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The Integrity of planning and design for a Christian church

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Title:
The Integrity of planning and design for a Christian church
Creator:
Ryou, Alexander S.
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Committee Chair:
Long, Gary
Committee Members:
Fentress, Curtis W.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Alexander S. Ryou. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
environmental design auraria librarv
THE J NTESR I TV'
OF F^EANMING rtNJD DESIGN FOR A CHRISTIAN CHURCH
-THE ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAM AND DESIGN FOR THE KOREAN UNITED METHODIST CHURCH AT DENVER AS A THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE
A+P
LD
1190
A72
1985
R96
ALEXANDER S. RYOU


MR 31
SUBMIT STATEMENT
I, Alexander S. Ryou, submit this report to
the Graduate Division o-f Architecture, the College o-f Design and Planning, the University o-f Colorado at Denver
as a thesis -for the Degree of MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE.
ALEXANDER S. RYOU MAY, 1985


STATEMENT OF APPROVAL
The thesis o-f Alexander S. Ryou is approved by the thesis committee.
Committee Chairman, Prjjjpipal Adviser,
Gary Long Jr. Curtis W. Fentress
The College o-f Design and Planning, The University of Colorado at Denver
MAY,
1985


-TO THE MEMORY OF PROFESSOR CHANG HAN ZOH WITH WHOM I BEGAN MY STUDY OF ARCHITECTURE


Design is poetry as it associates •forms into new meanings. The work o-f the designer is only worth his ability to understand the laws o-f nature, the character o-f people and their needs, plus his own ideas and imagination, in short, only as much
o-f a poet as he has in him.
Paul Jacques Grillo, FORM FUNCTION AND DESIGN, P 33, Dover Publications Inc, New York, 1975.


ADVISERS
1. PROGRAM ADVISERS
CHO, KEON SANG
-Minister, Korean United Methodist Church at Denver.
HEATH, PAUL -Professor, University of Colorado at Denver
ZOH, CHANG HAN
-Exchange Fellow at Yale University.
-Director, Institute of Architecture and Urban Design, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. -Professor, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.
2. DESIGN ADVISERS.
FENTRESS, CURTIS W.
-Architect, -President, Member of AIA. C W Fentress and Associates.
LONG, GARY JR. -Architect, Professor, University of Colorado at Denver
6


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The following work is the product of two final semesters of study at the University of Colorado, 1984 - 1985, during which time I have become indebted to a large number of individuals and to some institutions. Beginning with the institutions, I would like to express my gratitude to the Denver Planning Office for providing various kinds of maps and worthful information and to the Denver Park Administration Office, which provided me the valuable information for Sloan’s Lake Park.
All of my advisers and many of the classmates in my design studio have assisted in the progress of my work. I am particularly grateful, however, for the help which I have received from Prof. Paul Heath, Prof. Gray, dr. Long, and my classmate James wall urn. Each of these destinguished architects has been of enormous assistance to me with his criticisms and suggestions.
I specially wish to express my gratitude to Mr. Curtis W. Fentress who not only has assisted me with his unusually sharp criticisms and strong suggestions, but also has provided me an access to the CAD system. I al so would like to thank Mr. David Culdwell and Mr. Robert Brodie for their significant help in computer operation.
Outside of the professional community, special thanks are due to two people. One is my wife, Anna, who continues to be an inspiration to me, as well as the one person capable of deciphering my handwriting. In addition to doing all her own work, she typed serveral versions of the manuscript over the months. The other is my mother who always encourages me in spirit from the other side of global hemisphere
I would also like to thank the other members of the architecture department staff at the University of Colorado, Denver; Prof. Chester Nagel, Prof, Robert Kindig, and Prof, Eugine Benda, each of whom has always been exceedingly helpful. I am keenly aware of the fact that without the help of all these people, this work would never have seen the light of day.
7


* -b W 0-1 M M f-J
Table of Contents
- Submit Statement
- Statement of Approval
- Acknowledgement
1. Introduction
1-1. The background of the project. ---------------- 12
1-2. The goal and objectives of the project. ------- 13
1-3. The contents and scope of the project. -------- 14
1-4. The process and method to perform. ------------ 16
2. Search for Problems
2-1. A history of the Korean immigration
to the United States of America. -----------------21
-2. The characteristics of the Korean-Americans. 25
-3. Problems of the Korean—Americans. ----------------31
-4. The Church as a problem solving organization. 32
3. Religious Studies.
-1. A Study of the United Methodist Church.
A brief history of the United Methodist Church. 3-& -2, A study of the Korean United Methodist Church.— 3.3
1) Introduction. -------------------------------------33
2) Church population. ------------------------------- 3S
3) The organization and administration
of the Korean United Methodist Church. --------- 42
4) Church program. -----------------------------------47
4. Code Review and Site Analyses.
-1. Code Review. ------------------------------------ 49
-2. Site Analysis. ---------------------------------- 54
1) General Information. ----------------------------- 56
2) History of the site. ----------------------------- 56
3) Topographic analysis. ---------------------------- 60
4) Climate analysis. -----------
5) Transportation network and accessibility aanalysis.
66


6) View analysis. ----------------------------------- 67
5. Space Program
5—1. Basic assumption. -------------------------------- 70
5— 2. Space estimate. -------------------------------- 71
6. Design Strategies.
6- 1. Basic premises. ---------------------------------36
6-2. Design principles. ----------------------------- 86
6-3. Design objectives. ----------------------------- 87
6-4. Design strategies. ----------------------------- 88
7. Design proposal(Thesis Design).
-Site and First Floor Plan. ---------------------- 111
-Second Floor Plan. ------------------------------ 112
-West Elevation. --------------------------------- 113
-East Elevation. --------------------------------- 113
-North Elevation. -------------------------------- 114
-South Elevation. -------------------------------- 115
-North-South Section. ------------------------- 116
-East-West Section 1. ------------------------- 117
-East-West Section 2. ------------------------- 118
-Photographs of Model ------------------------- 119
8. Systems Synthesis
8-1. Introduction. -------------------------------------- 122
8-2. Site Flan. ----------------------------------------- 122
1) Infra-structures of the site. ---------------------- 122
A) Summary. --------------------------------------- 122
B) Site Plan. ------------------------------------ 123
C) Water Mains on the Site. ---------------------- 124
D) Gas Mains on the Site. ------------------------ 125
E) Sewer Lines on the Site. ---------------------- 126
2) Drainage. ------------------------------------------ 127
Historic Run Off. ------------------------------ 127
3-3. Structural System. --------------------------------- 128


1) Introduction to Structural System. --------------- 129
2) Structural Plan and Sections. --------------------- 130
3) Slab Design. -------------------------------------- 134
4) Determination of loads. --------------------------- 137
5) Earthquake Load Analysis. ----------------------- 138
6) Wind Load Analysis. ------------------------------- 141
7) Portal Distribution Analysis. --------------------- 143
S) Gravity Load Analysis. ---------------------------- 144
7) Beam Design. -------------------------------------- 150
10) Column Design. ------------------------------------ 154
11) Cai son Design. ----------------------------------- 156
8-4. Mechanical and Electrical Systems. ----------------- 158
1) Heating e*nd Air Conditioning System. ------------- 158
2) Lighting System. ---------------------------- 161
8-5. Construction Cost Estimate. ----------------------- 161
9. CONCLUSION
-Appendix -------------------------------------------- 163
-Questionnaire.
-Soil and Foundation Investigation Report.


1. INTRODUCTION
SOCIAL
ARCHITECTURAL
PROGRAM
lllllllllllimil ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENT, SOCIETY, AND ARCHITECTURE.
ARCHITECTURAL
GOAL,
OBJECTIVES,
DESIGN
PRINCIPLES
ARCHITECTURAL
DESIGN
AND
CONSTRUCTION
CREATIVE LEAP |||||||||||||||| =
11


1
1. THE BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
The history o-f Korean immigrants in the United States o-f America, especially in the State o-f Colorado, is very short. There are about 8,000 Korean people in the Denver metropolitan area. Most of them are economically successful.
During the early period of settlement in the Denver area, the Korean people only recognised the need for economic security. Very recently, however, they have recognized more problems concerning themseves and their second generations. Many of them seem to be suffering psychological displeasure despite their economical achievements.
Pastor Cho, who has preached to the Korean people at the Korean United Methodist Church at Denver for the last several years, has observed this unhealthy phenomenon, and has tried to search for any possible ways to provide them with physical and metaphysical peace and freedom.
Pastor Cho and the church staff set meetings to discuss all those emerging problems among the Korean-American society. The representatives of the church have also made the decision to provide the following tasks for the welfare of the Korean—Americans living in Denver metropolitan area.
1) Research for major problems which the Korean—Americans are suffering.
2) Reinforcement of church program.
3) Architectural developments.
There is another important reason for making this decision. Presently, this community of people do not have their own church building for worship and other activities. They have borrowed a building from another religious institution, and used the space since they established their own community here.
At this time, they want to build their own building which would provide various spaces and express the identity of their homeland. The desire for a new church arose from three reasons. Firstly and most importantly, the community would like to be identified by its own building for worship. Secondly, the present church does not provide space enough for the growing membership of the community. Finally, the community would like to provide more space for new members.
Pastor Cho and the church staff asked me to carry out the important project. I accepted their proposal and took this project as my thesis for the degree of MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE at the University of Colorado, the College of Design and Planning, the Graduate Division of Architecture, without charge. This is not only a tremendously valuable project, but also an unusual opportunity for me to do
12


something -for the welfare of the Korean-Amer i cans living in the Denver metropolitan area.
1-2. THE GOAL AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
(Social Statement)
As I described before, this project emerged from the Korean-Americans’ problems. Accordingly all ideas and solutions of this project should come from their present and future situation of the community. For those reasons, the ultimate goal of this project will be the Korean—Americans' welfare provided them throuth the architectural works. However, this project has tremendously valuable potential to achieve the following objectives.
1) A mission of Christianity
Today, a chronic disease has fallen upon the rich American society. Religious groups have declined, morality has been ruined, and the lovely humanities have been disappeared. There is increasing crime rate, and surging epicurism and mammonism in the contemporary American society. The religions can reduce these syndromes and treat the American social disease. Therefore, the mission of the Christianity is strongly required for the infinite growth of America. This project is an attempt toward such a mission.
2) The preservation of the Korean conventional culture.
Koreans are highly intelligent people. Many Korean individuals are well known as artists, scientists, and scholars in the world.
They have a precious traditional culture succeeded from generation to generation for 5,000 years. It is a confronted responsibility for them to initiate the conventional culture to their descendents for one of unique identities of the Korean people.
The preservation and initiation of the Korean conventional culture is one of the major objectives of this project.
3) A creation of new Korean—American culture
The main stem of the bright American culture is unity and harmony of the various sub-cultures. If the Korean—Americans preserve their culture, and combine it with the existing American culture, inevitably a new Korean-American culture
13


will be created by their o-f-fspring.
It is a very meaningful contribution to the American prosperity in the -future to create a new culture.
The pioneers of such a movement will be laying a new foundation for the greater America.
As we have seen, this project will be completed not only for the Korean-Americans, but also for the all American.
1-3. THE CONTENTS AND SCOPE OF THE PROJECT.
To create architecture is one of various social activities. The first motivation of any architectural work
is from the social aspects----social problems, social needs,
social dreams, etc.... Architecture is an integration of architects’ responses aesthetically expressed in space and form to the various social aspects. To get the right responses, architects should be concerned about many things such as the natural and social background of the problems, the general or specific idealogy of clients, the potentials and limitations of the site in context, etcetera, and catch the true issues before beginning to design.
This project consists of the following six chapters which show the whole process of the architectural design from the initial problem establishment to the final solution.
CHAPTER 1. Introduction.
It tells about motivation, goals and objectives, contents and scope, process and method, and overall characteristics of the project.
CHAPTER 2. Search for problems.
The hypothesis and original motivations are verified and refined in any scientific ways, and the purposes will be clearly established on this section.
CHAPTER 3. Religious studies.
Brief history of the United Methodist Church will be dealt with for the architectural image, and everything of the Korean United Methodist church will be studied.
14


CHAPTER 4. Code Review and Site Analysis.
The overall legal aspects of zoning, building, and -fire codes shall be reviewed. The social and physical value o-f the site will be analyzed. The various potentials and limitations will be determined in site context.
CHAPTER 5. Space program
All characters, -features and i nterrel at i ons o-f the spaces will be analyzed as the activity analysis. And each quantitive spaces will be estimated.
CHAPTER 6. Design strategies
Basic premises, design principles, and design objectives will be established -for clear decision making. A number o-f design strategies will be created to achieve design objectives.
CHAPTER 7. Architectural design proposal.
A design proposal as an architectural forms and spaces. (Thesis Design)
CHAPTER S. Systems Synthesis.
All the other supporting systems, structural system, mechanical system, and electrical system, will be provided.
15


1-4. THE PROCESS AND METHOD TO PERFORM.
Fig. 1-1. A GENERAL MODEL OF THE DESIGNING PROCESS.1 *
In general, the intuition and the logic seem to be in accord with each other in human cognition and activities.
Yet sometimes those are not consistent in critical points. The intuition is more important in most arts than the logic. But, in my understanding, architecture must be created in a logical and rational way as well as an aesthetic way
because it has two basic -functions-----physical function as a
man-made environment and metaphysical (aesthetical) function as the one of five major arts.2’—while the other arts have
16


only one -function (aesthetic) .
However, present approaches designing architecture are those inherited -from the Beaux Arts Tradition which is largely intuitive, poorly structured and solution oriented.3’ This kind o-f approach increases the probability that the wrong problem will have been solved. To reduce this possibility, I prefer to the problem oriented approaches which emphasize the identification and descriptive analysis of the problem prior to the attempt to synthesize solutions. Jon Lang and Charles Burnette suggested a general model of the designing process as well as a decision making ** shown in Fig. 1—1.
It has five phases of intelligence, design, choice, implementation, and evaluation. In this project, I will emphasize the first three phases with my best efforts. The intelligence phase is the first part of the project which involves both the identification and elucidation of the problem situation and the development of an architectural or building program on which the design is to based (Fig. 1-2). The first six chapters are in this phase. Most things in this phase will be dealt with in a scientific method, such as observation, personal or group interview, analysis of the respondents’answers to the questionaire and statistical analyses of given data.
The design phase is the second part which involves the development of partial solutions, a synthesis of designing strategies, and a transformation into the concrete spaces and forms. A few alternatives might be created in architectural configuration through a process of "creative leap" with the aesthetic intuition. Finally an alternative will be selected as a design proposal which best meets the program requirements.
All supporting systems will be provided to the final solution as the systems synthesis in the eighth chapter.
I described whole process and method in very linear manner, but there should be very much feedback and feedforward throughout the whole process. The summarized diagram shows it on Fig. 3.
17


Fig. 1—2. A model of the intelligence phase.a>
(the directional arrows indicate only the sain order of activities and flows of information, feedbacks and secondary flows of information are not indicated.)
fl
i
Problem
Recognition
T
PREDOMENANTLY
ANALYSIS
Identification of the Groups Involved
Behavi ora] and
Soci al Var i ables
-4 —
i
i
i
i
i
Determi nation of Needs, and Value Systems
T
Determi nation of Design Goals and Objectives
T
PREDOMINANTLY
SYNTHESIS
Contextual Vari ables (e.g. Bldg Codes)
Determi nati on of Activity Patterns and Psychologi cal Requi rements to Achieve Those Objectives
----------------1
T
Analysi s of
Present States of Nature
V
Predictions Regardi ng Future States of Nature
Layout
Requirements
for
a) Maintaining Physi ologi cal States
b) Providing for Acti vi ty Patterns
c) Fulf i11i ng Psychologi cal Needs
Inputs
from
Envi ronmental Psychology and the Natural Sciences
PREDOMINANTLY EVALUATION AND CHOICE
Does Present Layout Fulfill These
Requirements ? No
Develop Archi tectural Program to Transform Layout_______
-Yes ! -t
V
Not an Archi tectural Program
18


Fig. 1
Summarized Contents
o-F the Project in Process
19


BIBLIOGRAPHY
1) Jon Lang, Charles Burnette, " A MODEL OF THE DESIGNING PROCESS" -from the Designing for Human Behavior, Community Development Series V. 6. P. 45, Dowden, Hutchinson Ross, Inc. 1977
2) Weitz, Morris, PROBLEMS IN AESTHETICS, P. 169 Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Music, and Poetry.
2) Jon Lang, Charles Burnette, " A MODEL OF THE DESIGNING PROCESS" from the Designing for Human Behavior, Community Development Series V. 6. P. 43, Dowden, Hutchinson Ross, Inc. 1977
3) Ibid, PP. 43-51.
4) Christopher Alexander, "AN EARLY SUMMARY OF THE TIMELESS WAY OF BUILDING, from Ibid, PP. 52-59.
5) Jon Lang, Charles Burnette, ” A MODEL OF THE DESIGNING PROCESS" from the Designing for Human Behavior, Community Development Series V. 6. P. 46, Dowden, Hutchinson Ross, Inc. 1977
20


2. A SEARCH FOR PROBLEMS
2-1. THE KOREAN IMMIGRATION
TO THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Korean immigration to the United States has only assumed major proportions in recent years. Until World War II, emigrants -from that land were excluded because the United States considered Korea part o-f the Japanese Empire. All Americans became conscious o-f Korea, the Land o-f Morning Calm, during the summer o-f 1950 when President Harry S. Truman set in motion the establishment o-f a United Nations •force to oppose the movement of North Koreans southward across the thirty-eighth paralle. Since the Korean War, the United States continues to be involved in varying degrees in Korea’s internal affairs. With the change in the 1965 immigration law, the Korean immigration to the United States has been gradually increased.
Korean immigration to the mainland United States and to Hawaii took place in several distinct waves since 1885. The Koreans left their homeland because of a mixture of motives.
The first Koreans, only three in number, to reach the United States arrived in 1885 foil wing an abortive attempt by pro—Japanese liberals to overthrow the Korean monarchy. Two remained briefly but the third, Philip Jaisohn, attended the American College for Medicine and spent most of his life in the United States. He remained active in the drive for a free Korea.2*
It was not until 1903 that any sizable number of Koreans left the Hermit Kingdom. The stimulus came from Hawaiian sugar plantations in their continuing search for sources of cheap labor. Deshler organized the Korean Development Company to manage the recruitment program gor the Hasaiian Sugar Planters’ Association. The company’s advertisements proclaimed that Hawaii had a mild climate in which to work, that workers would be paik sixteen dollars a month, and that they were to work ten hours a day, six days a week. The plantation s would provide free medical care, housing, fuel, and water to all workers , married and single. Recruiting centers were established in Seoul, Inchon, Pusan, and Wonsan, but few Koreans came forward to make the trip. For most, there was a basic cultural problem related to the abandonment of their ancestors’ graves. There was also the matter of financing one’s passage. Most Koreans who wanted to accept the company’s proposal simply did not have funds to pay for the trip and to have the needed "show money" to demonstrate to United State immigration officials in Honolulu that they were not paupers. The Korean Kevelopment Company paid the emigrants’ passport fees, loaned each individual his newly created Deshler Bank in Inchon, were repayable ten months from the time of the emigrants’ arrival
21


at one of the sugar plantations. Records show that this bank had only one depositor, the HSPA.3>
Through Allen’s urging, who was an United States Minister to Korea, several American Protestant ministers influenced members o-f their congregations to emigrate. George Heber Jones, one of the nissionary preachers in Inchon, was particularly persuasive. On December 22, 1902, 121 emigrants
boarded the S.S. Gaelic for Kobe. Most came from the Inchon area; almost half were members of Jones’s chruch.4’ Those forst pioneers were sent to Kahuku plantation along the northern Oahu coast.3’
Lately Koreans have become interested in the Hawaiian Islands where large numbers of Chinese and Japanese reside, and considerabe numbers have desired to go to the Islands with the hope of bettering their condition.The idea of obtaining an education of their chidren seems to be an incentive as well.
After Allen was replaced as United States minister, Japanese control tightened, and immigration closed to a trickle. But during the years of open migration, 7,226 immigrants, consisting of 6,048 men, 637 women, and 541 children left for Hawaii. The HSPA had arranged sixty-five crossings. The ages of the men ranged from twenty to thirty years. Few of them migrated directly from rural regions.
Most were unemployed laborers from seaport towns. Others were soldiers, house servants, miners, woodcutters, or policemen. Some 60 percent of the immigrants were ill iterate.
Table 2-1. KOREAN IMMIGRATION TO HAWAII, 1901 - 1911"”
Y ear Number Year Number
1901 4-> 1905 2659
1902 12 1906 8b>
1903 1, 133 1910 27=>
1904 3. 434 1911 9
a) Houchins, P. 553; W,Kim, P. 10.
b) Territory of Hawaii, Board of Immigration,
Report, 1907.
c) Territory of Hawaii Legislature, House Committee on Agriculture and Immigration, Report, 1911
One Korean group that continued to arrive were picture brides. Following the 1907 Gentlemen’s Agreement, they emigrated to Hawaii and the mainland until the passage of the 1924 immigration act which made subjects of Japan, including Koreans, aliens ineligible for citizenship and barred as immigrants to the United States. The first wave to Hawaii brought 637 women. Between 1910 and 1924, about one thousand picture brides came to the islands while another
22


115 arrived on the West Coast.6’
(see table 2—1.)
As already indicated, students -formed an important early group o-f Korean immigrants. Following Korean independence in 1945, an estimated six thousand students came to the United States.
Table 2-2. KOREAN IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED
INTO THE UNITED STATES, i965-1976«>
Year Number Year Number
1965 2, 165 1971 14,297
1966 2,492 1972 18,376
1967 3,956 1973 22,930
1968 3,811 1974 28,028
1969 6,045 1975 23,362
1970 9, 314 1976 30,803
a) The Annual Report ot the U.S. Immigration
and Naturalization Service, 1950 -1976
With the tremendous internal dislocation caused by the Korean War, large numbers o-f Koreans behan to enter American ports, in 1950. In 1958, -for example, 1,604 Koreans were admitted The number o-f arrivals increased gradually each year. By 1965, the number has risemn to 2,165. The -first major increase occurred in 1969, the General Park entrenched himsel-f in the presidency. From that time on, the number o-f Korean immigrants dramatically increased each year. They clearly le-ft their homeland -for both economic and political reasons. During the decade 1965-1974, Korean immigration, as shown on the table 2—2 increased 1,194.6 percent as 111,914 Koreans entered the United States.s> The United States Immigration Act o-f 1965 selects new kinds o-f Korean immigrants. The new Korean immigarants arrived, which virtually communtes -from Seoul to New York City and Los Angel esl. Unlike the older immigrants, most o-f whom were illiterate, poor, and low skilled laborers intermingled with some -few highly educated political refugees, a majority o-f new ones are well educated, skilled urban—middle-c1 ass Koreans.
Nobody knows the exact number o-f the total Korean-Americans in the United States. Based on the Annual Report o-f the United States Immigrantion and Nati onal i zati on service, There are 543,394 Korean-Americans at the present o-f June, 1979 as shown on the table 2—3. Most of Korean—Americans entered the United States Since the enactment o-f the Immigration Act ot 1965, especially since 1978.s> I-f we assume about 150,000 Koreans have entered the
23


United States every year since 1980, There should be 1,300,000 Korean-Americans with very rough estimate by June 1984.
The major Korean immigration to the Colorado state began right after the U.S. Immigration Act of 1965. Most of them came to Colorado State since 1970 as shown on the table 2-3. Only a few Korean-Americans lived in Denver area before 1965.
Table 2-3. Number of Koreans who reported Colorado states as their addresses by year, 1971-1979.
Year Total Col orado Number 7. Denver Number Springs Number %
1971 14,297 171 1.2 41 0.29 41 0.29
1972 18,876 187 1 38 0.2 24 0. 13
1973 22,930 309 1.35 89 0.39 67 0.29
1974 28,028 377 1.35 85 0.3 127 0. 45
1975 28,362 7 n 7
1976 30,803 482 1.57 141 0.46 138 0. 45
1977 30,917 521 1.66 99 0.32 155 0.5
1978 140,206 2, 109 1.5 7 r>
1979 154,615 2,344 1.5 7 n
Sum 543,894 6,500
Source; Adapted from the Annual Report of The United States Immigrants and Naturalization Service (1971-1979)
* The Korean-Americans who had previously entered with nonimmigrant statuses such as student, visitor, or businessman and who changed their status to that of permanent resident are excluded.
It is very tough job to estimate the number of Korean-Americans living in Denver Metropolitan area because there is no statistical data about them. But we can roughly project the Korean-American population living in Denver area from the data based on the Annual report of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service. Total 145,851 Koreans entered the United States during 6 years from 1971 to 1977 excluding 1975, 2047 persons (1.4 TO reported Colorado State, and 493 persons (0.34 TO chose Denver as their addresses.
There are 1,300,000 Korean-Americans in the United States as I mentioned before. So we can easily extract 4,420 persons from the total number as Korean—American residents in Denver area, if we use 0.34 V. as a variable for the people who had chosen this area as their address. However this result of the projection is not reliable because number
24


o-f migration should be considered very significantly. Unfortunatly there is no possible way to trace the Korean-Americans migration within the Unite States. I met several people who engage in the Korean-American communities in Denver area -for long time. Their answers are consistent that there are about 8,000 Korean-Americans in Denver area.
I -felt their answers are very reliable and accepted the number o-f 8,000 because the point is not the exact number but the overall scale of the Korean-American population.
2-2. General Characteristies of the Korean-Americans.
In general, the Korean-Americans who recently came to the United States were in almost same social situation in Korea. They are highly educated, well skilled, urban middle-class Koreans. Accordingly, there should be little difference in their general charateristics between the Korean-Americans living in different areas.
1) Korean-American population structure in age and sex. *5>>
Table 2—4. Age and Sex of Korean—American in Denver area,1984.
Age Group Sex Percent
Under 10 M 9,2
F 9,6
10 - 19 M 10,6
F 12,1
20 - 29 M 8,9
F 14,2
30 - 39 M 9,2
F 9,9
40 - 49 M 5,5
F 5, 1
50 — 59 M 1,4
F 1,5
60 and over M 1,2
F 1,6
Total M 46
F 54
25


Korean immigration is selective in terms of age and sex.
A majority are young and thus economically active, and -Female immigrants out number males by two to one as shown on the table 2-4, more than 90 persent o-f the Korean immigrants who entered -From 1966 to 1975 were under the age o-f thirty nine, and the percentage o-f immigrants between twenty and thirty years old declined -from 66,1 percent in 1966 to 43,2 percent in 1975. This decline was largely caused by the percentage decrease o-f -female immigrants in this age group.
In the twenty to twenty nine age group, a massive in-flux o-f Korean nurses and Korean war brides is largely responsible -for the high proportion o-f -female immigrants, during the period 1962-1970 a total o-f 14,554 Korean women came to U.S. as wives o-f American citizens. Most o-f citizens,as I have noted, were American soldiers. In addition 7,000 Korean nurses were admitted to U.S. either directly -from Korea or by way o-f third nations, like West Germany and Canada.
The Korean-American Population structure in Denver area conducted by random sampling survey during the month o-f September, 19B4 is slightly di-f-ferent -from that o-f 1975 based in the Annual Report o-f USIN. The total portion o-f -female is more declined by 54 percent as the table 2-1 shows
2) Education Status.
As I mentioned before, The majority o-f Korean-Americans who entered the United States since 1965 are highly educated. The Table 2—5 shows the education level o-f the Korean-Americans in the New York Metropolitan area obtained by sample survey which was conducted by Jae T. Kim in 1975. 10> 67 7. o-f 560 respondents received college deucation in their home country.
Table 2—5. Education Level Attained Before Leaving
Korea by Korean Householders in the New York Metropolitan Area.
High School 12 */.
Junior College 16 7.
Col 1ege 67 7.
Other 5 7.
Total 100 7.
According to the U.S. census Bureau, 36 7. of the Korean residents in the U.S. have a college education, compared to 11 7. in the U.S. as whole. 11* The education level of the Denver area Korean—Americans comparablly lower than that of
26


whole Korean-Americans in the United States as the table 2—6 shows. But their education level is still very high.
Table 2-6. Education Level o-f the Korean-American in
the Denver Area received either in Korea or in U.S. 1984.
Education Level Number Percentage
Junior High School 17 14
or 1ower
Senior High School 49 41
College or University 42 35
Graduate or higher 12 10
Total Respondents 120 100
3) Occupational Status
The occupational status o-f a man is very good and valuable source to read his social role.
Table 2-7. Last occupation o-f Korean immigrants before time o-f entry, 1965-1974, and o-f the U.S. population in 1970.
Korean Immi grants(%) *> U.S.(%)
Professional, Technical
and Managerial Workers 67 22.6
Crerical and Sales Workers 7.5 24.9
Craftsmen and Operatives 15. 1 31.9
Laborers, Farm,
and Nonfarm 1.3 7. 8b>
Service Workers,
Including Domestics 9. 1 12. 8
Source; The Annual Reports o-f Immigration and naturalization Service, 1965-1974.
a) The total represents 26% o-f all Koreans who immigrated to the U.S. -from 1965 to 1974. The remainder either did not have an occupation or did not report one. The total -figure includes housewives and chi 1dren.
b) This includes -farmers and -farm managers.
The table 2-7. shows that the majority of them were in urban middle class in Korea before they enter the United
27


States. Their social positions were very much higher than those o-f average American people. But their social positions were changed all o-f a sudden. They could not possibley keep their high social positions. According to my survey for the Denver area Korean—Americans, only 3 persons out of 120 are professionals, 4 persons out of 120 are white color office workers, 5 persons out of 120 have own businesses. According to my another observation of the Korean Commercial and Industrial Association of Colorado, There are 76 registrants as memberships. Mr. Choi who is the chairman of the association said there are about 50 small businessmen who are out of the institution. If we accept his figure, there are about 126 businessmen in the Denver area. It is only 4 7. of total Korean-Americans who are over 19 years old in the Denver area. The Table 2-8 shows the occupational distribution of the Denver area Korean-Americans.
Table 2-8. Occupational Distribution of Korean—Americans in the Denver Area, 1984
Occupations Number Percentage
Professi onal 3 2.5
White Color 4 3.3
â–¡wn Business Blue Color 5 4.2
& Unemployment 110 90
Total 120 100
4) Family Income
Table 2-9. The gross Family Income of
Korean—Americans in the Denver area, 1983.
Under % 20,000 87.
$ 20,000-30,000 397.
* 30,000-40,000 317.
* 40,000 or more 227.
Total respondents were 113 out of 150
Most Korean-Americans have low income job. But they have minimun economic security because they are hard working people, and they struggle to be successful in economy for the compensation for their backward social roles. Only QV. of 120 respondents earn less than 20,000 dollars a year as gross family income, and 287 of them make more than 40,000 dollars a year. The table 2—9 represents the Denver area Korean—Americans family income level in detail.
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5) The Presence o-f Close Friends.
Closely related to organizational participation as a measure o-f social assimilation is the presence o-f colse triends. More then hal-f o-f the responents don’t have any any close friend.
Table 2—10. Presence of Close friends
Number of Friends Korean American
4 or more 6 (47.) 4 (37.)
~r •j 9 (67.) 6 (47.)
10 (77.) 10 (77.)
i 41 (297.) 41 (297.)
None 76 (547.) 81 (577.)
Total 142 (1007.) 142 (1007.)
Only 6 persons out of 142 marked the column that they have 4 or more close Korean—American friends, and only 4 persons out of 142 answered that they have 4 or more American friends. 87 percent of them have never invited American friends, 62 percent of them have been never invited by American friends. They are living only with their family isolated from friend and variety of social relationships.
The Table 2—10 represents their presence of class friends.
6) Proficiency in English.
I gave three different questions on the randomly selected Korean-Americans for the measuring their English proficiency. Those English at home, subscription magazines or self-evaluation of English proficiency.
questionaire to purpose of are use of newspapers, and
Table 2—11. Use of English at Home
Frequency Number Percent
A1ways 2 1,3
Frequently 12 7,8
Occasional1y 63 41,2
Never 76 49,7
Total 153 100
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There were only 2 people who always use English at home. One of them is not the -first generation, o-f Korean immigrant. The other came to the U.S. at the age o-f -five and has been living -for seventeen years. Most Korean-Americans don't use English at home. ( See the Table 2—11 )
The aspect o-f reading printed matters in English is very di-f-ferent -from that o-f speaking English. More than hal-f o-f them read English newspapers, and 65 percent o-f them read English magazines as shown on the Table 2-12.
Table 2—12. Subscribing American Printed Media
Number of Newspaper Magaz i ne
Subscriptions Number V. Number V.
3 or more 6 4 9 6
'-y 9 6 12 8
i 63 42 78 51
None 72 48 54 35
Total — 150 100 153 100
Table 2-13. Self—Evaluated English Proficiency
Level Number Percent
Fluent 9 6
Good 62 42
Fair <=> 74 50
Poor =*> T 2
Total 148 100
a) No problem at all in speaking, listening, reading, writing English .
b) No problem in speaking and listening, but hard to read and write.
c) General Communication is o.k.
d) Limited or impossible communication.
More than half of the respondents confessed their inadequate English proficiency. There are only 9 persons out of 148, which is 6 percent, who have confidence on English proficiency. We can easily interpret the table 2-13 that most Korean-Americans have some kinds of limitations in English even though they have high education in Korean or in the Unites States. It is hardly possible for them to continuously increase their English proficiency because many prople don't always use English, and because most of them don’t have any chance to study English.
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2-3. Problems o-f the Korean-Americans.
1) Language deficiency
Language deficiency is the most common and -fundamental problem -for Korean-Americans. Language problem easily leads them to the other problems. Large portion o-f the respondents -for my questionaire -feel that they have great limitation in social and economic activities. Because o-f the language deficiency, they have to continue their lives unhappy. It is not only their problem but also American problem.
2) The misery of rejected feeling.
They are isoalted prople who are living within the small and limited subculture. They can hardly get involved in various and dynamic American culture. It couldn’t be solved with money. They really need something other than physical matter. They are struggling to get out of the loneliness of "not belonging".
3) Discontent Social Role.
Their social positions are almost bottom of the social structure. It makes them desperate. They lose confidence of themselves. Usually they have regressed into their own subculture and struggled each other. They have been making a number of discordances in their subculture to possess higher social roles.
4) The Generation Gap.
There is a big and dark gap between the first generation and second generation of the Korean-Americans. Ones life style is different from the other’s. One could hardly understand the other because their cultural backgrounds are very much different from each other. In many families, it is not easy for both generations to communicate each other in serious topics because of difference of native languages, and difference of social value systems.
5) Education for Their Descendants.
They don’t have any preperation for their future generation. They are losing their identity and cultural root. They must keep their cultural prestiges for another future American culture.
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2-4. Conclussion
A Church As a Problem Solving Organization.
We have seen Korean-Americans social and cultural situation. Obviously they have critical problems which must be solved. The Church is one of the best possible organizations which can provide them proper education, chance to get involved in the native American culture. The ultimate goal of the Christianity is sulvation o-f people.
The churches exist -for suffering prople. The Korean United Methodist Church exists tor mainly suffering Korean-Americans with variety of program to provide them language education, cultural education, vocational service, recreational activities new commer guidence service, etc. besides the religious activities.
It is a bridge to connect them to the native American culture, a basic social gathering point for them. The Korean United Methodist Church gives Korean-Americans, who are isolated and regressed from the major American culture because of their problems, new vision, new hope and new life as well as faith in God.
Inspite of theose definite necessities, they don’t have their own church. They must have one through which they can change themselves and have successful American lives! I suggest that the new Korean United Methodist Church have
foil owing characteristics ;
A) A church as a religious organization
B) A church as a social organization
C) A church as a cultural organization
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1) H. Brett Melendy, ASIANS IN AMERICA, P.111,
G. K. Hall Co., Boston, 1977.
2) Kim, KOREANS IN AMERICA, P.3;
Arthur L. Gardner, "SO-CHAEPIL AND THE TONGMIP SINMUN," M.A. Thesis, Univ. o-F Hawaii, 1969, PP. 1-2;
Hyungchan Kim, "SOME ASPECTS OF SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHY OF DOREAN AMERICANS," From International Migration Review, VIII (1974), 24, indicates that the -first Koreans considered by the United States to be immigrants arrived in Hawaii in Jan. 15, 1900.
3) Houchins Lee and Changsu Houchins, "THE KOREAN EXPERIENCE
IN AMERICA," Pacific Historical Review, XLIII, P. 552, 1974.
4) Kim, KOREANS IN AMERICA, P. 10;
Kim, "ASPECS OF SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHY," P. 24.
5) Honolulu Evening Bulletin, Jan. 13, 1903, as quoted
in 50 Years of Progress:Hawaii Korean Golden Jubilee Celibration (Honolulu, 1953) PP. S, 11, 13.
6) Kim, KOREANS IN AMERICA, PP. 22 - 23.
7) H. Brett Melendy, ASIANS IN AMERICA : Pilipinos,
Koreans, and East Indians, P. 125,Twayne Publishers,
A Division of G. K. Hall CO., Boston, 1977.
8) 111soo Kim, NEW URBAN IMMIGRANTS, P. 25, Princeton University Press, New Jersey,1981.
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3. RELIGIOUS STUDIES
3 - 1. A BRIEF HISTORY
OF THE UNITED METHODIST CHURCH.1 *
The plan of Union proposed to bring together The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church, two churches that share a common historical and spiritual heritage. They hold the same -fundamental doctrines o-f -faith. Ecclesiastical organization is similar. They are Protestant churches, whose streams o-f spiritual life and thought come out of the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century.
Since their beginnings they had lived and worked side by side in friendly fellowship. Had it not been for the
difference in language ---- the Methodist working among
English-speaking people and the Evangelical and United
Brethren working among those speaking German ---- they might,
from the beginning, have been one church. Brief historical sketches of the churches follow.
1) The Methodist Church
The Methodist Church is a church of Christ in Which "the pure Word of God is preached, and the sacrements duly administered”. This church is a great Protestant body, though it did not come directly out of the Reformation but had its origin within the Church of England. Its founder was John Wesley, a clergyman of that church, as was his father before him. He sought in vain for religious satisfaction by the strict observance of the rules of religion and the ordinances of the church. The turning point in his life came whem, at a prayer meeting in Aldersgate Street, London, on May 24, 1738, he learned what Paul had discovered, that it
is not by rules and laws, nor by our own efforts at self-perfection, but by faith in God’s mercy as it comes to us in Christ, that man may enter upon life and peace
The gospel which Wesley thus found for himself the began to proclaim to others, first to companions who sought his counsel, including his brother, then in widening circles that took him throughout the British Isles.
Wesley did not plan to found a new church. In his work he simply followed, lide Paul, the clear call of God, first to preach the gospel to the needy who were not being reached by the Established Church and its clergy, second to take care of theose who were won to the Christian life. Step by step he was led on until Methodism became a great and transforming movement in the life of England. He gathered his people in groups, in classes and societies. He appointed
34


leaders. He -Found men who were ready to carry the gospel to the assses, speaking on the streets, in the open -fields, and in private homes.
Wesley thus united in extraordinary -fashion three notable activities, in all o-f which he excelled. One was evangelism; "The world is my parish," he declared. His preachers went to th4 people; they did not wait -for the people to come to them, and he himsel-f knew the highways and byways o-f England as did no other man o-f his day. The second was organization and administration, by which he conseved the -fruits o-f this preaching and extended its influence. The third was his appreciation o-f education and his use o-f the printed page.
He made the press a servant o-f the Chruch and was the -father o-f the mass circulation o-f inexpensive books, pamphlets, and peri odi cals.
From England, Methodism spread to Ireland, and then to America. In 1766 Fhilip Embury, a lay preacher -from Ireland, began to preach in the city o-f New York. At about the same time Robert Strawbridge, another lay preacher -from Ireland, settled in Frederick County, Maryland, and began the work there. In 1769 Wesley sent Richard Boardman and Joseph Pi 1 moor to America, and two years later Francis Asbury, who became the great leader o-f American Methodism. Methodism
was especially adapted to American li-fe by the pioneers.
2) The Evangelical United Brethren Church.
The Evangelical United Brethren Church had its roots in the spiritual quickening which energed in the United States in the late eighteenth and early noneteenth centuries. This movement challenged not only religious indifference, but also the contemporary tendency to substitute "religion" -for a vital and experiential relationship with God. In its present -form the Evangelical United Brethren Church represents the union, consummated in 1946, o-f the Church o-f the United Brethren in Christ and the Evangelical Church.
A) Church o-f the United Brethren in Christ.
The eighteenth century witnessed the eruption o-f revolutionary ideas and programs in science, industry, and politics. In this agitated world there were marked evidences o-f religious revi tal ization. In the English-speaking world it was associated with, though not con-fined to, Wesleyanism; in the German-speaking world it was associated with pietism. In some places and in some persons, these two movements impinged upon each other.
Philip William Otterbein, and ordained minister o-f the German Re-formed Church who served congregations in Pennsylvania and Maryland, and Martin Boehm, a Pennsylvanian o-f Mennonite parentage, were among those who sensed a call
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to preach the Good News o-f God’s redeeming mercy and love as demonstrated in Jesus Christ, especially among neglected Germen speaking settlers of the Middle Colonies. In obedience to this call, they invited men to accept samvation. To be saved, they held, meant both awareness, as real as any sensory awareness, of God’s acceptance and personal commitment to Christ. Their labors were blessed, and thriving societies were established which were conceived not so much as alternatives or rivals to establishedchurches as centers for renewal in those churches. This work expanded, and helpers were sought to devote themselves to this evangelistic effort.
The gracious work of renewal and reformation spread through Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. Otterbein’s leadership was increasingly acknowledged.
B) The Evangelical Church
Jacob Albright, an unordained Pinnsylvania ti1emaker-farmer, began preaching that religion was a personal, conscious, expeiential relationship with God.
About 1800, Small groups of people living in three separated communities, impressed by Albright’s ideas, covenanted themselves to seek God’s grace which would enable them to live bolily. Following his experience of salvation in 1791, B1bright began to witness in the German language to God’s saving grace. He and those associated with him agreed to measures of self-discipline and Christian witness. The number of those inclined to participate in this endeavor increased, and this in turn promoted the enlistment of helpers. The transition from movement to ecclesiastical organization was marked by the first council of those acknowledging B1bright as leader on November 3, 1803.
Beginning in 1807, with a meetintg at K1einfeltersvi11e, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, the preachers gathered in annual meeting.
During the noneteenth century the operations of this church enlarged in evangelism, education, and publications. In the latter part of the century differences arose in the Evangelical Association which in 1391 culminated in a division. A considerable number of ministers and laymen withdrew and took the name the United Evangelical Church, which held its first General conference in 1894. Both churches grew in munbers and in missionary enterprise. By 1910 the growing conviction that the two churches should be reunited found articulate expression, and in 1922 the Evangelical Association and the United Evangelical Church were united under the name the Evangelical Church.
Negotiations, beginning in 1933, were consummatd in 1946 when the Church of the United Brethren in Christ and the
36


Evangelical Church became the Evangelical United Brethren Church. This church sought to serve its Lord faithfully in the proclamation that salvation is available to any upon the -free, personal acceptance o-f God’s o-F-fer. Conversion, while personal, is not a private matter and -finds its consummation in holy living and in serving as an instrument o-f God -for the redemption o-f the whole world.
3) The United Methodist Church
The united Methodist Church brings together two streams o-f spiritual life with similar emphases which had their beginnings in the evangelistic concerns and passion o-f John Wesley, Francis Asbury, Philip Wulliam Otterbein, Jacob Albright, Martin Boehm, and others who labored with them. These men were dedicated to the task o-f preaching the gospel to their -fellow countrymen.
Since they were men who were deeply moved by a common -faith and zeal and held a like emphasis upon personal speritual experience o-f salvation, it is no surprise to -find instances o-f -fraternity and cooperation among them. They often conferred with each other and sometimes traveled together on their preaching missions. In many communities they shared the same building, with the Methodist preachers conducting services in English at one hour and the Evangelical or United Brethren preachers conducting a German service at another hour. There are many references to the Asbury groups as "English Methodists" and
Otterbein-Boehm-Albright groups as "German Methodists" or "DUtch Methodists".
The firm conviction that Christian faith and experience ought to be expressed in holy living led these early leaders to adopt similar patterns of ecclesiastical organization and discipline to assist Christians in spiritual growth and Christian witness.
When Asbury was ordained and consecrated as hi shop in 17B4, Otterbein participated with the laying on of hands. When Otterbein ordained Christian Newcomer in 1813, he requested that a Methodist minister participate. William Ryland responded and joined Otterbein in the act of ordi nat i on.
There is evidence that Asbury conferred with Otterbein when he was working on the book of Discipline for the Methodists. When this Discipline was later translated into German, it became the basis for the Discipline of the Evangelische Gemeinschaft (later konwn as the Evangelical
Church) and --- to a lesser degree ---- the Vereinigten
Bruder (later known as the United Brethren in Christ).
Over the years there have been many conversations concerning union. Bishop Newcomer’s journal records such a conversation as early as April 1, 1803 the Evangelical
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Association Voted by a narrow nargin o-f one to join the Methodists, but union was never consummated. During the years thesis conversations, under the instruction and authorization o-f the respective General Conferences, led to a plan and basis o-f union that united the Evangelical United Brethren Chruch and The Methodist Church into The United Methodist Church.
3 - 2. A STUDY OF THE KOREAN
UNITED METHODIST CHURCH.
1) The Establishment.
The Korean United Mithodist Church was established by a Korean paster, Jong—il Kim and three other Korean people at 465 Galapago, Denver, CO. in the month o-f October, 1979. The paster Kim was educated in USA to be a paster of the United Methodist church. He claimed the Rocky Mountain conference, which is the headquater of United Methodist Church, a church building for Korean American’s worship. The Headquarter gave a building to him to mission Korean—American people in Denver Metroplitan area !(something should be added). But he was not very long in the Korean United Methodist church. He left it one year after he had established the church. Then present paster Cho took up a new paster. He has made the church grow very fast in both of member and activity
2) Church Population Studies
Analysis and projection of population are at the base of almost all major planning decisions. As measures of the size and density of the grows, we will determine the level of demand for future facilities and serve as indices of most problems in this project. The substantial importance of population projections to all aspects of planning programs justifies the use of adequate time and resources to produce results that are reliable, flexible enough to reflect the consequences of institutional change, and sufficiently detailed to serve as a basis for the design of specialized institutional facilities. It is the purpose of this section
38


to provide a population projection which best meets the requirements o-f the church planing.
The Korean United Methodist Church at Denver has grown very -fast since it was established by 4 Korean-Amer i cans.
The church members were only 12 people during the -first year and the worship was the entire activity o-f the church. On the -first Sunday o-f may, 1980, paster Cho occupied the pulpit as a new leader. He has devoted all his might to Korean-American mission. Because o-f his e-f-fort, the number o-f church members have increased significantly. The church members were 40 persons at the end of 1980, 60 at 1981, 82 persons at 1982, 112 persons at 1983, and 120 persons at
present, September, 1984.
The behavior of population change of a small institution is very different from that of regional or urban scale because the population changing mechenisms are different.
Table 3—1. Church, members by 3 month periods
Peri od No. of No. of Ratio of
Persons Increase Increse
1979, June — — —
Dec. 10 — —
1980, June 20 10 100
Dec. 40 20 100
1981, June 50 10 25
Dec. 60 10 20
1982, June 72 12 20
Dec. 82 10 14
1983, June 94 12 15
Dec. 112 18 19
1984, June 120 8 7
Dec. n n n
* Period end is the end of the month.
There are three immediate precipitators of change over time in the number of residents of an area births, deaths, and migration across the boundary of the area.l) Births and deaths are very important causes of population change in regional ar urban scale. Yet those are not critical parameters in small institution because sometimes a small institution may grow faster than a human does. Also migration is not critical because there is a strong
39


possibility that a new church would 'be established *, and that every person can move -from a church to another. According to my research, There are many churches o-f which the members are decreasing signi-f i cant 1 y in Denver area although the regional population are increasing. The point that births, deaths, and migration are not critical -factors to change population o-f the Korean United Methodist Church.
There are several reasons to change the population o-f a church;
A) The doctrine o-f the church
It is very important -factor to change church members that what kind o-f doctrine they have. In other words, The church members should be increased i-f mission is a major doctrine o-f the church, and all church members participate in the missionary work.
B) The Church Activities
The population o-f a church can be changed very si gni-f i cant 1 y according to their acctivities. Especially in an Immigration church. People’s reaction o-f the activities are very critical because most immigrants need various help -for adaptation to new culture which is totally di-f-ferent from that they had. At the very -first time, a person goes to church -for help. After that, he goes to church for worship and social intercourse.
C) Relatives and friends
Koreans are very sensitive to human relationship like consanguinity friendship, etc.. Their close human relation has been little bit untied in the USA. But they still keep the character in their own generation. I discovered that all families and close relatives go to same church in most case, and that generally all families and relatives change their chruch if an influential person among a family changes his church. It is not unusual either that Korean—Americans select their church just because of their friends.
D) The personality and intelligence of paster
A paster must have a lovely personality and broad knowledge for misson. It is very common that certain members secede from the church because of discord with the paster.
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On the other hand, the church members hardly leave the church i-f the paster understands and serve them in person with deep love, and i-f he can talk with all members on broad Topics.
The projection stratage is absolutely based on the precipitator o-f stratages, constant absolute change per unit o-f time, constant percentage change per unit o-f time, typical logistic curves, and constant percentage decrease in unused capacity in each time period, in urban planning. But the -four pr eci pi tators I described -for this project are not possiblly converted to mathematical -function. However we can -find a projection stratage from the analysis of changing behavior with given data. The table 1. shows the increasing pattern in every 6 month period, the number of increase per unit of time is almost constant the average increase of church member in each unit of time is 12.2 persons. It is a very useful variable.To use a single variable for urban or rigional planning is not a sophisticated way of projection.But this simplest form of projection would be most reliable and accurate for a small institution. It can be illustrated with a mathematical function and its graphic equi valent.
Fig. 3—1. Regression for the Projection.
(P)
130!-120!-110!-100!-90!-80!-70!-60!-50!-40!-30! -20!-10!-0! —

P
a
J D 1979
J D 1980
J D
1981
J D 1982
J D 1983
J D 1984
a + nb F'opul at i on. No. of Initial Member.
No. of Increase per Unit Ti me.)
J = June D = Dec.
In this case, a is 10 persons, b is 12.2 persons. The ideal size of church member is about 300 persons, and the church staves want their church to be the ideal size. It takes about 12 years to reach the ideal situation accoring to this assumpt i on.
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3. CHURCH ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION
fig. 3-2. ORGANIZATION CHART.
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Every local church has an organization so that adequate provision is made -for these basic responsibilities ;
A) planning and implementing a program of nurture, outreach, and witness -for perons and families eithin and without the congregation.
B) providing for effective pastoral and lay leadership.
C) providing for financial support, physical facilities, and the legal obligations of the church.
D) insuring relationships of the local church organizations to appropriate district and Annual Conference structures and programs
The Korean United Methodist Church has an organization based on the United Methodist Church Constitution and its own variety of activities(See Fig. 3—2). The detail functions and structure of it is as follow ;
A) Charge Conference.2’
Within the pastoral charge the basic unit in the connectional system of the United Methodist Church is the Charge Conference. It is the connecting link between the church and the general Church and have general oversight of the Administrative Board. The members of it would be all members of the Administrative Boards, 24 persons. It has annual meeting, and erregular meeting. Its primary responsibility in the annual meeting is to receive reports, review and evaluate the total mission and ministry of the church, and adopt objectives and goals recommended by the Administrative Board which are in keeping with the objectives of The United Methodist Church.
B) Administrative Board.3’
Administrative Board have general oversight of the administration and program of the Korean United Methodist Church as the executive agency of the Charge Conference. It is consisted of the Committee on Nominations and personnel, Committee on Financing, Committee on paster-parish relations, Trustees, Committee on Education. There are 8 members in each committees and trustees. Each member can be a member of other committees or trustees. Therefore the number of the members are not 40 persons. There are 24
43


members in the board. The pastor is the administrative officer. The Admi ni strat i ve Board meet at least quarterly. Special meetings may be ordered by the chairperson of the board or the pastor. Its general responsibilities are to initiate planning, establish objectives, adopt goals, authorize action, determine policy, receive reports, evaluate the church's ministries, and review the mission and ministry of the church. The major functions on each committees and trustees are follow.
B—A) Committee on Nominations and Personnel
It is composed of 8 persons, excluding the paster. The committee nominates to the Charge Conference in its annual session such officers and members of the Administrative Board and Charge Conference and committees as the law of the Church requires. -
B—B) Committee on Finance.
The 8 members are elected annually by the Charge Conference upon nomination by the Committee on Nominations and Personnel. The committee carry out the Administrative Board's directions of financial affair in guiding the treasurer.
B-C) Committee on Mission.
There are 8 members in the committee elected by the Committee on Nominations and Personnel. It works for all kinds of missionary affairs.
B-D) Trustees.
It is the official body with the responsibility of acquisition, sale, maintenance, and management of church property. It has the power to invest, reinvest, buy, sell, transfer, and convey any and all funds and properties which it may hold in trust, subject always to the terms of the legacy, devise, or donation. It manages all properties of the church.
It can be consist of twelve persons, who must be at least thirty years of age. There are 8 members in the Trustees.
B—E) Committee on Education.
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The are 8 members in the committee. It is administratively related to the Church School It is responsible for Christian education and other social edcati on.
C) Council on Ministries.
It is one o-f major agencies o-f the church which shall consider , initiate, develop, and coordinate proposals -For the church’s strategy -for mission.3’ There are 6 groups in thi s counci 1.
C-l) Church School.
It has interrelationship to the Committee on Education â– for all kinds of educations. There are two major educational categories in school in the Korean United Methodist Church. One is for the Christian education, the other is for the social education for Korean-Americans. Church school settings include the Sunday school and all other ongoing and short-term classes and learning groups for persons of all ages.
There are three age groups for Christian education, children (first through sixth grade), youth (seventh through twelveth grade), adult. There are two classes in each children and youth group, and four classes (young adult, adult, United Methodist Women, United Methodist Men) in the adult group. There are 10 students in each class as the table 3—4 showes.
The social education is consisted of vocational and language school. Highly educated chruch members teach Korean-Americans basic technical skills such as architectural, electrical, and mechenical draftings at the vocational school. One class has been held in every other eveni ngs.
The language school is to provide the first generation of Korean immigrants English prophiciency as well as the second generation Korean prophiciancy. There is one class for each language. The classes have been held in Saturday evenings. There are only 10 students in the Korean language class, and 2 students in the English class. But it is obviously antecipated that students in each class should increase.
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C—2) Youth Ministry.
The youth ministry o-f the Korean United Methdist Church includes all persons -from approximately twelve through eighteen years o-f age (generally persons in the seventh grade through twel-fth grade, taking into account the grouping o-f youth in the public schools), who are currently or potentially associated with the church or any o-f its act i vi ti es.
C-3) Young Adult Ministry.
The ministry includes all persons -from approximately nineteen through thirty years o-f age.
C—4) Older Adult Ministry.
The ministry consists o-f all persons si sty years o-f age and older. Such ministry seeks to meet the needs o-f older adults and bring them into the -fellowship, ministry, and service o-f the local congregation.
C—5) United Methodist Women.
The Membership is open to any woman who indicates her desire to belong and to participate in the global mission o-f the church through United Methodist Women. The United Methodist Women is a community o-f women whose purpose is to know God and to experience -freedom as whole persons through Jesus Christ; to develop a creative, supportive -fellowship; and to expand concepts o-f mission through participation in the global ministries o-f the church.
C-6) United Methodist Men.
The United Methodist Men is a creative supportive fellowship o-f men who seek to know Jesus Christ, to grow spiritually, and to seek daily his will. Its primary purpose is to declare the centrality o-f Christ in the lives o-f men and in all their relationships.
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4) Church Program
There are various programs religious activities, social activities and recreational activities. However I will deal with the programs only those are closely related to the architectural space programming.
A) Worship Service.
Worship service is -fundamental program held on every Sundays. There are two sessions for worship ; one is the English preaching session for native Americans and second generation of the Korean mmigrants who can’t understand Korean very well. The other is Korean preaching session for the most Korean-Americans. The main session, which is Korean preaching, is held 11:30 AM on every Sundays.
ED Intimate Friendship.
It is an informal activity for social intercourse among all church members right after the worship service or any formal meetings. They talk each other, exchange hoods, and make their fellowships closer.
C) Revival Service.
It is an evangelistic service for the purpose of effecting a religious awakening. Generally a special guest preaches or confesses his faith or experiences in God as a witness of the world of God. Usually the revival service is held once a year, lasts two or three evenings.
D) Retreat.
It is an annual conference to promote spiritual living for individual age groups, children, youth, young adult, old adult, United Methodist Women, United Methodist Men. It hardly affects the architectural programming because it is not charged in the church building or around it. Usually each age group select a spacial place for the activity.
E) Age Group Prayer Meeting.
Every Saturday evenings, each age group has a meeting for bible study, share faith, and fellowship in the church or other place. There are five age groups in this category.
,47


F) Various Education.
Christian, social, and vocational education
G> Korean-American Help Service.
It is an in-formal service center to guide, help Korean-Americans in any possible way such as an employment agency, housing information center, driving education, etc
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1) Ronald P. Patterson, Editor, THE BOOK OF DISCIPLINE OF THE UNITED METHODIST CHURCH, PP. 7 - 18, The United Methodist Publishing House, Nashville, Tennessee, 1980.
2) Ibid, PP. 128 - 133.
3) Ibid, PP. 133-137.
4) Ibid, F'. 154.
5) George E. Koehler, HANDBOOK FOR THE COUNCIL ON MINISTRIES, P. 7, The United Methodist Publishing House Nashville, Tennessee, 1977.
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4. CODE REVIEW AND SITE ANALYSES
4—1. Code Review
1) Type o-f Zone ; R-l
Type o-f Fire Zone ; 3
2) Permitted Uses
A) Art musium, public
B) Church
C) Community center owned and operated by a governmental entity.
D) Community recreational -f aci 1 i ty.
3) Bulk o-f Structures
No part o-f any structure (except eaves, church spires, church towers, -flagpoles, antennas,chimneys, flues, vents or accessory water tanks) shall project up through bulk limits which are de-fined by planes extending up over the zone lot at an angle o-f -forty—f i ve (45) degrees with respect to the horizontal (a pitch of one -foot additional rise -for each -foot additional setback) and which planes start :
Fig. 4—1. Fire zones.
(Denver)
t The all areas outside -fire zone no. 2 is zone no. 3.
A) At horizontal lines which are co—directional to the side line or lines o-f the zone lot and pass through points ten (10) feet above the midpoint o-f each such side line or lines ; and
B) At horizontal lines which are co—directional to the center lines o-f all streets abutting the zone lot and pass through points ten (10) -feet above the midpoint o-f such center lines between the boundary lines o-f the zone lot extended ; and
C) At, i-f no alley abuts the zone lot, a horizontal line which is co-di recti onal to the rear line o-f the zone lot and passes through a point ten (10) -feet above the midpoint o-f such rear line o-f the zone lot ;
and if the rear line or lines of the zone lot are
49


established by an abutting alley or alleys, such planes shall start at horizontal lines which are co-derecti onal to the center lines o-f such abutting alley or alleys and pass through points ten (10) -feet above the midpoint o-f such center lines between the boundary lines o-f the zone lot extended. In addition to the above limitations, no part o-f any nonresidential structure, except the bracketed items in the -first sentence above, shall be constructed higher than thirty—five(35) feet.
4) Location o-f Structures (Setbacks)
A) Front Setback
From each -front line
For structures -faced on
either longer dimension
For structures -faced on
either shorter dimension
B) Rear Setback
With alley ; 5 -ft.
With no alley ; 20 -ft.
C) Side Setback (30 or more -ft. in width)
with a residential use ; 50 -ft.
otherwise ; 10 -ft.
D) Encicroachments on Setback Space
D-l) Belt, courses, sills, lintels and pilasters ; IS inches.
D-2) Carnice, eaves, gutters ;
Into front setback 5 -r O ft.
Into rear setback ? 5 ft.
Into side setback ? —r ft.
D-3) Out side Stairways 5
Front ; 5 ft.
Rear ; 10 ft.
Side ; 3 ft.
D-4) Unwalled porches, terraces Front and rear ; 5 ft.
; 20 ft. ; 5 ft. ; 10 ft.
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Fig. 4-2. Buildable space on site.
(excluding church tower)
5) Fences, Walls, Retaining Walls ; 48 inches in Height
6) Parking Requirement (o-f-f street) for the Churches ( Class 3)
One-foruth of the area of the zone lot.
One which the use by right is located.
7) Floor Area Ratio
A) Maximum Zone Lot Coverage
The sum total of the ground area covered by all structures on a zone lot.
- 30 V. of the zone lot.
- 20 V. additional ground area if such
additional ground area is used only for parking structure.
B) maximum Gross Floor Area
The sum total of the gross floor area of all structures ; 200 V. of the zone lot.
3) Group of Occupancy
- Group B, Division 1.
An assembly building with stage and an occupant load of less than 1,000.
51


- Group C, Division 1.
A building used -for deucational purposes by 20 or more persons at the twelves grade level or below.
A) Requirements -for Group B, Devision 1 Occupancies.
A-l) Rooms accessory to stages shall be separated -from each other and -from stage by at least a one-hal-f hour noncombustible -fire separation.
A—2) Stage Exit
- At least one exit.
- Not less than 36 inches in each side.
A-3) The slope o-f the main floor ; less than 1/8.
A-4) Construction ; At least one hour fire
resistration throughout.
A-5) Location ; Minimum 20 ft. in width for access
to a public street.
9) Egress Facilities
A) Required Number of Exits
Use Rooms Sq. ft.
2 or more per occupant
Exits Req. bui1di ng
When occ. f1oors
load exceeds. rooms.
Church (Worship) 50 7
Meeting Rooms 50 7
Conference Rooms 50 15
Dinning Rooms Childrens Homes 5 80
Class Rooms 25 20
B) Arrangement of Exits ; At least two different di recti ons.
C) Distance to Exits (travel distance)
C-l) Group B, Division 1.
- Without automatic springkler system ; 150 ft.
- With automatic sprinkler system ; 200 ft.
52


C-2) Group C. Division 1.
- No more than 2 story building with -Fire detectors ; 90 -ft.
(to exit corrider, enclosed stairway)
- Travel distance ; Same as group B, division 1
10) General Requirement o-f Construction Type I or 11
A) Structural Framework ; Structural steel,
reinforced cone, or masonry
B) Exterior Walls and Openings ; 4 hour -fire
resi stence.
C) Openings in Exterior Walls
(Occupancy A B , Firezone 1, Cont. Type 1)
Setback ; 20 -ft.
D) Floors ; Non combustible -fire resistive
construction. (Except wood -flooring on cone. slab.)
E) Mezzanine ; One hour -fire resistive noncombustible
materi al.
F) Stairs ; Reinforced cone, or structural steel.
G) Roofs ; Non combustible materials protected.
11) Setbacks Requiring Protection o-f Openings in Exterior Walls (Fire Zone 3)
Accupancy Type o-f Construction Setbacks in -ft.
B-l I II III 20
C-l I II III 20
Maximum Height o-f Buildings. (see fig. 4-2)
Occupancy Constn. Type 1 Constn Type 2
B-l Unii mi ted 4 Stories
C-l Unii mi ted 4 Stories
13) Required Separations in BLDGs o-f Mixed Occupancy B-l, C-l ; No required.
53


4
2. SITE ANALYSES
I dealt with valuable socio—cultural factors and institutional characteristics which impact architectural design. We can obtain a quite deal of information, physical limitations potential, and various social value of site in urban context, from appropriate site analysis. Architecture is a science as well as a synthetic art, inherently performed by design in space and form. The architectural space and form can not be copied without losing its quality because the new site would not have the characteristics for which the space and form were designed.
Architectural planners or designers must know the exact site situation to create better architecture. If we carefully study and analyze the site, it gives us truly valuable clues to solve architectural problems.
I will study and analyze the site for the purpose of problem determination and problem solution.
54


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1) General Information
A) Address ; 1801 Newton Street, Denver, Colorado, USA. East Side of Sloan’s Lake (See fig. 4-1)
B) Site Area ; 119,500 Sq.Ft.
C) Latitude ; 40 Degree North.
D) Longitude ; 105 Degree.
E) Site Orientation ; SW. Facing with a Grade 4 */..
F) General Aspects of the Site.
The site occupies an entire block on the eastern shore o-f Sloan’s Lake and is surrounded by Newton Street, Meade Street, 18th Avenue, and 19th Avenue. It is two miles -from the CBD o-f Denver. The site is a part of the Sloan’s Lake Park surrounded by unique residential housing for middle class Denver residents. It has excellent accessibi1ity from 6th Avenue, and 1-25, and fine visual resources, the Rocky Mountain range, Sloan’s Lake, and Downtown Denver. It has ultimate value as a place for public facilities.
2) HISTORY OF SLOAN’S LAKE
Sloan’s Lake has a unique history. I want to introduce Mr. Harvey Jordan’s article written in the year of 1941 as a history of it. Mr. Harvey Jordan was a superintendent of North Denver Parks at that time. He suggested a direction of Sloan’s Lake development. His article follows:
The following article about Sloan’s Lake was inspired mainly by the desire to acquaint some of the younger generation with the history of these lakes, and with the wonderful possibilities that they have for water sports of all kinds and the wonderful recreational center that they have to look forward to in days to come. Another thought, perhaps, is to bring back to those old timers memories of "The Good Old Days".
Way, way back in 1866 when Andrew Johnson was President of this great country of ours (for that’s as far back as I was able to trace) a man by the name of Thomas M. Sloan filed a homestead on the southwest quarter of what is now Sloan’s Lake Park. A United States patent signed by the President of the United States was issued to Mr. Sloan dated December 15, 1866. Later he purchased more land lying north
of his quarter section. At the time of Mr. Sloan’s patent the land was all in Arapahoe County, Territory of Colorado. The lake was named by Thomas M. Sloan.
Later in December 5, 1873, Mr. Sloan platted into lots,
56


blocks, streets and avenues his Homestead under the name o-f "Lakeville." Mr. Sloan died in 1874, his residence at that time was 339 Arapahoe Street, now known as 1417 Arapahoe Street, Denver, Colorado.
About the time o-f Mr. Sloan's death another project was taking -form. I will give an excerpt o-f the Weekly Rocky Mountain, Vol . XVL, Col. 1, P. 4, o-f April 15, 1874.
"A great deal o-f interest is manifested in the construction of the ship canal which is to extend from the Boulevard (now known as Federal Boulevard) to Sloan's Lake, a distance of three miles. Large numbers of people every day visit the Grand View Hotel (later St. Lukes Hospital) to witness the process of excavation, which is rapidly going on. The ditch will be excavated at both ends a certain distance and then the center removed. Captain Anderson Expects to have the work done and the canal full of water by the early part of May. A force of thirty—five teams are now busily at work removing the soil, which is hard pan. This peculiarity of the earth is favorable to the canal , for it will retain the water perfectly.
"The boat is also being constructed. Machinery for it is expected to arrive here next week. When the canal is finished, the water in and the steamboat running, it will be a positive pleasure to visit the hotel, and make the excursion to the lake and back. It will be a novelty to see a steamboat running under the shadow of the Rocky Mountains."
Then came the era of the ice houses and row boats on Sloan’s Lake: Adam Graff with his ice business, and the Graybehl’s who brought 25 flatbottom wooden row boats from Cincinnati. Hunting and fishing was the main recreational sport in those days. In 1881 Mr. Graybehl and son were burned out.
Then came the movement for a Park. (Nothing New Linder the Sun.) Mayor Sopris, Aldermen, and reporters visit Sloan's Lake. From the Denver Tribune, April 1881:
"Yesterday an excursion party, composed of the Mayor, the Aldermen, representatives of the press, and a number of real estate owners and investors visited the beautiful sheet of water, a mile from the West end of the city, known as Sloan’s lake, with a view to examining the merits of that proposed site for a park. The party halted on the eminence called Lakeville, to which the circle railroad is staked out, and which overlooks the pretty lake on one side and the imposing city on the other.
"Mr. John Cook, Jr., who was chaperone for the
57


excursionists, explained the points in -favor o-f that location -for a park. He called attention to the advantages o-f the lake which a-f-fords sailing, rowing, skating, hunting and fishing -facilities. Even then several boats were plying upon the placid waters, and shots were being -fired at passing -flocks o-f ducks. Mr. Cook pointed out the lines o-f the school section, which crosses the upper end o-f the lake, for a mile cutting the edge o-f the water. He insisted that it had the natural undulations which are artistically made at great cost in Central Park, New York. He pointed out that with it platted and planted with trees, but little expense would be necessary until the trees are grown and the ground is under irrigation. Under the new law hal-f the section can be bought -for park purposes, and its improvement as such would more than double the value o-f the other hal-f section, which would still belong to the School Board. Then the public would derive a double benefit. The fact that it is just over the line in Jefferson County made no difference. Alderman Gove said that the waste water from the irrigated farms all around supplies the lake by filteration, and that as its bottom is higher than any house in the city, it would make a magnificent reservoir which by natural pressure would supply the entire metropolis.
"Mr. Lee, member of the Legislature from Jefferson, whose farm and residence is near by, said the lake could be made larger than it now is by a dyke at its outlet, which would cover the alkali border and the neck of land that make it now virtually two lakes. This would give over a mile straightway stretch of water, which would suit admirably for rowing and sailing boats. He said any surrounding property owners would sell any surrounding land required at a reasonable rate, and would donate liberally for streets and boulevards.
"The entire surroundings of the lake resemble a vast amphitheater, from which 100,000 people could witness an exciting boat race. Another advantage is that the sheet of water thus protected would always be smooth enough for rowing, and the race would not have to be postponed on account of a sudden wind, as is so often the case on bays and harbors at the seaside. It is passing strange that no rowing or sailing club has been organized. The crowds that would flock out then would enrich the keepers of livery stables, and they are the men 10 make the first move in the matter.
"After the party partook of an elegant lunch, it returned to the city, and all were delighted with the trip."
"All the Aldermen questioned on the subject expressed themselves to the effect that this is the natural place for
58


a park, beyond all dispute. But some of them -favored starting two parks at once-this one and the one proposed beyond the Sister's Hospital. The Mayor -favors this plan. Alderman Morris said that action could be e-f-fected by authorizing the prople to vote about -forty thousand dollars with which to buy the land and improve both the East and the West Park. It is probable that this suggestion will take di-f-ferent shape. In -fact while opposition would show up against either an East or a West Park alone, public sentiment in -favor o-f the two together would be almost a unit."
In the winter o-f 1889 Adam Gra-f-f and his associates,
Ernst Steinke, J. E. Sackett and Matt Darrow, got their heads together and -from this grew the idea o-f the great recreational center and amusement park which they were to develop.
In their minds, the snowy shore line changed to a gala strand o-f hunting and pavilions. A theater arose. A pier, swarming with boats, jutted into the water,
The result was that a -few weeks later the lake shore echoed to the tune o-f saws and hammers. The resort that came to be known as Manhattan Beach began to take -from. The resort rapidly -found -favor among the city -folk.
The steamer was christened the "City o-f Denver and -for several years it cruised the busy "sea lanes" o-f the lake. Disaster struck the good ship, though, one night in a gale. However, all hands were taken ashore sa-fely.
Albert Heep dynamited the wreck and hauled the -flotsam to land to clear the roadstead. The ship later was supplanted by the "Frolic," an even more pretentious craft. This, however was done after Mr. Gra-f-f had disposed o-f his interest in Manhattan Beach.
At this time Albert Lewin, Carl M. Linquist, Peter Hansen and S.K. Howes took over the concession rights, the lease covering a period o-f ten years, which took in 92 acres o-f lake and the old Manhattan grounds.
The new company that was -formed by Albert Lewin was called the Luna Park Amusement Company. Their idea was to increase the popularity o-f the park by adding many concessions. The -first enterprise they entered into was the building of the steamship "Frolic," which was built right here on the banks of the lake and supervised by Peter Hansen. Besides this they had many other attractions such as a fine theater, seating capacity of 3,000. This theater became nationally known, for the boards of this theater were trod by celebrities such as Amelia Bingham, Blanche Walsh, Hobart Bosworth, James Neil and D. W. Griffith. Other
59


attractions were the zoo, roller rink, elaborate gardens, -fountains, roller coaster, a grand stand with a seating capacity o-f 2,000 people. At this athletic -field were held all kinds o-f outdoor sports and games.
When the theater burned down in 1903 it seemed to mark the -finish o-f everything and people lost interest in the amusement park. The tire took place on the night atter Christmas in 1903 despite the efforts of the
hasti1y—mustered bucket brigade, the blaze swiftly became a raging inferno that threatened the surrounding buildings of Edgewater. All their efforts proved furile and the theater burned to the ground.
Then in 1909 the Township of Highlands came into Denver and the city acquired most of the park property for approximately $73,220, Which included Cooper Lake, which by the way, was named after the man that owned the ground, Kemp G. Cooper. The city at that time started to develop what is now the present park. In 1937 the city acquired the remaining ground that is situated in the northwest corner of the park bordered by Sheridan and West Byron. This, by the way, was the area that Manhattan Beach and Luna Park formerly occupied. This land which included approximately 92 acres of land, and lake was acquired for approximately $ 25,000. This latter purchase completed the present park as far as the grounds is concerned. The present city administration has done much to improve Sloan’s Lake Park and is hopeful in the future to make it as popular as it was in its hey-day.
3) Topographic Analysis
The site has an excellent topography which is neither too flat nor too steep. If a site is flat and totally free from structural or morphological limitation, the architectural formation in design can be to monotonous and simple. If the site is violent, the architecture should be very dynamic and rich in form, yet it is very difficult and expensive to develop it.
The site for theis project is on 5 V. of grade, (see Fig.
4-4) Because of this mild grade, it can be developed easily with architectural richness for the variety of functions as shown on the fig. 4—5. I will discuss how to deal with this fine topography in the chapter 6.
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* Shaded are indicates the site zone
Fig. 4-3. Recreation activities on grades1’
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4) Climate analysis
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much o-f the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings o-f the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part o-f the year, or the hot afternoons o-f summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually o-f short duration.
In the summer, clouds and afternoon showers noderate otherwise high temperatures. In the winter, winds are moderated by the position o-f the city in relation to the Rocky Mountains. Fall is the best season with little precipitation and much sunshine, spring is the worst season •with rain, heavy snows, and severe storms from the northeast.
A) Precipitation.
Annual precipitation is 15.5 inches, the greatest part o-f which occurs in the spring. The normal annual snow-fall totals -fifty-nine inches (one inch of preci pi tat i on equals ten inches of snow). The average frost penetration is thirty i nches.
Fig. 4-6. Average precipitation(inches)
Fig. 4-7. Average snow fal1(inches).
1 f m e m i | a s 0 n d
/ •y' n 1 l ! Al
TOTAL- 59 0'
62


B) Temperature.
The Average number o-f heating degree days is 6,106, the average number o-f cooling degree days is 625. Annual means and extremes o-f temperature are as -follows:
Table 4—1. Temperature. Fig.
January Jul y
Average High(°F) 42 88
Average Low (°F) 15 57
Record High(°F) 76 104
Record Low (°F) -29 42
C) Behavior of sun.
4-8. Heaating and cooling Chart. (Denver)
Denver gets 70 '/. of maximum annual possible sunshime with 278 average rainfree days. This makes passive solar energy utilization feasible (See Fig. 4-8).
The average humidity is 54 V. in January,
50 V. in July. Critical solar angles are shown on the table 4-2, fig. 4-10.
Fig. 4-9.
80
7G
60
50
40
30
20
10
Average temperaturs by month. (Denver)
i f m a m i i a s o n d
•y/.; .■ ■ > •.vyc-yv y.<»?v V
AVERAGE â–  50
Fig. 4-10. Fossible sunshine (’/.).
63


Table 4-2. Altitude and azimuth.
(altitude;40°, 1ongitude;105°
Month June 22 September 23
T i me Noon 4 PM. Noon 4 PM
Altitude 72 38 47 23
Az i muth 0 90 0 68
(South) (West) (West)
Fig. 4-11. Solar angles by seasons and time.
—Az i muth
—Alti tude
64
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D) Behavior of winds
Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver’s weather :
D—1) Arctic air from Canada and Alaska.
D-2) Warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico.
D-3) Warm, dry air from Mexico and the southwest. D-4) Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the
65


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5) Transportation network and accessibility analysis.
Denver has a very good street network. The hierachy of roads is well organized. Two major highways,
1-25 518»-
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Fig. 4-13. Possible accessibilities
66


6) View analysis
Downtown Denver, the Rocky Mountains, Sloan’s Lake, and the west facade of Lake Junior High School are major visual resources around the site. Fig. 4-14 and 4-15 show the visual relationship.
Fig. 4—14. View from site.
—West(Excel 1ent)
Far ; Magnificent view of the Rocky Mountains(snowy in winter).
Near ; Cal* and peaceful water of Sloan’s Lake, live scene of water sports —East(Excel 1ent)
Beautiful red-brick facade of Lake Junior High School with trees —Nor th(Excel 1ent)
Well built houses with trees.(excellent match of red roof, green grass, and blue sky. -South(Fair)
Various single houses and the north facade of Beth Israel Hospital —Southwest(good)
North and east facades of St. Anthony's Hospital beyond Sloan's Lake.
67


Fig. 4-15 View to site
-From west(Excel 1ent)
Sloan’s Lake, the West facade of Lake Junior High School, and Downtown Denver are the major view. Lake Junior High School and Downtown Denver can be good backdrops for the site and new building,
-From East(18th Avenue)
The highest point of the surrounding area is the spot on which the Lake Junior High School is located (about 400 ft. east from the site). From beyond this point the site (and new building) will not be seen. All of a sudden, the site, (new building), and the Sloan’s Lake reveal their appearances. A special kind of visual device is needed for visual implication. (See design Strategies)
m t
♦
68


BIBLIOGRAPHY
1> DENVER ZONING CODE, 1980
2) DENVER BUILDING CODE, 1980
3) DENVER FIRE CODE, 1980
4) William M. March, ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS, negro—hill, New York, 1978
69


5. ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAM.
Space program is the work to transfer the abstract human needs, which are originated from social problems and dreams, more concrete quantity and quality of the spaces as the base of architectural design.
I will discuss the quality of the spaces in Chapter 6, DESIGN STRATEGIES. I will simply determine overall activities occurring in certain spaces and estimate quantity of spaces in this section. To estimate the quantity of spaces, I will use universal and common standards obtained from various books and progmatic experience. I also will analyze use time of the spaces. This is necessary in order to design for the max imam use of spaces and to eliminate any inefficiencies. Additional subject matter I would like to mention is that the present situation will be used only for the purpose of future projections, and ail spaces will be determined by the rationally projected future situations.
5-1. Basic Assumption
We have to know the future church population in detail. Table 5-i shows the structure of the future church population projected from the age and sex distribution of the Korean-American in the Denver area at September, 1984. (Refer to the table 2—5)
Table 5—1. Projected Population Structure of the Future Church.
Age Ggroup Percent Number (persons)
Under 10 18.8 56.4
10 - 19 22.7 68
20 - 29 23. 1 69.3
30 - 59
Female 16.5 49.5
Mai e 16. 1 48.3
60 or More 2.8 8.4
* I did not use the present church population for projection because It does not represent the general character of the Korean—American population structure.
70


MIMOR cntt.
The church consists o-f 4 space groups, a worship area, a -fellowship area,
an administration area, and a church school area. Each space group has di-f-ferent -functions and yet each cooperates with the others.
Fig. 5—1. Adjacency of space groups
in function and interaction
5-2. Activity Analysis and Space Estimate.
1) Worship Area
Table 5-2. Quantative space for worship area
Marne of Rooms Number of Rm. s Accommo- dation persons Acti vi ti es Use t i me Space Estimate (sq.ft.) Remarks
—Chancel 1 Paster seat Li turgi cal space,Stage, screen S 1,300
-Nave -Ai sies 1 300 Seati nq S 2, 700
-Narthex 1 300 vesti buie s 900
-Prayer Rm. 2 2 Pray AT 70 35 sq.ft each
-Choir Practi ce St Robi ng Room. 1 30 Choi r pract i ce AT 420
-Proj ecti on Rm. 1 Rewi nd Slide or Movi e Proj ecti on ST 36
Total 5,426
The worship room is to be designed to assist the liturgy. The liturgy consists basically of provisions for the
71


preaching o-f the word and the sacraments of baptism and holy communion. The worship room may also be used -for other Auctions such as ;
A) Con-farraation and reception o-f members
B) Weddings
C) Funerals
D) Choir Programs
E) Drama, Education
A) Chancel
The Chancel is the climactic point o-f the worship room and the main center o-f liturgical activities. The elements o-f the Chancel are pulpit, altar, paster or guest preacher's seating, and sacristy. In general, The space range -for the chancel is -from 1,240 sq.-ft. to 1,500 sq.-ft. (115-139 M2> 1 > , we decide 1,300 sq.-ft. as an appropriate size o-f chancel.

Aozass
Fig. 5—2. Functional
i nteracti on in worship area.
B) Nave and Aisles
Width and Space ot Seat Per Person.3>
Wi dth Mini mum 18 i nches
Good 20 i nches
Excel 1ent nn i nches
Spacing Mi ni mum 32 i nches
Good 34 i nches
Excel 1ent 36 i nches
Space o-f Screen
in Front o-f
First Seat Mini mum 36 i nches
Good 38 i nches
Excel 1ent 40 i nches
This area includes the chior seating, space -for organ or piano, baby and mother room. The required space range are -from 7 sq.-ft. to 9 sq.-ft. per person (0.65 — 0.S4 M2/p)1>,
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In accordance with the Time saver standards, 8 sq.ft, is required per person for the seating area.3’ This space range is exactly same as the other’s. The whole seating area for 300 people should be 2,700(9 * 300) sq.ft, if we use 9 sq.ft./person for maximum flexibility. Detailed seating requirements are shown on the table 5—3, 5-4.
Table 5—4 Aisle width Fig. 5—3. Aisle width
---------------- in function
Center 6 ft.
Side 4 ft.
Front 6 ft.
Rear 5 ft.
-Center aisle -Ctr.(Weddings) -Ctr.(Funerals!
-Side Aisle -Front Aisle -Rear Aisle -Front Aisie(Coamunion) -Front Aisie(Weddings)
C) Narthex
The narthex is the vestibule or entry into the worship room. It has been recommended that this area be at least 10 ft. wide to permit easy movement of the concregation and the usual personal greetings to the parishioners by the paster. Required area is 2 to 3 sq.ft., per person.3’ The narthex area for 300 people should be 900(3 $ 300) sq.ft., if we use 3 sq.ft., per person.
D) Prayer Room
The prayer room is a new concept within the church I will provide it in the Korean United Methodist Church for special prayers who want to pray in a private space at anytime. It is a small cubicle with a prayer desk and one or two chairs under deem light. There are two prayer rooms within the worship room. Their size are;
5 ft. * 7 ft. (35 sq.ft.)
E) Choir Practice and Robing Room.
Required area for the choir practice room is basically same as that of the seating area. To the seating area, a
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piano area and robing area have to be added. There will be 30 members in the -future choir. Actual required area -follows
Table 5—5. Space requirement -for choir practice and robing room
Choir seating 9 i 30 = 270 sq.ft.
Organ or piano 100 sq.ft.1
Robi ng area 50 sq.ft.
Total 420 sq.ft.
F) Projection Room (rewinding) •*>
6 -ft. * 6 -ft. = 36 sq.ft., 7 ft. high
2) FELLOWSHIP AREA.
A) Assembly Hall
The assembly hall is a general room used for fellowship, dining, reception, and recreation or other kind of engagement. The required area is various according to the usage. The church staff and I have an agreement to provide largest requirement of area. The largest requirement area is 12 to 15 sq.ft, per person when it is used as a cafeteria.=) Accordingly the total estimated area is 3,600 sq.ft. (12 t 300) if we use 12 sq. f t./'person.
B) Stage
Area ; 240 sq.ft.*’ Width ; 20 ft.
Depth ; 12 ft.
C) Kitchen
The church kitchen is not like that of restaurant or other eating places. Generally the fuctionof the kitchen is comparablly simple because usually snacks, soft drinks, or coffee are served to the church members. However, this kitchen should have basic fuctions for the preperation of
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various kinds o-f -roods for special programs. A frequently used rule for allotting space for the kitchen is that it should be one-third to one-half of the dining area. It has been found, however, to go by a set space allowance for this area. Many factors influence space requirment, such as type of preparation and service, amount of total production in the unit, number of meals served, variety of foods offered, etc.. The Time Saver Standards suggests 4 sq.ft, per meal for the meal load of 200—400.^5 If we accept this suggestion, the required area for kitchen is 1,200 sq.ft. (4 $ 300).
Table 5—5. Quantitive space for fellowship area
Marne Number Accommo— Acti vi ti es Use Space Remarks
of of dati on t i me Estimate
Rooms Rm. s persons (sq. f t. )
—Assemb1y 1 300 Fel1owshi p,
Hall Dining Recreati on Party Engagememt, Indoor S
sports. ST 3. 600
-Stage 1 Brief -Pert ormi net. ST 240
—Kitchen 1 300 S
Meal s Cooking ST 1,200
Total 5,040
3) ADMINISTRATION
A) Office
A—1) Accommodation ; 3 people (paster, assistant
aster, secretary)
A—2) Required area
per working desk ; 150 sq.ft.(13.9 sq.m.)
A—3) Total required area ; 150 * 3 = 450 sq.ft.
B) Paster Study Room
The paster study is the same as the, therefore it requires the same area per person as the office space. Hence
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150 sq.ft. is needed.
C) Library
C-l) Accommodation ; 2 writing desks with shelves
for 3,000 books.
C-2) Square—footage requirement.s>
Indivisual table ; 30 sq.ft./ table. Shelves (5 spacing) ; 1 sq.ft./ 15 vol.
C—3) Total required area ; 258 sq.ft.
(30 * 2) + (3000 / 15) = 258 sq.ft.
Si Data for required space are based on college and university library.
D) Conference Rooms
D—1) Charge Conference and Adminstrative Board
These two agencies are different in function but the members are exactly same (see the church organization and administration). There is no possibility that these two agencies have meetings at the same time. Therefore, only one meeting room is needed for these two agencies. The members are 40 persons. The typical space allotment, based on its use by 15 people is 500 sq.ft, and approximately 10 sq.ft, should be added for each additional person to be provided for.9’ There are 40 members to use this space.
The required area is ;
500 + (40 — 15) * 10 = 750 sq.ft.
D—2) Committees
Each committee consists of 8 members according to paster Cho. There is no possibility that each committee will meet at the same time at the present situation because many members on each committee participate on other committees. However, we provide one conference room for each committee for the future, and allow additional space for two people for the possibility of guest participation or observation. The required area is 150 sq.ft, for each committee.10’ The total required area is 750 sq.ft, for five committees.
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D-3) Council on Ministries
The members o-f this council consists o-f exactly same as those o-f the administrative board. Therefore no special space is needed -for the general conferences of this council.
D—4) Youth Ministry <48 persons)
The members o-f this ministry are in the age category of 12 through 18. A population study had been done for every 10 year age group. But we can project the number of members in the 12 through 18 age group with the basic assumption that this group be 70 percent of age group 10 through 19. Hence, The members of this ministry can be projected with the function N = 0.7 * (number of persons in the 10 through 19 years of age). The projected number is 0.7 * 68 = 48 persons. The required area is;
500 + <48 — 15) * 10 = 830 sq.ft.
D—5) Young Adult Ministry
—Age category
; 19 through 30 years.
-Number of members ; 69 persons (See Table 5—1).
—Required area
; 500+(69-15)*10 = 1040 sq.ft.
D—6) Older Adult Ministry
—Age category
; 65 years ar older.
-Number of members ; 9 persons (See Table 5—1).
-Required area
; 150 sq.ft.
D—7) United Methodist Women and Mem
—Age category ; The membership is open
to any woman in the church. However, usually the age category is 31 through 59 years.
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—Number of members
Women ; Men ; 50 persons. 4S persons.
—Required area ; S30 sq.ft, for each. (See the youth ministry)
Tabl e 5—6. Quantitive space for administrative area.
Marne of Rooms Number of Rm. s Accommo- dation persons Activities Lise t i me Space Remarks Estimate (sq.ft.)
-Df f i ce 1 3 Office Work Help Korean E 450
-Paster Study 1 1 Paper Work E 150
-Li brary 1 3,000 Books, 2 Wr i ting Desks. Readi ng, Writing E 25S
Conference Rooms
—Chag.
Conf.
__Adm.i n^Bd._.1____40________QoQfsrence_____ST____750___________
-Com.Rms 5 10 Meeting ST 750 150 For
each
___________________________________________________________Sgace_
Council on Ministries
—Youth— Mnst. 1 48 Meeting, Study, Fel1owship F 830
-Young Adul t Mini stry 1 69 Meeting, Study, Fel1owship SA 1,040
-01der Adult Mi ni stry 1 9 Meeti ng Study Fel1owship T 150
—UMW 1 50 Meeting Study Fel1owship W 830
-UMM 1 50 Meeting, Study Fel1owship Th 830
Total 6,038
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4) CHURCH SCHOOL CLASSES
Table 5-7. Quantitive space for church school
Name Number Accommo— o-f o-f dation Rooms Rm.s persons Acti vi ti es Use time Space Remarks Estimate (sq.ft.)
-Nursery 1 17 Child Care
Cl ass Play S 630
—Kdgdn. 1 17 Play,
Tutoring S 630
-Elem. ?< 4 17
H School 20 Tutoring S 4 Classes
Classes Semi nar F 1.200 300 Each
—Krn. Cl. 1 30 Study,
Semi nar S 450
-Eng. Cl. 1 15 Study,
Semi nar F 225
-Techn.Cl. 1 10 Study M, W, F Office
Cl ass Semi nar 550 Level
-Adult 4 Vari ous Study See
Cl asses Semi nar Mi ni stry
RM.s
Total 3,685
A) Nursery Cl ass
This class is not like professional ones. It is used only
during the worship service on Sundays or on . a few special
days. The -functions within this room should be considered
as simple(e.g. playing, tutoring and observation).
—Age category ; 0 through 3 years
-Number of children ; 17 (30 >: of under 10)
-Requi red area ; 630 sq.ft.
Play room area ; Min. 30 sq. ft./ child13’
(17 * 30 = 510 sq .ft. )
Manipulate toy area m
readi ng and listeni ng area ; 120 sq.ft.11’
B) Kindergarden
—Age category ; 4 through 6 years.
-Number of children ; 17 (30 V. of under 10),
-Required area ; 630 sq.ft. (See Nursery Class)
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C) Eiemenatary School
C-l) Class 1 (grade 1—3).
—Age category -Number of pupil —Required area
-Use time
; 7 through 9.
; 17 (30 7. o-f under 10) . ; 15 * 17 = 255
15 sq.-ft./ child 13>
; every Sundays.
C—2) Class 2 (grade 4—6)
Class 3 (grade 7—9)
Class 4 (grade 10-12)
-Age category ; 10—12, 13—15, 16—18,
—Number o-f student ; 20 tor each class
(30 7. o-f 10—19 age group). —Required area ; 20*15 = 300 sq.-ft. 13> each.
—Use time ; Sundays.
C—3) Korean Language Class
According to the church statistical data, usually 10 percent o-f church members have attended this class. Based on this data,
30 students shall attend this class in the -future.
—Required area ; 30 * 15 = 450 sq.-ft.
—Use time ; Saturdays.
C—4) English Class
This class has not been used successfully. Only 3 to 4 percent of church member have attended at this school though most of them have English problem. We analyzed the reason that only a few people participate in this class. We have had a reasonable conclusion which they are too busy in their economic activities, and not informed of this class. We anticipate that this class will be used by themvery successfully in the future, and we assume about 5 7. of church member shall attend at this class.
-Number of student ; 15 persons.
—Required area ; 15 * 15 = 225 sq.ft.
—Use time ; Saturdays.
C-4) Technology Class
This class is paused for a time being because it
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has to be more devoloped . Various basic drafting skills were taught before and several students passed the state licensing test. But nobody could get a job. Hence it is on development stage now. It is the general agreement among the church staves that we provide office level classroom -for 10 student accommodation.
-Number o-f student ; 10 persons
—Required area ; 55 * 10 = 550 sq.-ft. 1'*>
iSpace allowance is based on o-f-fice operator at 60 inch desk.
C-5) Adult Classes ;young adult, old adult,
umw. and umm.)
These classes are held just before their fellowship time. Therefore.no additional space is needed.
5) GENERAL SPACES
A) Rest Rooms
Table 5—B. Sanitary Accomodation13’
W.C.s Uri nals Lavatory Basins
Female n ? 2
Mai e i O 2
Required area ; 300 sq.ft.
(150 sq.ft, for each sex)
B) Storage Room ; 9,463 * 0.1 = 946 sq.ft.
10 7. of the fellowship, admi ni strat i on, and school area. l
C) Mechenicai Room ; 16,135 $ 0.03 = 484 sq.ft.
3 7. of whole area ecept parking area.
D) Parking Space ; 29,750 sq.ft.(S5 lots)
25 7. of site area(Denver Code).
—Indoor parking ; 65 lots -Ground parking ; 20 lots
E) Circulation and Structural Space ; 4,155 sq.ft. 25 7. of whole architectural area
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except parking area.
Table 5—9. Quantitive space -for general area
Marne of Rooms Number of Rm. s Accommo— Activities dati on persons Use t i me Space Remarks Estimate (sq.ft.)
-Rest Rooms 2 E 300 150 f or Each Sx
-Storaqe 946 See 5) A
-Mech. Room 1 484 3 7. of Whol e Area Ecept
-Ci r. Str. Space —Parking 2 Stair Case Corri dor Elevator(s) Structures 85 Lots 4, 155 22,750-7,000*3 25 7. of Arch.Area Ex c ep t ParkinQ 25 7. of * Si te * Area
Total 35,635
*The summary of all spaces are shown on the table 5—4.
6) SPACE MODIFICATION
All quantitive spaces are estimated. However We should not use the spaces without modification because many spaces can be used -for both or multiple purposes, used in different times, and could be eliminated.
Especially, the conference rooms and classes can be modified to significantly smaller area through the use time arrangement. The young—adult ministry room can be used for the Charge Conference, Administrative Board, Youth Ministry, UMW. UMM. activities. The Older—Adult Ministry can use one of the committee rooms. Three of four elementary and highschool classes can be eliminated because the use time of two groups are different, and Korean class room can be used for one of two elementary or highschool classes.
The summarized space estimate and modification is shown on the table 5—4.
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Table 5—10 Space Estimate Summary.
Name of No. of No. of Activities Use Required Remarks
Rooms RoOOiS Persons Time space(FT2)
Worship area 5,426
-Chance! 1 Paster seat, Liturgical space, Stage, screen S 1,300
-Nave & Aisles 1 300 Seating S 2,700
-Narthex 1 300 vestibule S 900
-Prayer Room -Choir Practice 9 L 2 Pray AT 70 35 Sq.Ft. each
& Robing Rut. l 30 Choir practice AT 420
-Projection Rm. l Rewind Slide or Hovie Projection ST 36
Fellowship Area 5,048
-Assembly Hal! l 300 Fellowship, Dining, Recreation, Party, Engagement, Indoor sports. S, ST 3,600
-Stage 1 Simple Performing. ST 240
-Kitchen 1 300 Meal5 Cooking 3, ST 1,200
Administration Area 2,648
-Office 1 3 Office Work E 450
-Paster Study i i Paper Work E 150
-Library 1 3,000 Book5,
2 Writing Dk.s Reading, Writing E 258
Conference Rooks
-Chag. Conf. a
Admin.8d. 1 40 Conference, Meeting ST m
-Committee.Rm.s 5 10 Meeting ST 750 150 For each Space
Council on Hinis tries
-Youth Mnst.s 1 48 Meeting, Study, Fellowship F m
-Y.A. Hnst.s 1 69 Meeting, Study, Ministry Fellowship SA 1,040
-O.A. Hnst.s 1 9 Meeting, Study, Ministry Fellowship T wm
-UHW 1 50 Meeting, Study, Fellowship 'i m
-UNH 1 50 Meeting, Study, Fellowship Th 830-
Church School 2,785
-Nursery Class 1 17 Child Care, Play S 630
-Kindergarden 1 17 Play, Tutoring S 630
-Elesentary a 20
H. Scl. Cls.s 4 17 Tutoring, Seminar S,F 1,200 Use 1 cl ass 1300 FT2
-Krn. Cl5. 1 30 Study, Seminar S 450
-Eng. Cls. i 15 Study, Seminar F 225
-Techn. Cls. 1 10 Study, Seminar H,W,F 550 Office Level
-Adult Cls.s 4 Various Study, Seminar See Mnst. Rm.s
General Area 28,635
-Rest Rooms 2 E 300 150 Sq.Ft. Each
-Storage -Nech. Rm. -Circulation a i 946 See 5) A 484 3 7. of Whole Area
Structure Area Corridor, Elevator is), Structures 4,155 25 l of Arch. Area
Except Farkinq
-Parking 85 Lots Parking 22,750*' 25 l of
7,000b> Site Area
Total 44,542
* Shaded lines are showing spaces which can be eliminated.
* The sub total and total areas are -finally modi tied spaces. t S.s ; Sundays, AT ; Any time, ST ; Sometimes. E ; Everyday
M ; Mondays, T ; Tuesdays, W ; Wednsdays, Th ; Thursdays SA â–  Saturdays.
a) Indoor Parking <65 vihicles).
b) Outdoor Parking <20 vihicles).
iTotal Site Area ; 119,500 Sq.Ft.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1) Jeongsoo Kim and others, A DETAILED TREATISE IN ARCHITECTURAL PLANNING, P. 6-17, Moonundang,
Seoul,Korea,1977.
2) Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender,
TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR BUILDING TYPES, Second Edition, P.571, Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, 1980.
3) Ibid., P. 573
4) Edward D. Mills, THE MODERN CHURCH, P. 182, Frederick
a. praeger, New York 1956.
5) Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender,
TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR BUILDING TYPES, Second Edition, F'. 755, Mcgraw—Hi 11 Book Company, 1980.
6) Edward D. Mills, THE MODERN CHURCH, P. 179, Frederick
a. praeger. New York 1956.
7) Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender,
TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR BUILDING TYPES, Second Edition, P. 757, Mcgraw—Hill Book Company, 1980.
8) Edwerd D. Mills, THE MODERN CHURCH, P. 269, Frederick
a. praeger. New York 1956.
9) Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender,
TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR BUILDING TYPES, Second Edition, P. 792, Mcgraw—Hi 11 Book Company, 1980.
10) Ibid., P. 790.
11) Edward D. a. praeger Mills, THE , New York MODERN CHURCH, P. 166, Frederick 1956.
12) Ibid., P. 167.
13) Ibid., P. 183
14) Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender,
TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR BUILDING TYPES, Second Edition, P. 792, Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, 1980.
15) Edward D. Mills, THE MODERN CHURCH, P. 182
16) Changhan Zoh, UNIVERSITY CAMPUS SPACE PLANNING P. 45,
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Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea, 1980
17)
Edward T. Hall, THE HIDDEN DIMENSION, Anchor Books Edition, 1969.
P.
117,
175,
85


6. DESIGN STRATEGIES
6-1. Basic Premises
Architecturai Design is the process through which social needs or dreams are incarnated in -form and spaces on a certain site through an architect's philosophy, rational thought, and creative leap. Sometimes a genius creates artistic masterpieces with only his intuition, but in general, clear philosophy and rational thoughts provoke a creative power, especially in architecture.
My philosophy o-f architecture is completely in accordance with that o-f client and institutional doctrine. I establish fundamental design premises as a decision making guidance based on the philosophy. They are :
a) Architecture is -for public, user, and owner.
b) Cultural identity o-f user or client,or doctrinal identily o-f the institution should be expressed in architecture.
c) All design devices should be based on the universality o-f nature and man, and on the special character o-f the institution and site, not dogma or sophistical theories)
6-2. Design Principles
1) The Principle o-f Participation.
Architecture is not only -for the owner as I stated above, nor is it an expression o-f the personal emotions of the architect.1’ Most o-f the great archi tecturai achievements throughout history are the consequences o-f deep consideration -for the user and the public. Participation in design development and decision making should include the opinions o-f both user and public.
2) The Priciple o-f Piecemeal Growth.
Ecological systems in nature and social system are continuously changing. Architecture must be adapted to a changing environment. In most cases, the li-fe span o-f a building does not depend on structural stability, but depends on its adaptability to the changing environment. The building project o-f the Korean United Methodist Church is a long term plan. According to the church population study above(See -fig. 3—1), it takes about 12 years to reach an ideal size. Through a gradual building process, it will be diagnosed and coordinated to become a more complete archi tecture.
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6-3. Design Objectives
1) Creation o-f God’s Place.
The worship space is a climax o-f religious architecture. It is a God’s place -for worship. The charactor o-f space affects human sense and behavior.2’ The worship space should allow people think o-f themselves, the human world, and o-f the God to whom can pray.
2) Revival o-f Korean Architecture.
Most o-f the users are Korean-Americans who seek American life, yet are nostalgic about their homeland, and their second generation people who barely know their cultural origin. Their architecture should embrace them like their mothers and have them feel their homeland even though its in America.
3) Symbiotic Architecture.
Typical symbiotic organism in nature is the human being. Every human being has an individual identity as well as common features. Man organizes society for great variety and harmony although he is totally independent as a micro—cosm. Great architecture is an organism like a human being. It is my attempt to create a symbiotic architecture which cooperates with nature and the surrounding structures in function and beauty. Symbiotic architecture is a similar concept to the "both or multifunctional architecture3’, as suggested by Robert Ventury. But the symbiotic architecture is a more flexible and organic concept than the other in terms of not only a concern for physical function, but also a metaphysical one.
4) Aesthetic Beauty.
Architecture is one of the major arts, and many architects would like to be called "artist". It is absolutely true that architecture is a comprehensive art. There are certain meanings in artistic work that are expressed in aesthetic way (beauty). I would like to create architectural form and space sublimated into aesthetic beauty as an organic being.
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6-4. Design Strategies.
There can be a number of ways to go to the goal. The best way should be -found. I will present my personal idea -for designing a place o-f worship.
1) Strategies -for Creation o-f God’s Place.
People believe in God because they not only know, but also don’t know God. It's both mystery ana discrepancy. My point is this. The concept o-f Gods place comes from the mystery and discrepancy. Consequently, the worship space should be a manifestation of mystery and dignity. How could we possibly create this distinctive character in worship space? I will search for the answer through dealing with form, manipulation of light(both natural and artificial), and treatment of symbol.
A) Space Form
An architectural form has certain meanings, and I will use different heights and direction of space to manifest given concepts. The meanings on heights and directions are follow :
-High Space
Sublimity, dignity, power, hope, ideality.
-Low Space
Humility, reality.
-Ascending Space
Growth, extension, access to God.
HUMANITY ^ DIVINITY
Fig. 6—1. Meaning of Form
—Descending Space
Retrogression, death.
B) Lighting
One of crucial elements that determine space character is the
lighting system.
Fig. 6—2. St. Peter's Cathedral.
(Rome, Reconstruction Basilican Church)
Let's briefly look back at the lighting systems used in Early Christian, Gothic, and
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Renaisance Churches.
(See fig. 6—2, 6—3,
6—4, 6—5) We can easily fund common characters of lighting treatment in those historical buidings. Those characters are :
—Low illumination for nave.
—Clearstory as a light access.4’
—Condensed light.
-Colored light.=>
Fig. 6—4. Gloucester Cathedral. (Engl and Gothic)
Fig. 6—5. Giorgio
Maggi ore.
(Venice Renai ssanc
Why were these 1i gnti ng characteri sties applied to their churches ? Obviously, they had the same concepts of the worship space as I established above. They created the spaces which have poetic and symbolic value by changing the quality of ordinary daylight.
)
I will treat the light in my design in the following illustrations, (see fig. 6-6)
B—1) Thick Wall
—Long track of 1ight(condensed light beam).
B—2) High Windows
—Directional light(From heaven to earth). -Complete enclosure by walls in lower space.
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B—3) Recessed artificial lighting fixtures.
Fig. 6—6. Lights
in the Church.
-UNEVEN
ILLUMINATION
-DRAMATIC LIGHT RKA MS (GRACE OF GOD)
-EVEN
ILLUMINATION
-COMPLETE
ENCLOSURE
-HORIZONTAL LIGHT BEAMS
PLAN
-Directional light.
—Uneven illumination for upper part.
—Even illumination for lower part.
B—4) Colored light
-Poetic, symbolic fantasy.
C) Hidden symbol
The most common symbol in the church is the Cross which has a serious meaning. It is also very common that architects just hang the cross on the wall or stand it on
the altar. As a matter of fact, a cross treated in this way doesn’t have any symbolic power because it is too clear.
I would like to deal with the conventional elements in a very different way, the concept of "hidden symbol”.
The setting for the concept of hidden symbi
Fig. 6-7. The Cross Hanging on the Wal1.
follows :
Fig.
6-8.
The Cross Behind a Screen
* PLAN
-A window behind the sanctuary to provide strong daylight.
—Appropriate artificial lighting fixtures to project colored light.
—The Cross placed in front of a window and appropriate lighting fixtures.
—Semi —transparent fabric screen to accept the image of the Cross.
90
ELEVATION
-YAGUE AND MYSTERIOUS IMACE SUPERIMPOSED ON SCREEN !


This setting shall create the -following effects.
—Four Dimensional Image
The image has the -fourth symbolic image moves on the direction announcing change that makes people associate
dimension o-f time. The screen according to light o-f time. It is a vivid symbol the Jesus Christ.
-Vague and Mysterious Image in Color.
The image is not clean on the edge because it is superimposed on a woven -fabric screen. With an artificial lighting -fixture, we can produce colored reflection to create a feeling of mystery.
It is obvious that this image has a poetic sense of place and strong symbolic power.
2) Strategy for Revival of Korean—Architecture
It has been a subject of serious argument of ways in which certain culture can be transferred into another one through architectural means. Most architects merely try to copy the architectural form. It can be a way, I believe, since architectural form is the consequence of the complete enviromental and socio—cultural factors. There are implicit meanings or hidden logic in the form. What I am trying to do is to find these meanings or logic in Korean architecture, and to apply them to American socio—cultural environment It might be ambiguous and intangible, but I am sure Korean—Americans will feel the sense of their conventional space because the logic and fragrance of their traditional life are melted into new architecture in America. They will feel this invisible fragrance with their heart, recognize the logic with their traditional intuition.
A) Site Plan Based on Polar Coordinates.
Modern and contemporary architects are strongly influenced, consciously or unconsciously, by the rectangular system of coordinates (in which every point is established by its position on a plane in relation to two lines intersecting at right angles). Ancient Korean architecture was not designed on a drawing board; each was not subject to the laws of axial coordinates. Ancient Koreans used a natural system of coordinates which is known as the system of polar coordinates like the ancient Greek architects did.
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When a man stands in a landscape and looks about him, he sees its various -features as part o-f a system o-f which he is the center and in which all the points on the plane are determined by their distance -from him. The determining -factor in their design was the human view point.
Fig. 6—9.
Axi al and
Polar Coordinates.
Fig. 6—10. Site plan based on polar coordinates (Acropolis, Athens)
ACCESS
This point was established as the first and most important position from which the whole site could be observed (usually, it was the main entrance, which was often emphasized by a proportion). The following principles were used7’ :
A—1) All important
buildings could be seen in their entirety from the view poi nt.
Fig.
6—11. Site plan based on A—2)
Polar Coordinates.
(Temple of Hwaeorn, Kurye,
Korea, 754 A.D.)
formed certain specific angles from These fell into two categories:
The radii that determined the corners of the i mportant buildings the view point.
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—multiple angles of 30° (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150),
corresponding to a division o-f the total -field of 360° into twelve parts, and
-multiple angles of 22.5°,(22,5°, 50°, 72,5°...) which resulted from division of the total field of vision into sixteen parts.
A—3) The position of the buildings was determined not only by the angle of vision, but also by their distance from the view point.
A—4) The buildings were often disposed so as to
incorporate or accentuate features of the existing landscape and thus create a unified composition.
The architecturai spaces synthesized within the polar coordinate layout system have following characteristics.
a) Four Dimensional Space.0’
Time is the essential dimesion if we are to have an architecturai synthesis in any meaningful sense of the word. In architecture, time is expressed mainly as movement. The examples of the Acropolis of Athens (Fig. 6—10), of the Temple of Hwaeom in Korea (Fig. 6—11) and of Luxor in Egypt (Fig. 6-12) are sufficient to impress upon us the importance of the axis of movement. To feel architecturai space or
architecture in general requires movement. In the ancient ages of Korean architecture the notion that architecture implies a time—dimension was always felt, so that the result of the synthesis compelled man to walk through it, to feel and then become a part of a piece of architecture, and not merely remain outside it as an onlooker. The notion of time is an indispensable dimension of any architecturai synthesis, and for the following reasons:
-A normal architecturai synthesis is never completed. It is as alive as the people themselves, and it changes with time. In the exceptional cases where such a synthesis is finished, and this is the case in a few monumental groups of buildings only (Ancient Korea,
"i g. 6—12. The Temple of
Ammon in Luxor.
(The axis of movement changes in order to express the change by motion)
93


Greece, Japan, etc.), then the notion o-f time is conveyed i ndi rectiy.
— In any case time is required -for an architectural experience, since, with the abstraction ot time, architecture becomes painting or sculpture.
b) Psychologicaiiy Enclosed Space.
An observer on a certain point of access can perceive complete panorama of every two elevations of each major bui1dings(See Figure 6—11, 6—14).
Fig. 6—13. Pysically
enclosed space.
Fig. 6—14. Psychologically enclosed space
l/
NFGA- l- $ TTTF [SPACF

F |:M
il
ACCESS
—Visual limitation on any point.
-Limited Access.
-Bad air quality.
-No 1ife(corruptive space like still water.)
—Visually free on number of points. —Free access.
—Perfect ventilation.
—Dynami c life like a stream.
completely enclosed The ilusion of quality of space in actuality, has bad etc. The polar the quality of openness
The panorama produces an ilusion of space expanded before the observer, psychological enclosure is a unique because completely enclosed space, aspects of air quality, movement, coordinate layout system gives us and enclosure simultanously.
Bi/'on
VPJ.C
v.
OUTDOOR ft/1 '
TFACET
Wk - w\

\&J!)
Mm,
w- ifff}
nut.-
B) Differentiation, Hierachy, and Sequence of Spaces.
Ancient Koreans didn’t design their architecture as one big building. They understood architecture as a group of buildings
94


by which unique outdoor spaces were created, even for residential buildings as shown on the fig 6—15.
Fig. 6—15 Example of site plan for traditional Korean residential. (Okhojeongdo, Korea)
Each individual building has a different function and interacts with each other in organic order. Through this method, they can conduct excellent architectural features. Those are:
B—1) Maximum Exposure to Desirable Nature.
They dexterously used topography to change negative aspects of nature such as cold winds, hot sun.(see fig. 6—16)
95


Fig. 6-16. Use o-f topography in ancient Korean archi tecture.
Fig. 6-17. The hierarchy
and sequence o-f outdoor space in Okhojeongdo (re-fere to Fig. 6—15.)
B—2) Variety o-f Outdoor Space
Outdoor spaces between building groups are also divided into small ones. Koreans used buildings, -fences, sculptural objects or di-f-ferent site elevations to divide outdoor spaces (See Fig. 6—17). However those are perceived as a whole because those are in organic hierarchy and sequence.
This theory is not only for traditional Korean architecture. It is a timeless way of building anywhere in the world as C'nristoper Alexander suggested in the book of "A Fattern Language"9’. I will apply this theory to the KUMC design to achieve the objective of "revival of traditional Korean architecture” and to create a timeless building.
C) Harmony with Nature (Aesthetics)
Nature is like a masterpiece of painting in which only a small portion is not completed yet. An architect is a painter to complete the masterpiece through adding something to it. He must work within the original composition, color pattern, material, etc... If he works without consideration of those, he must spoil the masterpiece. Likewise architecture should be compatible with nature in unity and harmony. This unity and harmony with nature is one of the general characteristics of ancient Korean architecture.10> The ancient Korean architects achieved the great whole in form, material, color, and texture of architecture. The following Figures show the total integrity of architecture and nature, (compare the color, texture, and pattern of window frames to those of surroundings)
96


9?


* ♦
98


OI \ c:

99


C-2) Color in Buildings.
Color serves many esthetic purposes in the design o-f buildings. The functions of colors follow:11’
a) It creates an atmosphere.
A bright color scheme for a building tends to express gaiety and exitement, a quiet scheme may express dignity and repose.
b) It defines form.
A line, a two dimensional surface, or a three dimensional volume is defined if its color contrasts with its surroundings.
c) It suggests either unity or diversity.
A uniform color scheme contributes a sense of unity, while a varied color scheme gives a feeling of diversity.
d) It affects proportions.
Materials with contrasting colors laid in horizontal lines tend to emphasize a feeling of breadth. If laid in vertical lines, they promote the sense of height.
e) It brings out scale.
A building made up of elements of uniform color looks like a monolith. Its scale is difficult to judge at a distance. If, however, its elements(including openings) are of contrasting colors, the scale of the building is more easily conveyed.
f) It gives a sense of weight.
Elements in dark colors look heavy, those in light colors look light in weight.
My application of color should follows :
a) Building Skin
-Use ; Uniform, little bit dark, similar to those of surroundings.
-Effect ; Dignity and repose, monolith, ambiguous
100


Full Text

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A+P LD 1190 A72 1985 R96 ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURAR/A LIBRARY THE :X N-rESR I TV OF PLANNXNG AND DESXGN FOR A CHRISTIAN CHURCH I -THE ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAM AND DESIGN FOR THE KOREAN UNITED METHODIST CHURCH AT DENVER AS A THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF MAS"rEtR OF ARCHITECTURE ALEXANDER S. RYOU

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MAR 311991 SUBMIT STATEMENT I, Al S. Ryou, submit this report to the Graduate Division of Architecture, the College of Design and Planning, the University of Colorado at Denver as a thesis for the Degree of MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE. ALEXANDER S. RYOU MAY, 1985

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STATEMENT OF APPROVAL The thesis of Alexander S. Ryou is approved by the thesis committee. Committee Chairman, Gary Long Jr. The College of Design and Planning, The University of Colorado at Denver MAY, 1985

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-TO THE MEMORY OF PROFESSOR CHANG HAN ZOH WITH WHOM I BEGAN MY STUDY OF ARCHITECTURE

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Design is poetry as it associates forms into new meanings. The work of the designer is only worth his ability to understand the laws of nature, the character of people and their needs, plus his own ideas and imagination, in short, only as much of a poet as he has in him. Paul Jacques Grillo, FORM FUNCTION AND DESIGN, P 33, Dover Publications Inc, New York, 1975.

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ADVJ:SERS 1. PROGRAM ADVISERS CHO, KEON SANG -Minister, Korean United Methodist Church at Denver. HEATH, PAUL -Professor, University of Colorado at Denver ZOH, CHANG HAN -Exchange Fellow at Yale University. -Director, Institute of Architecture and Urban Design, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. -Professor, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. 2. DESIGN ADVISERS. FENTRESS, CURTIS W. -Architect, Member of AIA. -President, C W Fentress and Associates. LONG, GARY JR. -Architect, Professor, University of Colorado at Denver 6

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The following work is the product of t wo final semasters of study at the U niversity of Colorado, 1984 1 9 8 5 , which t i r1oe I h ave be ome indebted to a larg e ;umbE.o f individuals and to some instituti o n s . Beginning w1tt. the institutions, I wo uld like to express my gratitude to the Denver Planning O fficE! for-pr-oviding various kinds of 1;aps and worthful informa tion and to the Adminisba tion O f f ic:e, which pr-ovided me the -.,;aluablE for Sloan's Lake Park. All of iiiY advi se:--s and many of the <::1 ass,nates in my design studio have assisted in the pFogress of my work . I am particularly grateful, however , for the hElp which I ha e received Prof . Paul Heath, Prof. Gray, Jr. Long, and m y classmate James wollum. Each of the s e destinguished architects has been of enormous assistance t o me his criticisms and SlygEstions. I sp8cially wish to express my gratitude to Mr. Curtis W . Ft:ntress who not only has assisted me with his unusually sharp criticisms and strong sugge stions, b u t also has provi dt:d me an access t o the CAD sy::;tem . I also wodl d 1 ike to thard, Mr-. David Cul dwell a n d t 1t-. r\obt:Tt Br-odie f 01thei t significant in compue r operation. Outside o f the professional community, special thanks are due to two people. 01e i s my wife, Anna, wh o continue s to be a n inspiration to as well as the one p erson capable of deciphering m y handwriting. I n addition to doi g all her own wm-k, she typed ser,rer-al ver-sions of the over th2 months. The other is my mother who always encourages me in spirit froffi the side cf global hemisphere I would also ike to than k the other memb ers o f the archite t 1re depclrtment staff at the University of colorado , Denver: Prof. chester Nagel, Prof, Robert Kindig, and Prof, Eugine Benda, each of who • • has been helpful. I am keenly aware of the fact that w ithout the help o f all thesE people, this work w ould nEver have seen the light of day. 7

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Table of Contents Submit Statement Statement of Approval Acknowledgement 1. Introduction 1-1. 1-2. 1-3. 1 --4. The The The The backgro tnd of the project. ----------------12 goal and objectives of the project. --------13 and sco e of the project. ---------14 process and method to perform. -----------16 2. Search for Problems 2-1. A history o F the Korean immigration to the United States of Ame rica. ---------------2 1 2-2. The characteristics of the Korean-Americans. --25 2-3. ProblEms of the Korean Ame ricans. -------------31 2 -4. The Church as a problem solving organization. ---32 3. Religious Studies. 3-1. 7 . ..;.-.._, A S tudy of the U nited Methodist Church. A brief histor y of the United Methodist Church. A study of the Korean U n ited Methodist Church.--1> Introduction. -------------------------------38 :') C hurch popul at.i on. ------------------------------38 3) The organiz.:;.tion ar.d administr-ation of lhe Korean U nite d Methodist Church. -------42 4) Chw-c h pt-ogt-al • -------------------------------4 7 4. Code Review and Site Analyses. 4-1. Code Re v iew. -------------------------------49 4-:'. Site nalysis. --------------------------------54 1) General Infm-mati on. ---------------------------5 6 2) Histor-y of the site. --------------------------56 3) Topographic analysis. -------------------------60 4) Climat e analysis. ----------------------------6 2 5) network and accessibility aanalysi s . -------------------66

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6) V iew analysis. --------------------------------67 5. Space Program 5-1. B asic assumption. -----------------------------70 5-2. Space estima te. -----------------------------71 b. Design Strategies. 6 1 . Basi c premises. --------------------------------86 6--2. Design pti nci pl e:;. ------------------------------86 6 3 . Design objectives. -------------------------------87 6-4. Design strategies. ----------------------------88 7. Design proposal(Thesis Design). -Site and First Floor Plan. --------------------111 -Second Floor Plan. -----------------------------West Elevation. --------------------------------East Elevation. -------------------------------North Elevation. ------------------------------South Elevation. ------------------------------North-South Section. --------------------------East-West Section 1. -East-West Section 2. -Photographs of Model B. Systems Synthesis 8-1. I ntroduction. -------------------------------------8-? Site P 1 an. ----------------------------------------------1 ) Infra-structures of the site. ----------------112 113 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 1?? 1,., .... .L..L. A) Summary. --------------------------------1 ?7 B) Site Plan. ----------------------------------123 C) Water 1'1ai ns on the Site. ---------------------1 2 4 D> Ga:; Mains on t h e Site. -----------------------125 E) Sewer Lines on the Site . ---------------------126 2 ) Drainage. ------------------------------------127 H istol-ic Run Off. ---------------------------1.:7 8 -3. Structural System. -----------------------------129

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1 J Introduction to Structural System. --------2) Stt-uctural P I an and Sections . -----------------------3) Slab Design. ---------------------------------------4) Detet-mination of loads. -----------------------5) Earthquake Load Analysis. 6) Wind Load Analysis. ----------------------------7) Pm-tal Disb-ibution Anc.lysis. -------------------8> Gravity Load Analysis. --------------------------129 130 1 3 4 137 1:.a 141 143 144 7) Beam -----------------------------------150 10) Column Design. ---------------------------------154 11) Caison Design. ------------------------------156 8 -4. Mechanical a n d Electi-ical Systems. --------------158 1J Heating and Air Conditioning System. ----------158 2) Lighting System. --------------------------------161 8 -5. Construction Cost Estimate. ----------------------161 9. CON::LUSION -Appendix ------------------------------------------163 -Quest i onnaire. -Soil and Foundation Investigation Report.

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1. INTRODUCTION. SOCIAL PROBLEMS NEEDS, ' '111 1/f//I/1///I/I/I/I/I/I///I/IJ/I//IJ/I/IJJJJJJJI/II/11111 = DREAMS, == • = = = = --= == = = = -= -= == • --ARCHITECTURAL : 11111111111111111 ARCHITECTURE PROGRAM • = = = : : C ' : . : ENVIRONMENT., : = SOCIETY, AND = : ARCHITECTURE. : • -ARCHITECT-URAL -GOAL, ARCHITECTURAL OBJECTIVES, DESIGN DESIGN AND PRINCIPLES CONSTRUCTION 5 • --------------------1111111. CREATIVE LEAP 1111111111111111 11

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1 -1. THE BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT. The history of Korean immigrants in the United States of America, especially in the State of Colorado, is very short. There are about 8,000 Korean people in the Denver metropolitan area. Most of them are economically successful. During the early period of settlement in the Denver area, the Korean people only recognized the need for economic security. Very recently, however, they have recognized more problems concerning themseves and their second generations. Many of them seem to be suffering psychological displeasure despite their economical achievements. Pastor Cho, who has preached to the Korean people at the Korean United Methodist Church at Denver for the last several years, has observed this unhealthy phenomenon, and has tried to search for any possible ways to provide them with physical and metaphysical peace and freedom. Pastor Cho and the church staff set meetings to discuss all those emerging problems among the Korean-American society. The representatives of the church have also made the decision to provide the following tasks for the welfare of the Korean-Americans living in Denver metropolitan area. 1> Research for major problems which the Korean-Americans are suffering. 2> Reinforcement of church program. 3) Architectural developments. There is another important reason for making this decision. Presently, this community of people do not have their own church building for worship and other activities. They have borrowed a building from another religious institution, and used the space since they established their own community here. At this time, they want to build their own building which would provide various spaces and express the identity of their homeland. The desire for a new church arose from three reasons. Firstly and most importantly, the community would like to be identified by its own building for worship. Secondly, the present church does not provide space enough for the growing membership of the community. Finally, the community would like to provide more space for new members. Pastor Cho and the church staff asked me to carry out the important project. I accepted their proposal and took this project as my thesis for_the degree of MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE at the University of Colorado, the College of Design and Planning, the Graduate Division of Architecture, without charge. This is not only a tremendously valuable project, but also an unusual opportunity for me to do 12

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something for the welfare of the Korean-Americans living in the Denver metropolitan area. 1 -2. THE GOAL AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
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will be created by their offspring. It is a very meaningful contribution to the American prosperity in the future to create a new culture. The pioneers of such a movement will be laying a new foundation for the greater America. As we have seen, this project will be completed not only for the Korean-Americans, but also for the all American. 1 -3. THE CONTENTS AND SCOPE OF THE PROJECT. To create architecture is one of various social activities. The first motivation of any architectural work is from the social aspects---social problems, social needs, social dreams, etc ...• Architecture is an integration of responses aesthetically expressed in space and form to the various social aspects. To get the right responses, architects should be concerned about many things such as the natural and social background of the problems, the general or specific idealogy of clients, the potentials and limitations of the site in context, etcetera, and catch the true issues before beginning to design. This project consists of the following six chapters which show the whole process of the architectural design from the initial problem establishment to the final solution. CHAPTER 1. Introduction. It tells about motivation, goals and objectives, contents and scope, process and method, and overall characteristics of the project. CHAPTER 2. Search for problems. The hypothesis and original motivations are verified and refined in any scientific ways, and the purposes will be clearly established on this section. CHAPTER 3. Religious studies. Brief history of the United Methodist Church will be dealt with for the architectural image, and everything of the Korean United Methodist church will be studied. 14

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CHAPTER 4. Code Review and Site Analysis. The overall legal aspects of zoning, building, and fire codes shall be reviewed. The social and physical value of the site will be analyzed. The various potentials and limitations will be determined in site context. CHAPTER 5. Space program All characters, features and interrelations of the spaces will be analyzed as the activity analysis. And each quantitive spaces will be estimated. CHAPTER 6. Design strategies Basic premises, design principles, and design objectives will be established for clear decision making. A number of design strategies will be created to achieve design objectives. CHAPTER 7. Architectural design proposal. A design proposal as an architectural forms and spaces.
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1 -4 . THE PROCESS AND METHOD TO PERFORM. Fig. 1-1. A GENERAL MODEL OF THE DESIGNING PROCESS.1> -rl_I NT ELL I GENCE Development of Architectural Program t H DESIGN Sketching of Alternative -Solutions Correction of Faults in Design I Hchoice Selection of Best Alternatives -Working Drawings, Specifications, Contracting, Theory Building for Future I t Designing --{EVALUATION I Evaluation of /I I Building in use and Process of Design used In general, the intuition and the logic seem to be in accord with each other in human cognition and activities. Yet sometimes those are not consistent in critical points. The intuition is more important in most arts than the logic. But, in my understanding, architecture must be created in a logical and rational way as well as an aesthetic way because it has two basic functions ---physical function as a man-made environment and metaphysical (aesthetical) function as the one of five major arts.2>--while the other arts have 16

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only one function (aesthetic>. However, present approaches designing architecture are those inherited from the Beaux Arts Tradition which is largely intuitive, poorly structured and solution oriented.3> This kind of approach increases the probability that the wrong problem will have been solved. To reduce this possibility, I prefer to the problem oriented approaches which emphasize the identification and descriptive analysis of the problem prior to the attempt to synthesize solutions. Jon Lang and Charles Burnette suggested a general model of the designing process as well as a decision ma king 4> shown in Fig. 1-1. It has five phases of intelligence, design, choice, implementation. and evaluation. In this project, I will emphasize the first three phases with my best efforts. The intelligence phase is the first part of the project which involves both the identification and elucidation of the problem situation and the development of an architectural or building program on which the design is to based
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Fig. 1-2. A model of the intelligence phase.e> (the d i rectional arrows indicate onl y the m ain order of acti vities and f lows of feed b acks and s econdary flows of infor1ation are not indicate d . ) Problem t 1 Recognition PREDOMENANTLY ANALYSIS I IJt 1 Identification 1 of the Groups 1 Involved I W I Determination I of Needs, and ---------lVa 1 u.e Systems : IJi 1-::::--:----:----:oj Behavioral' Determination I • and of Des1 gn Goals Social I and Objectives 1 I I I I Analysis I of I Present I States of I Nature I t I I I Predictions V ar i ab 1 es 1 it 1 Determination I Regarding I Future PREDOMINANTLY SYNTHESIS L of Activity Patterns and Psychological Requirements to Achieve II Those w Layout Requirements for a> Maintaining Physiological States b)Providing for Activity Patterns c>Fulfilling Variables Psychological Needs I _ _J States Nature Inputs from of Environmental E-Psycho! ogy and the Natural .sciences ---t------PREDOMINANTLY EVALUATION AND CHOICE Does Present Layout Fulfill These Requirements -::> Develop Architectural Program to Transform Layout 1 8 ' 1 Not an Architectural Program

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Fig. 1-3. S ummarized Contents of the Project in Process. J INTELLIGENCE+----------! Development of Architectural Program f-----l_ Introduction THESIS PREPERATION -Search for Problems -Religious Studies -Code Review and Site Analysis -Space Program -Design Strategies I --------------------r------,-1 J DESIGN Sketching of -Synthesi s 1 Alternative of Design 1 Solutions Strategi e s 1 , , , THESIS DESIGN -Creation of Alternatives Jchoicef----------Selection off------<-Design Best Proposal Alternative I IMPLEMENTATION Working Drawings I Ect. 1------1-Systems Synthesis I I I I I I I I I J__-----_ _ _ ...J ---------------! ! EVALUATION : Evaluation of B uilding in Use and Process of Design Used Correction Theory of Faults Building i n Design for 19 F uture Designing

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) Jon Charles " A MODEL OF THE DESIGNING PROCESS" from the Designing for Human Behavior, Community Development Series V. 6. P. 45, Dowden, Hutchinson Ross, Inc. 1977 2) Morris, PROBLEMS IN AESTHETICS, P. 169 Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Music, and Poetry. 2> Jon Lang, Charles " A MODEL OF THE DESIGNING PROCESS'' from the Designing for Human Behavior, C ommunity Development Series V. 6. P. 43, Hutchinson Ross, Inc. 1977 3) Ibid, PP. 43-51. 4) Christopher Alexander, "AN EARLY SUMMARY OF THE TIMELESS WAY OF BUILDING, from Ibid, PP. 52-59. 5) Jon Lang, Charles Burnette, " A MODEL OF THE DESIGNING PROCESS" from the Designing for Human Behavior, Community Development Series V. 6. P. 46, Dowden, Hutchinson Ross, Inc. 1977 20

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2. A SEARCH FOR PROBLEMS. 2 -1. THE KOREAN IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Korean immigration to the United States has only assumed major proportions in recent years. Until World War II, emigrants from that land were excluded because the United States considered Korea part of the Japanese Empire. All Americans became conscious of Korea, the Land of Morning Calm, during the summer of 1950 when President Harry S. Truman set in motion the establishment of a United Nations force to oppose the movement of North Koreans southward across the thirty-eighth paralle. Since the Korean War, the United States continues to be involved in varying degrees in internal affairs. With the change in the 1965 immigration law, the Korean immigration to the United States has been gradually increased.1 ' Korean immigration to the mainland United States and to Hawaii took place in several distinct waves since 1885. The Koreans left their homeland because of a mixture of motives. The first Koreans, only three in number, to reach the United States arrived in 1885 follwing an abortive attempt by pro-Japanese liberals to overthrow the Korean monarchy. Two remained briefly but the third, Philip Jaisohn, attended the American College for Medicine and spent most of his life in the United States. He remained active in the drive for a free Korea.2 ' It was not until 1903 that any sizable number of Koreans left the Hermit Kingdom. The stimulus came from Hawaiian sugar plantations in their continuing search for sources of cheap labor. Deshler organized the Korean Development Company to manage the recruitment program gor the Hasaiian Sugar Planters' Association. The company's advertisements proclaimed that Hawaii had a mild climate in which to work, that workers would be paik sixteen dollars a month, and that they were to work ten hours a day, six days a week. The plantations would provide free medical care, housing, fuel, and water to all workers , married and single. Recruiting centers were established in Seoul, Inchon, Pusan, and Wonsan, but few Koreans came forward to make the trip. For most, there was a basic cultural problem related to the abandonment of their ancestors' graves. There was also the matter of financing one's passage. Most Koreans who wanted to accept the proposal simply did not have funds to pay for the trip and to have the needed "show money" to demonstrate to United State immigration officials in Honolulu that they were not paupers. The Korean Kevelopment Company paid the emigrants' passport fees, loaned each individual his newly created Deshler Bank in Inchon, were repayable ten months from the time of the arrival 21

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at one of the sugar plantations. Records show that this bank had only one depositor, the Through urging, who was an United States Minister to Korea, several American Protestant ministers influenced members of their congregations to emigrate. George Heber Jones, one of the nissionary preachers in Inchon, was particularly persuasive. On December 22, 1902, 121 emigrants boarded the S.S. Gaelic for Kobe. Most came from the Inchon area; almost half were members of Jones' s chruch.4> Those forst pioneers were sent to Kahuku plantation along the northern Oahu coast.e> Lately Koreans have become interested in the Hawaiian Islands where large numbers of Chinese and Japanese reside, and considerabe numbers have desired to go to the Islands with the hope of bettering their condition.The idea of obtaining an education of their chidren seems to be an incentive as well. After Allen was replaced as United States minister, Japanese control tightened, and immigration closed to a trickle. But during the years of open migration, 7,226 immigrants, consisting of 6,048 men, 637 women, and 541 children left for Hawaii. The HSPA had arranged sixty-five crossings. The ages of the men ranged from twenty to thirty years. Few of them migrated directly from rural regions. Most were unemployed laborers from seaport towns. Others were soldiers, house servants, miners, woodcutters, or policemen. Some 60 percent of the immigrants were illiterate. Table 2-1. KOREAN IMMIGRATION TO HAWAII, 1901 19117> Year Number Year Number 1901 4 • > 1905 2659 1902 12 1906 8b) 1903 1,133 1910 27c> 1904 3.434 1911 9 a) Houchins, P. 553; W,Kim, P. 10. b) Territory of Hawaii, Board of Immigration, Report, 1907. c) Territory of Hawaii Legislature, House Committee on Agriculture and Immigration, Report, 1911 One Korean group that continued to arrive were picture brides. Following the 1907 Gentlemen's Agreement, they emigrated to Hawaii and the mainland until the passage of the 1924 immigration act which made subjects of Japan, including Koreans, aliens ineligible for citizenship and barred as immigrants to the United States. The first wave to Hawaii brought 637 women. Between 1910 and 1924, about one thousand picture brides came to the islands while another 22

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115 arrived on the West Coast.6> (see table 2-1.) As already indicated, students formed an important early group of Korean immigrants. Following Korean independence in 1945, an estimated six thousand students came to the United States. Table 2-2. KOREAN IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED INTO THE UNITED STATES, 1965-1976-> Year Number Year Number 1965 2,165 1971 14,297 1966 2,492 1972 18,876 1967 3,956 1973 22,930 1968 3,811 1974 28,028 1969 6,045 1975 28,362 1970 9,314 1976 30,803 a) The Annual Report of the U.S. and Naturalization Service, Immigration 1950 -1976 With the tremendous internal dislocation caused by the Korean War, large numbers of Koreans behan to enter American ports, in 1950. In 1958, for example, 1,604 Koreans were admitted The number of arrivals increased gradually each year. By 1965, the number has risemn to 2,165. The first major increase occurred in 1969, the General Park entrenched himself in the presidency. From that time on, the number of Korean immigrants dramatically increased each year. They clearly left their homeland for both economic and political reasons. During the decade 1965-1974, Korean immigration, as shown on the table 2-2 increased 1,194.6 percent as 111,914 Koreans entered the United States.a> The United States Immigration Act of 1965 selects new kinds of Korean immigrants. The new Korean immigarants arrived, which virtually communtes from Seoul to New York City and Los Angeles!. Unlike the older immigrants, most of whom were illiterate, poor, and low skilled laborers intermingled with some few highly educated political refugees, a majority of new ones are well educated, skilled urban-middle-class Koreans. Nobody knows the exact number of the total Korean-Americans in the United States. Based on the Annual Report of the United States Immigrantion and Nationalization service, There are 543,894 Korean-Americans at the present of June, 1979 as shown on the table 2-3. Most of Korean-Americans entered the United States Since the enactment of the Immigration Act of 1965, especially since 1978.8> If we assume about 150,000 Koreans have entered the 23

PAGE 24

United States every year since 1980, There should be 1,300,000 Korean-Americans with very rough estimate by June 1984. The major Korean immigration to the Colorado state began right after the U.S. Immigration Act of 1965. Most of them came to Colorado State since 1970 as shown on the table 2-3. Only a few Korean-Americans lived in Denver area before 1965. Table Number of Koreans who reported Colorado states as their addresses by year, 1971-1979. Year Total _______ _______ ___ _ Number /. Number /. Number /. 1971 14,297 171 1.2 41 0.29 41 0.29 1972 18,876 187 1 38 0.2 24 0. 13 1973 22,930 309 1.35 89 0.39 67 0.29 1974 28,028 377 1. 35 85 0.3 127 0.45 1975 28,362 ? ? ? 1976 30,803 482 1.57 141 0.46 138 0.45 1977 30,917 521 1.66 99 0.32 155 0.5 1978 140,206 2,109 1.5 ? ? 1979 154,615 2,344 1.5 ? ? ------------------------------------------------------Sum 543,894 6,500 ------------------------------------------------------Source; Adapted from the Annual Report of The United States Immigrants and Naturalization Service (1971-1979) * The Korean-Americans who had previously entered with nonimmigrant statuses such as student, visitor, or businessman and who changed their status to that of permanent resident are excluded. It is very tough job to estimate the number of Korean-Americans living in Denver Metropolitan area because there is no statistical data about them. But we can roughly project the Korean-American population living in Denver area from the data based on the Annual report of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service. Total 145,851 Koreans entered the United States during 6 years from 1971 to 1977 excluding 1975, 2047 persons (1.4 /.) reported Colorado State, and 493 persons <0.34 /.) chose Denver as their addresses. There are 1,300,000 Korean-Americans in the United States as I mentioned before. So we can easily extract 4,420 persons from the total number as Korean-American residents in Denver area, if we use 0.34 /. as a variable for the people who had chosen this area as their address. However this result of the projection is not reliable because number 24

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of migration should be considered very significantly. Unfortunatly there is no possible way to trace the Korean-Americans migration within the Unite States. I met several people who engage in the Korean-American communities in Denver area for long time. Their answers are consistent that there are about 8,000 Korean-Americans in Denver area. I felt their answers are very reliable and accepted the number of 8,000 because the point is not the exact number but the overall scale of the Korean-American population. 2 -2. General Characteristics of the Korean-Americans. In general, the Korean-Americans who recently came to the United States were in almost same social situation in Korea. They are highly educated, well skilled, urban middle-class Koreans. Accordingly, there should be little difference in their general charateristics between the Korean-Americans living in different areas. 1) Korean-American population structure in age and sex. Table 2-4. Age and Sex of Korean-American in Denver area,1984. Age Group Under 10 10 -19 20 -29 30 -39 40 -49 50 -59 60 and over Total Sex M F M F M F M F M F M F M F M F Percent 9,2 9,6 10,6 12,1 8,9 14,2 9,2 9,9 1,4 1,5 1,2 1,6 46 54

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Korean immigration is selective in terms of age and sex. A majority are young and thus economically active, and female immigrants out number males by two to one as shown on the table 2-4, more than 90 persent of the Korean immigrants who entered from 1966 to 1975 were under the age of thirty nine, and the percentage of immigrants between twenty and thirty years old declined from 66,1 percent in 1966 to 43,2 percent in 1975. This decline was largely caused by the percentage decrease of female immigrants in this age group. In the twenty to twenty nine age group, a massive influx of Korean nurses and Korean war brides is largely responsible for the high proportion of female immigrants, during the period 1962-1970 a total of 14,554 Korean women came to U.S. as wives of American citizens. Most of citizens,as I have noted, were American soldiers. In addition 7,000 Korean nurses were admitted to U.S. either directly from Korea or by way of third nations, like West Germany and Canada. The Korean-American Population structure in Denver area conducted by random sampling survey during the month of September,1984 is slightly different from that of 1975 based in the Annual Report of USIN. The total portion of female is more declined by 54 percent as the table 2-1 shows 2) Education Status. As I mentioned before, The majority of Korean-Americans who entered the United States since 1965 are highly educated. The Table 2-5 shows the education level of the Korean-Americans in the New York Metropolitan area obtained by sample survey which was conducted by Jae T. Kim in 1975.10, 67 X of 560 respondents received college deucation in their home country. Table 2-5. Education Level Attained Before Leaving Korea by Korean Householders in the New York Metropolitan Area. High School Junior College College Other Total 12 X 16 X 67 X 5 X 100 X According to the U.S. census Bureau, 36 X of the Korean residents in the U.S. have a college education, compared to 11 X in the U.S. as whole.11, The education level of the Denver area Korean-Americans comparablly lower than that of 28

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whole Korean-Americans in the United States as the table 2 6 shows. But their education level is still very high. Table 2-6. Education Level of the Korean-American in the Denver Area received either in Korea or in U.S. 1984. Education Level Number Percentage Junior High School 17 14 or lower Senior High School 49 41 College or University 42 71:" -.:.•..J Graduate or higher 12 10 Total Respondents 120 100 3> Occupational Status The occupational status of a man is very good and valuable source to read his social role. Table 2-7. Last occupation of Korean immigrants before time of entry, 1965-1974, and of the U.S. population in 1970. Korean Immigrants(/.)•> -Professional, Technical and Managerial Workers Crerical and Sales Workers Craftsmen and Operatives Laborers, Farm, and Nonfarm Service Workers, Including Domestics 67 7.5 15.1 1.3 9.1 Source; The Annual Reports of Immigration and naturalization Service, 1965-1974. u.s. (/.) 22.6 24.9 31.9 7.8b) 12.8 a) The total represents 26/. of all Koreans who immigrated to the U.S. from 1965 to 1974. The remainder either did not have an occupation or did not report one. The total figure includes housewives and children. b) This includes farmers and farm managers. The table 2-7. shows that the majority of them were in urban middle class in Korea before they enter the United 27

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States. Their social positions were very much higher than those of average American people. But their social positions were changed all of a sudden. They could not possibley keep their high social positions. According to my survey for the Denver area Korean-Americans, only 3 persons out of 120 are professionals, 4 persons out of 120 are white color office workers, 5 persons out of 120 have own businesses. According to my another observation of the Korean Commercial and Industrial Association of Colorado, There are 76 registrants as memberships. Mr. Choi who is the chairman of the association said there are about 50 small businessmen who are out of the institution. If we accept his figure, there are about 126 businessmen in the Denver area. It is only 4 /. of total Korean-Americans who are over 19 years old in the Denver area. The Table 2-8 shows the occupational d istribution of the Denver area Korean-Americans. Table 2-8. Occupational Distribution of Korean-Americans in the Denver Area, 1984 Occupations Number Percentage Professional 3 ? Color 4 7 7 J . J Own Business 5 4.2 Blue Color & Unemployment 110 90 Total 120 100 4) Family Income Table 2-9. The gross Family Income of Korean-Americans in the Denver area, 1983 . Under $ 20,000 $ 20,000-30,000 $ 30,000-40,000 $ 40,000 or more 8/. 39/. 31/. 22/. Total respondents were 113 out of 150 Most Korean-Americans have low income job. But they have minimun economic security because they are hard working people, and they struggle to be successful in economy for the compensation for their backward social roles.Only 8/. of 120 respondents earn less than 20,000 dollars a year as gross family income, and 28/. of them make more than 40,000 dollars a year. The table 2-9 represents the Denver area Korean-Americans family income level in detail. 28

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5) The Presence of Close Friends. Closely related to organizational participation as a measure of social assimilation is the presence of colse friends. More then half of the responents don't have any any friend. Table 2-10. Presence of Close friends Number of Friends Korean American ---------------------------------------------4 or more 6 (4/.) 4 (3/.) 9 (6/.) 6 (4/.) 2 10 (7/.) 10 (7/.) 1 41 <29/.) 41 (29/.) None 76 (54/.) 81 (57/.) Total 142 (100/.) 142 <100/.) Only 6 persons out of 142 marked the column that they have 4 or more close Korean-American friends, and only 4 persons out of 142 answered that they have 4 or more American friends. 87 percent of them have never invited American friends, 62 percent of them have been never invited by American friends. They are living only with their family isolated from friend and variety of social relationships. The Table 2-10 represents their presence of class friends. 6) Proficiency in English. I gave three different questions on the questionaire to randomly selected Korean-Americans for the purpose of measuring their English proficiency. Those are use of English at home, subscription magazines or newspapers, and self-evaluation of English proficiency. Table 2-11. Use of English at Home Frequency Always Frequently Occasionally Never Total Number 2 12 63 76 153 29 Percent 1,3 7,8 41,2 49,7 100

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only 2 people who always use English at home. One of them is not the of The came to the U.S. at the age of five and has been living seventeen Most don7t use English at home. ( See the Table 2-11 > The aspect of in English is that of speaking English. than half of them English and 65 of them English magazines as shown on the Table 2-12. Table 2-12. Media of /. Magazine /. ...,.. 6 4 9 6 . ..) .., 9 6 12 8 .:.. 1 63 42 78 51 None 72 48 54 35 Total ---=-150 100 153 100 Table 2-13. Self-Evaluated English Level Fluent _, 9 6 Good b) 62 42 c:) 74 50 c:t> ...,.. 2 --= Total 148 100 a) No at all in speaking, listening, English . b) No in speaking and listening, but to and c) Communication is o.k. d) Limited impossible communication. than half of the confessed inadequate English only 9 out of 148, which is 6 who have confidence on English We can easily the table 2-13 that most have some kinds of limitations in English even though they have high education in in the Unites States. It is possible them to continuously English because many always use English, and because most of them don't have any chance to study English. 30

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2 -3. Problems of the Korean-Americans. 1) Language deficiency
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2 -4. Conclussion : A Church As a Problem Solving Organization. We have seen Korean-Americans social and cultural situation. Obviously they have critical problems which must be solved. The Church is one of the best possible organizations which can provide them proper education, chance to get involved in the native American culture. The ultimate goal of the Christianity is sulvation of people. The churches e xist for suffering prople. The Korean United Methodist Church exists for mainly suffering Korean-Americans with variety of program to provide them language education, cultural education, vocational service, recreational activities new commer guidence service, etc. besides the religious activities. It is a bridge to connect them to the native American culture, a basic social gathering point for them. The Korean United Methodist Church gives Korean-Americans, who are isolated and regressed from the major American culture because of their problems, new vision, new hope and new life as well as faith in God. Inspite of theose definite necessities, they don't have their own church. They must have one through which they can change themselves and have successful American lives! I suggest that the new Korean United Methodist Church have following characteristics ; A> A church as a religious organization 8) A church as a social organization C) A church as a cultural organization 32

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) H. Brett Melendy, ASIANS IN AMERICA, P.111, G. K. Hall Co., Boston, 1977. 2) Kim, KOREANS IN AMERICA, P.3; Arthur L. Gardner, "SO-CHAEPIL AND THE TONGMIP SINMUN," M.A. Thesis, Univ. of Hawaii, 1969, PP. 1-2; Hyungchan Kim, "SOME ASPECTS OF SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHY OF DOREAN AMERICANS," From International Migration Review, VIII <1974), 24, indicates that the first Koreans considered by the United States to be immigrants arrived in Hawaii in Jan. 15, 1900. 3) Houchins Lee and Changsu Houchins, "THE KOREAN EXPERIENCE IN AMERICA," Pacific Historical Review, XLIII, P. 552, 1974. 4) Kim, KOREANS IN AMERICA, P. 10; Kim, "ASPECS OF SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHY," P. 24. 5) Honolulu Evening Bulletin, Jan. 13, 1903, as quoted in 50 Years of Progress:Hawaii Korean Golden Jubilee Celibration Illsoo Kim, NEW URBAN IMMIGRANTS, P. 25, Princeton University Press, New Jersey,1981. 33

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3. RELIGIOUS STUDIES. 3 -1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE UNITED METHODIST CHURCH.1> The plan of Union proposed to bring together The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church, two churches that share a common historical and spiritual heritage. They hold the same fundamental doctrines of faith. Ecclesiastical organization is similar. They are Protestant churches, whose streams of spiritual life and thought come out of the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century. Since their beginnings they had lived and worked side by side in friendly fellowship. Had it not been for the difference in language ---the Methodist working among English-speaking people and the Evangelical and United Brethren working among those speaking German ---they might, from the beginning, have been one church. Brief historical sketches of the churches follow. 1> The Methodist Church The Methodist Church is a church of Christ in Which "the pure Word of God is preached, and the sacrements duly administered". This church is a great Protestant body, though it did not come directly out of the Reformation but had its origin within the Church of England. Its founder was John Wesley, a clergyman of that church, as was his father before him. He sought in vain for religious satisfaction by the strict observance of the rules of religion and the ordinances of the church. The turning point in his life came whem, at a prayer meeting in Aldersgate Street, London, on May 24, 1738, he learned what Paul had discovered, that it is not by rules and laws, nor by our own efforts at self-perfection, but by faith in mercy as it comes to us in Christ, that man may enter upon life and peace The gospel which Wesley thus found for himself the began to proclaim to others, first to companions who sought his counsel, including his brother, then in widening circles that took him throughout the British Isles. Wesley did not plan to found a new church. In his work he simply followed, lide Paul, the clear call of God, first to preach the gospel to the needy who were not being reached by the Established Church and its clergy, second to take care of theose who were won to the Christian life. Step by step he was led on until Methodism became a great and transforming movement in the life of England. He gathered his people in groups, in classes and societies. He appointed 34

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leaders. He found men who were ready to carry the gospel to the assses, speaking on the streets, in the open fields, and in private homes. Wesley thus united in extraordinary fashion three notable activities, in all of which he excelled. One was evangelism; "The is my parish," he declared. His preachers went to th4 people; they did not wait for the people to come to them, and he himself knew the highways and byways of England as did no other man of his day. The second was organization and administration, by which he conseved the fruits of this preaching and extended its influence. The third was his appreciation of education and his use of the printed page. He made the press a servant of the Chruch and was the father of the mass circulation of inexpensive books, pamphlets, and periodicals. From England, Methodism spread to Ireland, and then to America. In 1766 Philip Embury, a lay preacher from Ireland, began to preach in the city of New York. At about the same time Robert Strawbridge, another lay preacher from Ireland, settled in Frederick County, Maryland, and began the work there. In 1769 Wesley sent Richard Boardman and Joseph Pilmoor to America, and two years later Francis Asbury, who became the great leader of American Methodism. Methodism was especially adapted to American life by the pioneers. 2) The Evangelical United Brethren Church. The Evangelical United Brethren Church had its roots in the spiritual quickening which energed in the United States in the late eighteenth and early noneteenth centuries. This movement challenged not only religious indifference, but also the contemporary tendency to substitute "religion" for a vital and experiential relationship with God. In its present form the Evangelical United Brethren Church represents the union, consummated in 1946, of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ and the Evangelical Church. A> Church of the United Brethren in Christ. The eighteenth century witnessed the eruption of revolutionary ideas and programs in science, industry, and politics. In this agitated world there were marked evidences of religious revitalization. In the English-speaking world it was associated with, though not confined to, Wesleyanism; in the German-speaking world it was associated with pietism. In some places and in some persons, these two movements impinged upon each other. Philip William Otterbein, and ordained minister of the German Reformed Church who served congregations in Pennsylvania and Maryland, and Martin Boehm, a Pennsylvanian of Mennonite parentage, were among those who sensed a call 35

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to the Good News of God's and love as in Jesus especially among neglected speaking of the Middle Colonies. In obedience to this call, they invited men to accept samvation. To be saved, they held, meant both as as any sensory awareness, of God's acceptance and personal commitment to Christ. labors were blessed, and thriving societies established which conceived not so much as or to establishedchurches as centers for in those churches. This expanded, and helpers were sought to devote themselves to this evangelistic effort. The work of and spread Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. Otterbein's leadership was increasingly acknowledged. B> The Evangelical Church Jacob Albright, an unordained Pinnsylvania began preaching that religion was a conscious, expeiential with God. About 1800, Small of people living in communities, impressed by ideas, covenanted themselves to seek God's which would enable them to live bolily. Following his experience of salvation in 1791, Blbright began to witness in the German language to God's saving He and those associated with him to of self-discipline and witness. The number of those inclined to in this endeavor and this in the enlistment of The movement to ecclesiastical was by the council of those acknowledging Blbright as on November 3, 1803. Beginning in 1807, with a meetintg at Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, the in annual meeting. the noneteenth the of this in evangelism, education, and publications. In the part of the century arose in the Evangelical Association which in 1891 culminated in a division. A number of and laymen and took the name the United Evangelical which held its in 1894. Both in and in missionary By 1910 the conviction the two should be found and in 1922 the Evangelical Association and the United Evangelical were united under the name the Evangelical Negotiations, beginning in 1933, consummatd in 1946 when the Church of the United Brethren in Christ and the 38

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Evangelical Church became the Evangelical United Brethren Church. This church sought to serve its Lord faithfully in the proclamation that salvation is available to any upon the free, personal acceptance of God's offer. Conversion, while personal, is not a private matter and finds its consummation in holy living and in serving as an instrument of God for the redemption of the whole world. 3) The United Methodist Church The united Methodist Church brings together two streams of spiritual life with similar emphases which had their beginnings in the evangelistic concerns and passion of John Wesley, Francis Asbury, Philip Wulliam Otterbein, Jacob Albright, Martin Boehm, and others who labored with them. These men were dedicated to the task of preaching the gospel to their fellow countrymen. Since they were men who were deeply moved by a common faith and zeal and held a like emphasis upon personal speritual e xperience of salvation, it is no surprise to find instances of fraternity and cooperation among them. They often conferred with each other and sometimes traveled together on their preaching missions. In many communities they shared the same building, with the Methodist preachers conducting services in English at one hour and the Evangelical or United Brethren preachers conducting a German service at another hour. There are many references to the Asbury groups as "English Methodists" and Otterbein-Boehm-Albright groups as "German Methodists" or "DUtch Methodists". The firm conviction that Christian faith and experience ought to be e xpressed in holy living led these early leaders to adopt similar patterns of ecclesiastical organization and discipline to assist Christians in spiritual growth and Christian witness. When Asbury was ordained and consecrated as hishop in 1784, Otterbein participated with the laying on of hands. When Otterbein ordained Christian Newcomer in 1813, he requested that a Methodist minister participate. William Ryland responded and joined Otterbein in the act of ordination. There is evidence that Asbury conferred with Otterbein when he was working on the book of Discipline for the Methodists. When this Discipline was later translated into German, it became the basis for the Discipline of the Evangelische Gemeinschaft (later konwn as the Evangelical Church> and ---to a lesser degree ---the Vereinigten Bruder (later known as the United Brethren in Christ). Over the years there have been many conversations concerning union. Bishop Newcomer's journal records such a conversation as early as April 1, 1803 the Evangelical 37

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Association Voted by a narrow nargin of one to join the Methodists, but union was never consummated. During the years thesis conversations, under the instruction and authorization of the respective General Conferences, led to a plan and basis of union that united the Evangelical United Brethren Chruch and The Methodist Church into The United Methodist Church. 3 -2. A STUDY OF THE KOREAN UNITED METHODIST CHURCH. 1) The Establishment. The Korean United Mithodist Church was established by a Korean paster, Jong-il Kim and three other Korean people at 465 Galapago, Denver, CO. in the month of october, 1979. The paster Kim was educated in USA to be a paster of the United Methodist church. He claimed the Rocky Mountain conference, which is the headquater of United Methodist Church, a church building for Korean American's worship. The Headquarter gave a building to him to mission Korean-American people in Denver Metroplitan area !
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to a population which best meets the of the planing. The United Methodist at Denver has fast since it was established by 4 The only 12 people the first and the was the entire activity of the church. On the first sunday of may, 1980, paster Cho occupied the pulpit as a new He has devoted all his might to mission. Because of his the of church members have significantly. The members 40 at the end of 1980, 60 at 1981, 82 at 1982, 112 persons at 1983, and 120 at present, september, 1984. The behavior of population change of a small institution is different that of or urban scale because the population changing mechenisms Table 3-1. by 3 month Period 1979, June Dec. 1980, June Dec. 1981, June Dec. 1982, June Dec. 1983, June Dec. 1984, June Dec. No. of 10 20 40 50 60 72 82 94 112 120 No. of Increase 10 20 10 10 12 10 12 18 8 * Period end is the end of the month. Ratio of 100 100 25 20 20 14 15 19 7 There are three immediate precipitators of change over time in the of of an deaths, and migration the boundary of the Births and deaths are very causes of population change in scale. Yet those not critical in small institution because sometimes a small institution may faster than a human does. Also migration is not critical because is a strong 39

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possibility that a new church would be establisbed *' and that every person can move from a church to another. According to my research, There are many churches of which the members are decreasing significantly in Denver area although the regional population are increasing. The point that births, deaths, and migration are not critical factors to change population of the Korean United Methodist Church. There are several reasons to change the population of a church; A) The doctrine of the church It is very important factor to change church members that what kind of doctrine they have. In other words, The church members should be increased if mission is a major doctrine of the church, and all church members participate in the missionary work. B> The Church Activities The population of a church can be changed very significantly according to their acctivities. Especially in an Immigration church, reaction of the activities are very critical because most immigrants need various help for adaptation to new culture which is totally different from that they had. At the very first time, a person goes to church for help. After that, he goes to church for worship and social intercourse. C> Relatives and friends Koreans are very sensitive to human relationship like consanguinity friendship. etc .. Their close human relation has been little bit untied in the USA. But they still keep the character in their own generation. I discovered that all families and close relatives go to same church in most case, and that generally all families and relatives change their chruch if an influential person among a family changes his church. It is not unusual either that Korean-Americans select their church just because of their friends. D> The personality and intelligence of paster A paster must have a lovely personality and broad knowledge for misson. It is very common that certain members secede from the church because of discord with the paster. 40 '

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On the other hand, the church members hardly leave the church if the paster understands and serve them in person with deep love, and if he can talk with all members on broad Topics. The projection stratage is absolutely based on the precipitator of stratages, constant absolute change per unit of time, constant percentage change per unit of time, typical logistic curves, and constant percentage decrease in unused capacity in each time period, in urban planning. But the four precipitators I described for this project are not possiblly converted to mathematical function. However we can find a projection stratage from the analysis of changing behavior with given data. The table 1. shows the increasing pattern in every 6 month period, the number of increase per unit of time is almost constant the average increase of church member in each unit of time is 12.2 persons. It is a very useful variable.To use a single variable for urban or rigional planning is not a sophisticated way of projection.But this simplest form of projection would be most reliable and accurate for a small institution. It can be illustrated with a mathematical function and its graphic equivalent. (p) Fig. 3-1. Regression for the Projection. 130:120:-110:-100:-90:80:70:60:50:40:30:-20:-/ .. 10:-/:' / / . / / / / • / / / . / / / " / / P = a + nb


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3 . CHURCH ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION fig. 3-2. ORGANIZATION CHART. Conference I Board 1 Committee on Nominations and Personnel HCommittee on Finance HCommittee on Mission HTrustees ycommittee on Education ycouncil I Church I I Chi 1 dren J on Ministries I Schools I HYouth J HAdul t I HKorean j Language L{Vocationj -{Youth J Ministry H Young Adult I Ministry HAdult Ministry j ted l-Jomen Methodistj yuni ted Men Methodist! 42

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Every local church has an organization so that adequate provision is made for these basic responsibilities ; A> planni8g and implementing a program of nurture, outreach, and witness for perons and families eithin and without the congregation. B> providing for effective pastoral and lay leadership. C> providing for financial support, physical facilities, and the legal obligations of the church. D> insuring relationships of the local church organizations to appropriate district and Annual Conference structures and programs The Korean United Methodist Church has an organization based on the United Methodist Church Constitution and its own variety of activities. The detail functions and structure of it is as follow ; A> Charge Conference.2> Within the pastoral charge the basic unit in the connectional system of the United Methodist Church is the Charge Conference. It is the connecting link between the church and the general Church and have general oversight of the Administrative Board. The members of it would be all members of the Administrative Boards, 24 persons. It has annual meeting, and erregular meeting. Its primary responsibility in the annual meeting is to receive reports, review and evaluate the total mission and ministry of the church, and adopt objectives and goals recommended by the Administrative Board which are in keeping with the objectives of The United Methodist Church. B> Administrative Board.3 , Administrative Board have general oversight of the administration and program of the Korean United Methodist Church as the executive agency of the Charge Conference. It is consisted of the Committee on Nominations and personnel, Committee on Financing, Committee on paster-parish relations, Trustees, Committee on Education. There are 8 members in each committees and Each member can be a member of other committees or trustees. Therefore the number of the members are not 40 persons. There are 24 43

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members in the board. The pastor is the administrative officer. The Administrative Board meet at least quarterly. Special meetings may be ordered by the chairperson of the board or the pastor. Its general responsibilities are to initiate planning, establish objectives, adopt goals, authorize action, determine policy, receive reports, evaluate the church's ministries, and review the mission and ministry of the church. The major functions on each committees and trustees are follow. B-A) Committee on Nominations and Personnel.4> It is composed of 8 persons, excluding the paster. The committee nominates to the Charge Conference in its annual session such officers and members of the Administrative Board and Charge Conference and committees as the law of the Church requires. B-B) Committee on Finance. The 8 members are elected annually by the Conference upon nomination by the Committee on Nominations and Personnel. The committee out the Administrative directions of financial affair in guiding the treasurer. B-C) Committee on Mission. There are 8 members in the committee elected by the Committee on Nominations and Personnel. It works for all kinds of missionary affairs. B-D) Trustees. It is the official body with the responsibility of acquisition, sale, maintenance, and management of church property. It has the power to invest, reinvest, buy, sell, transfer, and convey any and all funds and properties which it may hold in trust, subject always to the terms of the legacy, devise, or donation. It manages all properties of the church. It can be consist of twelve persons, who must be at least thirty years of age. There are 8 members in the Trustees. B-E) Committee on Education. 44

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The 8 in the committee. It is to the School It is Christian education and other social edcation. C) Council on It is one of major agencies of the which shall , initiate, develop, and coordinate for the strategy for mission.3> 6 groups in this council. C-1) Church School. It has to the Committee on Education for all kinds of educations. are two educational in school in the United Methodist One is the education, the other is the social education Church school settings include the Sunday school and all ongoing and classes and learning groups for of all ages. age for education, children sixth youth
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C-2) Youth Ministry. The youth ministry of the Korean United Methdist Church includes all persons from approximately twelve through eighteen years of age (generally persons in the seventh grade through twelfth grade, taking into account the grouping of youth in the public schools), who are currently or potentially associated with the church or any of its activities. C-3) Young Adult Ministry. The ministry includes all persons from approximately nineteen through thirty years of age. C-4) Older Adult Ministry. The ministry consists of all persons sisty years of age and older. Such ministry seeks to meet the needs of older adults and bring them into the fellowship, ministry, and service of the local congregation. C-5) United Methodist Women. The Membership is open to any woman who indicates her desire to belong and to participate in the global mission of the church through United Methodist Women. The United Methodist Women is a community of women whose purpose is to know God and to experience freedom as whole persons through Jesus Christ; to develop a creative, supportive fellowship; and to e xpand concepts of mission through participation in the global ministries of the church. C-6) United Methodist Men. The United Methodist Men is a creative supportive fellowship of men who seek to know Jesus Christ, to grow spiritually, and to seek daily his will. Its primary purpose is to declare the centrality of Christ in the lives of men and in all their relationships. 46

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4) Church Program There are various programs religious activities, social activities and recreational activities. However I will deal with the programs only those are closely related to the architectural space programming. A) Worship Service. Worship service is fundamental program held on every sundays. There are two sessions for worship ; one is the English preaching session for native Americans and second generation of the Korean mmigrants who can't understand Korean very well. The other is Korean preaching session for the most Korean-Americans. The main session, which is Korean preaching, is held 11:30 AM on every sundays. B) Intimate Friendship. It is an informal activity for social intercourse among all church members right after the worship service or any formal meetings. They talk each other, exchange hoods, and make their fellowships closer. C) Revival Service. It is an evangelistic service for the purpose of effecting a religious awakening. Generally a special guest preaches or confesses his faith or experiences in God as a witness of the world of God. Usually the revival service is held once a year, lasts two or three evenings. D> Retreat. It is an annual conference to promote spiritual living for individual age groups, children, youth, young adult, old adult, United Methodist Women, United Methodist Men. It hardly affects the architectural programming because it is not charged in the church building or around it. Usually each age group select a spacial place for the activity. E) Age Group Prayer Meeting. Every Saturday evenings, each age group has a meeting for bible study, share faith, and fellowship in the church or other place. There are five age groups in this category. 47

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F> Various Education. Christian, social, and vocational education , A) C hurch School> G> Korean-American Help Service. It is an informal service center to guide, help Korean-Americans in any possible way such as an employment agency, housing information center, driving education, etc. 1) 2) 3 ) 4) Ronald P . THE UNITED Methodist Ibid, PP. Ibid, PP. BIBLIOGRAPHY Patterson, METHODIST Publishing 128 -133. 133-137. Editor, THE BOOK OF DISCIPLINE OF CHURCH, PP. 7 -18, The United House, Nashville, Tennessee, 1980. Ibid, P. 154. 5) George E. Koehler, HANDBOOK FOR THE COUNCIL ON MINISTRIES, P. 7, The United Methodist Publishing House, Nashville, Tennessee, 1977. 48

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4. CODE REVIEW AND SITE ANALYSES 4 -1. Code Review 1) T ype of Zone R-1 Type of Fire Zone 2> Permitted Uses A> Art musium, public B> Church C) Community center owned and operated by a governmental entity. D> Community recreational facility. 3) Bulk of Structures No part of any structure ( e xcept eaves, church spires, church towers, flagpoles, antennas,chimneys, flues, vents or accessory water tanks) shall project up through bulk limits which are defined by planes extending up over the zone lot at an angle of forty-five(45) degrees with respect to the horizontal(a pitch of one foot additional rise for each foot additional setback) and which planes start : Fig. 4-1. Fire zones. At horizontal lines which are co-directional to the side line or lines of the zone lot and pass through points ten(10) feet above the midpoint of each such side line or lines ; and B> At horizontal lines which are co-directional to the center lines of all streets abutting the zone lot and pass through points ten(10) feet above the midpoint of such center lines between the boundary lines of the zone lot extended ; and C> At, if no alley abuts the zone lot, a horizontal l ine which is co-directional to the rear line of the zone lot and passes through a point ten <10> feet above the midpoint of such rear line of the zone lot and if the rear line or lines of the zone lot are 49

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4 ) established by an abutting alley or alleys, such planes shall start at horizontal lines which are co-derectional to the center lines of such abutting alley or alleys and pass through points ten(10> feet above the midpoint of such center lines between the boundary lines of the zone lot extended. In addition to the above limitations, no part of any nonresidential structure, except the bracketed items in the f irst sentence above, shall be constructed higher than thirty-five(35> feet. Location of Structures Front Setback From each front line 20 ft. Fotstructures faced on either longer dimension ; 5 ft. For structures faced on either shorter dimension . 10 ft • , B> Rear Setback With alley ; t::' ft. ....J With no alley 20 ft. C> Side Setback (30 or more ft. in width> with a residential use 50 ft. otherwise 10 ft. D> Encicroachments on Setback Space D-1> Belt, courses, sills, lintels and pilasters ; 18 inches. D-2> Carnice, eaves, gutters ; Into front setback Into rear setback Into side setback D-3> Out side Stairways Front Rear Side 5 ft. 10 ft. 3 ft. 3 ft. 5 ft. 3 ft. D-4> Unwalled porches, terraces Front and rear ; 5 ft. 50

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Fig. 4-2. Buildable space on site. Maximum Zone Lot Coverage The sum total of the ground area covered by all structures on a zone lot. 30 /. of the zone lot. 20 /. additional ground area if such additional ground area is used only for parking structure. B> maximum Gross Floor Area The sum total of the gross floor area of all structures ; 200 /. of the zone lot. 8) Group of Occupancy Group B, Division 1. An assembly building with stage and an occupant load of less than 1,000. 51

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Group C, Division 1. A building used for deucational purposes by 20 or more persons at the twelves grade level or below. A> Requirements for Group B, Devision 1 Occupancies. A-1) Rooms accessory to stages shall be separated from each other and from stage by at least a one-half hour noncombustible fire separation. A-2> Stage E;< it At least one exit. Not less than 36 inches in each side. A-3) The slope of the main floor less than 1/8. A-4) Construction ; At least one hour fire resistration throughout. A-5) Location ; Minimum 20 ft. in width for access to a public street. 9) Egress Facilities A> Required Number of E xits Use Church Meeting Rooms Conference Rooms Dinning Rooms Childrens Homes Class Rooms Rooms 2 or more Exits Req. When occ. 1 oad ceeds. 50 50 50 I::-..J 25 Sq. ft. per occupant building floors rooms. 7 7 15 80 20 B> Arrangement of Exits ; At least two different directions. C> Distance to E xits (travel distance) C-1) Group B, Division 1. Without automatic springkler system ; 150 f t . W ith automatic sprinkler system ; 200 ft. 52

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C-2) Group C. Division 1. No more than 2 story building with fire detectors ; 90 ft. (to exit corrider, enclosed stairway> Travel distance ; Same as group B, division 1. 10) General Requirement of Construction Type I or II A > Structural Framework ; Structural steel, reinforced cone. or masonry. B> E xterior Walls and Openings ; 4 hour fire resistence. C> Openings in E xterior Walls Floors Non combustible fire resistiv e construction. Mezzanine ; One hour fire resistive noncombustible material. F> Stairs ; Reinforced cone. or structural steel. G> Roofs ; Non combustible materials protected. 11) Setbacks Requiring Protection of Openings in Exterior Walls (Fire Zone 3) Accupancy Type of Construction Setbacks in ft. B-1 C-1 I II III I II III 2 0 20 12) Maximum Height of Buildings.
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4 -2. SITE ANALYSES I dealt with valuable socio-cultural factors and institutional characteristics which impact architectLral design. W e can obtain a quite deal of information, physical potential7 and various social value of site in urban context, from appropriate site analysis. Architecture is a science as well as a synthetic art, inherently performed by design in space and form. The architectural space and form can not be copied without losing its quality because t h e new s i t e would not h ave the characte ristics for whic h the s pace and form were designe d . Architectural planners or designers must kno w the e x act site situation t o create better a r c hitecture. If w e carefully stu d y and analyze the s ite, i t g ives us truly valuable clues to solve architectural proble ms. I will study and analyze the sit e for the pur p ose of prob l e m d eterm ination a n d problem solution. 54

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Fig. 4-1. Site location related to Denver CBD. 55 N .....

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1) General Information A) Address 1801 Newton Street, Denver, Colorado, USA. East Side of Sloan's Lake B> Site Area 119,500 Sq.Ft. C) Latitude 40 Degree North. D> Longitude ; 105 Degree. E> Site Orientation ; SW. Facing with a Grade 4 /.. F > General Aspects of the Site. The site occupies an entire block on the eastern shore of Sloan's Lake and is surrounded by Newton Street, Meade Street, 18th Avenue, and 19th Avenue. It is two miles from the CBD of Denver. The site is a part of the Sloan's Lake Park surrounded by unique residential housing for middle class Denver residents. It has e xcellent accessibility from 6th Avenue, and I-25, and fine visual resources, the Rocky Mountain range, Sloan's Lake, and Downtown Denver. It has ultimate value as a place for public facilities. 2) HISTORY OF SLOAN'S LAKE Sloan's Lake has a unique history. I want to introduce Mr. Harvey Jordan's article written in the year of 1941 as a history of it. Mr. Harvey Jordan was a superintendent of North Denver Parks at that time. He suggested a direction of Sloan's Lake development. His article follows: The following article about Sloan's Lake was inspired mainly by the desire to acquaint some of the younger generation with the history of these lakes, and with the wonderful possibilities that they have for water sports of all kinds and the wonderful recreational center that they have to look forward to in days to come. Another thought, perhaps, is to bring back to those old timers memories of "The Good Old Days". Way, way back in 1866 when Andrew Johnson was President of this great country of ours (for that's as far back as I was able to trace) a man by the name of Thomas M. Sloan filed a homestead on the southwest quarter of what is now Sloan's Lake Park. A United States patent signed by the President of the United States was issued to Mr. Sloan dated December 15, 1866. Later he purchased more land lying north of his quarter section. At the time of Mr. Sloan's patent the land was all in Arapahoe County, Territory of Colorado. The lake was named by Thomas M. Sloan. Later in December 5, 1873, Mr. Sloan platted into lots, 56

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blocks, streets and avenues his Homestead under the name of "Lakeville.•• Mr. Sloan died in 1874, his residence at that time was 339 Arapahoe Street, now known as 1417 Arapahoe Street, Denver, Colorado. About the time of Mr. taking form. I will give Mountain, Vol. XVL, Col. Sloan's death another project was an excerpt of the Weekly Rocky 1, P. 4, of April 15, 1874. "A great deal of interest is manifested in the construction of the ship canal which is to extend from the Boulevard (now known as Federal Boulevard) to Sloan's Lake, a distance of three miles. Large numbers of people every day visit the Grand View Hotel (later St. Lukes Hospital) to witness the process of excavation, which is rapidly going on. The ditch will be excavated at both ends a certain distance and then the center removed. Captain Anderson Expects to have the work done and the canal full of water by the early part of May. A force of thirty-five teams are now busily at work removing the soil, which is hard pan. This pecularity of the earth is favorable to the canal, for it will retain the water perfectly. "The boat is also being constructed. Machinery for it is expected to arrive here next week. When the canal is finished, the water in and the steamboat running, it will be a positive pleasure to visit the hotel, and make the excursion to the lake and back. It will be a novelty to see a steamboat running under the shadow of the Rocky Mountains." Then came the era of the ice houses and row boats on Sloan's Lake: Adam Graff with his ice business, and the Graybehl's who brought 25 flatbottom wooden row boats from Cincinnati. Hunting and fishing was the main recreational sport in those days. In 1881 Mr. Graybehl and son were burned out. Then came the movement for a Park. Mayor Sopris, Aldermen, and reporters visit Sloan's Lake. From the Denver Tribune, April 1881: ''Yesterday an excursion party, composed of the Mayor, the Aldermen, representatives of the press, and a number of real estate owners and investors visited the beautiful sheet of water, a mile from the West end of the city, known as Sloan's lake, with a view to examining the merits of that proposed site for a park. The party halted on the eminence called Lakeville, to which the circle railroad is staked out, and which overlooks the pretty lake on one side and the imposing city on the other. "Mr. John Cook, Jr., who was chaperone for the 57

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excursionists, explained the points in favor of that location for a park. He called attention to the advantages of the lake which affords sailing, rowing, skating, hunting and fishing facilities. Even then several boats were plying upon the placid waters, and shots were being fired at passing flocks of ducks. Mr. Cook pointed out the lines of the school section, which crosses the upper end of the lake, for a mile cutting the edge of the water. He insisted that it had the natural undulations which are artistically made at great cost in Central Park, New York. He pointed out that with it platted and planted with trees, but little expense would be necessary until the trees are grown and the ground is under irrigation. Under the new law half the section can be bought for park purposes, and its improvement as such would more than double the value of the other half section, which would still belong to the School Board. Then the public would derive a double benefit. The fact that it is just over the line in Jefferson County made no difference. Alderman Gove said that the waste water from the irrigated farms all around supplies the lake by filteration, and that as its bottom is higher than any house in the city, it would make a magnificent reservoir which by natural pressure would supply the entire metropolis. "Mr. Lee, member of the Legislature from Jefferson, whose farm and residence is near by, said the lake could be made larger than it now is by a dyke at its outlet, which would cover the alkali border and the neck of land that make it now virtually two lakes. This would give over a mile straightway stretch of water, which would suit admirably for rowing and sailing boats. He said any surrounding property owners would sell any surrounding land required at a reasonable rate, and would donate liberally for streets and boulevards. "The entire surroundings of the lake resemble a vast amphitheater, from which 100,000 people could witness an exciting boat race. Another advantage is that the sheet of water thus protected would always be smooth enough for rowing, and the race would not have to be postponed on account of a sudden wind, as is so often the case on bays and harbors at the seaside. It is passing strange that no rowing or sailing club has been organized. The crowds that would flock out then would enrich the keepers of livery stables, and they are the men 10 make the first move in the matter. "After the party partook of an elegant lunch, it returned to the city, and all were delighted with the trip." "All the Aldermen questioned on the subject themselves to the effect that this is the natural place for 58

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a park, beyond all dispute. But some of them favored starting two parks at once-this one and the one proposed beyond the Sister's Hospital. The Mayor favors this plan. Alderman Morris said that action could be effected by authorizing the prople to vote about forty thousand dollars with which to buy the land and improve both the East and the West Park. It is probable that this suggestion will take different shape. In fact while opposition would show up against either an East or a West Park alone, public sentiment in favor of the two together would be almost a unit." In the winter of 1889 Adam Graff and his associates, Ernst Steinke, J. E. Sackett and Matt Darrow, got their heads together and from this grew the idea of the great recreational center and amusement park which they were to develop. In their minds, the snowy shore line changed to a gala strand of hunting and pavilions. A theater arose. A pier, swarming with boats, jutted into the water. The result was that a few weeks later the lake shore echoed to the tune of saws and hammers. The resort that came to be known as Manhattan Beach began to take from. The resort rapidly found favor among the city folk. The steamer was christened the "City of Denver and for several years it cruised the busy "sea lanes" of the lake. Disaster struck the good ship, though, one night in a gale. However, all hands were taken ashore safely. Albert Heep dynamited the wreck and hauled the flotsam to land to clear the roadstead. The ship later was supplanted by the "Frolic," an even more pretentious craft. This, however was done after Mr. Graff had disposed of his interest in Manhattan Beach. At this time Albert Lewin, Carl M. Linquist, Peter Hansen and S.K. Howes took over the concession rights, the lease covering a period of ten years, which took in 92 acres of lake and the old Manhattan grounds. The new company that was formed by Albert Lewin was called the Luna Park Amusement Company. Their idea was to increase the popularity of the park by adding many concessions. The first enterprise they entered into was the building of the steamship "Frolic," which was built right here on the banks of the lake and supervised by Peter Hansen. Besides this they had many other attractions such as a fine theater, seating capacity of 3,000. This theater became nationally known, for the boards of this theater were trod by celebrities such as Amelia Bingham, Blanche Walsh, Hobart Bosworth, James Neil and D. W. Griffith. Other 59

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attractions were the zoo, roller rink, elaborate gardens, fountains, roller coaster, a grand stand with a seating capacity of 2,000 people. At this athletic field were held all kinds of outdoor sports and games. When the theater burned down in 1908 it seemed to mark the finish of everything and people lost interest in the amusement park. The fire took place on the night after Christmas in 1908 despite the efforts of the hastily-mustered bucket brigade, the blaze swiftly became a raging inferno that threatened the surrounding buildings of Edgewater. All their efforts proved furile and the theater burned to the ground. Then in 1909 the Township of Highlands came into Denver and the city acquired most of the park property for approximately $73,220, Which included Cooper Lake, which by the way, was named after the man that owned the ground, Kemp G. Cooper. The city at that time started to develop what is now the present park. In 1937 the city acquired the remaining ground that is situated in the northwest corner of the park bordered by Sheridan and West Byron. This, by the way, was the area that Manhattan Beach and Luna Park formerly occupied. This land which included approximately 92 acres of land, and lake was acquired for approximately S 25,000. This latter purchase completed the present park as far as the grounds is concerned. The present city administration has done much to improve Sloan's Lake Park and is hopeful in the future to make it as popular as it was in its hey-day. 3) Topographic Analysis The site has an excellent topography which is neither too flat nor too steep. If a site is flat and totally free from structural or morphological limitation, the architectural formation in design can be to monotonous and simple. If the site is violent, the architecture should be very dynamic and rich in form, yet it is very difficult and expensive to develop it. The site for theis project is on 5 I. of grade. (see Fig. 4-4) Because of this mild grade, it can be developed easily with architectural richness for the variety of functions as shown on the fig. 4-5. I will discuss how to deal with this fine topography in the chapter 6. 60

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A i. e Fig. 4-2. Site sections I . . . .. ---------. ---: .. :::: ..:::=-.::.. -:. . .:..-_ .. __ -r i c c 5 . * Shaded indicates the site zone Fig. 4-3. activities on GRADE ACTI VI T l E S I 0%. .A 5% ----= JP 61 A 0 ,. t

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4) Climate analysis Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration. In the summer, clouds and afternoon showers noderate otherwise high temperatures. In the winter, winds are moderated by the position of the city in relation to the Rocky Mountains. Fall is the best season with little precipitation and much sunshine. spring is the worst season with rain, heavy snows, and severe storms from the northeast. A> Precipitation. Annual precipitation is 15.5 inches, the greatest part of which occurs in the spring. The normal annual snowfall totals fifty-nine inches . The average frost penetration is thirty inches. Fig. 4-6. Average precipitation
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B> Temperature. The Average number of heating degree days is 6,106, the average number of cooling degree days is 625. Annual means and e xtremes of temperature are as follows: Table 4-1. Temperature. January July Average High(F) Average Low (F) 42 15 88 57 Record High(F) 76 104 Record Low (F) -29 C) Behavior of sun. 42 Denver gets 70 i. of maximum annual possible sunshime with 278 average rainfree days. This makes passive solar energy utilization feasible (See Fig. 4-9). The average humidity is 54 i. in January, 50 /. in July. Critical solar angles are shown on the table 4-2, fig. 4-10. Fig. 4-8. Heaating and cooling Chart.
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Table 4-2. Altitude and azimuth. (altitude;40, longitude;105 Month Time Altitude Azimuth June 22 Noon 72 0 4 PM. 38 90 September 23 Noon 47 0 4 PM 23 68 Fig. 4-11. Solar angles by seasons and time. -Azimuth SEP. Z3 NOON -:TUNE 2 4 PM. ( 38) // 4PM. (23) --..... _ _ . _ .. _ _ _ _____ _____ _ _ _ _ _ ----.. --... --. -Altitude 64 s H A 0 I H t-1 2 f( E Q

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D> Behavior of winds Air masses from at least four different sources influence weather : D-1) Arctic air from Canada and Alaska. D-2) Warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico. D-3) Warm, dry air from Mexico and the southwest. D-4) Pacific air modified by its.passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west. Fig. 4-12. Winds on site. , / OCCASIONA L t' WARM DRY AIR CURRENTS 5 \ \ \ ) 1, .7 0 . , .. 1:J• ,.u '\I)-;IQ >u• I ,. ,A .MD AIR. ' !Nl'ASIONS I ' ' 1 I I WARM A D I ! STIDNG AIR ; ; I I 65 I I \ [ , I' ' ., , I I f I I . , ; I I . N ' . I . :li' , ... ;I I \ I . ' I : c l : " J ' j . ; \ I .. } .r I .' . . . ' . ' , ' '... ) I '-. ' ' \ J I j J

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5) Transportation network and accessibility analysis. Denver has a very good street network. The hierachy of roads i s well organized. Two major highways, I -25 (north-south) and 6th Avenue, (east-westl are within 3 to 7 minute dista nces by the car from the site. Three secondary throu gh-fares, Colfax Avenue, Federal Boulevard, and S h e ridan Boulevard, are within 3 to 5 distances b y the car from the site. The site can be accessed through 17th Avenue by way of Meade Street. The 17th Street functions as a bridge to connect the Meade Street to the I-2 5 , Federal Boulevard, and Sheridan Boulevard. The Meade Street can be a direct access from t h e Colfax Avenue to the site (see fig. 4-13 !. Thi? Lakeshore D riv e is a m a jor ped estrian route to t h e site. Accordingly a m ajor pedestrian access should be proiide at this side. (see fig. 4-13) I t l Fig. 4-13. Possible accessibilities 66

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6) View analysis Downtown Denver, the Rocky Mountains, Sloan' s L aJe. and the west facade of Lake Junior High School are major visual resources around the site. Fig. 4-14 and 4-15 show the visual relationship. Fig. 4-14. View from site. -West Well built houses tree s. (excellent 111atch of red roof, green grass, and blue sly. -South
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Fig . 4-15 View to site. -From west< E xcellent) Sloa n ' s t h e Wes t facade of l a t e Junior High School, and Downtown are the maJor view. lake Junior H i qh School and Downtmm Denver can good backdrops for and building. -From Eastl\ I ' . \ --... I' "'_'I > I . I 1'' 'I' ; I _, . . . ' I , !I; , t . li I ,, fl ,. t i ' i ./-.U-1'----:.-__ro "',. v r ""...,.-' t ......... ,. --• -.. -:-;:-=.. .. , . I ----_--;, : • l l 1.: • • 111 ,. I J 1 ; : . j ' ' ) \ ..... n ( . ,,. I L ' . . . ___.c.•;-:--;--•

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1> DENVER ZONING CODE, 1980 2> DENVER BUILDING CODE, 1980 3) DENVER FIRE CODE, 1980 4) William M. March, ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS, Mcgro-hill; New York, 1978 69

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5. ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAM. Space program is the work to transfer the abstract human which are originated from social problems and more concrete quantity and quality of the spaces as the base of architectural design. I will discuss the quality of the spaces in Chapter DESIGN STRATEGIES. I will simply determine overall activities occurring in certain spaces and estimate quantity of spaces in this section. To estimate the quantity of I will use universal and common standards obtained from various books and pragmatic experience. I also will analyze use time of the spaces. This is necessary in order to design for the maximam use of spaces and to eliminate any inefficiencies. Additional subject matter I would like to mention is that the present situation will be used only far the purpose of future and all spaces will be determined by the rationally projected future situations. ---=-5 -1 . Basic Assumption We have to know the future church papulation in detail. Table 5-1 shows the structure of the future church population projected from the age and sex distribution of the Korean-American in the Denver area at 1984. (Refer to the table 2-5) Table 5-1. Projected Papulation Structure of the Future Church. Age Ggroup Percent Number (persons) Under 10 18.8 56.4 10 19 r""\r""\ ..:....:.../ 68 20 -29 23.1 69.3 30 -59 Female 16.5 49.5 Male 16.1 48.3 60 or Mare 2.8 8.4 * I did not use the present church population for projection because It does not represent the general character of the Korean-American papulation structure. 70

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Fig. 5-1. Adjacency of space groups in function and interaction The church consists of 4 space groups, a worship area, a fellowship area, an administration area, and a church school area. Each space group has different functions and yet each cooperates with the others. 5 -2. Activity Analysis and Space Estimate. 1 ) Worship Area Table 5-2. Quantative space for worship area Marne of Rooms Number of Rm.s Accommo-Activities dation persons -Chancel 1 Paster seat Liturgical space, Stage, Use Space Remarks time Estimate (sq.ft.> __________ _ -Nave _______ ______ __________ _ ______ __________ _ -Prayer 35 sq.ft. _________ ______ ______ ZQ ____ __ _ -Choir Practice & Robing Choir ________ ______ BI _____ 1Q _____ _ ____ _ -Projection Slide or Rm. 1 Rewind Movie Projection ST 36 Total 5,426 The worship room is to be designed to assist the liturgy. The liturgy consists basically of provisions for the 71

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preaching of the word and the sacraments of baptism and holy communion. The worship room may also be used for other fuctions such as ; A> Conformation and reception of members BJ Weddings CJ Funerals D> Choir Programs E> Drama, Education A> Chancel The Chancel is the climactic point of the worship room and the main center of liturgical activities. The elements of the Chancel are pulpit, altar, paster or guest seating, and sacristy. In general, The space range for the chancel is from 1,240 sq.ft. to 1,500 NAR_'"TltE( ;t---PD5Sl B LE '\r --ACCESS sq. ft. (115-139 W2 ) 1>, we decide 1,300 sq.ft. as an appropriate size of chancel. Fig. 5-2. Functional interaction in worship area. B> Nave and Aisles Table Width and Space of Seat Per Person.3> Width Spacing Space of Screen in Front of First Seat Minimum Good E xcellent l"linimum Good E)< cell ent Minimum Good Excellent 18 inches 20 inches 22 inches inches 34 inches 36 inches 36 inches 38 inches 40 inches This area includes the chior seating, space for organ or piano, baby and mother room. The required space range are from 7 sq.ft. to 9 sq.ft. per person <0.65-0.84 M2/pJ1>. 72

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In accordance with the Time saver standards, 8 sq.ft. is required per person for the seating area.2 ' This space range is exactly same the other's. The whole seating area for 300 people should be * 300) sq.ft. if we use 9 sq.ft./person for ma ximum flexibility . Detailed seating requirements are shown on the table 5-4. Table 5-4 Aisle width Center 6 ft. Side 4 ft. front 6 ft. Rear 5 ft. -Side Aisle -Front Aisle Fig. 5-3 . Aisle width in function --'.:::C.. .. . , . , . -Center aisle -Ctr. \ W eddings ) -Ctr. \Funerals ) -Rear A is l e -Front Ais l e \Communionl F ront Aisle \ W eddingsl The narthex is the vestibule or entry into the worship room. It has been recommended that this area be at least 10 ft. wide to permit easy movement of the concregation and the usual personal greetings to the parishioners by the paster. Required area is 2 to 3 sq.ft •• per person.2 ' The narthex area for 300 people should be 900<3 * 300) sq.ft •• if we use 3 sq.ft •• per person. D ) Prayer Room T h e prayer room is a new concept within the church I will provide it in the Korean United Methodist Church for special prayers who want to pray in a private space at anytime. I t is a small cubicle with a prayer desk and one or two chairs under deem light. There are two prayer rooms within the worship room. Their size are; 5 f t . * 7 f t . ( 3 5 sq. f t . ) E> Choir Practice and Robing Room. Required area for the choir practice room is basically same a s that of the seating area. To the seating a 73

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piano area and robing area have to be added. There will be 30 members in the future choir. Actual required area follows Table 5-5. Space requirement for choir practice and robing room Choir seating Organ or piano Robing area Total 9 * 30 = 270 sq.ft. 100 sq.ft.1> 50 sq.ft. 420 sq.ft. F) Projection Room (rewinding)4> 6ft. * 6ft. = 36 7ft. high 2 ) FELLOWSHIP AREA. A) Assembly Hall The assembly hall is a general room used for dining, reception, and recreation or other kind of engagement. The required area is various according to the usage. The church staff and I have an agreement to provide largest requirement of area. The largest requirement area is 12 to 15 sq.ft. per person when it is used as a Accordingly the total estimated area is sq.ft. (12 * 300) if we use 12 sq.ft./person. B) Stage Area 240 sq.ft.6> Width 20 ft. Depth 12 ft. C) Kitchen The church kitchen is not like that of restaurant or other eating places. Generally the fuctionof the kitchen is comparablly simple because usually snacks, soft or coffee are served to the church members. this kitchen should have basic fuctions for the preperation of 74

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various kinds of foods for special programs. A frequently used rule for allotting space for the kitchen is that it should be one-third to one-half of the dining area. It has been to go by a set space allowance for this area. Many factors influence space requirment, such as type of preparation and service, amount of total production in the unit, number of meals served, variety of foods offered, etc •• The Time Saver Standards suggests 4 sq.ft. per meal for the mealload of 200-400.7> If we accept this the required area for kitchen is 1,200 sq.ft. <4 * 300). Table 5-5. Quantitive space for fellowship area Name of Rooms Number of Rm. s Accommo-Activities dation Use Space Remarks time Estimate ADMINISTRATION A> Office A-1) Accommodation A-2) Required area per working desk A-3) Total required area B> Paster Study Room 3 people assistant secretary) 150 sq. ft. <13.9 sq.m. > 150 * 3 = 450 sq.ft. The paster study is the same as therefore it requires the same area per person as the office space. Hence 75

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150 sq.ft. is needed. C> Library C-1) Accommodation 2 writing desks with shelves for books. C-2) Square-footage requirement.e> Indivisual table Shelves (5 spacing) C-3) Total required area . ' 30 sq.ft./ table. 1 sq.ft./ 15 vol. 258 sq.ft. (30 * 2> + (3000 I 15) = 258 sq.ft. * Data for required space are based on college and university library. D> Conference Rooms D-1) Charge Conference and Adminstrative Board These two agencies are different in function but the members are exactly same (see the church organization and administration). There is no possibility that these two agencies have meetings at the same time. Therefore, only one meeting room is needed for these two agencies. The members are 40 persons. The typical space allotment, based on its use by 15 people is 500 sq.ft. and approximately 10 sq.ft. should be added for each additional person to be provided for.9> There are 40 members to use this space. The required area is 500 + (40 -15) * 10 = 750 sq.ft. D-2) Committees Each committee consists of 8 members according to paster Cho. There is no possibility that each committee will meet at the same time at the present situation because many members on each committee participate on other committees. However, we provide one conference room for each committee for the future, and allow additional space for two people for the possibility of guest participation or observation. The required area is 150 sq.ft. for each committee.10> The total required area is 750 sq.ft. for five committees. 76

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D-3) Council on Ministries The members of this council consists of exactly same as those of the administrative board. Therefore no special space is needed for the general conferences of this council. D-4) Youth Ministry (48 persons) The members of this ministry are in the age category of 12 through 18. A population study had been done for every 10 year age group. But we can project the number of members in the 12 through 18 age group with the basic assumption that this group be 70 percent of age group 10 through 19. The members of this ministry can be projected with the function N = 0.7 * (number of persons in the 10 through 19 years of age). The projected number is 0.7 * 68 = 48 persons. The required area is; 500 + (48 -15) * 10 = 830 sq.ft. D-5) Young Adult Ministry -Age category 19 through 30 years. -Number of members, 69 persons *10 = 1040 sq.ft. D-6) Older Adult Ministry -Age category 65 years ar older. -Number of members 9 persons . -Required area 150 sq.ft. D-7> United Methodist Women and Mem -Age category ; The membership is open to any woman in the church. However, usually the age category is 31 through 59 years. 77 .

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-Number of members Women Men 50 persons. 48 persons. -Required area 830 sq.ft. for each.
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4) CHURCH SCHOOL CLASSES Table 5-7. Quantitive space for church school Marne of Rooms Number of Rm.s Accommo-Activities dation Use Space Remarks persons -Nursery 1 17 Child Care time Estimate _______________________ __________ _ -Kdgdn. 1 17 Play, _____________________________ ______ __________ _ -Elem. & 4 17 H School 20 Tutoring S 4 Classes ___ ___ -Krn. Cl. 1 30 Study, __________ _ -Eng. Cl. 1 15 Study, -Techn.Cl. 1 10 Study M,W,F Office ___ __ _ -Adult 4 Various Study See Classes Seminar Ministry RM.s Total 3,685 A> Nursery Class This class is not like professional ones. It is used only during the worship service on sundays or on a few special days. The functions within this room should be considered as simple(e.g. playing, tutoring and observation). -Age category -Number of children -Required area Play room area Manipulate toy area, 0 through 3 years. 17 (30 % of under 10) 630 sq.ft. Min. 30 sq.ft./ child12' (17 * 30 = 510 sq.ft.> reading and listening area ; 120 sq.ft.11' B> Kindergarden -Age category ; 4 through 6 years. -Number of children 17 (30% of under 10>, -Required area ; . 630 sq.ft.
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C> Elemenatary School C-1) Class 1 (grade 1-3>. -Age category -Number of pupil -Required area -Use time 7 through 9. 17 (30 I. o"f under 10). 15 * 17 = -255 15 sq.ft./ child every sundays. 13) C-2) Class 2 (grade 4-6) Class 3 (grade 7-9) Class 4 (grade 10-12) -Age category -Number of student -Required area -Use time 10-12, 20 for each class (30 I. of 10-19 age group). 20*15 = 300 sq.ft.13' each. sundays. C-3) Korean Language Class According to the church statistical usually 10 percent of church members have attended this class. Based on this 30 students shall attend this class in the future. -Required area -Use time C-4) English Class 30 * 15 = 450 sq.ft. ; Saturdays. This class has not been used successfully. Only 3 to 4 percent of church member have attended at this school though most of them have English problem. We analyzed the reason that only a few people participate in this class. We have had a reasonable conclusion which they are too busy in their economic activities, and not informed of this class. We anticipate that this class. will be used by themvery successfully in the and we assume about 5 I. of church member shall attend at this class. -Number of student -Required area -Use time C-4) Technology Class 15 persons. 15 * 15 = 225 sq.ft. Saturdays. This class is paused for a time being because it 80

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has to be more developed . Various basic drafting skills were taught before and several students passed the state licensing test. But nobody could get a job. Hence it is on development stage now. It is the general agreement among the church staves that we provide office level classroom for 10 student accommodation. -Number of student 10 persons -Required area , 55 * 10 = 550 sq.ft. tSpace allowance is based on office operator at 60 inch desk. C-5) Adult Classes ;young adult, old adult, umw. and umm.) 14) These classes are held just before their fellowship time. Therefore.no additional space is needed. 5) GENERAL SPACES A> Rest Rooms Table 5-8. Sanitary W.C.s Urinals Lavatory Basins Female Male 2 1 2 3 Required area ; 300 sq.ft. 2 2 <150 sq.ft. for each sex> Bi Storage Room; 9,463 * 0.1 = 946 sq.ft. 10 % of the fellowship, administration, and school area.16' C> Mechenical Room; 16,135 * 0.03 = 484 sq.ft. 3 % of whole area ecept parking area. D> Parking Space ; 29,750 sq.ft. <85 lots> %of site area(Denver Code). -Indoor parking 65 lots -Ground parking ; 20 lots E> Circulation and Structural Space 25 I. of whole architectural area 4,155 sq.ft.

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except parking area. Table 5-9. Quantitive space for general area Marne of Rooms Number of Rm.s Accommo-Activities dation persons Use Space Remarks time Estimate (sq.ft.} -Rest Rooms 2 E 300 150 for -Mech. 3 'l. of Room 1 Whole Area Ecept ------------------------------------------------1 ___________ _ -Cir. Stair Case 25 'l. of Str. Corridor Arch.Area Space Elevator(s} Except __________________ -Parking 2 85 Lots 25 'l. of Total 22,750•> Site 7,000b> Area *The summary of all spaces are shown on the table 5-4. 6} SPACE MODIFICATION All quantitive spaces are estimated. However We should not use the spaces without modification because many spaces can be used for both or multiple purposes, used in different times, and could be eliminated. Especially, the conference rooms and classes can be modified to significantly smaller area through the use time arrangement. The young-adult ministry room can be used for the Charge Conference, Administrative Board, Youth Ministry, UMW. UMM. activities. The Older-Adult Ministry use one of the committee rooms. Three of four elementary and highschool classes can be eliminated because the use time of two groups are different, and Korean class room can be used for one of two elementary or highschool classes. The summarized space estimate and modification is shown on the table 5-4. 82

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Table 5-10 Space Estimate Summary. Naffie of No. of No. of Activities Use Required Resarks Rooms Roooms Persons Time space\FT2 ) Warship area t:' .... , ..11'!LO -Chancel P aster seat, Liturgical space, Stage, screen s 1' 300 -Nave & Aisles 300 Seating s 2,700 -Narthex 300 vestibule s 900 -Prayer Room 2 2 Pray AT 70 35 Sq.Ft. each -Choir Practice & Robing R11. 30 Choir practice AT 420 -Projection R11. Rewind Slide or Movie Projection ST 36 Feliowship Area -Asse11b I y Hall 300 Feli owship, Dining, Recreation, Party, s, ST 3,600 Engage11ent, Indoor sports. -Stage Simple Performing. ST 240 Kitchen 300 Meals Cool:i ng s, ST 1' 200 Administration Area 2,648 -Office 3 Office Work E 450 -Paster Study Paper Work E 150 -Librar y 3, 000 Books, 2 Writing Dk.s Reading, Writing E 'JC" <..Jtl Conference Rooms 1\t:f -Chag. Conf. & Admin.Bd. -Comsittee.Rs.s 5 40 10 Conference, Meeting Meeting ST ST 750 150 For each Space Council on Ministries Youth Mnst.s -Y.A. Mnst.s -O.A. M nst.s -Ut1W -UMM Church School -Nursery Class -Kindergarden -Eieillentary & H. Sci. Cls.s 4 -Krn. Cis. -Eng. Cis. -Techn. Cis. -Adult Cls.s 4 48 69 9 50 50 17 17 20 17 30 15 10 V arious Meeting, Study, Fellowship Meeting, Study, Ministry Fellowship Meeting, Study, Ministry Fellowship Meeting, Study, Fellowship Meeting, Study, Fellowship Child Care, Play Play, Tutoring Tutoring, Seminar Study, Setinar Study, Setinar Study, Seminar Study, Se11inar F :\\ \ IJJ SA i' 040 T II w Th 2,785 s 630 s 630 S,F 1 :iili : Use 1 c!ass\300 FP s 450 F 225 H,W,F 550 Office Level See Mnst. Rm.s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Gene ral Area 28,635 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Rest 2 -Storage -Mech. Rm. -Circulation Structure Area -Parking 85 Lots E Corridor, Elevatorlsl, Structures Parking 300 150 Sq.Ft. Each 946 See 5) A 484 3 7. of Whole Area 4,155 25!. of Arch. Area E xcept Parking 7,0(i(l b) 25 !. of Site Area -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total 44,542 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------* Shaded lines are showing spaces which can be eliminated. * The sub total and total areas are finally modified spaces. * S.s ; Sundays, AT ; Any ST ; Sometimes. E ; Everyday M ; Mondays, T ; Tuesdays, W ; Wednsdays, Th ; Thursdays SA Saturdays. a) Indcor Parking (65 vihicles}. b) Outdoor Parking (20 vihicles}. *Total Site Area 119,500 Sq.Ft. 83

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) Jeongsoo Kim and others, A DETAILED TREATISE IN A R CHITECTURAL PLANNING, P. 6-17, Moonundang, Seoul,Korea,1977. 2) Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender, TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR BUILDING TYPES, Second Edition, P.571, Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, 1980. 3) Ibid., P. 4) Edward D. Mills, THE MODERN CHURCH, P. 182, Frederick a. praeger, New York 1956. 5) Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender, TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR BUILDING TYPES, Second Edition, P. 755, Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, 1980. 6) Edward D. Mills, THE MODERN CHURCH, P. 179, Frederick a. praeger, New York 1956. 71 Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender, TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR BUILDING TYPES, Second Edition, P. 757, Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, 1980. 8) D. Mills, THE MODERN CHURCH, P. 269, Frederick a. praeger, New York 1956. 9) Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender, TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR BUILDING TYPES, Second Edition, P. 792, Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, 1980. 1 0 ) I b i d . , P. 790 . 11) Edward D. Mills, THE MODERN CHURCH, P. 166, Frederick a. praeger, New York 1956. 12) Ibid., P. 167. 1 3 I I b i d • , P. 183 14) Joseph De Chiara and John Hancock Callender, TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR BUILDING TYPES, Second Edition, P. 792, Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, 1980. 15) Edward D. Mills, THE MODERN CHURCH, P. 182 16) Changhan Zoh, UNIVERSITY CAMPUS SPACE PLANNING P. 45, 84

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Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea, 1980. 17> Edward T. Hall, THE HIDDEN DIMENSION, P. 117, P. 175, Anchor Books Edition, 1969. 85

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6. DESIGN STRATEGIES 6 -1. Basic Premises Architectural Design is the process through which social needs or dreams are incarnated in form and spaces on a certain site through an philosophy, rational thought, and creative leap. Sometimes a genius creates artistic masterpieces with only his intuition, but in general, clear philosophy and rational thoughts provoke a creative power, especially in architecture. My philosophy of architecture is completely in accordance with that of client and institutional doctrine. I establish fundamental design premises as a decision making guidance based on the philosophy. They are a) Architecture is for public, user, and owner. b) Cultural identity of user or client,or doctrinal identily of the institution should be expressed in architecture. c) All design devices should be based on the universality of nature and man, and on the special character of the institution and site, not dogma or sophistical theories} 6 -2. Design Principles 1) The Principle of Participation. Architecture is not only for the owner as I stated above, nor is it an expression of the personal emotions of the architect.1> Most of the great architectural achievements throughout history are the consequences of deep -consideration for the user and the public. Participation in design development and decision making should include the opinions of both user and public. 2) The Priciple of Piecemeal Growth. Ecological systems in nature and social system are continuously changing. Architecture must be adapted to a changing environment. In most cases, the life span of a building does not depend on structural stability, but depends on its adaptability to the changing environment. The building project of the Korean United Methodist Church is a long term plan. According to the church population study above(See fig. 3-1), it takes about 12 years to reach an ideal size. Through a gradual building process, it will be diagnosed and coordinated to become a more complete architecture. 86

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6 3. Design Objectives 1) Creation of God's Place. The worship space is a climax of religious architecture. It is a God's place for worship. The character of space affects human sense and behavior.2 ' The worship space should allow people think of themselves, the human world, and of the God to whom can pray. 2) Revival of Korean Architecture. Most of the users are Korean-Americans who seek American life, yet are nostalgic about their homeland, and their second generation people who barely know their cultural origin. Their architecture should embrace them like their mothers and have them feel their homeland even though its in America. 3) Symbiotic Architecture. Typical symbiotic organism in nature is the human being. Every human being has an individual identity as well as common features. Man organizes society for great variety and harmony although he is totally independent as a micro-cosm. Great architecture is an organism like a human being. It is my attempt to create a symbiotic architecture which cooperates with nature and the surrounding structures in function and beauty. Symbiotic architecture is a similar concept to the "both or multifunctional architecture3', as suggested by Robert Ventury. But the symbiotic architecture is a more flexible and organic concept than fhe other in terms of not only a concern for physical function, but also a metaphysical one. 4) Aesthetic Beauty. Architecture is one of the major arts, and many architects would like to be called "artist". It is absolutely true that architecture is a comprehensive art. There are certain meanings in artistic work that are expressed in aesthetic way (beauty). I would like to create architectural form and space sublimated into aesthetic beauty as an organic being. 87 -"""'--

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6 -4. Design Strategies. There can be a number of ways to go to the goal. The best way should be found. I will my personal idea for designing a place of worship. 1) Strategies Creation of God's Place. People in God because they not only but also don' t know God. It' s both mystery and discrepancy. My point is this. The concept of Gods place comes from the mystery and discrepancy. the worship space should be a manifestation of mystery and dignity. How could we possibly create this distinctive character in worship space? I will search for the answer through dealing with manipulation of light(both natural and and treatment of symbol. A) Space Form An architectural form has certain and I will use different heights and direction of space to manifest given concepts. The meanings on heights and directions are follo w : HtW..ANITY -High Space ideality. -Low Space reality. -Ascending Space Growth, access to God. -Descending Space death. Fig. 6-1. Meaning of Form Fig. 6-2. St. Peter's Cathedral. Reconstruction Basilican Church) 88 B> Lighting One of crucial elements that determine space character is the lighting system. Let's briefly look back at the lighting systems used in Early and

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/ .:->h. --r . :-,.-! f f . t ; l ft ; :--:;-;: 1Fig. 6-3. Amiens Cathedral. -Condensed light. -Colored Giorgio Maggiore. (Venice Renaissance) Why were these lighting characteristics applied to their churches ? Obviously, they had the same concepts of the worship space as I established above. They created the spaces which have poetic and s ymbolic value by changing the quality of ordinary daylight. I will treat the light in my design in the following illustrations. (see fig. 6-6) B-1) Thick Wall -Long track of light
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Fig. 6-6. Lights PU?-; in the Church. ILLtTMINA'J'l O N D 'I' Jr. LIGfiT l W A r--:i ( G R.A.r.F: O F G OD) -F'VFr N .'.TH'N -COMPLRI'F. F.NCLOSTJ RP. -HO RIZOm'AL LIGHT the altar. As a matter B-3) Recessed artificial lighting fixtures. -Directional light. -Uneven illumination for upper part. -Even illumination for lower part. B-4) Colored light C> symbolic fantasy. Hidden symbol The most common symbol in the church is the Cross which has a serious meaning. It is also very common that architects just hang the cross on the wall or stand it on of fact, a cross treated in this way doesn't have any F ig. 6-7. The Cross Hanging on the Wall. Fig. 6-8. The Cross Behind a Screen symbolic power because it is too clear. I would like to deal with the conventional elements in a very different way, the concept of "hidden symbol". The setting for the concept of hidden symbol follows -A window behind the sanctuary to provide strong daylight. -Appropriate artificial lighting fixtures to project colored light. -The Cross placed in front of a window and appropriate lighting fixtures. -Semi-transparent fabric screen to accept the image of the Cross. 90 * PLAN * F.LEfATION -lAGUE AND MYSTERIOUS IMAGE SUPJI:RIMPOSF.D ON SC RF.FlJ !

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This setting shall create the following effects. -Four Dimensional Image The image has the fourth dimension of time. The symbolic image moves on the screen according to light direction announcing change of time. It is a vivid symbol that makes people associate the Jesus Christ. -Vague and Mysterious Image in Color. The image is not clean on the edge because it is superimposed on a woven fabric screen. With an artificial lighting we can produce colored reflection to create a feeling of mystery. It is obvious that this image has a poetic sense of place and strong symbolic power. 2) Strategy for Revival of Korean-Architecture It has been a subject of serious argument of ways in which certain culture can be transferred into another one through architectural means. Most architects merely try to copy the architectural form. It can be a I since architectural form is the consequence of the complete enviromental and socio-cultural factors. There are implicit meanings or hidden logic in the form. What I am trying to do is to find these meanings or logic in Korean and to apply them to American socio-cultural environment It might be ambiguous and intangible, but I am sure Korean-Americans will feel the sense of their conventional space because the logic and fragrance of their traditional life are melted into new architecture in America. They will feel this invisible fragrance with their recognize the logic with their traditional intuition. A> Site Plan Based on Polar Coordinates. Modern and contemporary architects are strongly consciously or by the rectangular system of coordinates 91

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A, _....,----:; .,. .. I .,...," I _... Y' I :J. I I . I I ' 1 ! J I __ a __ .,JA' ; ... Fig. 6-9. Axial and When a man stands in a landscape and looks about he sees its various features as part of a system of which he is the center and in which all the points on the plane are determined by t heir distance fromhim. The determining factor in their design was the human view point. Polar Coordinates. Fig. 6-10. Site plan based on polar coordinates (Acropolis, Athens) Fig • . 6-11. Site plan based on Polar Coordinates. (Temple of Hwaeom, 754 A.D.) This point was established as the first and most important position from which the whole site could be observed it was the main entrance, which was often emphasized by a proportion). The following principles were used7> A-1) All important buildings could be seen in their entirety from the view point. A-2) The radii that determined the corners of the important buildings formed certain specific angles from the view point. These fell into two categories: 92

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-multiple angles of 60, and 150) , corresponding to a division of the total field of 360 into twelve and -multiple angles of 22.5, <22,5, 50, 72,5 ... ) which resulted from division of the total field of vision into sixteen parts. A-3) The position of the buildings was determined not only by the angle of but also by their distance from the view point. A-4) The buildings were often disposed so as to incorporate or accentuate features of the e xisting landscape and thus create a unified composition. The architectural spaces synthesized within the polar coordinate layout system have following characteristics. Fig. 6-12. The Temple of Ammon in Luxor. Time is the essential dimesion if we are to have an architectural synthesis in any meaningful sense of the word. In architecture, time is expressed mainly as movement. The e xamples of the Acropolis of Athens
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Greece, Japan, etc.), then the notion of time is conveyed indirectly. -In any case time is required for an architectural experience, since, with the abstraction of time, architecture becomes painting or sculpture. b) Psychologically Enclosed Space. An observer on a certain point of access can perceive complete panorama of every two elevations of each majo r buildings(See Figure 6-11, 6-14). Fig. 6-13. Pysically enclosed space. I . ..... . .. .. . .. . . . . -Visual limitation on any point. -Limited Access. -Bad air quality. -No life
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by which unique outdoor spaces were created, even for residential buildings as shown on the fig 6-15. Fig. 6-15 E xample of site plan for traditional Korean residential • ( Okhoj eongdo, Korea) I I li 9 Each individual building has a different function and interacts with each other in organic order. Through this method, they can conduct excellent architectural features. Those are: 8-1) Maximum E xposure to Desirable Nature. They dexterously used topography to chang e negative aspects of nature such as cold winds, hot sun. (see fig. 6-16) 95

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Fig. 6-16. Use of topography in ancient Korean architecture. Fig. 6-17. The hierarchy and sequence of outdoor space in Okhojeongdo (refere to Fig. 6-15.) B-2) Variety of Outdoor Space Outdoor spaces between building groups are also divided into small ones. Koreans used buildings, sculptural objects or different site elevations to divide outdoor spaces . I \I'Jill apply this theory to the KUI"1C design to achieve the objective of "revival of traditional i The ancient Korean architects achieved the great whole in form, material, and texture of architecture. The following Figures show the total integrity of architecture and nature. (compare the and pattern of window frames to those of surroundings) 96

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I I I I I .... .. I I '' 1 I iil I i I ' ., •.I •ill I. 9 7

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I 'I I' II I •' I 1 'I, 111 ; • >I ,,j 1 "1111( 1 I ' I " 98

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I ''I' , I. l ' l I •I l o •I ' 1 1 1 , I 1 i"t l I l l Ill •II I I,,, I 'I I " I l , f ' 1 •. I :. I .-I l ,.c, I 1 rj 1 p: !__ 1.1 t , _ .. > " ' ' ' 111 • I ,_,. II•' h ' ! II I I , ... , ,,c:: 1 , , . •!tl • I , ., I I II I I n.,, _ l 1 1 / i 1 'if I IJ 1 ') J I • I I t • I I I ''I''"' l " l 'I 1-.1 ' 1 . 1.11 Ill., l ,,.-'f I I II fo:' ' l l11 (t t I I I ' I , l (: fl l , , i i , _ ,I II" ,I_ l ,:, l r , ,-,, i I I I " / "I ; I. I .I I I , ,. II' I I " I I : .... I I' ttf , 1 1.. r , 1 ' 1 , 1 , , , : I' I I , 1 '' 1 " ] ;-• 1 ' I 1.1 i ; r ... , (1 r c '"' d , L ' :: : I I I 1: 'I 'II' I itf I :1 I' 'I I t I i l Ill ,-!-I,,.,.-,, :I, 'Ill '-I •ftl , , " I " ! ft •I I It I fit ( r I Itt' I f_•:::,l' i 1{ It I ' I ft• • I I. • T t 11 ,r j, • .:tl, I f"o l (i' Ill d: ":1 '•I . I I I 'I' • I II I , j; "] )II "•I :,j t I fj11lf ( _tj I j' 'II I .. I I " fi-•(.' I+ I'("' . It
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C-2) Color in Buildings. Color serves many esthetic purposes in the design of buildings. The functions of colors follow:11> a) It creates an atmosphere. A bright color scheme for a building tends to express gaiety and exitement, a quiet scheme may express dignity and repose. b) It defines form. A line, a two dimensional surface, or a three dimensional volume is defined if its color contrasts with its surroundings. c) It suggests either unity or diversity. A uniform color scheme contributes a sense of unity, while a varied color scheme gives a feeling of diversity. d) It affects proportions. Materials with contrasting colors laid in horizontal lines tend to emphasize a feeling of breadth. If laid in vertical lines, they promote the sense of height. e) It brings out scale. A building made up of elements of uniform color looks like a monolith. Its scale is difficult to judge at a distance. If, however, its elements
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sense of scale at a heavy weight. b) Entrances. -Use , Contrasting, bright colors such as crimson of columns in ancient Korean architecture. -Effect Definition of access, different sense of scale. c ) Worship Area (interior) -Use -Effect dark, quiet color. dignity and repose. d ) Fellowship and child play area (interior) -Use -Effect , Bright, varied, light colors. ; Gaiety, excitement, diversity. e ) Class and Office Area (interior) -Use -Effect Light reflective, quiet, warm color. Good illumination, emotional stability, efficiency of work of study. 3) Strategies for Optimum Response to the Site Context. A) Strategy within Historical Context. Fig. 6-22. Concept of site plan within historical context. Man needs both wonderful nature and good architecture simultaneously. A vacant nature is less valuable than one which has appropiate architecture compensating for imperfection of nature. Sloan's Lake Park is almost vacant now. In terms of space, there is nothing but a little sense of place like shadows produced by trees in summer. People need positively enclosed space to sit, to talk, and to appreciate beautiful nature. I propose that the Korean United Methodist Church on the Solan's Lake Park give comfortably enclosed outdoor spaces to and be a visual landmark on the park to be 101

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compatible with beautiful surroundings. Accodingly, it's my intention to provide maximum public spaces by a group of buildings and carefully planted trees on the site. I believe in that this project will considerably increase the value of Sloan's Lake Park as a famous popular space in Denver. Bi Strategy in the Topography. B-1) A group of different outdoor spaces It is not ideal to make one big outdoor space on a sloped site. I will divide the open space into small ones. Each one should have a different function and character as well as clas s relationship. Fig. 6-23. Divided outdoor spaces B-2) Stair seat It is an addition. A few steps at the edge of the divided open spaces where there is a change of level, will be provided as seats so that people may congregate and sit to watch events. ! ()C 10' MOUWI' A 1 N , L AIO' v IE."w F ig. 6-24. Stair seat as a positive use of topography B-3) Visual sequence12> The sequence of views or spaces is crucial in a site design. Since the landscape is usually experienced by an observer who is moving, it is not single view that is important so much as the cumulative effect of a sequence of views. The sensation of release when the observer comes out from a narrow slot into a broad expanse is a powerful effect. There is a strong limitation on the east side of the site 102

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in view. An observer approaching the site from east on eighteenth avenue can't see two or three story building on the site, and vice versa. I will use this disadvantage for excellent design advantage as shown on the fig. 6-25) -+t A HlNr OF V JEW Fig. • SUCCEEDING VI E'W OF EI..SE 6-25 Visual * FTN.l.L APPEA AANCE OF ENTIRE Y IEW Sequence. C) Strategies in Climate The climate we live in determines our whole way of living. It creates the particular environment for every kind of civilization. Man is very weak in nature. To survive and progress, man has learned from nature how to protect himself against the weather and has used his ingenuity to turn it's liabilities into assets. According to site, climate, and latitude, nature imposes certain rules in building. When man forgets the rules, the results are catastrophic. Roger Bacon wrote four centuries ago : "Nature can only be mastered by obeying its laws".13> C-1) Building Location on Site -Strategy -Effect South facing outdoor area and gardens. Maximum acceptance of solar radiation. (93 % of solar acceptance during 9 AM. to 3 AM.) C-2) Building Shape and Orientation -Strategy , Elongated building shape along the east-west axis, north side sloped building shape. -Effect Maximum acceptance of solar radiation. (Minimum heating reqirement) short shadow cast by building, small amount of north wall . * This building shape is not desirable for cooling, but the cooling is less important than heating 103

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within the Denver climate. / / / I E I ' -S.ALL AMOID."T ,....--------01' NORI':H-YIALL -S:P!:O Rl' S:UDOW C AST Fig. 6-26. Building shape and orientation. C-3 ) Location of Indoor spaces -Strategy -Effect ' South facing major rooms, north facing secondary rooms (corridors, garages, stair cases, etc.) Minimum heating and lighting requirements. ' ' i J , / ./ / . • Fig. 6-27 Location of Indoor Spaces C-4) Window Location 104

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-Str-ategy -Effect moderate glass area Majorwindow openings located to the southeast, and south, small window ar-eas on the east, west, and especially nor-th. Minimum heating r-equir-ement. small* g lass area .......... ,... . . .. . t::==.::;:;/> . . • . ••. • y . . . . . . . . . . . . ,/ J} \,. s major glass area E 'lloderate glass area F ig. 6-28. Openings of the Building Fig. 6-29. Compar-ison of Window or-ientations14) -Note This gr-aph r-epr-esents clear--day solar-r-adiation values, on the sur-faces indicated, for-4 0 N • 21100 . .. : zwo :a. : :100 0 I • ,'C z Q ..... co: 5 q a: a: c( IS 1./) fi,.o o f2.00 • • . . . ....... ... . /. / -. / 600. " .......... ' . ..... / ./ .... . . .... ... / ........ / .\ ... ./ ..... . . / / __. . .;...---. .... .... .. 105 0<.1 .. ' ..... . Soutn . '• I ' • ' Hor t zontllf

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C-5 Solar Shading Masks The effective shading devices are necessary from noon to 4 P M in summer season (Jun.22-Sep.23). However, The solar shading angle could not be determined yet because building orientations are not available. I will discuss the rule of thumb for shading devices in this section. a) Over-Hanging Shading Masks The over hanging shading masks (Horizontal, vertical) are not effective for south facing openings because the horizontal and vertical angles of radiation require exceptionally long devices. Fig. 6-30. Over Hanging Shading Masks Il\T FRJ (l R 72 I r I < .ruNF. 22 ====='j N\lON) =-Y-. : < Y 1 1 .... -. rT . .. . ( SF'P . 23 A . . 4 H!TEHI<.tR. .. iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiild l_. SHADING Jof.ASK , .. ..... * PLA.N * b) Plant Solar Shading Masks It is much better to use plants as solar shading masks for low buildings. Deciduous trees planted on appropriate position provide good shadows during summer time. Fig. 6-31. Trees as Solar Shading Mask HIT FRIO ll * 106 I , (f''f\. . ! . , 1-, . <'.> '/o-. ... if: r r. ) . ' B. } I-_ . _:. /. , { f / 'C I . ; \ :iv (P)' ' 1 .. ':.. 8 ' I {f7<._ J .. . , .<. . .. . ' ... , 'i'i !> _;o;/ .s" :: : .: f DF.CIDUOUS TRE E

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*** Relationship between is no relationship between these at all. the might conflict with each Each must be modified and by an of function and beauty . The final synthesi s w ill be done the design 107

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) Bruce Allsopp, A MODERN THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE, P.30, Routledge Kegan Paul Ltd., Lunden, 1977. 2) Amos Rapoport, House Form and Culture, P. 16 Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1969. "It is implicity accepted that there is a link between behavior and form in two senses First, in the sense that an understanding of behavior patterns, including desires, motivations, and feelings is essential to the understanding of built form, Since built form is the physical embodiment of this patterns. Second, in the sense that forms, once built, affect behavior and the way of life." 3) Robert Ventury, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture, PP. 38-45, The Musium of Mordern Art, New York, 1966. 4) Sir Bomister Flecture's A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE, Eighteenth Edition, Revised by J.C. Palmes, P. 1315, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1975. 5) H.W. Janson, History of Art, Second Edition, P. 288, Harry N. Abrams, Inc, New York, 1977. "The magic of its interior space, unforgetable to anyone who has experienced it on the spot, can not be suggested by black-and-white photographs, which enevitably exaggerate the brightness of the windows and thus make them look like 'holes' instead of "translucent \I'Jall s". 6) Changhan Zoh, The STUDY ON THE LAYOUT SYSTEM IN THE TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE In Korea, P. 4, Research Report, Department of Architecture, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea, Unpublished; C.A. Doxiadis, Translated by Jaqueline Tyrwhitt, ARCHITECTURAL SPACE IN ANCIENT GREECE, PP. Oxford University Press, New York, 7) 8) C . A. Doxiadis, Translated by Jaqueline Tyrwhitt, TRANSITION IN ARCHITECTURE, PP. 136-142. Oxford University Press, New York, 1963. 108

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9) Christopher Alexander, Sara Ishilkawa and Murray Silverstein, A PATTERN LANGUAGE, PP. 517 -523, 557 560, Oxford University Press, New York, 1977. 10) Jhanhseop Yoon, THE HISTORY OF KOREAN ARCHITECTURE, P.21, Dongmyungsa, Seoul, Korea, 1976 ; Namcheol Joo, THE RESIDENTIAL ARCHITECTURE IN KOREA, P. 264, Iljisa, Seoul, Korea, 1983 ; Jeongki Kim, THE KOREAN ARCHITECTURE IN WOOD STRUCTURE, PP. 44 49, Iljisa, Seoul, Korea, 1982. 11> Waldron Fauldner, ARCHITECTURE AND COLOR, PP.5-6, John Wiley Sons, Inc., New York, 1972. 12> Kevin Lynch, SITE PLANNING, Second Edition, PP. 202-203, MIT. Press, Massachusetts, 1972. 13> Paul Jacques Grillo, FORM FUNCTION AND DESIGN, PP. 77-78, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1975. 14) Mazria E, THE PASSIVE SOLAR ENERGY BOOK, P. 102 109

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7. DESIGN PROPORSAL -Site First Floor Plan -Second Floor -West Elevation -North Elevation -South Elevation -North-South Saction -East-Wast Section 1 -East-West Section 2 -Photographs Model

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--EAST F.LEVATION 0 5 10 20Fl' u-w

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N OID'H 0 5 10 ?OFT ELF.VATION L.rt.J

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sr1:rT:::

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0 10 20 40Fl' NO RI'H SOUTH SECTION

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C 5 10 20Ft EAST WEST SECT IO 1 1 LrW

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r -----T---------.-----------------__ l ____ ------I I I I F..AS'!' WES'!' SECTION 2 -AMBIGUOUS SYY.BOL IN THE S A CTUARY / . ..

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• l ""-f.( ::J. ) c ''-• r ... 4.. . '

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8. SYSTEMS SYSTHESIS 8 -1. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT 1> Project Name ; The Korean United Methodist Church at Denver 2> Site Area ; 119,:500 FT2 3) 4) :5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Architectural Area ; 21,792 FT2 Number of Stories ; On• or Two Stories Exterior Material ; Brick and Brick Tile Address L.atitude Longitude Site Orientation General Aspects of ; 1801 Newton Street, Denv•r, Colorado, USA. East Side of Slaan"s Lake ; 40 Degr•• North. ; 10:5 Degr ... ; SW. Facing with a Grade 4 X. the Site. The site occupies an entire block on the eastern shore of Slo.an"s Lake and is surrounded by Newton Street, Me.ade Street, 18th Avenue, .and 19th Avenue. It is twa miles from the CBD of Denver. The site is il part of the Sloan"s L.ake Park surrounded by unique residential housing far middle class Denver residents. It h.as excellent accessibility from 6th Avenu•, and I-2:5, and fine visual resources, the Rocky Hount.ain range, Slo.an•s Lake, .and Downtown Denver. It h.as ultim.ate value .as a pl.ace for public facilities. 8 -2. SITE PLAN 1> Infr.a-structures of the site A> Summary A-1> W.ater lines -Size ; 12 .and 20 inch lines on Meade Street, 6 inch lines on 19th Avenue. -Pressure ; From 6:5 to 80 pounds/Inch2 -Depth ; From 4.:5 to 10 feet A-2> G.as Lines -Size ; 8 inch gas lines -Depth ; 3 inches to 48 inchas 122

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.' I . I ---,.., , I ' . ' ' ' --.-' ....... 4' ,-I ' \ / ' , . , , I . , ,' ' ' ' ' . ---_ ... ... -. .. . , \ , , , -. . . . . 8 4 S IT E PLAN FIG • ,''"' ' , ' . . ' . .-... ,,1 .: .. ,..

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• ------C LOSED ALVE P I TOT T UBE, a M . H . II FIRE H YDRANT 4 " F IRE HYDR A, T CIT Y Ll MITS BOUNDARY D.M.W.W. R OW I BOU JDARY D . M . W . W P ROP I -------:=-',!..\;:.:<. r !l J'.l i\1 1 -----------------3112''a SMALLER MAIN 1 ---C5 --I 0 20TH I ! _ s r ! ! AVE I 0 I y . 4 ,1.:, l'i 6 . e " MA 1 N IC MAI N ! 2 MA .,'J 14 • I MA.,! 1 5 " MA I N • I : 6 ! N 'I 1 8 MAIN zd' 8 .....J 9 " ' J -._,.."....: .. L__ _._ 'l ' .... ... --.. ; . : t ..__ __ .; r -----, Q.,----_ j I -1 i : I ' = .RT THEREO' F ED IN ANY FORM IJIISSION OF THE : w. ____ , 2. 9 >-1 ' ' ; . h.: V) I I -1 I i J . j ' t 0 l "' r" . ' ., ' .I -w I r_) . , .. : : d l I : I ; i 1 /9TH' I . . .:.-I_ ___ _ _ . -W A TER :M.AINS ON T HE SITE. .Il I J w .................... .. t > -I J %: I . \ .:::::; -, -t.]_')-: '-(' MAIN 124

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IT c:: ....._,; : , Ct) , l ) lb 1 :.... 15 t.O' C'l) r . w 19111 0 '( • . liZ ,,, '-" lo1 .. 81 5" ., . 1 $f. • / )/ ' ' . . ID ' . • II Ave. /() II :;4,% ' , "'.uu.:.u.:..-IJ. I.J . . 32s;_;.s_

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lw I I '? oc.. .; 0 • l1 'N I I ' o "' n I 20th 127' I w 127 ' • . " 5l n GAS L INES I. I , 127 L . \ JiO ) ,::; 'N!! • l1 . .. ON THE SITE LAV E . ':27. AVE.m a'" "'-• AVE.121 125 . '6 16 v .. > 6 AVE. m ' 127 125 ... " ' ... , ..... ........... .. "' •aaa ... OON [ O : 1 ] 1 J l r . , .. .. L J.. 1 ,0' I . I v .. > J ; I f :n-I I r I r' 1 ' j"' -+ t I --6:: L \ : j . !:51 I + t lo t 126

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A-3> Storm Sewer -16 inch mAin lin• on canter of tha site. A-4> Elactric Service -3000 volts, 3 phAse on MaAda Straat. 2> DRAINAGE HISTORIC RUN OFF -Intensity of tha rAin fAll depends on tha duration of fAll Tc z Tc z Time of concantration L z Langth of traval H = Haight H • 11 ft L = 300/5280 • Milas Tc = = 2.26 Minutes -At 2.26 Hinutas Every SQ inch. when storm lAst 2.26 Minutes. -DurAtion 10 Minutes If Tc < 10 Hinut•• Usa 10 Minutas Ri -9.0 in/hr CJ = A I Ri Ri Rain fAll intensity CJ -QuAntity of rAin fAll A -AreA of site I = Intensity A = 300 x 400 I = Acres Oh = X X 9 • 8.66 cubic ft/sac 127

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Acr•s x =0.4 Building = 0.5 Parking = 0.54 Green = 0.59 " X 0.9 0.486 0.2 " X 0.35 = Total • 1.86 Ic • 1.86 I 2.75 = 0.68 Ic = Composite I Qn • 2.75 X 0.68 X 9.0 = 16.83 Ft3/sacond Delta Q • 16.83 15.2 • 1.63 Ft3/second Detention Volume = 1.63 x 600 • 978 Ft3 -No additional strom sew•r line is na•d•d bacaus• all Dat•ntion volume of th• water will run off to the Sloanps Lake situated on the wast side of tha site. 128

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8 -3. STRUCTURAL SYSTEM. 1) I ntroduction to Structural System. As an Architect I hope to help my clients, such as KOREAN UNITED METHODIST CHURCH, to benefit from my architectural and engineering work, keeping in mind that indications point to a mandatory flexible solution. The probability that this build i n g m a y be e xpand d, c h reused, ma y the between very economical decision or poor policy ideas. Fc:.r t he'5t;o ,--::aGans m a:dmum fle:{ibility of space that is mandated, while a llowing for an aesthetic and pleasing space at the same time. W i t h this in mind I present m y solution of a reinforced concrete structure Concrete structures are very ?1re resistent as compared with other types of systems. D ) with reinforced concrete structures there is flexibility in the design of forms. E ) Reinforced concrete structural systems allow for simplicity in maintenace procedures. -Disadmantages and Undesirable Points. A) There is a great dead load factor to consider possibly resulting in: A-1) Greater depth of the beams. A-2) A shorter spanning capability. A-3) A larger section for the resulting columns. B> Inspection often becomes difficul t when structural 129

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tension members are embedded with concrete topping. C) Crude construction practices are often common with concrete type of construction as a result of easy coverup with the nature of the material. D) Physical and aesthetic properties deterate with cracking and partial destruction due to: A-1) Tension. A-2) Creep. A-3) Temperature differential. E ) With c oncrete construction, t here i s difficulty in reformation , repair and patching. F> Construction with concrete is basically a slow process, thus acting as a deterent for its actual usage. There are considerable disadvantages besides its advantages in reinforced concrete structural system as I analysed above. However, most of disadvantages can be eliminated with careful design and construction process. 130

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0 0 o" I I 63'o•• , o" •-o•• -+,'-o•• 78'-o" N 8'-o" 'o" 2fo'-o" 1 'o" 'o" 2)'-o" -0 I j: 0 Q I 0 -I N Q I • Q _ 0 . .... fl ::t ._. I () I 1 -l'l 2 20 Ill 0 I I Cll f--. • Q . @ l a i . --... .. . ...... . ...... ....... I ----------. . . ----.-... ---. ---... -------I @ : "' = 0 I I -() ""t "',. @ . Q I I -..o I o ""Q -lit 22'0::/ @ 2) STRUCTURAL PLAN 114'-C" .... .... 0 12

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.... w N EAST WEST SECTION 1 .

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,---r------------,------f I I EAST -WEST SECTION 2

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Cleo...r-1-i v e.. L 0 o-.d -3 0 Lb 5 I .ft "l-WNTl')I. U ou::,. p L-oo-.ds q Lbs / ft,_ 1' ( Tt>A t:\11'\d Cei I i'Y\O t d F i ber [ Fra;)'Y1) -j<-=3,ooo Lhs li"tt'-i() = 50.ooo Lbsj i 'n=A) . M 171; I)'Ylt.-11>'1 ThA' L !Lt?less " + -rhe SLo...h. h = J;2B /3 X /'2. I 2$ -5 7r/vJ!_ 7tviC.../LfY)e5 5 5?5 1''}1c_.he:S W s Is-0 X 5 I 7 !;" /, 2. / ::::::.72 Lbs I .-WT -3+-b+ 7?. = Bl Lbsj -ft-l-Lc $/' X I . 4 113.4-Lbs) j:t'" ?o >( I . 1 51 Lb j-tl--0 I fl) 3 Lh s / -t=tJ.. b ftl-/crtJ lbL/-.4Lbs / .. ::=7 US E 1 b 5 u') B) Des i r N o"/Y\ s CL-t Cn'-6-i c: S @c -t1' 01'1 S . ( ::; ee TC\._b I e. 2> . I) t> 3 Bl I Des)on rf Ut1 c... fc f!Jres ) B-1) Ax ( M = yq Wvt J -M Y4 X lb5" X 13::... X IZ.. 37 I I 8 0 l'YILb.s 134

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s -z.) A-t-H , d_ src:vn ( M: )U itJ u J ';,) + M = 4 X I b5 X I 3 :J_ X J 2... = 23, qoj L-tt-Lb.s -M-Y24-xJbS X 1 3"-x/2.. 13 ,q4z. 5 L>1-U.s tJ . 5 /;; = {/, 5 = 0 . 5 = o . o / 37b 1 =-o.o13s. D) The. Rr,-red Efjec-f.1've_ D e rth.. (_ A-t d e I'Y\-t-et,. o r :5 u /far -t ) ,All Ll bd = 3 7 , I 8 0 / o . q x 12-x h =-boo bcJ ':>-= 37/ a 0 / o . "1 X 1'2.. X b o o c{ =-J 3 7 , I 8 O / tJ . 1 X I '2.-X boo ::: 2 . d =-2 , 8/!;: 4 s CJ,o/ 3 8 X /'2.X 2 . 875 0 .4/b I 135

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Re..lrr1-f'tcet?11e-n* For shrirn kA-!JC and lerm.fcrA-tUte.. S-tress. f.::::.. 0. oo "2.-0 s,., ==-Ht:U< lrntL/?n 5/<=t.c.e. . A.s -o. 002 X 12X 5 , ?5" vi 5 .e :Jf 4-BtJ..A.-s o . c . J !.,L '' 1 3 ' o1 1 136

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-----------------B l F,-"A i 5 C T cJ\.__ afid t;,..-a-vcl ) ; 3 Lb .s/ }t'lN (.. Slo..-b (h.= !s _75 I !50 Lbsj _ft-3) : 7 2. uy:ft"z. I 'SD X 5 , 7E j1-z_ = /2-L-h> / Ce_\ 11""0 ( r:; ber-t ile cvn.A rrCV/'11) 8 I ) L ; vc Loo..d 8-2.) ut?-.c:/!:a 6 Lh y -#2. --------------------55 LJ,Ytr'-Br-t'cj:. ?M1d ( Yz_ 5 Lh_lfr7 G:>11c. she..U._ ( h..-4-'t, J5D ts-6 x 4 >< vz_ = 5o Lb.5 j j-t'137

PAGE 136

5 ) E,..t7J,. Lo,j V=ZJ:kCSW z =-ZCI'YleS, . Z, =I Z-z._.= 3)3 ' z3-::; Z+= I, "Zo =:. 0 "* De'Yl v e.r ::::. s. , -I= Irmf()ft:CJM-.{ Fo..c-tar D F 13wdd/'Yl& I, == 1,5' C "F,'re $-to.:tJ c'/1) 'Po li Le. S-to..-t)lY)lJ I2. = 1 ,.?-s-c 3oo
PAGE 137

T =. b 5 X 'l z I J zoo c Y t s JT _ '/ 15 .Jo.o7B = 0 .:J..31 \ R.ow . H = 7.21 ..De:.= 2.00 I D L E = z 00 X I t.,L X 81 I I 000 Vr:. == z I k c s vJ = 11.' 1-Cips B) Rovv & T ==-o , o s H = zz' :::: o ,o'? X 2.2/Jgg 881 = 0, IZ.. S ec. = Y1s 'J--r == -0 . ; q 139

PAGE 138

DLb (22. s + ( ?4. 5 x4) + 4&] X 14 X 8 / awe Y b = 3 /t b >< I • ,_s x I x o, '1 x 1 , 5 x 2 3 /,L . 17 T c = 15. 6t.,L [<(;p.s. = o, o? H :=. 0. 0 5 X 4-0 I J 17 D = 0, ! 5 Sec. -y 15-0 To-cal Loo..d 011 Row J( H = A-v 4o 1 1?01 Pt-k= ( \(45" +4!) X '1 X tsl} + {118 X ?0 X 5sfJ X Y t =--zb I v IJ. =. 3 . J , b X I I l-.5" X ,-/ I I X 0 I 17 X I I X 2 b I 140

PAGE 139

V r-tv-. = Z3 D rJ-vr )n_ ( D e'Y\Ve.Y) v k = v I'M c hI 3 o ) y, -= f>D ( 3 o j 6 ) 1 /1 :::-s o t1'Yl 1 h. c 9 = I '3 D ' t>) h I I O"t:> =/ '3 O, o'3 X "3D = I , 2'!f = 3o X I :z..:r ' .>< ( I 6 3 ,:l) .2.. Pb = frst Cd = 2), >--' X I , 3 =L.b;J fr1... h = "bui di """f A" er e 5o 1 -for cJ ."-f f l e. 2 2.. 1 f'r eT. * Cd == I . 3 ( S' =-I ' 0 ( H ex.Ao 0'"'1\ I 0 :_-' t>.. M'l ) = D, E> c Gr-vie_ I ; 'fS:l .s ) A) To+o.i Wif')'\c/ LooJ cn1 !
PAGE 141

D) To-tol vJ I 'Y\ J Lu crvt R-aw 14 . p 14 0 = 4-0 , 7 tl.. X I 4 X c;-o X Y t o o o -= za.5 * 0 ,'IV\ d o.d 8ov er 'YI s C/Yl Row b 1 1 tl ) /4.. • G-c?..rf:/A-r-cWL e rqo ver">'l s o'l'l E.. v = / , 3b '1' I , " t q .1 r 1.3" Z81 Vc.-=-l,q5 Me.-:: z.l, M =-z..2., y. Vc_ ';. 3 I 11 "41. S' =-0 c_., 3 . IL7 l t4' "' v = /, 3 M::o;o.,,; IJc=4,1 1-lc.. ::.,S"f, , p :o 45' -zoo 1 -o '' ::, • o c,L Me.-=-I . @cb,e:) 14' 1-141 "' 8 8 I 143 z4' 1 l 141 "' V =I. 3h M = !5' , b 2.3. 'lZ... k Vc_ = ._, 8 1/ c.. :: /. 3 s 0 -' 1'1,: 15'.'2... p =/Jb p= 0 141 !

PAGE 142

c.) Row K.. )I( A Ov;-e l')'\'\-r6sec\ u porfl Two C:.ONC.. . wol( c..--h.. M..e LA c..o...+ed Ro IN I 0. D) Row 14. * (1-.ere is No bea!Yv\ or qlrder O'YI frJc.. sh.e.-11 .st;-uc.iUYe. . Tlt..creyre.. aJ1 -f A-C1 -to .--t: s •-l . e c l -6o I Two co/ur'M.71S/ (lt/-1r), U4,k) 1'-1-:=:. 28.s-xi x ( z.> = 17 ::ft-!cC# f S . * 7/.M t;n\. e4IJi M1 Neg ve -t;o o-t7A-er w h;, "c/r; s ra# i -tj .s . 7/u:..re:fo'r-e---t7i.e IAJoryf c.otJJi-t-1'0'/1 5}-ou I d b-e Tf1/D 8) LOAD ANALYSIS . A-) Row E. l @ '[--@ -L-1 'l\e.o--Q_ 4 • W ={(/,II ,x B 1 ) + (_/, 7 X ) 0) J X I t.f=-Z30L-Lbsj-fr 1 '44

PAGE 143

74_ -,::;xed G"Yld <@!) 11 vJJ L /, 7_ 2"3o-z... X 4:;'l.. /12. X fc;-a-0 == 388.!5 (+-_ )' M = wl'L/12-='2,0'2..-X 2t./.'J.../ /2.. X ::= 1 I 0 , j-t . 1-1 or?'}t D ,'J-tri bu-t{ cn1 Ois-t__,r-i ]o-.c.-f....6r-s C -k = '/ I oJ ; S fuic_-e -tAd t>-f Go/ L/')111"11 2--/45 @1) = 0,3"2-Y'l.-o + Y4s + @==> 1-(o,32.X2) = 0 "-7 5" + y "2-o + 72-t,L ' 1 -( o .
PAGE 144

;gq 181 -L/-Zf b I l.z.. 1/.,z. ?BCJ -ill -70 -;-po J ;q 2-'-l/ 5/; ' +---3 8 3 . tt 4oo, 1.. _ 4 ,2,e 3Zf/..,b _ '2-1./-/ I I I -65" D, 7 I Y 2, h -> I,} 383.' I -4-1-:>, t:; '3'2-),'2--21./-3 'b 0 ' '2..0 ?.-___::;,. [',/I ---+--4oo,l/.2. 4-t'?, 7?.. '32';;,3 t -:2-1/-3.6 4oo,5 -413 .7 fJz.q 32-'' -171.6 LLi/.. 7 I f di.s-6;/oui-i , J > ; ?roce>5 above. J -ti--e. re5u/-t_ M t'dercvb}y diff-er e, ... ;J 1 -71.b 2?02 Lbj j=t +t-1':. 3.Z3_3' ft-K 146 .

PAGE 145

;\/3 = 3 8 ?, ? -f( 1 _ '3t X 45 x 22, :>) + oo,> 4'?R5t=D 4 5 R. !;>L = 3 Z3?' ?> + Z'??tf + 4{){) I 5" I< 5L = 4-5 =-52 ,?b r::-;rs. fiJ b :=: d-I 3 ' 7 ( 2, 3 I X X 2 2 . + ':3> ::z_?, ? +-4 r:J s-R. =-0 45/(.s-R=-413,7 Rs-f( == U/2-CJ. II/ 45" )tj 45 R b L = 4-1'3 .7 + '2-??1 + Rbt.. = '22/,tB.y 4-5 = SO ps . M z ='2-f/.-) ,b-(z.? 1 x z.. X-1 2..) + 44? i-24-R&R =-o Z4 r<. b !<. = 2LI?:b + (2, 1 1 >< 2-/,L x p_) ILL), 7 RbR. =-8 6 '+ ''7.,..'/ 2-C/-=)b l
PAGE 146

w.1 c.u La... -t;;/ 071 of. H e1Vt s. . M5R =41?,1 f/15 +.2.?,?/ =--L/ 1'3,7 + (SlY x _ ;q &>, b j.:t--f::-i ps. MbL -3'-? ,3 8 ) Row 14. L t ' 'Y\ e J. vi/)'\.; -J-ov IYI\ P is-t'r i bured Loctd. vJ :::: I , L.L X 5 5" ) + ( I .1 X 3 6 )J.X I (L =-I I Cf '2. Lbs / ft . JT::; 17Cf2X ( 2S' + 3) X / 1 c>OO ::=. 5o , 1.-r< , r ..s so,2-e P=-P = 50,:2X 3b 2q,s L !30, '2-x UkJ 3 b 40. b ps 148 * 4? x s-CJ. + r;-o = .2'3,?1 z.f,' I I / -z..o' b ' / e-o s e ::::. ;;..'/ ;2.. r 6 = 3 b 0 h

PAGE 147

* s o 0/ o D f L-oo..c/ w//1 VifcYn -bh e co (14 , "T). Htrfli &rif F r -&fe H =-40 I >< 0 5 X ( X y'Z-) -2 ?3.7> -ft-k.i ps L o"'-J Me/YY\ be.r l-oo..d S E.o. rtJk Loo-Js . Lotxd.s LDLO.i/i'0'11 t-1\ v p M v p M v p E:ll!d R B I 4 13. 7 (E., 5-b) z q .Cf !_33 CTR t;z..Y-1'18, b 45-I C , ( 5 ,C:) 54,2 ?,3B tobY 2.0 -f1 I C1.. ( 14; K) 28,'5 . 2 5'/-z.q \ '5 2 5 -J:t . LoC\.?1.5 M y f' E-11d 4-U-1/. s-tj C::TR. zz..q 5, 3 o ZfJf.}-2 8 .5 -=? p s. A-x_ I cJ_ Looo\ => K , p s .

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L 45ft 441/--f=t-ps -z2q -f1 -f = 7/.__e 5-t-eei RCL-fA' o l= ==. 0 . 7"(/, ==-(' 7 .r (o s r ).. 3 / x __ s_,____,..__ . x. . x / _t-c b 7 + s-o =-tJ oz.. I /? /,LI.,irfx 12-x ;coo/ c, q X bo/:... -=-B I 0 bt'l"-= <4L 4t' ;< /?-;< looo / tJ, 1 X 8 I 0 b = 1'2....11 ('2-d 'L ==-dl.,.tU X /'2-X I 000/0 . 1 ><-B I(_; 1./t.J.Li X /2. >< tooo/ o , q 10 X I'd = J r:;-, 32-8, ooo 1 &? u d ==-21/, 68. j_ry1c.le-s . 150

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F /xed H(ft/t wJ :2-1 H::::=. /IL j17_ X Y 16U"D q t.t. s-trr s ==-fo H,_, ==-c,to x 4> bd._ =-g IO X 0.1 X /2 X" ( .28)'J_ X//2 X /crv-D 7 1, :;-tL ttf s > s7 8 ! -ft-f:=-1 p s . bi e>o c/ . -tJ,o2-X 12.. x ::z..s 6,?z. f'"Y)l.. = \\() r( I I c 4 ) = 7 D O ) 'S 151 . .. . . • Ill •

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* b, b,.,_,. ?1. ( 4 X I /:2-.8) -+ ( I \ s-X 2) + (_ 3 X I ) ID, 7z )IY\&h.es < /2. h\cJks C-&n-f -er 5-teelJ A reo._ . f1t-t = 22CJ + 14-s-=-t;""" _p-A-ss UtJYL a.. = b i'Yie-1-.es As Huj4f<>J ( ojz_ ) 3.:23,$" X 1 2-j 6 , 9 X 5{) ( 23 _ 6)2-) ct -= =-3 . Ut; X bo / )< 3 X /2 Pes,'rn +r . • • • : \) lA c;-tf i f s c. -t: ">\ -ter . 5e ct. i .1)1 Vs -V L1 4> V c__ (!J, B X A 1c_ lJ \ J I I ) t.j (_ )< X. \'22-3 >< /': m) =-22,7 152

PAGE 151

-4"" ==-S"-tee.l Are o-fsr -tirrup. o ,Jtt >< x 6o x 22-. ' I 3 . ) 0'\ c . S::: ( zd') 5-:z: 4" 5-blrru p ::}t ? ( f
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I o) Co/ U"ll\ De 5 i . @ =tob.t.L l'h= 111 3 S / fa= / "-Tr; J II / 2 X / S, '1 o/h.. = ( 13'( X /1-) / ( IDb,tL X I B) 0 , J--7 y 13/1s == 0 ,?2.. z,> ,, c:.-o 1/ e r fr-+o J,OFL lo6.1L / o.7 .x 12X /8 ( S' A t/ f 618 ; De5, r cf Ccl\c 5 -uuc._vre s ) f = o . r / ;J, :=:. 0 , O::J-.b = f <& / o . ct r -f / c s-o/o . x ) = 1 1 .!, /2..'' 1 r O ,o)-6 X /2X/,S !3 . 1::,7-Us-e 6 :if: $CV"\-s C rL -= 6 . oo 154 b -it 9 /3oiL. s '

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tr,•J l i1 >< 1 8'' y = ( ;;_ t; I..L >< /2.) I ( 2Cf' t;; X I 8 ) -= S.7t./-V = I r-_ =.13/18 :=:: 0 , 72.. = fq b' h-:::::.. 2Jf,? / o, 7 X "3 X /'2-X I 8 =-o ,ob? Ill == o . . 1 I tJ.y,A ? = f /a nf 'c_ =-t).i/11, = a, ol./...b As-=-(tiL = 0 . of../.b X 12 >< I B = 9,q3b frY\ 1.... 155 =-ta;. b \2.1\ n I o q Ba.r .s ..:tf3 @ 511

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-*!,'e. a.) 5 i z.e ' 1f L-&V\. O ; -b.-1 d I'>' b C'-"-L. .:if I D . 'If Lory\ (j 1-t-L1 d , I"Y\ ol_ b S > =it I 0 s L.. lb d of ;-b__,J_,,t1 c:: ..:::. 4 B J cf 'tA' e -s ..::... S 4-i? X 0 . I I 5 c:.. I '2 '' 1\) Co.:so'l) d ; I"}Y\ e 11 ('+ :5:: I 6 ' ' ,.-, -:> II 0 .... .:;> (_ p /ers. Boft-o0VI\'Y'0 ,(/(\ 7/r._e B e.Jroc.-f:-) 62 C\ = I D 0 '} 5 / J:t-l-D f = I D f: i p 5 I ... * .See. vk C-o ?I c)(.,/ s , 0'71 s c z. l (13) 1 o; I F6c.-!m d tA.tia11 ItJ'l ve.s-tA'ffC\ "t-1.0"'11 Repor-t F u -I 0 b . l/-i p $ HI) = 2, {L ft I L i p . J == 5 !J p s . 1-= bo 1 ( Bee} /?oe.-k.. S$ .fr k?e/ow + 2 .fr f>erne-LYe<..tiQ/1) A = 7LR).. 3 . I tL X ( t?, y158 ,4 = A-r-eo.. 4 r ie.r Ap =-pe,.,_,e.t-ro..-t/6""/1 A-rea.

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A p Z.7LR x z' 2 X 3 , I X 2. P c. .=. ( ,j, 78? X I oo) t ( 6 X I 0 ) =-I 4 l \ 3 f .s > 'P L1 ( = I D b . tL !C , f s ' e -== 2t"/.).. / I t:> b , l.L f.). II z . 12..-5/ y =/ 1'2.. =D. S ' ' 0."2... t_ -f ' c 6 K-!Db .tL / o . ? X 3 X ( /Z. )2=-0 . 35 * -rLe Sec t-iol) of r ;er / s -b1v:vn_ --61u::vf C--o / u f'. rYL • Tk::.. u I of -6/..-R-r lermeed -t-o be. ?;-e?\d ,ju_f 157 .. -.... ---------------:-:-:-:-:-:-: .. :-:-: ... :-: ... :-: ... :-:

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8 -4. MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS. 1) Air Conditioning System. Climatic design is the process of designing in such a way that the building enclosure responds positively to climate and comfort requirements. In most climates, it is not possible to produce a totally passive design, hence heating, cooling and other mechanical systems form an integral part of most buildings. The Korean United Methodist Church expresses excellent features of passive design. Additionally, the ROOFTOP SELF CONTAINED VARIABLE AIR VOLUME AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM will be used for the best control of indoor climate. With the system, it is possible to procuse the best confort with compatablly low cost throuth the dynamic control of use time and air volume. The Advantages of the system follow: A> Less construction Cost. B> Easy maintenance. C> Save energy through variable air volume and use time control. D> No mechanical room' is needed. E> Less Duct Space. 158

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CONCEPI'UAL DIAGRAM OF OOOFI'OP SELF CONrAINED VARIABLE AIR VOLUME r----------1 I I I OOOM I I I I I I SUPPLY 1 AIR I I 1 I I RETURN AIR L __ _ ____ _l RETURN AIR DUCT FILTER AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM HF.ATING ,--co:rL COOLING COIL .BOX DAMPER SUPPLY AIR .DUCT FAN OOOFI'OP UNIT 159

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... 0 0 C-1 C-3 C-4 C 6 .--,_____ -• • r-----C 2 ,...__ ---!Ill .. CONF. f--I I 1 ,___ C -7 l::l'l'ORAGE I • T --.------!KITCHEN SP.lNING AREA ---CONCEPTUA L DIA GRAM O F AIR CONDITIONING LAYOUT -LIB • I r -CONF • PTR I I II -! r----r--= I J OFFI< I I I I 1-. L --. F ELLOWSHIP D ---. __ _; NARI'J-IE X 0 II OOOFTO P SELF CO NTAINED UME VARIABLE AIR V O L AIR CONDITIONING S YSTEM UNIT SUPPL Y AIR DUCT --RETURN A IR DUCT ' ,, --I I I I WORSHIP AREA I jl

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2) LIGHTING SYSTEM. *Refer to 6-4. Design Stratages, Section B> and C> 8 -5. CONSTRUCTION COST ESTIMATE * References 1> Means Manual 2> Marshal Valuation Service (63 X 102) + (28 X 26) + (45 X 42) + (45 X 88) + (47 X 74) + (118 X 52) = 22,618 Ft2 -2ND Floor 40 x 45 = 1,800 Ft2 -Construction class -Story height 1st 2nd ; 1,800 Ft2 • B, Brick infill 24.25 Ft. 24.25 Ft. ((6426 X 14) + {(728 + 1890) X 12} + (3960 X 20) + (3478 X 14) + (6136 X 50) + (1800 X 20)J X 1/24,418 = 24.25 Ft. -Construction category ; Good 1) Basic Price -----------------------$ 63.69 /Ft2 • 2) HVAC system Hot and chilled water supply ------$ 5.80 /Ft2 • 3) Springkler ------------------------$ 1.00 I Ft::z Subtotal --------------------------$ 70.49 /Ft2 • 5> Average story height 2.02 24.25/12 = 2.02 6) Average area -----------------------12,209 Ft2 • 161

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7> Average Perimeter ------------------0.99 <102 + 63 + 26 + 28 + 19 + 28 + 45 + 14 + 47 + 68 + 78 + 4 + 60 + 4 + 118 + 6 + 20 + 52 + 20 + 55 + 18 + 45 + 18 + 69 + 14 + 40 + 14) X 1/2 = 537.5 Ft. 8> No. of stories ----------------------1. 2 Stories = 1 9) Local factor ------------------------1. 10> Inflation factor --------------------1.06 *** THE FINAL COST *** 70.49 X 2.02 X 0.99 X 1 X 1 X 1.06 = 149.43 $ 78.09/Ft2 • 22,418 X 149.43 = $ 3,349,784 = $ 3,349,800 * Remarks -The construction cost for Landscape and parking lot is excluded =All kind• of service cost are (for architect, engineers) -Accuracy tolerance is +(-) 5 i. (10 i. contengency) -Cost for land is excluded -The standard story height is 12 Ft. -The building height factor is 1 for less than 4 stories. Add 0.7 i. of price for every story above three stories to the basic price. -Quality of construction. a> Excellent quality-Beautiful. b) Good quality -Attractive. c) Average quality -Not very Attractive. d) Low quality. 162

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9. CONCLUSION. It was an excellent oppotunity for m• to design the Korean United Methodist church as an experiment and laarning proc••• My old prof•••or, Chang Han Zoh, sAid "Architacture is a dreAm of ideality •rracted on the ground of r•ality." at the first class of his design studio, at the Univarsity of Kyung Hee, Seoul, Kor•a. I triad to achieve this dream on the Korean United M•thodist Church. Th• dream was to give people spiritual experiences of God. I used architectural form, natural light as wall as artificial light to create a spiritual architacture. The major design el•ments related to form and light follow• 1> Uplifting and high elevation for the sanctuary. 2> Long Approach to the SanctuAry as a PROCESSIONAL SPACE for processional experiences. 3> Ambiguous and Colored symbol in the santuary. 4> Low illumination in tha Sanctuary. Bright and color•d light beams coming through the cl•arstory and skylights into tha daam sanctuary. I also triad to Provid• th• building social and cultural functions through the following d•sign elements• 1> To 30 X incraas• aducatioal spac•s for th• b•st education for future generations. 2> Wood window scraans to express oriental fa•ling. Additionally I provided the Korean United M•thodist Church many excellent architectural f•aturas related to natural resauces --view, landscape, outdoor activity spaces, •tc. --passive d•sign, and other functional aspects. I bali•va that this building work vary wall not only for the members of the church, but also for public as a social and spiritual architactura. 163

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APPEND:!: X 1. QuAstionnairar. 2. Soil and Foundation Investigation Report. 184

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QUESTXONNAXRER is your sex? 1) 2) Female How old are you? old What is your status? 1> single 3) 2> 4) Divorced was your religion in Korea? 1> 3> Islamic None 2) Buddism 4> What is religion? 1> 3) Nona 2> Buddism 4) How many fa•ily members are ther• in your household? 1> One 2> two 3) Three 4> Four Five or more Please give their to you. Ex> Father, Mother, Son, Etc. 1) 3) 2) 4) When did you arrive in the United State? Month Date Year 1)9 ____ _ What is the type of residence? 1> Own 2> Rent 3> Other What is your hiQhest level in 1> School 3) Senior High School S> Graduate School Junior High School 4> Coll•ge or University What is your high .. t level in USA? 165

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1> Elementary School 3) Senior High School 5) Graduata School 2> Junior High School 4> Collega or University What was your final occupation hald in Korea? What is your currant annual family income l•v•l in USA? 1> Lass than $ 10,000 3) • 20,001 • 30,000 5) $ 40,001 or more 2> • 10,000 • 20,000 4> • 30,001 • 40,000 How w•ll do you speak English? 1> Fluent 2> Good 3) Fair 4) Poor 5> Not at all How wall do you read English? 1> Flu•nt 2> Good 3> Fair 4) Poor :5> Not at all How will do you write English? 1> Fluent 2> Good 3> Fair 4> Poor :5) Not at all What Am•rican n•wspapar do you subscriba to? 1> Nona 2> Danver Post 3) Rocky Mountain News 4> US Today 5> Other What Korean nawspapar do you subscrib• to? 1> Nona 2> Korean Timas at Denver
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3) Jaangang News 4) Other 1> Na 2) v •• a> b) C) Haw frequantly da you speak English at ham•? 1> Alw.ays 2> Frequiently 3> Occasionally 4) Nev•r Haw many close American fri•nds (in wham you can confide your personal problems> da you hav•? 1> Nona 2> One 3) Twa 4) Thra• :5> Four or mar• Haw many clas• Kar•an fri•nds da you hav•? 1> Nona 2> One 3> Twa 4> Three :5) Four or mara Da you faal mast Am•ricans acc•pt you as thiar aqual? 1> Dafinit•ly yes 2> Probably y•s 3> Undacid•d 4> Probably na 5) definitely na Da you Plan ta retire in Kar•.a? 1> D•finit•ly Y•• 2> Probably Y•• 3) Und•cidad 4> Probably na :5> Definitely na

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How often have you b .. n invited by Americans to their homes in the past yaar? CPleasa exclude business-related ones> 1) Navar 2) Once 3) two times 4) Three or four times Fiva or six times 6) Seven through nine times 7) Tan or mora times How often have you invited Americans to your home in the past year? 1> Navar 2> Once 3> two times 4) Thraa or four times Five or six tiaes 6> Savan through nine times 7> Tan or mora times Do you have any close Korean friends in whom you can confide your personal problems? 1> None 2> One 3) Two 4) Three Four or mora Do you have any close American friends in whom you can confide your personal problems? 1> Nona 2> On a 3) Two 4) Thraa Four or more Do you theink your presint income is comparable to that of your fellow workers? 1> Definitely yes 2> Probably yes 3) DonPt know 4) Probably no Dafinitly no Do you think your present income is commensurate with the educational laval you have achieved?

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1) Definitely yas 2> Probably yas 3> Don"t know 4> Probably no Definitly no Do you think your pr .. •nt occupation is comm•nsurat• with th• •ducational l•vel you hav• achi•v•d? 1> Definitely yes 2) Probably yas 3> Don"t know 4> Probably no :5) Definitly no G.narally sp•akinQ, do you think th•r• ar• chanc•• for you "to eaka it" in the United States if you hard enouQh7 1> D•finitaly yes 2) Probably y•s 3> Don"t know 4> Probably no :5) Dafinitly no

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SOXL AND FOUNDATION XNVESTXGATXON This report was prepared for the DENVER METRO VILLAGE, which is an eighteen story apartment building located at We•t Colfax Avenue and Quitman Street, Denver, Colorado, by the KAL ZEFF and ASSOCIATES, LTD, CONSULTING SOIL ENGINEERS, February 2S, 1970. March 14, 198S

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Conclusions -----------------------------------------1 2. Scope -----------------------------------------------1 3. Field Inv•atigations --------------------------------2 4. Proposed Structure ----------------------------------2 Discussions -----------------------------------------3 6. Design Construction DetAils --------------------7. Construction Inspection ----------------------------6 B. Test Hole Plan ------------------8 10. Swell ConsolidAtion Teat Results (fig. ------9 11. StrAight Piars (fig. 6) ----------------------12 12. of T••t Results ------13

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1. Cnclusions 1> Subsoil conditions at tha sita ara erratic. Generally, 10 to 13 f .. t of clay with layers of sand ovarlia weatharad claystona bedrock. Medium hard claystona and sandstone bedrock was encounterad at depths 13 to 24 feat. Hard, unweatharad, blua badrock was encountered at depths 43 to 38 feat. A water tabla was ancounterad at depth 10 feat. 2> In our opinion, tha building should ba foundad on straight shaft piers bottoming in the upper waathared bedrock and/or tha underlying unweathered bedrock, as follows: A> Piers bottoming in madium hard, weathered badrock should be drilled at least 13 feat into it and should ba designed for a maximum and prassura of 20,000 pounds/ftz and side shear of 3,000 pounds/ft2 for the portion of the pier in medium hard bedrock. Piers bottoming in tha unwaatharad badrock should ba drilled at laast 2 faat into it and should ba dasignad for a maximum and pressure of 100,000 pounds/ftz and sida shaar of 10,000 pounds/ft2 • 3) Lightly loadad portions of tha building may ba foundad on piaars drillad only 4 f .. t into waatherad bedrock and dasignad for a maximum and prassura of 10,000 pounds/ft2 and side shaar of 1,000 pounds/ft2 for the portion of the pier in tha upper waatharad badrock. 4) Tha natural soils ara adaquata to support interior floor slabs, as discussed balow. 2. Scope of the Inv .. tigation This raport presents the results of a soil and foundation invastigation at tha site of the proposad aightaan story apartment building to ba locatad at Wast Colfax avenua and Quitman Straat, Danvar, Colorado. Tha study was made to datermina tha bast types and depths of foundations, tha Allowable soil prassures, and ground water conditions. Thorough field and laboratory investigations of tha subloil conditions ware mada. The field work consisted of •aking a sarias of exploratory borings. Disturbed and undisturbad samplas ware taken from this holes. Tha samplas wera subjected to visual inspection and laboratory tasts, in ordar to avaluate tha physical and mechanical propartias of tha soil encountered. These properties ware subsequently

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utilized, in conjuction with rasults of observations .ada on the site and past experience with similar soils, in raachin; tha conclusions included in the report. 3. Fiald Invasti;ations Five borings were made at tha locations shown on fugura1. The holes were put down with a 4 inch diameter, continuous flight, power au;ar. Undisturbed drive samples, as well as penetration resistance data, wara obtained of the various subloil materials. The depths at which the samplas ware taken and tha panatration resistances ara shown on the logs of the exploratory holes, figure 2. The field work was carried out on february 13, 16, and 17, 1970. 4. Proposed Structura As wa undarstand, tha structure is to ba 18 stories, with no basement. Tha building is to be of reinforced concrata type of construction, with maximym column loads of 1,000 kips. Discussions As seen on the logs of tha exploratory holes, figure2, at conventioal foundation laval the soils ara mostly clays having A low supporting capacity. For the high colu.n loads, it is balievad that straight shaft piars axtandad into the medium hard, weathered claystone and sandston• or the underlying unweathered, blue claystona bedrock will provide the most economical foundations. The selection of tha baaring strata will depend on the loading conditions, construction difficulties and cost. Using this type of foundation, each column is supported on A aingla drillad pier. Load appliad to a pier of this type is transmitted to the bedrock, partly throu;h peripharal shear stresses which davalop on tha sidas of tha pier and partly through and baaring prassura. Tha datermination of the ralative proportions of tha total pier loads which are transmitted to the badrock through tha and and tha walls of tha pier is an undatarminad problem which cannot be solved accurately, Tha paripharal shaar stras•••

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which davalop depend upon tha of the compressibility of tha bedrock with depth tha bond stress which can davalop betw..n tha concrate bedrock. Our axparianca with this typa of piar has provan that tha and of drilling, tha of the hole is rough, bumpy cylinder. this surfaca causas tha concrata piar to projections into tha bedrock, keys through which tha paripharal shaar is transmittad to tha bedrock. In soma walls of tha drilled holes bacoma with smooth of mud which would tand to raduca tha bond batwaan the concrata the bedrock. of this possibility, wa racommend that it ba spacifiad tha of tha drilled holes in tha bedrock ba thoroughly roughanad to tha of tha soil anginaar. Tha uppar madium waatharad badrock strata consist of waatharad claystona and sandston• of strengths. For simplicity of dasign and construction, it is recommanded a uniform sida shaar ba used a minimum panatration of faat ba spacifiad so that badrock may ba in casas. on tha foragoing discussion, a maximum and prassura of 20,000 pounds/ft2 and side shear of 3,000 pounds/ft2 is recommended . At thasa prassuras, building sattlemants will ba low. Tha unwaatharad, vary blua claystone and sandstone badrock prasant balow depths to faat 49 f .. t> is axcallant is praferabla to tha overlying badrock A and prassura of 100,000 pounds/ft2 &ida of 10,000 pounds/ft2 is racommandad for piars panatrating this layar. Tha salaction of the bearing layer should dapand on costs. However, if the cost is close, extanding the piers to this later is recommended. 6. Design and Construction Details 1> Slab on ground construction Tha soils are to support interior floor slabs. All loose or new fill tha slabs should ba miostened and compacted A minimum 4 inchas of gravel should be the to capillary watar risa. To minimize possible damage from tha slabs should be from bearing mambars and

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wall reinforced. 2> Basement construction. Ground water conditions are not favorable for basement construction .unless a subsurface drainaga system is provided to_accommodate a possible water table rise. 3> Pier construction details Pier holes should ba de-watarad and thoroughly cleaned before pouring concrete. The sides of the holes should be roughened artificially, as discussed above. It is believed that casing will not ba necessary in drilling most of the pier holes. Pumping may be requirad • It should be specified that concrete be poured immediately after completion of drilling. A 3 to 4 inch slump concrete is racommended. Concrete in the pier holes should be vibrated if possible. It is recommendad that pier holes be inspected by a soil engineer to assure that thay meat the specifications and that soft layers are not prasent in the bedrock. 4> Cement type The amount of water soluble sulphate• in the soil is low <•aa tabla 1>. Type 1 cement may ba used in all concrete exposed to the soil. Construction inspection In any foundation invastigation, it is nacassary to assume that foundation conditions do not change greatly from those indicatad by our axploratory holes. These holas are spaced as closely as is evar, our exparienca has shown that hasa anomalies do sometimes bacoma apparent after tha foundation excavation. For this reason, we racommend that a soil anginaar who is familiar with the subsoil conditions inspect the open excavation and pier hola drilling, aspaccially if any unforasaan conditions are uncovarad. In this case, we should be notified immediately.

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W CONEJOS AVE I . 4 " V) :t (b '--,L/oLe-ttl _ -.,.;:... :.-"-/ .J '\ I L __ \. yV. COLrA X AVE. TEST HOLE LOCATION PLAN SCALE: 1" =50' . ' 5" h.: V) '( • t " ' 2 \J • r--, I ---B. B.M., .TOP OF MANHOLE; AS S U t'-1 E D E L • 1 Q Q I FIGURE 1

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)-)OLE / 2 t i \PIERS 20,000 PSF -.., @ .I ; -. ( r . I ' . . -:-WATER TABLE,J TIME 50j,.,. SANDY AFTER DRILLING BEDROCK, HARD, MOIST, p-] CLAY, SANDY, MEDIUM STIFF, SANDSTONE BEDROCK, WEATHERED, YELLOW-BROWN < ' "" < \ t " VERY SANDY TO SAND, CLAYEY, BEDROCK, VERY HARD, STIFF, WET, BROWN SANDSTONE LAYERS,-CLAYSTONE BEDROCK, \
PAGE 176

Natural Dry Unit Weight = 10 4 pet Natural Moisture Content= 20.4 % SWELL 1 I 1 I % 0 COMP 1 2 1 't--p... I WA ER I Aio p ' 1'-t'-. t\. 3 I Applied Pres 0 1 sure ksf • 1.0 10 100 CLAY, SANDY 1 , -Hole at Depth 2 , 0 I i . Natural Dry Unit Weight = 109 pcf Natural Moisture Content= 18. 8 % SWELL % COMP 2 li"'-r--. t"-;-. " -r----.. "' 1'1• " l w t. b fl. h h h 1\ 1 0 1 [\ 2 1\ 3 1 .pplied Pres O.l ure ksf 1.0 10 100 CLAYSTONE -Hole 1 at Depth 12, Q I CONSOLIDATIO t l TES T RESU LTS F1qure 3

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Natural Dry Unit Weight = 99 pcf Natural Moisture Content= 22 . 4 % i ' 0 r--t-t--.. r--t--""' AT 11CD . 1 COMP % ' ' 2 3 4 I ' Applied Pres 0 1 sure l
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0 1 COMP % . 2 Pres 0 1 sure l
PAGE 179

.... t: I • ' 1200 700 '••. . , • <.. 4 ' . -/ / / . . .. -Y --/ _...., 60'' c; / / ,............ .. / . . . ' v 54" ( . / lV v ....--.....----/ / ....... ____....... ....... . / / 4811 ( iam, .....----: ./ . v / v [.....--" L----p / .. ' b---" -----/ 4 211 ( i am. ....--L----/ / / '. .. -----/ ' .....----• :<' . ::.:.......-----l .. .....--...... ......-/ / ____....... ..... --l--------c-____....... 36" ( v--------. , __......-------------/ -------30'' c iam. -----__.........-----------. .....---------.....---.. ' .----------.. .. .....----l-------. ' .. , .. . . v------------------.. -----... .. . . 1100 1000 900 800 600 500 400 300 200 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 1 5 16 1 7 18 19 20 2 1 22 23 Penetration into bedrock feet ' .

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JOB NO. 8 0 4 3 TABLE I SUMMARY OF LABORATORY TEST RESULTS NATURAL NATURAL DRY ATTERBERG LIMITS UNCONFINED TRIAXIAL SHEAR TESTS DEPTH COMPRESSIVE SULPHATEIS HOLE MOISTURE DENSITY ll QUI 0 PLASTICITY DEVIATOR CONFINING SOIL TYPE {FEET) {o/•) {PCF) LIWIT IN DE X STRENGTH STRESS PRESSURE % (%) {%) {PS F) {PSF) {PSF) 1 2. 0 20.4 104 CLAY_, V ERY S ANDY 1 12.0 18. 8 109 6,700 CLAYSTONE 2 2. 0 23.4 46 . 1 30.9 CLAY, SANDY 2 2 2. 0 22.4 99 CLAYSTON E 3 2 2. 0 25.4 100 11,100 CLAYSTON E 3 47.0 1 2 . 8 120 CLAYSTON E 4 37.0 1 5 . 0 116 CLAYSTONE 5 2.0 21.6 103 2,640 CLAY, SANDY 5 7. 0 0.002% CLAY_, SANDY 5 17. 0 20.6 108 9_,900 CLAYSTONE -