County Department of Public Safety for communication. Therefore a 911 call to the Dade County Public Safety Depart m ent would alert either the Public Safety deputy sheriff or the police officer in the community, whoever is able to respond m ost quickly to the scene. The recommended criterion is the following: (2b)Patron address to law enforcement agency should be via toll free 911 e m ergency telephones insta l led i n all stations. Intercom The recommended criterion i s the fo 11 ow1 ng: (2c) Passengers should have direct c o m municat ion w i t h th e station att endant by means of twow a y interco m s whic h s h ould be l ocated a t various points in t h e station s. These s hould a l low the p assenger t o call the s t ation attendant and should allow the station attendant to observe the passen g e r via clo se ci rc u i t television while speaking wit h him. Station A ttendant PA System-The follow ing criterion is recommended: (2d)The station attendant should also have a selective public address system which addresses the concourse level, the platform level or both areas. 3. Vehicle Security Police Patrols -The effectiveness of placing a unifor med or plain clothes officer on a train is m inimal because h e can not be in all cars and access between cars may be limited. A cri m e could occur in one section of the train and he would either not know about it or might not be able to do anything about it. The idea of h aving police officers on the trains as a routine measure is highly ineffective and costly. The RAN D report on New York City transit cri m e shows that such patro l s are n ot preventing crim e , they are simply d i s p lacing it. BART and M ontreal s ecurity officials comment t hat they have had robberies of p assen g ers i n s tations, but t hey have not t o date had a significant incidence of robberies of passengers on the train. The following criterion is recommended: ( 3 a )Pol ice p a trol s o f t ra ins should b e used for specia l situation s only and should not be a routine part of the security syst e m . III2 0 I

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t .I SECTION 5 I

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Construction and Finishes Structure Reinforced Concrete Columns Mall & Platfora Areas Prestressed concrete North South Transit Way Post Tension Concrete East West & DPM Transit Way Mechanical Multi -Zoned (Air) , . • F1n1shes t Concrete structure ,.., Fleoriag-F[atfora Areaa enly Stone BaYing Plaza and Mall Area '-\ . Tinted Glass Storefront & Entrances Anodized Aluminua Trlm1ng (Color)

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:Street Level Center M&ll Retail .Lower Mall Loadillg Area Plaia aet&U Aftcili&ri Funct!ona SUb Total . DPM Level M..u aetili . MaJ;l ... _ Ancfi1arf" FCmctiODa Rerth & aeuth Platf.raa Pedestrian Areas : . SUb Total { l :-.;. ..,\ ; " ,., . East weat Platfon • •