Citation
Fairview

Material Information

Title:
Fairview
Creator:
Thoreson, Wendy A.
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Wendy A. Thoresen. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY
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FAIRVIEW
Wendy A. Thoresen University of Colorado College of Environmental Design Department of Architecture Masters Thesis Project
Fall 1979 - Fall 1980


* • «
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To my mother and father ELEANOR and PHILIP THORESEN this thesis
is dedicated in gratitude and love


PREFACE
The town of Steamboat Springs, like many other typically rural small towns throughout the Rocky Mountains, has in the past decade been the subject of a twentieth century phenomenon. It's what the media has called a national epidemic. This is less of an exaggeration than it at first seems, for like an epidemic, this phenomenon has left permanent marks of change on the entire community.
However, thanks to what might be called its "cowboy" heritage, a history dating back to Victorian days, Steamboat cannot be likened to Vail, Colorado, established in 1964, which comedian Robert Klein once described as "20,000 dentists on skis." Nevertheless, ski fever slammed into Steamboat a few years ago changing the size, shape, appearance and personality of what was once a sleepy ranching community.
If you were passing through Steamboat Springs twenty years ago, a typical daily special in the local diner would have brought you a plate of roast beef and brown gravy, open-faced on white bread with a cup of coffee. But stroll into any "Purveyor of Fine Food and Spirits" today and demand the special of the day, and you are probably going to find yourself in front of quiche and spinach salad flanked by a bottle of Perrier. More than likely, this would have been served to you by an individual representing one of the major problems associated with the skiing epidemic, a one-time college student with the suntanned,


weathered face of a "local" (a person living and working in town for at least the duration of this year's skiing season, a rather alluring proposition).
While working and living in a ski resort may seem glamorous to ever increasing numbers of Americans, the fact is living conditions in towns such as Steamboat Springs are less than adequate. Employees are likely to find the barest of living conditions or an overcrowded place one might liken to a one or two bedroom apartment shared with three other people, all of whom work at least two jobs. Why do 7,000 people between the ages of twenty and thirty-four choose to live under such conditions? The answer is simple. When the bulldozers came in a few years ago and stripped out winding paths on the mountain and then put up automatic chair lifts, as soon as that first two feet of snow covered the mountain that winter, the sleepy ranching town began to die and with it, low-priced real estate and affordable housing. They came in droves with millions of new dollars, demanding fine places to stay for their week of skiing, a choice of excellent restaurants and shops and of course, numerous cozy spots about town in which to relax by a big fire and tell the day's war stories about moments of glory on "Shadows," near fatal collisions on "Heavenly Daze," and triumphs on "Vertigo" and "High Noon." Yes, it's pretty simple. When these ski vacationers arrive in December with $175 to spend per night for accommodations, the local resident (be he "permanent" or just there for "the Season")


finds himself suddenly without a place to live. It was quickly discovered by developers that the money to be made would not be found in putting up year-round apartments, but rather in dotting the mountain side with luxurious condominiums to accommodate the hoards of moneyspending winter tourists. Forgotten was the fact that such tourism requires an army of winter workers to support it, a winter work force which increases the town's resident population to 15,000—a seasonal leap of 100%. In a town with only two small rental apartment complexes, these 7,500 additional people are forced to take any kind of accommodations they can find (which may require as much as 50% of the average salary).
These drastic and sudden changes which have hit Steamboat Springs with in the past decade have resulted in housing and other community problems, but these have not gone unnoticed by the local residents and government. In fact, the employee housing problem has resulted in pos itive action by the Steamboat Springs City Council and planning commission. From their initiative emerged the 1978 Housing Study, Early Action Plan, employee housing ordinance and creation of the 125 unit Fairview project, the subject of this thesis.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank the following people for their support and efforts in obtaining the information herein:
Rob Hunt
Assistant City Manager Steamboat Springs, Colorado
Robert C. McHugh
Architect and Employer Extraordinaire Steamboat Springs, Colorado
The Steamboat Springs Housing Task Force
The Steamboat Springs Chamber of Commerce
Joe Cavanaugh Project Coordinator Steamboat Springs, Colorado
Sherry Lane
County Clerk and Recorder Steamboat Springs, Colorado
Horace H. Beaven, Editor of this work and extremely patient husband


DEMAND
Steamboat Springs is a small community with a year-round population of 7,500. The winter ski season boosts the population to nearly 15,000. Every effort is made to hire local residents to support the winter recreation economy, but the number of employees needed to fill the necessary jobs cannot all be found in the community. Most of the seasonal people take on jobs with the ski resort and/or service businesses (restaurants, hotels) and seldom make more than minimum wage. In a resort community, where housing is catered to the tourists, seasonal workers and even local residents have a difficult time finding affordable housing. Housing in Steamboat has turned almost completely toward exorbitant nightly rentals.
Year-round apartment-type housing can only be found in two locations
in Steamboat Springs, the Pine Grove Apartments and the Harbor Hotel
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apartment units. Rents during the winter of 1979 began at $350 per month in these limited complexes and the vacancy rate during the winter months is nearly zero. As for other housing, private contractors and developers have found it highly profitable to invest in condominiums. More than 1,000 condominiums have been proposed over the last five months; perhaps 250 will be built. Still, condominiums do not serve the community's need for low income housing.


Unlike some of Colorado's other resort communities, Steamboat Springs has recognized this housing problem; furthermore, it has begun to do something about it. The local government and residents should be highly praised for taking action which will no doubt set a precedent for the other mountain resorts. In May of 1978, a government funded study was conducted in Steamboat Springs to study the housing shortage. The study discovered an unsurprising 700 unit deficiency of lower income ($300 and below per month) housing. Pertinent data from the May, 1978 Housing Study follows.
t


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STEAMBOAT SPRINGS HOUSING* MAY 1978
The preparation of this report was cooperatively financed by Routt County and by a comprehensive planning grant from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development under the provisions of Section 701 of the Housing Act of 1974, as amended.
This study was developed and authored by: Stephen Hill
Routt County Regional Planning Commission
*This Housing Report has been edited and revised for this thesis.


ECONOMIC GROWTH AND CHARACTERISTICS
Steamboat Springs is Routt County's largest community and serves as the county seat. It is situated in the east-central portion of the county, located between the Yampa River and the Rabbit Ears Range of the North Park Range. This site is ideally located in that access is available to the southeast and eventually Denver via Rabbit Ears Pass, to the north along Elk River Road, to the south along State Highway 131, with U.S. Highway 40 providing access to the west. In conjunction with this auto access, the Steamboat Springs airport and the Yampa Valley airport provide easy access for tourists.
The Steamboat Springs area combines sufficient amounts of snow with a varied mountain landscape to provide for excellent Alpine and Nordic skiing, the major inducements for tourism in the area. With the increase in the popularity of skiing and the general increase of recreational activity, the complexion of Steamboat Springs has changed from a town with prominence as a local trade and shipping center to a ski and recreation center of national prominence. This is the factor re-ponsible for the extensive and rapid growth occurring in the community.
POPULATION GROWTH AND CHARACTERISTICS
For nearly fifty years the population of Steamboat Springs has fluctuated between one and two thousand people. In 1960 the population was


1,843; in 1970 it was 2,566 persons (includes population within the 1977 incorporated city limits); by 1977 the figure had jumped 156% to 4,021. Census data indicates where growth occurred between 1970 and 1977 by census enumeration district. Figures indicate that growth in the more established areas of the town increased at relatively low rates of 11 to 14 percent. The downtown area lost 6% of its population due to the expansion of business in the area. The areas of rapid growth were primarily southeast of town in lands which previously were sparcely developed.
A comparison of 1970 and 1977 census materials tabulated illustrates a basic change that has occurred as a result of the rapid influx of people. The Steamboat Springs demography is no longer characteristic of rural America but has become one whose emphasis is youth. This pattern is accented by the number of persons between the ages of 20 and 34 represented in the 1977 census, primarily a result of the expansion of the tourist industry which is an impetus for immigration of young people.
EMPLOYMENT AND INCOME
In 1970 the following percentage of employed persons 16 years and older, by industry, existed as reported in the 1970 census (Table 1). In examining this table it must be realized that the composition of the economic


base has shifted between 1970 and 1977 to enterprises which are more
I
recreation oriented. This shift consequently necessitates that a greater percentage of persons be employed in wholesale/retail trade and the service industries.
Table 2 presents estimated annual family and household incomes by percentile groups for Routt County. The base information for this table was developed by the Colorado Division of Housing and subsequently modified to reflect existing conditions in the Steamboat Springs area by the Routt County Regional Planning Commission staff.
Table 1
Count of Employed Persons 16 Years and Older (1970)*
Construction 10%
Manufacturing 3%
durable goods 2%
Transportation 2%
Communication, Utilities &
Sanitary Services 5%
Wholesale & Retail Trade 24%
Finance, Insurance, Real Estate &
Business & Repair 8%
Services
Other Professional & Related Services 5%
Educational Services 11%
Public Administration 7%
Other Industries 23%
♦Source: U.S. Department of Commerce - Bureau of Census


LAND USE
The Routt County Regional Planning Commission in coordination with Charles Gathers and Associates, Inc. compiled data with which they classified Steamboat Springs by acreage into "Land Uses" (Table 3).
This table indicates that within the incorporated area transportation requires 30% of the total land area followed by recreation with 24%, public/quasi-public with 18% of the land area within the incorporated city. Total residential use comprises 24.2% of the total land area, 59% of which is low density, 21% of which is high density, 12% which is medium density residential and the remaining 8% consisting of commercial/residential.
VACANT LOTS
In February of 1978 the Routt County Regional Planning Commission staff completed a survey of the Steamboat Springs area to determine the number of vacant lots within the incorporated city limits. On-site inspection of all platted lands within the city revealed that a total of 987 buildable lots were vacant within the city, dispersed throughout the various zones. (An undetermined number of these lots may be withheld from the market due to hidden factors. These may include title problems, finance problems, subdivision improvements problems and water and sanitation problems).


It is not possible to determine the maximum number of dwelling units which can be constructed on these 987 vacant lots, since the lots zoned PUD do not have a maximum density requirement. At minimum density of one single family dwelling per lot, these 987 lots could accommodate an additional 3010 persons at the average of 3.05 persons per unit (Table 7).
TABLE 2
Annual Family and Household Incomes by Percentile Group*
1976 1976 1977
Household Family Routt Steamboat Steamboat
Percentile Percentile County Springs Springs
Group Group Income Income Income
10 $ 2,420 $ 2,686 $ 2,954
10 4,140... 5,497 6,047
20 4,510 5,506 5,506
20 6,060... 8,046 8,851
30 6,440 7,148 7,863
30 7,770... 10,316 11,348
40 7,930 8,802 9,682
40 9,420... 12,507 13,758
50 9,650 10,711 11,782
50 11,090... 14,724 16,196
60 11,730 13,020 14,322
60 13,170.. . 17,486 19,235
70 14,050 15,595 17,154
70 15,680... 20,818 22,900
80 17,640 19,580 21,538
fin ••19,040••• • • • -25,279. ••• 27,807
90 21,830 24,231 26,654
90 25,010.. . 33,206 36,527
♦Source: U.S. Bureau of Census, 1970 Census of Population


A Household consists of all persons who occupy a housing unit; a household may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together or any group of related or unrelated persons who occupy a housing unit.
A Family consists of a household head and one or more other persons living in the same household who are related to the head by blood, mar-
riage or adoption.


GEOLOGIC HAZARDS AND FLOODPLAIN
Building in the Steamboat Springs area is severely limited by the presence of unstable slopes, debris fans and flood areas. However, building is not completely restricted by these conditions except in the requirement of additional expense to mitigate the natural hazards present.
HOUSING CHARACTERISITICS: HOUSING TYPE: GROWTH OF CONSTRUCTION S> STRUCTURAL PROFILE
In February of 1978, the Routt County Regional Planning Commission staff conducted a visual count of the total number of dwelling units and delineated these dwelling units as to type. This information combined with building permit data obtained from the City-County Building Department was compiled to develop Table 4.
The information presented in Table 4 highlights the city's building trends since 1973. The growth of duplex units in the past four years has been the most prevalent with a 73.4% growth rate. Duplex units now comprise 10% of the total dwelling unit stock. The proportion of single family and duplex units to other types of dwelling units has remained virtually unchanged between 1973 and 1978, resulting in single family homes comprising 34.8% of the total dwelling unit stock in 1978. The percentage of Multiple Family units to total dwelling units has surprisingly dropped from its 1973 rate of 46.0% to 44.5% in February


TABLE 3
Steamboat Springs Intensive Land Uses*
Use Incorporated Area Original City Annexed Portion Surrounding Area (5 mi.
Intensive Uses Total 1,576.9—100% 748.7 828.2 3,289.5
Total Residential 382.5—24% 173.1 209.4 285.8
Low Density 226.7—24% 100.7 126.0 254.5
Medium Density 47.3—3% 47.3 0.0 10.0
High Density (Conventional/Mobile) 83.0—5% (66.6/16.4) 16.4 (9.0/7.4) 66.6 (57.6/9.0) 17.3 (2.3/15.0)
• Commercial (C/C R) 68.6—4% (43.1/25.5)1 37.3 (28.6/8.7) 31.3 (14.5/16.8) 26.0 ' (22.0/4.0)
Industrial 17.5—1% 15.8 1.7 19.1
Recreation 381.7—24% 4.0 377.7 1,510.0
Public/Quasi-Public * 278.4—18% 275.0 3.4 992.0
Transportation 473.7—30% 252.2 221.5 460.6
♦Source: Coordinated Land Use Surveys and Mapping by Routt County Regional Planning Commission Staff and Charles Gathers and Associates, Inc., 1972-1974, as-sited by aerial photography.


of 1978. The composite growth rate for all dwelling units for the four-
year period was 18.2%. which was not evenly dispersed over the four-year period. In 1977, 48% of all units built during the four-year period were constructed, while the preceding year, only 15% of the total units built during the four-year period were constructed.
In reviewing these construction trends, it is necessary to note that both of the following affected housing construction. The first factor was the general depression during 1973-1974 which severly curtailed all housing except for permanent housing, which was partly due to the unexpected rise in coal production. The second factor impacting housing is that multi-family units were overbuilt in 1972-1973, partially due to national economics and also to the negative Olympic vote.
In 1976, the Planning Commission staff completed a housing inventory for the Steamboat Springs area. The following structural conditions were compiled for the area:
Sound units 97.6% Total substandard 2.4% —Deteriorated 2.0% —Delapidated 0.4%
These basic proportions of sound units to substandard units and corresponding deteriorated and dilapidated units is assumed to be valid for current existing units. Using these proportions for current existing 2,215 units, the following has been determined:


/
# of Dwelling Units Percentage
Sound Units 2,162 97.6%
Total substandard 53 2.4%
—Deteriorated 44 2.0%
—Dilapidated 9 0.4%
The high cost of housing in the Steamboat Springs area is the primary factor for the relatively few units which are considered to be stab-standard.
Two important trends can be concluded. The first trend is that of rapid construction which has occurred in Steamboat Springs since 1965. The second important trend which can be deducted from this table is the changing composition of housing types in the past twelve years. Prior to 1965 the vast majority of dwelling units were single family while duplex units and multi-family units were relatively uncommon.
Single family units comprised 86% of the total dwelling units constructed prior to 1965. Single family homes constructed between 1965 and 1974 comprised 60% of the total units constructed, while single family units constructed between 1974 and 1978 declined radically to only 38% of total units. Multi-family and duplex units have consequently seen rapid increases, filling the housing void left by reduced single family dwelling construction. The preponderance of newly constructed multi-family and duplex units is a reaction necessitated by increasing costs of road, sewer and water service and general infla-
tion of land prices.


TABLE 4
Building Construction 1973-1978
Single One-half
Family of
Units Duplex
Existing dwelling units in 1973 646 128
# of dwelling units constructed in 1974 12 8
# of dwelling units constructed in 1975 21 38
# of dwelling units constructed in 1976 29 18
# of dwelling units constructed in 1977 62 30
Total of dwelling units in existence as of February 1978 770 222
% of growth between 1973 & Feb. 1978 19.2% 73.4%
% of total dwelling units in existence as of 1973 by dwelling type 34.5% 7.8%
% of total dwelling units in existence' as of Feb. 1978, by dwelling type 34.8% 10.0%
Mobile Homes Multiple Family Units Total of All Dwelling Units
237 863 1,874
0 48 68
0 0 59
0 4 51
0 71 163
237 986 2,215
0% 17.3% 18.2%
12.6% 46.0%
10.7%
44.5%
100.0%


HOUSING CONSUMER PROFILE
According to the 1974 Housing Survey, the average dwelling unit in Steamboat Springs had 2.8 permanent occupants. Ihe same survey indicates that for current ownership status the following exists:
26.5% own their own home with no mortgage
38.2% own their home with mortgage
32.6% rent
These figures agree exactly with the 1970 census data and are further developed in Table 5. This table illuminates the finding that the majority of Single Family and Mobile Home dwellers own their homes while the majority of duplex and multi-family units are rented.
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The same 1974 survey shows length of residence in relation to housing type in Table 6. The specific numerical data from this survey was transformed into the percentages presented, which are assumed to be reasonably accurate today. This table also illustrates that the single family dwelling consumer is significantly different from duplex and multi-family unit dwellers. Twenty-four percent of the single family housing units have residents whose length of residence exceeds 6 years; while mobile homes in parks have only 4%, mobile homes not in parks 20%, duplex units 4% and multi-family units 12%. Table 6 furthermore emphasizes the short term occupancy which is characteristic in Steamboat Springs with 51% of the total inhabitants maintaining their residence for less than two years.


Table 7, developed from information obtained in the 1974 Housing survey, indicates the number of occupants per unit, bath and room. This table shows that when taking all four categories into account, duplex units are the least crowded, followed by single family units, multifamily units and finally mobile home units.
Table 8 presents the percentage of people who would move from their present residence, by dwelling type, in the Steamboat Springs area if alternate housing were available. The table illustrates that people living in single family dwelling units appear to be the most satisfied with their present living, followed by those living in duplex units. Mobile home and multi-family unit dwellers express an extreme desire to move from their present location.
Single family dwelling units are also the preferred housing type, as information from the 1974 Housing Survey shows in Table 9. Of those people who desire to move and are presently living in other than single family dwelling units, 84% indicated that single family housing would be their preferred housing type. The next most desirable type of housing units is mobile homes which are not located in trailer parks, which received the preference of eight percent of those desiring to move. Multi-family with kitchens and duplex units are only preferred as a housing type by 4% of those who desire to move.
i


TABLE 5
Housing Type—Tenure*
Housing Type________________(No
Single Family
Mobile Home in Park
Mobile Home Not in Park
One-Half of Duplex
Multi-Family
Other
Own Mortgage) Own (Mortgage) Rent
24% 47% 29%
26% 55% 19%
20% 35% 45%
8% 29% 63%
7% 20% 73%
6% 40% 54%
♦Source: 1974 Housing Survey—completed by Routt County Regional Planning Commission
TABLE 6
Housing Type—Length of Residence*
Housing Type Less than 2 years 2-5 yrs. 6-10 yrs. 11-20 yrs. 20+ yrs
Single Family 42% 26% 13% 10% 9%
Mobile Home in Park 55% 41% 3% - 1%
Mobile Home Not in Park 45% 35% 15% - 5%
One-Half of Duplex 80% 18% - - 2%
Multi-Family 76% 20% ' 1% 2% 1%
Other 59% 31% 6% 6% -
% of Total Residences by Length of Residence 51% 26% 10% 7% 6%
♦Source: 1974 Housing Survey—Completed by Routt County Regional
Planning Commission


TABLE 7 (1974)
Housing Type—Occupants per Unit, Room , Bath and Bedroom*
Housing Type Occupants Per Unit Occupants Per Room Occupants Per Bath Occupants Per Bedroom
Single Family 3.05 .5 2.0 1.1
Mobile Home in Park 2.43 . 6 2.1 1.2
Mobile Home Not in Park 3.40 .7 2.5 1.4 „
One-Half of Duplex 2.45 .5 1.8 1.1
Multi-Family 2.30 . 6 1.8 1.2
Other 2.40 .6 1.9 1.5
TABLE 8 (1974)
Housing Type—Persons Per Unit Who Would Move If Other Housing Were Available - Number Who Would Move*
Housing Type 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 88
Single Family 77% 7% 8% 2% 3% 2% 1% - —
Mobile Home in Park 27% 18% 22% 17% 8% 6% 1% -
Mobile Home Not in Park 29% 23% 29% 6% 6% - 6% -
One-Half of Duplex 50% 27% 28% 9% 4% 2% - -
Multi-Family 25% 22% 29% 13% 5% 2% - 4%
Other 52% 17% 15% 8% 6% 2% l - -
Percent of'Cumulative Which Would Move 61% 11% 14% 6% 4% 2% 1% .5% .5%
♦Source: 1974 Housing Survey—Completed by Routt County Regional
Planning Commission


TABLE 9
Housing Type-Preferred Housing Type*
Current Housing Type Single- Family Mobile Home in Park Mobile Home Not in Park Half of Duplex Multi- Family with Kitchen Multi- Family without Kitchen
Single-Family X 4% 19% 21% 17% 4%
Mobile Home in Park 73% X 15% 4% 3% -
Mobile Home Not in Park 88% 7% X 2.5% - 2.5%
One-Half of Duplex 96% - - X - 4%
Multi-Family w/Kitchens 92% - 2% 1% X -
Multi-Family w/o/Kitchens 78% - 4% - 4% X
♦Source: 1974 Housing Survey—Completed by Routt County Regional Planning Commission Staff.


LAND AND HOUSING PRICES
Land and housing prices found in Table 10 were compiled by the Routt County Regional Planning Commission Staff from information listed in the Steamboat Springs Multiple Listing Services SOLD Properties Catalogs from January 1, 1977 to December 31, 1977. This catalog was compiled by the Northwest Colorado Board of Realtors and was graciously lent to the Planning Department for the purpose of compiling this table. This chart emphasizes the high price of housing in the Steamboat Springs area.
RENTAL PRICES
Rental units in the Steamboat Springs area exceed the average rents found in Colorado. Numerous managers stated that they anticipated an increase in rents for the fall of 1978. The vacancy rates for apartment year-round rentals have been very low, averaging less than 5%.
One abberation of this norm is the Pine Grove Apartments which recently averaged a 30% to 45% vacancy rate during the summer of 1977. This was reportedly a result of management practices and not a direct
indication of market factors.


TABLE 10
Average home and lot prices for 1977
Type of Dwelling or Lot Number of Bedrooms Location
Condominium Efficiency Steamboat
Condominium 2 bdrm. Steamboat
Condominium 3 bdrm. Steamboat
Single Family 2 bdrm. Steamboat
Single Family 3 bdrm. Steamboat
Single Family 4+ bdrm. Steamboat
Single Family 3 bdrm. Steamboat II
Single Family 4+ bdrm. Steamboat II
*3 Duplex 2 ea. side Steamboat II
Mobile Home variable Steamboat
Residential Lot N/A Steamboat
Residential Lot N/A Steamboat II
1977 No. of Units Averaged
1977
Average
Cost
1978 No. of Units Averaged
1978
Average
Cost
23 25,680
21 44,760
5 71,300
4 41,875
16 60,093
10 76,310
19 41,700
4 48,125
8 19,562
9 6,922
29 18,860
9 5,167
15 30,520
26 46,320
7 49,460
1 42,500
12 78,860
4 109,870
7 48,170
0
0
2 8,700
12 21,460
2 7,100


It is important to note that this 5% vacancy rate is below what is generally considered as a normal housing market. This is critical in that the Department of Housing and Urban Development Market Analysis Division recognizes that, when a rental vacancy rate falls below six percent, market parity is destroyed. This forces tenants to move to areas outside of Steamboat Springs or pay higher rents than they can afford.
Steamboat Springs, being a skiing community, has all the problems which are associated with a seasonal community. During the ski season, which extends approximately from the first of December until the first or second week in April, the town experiences a great influx of tourists. Dependent upon the business created by the tourists are those seasonal employees who work in the service industries in order to finance their winter of skiing and living in Steamboat Springs.
The simultaneous migration of tourists and seasonal workers into Steamboat Springs during the winter season creates a serious housing shortage. A phone survey of rental agents in the Steamboat Springs area in February of 1978 disclosed that between December 1st and April 1st, a minimum of 324 condominiums are transformed from long-term monthly rentals into nightly rentals where rates range from $70 to $175 per night. At a conservative summer occupancy rate of 50%, it is estimated that a minimum
of 453 persons displaced persons compete for the few available units with
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the recently transplaced seasonal migrants. The majority of these


seasonal workers, many who make minimum and near minimum wage, requires housing at reasonable rates.
The competition for housing combined with the expensive rents creates an extreme hardship for those making minimum and near minimum wage. In order to adjust to the housing shortage, many young people crowd into the housing units available, which reduces the per person rent but which increases problems commonly associated with crowded facilities, such as parking deficiencies.
TABLE 11
Steamboat Springs rents for February 1978*
Year-Round Rentals
Apartments # Of Units Avg. Avg. Price**
1 bedroom (furnished) 26
1 bedroom (unfurnished) 5
2 bedroom (furnished) 39
2 bedroom (unfurnished) 31
Condominiums
2 bedroom (unfurnished) 27 $400
2 bedroom + loft (unfurnished) 11 $430
$268
$250
$367
$300
*Source: Phone Survey: Completed by Routt County Regional Planning Commission Staff
**These rental prices will probably increase $50/month by the fall of 1978.


HOUSING DEMAND
Precise quantification of resident housing demand is not possible with existing data. The problem which occurs in the quantification of housing demand is that it is impossible to determine the number of residents for each season, short of conducting a door-to-door count of permanent
residents during each of the four seasons. This information is required,
•
since the number of residents and the associated demand for housing vacillates with the seasons. Although precise quantification cannot be developed, it can be concluded that an overall shortage of housing for permanent residents exists. This assumption is validated by the observed housing prices (see Table 10) which are partially inflated by a demand which apparently exceeds the supply. This assumption is also validated by the rapid rate of new construction in Steamboat Springs and the marketability of these units. During 1977, a total of 163 dwelling units were constructed within the incorporated town (see Table 4). These units comprise 48% of all the units constructed in Steamboat Springs between 1974 and 1977. These units appear to have been highly marketable. The shortage of resident housing is especially critical in the year-round rental market, which has a vacancy rate of less than 5% during the off-season, and almost 0% during the ski season. This is considerably less than what is regarded as a normal rental market. The demand for rental housing so greatly exceeded the supply during the winter of 1977-78 that people who had planned to work and live in Steamboat for


the winter were unable to find a place to live. The result of this was that employers were unable to find the help which they required. During the off-season, this problem of resident rentals is alleviated by the addition of 312 rental units and emmigration of many people who's intent was to just spend the winter. The 312 additional rental units are extracted from the nightly rental market and placed on the monthly market between April 1 and December 1.
It must be emphasized that this demand has seasonal peaks. The winter season sees a severe crowding of the available housing units. During the off-season, vacancy rates increase, but it is doubted if they increase to the 856 units indicated by the housing demand analysis.
HOUSING RENT GAP ANALYSIS
Rent gap is defined as, "The difference between what a person is able to afford for rent and what a person is required to pay for rent." The importance of the rent gap analysis is that it indicates in what price category housing shortages or surpluses are present. This is of critical importance in a community such as Steamboat Springs, where many individuals have incomes which cannot enable them to afford housing.
Monthly housing costs were compared to 25% of monthly household income to develop a graphic representation of the rent surplus and deficit


(Graph #1).* As this graph illustrates, there is a deficiency of 700 units under the $300 a month range, of which 470 housing units are required below and $150 a month level. This graph illustrates a surplus of 700 housing units available in the over $300 a month price range.
It is important to note that demand is assumed to equal supply. As was shown in the previous section, demand probably exceeds supply.
Since the quantification of this demand is not possible, demand equals supply in Graph #1 to allow for the development of a "rent gap analysis."
PLATTED LANDS
At the present, there are 987 vacant buildable lots within the incorporated city limits. If each of these lots were to have minimum density of one single family dwelling per lot, these lots would accompany an additional 3,010 persons. Many of these lots are zoned PUD, Duplex and Multi-Family and consequently will be able to provide more than 987 dwelling units and the associated housing for 3,010. Such a preponderance of vacant lots, coupled with the average price of a lot of $18,860 indicates that the prices of these lots are artificially inflated through speculation.
♦According to the Farmers Home Administration, no more than 20% of a person's income should be required for housing. This amount was felt to be unrealistic and was inflated to 25% to reflect lending policies of local banks.


Speculation extracts buildable lots from the housing market. The reduced supply of lots associated with a constant demand inflates the prices of those few lots being offered for sale.
It is difficult to determine what would happen to the price of lots if numerous additional lots are developed. It is possible that a saturation point could be reached with enough additional development where, because of the surplus supply of lots and the unforseeable demand for those lots, the price of lots may be reduced. The present trend indicates that saturation of the market with vacant lots is not going to have an effect on lowering prices for lots.
PROJECTED LOW AND MODERATE INCOME HOUSING REQUIREMENTS
Graph #1 indicates that there is at present a deficit of 700 housing units available to those who can afford less than $300/mo. If all of the residential construction were for low and moderate incomes,* it would take until 1984 for the housing requirements for low and moderate income units to be satisfied. Construction of nothing but low and
*Low and moderate incomes include any households whose combined incomes total less than $14,000 per year. This is very close to the $15,000 per year figure: which the Farm Home Administration uses to determine low and moderate income. According to the income data presented in Table 4, 60% of all households in Steamboat Springs make less than $14,400 per year. Monthly housing costs for low and moderate income households, at 25% of a household's monthly income, should not exceed $300.


moderate income housing units for the next six years is certainly an untenable solution. A more reasonable solution to the low and moderate income housing problem is to disperse its construction over the next 18 years. Between 1978 and 1995, it is estimated that 2,480 additional housing units shall be constructed in the Steamboat Springs area. Low and moderate income housing demands in existence as of 1978 (700 units) comprises 28% of the additional housing units constructed until 1995 (2,480 units). Table 12 illustrates the number of low and moderate income housing units which must be built between 1978 and 1995 to alleviate the present low and moderate income housing shortage. Table 12 also indicates the number of low and moderate income units which will be needed to supply housing to those Steamboat Springs immigrants who have low and moderate incomes. Presently 60% of the households within Steamboat Springs are unable to afford more than $300/mo. for housing. To develop future low and moderate income housing projections it is assumed that 60% of the projected population will require low and moderate in-
come housing.


NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS / HOUSING UNITS
GRAPH #1: Steamboat Springs Rent Gap Analysis
o
o
VO
o
o
o
o
â– vf
o
o
ro
O
O
IN
O
CO
O
VO
O
O
(N
O
o
o
CO
o
VO
o
O
CN
Number of Housing Units Deficient
>
Number of Housing Units Surplus +588
TOTAL MONTHLY COST OF HOUSING (IN DOLLARS)


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TABLE 12
Projected Low and Moderate Income Housing Requirements*
1980 1985 1990 19 1995
Units required to alleviate 700 unit shortage, present in 1978 63 191 344 557
Units required to supply low & moderate income immigrants 169 511 920 1,488
Total low & moderate income housing 232 702 1,264 2,045
*includes elderly housing
/


SUMMARY OF DATA
The purpose of the first section of this report has been to compile all existing data which affects housing. An accurate analysis of the existing housing situation is a prerequisite to proposing solutions to alleviate that problem. This last part of this section attempts to make note of the important findings of the first section and to make comment as to what ramifications these findings have on housing.
Steamboat Springs has seen a rapid rate of growth during the past seven years, spurred by the expansion of the tourist industry. This growth has been concentrated primarily to the south of town in previously unpopulated areas. This growth has seen a change both in the type of occupations employing people and the ages of those people.
The town of Steamboat Springs is presently zoned in a manner which mirrors the actual land use. Geologic Hazards and Floodplain areas restrict growth in many areas of the city. Building of additional houses in these areas should be restricted. Mitigating procedures to reduce these hazards are not seen as available alternatives at the present. Sufficient build-able land area presently exists to allow future expansion in non-hazard areas.
During the past four years the proportion of duplexes have increased while multi-family units have decreased. Single Family homes have remained


approximately the same percentage. A minimum of housing units are substandard in the Steamboat Springs area.
The majority of people rent Duplex and Multi-Family units while the majority of occupants of Single Family and Mobile Homes own their homes. Single Family homes and Mobile Homes also have occupants whose residence is for longer terms than Multi-Family and Duplex units. Of the units surveyed in 1974, Duplex units were the least crowded, followed by Single Family homes, Multi-Family units and finally Mobile Home units. Single Family housing occupants appear to be the most satisfied with their present living, followed by those in Duplex units and finally Mobile Homes and Multi-Family unit dwellers. Single Family dwelling units are also the preferred type, followed by Mobile Homes not in parks and then Multi-Family units and Duplex units.
The prices for Single Family, Multi-Family, Duplex housing units and the price of lots are all extremely high in the Steamboat Springs area.
These prices are consequently reflected in the rental prices.
Traditional housing demand analysis is a totally inadequate tool to determine housing demand in a seasonal community such as Steamboat Springs. Although quantification is not possible, it does appear that demand exceeds supply for housing in the Steamboat area. This is especially true in the rental market and the lower cost private homes. During the ski


season, demand is at its maximum, while available supply is negligible. This is aggrevated by the fact that 312 rental units are extracted from the monthly rental market and placed on the nightly rental market from December to April, making them unavailable for winter season service workers.
Presently, there are 987 vacant buildable lots within Steamboat Springs which would accompany at least 3,010 additional occupants.
Housing Gap Analysis indicates that there is a shortage of 700 housing units which cost under $300/mo., while there is a surplus of 700 housing units which cost over $300/mo. The apparent conclusion from this is that many individuals are paying the amount greater than 25% of their monthly incomes on housing.
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
The combined efforts of individual citizens, local community organizations , the Steamboat Springs City Council, and the Routt County Regional Planning Commission staff have created a housing plan which is not to be used only as an analytical tool, but also as an instrument to direct the City in future actions which affect housing. To this end, the following goals and objective have been developed to provide future guidance and direction:


POLICIES
The following policies developed and adopted by the City of Steamboat Springs shall be pursued when consistent with good planning.
1. Maximum densities shall be encouraged for both elderly housing and for low income housing when consistent with good planning, the Comprehensive Plan, and zoning.
2. Zoning reclassifications which allow density increases for both elderly-housing and low income housing shall be encouraged.
3. The development of low income and elderly subsidized housing by private interests is to be encouraged.
4. Transformation of apartments into condominimum shall be restricted
5. The construction of apartments within any price range shall be encouraged .
6. New businesses and expansion of existing businesses which generate winter-only employment shall be encouraged to provide for employee housing.
7. The expansion of existing and/or the development of new industries and businesses which generate off-season employment shall be encouraged .
8. The expansion of existing and/or development of new light industries shall be encouraged.
9. The construction of new housing shall be in accordance with the adopted Land Use Map and Zoning Map so as to concentrate growth and reduce strain placed on required city services, and to restrict development in flood-plain areas, geologic hazard areas, poor soils and areas of excessive slopes.
/


EARLY ACTION PLAN
As a result of the Steamboat Springs May 1978 Housing Study, an Early Action Plan was instigated. Joe Cavanough (Assistant Planning Developer for Boulder) was hired through an Action Strategy Grant to conduct the housing implementation plan. The Early Action Plan will be divided into two sections: (1) the drafting of a new ordinance and (2) the creation of a housing project.
The ordinance will be drawn up to help retard housing shortages in the community's future development. It will briefly state that any major development (one requiring ten or more employees) must submit a plan for employee housing along with its original projected plan development to the Planning Commission. This ordinance will include both new developers as well as existing businesses who wish to significantly expand. For example, Sheraton (ITT Corp.) recently bought the Village Inn complex located at the base of the Steamboat ski mountain (Mount Werner). They intend to tripple the number of rooms at the hotel and add a convention center. These changes will mean an addition of 200 to 300 new employees. Under the terms of the new ordinance, Sheraton will be responsible for the provision of housing for these new employees. Development and expansion of the Village Inn would be denied until plans for implementation of such housing were submitted.
A copy of the proposed Early Action Plan's ordinance follows.


1. Having recognized the severe shortage of low and moderate income housing in the Steamboat Springs area, the development of low income housing is to be encouraged in the amounts present in Table 12.
2. New and expanding businesses shall be encouraged to supply housing for their winter-only seasonal employees. (see proposed draft ordinance)
3. The expansion of existing off-season industries and the development of new off-season industries shall be encouraged to help generate
a more stable year-round economy.
4. Having recognized that the Steamboat Springs economy is highly dependent on the assorted recreation industries, it is the desire
of the City of Steamboat Springs to encourage the expansion and/ or new development of diversified light industries in the Steamboat Springs area.
5. The construction and development of low-income housing for the elderly shall be encouraged, so as to allow the elderly to live in the Steamboat Springs area.
6. Growth shall be encouraged in improved areas so as not to place excessive strain on the City to provide needed services and facilities.
7. Consideration shall be given to all natural limiting factors affecting development; among those are flood plains, geologic hazard areas, poor soils and areas of excessive slope.
IMPLEMENTATION
Housing studies in themselves do little good except for illuminating the problem so everyone knows why they are without adequate housing. The critical section of any housing study is the section that deals with implementation. The following policies and implementation procedures are aimed at accomplishing the goals and objectives presented
in the previous section.


DRAFT ORDINANCE NO.
AN ORDINANCE ENACTING SECTION 17.42.080 AND SECTION 16.20.110 TO THE STEAMBOAT SPRINGS MUNICIPAL CODE RELATING TO EMPLOYEE HOUSING INFORMATION, PLANS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR CONDITIONAL USES, PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENTS AND SUBDIVISIONS.
WHERAS, the City Council is of the view that the need for low and moderate income employee housing units in the City of Steamboat Springs community requires affirmative action by the City; and,
WHEREAS, the City Council believes that it is necessary for people who work in Steamboat Springs to have an opportunity to live in the city; and
WHEREAS, the various governmental units on the federal, state and local levels must assume a responsibility to provide programs which will channel development efforts into supplying housing units for such employees; and
WHEREAS, the City Council believes that the private initiative is well suited and qualified to meet the need to supply low and moderate income employee housing in this community; and
WHEREAS, the City Council is of the view that new developments must address and in some way accommodate the housing needs of low and moderate income employees in this community; and
WHEREAS, the City Council believes that private developers of property should be required and encouaged to expend a portion of their efforts at meeting the housing needs of such employees;
NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT ORDAINED BY THE CITY COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF THE CITY OF STEAMBOAT SPRINGS, COLORADO:
Section 1. Enactment. Section 17.42.080 is hereby added to the Steamboat Springs Municipal Code to read as follows:
17.42.080 Housing Information - Plan for Housing - Commitment to Provide Housing.
A. All conditional uses and planned unit developments which generate ten (10) or more new employment positions must submit a written plan to the City outlining how the new employees generated by the use or development will be housed. Such plan shall be submitted to the Department of Community Development prior to consideration of the conditional use permit application by the Planning Commission.


B. The plan submitted by the applicant shall serve as the basis for a written agreement between the City and the applicant which may be reviewed by the City Council as part of the final approval of the conditional use permit or planned unit development. These agreements may provide incentives which will enable private developers to carry out suitable employee housing projects.
C. The Department of Community Development shall make such general rules and regulations as are necessary for the proper administration and enforcement of this section. Such regulations may be altered, amended, or repealed from time to time as may be necessary. However, no such rules and regulations shall take effect unless approved by resolution of the City Council. The Council shall hold a public hearing before adopting any such resolution. Notice of time, date and location of the public hearing shall be given by one publication of the same at least four (4) days prior to the hearing in a newspaper of general circulation in the City. Said notice shall also be posted in the designated posting places for the City at least four (4) days prior to the date of the public hearing and shall remain posted until after such hearing.
Section 2. Enactment. Section 16.20.110 is hereby added to the Steamboat Springs Municipal Code to read as follows:
16.20.110 Housing Information - Plan for Housing - Commitment to Provide Housing.
A. All subdivisions and planned unit developments which generate ten (10) or more low to moderate income employment positions shall be subject to the requirements of Section 17.42.080 with regard to the submission of a housing plan and a commitment to provide employee housing. All such subdivisions and planned unit developments are required to meet said requirements prior to approval of a preliminary subdivision plan or final PUD plan.
Section 3. Severence Clause. If clause or phrase of this Ordinance is valed, such decision shall not affect portion of this Ordinance.
Section 4. Effective Date. This Ordinance shall take effect immediately upon the expiration of five (5) days from and after the final date of publication as provided by Charter.
any section, subsection, sentence, for any reason held to be in-the validity of the remaining


IMAGE
The second phase of the Early Action Plan is the implementation of a low cost housing project. Such a project will be developed to satisfy needed housing specified in the Steamboat Springs Housing Study of May 1978. It is this particular housing demand which is the basis of this thesis.
Care must be taken in the design of such low income housing. Because of the remoteness of Steamboat Springs and because of the desirability of the community as a recreational area, prices are high and consequently building is expensive. In the design of low income housing, minimizing expenses must not lead to a complete lack of building quality. Effort must be taken to blend the development into the residential setting and also to use natural materials indigenous to the area. In general, the development should blend in well with the resort housing complexion of the Steamboat Springs community, while keeping costs to a minimum.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
The primary goal for this project is to create a housing development which helps ease the community's need for low income rental housing. The maximum number of units to be developed for this project will be 125 units. This will not eliminate the 700 unit deficit in Steamboat Springs, but rather will serve as a prototype for further low income housing.
The second goal of this project is to create a living environment which blends in well with its natural surroundings as well as one which blends in with the local image and architecture. Every effort should be made aesthetically to enhance the development, as this can only help to upgrade the subdivision in which it lies as well as increase its acceptability into the community. Economic construction as well as a pleasing design (yet one which will require low maintenance) will be stressed. Maximum effort should also be utilized
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to enhance the natural views of the site and existing site features.
The final goal of the project will be to maximize the use of the natural environment to produce a more energy efficient building. Although Energy Fuels gas fields are located within miles of Steamboat Springs, prices of the now inexpensive gas are expected to rise sharply within the next year. Electric heat is already exorbitantly priced. Use of passive solar systems will be an important criteria in the design to help reduce energy costs.


WALDEN
25
DEVELOPMENT
Steamboat Springs is located 160 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado.
It is easily accessible by automobile or bus from Denver, and it is also serviced by Rocky Mountain Airways six times daily into the Steamboat Springs airport. The town and ski mountain are both located in the Yampa Valley, adjacent to U.S. 40. The town is approximately three miles northwest of the mountain resort.


Steamboat Springs is an old town. The rich soil of the Yampa Valley afforded the community an abundance of farming and ranching. Ranching is still an important part of the town's economy while nearby gas fields and mining operations now comprise an equal role. Today, the downtown area and the flanking small residential Victorian homes are an ever present reminder of Steamboat's history.


LIGHT INDUSTRIAL
TWENTY MILE ROAD

TO
DOWNTOWN
NORTH, NO SCALE SITE PLAN
INTENDED
INDUSTRIAL
USAGE
25 ACRES TOTAL
ELECTRICAL
TRANSFORMER
HOUSING
PROJECT
LOCATION
J
FORESTRY
SERVICE
SECOND
STREET
RESIDENTIAL
Traveling along U.S. 40 through Steamboat Springs to its extreme northwestern boundary (to the Twenty Mile Road cut-off), one can locate the Fairview subdivision. This section of town has been grossly neglected in the past, and it is considered by the townspeople as an eyesore. The land prices here are the lowest to be found in the city, and likewise are the quality and costs of homes in the area. There is also a small amount of commercial and light


industrial enterprises located just to the north of Twenty Mile Road. Still, because of the extremely high land costs in Steamboat Springs and on the mountain, there has recently been an increase in residential home building in this location.
I


SITE ANALYSIS
The site chosen for this project is located in the Fairview subdivision of Steamboat Springs, approximately one half mile from the intersection of U.S. 40 and Twenty Mile Road. There are a number of reasons for this choice. First, and most important, the town already owns this land. With the already too high land costs in Steamboat Springs, the unnecessary purchase of additional land is an important consideration. Second, the development of the Fairview site will necessitate a complete replacement of major water and sewer lines to the site (this would be financed by a $436,500 Farmers' Home Grant). Replacement of water and sewer lines to the subdivision will greatly aid further development in the area as well as existing homes and businesses. In summation, the proposed development of the site will tend to aesthetically and financially upgrade what is now an undesirable portion of the Steamboat Springs community.
The site consists of 25 acres. A lithia spring diagonally separates the lot into two sections, the lower of which closely borders the flood-plain and Twenty Mile Road. Fifteen acres on the higher portion of the lot are reserved for the housing project, the lower ten acres for a small light-industrial park. It is an important city requirement that these two functions co-exist and that there be a gradual transi-
tion between them. The site will then function as a transition element


for the entire Fairview subdivision. Light-industrial business already exists to the north of Twenty Mile Raod, to the south residential. This one area should therefore reflect both elements in design and planning.
The site itself has an average of 18% slope down to the north and is predominantly grass covered. It has excellent drainage, but also high snow accumulation because of the northern slope.* (All efforts should be made to maximize the early morning and late afternoon sun because of the lack of southern exposure). Still, the site offers some excellent views from the high portions as well as a focal point in the lithia springs.
CLIMATE
Pertinent climate data is included in the next few pages; more importantly, however, are the micro-climatic effects on the site. As was previously mentioned, the site is located on a sloped hillside directly facing north. Hills tend to be more exposed to wind than other terrain. The fact that there are few trees on the site, emphasizes more the need for wind protection. Care should be taken in design, especially concerning increasing insulation and minimizing surface area and openings on the north side of the development. (This
*poor soils on north portion


may cause conflicts, as the best views are on the windward and northern side of the site). An advantage to using the wind in building ventilation should be sought in the design procedure.
Precipitation will also be a design problem. Steamboat Springs, as the Rocky Mountains in general, is highly renowned for its abundance of snow. In recent years, snowfall has been increasing because of the extended use of cloud-seeding to bolster the ski industry. The snow problem at the Fairview site is even more of a problem, as precipitation is always greatest on the windward side of a slope. Care should thus be taken in the design to account for heavy precipitation, not to mention on-site storage of heavy snows and snow removal operations .
The following pages quantify some of the climatic influences as well as contain information useful in passive solar design.


CLIMATE
Average Annual Rainfall 23.87 in.
Average Annual Snowfall
Ski Area 200 in
Town 160 in.*
Average Daily Temperatures (Degrees Fahrenheit)
January 14.9 July ' 61.6
February 19.4 August 60.1
March 26.6 September 52.2
April 38 7 October 42.7
May 48.2 November 28.8
June 54.8 December 18.2
Normal Degree Days by Month - Grand Junction, Colorado
January 1271 July 0
February 924 August 0
March 738 September 36
April 402 October 333
May 145 November 792
June 23 December 1132
*Town figure of 160 in. applies to Fairview Subdivision.


PASSIVE SOLAR INFORMATION
Clear-Day Solar Heat Gain through vertical double glazing at various orientation (in BTU/SF). The heat gains listed in the following table account only for the reflection losses from the surface of the glass. To account for absorbtion losses, reduce by 6%. (Determined for 40 NL)
Month N NE,NW E ,W SE,SW S HORIZ
January 120 128 474 \‘ 1079 1506 948
February 164 215 666 1180 1502 1374
March 220 376 858 1183 1244 1852
April 294 593 1002 1075 838 2274
May 384 747 1063 952 598 2552
June 446 816 1083 894 528 2648
July 398 749 1048 931 586 2534
August 312 595 975 1034 806 2244
September 230 370 816 1126 1190 1796
October 170 218 642 1129 1436 1348
November 122 130 466 1056 1472 942
December 102 105 393 1007 1434 782


Average Daily Radiation on a Horizontal Surface for Grand Lake, Co
(BTU/day - Sq. F .), LAT: 40° 15'N
January 735.0 July 2103.3
February 1135.4 August 1708.5
March 1579.3 September 1715.8
April 1876.7 October 1212.2
May 1974.9 November 775.6
June 2369.7 December % 660.5
Conversion to amount of energy â–  transmitted through two
vertical, south-facing glass.
January 735.0 X 1.23 = 904.5
February 1135.4 X .98 = 1112.69
March 1579.3 X .68 = 1073.92
April 1876.7 X .44 = 825.75
May 1974.9 X .32 = 631.97
June 2369.7 X .26 = 616.12
July 2103.3 X .28 = 588.92
August 1708.5 X .37 = 632.15
September 1715.8 X .56 = 960.85
October 1212.2 X .84 = 1018.25
November 775.6 X 1.14 = 884.18
December 660.5 X 1.29 — 852.05


CIRCULATION
Access to the site from US 40 is down Twenty Mile Road for only a short distance. Twenty Mile Road is a paved, two lane road which is not overly used and offers excellent access to the site. An access road to the housing project will be proposed and will be financed by a federally funded grant for site improvement, previously mentioned. Public transportation could easily be diverted to accommodate the demand produced from such a housing project. Currently, the bus service loops throughout the town and mountain areas and travels down US 40 past Twenty Mile Road, *s mile from the site.
On site circulation will be determined by major considerations such as separation between foot and car circulation, on-site snow storage, drainage and parking. On-site snow storage is not a requirement, but is recommended as one square foot of storage area for every two square feet of pavement (unless otherwise accounted for). Parking is designated at two spaces per unit, a total of 250 spaces.


GENERAL SPACE REQUIREMENTS
In studying other apartment complexes, findings indicate that 750 S.F is an optimum size for two bedroom apartments, while 925 S.F. an optimum size for three bedroom apartments. Furthermore, studies show the best ratio of two bedroom to three bedroom apartments to be 4:3. Normally, in a project of 125 units, such as this, the ratio would work out to 72 two bedroom units and 53 three bedroom units. However the City Task Force of Steamboat Springs has already designated that exactly 50% of each bedroom unit will be developed. I wish to stay as close as possible to the parameters of this project as set by the City, so 63 units shall be designated two bedroom apartments at 750 square feet each and 62 units shall be designated as three bedroom units at 925 square feet each.
Setbacks on the site are twenty-five feet in the front and back, and ten feet on the sides. Maximum building height for an apartment complex of this nature is thirty-five feet, there are no easements to account for. These figures are all based upon zoning for high density. The Fairview Housing project would, in fact, be an allowable one unit to 6000 square feet ratio (worked from 125 units for fifteen
acres)


SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
One of the most important requirements of this project is that the housing development at Fairview meet FHA requirements. This is important as the requirements must be met to qualify for federal funding. (Currently, Steamboat Springs is competing for aid for the fifty housing units in an area including Craig and Hayden where 500 uut of a proposed 2200 units will be granted)'. Federal subsidies would mean that rents would be virtually cut in half, yet another important step in conquering the 700 unit deficit. (As stated earlier, twenty-five of the units were to be owner occupied, fifty rented at market value and fifty subsidized).
Important FHA requirements in reference to this project are:
1. NO FLOOD PLAIN SITES
2. CORRECT ZONING
3. PROXIMITY TO SERVICES
I
4. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
By far the biggest obstacle to overcome in obtaining the federal funding will be a question of proximity to services. The housing site is located at the extreme north-west end of Steamboat Springs. Still, public transportation is an asset which will tie the development to the ski mountain and opposite end of the community. The downtown area


is within walking distance with stores, restaurants and most other amenities. (There is even a child care center located behind the proposed site). The only amenities which might be added to the Fair-view housing development would then be laundry facility, convenience store and bus stop.
Another special requirement is the future plan for the Fairview housing project. The City's intent is to sell the units after a twenty or thirty year period (after mortgage repayment). With this in mind, the units will have to be designed with good construction and low maintenance costs. The building life and materials will have to be considered a major factor in design so as to maximize the return of
the City's investment.


COSTS
There are two major cost considerations concerning the Fairview housing project. The first is the resale value of the units which was previously discussed. The second consideration is a system called "land banking." It is the City of Steamboat Springs intention to use the revenue from the housing development to purchase other land in the community to in turn build more low cost housing. This system of "land banking" is seen to be a method in which quality low cost housing, once begun, can continue to grow.
Immediately following are: finance, maintenance and operating costs.


OPERATING COSTS
NOTE: The Task Force is considering building this project in three phases of 50, 50 and 25 units. Operating costs are therefore based upon data for 50 units instead of 125. These figures are rough estimates only.
Common Assumptions:
1. Project Description:
25 two Bedroom Units - $435 per month rental*
25 Three Bedroom Units - $470 per month rental*
Gross Annual Rent - $271,500
2. Land Cost $3,000 per unit $150,000 total
3. CHFA/FHA Financing
8% 40 years 1/2% MIP
Debt Service Factor 8.84374 8.4 Effective Rate
4. Soft Costs (Construction Interest, Fees, Title & Recording, Legal, etc), approximately 14% of mortgage amount.
*These rental prices are comparable to prices in recently completed projects. FHA would supply 50% of rent in subsidized housing only.


5. Housing Commission Project Expenses
$1500 per unit per annum
Total per annum for 50 units $75,000
NOTE: Housing Commission is not required to pay property taxes; therefore expenses will be approximately $300 less.
To arrive at the loan amount available:
$ 271,500 GROSS ANNUAL RENTAL INCOME
13,575 VACANCY 5%
257,925 EFFECTIVE GROSS INCOME
75,000 EXPENSES
182,925 NET INCOME
x .95 DEBT SERVICE COVERAGE FACTOR
173.778 NET INCOME FOR DEBT SERVICE
.0884374 DEBT SERVICE FACTOR
$1,965,000 MORTGAGE
To arrive at rough figures available for design and construction budgets:
$1,965,000 MORTGAGE
- 150,000 LAND COST
- 275,000 SOFT COSTS
$1,539,900 DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION BUDGETS
30,798 PER UNIT BUDGET*
*Does not include land cost


The Housing Commission has an economic advantage in providing a better quality unit due to a larger budget. However, the Commission is merely a tool to take advantage of both the CHFA financing and Section 8 program and that private enterprise can actually design, build and manage the property for the Commission.


COMMUNITY DATA
Community Facilities: Churches—15
Colleges, Libraries— # Schools # Teachers Grades Enrollment
Elementary 1 23 K-5 656
Junior High 1 21 6-8 308
High School 1 32 9-12 425
Private 1 12 9-12 64
Average graduating class: 100 students
College: Colorado Northwestern Community College
Libraries: 1, total volume 13,000
Medical— 1 - Colorado NW Mental Health Center
1 - Child Study Center
1 - Hospital, Routt Memorial Hospital Number of Beds: 20
Number of Doctors: 12 Number of Dentists: 6
1 - Nursing Home, Alpine Nursing Home Number of Beds: 60
5 - Pharmacies


Recreation Facilities—
Bowling 1 1
Theaters 2 2
Ice Rinks 1 1
Ball Fields 1 1
Swimming Pools 1 1
City Parks 1 1
State Parks 1 1
Tennis Courts, private 16
Tennis Courts, public 4
Golf Courses, private 1
Golf Courses, Riding Stables public 1 4
Communications:
Newspaper—Steamboat Pilot (Weekly)
Television Stations—3 (Denver)
Telephone Service—Mountain Bell
Post Offices—One Station, one Sub-Station Class A
Government:
Type—Council/Manager Planning Commission—yes Industrial Plan Approval—yes Zoning Regulations—yes
Financial Institutions:
Type Number
Banks
Savings & Loan Assns.
Plant Financial Assistance
i
3
2
available—no
V
Jackpot Rodeos Fridays, Mine Tours, Rafting, Gondola Rides, Jeep Trips, Handball, Bicycling, Hang Gliding, Fishing, Square Dancing, Snow Skiing, Water Skiing, Horse Shows, Arts and Crafts Shows.
Radio Stations—KFMU (FM) , KBCR (FM & AM) , KRAI (FM & AM) Cable Television—none Telegraph Service—Western Union
Police Department Personnel—25 full time Fire Department Personnel—14 volunteers Equipment—6 pieces Fire Insurance Rating—Eight
Assets
$70,000,000
26,225,342


Utilities and Services*
Power Suppliers—Yampa Valley Electric Water Suppliers—City of Steamboat Springs
Mt. Werner Water & Sanitation Source of Water—Fish Creek Reservoir, Long Lake Capacity of Water Systems—Steamboat Springs 5,000,000 gpd
Mt. Werner 1,500,000 gpd
Sewers—Treatment plants are aerated lagoons with polishing ponds Capacity of Sewage System—Steamboat Springs 1,650,000 gallons per day
Mt. Werner 150,000 gallons per day Gas Suppliers—Greely Gas Co.
Employment:
4.8 annual rate of unemployment Major Employers—
Name
Product or Service
tt Employees
LTV Corp.
Energy Fuels The Industrial Co. Hayden Power Plant Pittsburg & Midway Routt Memorial Seneca W.R. Hall
Ski Resort 638 winter 182 summer
Coal Mining 309
Construction 429
Power Plant 180
Coal Mining 99
Hospital 84
Coal Mining 60
Construction & Transportation 61


PROGRAM SUMMARY
Housing has become a problem throughout all of Colorado's ski resort communities. The extreme influx of winter tourists and workers has virtually eliminated affordable housing. Unlike some of Colorado's ski resorts, Steamboat Springs has been attempting to supply moder-ately priced housing whenever possible with varying degrees of success. Steamboat Springs differs from other winter resorts in that it has a well balanced, diversified economy. Coal mining, agriculture and recreation contribute equally to the overall economy; consequently, jobs are in adequate supply. While people enjoy working and living in Steamboat Springs, housing is so costly that there is a fifty to sixty percent employment turnover.
In realizing its own rapid growth, the City of Steamboat Springs set up a government funded study to review the housing problem. The 1978 study concluded that there was a severe deficiency of lower cost housing; i.e., $300 and below per month. An Early Action Plan was created in response to this need part of which provides for the development of the city-owned housing project scheduled to have 125 units. Twenty-five of these units are to be owner-occupied, fifty rented at market value and fifty subsidized by the Colorado Housing Authority. The project is to be located in the Fairview subdivision of Steamboat Springs and will co-exist with a ten-acre light industrial or commercial complex. The co-existence of the housing project and industrial


park is an important city requirement. The revenue and success of the Fairview project will be used in further development of other low cost housing in the Steamboat Springs community.
Anticipated are many major problems to be dealt with in the design process. Climate and especially micro-climate play an important role. The Fairview Housing site is situated on a slope facing north which, consequently, is subject to strong winds and heavy snows. Every effort should be made to reduce exposure and openings to the north, while maximizing the views afforded. The project should provide a sensitive environment which ties together two opposing (residential and light industrial) zones. The construction and the materials used should be of the highest quality affordable by the costs contributing to the life and ultimate resale of the project.
An finally, every effort should be made to adhere to important FHA requirements in hopes that the development will be accepted into the Federal subsidization program. These considerations, handled properly, can produce an aesthetic and quality housing development in the Fairview subdivision, which will be a prototype for other
low cost housing in Steamboat Springs.




acreage In lots, parking, drivee acreage In undeveloped open e< acreage In r.o.w. acreage In future public uee acreage in litNe eprlng perk
1B.38 ao. 9.SB ae. 1.00 ac.
1.80 ae. .S3 ao.
18 towmhoueea 88 apartment rentale
40 dwelling unite total





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TOTAL FINISHED 780 8F DECKS 140 SF
UNIT B
TOTAL FINISHED 970 8F DECKS 140 SF
UNIT C
TWO BEDROOM WITH OARAGE MAIN FLOOR BASEMENT 190 SF
TOTAL FINISHED 980 SF
OARAOE DECKS
UNIT O
WITH OARAOE MAM FLOOR BA8EMENT TOTAL FINI8HEO 19001
100 SF
OARAOE
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
ALTERNATIVE NATURAL ENERGY SOURCES, DAVIS & SCHUBERT, VAN NOSTRAND REINHOLD CO., NEW YORK, cl974.
THE PASSIVE SOLAR ENERGY BOOK, EDWARD NAZRIA, RODALE PRESS, EMMAUS, PENN., cl979.
STEAMBOAT PILOT (LOCAL WEEKLY NEWSPAPER), CHARLES J. LECKENBY-EDITOR AND PUBLISHER, STEAMBOAT SPRINGS, COLORADO, 1979 ISSUES.
"STEAMBOAT SPRINGS CALM IN THE FACE OF RAPID GROWTH," ROCKY MOUNTAIN NEWS, DENVER, COLORADO, SEPTEMBER 29, 1979.
"STEAMBOAT SPRINGS HOUSING," STEPHEN HILL, FINANCED BY ROUTT COUNTY AND BY A COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING GRANT FROM THE U.S. DEPT. OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT, STEAMBOAT SPRINGS, COLORADO, MAY 1978.
SITE PLANNING FOR CLUSTER HOUSING, RICHARD UNTERMANN & ROBERT SMALL, VAN NOSTRANDKEINHOLD COMPANY, NEW YORK, cl977.
"STEAMBOAT SPRINGS: COWBOY COUNTRY NOW A HOT SUMMER RETREAT",
FOCUS (THE SUNDAY CAMERA), BOULDER, COLORADO, AUGUST 10,1980.
MINUTES: STEAMBOAT SPRINGS HOUSING TASK FORCE, DECEMBER 5,1979 THROUGH JANUARY 4, 1980.
MINUTES: ROUTT COUNTY REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION, MARCH 6,1980.
V


Full Text

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A+ LD 190 z w m w a: D I 1-• c( z w > ID 0 m m ..1 ..1 a: D IL z D w m w a: D. m m w I 1-d.

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ENVJRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY Date Due e b i ' iit ,_..... -.. 'S t . .i

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FAIRVIEW Wendy A. Thoresen University of Colorado College of Environmental Design Department of Architecture Masters Thesis Project Fall 1979 -Fall 1980

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\ To my mother and father ELEANOR and PHILIP THORESEN this thesis is dedicated in gratitude and love

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PREFACE The town of Steamboat Springs, like many other typically rural small towns throughout the Rocky Mountains, has in the past decade been the subject of a twentieth century phenomenon. It's what the media has called a national epidemic. This is less of an exaggeration than it at first seems, for like an epidemic, this phenomenon has left permanent marks of change on the entire community. However, thanks to what might be called its "cowboy" heritage, a history dating back to Victorian days, Steamboat cannot be likened to Vail, Colorado, established in 1964, which comedian Robert Klein once described as "20,000 dentists on skis." Nevertheless, ski fever slammed into Steamboat a few years ago changing the size, shape, appearance and personality of what was once a sleepy ranching community. If you were passing through Steamboat Springs twenty years ago, a typical daily special in the local diner would have brought you a plate of roast beef and brown gravy, open-faced on white bread with a cup of coffee. But stroll into any "Purveyor of Fine Food and Spirits" today and demand the special of the day, and you are probably going to find yourself in front of quiche and spinach salad flanked by a bottle of Perrier. More than likely, this would have been served to you by an individual representing one of the major problems associated with the skiing epidemic, a one-time college student with the suntanned, I

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weathered face of a "local" (a person living and working in town for at least the duration of this year's skiing season, a rather alluring proposition). While working and living in a ski resort may seem glamorous to ever increasing numbers of Americans, the fact is living conditions in towns such as Steamboat Springs are less than adequate. Employees are likely to find the barest of living conditions.or an overcrowded place one might liken to a one or two bedroom apartment shared with three other people, all of whom work at least two jobs. Why do 7,000 people between the ages of twenty and thirty-four choose to live under such conditions? The answer is simple. When the bulldozers came in a few years ago and stripped out winding paths on the mountain and then put up automatic chair lifts, as soonas that first two feet of snow covered the mountain that winter, the sleepy ranching town began to die and with it, real estate and affordable housing. They came in with millions of new dollars, demanding fine places to stay for their week of skiing, a choice of excellent restaurants and shops and of course, numerous cozy spots about town in which to relax by a big fire and tell the day's war stories about moments of glory on "Shadows," near fatal collisions on "Heavenly Daze," and triumphs on "Vertigo" and "High Noon." Y ,es, it's pretty simple. When these ski vacationers arrive in December with $175 to spend per night for accommodations, the local resident (be he "permanent" or just there for "the Season")

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finds himself suddenly without a place to live. It was quickly discovered by developers that the money to be made would not be found in putting up year-round apartments, but rather in dotting the mountain side with luxurious condominiums to accommodate the hoards of moneyspending winter tourists. Forgotten was the fact that such tourism requires an army of winter workers to support it, a winter work force which increases the town's resident population to 15,000--a seasonal leap of 100%. In a town with only two small rental apartment complexes, these 7,500 additional people are forced to take any kind of accommodations they can find (which may require as much as 50\ of the average salary). These drastic and sudden changes which have hit Steamboat Springs within the past decade have resulted in housing and other community problems, but these have not gone unnoticed by the local residents and government. In fact, the employee housing problem has resulted in positive action by the Steamboat Springs City Council and planning commission. From their initiative emerged the 1978 Housing Study, Early Action Plan, employee housing ordinance and creation of the 125 unit Fairview project, the subject of this thesis.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the following people for their support and efforts in obtaining the information herein: Rob Hunt Assistant City Manager Steamboat Springs, Colorado Robert C. McHugh Architect and Employer Extraordinaire Steamboat Springs, Colorado The Steamboat Springs Housing Task Force The Steamboat Springs Chamber of Commerce Joe Cavanaugh Project Coordinator Steamboat Springs, Colorado Sherry Lane County Clerk and Recorder Steamboat Springs, Colorado Horace H. Beaven, Editor of this work and extremely patient husband

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DEMAND Steamboat Springs is a small community with a year-round population of 7,500. The winter ski season boosts the population to nearly 15,000. Every effort is made to hire local residents to support the winter recreation economy, but the number of employees needed to fill the necessary j"obs cannot all be found in the community. Most of the seasonal people take on jobs with the ski resort and/or service businesses (restaurants, hotels) and seldom make more than minimum wage. In a resort community, where housing is catered to the tourists, seasonal workers and even local residents have a difficult time finding affordable housing. Housing in Steamboathas turned almost completely toward exorbitant nightly rentals. Year-round apartment-type housing can only be found in two locations in Steamboat Springs, the Pine Grove Apartments and the Harbor Hotel apartment units. Rents during the winter of 1979 began at $350 per month in these limited complexes and the vacancy rate during the winter months is nearly zero. As for other housing, private contractors and developers have found it highly profitable to invest in condominiums. More than 1,000 condominiums have been proposed over the last five months; perhaps 250 will be built. Still, condominiums do not serve the community's need for low income housing.

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Unlike some of Colorado's other resort communities, Steamboat Springs has recognized this housing problem; furthermore, it has begun to do something about it. The local. government and residents should be highly praised for taking action which will no doubt set a precedent for the other mountain resorts. In May of 1978, a government funded study was conducted in Steamboat Springs to study the housing shortage. The study discovered an unsurprising 700 unit deficiency of lower income ($300 and below per month) housing. Pertinent data from the May, 1978 Housing Study follows.

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STEAMBOAT SPRINGS HOUSING* MAY 1978 The of this report was cooperatively financed by Routt County and by a comprehensive planning grant from the U.S. Department of HouSing and Urban Development under the provisions of Section 701 of the Housing Act of 1974, as amended. ' This study was developed and authored by: Stephen Hill Routt County Regional Planning Commission *This Housing Report has been edited and revised for this thesis.

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ECONOMIC GROWTH AND CHARACTERISTICS Steamboat Springs is Routt County's largest community and serves as the county seat. It is situated in the east-central portion the county, located between the Yampa River and the Rabbit Ears Range of the North Park Range . . This site is ideally located in that access is available to the southeast and eventually Denver via Rabbit Ears Pass, to the north along Elk River Road, to the south along State Highway 131, with U.S. Highway 40 providing access to the west. In conjunction with this auto access, the Steamboat Springs airport and the Yampa Valley airport provide easy access for tourists. The Steamboat Springs area combines sufficient amounts of snow with a varied mountain landscape to provide for excellent Alpine and Nordic skiing, the major inducements for tourism in the area. With the increase in the popularity of skiing and the general increase of recreational activity, the complexion of Steamboat Springs has changed from a town with prominence as a local trade and shipping center to a ski and recreation center of national prominence. This is the factor reponsible for the extensive and rapid growth occurring in the community. POPULATION GROWTH AND CHARACTERISTICS For nearly fifty years the population of Steamboat Springs has fluctuated between one and two thousand people. In 1960 the population was

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1,843; in 1970 it was 2,566 persons (includes within the 1977 incorporated city limits); by 19' 77 the figure had jumped 156% to 4,021. Census data indicates where growth occurred between 1970 and 1977 by census enumeration district. . Figures indicate that growth in the more established areas of the town increased at relatively low rates of 11 to 14 percent. The downtown area lost 6% of its population due to the expansion of business in the area. The areas of rapid growth were primarily southeast of town in lands which previously were sparcely developed. A comparison of 1970 and 1977 census materials tabulated illustrates a basic change that has occurred as a result of the rapid influx of people. The Steamboat Springs demography is .no longer characteristic of rural America but has become one whose emphasis is youth. This pattern is accented by the number of persons between the ages of 20 and 34 represented in the 1977 census, primarily a result of the expansion of the tourist industry which is an impetus for immigration of young people. EMPLOYMENT AND INCOME In 1970 the following percentage of employed persons 16 years and older, by industry, existed as reported in the 1970 census (Table 1). In examining this table it must be realized that the composition of the economic

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base has shifted between 1970 and 1977 to enterprises which are more I recreation oriented. This shift consequently necessitates that a greater percentage of persons be employed in wholesale/retail trade and the service industries. Table 2 presents estimated annual family and household incomes by percentile groups for Routt County. The base information for this table was developed by the Colorado Division of Housing and subse-quently modified to reflect existing conditions in the Steamboat Springs area by the Routt County Regional Planning Commission staff. Table. 1 Count of Employed Persons 16 Years and Older (1970)* Construction 10\Manufacturing 3\ durable goods 2\ Transportation 2\ Communication, Utilities & Sanitary Services 5\ Wholesale & Retail Trade 24\ Finance, Insurance, Real Estate & Business & Repair 8\ Services Other Professional & Related Services 5\ Educational services 11\ Public Administration 7\ Other Industries 23\ *Source: U.S. Department of Commerce -Bureau of Census

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IAND USE The Routt County Regional Planning Commission in coordination with Charles Gathers and Associates, 'lnc. compiled data with which they classified Steamboat Springs by acreage into "Land Uses" (Table 3). This table indicates that within the incorporated area transportation requires 30\ of the total land area followed by recreation with 24\, public/quasi-public with 18\ of the land area within the incorporated city. Total residential use comprises 24.2\ of the total land area, 59\ of which is low density, 21\ of which is high density, 12\ which is medium density residential and the remaining 8\ consist ing of commercial/residential. VACANT LOTS In February of 1978 the Routt County Regional Planning Commission staff completed a survey of the Steamboat Springs area to determine the number of vacant lots within the incorporated city limits. On-site inspection of all platted lands within the city revealed that a total of 987 buildable lots were vacant within the city, dispersed throughout the various zones. (An undetermined number of these lots may be withheld from the market due to hidden factors. These may include title problems, finance problems, subdivision improvements problems and water and sanitation problems).

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It is not possible to determine the maximum number of dwelling units which can be constructed on these 987 vacant lots, since the lots zoned PUD do not have a maximum density requirement. At minimum density of one single family dwelling per lot, these 987 lots could accommodate an additional 3010 persons at the average of 3.0S persons per unit (Table 7). TABLE 2 Annual Family and Household Incomes by Percentile Group* 1976 1976 1977 • Household Family Routt Steamboat Steamboat Percentile Percentile County Springs Springs Group Group Income Income Income 10. . . • . • • • • • • • • $ 2, 420 $ 2, 686 $ 2, 9S4 10 •. •.•••••••••• 4,140 •.•••.• S,497 ••.•••••.. 6,047 20............. 4,Sl0 S,S06 S,S06 20 •..••••••••••.• 6,060 •••••.• 8,046 •..•.••••• 8,8Sl 30.. ••••••••••. 6,440 7,148 7,863 30 .••••••••••••.. 7,77o.; ••..• l0,316 ••••.•.•• 11,348 40..... •••• .• .• 7,930 8,802 9,682 40 • .•••.••••••• ; •• 9,420 ••••••• 12,S07 •••.•.•.• 13,7S8 so. • . . . • • . • • • • • 9, 650 10,711 11, 782 so •••••••.•••••. ll,090 .•••.•. 14,724 •.••••••• 16,196 60.... •• •• ••. •• 11,730 13,020 14,322 . 60 ...••..•.•.•.. 13,17o .•..••• l7,486 ••••••••. 19,23S 70. . . . . • • • • . • • • 14, oso 1S, S9S 17 11S4 70 •....••.••.••. 1S,680 •••..•• 20,818 .••.•..•. 22,900 ao. . . . • . . • • • . . • 11 I 640 19 I sao 211 s3a 80 •..•.•.......• 19,040 ••••••. 2S,279 •...••••• 27,807 90. . . . • . • • . • • • . 21,830 24, 231 26, 6S4 90 ••.•..••••.••. 2SI010 •••.... 33,206 ..•..•... 36,S27 *Source: U.S. Bureau of Census, 1970 Census of Population

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A Household consists of all persons who occupy a housing unit; a household may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together or any group of related or unrelated persons who occupy a housing unit. A Family consists of a household head and one or more other' living in the same household who are related to the head by blood, marriage or adoption.

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GEOLOGIC HAZARDS AND FLOODPLAIN Building irrthe Steamboat Springs area is severely limited by the pres-ence of unstable slopes, debris fans and flood areas. .However, building is not completely restricted by these conditions except in the require-ment of additional expense to mitigate the natural hazards present. HOUSING CHARACTERISITICS: HOUSING TYPE: GROWTH OF CONSTRUCTION & STRUCTURAL PROFILE In February of 1978, the Routt County Regional Planning Commission staff conducted a visual count of the total number of dwelling units and de-lineated these.dwelling units as to type. This information combined with building permit data obtained from the City-County Building Depart-ment was compiled to develop Table 4. The information presented in Table 4 highlights the city's building trends since 1973. The growth of duplex units in the past four years has been the most prevalent with a 73.4\ growth rate. Duplex units now comprise 10% of the total dwelling unit stock. The proportion of sin-gle family and duplex units to other types of dwelling units has re-mained virtually unchanged between 1973 and 1978, resulting in single family homes comprising 34.8% of the total dwelling unit stock in 1978. percentage of Multiple Family units to total dwelling units has surprisingly dropped from its 1973 rate of 46.0% to 44.5% in February

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I TABLE 3 Steamboat Springs Intensive Land Uses* Incorporated Original Annexed Surrounding Use Area City Portion Area (5 mi. Intensive Uses Total 1,576.9--100\ 748.7 828; 2 3,289.5 Total Residential 382.-5--24% 173.1 209.4 285.8 Low Density 226.7--24\ 100.7 126.0 254.5 Medium Density 47.3--3% 47.3 o.o 10.0 High Density 83.0--5% 16.4 66.6 17.3 (Conventional/Mobile) (57.6/9.0) (2.3/15.0) • 68.6--4% 26 0 . Commercial 37.3 31.3 (C/C R) (43.1/25.5)1 (28.6/8.7) (14.5/16.8) (22.0/4.0) . Industrial 17.5--l% 15.8 1.7 19.1 Recreation 381.7--24% 4.0 377.7 1,510.0 Public/Quasi-Public 275.0 3.4 992.0 " Transportation 473.7--30% 252.2 221.5 460.6 *Source: Coordinated Land Use Surveys and Mapping by Routt County Regional Planning Commission Staff and Charles Gathers and Associates, Inc., 1972-1974, assited by aerial photography. rad.)

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of 1978. The composite growth rate for all dwelling units for the four-year period was 18.2%. which was not evenly dispersed over the four-year period. In 1977, 48% of all units built during the four-year period were constructed, while the preceding year, only 15% of the total units built.during the four-year period were constructed. In reviewing these construction trends, it is necessary to note that both of the following affected housing construction. The first factor was the general depression during 1973-1974 which severly curtailed all housing except for permanent housing, which was partly due to the un-expected rise in coal production. The second factor impacting housing is that multi-family units were overbuilt in 1972-1973, partially due to national economics and also to the negative Olympic vote. In 1976, the Planning Commission staff completed a housing inventory for the Steamboat Springs area. The following conditions were compiled for the area: Sound units Total substandard --Deteriorated --Delapidated 97.6% 2.4% 2.0% 0.4% / These basic proportions of sound units to substandard units and cor-responding deteriorated and dilapidated is assumed to be valid for current units. Using these proportions for current ex-isting 2,215 units, the following has been determined:

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Sound Units Total substandard --O.eteriorated --Dilapidated # of Dwelling Units 2,162 53 44 9 Percentage 97.6% 2.4% 2.0% 0.4% I The high cost of housing in the Steamboat Springs area is the primary factor for the relatively few units which are considered to be sub-standard. Two important trends can be concluded. The first trend is that of rapid construction which has occurred in Steamboat Springs since 1965. The second important trend which can be deducted from this table is the changing composition of housing types in the past twelve years. Prior to 1965 the vast majority of dwelling units were single family while duplex units and multi-family units were relatively uncommon. Single family units comprised 86% of the total dwelling-units con-structed prior to 1965. Single family homes constructed between 1965 and 1974 comprised 60% of the total units constructed, while single family units constructed between 1974 and 1978 declined radically to only 38% of total units. Multi-family and duplex units have conse-quently seen rapid increases, filling the housing void left by reduced single family dwelling construction. The preponderance of newly con-structed multi-family and duplex units is a reaction necessitated by increasing costs of road, sewer and water service and general infla-tion of land prices.

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TABLE 4 Single One-half Mobile Multiple Total of Building Construction Family of Homes Family All Dwelling 1973-1978 Units Duplex Units Units Existing dwelling units in 1973 646 128 237 863 1,874 # of dwelling units constructed in 1974 12 8 0 48 68 # of dwelling units constructed in 1975 21 38 0 0 59 # of dwelling units constructed in 1976 29 18 0 4 51 # of dwelling units constructed in 1977 62 30 0 71 163 Total dwelling units in existence as of February 1978 770 222 237 986 2,215 % of growth between 1973 & Feb. 1978 19.2% 73.4% 0% 17.3\ 18.2% .. . , of total dwelling units in existence as of 1973 by dwel-ling type 34.5% 7.8% 12.6% 46.0% % of total dwelling units in existence as of Feb. 1978, by dwelling type 34.8% 10.0% 10.7\ 44.5% 100.0%

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HOUSING CONSUMER PROFILE According to the 1974 Housing Survey, the average dwelling unit in Steamboat Springs had 2.8 permanent occupants. The same survey in-dicates that for current ownership status the following exists: 26.5% 38.2% 32.6% own their own home with no mortgage own their home with mortgage rent These figures agree exactly with the 1970 census data and are fur-ther developed in Table 5. This table illuminates the finding that the majority of Single Family and Mobile Home dwellers own their homes while the majority of duplex and multi-family units are rented. The same 1974 survey shows length of residence in relation to housing type in Table 6. The specific numerical data from this survey was transformed into the percentages presented, which are assumed to be reasonably accurate today. This table also illustrates that the sin-. • I gle family dwelling consumer is significantly different from duplex and'multi-family unit dwellers. Twenty-four percent of the single family housing units have residents whose length of residence exceeds 6 years; while mobile homes in parks have only 4%, mobile homes not in parks 20%, duplex units 4% and multi-family units 12%. Table 6 furthermore emphasizes the short term occupancy which is character-istic in Steamboat Springs with 51% of the total inhabitants main-taining their residence for less than two years.

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Table 7, developed from information obtained in the 1974 Housing survey, indicates the number of occupants per unit, bath and room. This table shows that when taking all four categories into account, duplex units are the least crowded, followed by single family units, multifamily units and finally mobile home units. Table 8 presents the percentage of people who would move from their present residence, by dwelling type, in the Steamboat Springs area if alternate housing were available. The table illustrates that people living in single family dwelling units appear to be the most satisfied with their present living, followed by those living in duplex units. Mobile home and multi-family unit dwellers express an extreme desire to move from their present location. Single family dwelling units are also the preferred housing type, as information from the 1974 Housing survey shows in Table 9. Of those people who desire to move and are presently living in other than single family dwelling units, 84\ indicated that single family housing would be their preferred housing type. The next most desirable type of housing units is mobile homes which are not located in trailer parks, which received the preference of eight percent of those desiring to move. Multi-family with kitchens and duplex units are only preferred as a housing type by 4\ of those who desire to move.

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TABLE 5 Housing Type--Tenure* Own Own Housing Type (No Mortgage) (Mortgage) Rent Single Family 24% 47% 29% Mobile Home in Park 26% 55% 19% Mobile Home Not in Park 20% 35% 45% One-Half of Duplex 8% 29% 63% Multi-Family 7% 20% 73% Other 6% 40% 54% *Source: 1974 Housing Survey--completed by Routt County Regional Planning Commission TABLE 6 Type--Length of Residence* Housing Type Single Family Mobile Home in Park Mobile Home Not in Park One-Half of Duplex Multi-Family Other % of'_ TotalResidences by Length of Residence Less than 2 years 42% 55% 45% 80% 76% 59% 51% I 2-5 6-10 11-20 yrs. yrs. 26% 13% 10% 41% 3% 35% 15% 18% 20% 2% 31% 6% 26% 10% 7% *Source: 1974 Housing Survey--Completed by Routt County Regional Planning Commission 20+ yrs. 9% l% 5% 2% 6%

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TABLE 7 (197 4) Housing Type--Occupants per Uriit, Room, Bath and Bedroom* Occupants Occupants Occupants Occupants Housing Type Per Unit Per Room Per Bath Per Bedroom Single. Family 3.05 .5 2.0 1.1 Mobile Home in Park 2.43 .6 2.1 1.2 Mobile Home Not in Park, 3.40 .7 2.5 1.4 ., One-Half of Duplex 2.45 .5 1.8 1.1 Multi-Family 2.30 .6 1.8 1.2 Other 2.40 .6 1.9 1.5 TABLE 8 (197 4) Housing Type--Persons Per Unit Who Would Move If Other Housing Were Available Number Who Would Move* Housing Type 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 88 Single Family 77% 7% 8% 2% 3\ 2% 1% Mobile Home in Park 27% 18% 22% 17% 8% 6% 1% Mobile Home Not in Park 29% 23% 29% 6% 6% 6% One-Half of Duplex 50% 27% 28% 9% 4% 2% Multi.,;Family 25% 22% 29% 13% 5% 2% 4% Other 52% 17% 15% 8% 6% 2% Percent_ ofb.nUula tive Which Would Move 61% ll% 14% 6% 4% 2% l% .5% .5% *Source: 1974 Housing Survey--Completed by Routt County Regional Planning Commission

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TABLE 9 Housing Type-Preferred Housing Type* MultiMultiCurrent Mobile Mobile Family Family Housing Single-Home Home Not Half of with without. Type Family in Park in Park Duplex Kitchen Kitchen Single-Family X 4\ 19\ 21\ 17% 4\ Mobile Home in Park 73% I X 15\ 4\ 3\ Mobile Home Not in Park 88\ 7% X 2.5% 2.5\ One-Half of Duplex 96% X 4% Multi-Family w/Kitchens 92\ 2% l% X Multi-Family w/o/Kitchens 78\ 4\ 4!1 X *Source: 1974 Housing Survey--Completed by Routt County Regional Planning Commission Staff.

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LAND AND HOUSING PRICES Land and housing prices found in Table. lO were compiled by the Routt County Regional Planning Cormnission Staff from information listed in the Steamboat Springs Multiple Listing Services SOLD Properties Catalogs from January 1, 1977 to December 31, 1977. This catalog was compiled by the Northwest Colorado Board of Realtors and was graciously lent to the Planning Department for the purpose of compiling this table. This chart emphasizes the high price of housing in the Steamboat Springs area. RENTAL PRICES Rental units in the Steamboat Springs area exceed the average rents found in Colorado. Numerous managers stated that they anticipated an increase in rents for the fall of 1978. The vacancy rates for apartment year-round rentals have been very low, averaging less than 5%. One abberation of this norm is the Pine Grove Apartments which recently averaged a 30% to 45% vacancy rate during the summer of 1977. This was reportedly a result of management practices and not a direct indication of market factors.

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TABLE 10 Average home and lot prices for 1977 Type of Number 1977 No. 1977 1978 No. 1978 Dwelling of of Units Average of Units Average or Lot Bedrooms Location Averaged Cost Averaged Cost Condominium Efficiency Steamboat 23 25,680 15 30,520 Condominium 2 bdqn. Steamboat 21 44,760 26 46,320 Condominium 3 bdrm. Steamboat 5 71,300 7 49,460 Single Family 2 bdrm. Steamboat 4 41,875 1 42,500 Single Family 3 bdrm. Steamboat 16 60,093 12 78,860 Single Family 4+ bdrm. Steamboat 10 76,310 4 109,870 Single Family 3 bdrm. Steamboat II 19 41,700 7 48,170 Single Family 4+ bdrm. Steamboat II 4 48,125 0 -----Duplex 2 ea. side Steamboat II 8 19,562 0 ------Mobile Home variable Steamboat 9 6,922 2 8,700 Residential Lot N/A Steamboat 29 18,860 12 21,460 Residential Lot N/A Steamboat II 9 5,167 2 7,10'0

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It is important to note that this 5% vacancy rate is below what is gen-erally considered as a normal housing market. This is critical in that the Department of Housing and Urban Development Market Analysis Division recognizes that, when a rental vacancy rate falls below six percent, mar-ket parity is destroyed. This forces tenants to move to areas outside of Steamboat Springs or pay higher rents than they can afford. Steamboat Springs, being a skiing community, has .all the problems which are associated with a seasonal community. During the ski season, which extends approximately from the first of December until the first or sec-ond week in April, the town experiences a great influx of tourists. De-pendent upon the business created by the tourists are those seasonal em-ployees who work in the service industries in order finance their winter of skiing and living in Steamboat Springs. The simultaneous migration of tourists and seasonal workers into Steamboat Springs during the winter season creates a _serious housing shortage. A phone survey of rental agents in the Steamboat Springs area in February I of 1978 disclosed that between December lst and Apri. l 1st, a minimum of 324 condominiums are transformed from long-term monthly rentals into nightly rentals where rates range from $70 to $175 per night. At a con-servative summer 09cupancy rate of 50%, it is estimated that a minimum of 453 persons displaced persons compete for the few available units with the recently transplaced seasonal migrants. The maj •ority of these

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seasonal workers, many who make minimum and near minimum wage, requires housing at reasonable rates. The competition for housing combined with the expensive rents creates an extreme hardship for those making minimum and near minimum wage. In order to adjust to the housing shortage, many young people crowd into the housing units available, which reduces the per person rent but which increases problems commonly associated with crowded facilities, such as parking deficiencies. TABLE il Steamboat Springs rents for February 1978* Year-Round Rentals Apartments # Of Units Avg. Avg. Price** 1 bedroom (furnished) 26 $268 " 1 bedroom (unflirnished) 5 $250 2 bedroom (furnished) 39 $367 2 bedroom (unfurnished) 31 $300 Condominiums 2 bedroom (unfurnished) 27 $400 2 bedroom + loft (unfurnished) 11 $430 *Source: Phone Stirvey: Completed by Routt County Regional Planning Commission Staff **These rental prices will probably increase $50/month by the fall of 1978.

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HOUSING DEMAND Precise quantification of resident housing demand is not possible with existing data. The problem which occurs in the quantification of housing demand is that it is impossible to determine the number of residents for each season, short of conducting a door-to-door count of permanent residents during each of the four seasons. This information is required, since the number of residents and the associated demand for housing vacillates with the seasons. Although precise quantification cannot be developed, it can be concluded that an overall shortage of housing for permanent residents exists. This assumption is validated by the observed housing prices (see Table 10) which are partially inflated by a demand which apparently exceeds the supply. This assumption is also validated by the rapid rate of new construction in Steamboat Springs and the marketability of these units. During 1977, a total of 163 dwelling units were constructed within the incorporated town (see Table 4). These units comprise 48% of all the units constructed in Steamboat Springs between 1974 and 1977. These units appear to have been highly marketable. The shortage of resident housing is especially critical in the yearround rental market, which has a vacancy rate of less than 5% during the off-season, and almost 0% during the ski season. This is considerably less than what is regarded as a normal rental market. The demand for rental housing so greatly exceeded the supply during the winter of 1977-78 that people who had planned to work and live in Steamboat for

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the winter were unable to find a place to live. The result of this was that employers were unable to find the help which they required. During the off-season, this problem of resident rentals is alleviated by the addition of 312 rental units and emmigration of many people who's intent was to just spend the winter. The 312 additional rental units are extracted from the nightly rental market and placed on the monthly market between April 1 and December 1. It must be emphasized that this demand has seasonal peaks. The winter season sees a severe crowding of the available housing units. During the off-season, vacancy rates increase, but it is doubted if they increase to the 856 units indicated by the housing demand analysis. HOUSING RENT GAP ANALYSIS Rent gap is defined as, "The difference between what a person is able to afford for rent and what a person is required to pay for rent." The importance of the rent gap analysis is that it indicates in what price category housing shortages or surpluses are present. This is of critical importance in a community such as Steamboat Springs, where many individuals have incomes which cannot enable them to afford housing. Monthly housing costs were compared to 25\ of monthly household income to develop a graphic representation of the rent surplus and deficit

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(Graph #1) .* As this graph illustrates, there is a deficiency of 700 units under the $300 a month range, of which 470 housing units are re-quired below and $150 a month level. This graph illustrates a surplus of 700 housing units available in the over $300 a month price range. It is important to note that demand is assumed to equal supply. As was shown in the previous section, demand probably exceeds supply. Since the quantification of this demand is not possible, demand equals supply in Graph #1 to allow for the development of a "rent gap analysis." PLATTED LANDS At the present, there are 987 vacant buildable lots within the incor-porated city limits. If each of these lots were to have minimum den-si ty of. one single family dwelling per lot, these lots would accompany an additional 3,010 persons. of these lots are zoned PUD, Duplex and Multi-Family and consequently will be able to provide more than 987 dwelling units and the associated housing for 3,010. Such a preponder-ance of vacant lots, coupled with the average price of a lot of $18,860 indicates that the prices of these lots are artificially inflated through speculation. *Ac.cording to the Farmers Home Administration, no more than 20% of a person's income should be required for housing. This amount was felt to be unrealistic and was inflated to 25% to reflect lending policies of local banks. ,

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Speculation extracts buildable lots from the housing market. The re-duced supply of lots associated with a constant demand inflates the prices of those few lots being offered for sale. It is difficult to determine what would happen to the price of lots if numerous additional lots are developed. It is possible that a saturation point could be reached with enough additional development where, because of the surplus supply of lots and the unforseeable de-mand for those lots, the price of lots may be reduced. The present trend indicates that saturation of the market with vacant lots is not going to have an effect on lowering prices for lots. PROJECTED LOW AND MODERATE INCOME HOUSING REQUIREMENTS Graph #1 indicates that-there is at present a deficit of 700 housing units available to those who can afford less than $300/mo. If all of the residential construction were for low and moderate incomes,* it would take until 1984 for the housing requirements for low and moderate income units to be satisfied. Construction of nothing but low and *Low and moderate incomes include any households whose combined incomes total less than $14,000 per year. This is very close to the $15,000 per year figure: which the Farm Horne Administration uses to determine low and moderate income. According to the income data presented in Table 4, 60\ of all households in Steamboat Springs make less than $14,400 per year. Monthly housing costs for low and moderate income households, at 25 . % of a household's monthly income, should not exceed $300.

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moderate income housing units for the next six years is certainly an untenable solution. A more reasonable solution to the low and moderate income housing problem is to disperse its construction over the next 18 years. Between 1978 and 1995, it is estimated that 2,480 additional housing units shall .be constructed in the Steamboat Springs area. Low and moderate income housing demands in existence as of 1978 (700 units) comprises 28% of the additional housing units constructed until 1995 (2,480 units). Table 12 illustrates the number of low and moderate income housing units which must be built between 1978 and 1995 to alleviate the present low and moderate income housing shortage. Table 12 also indicates number of low and moderate income units which will be needed to supply housing to those Steamboat Springsimmigrants who have low and moderate incomes. Presently 60% of the households within Steam boat Springs are unable to afford more than $300/mo. for housing. To develop future low and moderate income housing projections it is assumed that 60% of the projected population will require low and moderate income housing.

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0 0 IJ) 0 0 t.n 0 0 "" 0 0 C"l 0 0 N 0 GO r-1 o IJ) r-1 0 "" r-1 0 N r-1 0 0 r-1 0 tO 0 N 0 GRAPH #1: Steamboat Springs Rent Gap Analysis D D -302 so Number of Housing Units Deficient Number of Housing Units Surplus -168 -167 -56 +44 -5 100 150 200 250 3oo-TOTAL MONTHLY COST OF HOUSING (IN DOLLARS) +179 ' 350 +588 -46 -35 400 450 550 & over

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TABLE 12 Projected Low and Moderate Income Housing Requirements* 1980 1985 1990 .1995 19 Units required to al-leviate 700 unit short-age, present in 1978 63 191 344 . 557 Units required to sup-ply low & moderate in-come :immigrants 169 511 920 1,488 Total low & moderate income housing 232-" 702 1,264 2,045 *includes elderly housing ( . , I

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SUMMARY OF DATA The purpose of the first section of this report has been to compile all existing data which affects housing. An accurate analysis of the existing housing situation is a prerequisite to proposing solutions to alleviate that problem. This last part of this section attempts to make note of the important findings of the first section and to make comment as to what ramifications these findings have on housing. Steamboat Springs has seen a rapid rate of growth during the past seven years, spurred by the expansion of the tourist industry. This growth has been concentrated primarily to the south of town in previously unpopulated areas. This growth has seen a change both in the type of occupations employing people and the ages of those people. The town of Steamboat Springs is presently zoned in a manner which mirrors the actual land use. Geologic Hazards and Floodplain areas restrict growth in many areas of the city. Building of additional houses in these areas should be restricted. Mitigating procedures to reduce these hazards are not seen as available alternatives at the present. Sufficient buildable land area presently exists to allow future expansion in non-hazard areas. During the past four years the proportion of duplexes have increased while multi-family units have decreased. Single Family homes have remained r

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approximately the same percentage. A minimum of housing units are substandard in the Steamboat Springs area. The majority of people rent Duplex and Multi-Family units while the majority of occupants of Single Family and Mobile Homes own their homes. Single Family homes and Mobile Homes also have occupants whose residence is for longer terms than Multi-Family and Duplex units. Of the units surveyed in 1974, Duplex units were the least crowded, followed by Single Family homes, Multi-Family units and finally Mobile Home units. Single Family housing occupants appear to be the most satisfied with their present living, followed by those in Duplex units and finally Mobile Homes and Multi-Family unit dwellers. Single Family dwelling units are also the preferred type, followed by Mobile Homes not in parks and then MultiFamily units and Duplex units. The prices for Single Family, Multi-Family, Duplex housipg units and the price of lots are all extremely high in the Steamboat Springs area. These prices are consequently reflected in the rental Erices. Traditional housing demand analysis is a totally inadequate tool to determine housing demand in a seasonal community such as Steamboat Springs. Although is not possible, it does appear that demand exceeds supply for housing in the Steamboat area. This is especially true in the rental market and the lower cost private homes. During the ski

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season, demand is at its maximum, while available supply is negligible. This is aggravated by the fact that 312 rental units are extracted from the monthly rental market and placed on the nightly rental market from December to April, making them unavailable for winter season service workers. Presently, there are 987 vacant buildable lots within Steamboat Springs which would accompany at least 3,010 additional occupants. Housing Gap Analysis indicates that there is a shortage of 700 housing units which cost under $300/mo., while there is a surplus of 700 hous ing units which cost over $300/mo. The apparent conclusion from this is that many individuals are paying the amount greater than 25\ of their monthly incomes on housing. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES The combined efforts of individual citizens, local community organizations, the Steamboat Springs City Council, and the Routt County Regional Planning Commission staff have created a housing plan which is not to be used only as an analytical tool, but also as an instrument to direct the City in future actions which affect housing. To this end, the following goals and objective have been developed to provide future guidance and direction:

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POLICIES The following policies developed .and adopted by City of Steamboat Springs shall be pursued when consistent with good planning. 1. Maximum densities shall be encouraged for both elderly housing and for low income housing when consistent with good planning, -the Comprehensive Plan, and zoning. 2. Zoning reclassifications which allow density increases for both elderly-housing and low income housing shall be encouraged. 3. The of low income and elderly subsidized housing by private interests is to be encouraged. 4. Transformation of apartments into condominimum shall be restricted. 5. The construction of apartments within any price range shall be encouraged. 6. New businesses and expansion of existing businesses which generate winter-only employment shall be encouraged to provide for employee housing. 7. The expansion of existing and/or the development of new industries and businesses which generate off-season employment shall be encouraged. 8. The expansion of existing and/or development of new light industries shall be encouraged. 9. The construction of new housing shall be in accordance with the adopted Land Use Map and Zoning Map so as to concentrate growth and reduce strain placed on required city services, and to restrict development in flood-plain areas, geologic hazard areas, poor soils and areas of excessive slopes.

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EARLY ACTION PLAN As a result of the Steamboat Springs May 1978 Housing Study, an Early Action Plan was instigated. Joe Cavanaugh (Assistant Planning Devel-oper for Boulder) was hired through anAction Strategy Grant to con-duct the housing implementation plan. The Early Action Plan will be divided into two sections: (1) the drafting of a new ordinance and (2 . ) the creation of a housing project. The ordinance will be drawn up to help retard housing shortages in the communitY's future development. It will briefly state.that any major development (one requiring ten or more employees) must submit a plan for employee housing along with its original projected plan develop-ment to the Planning Commission. This ordinance will include both new developers as well as existing businesses who wish to significant-ly expand. For example, Sheraton (ITT Corp.) recently bought the Vil-lage Inn complex located at the base of the Steamboatski mountain (Maunu Werner). They intend to tripple the number of rooms at the I hotel and add a convention center. These changes will mean an addi-tion of 200 to 300 new employees. Under the terms of the new ordinance, Sheraton will be responsible for the provision of housing for these new employees. Development and expansion of the Village Inn would be denied until plans for implementation of such housing were submitted. A copy of the proposed Early Action Plan's ordinance follows.

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1. Having recognized the severe shortage of low and moderate income housing in the Steamboat Springs area, the development of low income housing is to be encouraged in the amounts present in Table 12 . 2. New and expanding businesses shall be encouraged to supply housing for their winter-only seasonal employees. (see proposed draft ordinance) 3. The expansion of existing off-season industries and the development of new off-season industries shall be encouraged to help generate a more stable year-round economy. 4. Having recognized that the Steamboat Springs economy is highly dependent on the assorted recreation industries, it is the desire of the City of Steamboat Springs to encourage the expansion and/ or new development of .diversified light industries in the Steam boat Springs area. 5. The construction and development of low-income housing for the elderly shall be encouraged, so as to allow the elderly to live in the Steamboat Springs area. 6. Growth shall be encouraged in improved areas so as not to place excessive strain on the City to provide needed services and facilities. 7. Consideration shall be given to all natural factors affecting development; among those are flood plains, geologic hazard areas, poor soils and areas of excessive slope. IMPLEMENTATION Housing studies in themselves do little good except for illuminating the problem so everyone knows why they are without adequate housing. The critical section of any housing study is the sectian . :that deals with implementation. The following policies and implementation pro-cedures are aimed at accomplishing the goals and objectives presented in the previous section.

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DRAFT ORDINANCE NO. AN ORDINANCE ENACTING SECTION 17.42.080 AND SECTION 16.20.110 TO THE STEAMBOAT SPRINGS MUNICIPAL CODE RELATING TO EMPLOYEE HOUSING INFORMATION, PLANS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR CONDITIONAL USES, PLANNED UNIT DE VELOPMENTS AND SUBDIVISIONS. WHERAS, the City Council is of the view that the need for low and moderate income employee housing units in the City of Steamboat Springs community requires affirmative action by the City; and, WHEREAS, the City Council believes that it is necessary for people who work in Steamboat Springs to have an opportunity to live in the city; and WHEREAS, the various governmental units on the federal, state and local levels must assume. a responsibility to provide programs which will channel development efforts into supplying housing units for such employees; and WHEREAS, the City Council believes that the private initiative is well suited and qualified to meet the need to supply low and moderate income employee housing in this community; and WHEREAS, the City Council is of the view that new must address and in some way accommodate the housing needs of low and moderate income employees in this community; and WHEREAS, the City Council believes .that private developers of property should be required and encouaged e o expend a portion of their efforts at meeting the housing needs of such employees; NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT ORDAINED BY THE CITY COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF THE CITY OF STEAMBOAT SPRINGS, COLORADO: , Section 1. Enactment. Section 17.42.080 is hereby added to the Steamboat Springs Municipal Code to read as follows: 17.42.080 Housing Information-Plan for Housing Commitment to Provide Housing. A. All conditional uses and planned unit developments which erate ten (10) or more new employment positions must submit a written plan to the City outlining how the new employees generated by the use or development will be housed. Such plan shall be submitted to the Department of Community Development prior to consideration of the conditional use permit application by the Planning Commission.

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B. The .plan submitted by the applicant shall serve as the basis for a written agreement between the City and the applicant which may be reviewed by the City Council as part of the final approval of the conditional use permit or planned unit development. These agreements may provide incentives which will enable private developer s to carry out suitable employee housing projects. C. The Department of Community Development shall make such general rules and regulations as are necessary for the proper administration and enforcement. of this section. Such regulations may be altered, amended, or repealed from time to time as may be necessary. However, no such rules and regulations Shall take effect unless approved by resolution of the City Council. The Council shall hold a public hearing before adopting any such resolution. Notice of time, date and location of the public hearing shall be given by one publication of the same at least four (4) days prior to the hearing in a newspaper of general circulation in the City. Said notice shall also be posted in the designated posting places for the City at least four days prior to the date of the public hearing and shall remain posted until after such hearing. Section 2. Enactment. Section 16.20.110 is hereby added to the Steamboat Springs Municipal Code to read as follows: 16.20.110 Housing Information -Plan for Housing Commitment to Provide Housing. A. All subdivisions and planned unit developments-which generate ten (10) or more low to moderate income employment positions shall be subject to the requirements of Section 17.42.080 with regard to the submission of a housing plan and a commitment to provide employee housing. All such subdivisions and planned unit developments are required to meet said requirements prior approval of a preliminary subdivision plan or final PUD plan. Section 3. Severance Clause. If any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this Ordinance is for any reason held to be invaled, such decision shall not affect the validity of th. e remaining portion of this Ordinance. Section 4. Effective Date. This Ordinance shall take effect immediately upon the expiration of five (5) days from and after the final date of publication as provided by Charter.

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IMAGE The second phase of the Early Action Plan is the implementation of a low cost housing project. Such a project will be developed to satisfy needed housing specified in the Steamboat Springs Housing Study of May 1978. It is this particular housing demand which is the basis of this thesis. Care must be taken in the design of such low income housing. Because of the remoteness of Steamboat Springs and because of the desirability ofthe community as a recreational area, prices are high and consequently building is expensive., In the design of low income housing, minimizing expenses must not lead to a complete lack of building quality. Effort must be taken to blend the development into the residential setting and also to use natural materials indigenous to the area. In general, the development should blend in well with the resort housing complexion of the Steamboat Springs community, while keeping costs to a minimum. /

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GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1 The primary goal for this project is to create a housing development which helps ease the community's need for low income rental housing. The maximum number of units to be developed for this project will be 125 units. This will not eliminate the 700 unit deficit in Steamboat Springs, but rather will serve as a prototype for further low income housing. The second goal of this project is to create a living environment which blends in well with its natural surroundings as well as one which blends in with the local image and architecture. Every effort should be made aesthetically to enhance the development, as this can only help to upgrade the subdivision in which it lies as well as increase its acceptability into the community. Economic construction as well as a pleasing design. (yet one which will require low maintenance) will be stressed. Maximum effort should also be utilized to enhance the natural views of the site and existing site features. The final goal of the project will be to maximize the use of the natural environment to produce a more energy efficient building. Although Energy Fuels gas fields are located within miles of Steamboat Springs, prices .of the now inexpensive gas are expected to rise . sharply within the next year. Electric heat is already exorbitantly priced. Use of passive solar systems will be an important criteria in the design to help reduce energy costs. L

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STEAMBOAT . NORTH, NO SCALE AREA MAP / DILLON DENVER DEVELOPMENT t ( Steamboat Springs is located 160 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado. It is easily accessible by. or bus from Denver, and it is also serviced by. Rocky Mountain Airways six times daily into the Steamboat Springs airport. The town and ski mountain are both located in the Yampa Valley, adjacent to u.s. 40. The town is approximately three miles northwest of the mountain resort.

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RODEO GROUNDS TO STRAWBERRY PARK AND HOT SULPHUR SPRINGS TO FISH CREEK FALLS HOWELSEN HILL @D LOCATION OF HOUSING PROJECT NORTH, NO SCALE MAP OF STEAMBOAT SPRINGS TO TREE HAUS Steamboat Springs is an old town. The rich soil of the Yampa Valley afforded the community an abundance of farming and ranching. Ranching is still an important part of the town's economy while nearby gas rields and mining operations now comprise an equal role. Today, the downtown area and the flanking small residential Victorian homes are an ever present reminder of Steamboat's history.

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NORTH, NO SCALE SITE PLAN LIGHT INDUSTRIAL INTENDED INDUSTRIAL USAGE ACRES TOTAL TWENTY MILE ROAD -c-: SPRINGS ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMER HOUSING PROJECT LOCATION RESIDENTIAL j Traveling along U.S. 40 through Steamboat SpriRgs to its extreme northwestern boundary (to the Twenty Mile Road cut-off) , one can iocate the Fairview subdivision • . This section of town has been grossly neglected in the past, and it is considered by the towns-people as an eyesore. The land prices here are the lowest to be found in the city, and likewise are the quality and costs of homes in the area. There is also a small amount of commercial and light TO FORESTRY SERVICE SECOND. STREET

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industrial enterprises located just to the north of Twenty Mile Road. Still, because of the extremely high land costs in Steamboat Springs and on the mountain, there has recently been an increase in residential home building in this location.

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SITE ANALYSIS The site chosen for this project is located in the Fairview subdivision of Steamboat Springs, approximately one half mile from the intersection of U.S. 40 and Twenty Mile Road. There are a number of reasons for this choice. First, and most important, the town already owns this land. With the already too high land costs in Steamboat Springs, the unnecessary purchase of additional land is an important consideration. Second, the development of the Fairview site will necessitate a complete replacement of major water and sewer lines to the site (this would be financed by a $436,500 Farmers' Home Grant). Replacement of water and sewer lines to the subdivision will greatly aid further development in the area as.well as existing homes and businesses. In summation, the proposed development of the site will tend to aesthetically and financially upgrade what is now an undesirable portion of the Steamboat Springs community. The site. consists of 25 acres. A lithia spring diagonally separates the lot into two sections, the lower of which closely borders the floodplain and Twenty Mile Road. Fifteen acres on the higher portion of the lot are reserved for the housing project, the.lower ten acres for a small light-industrial park. It is an important city requirement that these two functions co-exist and that there be a gradual transition between them. The site will then function as a transition element

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for the entire rairview subdivision. Light-industrial business already exists to the north of Twenty Mile Raod, to the south residential. This one area should therefore reflect both elements in design and planning. The site itself has an average of 18% slope down. to the north and is predominantly grass covered. It has excellent drainage, but also high snow accumulation.because of the northern slope.* (All efforts should be made to maximize the early morning and late afternoon sun because of the lack of southern exposure). Still, the site offers some excellent views from the high portions as well as. a focal in the lithia springs. CLIMATE Pertinent climate data is. included in the next few pages; more importantly, however, are the micro-climatic effects on the site. As was previously mentioned, the site is located on a sloped hillside directly facing.north. Hills tend to be more exposed to wind than other terrain. The fact that there are few trees on the site, emphasizes more the need for wind protection. Care should be taken in design, e$pecially concerning increasing insulation and minimizing surface area and openings on the north side of the development. (This *poor soils on north portion

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/ may cause conflicts, as.the best views are on the windward and northern side of the site). An advantage to using the wind in builaing ventilation should be sought in the design procedure. Precipitation will also be a design problem. Steamboat Springs, as. the Rocky Mountains in general, is highly renowned for its abundance of snow • . In recent years, snowfall has been increasing because of the extended use of cloud-seeding.to bolster the ski industry. The snow problem at the Fairview site is even more of a problem, as precipitation is always greatest on the windward side of a slope. Care should thus be taken in the design to account for heavy precipitation, not to mention on-site storage of heavy snows and snow removal operations. The following pages quantify some of the climatic inrluences as well as contain information useful in passive solar design.

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CLIMATE Average Annual Rainfall Average Annual Snowfall Ski Area Town Average Daily Temperatures January 14.9 February 19.4 March 26.6 April 38 7 May 48.2 June 54.8 (Degrees Normal Degree Days . by Month -Grand January 1271 February 924 March 738 April 402 May 145 June 23 23.87 in. 200 in 160 in.* Fahrenheit) July . ' 6 '1.6 August 60.1 September 52.2 October 42.7 November 28.8 December 18.2 Junction, Colorado July . o August 0 September 36 October 333 November 792 December 1132 *Town figure of 160 in. applies to Fairview Subdivision.

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PASSIVE SOLAR INFORMATION Clear-Day Solar Heat Gain through vertical double glazing at various orientation (in BTU/SF). The heat gains listed in the following table account only for the reflection losses from the surface of the glass. To account for absorbtion losses, reduce by 6%. (Determined for 40 .NL): Month N NE,NW E,W SE,SW s HORIZ. January 120 128 474 '_' 1079 1506 948 February 164 215 666 llBO 1374 March 220 376 858 1183 1244 1852 Aprl..l . 294 593 1002 1075 838 2274 May 384 747 1063 952 598 2552 June 446 816 1083 .894 528 2648 July 398 749 1048 931 586 2534 312 595 975 1034 806 2244 September 230 370 816 1126 1190 1796 October 170 218 642 1129 1436 1348 November 122 130 466 1056 1472 942 December 102 105 393 1007 1434 782

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I Average Daily Radiation on a Horizontal Surface for Grand Lake, Co. (BTU/daySq. F .) , LAT: 40l5'N January 735.0 July 2103.3 February 1135.4 August 1708.5 March 1579.3 September 1715.8 April 1876.7 October 1212.2 May 1974.9 November 775.6 June 2369.7 December 660.5 Conversion to amount of energy transmitted through two sheets of vertical, south-facing glass. January 735.0 X 1.23 = 904.5 February 1135.4 X .98 = 1112.69 March 1579.3 X . • 68 = 1073.92 I April 1876.7. X .44 = 825.75 May 1974.9 X .32 = 631.97 June 2369.7 X .26 = 616.12 July 2103.3 X • 28 = 588.92 August 1708.5 X .37 = 632.15 September 1715.8 X .56 = 960.85 October 1212.2 X .84 = 1018.25 No.vember 775.6 X 1.14 = 884.18 December 660.5 X 1.29 = 852.05

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CIRCULATION Access to the site from US 40 is down Twenty Mile Road for only a short distance. Twenty Mile Road is a paved, two lane road which is not overly used and offers excellent access to the site. An access road to the housing project will be proposed and will be financed by a federally funded grant for site improvement, previously mentioned. Public transportation could easily be diverted to accommodate the demand produced from such a housing project. Currently, the bus service loops throughout the town and mountain areas and travels down US 40 past Twenty Mile Road, mile from the site. On site circulation will be determined by major considerations such as separation between foot and car circulation, on-site snow storage, drainage and parking. On-site snow storage is not ment, but is recommended as one square foot of storage area for ev ery two square feet of pavement (unless otherwise accounted for) • Parking is designated at two spaces per unit, a total of 250 spaces.

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GENERAL SPACE REQUIREMENTS In studying other apartment complexes, findings indicate that 750 S.F. is an optimum size for two bedroom apartments, while 925 S.F. an optimum size for three bedroom apartments. Furthermore, studies show the best ratio of two bedroom to three bedroom apartments to be 4:3. Normally, in a project of 125 units, such as this, the ratio would work out to 72 two .bedroom units and 53 three units. However, the City Task Force of Steamboat Springs has already designatedthat exactly 50% of each bedroom unit will be developed. I wish to stay as close as possible to the parameters of this project as set by the City, so 63 units shall be d esignated two bedroom apartments at 750 square feet each and 62 units shall be designated as three bedroom units at 925 square feet each. Setbacks on the site are twenty-five feet in the front and back, and ten feet on the sides. Maximum building height for an apartment complex of this nature is thirty-five feet, there are no easements to account for. These figures are all based upon zoning for high den sity. The Fairview Housing project would, in fact, be an allowable one unit to 6000 square feet ratio (worked from 125 units for fifteen acres).

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SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS One of the most important requirements of this project is that the housing development at Fairview meet FHA requirements. This is im portant as the requirements must be met to qualify for federal funding. (Currently, Steamboat Springs is competing for aid for the fifty housing units in an area including Craig and Hayden where 500 uut of a proposed 2200 units will be granted): Federal subsidies would mean that rents would be virtually cut in half, yet another important step in conquering the 700 unit deficit. (As stated earlier, twenty-five the units were to be owner occupied, fifty rented at market value and fifty subsidized). Important FHA requirements in reference to this project are: 1. NO FLOOD PLAIN SITES 2. CORRECT ZONING 3. PROXIMITY TO SERVICES 4. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS By far the biggest obstacle to overcome in obtaining the federal funding will be a question of proximity to services. The housing site is located at the extreme north-west end of Steamboat Springs. Still, public transportation is an asset which will tie the development to the ski mountain and opposite end of the community. The downtown area

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is within walking distance with stores, restaurants and most other amenities. (There is even a child care center located behind the proposed site) • . The only amenities which might be added to the Fairview housing development would then be laundry facility, convenience store and bus stop. Another special requirement is the future plan for the Fairview housing project. The City's intent is to sell the units after a twenty or thirty year period (after mortgage repayment). With this in mind, the units will have to be designed with good construction and low maintenance costs. The building life and materials will have to be considered a major factor in design so as to maximize the return of the City's investment.

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COSTS There are two major cost considerations concerning the Fairview housing project. The first is the resale value of the units which was previously.discussed. The second consideration is a system called "land banking." It is the City of Steamboat Springs intention to use the revenue from the housing development to purchase other land. in the community to in turn build more low cost housing. This system_ of "land banking" is seen to be a method in which quality low cost housing, once begun, can continue to grow. Immediately following are: finance, maintenance and operating costs.

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OPERATING COSTS NOTE: The Task Force is considering building this project in three phases of SO, SO and 2S units. Operating costs are therefore based upon data for SO units instead of 12S. These figures are rough estimates only. Common Assumptions: 1. Project Description: 2S T.wo Bedroom Units $435 per month rental* 2S .Three Be
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5. Housing Commission Project Expenses $1500 per unit per annum Total.per annum for 50 units $75,000 NOTE: Housing Commission is not required to pay property taxes; therefore expenses will be $300 less. To arrive at the loan amount available: $ 271,500 GROSS ANNUAL RENTAL INCOME 13,575 VACANCY 5' 257,925 EFFECTIVE GROSS INCOME 75,000 EXPENSES 182,925 NET INCOME X .95 DEBT SERVICE COVERAGE FACTOR 173.778 NET INCOME FOR'DEBT SERVICE .0884374 DEBT SERVICE FACTOR $1,965,000 MORTGAGE To arrive at rough figures avaLlable for design and construction budgets: $1,965,000 MORTGAGE 150,000 LAND COST 275,000 SOFT COSTS $1,539,900 DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION BUDGETS 30,798 PER UNIT BUDGET* *Does not include land cost

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The Housing Commission has an economic advantage in providing a better quality unit due to a larger budget. However, the Commission is merely a tool to take advantage of both the CHFA financing and Sec tion 8 program and that private enterprise can actually design, build and manage the property for the Commission. ( / I

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COMMUNITY DATA Community Facilities: Churches--IS Schools, Colleges, Libraries-j Schools j Teachers Elementary ••••••••• 1 23 Junior High ••••••• 1 21 High School •••••••• 1 32 Private ........... . 1 12 Average graduating class: 100 students College: Colorado Northwestern Community College Libraries: 1, total volume 13,000 Medical--1 -Colorado NW Mental Health Center 1 -Child Study Center 1 -Hospital, Routt Memorial Hospital Number of Beds: 20 Number of Doctors: 12 Number of Dentists: 6 1 -Nursing Home, Alpine Nursing Home Number of Beds: 60 5 -Pharmacies Grades K-5 656 6-8 308 9-12 425 9-12 64 /

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Recreation Facilities--Bowling Theaters Ice Rinks Ball Pields SWinuning Pools City Parks State Parks 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 Tennis Courts, private 16 Tennis Courts, public 4 Golf Courses, private 1 Golf Courses, public 1 Riding Stables 4 Conununications: Newspaper--Steamboat Pilot (Weekly) Television Stations--3 (Denver) Telephone Service--Mountain Bell Post Offices--One Station, one Sub-Station Class A Government: Type--Council/Manager Planning Conunission--yes Industrial Plan Approval--yes Zoning Regulations--yes Financial InS.ti tutions: Banks Savings & Loan Assns. Plant Financial Assistance Number 3 2 available--no Jackpot Rodeos Fridays, Mine Tours, Rafting, Gondola Rides, Jeep Trips, Handball, Bicycling, Hang Gliding, Fishing, Square Dancing, Snow Skiing, Water Skiing, Horse Shows, Arts and Crafts Shows. Radio Stations--KFMU (FM), KBCR (FM & AM), KRAI (FM & AM) Cable Television--none Telegraph Service--Western Union Police Department Personnel--25 full time Fire Department Personnel--14 volunteers Equipment--6 pieces Fire Insurance Rating--Eight Assets $70,000,000 26,225,342

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Utilities and Power Suppliers--Yampa Valley Electric Water Suppliers--City of Steamboat Springs Mt. Werner Water & Sanitation Source of Water--Fish Creek Reservoir, Long Lake Capacity of Water Systems--Steamboat Springs 5,000,000 gpd . . Werner 1 I 5QO I 000 gpd . Sewers--Treatment plants are aerated lagoons with polishing ponds Capacity of Sewage System--Steamboat Springs 1,650,000 gallons per day Mt. Werner 150,000 gallons per day Gas Suppliers--Greely Gas Co. Employment: 4.8 annual rate of unemployment Major Employers--Name LTV Corp. Energy Fuels. The Industrial Co. Hayden Power Plant Pittsburg & Midway Routt Memorial Seneca W.R. Hall Product or Service Ski Resort Coal.Mining Construction Power Plant Coal Mining Hospital Coal Mining Construction & Transportation # Employees ' 638 winter 182 summer 309 429 180 99 84 60 61

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PROGRAM SUMMARY Housing has become a problem throughout all of Colorado's ski resort communi ties. The extreme influx of winter tourists and workers has virtually eliminated affordable housing. Unlike some of Colorado's ski resorts, Steamboat Springs has been attempting to supply moderately priced housing whenever possible with varying degrees of success. Steamboat Springs differs from other winter resorts in that it has a well balanced, diversified economy. Coal mining, agriculture and recreation contribute equally to the overall economy; consequently, jobs are in adequate supply. While people enjoy working and living in Steamboat Springs, housing is so costly that there is a fifty to sixty percent employment turnover. In its own rapid growth, the City of Steamboat Springs set up a government funded study to review the housing problem. The 1978 study concluded that there was a severe deficiency of lower cost housing; i.e., $300 and below per month. An Early Action Plan was created in response to this need part of which provides for the development of the city-owned housing project scheduled to have 125 units. Twentyfive of these units are to be owner-occupied, fifty rented at market value and fifty subsidized by the Colorado Housing Authority. The project is to be located in the Fairview subdivision of Steamboat Springs and will co-exist with a ten-acre light or commercial complex. The co-existence of the housing project and industrial

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park is an important city requirement. The revenue and success of the Fairview project will be used in further development of other low cost housing in the Steamboat Springs community. Anticipated are many major problems to be dealt with in the design process. Climate and especially micro-climate play an important role. The Fairview Housing site is situated on a slope facing north which, consequently, is subject to strong winds and heavy snows. Every effort should be made to reduce exposure and openings to the north, while maximizing the views afforded. The project should provide a sensitive environment which ties together two opposing (residential and light industrial) zones. The and the materials used should be of the highest quality affordable by the costs contributing to the life and ultimate resale of the project. An finally, every effort should be made to adhere to important FHA requirements in hopes that the development will be accepted into the Federal subsidization program. These considerations, handled properly, can produce an aesthetic and quality housing development in the Fairview subdivision, which will be a prototype for other low cost housing in Steamboat Springs.

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.. AIAV..W 8PAINCI8 -..c:HVI810N -"city .,.-lnga vicinity map I

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BIBLIOGRAPHY ALTERNATIVE NATURAL ENERGY SOURCES, DAVIS & SCHUBERT, VAN NOSTRAND REINHOLD CO., NEW YORK, c1974. THE PASSIVE SOLAR ENERGY BOOK, EDWARD NAZRIA, RODALE PRESS, EMMAUS, PENN. , c1979. STEAMBOAT PILOT (LOCAL WEEKLY NEWSPAPER), CHARLES J. LECKENBY-EDITOR AND PUBLISHER, STEAMBOAT SPRINGS; COLORADO, 1979 ISSUES. "STEAMBOAT SPRINGS CALM IN THE FACE OF RAPID GROWTH, " ROCKY MOUNTAIN NEWS, DENVER, COLORADO, SEPTEMBER 29, 1979. 'tSTEAMBOAT SPRINGS HOUSING," STEPHEN HILL, FINANCED BY ROUTT COUNTY AND BY A COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING GRANT FROM THE U.S. DEPT. OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT, STEAMBOAT SPRINGS, COLORADO, MAY 1978. SITE PLANNING FOR CLUSTER HOUSING , RICHARD UNTERMANN & ROBERT SMALL, VAN NOSTRANDREINHOLD COMPANY, NEW YORK, c1977. "STEAMBOAT SPRINGS: COWBOY COUNTRY NOW A HOT SUMMER RETREAT", FOCUS (THE SUNDAY CAMERA), BOULDER, COLORADO, AUGUST 10,1980. MINUTES: STEAMBOAT SPRINGS HOUSING TASK FORCE, DECEMBER 5,1979 JANUARY 4, 1980. MINUTES: ROUTT COUNTY REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION, MARCH 6, 1980.