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Architectural design of the historic Citadel of Arbil Qala - Iraq Center for Tourism and National Heritage

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Title:
Architectural design of the historic Citadel of Arbil Qala - Iraq Center for Tourism and National Heritage
Creator:
Sherzad, Shereen I.
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Committee Chair:
Vetter, J. K.
Committee Members:
Long, Chalmers G. Jr.
Nuzum, Dwayne C.

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Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Shereen I. Sherzad. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
' AURARiA LIBRARY
KOI SA Nj
THE HISTORIC VITER FOR TOll
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■ &■: •


THE ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENT
OF ARBIL QALA - IRAQ CENTER FOR TOURISM AND NATIONAL HERITAGE
SHEREEN I. SHERZAD, B. ARCH.
A Thesis Submitted to the
College of Environmental Design - Graduate Programmes, The Division of Architecture University of Colorado, Denver, in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Master's Degree in Architecture
/l-FP LP 1130 A TZ
S 5125
December - 1979


I certify that this thesis was prepared under my supervision at the University of Colorado at Denver, in my opinion it is adequate as a thesis in partial fulfillment of requirements for Master of Architecture
Signature ___________________________________Date______________________
Advisor: Professor J.K. Vetter
Professor of Architecture
B.S. Architecture, University of Oregon
M. Architecture, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas
In view of available recommendation, I submit the thesis for consideration by supervision and advice of.
Signature____________________________________Date_________________
Chalmers G. Long Jr.
Director of Architecture
Associate Professor of Architecture
B.A., B. Architecture, Rice University M. Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Approved for the College of Environmental Design
Signature_____________________________________Date_____________________________
Dwayne C. Nuzum,
Dean of the College
Professor of Architecture
B. Architecture, University of Colorado M. (Arch.), Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Doctoral (Town Planning), Delft Technical University (The Netherlands).


To My Parents


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The Author would like to express her gratitude to:
Professor G. K. Vetter, for his encouragement and advice during the supervision of this work,
Mr. A. Lawrence, for his advice and interest in the work,
Dr. D. Hill, for his advice, criticism and assistance,
Ms. Dottie Dryden, for editing and typing this thesis,
and to the Iraqi Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research for granting me the scholarship at the Univeristy of Colorado, Denver.


CONTENTS
Declaration
Acknowledgements
Introduction (Scope and Methodology) Part I Theory
Section 1 National and Regional Development Planning in Iraq
Chapter 1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
Planning Machinery and its Objectives
Introduction
Historical Background
Planning Hierarchy
Stage of Plan Formation
Relation between National, Regional and Local Planning National Objectives Regional Objectives Economic Independence
Chapter 2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
The Case of Regional Planning in Northern Iraq - Backgrounds Introduction
Physical and Demographical Background of Iraq Regional Background (Physical and Demographical) Socio-economic Background
Chapter 3.
3.1
3.2
Planning Problems and Development Opportunity and Growth Potentials in the Region Planning Problem
Development Opportunities and Growth Potential
3.2.1 Oil Industry
3.2.2 Agriculture
3.2.3 Industry
3.2.4 Tourism


Chapter 4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
The Development Strategy of the Region Introduction
The Development Strategy
The Sectorial Investment Pattern
Comparison of Strategies
Major Market Change
Summary of Assessment of Strategies
Chapter 5. Conclusions and Recommendations
5.1 Conclusions
5.2 Recommendations
s


Development of Arbil City Section 2 - INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6 1.7
Arbil's Sub-regional and Local Backgrounds Arbil City in its Regional Context Arbil City in its Sub-regional Context Brief Description of the City Brief Historical Background Topographical Conditions Climatical Conditions Population
Chapter 2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
The Social and Economic Structure Population and Classes Family and House The Neighborhood Unit
Chapter 3.
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
Existing Situation of Public Services in Arbil Utilities
3.1.1 Water Supply
3.1.2 Sewage
3.1.3 Electricity
3.1.4 Storm Water and Drainage
3.1.5 Others Educational Services
3.2.1 Educational Schools and Institutions
3.2.2 Public Libraries
3.2.3 Youth Centres Health Services Religious Institutions
Public Entertainments and Recreation Conclusions


Chapter 4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
The Employment Structure and the Land Use Situation Employment
Land Use Situation (General)
Specific Land Use Situation
4.3.1 Civic Center
4.3.2 Commercial Area
4.3.3 Social, Recreational
4.3.3.1 Educational Services
4.3.3.2 Health Services
4.3.3.3 Open Spaces
4.3.3.4 Cemeteries
4.3.4 Roads and Streets
4.3.5 Utilities Residential Areas Conclusi ons
Chapter 5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
Master Plan of Arbil City
INTRODUCTION
The General Goals
Particular Principles and Goals
Expansion Directions and Constraints
Assessments of Directions
Alternatives
Stages of Implementation
Land Use, Sector and District Distribution of the Master Plan
The Sector Surrounding the Qala
5.8.1 The Structure
5.8.2 Planning of the Sector
5.8.3 Design Principles Conclusions and Suggestions


Development of Arbil Qala - Citadel Section 3
- INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1. The Qala's Setting and its History
1.1 The Setting of the Qala
1.2 The History
Chapter 2. The Existing Situation of the Qala
2.1 Building Condition
2.2 The People and Housing
2.3 Movement
2.4 Soil Conditions
2.5 Planting
2.6 Services
2.7 Land Values
2.8 Visual and Environmental Qualities
Chapter 3. Features of Visual and Environmental Quality in the Qala.
3.1 Area of Identity
3.2 Enclosure and Character of Space
3.3 Change of Level
3.4 Nodes and Land Marks
3.5 Organization of Space
3.6 Street and Alleys Condition
3.7 Planting
3.8 Relation of the Qala to the Rest of Arbi 1
Chapter 4. Housing and Building in the Qala
4.1 Introduction
4.2 General Characters of the Oriental Houses
Q


4.3 The Qala Houses in General
4.3.1 Characters
4.3.2 Grouping
4.3.3 House Plan Element
4.3.4 Constructional Element
4.3.5 Decorative Features
4.3.6 Remarks
4.4 Survey of Individual Buildings
Chapter 5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
Concepts of the Conservation of the Qala and its Development Introduction
5.1.1 First Option - Archeological Use
5.1.2 Second Option - Redevelopment
5.1.3 Third Option - Conservation Dimensions of the Conservation (Theory)
5.2.1 Definitions
5.2.2 Dimensions of Conservation
5.2.3 The Concept of Conservation
5.2.4 Benefits of Conservation Conservation Alternative
5.3.1 Alternative Concepts
5.3.2 Possible Land Use and Movement
5.3.3 Potential Inputs
5.3.4 Town Landscape Relationship
5.3.5 Design Principles for New Buildings
Chapter 6.
6.1
6.2
6.3
Assessment of Alternative Concepts Functional Requirements
6.1.1 Vehicular Access
6.1.2 The Qala as Community
6.1.3 Essential Services Design Principles Selected Alternative


Chapter 7. 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Conclusions - The Selected Strategy, Plan Principles and Implementation Pri nciples Approaches of Design Other Parameters Implementation Finance and Administration


Part II
Planning and Design
Section 1.
1.
1.
Section 2. 2.
Chapter 1.
1.
1.
Chapter 2. 2.
The Suggested Plan of the Sector Surrounding the Qala
1 The Principles
2 The Land Use Situation
The Architectural Design of the Suggested Complex of the Qala 1 Introduction
Complex Elements and Grouping
1 Complex Elements
1.1.1 Artisan Center
1.1.2 The Kurdish Studies Center
1.1.3 Amphitheatre
1.1.4 SUQ
1.1.5 Coffee Shop
1.1.6 Meeting Hall
1.1.7 The Fine Art Gallery
1.1.8 Popular City Council Center
1.1.9 Institute of Folk Music and Dancing
1.1.10 Museum
1.1.11 Touristic Facilities
1.1.12 Public Facilities
2 Activity Relations and Grouping
1.2.1 Weighted Influence of Activity Relations
1.2.2 Schematic Design
The Complex Design 1 Design Principles
2.1.1 Planning Principles
2.1.2 Architectural Principles
2.1.3 Engineering Principles


2.2 The Programme
2.2.1 Administration
2.2.2 Center of Kurdish Studies
2.2.3 Lecture Hall
2.2.4 Cafe
2.2.5 Amphitheatre
2.2.6 Music and Dancing Institute
2.2.7 Fine Art Gallery
2.2.8 Popular Council Center
2.2.9 The Artisian Center
2.3 The Design of the Complex
2.3.1 1/200 Plan of the Complex
2.3.2 Actual Areas and Activities
Chapter 3.
3.1
3.2
3.3
Design of Individual Elements Design of the Fine Art Gallery
3.1.1 Detailed Principles and Specifications
3.1.2 Detailed Design Plan of A New House
Plan of (reed and basketing) of the Artisian Center


Section 3. Cost Estimates and Implementation Programme of the Development of the Qala
Chapter 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Cost Estimates General Costs Preservation Works Cost New Development Costs Services Grand Total
Chapter 2. 2.1 2.2 Implementation Programme and Suggestions Implementation Suggestions




INTRODUCTION
1. The Scope and Aims of the Study
1.1 This study started as one which aimed at the architectural development of the Historic Arbi 1 Citadel
in Iraq for the purpose of drawing general lines for its preservation, conservation and revitalization without disturbing its character and then providing a model architectural study and design of examples of the projects suggested.
1.2 As the citadel is a dominant historical and topographical feature within Arbil City in Northern Iraq, it became apparent from the beginning that this study cannot be isolated from the regional scale development in general and Arbil City Planning in particular.
1.3 That apparent fact mentioned above was lacking in two studies carried previously on this subject:
1.3.1 By Consulting Engineers, Iraq Consult and Colin Buchanin and Partners in July 1971 when a feasibility
study for the preservation of the historic town was suggested through drawing a master plan for the
citadel.^
1.3.2 By the Author herself in 1976 in her thesis project submitted to develop the citadel as a center for tourism and national heritage^ which followed the same principles and ideas that appeared in the above first mentioned study.


1.4 Due to its physical, scenic and climatic nature, the North of Iraq has always been thought of as a
potential area for major tourism development. This has led to the belief that the development of the region could be based on tourism and so tourism became synonymous with regional development.
Being the tourism development as means to the Socio-economic development, it was realized that it is by no means the only major economic base of the region.
This necessitated the study also survey and cover other development factors nationally, regionally and city wise.
2. Methodology and contents of the study.
The study has been made in two distinct parts:
2.1 Part I - Theory
Deals with a survey of the background of development plans nationally, regionally, city wise, and the citadel itself, giving conclusions to each section with appendices in conjunction with the subject.
The contents of this part shall be as follows:
2.1.1 Section 1 -
Deals with the developing of a strategic paradigm model for the northern region within the national objectives of Iraq giving a general idea and review on the planning machinery and its objectives in Iraq, together with major sector development activities and regional background and their conclusions.


2.1.2 Section 2 -
Deals with the development of Arbil City, the capital of the Arbil Governorate and the center of the autonomy^ area in the north of Iraq together with the study of its master plan giving suggestion and proposals related to the citadel development through a detailed study of the first surrounding ring sector around the citadel.
2.1.3 Section 3 -
Deals with the development of Arbil Qala's covering its history, setting, present situation and alternative approaches for its development and a selected concept for detailed study and design based on the results of the revitalization and conservation concept studies to achieve a master plan.
2.2 Part II - Planning and Design
This part shall be devoted to presenting the detailed design proposals of some sectors of both Arbil City and the Qala in three sections:
2.2.1 Section 1 - (
The study of the surrounding sector ring around the Qala in detail with sector planning.
2.2.2 Section 2 -
Deals with the Master Plan of the Qala and the detailed programme of the built up areas in the Qala within the suggested master plan.


As a result of the discussions in Section 3 of Part I and this section a 1/200 architectural plan of the suggested complex will be presented together with full architectural design of one of the Projects which is the fine art gallery.
In addition to above, a general architectural plan for the following parts shall be submitted:
- Sample of a house for one of the artisan activity.
- A sample design of a suggested new house.
2.2.3 Section 3 -
Deals with the cost estimate of the development of the Qala and the implementation programme.


PART I
SECTION 1 -
NATIONAL AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN IRAQ


Chapter 1 -
Planning Machinery and its Objectives in Iraq.
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 The constitution of the Republic of Iraq^ has proclaimed the general principles which have to be pursued by the Society in its march along the path of economic and social development that ensures welfare and prosperity for the citizen. Among those principles related to the subject are the following.
1.1.1.1 In Article One, the Republic of Iraq is a popular democratic state aiming to achieve socialism.
1.1.1.2 In Article Ten, the Social Solidarity is the first foundation of the society.
1.1.1.3 In Article Twelve, the state shall plan, orient, and guide the national economy aiming at establishing a socialist regime based on scientific and revolutionary bases.
1.1.1.4 In Article Thirteen, the National riches and the main production means are property of the nation. Hence the Iraqi economy is a planned economy adopting comprehensive planning as a method of uplifting the national economy and the responsibility of planning has to be shouldered by all citizen.
1.2 Historic Background
Iraq has a relatively long experience in initiating development and planning programmes. The initial move was establishment of the development board in the early 1950's -


to draw up partial development plans and implement some sectors of the economy, and this is called the partial programming stage in Iraq which lasted till 1959.
The Second Stage of Planning, central government stage extended from 1959-1970, though planning was more advanced in terms of comprehensiveness in this stage, it failed to cover all sectors and fields of economic activities.
The Third Stage which started in 1970 marked the beginning of comprehensive planning in Iraq, in which serious attempts have been made to plan all sectors whether of public, private or mixed ownership, then the national planning has been further improved in the existing Five Year Development plan 1976-1980 by covering all sectors with well defined objectives and very flexible implementation mechanism, and also by overcoming the major weaknesses in previous planning due to poor implementation, over centralization, and shortage of basic data.
It contained in addition to the above sector production plans, plans for employment, exported and import indicators, ..etc. ^
1.3 The Planning Hierarchy
There are three planning bodies in Iraq representing three levels of authority:
The central, sectional and specialist level.
1.3.1
The Central Level


1.3.1.1 The Revolutionary Commmand Council (RCC) is the highest authority of the planning machinery having legislative, executive, and judicial powers. It prescribes general target and objectives considered with Socio-economic philosophy.
1.3.1.2 The Planning Board
The highest planning body has a diversified membership including the president of the country, the Minister's and the Leader's of the Ruling Political Party.^
The Planning Board is assisted by the Steering Committee led by the Minister of Planning and other Specialist members.
The Planning Board is the major policy maker on the national level prescribing major economic and planning objectives and directives. Its activities include drawing up major development programmes, coordinating the countries economic, financial, monetary, and trade policies, and directing and prescribing major economic and planning objectives and directives. Its activities include drawing up major development programmes, coorinating the countries economic, financial, monetary, and trade policies, and directing and prescribing economic activities of the private sector.
1.3.2 The Sectional and Specialist Levels
1.3.2.1 These two levels cut across administrative and technical divisions, interministerial councils and boards have their authority delegated by central planning bodies for planning.


1.3.2.2 Next, ministries which are assumed to have planning and follow-up departments to plan on a detailed sectional level and to undertake plan implementation sectorially are also included in the planning machinery on a secondary level.
1.3.2.3 Finally, the specialist level includes major state organizations, administration, and companies. Their planning activities involve feasibility, follow-up at a project level and reallocation of activity targets by institution.
1.4 Stage of Plan Formation
1.4.1 The top authority (Political Leadership) prescribes basic economic and social targets such as doubling the national income in ten years, achieving full employment and the like.
1.4.2 The central planning authority then decides the necessary data by drawing up the framework of the overall development plan which includes among other things, the trend of the plan, sectorial targets, and the means of achieving sectorial objectives and gives recommendations to the executive ministerial level.
1.4.3 Every concerned Ministry must then decide on the basis of planning and economic criteria which of the new proposed projects would best attain the plans objectives. The central planning system has the option of revising the objectives of the detailed national plan, also the central planning authority in upraising the Ministries recommendation test the proposals against practicality, flexibility, reduction of regional disparity, balance between resources, and manpower requirements.


CHART _ 1_
rmi i/^ti inr


Relationship between national, regional, and local planning: One major planning objective is the reduction of regional disparity, however this goal didn't imply that detailed planning existed on a regional level. The absence of detailed regional planning is aggrevated by the nature of the administrative system, over centralization, lack of coordination, between ministries on sectorial level and the absence of a complete regional planning body. Local administrative departments at a Muhafadah* level have a very minor role in planning due to an over-centralized administrative system, lack of coordination between local departments and the shortage of well trained manpower at a local level. However, recently a regional planning department has been established within the framework of the Ministry of Planning and the physical planning department has been attached to it, also a local planning and follow-up committee has been established for the autonomy region by which an improvement is expected towards better coordination.
National Objectives.
Any regional plan must be appropriate in a national context - National planning objectives must provide the framework within which regional objectives and recommendations are made.
Below I shall review briefly some of related objectives both for long range plan for 1971-1995 and the Five Year Development Plan 1976-1980, knowing that there have been drastic revisions to the
*Iraq is divided into 18 governates (Muhafadah), each governate is divided into number of Qadah's and the Qadah's into Nahiya.


previous plans due to the sudden increase of Iraqi income starting in 1974 - because of
nationalization of the oil resources and jumping of oil prices, this is clear from table (1)
showing the national income per capita.^
1.6.1 Long range national economic objectives. 1971-1955.^
- To overcome present economic under-development (backwardness) and to transform Iraq from an economically under-developed country into a relatively more developed one.
- To liberate the national economy from foreign control and safeguard its development according to the demands and needs of the country.
- To industrialize Iraq and transform it from a country dependent on agriculture into one dependent on agriculture and industry, whereby the industrial sector (especially transformation industries) will contribute more to the gross national product than the agriculture sector.
- To bring about basic development and changes in the agricultural sector in order to fix growth averages for agricultural production and to diversify agriculture so as to satisfy the country's needs and to export various agricultural products.
- To develop the socio-economic infrastructure qualitatively and quantitatively to cope with economic development.
- To increase the average annual per capita income from approximately ID 1200 in 1995. Previously
this limit was 550.


TABLE 1
PART ONE - NATIONAL INCOME
NATIONAL INCOME, GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AND PER CAPITA SHARE AT
CURRENT PRICES 1970-1978
Year Per capita gross domestic product (I.D.) G.D.P. (I.D. Million) Per capita national income (I.D.) National income (I.D. million)
1970 120.0 1,139.8 95.3 905.4
1971 134.0 1,315.0 104.1 1,021.2
1972 130.9 1,327.1 109.6 1,111.0
1973 144.4 1,512.1 127.9 1,339.4
1974 307.7 3,331.5 262.9 2,847.1
1975 349.0 3,904.0 312.2 3,491.9
1976 442.1 5,113.8 417.2 4.826.1
1977 459.6 5,593.4 442.5 5,386.2
1978 554.7 6,838.2 530.3 6,539.7
+ Provisional


- To rely on increasing labour and investment productivity instead of relying on the expansion of employment and investment productivity to bring about production and national income increases:-Thus moving from horizontal expansion of the economy during 1970-1990 to a vertical one during 1990-1995.
- To eliminate unemployment so that the national economy reaches full employment by 1990 previously was 1995.
- To advance cultural development by encouraging publishing and increasing the number of public libraries, especially in rural areas; and by encouraging the arts due to their clear role in furthering the population's cultural awareness process.
- To transform the present mixed economy into a socialist economy. Some of the economic activities will be left to the private sector, especially in those areas where the public sector cannot economically replace it.
- To overcome regional economic disparity by increasing the less developed region's shares of gross economic activities, the percentage of each region's participation in the national economy and its relationship with other regions will be defined and crystalized according to that region's resources and potentialities.
1.6.2 Long range national social objectives, 1971-1995.^^^
- In response to the rise in per capita income and to achieve proper coordination between economic


development and the standard of living, the level of per capita consumption of consumer goods and direct and indirect services must be raised.
- To provide all citizens with healthy homes on the basis of one house per family and at a minimum standard of 12 sq. mi. per person (excluding other services by 1990.)
- To ensure free health services for all the population, both urban and rural and to improve qualitative and quantitative health standards so that there will be one doctor per 500 persons and one hospital bed per 100 persons by 1995.
- To liberate women from all constraints imposed by all outdated traditions and achieve equality between men and women.
- To provide proper conditions for the development of humans by encouraging sciences, cultural, and touristic affairs.
1.6.3 Medium range objectives of the national development plan for years (1976-1980).
- Development of the national income at an annual rate of 16.8 percent and also an increase of income per capita per year by 13.3 percent. This means doubling national income in five years time, which is double the goal set by the United Nations Economic and Social Council for developing countries during the next decade.


- Concentration on development of the commodity sectors by the development rate of increase as
follows:
Industrial Sector
32.9 percent
Agricultural Sector
7.1 percent
Distribution Sector
17 percent
Services Sector
10.4 percent
- National exploitation of antapt mineral resources and developing other resources to realize product diversification and less independency on current oil resources by reducing the oil share of gross product from 54 percent to 49 percent.
- Taking account of geographical distribution of planned projects of various governorate especially in the North.
- Taking account of the achievement of economic coordination and integration with Arab States.
- Expansion of services rendered to citizens in a balanced form with concentration on the rural areas, increase of job opportunities and achievement of social justice by granting the new income classes greater possible shares of the output of the development process.
f 191
The table (2) attached shows the national development plan allocations for 1965-1979.' '


TABLE 2
NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS
ALLOCATIONS OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS 1965-1979 (I.D. OOO)
Plan or Programme Year Grand Total Other All oca- . tions Total of Economic Sectors Buildings and Services Transport Communi- cations Industry Agri- culture
Allocations of the Five Year Economic Plan 1965 - 1969 631757 92627 539130 113791 103835 175029 146475
1970 116530 32262 84268 13000 15268 28000 28000
National Development 1971 202000 36000 166000 28000 28000 50000 60000
Plan 1972 134500 45289 89211 22000 16000 28000 23211
1970 - 1974 1973 310000 100000 210000 45000 40000 60000 65000
1974 1169000 459000 710000 175000 120000 225000 190000
Total 1932030 672551 1259479 283000 219628 391000 366211
Investment Programme(l) 1975 1076000 66500 1009500 188000 166000 448000 207500
Investment Programme 1976 1493500 60800 1432700 213200 242500 709000 268000
Investment Programme 1977 2377100 301579 2075522 (2)368045 351600 966000 389877
Annual Plan 1978 2800000 • • • • • • # # # # # #
Annual Plan 1979 3283000 • • • • • • • • • • • •
(1) Allocations for 1975 covered (9) months
(2) Include the sum of I.D. 79875 (thousanmd) being the allocations of education and scientific research.
Source: The Economic Planning Commission


Regional Objective
As other developing countries, Iraq had a noticeable regional disparity which was most apparent between the central region containing the capital and other regions of Iraq obviously any national development plan should aim at the reduction of this disparity and this goal is clearly stated in the economic objectives of the long range plan stated in 1.6.1 above. After the 17th July Revolution 1968, Iraq had taken action to decrease this disparity. As an example, a regional planning section was founded within the Ministry of Planning and consultants were engaged to do some regional socio-economic studies for the development of some sectors such as tourism in Northern Iraq. Some of the objectives in their report are as follows:
Income Distribution
- To reduce the income differences between the various localities in the region and to bring Dohuk, Arbil and Sulaimaniyah Muhafadahs up to the level of the more developed Muhafadahs.
- To reduce the income differences between urban and rural population and between poor and rich. Social, Cultural and Physical Environment
- The standards of social services and social infrastructure in the northern region should be brought up to levels prevailing in the rest of Iraq by not later than 1980 and should develop in line with national criteria thereafter.
- The cultural and ethnic characteristics of the region should be developed in line with the aspiration of the population of the region.


- The natural environment should be protected especially where large-scale physical development is concerned, areas should be preserved and maintained; areas of natural beauty should be developed and controlled; and development within areas of fragile ecology should be minimized.
- The region should be equipped with an efficient transportation and road network, especially in areas which completely lack them presently.
- Urban centers should be developed in a way which functionally distributes activities, services and population over the region.
Migration '
- Intra-regional migration should be determined by the capacity of the receiving areas to absorb this population increase in terms of employment, housing and infrastructure provisions.
- There shall be not net migration between the northern region and other parts of the country.
The Structure of the Economy
- Structural changes in the regional economy shall be introduced so as to increase the role of industry, especially transformation industries.
- The role of one public sector in the economic development of the region should be increased although the private sector should still play an active role in the development of the region, especially in those activities in which the public sector cannot serve as an alternative.


I
- The achievement of technological development should be introduced into the economical social structure of the region in a way that takes into consideration the social and cultural characteristics of the region and the habits and traditions of its people.
1.7.5 Economic Security
- The economy should be diversified so far as possible but a degree of specialization should be encouraged at a sub-regional level. However, over the short term (next five years) planning, period, reliance on a single commodity economy should be avoided, even at a subsequent level.
1.8 Economic Independence and the Regional Role in National Development.
1.8.1 The Northern region should play its full part in achieving the National objectives of liberating the economy from all constraints and in building diversified and integrated economy.
1.8.2 The region should make a major contribution to provide import substitutes and hence reduce Iraq's independence on other countries.
1.8.3 The regional should be given its suitable place in national development according to its natural, resource economic capacity, development needs of country. This is achieved through a process of dicenterization of economic activities amongst the various regional, and by changing the pattern of development from piecemeal to a comprehensive one.


Chapter 2 -
The Case for Regional Planning in the North of Iraq - Backgrounds 2.1 Introduction
Administratively speaking, a regional plan is often evaluated by how well it coordinates various future economic and social activities and how unified its approach is to national planning. As in many other developing countries, Iraq faces the problem of structural unemployment and underemployment in large areas of the north and this could be only dealth on a regional scale assessment and balancing^^^ due to the contributing causative factors of limited population mobility and production. The northern region presently lacks the infrastructure which should be planned for within the framework of comprehensive regional development in addition to considering urbanization aspects of development.
One of the most succinct economic arguments for regional planning can be found on Friedman and Alonso.v ' They argue that activities are distributed over space in certain rhythms and patterns that are neither arbitrary nor random and are instead the results of the interdependences that give form to economic space.
Thus regional planning includes strategies for spatial evolution, which advances the national development objectives. Some policy concerns arise out of these considerations. Firstly, assuming


national integration as an objective, regional planning for economic development should create a national economic space defined by an inter-dependent system of cities, areal functional specialization and national markets. Secondly, the planning of new activities should be guided by an efficiency criterion, i.e. projects should be located where they would operate efficiently so that net social costs are a minimum or net social benefits a maximum. The third policy concern is that the allocation of regional investment should not only further regional economic growth, but also maximize opportunities for national economic growth. Lastly, inter-regional balance of standards of living must be maintained.^6)
The relationship between regional planning and national planning must be crystalized through subscribing to national goals while focusing on developmental needs of the region. Before going into details of the regional planning strategies a brief description and background of both Iraq and the northern region are given below.
Physical and Demographical Background of Iraq Physical Background
- The Republic of Iraq is situated in the Southwest of Asia to the Northeast of Arab Homeland bounded on the North by Turkey, on the East by Iran, on the West by Syria, Jordan and Saudi a Arabia, and on the South by the Arab Gulf, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, Iraq lies between latitudes 290_5 and 370_22 North, and between longitudes 380-45 and 480-45 east.


- The area of Iraq covers 438.317 sq. km. and is divided into 18 governorates. The map (1) shows the administrative division. Table (3) shows the areas of each governorate (17a).
- The main physical divisions are: the alluvial plain, the desert plateau, the mountain region,
(171
the terrain region, see table (4) ' ' and map (3).
- Iraq lies within the moderate northern region. Its climate is continental and subtropical, with a rainfall system similar to that of the Mediterranean where rainfall occurs mostly in winter, autumn and spring.
Iraq's climate can be divided into: -see table (4)(5) and map (2).
- Mediterranean climate, covering the mountain area, characterized by cool winter where snow falls at the top of the mountain and rainfall ranges (400-1000) mm.
Its summer is moderate and the temperature does not exceed 35°C in most parts, therefore it is well known for summer resorts.
- Steppes climate
It's a transitional climate between the northern mountain region and the desert region in the south with annual rainfall of (200-400) mm.
- Hot desert climate
It covers 70% of Iraq's area with an annual rainfall of (50-200) mm., max. temp. (40-50°) C.
- Northwestern wind prevails in Iraq during all seasons.


£ as* ! IjisSe I ftdgij
jR.cL'.tll 'r^i&tra.t l v C. UrLit^ afike. JL^^u-hLiC. of Ira.c^
Til R kty
MAP _1


) f V A f UJ j oj\jlk^VI £tjy
DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL AND TEMPERATURE IN IRAQ 1978
Total Annual Rainfall i mm.)-----------------~'-J or-—•'
Mean Annual Temperature (C )-----------cf or—J'
MAP_ 2


TURKEY
MAP 3
■■■““ National boundary ----- County boundary
SYRIA
SAUDI ARABIA
KUWAIT


TABLE 3
AREA OF 60VERN0RATES AND NUMBER OF QADHAS, NAHIAS AFFILIATED THERETO AS IN 31/12/1978
Number of Number of Area in
Governorate Nahias Qadhas % Sq. kms.
Ni neveh 26 10 8.2 35726
Sal ah Al-Deen 17 6 6.6 29004
Ta'meem 10 3 2.2 9659
Diala 20 6 4.4 19301
Baghdad 15 7 1.2 5150
Anbar 15 7 19.1 83740
Babylon 11 4 1.2 5270
Kerb la 5 3 13.2 57880
Najaf 7 3 6.3 27494
Qadisiya 11 4 1.9 8507
Muthanna 7 4 11.2 49111
Thi-Qar 15 5 3.1 13626
Wasit 13 5 3.9 17308
Maysan 9 6 3.2 14103
Basrah 11 7 4.4 19070
Autonomous Region: D'hok 10 4 2.0 8824
Arbil 18 7 3.3 14471
Sulaimaniya 24 10 3.6 15756
Total area of Governorates 244 101 99.0 434000
Half of the neutral zone 0.8 3393
Territorial waters 0.2 924
Total area of Iraq 100.0 438317


TABLE 4
AREA OF PLAINS, MOUNTAINS AND DESERTS
Area in
Details Sq. kms. %
Plains (including marshes and lakes) (1) 132500 30.2
Terrain lands 42500 9.7
Mountains 92000 21.0
Deserts 166871 38.1
Half of the neutral zone 3522 0.8
Territorial waters 924 0.2
Total 438317 100.0
(1) Includes other plains such as Rania, Sindi and Shahrzoor.


TABLE 4
RAINFALL, ANNUAL MEAN RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND TEMPERATURES
1969-1978
Annual Mean Relative Humidity % __________Annual Mean Temperatures (C°) Rainfall (Millimetres)
Year Basrah Rutba Mosul Baghdad Basrah Min. Max. Rutba Min. Max. Mosul Min. Max. Baghdad Min. Max. Basrah Rutba Mosul Baghdad
1969 65 42 57 45 19.5 31.0 12.6 27.5 13.5 27.5 16.1 30.4 175.9 72.1 531.7 119.6
1970 56 44 49 44 17.7 32.1 11.9 27.3 13.3 28.8 14.1 31.0 148.4 49.6 275.4 126.9
1971 55 44 48 44 17.1 31.5 11.5 26.3 13.1 28.3 13.6 30.3 106.5 186.6 298.4 187.0
1972 60 47 55 47 17.1 30.2 11.8 25.8 12.5 26.9 13.9 29.5 181.8 227.4 441.7 191.2
1973 55 38 48 39 16.8 32.6 11.4 26.8 12.5 28.4 13.5 30.7 51.7 32.2 227.1 97.1
1974 59 45 54 49 17.4 31.3 12.0 26.2 12.8 27.4 13.3 29.6 170.8 196.8 498.9 284.1
1975 53 41 49 45 17.1 31.6 11.5 26.4 12.1 27.9 13.2 20.0 181.2 113.8 378.8 192.7
1976 61 42 53 45 17.5 30.8 11.4 26.1 12.0 26.7 13.3 29.7 158.3 144.3 390.6 111.5
1977 55 40 50 44 18.0 32.3 11.8 26.8 12.9 27.7 14.0 30.3 150.0 96.8 340.3 139.7
1978 53 35 54 41 17.6 32.0 11.1 27.6 12.8 27.9 14.0 30.8 118.4 59.0 262.8 110.1


TABLE 5
WEATHER PHENOMENA
Station Basrah Rutba Baghdad Mosul
1978 1977 1978 1977 1978 1977 1978 1977
Number of Days: Cloudy 18 25 10 19 13 17 47 39
Clear 234 209 216 205 209 187 163 170
Dust and Sand Storms 14 11 11 5 15 9 2 2
Thunder Storms 12 22 4 8 13 21 8 13
Hail 2 — -- 2 __ — — --
Snow — — — 4 — — 1 1
Rain 48 60 46 63 35 59 73 71
Note: The rest days of the year consider partly clouded


2.2.2
Demographic Background
- Table (6)^^^ shows the population of Iraq from 1927-1977. From the table shown above the
following growth of population is concluded for the census years.
Census Year 1927 1934 1947 1957 1965 1970 1977
Total Population (no. in thousand) 2968 3380 4816 6299 8047 9440 12000
Average Growth (per annum)
1.86%
2.7 %
2.7 % 3.09%
3.2 %
3.4 %
Taking the results from 1947 into consideration the table above indicates a long term rate of net growth of population of 3.02% per year and 3.25% starting from 1965. These figures are in conformity with two studies made originally by experts for the purpose of planning, i.e., Zacharia^®) case concluding min. growth of 3% per annum of 1965 and VEDA^^ anticipating 3.3%-3.5%.
As regards the distribution of urban population Table No. 7 indicates the rural urban distribution for the 18 Mohafadah of Iraq for 1977.^^
- It's well known that the cities of developing countries are growing rapidly as a result of a natural increase and by internal migration. The fact is that the growth of the urban population in these developing countries is characterized by a fast rate of growth.


TABLE 6
POPULATION OF IRAQ: 1927-1977 (Number in thousand)
Year Total Female Male
1927 (1) 2968 1456 1512
1934 (1) 3380 1692 1688
1947 (2) 4816 2559 2257
1957 (3) 6299 3144 3155
1965 (3) 8047 3945 4102
1970 (4) 9440 4686 4754
1971 9750 4840 4910
1972 10074 5000 5074
1973 10413 5169 5244
1974 10765 5343 5422
1975 11124 5521 5603
1976 11505 5710 5795
1977 (5) 12000 5817 6183
Notes:
1. Figures of 1927 and 1934 are based on general registration of population.
2. Census of 1947 excluding Iraqis abroad.
3. Census of 1957 and 1965 not including Iraqis abroad.
4. Figures of the years 1970-1976 are estimates not including Iraqis abroad.
5. Results of general census of 17/10/1977 not including Iraqis abroad which amount (129) thousand persons.


TABLE 7
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY SEX AND RURAL/URBAN: 1977
Total Rural Urban
Governorate Total Female Male Total Female Male Total Female Male
Nineveh 1105671 545338 560333 506859 256399 250460 598812 288939 309873
Salah Al-Deen 363819 176221 187598 206032 102501 103531 157787 73720 84067
Ta'meem 495425 221834 273591 147988 74581 73407 347437 147253 200184
Diala 587754 289329 298425 345700 171054 174646 242054 118275 123779
Baghdad 3189700 1543465 1646235 269628 128868 140760 2920072 1414597 1505475
Anbar 466059 221911 244148 210405 103939 106466 255654 117972 137682
Babylon 592016 293220 298796 303834 149853 153981 288182 143367 144815
Kerbela 269822 134420 135402 99612 49342 50270 170210 85078 85132
Najaf 389680 196699 192981 125647 64274 61373 264033 132425 131608
Qadisiya 423006 213452 109554 227387 117173 110214 195619 96279 99340
Muthanna 215637 109600 106037 127823 66786 61037 87814 42814 45000
Thi-Qar 622979 318772 304207 375576 193224 182352 247403 125548 121855
Was it 415140 206412 208728 231468 116816 114652 183672 89596 94076
Maysan 372575 184146 188429 206793 103093 103700 165782 81053 84729
Basrah 1008626 482563 526063 208173 94507 113666 800453 388056 412397
Autonomous Region: D'hok 250575 111867 138708 143171 67993 75178 107404 43874 63530
Arbil 541456 252803 288653 253392 125685 127707 288064 127118 160946
Sulaimaniya 690557 315547 375010 364955 165006 199949 325602 150541 175061
Total 12000497 5817599 6182898 4354443 2151094 2203349 7646054 3666505 3979549
1 Results of general census of 17/10/1977 (2) Excluding Iraqis abroad.


- The table (8) below shows the percentage of urban population for the indicated years shown.
Table 8
Total Population Urban Population Percentage of
Year No. in Thousand No. in Thousand Urban Population
1867 1280 310 24
1890 1826 430 25
1905 2250 533 24
1930 3288 808 25
1947 4816 1864 38
1957 6299 2453 39
1965 8047 4112 51
1975 10047 6065 60
1977 12000 7646 64
The table shown above shows rapid increase of Urban population after 1957 i.e. after 1958 Revolution due to internal migration.
NOTE: Figures for years 1867-1957 are taken from A1 hassani study. for 1977 is as shown in chart^) (2).
The population pyramid


;
POPULATION PYRAMID 1977 ^vv
ss+
80-Sv
7i-f?
70-?9
65-69
â– 60-69
55-59
50-59
95-99
90-99
35-39
30-39
-25-^9
20-29
15-1?
10-19 5-9
0-9
U-.......
lo 9 ^
eJjlM
Females
Males
? 6 5 9 3 Z 1 0. t
Percentage

CHART_2_


2.3 Regional Background (Physical and Demographic)
The Northern region of Iraq defined in the study which was made by the Iraqi Government through consultants^^ comprises the complete governorates of Arbil, Dohuk, Tamim (previously Kirkuk), Sulaimaniyah and Nineva (previously Mosul), (Map 3) indicates the administrative region of the study. Recently new governorate distribution has been decided in which some of the Tamim Governorate has been joined to Sulaimaniya, Salahedden and Deyalah.
2.3.1 Climate Condition
2.3.1.1 Temperature
The table (9) below shows the comparison of average temperature ranges for July and January for
Northern Iraq.(^) 1975. TABLE 9
Station Latitude Elevation Average Temperature °F
M Ft July January
Kirkuk 35° 28" 340 1.115 95.4 46.8
Mosul 36° 19" 223 732 92.5 43.0
Sulaimaniyah 35° 33" 853 3.798 92.5 37.0
Zakho 1 CO o o CO 424 1.450 90.1 41.0


MAP.3-
Region of study Adminstratively


2.3.1.2 Rainfall
Low pressure fronts moving from the mediterranean, which are controlled by the sea's marginal rain
cycle are the sources for Iraq's rainfall including the northern part.
Rainfall in the North of Iraq varies from one month to another during rainy season most of the rainfall in January, February and March.
Table 10 illustrates the distribution of rain over some of the northern stations.
The (Map 4 shows the Isohyets of Northern Iraq.
2.3.1.3 Seasonal Conditions - Summer
Summer begins in mid-May and lasts till mid-October. Rains cease between June and August. Therefore most plants which depend on rainfall become pale and no grass remains green except on high mountain slopes. During the daytime the temperature tends to the high, but becomes lower due to less relative humidity. But it drops significantly during the night, especially at higher elevations where the cold becomes unbearable. Often northwestern wind blows strongly and for nearly ten day periods in each of July, August and September high sun glare is normal, but is often reduced by scattered high clouds. Due to the increase of daytime temperature and sun glare of 9-12 hours daily, a daytime nap is the local custom. But this habit is unknown in the northeastern and eastern part of the northern region.




TABLE 10
AVERAGE MONTHLY RAINFALL AT SELECTED METEOROLOGICAL STATIONS
Average rainfall (mm)
Stati on Baqrcho Halabcha Salaimaniyah Penjwin
Height (ft) 2446 2300 2750 4250
Month
January 143.3 172.6 136.9 311.2
February " 117.1 150.4 111.3 244.6
March 116.9 140.4 118.6 239.3
April 81.8 77.6 107.6 105.1
May 34.8 33.5 61.9 53.7
June 0.5 - - -
July 1.6 - - -
August - 0.5 - -
September - 0.1 - -
October 13.3 33.7 14.6 ' 90.9
November 90.0 82.2 69.0 130.0
December 116.8 135.5 114.6 204.0
Annual Average 815 827.4 734.5 1339.1
Record Period Years 12 18 15 11


- Winter
Winter is characterized by moderate cold in valleys and plains becoming terribly cold in the mountains and high land. Therefore, the inhabitant of the mountain region consider winter condition more than summer conditions for house building, especially how to avoid facing cold
winded snow. Snow falls heavily on mountain peaks and sometimes cuts all communication, thus
isolating some villages. The areas most affected by snow are the far north of the region.
The following table (11) illustrates the amount of snow as an example in Haj-umran Area (height -
2.510 latitude - 36° - 37', 49", longtude 45° .0* 46") in 1957.(28^
Date Snowfal1 TABLE 11 Density Remarks
1957 February 13 69 27 Wet non-frozen land
March 1 70 32 -do-
March 14 96 32 -do-
March 30 88 40 -do-
April 30 86 44 -do-
May 2 61 50 -do-


Topographical Condition
The area covered by that study can be divided into three important physiographic regions: the
Jazira, the foothill, and the mountainous region.
- The Jazira, is a undulating unplant region located in the North of Iraq between the Tigris and Euphrates.
- The foothill region forms a substantial and important part of the studied area. The foothill appears in the broad arch by the high mountains in the north and by the eastern bank of the Tigris. This region ranges from approximately 800 m to 1500 m above sea level with the land rising in steps towards the east and northeast forming hilly landscapes.
- The high mountain zoine: this region consists of high mountain ranges and valleys. This rugged
and folded mountain area has limited land for cultivation. Elevations in this region varies from
1,500 m to 3,700 m above sea level with a general ridge line ranging from northwest to southeast.
The (map 5) indicates the geographic characteristics of the North of Iraq.
Demography
The following tables shall give a clear picture of the population in the northern part of Iraq: -
- (Table 12) shows the population changes in the north from 1957-1970.
- (Table 13) shows the urban and rural population for the northern region.
- (Table 14) shows Arbil Governorate urban and rural population.
- (Table 15) shows population change in large towns of the northern region.
- (Table 15) shows projections of population for the northern region of Iraq, 1965-1985.


Dohuk
Mosul
MAP. 5 _
Geographic Characteristics of the North of Iraq
i


TABLE 12
POPULATION CHANGE OF WHOLE MUHAFADHAS IN THE NORTH, 1957-70
Population % Change % Change Per Annum
Muhafadha 1957 1965 1970 1957-65 1965-70 1957-65 1965-70 1957-70
Dohuk 184,408 145,658 242,112 -19.4 66.2 -2.2 11.0 2.2
Nineveh 569,239 743,193 870,199 30.6 17.0 3.4 3.2 3.3
Mosul 753,647 888,851 1,112,311 17.9 25.1 2.1 4.6 2.8
Arbil 273,383 357,100 401,197 30.3 12.6 3.4 2.4 3.0
Sulaimaniya 304,889 399,775 458,127 31.1 14.6 3.4 2.8 3.2
Kirkuk 388,839 473,676 520,217 21.8 9.8 2.5 1.9 2.3
TOTAL 1,720,758 2,119,402 2,491,852 23.1 17.3 2.6 3.3 2.9
Source: CSO: Iraq Census Reports for 1957, 1965 and 1970


TABLE 13
URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION FOR NORTHERN MUHAFADHAS, 1957-70
Muhafadha Urban 1957 Rural Urban 1965 Rural Urban 1970 Rural
Dohuk 31,562 152,846 51,735 93,923 53,227 188,886
Nineveh in Study Areal outside Study Areal 209,876 28,409 177,588 141,069 310,344 48,272 220,103 164,018 368,586 60,197 257,730 183,686
Arbil 73,057 200,326 134,159 222,941 149,642 251,555
Sulaimaniya 79,635 225,254 127,732 272,043 174,428 283,699
Kirkuk 152,787 236,052 231,997 241,679 264,683 255,534
TOTAL2 575,326 1 ,133,135 904,239 1 ,214,707 1,070,763 1 ,421,088
TOTAL URBAN & RURAL 1, 708,461 2, 118,946 2, 491,851
ICBP estimation as in Table 2.9. Note that some population was omitted from the 1957 totals where allocation to 1973 qadhas and nahiyas was uncertain. Total 1957 population included these omitted figures is: urban, 577,050; rural, 1,143,708; total, 1,720,758.
^These totals have not been rounded off, but no importance should be attached to the last three digits.
Source: CS0: Iraq Census Reports for 1957, 1965 and 1970.


TABLE 14
ARBIL MUHAFADHA: URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION BY QADHA, 1957-70
Qadha Urban 1957 Rural Total
Arbil 42,771 41,765 84,536
% of total 50.6 49.4 100.0
Zibar 1,182 11,942 13,124
% of total 9.0 91.0 100.0
Rawanduz 8,695 23,747 32,442
% of total 26.8 73.2 100.0
Chornan 992 11,430 12,422
% of total 8.0 92.0 100.0
Shaqlawa 6,419 37,517 43,936
% of total 14.6 85.4 100.0
Koisanjaq 8,932 27,215 36,147
% of total 24.7 75.3 100.0
Makhmour 4,066 46,710 50,776
% of total 8.0 92.0 100.0
Total for 73,057 200,326 273,383
Muhafadha 26.7 73.3 100.0
POP U L A T I 0 N
Urban 1965 Rural Total Urban
95,113 69.0 42,643 31.0 137,761 100.0 107,129 65.9
1,703 8.4 18,493 91.5 20,196 100.0 2,188 9.2
7,383 20.9 27,948 79.1 35,331 100.0 8,167 19.6
675 4.3 14,372 95.7 15,547 100.0 1,627 9.8
12,176 25.2 36,217 74.5 48,393 100.0 12,575 26.4
11,193 24.8 34,027 75.2 45,220 100.0 11,416 26.9
5,916 10.8 48,735 89.2 54,652 100.0 6,540 9.9
134,159 37.6 222,941 62.4 357,100 100.0 142,642 37.2
% Difference in Urban Population
1970 Rural Total 1957- 65 1965- 70 1957- 70
55,522 34.1 162,651 100.0 18.4 -3.1 15.3
21,673 90.8 23,861 100.0 -0.6 0.8 0.2
33,422 80.4 41,589 100.0 -5.9 -1.3 -7.2
15,059 90.2 16,686 100.0 -3.7 5.6 1.8
35,031 73.6 47,606 100.0 10.6 1.2 11.8
31,060 73.1 42,476 100.0 0.1 2.1 2.2
59,788 90.1 66,328 100.0 2.8 -0.9 1.9
251,555 62.8 401,197 100.0 10.9 -0.4 10.5


TABLE 15
POPULATION CHANGE IN LARGE TOWNS, 1957-70
Urban Population Urban Population Increase (%)*
Town 1957 1965 1970 1957-65 1965-70 1957-70
Mosul 178,222 264,146 310,313 48.2( 5.0) 17.5(3.3) 74.1(4.4)
Arbi 1 39,913 90,956 101,779 127.9(11.6) 11.2(2.1) 155.1(6.9)
Sulaimaniya 48,812 83,642 103,091 71.4( 7.0) 23.3(4.3) 111.2(5.9)
Kirkuk 120,402 175,353 191,294 45.6( 4.8) 9.1(1.8) 58.9(3.6)
Sub-total 387,349 614,097 706,477 135.5( 5.9) 15.2(2.9) 82.4(4.7)
Total for
Study Area 575,326 904,239 1,070,763 56.2( 5.7) 18.3(3.4) 84.8(4.8)
1
Bracketed figures represent change per annum.
Source: CSO: Iraq Census Reports for 1957, 1965 and 1970; and Table 2.7.


TABLE 16
ALTERNATIVE POPULATION PROJECTIONS FOR THE NORTHERN REGION OF IRAQ, 1965-85
Declining Mortality, Declining Fertility Declining Mortality, Constant Fertility
% Change % Change
Year Males Females Total 5-Yr. Annual Males Females Total 5-yr. Annual
1965 1,122,365 1,086,698 2,209,063 - - 1,129,270 1,093,225 2,222,495 - -
1970 1,285,912 1,243,337 2,529,249 14.5 2.75 1,307,300 1,263,567 2,570,867 15.7 2.96
1975 1,493,100 1,442,633 2,935,733 16.1 3.03 1,539,633 1,486,665 3,026,298 17.7 3.31
1980 1,739,291 1,678,968 3,418,258 16.4 3.08 1,845,442 1,779,434 3,624,876 19.8 3.68
1985 2,012,328 1,941,204 3,953,532 15.7 2.96 2,237,446 2,154,358 4,391,804 21.2 3.92


2.4
Socio-economic Background Introduction
2.4.1
Dramatic political changes since 1958 have substantially changed the country's social and economic structure.
The transition of the economy from a predominantly feudal and capitalistic structure to a progressively socialist one, has been the trend of government policies since 1958. By means of gradually moving economic power and control from the private to public sector major (commercial and industrial) enterprises. Various periods of political instability during the transition period may have slowed down the process of economic growth. The public sector has assumed the leading and initiating role in economic development. In this respect Iraq is formulate that its oil resources enable the public sector to finance projects through comfortable level and foreign exchange.
The most dynamic sector in the national economy has been oil production. During 69-71 it accounted for 37% of 6.D.P. Recent increase of oil prices and nationalization have increased the oil sector share in G.D.P.
The scarcity and non-availability of reliable data on the northern region makes it extremely difficult to make a statement about the growth and development of this regions economy.


The political instability of the region 1961-1970 affected the growth in almost all sectors of regional economy.
After March 1970 declaration there has been considerable government investment in the region, especially in industrial development and infrastructure.
The national economy seems to have a dynamic impact on regional growth during 70-80 and it is expected to continue for the rest of the decade.
2.4.2 Major Economical Sectors - Background
Tables^) (17) and (18), and the charts^) (3)(4) are used to illustrate the sectorial distribution of products and (table 19)^) the investment allocations.
2.4.2.1 Oil Industry
This sector is the most important in Iraq's economy. It earns most of the country's foreign exchange and provides more than half of government revenue and generates more than 50% of G.D.P. of 1971.
In the past, expansion of oil production was closely related to political situation in the middle east. In recent years there has been a large increase in oil prices. In 1972 the government nationalized all Iraq petroleum affairs.


TABLE 17
SECTORIAL DISTRIBUTION OF GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT OF IRAQ, 1964-1971 (ID MILLIONS AT CURRENT PRICES)
YEAR
Sector 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971
Agriculture, forestry, fishery 148.10 162.70 172.73 181.39 190.46 198.08 219.00 221.30
Mining and quarrying 268.80 288.52 304.43 269.85 333.81 339.03 339.50 518.40
Manufacturing Industries 63.40 65.79 71.90 83.00 87.42 94.41 116.00 135.30
Construction 18.70 23.93 27.91 26.69 29.36 32.29 38.90 40.20
Electricity, water, gas 7.70 9.80 12.35 13.38 15.79 18.14 17.80 19.20
Transportation, communication, storage 54.90 56.10 57.82 60.60 64.58 67.68 71.20 74.50
Wholesale and retail trade 44.50 50.65 56.43 56.55 60.28 64.26 98.60 105.60
Banking, insurance, real estate agents 7.70 12.03 14.60 14.73 15.04 16.26 18.60 20.00
Home ownership 14.80 14.19 14.54 15.10 15.85 16.65 24.80 27.30
Public admin., defense 81.20 97.85 104.17 105.54 116.53 128.56 124.80 137.40
Services 51.40 49.42 51.33 55.86 60.59 63.58 88.60 97.90
GDP* 2 761.20 830.98 888.69 882.69 989.71 1,038.95 1,188.80 1,397.10
GNP2 637.50 701.38 750.51 - 832.91 879.55 1,022.80 1,182.20
National income (NNP)2 595.80 659.29 705.53 714.79 782.91 826.81 948.40 1,103.40
^Includes oil refining.
2At factor cost.
Source: CSO Annual Abstract of Statistics (1972), p. 372.


TABLE 18
SECTORIAL GROWTH OF DOMESTIC PRODUCT (AT CONSTANT FACTOR COST) OF IRAQ
GDP Annual Average (ID millions) Growth Rate [% Per Annum)
Sector 1953-55 1958-60 1963-65 1953-55 to 1963
Agriculture 90 79 103 1.0
Mining 148 207 330 8.0
Manufacturi ng 23 44 71 12.0
Construction 19 24 19 0.0
Electricity, water 2 4 8 15.0
Transport 24 32 35 4.0
Commerce, banking 27 36 49 6.0
Services, rents 34 45 64 7.0
Public admin. 25 38 67 10.0
TOTAL GDP 392 509 746 6.5
Source: IBRD (1969), p. 4 and Table 4 of Statistical Appendix.


TABLE 19
G .D.P. BY ECONOMIC SECTORS AT FACTOR COST 1970 -1978
(AT CURRENT PRICES)
Sectors 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970
Commodity 5393.8 4351.9 4054.7 2986.9 2630.2 993.7 841.5 868.1 715.4
Distribution 775.1 764.6 590.9 482.4 341.0 229.9 210.3 196.2 189.4
Servi ces 871.7 644.7 605.9 565.5 482.0 331.9 304.7 280.9 262.2
G.D.P. by sectors 7040.6 5761.2 5252.5 4034.8 3453.2 1555.5 1356.5 1345.2 1167.0
Minus imputed service charges 202.4 167.8 138.7 130.8 121.7 43.4 29.4 30.2 27.2
G.D.P. 6838.2 5593.4 5113.8 3904.0 3331.5 1512.1 1327.1 1315.0 1139.8
(AT CONSTANT PRICES OF 1975)
Commodity 4646.8 4040.2 3406.0 2987.1 2635.2 2558.8 2074.3 2175.4 2067.2
Distribution 613.6 643.2 543.4 482.4 369.7 272.8 , 259.4 242.7 245.4
Servi ces 675.0 592.7 555.6 565.5 523.0 386.8 369.9 355.6 343.1
G.D.P. by sectors 5935.4 5276.1 4502.0 4035.0 3527.9 3218.4 2703.6 2773.7 2655.7
Minus imputed service charges 172.7 141.1 125.6 130.8 133.2 51.4 36.5 39.5 36.9
G.D.P. 5762.7 5135.0 4376.4 3904.2 3394.7 3167.0 2667.1 2734.2 2618.8


19 68
1976
G ROSSDOMESTIC PRODUCT FOR 1968 1977
AT CURRENT PRICES -ID MILLION -
5000
45 00
4 oao
1 500
1000
500
1968 1976
CHART _3


1968
1976
1968
mfc
1968
1976
1968
1976
AOHIUJL I UHt
r-J
1
1 1
0 100 200 300 A 00
1968
1976
MININb ANL) UUANHTINb
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY WATER AND ELECTRICITY
BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION
1968
1976
TRANSPORT COMMUNICATION AND STORAGE
CHART-U -
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE HOTELS AND THEL1KE
FINANCE INSURANCE REAL ESTATE AND WORKS
DISTRIBUTION OF GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT ACCORDING TO ECONOMIC SECTOR _1D- MILL10N _
SOCTAL AND PERSONAL SERVICES
1 7~
1
1 '
1
l l 1 1 i I
200 300 A 00
6 9
0
100
500


The importance of this sector for regional development of North lies basically with the sector contribution in financing national economic development plans which cover the region itself.
2.4.2.2 Agriculture and Irrigation
- Agriculture is the main sector lagging in national economy,
- Growth in agriculture output has been sluggish in last decade and in 1970 extremely low output necessitated import. Nationally, agricultural production has grown less than population.
- The slow development of this sector is due partly to a harsh environment and to inefficient, primitive method of agriculture.
- The Government has tried to provide support to^' farmers through the Establishment of Farm Cooperative. Little real progress has been achieved in field of management, marketing and credit facilities.
- An agricultural mission in 1970 to Iraq summarized the political and economic importance of the agriculture^^ as follows.
a - Over 55% of the population live in rural areas and about 65% of these draw income directly from agriculture.
b - Agriculture has lagged behind the growth of population and growth of output, c - Land Reform has been one of the political issues of major national importance, d - The largely agricultural mountainous northeast region of the country has been subjected to civil disturbances.


(34)
Agriculture in the northern region of Iraq has the following existing situations. '
a - The northern region of Iraq is one of the oldest agricultural areas in the world.
b - About two-thirds of the population and about half of the output of the north is agriculture.
c - Cereals are the dominant crop in volume terms but tobacco, vegetables and fruit are important in value.
d - Animals provide an important element of rural income.
e - Irrigated land supports about ten times as many families per sq. km. as can ranfaid land dependent upon rainfall in the plain areas.
f - The cultivatable area in the northern region is (18 million) Donum i.e., about (4.4) millio hectar, about 50% of it lies fallow and the area cultivated in any one year varies from 1.5 to 2 million hectares.
This area is divided among the (5-governorate) as follows:
Dohuk 46 1300 Donnems
Nanivah 834 2000
Arbil 25 30000
Sulaimaniyah - 1961 000
Tamin 4 100000


- Wheat and barley in rainfed areas cover over 94% of the cropped land each year and less than 6%
for other crops. Cotton, tobacco, vegetables, season______etc.)
- Output crops heavily depend on rainfall.
- Soil is practically free of salinity.
- The main irrigated cash crop is tobacco, rice, cotton, vegetables, 1-4% of the total is irrigated by surface water.
- (Table 20)'^ shows the crops of the region compared with area and production.
- Without irrigation the land can't increase output.
- Livestock rearing is the source of about 40% of agricultural gross domestic products. The northern region is estimated to account for 83% of the sheep population of Iraq, 60% of the goat and 33% of the cattle.
2.4.2.3 Industry
- Iraq manufacturing sector was relatively small and unsophisticated till 1975. It provided 9.5% of the G.N.P. in 1966, 19.7% in 1969, 11.4% in 1971, but it went up to 20% in 1976-1979 plan.
- The northern region employed 11% of the labour force in manufacturing and contained 10% of nation large industrial establishment in 1970.
- At present only a small proportion of the urban population is employed in industry, most are engaged in service, administration, construction, and transport. This is because the industrial base is only now being built, especially in Arbil Muhafadha.


TABLE 20
RELATIVE AREA AND PRODUCTION OF MAJOR CROPS IN THE NORTHERN REGION OF IRAQ
Percent of Percent of
Crop National Area National Production
Wheat 57 - 74 45 - 63
B ar1ey 42 - 47 23 - 30
Chickpeas 96 - 99 95 - 96
Lentils 84 - 94 87 - 93
Linseed 16 - 20 15 - 19
Rice 6 - 40 7 - 37
Sesame 7 - 24 16 - 23
Cotton 37 - 60 41 - 64
Corn 6 - 15 6 - 15
Tobacco 100 100
Vegetables 10 - 22 10 - 22


- In a few years time the major town will all with a significant industrial element.
- The national industries for the region to develop are those who use its resources or serve the local market.
- In the north, textiles, cigarettes, dairy products, food processing, and building materials, offer the best prospect exploiting linkage forward from agriculture and backward from construction respectively.
2.4.2.4 Transportation
- Iraq's population and economic activities are centered around the country's four major urban areas, Baghdad, Mosul, Kirkuk, Basrah, and in narrow corridors alongside the rivers.
- The existing road system in the north is rather sketchy, there are four good major roads providing a reasonable direct connection between Mosul, Kirkuk, Arbil, Sulaimaniyah, Baghdad, and reasonable good roads leading from Kirkuk to Arbil - Mosul.
- Recently in 1975 - 1500 km of roadway have been implemented.
- The national railroad networks extend two of its lines to northern region.
- The Baghdad, Kirkuk, Arbil line which is a metric gauge line of 461 km length, the other is
Baghdad - Mosul a Standard Gauge of 603 km. extending to the Syrian Board.
- rail transportation is under utilized at the present and they run rather inefficiently.
- There are three civil airports in Mosul, Bamerni, Kirkuk roundtrip daily from Baghdad to Mosul
and occasionally to others.


2.4.2.5 Tourism
- There are three distinct tourism potentials in Iraq.
First its historical heritage of Mesopotamia, civilization and its Islamic cultur and architecture.
Second its religious significance for a variety of Islamic Sectors and groups.
Third its scenic and natural attraction.
- The northern mountains and lakes have given to the region fine scenery and cooler climate than the rest of Iraq and thus the region accommodates a seasonal daily flow of mainly internal and Arabian Gulf tourists in hot seasons while in other seasons it is concentrated on weekends.
- At present the tourism in the region makes a major contribution to the economy of the settlements situated in the summer resort areas.
- The tourism in the area is essentially about 91%, family tourism travelling in groups of 5-6 persons mainly by private cars with 42% proportin of youths.
- 70% of the tourists come from outside of the region, the majority of which are from the Baghdad area followed by Mosul and Basrah, the region itself contributes 20% of the tourists, a figure which is directly in proportion to its part in the total population of the country.
- The level of the expenditure of tourists is rather medium level with an average of 2.500 ID per day per person and they prefer an economical type of accommodation (as in the case of houses). Only 20% of tourists have hotel accommodation.


The demand is notably stable and increases according to availability of accommodations. Transportation is one of the principle brakes on demand.
The following statistics for year 1977 have been chosen to indicate the different characteristics of the tourism in the region.
a. Total No. of tourists = 120,000, about 84,000 is to the Arbil Sector forming 70% of the total.
b. Total No. staying days = 360,000
c. The distribution of tourists during the hot season is as follows:
July 53.13%
August 24.18%
September 15.84%
June 6.85%
Map (6) indicates the touristic location both in Iraq and the Northern Iraq.




Chapter 3 -
Planning Problems and Development Opportunity and Growth Potential 3.1 Planning Problems
The problem of the northern region of Iraq is fundamentally one of the under development. Large areas of the region posses predominantly agricultural, near subsistence-level economics, characteristic of the traditional society in which large parts of the rural areas are distinguished by very low levels of economic activities, inadequate infrastructure, poor educational and social services, seasonal farm employment (leading to unemployment in off season periods and structural unemployment) and poor administrative and institutional facilities.
The more prosperous areas are usually associated with the presence of industrial and commercial activities and more generally by cities and urbanization. Such areas may be considered to be "islands" of development whose links with the agricultural economy are generally weak.
It appears too that the urban centers have attracted some of the more productive and dynamic elements of the rural areas, further reducing the potential for self-induced development in the latter. Migration to the towns, however, has not resulted in large shanty towns or squatter settlements - a marked feature of many underdeveloped regions and countries. Indeed, in many respects, the problems of urban areas in the north are the same as or similar to the problems of


the agricultural areas: - poor infrastructure, a shortage of welfare and educational facilities, lack of employment opportunities and structural unemployment and under-employment.
Iraq is fortunate in processing reserves of oil, not only in the North in Kirkuk and Ninevah Muhafadah, but also is Misan and Basrah Muhafadah in the South. Since these reserves came under government control, Iraq has possessed the financial resources necessary to promote many of her own development projects.
In the context of the North this has meant that a new structure represented by a number of major government projects and factories has been super-imposed on the traditional economy, which has been based essentially on agriculture. Some secondary industries were present originally, but, with a few notable exceptions mainly in Mosul, factories were small, inefficient and designed to serve only certain local requirements. New government factories geared to the national market are very different and consist of large modern plants which have relatively few connections with the traditional regional economy or for that matter with each other.
This situation exists because government planning tends to treat each project separately with self-sufficiency as the object for each scheme. This kind of development planning involving several isolated fronts, can only, if at all, be partially successful. What is needed therefore,


is a new integrated approach to development planning at the regional level in which progress is made on a much wider front.
The way in which this broad front is to be implemented is the basic problem of planning in the northern region.
An integrated approach to planning is essential for a number of reasons, the most important of which relate to external economics of scale and the use of shared facilities and infrastructure.
For example, (improving the transport system will bring benefits to all users of that system, resulting in a general increase). In efficiency of movement and expanding education and health facilities will have direct repercussions on the quality of the population and work force. Looked at from another angle, improvements of this kind are essential for successful economic development, the key to regional growth.
Other advantages can also be achieved through integrated planning. An agricultural modernization programme will be most successful if operated in conjunction with a wider programme of economic development, so that surplus agricultural labour resulting from, say, mechanism can be absorbed by other sectors of the economy, preventing a large increase in the number of unemployed. Integration within a particular sector can also be of value. By increasing the links between the government, private sectors of agriculture and the manufacturing industry, the private sector could be assured


of a guaranteed market for its output, but at the same time the government could introduce quality and production controls on the private sector.
Integrated planning of the type suggested here will have immense benefits in the region; but most important, by mobilizing available resources to the maximum that is possible, a major contribution to the growth and diversification of the national economy will be made.
The essential planning problem in the northern region thus involves the integration of the various sectorial and spatial components in a comprehensive and consistent fashion in order to promote economic growth. At the same time the population has to be provided with adequate shelter and infrastructure facilities consistent with the ideals of a socialist state.
Development Opportunity and Growth Potential
In this section a description and evaluation of the development potential of the major sectors in the economy of the northern region is presented.
The Oil Industry
This sector is the most important in Iraq's economy, since it earns most of the country's foreign exchange and generates more than half of the G.D.P. The importance of this sector for regional development of Northern Iraq lies basically with the sector's contributions in financing national economic development plans. Consequently, its effects on the region are rather indirect and the


oil fields of Kirkuk could well be considered a "foreign" sector. It is not so clear whether this sector by its geographic location has stimulated any major development of associated industries. However, there is a great potential for generating employment and income in the region and the attempt of the sector is likely to be more evident on the local economy during the 1980-1985 development period than previously.
3.2.2 Agriculture
For the foreseeable future agriculture will be the most important sector for improving the regional economy; an emphasis on cash crop farming and animal husbandry is expected to be the center of regional development policies for years to come. The main agricultural activity in the region is dry-farmed winter crops.
Great potential for agricultural development is indicated only if irrigation is highly developed. Hydrological studies indicates that the northern and eastern sector of the region are rich in underground water in quantities sufficient to sustain agriculture.
The valley's are rich in spring water; the Tigris River and its tributaries of the greater and lesser Zabs, together with the tributaries of the Diyala River, criss-cross the region forming good sources for future irrigation projects.
Irrigation, improvement of farming methods, introduction of new agricultural activities, improvement of livestock, reforestation, introduction of effective fishing practices, increase of


fruit and vegetable production and the improvement of dairy production will all certainly add to the effective development of the agricultural sector of the regional economy.
3.2.3 Industry^)
The contribution of industry to the economic growth of the country has been considerable: over the last 15 years industrial output has expanded at a higher percentage rate than any other sector of the economy.
The northern region at present is enjoying industrial development in the four principal centers of Mosul, Kirkuk, Sulaimaniyah and Arbil. Outside these Muhafadahs capitals, industry has barely developed; however, it appears as though places like Dohuk are contributing significantly to the economy through the expansion of cottage industries.
Much of the industrial potential of the region is a function of the resources available there, at least in the short-term. Potential industries include thoise which could produce consumer goods for the northern market, using mainly imported materials. Other industries could be those based on the resources of the region such as agriculture, textiles, minerals, attraction, etc.
Industrial development will depend primarily on the public sector, private investment will play a minor role and its significance will be limited except at the local level. Public policy towards infrastructure facilities will be social to industrial development potentialities. Indeed, an


integrated policy of investment in infrastructure, transportation, serviced industrial estates and other services like housing could greatly influence the creation of the right climate for industrial development.
3.2.4 Tourism
Tourism at present is mainly confined to a few places like Shaglawa, Salahaddin, Dokan and Sersink, together with a few archeological sites near Mosul. Internal tourism in Iraq has been a marginal activity up to the present time. The northern region, which enjoys a relative climatic advantage and a better natural environment accommodates a seasonal flow of internal tourists from the rest of the country.
The tourism potential is very promising in the region with proper investment allocations to services, infrastructure and communications, tourism can play a significant role in the economy.
The North's tourist attraction can be classified as operative sectors and nature reserves.
- Operative Sectors
These areas of a fundamentally recreational nature enjoy a high receptive capacity and offer an adequate level of services and amenities. Seven operative sectors can be identified in the region: - See map (7).
Derbendi Khan and Environs - drawing its importance from the dam and its lake.


Sulaimaniyah and Environs: - drawing its importance from Serchinar springs, the Qara Dagh natural park and interesting features of Kopi Qara Dagh.
Dokan Area: - which is characterized by the presence of the important Dokan lake.
The Salahaddin to Rawanduz Zone: - which is abundant in rivers, springs and mountain ranges as high as 8,000 ft. Parts of this area are already developed as tourist centers (e.g. Salahaddin, Shadlawa, and Gali A1i beg). Further northeast are numerous scenic spots around Rawanduz,
Bekhal, Mirgazur and the Barzan area.
Rawanduz - Haj Omran axis is a natural extension of the Salahaddin - Rawanduz zone and boasts the highest mountain ranges, some as high as 9,000 ft. with Al-Jura Dagh peak reading more than 11,000 ft.
Figures^) (1), (2) indicate the projected number of tourists and destination flow for years 1980 and 1985 based on the growth potentials discussed before.


r
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/
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T U K Ktr
FIG-1-
DESTI NATION FLOWS FROM ORtGSN
Oo
cn
YEAR 1.980
i


FI G_ 2 _
DESTINATION PLOWS FROM ORI0IN
YEAR 1.989
OO
-0


Chapter 4 -
The Development Strategy of the Region.
4.1 Introduction
In Chapter 1 a general picture of the national plan and objectives was presented followed in Chapter 2 by an overall picture of the region, then in Chapter 3 the planning problems and development opportunities and growth potentialities were presented. This Chapter (4) is devoted to presenting the result of the only study available for the investment strategies, and suggestions for development of the region provided by a group of consultants led by Messrs. Iraq CONSULT and Heymo^), in 1974-1975. The purpose of presenting this chapter is to point out the major sectors recommended to be considered for the region. Their study is based on the data and information obtained by an actual survey carried out to overcome the shortage of available statistics. In this study an aggregate paradigm model and submodel were established, the outline of which is shown in (Figure 3).
Thus the models were used for analyzing the implications of various investment programmes i.e. sectorial activities for the regional economy. As far as the infrastructure is concerned which included: housing, education, health, building, utilities and transportation, a set of criteria was established to estimate the future demand and the possible supply of social and physical
infrastructure in the light of population growth and the envisaged changes in the standards, policies and qualities of the services.
A A



population
&
labour
LABOUR SUPPLY
WAGES
HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE
economic activity
HOUSEHOLD DEMAND FOR BASIC SERVICE
DEMAND FOR
INFRASTRUCTURE
FACILITIES
intrastructure physical &
social
DIRECT EFECTS ON ECONOMY INFLUENCE ON LABOUR FORCE
FIG- 3-
AGGREGATE MODEL OUTLINE
89


4.2 The Development Strategies
It was decided that the strategies formulated should reflect the real life situation and should be implementable. The following three strategies were considered:
4.2.1 The Max Efficiency Strategy
The goal of maximum growth would be achieved by investing in the most productive and efficient programmes within each sector and in the most favourable location within the frame work of absorption capacity, potentialities and constraints. In effect this strategy envisages a regional development based on a few growth poles, namely the governorate centres, Mosul, Arbil, Kirkuk, Sulaimaniya and Duhok. The fig. (4) below shows the concentration of urban and rural development in a few main centres.
4.2.2 The Egaletarian Strategy
The goal of maximum economic growth would be achieved subject to attaining a more equal level of investment distributed throughout the region and by a greater emphasis on building infrastructure rather than factories and agricultural work. This helps the more depressed areas to be more developed and the concentration of industrial investment in the main centre is reduced, so more emphasis on low potential, rural areas and secondary urban center is achieved. Fig. (5) indicates the more even distribution of development-over many secondary centers.
nn


The Composite Strategy
Because the region already contains two major poles, Mosul and Kirkuk, the goals of maximum economic growth would be then achieved in this strategy subject to the locational criteria favouring Arbil sub-region in particular as a major pole and the high land in general with special emphasis on the Sulaimaniya and Dohuk sub-region so as to counter the growth of Mosul and Kirkuk and to balance regional growth and urbanization. Fig. 6 indicates the concentration of development in selected main and secondary centers to create a growth corridor.
The Sectorial Investment Pattern
A summary of the budgets of each of the three strategies by sectors is shown in Charts (5)(6)(7). Each of the strategies has the same total investment budget in each of the two five year periods considered.
Note: The Figures are based on the availability of budget in the year of study 1974, which is now tripled and with the effect of inflation ignored.
The study shows that tourism is expected to be part of the important economic base of the region.
The Comparison of the Three Strategies.
The following notation is used for the three strategies.
St. 1 indicating maximum efficiency strategy


*

FIG _
THE MAX EFFICIENCY STRATEGY
CONCENTRATION OF URBAN IN A FEW MAIN CENTRES
& RURAL DEVELOPMENT
92


MORE EVEN DISTRIBUTION OF DEVELOPMENT OVER MANY SECONDERY CENTRES
93


FIG-6-
THE COMPOSITE STRATEGY
CONCENTRATION OF DEVELOPMENT IN SELECTED MAIN & SECONDERY CENTRES TO CREATE A GROWTH CORRIDOR
94


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St. 2 indicating Egalitarian Strategy
St. 3 indicating composite strategy
These notations shall be used in comparing strategies in the three following fields.
4.4.1 Geographical and Sectorial Distribution of the Strategies
Tables (21)(22)(23)summarize the distribution by the three strategies and table (24) shows
the distribution by the two 5-year plans.
St. 1 governorate center take about 41% of the total national investment and urban sectors become much more important. Only 1/4 of growth is expected in agriculture. Agro-industries and tourism will have more attention.
St. 2 table (21)(22)(23) shows the growth of depressed areas shall be more and infrastructure develops more.
St. 3 District emphasis on the Arbil sub-region by 30% investment increase as compared to St. 1, shall have less investment industrial and agricultural sector than St. 1., and less infrastructure investment than St. 2.
4.4.2 Income and Employment
St. 1 provides an increase of ID 450 million in the income of the northern region by 1985 and over
200,000 new jobs are expected to be created in the same time period.
St. 2 shows 5% less growth than St. 1 in income and employment and greater boost to the region in the first five years.


Full Text

PAGE 3

THE ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF ARBIL QALA -IRAQ CENTER FOR TOURISM AND NATIONAL HERITAGE SHEREEN I. SHERZAD, B. ARCH. A Thesis Submitted to the College of Environmental Design Graduate Programmes, The Division of Architecture University of Colorado, Denver, in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Master•s Degree in Architecture December -1979 LP I I <30 s 5125

PAGE 4

I certify that this thesis was prepared under my supervision at the University of Colorado at Denver, in my opinion it is adequate as a thesis in partial fulfillment of requirements for Master of Architecture Signature Date Advisor: Professor J.K. Vetter Professor of Architecture B.S. Architecture, University of Oregon ---------------------M. Architecture, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas In view of available recommendation, I submit the thesis for consideration by supervision and advice of. Signature Chalmers G. Long Jr. Director of Architecture Date Associate Professor of Architecture B.A., B. Architecture, Rice University ---------------------M. Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Approved for the College of Environmental Design Signature ______________ __ __ __ __ __________ Date ______________________ _ Dwayne C. Nuzum, Dean of the College Professor of Architecture B . Architecture, University of Colorado M. (Arch.}, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Doctoral (Town Planning), Delft Technical University (The Netherlands}.

PAGE 5

To My Parents

PAGE 6

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Author would like to express her gratitude to: Professor G. K. Vetter, for his encouragement and advice during the supervision of this work, Mr. A. Lawrence, for his advice and interest in the work, Dr. D. Hill, for his advice, criticism and assistance, Ms. Dottie Dryden, for editing and typing this thesis, and to the Iraqi Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research for granting me the scholarship at the Univeristy of Colorado, Denver.

PAGE 7

C 0 N . T EN T S Declaration Acknowledgements Introduction {Scope and Methodology) Part I Section 1 Chapter 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Chapter 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Chapter 3. 3.1 3.2 Theory National and Regional Development Planning in Iraq Planning Machinery and its Objectives Introduction Historical Background Planning Hierarchy Stage of Plan Formation Relation between National, Regional and Local Planning National Objectives Regional Objectives Economic Independence The Case of Regional Planning in Northern Iraq Backgrounds Introduction Physical and Demographical Background of Iraq Regional Background {Physical and Demographical) Socio-economic Background Planning Problems and Development and Growth Potentials in the Region Planning Problem Development Opportunities and Growth Potential 3.2.1 Oil Industry 3.2.2 Agriculture 3.2.3 Industry 3.2.4 Tourism

PAGE 8

Chapter 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Chapter 5. 5.1 5.2 The Development Strategy of the Region Introduction The Development Strategy The Sectorial Investment Pattern Comparison of Strategies Major Market Change Summary of Assessment of Strategies Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions Recommendations

PAGE 9

Development of Arbil City Section 2 INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Chapter 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 Arbil's Sub-regional and Local Backgrounds Arbil City in its Regional Context Arbil City in its Sub-regional Context Brief Description of the City Brief Historical Background Topographical Conditions Climatical Conditions Population The Social and Economic Structure Population and Classes Family and House The Neighborhood Unit Chapter 3. Existing Situation of Public Services in Arbil 3.1 Utilities 3.1.1 Water Supply 3 .1.2 Sewage 3.1.3 Electricity 3.1.4 Storm Water and Drainage 3 .1. 5 Others 3.2 Educational Services 3.2.1 Educational Schools and Institutions 3.2.2 Public Libraries 3.2.3 Youth Centres 3.3 Health Services 3.4 Religious Institutions 3.5 Public Entertainments and Recreation 3.6 Conclusions

PAGE 10

Chapter 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Chapter 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 The Employment Structure and the Land Use Situation Employment Land Use Situation {General) Specific Land Use Situation 4.3.1 Civic Center 4.3.2 Commercial Area 4.3.3 Social, Recreational 4.3.3.1 Educational Services 4.3.3.2 Health Services 4.3.3.3 Open Spaces 4.3.3.4 Cemeteries 4.3.4 Roads and Streets 4.3.5 Utilities Residential Areas Conclusions Master Plan of Arbil City INTRODUCTION The General Goals Particular Principles and Goals Expansion Directions and Constraints Assessments of Directions Alternatives Stages of Implementation Land Use, Sector and District Distribution of the Master Plan The Sector Surrounding the Qala 5.8.1 The Structure 5.8.2 Planning of the Sector 5.8.3 Design Principles Conclusions and Suggestions

PAGE 11

Development of Arbil Qala Citadel Section 3 INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. The Qala•s Setting and its History 1.1 The Setting of the Qala 1.2 The History Chapter 2. The Existing Situation of the Qala 2.1 Building Condition 2.2 The People and Housing 2.3 Movement 2.4 Soi 1 Conditions 2.5 Planting 2.6 Services 2.7 Land Values 2.8 Visual and Environmental Qualities Chapter 3. Features of Visual and Environmental Quality 3.1 Area of Identity 3.2 Enclosure and Character of Space 3.3 Change of Level 3.4 Nodes and Land Marks 3.5 Organization of Space 3.6 Street and Alleys Condition 3.7 Planting 3.8 Relation of the Qala to the Rest of Arbil Chapter 4. Housing and Building in the Qala 4.1 Introduction 4.2 General Characters of the Oriental Houses in the Qala. Q

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4.3 4.4 Chapter 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 Chapter 6 : 6.1 6.2 6.3 The Qala Houses in General 4.3.1 Characters 4.3.2 Grouping 4.3.3 House Plan Element 4.3.4 Constructional Element 4.3.5 Decorative Features 4.3.6 Remarks Survey of Individual Buildings Concepts of the Conservation of the Qala and its Development Introduction 5.1.1 First Option Archeological Use 5.1.2 Second Option Redevelopment 5.1.3 Third Option Conservation Dimensions of the Conservation (Theory) 5.2.1 Definitions 5.2.2 Dimensions of Conservation 5.2.3 The Concept of Conservation 5.2.4 Benefits of Conservation Conservation Alternative 5.3.1 Alternative Concepts 5.3.2 Possible Land Use and Movement 5.3.3 Potential Inputs 5.3.4 Town Landscape Relationship 5.3.5 Design Principles for New Buildings Assessment of Alternative Concepts Functional Requirements 6.1.1 Vehicular Access 6.1.2 The Qala as Community 6.1.3 Essential Services Design Principles Selected Alternative

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Chapter 7. 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Conclusions -The Selected Strategy, Plan Principles and Implementation Principles Approaches of Design Other Parameters Implementation Finance and Administration

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Part II Planning and Design Section 1. The Suggested Plan of the Sector Surrounding the Qala 1.1 The Principles 1.2 The Land Use Situation Section 2. The Architectural Design of the Suggested Complex of the Qala 2.1 Introduction Chapter 1. Complex Elements and Grouping 1.1 Complex Elements 1.1.1 Artisan Center 1.1.2 The Kurdish Studies Center 1.1.3 Amphitheatre 1.1.4 SUQ 1.1.5 Coffee Shop 1.1.6 Meeting Hall 1.1.7 The Fine Art Gallery 1.1.8 Popular City Council Center 1.1.9 Institute of Folk Music and Dancing 1.1.10 Museum 1.1.11 Touristic Facilities 1.1.12 Public Facilities 1.2 Activity Relations and Grouping 1.2.1 Weighted Influence of Activity Relations 1.2.2 Schematic Design Chapter 2. The Complex Design 2.1 Design Principles 2.1.1 Planning Principles 2.1.2 Architectural Principles 2.1.3 Engineering Principles

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2.2 The Programme 2.2.1 Administration 2.2.2 Center of Kurdish Studies 2.2.3 Lecture Hall 2.2.4 Cafe 2.2.5 Amphitheatre 2.2.6 Music and Dancing Institute 2.2.7 Fine Art Gallery 2.2.8 Popular Council Center 2.2.9 The Artisian Center 2.3 The Design of the Complex 2.3.1 1/200 Plan of the Complex 2.3.2 Actual Areas and Activities Chapter 3. Design of Individual Elements 3.1 Design of the Fine Art Gallery 3.1.1 Detailed Principles and Specifications 3.1.2 Detailed Design 3.2 Plan of A New House 3.3 Plan of (reed and basketing) of the Artisian Center

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Section 3. Chapter 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Cost Estimates and Implementation Programme of the Development of the Qala Cost Estimates General Costs Preservation Works Cost New Development Costs Services Grand Total Chapter 2. Implementation Programme and Suggestions 2.1 Implementation 2.2 Suggestions

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INTRODUCTION 1. The Scope and Aims of the Study 1.1 This study started as one which aimed at the architectural development of the Historic Arbil Citadel in Iraq for the purpose of drawing general lines for its preservation, conservation and revitalization without disturbing its character and then providing a model architectural study and design of examples of the projects suggested. 1.2 As the citadel is a dominant historical and topographical feature within Arbil City in Northern Iraq, it became apparent from the beginning that this study cannot be isolated from the regional scale development in general and Arbil City Planning in particular. 1.3 That apparent fact mentioned above was lacking in two studies carried previously on this subject: 1.3.1 By Consulting Engineers, Iraq Consult and Colin Buchanin and Partners in July 1971 when a feasibility study for the preservation of the historic town was suggested through drawing a master plan for the citadel.(1 ) 1.3.2 By the Author herself in 1976 in her thesis project submitted to develop the citadel as a center for tourism and national heritage( 2 ) which followed the same principles and ideas that appeared in the above first mentioned study.

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1.4 Due to its physical, scenic and climatic nature, the North of Iraq has always been thought of as a potential area for major tourism development. This has led to the belief that the development of the region could be based on tourism and so tourism became synonymous with regional development. Being the tourism development as means to the Socio-economic development, it was realized that it is by no means the only major economic base of the region. This necessitated the study also survey and cover other development factors nationally, regionally and city wise. 2. Methodology and contents of the study. The study has been made in two distinct parts: 2.1 Part I Theory Deals with a survey of the background of development plans nationally, regionally, city wise, and the citadel itself, giving conclusions to each section with appendices in conjunction with the subject. The contents of this part shall be as follows: 2.1.1 Section 1 Deals with the developing of a strategic paradigm model for the northern region within the national objectives of Iraq giving a general idea and review on the planning machinery and its objectives in Iraq, together with major sector development activities and regional background and their conclusions.

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2.1.2 Section 2 Deals with the development of Arbil City, the capital of the Arbil Governorate and the center of the autonomy(3 ) area in the north of Iraq together with the study of its master plan giving suggestion and proposals related to the citadel development through a detailed study of the first surrounding ring sector around the citadel. 2.1.3 Section 3 Deals with the development of Arbil Qala's covering its history, setting, present situation and alternative approaches for its development and a selected concept for detailed study and design based on the results of the revitalization and conservation concept studies to achieve a master plan. 2.2 Part II Planning and Design This part shall be devoted to presenting the detailed design proposals of some sectors of both Arbil City and the Qala in three sections: 2.2.1 Section 1 -The study of the surrounding sector ring around the Qala in detail with sector planning. 2.2.2 Section 2 Deals with the Master Plan of the Qala and the detailed programme of the built up areas in the Qala within the suggested master plan.

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As a result of the discussions in Section 3 of Part I and this section a 1/200 architectural plan of the suggested complex will be presented together with full architectural design of one of the Projects which is the fine art gallery. In addition to above, a general architectural plan for the following parts shall be submitted: -Sample of a house for one of the artisan activity. -A sample design of a suggested new house. 2.2.3 Section 3 Deals with the cost estimate of the development of the Qala and the implemeQtation programme.

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PART I SECTION 1 -NATIONAL AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN IRAQ

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Chapter 1 Planning Machinery and its Objectives in Iraq. 1.1 1.1.1 Introduction The constitution of the Republic of lraq( 4 ) has proclaimed the general principles which have to be pursued by the Society in its march along the path of economic and social development that ensures welfare and prosperity for the citizeQ. Among those principles related to the subject are the following. 1.1.1.1 In Article One, the Republic of Iraq is a popular democratic state aiming to achieve socialism. 1.1.1.2 In Article Ten, the Social Solidarity is the first foundation of the society. 1.1.1.3 In Article Twelve, the state shall plan, orient, and guide the national economy aiming at establishing a socialist regime based on scientific and revolutionary bases. 1.1.1.4 -In Article Thirteen, the National riches and the main production means are property of the nation. Hence the Iraqi economy is a planned economy adopting comprehensive planning as a method of uplifting the national economy and the responsibility of planning has to be shouldered by all citizen.(S) 1.2 Historic Background Iraq has a relatively long experience in initiating development and planning programmes. The initial move was establishment of the development board in the early 1950's-

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to draw up partial development plans and implement some sectors of the economy, and this is called the partial programming stage in Iraq which lasted till 1959. The Second Stage of Planning, central government stage extended from 1959-1970, though planning was more advanced in terms of comprehensiveness in this stage, it failed to cover all sectors and fields of economic activities. The Third Stage which started in 1970 marked the beginning of comprehensive planning in Iraq, in which serious attempts have been made to plan all sectors whether of public, private or mixed ownership, then the national planning has been further improved in the existing Five Year Development plan 1976-1980 by covering all sectors with well defined objectives and very flexible implementation mechanism, and also by overcoming the major weaknesses in previous planning due to poor implementation, over centralization, and shortage of basic data. It contained in addition to the above sector production plans, plans for employment, exported and import indicators, .. etc.(6 ) 1.3 The Planning Hierarchy There are three planning bodies in Iraq representing three levels of authority: The central, sectional and specialist level. 1.3.1 The Central Level

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1.3.1.1 The Revolutionary Commmand Council (RCC) is the highest authority of the planning machinery having legislative, executive, and judicial powers. It prescribes general target and objectives considered with Socio-economic philosophy. 1.3.1.2 The Planning Board The highest planning body has a diversified membership including the president of the country, the Minister's and the Leader's of the Ruling Political Party.(l) The Planning Board is assisted by the Steering Committee led by the Minister of Planning and other Specialist members. The Planning Board is the major policy maker on the national level prescribing major economic and planning objectives and directives. Its activities include drawing up major development programmes, coordinating the countries economic, financial, monetary, and trade policies, and directing and prescribing major economic and planning objectives and directives. Its activities include drawing up major development programmes, coorinating the countries economic, financial, monetary, and t rade policies, and directing and prescribing economic activities of the private sector. 1.3.2 The Sectional and Specialist Levels 1.3.2.1 These two levels cut across administrative and technical divisions, interministerial councils and boards have their authority delegated by central planning bodies for planning.

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1.3.2.2 Next, ministries which are assumed to have planning and follow-up departments to plan on a detailed sectional level and to undertake plan implementation sectorially are also included in the planning machinery on a secondary level. 1.3.2.3 Finally, the specialist level includes major state organizations, administration, and companies. 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 Their planning activities involve feasibility, follow-up at a project level and reallocation of activity targets by institution. Stage of Plan Formation The top authority (Political Leadership) prescribes basic economic and social targets such as doubling the national income in ten years, achieving full employment and the like. The central planning authority then decides the necessary data by drawing up the framework of the overall development plan which includes among other things, the trend of the plan, sectorial targets, and the means of achieving sectorial objectives and gives recommendations to the executive ministerial level. Every concerned Ministry must then decide on the basis of planning and economic criteria which of the new proposed projects would best attain the plans objectives. The central planning system has the option of revising the objectives of the detailed national plan, also the central planning authority in upraising the Ministries recommendation test the proposals against practicality, flexibility, reduction of regional disparity, balance between resources, and manpower requirements.

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PLANN I NG BOARD STEER ING COMMITTEE I STEERING COMMITTEE ' INTER MINISTERIA L COMMIT. MINISTRY OF PLANNING MINJSTERIES I I NATIONAL CENTER FOA CONSUL I ANCY MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT I R A Q SPECI F I C ATIONS AND STANDARDS GENERAL STAS TICAL ORGANIZ A T I ON ORGANJ Z AT ION NATIONAL CENTRE FOR ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURAL CONSULTANCY NAT ION A L COMPUTER CENTER ' I I I T I I D. G. OF ECONOMIC INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS PREPARAIION REGIONAL II. OF PLANS PLANNING DEWAN DEPARTMENT DEPARTMENT SERVICES &. COMM 15510 N DEPARTMENT PLANNING MODELS COMMISSION DIWAN LEGA L A GRICULTURAL TRANSPORT SOCIAL LONG TERM TOWN OF PLANNit-(; AFFAIRS i. & PLANNING PLANNIN G BOARD DEPARTMENT EDU CAT IONA L EDUC ATJONAL DE PARTEME.N T DE PAR TMEN T DEPARTMENT COMMISSION DEPARThiENT CHART 1r" Tn I II"""TI I r'"\ r" ,..... -s-1 • r-

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1.5 Relationship between national, regional, and local planning: One major planning objective is the reduction of regional disparity, however this goal didn•t imply that detailed planning existed on a regional level. The absence of detailed regional planning is aggrevated by the nature of the administrative system, over centralization, lack of coordination, between ministries on sectorial level and the absence of a complete regional planning body. Local administrative departments at a Muhafadah* level have a very minor role in planning due to an over-centralized administrative system, lack of between local departments and the shortage of weil trained manpower at a local leve l. However, recently a regional planning department has been established within the framework of the Ministry of Planning and the physical planning department has been attached to it, also a local planning and follow-up committee has been established for the autonomy region by which an improvement is expected towards better coordination. 1.6 National Objectives. Any regional plan must be appropriate in a national context National planning objectives must provide the framework within which regional objectives and recommendations are made. Below I shall review briefly some of related objectives both for long range plan for 1971-1995 and the Five Year Development Plan 1976-1980, knowing that there have been drastic revisions to the *Iraq is divided into 18 governates (Muhafadah), each governate is divided into number of Qadah•s and the Qadah•s into Nahiya.

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1.6.1 previous plans due to the sudden increase of Iraqi income starting in 1974 because of nationalization of the oil resources and jumping of oil prices, this is clear from table (1) showing the national income per capita.(B) Long range national economic objectives. 1971-1955.( 9 ) -To overcome present economic under-development (backwardness) and to transform Iraq from an economically under-developed country into a relatively more developed one. -To liberate the national economy from foreign control and safeguard its development according to the demands and needs of the country. -To industrialize Iraq and transform it from a country dependent on agriculture into one dependent on agriculture and industry, whereby the industrial sector (especially transformation industries) will contribute more to the gross national product than the agriculture sector. To bring about basic development and changes in the agricultural sector in order to fix growth averages for agricultural production and to diversify agriculture so as to satisfy the country•s needs and to export various agricultural products. -To develop the socio-economic infrastructure qualitatively and quantitatively to cope with economic development. To increase the average annual per capita income from approximately ID 1200 in 1995. Previously this limit was 550.

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Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 + Provisional TABLE 1 PART ONE -NATIONAL INCOME NATIONAL INCOME, GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AND PER CAPITA SHARE AT CURRENT PRICES 1970-1978 Per capita gross G. D.P. Per capita national domestic {I.D.} {I.D. Million} income {I .D.} 120.0 1,139.8 95.3 134.0 1,315.0 104.1 130.9 1,327.1 109.6 144.4 1,512.1 127.9 307.7 3,331.5 262.9 349.0 3,904.0 312.2 442.1 5,113.8 417.2 459.6 5,593.4 442.5 554.7 6,838.2 530.3 National income {I.D. million) 905.4 1 ,021. 2 1,111.0 1,339.4 2,847.1 3,491.9 4.826.1 5,386.2 6,539.7

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1.6.2 To rely on increasing labour and investment productivity instead of relying on the expansion of employment and investment productivity to bring about production and national income increases:-Thus moving from horizontal expansion of the economy during 1970-1990 to a vertical one during 1990-1995. -To eliminate unemployment so that the national economy reaches full employment by 1990 previously was 1995. To advance cultural development by encouraging publishing and increasing the number of public libraries, especially in rural areas; and by encouraging the arts due to their clear role in furthering the population•s cultural awareness process. To transform the present mixed economy into a socialist economy. Some of the economic activities will be left to the private sector, especially in those areas where the public sector cannot economically replace it. To overcome regional economic disparity by increasing the less developed region•s shares of gross economic activities, the percentage of each region•s participation in the national economy and its relationship with other regions will be defined and crystalized according to that region•s resources and potentialities. Long range national social objectives, 1971-1995. (10) -In response to the rise in per capita income and to achieve proper coordination between economic

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1.6.3 development and the standard of living, the level of per capita consumption of consumer goods and direct and indirect services must be raised. -To provide all citizens with healthy homes on the basis of one house per family and at a minimum standard of 12 sq. mi. per person (excluding other services by 1990.) -To ensure free health services for all the population, both urban and rural and to improve qualitative and quantitative health standards so that there will be one doctor per 500 persons and one hospital bed per 100 persons by 1995. -To liberate women from all constraints imposed by all outdated traditions and achieve equality between men and women. To provide proper conditions for the development of humans by encouraging sciences, cultural, and touristic affairs. Medium range objectives of the national development plan for years (1976-1980).(11) Development of the national income at an annual rate of 16.8 percent and also an increase of income per capita per year by 13.3 percent. This means doubling national income in five years time, which is double the goal set by the United Nations Economic and Social Council for developing countries during the next decade.

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Concentration on development of the commodity sectors by the development rate of increase as follows: Industrial Sector Agricultural Sector Distribution Sector Services Sector 32.9 percent 7.1 percent 17 percent 10.4 percent National exploitation of antapt mineral resources and developing other resources to realize product diversification and less independency on current oil resources by reducing the oil share of gross product from 54 percent to 49 percent. -Taking account of geographical distribution of planned projects of various governorate especially in the North. Taking account of the achievement of economic coordination and integration with Arab States. Expansion of services rendered to citizens in a balanced form with concentration on the rural areas, increase of job opportunities and achievement of social justice by granting the new income classes greater possible shares of the output of the development process. The table (2) attached shows the national development plan allocations for 1965-1979. (19)

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TABLE 2 NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS ALLOCATIONS OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS 1965-1979 (I. D. 000) Other Total of Buildings Transport Grand Alloca-Economic and Communi-AgriPlan or Programme Year Total tions Sectors Services cations Industry culture Allocations of the Five Year Economic Plan 1965 -1969 631757 92627 539130 113791 103835 175029 146475 1970 116530 32262 84268 13000 15268 28000 28000 National Development 1971 202000 36000 166000 28000 28000 50000 60000 Plan 1972 134500 45289 89211 22000 16000 28000 23211 1970 -1974 1973 310000 100000 210000 45000 40000 60000 65000 1974 1169000 459000 710000 175000 120000 225000 190000 Total 1932030 672551 1259479 283000 219628 391000 366211 Investment Programme(!) 1975 1076000 66500 1009500 188000 166000 448000 207500 Investment P rogramme 1976 1493500 60800 1432700 213200 242500 709000 268000 Investment P rogramme 1977 2377100 301579 2075522 (2)368045 351600 966000 389877 Annual Plan 1978 2800000 Annual Plan 1979 3283000 (1) Allocat ions for 1975 covered (9) months (2) Include the sum of I.D. 79875 (thousanmd) being the allocations of education and scientific research. Source: The Economic Planning Commission

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1.7 Regional Objective 1.7.1 1.7.2 As other developing countries, Iraq had a noticeable regional disparity which was most apparent between the central region containing the capital and other regions of Iraq obviously any national development plan should aim at the reduction of this disparity and this goal is clearly stated in the economic objectives of the long range plan stated in 1.6.1 above. After the 17th July Revolution 1968, Iraq had taken action to decrease this disparity. As an example, a regional planning section was founded within the Ministry of Planning and consultants were engaged to do some regional socio-economic studies for the development of some sectors such as tourism in Northern Iraq. Some of the objectives in their report are as follows:(13) Income Distribution To reduce the income differences between the various localities in the region and to bring Dohuk, Arbil and Sulaimaniyah Muhafadahs up to the level of the more developed Muhafadahs. -To reduce the income differences between urban and rural population and between poor and rich. Social, Cultural and Physical Environment The standards of social services and social infrastructure in the northern region should be brought up to levels prevailing in the rest of Iraq by not later than 1980 and should develop in line with national criteria thereafter. The cultural and ethnic characteristics of the region should be developed in line with the aspiration of the population of the region.

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1.7.3 1.7.4 -The natural environment should be protected especially where large-scale physical development is concerned, areas should be preserved and maintained; areas of natural beauty should be developed and controlled; and development within areas of fragile ecology should be minimized. -The region should be equipped with an efficient transportation and road network, especially in areas which completely lack them presently. -Urban centers should be developed in a way which functionally distributes activities, services and population over the region. Migration Intra-regional migration should be determined by the capacity of the receiving areas to absorb this population increase in terms of employment, housing and infrastructure provisions. There shall be not net migration between the northern region and other parts of the country. The Structure of the Economy Structural changes in the regional economy shall be introduced so as to increase the role of industry, especially transformation industries. The role of one public sector in the economic development of the region should be increased although the private sector should still play an active role in the development of the region, especially in those activities in which the public sector cannot serve as an alternative.

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1.7.5 1.8 1.8.1 1.8.2 1.8.3 -The achievement of technological development should be introduced into the economical social structure of the region in a way that takes into consideration the social and cultural characteristics of the region and the habits and traditions of its people. Economic Security -The economy should be diversified so far as possible but a degree of specialization should be encouraged at a sub-regional level. However, over the short term (next five years) planning, period, reliance on a single commodity economy should be avoided, even at a subsequent level. Economic Independence and the Regional Role in National Development. The Northern region should play its full part in achieving the National objectives of liberating the economy from all constraints and in building diversified and integrated economy. The region should make a major contribution to provide import substitutes and hence reduce Iraq's independence on other countries. The regional should be given its suitable place in national development according to its natural, resource economic capacity, development needs of country. This is achieved through a process of dicenterization of economic activities amongst the various regional, and by changing the pattern of development from piecemeal to a comprehensive one.

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Chapter 2 -The Case for Regional Planning in the North of Iraq Backgrounds 2.1 Introduction Administratively speaking, a regional plan is often evaluated by how well it coordinates various future economic and social activities and how unified its approach is to national planning. As in many other developing countries, Iraq faces the problem of structural unemployment and underemployment in large areas of the north and this could be only dealth on a regional scale assessment and balancing(l 4 ) due to the contributing causative factors of limited population mobility and production. The northern region presently lacks the infrastructure which should be planned for within the framework of comprehensive regional development in addition to considering urbanization aspects of development. One of the most succinct economic arguments for regional planning can be found on Friedman and Alonso.(15) They argue that activities are distributed over space in certain rhythms and patterns that are neither arbitrary nor random and are instead the results of the interdependences that give form to economic space. Thus regional planning includes strategies for spatial evolution, which advances the national development objectives. Some policy concerns arise out of these considerations. Firstly, assuming

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2.2 2.2.1 national integration as an objective, regional planning for economic development should create a national economic space defined by an inter-dependent system of cities, areal functional specialization and national markets. Secondly, the planning of new activities should be guided by an efficiency criterion, i.e. projects should be located where they would operate efficiently so that net social costs are a minimum or net social benefits a maximum. The third policy concern is that the allocation of regional investment should not only further regional economic growth, but also maximize opportunities for national economic growth. Lastly, inter-regional balance of standards of living must be maintained.(l6 ) The relationship between regional planning and national planning must be crystalized through subscribing to national goals while focusing on developmental needs of the region. Before going into details of the regional planning strategies a brief description and background of both Iraq and the northern region are given below. Physical and Demographical Background of Iraq Physical Background The Republic of Iraq is situated in the Southwest of Asia to the Northeast of Arab Homeland bounded on the North by Turkey, on the East by Iran, on the West by Syria, Jordan and Saudia Arabia, and on the South by the Arab Gulf, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, Iraq lies between latitudes 29-5 and 37-22 North, and between longitudes 38-45 and 48-45 east.

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-The area of Iraq covers 438.317 sq. km. and is divided into 18 governorates. The map (1) shows the administrative division. Table (3) shows the areas of each governorate (17a) . -The main physical divisions are: the alluvial plain, the desert plateau, the mountain region, the terrain region, see table (4) (17) and map (3). Iraq lies within the moderate northern region. Its climate is continental and subtropical, with a rainfall system similar to that of the Mediterranean where rainfall occurs mostly in winter, autumn and spring. Iraq•s climate can be divided into: -see table (4)(5) and map (2). Mediterranean climate, covering the mountain area, characterized by cool winter where snow falls at the top of the mountain and rainfall ranges (400-1000) mm. Its summer is moderate and the temperature does not exceed 35C in most parts, therefore it is well known for summer resorts. Steppes climate It•s a transitional climate between the northern mountain region and the desert region in the south with annual rainfall of (200-400) mm. -Hot desert climate It covers 70% of Iraq•s area with an annual rainfall of (50-200) mm., max. temp. (40-50) C. -Nor thwestern wind prevails in Iraq during all seasons.

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MAP _1 Ad-:n..i.'l'!-i.st,..tL.t i. 'VI!. of i h.e .R.e;:J.J..bLi.c.. of Ira. j,.

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J r.t:.;-.!' l I .,., .. ,, \ ' ' 1 0. v" rW pi .L,.;I Jlla..')'l t:;j_i DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL AND TEMPERATURE IN IRAQ 1978 f ! I b ... , ..... . MAP_ 2 _

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SYRIA Ninevah -......... -.... ) An bar SAUDI ARABIA ' TURKEY ) '..:L._.. . (' '\ . . , . Kerbela \ ........ I ( .>. ,.... ........ / } ( MAP 3 National boundary ---County boundary / j\ ( h... / . . { \.. Muthanna IRAN

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TABLE 3 AREA OF GOVERNORATES AND NUMBER OF QADHAS, NAHIAS AFFILIATED THERETO AS IN 31/12/1978 Number of Number of Area in Governorate Nahi as Qadhas % Sq. kms. Nineveh 26 10 8.2 35726 Salah Al-Deen 17 6 6.6 29004 Ta • meem 10 3 2.2 9659 Dial a 20 6 4.4 19301 Baghdad 15 7 1.2 5150 An bar 15 7 19.1 83740 Babylon 11 4 1.2 5270 Kerb la 5 3 13. 2 57880 Najaf 7 3 6.3 27494 Qadisiya ll 4 1.9 8507 Muthanna 7 4 11.2 49111 Thi-Qar 15 5 3.1 13626 Was it 13 5 3.9 17308 Mays an 9 6 3.2 14103 Basrah 11 7 4.4 19070 Autonomous Region: o•hok 10 4 2.0 8824 A r b i l 18 7 3.3 14471 S u l aim an i y a 24 10 3.6 15756 Total area of Governorates 244 101 99.0 434000 Half of the neutral zone 0 . 8 3393 Territorial water s 0.2 924 Total a re a of Iraq 100.0 438317

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TABLE 4 AREA OF PLAINS, MOUNTAINS AND DESERTS Details Plains (including marshes and lakes) (1) Terrain lands Mountains Deserts Half of the neutra 1 zone T err itori a 1 waters Total ( 1) Inc 1 udes other plains such as Rania, Sindi Area in Sq. kms. 132500 42500 92000 166871 3522 924 438317 and Shahrzoor. % 30.2 9.7 21.0 38.1 0.8 0.2 100.0

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TABLE 4 RAINFALL, ANNUAL MEAN RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND TEMPERATURES 1969-1978 Annua 1 Mean Relative Humidity% Annua 1 Mean Temperatures (COl Rainfall {Millimetres) Basrah Rutba Mosul Baghdad Year Basrah Rutba Mosul Baghdad Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Basrah Rutba Mosul Baghdad 1969 65 42 57 45 19.5 31.0 12.6 27.5 13.5 27.5 16.1 30.4 175.9 72.1 531.7 119.6 1970 56 44 49 44 17.7 32.1 11.9 27.3 13.3 28.8 14.1 31.0 148.4 49.6 275.4 126.9 1971 55 44 48 44 17.1 31.5 11.5 26.3 13.1 28.3 13.6 30.3 106.5 186.6 298.4 187.0 1972 60 47 55 47 17.1 30.2 11.8 25.8 12.5 26.9 13.9 29.5 181.8 227.4 441.7 191.2 1973 55 38 48 39 16.8 32. 6 11.4 26.8 12.5 28.4 13.5 30.7 51.7 32.2 227.1 97.1 1974 59 45 54 49 17.4 31.3 12.0 26.2 12.8 27.4 13.3 29.6 170.8 196.8 498.9 284.1 1975 53 41 49 45 17.1 31.6 11.5 26.4 12.1 27.9 13.2 20.0 181.2 113. 8 378.8 192.7 1976 61 42 53 45 17.5 30.8 11.4 26.1 12.0 26.7 13.3 29.7 158.3 144.3 390.6 111.5 1977 55 40 50 44 18.0 32.3 11.8 26.8 12.9 27.7 14. 0 30.3 150.0 96.8 340.3 139.7 1978 53 35 54 41 17.6 32.0 11.1 27.6 12.8 27.9 14.0 30.8 118.4 59.0 262.8 110.1

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TABLE 5 WEATHER PHENOMENA Station Basrah Rutba Baghdad Mosul 1978 1977 1978 1977 1978 1977 1978 1977 Number of Days: Cloudy 18 25 10 19 13 17 47 39 Clear 234 209 216 205 209 187 163 170 Dust and Sand Storms 14 11 11 5 15 9 2 2 Thunder Storms 12 22 4 8 13 21 8 13 Hail 2 2 Snow 4 1 1 Rain 48 60 46 63 35 59 73 71 Note: The rest days of the yea r consider partly cloud e d.

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2.2.2 Demographic Background -Table (6)(19) shows the population of Iraq from 1927-1977. From the table shown above the following growth of population is concluded for the census years. Census Year 1927 1934 1947 1957 1965 1970 1977 Total Population (no. in thousand) 2968 3380 4816 6299 8047 9440 12000 Average Growth (per annum) 1.86% 2.7 % 2.7 % 3.09% 3.2 % 3.4 % Taking the results from 1947 into consideration the table above indicates a long term rate of net growth of population of 3.02% per year and 3.25% starting from 1965. These figures are in conformity with two studies made originally by experts for the purpose of planning, i.e., Zacharia(20) case concluding min. growth of 3% per annum of 1965 and VEDA(21) anticipating 3.3%-3.5%. As regards the distribution of urban population Table No. 7 indicates the rural urban distribution for the 18 Mohafadah of Iraq for 1977.(22) It's well known that the cities of developing countries are growing rapidly as a result of a natural increase and by inter nal migration. The fact is that the growth of the urban population in these developing countries is characterized by a fast rate of growth.

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TABLE 6 POPULATION OF IRAQ: 1927-1977 (Number in thousand) Year Total Female Male 1927 ( 1) 2968 1456 1512 1934 ( 1) 3380 1692 1688 1947 (2) 4816 2559 2257 1957 (3} 6299 3144 3155 1965 (3) 8047 3945 4102 1970 ( 4) 9440 4686 4754 1971 9750 4840 4910 1972 10074 5000 5074 1973 10413 5169 5244 1974 10765 5343 5422 1975 11124 5521 5603 1976 11505 5710 5795 1977 (5) 12000 5817 6183 Notes: 1. Figures of 1927 and 1934 are based on general registration of populat ion. 2. Census of 1947 excluding Iraqis abr oad. 3. Census of 195 7 and 1965 not including Iraqis abroad. 4. Figures of the yea r s 1970-1976 ar e estimates not including I r aqis abroad. 5. Results of general census of 17/10/1977 not including Iraqis abroad which amount (129) thousand persons.

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TABLE 7 DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY SEX AND RURAL/URBAN: 1977 Total Rural Urban Governorate Total Female Male Total Female Male Total Female Male Nineveh 1105671 545338 560333 506859 256399 250460 598812 288939 309873 Salah Al-Deen 363819 176221 187598 206032 102501 103531 157787 73720 84067 Ta•meem 495425 221834 273591 147988 74581 73407 347437 147253 200184 Dial a 587754 289329 298425 345700 171054 174646 242054 118275 123779 Baghdad 3189700 1543465 1646235 269628 128868 140760 2920072 1414597 1505475 An bar 466059 221911 244148 210405 103939 106466 255654 117972 137682 Babylon 592016 293220 298796 303834 149853 153981 288182 143367 144815 Kerbel a 269822 134420 135402 99612 49342 50270 170210 85078 85132 Najaf 389680 196699 192981 125647 64274 61373 264033 132425 131608 Qadisiya 423006 213452 109554 227387 117173 110214 195619 96279 99340 Muthanna 215637 109600 106037 127823 66786 61037 87814 42814 45000 Thi-Qar 622979 318772 304207 375576 193224 182352 247403 125548 121855 Was it 415140 206412 208728 231468 116816 114652 183672 89596 94076 Mays an 372575 184146 188429 206793 103093 103700 165782 81053 84729 Basrah 1008626 482563 526063 208173 94507 113666 800453 388056 412397 Autonomous Region: o•hok 250575 111867 138708 143171 67993 75178 107404 43874 63530 Arbil 541456 252803 288653 253392 125685 127707 288064 127118 160946 Sulaimaniya 690557 315547 375010 364955 165006 199949 325602 150541 175061 Total 12000497 5817599 6182898 4354443 2151094 2203349 7646054 3666505 3979549 1 Results of general census of 17/10/1977 ( 2 ) Excluding Iraqis abroad.

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-The table (8) below shows the percentage of urban population for the indicated years shown. Table 8 Total Population Urban Population Percentage of Year No. in Thousand No. in Thousand Urban Population 1867 1280 310 24 1890 1826 430 25 1905 2250 533 24 1930 3288 808 25 1947 4816 1864 38 1957 6299 2453 39 1965 8047 4112 51 1975 10047 6065 60 1977 12000 7646 64 The table shown above shows rapid increase of Urban population after 1957 i.e. after 1958 Revolution due to internal migration. NOTE: Figures for years 1867-1957 are taken from Al hassani study. (23) The population pyramid for 1977 is as shown in chart(24) (2).

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POPULATIO N PYRAMID 1 9 77 'C\,.VV ) J...._,.; J J.,.--1.! lj \ c,.J\ &5+ _.;,A 8 0-8S' Femal e s Males 7 5 l ' 7 0-Jif -60-b't 5.5-59 !0-54 lf5-'t'1 lfD-4S' 353 " 3 0-34 2024 1 5 _,, 1 0 -'" 5-;l 0-l:f 5 If 2. 0 2. 3 If 5 b ; g 9 to Perc e ntage ' . . CHART_2_

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2.3 Regional Background (Physical and Demographic) The Northern region of Iraq defined in the study which was made by the Iraqi Government through consultants(25) comprises the complete governorates of Arbil, Dohuk, Tamim (previously Kirkuk), Sulaimaniyah and Nineva (previously Mosul), (Map 3) indicates the administrative region of the study. Recently new governorate distribution has been decided in which some of the Tamim Governorate has been joined to Sulaimaniya, Salahedden and Deyalah. 2.3.1 Climate Condition 2.3.1.1 Temperature The table (9) below shows the comparison of average temperature ranges for July and January for Northern Iraq.(26) 1975. TABLE 9 Station Latitude Elevation Average Temperature F M Ft January Ki rkuk 35 28340 1.115 95.4 46.8 Mosul 36 19-223 732 92.5 43.0 Sulaimaniyah 35 3r 853 3.798 92.5 37.0 Zakho 37 08424 1.450 90.1 41.0

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/ . ./l / .. r. MOSUL r r> ( / MAP _ 3 _ . n of study Reg10 Adminstratively

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2.3.1.2 Rainfall Low pressure fronts moving from the mediterranean, which are controlled by the sea's marginal rain cycle are the sources for Iraq's rainfall including the northern part. Rainfall in the North of Iraq varies from one month to another during rainy season most of the rainfall in January, February and March. Table 10 illustrates the distribution of rain over some of the northern stations. The (Map 4 shows the Isohyets of Northern Iraq. 2.3.1.3 Seasonal Conditions Summer Summer begins in mid-May and lasts till mid-October. Rains cease between June and August. Therefore most plants which depend on rainfall become pale and no grass remains green except on high mountain slopes. During the the temperature tends to the high, but becomes lower due to less relative humidity. But it drops significantly during the night, especially at higher elevations where the cold becomes unbearable. Often northwestern wind blows strongly and for nearly ten day periods in each of July, August and September high sun glare is normal, but is often reduced -by scattered high clouds. Due to the increase of daytime temperature and sun glare of 9-12 hours daily, a daytime nap is the local custom. But this habit is unknown in the northeastern and eastern part of the northern region.

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41 4 2 43 44 45 46 ,_,_,soh yets( mrn) •loc;.ation of the 37 ra1n • • 34 MAP_4_ Isohyets map of northern reg1on

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TABLE 10 AVERAGE MONTHLY RAINFALL AT SELECTED METEOROLOGICAL STATIONS Average rainfall (mm) Station Bagrcho Halabcha Sa 1 aim ani yah Penjwin Height ( ft) 2446 2300 2750 4250 Month --January 143.3 172.6 136.9 311.2 February ' 117.1 150.4 . 111.3 244.6 March 116.9 140.4 118.6 239.3 April 81.8 77.6 107.6 105.1 May 34.8 33.5 61.9 53.7 June 0.5 July 1.6 August 0.5 September 0.1 October 13.3 33.7 14.6 I 90.9 November 90.0 82.2 69.0 130.0 December 116.8 135.5 114.6 204.0 Annua 1 Average 815 827.4 734.5 1339.1 Record Period Years 12 18 15 11

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Winter Winter is characterized by moderate cold in valleys and plains becoming terribly cold in the mountains and high land. Therefore, the inhabitant of the mountain region consider winter condition more than summer conditions for house building, especially how to avoid facing cold winded snow. Snow falls heavily on mountain peaks and sometimes cuts all communication, thus isolating some villages. The areas most affected by snow are the far north of the region. The following table (11) illustrates the amount of snow as an example in Haj-umran Area (height 2.510 latitude-36371 , 49••, longtude 45 .o• 46") in 1957.(28) TABLE 11 Date Snowfall Density Remarks 1957 February 13 69 27 Wet non-frozen land March 1 70 32 -do-March 14 96 32 -do-March 30 88 40 -doApril 30 86 44 -do-May 2 61 50 -do-

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2.3.2 Topographical Condition The area covered by that study can be divided into three important physiographic regions: the Jazira, the foothill, and the mountainous region. The Jazira, is a undulating unplant region located in the North of Iraq between the Tigris and Euphrates. The foothill region forms a substantial and important part of the studied area. The foothill appears in the broad arch by the high mountains in the north and by the eastern bank of the Tigris. This region ranges from approximately 800 m to 1500 m above sea level with the land rising in steps towards the east and northeast fo_rming hilly landscapes. -The high mountain zoine: this region consists of high mountain ranges and valleys. This rugged and folded mountain area has limited land for cultivation. Elevations in this region varies from 1,500 m to 3,700 m above sea level with a general ridge line ranging from northwest to southeast. The (map 5) indicates the geographic characteristics of the North of Iraq. 2.3.3 Demography The following tables shall give a clear picture of the population in the northern part of Iraq: (Table 12) shows -(Tab 1 e 13) shows (Table 14) shows (Table 15) shows (Table 16) shows the population changes in the north from 1957-1970. the urban and rural population for the northern region. Arbil Governorate urban and rural population. population change in large towns of the northern region. projections of population for the northern region of Iraq, 1965-1985.

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Jeb I J I ' \ ',I tj \. l \j ' I Mosul q, l , Q ' MAP_5_ Geo9raPhlc . North of Iraq of the

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TABLE 12 POPULATION CHANGE OF WHOLE MUHAFADHAS IN THE NORTH, 1957-70 Muhafadha Dohuk Nineveh Mosul Arbil Sulaimaniya Kirkuk TOTAL 1957 184,408 569,239 753,647 273,383 304,889 388,839 1,720,758 Population 1965 145,658 743,193 888,851 357,100 399,775 473,676 2,119,402 % Change 1970 1957-65 1965-70 242,112 -19.4 66.2 870,199 30.6 17.0 1,112,311 17.9 25.1 401,197 30.3 12.6 458,127 31.1 14.6 520,217 21.8 9.8 2,491,852 23.1 17.3 Sour ce: CSO: Iraq Census Reports for 1957, 1965 and 1970. l Change Per Annum 1957-65 1965-70 1957-70 -2.2 11.0 2.2 3.4 3.2 3.3 2.1 4.6 2.8 3.4 2.4 3.0 3.4 2.8 3.2 2.5 1.9 2.3 2.6 3.3 2.9

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TABLE 13 URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION FOR NORTHERN MUHAFADHAS, 1957-70 1957 1965 1970 Muhafadha Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rura 1 Dohuk 31,562 152,846 51,735 93,923 53,227 188,886 Nineveh in Study Areal 209,876 177,588 310,344 220,103 outside Study Areal 28,409 141,069 48,272 164,018 368,586 257,730 60,197 183,686 Arb i 1 73,057 200,326 134,159 222,941 149,642 251,555 S u 1 aim an i y a 79,635 225,254 127,732 272,043 174,428 283,699 Kirkuk 152,787 236,052 231,997 241,679 264,683 255,534 TOTAL2 575,326 1,133,135 904,239 1,214,707 1,070,763 1,421,088 TOTAL URBAN & RURAL 1,708,461 2,118, 946 2,491,851 leap estimation as in Table 2.9. Note that some population was omitted from the 1957 totals where allocation to 1973 qadhas and nahiyas was uncertain. Total 1957 population included these omitted figures is: urban, 577,050; rural, 1,143,708; total, 1,720,758. 2These totals have not been rounded off, but no importance should be attached to the last three digits. Source: CSO: Iraq Census Reports for 1957, 1965 and 1970.

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TABLE 14 ARBIL MUHAFADHA: URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION BY QADHA, 1957-70 % Difference in P 0 P U L A T I 0 N Urban Population 1957 1965 1970 195719651957-Qadha Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total 65 70 70 Arbil 42,771 41,765 84,536 95' 113 42,643 137,761 107,129 55,522 162,651 18.4 -3.1 15.3 % of total 50.6 49.4 100.0 69.0 31.0 100.0 65.9 34.1 100.0 Zibar 1,182 11 '942 13,124 1,703 18,493 20,196 2,188 21,673 23,861 -0.6 0.8 0.2 % of tot a 1 9.0 91.0 100.0 8.4 91.5 100.0 9.2 90.8 100.0 Rawanduz 8,695 23,747 32,442 7,383 27,948 35,331 8,167 33,422 41,589 -5.9 -1.3 -7.2 % of total 26.8 73.2 100.0 20.9 79.1 100.0 19.6 80.4 100.0 Choman 992 11,430 12,422 675 14,372 15,547 1,627 15,059 16,686 -3.7 5.6 1.8 % of total 8.0 92.0 100.0 4.3 95.7 100.0 9.8 90.2 100.0 Shaqlawa 6,419 37 '517 43,936 12,176 36,217 48,393 12,575 35,031 47,606 10.6 1.2 11.8 % of total 14.6 85.4 100.0 25.2 74.5 100.0 26.4 73.6 100.0 Koisanjaq 8,932 27,215 36,147 11,193 34,027 45,220 11 '416 31,060 42,476 0.1 2.1 2.2 % of total 24.7 75.3 100.0 24.8 75.2 100.0 26.9 73.1 100.0 Makhmour 4,066 46,710 50,776 5,916 48,735 54,652 6,540 59,788 66,328 2.8 -0.9 1.9 % of total 8.0 92.0 100.0 10.8 89.2 100.0 9.9 90.1 100.0 Total for 73,057 200,326 273,383 134,159 222,941 357,100 142,642 251,555 401,197 10.9 -0.4 10.5 Muhafadha 26.7 73.3 100.0 37.6 62.4 100.0 37.2 62.8 100.0

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TABLE 15 POPULATION CHANGE IN LARGE TOWNS, 1957-70 Urban Population 1965 Urban Population Increase (%)1 Town Mosul Arbil Sulaimaniya Kirkuk Sub-total Total for Study Area 1957 178,222 264,146 39,913 90,956 48,812 83,642 120,402 175,353 387,349 614,097 575,326 904,239 1 Bracketed figures represent change per annum. 1970 1957-65 310,313 48.2 ( 5. 0) 101,779 127.9(11.6) 103,091 71.4( 7.0) 191,294 45.6 ( 4. 8) 706,477 135.5 ( 5. 9) 1,070,763 56.2 ( 5. 7) Source : CSO: Iraq Census Reports for 1957, 1965 and 1970; and Table 2.7. 1965-70 _ 1957-70 17.5(3.3) 74.1(4.4) 11.2(2.1) 155.1(6.9) 23.3(4.3) 111.2(5.9) 9.1(1.8) 58.9(3.6) 15.2(2.9) 82.4(4.7) 18.3(3.4) 84.8(4.8)

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TABLE 16 ALTERNATIVE POPULATION PROJECTIONS FOR THE NORTHERN REGION OF IRAQ, 1965-85 Declining Mortality, Declining Fertility Declining Mortality, Constant Fertility % Change % Change Year Males Females Total 5-Yr. Annual Males Females Total 5-yr. Annua 1 1965 1,122,365 1,086,698 2,209,063 1,129,270 1,093,225 2,222,495 1970 1,285,912 1,243,337 2,529,249 14.5 2.75 1,307,300 1,263,567 2,570,867 15.7 2.96 1975 1,493,100 1,442,633 2,935,733 16.1 3.03 1,539,633 1,486,665 3,026,298 17.7 3.31 1980 1,739,291 1,678,968 3,418,258 16.4 3.08 1,845,442 1, 779,434 3,624,876 19.8 3.68 1985 2,012,328 1,941,204 3,953,532 15.7 2.96 2,237,446 2,154,358 4,391,804 21.2 3.92

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2.4 2.4.1 Socio-economic Background Introduction Dramatic political changes since 1958 have substantially changed the country's social and economic structure. The transition of the economy from a predominantly feudal and capitalistic structure to a progressively socialist one, has been the trend of government policies since 1958. By means of gradually moving economic power and control from the private to public sector major (commercial and industrial) enterprises. Various periods of political instability during the transition period may have slowed down the process of economic growth. The public sector has assumed the leading and initiating role in economic development. In this respect Iraq is formulate that its oil resources enable the public sector to finance projects through comfortable level and foreign exchange. The most dynamic sector in the national economy has been oil production. During 69-71 it accounted for 37% of G.D.P. Recent increase of oil prices and nationalization have increased the oil sector share in G.D.P. The scarcity and non-availability of reliable data on the northern region makes it extremely difficult to make a statement about the growth and development of this regions economy.

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2.4.2 The political instability of the region 1961-1970 affected the growth in almost all sectors of regional economy. After March 1970 declaration there has been considerable government investment in the region, especially in industrial development and infrastructure. The national economy seems to have a dynamic impact on regional growth during 70-80 and it is expected to continue for the rest of the decade. Major Economical Sectors Background Tables( 3 0) (17) and (18}, and the charts(31) (3)(4) are used to illustrate the sectorial distribution of products and (table 19)(32) the investment allocations. 2.4.2.1 Oil Industry This sector is the most important in Iraq•s economy. It earns most of the country•s foreign exchange and provides more than half of government revenue and generates more than 50% of G.D.P. of 1971. In the past, expansion of oil production was closely related to political situation in the middle east. In recent years there has been a large increase in oil prices. In 1972 the government nation a 1 i zed a 11 Iraq petro 1 eum aff a i rs.

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TABLE 17 SECTORIAL DISTRIBUTION OF GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT OF IRAQ, 1964-1971 (ID MILLIONS AT CURRENT PRICES) Y E A R Sector 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 Agriculture, forestry, fishery 148.10 162.70 172.73 181.39 190.46 198.08 219.00 221.30 Mining and quarrying 268.80 288.52 304.43 269.85 333.81 339.03 339.50 518.40 Manufacturing Industries 63.40 65.79 71.90 83.00 87.42 94.41 116.00 135.30 Construction 18.70 23.93 27.91 26.69 29.36 32.29 38.90 40.20 Electricity, water, gas 7.70 9.80 12.35 13.38 15.79 18.14 17.80 19.20 Transportation, communication, storage 54.90 56.10 57.82 60.60 64.58 67.68 71.20 74.50 Wholesale and retail trade 44.50 50.65 56.43 56.55 60.28 64.26 98.60 105.60 Banking, insurance, real estate agents 7.70 12.03 14.60 14.73 15.04 16.26 18.60 20.00 Home ownership 14.80 14.19 14.54 15.10 15.85 16.65 24.80 27.30 Pub 1 i c admi n., defense 81.20 97.85 104.17 105.54 116.53 128.56 124.80 137.40 Services 51.40 49.42 51.33 55.86 60.59 63.58 88.60 97.90 GDP2 761.20 830.98 888.69 882.69 989.71 1,038.95 1,188.80 1,397.10 GNP2 637.50 701.38 750.51 832.91 879.55 1,022.80 1,182.20 National income (NNP)2 595.80 659.29 705.53 714.79 782.91 826.81 948.40 1' 103.40 1Includ e s oil refining. 2At factor cost. Source: CSO Annual Abstract of Statistics (1972), p. 372.

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Sector Agriculture Mining Manufacturing Construction E l ec t r i c it y , water T ranspor t Commerce, banking Services, rents Public admin. TOTAL GOP Sour c e : IBRD ( 1969)' p. 4 TABLE 18 SECTORIAL GROWTH OF DOMESTIC PRODUCT OF IRAQ (AT CONSTANT FACTOR COST} GOP Annual Average (ID millions) 1953-55 1958-60 1963-65 90 79 103 148 207 330 23 44 71 19 24 19 2 4 8 24 32 35 27 36 49 34 45 64 25 38 67 392 509 746 and Table 4 of Statistical Appendix. Growth Rate (% Per Annum) 1953-55 to 1963-65 1.0 8.0 12.0 0.0 15.0 4 . 0 6.0 7.0 10.0 6.5

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TABLE 19 G. D.P. BY ECONOMIC SECTORS AT FACTOR COST 1970-1978 (AT CURRENT PRICES) Sectors 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 Corrrnodity 5393.8 4351.9 4054.7 2986.9 2630.2 993.7 841.5 868.1 715.4 Distribution 775.1 764.6 590.9 482.4 341.0 229.9 210.3 196.2 189.4 Services 871.7 644.7 605.9 565.5 482.0 331.9 304.7 280.9 262.2 G.D.P. by sectors 7040.6 5761.2 5252.5 4034.8 3453.2 1555.5 1356.5 1345.2 1167.0 Minus imputed service charges 202.4 167.8 138.7 130.8 121.7 43.4 29.4 30.2 27.2 G. D.P. 6838.2 5593.4 5113.8 3904.0 3331.5 1512.1 1327.1 1315.0 1139.8 (AT CONSTANT PRICES OF 1975) Commodity 4646.8 4040.2 3406.0 2987.1 2635.2 2558.8 2074.3 2175.4 2067.2 Distribution 613.6 643.2 543.4 482.4 369.7 272.8' 259.4 242.7 245.4 Services 675.0 592.7 555.6 565.5 523.0 386.8 369.9 355.6 343.1 G.D.P. by sectors 5935.4 5276.1 4502.0 4035.0 3527.9 3218.4 2703.6 2773.7 2655.7 Minus impute d service charges 172.7 141.1 125.6 130.8 133.2 51.4 36.5 39.5 36.9 G. D.P. 5762.7 5135.0 4376.4 3904.2 3394.7 3167.0 2667.1 2734.2 2618.8

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19 68 GROSSDOMESTJC PRODOCT FOR 1968 1977 AT CURRENT PRICES -10 MILUON-5000 I 4500 4 OQO I 1 500 19 76 r-r--1000 CHART_3_ 500 0 1368 1976

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AI.JHILUL I UHt. MININI.J ANU UUANH'fiNI.J .... I : I ! ! I 1968 I : I ! ! I I 1976 I 1976 0 100 200 300 4 00 0 200 400 2400 2600 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY WATER At-D ELEC TRICITV .... I I! ! ! I I ""I 1976 :I ! I I I 0 100 200 300 400 0 10 20 30 40 BUILDJNG AND CONS TR U C liON TRANSPORT COMMUNICATION AND STORAGE ! ! ! I I I_ ! ! I I I 1968 1976 I 1976 0 100 200 300 400 0 100 200 300 400 CHART4WHOLES ALE AND RETAil TRADE HOTELS AND TI-ELIKE FINANCE REAL ESTATE AND WORKS ::I I ! II I ! I I I DISTRIBUTION OF GROSS DOMESTIC I PRODUCT ACCORDING TO ECONOMIC SECTOR _ID-1-IILLION _ 1976 0 100 200 300 400 0 100 200 300 400 SOCfAL AND PERSONAL SERVICES 1968 I ; I I 157 6 I 0 100 200 300 400 500 6 9

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The importance of this sector for regional development of North lies basically with the sector contribution in financing national economic development plans which cover the region itself. 2.4.2.2 Agriculture and Irrigation Agriculture is the main sector lagging in national economy, Growth in agriculture output has been sluggish in last decade and in 1970 extremely low output necessitated import. Nationally, agricultural production has grown less than population. -The slow development of this sector is due partly to a harsh environment and to inefficient, primitive method of agriculture. The Government has tried to provide support to(34) farmers through the Establishment of Farm Cooperative. Little real progress has been achieved in field of management, marketing and credit facilities. An agricultural mission in 1970 to Iraq summarized the political and economic importance of the agriculture(33) as follows. a Over 55% of the population live in rural areas and about 65% of these draw income directly from agriculture. b Agriculture has lagged behind the growth of population and growth of output. c -Land Reform has been one of the political issues of major national importance. d -The largely agricultural mountainous northeast region of the country has been subjected to civil disturbances.

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Agriculture in the northern region of Iraq has the following existing situations. (34) a -The northern region of Iraq is one of the oldest agricultural areas in the world. b -About two-thirds of the population and about half of the output of the north is agriculture. c Cereals are the dominant crop in volume terms but tobacco, vegetables and fruit are important in value. d -Animals provide an important element of rural income. e -Irrigated land supports about ten times as many families per sq. km. as can ranfaid land dependent upon rainfall in the plain areas. f-The cultivatable area in the northern region is (18 million) Donum i.e., about (4.4) millio hectar, about 50% of it lies fallow and the area cultivated in any one year varies from 1.5 to 2 million hectares. This area is divided among the (5-governorate) as follows: Dohuk 46 1300 Donnems Nanivah Arbil Sulaimaniyah -Tamin 834 2000 25 30000 1961 000 4 100000

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Wheat and barley in rainfed areas cover over 94% of the cropped land each year and less than 6% for other crops. Cotton, tobacco, vegetables, season .... etc.) Output crops heavily depend on rainfall. Soil is practically free of salinity. The main irrigated cash crop is tobacco, rice, cotton, vegetables, 1-4% of the total is irrigated by surface water. (Table 20)(34) shows the crops of the region compared with area and production. Without irrigation the land can't increase output. Livestock rearing is the source of about 40% of agricultural gross domestic products. The northern region is estimated to account for 83% of the sheep population of Iraq, 60% of the goat and 33% of the cattle. 2.4.2.3 Industry Iraq manufacturing sector was relatively small and unsophisticated till 1975. It provided 9.5% of the G.N.P. in 1966, 19.7% in 1969, 11.4% in 1971, but it went up to 20% in 1976-1979 plan. The northern region employed 11% of the labour force in manufacturing and contained 10% of nation large industrial establishment in 1970. At present only a small proportion of the urban population is employed in industry, most are engaged in service, administration, construction, and transport. This is because the industrial base is only now being built, especially in Arbil Muhafadha.

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Crop Wheat Barley Chickpeas Lentils Linseed Rice Sesa m e Cotton Cor n Tobacco Vege tabl e s TABLE 20 RELATIVE AREA AND PRODUCTION OF MAJOR CROPS IN THE NORTHERN REGION OF IRAQ Percent of National Area 57 -74 42 -47 96 -99 84 -94 16 20 6 40 7 -24 37 60 6 -15 100 10 -22 Percent of National Production 45 -63 23 30 95 -96 87 -93 15 -19 7 -37 16 -23 41 -64 6 -15 100 10 -22

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-In a few years time the major town will all with a significant industrial element. -The national industries for the region to develop are those who use its resources or serve the local market. -In the north, textiles, cigarettes, dairy products, food processing, and building materials, offer the best prospect exploiting linkage forward from agriculture and backward from construction respectively. 2.4.2.4 Transportation -Iraq's population and economic activities are centered around the country's four major urban areas, Baghdad, Mosul, Kirkuk, Basrah, and in narrow corridors alongside the rivers. -The existing road system in the north is rather sketchy, there are four good major roads providing a reasonable direct connection between Mosul, Kirkuk, Arbil, Sulaimaniyah, Baghdad, and reasonable good roads leading from Kirkuk to Arbil -Mosul. Recently in 1975 1500 km of roadway have been implemented. -The national railroad networks extend two of its lines to northern region. -The Baghdad, Kirkuk, Arbil line which is a metric gauge line of 461 km length, the other is Baghdad -Mosul a Standard Gauge of 603 km. extending to the Syrian Board. -rail transportation is under utilized at the present and they run rather inefficiently. There are three civil airports in Mosul, Bamerni, Kirkuk roundtrip daily from Baghdad to Mosul and occasionally to others .

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2.4.2.5 Tourism There are three distinct tourism potentials in Iraq. First its historical heritage of Hesopotamia, civilization and its Islamic cultur and architecture. Second its religious significance for a variety of Islamic Sectors and groups. Third its scenic and natural attraction. -The northern mountains and lakes have given to the region fine scenery and cooler climate than the rest of Iraq and thus the region accommodates a seasonal daily flow of mainly internal and Arabian Gulf tourists in hot seasons while in other seasons it is concentrated on weekends. -At present the tourism in the region makes a major contribution to the economy of the settlements situated in the summer resort areas. The tourism in the area is essentially about 91%, family tourism travelling in groups of 5-6 persons mainly by private cars with 42% proportin of youths. 70% of the tourists come from outside of the region, the majority of which are from the Baghdad area followed by Mosul and Basrah, the region itself contributes 20% of the tourists, a figure which is directly in proportion to its part in the total population of the country. -The level of the expenditure of tourists is rather medium level with an average of 2.500 ID per day per person and they prefer an economical type of accommodation (as in the case of houses). Only 20% of tourists have hotel accommodation.

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-The demand is notably stable and increases according to availability of accommodations. Transportation is one of the principle brakes on demand. -The following statistics for year 1977 have been chosen to indicate the different characteristics of the tourism in the region. a. Total No. of tourists= 120,000, about 84,000 is to the Arbil Sector forming 70% of the total. b. Total No. staying days = 360,000 c. The distribution of tourists during the hot season is as follows: July 53.13% August 24.18% September 15.84% June 6.85% -Map (6} indicates the touristic location both in Iraq and the Northern Iraq.

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I I. -. ---,. ::-----

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Chapter 3 Planning Problems and Development Opportunity and Growth Potential 3.1 Planning Problems The problem of the northern region of Iraq is fundamentally one of the under development. Large areas of the region posses predominantly agricultural, near subsistence-level economics, characteristic of the traditional society in which large parts of the rural areas are distinguished by very low levels of economic activities, inadequate infrastructure, poor educational and social services, seasonal farm employment (leading to unemployment in off season periods and structural unemployment) and poor administrative and institutional facilities. The more prosperous areas are usually associated with the presence of industrial and commercial activities and more generally by cities and urbanization. Such areas may be considered to be 11islands11 of development whose links with the agricultural economy are generally weak. It appears too that the urban centers have attracted some of the more productive and dynamic elements of the rural areas, further reducing the potential for self-induced development in the latter. Migration to the towns, however, has not resulted in large shanty towns or squatter settlements -a marked feature of many underdeveloped regions and countries. Indeed, in many respects, the problems of urban areas in the north are the same as or similar to the problems of

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the agricultural areas: poor infrastructure, a shortage of welfare and educational facilities, lack of opportunities and structural and Iraq is fortunate in processing reserves of oil, not only in the North in Kirkuk and Ninevah Muhafadah, but also is Misan and Basrah Muhafadah in the South. Since these reserves came under government control, Iraq has possessed the financial resources necessary to promote many of her own development projects. In the context of the North this has meant that a new structure represented by a number of major government projects and factories has been super-imposed on the traditional economy, which has been based essentially on agriculture. Some secondary industries were present originally, but, with a few notable exceptions mainly in Mosul, factories were small, inefficient and designed to serve only certain local requirements. New government factories geared to the national market are very different and consist of large modern plants which have relatively few connections with the traditional regional economy or for that matter with each other. This situation exists because government planning tends to treat each project separately with self-sufficiency as the object for each scheme. This kind of development planning involving several isolated fronts, can only, if at all, be partially successful. What is needed therefore,

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is a new integrated approach to development planning at the regional level in which progress is made on a much wider front. The way in which this broad front is to be implemented is the basic problem of planning in the northern region. An integrated approach to planning is essential for a number of reasons, the most important of which relate to external economics of scale and the use of shared facilities and infrastructure. For example, (improving the transport system will bring benefits to all users of that system, resulting in a general increase). In efficiency of movement and expanding education and health facilities will have direct repercussions on the quality of the population and work force. Looked at from another angle, improvements of this kind are essential for successful economic development, the key to regional growth. Other advantages can also be achieved through integrated planning. An agricultural modernization programme will be most successful if operated in conjunction with a wider programme of economic development, so that surplus agricultural labour resulting from, say, mechanism can be absorbed by other sectors of the economy, preventing a large increase in the number of unemployed. Integration within a particular sector can also be of value. By increasing the links between the government, private sectors of agriculture and the manufacturing industry, the private sector could be assured

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of a guaranteed market for its output, but at the same time the government could introduce quality and production controls on the private sector. Integrated planning of the type suggested here will have immense benefits in the region; but most important, by mobilizing available resources to the maximum that is possible, a major contribution to the growth and diversification of the national economy will be made. The essential planning problem in the northern region thus involves the integration of the various sectorial and spatial components in a comprehensive and consistent fashion in order to promote economic growth. At the same time the population has to be provided with adequate shelter and infrastructure facilities consistent with the ideals of a socialist state. 3.2 Development Opportunity and Growth Potential 3.2.1 In this section a description and evaluation of the development potential of the major sectors in the economy of the northern region is presented. The Oil Industry This sector is the most important in Iraq's economy, since it earns most of the country's foreign exchange and generates more than half of the G.D.P. The importance of this sector for regional development of Northern Iraq lies basically with the sector's contributions in financing national economic development plans. Consequently, its effects on the region are rather indirect and the

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3.2.2 oil fie 1 ds of Ki rkuk cou 1 d we 11 be considered a 11forei gn11 sector. It is not so c 1 ear whether this sector by its geographic location has stimulated any major development of associated industries. However, there is a great potential for generating employment and income in the region and the attempt of the sector is likely to be more evident on the local economy during the 1980-1985 development period than previously. Agriculture For the foreseeable future agriculture will be the most important sector for improving the regional economy; an emphasis on cash crop farming and animal husbandry is expected to be the center of regional development policies for years to come. The main agricultural activity in the region is dry-farmed winter crops. Great potential for agricultural development is indicated only if irrigation is highly developed. Hydrological studies indicates that the northern and eastern sector of the region are rich in underground water in quantities sufficient to sustain agriculture.(37) The valley's are rich in spring water; the Tigris River and its tributaries of the greater and lesser Zabs, together with the tributaries of the Diyala River, criss-cross the region forming good sources for future irrigation projects. Irrigation, improvement of farming methods, introduction of new agricultural activities, improvement of livestock, reforestation, introduction of effective fishing practices, increase of

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3.2.3 fruit and vegetable production and the improvement of dairy production will all certainly add to the effective development of the agricultural sector of the regional economy. Industry(38) The contribution of industry to the economic growth of the country has been considerable: over the last 15 years industrial output has expanded at a higher percentage rate than any other sector of the economy. The northern region at present is enjoying industrial development in the four principal centers of Mosul, Kirkuk, Sulaimaniyah and Arbil. Outside these Muhafadahs capitals, industry has barely developed; however, it appears as though places like Dohuk are contributing significantly to the economy through the expansion of cottage industries. Much of the industrial potential of the region is a function of the resources available there, at least in the short-term. Potential industries include thoise which could produce consumer goods for the northern market, using mainly imported materials. Other industries could be those based on the resources of the region such as agriculture, textiles, minerals, attraction, etc. Industrial development will depend primarily on the public sector, private investment will play a minor role and its significance will be limited except at the local level. Public policy towards infrastructure facilities wil1 be social to industrial development potentialities. Indeed, an

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3.2.4 integrated policy of investment in infrastructure, transportation, serviced industrial estates and other services like housing could greatly influence the creation of the right climate for industrial development. Tourism Tourism at present is mainly confined to a few places like Shaglawa, Salahaddin, Dokan and Sersink, together with a few archeological sites near Mosul. Internal tourism in Iraq has been a marginal activity up to the present time. The northern region, which enjoys a relative climatic advantage and a better natural environment a seasonal flow of internal tourists from the rest of the country. The tourism potential is very promising in the region with proper investment allocations to services, infrastructure and tourism can play a significant role in the economy. The North•s tourist attraction can be classified as operative sectors and nature reserves. Operative Sectors These areas of a fundamentally recreational nature enjoy a high receptive capacity and offer an adequate level of services and amenities. Seven operative sectors can be identified in the region: See map (7). Derbendi Khan and Environs drawing its importance from the dam and its lake.

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Sulaimaniyah and Environs: drawing its importance from Serchinar springs, the Qara Dagh natural park and interesting features of Kopi Qara Dagh. Dokan Area: -which is characterized by the presence of the important Dokan lake. The Salahadd . in to Rawanduz Zone: -which is abundant in rivers, springs and mountain ranges as high as 8,000 ft. Parts of this area are already developed as tourist centers (e.g. Salahaddin, Shadlawa, and Gali Ali beg). Further northeast are numerous scenic spots around Rawanduz, Bekhal, Mirgazur and the Barzan area. Rawanduz -Haj Omran axis is a natural extension of the Salahaddin -Rawanduz zone and boasts the highest mountain ranges, some as high as 9,000 ft. with Al-Jura Dagh peak reading more than 11,000 ft. Figures(39) (1}, (2) indicate the projected number of tourists and destination flow for years 1980 and 1985 based on the growth potentials discussed before.

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CX> "' '"'""' ••tuL. lUll LA lllti W I lA t•A M ., .... .,.., .......... ....... ••••• o ... , .. " " ,. TtlltKIY ., •• "• .FIG-1-DESTI NATION FROM ORIGIN YEAR 1.980

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"'<' lAIII DAD 141.100 MOtUL IT.IOO laRIILA ,., • 100 l I RIC U I 40.100 IAtRAII 11.100 OTIIIIU ••• 100 ICERI!LA FIG_2_ DESTINATION P'LOWI FROM ORIIIN YEAR 1.115

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Chapter 4 -The Development Strategy of the Region. 4.1 Introduction In Chapter 1 a general picture of the national plan and objectives was presented followed in Chapter 2 by an overall picture of the region, then in Chapter 3 the planning problems and development opportunities and growth potentialities were presented. This Chapter (4) is devoted to presenting the result of the only study available for the investment strategies, and suggestions for development of the region provided by a group of consultants led by Messrs. Iraq CONSULT and Heymo(40), in 1974-1975. The purpose of presenting this chapter is to point out the major sectors recomnended to be considered for the region. Their study is based on the data and information obtained by an actual survey carried out to overcome the shortage of available statistics. In this study an aggregate paradigm model and submodel were established, the outline of which is shown in (Figure 3). Thus the models were used for analyzing the implications of various investment programmes i.e. sectorial activities for the regional economy. As far as the infrastructure is concerned which included: housing, education, health, utilities and transportation, a set of criteria was established to estimate the future demand and the possible supply of social and physical infrastructure in the light of population growth and the envisaged changes in the standards, policies and qualities of the services.

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population LABOUR SUPPLY & J, labour II WAGES I econom 1 c HOU SE HOLD E XPENDITURE acti vity , HOUSE HOLD DEMC>.ND FOR II\ DEMAND FOR INFRASTRUCTURE BASlC SERViCE FACILITIES II DIRECT EFECTS ON E CONOMY ' physica.l & J social INFLUENC E ON LABOUR FOR C E FIG-3-AGGREGATE MODEL OUTLINE 89

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4.2 The Development Strategies 4.2.1 4.2.2 It was decided that_ the strategies formulated should reflect the real life situation and should be implementable. The following three strategies were considered: The Max Efficiency Strategy The goal of maximum growth would be achieved by investing in the most productive and efficient programmes within each sector and in the most favourable location within the frame work of absorption capacity, potentialities and constraints. In effect this strategy envisages a regional development based on a few growth poles, namely the governorate centres, Mosul, Arbil, Kirkuk, Sulaimaniya and Duhok. The fig. (4) below shows the concentration of urban and rural development in a few main centres. The Egaletarian Strategy The goal of maximum economic growth would be achieved subject to attaining a more equal level of investment distributed throughout the region and by a greater emphasis on building infrastructure rather than factories and agricultural work. This helps the more depressed areas to be more developed and the concentration of industrial investment in the main centre is reduced, so more emphasis on low potential, rural areas and secondary urban center is achieved. Fig. (5} indicates the more even distribution of development over many secondary centers. nn

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4.2.3 The Composite Strategy Because the region already contains two major poles, Mosul and Kirkuk, the goals of maximum economic growth would be then achieved in this strategy subject to the locational criteria favouring Arbil sub-region in particular as a major pole and the high land in general with special emphasis on the Sulaimaniya and Dohuk sub-region so as to counter the growth of Mosul and Kirkuk and to balance regional growth and urbanization. Fig. 6 indicates the concentration of development in selected main and secondary centers to create a growth corridor. 4.3 The Sectorial Investment Pattern A summary of the budgets of each of the three strategies by sectors is shown in Charts (5)(6}(7}. Each of the strategies has the same total investment budget in each of the two five year periods considered. Note: The Figures are based on the availability of budget in the year of study 1974, which is now tripled and with the effect of inflation ignored. The study shows that tourism is expected to be part of the important economic base of the region. 4.4 The Comparison of the Three Strategies. The following notation is used for the three strategies. St. 1 indicating maximum efficiency strategy

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FIG_4_ THE MAX EFFICIENCY STRATEGY CONCENTRATION OF URBAN & RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN A FEW MAIN CENTRES 92

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FIG-5_ • THE EGALETARIAN STRATEGY ,_,. , • MORE EVEN DISTRIBUTION OF DEVELOPMENT OVER MANY SECONDERY CENTRES 9 3

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----------FIG-6-THE COMPOSITE STRAlEGY CONCENTRATION OF DEVELOPMENT IN SELECTED MAIN & SECONDERY CENTRES TO CREATE A GROWTH CORRIDOR 94

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rl :::1 ro rl u (::; H U) rl H +l :::1 H c ::J 0 tJI rl H H ::r: rl H ;... .jJ ro .jJ E-1 U) E U) U) c 0 v Maxjmum Efficiency chart _5_ S i . rat. e g y S ectorial I nves t ment P attern 3 2 0 JOO 2 8 0 2 6 0 2 4 0 220 200 1 8 0 1 6 0 140 120 100 6 0 4 0 20 D JC)80-U5 Investment Alloc:ation DDIIII113 . Investment A llocation 0 rl 01 >-• U) U) U) I H :::1 rl +-' 'd ro 0 10:::1 rl u H U) r.: H 0, H ... U) rl :::1 H H :::1 U) 'HU •.... ).... H 't1 0 , . . r. 0 t.J1 r. rl [ I ro H H :r. H rl , . H .jJ ro U) U) U) c 0 u E galiLarian S t . rate g y ha t 6 lal I n v estm ent c r --Pat. tern 3 2 0 JOO 2 h 0 2 6 0 2 4 0 220 200 HW 160 140 J 2 0 100 8 0 ( , Q 1 0 /.0 0 +rl u , _ U) r. I--)-, :::1 H :-} H 'd 0 ()1 c rl 8 H rl H .p ro U) E U) U) c 0 u Compos i t-e Strate g y h t 7 S e c tor lal Invest C ar -rnent . P a t .tern 95

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4.4.1 4.4.2 St. 2 indicating Egalitarian Strategy St. 3 indicating composite strategy These notations shall be used in comparing strategies in the three following fields. Geographical and Sectorial Distribution of the Strategies Tables (21)(22)(23)(42) summarize the distribution by the three strategies and table {24) shows the distribution by the two 5-year plans. St. 1 governorate center take about 41% of the total national investment and urban sectors become much more important. Only 1/4 of growth is expected in agriculture. Agro-industries and tourism will have more attention. St. 2 table (21)(22){23) shows the growth of depressed areas shall be more and infrastructure develops more. St. 3 District emphasis on the Arbil sub-region by 30% investment increase as compared to St. 1, shall have less investment industrial and agricultural sector than St. 1., and less infrastructure investment than St. 2. Income and Employment St. 1 provides an increase of ID 450 million in the income of the northern region by 1985 and over 200,000 new jobs are expected to be created in the same time period. St. 2 shows 5% less growth than St. 1 in income and employment and greater boost to the region in the first five years.

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4.4.3 St. 3 provides less for certain cities in the region but more for the Mosul and Kirkuk areas. Regional Migration. (Table 25 indicates overall figures related to this. St. 1 Excess rural population amounts to 7.5% and capacity for more rural population amounts to 141,000. The difference might be filled by migration from out of urban area of the region. Urbanization rate is 62.6%, (Map 8) indicates the expected migration pattern. St. 2 188,000 people representing 12.3% shall be in excess by 1985. Rate of urbanization shall be 61% in 1985 compared to 43% in 1970 (Map 9) indicating the migration patterns. St. 3 Similar St. 2 the excess is about 12% and urbanization rate is 69%. (Map 10) indicates the integration pattern. 4.5 Major Market Changes: 4.6 4.6.1 As a corrolary to both economic and migration consideration in evaluating the three strategies, the economic model output provides a picture of the expected trade pattern for the region from major urban center-Mosul, Arbil, Kirkuk and Salaimaniya. (Map 11)(44) summarizes the expected structure of these major market areas by 1985. Summary Assessment of the Three Strategies. The maximum efficiency strategy gives 5% more growth than the other two strategies and the development in economic security independence seems to be greatest under this strategy, together Q7

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4.6.2 4.6.3 its national impact shall be greater. On the other hand this strategy will imply more urbanization, industrialization and development concentrated in the capitals. The Egalitarian Strategy provides the greatest benefit in terms of social progress because of its greatest effect on infrastructure of services development and thus provides greater initial stimulus to the region. The composite strategy is in between and as the Egalitarian concerning economic growth and initial push of development.

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TABLE 21 MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY STRATEGY: SECTORAL AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF INVESTMENT (1975-1985) (ID THOUSANDS) ConstrueTrans-Infra-Agri-Irri-Indus-tion Sma 11 porta-strucZ 0 N E S culture gat ion try Ind. Ind. Tourism tion ture Housing TOTAL 1 Dohuk 15,530 2,361 13,000 2,700 1,200 2,345 1,800 6,013 1,696 46,645 2 Mosul 16,665 1,907 44,700 4,200 1,200 1,250 13,720 22,625 4,322 110,589 3 Arbil 10,871 3,351 25,340 2,700 1,200 750 27,860 11,426 1,460 84,904 4 Kirkuk 16,715 51,504 31,820 2,700 1,200 1,250 22,080 14,154 2,220 143,643 5 Sul aimaniya 12,510 2,870 27,310 3,700 1,200 3,345 3,450 15,693 2,690 72,788 6 Zakho/Amadiya 7,200 3,640 1,640 310 310 39,325 2,770 6,814 524 62,497 7 Agra 6,700 6,354 310 310 2,345 2,290 3,362 470 22,141 8 Rest of Nineveh 15,485 80,805 3,290 310 310 500 33,320 17,651 930 152,598 9 Zibar/Rawanduz/ Choman 6,450 2,954 310 310 37,830 5,290 4,288 57,432 10 Shaqlawa 10,200 1,309 1,640 310 310 41,225 1,260 2,256 700 59,210 11 Koisanjaq 1,000 1,000 300 300 405 1,280 2,414 6,699 12 Makhmour 1,830 500 310 310 2,090 3,485 8,525 13 Pishder/Rania/Dokan 7,600 2,159 540 310 310 8,600 2,800 6,245 58 28,622 14 Shaharbazar/Penjwin 4,200 3,454 540 310 310 7,270 3,110 3,965 352 23,511 15 Halabcha/Derbendi Khan 4,600 16,500 1,640 310 310 29,560 2,900 4,454 1,112 61,386 16 Chemchema 1 6,700 2,361 300 300 1,340 1,655 292 12,948 17 Hawija/Tuz Khurmatu 8,735 103,300 540 . 310 310 17,170 5,747 58 136,170 18 Kalar/Kifri 4,043 15,707 300 300 10,470 2,753 116 33,689 WHOLE REGION 157,000 302,000 152,000 20,000 10,000 176,000 155,000 135,000 17,000 1,124,000

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TABLE 22 EGALITARIAN STRATEGY: SECTORAL AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF INVESTMENT (1975-1985) (ID THOUSANDS) ConstrueTrans-Infra-Agri-Irri-Indus-tion Sma 11 porta-strucZ 0 N E S culture gat ion try Ind. Ind. Tourism tion ture Housing TOTAL 1 Dohuk 10,732 1,093 8,000 1,600 1,200 5,135 1,860 7,828 3,240 40,688 2 Mosu1 11,424 1,054 27,500 1,600 1,200 1,250 12,310 17,374 25,200 98,912 3 Arbil 7,224 2,884 14,000 1,600 1,200 890 27,795 12,475 12,000 80,068 4 Kirkuk 13,074 49,654 20,000 1,600 1,200 1,250 20,980 16,160 16,800 140,718 5 S u 1 aim an i y a 8,982 2,255 18,000 1,600 1,200 6,890 3,565 12,990 11,400 66,882 6 Zakho/Amadiya 4,930 1,462 3,000 310 310 40,945 2,690 13,566 3,000 70,213 7 Aqra 2,930 5,176 1,500 310 310 5,135 2,255 6,308 1,440 25,364 8 Rest of Nineveh 15,172 6,005 7, 500 310 310 500 30,395 35,243 13,560 108,995 9 Zibar/Rawanduz/ Choman 5,580 10,644 1,600 310 310 45,165 5,220 9,291 720 78,840 10 Shaq1awa 6,930 11,700 4,000 310 310 18,765 1,480 4,826 840 49,161 11 Koi sanj aq 1,980 600 1,500 300 300 405 1,110 4,317 2,040 12,552 12 Makhmour 3,370 8,200 2,400 310 310 2,125 6,821 600 24,136 13 Pishder/Rania/Dokan 7,330 1,530 1,500 310 310 10,060 2,750 12,402 3,000 39,165 14 Shaharbazar/Penjwin 4,030 2,350 2,500 310 310 10,170 3,110 9,148 1,200 33,128 15 Ha1abcha/Derbendi Khan 5,080 15,850 1,500 310 310 20,440 3,495 8,749 3,000 58,734 16 Chemchema 1 2,680 1,051 2,500 300 300 1,325 3,973 600 12,729 17 Hawija/Tuz Khurmatu 7,825 102,300 1,500 310 310 17,175 12,064 2,640 144,124 18 Ka1ar/Kifri 5,727 14,219 1,500 300 300 10,360 6,465 720 39,591 WHOLE REGION 125,000 238,000 120,000 12,000 10,000 167,000 150,000 200,000 102,000 1,124,000

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TABLE 23 COMPOSITE STRATEGY: SECTORAL AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF INVESTMENT (1975-1985) (ID THOUSANDS) . ConstrueTrans-Infra-Agri-lrriIndus-tion Sma 11 porta-strucZ 0 N E S culture gat ion try Ind. Ind. Tourism tion ture Housing TOTAL 1 Dohuk 20,240 1,654 14,830 2,200 1,200 3,790 2,075 7,027 1,620 54,636 2 Mosu1 8,182 100 16,310 1,950 1,200 1,300 13,635 12,185 12,600 67,462 3 Arbil 15,732 2,861 26,890 2,700 1,200 870 34,530 13,908 6,000 104,691 4 Kirkuk 6,582 50,272 13,780 1,950 1,200 1,300 23,260 12,755 8,400 119,499 5 Su 1 aimaniya 19,740 2,147 26,880 2,200 1,200 5,168 4,480 11,427 5,700 78,942 6 Zakho/Amadiya 6,100 1,854 6,030 310 310 40,185 2,870 9,802 1,500 68,961 7 Aqra 5,600 5,847 5,150 310 310 3,789 2,800 4,602 720 29,128 8 Rest of Nineveh 12,342 60,954 1,100 310 310 554 32,390 23,485 6,780 138,225 9 Zibar/Rawanduz/ Choman 6,350 2,565 4,380 310 310 41,498 5,295 6,983 360 68,051 10 Shaq1awa 7,600 892 4,380 310 310 29,996 1,950 3,235 420 49,093 11 Koisanjaq 1,900 600 300 300 455 925 3,191 1,020 7,691 12 Makhmour 1,290 100 310 310 3,060 4,386 300 9,756 13 Pishder/Rania/Dokan 10,000 1,631 12,280 310 310 9,375 2,870 9,095 1,500 47 '371 14 Shaharbazar/Penjwin 4,100 2,965 4,600 310 310 8,720 3,220 6,321 600 31,146 15 Ha1abcha/Derbendi Khan 7,500 15,900 8,110 310 310 25,000 3,505 6,527 1,500 68,662 16 Chemchema 1 4,600 1,432 2, 530 300 300 1,325 2,743 300 13,530 17 Hawija/Tuz Khurmatu 4,995 102,780 310 310 16,475 7,587 1,320 133,777 18 Ka1ar/ Kifri 2,147 14,446 1,750 300 300 10,333 3,741 360 33,379 WHOLE REG ION 144,000 269,000 149,000 15,000 10,000 172,000 165,000 149,000 51,000 1,124,000

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TABLE 24 INVESTMENT BUDGET FOR THE THREE STRATEGIES DISTRIBUTED BY SECTOR AND BY TWO 5-YEAR PERIODS I N V E S T M E N T ( ID MILLIONS) Maximum Efficiency Strategy Egalitarian Strategy Composite St r ategy S E C T 0 R 75-80 80-85 Total 75-80 80-85 Total 75-80 80-85 Total Agriculture 59 98 157 50 75 125 56 88 144 Irrigation 152 150 302 129 109 238 139 130 269 Industry 70 82 152 48 72 120 61 88 149 Construction Industry 10 10 20 6 6 12 8 7 15 Sma 11 Industry 4 6 10 4 6 10 4 6 10 Tourism 70 106 176 70 97 167 70 102 172 Transportation 65 90 155 65 85 150 70 95 165 Infrastructure 43 92 135 71 129 200 53 96 149 Housing 5 12 17 35 67 102 8 7 15 TOTAL 478 646 1,124 478 648 1,124 478 646 1,124

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TABLE 25 EXPECTED EXTRA MIGRATION POTENTIAL IN 1985 AS A RESULT OF THE THREE STRATEGIES Rural Population Extra Potential for Out-migration Extra Potential for In-migration Percentage Extra Potential for Out-migration of 1985 Total Rural Popu 1 at ion Urban Population Extra Potential for Out-migration Extra Potential for In-migration Urbanization Rate Maximum Efficiency 111,000 141,000 7.5% 6,000 0 62.6% S T R A T E G I E S Ega 1 i tari an 188,000 64,000 12.3% 7,000 9,000 61.0% Composite 178,000 62,000 12.0% 29,000 31,000 61.0%

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Projection Year 1980 1985 1990 2000 TABLE 26 POPULATION PROJECTION FOR IRAQ 1980-2000 Population Range 13.40 13.97 16.08 17.01 19.32 30.73 23.00 25.00 Percentage Range Rural Urban 35-31 65-69 30-25 70-75 28-25 72-75 30-20 70-80 Urban Population Projection in Mi 11 ions 8.7 9.6 11.2 12.7 13.8 15.2 16.2 20.0

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--.. --.. ......... _____ ,...__...... ----r I I ' " ', " Qadhas w.ith Capa c tty f o r 20,000 or more urban/rura l migrants Mig ratio n Direct t o n MAP 10 -CO/VIPOSITE STRATEGY: EXPE TED M IGRATI O N PATTERN BY 1 ge5 0 10 0 10 20 30 40 s o ----source SOCIO -ECONOMIC FOR DI!VELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN THE NORTH OF IRAQ JQC NORDA

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••• d e Infl u e nce M ajor Tra de Influence Mino r Tra ARBI L •• • , Influe()ce M ajor Tra•,e • • • de Influe nce Minor Tra NIYA SULAIMA ••• d e Infl u e nce Major T r a • • • d e Influe nce Minor Tra KIRKUK ••• de Infl u e nce Major Tra • • • de Influence Mino r Tra MAP -11-TRUCTURE C T E D S EXPE RKET AJOR MA O F MS BY 1985 AREA SOUrCe C STUDIES SOCIO OF TOURISM FOR DEVELOPMEN H OF IRAQ THE NORT m NORDA IQC

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Chapter 5 5. Conclusions and Recommendations 5.1 Conclusions 5.1.1 Iraq by its constitution follows a socialistic economic system and thus to expedite the operation of the socialist transition and to accelerate the economical and social development, Iraq adopts the comprehensive planning technique through formulation of five years plan determining the programme of work in the various sectors within long, medium and short-range objectives and strategies set. There was a sudden jump of allocation amounts for plan projects and raise of capita income strategy in 1973 after nationalization of the oil resources and thereafter 1974 due to the sudden raise of the oil rates which represent, about 50% of the plan income funds. The planning schemes are drawn and produced and their implementation are followed by the central authorities -The Planning Board and the Ministry of Planning. 5.1.2 Iraq had a noticeable regional disparity. Regional planning had not been noticed until 1973 when the regional planning department was formed within the Ministry of Planning. One of the most distinguished studies made for regional planning in Iraq was the socio-economics studies in 1973 through 1975 for the development of tourism in Northern Iraq, which also concerned other sectors. This region had been chosen because it had distinct socio-cultural character (the majority of people in the region being Kurds) and had

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5.1.3 5.1.4 5.1.5 special physical and environmental charactertistics (being the region mostly mountainous with good scenery and clmatic conditions). The strategies presented to develop the region showed that to achieve maximum rate of growth in minimum time the maximum efficiency strategy should be adopted but modified by additional concentration on infrastructure which is the case of the Egalitarian strategy (due to being the northern region (except Mosul and Kirkuk areas) of a very low standard of infrastructure. Arbil City was chosen as the center for the autonomy region, had special attention because of its administrative state on one hand and its location as the door to the major tourist area on the other hand. Thus a new master plan for Arbil was drawn to cope with the large expansion expected which shall be the subject study of the next section. The tourism sector in the study and within the framework of the government's plans has drawn a lot of attention and concentration particularly the Arbil Region which gives an indication of the importance of this sector with respect to Arbil City. This was the reason for me to direct the development of the Arbil/historial citadel as a center for tourism and national heritage which shall be the subject of the second part of this study.

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SECTION II

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SECTION II Development of Arbil City INTRODUCTION The objectives of urban and regional planning contribute essentially to socio-economic changes in society and to the improvement of its physical environment. The growing pace of urbanization has been an important feature of Iraq since 1930 with a 25% urban population increasing to 64% in 1977. (Table ) indicates the historic trend of Iraq urbanization. It is estimated that the urbanization percentage shall reach 75% in 1985.(45) This phenomenon which is most important in the national life should be properly understood so that appropriate policies can be formulated and strategies devised for meeting the ever increasing cha. llenge which large scale urbanization implies, posing problems for housing, employment, urban facilities and the basic infrastructure of the community. Arbil City which is considered to be one of the earlies human settlements in continued existence has suffered from the continuous increase of population from 27,000 in 1947 to 101,779 in 1970 and to 194,000 in 1977 with an estimated population of 250,000 in 1985. There was a sudden rise of population due to immigration after the 11th of March 1970 declaration recognizing Kurdish National Rights and particularly after Arbil was chosen as the center of the atonomy region in 1974. Thus necessitated revising the 1972 master plan in 1976. The aim of this section is to present the planning situation of the City with the 11?

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citadel as an integral part of it, concentrating on the public services situation and problems because of their important role in the development of the city and then making proposals and recommmendations on the plan generally and to a chosen sector around the Qala•a (the subject study) particularly. This section shall cover the following studies: As a start, Arbil •s subregional and local backgrounds shall be presented, followed by the Social and Economic Structure of the City and the public services situation, then the Employment Structure and the land use situation shall be discussed as an introduction to the details of the Master Plan of the City. The Sector surrounding the Qala•a is then studied for the purposes of drawing up a proposal which shall be presented in Part II of this Study. 1 1 ?

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Chapter 1 1. Arbil's local and subregional backgrounds. 1.1 Arbil City in its regional context. 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 Arbil is the capital of the Arbil Governorate, one of the eighteen governorates of Iraq and is the center of the autonomy region of Kurdistan which covers three governorates: Arbil, Dohuk, and Sulaimaniyah. Arbil Governorate covers an area of 15,315 sq.km. i.e. 3.5% of the total area of Iraq. It is situated in the northeast part of Iraq (Map 12). The population of the governorate is (541,456) according to the 1977 census. The region of the Mahafadah is characterized by two types of geographical features: 1.1.3.1 The Mountainous Area This area comprises the rugged mountains along the Eastern boundaries of Iraq. The area consists of folded mountain ranges of limestone with the highest peak in the northeast rising more than 15,000 feet, their general trend is from northwest to southwest between Anatolian plateau on the north and the northwest and Iranian plateau and Zagrous ranges on the east. This area represents 5 percent of all Iraq and occupies 23.370 sq.km. 1.1.3.2 The Sub Mountain Area Mostly lower mountains cover the area that extends northwest to southeast along the Tigris river and is confined between the Eastern bank of the Tigris on the west and the Zagrous mountain on the

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[] UNITS OF AOMIHI S TRATIVE OF IRAQ R E PUBLIC THE LOCATION OF AIIBIL --•u---MAP_ 12_

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1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 east. It consists of several parallel ridges rising in steps from the Tigris towards the east and northeast. The two tributaries of the Tigris river, the great zab and little zab, constitute the administrative boundaries of Arbil, Muhafadah with Sulaimaniya and Kirkuk and Ninevah Muhafadah (see Map 13). Arbil City in its Sub-regional Context. The City is located in the plain named "Arbil Plain••, the plains• length from northwest to southeast is approximately (85 km) while its width is (42 km).(46) The City controls and directs seven administr-ative districts (Qadah•s) and fifteen sub-districts, Nahiyah. All these administrative divisions are under the legislation of Muhafadah center. Besides the connection of paved roads with Qadah, Nahiyah Center of local importances, there is a railroad connection with Kirkuk and Baghdad. It is connected with 5 main roads. -To Kirkuk 92 Km. -To Mosul 88 Km. -To Shaqlawa Haj-Umran 38-135. -To Koisinjek -70 Km. To Makhmour 60 Km.

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.-\ ---, I "" "\. / ....... / MAP -13ARBIL WITHIN ITS REGIONAL CONTEXT 117

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1.3 Brjef Description of the City. 1. 3.1 1. 3. 2 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 Arbil lies between 35.30 Nand 37.18 N latitute and between 43 and 40 E longitude. Arbil is located on flat-plain 415 m above sea level between the two (Zabs valley). The City is divided into two parts by topography. The first is the Qala's on which the oldest parts of the City is situated, a prominent topographical feature of 25 m height with an area of 110,000 sq.m. The second part is the plain on which the new and old buildings dwellings, bazaars, etc. are located. Brief Historical Background. Reputed to be the oldest continuously inhabited town in the world for at least four thousand years. ( 47) The first historical record dates from Neosumerian times, when (Shulji) King of UR who reigned from 2094 to 2047 BC marched against the town and failed and when Shulji's successor, Amarsin (2046-2038 B.C.) conducted a similar campaign in an attempt to subdue the people of Arbil.(48) Nothing is known of Arbil during the next millenium from 2000 until 1000 B.C. From 680 B.C. until the fall of Nineveh in 612 B.C., Arbil was a cultural, religious centre in the region of Esarhadoon and Assurbanepal (Ishtar the Gaddis of Love and War), (Ishtar of Arbil) and (The Great Assur), the National God of Assyria, were situated and worshiped in Arbil. ""

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1.4.5 1.4.6 1.4.7 1.4.8 1.4.9 Along the centuries there were various names used by writers for the City such as Urbilum, Arbilim, Arbeletis, Arbl, Arbaila and Arba-elo (the city of the four Gods).(49) Records show that when 11Ten_ Thousand11 of Xenophon marched through Assyria (401 B.C.), Arbil was the only living city in the Region. Near the town of Arbil, Alexander the Great defeated the Persian Akhminian Kig Darius at the Battle of Ganganela (331 B.C.). From 321 B.C. to 636 A.D. the Seleucides, Parthians and Sassianians ruled Arbil. During most of this period Arbil had some autonomy of independent ruling region. From 640 A.D. to 1200 A.D. Arbil was under Arab Islamic Caliphate region and reached in 800 A.D. its Zenith, being the center of economic activities. The great morgue, markets and buildings covered the plain area. 1.4.10 From the 13th Century with Mongol, Persian, and Turkish conquest, the city was in a steady decline. 1.4.11 In the 19th Century the population of Arbil ranged between 3000 to 6000 most of whom lived in the Qala•s. The expansion in the plain below the Qala•s towards the south-southeast took place in the early part of this Century.(SO) 1.5 Topographical Condition Arbil is situated on the plain which is named Arbil plain as mentioned before and which represents a portion of the sub-mountain area. The plain constitutes a vast basin, consisting of alluvium

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TABEL _ 27_ • T EMPE RA TURE {C)AT ARBIL CITY {197o_1974.) 1 9 7 0 1 9 71 1972 1973 1974 Max Min Mean Max Min Mean Max Min Mean Max Min Mean Max Min Mean JAN 14-. B 2 . 5 2.6 16 . 7 _o. 4 8.1 1o. o -1.1, 1o. o 1 . o 5.5 1o. o 1.6 5.B FEB 17 . o 3.8 1o.f, . 5 1.1 7 . 8 11.8 _2. 8 ft. 5 17. 2 4.1 1o . 6 13. 3 1 . 6 7.4 MAR 2o. 7 6.7 13. 7 2o. o 6 . 6 13.3 16. 6 5 . 6 16.1 19.3 1,.9 12.1 17.8 7.7 17.7 APR 27. 6 11.2 19. 4 2o.3 9.4 u,. B 25. 1 1o. 9 18. o 23.6 9 . 2 16.4 2o. 2 9 . 3 11,. 7 MAY 32.2 11, .1 23. 1 32.5 15.9 24.2 273 12.1 19: 7 32.1 I 15.4 23.7 31. 2 1 f, .2 22. 7 JUN 38.6 18. 1 28. 3 37. o 31.6 34.3 36. 2 17 . 3 26. 3 37.6 17.7 27.6 378 2o. 6 29. 2 JUL I, 1 . 6 21.8 31.7 " 1,1. 3 2o. 7 21. o 41. 4 18.o 29. 7 41. o 2o. 3 3o.6 41.o 24. o 32.5 AUG I, 1.5 21. 4 31 . 4 4o. 7 19. 9 3o.3 4.1. 6 19. 3 3o. 4 4.3 . 5 2o.5 32.o 39. 1 23. 3 31. 2 SEP 3 7.1, 17.o 27.2 39.o 16 . o 27.5 37. 5 16 . 7 27.1 38.2 14..6 26.4 35. 4 21.7 28. 5 OCT 3o.2 11. 3 2o. 7 3o. o 11. 5 2o . 7 33. 9 11. 3 22. 6 33. 2 11.9 22.5 32. 2 16 . 9 24. . 5 NOV 23.7 9.2 16 . 4 2o. o 6 . 3 23 . 1 23. 3 7 . 1 15.2 19 . o 2 . 9 1o. 8 2o . 9 9 . 9 15. 4 DEC 13. 7 1 . 3 7 . 5 11. 0 2 .4. 6.7 12.9 _o.5 6 . 2 14. 5 1 . 5 B.o 14-. o 4.. 3 9.1 +_CENTRE FOR RESEARCH IN FORESTRY _ARBIL 120

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clay and sandstone. There are some valleys which drain the surface water to the two Zabs. Also there are some hills such as Damir Dagh and because the plain, surrounded with mountains from the east, and as a result of its geographical constituents, underground water is available. Ultimately the plain has the greater potential for wheat cultivation than any other plain in the sub-mountain area. 1.6 Climatical Conditions 1.6.1 The climate of Arbil City is Mediterranean with four clearly defined seasons. The summer is hot and dry having 4 drought months (about 30C monthly average for June, July, and August and without rainfall), while the winter is rather cold and rainy (about 7C and 56 mm rainfall as a monthly average for December, January, and February). The two extreme seasons, the hot and dry summer and the wet and rather cold winter, are separated by very pleasant seasons of spring and autumn. Temperature The mean temperature in Arbil during the five years of 1970 to 1974 was around +19C, the hottest months were July and August with a mean temperature of +41C. January and February were the coldest months with a mean temperature of around +7C and an absolute minimum temperature of around 1.11C (see Table 27 and Chart 8).(51 )

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50 40 30 20 70 :---..... ' ... \ # ' ', /. :----// / --'. \ / \ I \ I \ it' \ , \ / \ v [/ I . ' \ \ ... \ ....... I ... \ I .. \ . v I \ . \ I \ .... \ . . , ... / •' . ..,.., . ' .;' . ..... . • ..... ..... l.-"' . . \ . ' ,"' . ' -_ ... ', r-.... _ ... ... .... .. J F M AM J J AS 0 N D CHART-SHighest Max.--Mean Max.---M e an Min . -------Lowest Min .............. . TEMPER ATURE IN AR BIL DURING THE PERIOD 1970 -1974

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1.6.2 1.6.3 The region of Arbil city has a total amount of rainfall in excess of 400 mm. The rainfall period is confined to the eight cooler months {October to May inclusive). In the city, the rainfall is characterized by two kinds of rainfall: the long winter rainfall (December, January, February) is the wetest period of the year, while the rainy period in the spring months (March, April, May) lasts only a few hours. The average rainfall during the five year period of 1970-1974 was 326 mm. The maximum rainfall in 24 hours and the humidity for the five years of 1970-1974 are presented in Table (28) and Chart (9).(52) Humidity Humidity is rather low in summer with an average between 18% to 23% whereas in the winter and spring it reaches 72%. 1.6.4 Wind The prevailing wind in Arbil is the northwestern wind which is the same for the whole country, and has a significant role in the climate of the city. 1.7 Population It is well known that the cities of the developing countries are growing rapidly as a result of natural increase on one hand and by internal migration by the other. The fact is that the growth of the urban population in these developing countries is characterized by a fast rate of growth. Iraq's population increased from 3.3 million in 1930 to 12 million in 1977 and the urbanization percentage increased from 25% in 1930 to 64% in 1977 (see Table 8, page ).

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I ' } ' r r ' ! } TABLE_ 28 RECORDED RAINFALL (in mm) AND IIUMIDITY( %) AT ARBIL FOR THE YEARS 197o 1971 1972 1973 1974. RAIN HUM RAIN HUM RAIN HUM RAIN HUM RAIN HUM mm 96 mm 96 mm " mm 96 mm " JAN 126.7 68. 3 2o. 7 69 58.o 71. 2 35 .I,. 76 . 2 95. 9 72 FEB 15. 7 57 47. 8 58 66. 8 62 97.5 61,... 3 58. 5 56 MAR 37. 6 49. 2 52. 1 54. 1 6o . 5 52. 3 23. o 5o. 2 2.37 . 9 68 . 8 APR 12.1,. 38 17o. o 1,2. 3 45. 8 46 13. 6 44. 6 77. 6 62 MAY 6 . 7 41 3 . 6 4o 52. 4 38. 5 37. 2 42. 3 38. 2 39. 2 JUN --23. 5 --25 22 18 23 ' JUL --22 19 . 6 18 . 4 11, -2o AUG --26. 4 --27 --21 --75.4 -22. 5 SEP --25 -24 -26. 5 --21 -23 OCT --31.2 --31 --28 --24. 6 --3o. 5 NOV 34. 9 48 74. 6 46. 7 1,3. 5 41,. 2 . 25. 6 46. 9 3o . 9 49 DEC 27. 9 66 78. 9 63 .1, 77. 3 59. 1 31. o 53 63 2 +-CENTRE FOR RESEARCH IN FORESTRY-ARBIL AvertJge Rctinfctll in m m 67. 3 5 7 . 2 63 . 9 27. 6 0 0 0 0 0 '1. 9 52 2

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100 80 I f\, I \ I \ '-!-K " ' I 60 t\ v / / / I / ' 40 \ .\ v/ \ \ / I I \ I 20 \ : \ \ I \ I \ I I 0 1'I f--J F M AM J J AS 0 N D CHART_9_ RAINFALL AND HUMIDITY IN ARBIL DURING THE PERIOD 1970-1974 1 2 5

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1.7.1 Population Growth of Arbil City. The case of Arbil City is similar to the majority of other Iraqi cities where the growth of population and immigration has been concentrated. The table below shows the growth of Arbil City for the years indicated. Year 1947 1957 1965 1970 1975 1977 Total 27,036) 39,913) 90,956 107 '776 163,000 193,000 Rate of Increase 4% 19.9% 2.4% 9.9% 10.9% From the table above it can be seen that two periods show a high rate of increase that was due to political reasons, the first was after 14th of July 1958 Revolution (1957-1965) and the second after the 11 March 1970 declaration of Kurdish rights and the choosing of Arbil as the center of Autonomus region (1970-1977). 12F> •

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It is estimated that the population of the City shall be as follows for the purpose of drawing a Master Plan: TABLE 29 Population Rate of Increase 1980 208,476 5% 1985 266,071 5% 1990 323,713 4% 1995 393,849 4% 2000 479,168 4% The above figures are based for 1980-1985 on a continuous increase of 5% then for 1990-2000 the rate will decrease to 4% because of settled position of both the rural and urban areas which will be achieved due to the development plan.

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Chapter 2 -The Social and Economic Structure. 2. Deficiency of data and information about the social, professional and economic structure of Arbil's 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 population makes it difficult to work out a precise sociological analysis of the town. However, the information presented here was obtained from a limited survey which was carried out in 1963 by I the Baghdad municipality(54) will help in finding the general characteristics useful for town planning of most Iraqi cities. Population and Classes. The population of Arbil, similarly to the population of other centres of governorates and all cities in the developing countries is growing mostly by immigration mainly of rural population. The details were presented in Clause 1.7 of this Section. It is noticed that the lower the economic class of population, the higher the percentage of population coming from immigration. 2.1.3 Moslems from 98% of Arbil population with a majority of Kurds. 2.1.4 Three economic classes can be identified from the point of view of family income. 2.1.4.1 Class A -income ID 10-50 accounting for about 75% population. Note: The figures given were in 1963 which estimated to be increased at present to ID 30-70 and tdhe percentage to 60%.

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The professional structure of this class: -manual workers about 45% -office employees about 30% others about 25% 2.1.4.2 Class B-income ID 50-100 (in 1963) and now (70-150) accounting for about 28% in 1963 and is now 30% of the population. Professional structure of this class: Teachers, manual workers and professional men 50% Office employees 35% Others 15% 2.1.4.3 Class C -income over ID 100 in 1963 and now ID 150 accounting for about 5% of the population in 1963 and now 19%. 2.1.5 The professional structure of this class: Professional men Office employees Others 50% 35% 15% In the future the number of Class A members will decrease and Class B will increase. The Class C may maintain its proportion. This is due to the government policy in the socialism procedures and the growth of national income.

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2.1.6 2.1.7 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 The following structure of the economic class in town is anticipated for the future. 1979 1990 2000 Class A Class B Class C 60% 55% 45% 30% 35% 45% 10% 10% 10% Therefore, the above given economic structure of population should be adopted for programming in the development plan of Arbil. These figures might be affected if there were any unexpected change in the immigration and economic conditions. Family and the House. Although there has been a major world wide change in the family pattern. Generally in Iraq the change has been very slow due mainly to the national and religious considerations which we are satisfied with and sticking to. The family constitutes the second element in the structure of society in a great town. The analysis of this social group and institution, as well as its development trend gives the starting point for formulating town planning conclusions. A family in Arbil is as a rule a monogamic family of the patriarchal type. In such a family the following pattern of division of functions and parts dominate:

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2.2.4 2.2.5 The man earns the money and is obligated to provide the family with the means of subsistence. During the day he works and after work he goes to a cafe or club. The women maintain the household and oversee the education of the children; she mostly stays at home. This is a pattern being nowadays partially abandoned and this trend is expected to continue. Through surveys, the following statistics were obtained in 1963 concerning the number of members in households; mostly one family, and one generation households in the three individual economic classes. Class A -Average Class B Average 8-10 persons 7 persons Class C -Average 7 persons The following size of the average household in Baghdad can be applied as well as to Arbil, as a basis for programming. Class A -8 persons Class B -6 persons Class C -6 persons This is based on the following assumption. It is valid for families in large cities. The sociological investigation proved that the family in the large cities is a small one.

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2.2.6 2.2.7 -The previous relationship also formulated in the sociology of the great towns •. The tendency to restrict the number of children increases in large towns and with the higher educational and professional level of parents. This is caused by the change over to the urban-condition of life, pressure of demands, tendency toward a higher standard of living, emancipation drive of women. -The change over of women to professional work is a worldwide evolutional tendency. Similarly the phenomenon of reduction of the number of children. In Iraq it is foreseen that in 1990 25-35% of the married women will work professionally away from home therefore the reduction of number of children is also predicted. -It is also observed that in the higher economical classes (B&C), the percentage of women working away from home is also higher. Because of the preceding reasons the average number of people in a household and family will decrease in comparison to the present situation. According to tradition, the families in Arbil and Iraq in general occupy a one family house, and the wishes of the population encountered in some surveys indicate the continued popularity of the one family house. Only a small percentage of families in Iraq live in multi-family houses. The present population inhabiting a one family home has neither the experience nor basis for judging life in a high rise building. However, at present the government policy is to encourage high density residential

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2.2.8 2.2.9 blocks, including multi-storey residential buildings of 3-4 stories and recently a decree(55) was issued to allow dividing housing plots to smaller areas of 100-200 sq.m. to limit max. plot to 800 m 2 in order to limit the expansion of cities and insure better services. -It is estimated that in the year 2000, 30% of married women will work away from home. It is foreseen that in their families a general tendency to live in multi-storey houses will appear, because keeping up a one family house requires a large income which cannot be provided by a small family. In this situation it appears necessary to introduce at least 10% of high rise buildings for dwelling purposes and also for service trades. In the remaining part of the Qala•s the residential building should be based on one family houses. A model unit/neighborhood unit/of high buildings should be designed. They should be adapted to climatic and environmental conditions and they should be outfitted with balconies with rooflets, terraces, porches and similar elements which would replace the present facilities and conveniences of the one family houses. 2.2.10 The present one family home is in the form of one and two storey houses, and occasionally three story. The one storey houses are usually connected with the Class A population, and two and more storey houses with the Class B and C populations.

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2.2.11 In the course of a field survey the following data concerning the average number of rooms per family was established. In Class A -3 Rooms Class B -4 Rooms Class C -5 Rooms and more In the planning, four rooms as the average number in one house should be listed for the assumed size of a family of 6 persons. In further programming, the size of flats should be based on the family structure. The following structure of families is foreseen from the point of of the number of members in the family. Families below 4 persons 20% Families of 4-5 persons 25% Families of 6-7 persons 30% Fami 1 ies of 8-9 persons 15% Families of 10 persons 10% 2.2.12 The one family dwelling of the European type/detached/, semi-detached or the inner courtyard dwelling of the traditional Arabic type should be accepted as three basic types to be designed.

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2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 The Neighborhood Unit. According to observations and interviews carried out among families and among employees of institutions, the existing districts developed to a high degree, spontaneously, they have homogeneous type, and on that way selection of economic classes is going on, these settlement consist of one family house erected on plots of different size. Many neighborhoods, in particular those recently developed, inhabited by a population belonging to Class A, show considerable differences in respect to municipal sanitation, recreation facilities and basic services. In neighborhood units of similar economic standards the process of adaptation of immigrated population is going on more slowly. Modern town planning and sociology abandon the idea of creating homogeneous neighborhood units among other units of the same economic standard of population. The idea which endeavors to combine the tendency of people to free choosing their neighbors in the social life with the necessity of counteracting formation of social structure. Therefore both residential and neighborhood units are assumed as heterogeneous dwelling units, consisting of a population of various economic standards, and the housing units are assumed as homogeneous units i.e. composed of families of equal economic standards. The composition of residential areas would be based on principles of a uniform class for housing groups based

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2.3.6 2.3.7 subsequently on children playground and the mixed classes A-B or B-C for neighborhood unit based subsequently on two primary schools for boys and girls mixed. The neighborhood is foreseen for 2000 to be composed of: Size of Plots % of Plots Class A 100-200 sq.m/average 150 45% Class B Class C 200-400 sq.m/average 300 400-800 sq.m/average 600 45% 10% In connection with future changes in family, change-over of women to professional work away from home and the generalization of a metropolitan style of life -a growth of demands must be foreseen in respect to recreation and sporting facilities/gardens, parks, training fields, bathing establishment etc. Wishes of this kind were advanced in family interviews by 60% of families in Class A, over 60% in Class B and 80% in Class C. Areas should be reserved within the neighborhood units for future nursery schools, institutions of child care, restaurants and shops for larger requirements than those existing now. In the future decades an immense increase of population demands for these facilities is expected, whereas at present they do not exist at all. The residential areas are divided into the following units: housing units to accommodate about 600 persons or 60-100 houses and to contain also children playgrounds, nurseries and some shops.

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Neighborhood units comprising 120-160 housing units for 5,000-10,000 persons and to contain primary schools, market, playgrounds, kindergartens, and a clinic. Residential units which group the neighborhood units for 10,000-50,000 persons and to contain secondary schools, central market, administration and health departments, and playground and parks.

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Chapter 3 -3. 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 Existing Situation of Public Services in Arbil Utilities Water Supply The great Zab is the main source of water supply in Arbil City. Pipelines bring the water from Ifraz Village which is located to the northwest of the City. In addition to the water resources coming from the great Zab, there are 26 Artesian wells. The total output capacity from lfraz project is approximately 15,000 cubic meters (3,300,000 gallon) per day while the total output from / Artesian wells is 7,920 cubic meters (1,750,000 gallon) per day. The gross total from both is 5,050,000 gallons per day i.e. an average of 31 gallons per person per day. This is low when compared with the countries average which is 75-100 gallons per day per person. (56) Some areas in the City are not connected to the network and most lines have a dead end without provision for looped connections which would ensure uninterrupted servcies. The government has recently awarded a contract to supply 5 million gallons per day to be completed in 1980 to raise the average per person to 50 gallons/day. Sewage The City hasn't a sewage system, as yet there is no overall storm water drainage system in the city except for a few lines both in the old part and in the newly built up area. This existing network 138

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3.1.3 3.1.4 3.2 3.2.1 collects the storm water and discharges it into the Arbil Valley. There is an urgent need to construct a complete sewage system. Electricity The main source of electricity of Arbil City is Dibis Electricity station. Overhead transmission lines operating at 132,000 volts and terminate at a sub-station situated in the southwest section of the City. Fourteen mega watts of electricity cover the demand of Arbil at present. At present, local authorities plan to construct a new transformer station with a capacity of 25 megawatts to cover future needs until 1985. Storm Water Drainage There is not a complete system for water drainage. The existing surface drainage to the Chay which also collects the rainwater of the outskirt areas of Arbil City. In winter time with the heavy rain the Chay will be flooded. The plan is to construct a protective canal to collect the storm water to the east of the City at 35 km from the sixtieth road. Educational Service Educational Schools and Institution The following presentation of the educational situation in Arbil includes also a brief description of the educational system for each institut1on. All statistics except if mentioned different have been taken from the annual abstract statistics for 1978.

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3.2.1.1 Nurseries accept children of 40 days old up to fours years of age, the elder children are prepared here for the pre-primary stage Kindergarten Iraq had in 1978 {30) nurseries, Arbil City has no nurseries. 3.2.1.2 Kindergartens Kindergartens accept children between the ages of four and six, they are in two levels: the first is kindergarten and the second is a preparatory grade, in which children are prepared for the primary stage. The number of kindergartens in Iraq totaled 333 in 1978 with a total of 67,265 children representing 8.6% of population of kindergarten age and 2,862 teachers while percentage of children in the age of 4-5 is 6.5% of population. Arbil Governorate has 15 kindergartens with 1,214 children i.e. 2.4% of the age population. Arbil City had 5 kindergartens with 540 children representing 2.8%. The percentages are very low compared to European standards which is 60%-70% and compared with Kuwait which is 30%. 3.2.1.3 Primary Schools The study period in these schools is six years and the graduates are accepted to the intermediate schools. In 1978, primary education became obligatory.{57)

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The following table indicates information concerning the primary schools for the years 1978/1979. TABLE 30 Ratio No. of No. of new Regist. No. of Pupils/ Schools No. of Pupils in 100 in 1000 Teachers Teacher Male Female Total % Iraq 10,560 1,400 1,060 2,460 20.4 646 89,148 28 Arbil Governorate 931 57 39 96 18 32 4,307 23 Arbil City 115 19 13 32 18 10 1,160 27 The above table shows need for more primary schools in the region and Arbil City. Sixty percent of the schools building are not adequate. Only one primary school is situated in the citadel. 3.2.1.4 Secondary Schools This stage combines the intermediate stage of three years duration after primary school and three years of preparatory stage after the intermediate. The preparatory stage has two sections: scientific and literary.

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The following table shows the situation of this stage in 1978/1979. TABLE 31 No. of new No. of Stud. for Ratio No. of in 1000 new Stud. 4th Year Teacher No. of % of 1st Inter. Prep. in No. of to Schools Male Female Total in 1000 1000 Teacher Student Iraq 1,579 550 232 782 6.5 2,134 66.7 25,254 30 Arbi 1 Governorate 77 17.6 5.1 22.7 4.2 7 1.2 753 30 Arbil City 34 8.1 2.9 11.0 6.0 3.5 .6 400 28 Forty percent of the buildings are in bad condition which needs to be replaced. The percentage of population of 13-18 years of age is 12% and this shows that there is a need of more secondary schools. Preparatory stage graduates are eligible to enter a University of Technical Institution.

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3.2.1.5 Vocational Schools The student passing the intermediate stage can be accepted in vocational schools, which are of three types: industrial, agricultural and commercial. The duration of study is 3 years after intermediate school. The following table indicates the situation for the year 1978/1979. TABLE 32 No. of Students in 1000 No. of Schools Male Female Total Co!TITlercial Industrial Agricultural Iraq 36 12 48 39 45 25 Arb i 1 Governorate 3.17 48 7.6 2 2 2 Arbil City 1.5 .30 1.8 1 1 1 The number of vocation a 1 schools are very low and need to be increased. Total -109 6 3

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3.2.1.6 Teachers Training Schools The duration of study is three years after intermediate school. There are 33 of such schools in Iraq with a total of 16,064 students, two of these schools are in Arbil City with 396 students. 3.2.1.7 Teachers Training Institution The duration of study is 2 years after secondary preparatory stage. There are 13 such institutes in Iraq with 4,448 students among which 1 is in Arbil with 150 students. 3.2.1.8 Technical Institutes These institutes accept graduates of the preparatory stage. The duration of study is 2 years including 2 summer training programmes. There are 10 fields of study such as administration, agricultural, technological •..•• etc. The total number of students in these institutes in 1978/1979 was 13,437. There are two institutes in Arbil, one is the technological and the other is agricultural. The total number of students is 350. The plan is to reach 3000 students by 1990. 3.2.1.9 University Stage There are 6 established universities in Iraq with one recently formed. The total number of students in all the universities is 78,280 students. Two of the universities are in the northern region, one in Mosul and the other in Salaimaniyah. All universities have graduate studies for Master's and Doctor's Degrees. Arbil has no University Stage studies.

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3.2.1.10 General Remarks The distribution of schools in the City is unequal. The majority are concentrated at the center of the city. Many schools are located on the main roads, especially primary schools which is not satisfactory. -The design and situation of most of the buildings are very poor and two or more of 90 percent of the schools share one building. Thus the situation is very inadeqaute which must be treated in the master plan and scheme of Arbil City. Public Libraries In 1975 there were 108 libraries in Iraq with a total of 704,908 books, seven of the libraries were in Arbil Governorate. This number increased in 1977 to nine with a total of 55,000 books. The largest is in Arbil City which was founded in 1943 starting with 4,000 books increasing to 22,000 in 1975 and now has 27,000 books.(58) The existing library is inadequate to cover the needs of Arbil inhabitants, considering the average of one library for each 50,000 inhabitants. There is an immediate need of three more libraries of approximately 500 sq.m. each to be distributed over the sectors of the City. I have suggested one central specialized library to be formed in the ancient Qala•s for the Kurdish culture and heritage, attached to the Kurdish Academy. Also it is suggested that a central general library for the City with an average of one to two volumes per capita with a building of 10,000 sq.m. should be constructed.

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3.2.3 Youth Centre Youth centres in Iraq aim at developing the culture, sports, and arts of the youth. In Iraq, there are 81 youth centres, 14 youth hostels, 78 sport clubs, and 5 youth scientific centres. There are 3 youth centres in the Arbil Governorate, one of these is in Arbil City established in 1971. As the age group of youths (15-29) years is about 27 of the population and considering a youth centre should accommodate approximately 2000 young people, the necessity for constructing another centre is clear. 3.3 Health Service In 1978 Iraq had 200 hospitals with a total of 24,697 beds. This averages 486 inhabitants per bed, which represents a normal situation in Iraq as compared to developing countries and is good compared to Arab countries. However, this is four times the number of inhabitants per bed for developed countries who average 120 inhabitants per bed. The total number of doctors in Iraq is 5,300, giving an average of 2,264 inhabitants per doctor which is high compared to 750 per doctor in developed countries. In the Arbil Governorate the number of hospitals is 10 with 1,033 beds representing an average of 522 inhabitants per bed and 90 doctors averaging 6000 persons/doctor. In Arbil City the number of hospitals is 3 with 700 beds averaging 260 persons/bed and 60 doctors averaging 3000 persons per doctor. The situation of hospitals and beds at present is satisfactory, however considering 300 person/bed and 1,500 person/doctor, Arbil is in need of more hospitals for

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3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 future expansion and need an additional 60 doctors at once. The location of the existing hospital for chest diseases is not convenient and should be transferred to a better location with better siteing and fresh air, Salahadeen road would be an excellent location. Religious Institutions Mosques There are 78 mosques in Arbil distributed over all the area, the numbers and sizes are satisfactory according to the Iraqi standard of one mosque for each 16,000 inhabitants. Churches There is one church in Arbil which is sufficient for the christian inhabitants which is not more than 2000 persons. Cemeteries There are 6 cemeteries within Arbil City covering an area of 12 hectares. The main cemetery is at the centre with an unfavourable view but lacks plant coverage and green areas. It is suggested that two new sites in the south and the east replace in part the existing cemeteries on the basis of 0.5 m 2 per inhabitant for immediate use, expanded to 5 m 2 / person for future.

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3.5 Public Entertainment and Recreation 3.5.1 3.5.2 Museums Iraq being the cradle of civilization has many valuable antiques and archeological sites. The development of museums might correspond with the increasing cultural level and development of tourism. There are 13 museums in Iraq with about 300,000 visitors yearly. Arbil has one museum only, established in 1968 displaying about 540 antiques and sharing the central public library. The suggestion is to construct a new museum on the Qala's site to match the development of it as a center of tourism and heritage. The design of this project was a part of my thesis/project in 1976. Also a folk museum and a natural history museum of the northern region were suggested in my proposal. Clubs, halls, cinemas, theaters and sports grounds. There are six clubs in Arbil, three of them professional, two as sports clubs and one for the community which works satisfactorily. There is one multi-purpose hall in Arbil for conferences, concerts theatre. I have suggested in my thesis project a cultural hall of 1,000 cpacity with an amphitheatre of 500 capacity in the Qala's. There are three cinemas in Arbil adequate but in very poor condition however there will be the need for three others by 1990.

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3.6 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 There will be a need to construct three halls on the basis of one hall for each 48,000 habitants, allowing 10,000 m 2 site for each distributed among the sub-centres of the City. Arbil lacks fine art gallery, which I have in this study. -The green areas in Arbil City consist of parks in addition to the private gardens of dwellings. There are 6 parks and there will be a demand for more parks with better locations based on the standard of 0.5 hectares per 5,000 habitants. There is only one sport ground including a swimming pool situated in the southern part of the City. There is an immediate need of another playground in the northern part of the City. Conclusion The existing public facilities as presented shows that it will require a considerable effort to overcome the shortages of most of the facilities and public services in the City and also to cope with the expansion of the City. However, immediate measures have to be taken to establish a sewage disposal and drainage system together with expansion of the water supply and to renew the existing educational schools which are in poor condition and also to fulfill the need of the health service. The study given in this chapter is considered as integrated part of the study in Chapter 4, for calculating the land use requirements. NOTE: The situation concerning the utilities in the Qala's itself shall be presented in the next section 3.

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Chapter 4 4. The Employment Structure and Land Use Situation. 4.1 Employment For the purpose of presenting the distribution of the economically active population, the activity fields have been grouped in three sectors: Sector 1 comprising (agriculture & forestry)(livestock) Sector 2 comprising (Manufacturing Industry), (Electricity and Water), (Building and Construction). Sector 3 comprising (Trade, Restaurant, Hotels), (Transport, Communication, Storage), (Community, Social, Personal services). The informations for the year 1975 for the City of Arbil has been taken from the documents (unpublished) of Arbil's Master Plan prepared in the General Directorate of Planning and Engineering. The rest of the information is taken from centered statistical organization (CSO) Annual Statistics.

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4.1.1 Employment distribution of Arbil in 1975 based on population of 163,000 and in 1977 based on population of 194,000 is as follows: TABLE 33 1975 1977 Active Sector % of Total % of Active % of Total % of Active PoEulation PoEu 1 at ion PoEulation PoEulation PoEulation Sector 1 3,328 2.02 24.8 1.57 6.66 Sector 2 1,784 1.1 13.3 7.0 30.01 Sector 3 8,302 5.1 61.9 14.9 63.33 --Total 13,414 8.22 100.0 23.27 100.00 4.1.2 The sub-sector employment percentages of the active employment for Arbil 1975 and 1977 is as follows: TABLE 34 1975 1977 Active Percentage Sub-Sector Population of Act.PoE. Population Rate --(Livestock 1,002 7.5% 1,000 2.16% Sector 1 -(Agriculture 2,326 17.3% 2,041 4.5 % &Forestry. Total 3,328 24.8% 3,041 6.66%

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TABLE 34 (Continued) 1975 1977 Active Percentage Sub-Sector Population of Act.Pop. Population Rate --( Manufacturing ( Industry 1,149 8.6% 4,500 9.86% Sector 2 -( ( Electricity ( and Water 218 1.6% 296 0.64% ( ( Building & ( Construction 418 3.1% 8,901 19.51% --Total 1,784 13.3% 13,697 30.01% ( Trade Hote 1, ( Res. 2,568 19.2% 4,789 10.6% ( Transport, Storage 1,293 9.6% 2,750 6% Sector 3 -( ( Finance, ( Insurance 184 1.4% 328 0.72% ( ( Community ( Services ( Social and ( Persona 1 4,257 31.7% 1,027 46.11% Total 8,302 61.8% 28,903 63.33%

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4.1.3 4.1.4 Comparison of Arbil •s employment ratios with total and urban Iraq employment. TABLE 35 % of Active Total Population Active Population Sector Sector Sector Women in Mill Rate Ratio 1 2 3 Ratio --Total Iraq. (1977) 12 3 25% 32.7% 21% 46.3% 17% Urban (1977) 7.647 1. 763 23% 9% 26.8% 64.2% 10% Arbil (1975) .163 .0134 8.22% 24.8% 13.3% 61.9% 2% Arbil (1977) .194 .0456 23.51% 6.66% 30.0% 63.33% 7.3% The figures above show that the Sector 1 ratio of 24.8% was very high compared to that for the urban average of 9% and compared to the Sector 2 ratio which was 13.3%. This is due primarily to the development of the area in agriculture as a large poultry project was completed and the Sector 2 projects were still incomplete. The figures in 1977 were 6.6% for Sector 1 and 30% for Sector 2 which represents a noticeable rise in the industry employment.

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4.1.5 4.1.6 4.2 4.2.1 The Plan for the year 2000 is to have the employment ratio in Sector as 35% and. to increase the total employment ratio from 8.2% in 1975 and 23% in 1977 to 30%. Concerning Sector 3, it is noted that the subsectors ratio related to tourism in Arbil is higher than other urban areas, because Arbil is the gate for the tourism region. As regards to the community and administration services ratio the high ratios of 31.7% in 1975 and 46.11% in 1977 represents the development in this sector because Arbil was chosen as the center of an autonomy region-i.e. the center of administration activities. The plan is to reduce this ratio to about 30%-35% in the year 2000. It is noted that the woman participation ratio is a very low 7% as compared to other urban centres of 10% to 17% in Iraq. This is mainly due to social and religious reasons. This ratio is expected to increase to 10-15%. The administrative sector has the largest share of (40%-50%) of the total women employment. Land Use Situation General Existing Land Use Situation see Map 14. 4.2.1.1 The centre of the City covers 65 hectares, 12 hectares is the area of the Qala's which shall be studied in the next section. The center is bounded by the first ringroad. The central part is comprised mainly of commercial activity centres i.e. shops and markets in addition to governmental

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buildings and very high density housing. The streets are narrow, the land value is very high ID.20-100/m 2 . This part lacks open spaces parking areas. 4.2.1.2 The second part is located between the first ringroad and the second crescent. It comprises 1st and 2nd type of high and medium density housing with shops and markets along the main street with some governmental buildings and small parks. 4.2.1.3 The third part is between the second ring road and the 60 m ring read. This is mainly a residential area of medium density with broad streets. 4.2.1.4 The fourth part is beyond the 60 m st. where the residential area is of low density. The industries are also located in this area on the northern and southern sides. 4.2.1.5 There are two constraints for any expansion, one on the north along the Salahadden road due to the poultry project covering 1000 hectares, the second to the North-West between Ankawa and Mosul road 4.3 4.3.1 which is allocated for a military camp. Specific Land Use Situation Civic Centre The administrative area is located at the centre starting adjacent to the Qala towards the Sixtieth St. North-West direction. At present there are 30 public buildings in the area, many of them in poor condition which should be repaired or rebuilt. The complex of the executive and legislative councils for the autonomy region is under construction.

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4.3.2 The future need of land for this center till year 2000 is calculated upon the Criteria of 0.8 m 2 /person or 11-12 m 2 per year employer in the Sector 3. Thus, if the employment table presented in 4-1 is consulted the areas required for this center and public building locations shall be as follows: 1975 1980 1985 1990 2000 4.8 Hect. 8.5 Hect. 13.5 Hect. 22 Hect. 40 Hect. There will be in addition to the main civic center, sub-district administrative centres. Commercial Area There are about 1700 shops in Arbil, distributed mainly in the centre as suqs•, the rest in the district centres and neighbourhoods. The future need of land for commercial regions is calculated on the base of 4 m 2/inhabitants distributed among the centre 40%, residential districts center 25% and residential neighbourhood areas 35%. The following table shows the areas needed till year 2000 in hectares.

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TABLE 36 Total In Year Population At Centre In Sectors Neighbourhood 1975 163,000 26 16.25 22.75 1980 208,000 33.25 20.75 29.0 1985 266,000 42.50 26.50 37.25 1990 323,000 51.75 32.50 45.25 2000 480,000 76.75 48.0 67.25 4.3.3 In Chapter 3, the social and public services conditions were presented in detail, so this clause shall be devoted to final future requirements of hand. 4.3.3.1 Educational Services The following scales are considered for calculating the number and land areas required for the schools till year 2000. -1 Nursery for each 100 children/5000 pop. with 2000 m 2 -1 Kindergarten for each 5000 pop. with 3000 m 2 . 1 Primary school of 12 classes for each 25,000 pop. with 6000 m 2 .

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-1 Intermediate school for each 5,000 pop. with 10,000 m 2 -1 Preparatory school for each 10,000 pop. with 12,000 m 2 Therefore the No. and areas required shall be as in the following table. (37) TABLE 37 (Numbers and Areas in Hectares) 1980 1985 1990 2000 No. Area No. Area No. Area No. Area Nursery 41 8.2 53 10.6 64 12.8 96 19.2 Kindergarten 41 12.3 53 15.9 64 19.2 96 28.8 Primary 83 49.8 106 63.6 129 77.4 192 115.2 Intermediate 41 41 53 53 64 64 96 96 Secondary (Prep.) 20 24 26 31.2 32 38.4 48 57.6 ---Total 135.3 174.3 211.8 316.8 -The other educational schools such as vocational, teachers training and technical institute etc. are discussed in clauses 3.2.1.5 -3.2.1.8 also. 4.3.3.2 Health Service The scale is as follows: Hospitals 6 beds for each 1,000 pop. of 100 m 2 /bed (whose scale is 10 bed/1000. 1rn

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Health Centres: 1 for each 25,000 of 5,000 m 2 area. Popular Clinic: 1 for each 25,000 of 3,500 m 2 area. According to above scales, the future requirements shall be as follows: TABLE 38 1980 1985 1990 No. Area No. Area No. Hospital (beds) 1,248 12.5 1,596 16 1,938 Health Centres 8 4 10 5 13 Popular Clinic 8 2.6 10 3.5 13 Total 19.3 24.5 4.3.3.3 Open Spaces and Parks Area 19.3 6.5 4.5 30.3 The scale is 10 m 2 /person, 4 m 2 in residential districts and 6 m 2 for parks. According to above scale the requirements shall be: Year 1980 1985 1990 2000 Area in Hectare 208 266 323 480 Population 208,000 266,000 323,000 480,000 2000 No. Area 2,880 28.8 19 9.5 19 6.7 45 11C I'\

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4.3.3.4 Cemeteries 4.3.4 4.3.5 Based on the rate of .5 m 2 /person the requirement shall be: 1980 1985 1990 2000 Roads and Streets 10.4 Hectares 13.3 Hectares 16.2 Hectares 24 Hectares The scale is about 20%-25% of the urban area or 25 m2/capita. So the requirements shall be: 1980 1985 1990 2000 Uti 1 ity 320 Hectares 665 Hectares 807.5 Hectares 1200.0 Hectares The scale for the area required for electrical line right of ways, sewage and water treatment is 1 m 2 /person. So the requirement shall be: 1980 1985 1990 2000 20.8 Hectares 26.6 Hectares 32.3 Hectares 48.0 Hectares

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4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 Residential Areas (Housing) The Existing Situation (1975)(60) -There were 17,017 families in Ar.bil residing in 14,524 residential units which means that there are 2,500 families sharing one house unit. -71% of the houses are self owned. 70% of the rental houses average 10.20/month. -The sizes of houses are 39.7% 24.7% 35.6% Average 2 room houses 3 room houses 4 rooms and more 3-1 room/house -25% of the houses are poor structurally. The population increases are as follows: 1975-80 45,000 average of 10,000 1980-85 58,000 average of 12,000 1985-90 57,000 average of 12,000 1990-95 70,000 average of 16,500 1995-2000 85,000 average of 18,000 person/year person/year person/year person/year person/year The above average figures indicate that Arbil by the year 2000 will have an approximate increase of 270,000.

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4.4.3 4.4.4 4.4.5 if average of 6 person/family is considered then the additional residential units required shall be: 1980-85 2,000/year x 1985-90 2,000/year x 1990-95 2,500/year x 1995-2000 3,000/year x Total Deficiency Add deficiency mentioned above 5 5 5 5 = = = = 10,000 10,000 12,500 152000 47,500 22500 50,000 The distribution of income levels was given in Chapter 2, articles 2.1.4 and 2.1.6. The plot areas considered are as follows: 1st Region for Class A 2nd Region for Class B 3rd Region for Class C 100-200 m 2 200-40 0 400-800 30% -35% 40% -45% 20% -25% From the above figures the required additional residential housing areas required shall be about 1,250 Hect. based on 250 m 2/unit and 42 sq.m per person. This makes the total housing area required 2,016 Hect. in the year 2000.

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4.4.6 4.4.7 4.4.8 The density measures used are as follows: High density Medium density Low density 200 persons/hectare and more 150 persons/hectare 100 persons/hectare It is considered that some plots will be allocated for multi-storey residential purposes. It is estimated that the area needs for housing shall be: Area/person of housing Unit m2 Area per person of Neighborhood Unit m2 Region 1 8.75 -10 25 Region 2 12 14 40 Region 3 20 66 The average is 42 m 2 /person for the above bases, the residential area required shall be in Hectare: Year Area 1980 873.6 1985 111.2 1990 1356.6 2000 2016

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4.5 Conclusions 4.5.1 In the future plan of Arbil, more chances for employment in Sector of Manufacturing Industry should be provided to raise its proportion from 13.3% of the economically active population to 35%. 4.5.2 The additional land use requirements till year 2000 are surnnarized as follows: TABLE 39 (Areas in Hectares) Admin is-trative Cornnerc i a 1 Educated Health Open Year Housing Sector Sector Services Services Spaces Roads -Com. Ut i1 i ty 1980 250 8.5 83 135.3 19.3 208 520 10.4 20.8 1985 250 13.5 108 174.3 24.5 266 665 13.3 26.6 1990 315 22.0 130 211.8 30.3 323 807 16.2 32.3 2000 275 40.0 192 316.8 45.0 480 1200 24 218.0 Note: Total housing areas required in Year 2000 is 2016 hectares. 11':"

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Chapter 5 5. Master Plan of Arbil City 5.1 5 .1.1 5.1.2 5 .1.3 As mentioned before, due to the immigration increase, the fast change of the economic base of the City, particularly after Arbil was chosen in 1974 as the centre of the autonomy region of Northern Iraq, more of the national budget was allocated for the development of industry, administrative facilities, public services, etc. Also in the region there were basic changes in the development plan of the transport network including roads, railways, airways and expressways in addition to the concentration on the development of the tourism in the summer resort areas in the governorate. This necessitated a new Master Plan in 1975 which shall be briefly presented in this Chapter. The information and data given in the previous chapters of this sector were the basis of the plan. In this study I shall contribute to the analysis of the district surrounding the Q .ala and suggest a sector plan for it which shall be presented in Part II of this study. The General Goals of the Master Plan: To raise the level of the social and physical environment to create suitable conditions for increasing production and investment. To limit the unplanned expansion of the city by forcing a planned expansion. To provide people with a respectful, comfortable, and healthy environment.

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5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 Particular Principles and Goals of the Plan Study of the City within the region as its center of administration in general, and in particular the effective nearby regions within 10 kms. from the City and directly related and within 30-50 km. not as directly related but pertinent. Also a study of the connection to other cities in the region such as Kirkuk and Mosul. Study the existing situation and problems and find solutions. To increase the cities efficiency and capacity for regular and planned development and expansion to cope with the population increase through: Providing new employment opportunities in all sectors and to raise the income level resulting in better economical and social conditions. Organizing the residential areas by dividing it into clear house units, and neighbourhood units with all required commercial, educational and health services. -Setting a well-planned distribution of residential densities. Improving the existing public services and increasing their efficiency. Increasing the efficiency of the internal roads and the roads connecting to other cities. Developing the Qala and its surrounding part of the City considering its historical value and touristic potentialities. 1 6 7

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5.2.5 Improving the central part of the City which represents mostly the cities administrative and commercial centre. 5.3 Expansion Directions and Constraints (See Figure 7-11) There are five main road axis for expansion possibilities which are discussed here giving advantages and disadvantages of each. 5.3.1 Mosul Axis (West) 5.3.1.1 Advantages It is near the center where the central executive administrations are located. It is the main existing gate of Arbil. -The land is almost level. -It is far from the polluted areas and in the prevailing wind direction. -A large forest is situated in this direction which could be used as park. -It represents a natural extension of the City. Connection to Acra and Duhok, part of the autonomy region, lies in this direction. 5.3.1.2 Disadvantages and Constraints situation of the military camp which limits the expansion to one side of the axis to the southwest. The area is of good agricultural potential which effects the economic base. 1 c 0

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5.3.2 Shaqlawa Axis (North) 5.3.2.1 Advantages The axis connects the City to the touristic region of the governorate. -Low cost of land. 5.3.2.2 Disadvantages and Constraints 5.3.3 -The existence of the poultry project which covers 4,000 hectares on both sides of the axis which completely closes the possibility of expansion. -The land is hilly. Koisinjak Axis (East) 5.3.3.1 Advantages It represents a good connection to an important part of the governorate i.e. Koisinjak which leads to Sulaimaniyah and Dokan lake. -Near the center of the City and of good residential potential. -Low cost of land. Far from the polluted areas. 5.3.3.2 Disadvantages Unlevel and hilly land. Surrounding storm water collecting area which needs small dams and canals to overcome that.

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5.3.4 Kirkuk Axis (South) 5.3.4.1 Advantages -It is an open area for development and the other main gate of Arbil from Kirkuk. -The land is level. More employment opportunities as the second industrial region is located nearby. 5.3.4.2 Disadvantages 5.3.5 Existence of the storm water canal (Katawi) which should be controlled. Partly polluted from the industrial area. Makhmoor Axis (South West) Although the land is level and not costly this axis is closed for expansion due to the suggested new railway complex. Also the area is the most subject to pollution in the City due to the existence of the brick and asphalt factories, planned sewage treatment and disposal locations. -The location of the Katawi canal of the storm water is nearby the axis. 5.4 Assessment of Directions of Expansion Considering the five equal planning objectives: cost, flexibility, transport efficiency, environmental quality and regional linkage and using the following notation: Better than average performance Average performance () Worse than average performance 0

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FIG_ 1f . 0 -sao 1000 m .... c ( \ '> \ .. . . .. . . .. :\ . . : '\ t I I I ' ' I I .-,; ,_f..''-, ' ,' I I / I I I I ' ' ' \ ' \ I ' \ \ \ \ \ I .. -----___ _ _ _ , -K 01 SA NJAC , ..... , ,-, _, J . ' . . I . '\. ....._', J ( t ' . , ' 1'71:

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\ SHEREEN IHSAN SHERZAD University of Colorado at denver College of Environmental deaign The Divlaion of Architecture ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMANT OF THE HISTORIC CITADEL OF ARBIL-IRAQ CENTER FOR TOURISM AND NATIONAL HERITAGE Scale N Cb

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The following table is constructed: DIRECTION OF EXPANSION Mosul Shaqlawa Kois i njak Kirkuk Makhmoor Axis Axis Axis Axis Axis Objective West North East South South-West Cost 0 0 0 0 0 Flexibility 0 0 0 0 0 Transport Efficiency 0 0 0 0 0 Environmental Quality 0 0 0 0 0 Regional Linkage 0 0 0 0 0 5.5 Alternative Many alternatives were suggested and in the light of the expansion assessment given, the Alternative of expansion fan wise around the sixtieth/ring road was chosen which covers the area along Koisinajk and Kirkuk axis and in between the other axis where the expansion is not constrained as shown in Map 15. 5.6 Stages of Implementation The plan has been designed for development til year 2000 to be implemented tn two stages.

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5.6.1 5.6.2 Stage 1 -till 1985 which covers 2700 hectares and covers the main residential suggested sectors up to the crescent suggested road, south and east of the City. Stage 2 -till year 2000 is to the east of the crescent road on Koisinjak axis and other parts in north and southwest covering 2,100 hectares. 5.7 Land Use, District and Sector Distribution of the Master Plan The land use pattern of the Master Plan is characterized by the following district and sector distribution. 5.7.1 Residential Sector comprising: 5.7.1.1 High Density Housing: of 400 hectares for existing and first stage part. 5.7.1.2 Medium Density Housing: of 400 hectares+ 147 hectares for second stage part. 5.7.1.3 Low Density Housing: of 222 hectares+ 670 hectares for second stage. 5.7.1.4 Apartment Buildings: of 442 hectares in first stage+ 75 in the second stage part. 5.7.2 Industrial Sector 5.7.2.1 Existing Industry: 5.7.2.2 Proposed Industry: 48 hectares. 16 in stage + 150 in stage 2. 5.7.2.3 Industry Services Storage: 90 hectares stage 1 + 350 stage 2 5.7.2.4 Reserved Hand for Industry: 110 hectares.

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5.7.3 Public ' Building Sector I 5.7.3.1 Civic Centre: 10 hectares 5.7.3.2 Autonomous Governmental Centre: 23 hectares ' 5.7.3.3 Sector Administration: 7 hectares 5.7.4 Commercial Sector ' ' 5.7.4.1 City Centre of 30 hectares existing+ 10 hectares for first stage and 33 hectares for second stage. I ; 5.7.4.2 Sub-centre of 16 existing + 10 hectares for first stage + 12 hectares for second stage. I I 5.7.4.3 Local Centre of 30 hectares existing+ 10 hectares for first stage+ 30 hectares for second stage. 5.7.5 Open Space Sector ' 5.7.5.1 Park and Green Areas of 200 hectares existing and first stage+ 280 hectares for second stage. 5.7.5.2 Woods of 20 hectares existing and first stage+ 40 hectares for second stage. 5.7.6 Social Services Sector. 5.7.6.1 Schools of 170 hectares existing+ 40 hectares first stage+ 100 hectares second stage. 5.7.6.2 Health Services of 18 hectares existing+ 7 hectares first stage+ 20 hectares second stage. 5.7.6.3 Others-10 hectares existing+ 4 hectares first stage+ 10 hectares second stage. 5.7.7 Roads and Right of Ways 5.7.7.1 Roads of 500 hectares existing+ 165 hectares first stage+ 500 hectares second stage. 5.7.7.2 Electricity, water supply, sewage, etc. right of way of 20 hectares existing+ 7 hectares first stage + 20 hectares second stage.

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5.7.8 Other Uses Conservation Area -18 hectares 5.7.8.2 Cemeteries 20 hectares 5.7.8.3 Railway Station120 hectares 5.7.8.4 Reserved for Government20 hectares 5.8 The Sector surrounding the Qala's (Center of the City) 5.8.1 5.8.2 The future development of the City is seen as a continuation of the present administrative activities along the central sector. The Structure of the Sector The pattern of a commercial centre as a condition of the internal network pattern of urban transportation forms the skeleton framework upon which the City takes its concentric shape as the focus of transportation routes along corridors to the centre. The existing situation is as shown in Plate 16. The pattern of the road as it is planned for 2000 is increasing in terms of its enhancement to give the needed visual quality to the Qala's. The looping system which will serve the need of the sectors: commercial, civic, and the governmental is not more than 100m from the major road traffic. The whole district has been reserved for the commercial and civic centre. Planning of the Sector Due to lack of a detailed future sector planning of this portion and because of its direct

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relationship with the Qala development, I have studied this sector and suggested recommendations for planning which will be drawn and detailed in Part II Section 1 of this study. 5.8.3 Design Principles and Suggestions The following design principles are used for the sector planning. 5.8.3.1 The whole sector will have mainly pedestrian movement except through the loop roads and the perimatic of the sector. 5.8.3.2 Introducing covered walkways. 5.8.3.3 Introducing some green areas and water fountains. 5.8.3.4 Introducing residential elements in the commercial part to enhance the living pattern in the nearby Qala•s. 5.8.3.5 Developing a system of around trip mini-bus service to and from the Qala•s. 5.8.3.6 Keeping the round the Qala•s road for pedestrian public service vehicles and the Qala•s residents cars. 5.8.3.7 Introducing a building code to control heights of buildings to not more than 3 storeys. 5.8.3.8 Providing parking lots in corners of the sector preferably of 2 to 3 stories. 5.8.3.9 Orientation, court, terracing, and interlocking systems to be introduced for shading purposes and enhancing the visual relation with the Qala 5.8.3.10 Grouping the civic centre buildings according to functional relationships.

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T d d I t==Lt I I ... il r a ' • SHEREEN IHSAN SHERZAD University o f Colorado at denver College of Environmental design The Division of Architecture CITy CENTRE --:-J I :J,J SECTION 8 . B .. cOc + ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HISTORIC CITADEL OF ARBILIRAQ CENTER FOR TOURISM AND NATIONAL HERITAGE BUILDWG HIEGHT &VISUAL CORRIDOR THE QALA SHOULD DOIWNATE THE SURROUNDING THE HARD URBAN FENCE SHOULD BE MAWTAINED VIEWS OUT ORAMATISED BY CONTRAST BETWEEN URBAN ENCLOSURE &OPEN COUNTRY Scale N (f)

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5.9 Conclusions and Suggestions 1. The approved Master Plan fulfills the land use requirements for both stages 1 and 2 to year 2000 except for open areas which should be increased and the apartment houses to be decreased. 2. The existing railway complex has been left with no mention of its future usage after the suggested future railway complex is implemented. The suggestion is to convert it to a public park. 3. The Master Plan lacks the proper study of parking problems in the City. A sample suggestion is given in planning of the sector surrounding the Qala (center city). 4. The Master Plan report has also neglected the proper housing study which was considered in this Study. 5. The report of the Master Plan has not raised the problem of the existence of the military camp which really constitutes a false location in addition to its effect as a constraint to expansion of the City in its natural direction, particularly since that direction is the most favourable for expansion. I think that the planners should have insisted on the need to remove that camp and suggest expansion in that direction. 6. The central planning authority should have not left the sector surrounding the Qala without giving its detailed sector plan. The local authority is unable to direct its development as required. Therefore, I found it necessary to study this and suggest a plan as shall be presented in Part II of this Study.

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SECTION III

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-. Q A L A, A 0 F A RBI L IN 1917 View of the south gate

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The south gate

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• ll South east vtew of the Qala a

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Section III -Development of Arbil Qala•s INTRODUCTION The development of the Qala•s of Arbil which extends its recorded history to 2094 B.C. and is known with Arbil City as the oldest continuously inhabited town in the World besides being located in Iraq which is considered the cradle of civilization, presents an exciting problem for the town planner as well as the Architect. The Qala•s has tantalized both the archeologist and the architect to revitalize a place so ancient without disturbing its content and character beyond recognition. The Qala•a itself is such a prominent topographical figure in Arbil, rising to a height of 25 m with an area of 110.000 M 2 , it immediately draws the attention of everyone to consider its case, particularly since it has been neglected for a long time. The circumstances at present, from all aspects, encourages the possibility of implementing a plan for its revitalization and conservation. Since the Qala•a itself was the birth place of my parents I have continuously visited Arbil ' and the problem of its development interested me, therefore I selected the design of a complex in the Qala•a for my first degree thesis in architecture in 1976 based on a feasibility study made by the Consultants, Iraq Consult and Colin Buchanan in 1971. Lately I had the chance while studying for my master degree in Architecture at the University of Colorado to reconsider the development of the Qala•a on a wider basis, starting with understanding the planning for Iraq and the northern region of Iraq, and then with the Arbil City plan as

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related to the development of the Qala•a. One or more of the buildings conceived for the Qala development will be considered for detailed architectural design. So the purpose of the study in this section is to discover the existing conditions of the Qala•a and to find appropriate ways and means for the conservation and enhancement of its historic as well as aesthetic character, which would inevitably revitalize and enable it to continue to serve as a cultural and touristic center of the community. The studies made in both previous sections concluded that, since Arbil is the gate of tourism to the northern part of Iraq and since Arbil was chosen as the center for the autonomy region in the North of Iraq, my study for the development of the Qala•a will be oriented to consider it as a center for tourism and national heritage. The first chapter will be devoted to presenting the Qala•s setting and its history, followed by describing the existing condition of the Qala•a in Chapter 2. The third chapter shall be devoted to discussing the features of visual and environmental quality in the Qala•a. In Chapter 4, the housing and building conditions are presented with detailed measured studies of some of them. Then concepts for conservation and development of the Qala•a shall be discussed followed by alternative suggestions, suggesting input proposals and design principle in Chapter 5. And Chapter 6 will discuss the assessments of the alternatives and selected strategy with the conclusion in Chapter 7.

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Chapter 1 1. The setting of the Qala'a and its history. 1.1 The setting of the Qala'a. The Qala'a is situated at the center of Arbil City. The city itself lies on a generally flat plain, 415 m. above sea level. In Section 2, Chapter 1, the setting of Arbil and its background was presented, the Qala'a itself is a prominent topographical feature rising to a height of 25 meters with an area of 110,000 sq.m. It is at present mainly composed of delapidated houses in an ' unsanitary maze of alley ways. The general plan of the Qala'a as it exists is shown on Map 17. It is saucer shaped with rims some 3-4 meters above the central depression. The gradient of the outer slopes is 1 in 1.5 while inside from the rim to the center, it is 1 in 50. The existence of Qala'a had and still has its influence on the shape and development of the city itself that surrounds this prominent central focal monument. 1.2 The History. In Chapter 1, Article 1.4 of Section 2, a brief historical background of Arbil has been presented which also covers the Qala'a. Actually the reputation of Arbil being the oldest continuously inhabited town in the world comes from the Qala'a itself whose recorded history extends to 2000 B.C. It is believed that Qala'a was founded on an artificial hill constructed mainly for defense purposes and was surrounded by protective canals with strong gates. Thus the City of Arbil

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BUll 0 lNG CO No ITION >o --/ / / / / / / / / / /

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could preserve its continuity. The archeological evidence in the area and Assyrian documents point to the possibility of the mound being in occupation from early times and the four gods (Arba Elo) situated in Qala'a. In the seventh centrury B.C. Arbil was an eminent and powerful city in the Assyrian Empire. Xenophous records that in 401 B.C. Arbil was the only living city in the region. Nimrud and Nineveh were considered as villages. It was from 640-1200 A.D., during the Abbasian and other Oslamic Caliphate, Arbil reached its economic zenith and its building spread around the Qala'a on the plain below with a large market and mosque whose minaret is still standing. Qala'a, after the 13th century with the Mongollian, Persian and Turkish conquests, returned to its importance after a steady decline of the plain region. In the 19th century the population of Arbil ranged between 5000-6000 most of whom lived in the Qala'a. The expansion on the plain below again took place in the early part of this century, although up until the early twenties most of Arbil's leading families were still living in the Qala'a, where there were the law courts, the governor's office and a school. During the past half century most of the old families have abandoned it to live on the plain below i search of more hygienic surroundings and better modern amenities. At present 20% of the original inhabitants of the Qala still live in the Qala'a, while the rest of the population of about 3000 are from outlying villages and of low income families.

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From this historical summary it is clear that the Qala•a constitutes an important monument, particularly of the late Assyrian Empire where it is believed that there were two major Assyrian temples one of the Assur and the other of Ishtar which stood together as a single complex.(64)

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Chapter 2 -2. The existing situation of the Qala'a. The information given in this chapter is based on the following surveys. survey done by the consultants for a feasibility study of the development of Qala'a in 1971. survey done by the author in 1976 for her project thesis. survey done by the author in summer 1979 for the purpose of this study. The discussion presented in Chapter 3 was the guide and basis for the survey made and the results obtained. 2.1 Building Conditions. 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 Because no buildings are older than the nineteenth century, the condition and classification of the buildings which were chosen was based on a single system primarily that of their structural adequacy, the result is as follows: Derelicted area, i.e. destroyed buildings, amounting to 20,721 sq.m. distributed fairly evenly over the area of Qala'a. Sub-standard buildings which are not structurally adequate amounting to 43,000 sq.m. consisting of 186 houses. In general they are unsuitable for residential or other purposes and could be treated for redevelopment. Adequate buildings which are structurally sound amounting to 21,200 sq.m. comprising 54 buildings.

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2.1.4 Better than adequate buildings which number about 23. These are, in addition to their good structural condition, possessing (in some cases) significant decorative features, and good environmental layouts. The plan (18) shows the above mentioned classification. 2.2 The following results are taken from the 1970 census records corrected by The people and housing: 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 surveying. Total population Total family Total residential plots Empty lots Total rooms Average house size Average family size Room occupancy Average No. of room per dwelling Multi-occupancy rate/family per dwelling 3,000 540 550 100 1,250 6.7 persons 5.5 persons 2.4 persons 2.8 1.2 :1 There are three sub-divisions of the Qala•a from east to west called Serai, Takiya, Topkhana. The population of the Qala•a is not homogenous, Serai stands out with the highest percentage of empty houses and has the highest household size and the lowest family size. The multi-occupancy

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' \ : / -.. -:. 1 I I I I I \ / )tJI:-illllCT L:.IJ(J _} ' ,IJ t , T .:.1 (J 0" ] A r 1!:' t j:. 1-111 n G Wht-:r rru Tlit.r; --.nt-. ,u.:;rt hi IJG 191

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2.2.5 2.2.6 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 rate is 1.4 house with a room occupancy of 2.5 person per room. Takiya and Topkhana are similar, the houses are smaller and the room occupancy is 2.2. The percentage of families who have been residents there for several generations is about 20%. The new residents are of low income group families favouring the Qala•a because of its low rents. The old residents of the Qala•a have a strong emotional attachment to it and showed by interview their wish to stay if the government assists them in maintaining their houses. Movement The old layout of the Qala•a was based on a tree-like pattern of narrow alley ways rediating from the south gate and this has remained. Access was by three entrances, the principle one in the south and the others in the north and east. In 1958 the present north-south road was built and the north and south ramps were paved. The pattern of vehicular movement is restricted to the north and south ramps. Practically there is no penetration of the rest of the Qala•a by vehicles. Traffic volume is very low and could be considered less than 50 per day. Recently in January 1979, the municipality had started constructing the new south gate designed by I.Q.C. through a competition on the principal of walkway passage (pedestrian). This gate is substituting for the old 1860 south gate which was demolished in 1960. Figure 12 shows the new design of the south gate on pile foundations.

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0 1 2 1 6 24 2 8 32 36 40 ' 44 4 8 52 5 6 ' 60 64 68 n 76 eo B4 ee 92 96 100 1()1. 1 0 1 4 18 22 26 JO 34 38 4 2 46 50 5 4 5 8 62 66 70 74 78 8 2 8 6 90 94 98 1 0 2 1(16 \ ----"'"'_ j [ __ ---n I I -------/ / / / / ( ' ' ", 4 a 2 I J .,...,7 n / . 1<. r--------. ---I:?JIL1uw":;i IRAQ CONSULT T lllF c.,, ..... ... ,. ., .. PLAN AND ELEVATION IRQ I 053 I 2 7 9

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2.4 Soil Conditions Soil investigations have been carried out by the municipality and shows that the soil is composed of fill with accommodated layers of building material with bearing capacity sufficient for similar existing buildings types of 2 stories height. 2.5 Planting 2.6 2.6.1 The abundance of trees in the courtyards of some houses is a good indication of the suitability of the soil for planting. Large scale planting has been suggested for the steps for both visual importance and for arresting the erosion of the top soil. Certainly the suggested planting should be of some hard, drought-resistant bushes and not trees which will spoil the character and hard urban fence the Qala•a has. Services Sewage and Surface Water Houses are provided with cesspools either inside each house or in the alleyway which are emptied normally. Surface water is discharged into the alleyway and then collected in open gutters or in drain. In some places, the surface water and sewage combine in a large brick vaulted sewer which drops down to a main sewer to a wadi on the outskirts of Arbil. The condition of the system is very bad. Figure 13 represents the existing surface water gutter and water supply piping.

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FIG 13 19i.

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2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 Water Supply Three large water tanks are located in the Qala'a for water distribution to the Qala'a houses and to some parts of the City town. Electricity and Telephone These are supplied by exposed overhead wires. Refuse Disposal There is no recognized system and the situation is very bad. 2.7 Land Values Recently the government has acquired some parts of the Qala'a and the following figures show the prevailing values at present. -Value of property on and the outer edge of the Qala'a. -ID. 35-50/m 2 (land+ building). -At inner part ID 25-35/m 2 . -Empty land ID 10-15/m 2 . All lands and houses are of private ownership. -House rents are very cheap and range from ID. 200 300 per annum for a house.

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2.8 Visual and Environmental Qualities this subject is left to be presented in the next chapter as regards to identity, modes, land marks, enclosure space, and housing because of its direct relation to concepts on conservation and development.

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Chapter 3 Features of Visual and Environmental Quality in the Qala•a. Introduction Different towns and different parts of a town possess their own identity or character which is the result of the function of the area, its geography, topography and social environment. This naturally will effect the manner in which buildings and the spaces are combined. The process of conservation planning is more than just identifying buildings of interest, it is concerned with the total environment of an area. The features of visual and environmental quality that exists in the Qala•a were as follow, see Map 19.( 6?) 3.1 Area of Identity That is the parts of the Qala•a which have a certain unity, either through homogeneity of building, material of interplay of buildings. The whole Qala•a could be considered as having an overall identity. Yet certain areas within it stands out as having, different visual qualities determined by their, overall scale or use or street pattern, enclosed or open space. By defining such areas it is possible to suggest a setting for the new development. 3.2 Enclosure and Character of Space The present discipline of building heights, the special treatment of eave lines, the parapet wall treatment, winding alley ways of varying width, all have produced a number of interesting spaces.

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There are about 15 areas in which the building frontages are essential to the street enclosure. If these walls are properly treated and repaired, the character of the spaces could be maintained. 3.3 Change of Level 3.4 Changes in level were recorded where they were sudden, both steps and slopes. These changes should be used in the new development. The saucer shape of the Qala'a, and the many levels within, have great potential for design, especially the area near the south gate, the area near the water tank and the area of the central round about. Nodes and Landmarks I I I I These will act as independent foci, a node as a space activity focus and a landmark such as a I building or a structure? which physically dominates the surrounding area. The south gate and the central round about are :nodes while the mosque with its minorat and bath are strong visual landmarks. 3.5 Organization of Space The way in which spaces are formed between buildings is important both as a setting for individual buildings and as a small unit of identity. The street pattern and organization of spaces in the Qala'a is very similar over the entire area. Important buildings like the mosque could be given a greater impact and special relationship to the space between it, the bath and the centre round. The space near the water tank to the south gate could be integrated .into a single identity.

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3.6 Street and Alley Conditions As presented before, all the services for utilities are in bad condition, the overhead electrical and telephone lines and: the ugly open gutters . have spoiled the views. These should be carefully treated to enhance the character of the streets and alley ways. Electricity and telephone wires I I could be in underground i ducts and a new network for drainage should be constructed. The lighting I should not be obtrusive ;and carefully built into the walls. 3.7 Planting I ! The Qala•a is as an area of sparse vegetation. The courts of houses have some sort of greenery and the area around the tank and south gate are the only public green areas, the development should keep the green foliage sparse. 3.8 Relation of the Qala•a to the Rest of Arbil Because the Qala•a does not exist in isolation, the study should cover the views out from Qala•a to the rest of Arbil, the juxtaposition of the town and the Qala•a from the inner ring road around the base, also from the inner sections of the radial roads from Mosul Kirkuk and Shaqlawa and from the outer ring and at a distance from the approaches of the roads. The study of the Arbil Master Plan in relation to the Qala•a and vise-versa was an important factor in arriving at the concept of the round road around the base of the Qala•a and with creating an

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interesting urban space around the Mosque and baths towards the south and north gates. In addition to the above the dominance of Qala•a over the surrounding landscape could be enhanced and encouraged by retaining the solidity of the outerwall, the hard urban fence created by the slopes and the uniform skyline (see Figures 14 and 15). The new designed north gate reflects fully this concept.

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FIG-14-THE QALA'A SHOULD DOMINATE THE SURROUNDING COUNTRUSIDE FIG_15_ THE HARD URBAN FENCE SHOULD BE MAINTAINED

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Chapter 4 4. Housing and Buildings in Qala'a 4.1 Introduction 4.2 4.2.1 In any conservation study, one of the most important surveys is that to determine the age and condition of the buildings in the area so as to decide whether it is possible or even worth conserving a building. In Chapter 2 the building conditions were presented. Because of the importance of housing which forms 90 percent of the existing buildings in the Qala'a, some plans of typical houses, the mosque, and the bath were recorded together with interesting decorative features. The result of this work will act as a guide in renovation of selected houses, the bath and the mosque, and indicate features to be incorporated in new buildings. Both of these aspects will allow the architectural character of the Qala'a to be conserved. General Character of the Oriental House(68) All traditional houses in Iraq as is the case of houses in the Qala'a are planned around a central open courtyard. The courtyard 11Hosh11 represents a major feature and its use has been effectively employed over the past several millenia where the primary consideration of such design was privacy. Although the courtyard provided privacy, it evolved as a response to the severely hot and dry climatic condidions and was used as a working space. It acted as an effective temperature regulator cooling the house during the daytime.

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4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 All houses have some definite environmental qualities, these are achieved through their special characteristics of massing, courtyard planning, thick external and internal walls and daily washing courtyards and Tarmas (internal porticos). The traditional life of the Muslim was sharply divided between the private 'and public, between men and women. Each house was a private enclosure shut-off from its surrounding by high and solid walls. It provided to its occupants with a marked contrast to the hustle and bustle of public life. It is important to understand the social and spiritual implication of Islam in Architecture. These shaip social and traditional divisions were reflected in large houses. In physical terms by the division of the house into two distinct sections. "Dwankahn11 for the male and their male guests. "Haram11 for the women and their women guests. Similarly the preoccupation of privacy resulted in a general neglect of external elevation treatment and a concentration on the interior. More recently the emphasis has shifted in the opposite direction, thus in more recent traditional houses, especially the transitional ones, the external surfaces have begun to play a more important role. Social requirements of the traditional Iraqi family were different from those of today. This fact is important when indue architecture element is considered. For instance, the majority of the rooms were not designed for a specific fixed purpose while houses in Europe, for example, were divided according to various functions, living room, dining room, study, etc. Houses in the near

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4.2.5 4.2.6 east provided for more people than the European and are divided largely according to social criteria. There is no fixed dining or bedroom, the occupants could be anywhere they like depending on occasion and on the season. This was possible because of the common eating customs of the people, meal time was not rigidly adhered to as in the west, tables and chairs were not needed because people eat cross legged on the carpeted floor and ate at large trays. Similarly people preferred to distinguish rooms according to whether they are more pleasant to live in or sleep in. In summer or winter, morning or night, thus they move according to season, time, day from the cellar to the rooftop. Therefore the idea of "bedroom" is meaningless as the "dining room••. In summer they sleep in the cellar during hot afternoons and on the flat roof during the cool nights, in winter in the first floor rooms especially those oriented or facing south. The ground floor did not get as much architectural attention as the first floor because it was generally used for service uses such as store, kitchen, Hamam, and toilets. The upper floor was used to include the "Diwan Kahna" section of the house, so maximum architectural attention was given to elaborate ornaments and decoration of some rooms which were meant to impress the guest and enhance the social status of the owner. Upper storey rooms could be projected over the street in such a way that their irregular shapes would be corrected. It was often the case that these projections took the shape of a seriated row of oriel windows, ••shanashil". This occurred only because of the need to correct the irregular

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4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 shape of the plot and not because of the need of a narrow side window to observe the street. This fact explained the non-existence of Shanashil in more recent mahallas (districts). Entrance Gate For the most traditional houses even the modest ones an elaborately ornamented entrance portal was always provided. In large houses or important public buildings these portals can be very imposing indeed, it often helps the surveyor or investigator to deduce the architectural importance and date of the house from that external sign. The entrance out its corridor was always broken by a ninety degree turn to make it impossible for a stranger and passerby to accidently see the women of the family; this was a device that was used by the Abbasids in the round city of Baghdad (Figure 16). The corridor was either a vaulted passage or a square, rectangular or hexagonal domed roomed. It was sometimes closed off from the interior by a lockable door or at least provided with a curtain. Sirdab (Cellar) In traditional houses the cellar (Sirdab) and half cellar (neem) are very important elements of the ground floor plan and were used for Siasta sleeping as well as for storing large quantities of goods. Tarma (Internal Portico) It was a strictly established rule in traditional design, to plan the first floor so that each room was always directly accessible from the circulatory tarma. This rather rigid and self imposed

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FIG_16_

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stipulation had obvious planning implications by having at times to use an unnecessary corridor thus a lot of space was wasted. In rooms like the ursi or elevated talar on the first floor, the problem of providing a central room with direct access was solved by using a device called "Iwancha" which means "small iwan". These were placed for example between the Ursi and the adjacent rooms so that they were directly entered from the "Tarma". Because of the preference for symmetry one "Iwancha" was placed at either side of the "Ursi" or "Talar". 4.2.10 Badgeers The neems and sirdabs were ventilated and cooled by several wind catching shafts called Badgeer on the roof. These wind-catchers are always higher than the parapet wall and were oriented so that they would catch the maximum amount of wind wh.ich in Iraq is from the north-west. The shafts were an ••air scoop" cavity between the two skins of a party wall. This wall is divided into two sections, so that each air scoop is about 3-4 ft., 90-130 em. wide, 2ft. 60 em. deep and extended up to the top of the roof parapet wall. The external opening is about 90 em. high, 90-120 em. above roof. It is finished at the top with a wind catcher which is oriented towards north-westerly prevailing wind. The wind catcher is a brick, timber or metal plate inclined 45 to the prevailing wind FIG(1H18 > • The internal party wall is cooled during night by natural through ventilation as the temperatue of the external air is lower than that of the interior. Because of its thickness, and because it doesn•t receive any direct solar radiation, the surface of the

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half of first floor covered well insulated roof 1-well insulated wall with large glass windows ventilated space L r. thick thermal retention wall reflected natural light ducted venting no big windows floor clear of damp problems FIG 17 BASIC DWELLING DESIGN PRINCIPLES BASED TRADITIONAL r wind tower : insulate well i f A/C ter to be fitted Ia roof: option 1 : no to option 2 : str to t strong enough walk on ong enough walk on 1st floor high 'u' value ground floor : thick walls r principle storage heate

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I I I 1 bedroom .___ reception L wind -7 ' I EJ family room family room ll._ FIG 18 THE TRADITIONAL COURT-YARD HOUSE

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internal party wall remains through the qay at a lower temperature following the principles of the thermal inertia; therefore it acts as a cooling element for the interior. The incoming air which is forced by the adion of the prevailing wind and secondly by the wind catcher, is cooled by conduction as a result of coming in contact with the cold surface of the party wall. The relative humidity of the incoming air is increased by placing water jars in its base just before it finally leaves the internal outlet where it is discharged into the basement or the family room, the water is cooled by evaporation process. Each room, depending on its area, has two or three air scoops, after passing through this, the air disperses into the courtyard, pushing the warm air upward. 4.2.11 General Remarks on Traditional Houses in Iraq In 1930 foreign architects arrived in Iraq, who did not understand the suitability of this type of courtyard house and a new type of house was developed known as "Western European" or closed house. In plan distribution it is the same as the oriental house, but the courtyard was built over as the family living room, known as the "hall" with other rooms around it. Mainly half of the first floor was built on the ground floor. This new type did not answer the socio-religious demands nor has it met satisfactorily the climate conditions. The courtyard disappeared and was replaced by a garden surrounding the house, enclosed by an eye level wall, this garden is nnt private in the sense to which Iraq's have been accustomed as it is overlooked by neighbors. Also, because of the intense heat, the garden cannot be used before the late afternoon, thus for social and climatic reasons all activities must be indoor.

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4.3 Qala•a House in General 4.3.1 The houses of the Qala•a have the following distinct characteristics: see plans (20). 4.3.1.1 On the whole, the first floor doesn•t project externally beyond the walls of the ground floor. When it does the projection is not usually large enough to incorporate windows. 4.3.1.2 The tarma in the old houses is usually at about 1.20 1.50 meter above the ground level of the courtyard. 4.3.1.3 The Sirdab A habitable room at basement level incorporates much bigger windows overlooking the courtyard. 4.3.1.4 Only is some large houses are badgeers (air scoops) used. 4.3.1.5 Stone or marble columns and arches define the facade of the tarma in the old houses. 4.3.1.6 Entry is usually directly into the courtyard. 4.3.2 House Types 4.3.2.1 House types according to chronology or construction. Houses dated on the basis of type construction and materials used are as follows: houses with stone columns and arches and timber joists do not date earlier than 19th century. houses with decorative timber columns and timber joists are about 50-80 years old. houses with rolled steel joists and steel circular columns and jack brick arches are about 30-50 years old.

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PLAN20 TYPICAL HOUSE PLANS l .. ".. j l j y i< 1-1 _ _ .... ___________ l A ___ _ ------B-------l _ ( ) u k 1 ,_ -l. --------• \ J_, . .:: -/ " -•,1 R M . ll[ -+ --._--,---_ .. _. !i I i I , : I I i " I i Iii. \ GR O UN O f-LOOR I c 0 I H I ! : I I . I . I '" • : • • -"-.. ;.. . .:.. FLOO R 1'\1111 ! I h-t=j ,n; f
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4.3.2.2 House type according to the number of floors: -single storey -single storey and a sirdab either at basement or semi-basement level. -two storeys -two storeys and sirdab. 4.3.2.3 House type according to the house plans are classified as follows: according to the grouping of the rooms around the courtyard. according to the grouping of internal portico tarma along the courtyard; one or two or three sides. 4.3.3 House Plan Element. 4.3.3.1 Basement Level The sirdab extends on one or two or three sides of the courtyard, generally is incorporates large windows overlooking the courtyard. The ceiling is usually arched or vaulted in brickwork. It is used as a sleeping area during summer or used for storage 4.3.3.2 Ground Floor Access is often bent (non axial) in old houses, while in relatively new houses it is straight (axial) and leads directly into the courtyard.

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4.3.3.3 Courtyard and Tarma I The courtyard is always reasonably square or rectangular in shape, and is the focal point within ' the house. Tarma is the open air living room, people sit here for family gatherings or social gatherings, cook, eat and even wash their clothes. Many courtyards have trees or vines, flower pots and sometimes fountains. In the old houses the tarma is usually about 1.50 meters above the floor of the courtyard. In the relatively new houses the tarma is only about 10-15 em. above the courtyard. The rooms either overlook the courtyard directly or through the tarma. 4.3.3.4 First Floor The main rooms of the ground floor are repeated on the first floor including the tarma which becomes a gallery. 4.3.3.5 Roof It is always flat and used for a sleeping area at night during summer and has a brick parapet wall of 1.50 meters which contains small niches for placing water jars. 4.3.4 Construction Elements 4.3.4.1 The external and internal brick walls in the old houses are very thick (0.50-1. meters), while the new houses are thinner (0.25-0.40 meters). 4.3.4.2 The main rooms, particularly in those houses on the periphery of the Qala'a have larger windows at the lower level and some at the central level.

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4.3.4.3 In the old houses, staircases are built between two walls; the first steps are of solid brickwork while the rest is supported on timber placed on a slant. In the new houses these are built of concrete. A recurring theme is that of a few steps leading to a landing then the stair branches off in two opposite directions. 4.3.4.4 Roofs in the old houses are supported on timber joists placed at about 50 em. on center. The main joist may be crossed by a thinner sub-joist. A layer of mud, two layers of earth and a final finish layer of mixture of mud and straw are put on the joists. In new houses R. S. joists are used to support shallow jack arches, the roof is then finished in the usual manner. 4.3.5 Decorative Features Quite a number of the old houses have rich decorative features of architectural quality. 4.3.5.1 The upper part of the external courtyard walls are characterized by a decorative pattern of solid and void produced by leaving blind gaps between bricks (Figure 19). The parapet wall receives a special treatment and incorporates niches. Some of the wall decorated niches inside the rooms are used as cupboards (Figure 20). In a few houses a colorful decorated frieze marks the upper part of the wall with a richly decorated ceiling with mirror inserts (Figure 21). 4.3.5.2 The decorative features of windows ranges from the very primitive grills to more sophisticated iron ones (Figure 22). Only a few exterior doors have the traditional timber construction with the usual hemispherical headed nails.

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4.3.5.3 There are three types of decorative columns, stone or marble supporting semicircular arches of the same material, or timber columns with decorative plaster (Figures 23 and 24). 4.3.6 Remarks Although oriental houses in general and the Qala•a in particular lack proper sanitary facilities, adequate protection against dust-storms and rising dampness, they have gone a long way to meet the religious, social criteria and climatic needs. Their deficiencies can easily be continued by the elementary building technology still existing in Iraq. What is needed then, is not to replace the oriental courtyard houses by European types but an understanding and appreciation of their advantages over the other types of house. The problem is how to nationalize, coordinate and incorporate these characteristics or their equivalent into new houses. 4.4 Survey of Individual Buildings The aim of this section is to identify buildings in good condition, of architectural or historic interest, and which possess representative visual and decorative qualities. These buildings are all of average condition. There are fourteen of them as houses plus the mosque and bath. Iraq Consult has studied fully three of them; the State Organization for antiquities have plans to cover all of them. The author has studied in detail one house, bath and the mosque (which their details with one done by Iraq Consult illustrated here in after).

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FIG 20& 21 218

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FIG 9 FIG 22 21Q

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. . • . I 1 ' L 1 l l l. . J ., . .,.-;; l _ , . ' f f , I FIG 23&24 220 ' '1!' \ l \

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4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 Individual House No. 1 {Survey by Iraqi Consult) The most exciting feature of the house is its complex plan form made of two interconnected courtyards, with an entrance look for added privacy. The two compartments are one for male (Diwankhana) guests and the second as a family house and for female guests (Haram). The house occupies a site on the outer edge of the Qala•a. Carved and heavily (revited) doors, a water fountain in the courtyard and lavishly decorated rooms are interesting features of the house (Figures 25 and 26). Individual House No. 2 (surveyed by the Author) This represents a typical example of a two storey house and is a complex of two detached houses each with a separate entrance, chosen in the new development programme to be a etherographic museum. The two houses are in a very good structural condition with interesting architectural and decorative features (Figure 27). The Mosque (surveyed by the Author) Islam is such an all embracing religion that it is inextricably related to the Socio-cultural life of the community. The importance of Islam is therefore evidenced everywhere by the large number of mosques. Mosques represent the physical expression of its spiritual message, they function not merely as places for worship but are used for educational, legal, political and intellectual purposes.

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FIG 25 222.

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.. • • Q C) • 0 HOUSE C SECTION b_ b FIG 26 00000 SECTION a_a

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FIRST FLOOR FIG 27 HOUSE _A_ & _ 8_ GROUND FLOOR

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' / / / .. / . / I I I I I I . I FIG 27 SECT I O N A_A H f
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Higra, the first year of the Muslim Calendar (AH 1 = AD 622) marks the flight of the prophet from persecution by the Meccan Pagam lords to Madina, where he built the first mosque in Islam. The Quran itself was transmitted by the prophet as inspired utterances and in a series of dicta, is regarded by Muslims as the literal word of God (Allah). The tradition (Hadith) on the other hand, records the prophet•s words and actions and judgment. Because of the complexity of Islamic Law and the archaic and obscure language of the Quran, professional scholars (Ulama) became a very influential class in Muslim Society by their responsibility for theological interpretations. -The mosque, as the place for prayer, •salat• was demanded by Islam. All Muslims are required to attend the Friday prayer at noon every week. However, the five obligatory daily prayers may be at one•s home or virtually anywhere provided it is conducted facing the direction of Mecca which, in the case of Arbil, is due South. The first mosque was built by the Prophet in Madina, it consisted simply of an open courtyard with a shaded area surrounded by a wall which had three entrances. This mosque could be regarded as the prototype for all subsequent mosques. In iraq early mosques were built largely to resemble the Prophet•s model. Essentially, the basic requirements of a Mosque remained very few and simple. An open courtyard for prayer in hot weather and a sheltered room for prayer in cold weather.

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-Aniche called "Mihrab" incorporated in the wall indicates the direction of Mecca 'Qibla'. Because cleanliness is a necessary preliminary ritual to prayers, mosques are always provided with ablution places. The call to prayer (Athan) is usually made by a "Muathin" from the balcony of a Minaret, although today electric loudspeakers are largely used instead. The faithful always leaves his shoes outside and steps inside to the carpeted prayer area (Haram, Musalla). However, with the expansion of the Islamic Empire and the subsequent increase of contacts with other cultures, mosques evolved into a variety of types and a high degree of architectural sophistication. There are about 78 mosques in Arbil City and one in the Qala'a. The majority of the mosques in Iraq show a hybrid mixture of Abbasid, and Ottoman influences on their plans and architectural treatment. Common planning and architectural elements which constitute generalization about the mosques in Iraq are: -An open courtyard in which ablution places (Matahir) are located. -The proper mosque building is normally provided with a colonnaded or arcaded portico in front of the prayer area. It is sometimes provided with its own mihrab and used as a summer prayer area. The entrance is usually centrally located off the portico and leads directly to the carpeted prayer area.

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-The prayer area is usually rectangular in plan with its South Western wall containing the Mihrab. In older mosques, before the advent of jack arching or reinforced concrete was always divided into two or more aisles and roofed by a system of domes which were supported by pointed arches or in large areas heavy brick piers became necessary. The load was transmitted from the dome to the piers and walls by characteristic triangular cross-ribbed pendentives. Often the dome over the mihrab area was the largest and highest. In a tomb-mosque, the tomb is always placed separately in a single square room off the haram area. The tomb itself is presented as a cenotaph-box always covered with a green drapery and surrounded by an elaborate wooden screen. -In a Friday mosque a pulpit (minbar) is always provided for the sermon (Khotba). It is basically an elevated chair reached by steps and is always located at the right of the Mihrab. Some minbars can be extremely rich in their ornamentation. They are made either of wood or marble but sometimes of brick. Minarets are only present in Friday Mosque. They are usually located at one corner of the mosque near the portico but sometimes are incorporated within the entrance arch. In Iraq, minarets are usually cylindrical in shape. They rise from an octagonal base to a round balcony from which the call for prayer used to be made, the balcony is usually corbelled out in two or more rows of "mugarnas" brickwork. The upper section of the body is smaller in diameter and crowned by a fluted cupota and a metal beaded finial. Most minarets are provided with one internal spiral

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stairway, the majority of minarets are finished in a very richly coloured and patterned glazed Kashani tile. These tiles often include one or two bands containing inscriptions in Kufic or some other type of Arabic script. -It is more difficult to generalize about domes, they range from the type, depressed, shallow raised in a drum to the conical, often they are finished in plain turquoise colour tiles, but some mosques contain richly ornamented domes in geometric patterns. -Most mosques in Iraq had what is called a "Sagayer" or "Sabil Khava". These are public water fonts which were erected by pious individuals as Waqf endowments, although the idea was adopted from Roman or Hellenistis, they soon became an essential part of the mosque. They were richly ornamented and usually were located on an outside wall overlooking the street. The few which are present are only modern versions. Elaborate water fountains which once existed in the open courtyard of mosques have now been either removed or disused. Instead prayers use modern water taps for their ablution. Other changes due to modern technological developments include electric lighting and air-conditioning. Originally, mosques were lit by oil-lamp and later by Qanadils which were hung from long chains. Light then has a divine significance to !slams and was particularly emphasized ' near the Mihrab area. Today mosques are fitted with electric lighting. Important and large mosques are often equipped with sumptuous chandeliers but also with inappropriate fluorescent and

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4.4.4 neon lighting. The resulting paraphenalia of modern fittings such as fans, coolers, wires and switchboards disrupt the historic character of the mosque. This is not to advocate a return to oil lamps but rather a criticism of the insensitive way in which historic mosques are treated today. MAP_ ( 21 and 22>show the Qala'a mosque details based on measured study carried out by me in July 1979. Hammams (Public Hot Bath) -Hammas, the public hot baths are common urban features in all Islamic countries. They possess religious significance because they fulfill ritual duties of a Muslim to maintain body cleanliness and hygiene. For this reason usually the hammams are found near mosques and their continued existence today is a proof of their association with Islam. -It is more or less accepted by most architectural historians that Islamic hammams first originated from the Romans of Hellenistic thermae in the near east. Byzentine baths continued to be used in Syria and elsewhere long after the Muslim conquest and these acted as models. -The early Hammams of today show certain adaptation modifications to the classical thermae. These modifications include the diminuation of the "Frigidarum" and the enlargement of the disrobing room of ••apodytorium" into an important audience hall. By the twelfth century the ''hypocaust" system which involved under floor heating was largely discontinued in favour of the simpler

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system of providing a furnace, by the fifteenth century the intermediate unheated room was discarded in favour of the further enlargement of the inner hot room. -The importance of hammams in the social and religious urban life of Muslim society is indicated by the relatively large number of such buildings in all towns. Ibn Battura's description of the hammams of Baghdad is particularly interesting.(2 ) The bath houses in Baghdad are numerous, they are among the most sumptuous of baths, and the majority of them are painted and plastered with pitch, so that it appears to the spectator to be black marble .•. In each of these bath houses there are a large number of cubicles each one of them floored with pitch and having the town half of its wall coated with gleaning and the upper half coated with gypsum plaster. The two opposites are thus brought together in contrasting beauty. Inside each cubicle is a marble basin fitted with two pipes, one flowing with hot water and the other with cold water, a person goes into one cubicle by himself, nobody shares it with him unless he so desires. In the corner of each cubicle is another basin for washing and this also has two pipes with hot and cold water. Everyone on entering is given three towels, one of them he ties round his waist on going into the cubicle, the second he ties around his waist on coming out and the third he dries the water from his body. I have never seen such an elaborate system as this in any City bther than Baghdad, although some other places approach it in this respect.

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-The increase in the use of private baths in homes has obviously resulted in a drastic reduction in the relative numbers of those using the public baths but they remain a social center for the inhabitants of the traditional mahallas's. -To understand the plan of the Hammam it is necessary to understand the functional procedure of taking a bath in one. After disrobing the client puts on single loin cloth and proceeds to the intermediate room (barrani). This room is not heated but is usually warm and humid because of its proximity to the heated section. Then he goes into the hot room where he car. be vigorously I massaged by "Kayyas" or "Dalak". The client can also have his bodily hair removed by a special chemical (dawa, a mixture of arsenic and noura). Then he can go to a second hot room in which the steam will help him to perspire. Finally he will wash himself or immerse in warm water and then goes back to the d r essing room where he can regain his lost energy. In Iraq a second hot room is not normally p r ovided. The basic plan of the Hammam consists of spaces designed to meet this sequential programme. This includes: Disrobing Intermediate room Heated room usually combined in one Steam room

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The disrobing room is nearly always rectangular in plan and is often the largest space in the Hammam. The steam room, on the other hand, is usually of the cross axial fan Iwans type and nearly octagonal in plan and is the most interesting room in the whole Hammam. This is due to its structure and not ornamentation which is lacking in Hammams. It is always surrounded by a large dome pierced by small round oculi which are arranged in an interesting geometrical pattern. The dome is supported on heavy piers with pointed arches but more often with squinches. The Iwans themselves are often barrel vaulted and provided with brick or stone benches, with hot and cold water taps and a small water basin for use by indoor bathers. The furnace room (Firn, Khi Zana) is separated from the hot room by a thin wall which is sometimes pierced with holes to allow steamy air to pass. In the furnace room which often has its own entrance large cauldrons are heated and stoked from underneath. -The fuel was rarely wood a scarse material in Iraq, but mostly rubbish collected from the neighborhood. The ash is then sold for building purposes, which, when mixed with lime (noura), is used in foundations. Nowadays the heating is carried out by a modern liquid fuel burner. The roof was used for storing as well as for drying towels. -Like the mosques, Hammams are not expressed externally. All of the Hammams are often either entirely sandwiched by shops or simply provided with a plain wall, unlike many Ottoman Hammams which are very richly built and ornamented. Indeed it is very curious to see that even the

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4.4.5 interior is completely devoid of any attempt to enhance the structure and other architectural elements by ornamentation. In arbil Hammams what is needed are only a few minor structural repairs and maintenance of the wall, cladding and finishes, and wall decorations. In addition improvement of roof drains, installation of proper sewage systems and water and electricity are required. Plates 23 and 24 show the Qala'a Bath drawn to the measurements obtained by the survey I carried on in July 1979.

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Chapter 5 -5. 5.1 5 .1.1 Concepts for the conservation of the Qala•a and its development. Introduction In the study for the development of the Qala•a three options were considered.(73) The first option allows an exclusive archeological use of the Qala•a, because the Qala•a is potentially an extremely significant archeological site. Opinion of the specialists and the State Organization of Antiquities in Iraq of this option is that it would be very risky and costly and they are all of the same opinion as I, that the living Qala•a would become a dead site for much of its interest and value comes from its continual and continuing habitation. In addition, there are three main drawbacks to the excavation of the Arbil mound.(74) 5.1.1.1 The present dramatic profile of the Qala•a will be destroyed by ugly holes and untidy dumping of excavated earth. 5.1.1.2 It is unlikely that the Assyrian temples will be preserved to a spectacular height, because those who built over the ruins probably leveled the walls. 5.1.1.3 After years of excavation when the time for restoration arrives the problem of restoring mud-brick ruins will arise. However, selected areas of the Qala•a will be devoted to archeological excavation under any option chosen.

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5.1.2 The second option will be to re-develop the area of the Qala'a totally as part of the commercial and administrative centre of Arbil for it occupies 12 hectares at the heart of a rapidly growing city. It has to be recognized that in using the site for what is in essence a historical monument, an apparently more efficient use of a valuable site is being precluded. However, it is suggested against a solution such as this, the Qala'a, if sensitively conserved, will attract a large number of visitors, with the consequent economic returns that will accrue for both the town and the region. The Qala'a also provides Arbil with a symbol, in itself not an invaluable asset. Lastly there are alternative locations available for expansion of central area functions, both commercial and administrative. 5.1.3 The third option after discarding the two previously presented options, is developing the Qala'a and conserving its unique and attractive qualities. The aim of this Chapter is to discuss the variety of ways for doing that and these have been studied with alternatives. 5.1.3.1 Alternative concepts 5.1.3.2 Possible land use and movement patterns 5.1.3.3 Potential inputs 5.1.3.4 Landscape and town-scape principles. Before going into details of the concepts of conservation and restoration, I find it necessary to give a general brief on the extent of conservation and the definition of terms used later.

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5.2 Extent of Conservation (Theory) 5.2.1 Definitions(75) 5.2.1.1 In the context of this study the word 11heritage11 is used to denote the inherited immovable types of cultural property. Therefore only the physical evidence of history in the shape of archeological sites, monuments, buildings, rural and urban areas are considered here. Culture is a manifestation of man•s physical as well as spiritual interaction with nature and that cultural property is essentially the expressive product of such interaction. Cultural property becomes valued, and consequently protected not only because it provides a physical evidence of the reality of the existence of bygone cultures but also because it adds to the total body of knowledge about that particular culture and its people. However attitudes towards the value of such property differs widely among individuals, groups of people or even nations. The reasons for the indifference or attachment to one•s heritage are perhaps too varied and complex to define here. They may depend upon such variables as the level of intellectual and cultural development of the society, the awareness of one•s historical and traditional roots, religious attitudes and dogmas or even upon th term 11national psyche11 at a particular moment in history. But what is certain, however, is the loss of much historical evidence means that future generations are deprived of their historic continuity and consequently will remain largely ignorant of the richness of their cultural heritage.

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5.2.1.2 Preservation It is taken here to mean the protection of a single monument or a building by measured design to arrest its decay and freeze its existing state. 5.2.1.3 Restoration The rebuilding of the missing or the ruined parts of a single monument or a building so that it attains its former form. 5.2.1.4 Reconstruction The complete rebuilding of the whole or the major parts of a single monument or a building to its original form by using new material. 5.2.1.5 Conservation 5.2.2 The planning, protectional entrancement of a group of buildings or areas of architectural or historic interest, therefore, conservation can be regarded as a specialized form of planning which deals not only in the restoration of single buildings and the spaces around them but also involves accommodating new changes in physical as well as visual improvement of the whole historic setting. Extent of Conservation(75) A conservation plan for an area of architectural or historic interest is basically a planning proposal for the future of that area. A historic town should not be frozen into a living museum. Such a plan should not only safeguard the historic evidence and character of that area but also

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should improve and enhance its physical condition. Conservation being a multi-disciplinary activity should therefore deal with amongst other things; population, housing, socio-economic, infrastructure services and traffic problems of the area under study. The implementation of such a plan is usually carried out by a specialized governmental planning agency within the existing administrative legal and financial frame work. 5.2.2.1 Social Aspects Because conservation involves the inhabitants of an area, the social implication of implementing a conservation plan should be considered. However, this is not always possible as there is a lack of communication between the planning authorities and the local population. Consequently conservation policies in Iraq are likely to be resisted by the local inhabitants of traditional areas because of their fear that implementation will involve the disruption of their small business or their removal from the area. In general in this case, the Qala•a original inhabitants, who comprise 20%, share a strong feeling of solidarity, and mutual co-existence and they show full cooperation for the conservation scheme. The rest of the inhabitants who resist their removal from the area can have their problems solved by assisting them to rehabilitate their houses and by providing them with the basic necessary infrastructure services. Through active participation in upgrading the physical standards of the environment one should begin to appreciate that conservation also involves modernization and is not merely concerned with the care of a few historic buildings.

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Other difficulties facing Iraqi planners in general is the fact that conserved historic areas are not yet fashionable. Most Iraqi•s, especially those of the middle class, prefer to live in the new western style Madinas. They associate traditional mahallas with social and cultural under-development. The traditional house which has been successfully used in Mesopotamia for millenia has been socially rejected within the span of a few decades, while in contrast, the western style house which provides an enclosed shelter and therefore depends on modern technology to combat the excessive heat is now socially more acceptable but functionally inferior. Urban sociologists in the west are beginning to learn from the wisdom of past generations and the increasing interest in ecology and conservation are a hopeful concern to future generations to come. The value of conservation is described by Shankland. 11To, any generation an identifiable past offers a line of communication with others between the living, the dead, and those still to be born. It provides a reference to previous experience, a reservoir and perceptual source of historical delight, a culture to be accepted, altered, rejected, or re-discovered. A country without a past has the emptiness of a barren continent and a city without building is like a man without memory. 11

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5.2.3 I believe that it is a moral duty of the Iraqi architects, planners and all those concerned with historic environment, to take initiatives in the field of conservation in Iraq, which has the richest history and is considered -to be the cradle of civilization. During the last three to four decades Iraq has been undergoing several radical socio-economic and cultural changes of far reaching effects. The abundance, at least for the time being, of oil resources and the desire to develop the country rapidly have both led to a heavy dependence on western technology. Thus progress has become socially and culturally associated with westernization and much of the traditional heritage has either been lost or described as "backward". However, despite much destruction, enough remains today to warrant serious protective action and if such action is not taken soon, the loss of the remaining heritage will not only continue unabated but destruction is likely to accelerate. The Concept of Conservation(??) The most radical development in the planning of historic towns of the west has been the shift of emphasis from the mere protection of single buildings or monuments to the conservation of a group of buildings, whole areas or even the entire town. In effect conservation has now come to mean the planning of historic environment. Single buildings or other items of cultural interest are still protected and planned for, but the new approach emphasizes their overall character and context.

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This comprehensive and integral approach is even more relevant to traditional Islamic madinas where the individual buildings cluster together in such a compact and physical inter-dependent way that consideration of single structureis rather impossible. Even large public buildings as mosques are often sandwiched in a maze of other buildings. An attempt to free them from their surroundings must result in the removal of their context and historic setting. The explosive growth in population and urbanization perhaps more than any other phenomenon characterizes the twentieth century. Urbanization based on industrial growth in western societies and on a mass rural-urban migration in pre-industrial societies, has often resulted in the destruction of much of the historic fabric of towns. In Iraq, modern urban growth based on westernization, both in physical and cultural terms, has not only resulted in such destruction but also in the rejection of indigenous architecture and the traditional urban way of life. During the past two decades or so industrialized societies have witnessed something of an upsurge of interest in the conservation of their cultural heritage. This interest has developed largely from the increasing appreciation that the historic environment is a valuable asset whose loss is irretrievable. However, planners should try to reach a fine balance between the many conflicting forces in the historic town, between the desire to maintain its historic fabric and the need to I accommodate some modernization and change.

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5.2.4 Benefits of Conservation 5.2.4.1 Relations of Historic Fabric The conservation of an area results in the retention, restoration and enhancement of as much historic evidence as The benefits of extending the life of . a building of cultural interest relates to the very essence of conservation as mentioned before. 5.2.4.2 Improved Quality of the Environment Because conservation is concerned with whole areas and environment its benefits are extended to a larger number of people and buildings than with restoration. Its results are an overall physical as well as visual improvement in the quality of the environment. 5.2.4.3 Attracting Tourism Tourism plays a major role in the economic life of many countries. Tourists are especially attracted by towns of cultural interest and because of the money they spend, they can be or have a direct impact on the revival of a declining area. Tourism can also bring many other advantageous spin offs such as the revival of traditional skills and crafts. 5.3 Conservation Alternatives of the Qala'a In Article 5. l Introduction, it was concluded that the preferred option for the development of the Qala'a is through conservation of its unique and attractive qualities within the Qala'a as a historical center continuously inhabited. Here, the alternatives for conservation options are

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5.3.1 presented together with their relations to the possible land use movement patterns, potential inputs of town planning principles. Then in the next chapter the alternatives shall be assessed both in terms of design and suitability to function. Alternative Concepts(?B) Three alternative concepts have been suggested: 5.3.1.1 Alternative 1: Total preservation which would involve the retention of all buildings in the Qala'a. Although some infilling and re-development of derelict sites would be in accord with this policy {Figure 28). 5.3.1.2 Alternative II: Selective conservation, retaining some existing buildings depending on their architectural interest, structural condition, their existing and possible future uses and the possibility of serving them with utilities and transport. All other buildings would be cleared for re-development. Thus some of the existing routes and townscape could be retained and the possibility of preserving the exterior of the Qala'a exists {Figure 29). 5.3.1.3 Alternative Ill: Conservation of the Exterior Form: The mound and the ring of buildings upon its edge with their facades shall be retained. All internal buildings could be replaced but with height restrictions to preserve the exterior of the Qala'a (Figure 30). 5.3.2 Possible Land Use and Movement Patterns (Figure 31) It is the disposition of land uses and the communication network that will determine the future

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FIG_ 2 8 _ FIG_29-FIG30THE ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES ?L.Q

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character of the Qala•a. For each alternative, there is a range of land use and movement possibilities. 5.3.2.1 Alternative I: Movement by vehic .les is totally restrained and the range of new uses that can be inserted is small. 5.3.2.2 Alternative II: The possibilities for access and penetration are extensive. The land use is interrelated with the vehicular penetration so the possibilities are as shown in Figure 31. 5.3.2.3 Alternative III: This alternative allows for the same range of possibilities as Alternative II. 5.3.3 Potential Inputs (Plan Elements) Within the framework of the Qala•a discussed, there will be a mixture of elements, some old and some new and two types of use, one by visitors and one by The ultimate criteria then should merge the two aspects together. The revitalization of the Qala • a can be maintained by introducing elements to help the Qala•a to be a lively and pulsating centre of a diverse number of activities, and to create a living centre not only for the city of Arbil, but for the region as a whole. The suggested items are: -An artesian center to receive and develop the old arts and crafts of the northern part of Iraq. -A cultural centre for the Kurdish studies including an institute of historical and archeological studies, an institute for Kurdish language and literature, an institute of folk music and dancing and an institute for ecology.

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ACCESS FIG _ 31 PENETRATION LAND USE Prohibitod 251

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5.3.4 -Museums for the regions antiquities, natural history and ethnography. Amphitheatre to present performances of local dancing, singing, stories, etc. -An art exhibition gallery. Tourist accommodations such as guest houses, traditional types of coffee shops and restaurants. Public buildings such as a social club, clinic, kindergarten, primary school, small shops and a complex shop. Popular Arbil City council and Qala'a administrative building to revive the soul of the Qala'a as it was the place of the governor in the past. The above mentioned items could be situated either in preserved houses or in new buildings of the same style built on the delapidated areas. In addition to the above there is a possibility of remodelling of some of the houses and building new houses of the same style. Also, the main mosque, the three other small mosques, the public bath and the two shrines could be architecturally enhanced and emphasized since they represent an aspect of the Qala'a that indicates its historical continuity. Town Landscape Relationship(??) 5.3.4.1 The Qala'a should stand out and dominate the surrounding countryside (see Figure 32). This can be achieved by limiting building height in the vicinity of the Qala'a to a maximum of say two storeys and increasing out (see Figure 33).

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5.3.4.2 Along the pines of the major approach roads, visual corridors should be created to allow a clear view (See Figure 34}. I have suggested this corridor be mainly pedestrian and the Arbil Town planning group has taken this into consideration by introducing turns to the streets approaching Qala'a as shown in Figure 35 below. 5.3.4.3 It is important to maintain the solidity of the outer walls as the hard urban fence is one of the Qala'a characteristics. The form of the slopes has to be kept, either leaving it without planting or using grass or short bushes. Planting could be kept at street level (See Figure 36). 5.3.4.4 Views out from within the Qala'a are to be introduced to emphasize the relationship between the Qala'a and the surrounding areas. This could be done through narrow passages and screening (Figure 37} or by deck construction in some buildings (Figure 38). 5.3.5 Townscape Discipline(BO) 5.3.5.1 The recognizable and picturesque form of the Qala'a is a product of continuous land ownership patterns with socio-economic influences that created the vitality and compactness that could be considered a national historic interest. These qualities cannot be preserved by keeping a few buildings due to the fact that the majority of buildings are structurally poor. It is therefore essential that the design approach is disciplined by the existing quality of the Qala'a townscape . . 5.3.5.2 Identity areas should be maintained as entities and the spaces between them used for insertion of new buildings.

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1-:::::=FIG_ 33 _ IIIIIJ TWO STORY BUILDINGS THREE : Ill FIVE :: = SEVEN: = -NINE = :: BUILDING HEIGHTS I. VISUAl l.ORRinORS. 255

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FIG_34_

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. ' . . . FIG _ 38_ ,.. . . ... . . PROVISION OF VIEWING DECK ON SOME Of THE NEW BUILDNINGS ALONG THE OUTER WALL FIG_37_ VIEW OUL DRAMATISED BY CONTRAST BETWEEN URBAN EN CLOSURE AND COlJNTRY

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T d d ' SHEREEN IHSAN SHERZAO University of Colorado at denver College of Environmental deaign The D i vision of Architecture 1979 CITy CENTRE -., I Q ' " I )1_, SECTION B .B .. cOc • -, -''\, __.,, \} ..j i p ,n.r SECTION A . A ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HISTORIC CITADEL OF ARBIL_IRAQ CENTER FOR TOURISM ANO NATIONAL HERITAGE BUILDWG HIEGHT &VISUAL CORRIDOR THE QALA SHOULD THE SURROUNDING THE HARD URBAN FENC.E SHOULD BE VIEWS OUT ORAMATISEO BY CONTRAST BETWEEN URBAN ENCLOSURE & OPEN COUNTRY Scale N CD

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5.3.5.3 The varying widths of spaces between buildings, their uniform heights, and decorative parapets are matters to be maintained to keep their visual influences. Thus the walls that enhance the sense of enclosure should be rebuilt to the same discipline (see FigUres 39 and 40). New development must also respect changing building lines and skylines in order to maintain the identity of the street. 5.3.5.4 The relationship between building height and space enclosed, the change of level, detailing of buildings, contrast of adjoining spaces and the tree-like maze alleyways pattern should be maintained. 5.3.6 Design Principles for New Buildings It is essential that a design policy be evolved from the existing visual discipline but made flexible enough to allow imaginative new design. The points are an example for design principles: 5.3.6.1 In a street of mixed buildings, new infilling should maintain the variety by breaking up the outline and skyline and by avoiding large surfaces of uniform treatment. 5.3.6.2 In a street where buildings are a repetition of the same unit, the same style should be followed. 5.3.6.3 The existing building line should be respected to keep continuity. 5.3.6.4 Building height and skyline are fundamental and infilling should respect the existing discipline. If higher buildings are to be constructed, the street line should keep the lower level and the high part set back.

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FIG_ L.O-

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FIG-39-

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5.3.6.5 Existing buildings have narrow frontages. The new buildings should not be designed for long uniform facades and breaking up facades by bays or balconies should be used. 5.3.6.6 There is a strong sense of unity in the Qala'a because of the use of bricks or use of similar decorative features. New buildings could use the same materials interpreted to modern constructional requirements. 5.3.6.7 The relationship of window to wall area which is kept to a minimum for social and climatic considerations should be kept and inward looking courtyard type buildings with little or no windows on the street side should be continued.

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Chapter 6 6. Assessment of Alternative Concepts In this chapter the three alternatives presented in Chapter 5 shall be assessed according to two sets of criteria. -firstly, functional requirements and, secondly, design principles. Then a concept will be selected for a detailed proposal. 6.1 Funtional Requirements The functional requirements are the physical factors that must be planned in order that the finally proposed design is successful through fulfilling the aims which are that of the Qala'a:(Bl) -is a lively place for living and working -has a healthy environment -is a focal point for Kurdish culture and -retains some of its existing character The Qala'a should be the center for tourism as a result of fulfilling the above mentioned aims and as Arbil City is the main gate for tourism in the region.

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6.1.1. In these terms, the most significant factors to be studied are: provision of car access the type of community that will live in the Qala'a -essential services inserted -non-residential land use uses of retained buildings. Vehicular Access and Parking For the purpose of easy functioning of the Qala'a in the future, some vehicular access is essential to attract many car-owing families to live or work there, in addition to providing public service cars access. On the other hand the provision of a full road system appears undesirable with the existing pedestrian scale and character of the Qala'a. 6.1.1.1 Thus Alternative 1 of complete preservation and Alternative 3 of retention the exterior form of the Qala'a seems equally undesirable, however the Alternative 2 of selective conservation would allow limited access. 6.1.1.2 It is my opinion that service vehicles must be allowed into the Qala'a to ensure its efficient function. The residents cars will not create any problem. The total number of saloon cars in Arbil Governorate in 1978(82) was 4,186 while the population was 541,456 i.e .. 008 per capita and in Arbil City in 1973 the number of cars was 928 with a population of 120,000 i.e .. 022 cars per

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capita. If the rate of the Governorate of Arbil is applied to the area then the number of cars owned would be 24 for 3000 which is more applicable to the present situation. However even by giving a high rate and relatively high medium income level to the Qala•a residents car ownerships it is unlikely to cause any problem. For the future if the plan suggested is applied, there will be around 240 houses i.e. families, with a population of 1,460 persons with an average of 6 per family and if the rate of .5 cars per family is applied then that yields 120 cars. And by adding 150 employees working in the Qala•a with .5/cars per person i.e. 75 cars, then the total number of private cars shall be 195 say 200 cars, taking 25 m 2 for each cars parking, the area required shall be around 5,000 sq.m. This could be provided easily in the selective conservation alternative. 6.1.1.3 It is recommended that for visitors parking, places to be provided at the base of the Qala•a with a mini-bus service to the center of the round. 6.1.2 THe Qala•a as a Community (Housing) I believe that the aim of revitalizing the Qala•a implies not only new facilities, but people continuing to live and work there for the purpose of conserving the most important character of the Qala•a, being the oldest continuously inhabited city. This means that the Qala•a will be alive both day and night. In Alternatives 2 and 3, and due to most houses being in poor condition and to be removed, the problem arises of rehousing their residents, so the government should either

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provide low cost housing outside the Qala•a or provide subsidizeQ housing within. The number of existing houses are as follow: 23 as better than adequate and 54 as adequate houses which shall remain, and 400 sub-standard houses to be removed. It is estimated that from the 400 sub-standard houses after introducing the development projects mentioned in Article 5.3.3, only 185 new houses shall be built making the total number of houses. available as 262 houses. If 22 houses are taken for accommodating projects, then 250 houes remain for residents. As we mentioned, about 20% of the existing inhabitants are old habitants for generations and like to stay i.e. 20% of 470 families say 100, then 150 houses remain for newcomers. This is exactly the number of employees expected to work in the future developed Qala•a. It is expected that 50% of those shall reside in Qala•a houses leaving 75 houses for others which the new environment will attract or from the existing residents of the sub-standard houses. It is expected that most of the newcomers as employees shall be of higher and middle income in character and thus there will be a better balanced population and a fair percentage of working inhabitants in the Qala•a which reduces the journey to work problems. This balanced community can really only be expected in Alternative 2 as the society shall be mixed of some existing families either in existing buildings or in new housing, and some new families. The plots and designs should have different house sizes. The new development will raise the cost of all accommodations including rents and it is then expected that the unskilled workers employed will be forced to live out of the Qala•a.

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6.1.3 Concerning the renting situation in the Qala'a, the residents are classified as follow. 100 houses for the original residents who are owners and are of medium class -75 houses shall be rented to the employees who are of medium income and according to Iraqi laws, they shall pay only 20% of their salaries per month as rent which means 10. 15-30 -75 remaining houses for the newcomers due to the better environment, will be occupied by 10% of the high income class and 90% of the middle class. The rents depend on the cost of the land and building as the Iraqi Laws have limited the rent not to exceed 4% of that cost. The average cost oif a 200-300 m 2 plot with 100-150 m 2 building area amounts to 10. 40-50/month. Essential Services The provision of satisfactory services particularly the sewage system shall raise the living conditions in the Qala'a. The progress of implementation of service projects depends on the progress of clearing the site. However starting with new service schemes as a network aligned essentially along existing lanes would be the best solution. 6.1.3.1 Water supply: The water tank although it is a focal point is affecting the development scheme because of its ugly steel structure. It is suggested that an underground water tank be constructed sufficient to store 150,000 gallons. 6.1.3.2 Drainage: The main gradient of the ground of the Qala'a which is 1 in 50 is an adequate slope for a drainage system. Two separate drainage systems are suggested one for fuel water and the second

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for the storm water. Asbestos or concrete pipes of 10-20 em. may be used to take the disposal to the plain and to the main sewage. 6.1.3.3 Refuge disposal: Garbage would be stored in convenient containers which are then collected from individual houses by the municipality in small vehicles manageable within the alley ways. 6.1.3.4 Electricity: One substation of 500 KVA centrally located is sufficient. The cables and distribution shall be underground. The street lighting units to be fixed to the walls of houses. A main telephone cable of 300-400 pairs should connect to the City exchange. 6.1.3.5 Non-residential Land Uses 6.2 6.2.1 In Clauses 5.3.3, it was discussed in some detail the requirements of orienting the development of the Qala•a as a focus of Kurdish culture and a center of tourism. Also the ancillary uses related to the local population were presented. Complete conservation would not allow this to occur. Selective preservation is to be preferred to a large scale re-development as it allows the possibility of using better condition buildings to house some of the suggested centres for arts, crafts, hostel, museum, etc. The suggested plan of the Qala•a will show the locations. Design Principles Qala•aLandscape Relationship This principle is concerned with the appearance of the Qala•a in its countryside setting. The widest level of identity of the Qala•a is its overall form and its relationship to Arbil City and

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6.2.2 the surrounding landscape. The three alternatives score equally and envisage maintaining of this relationship with the Qala•a dominating the surrounding. However, if in the third alternative the external wall is kept as a thin veneer it would then be falsity and not an honest expression of J what goes on behind, because it will become neither a defensive wall as in all citadels nor a functional part of the building. Visual and Environmental Quality -The total fabric in the Qala•a cannot be preserved brick by brick since much of it has already deteriorated, therefore the preservation should be selective and Alternative 1 is very difficult to achieve. In Alternative 3, there will be unnecessary demolition of many good buildings that need conservation for reasons of historic value, structural adequacy or. social and religious beliefs. So, Alternative 2, the selective conservation, would seem more logical. -The present townscape has been moulded over years of development and piecemeal re-development within the limitations of ownership, climatic and social factors, and the needs of a local vernacular. If the Qala•a is going to accommodate new uses, the organization of spaces will have to be remodelled to suit new requirements, but within the existing townscape discipline. Alternative 1 is too rigid while Alternative 3 totally rids itself of the existing discipline. Alternatives 1 and 2 maintain identity areas, however Alternative 2 offers a better chance of improvement by introducing focal points, nodes, views and enclosures.

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6.3 Selected Alternative It is concluded that on the grounds of design principles, Alternative 2 of selective conservation offers better opportunities for keeping the characteristics of the Qala•a with good re-development and avoids the danger of stagnation and decay.

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Chapter 7 7. Conclusions: The selected strategy, plan principles and implementation. In Chapters 5 and 6 the alternatives were presented and assessed. According to the assessment made there the results could be tabulated as follow : Chart No. 10 Sets of Criteria Functional Reguirements Design Reguirements Essential Land Uses Vehicular & Landscape Visual & Env. Alternatives Access Community Services Relation Qual itl 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 Weak 0 Good 0 Very Good 0 From the analysis shown above, the alternative chosen is Alternative 2, the selective preservation. This alternative shall be developed as a strategy for action. The plan represents the suggested layout of the uses based on the following.

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7.1 Principles 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.2 7.2.1 7.2:2 The proposed conservation policy is based on three principles. THe conservation of the exterior form of the Qala•a should not mean a thin veneer of wall, but a functional, living entity on a meld of old and new buildings. The pedestrian scale and main pedestrian routes should be retained and extended even to the development of the circular route following the line of the Qala•a wall. All buildings of adequate and better than adequate quality are to be retained and improved. Approaches of Design. The three principles presented above will yield the following approach to design. Firstly, in terms of a distinction between areas of predominantly new development (see Figure 41). Secondly, the description to the main pedestrian routes by new roads can be minimized by interlocking (see Figure 42). The road alignments are modified according to locations of retained buildings and good environment. 7.3 Other Parameters 7.3.1 In addition to above primary parameters, the plan is based on the following: Limited vehicular penetration is allowed. Only by residents cars, service vehicles including fire trucks and small scale public transport vehicles (minibuses), hence road spaces and parking are

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FIG-42-THEORETICAL INTERLOCKING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PEDESTRIAN ROOTES AND ROAD NETWORK INFILL CDA FIG -41-INFILL AND COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN AREAS

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7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4 7.3.5 7.3.6 provided to allow for that. There will be 10 small parking lots to accommodate around 20 cars each with approximately 160 houses being allowed direct car access. The new span roads, with a maximum width of 6 meters, are not allowed to penetrate identity areas, or to destroy intersecting spaces or buildings. The terminal roundabout for minibuses and other service vehicles is located at the start of the mosque and bath area to the North. There will be two gates, the south gate which is under construction for pedestrians only, and the north gate for vehicle access. Tree planting should occur at the base of the Qala•a not exceeding 4 meters in height and the slopes to be covered by drought-resistant shrubs. Internally, planting should generally be spread. The new developments purpose shall be to make the Qala•a a center for tourism, Kurdish culture and heritage and popular city council in addition to the public buildings. The details were presented in 5.3.3. Preservation and conservation of the Mosques, bath, and the adequate houses. In addition to the new houses to be built to retain the continuously inhabitancy of the Qala•a. 7.4 Implementation The successful revitalization of the Qala•a will depend on the way in which the proposals are implemented, not only technically but on the determination and willingness of all the individuals and organizations concerned to play their part to the full.

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7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 The implementing authority will have to decide on the period over which the recommendations will be carried out. This should not exceed in my opinion 7 years. The first part shall be acquisition of the lands and derelict houses and rehousing of the present inhabitants of the houses to be removed or remodelled. However, there are improvements that can be made almost immediately. It is suggested that priority to given to the insertion of modern services: sewerage, drainage, water, electricity, telephone and refuse disposal. Also the alleyways could be paved. Then the public buildings such as clinic, primary school and kindergarten will have the next priority. The other suggested buildings then could be programmed accordingly. 7.5 Finance and Administration With the present situation of the finances, there will not be any problem of budgeting this project. In part 2 of this study an estimate based on the prevailing rates and prices is given which amounts to IO 10 mill. i.e. 33 mil. dollars as IO 3.3$. Concerning administration, it is suggested a special department be formed and attached to the popular city council or municipality to be responsible for all aspects . of the plan implementation. In addition to staff experienced in conservation planning and architecture, it should have a community development officer. The department should be backed with an advisory group of an experienced architect, planner, economist and a member specialist in Kurdish culture and heritage.

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PART II

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PART II PLANNING AND DESIGN Section I Plan of the Sector Surrounding the Qala'a. In Chapter 5, Section 3 of Part 1, the existing situation of this sector which has direct relation with the Qala'a was presented together with the suggestions to improve both the existing situation and the suggested new master plan. Here a general planning of this sector has been drawn as shown in Plate 26. 1. The Principles The principles used are: 1.1 Emphasizing the dominance of the Qala'a through: keeping the ring road around the Qala'a mainly for pedestrian but car movement of public vehicles and the Qala'a residents are allowed to use it (Figure 35). 1.2 Looping the radial roads approaching the Qala'a location to emphasize on clearing the ring road for the purpose stated in 1.1.1. 1.3 Introducing some residential blocks in the sector to keep the residential community in the Qala'a in relation to the part of the residential area in the City. 1.4 Limiting . the height of the buildings in the sector to 2 to 3 storey heights only (see Figures 33 and 34).

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iHEREEN IHSAN SHERZAD Jniveraity of Colorado at denver :Oiklge of Environmental deaign he Oiviaion of Architaetura CITy CEIVTRE :;,. . . . SECTION B .B _tt :}J!;/td> , -iri[ c SECTION A . A ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HISTORIC CITADEL OF ARBIL-IRAQ ,...II:: .... TI:D enD Tl"tt.l IDICaM A a.t-IU A"W"tn&.l A I BUILDING HIEGHT &VISUAL CORRVOR THE GALA SHOULD DOMINATE THE SlJRROUNDING nlE HARD URBAN FENC'.E SHOULD BE MAWTAII\IED VIEWS OUT DAAMATISED BY COIVTRAST BETWEEIII URBAIII !ENCLOSURE &OPEN COUIIITftY Scale N m

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2. The Land Use Situation 2.1 The civic center part covers an area of (2.5) hectar and situated to the north west to cover the 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 existing administrative building and to adjoin the governmental center of the autonomy administration buildings. It covers also parking lot of (2083) m 2 . The city center part which includes: Central commercial center and office used areas mainly pedestrian with service access roads covering an area of (7.58) hectare. Residential blocks covering an area of (0.9) hectare. Open space covering (1.3) hectare. Parking lots covering an area of (6,316) m 2 • Bases for calculating required parking areas: The area per person in center is considered (6) m 2 • 60% of the area to be used by people. I Scale of one car per 12 persons (occupying employees) the area is considered. (20) sq.m. area is supplied for each car. Two storey parking block is to be used.

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2.3.6 According to the above measures the required parking block for the sector of 6000 m 2 shall be: 60/. x 6000 x 2 0 = 10.000 area I area of one floor 6 )( 12 1 0 000 = 5 000 m .. 2 2.3.7 The following parking block floor area are provided: 2.3.7.1 2.3.7.2 2.3.7.3 2.3.7.4 2.3.7.5 2.3.7.6 -Section 2.3.7.1 to Section 2.3.7.4 is applied to city center and from 2.3.7.5 to 2.3.7.6 is to the civic center. 8000 x 601. x 20 = 666 . 6 m._ 6x12 x 2 1 L. 00 0 x 60'/. x 2 0 = 1r66_ 6mt6x12x2 19500 X 60'/. X 201625 ffiL 6x12 x 2 2 BL. 00 x 60'/. x 2 0 =23 66.6 mL 6x12 x 2 l. L. 800 x 60"/. x 20 = L.OO m 6x12x2 L 212 00 x60/. x 20 _ 1766-6m ' 6x12x2 ...... o

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SECTION II 279

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Section II -The Architectural Design of the Suggested Complex of the Qala•a. INTRODUCTION 1. The main purpose of this work as I mentioned before is to produce an architectural design of a sector chosen in the Qala•a which houses the suggested nonresidential projects. These suggested projects are grouped into two groups: 1.1 Group One -newly developed projects comprising: -A cultural center for the Kurdish studies -Museum complex Amphitheatre Art exhibition gallery Suq Some of the touristic accommodation Primary school Popular city council 1.2 Group Two comprises projects to be housed in conserved houses such as: Artisian center Ethrography museum Kindergarten

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Rest house and coffee shops Social club Some of the public buildings 2. A full program of the suggested projects shall be presented. 3. The 1/200 a general architectural plan shall be designed for the main complex. 4. A detailed architectural design of the Fine Art Gallery will be worked out. Note: In my first degree thesis, the museum complex was designed. 5. Then some general plan model design for a suggested new house and one of the artisian centers shall be presented.

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Chapter 1 -Complex Elements and Grouping 1.1 Complex Elements 1.1.1 Artisan Center The reason I have chosen this work is to create this artistic center which will serve very much the re-development of Qala'a and helps Qala'a to be an attractive center for touristic and social activities. Certainly the interest of the authorities both in the central and regional government towards the old arts and folklores encouraged me very much to choose this work being this as a picture for the original of the heritage and environment. 1.1.1.1 Facts ruling the Importance of Local Arts and Folklores The feeling of nations to reserve their heritage and tradition increases their feeling towards the originality of their nationality. Introducing machines and industry into such field have threatened the old activities and will serve to cut the link between past and present or future. -The situation of the old arts and crafts in northern region of Iraq is declining very much and creating problems which might effect very much the standard due to not having such center which facilitate in this field. The studies made in the folklore center and the craft training center in Baghdad and the aim of forming a specialized institute for hand crafts in Baghdad added an important factor to think of forming such in northern part of Iraq.

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1.1.1.2 The Present Situation of Handcraft in the Region -The liquidating of the traditional craftsman is due to the industrial insurgence. -The craftsman naturally belongs to the past and he is no longer able to adapt himself to the inquiries of the rapid change in the society and the increase in the standard of living even the inquiries of the modern houses have become of decorative character more than utility character. I -The understanding between the craftsman and this society is somewhat impossible, this is because of the primary training which does not have any space for invention -so we have to create educated craftsmen who use the primary material and following up of progress in-production and following the originality of traditional production in a good way. Most of the people who work in this field do not depend only by their living on what they gain from their production in this field but they work in agriculture. They have their living houses as their workshops which are not suitable both health wise and profession wise. -Keeping the old instruments without any improvement or maintenance, had created a lot of problems to maintain the standard. The aim of merchants is having highest profit, buying the production with the cheapest price and selling it with a highest effected without easy care to its standard.

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The absence of an organization or (center) to manage and organize production, marketing and supplying raw materials have effected very much in lowering standard. 1.1.1.3 Notes on Handicrafts in the North of Iraq Handicrafts Handicrafts is a way of production that nowadays appears as a secondary method of production. It is characterized by the fact that the means of production are the private property of the craftsman, who himself combines work and capital to obtain a saleable product. These handicraft products are really economic goods necessary to the life of the inhabitants and in some cases essent i a 1 for surviva 1. 11Tawe 1 a11, for example, uses its handicraft production for self-consumption and also for 11exports11 to an extensive area of Kurdistan. Its textiles and its 11Klash11 (hemp sandals or Kurdish shoes) are very well accepted in the region. Some wood products are used for house building and others for kitchen utensils, combs, spoons, etc., which are sold in the entire neighbouring region. However, the process of development itself causes the disappearance of the handicraft way of production, as it adapts to the requirements of development. As these regions will become integrated in a generalized process of industrial development in the country, industrial production will absorb the handicraft production which will be reduced to the role of a typical regional production with a very limited range of products. These products are those that can be bought as 11Souvenirs11 by the tourists; such as

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woolen bags, folding knives, vases and dishes of baked clay, baskets, bags of wheat straw, pipes and cigarette holders, etc., or that have a functionality that has not been improved on by more modern industrial products (as in the case of the "Klash"). 1.1.1.4 Characteristics of the products and their importance These products are generally made from local raw materials: wool from sheep and goats, wood, wheat straw, clay for pottery products, marble, leather, etc. The product normally obtained is very simple, because it is predominantly functional, its interest lies in its peculiarity and in the remarkable beauty of some of the work. The following attached photos (43-47) presents the handicraft practices. Pottery There is quite a large production of baked clay articles in the form of pitchers for water and for cooling water, for keeping olive oil and olives as well as plates, cooking pots of different sizes and ornamental products such as flower vases and statuettes, usually representing animals. -Wool Almost all Kurdish wearing apparel is made from wool (dresses, stockings, etc.), as well as blankets, bags, carpets, etc., production that takes place in places like Rania, Qal'at Diza, Amadiya Mergasur, etc. The Kurdish "Klash'' were formerly made entirely of natural fibers but today synthetic materials are used for the soles.

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-Wood Wood plays an important part in house construction: rafters, columns, door and windows, as well as for the construction of furniture such as tables, chairs, stools, benches, etc. Wood is also used for making pipes, cigarette holders, flower vases, candelabra, trays, fruit bowls and many kitchen utensils; spoons, moulds for sweetmeats, mortars, etc. As localities important for this type of handicraft we may mention Amadiya, Halabacha, Aqra, Kirkuk, Sulaimaniya. Leather Craftsmen use leather for making bags for carrying water and for making butter. They use it for making harnasses and a type of shoe different from the famous 11Klash11• Likewise they make belts and sheaths for daggers, cartridge belts and holsters. Entities like Tal'Afar, Sinjar Galala, etc., are outstanding for this type of production. -Wheat straw Wheat straw is used for making baskets, table mats, bags, fruit bowls and many kinds of ornamental vases. This type of craft is centered chiefly in Altun Kupri, Aqra and Tooz Khormatu. 1.1.1.5 The present marketing situation The products made by craftsmen are at present marketed at the local level in the town and surrounding villages -and at the regional level (the Iraki Kurdistan area) in the case of certain

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well-known products (thus the textiles and "Klash" made in Tawela are very well known in the entire study area). Although some of these products go to Baghdad, the consumers are essentially Kurds residing in the capital. Channels of distribution are very simple: at the local level the buying-selling cycle is reduced to the craftsman-consumer relationship, and in the case of products exported outside the town, the relationship would be craftsman-travelling salesman-consumer. The margin of profit is usually very small. The menace of extinction of the handicraft production is becoming more and more serious. The national dress is beginning to lose its exclusiveness with the adoption of European dress. Perhaps, in the long run, tourism could help to preserve this handicraft production, opening up national and international markets for some products selected and made for export, as is happening at the present time in many countries. 1.1.1.6 Potential for the development of handicrafts through tourism The general development of the region-and the touristical one-will produce . a certain substitution of the local handicrafts by new products, as a result of a gradual change of the consumer habits by the population in Northern Iraq. In this context many handicraft products are going to be condemned to a gradual disappearance. But others, on the contrary, will adapt to the new situation and develop as a result of a demand from outside the region with a stronger consumer

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storing, mud, earth washing, sp. pools mixing wheeling Baking Colouring I drying in furrow outs ide storing Figure 43 Pottery Work Process There is quite a large production of baked clay articles in the form of pitchers for water and for cooling water, for keeping olive oil and olives as well as plates, cooking pots of different sizes and ornamental products such as flower vases and statuettes, usually representing animals.

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Storing Washing and Cleaning Cutting Drying Carving Colouring [ ______ _ Figure 45 Wood Carving Process -Wood plays an important part in house construction: rafters, columns, doors and windows, as well as for the construction of furniture such as tables, chairs, stools, benches, etc. Wood is also used for making pipes, cigarette holders, flower vases, candelaora, trays, fruft 5owls and many kitchen utensils; spoons, moulds for sweetmeats, mortars, etc. As locaHties important for this type of handicraft we may mention: Amadiya, Halabacha, Aqra, Kirkuk, Sulaimaniya.

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Storing Washing Culting Preparation Colouring L Weaving Storing Figure 47 Wheat Straw Weaving-Wheat straw is used for making baskets, table mats, bags, fruit bowls and many kinds of ornamental vases. This type of craft is centered chiefly in Altun Kupri, Agra and Tooz Khormatu.

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Storing --------------Washing Drying Colouring [ --------------[-------------Storing ---------------------------[----=---==-----;:;.-----.......__----------------:::=..:....:.--------• I . • . ' J • • Figure 46 Leather Work Craftsmen use leather for makfng bags for carrying water and for making butter. They use it for making harnesses and a type of shoe dffferent from the famous ''Klash''. Likewise they make belts and sheaths for daggers, cartrfdge Belts and holsters. Entities like Tal'Afar, Sinjar Galala, etc., are outstandi'ng for this type of production.

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[-----------Storing -------------------------{" l [ ____________ :tori ng ________ _. -------_______ --[---------------------l -------------__ :s.:::: __ ---. [------------, --------_ ____ _j Figure 44 Wool Weaving ProcessAlmost all Kurdish wearing apparel is made from wool, (dresses, stockings, etc.), as well as blankets, bags, carpets, etc., production that takes place in places like Rania, Qal 'at Diza, Amadiya Mergasur, etc. The Kurdish 11Klash11 were formerly made entirely of natural fibers but today synthetic materials are used for the soles.

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power. The products selected should be those having a typical local character, that can play a role that is in a great part decorative, keeping a certain functionality. 1.1.1.7 Suggestions The above presentation of . the conditions of the handicraft and its importance to the tourism and heritage appreciation made me to suggest: -An artistic centre in Arbil, this centre should be a productive centre, run-by specialized craftsmen from different regions of the Northern Part who must be housed near their workshops and employing apprentice trainers. Several training production centres in the certain parts of the northern region according to the productivity frame of that region, the reason for this is: that (countryman) depend mainly on agriculture in his living, so designs and pictures created by (countryman) is inspired from his natural environment. Concerning the centre in the Qala, the suggestion is to house each craft in one house; the ground floor of which shall be used for training and production with small exhibition shop. The team shall be comprising the chief craftsman (OSTA) and 3-4 trainees. The second floor could be used for housing the chiefs family or the trainees. In some cases the OSTA family shall be housed in nearby houses. In addition there will be exhibition shops of all crafts within the suggested suq.

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The suggested crafts are: Poetry -Reed and basketing -Rug weaving Wool cloth we. aving Klash and cup making -Wood carving and musical instruments. 1.1.2 The Kurdish Nation Studies Centre The Kurdish Nation being an ancient nation going its history to 2000 B.C., had unfortunately no chance to develop its heritage in all fields. Lately, the 17th of July Revolution opened a wide opportunity for the Kurdish people in Iraq to work in this line, among these opportunities were establishing the Kurdish Academy in Baghdad and the University of Sulaimaniyah with a specialized section for the Kurdish language and literature in addition to considering the Kurdish language as official language in schools and offices of the government. As Arbil became center of the Autonomy Region and as I have chosen my project in Qala•a to be developed to become center of culture and record of the region traditions, heritage and folklore then I found it very important to include in the complex I am developing a center of the Kurdish studies to perform the following aims. 1.1.2.1 Collecting and keeping records for all folkloring stories and songs.

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1.1.2.2 Collecting and keeping all transcripts of written literature poems and books by Kurdish writers and poets. 1.1.2.3 Collecting all books and periodicals written on Kurdish language, history literature, etc. 1.1.2.4 Providing all facilities for researches to work on any field of Kurdish studies. 1.1.2.5 In addition I assume it could be very useful that this specialized centre to be linked to the Kurdish section of the Iraqi Academy and then it might be a right idea to have this center as the sight place for the headquarters of the Kurdish Academy section or as a branch of that. Many contacts made with the administration of the Kurdish academy in Baghdad and Sulaimaniyah University who all found it very reasonable to establish such centre and they were all very helpful in assisting me to lay the programme of the center. 1.1.3 Amphitheatre 1.1.3.1 The purpose of suggesting such amphitheatre is to present performance of folkloric dances, songs, and stories which will assist promoting Qala'a as a touristic centre in addition to its necessity in revitalization of the same. 1.1.3.2 The reason which encouraged me to suggest such amphitheatre is that Arbil has none such theatre for presenting any such activities. 1.1.3.3 The capacity of the amphitheatre would be with range of 500-700 persons located in the green area.

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1.1.4 Suq 1.1.4.1 The purpose of the suq is to sell the product of the artisian center in addition to reviving the idea of suq which existed in old Qala'a. 1.1.4.2 The location of the suq will be within the main plaza and it's suggested that the Qaysart type of closed arched suq to be used as this was the form used in Arbil. 1.1.5 Coffee Shop 1.1.5.1 The purpose of suggesting such coffee shop is to serve light local meals and dinners which Arbil area is famous for such as sour milk, cheese, etc. for both tourists and inhabitants of Qala'a. 1.1.5.2 The location will be near the green area and the amphitheatre. 1.1.6 Meeting Hall 1.1.7 The idea of suggesting such meeting hall is to provide a suitable place for lecturing and discussing on subjects related to the Kurdish literature, folklore ... etc., in addition that such hall would serve the purpose of educating the people working in the artisian center as regards the raw materials. Following up the improvement methods, and developing aspects of their profession aiming to create an educated modern artisian. The Fine Art Gallery The purpose of suggesting such art gallery is due to its absence in Arbil in spite of a considerable development which has been noticed in the standard of fine arts in the region.

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1.1.8 Recently a branch of the Iraqi society for fine arts has been formed from very well known painters, sculptures, ceramic artists, etc. Introducing such centre for permanent and temporary exhibition of the artists products will create a better attractive condition both for tourists and interested people in fine art in the city. This project is chosen for the architectural detailing of this study. In addition, this gallery is considered as an integral part of the complex. Popular City Council Centre Iraq in its way of the popular democracy region is giving big attention to form such councils in all cities and towns. The numbers are selected to represent all the professional categories and others. They are mainly to discuss the city situation from all respects particularly municipality, health, educational, services, .•. etc. The member of such councils are 20-40 depending on the size of the city and town holding weekly meetings. Usually there will be sub-committees for specified sectors. They are the link between the people and the different governmental departments. The Law No. 63 year 1971 defines its composition, objects and ways of work. The Qala'a itself as a castle was centre of the ruler and administrator. Thus by suggesting the location of this council in the Qala'a is partially reviving some of its character in addition to that the councils existence in the Qala'a will strengthen the link of the people of the City to its nuclear and Qala'a.

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1.1.9 Institute of Folk Music and Dancing The purpose of this institute shall be to develop and carry research in folk music and dancing. The region is very famous in this respect and introducing such institute shall fulfill the need of developing and maintaining this part of the Kurdish Culture. The existence of the auditorium, the amphitheatre, and the Institute shall form an integrated block for such purposes. 1.1.10 Museum The ancient history of the Arbil City and its Qala'a, and the regions special natural resources potentialities particularly zeological and botical necessitates existence of museum for antiquities and natural history of the region. 1.1.11 Touristic Facilities Rest house, coffee shops, restaurants are suggested as in the plan and programme. 1.1.12 Public facilities such as social club, school, kindergarten, clinic, police station .•. etc. are also suggested. Note: The southgate is now under construction by the municipalities. The public bath has been remodeled recently by the Department of Antiquities and will be exhibited as ethographic preservation of a historic bath in addition to remodeling of several houses to be used in future for most probably touristic purposes.

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1.2 Activity Relations and Grouping 1.2.1 Weighted Influence of Activities• Relationships In order to establish a system which can be used to place activities in specific spaces according to each activity•s requirements, maximum and minimum relationship limit for each activity must be defined this evaluation process elicits the fine links between different departments . . Relationship of activities can be coordinated by giving a symbolic value for each activity with another from the same classification, a score of (3) is given when the requirement relationship is the same and the nature of the activities concerned is similar and interconnected. A score of (2) is given when less interconnection but some similarity in activity exists a score of (1) with weak relationship and (0) with no relationship. The result of this scoring is shown in the following charts. 1.2.2 Schematic Grouping In the light of the study made in this chapter and the activity relations presented in 1.2.1, different schematic groupings were tried and finally the alternative shown in Figure 48 was chosen as base for planning of the complex which shall be discussed in the next Chapter (2) of this section.

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Guest House ---------------------------< Cafe' --.. -----Rest. Amph. Theatre Ethnographic M. Museum 1------------------------Art Gallery Artisan .c. SUQ --------------------------------< CHART . 11 Touristic Activities +-4 VERY STRONG RELATION STHONG RELATION +-4 WEAK RELATION NO HELATION 310

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Kurdish nation studies center Lecture hall Weighted influence of activities relationship CHART 11 +-4 VERY STRONG HELATIO N ST IIUN G RELAlllJN 1 WEAK 1-
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.---------Social Club 1------------------------< School -------------< Kindergarten Clinic Police Station Main Adminst. and Control ----------------Market ----------------Mosque 1------------------Public Gathering Open Space -----CHART 11 ; +4 VERY STRONG RELATIO N Public Facilities STRO NG RELATION W EA K RELATI O N N O RELATION

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Museum ---------<. SUQ Art Gallery Ethrograptii'c M. InsUtute Arti'san Center -------------------....! CHART 11 Artistic Section t--4 V RY STI-H)NG Rt.LAT I O N STIIONG RELATION Wl::t.K N O tH:LATIO N

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View Effect Social Club Guest House Museum Art Gallery K. Inst. Popular City Council Artisan Center Theatre Emphitheatre CHART 11 View Influence V ERY STRONG R LATION STII ONG RELATION WEAK RELATI ON NO RC L r\TiuN

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Theatre 1---------------------------< Emphitheatre 1--------------------Cafe• & Rest. ------------------------< Guest House 1-------. -------------< Social Club SUQ 1------1---------------1----------------------CHART 11 ; VERY STRONG RELATION Public Interest Section STRONG RELATION WEAK RELATION i4 NO RELATI ON

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Chapter 2 2. The complex design 2.1 Design principles: The complex design shall be based on following principles. 2.1.1 Planning principles 2.1.1.1 Maintaining the same alley's pattern and space dimensions. 2.1.1.2 Introducing covered alleys and walkways. 2.1.1.3 Introducing open and covered spaces between the buildings. 2.1.1.4 Gathering the complex elements in the region between the south gate which is the main pedestrian connection to the centre of the city and the focal points of the existing bath and mosque. 2.1.1.5 Maintaining the dimension scales particularly the heights and different levels. 2.1.2 Architectural Principles In Chapter 5.3.6 of 3 of the Part I of this study, design principles for new buildings was presented in detail which is applicable for the complex. The brief of some of those principles are: 2.1.2.1 The height shall not exceed 2 storey building. 2.1.2.2 Courtyards shall be used. 2.1.2.3 Bricks shall be the facing and the building material for the walls and some roofs. 2.1.2.4 Arches shall be used.

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2.1.2.5 The style and the principle of the design of the new main entrance of the south gate to be extended and used in the complex. 2.1.2.6 2.1.2.7 2.1.2.8 Introducing the decoration patterns used in the Qala'a buildings. Introducing arch covered type of shopping passage (Qaisariyah). Introducing a module system in planning of the buildings which is 1.5 m concluded from the least dimension existed in the alley ways. 2.1.3 Engineering Principles 2.1.3.1 Structural The bearing walls shall be of bricks 36-50 em thick of the same dimensions and texture of the existing bricks. Although the existing roof materials are either circular timber joists and crossing or steel joists and bricks, however it is recommended to use reinforced concrete slabs or ribbed floors which will match with brick construction and will have more strength. expansion joints are rarely used, only in case of stage construction or new construction beside old ones. foundations shall be of R. concrete on a boaring soil of 1/2 kg/cm2 and incase of basement, the raft foundation shall be used as floors of the basement.

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2.1.3.2 Cooling and Heating -The Arbil climate as was discussed before is a dry hot in summer which air coolers shall be suitable to cool the ground and first floor. Coolers shall be put on the roof and cooled air will be distributed by ducts. For basement, the badgeirs could be used. In winter, the climate is very cold. It is suggested to introduce a central heating system for the complex, by using electric boilers providing hot water to radiators to overcome any pollution problem for the case of using gas or petrol heaters. 2.1.3.3 Water Supply It is suggested that the Qala'a building to be supplied by water through an underground water reservoir on pneumatic base to eliminate the ugly elevated tank system. Its size has been studied on the requirement of 2000 persons, 50 gallons/day/person and for 36 hours which amounts to 600 m 3 12 x 25 x 2.5 m water tank shall be sufficient. The water supply pipes to the buildings and houses shall be extended in the cahals through the streets and the alleyways. Roof tanks for each building shall be used for emergency cases. 2.1.3.4 Electricity and Telephone. These to be supplied by underground cables. The internal wiring of the buildings shall be mainly unconcealed type.

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2.1.3.5 Sewage and Rainwater -It is recommended to construct a sewage system connected to the city main. However, until this system is constructed, the existing system of deep cesspools shall be used. For rainwater drains, each building shall have water drainage pipes or spouts to pour either to the streets or to the courts which shall be connected to the streets or the cesspools.

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2.2 The Programme The following programme has been prepared for each building after discussing the details and requirements with people concerned and in connection with such activities. Areas are in sq.m. 2.2.1 Administration entrance hall -Manager assistant Sub Manager Secretary Offices -Account Cashier -Meeting room Personal Service store General store -Guards room -Head director of the center of Kurdish studies -Head director of the Artisian Center 30-35 . 25-30 20-25 15 15-20 15-20 25-30 25-30 10-12 15-20 20-25 20-25 20-25

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Photo copy section 15-20 -Dark room 15-20 -Toilets 15-25 266-327 2.2.2 Centre of Kurdish Studies 2.2.2.1 Entrance lobby 35-40 -Toilets and lockers Information 10-15 -Employers 12-15 Service store 10-12 General store 20-25 2.2.2.2 Historical Studies Section -Room each of 15-20 (45-60) 2.2.2.3 Language Studies Section -4 rooms each of 15-20 (60-80) 2.2.2.4 Literature Studies Section -4 rooms each of 15-20 (60-80)

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2.2.2.5 Folklor Studies Section -4 rooms each of Officers room Recording room Store Waiting room 2.2.2.6 Filling, videotaping, photography section Dark room 2.2.2.7 General Library Reading hall Librarian -Dark room Waiting area or service desk -Photo copy section Waiting room Stacks store Maintenance of workshop 15-20 (60-80) 15-20 20-25 10-15 10-15 (50-75) 50-80 Reader 120-150 10-15 12-15 10-12 12-15 10-12 10,000 v. 250 25-30 392-512

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-Workers rest room 15-20 Store 25-30 489-519 Lecture Ha 11 Capacity 100-130 -Ha 11 100-120 Stage 10 Proj. 10 Store 10-15 -Toilets 155-160 2.2.4 Cafe 80-100 Vis. -Lounge 45-50 -Cafe 50-80 Outside sitting area 35-40 Service counter 12-15 Kitchen of prep. area 50 -Laundry 20-25 Storage 20-25

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2.2.5 -Toilets of dressing cabinets and showers for workers Rest room Amphitheatre (stands) 500-600 m 2 Stage Ticket booths Entrance lobby -this is related with the open green space 2.2.6 The Music and Dancing Institute Entrance lobby Control Exhibit section for art history. Slide showing and photographic exhibit Exhibit section for folklore dancing modules -Toilets General store 20-25 500-200 vis. 15-20 m 2 T. 620 35-50 m 2 20-25 m 2 70-100 70-100 40-50 40-50 295 300-350 m 2

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2.2.7 The Fine Art Gallery 2.2.7.1 Entrance lobby Souvenir shop section -Toilets 2.2.7.2 -Administration within two floors Information section Director Meeting room -D. Director -Filing of Records Personal -Account of Cashier Photocopy section -Employees 2.2.7.3 Outside exhibit area 2.2.7.4 Kurdish art history section exhibit 2.2.7.5 Ceramic section exhibit 2.2.7.6 Sculture section 150-180 m 2 80-100 ' m 2 50-60 m 2 100-120 m 2 10-15 m 2 20-25 20-25 15-20 35-40 15-20 10-15 5-10 10-15 100-150 35-50 150-200 100-150

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2.2.7.7 Slide showing section 50-70 2.2.7.8 Painting section 150-160 2.2.7.9 Cafe' section with photographic exhibit 50-60 serving counter 20-25 -gilting by bar 20-25 2.2.7.10 Library Control 5-10 Waiting 5-10 Periodical 100-120 -Reading section 25-30 Research cabinet 8-10 X3 -Book stack area 80-100 Photocopy 8-10 -Dark room 8-10 Personal 5-10 2.2.7.11 Service section Control 10-15 Guard's room 25-30

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Dressing and showers and toilets-employees Maintenance and workshop General store -Ceramic store Sculpture store Painting store Popular City Council Center: Entrance, information and lobby -Chairman Secretary -Committee meeting rooms (3) Officers 20 Nos. 4 Nos. Council meeting hall Passage and services Cafeteria sitting 50 100-120 100-150 150-160 100-150 150-200 60-70 m2 50-60 25-30 80-100 (each) 120-150 150-100 100-150 200 485-560

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2.2.9 The Artesian Centre 2.2.9.1 General Administration Officers room Control Rest room Distribution space 2.2.9.2 Rottery Section Chief Workers Daily store Product store Clay prep. and workshop -Working space for each wheel (either one workshop for both of(workshops) Decorating space Outside drying space Oven 12-15 10 15-20 30-40 2 3-4 10-12 25-30 (if separated from workshop system each 15-20) 15-20 25-30 10-12 15-20 15-20 125-154

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2.2.9.3 Reed Basketing Chief (2) Workers (2) Raw materials store Products store Working space Washing and cleaning Products store Working space Washing and cleaning Cutting Drying Workshops Working space if separated each 15 including decorating space Outside space for drying 2.2.9.4 Wood Carving Chief (1) Workers (2) 10-12 12-15 10-12 12-15 10-12 12-15 8-10 25-30 107-124

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-Raw materials store Products store 2.2.9.5 Section Cloth Chief (1) -Workers (2) -Raw materials store Products store ' -Washing and cleaning -Drying Workshop -Working area -50 If separated each of 20-25 2.2.9.6 Blankets Weaving Section Chief (1) -Workers (2) Raw Materials store Products store 8-10 5-10 8-10 5-10 10-12 8-10 10-12 80-100 8-10 8-10

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-Working area -Weaving space 2.2.9.7 Carpet Weaving Section Chief (1) -Workers (1) . Raw materials store Products store Weaving space 2.2.9.8 Klash and Cups Chief (1) -Workers (1) Raw materials store Product store Working area 10-12 20-25 46-57 8-10 10-12 20-25 43-52 5-10 5-10 15-20 25-40

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2.2.9.9 Musical Instruments Chief (1) -Workers (1) Raw materials store Product store Working area -Washing and cleaning Cutting -Drying -Working space including decorating space 10-12 12-15 10-12 15-20 10-12 20-25 77-96

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2.3 The Design of the Complex 2.3.1 1/500 plan of the complex has been prepared based on the activity relation and the general programme. Plate 27 shows the allocations of the elements suggested. 2.3.2 1/200 plan of the complex has been prepared which includes the following components and actual areas (see Plates 28 and 29). 2.3.2.1 General Administration Section of the Complex. Ground floor covering 18 x 18 m -324 m 2 comprising the following: Areas m 2 Entrance and lobby 9.0 X 4.50 = 40.50 Control and stairs 4.5 X 4.50 = 20.25 Waiting 4.5 X 4.50 = 20.25 Service room 4.5 X 4.50 = 20.25 Control of Exh. 4.5 X 4.50 = 20.25 Store 4.5 X 4.50 = 20.25 Control of Stud. 4.5 X 4.50 = 20.25 Service and Toilets 3 X 3 = 9.00 Meeting room 9 X 4.5 = 40.50

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Passages Court Add areas Total First Floor Covering Comprising the following: Director General Asst. D.G. 18 X 18 "' 324 12 X 9 "' 108 432 m2 Director of Kurdish Stud. Director of Museum Accountant (5 No.) Officers (6 No.) Secretary and waiting Toilets Service Photography 12 X 1.0 "' 18.00 9 X 9 ; 81.00 31.00 324.00 m2 6 X 4.5"' 27.00 6 X 4.5 "' 27.00 4.5 X 4.5 "' 20.50 4.5 X 4.5 "' 20.50 6 X 4.5"' 27.00 10.5 X 4.5 "'47.25 6 X 7.5 "'45.00 3 X 4.5 "' 13.50 3 X 1. 5 "' 4.50 4.5 X 4.5 "' 20.50

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Store Passages and court Add Total 7.5 X 4.5 = 33.75 9 X 9 = 81.00 24.50 432.00 2.3.2.2 The Study and Library Section (Note: The adminstration is included in 2.3.1.) Basement area 342 m2 comprising: Control and stair General store Service and toilets Sitting Workshop Delive,ry Court Total Ground Floor of 702 m2 comprising: Entrance and lobby Officers (4 No.) Photography and storage 9 X 6 = 54 6 X 6 = 36 6 X 3 = 18 6 18 9 6 X 6 = 36 X 6 = 108 X 6 = 54 X 6 = 36 342 m2 12 X 6 = 72 6 X 6 = 36 6 X 3 = 18

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Dark room Recording Waiting and control General store Toilets Control Passage and stair Library Photo and dark room Control Court and passage 1 Court and passage 2 Total First Floor of 973 m 2 area Reading hall and control Research section: 8 researchers . 10 researchers 4.5 X 3 = 13.50 9 X 4.5 = 40.50 9 X 3 = 27 6 X 6 = 36 6 X 6 = 36 6 X 3 = 18 12 X 3 = 36 18 X 6 = 108 12 X 3 = 36 6 X 3 = 18 15 X 9 = 135 6 X 6 = 36 702 24 X 15 = 360 2 X 6 X 12 = 144 21 X 9 = 189

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Toilets Courts and passage Total 2.3.2.3 Museum Section Basement 643.50 m 2 Delivery, control and stair Store Workshop Special store Sitting General store Toilets Court and passage Total Ground Floor 594.50 m 2 Entrance, lobby and recep. Hall Hert. Exhib. 7.5 X 6 = 45 15 X 9 = 135 973 9 X 9 = 81.00 19.5 X 9 = 175.50 13.5 X 9 = 121.50 10.5 X 4.5 = 47.25 10.5 X 4.5 = 47.25 10.5 X 4.5 = 47.25 4.5 X 3.0 = 13.50 10.5 X 10.5 =110.25 643.60 16.5 X 9 = 148.50 9 X 9 = 81.00 16.5 X 9 = 148.50

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History and antiquities exhibition 13.5 X 6 = 81.00 Folklore exhibition 9 X 6 = 54.00 Toilets 9 X 4.5 = 40.50 Store 9 X 6 = 54.00 Exhibition shops 9 X 3 = 27.00 Total 594.50 2.3.2.6 Lecture Ha 11 Entrance 5 X 8 = 40.00 Information 3 X 3 = 9.00 Toilets 8 X 2 = 16.00 Hall 16 X 8 = 128.00 Store and passage 5 X 6 = 30.00 Total 223.00 2.3.2.7 Auditorium Main hall 300 persons 15 X 15 = 225 Stage 15 X 6 = 90 Bar and toilets 6 X 12 = 72

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Entrance and waiting 24 X 4.5 = 67.50 12 X 4.5 = 54.00 Terrace 24 X 2.5 = 66.00 Passage 60.00 Total 578.50 2.3.2.8 Amphitheatre Amphitheatre 30 X 15 = 450 Toilets 6 X 3.0 = 18 Total 468 m 2 2.3.2.9 The Suq 16 shops and Kushks Shops (3 No.) 3 X 3 = 27.0 Shops (1 No.) 6 X 9 = 54.0 Shops (6 No.) 3 X 6 = 108.0 Shops (5 No.) 3 X 4.5 = 67.5 Toilets (3 No.) 6 X 3 = 54.0 Passages 82 X 3 = 246.0 Total 606.5 m 2

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' 2.3.2.10 Qala Cafee Ground Floor 216 m 2 Entrance and lobby 6 X 6 = 36 Refreshments 4.5 X 3 = 13.5 Terrace 6 X 18 = 108 Indoor Cafee 7.5 X 6 = 45 Toilets 4.5 X 3 = 13.5 Total 216 m 2 Mezanine Floor 94.5 m 2 Sitting 6 X 4.5 = 27.0 6 X 9 = 54.0 Toilets 4.5 X 3 = 13.5 Total 94.50 m 2 2.3.2.11 Hawler Restaurant and Cafeteria Area 1081 m 2 Lobby 13.5 X 6 = 81.50 Dining room 22.5 X 12 = 270.00 Service and party 10.5 X 4.5 = 47.25 Kitchen 10.5 X 6 = 63.00

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Cashier and ace. 4.5 X 4.5 = 24.25 Store 4.5 X 6 = 27.00 Toilets 4.5 X 4.5 = 24.25 Service toil. 4.5 X 6 = 27.00 Court 19.5 X 10.5= 110.25 Cafeteria 18.0 X 6 = 108.00 Preparation 6 X 3 = 18.00 Wash and stair 4.5 X 6 = 27.00 Cafeteria prep. 6 X 3 = 18.00 Kitchen and store 21.5 X 7.5 = 161.25 Terrace 7.5 X 7.5 = 56.25 Kishik (2 No.) 3 X 3 = 18.00 Total Area 1081.00 2.3.2.12 Kareez Cafee Area 126 m 2 Cafe and terrace 10.5 X 6 = 63.00 3 X 6 = 18.00 3 X 9 = 27.00

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Service and prep. Toilets Total 2.3.2.13 Safeen Refreshments 2.3.2.14 Artisian Center in Housing Plot Pottery Reed and basketing Wood carving and music inst. Weaving cloth Carpet Klash and cups 2.3.2.15 Primary School in 2 stories 800 2.3.2.16 Kindergarten -In housing plots 2.3.2.17 Clinic and police -In housing plots 2.3.2.18 Ethnography Museum (Arbil Qala House) Total 3 X 3 = 9.00 3 X 3 = 9.00 126.00 m2 18 x 4.5 = 81.00 m2 15 X 17 = 225 8 X 8 -64 289 m 2

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2.3.2.19 Information and Control (South Gate) 2.3.2.20 Social Club in Two Retained Houses 2.3.2.21 Qala'a Guest House Partially in a Retained House 2.3.2.22 Safeen Guest House (2 stories near North Gate) 2.3.2 .23 Daily Shopping Center Plot 342

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SELECTED STRATEGY BETTER THAN ADEQUATE BLDG RETAINED BLDG D NEW l g J NEW 0 1 D SERV ROAD & PARKING -MAIN FEDESTRIAN WAYS .

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SHEREEN IHSAN SHERZAD Univeraity of Colorado at denver College of EnvironnMtntal design The Diviaion of Architecture ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOf'MANT OF THE HISTORIC CITADEL OF ARBIL_IRAQ 27 • I .., , .. ,,., . " ... , ••-, •. ,. : :J• : : • L , , .... .12 .. , ,_ ,. • 5 .......... . ... e n-L•""" . 6 . . . . . •:.. . 7 __...,_.. .2'5 ... -. 6 "-.14J .. . 9 ...... . 1 1• .lO •• • • 21• .. --....... . e n.... . ...... .2'9 ... • , 1 ......... ' .•• .)0• ...... . • ll .... . ) ,..,..... . " .... . . .)2 ... _ .. . ........ . ) ] , ....... .. .......... :::: ... .. : : e u • .......... -. . . . . e36 ..... , •. ' "" Scale N m

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SHEREEN IHSAN 51-IERZAD University of Colorado a t denver College of Environn"lental design The Division of Architecture 1979 PLATE 28 ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMANT OF THE HISTORIC CITADEL OF ARBIL-IRAO CENTER FOR TOURISM AND NATIONAL HERITAGE Scale N CD

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SHEREEN IHSAN SHERZAD University of Colorado a t denv e r College of Environn1entu l design The D ivis i o n of Architecture 1979 ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMANT OF THE HISTORIC CITADEL OF ARBIL-IRAQ CENTER FOR TOURISM AND NATIONAL HERITAGE PLATE 2 8 S cale N CD

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SHEREEN IHSAN SHERZAD University of Colorado at denver College of Environmental deaign The Dlviaion of 1979 ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMANT OF THE HISTORIC CITADEL OF ARBILIRAQ CENTER FOR TOURISM AND NATIONAL PLATE 29 Scale N C])

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Chapter 3 3.1 Fine Art Exhibition Gallery 3.1.1 Based on the complex design and programme presented in Chapter 2 of this section, the design of this building has been detailed according to the following design principles and specifications. 3.1.1.1 Function Relation Chart No. 12 3.1.1.2 Schematic Grouping Figures Chart No. 49 3.1.1.3 Specification Finish Chart No. 13 3.1.2 The detailed design is presented in Plates 30, 31, and 32. 3.2 Plan of a new house Based on discussions presented in Chapter 4, Section 3, Part I of this study, a suggested design has been prepared for a new house to be built in the residential part of the Qala•a in the directed area•s plate 33. 3.3 Plan of Reed and Basketing Artisian Center based on the discussion presented in 1.1.1 at the programme in 2.2.9.3 and a plan for such a center has been prepared and one of the adequate houses remodeled for this purpose, the first floor will be used as residence of the OSTA family (see Plate 34).

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SECTION III

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Section III Cost Estimates and Implementation Programme of the Development of the Qala•a. Chapter 1 1. Cost Estimates The following cost estimates have been based on the prevailing costs in the region in July 1979. No allowance has been made for escalation of prices for the future which is estimated to be an average of 10-15% annually. 1. Iraqi Dinar-$3.37. 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 General Costs Acquisition cost of 70 land plots at average 1D. 5,000 Acquisition of 410 houses 1D. 8,000, average +2,000 subsidiary Subsidiary for repair of 75 houses at 2,000 Demolishing of 384 houses at 1D 300 Total 1.2 Preservation Work Costs 1.2.1 16 house preservation to house projects: kindergarten, clinic, police, social club, Artesian centre, part of north guest house, etc. 16 No. @ 20,000/-10. 350,000/4,100,000/150,000/152,000/4,875,200/320,000/-

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1. 2.2 1. 2.3 1. 2.4 1.2.5 1.3 1.3 .1 1.3.2 1. 3.3 1.3.4 1.3. 5 1. 3.6 1.3. 7 1.3.8 1.3.9 1.3.10 1.3.11 1. 3.12 Ethnography museum Preservation of the bath Preservation of the mosques Preservation of the shrines New Development Buildings 175 houses @ 10,000 South gate North gate General Administration 756 x 100 The Kurdish study and library 2017 m 2 x 100 Museum 1238 x 100 Music and dancing institute 452 x 100 Lecture hall 223 x 150 Auditorium 578.50 x 200 Amphitheatre 468 x 70 The Suq 606 x 100 Qala'a Cafe 310.5 x 90 Total 25,000/50,000/100,000/10,000/505,000/-10. 1,750,000/150,000/100,000/75,600/201,700/123,800/45,200/33,400/115,700/32,760/60,600/27,945/-

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1.3.13 Hawleer Rest. 1081 x 100 1. 3 .14 Kareez Cafe 126 x 90 1. 3.15 Primary school 800 x 100 1. 3.16 North guest house 850 x 150 1.3.17 South gate guest house 1000 x 150 1.3 .18 Popular council centre 1500 x 150 1.3.19 Shopping centre 400 x 100 1.3 .20 Fine arts gallery 1500 x 150 1.4 Services 1.4.1 Water supply 1.4 .2 Drainage and sewage 1.4.3 Pavement 1.4.4 Telephone and electricity 1.4. 5 Underground tank. 1.4.6 Planting Total ID. 108,000/11,340/80,000/127,500/150,000/225,000/40,000/-2252000/3,683,645/200,000/350,000/200,000/150,000/-502000/950,000/50,000/1,000,000/-

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1.5 Grand Total Contingencies I. D. 10,063,845/136,155/10,200,000/-

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Chapter 2 -2. Implementation Programme and Suggestions 2.1 Implementation 2.1.1 2 .1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2 .1.5 2.1.6 2 .1. 7 2.1.8 2.1. 9 2.1.10 2.1.11 2 .1.12 2.1.13 In Chapter 7 of Section 3 of Part I a general implementation programme was presented and the authority to execute and follow up the project was suggested. Here, the programme shall be repeated with priority allocation of the complex buildings. Acquisitions and clearing site. Infrastructure services, gates and planting Preservation works New houses, schools, clinic and public buildings Artesian centre Guest houses The Administration, Kurdish study, museum complex and suq. Restaurant and cafeteria Lee ture ha 11 Amphitheatre Exhibition hall School of music and dance Popular council centre

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2.2 Suggestions 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 Further studies in detail should be carried for: House designs Other complex elements Detailed study of the infrastructure.

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REFERENCES 1. Iraq Consult & Buchanin. The feasibility study for the preservation, conservation and revitalization of a historic town. The Qala•a of Arbil -Baghdad 1971. 2. Sherzad, Shereen. The development of Arbil Qala•a, a center for tourism and national heritage, Baghdad 1976. 3. The Iraqi Official Gazette No. 2330, Law No. 33 of 1974. 4. Ibid -No. 1900. The constitution of the Republic of Iraq. Decree No. 792 dated 16th July 1970. 5. Ministry of Planning. Explanatory note for the National Development Plan. Baghdad 1970. 6. Ministry of Planning. 7. Ministry of Planning. Progress under planning-Baghdad 1974, p.47. 8. Central Statistical Organization. Annual Abstract of Statistics, Baghdad 1978; p.133. 9. Ministry of Planning. Long range objectives, Baghdad 1971 (Arabic). 10. Ibid. 11. Husain, Adnan, Ibid, p.8. (Arabic) 12. (CSO) Central Statistical Organization, Ibid, p.l44. 13. Morgan, N.B. & Cook, E.V. Socio-economic background studies for tourism in the North of Iraq. Economic report, Baghdad 1974. 14. United Nations. The United Nations programme on regional development, New York 1972.

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15. Friedman, J.A. and William, A. Regional development and planning, Cambridge, 1964, p.2. 16. Iraq Consult. Socio-economic studies for the Northern of Iraq Final Report 1975, p.1.2. 17. CSO, Ibid for 17a-p.9 and for 176p.10. 18. CSO, Ibid pp. 12 and 19. 19. Ibid p.25. 20. Zakhriah, K.C. Use of census data for estimating demographic measure of Iraq. Cairo, 1970. 21. Ueda, K. Report on revised projections of population in Iraq by sex and age group for 1957-80, Baghdad, 1970. 22. CSO, Ibid, p.26. 23. Alhasani, M.S. Growth and structure of Iraq population. Abdulrazag, Iraq anciently and modernly, Sayda 1958 Arabic, Chicago 1966. 24. CSO, Ibid p.50. 25. IQC Final report Ibid, 1975. 26. IQC Climatic conditions in the northern region . of Iraq. Baghdad 1973. 27. Ibid. 28. Ibid. 29. Collin Buchanin, Population trends in the northern region of Iraq. Baghdad 1975. 30. Iraq Consult, Final Report Ibid.

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31. Ministry of Planning. Economic and social progress under the revolution, Baghdad 1978, Arabic. 32. CSO, Ibid, p.144. 33. IBRD Report of IBRD mission to Iraq on agriculture 1971. 34. IQC, Agriculture in the northern of Iraq, Baghdad 1974. 35. D.G. of Tourism, Report on summer of 1977 tourism in the north, Baghdad1977, Arabic. 36. IQC, Final report, Ibid. 37. IQC, Water resources in the northern region of Iraq-1975. 38. IQC, Industries in the northern region of Iraq 1974. 39. HEYMO -Touristic report 1974. 40. Ibid. 41. IQC, Final report 1974. 42. Ibid, page 43. Ibid, page 44. Ibid, page 45. Sayed Shafi, Urban planning in Iraq -Baghdad, 1972. 46. Khasbak, Shakir. Northern Iraq, a physical and cultural study, Cairo 1977 Arabic. 47. International Encyclopedia1970 Edition (Erbil) 48. Ismail, Zubair Bilal. Arbil in its historical periods 1970-p.60Arabic.

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49. Ibid, page 61-62. 50. Ibid, page 64. 51. Hassan, Mohammed Khalis. The development of public services in Arbil, diploma thesis presented to University of Baghdad 1976, p.20. 52. Ibid, p.25. 53. D.G. of Planning & Engineering, unpublished report on Arbil-1975. 54. Poleservice, Baghdad Master Plan 1963. 55. The Official Iraqi Gazette No. decree No. dated: 56. Hassan, M. Khalis. Ibid p.41. 57. The Official Iraqi Gazette No. Law No. dated: 58. Al Nasir, H., Alwaily, A. Guide to Iraqi libraries, Baghdad, 1975. 59. Abdul Kareem, Munir. Arbil Central Library, A thesis project submitted to the University of Baghdad 1978, p.62. 60. D.G. of Planning & Engineering, Ibid. 61. Ibid. 62. Ibid. 63. Ibid. 64. Stephen, Bech. The archeology of Arbil Qala'a report submitted to D.G. of Antiquity, 1950.

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65. Iraq Consult, Final Report -Ibid, page 66. Sherzad, Shereen, Ibid. 67. Iraq Consult, Final Report-Ibid, p.4.14-4.20. 68. Fathy, Ihsan 69. 70. Iraq Consult, Ibid, page 71. Fathy, lhsan, Ibid. 72. Ibid. 73. Iraq Consult, Ibid, page 74. Stephen, Bech, Ibid. 75. Fathy, Ihsan, Ibid. 76. Shakland. 77. Bailly & Debsat. 78. Fathy, lhsan, Ibid. 79. Iraq Consult, Ibid. 80. Ibid. 81. Ibid. 82. CSO, Ibid, p.l98.

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 1. TABLES Table No. 1 National Income & Product per Capita 1970-1978 (CSO) Table No. 2 -National Development Plans, Allocations 1965-1979 (CSO) Table No. 3 Areas of Governates (CSO} Table No. 4 Areas of Planes, Mountains and Deserts (CSO} Table No. 5 -Weather Phenomena (CSO) Table No. 6 Population of Iraq 1927-1977 (CSO) Table No. 7 Distribution of Population Rural/Urban 1977 (CSO} Table No. 8 -Urban Population Change 1867-1977 Table No. 9 -Average Temperature of North Table No. 10 -Average Monthly Rainfall Table Table No. 11 Snow Fall Table of Hajomran 1957 Table No. 12 Population Change of North 1957-70 (IQC} Table No. 13 -Urban/Rural Population of North 1957-70 (IQC} Table No. 14-Arbil Governate Population Rural/Urban 57-70 (IQC} Table No. 15 Population Change in Towns of North 57-70 (IQC) Table No. 16 Population Projections for the North 65-85 (IQC)

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Table No. 17 -Sectorial Distribution of Product 64-71 Table No. 18 -Sectorial Growth of Products 53-65 Table No. 19 -G.D.P. by Economic Sectors 70-78 Table No. 20 Relative Area and Production of Crops Table No. 21 -Maximum Efficiency Strategy: Sectorial and Geographical Distribution of Investment 75-83 Table No. 22 -Egalitarian Strategy: Sectorial and Geographical Distribution of Investment 75-83 Table No. 23 Composite Strategy: Sectorial and Geographical Distribution of Investment 75-83 Table No. 24 Investment Budget for two 5-years 75-80, 80-85 Table No. 25 Overall Migration Figures Table No. 26 Population Projection of Iraqi 1980-2000 Table No. 27 Temperature at Arbil 1970-74 Table No. 28 Rainfall and Humidity at Arbil 70-74 Table No. 29 Projection of Population of Arbil 1980-2000 Table No. 30 Primary School Situation 78/79 Table No. 31 Secondary School Situation 78/79 Table No. 32 Vocational School Situation 78/79 Table No. 33 -Employment Distribution in Arbil 1975, 1977 Table No. 34 -Employment Distribution of Subsectors 1975, 1977

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Table No. 35 -Employment Ratios 1975/1977 Table No. 36 -Area Projections for Commercial Use 1975-2000 Table No. 37 -Area Projections for Educational Use 1980-2000 Table No. 38 -Area Projections for Health Use 1980-2000 Table No. 39 -Summary of Area Projections 1980-2000 Table No. 40 Direction Expansion Assessments

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2. CHARTS Chart No. 1 Iraqi Planning Body Structure Chart No. 2 Population Pyramid 1977 (CSO} Chart No. 3 Gross Domestic Product 68-77 Chart No. 4 Gross Domestic Product According to Sectors 68-76 Chart No. 5 Maximum Efficiency Strategy Sectorial Investments Chart No. 6 Egalitarian Strategy Sectorial Investments Chart No. 7 -Composite Strategy Sectorial Investments Chart No. 8 Temperature in Arbil 1970-1974 Chart No. 9 Rainfall and Humidity at Arbi 1 70-74 Chart No. 10 Strategy Assessments Chart No. 11 Activity Relation Chart Chart No. 12 Function Relations of the Fine Art Gallery Chart No. 13 Finishing Chart of the Art Gallery

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3. PLANS, MAPS AND PLATES Map 1 Administrative Units of R. of Iraq (CSO) Map 2 -Distribution of Rainfall and Temperature 1978 (CSO) Map 3 -Region Study Map Map 4 Isohyete of Northern Iraq Map 5 Geographic Characteristics of the North of Iraq (IQC) Map 6 Iraq Touristic Map Map 7 -Touristic Zones in North Map 8 -Maximum Efficiency Migration Pattern Map 9 -Egalitarian Migration Pattern Map 10 -Composit Migration Pattern Map 11 Expected Structure of Major Market Areas by 1985 Map 12 Arbil Governate within Iraq Map 13 Arbil within Regional Context Map 14 General Existing Land Use Situation of Arbil Map 15 Master Plan of Arbil Map 16 -The Sector Surrounding the Qala•a (existing) Map 17 -The Qala• a Today, General Plan

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Map 18 Building Classification of Qala'a Map 19 Visual and Environmental Quality of the Qala'a Map 20 Qala'a House Plans Map 21 Qala'a Mosque Plan Map 22 Qala'a Mosque Sections and Elevation Map 23 Qala'a Bath Plan Map 24 Qala'a Bath Section Map 25 Suggested Master Plan Map 26 General Plan of Sector Surrounding Map 27 1/500 Plan of the Complex Map 28 1/200 Plan of the Complex, Map 29 1/200 Plan of the Complex, Plate 30 Fine Art Gallery Plan Plate 31 Sections Plate 32 Details Plate 33 Suggested New House Plan Part Part Plate 34 -Reed and Basketing Center Plan 1 2 the Qala'a

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4. FIGURES Figure 1 Projected Tourism in North 1980 Figure 2 Projected Tourism in North 1985 Figure 3 Aggregate Model Outline Figure 4 -Max. Efficiency Strategy Figure 5 -Egalitarian Strategy Figure 6 Composite Strategy Figure 7 Expansion Direction -Mosol Axis Figure 8 Expansion Direction Shaglawa's Figure 9 Expansion Direction Koisenjak Figure 10 Expansion Direction Kirkuk Figure 11 Expansion Direction -Makhmoor Figure 12 South Gate of Arbil Qala'a Figure 13 Existing Drainage of Alleyway Figure 14 Qala'a Dominates the Countryside Figure 15 -The Hard Urban Fence of the Qala'a Figure 16 Entrance Plans Figure 17 -Badger Principles Section

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Figure 18 -Badger Principles and Plan of Courtyard House Figure 19 Decorative Wall Pattern Figure 20 Decorated Niches Figure 21 Decorated Ceilings Figure 22 Decorated Windows Figure 23 Column Decorations Figure 24 Column Decorations Figure 25 Individual House No. 1 Plan Figure 26 Individual House No. 1 Sections Figure 27 Individual House No. 2 Plan Figure 28 Alternative 1 Conservation Figure 29 Alternative 2 Conservation Figure 30 Alternative 3 Conservation Figure 31 Possible Land Use and Movement Pattern Figure 32 Qala'a Dominates the Surrounding Figure 33 -Building Height Limitations Figure 34 Visual Corridors Figure 35 -Loop Road Approaches

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Figure 36 -Street Planning Figure 37 -View out through Narrow Passage Figure 38 -View out through Deck Figure 39 Alleyway Before Figure 40 Alleyway After Figure 41 -lnfill and Comprehensive Design Area Figure 42 Interlocking Relation between Pedestrians and Road Network Figure 43 Artesian View Figure 44 Artesian View Figure 45 Artesian View Figure 46 Artesian View Figure 47 Artesian View Figure 48 Schematic Grouping of the Complex Figure 49 Schematic Grouping of the Fine Art Gallery

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SHEREEN IHSAN SHERZAD University of Colorado at denver College of Environmental design The Division of Architecture -1979 ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMANT OF THE HISTORIC CITADEL OF ARBIL_IRAQ CENTER FOR TOURISM AND NATIONAL HERITAGE Scale N CD

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SHEREEN IHSAN SHERZAO University of Colorado at denver College of Environrnenta l design The Division of Architecture -1979 ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMANT OF THE HISTORIC CITADEL OF ARBIL-IRAQ CENTER FOR TOURISM AND NATIONAL HERITAGE PLATE 2 8 Scale N CD

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SE CTIO N I I SECTION J J SECTIO N M M SECTIO N 0 0 SHEREEN IHSAN SHERZAD Univeraity of Colorado at denver College of Environmental design The Division of Arc hitecture 1979 Ill : A .. . I .,,u "" .J. I • • U \1 I .. ' I \ ' I '' II SECTION K . K SECJION l l SEC liON N-N Scale N CD ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMANT OF THE HISTORIC CITADEL OF ARBILIRAO. CENTER FOR TOURISM AND NATIONAL HERITAGE

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