Citation
The Solstice : a restaurant / meeting place

Material Information

Title:
The Solstice : a restaurant / meeting place
Creator:
Winkelhake, G. N.
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright G. N. Winkelhake. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
A U RA R1A LIB R A R V
A RESTAURANT/MEETING PLACE
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for The Degree of Master of Architecture
G. N. Winkelhake *
Spring 1984
AURARIA LIBRARY


The Thesis of G. N. Winkelhake is approved.
Principal Advisor
Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver
May 4, 1984


Dedicated to my Grandmother Meyer-Mueller, a German-American, to whom education is a
privilege and freedom is precious.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION 1
HUMAN FACTORS
I. Background 6
PHYSICAL FACTORS
I. Site Analysis 10
a. Park Site Plan 13
b. Site Plan/Topography 14
II. Soil Conditions Summary 15
III. The Existing Building 16
IV. Projected Uses of the Space 18
V. Space Requirements-Break Down 19
VI. Recommended Space Calculations 21
VII. Special Considerations 25
EXTERNAL FACTORS
I. Denver Building Code 27
II. Denver Zoning Ordinance 28
III. Climatological Summary 29
CONCLUSION 33
APPENDIX
Soil Analysis Report Energy Efficiency Sheets THE DESIGN
BIBLIOGRAPHY


INTRODUCTION
The Solstice, a restaurant/meeting place, will be a project that will incorporate an existing building presently owned by the City of Denver, Colorado. It is located in Washington Park and is known to the area as the "Bath House." The site is in the park proper, on the north end of Smith Lake. The proposed square footage for the facility is 10141.
Last spring the City made public its intention of leasing the existing building located on the northwest corner of Washington Park, bounded by Downing Street and Virginia Avenue. It was proposed at the time that the building be renovated and adapted towards restaurant use.
The community response at the time was positive, primarily due to the fact that the Washington Park area has only a minimal number of restaurants, all of which often are too small in size to accommodate the demand.
The area has been in transition from the older population who inhabited the area for many years to the young professionals whose needs and ambitions have been restructuring the area towards a more centralized neighborhood .
There is concern that in having a restaurant in the park there would be a conflict of activities. However, it is also generally felt that the combination of activities could be achieved, given a sensitivity to design and social context to the park and the surrounding residents.
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If the park is to be for the people who live in the area, as well as the city, then it should support their social needs as well as athletic. It is an asset to the neighborhood community, within a metropolitan area, to have a social gathering place such as the park. However it is essential that functions within the park be contiguous, forming an interwoven relationship among the activities.
Further, the Bath House has strong symbolic meaning to the park and the area residents. It is representative of an early Denver; a reminder of the past and a perspective for today. However, it has been only minimally maintained and is falling victim to dilapidation.
My thesis is to bring these factors together, maintaining the social and contextural relationships of the people, the park and the Bath House. In short, the area needs to have a place for its residents to gather and socialize, and, of equal importance, is the need to maintain the Bath House's symbolic expression to the park. The social and psychological needs can be brought together in an area of the community which is a focal point both recreationally and historically. In not fulfilling these needs the area will gradually begin to lose the community continuity so highly valued.
The users must be allowed to experience a continuity of activities. If this is not accomplished the integrity of the park will be at odds and the facility will suffer due to
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non-use. However, if the facility maintains the exchange of exterior to interior, and integrates the design elements there will be a strong tie between the facility and the park. Therefore, the facility must become an integral element of the park and co-exist with the present activities and uses.
The strongest constraint to the project will be the parking required by code. Further, it will have to be handled as off street parking due to residents' objections to congested streets. A large majority of the residents in the area are pedestrian oriented, however, the senior citizens of the area are automobile-oriented and usually drive to the park.
The design for the parking will need to be handled as an integrated element. I propose that it not be close to the facility but, rather, more in proximity to the entrance of the park, in an effort to keep vehicular circulation restricted and contained. In not doing so, conflicts will occur between vehicles and pedestrians, as demonstrated in the past.
It is my intention to relate and interface the restaurant with the park's social and recreational activities, thus, complimenting both.
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The Washington Fark Area


1980 Census Information
TRACT NUMBER 28.02 28.03 29.01 29.02 30.01 30.03 34.00 TOTAL
TOTAL PERSONS 4567 3983 2956 4118 5647 3414 6909 31594
White 3932 3706 2692 3919 5391 3173 6727 29540
Black 154 93 31 29 25 83 28 443
American Indian, Eskimo & Aleut. 78 26 36 24 17 16 17 214
Asian & Pacific Islander 50 38 28 27 46 63 38 290
HOUSING UNITS 3014 2850 1658 2029 2899 1410 3497 17357
% Owner Occupied 15.5 16.9 41.4 63.5 59.6 39.1 77.1 44.72
Median Value Owner Occupied (thou.) $61.1 $63.0 $59.2 $66.3 $56.8 $58.8 $74.9 $62.9
Median Rent/Month $191 $212 $183 $240 $215 $245 $308 $227.7
AGE-5 193 73 137 196 334 78 318 1329
5-9 117 49 126 161 236 52 240 981
10-19 403 197 237 371 434 819 577 3038
20-34 2267 1968 1290 666 1274 1564 2296 11325
35-44 383 375 241 555 412 142 703 2625
45-54 315 274 199 319 361 133 656 2257
55-64 299 374 253 342 541 239 758 2806
65+ 590 673 473 694 1055 387 1361 5233
Median Age 29.2 31.9 30.8 31.8 31.5 23.6 35.2 30.6
FAMILIES with Children-18 273 138 231 367 504 117 558 2188
Male Head of House-No Wife 7 6 17 27 16 0 17 90
Female Head of House-No Husband 97 40 68 91 105 33 83 517
EDUCATION ATTAINED
0-11 Years 979 498 612 627 1215 292 673 4896
12 1308 1095 696 943 1511 1139 1549 8241
College 1-3 Years 921 1012 539 822 866 1228 1219 6607
College 4 Years 464 558 428 564 691 329 1273 4307
College 5+ 398 608 251 530 458 249 1169 3663
1979 HOUSEHOLD INCOME
Less than $9,999 1298 939 614 414 897 550 676 5388
$10,000-$ 19.999 975 1128 514 703 963 436 915 5634
S20,000-$34,999 321 398 333 686 753 3T5 1030 3536
$35,000-549,999 92 143 55 120 130 59 383 982
$50,000+ 28 103 24 51 35 6 309 556
Median Income $10405 $13244 $12901 $17422 $14440 $12810 $20640


I. BACKGROUND
When the City of Denver made public its intentions of leasing the Bath House in Washington Park, the Denver Parks Department was approached with the proposal of a restaurant on the lake. Mr. P. Galavan, of the department, was definitely interested in serious proposals towards this type of use. He did add, however, that such an unprecedented use of city property would require close consultations with the existing neighborhood groups. Further, the Mayor's Cabinet would have to press judgment on such an arrangement. The City's primary concern is that the building has been falling into dilapidation and could fall victim to vandalism, unoccupied.
The community response has been a positive one, primarily due to the fact that the Washington Park area has only a minimal number of restaurants, all of which are often too small in size to accommodate the demand. The problems which commonly arise from the deficiency of space are: unusually long waiting times for a table; frustrated service people during unmanageable peak hours; and the uncomfortable feelings by the patron of being rushed to eat and leave.
The Washington Park area has been in transition for many years. The older population who inhabited the area and maintained its stability are now selling their homes to young professionals. The restructuring of the area is aiming towards the needs and ambitions of the new residents
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while still maintaining its well established stability. The 1980 U.S. Census indicates that the area's median age is 30, having a median income of $14,552.
In an effort to maintain the given stability, four neighborhood groups were organized to overlook the problems and formulate solutions in conjunction with the City.
However, since May of 1982, the primary concerns for the area have been with the activities in the park. Of these concerns, the neighborhood groups feel that heavy vehicular traffic, particularly "cruising," is hazardous to the pedestrians, joggers and bicyclists. Further, they feel that there is too much congestion on the side streets and have already confronted the city for funds to create a parking lot.
Taking this into account, I feel the only rational way to handle the parking issue will be to provide off-street parking. In addition, it should be handled sensitively in order to respond effectively to the neighborhood groups' desires, as well as to the park's integrity.
Washington Park was acquired in 1898, having 155 acres of land defined by Smith Lake on the north end and Grasmere Lake on the south. The park provides a healthy environment for family activities, sports activities and individual recreation. Unlike many parks in Denver, Washington Park is a heavily used, well kept, and immensely appreciated park. The community recreation center, built by
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the City of Denver in 1975, is located on the east side of the park. The fire station, also built in 1975, defines the northeast corner of the park and Smith Lake is defined with the Bath House to the north and the Pavillion House on the south, both built in 1905-1905.
Structures designed for human activities have always existed in the park and functioned in peaceful accord. Further, it is the organized activities which bring many of the neighborhood residents to the park. In short, it is the park which has become the area's focal point, the center of the neighborhood community.
There are concerns of having a restaurant in the park in respect to the possible conflict of activities. However, it has also been expressed that a restaurant could provide a meeting place for people, a place where small gatherings and informal conferences could occur. Paul Cashman of the Washington Park Profile, a local newspaper, expressed great enthusiasm towards providing the residents with a fresh new concept: "restaurant on the lake." He generally felt that such a project would be well accepted, as well as being a welcome addition to the area.
It is my belief that it is essential for pre-existing functions not to be infringed upon by new uses but rather to achieve an interwoven relationship between all functions. Further, the Bath House is a structure familiar to everyone in the area, carrying a special symbolism. Therefore,
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designing a restaurant/meeting place in the park incorporating the already existing Bath House would create a new facility which everyone would recognize and feel comfortable with, while providing a place for informal gatherings; a place where people can make new friends, meet old friends or just go to and be in the park.
The architectural context of the surrounding neighborhood is basically brick bungalow style homes, interfaced with some colonial and gothic style residences. Because of the younger residents moving into the area there has been a high degree of renovation and adaptive work occurring. The desire to preserve the old is very strong and prevalent in the area, as well as the integration of passive solar systems and new articulations of the old. In general, the area is an interesting culmination of eclectic influences.
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SITE ANALYSIS
I .
The site is at the northwest end of Washington Park in Denver, Colorado. It is bounded by Downing Street to the west and Virginia Avenue to the north, with Downing being a major thoroughfare to the greater metropolitan area. The south end of the site is bounded by Smith Lake, which has an elevation of 130.0' at the edge; the remainder of the site has an elevation of approximately 134.6'.
The existing building on the site is located approximately 50'-0" from the lake edge at the shortest distance, and is encircled by mature deciduous trees.
Access to the site is at the intersection of Virginia Avenue and Marion Street, and is a direct access to the park as a whole. The road into the park is 20'-0" wide, and presently is one way. There is a well designed bi-level parking lot adjacent to the existing building with 15 spaces.
The structures which follow the perimeter of the park include high density housing, single family housing and a fire station.
The solar access to the south is excellent and will never be obstructed, due to the lake.
The winds come in from the north and west, both of which are unobstructed on the site.
Recommendations in regards to the site are:
1) maintain the sidewalk around the lake, as this provides a quiet, directional continuity for the park users.
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2) maintain the trees as much as physically possible, not excluding the possibility of integrating them into the structure.
3) use the access approach presently existing, and place the vehicular parking as close in proximity as possible to the access. The existing lot should be used as a prototype element, as well as integrated into the overall design.
4) use energy efficient design, taking advantage of the solar access.
5) maintain the basic spirit and beauty existing in the park.
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II. SOIL CONDITIONS SUMMARY
Report by Chen and Associates
The soil analysis I obtained was used for the proposed Park Lane project, now the Marion Towers located at the 400 Block of South Marion. This is across the street from the Park site, and was generally felt by Dave Adams of Chen and Associates to be a very accurate report.
The subsoil conditions are fairly uniform, consisting of approximately 20 feet of sandy clays, stiff clays and weathered claystone, overlaying claystone and sandstone bedrock. The hardness of the subsoils increases with depth. Below the elevation of 100.0', the bedrock is hard and capable of supporting a large structure. The claystone possesses moderate swelling potential and will settle about 5% under a pressure of 50,000 PSI.
The water table is approximately 11.5' - 14.0' below the existing ground surface. It is believed that the water table will not rise more than 3'0" above the present measurement under normal conditions.
Refer to the Appendix for the complete report.
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Ill.
THE EXISTING BUILDING
The "Bath House" was built in 1902 by an unknown architect. It is a one story structure having 4,375 gross square feet, and a partial basement having 655 gross square feet, designated as the boiler room.
The facade was originally metal lathe and cement, having the wood detailing painted brown. The green clapboard was applied over the original facade by the City to maintain the structure.
The foundation is concrete spread footing with 3/4 of it back filled with dirt. The other 1/4 is the boiler room, located on the east end of the building. The dimensions are 34'-6" x 19'-0" and at one time accommodated coal storage and three boilers. The floor is concrete slab and accessible from both the exterior and interior. There are two staircases which flank each other, being separated by the structure.
The interior has three large spaces divided by two bearing walls. Each bearing wall has a fireplace flanking the major entrance, located on the north facade. There are two southern entrances, as well, facing the lake.
The fenestration is symmetrical on all four facades.
The windows are wood framed, double hung measuring 3'-0" x 5'-0".
The structure is sound, according to the city engineer, however the electrical and mechanical will need to be replaced. There has been no known flooding, due to its
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location to the lake, and is connected to all city infrastructure services.
An addition or reconstruction of this building is feasible, having only minimal restrictions; the more crucia of them being the maintenance of the structure's symbolism. This can be achieved by means of preserving a specific facade and incorporating it into a new structure, or restor ing the whole building and designing an addition. Both possibilities will need to be explored.
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IV. THE PROJECTED USES OF THE SPACES
The facility is to project the image of a meeting place where peope can eat, talk or just get together as well as facilitate informal conferences.
The meeting room should be an informal area with access to the park and dining area. It should be a place where people can meet for an indefinite amount of time and be comfortable. There will be a wine/beer bar. It is hoped that it can be reminiscent of a pub.
The two conference rooms should be expandable and have good quality acoustics and lighting. Standard conference room equipment will be provided for both areas. A small coffee counter will be provided. It is hoped that small classes, box lunch conferences and community oriented meetings will be able to convene in the conference areas.
The entry should be able to handle a minimum of ten people gathering and provide casual seating for those waiting .
The facility should maintain a warm and friendly personality, having an intergration of intimate and general spaces.
-18-


V. SPACE REQUIREMENTS; BREAK DOWN
Kitchen
Cook Area (includes short orders)..... 350
Food Prep (includes Pantry)............... 350
Dishwashing and pot/pan area.............. 200
Canned food storage....................... 180
Refrigerated storage (7x12)................ 84
Clean supplies closet (4x8)................ 32
Janitor closet............................. 32
Garbage area............................... 50
Receiving/Delivery......................... 75
Dry storage............................... 100
Circulation 10%........................... 140
TOTAL 1,540
Operational Spaces
Employee dress room....................... 160
Employee restroom......................... 168
Employee lunchroom........................ 180
Office.................................... 144
TOTAL 652
Dining Room
Salad/bread bar.......................... 160
Waitress station......................... 150
Dining area........................... 2,402
TOTAL 2,712
Meeting/Bar Room (60 people)
Wine/beer bar............................. 240
Wine room................................. 144
Seating area............................ 1,200
TOTAL 1,584
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Conference Areas
2 Conference rooms....................... 520
Closet/counter............................ 48
Service Area.............................. 78
TOTAL 646
General Areas
Entry..................................... 350
Restrooms................................. 309
Coats/telephones.......................... 75
Cashier (3.5x5)....................... 32.5
Gallery.................................. 400
Patio.................................... 400
Gathering Area............................ 240
TOTAL 1,806.5
SUB TOTAL 8,941.5 ft2
Circulation of Public Spaces (15%) 490
Mechanical/Electrical
(5% Gross area) 600
TOTAL 1090
Total square footage = 10,031.5 ft2
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VI. RECOMMENDED SPACE CALCULATIONS
(Time Saver Standards - 2nd edition)
Dining Area
18 ft* 1 2 per x 140 people = 2520 ft2
Booths/Seats: 4'-0" long; 5'-6" wide
Counters: 24" wide; maximum length 16'-0"
Passage between chairs: minimum of 18" including chair area
Table spacing: 4'-0" - 5'-0" apart Service Stations
Based on ratios of: central 1:50; Small 1:30.
1 central station (8x12) = 128 ft2 3 small stations (4x5) = 60 ft2
Kitchen
Is based on an estimated maximum number of meals served per hour.
(150 person)(.20 capacity) = 30 Breakfast: 360 (5’0") = 1800ft2
Lunch: 288 (5'0") = 1440 ft2
Dinner: 252 (5'0") = 1260 ft2
1800 + 1440 +1260 * 3 = 1500
Receiving and Storage
Based on occupancy 140 ; 2 = 70 ft2
Restrooms
Ratio 1:1
1 water closet per 30
2 water closets, 1 lavatory room (women)
2 urinals; 1 lavatory per 2 water closets (men) 1 handicap per sex
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Main Restroom:
Women: 3 WC; 2 Lav 17’0" x 8'8" = 147’7"
Men: 2 WC; 2 Urin; 2 Lav 18'6" x 8'8" = 160'8"
Employee Restroom:
Women: ll'-6" x 7 = 80.5
Men: 12'-6" x 7 = 87.5
Note: The above square footage does not include
plumbing walls.
Handicap grab bars must be on side walls at a distance of 33" - 36" A.F.F.
Conference Area Room 1:
19 ft per x 10 people = 190 ft2 Room 2:
19 ft2 per x 15 people = 285 ft2
Because of the informal use intended, expandibility is needed.
-22-





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VII. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Parking
Parking will be a very critical issue in regards to the park. Code will require 50 parking spaces which is a significant number. However, the area has a pedestrian predisposition, therefore bicycle racks will also need to be provided.
Energy Efficiency
This will need to be an important factor to the overall efficiency of the building. The kitchen will generate a tremendous amount of heat, yet the remainder of the building will need to be heated. There may be a way to recycle the already heated air from the kitchen and redistribute it. Equally important will be taking advantage of the south exposure.
Refer to Appendix; Energy Efficieny and How to Calculate.
Acoustics and Lighting
Both should be considered upon the individual functions of the areas. It will be necessary, particularly in the conference areas to consider wall finishes such as "soundsoak," and well planned lighting layouts. Good daylight planning throughout the building should also be addressed.
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Views
The dining area and meeting room should have good views of the park and should attempt to create an exchange between the exterior/interior.
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DENVER BUILDING CODE; 1979
I .
Occupancy Classification: B-3; An assembly building without a stage and an occupant load of less than 300. Special provisions are:
Occupancies located in a basement or above the first story will be at least 1 hour fire resistive construction
Required Occupancy Separation: None.
Construction Type: IV; one hour fire resistive construction. Structural framework includes steel, reinforced concrete or masonry.
Fire Zone Designation: Fire Zone 2 having a setback of 10 feet.
Structural Frame Fire Rating: 1 hour
Protection of Openings: Exterior walls to be 3/4 hour fire
resistive when located less than the set back distances.
Parapets: Not required when
walls which terminate at roofs having a a 2 hour fire resistive construction
walls of buildings 20 feet or less in height walls of buildings where the slope is 4:12 or greater Crawl Space: Access minimum is 30 inches, measured clearance is between the structure and the ground.
Allowable Square Footage Per Floor Based On Occupancy:
10,200 ft2 unsprinkled
Allowable Height Based On Occupancy: 2 stories unsprinkled Exterior Bearing/Non Bearing Walls: 2 hours Interior Partition Fire Rating: 1 hour
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Floor Assembly: 1 hour; noncombustible materials, however
wood flooring may be applied over a concrete slab
Roof Fire Rating: 1 hour
Ceiling Fire Rating: 1 hour
Exit Requirements:
Doors to Exit Enclosures
self closing having lJg hour fire rating 100 in2 of glazing Doors to Furnace/Boiler Rooms
self closing having 1 hour fire rating no glazing
Stairs and Landings: 1 hour, constructed of noncombustible
material
a minimum width of 44 inches a maximum of 12 feet vertically
handrails having a maximum projection of 3J$ inches, and a maximum height of 34 inches, minimum of 30 inches.
Ramps: To have a slope no greater than 1:12, and landings
every 5 foot rise (required by law for handicap design)
This is a survey of Chapter 5, 17 and 21. Refer to Chapter 21-33 for further information/confirmation of the final design.
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DENVER ZONING ORDINANCES; 1982
II .
Zoning Classifictions:
Site: OPEN USE DISTRICT: Allows airports, recreational
uses, parks, cemeteries, reservoirs and other open uses including a limited number of public and semi-public activities housed in buildings. Setback requirements apply to the location of buildings. (0-1)
Building: NEIGHBORHOOD BUSINESS DISTRICT: This dis-
trict provides the retailing of commodities classed as "convenience goods," and the furnishing of certain personal services, to satisfy the daily and weekly household or personal needs of the residents of surrounding residential neighborhoods. The volume of pedestrian traffic in proportion to automobile traffic entering the district is much higher than in other retail business districts. This district is located on collector streets, is characteristically small, is almost always entirely surrounded by residential districts and is located at a convenient walking distance from the surrounding residential districts it is designed to serve. The regulations are designed to permit development of the enumerated functions, limited by standards designed to protect the abutting and surrounding resi-
-29-


dential districts. To these ends, the regulations establish standards comparable to the standards for low-density residential districts, resulting in similar building bulk and retaining the relatively low concentration of vehicular traffic as compared to other retail business districts. Building height is controlled by bulk standards and open space requirements. Building floor area cannot exceed the site area. (B-2)
Minimum Building Square Footage: 15,000 ft2 Minimum Setbacks:
Front setback not less than 10 feet from front lot line Rear setback not less than 20 feet from rear lot line Side setback not less than 10 feet each side line Requirement for Retaining Walls: Not exceeding 48 inches in height
Off Street Parking Requirement: To provide 1 space for each 200 ft2 of gross floor area
Off Street Loading Requirement: To provide 1 loading space for 15,000 ft2 of gross floor area. The loading area minimum is 10 feet wide and 26 feet long.
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III. CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY
(NOAA; 1978. Department of Commerce)
Denver enjoys a mild, sunny, semi-arid climate resulting in low relative humidity and low average precipitation. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration. The good climate results from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies.
The temperature means range between 64°F to 30°F with extreme means of 104°F to -30°F. Late summer offers the highest temperatures, generally around 90°F and midwinter the lowest temperatures, around 14°F.
The precipitation norm is 15.5 inches annually.
The seasonal contributions are:
Spring - 5.7 inches Summer - 4.96 inches Fall - 3.1 inches Winter - 1.7 inches in fluid measurement.
The wind speed is on the average of 8 mph, however Denver's location in respect to the mountains often entertains Chinook wind both in the spring and fall with resultant wind speeds of 50 mph and gusts in excess of 65 mph. The wind design factor required by code for structural design is 80 mph.
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Denver has a latitude of 39°.0'N with sun angles of 30° in the winter and 70° in the summer. The heating degree days in Denver average 5673 and cooling days of 631.
-32-


CONCLUSION:
I initially began with three primary objectives as
follows:
1) To provide a place for the neighborhood residents to gather and socialize
2) To maintain the symbolism of the "Bath House" as an expression of the past in the park, and
3) To maintain an interior/exterior exchange in an effort to create a strong tie between both the building and the park.
It was these three objectives which would relate and interface the restaurant with the park's social and recreational activities.
During the design process each specific issue being addressed generated additional objectives.
The site objectives were initially the most critical. They included:
1) maintaining the walk around the lake and providing a continuous directionality
2) utilizing the existing parking and approach, and
3) maintaining the basic spirit and beauty of the park.
To fulfill the site objectives I dealt with the parking issue first, committing myself to the use of the existing lot. The lot had been designed in very wide semicircular patterns and layered back, having the inside semi-
-33-


circle 3'-0" higher than the outside. I reworked the lots by shortening the width from 45’-0" down to 35'-0", an adequate dimension to facilitate two-way traffic and restripped the layers to 9'-0" spaces. In order to provide a pedestrian drop-off, I lost spaces which I regained by adding one space to each end of each semicircle.
In an effort to complete the outside parking edge, I added a 5'-0" wide flagstone walk which extends the entire distance of parking (entrance to entrance).
To maintain the walk around the lake, I carried the pedestrian route across the water 120’-0" by means of a boardwalk. It was to become a quiet expression into the water connecting the park uses with another element which had in the past only been experience from the lake edge.
Towards the middle of the design process the entrance had moved from its traditional north side to the west side where space was tight. This happened in response to still more issues:
1) The north seldom thawed completely during the winter, and
2) There had been difficulty in all the previous concepts of creating a strong connection to the parking and general access approach.
In doing this, two additional issues were addressed as well.
First, the north side which is on view as one enters the park and the one facade which I felt should be saved for
-34-


its symbolism. So as I began working with the space planning I realized I could take the existing dormer and make a modern expression of the element utilizing the front porch. I lowered and widened the roof line of the dormer and then brought it forward 7'-0" (the width of the porch) and extended it down to the ground. This not only gave a new expression to the north facade but also utilized the existing porch as a floor for the back bar. The fenestration on this side would be determined by the existing building and would set the tone for the addition. The existing building has fenestrations which are 3'-0"x6'-0", being spaced by a 4'-0" section of wall. This in turn facilitated the use of three windows 3'-0" wide and was continued on the new addition. The height of each window was determined then by the variations of the wall height. Mullions were added to all the windows, adding character and dimension; however, the mullion count was held the same for all windows, allowing varied glass pane sizes.
The second issue addressed in moving the entry was the tightness of space on the west facade (the end of the existing building). In accomodating the entry it became apparent that with the previous cut back of the parking I had created 15'-0" of space from the building edge. So I proceeded to incorporate a traditional 1905 porch area with benches and monumental covered steps. Due to the handicap codes I then realized I need a 37'-0" ramp which had to be more than a "tack on" element. It too had to integrate into the structure's form.
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This was dealt with in a most sensitive way, considering the point of entry. The approach is exactly the same input as the ambulatory individual beginning to the right of the stairs. The upper railing line becomes unaffected, due to the ramping behind the planter box up to the point of entry into the building.
Usually the building steps south towards the lake, creating the weighing of balance for the entry.
The service road was placed tightly along the north facade, running east and west. Place 2'-0" off the brick service road is a 2% foot flagstone sitting wall. This is intended to serve, first, as a base to the existing building which sits on a 3'-0" exposed foundation and, second, as a sitting wall towards the open space where activities have always existed.
During the space planning it became evident that I would have to step out and off of the 3'-0" foundation. To achieve this I held the existing floor line true, through the connection arcade 20'-0" where it steps l'-lO" to the pavil-lion dining and again steps l'-lO" on each side, unfolding towards the lake and views. Further, the south facade was decided upon early for the addition, being the side which had never originally been completed. A basic objective applied to the space planning was one of flexibility. This was achieved by leaving most of the spaces open, delineating them with varied flooring materials and level changes.
-36-


However, the conference areas required walls. I could still maintain my flexibility with the use of large pocket doors off the gallery as well as off the dining waiting area. In doing so, the entire facility can be opened up for large crowds brought to the park by sports events.
The structural system proposed is glulam, a system which should be congenial to the existing post and beam construction. The mechanical system would be a zone and run under the building. Further, with the use of double hung windows the normal load on an air conditioning system could be cut subtantially. In relation to this concept, the kitchen has been located on the northeast corner, a cooler area. The kitchen also has double hung windows which I anticipate releasing the immediate heat generated by cooking activities and allowing a more efficient use of the air conditioning system.
The hood flues were dealt with in a fairly simple fashion by aligning the hooded equipment together and near the existing outside chimney to the south. Behind the chimney would be a "cut out" to accomodate the flues, which would not be visible on any of the elevations and yet not deliberately hidden. The new foundation would be piers/grade beam due to the soils.
The space planning in summary provides views to all the public spaces. To the north is located the bar area which overlooks an open green space and trees. The confer-
-37-


ence areas look out onto the lake to the south and the moun-
tains to the west. The dining opens up to the lake on the south and mountains to the west. This offered an efficient economic base in relation to the real estate's potential and value.
In conclusion, I realized towards the middle of the process that what I was creating had to be more than a building - it had to be an object as well - something usually appealing as well as functional. The greatest difficulty was finding a venacular which was new, yet compatible with the existing, if not complimentary. I held on to three distinct elements from the existing building and worked with them.
1) The horizontal element is very strong, being emphasized over and under the windows as well as at the facia line. I continued the horizontal across the top of the windows and at the facia. 2) The fenestration size is 3'x6' and I held on to the width and 3) the roof form was prominent not only on this building but on the boat house it faces across the lake. I held on to the roof form existing, using it over points of entry and on the arcade. The roof form over the pavillion is that of the boat house (hipped). In addition, I played with the negative and positive forms of the boat house in creating the pavillion facade. The boat house columns are out while the windows drop back behind. So I brought the pavillion windows out and dropped the columns back. It was my hope that this could bring visual playfullness and variety
-38-


to the park users when both buildings are viewed simultaneously.
I feel that my design has been successful in its attempt as well as potential feasibility. The initial objectives I began with I fulfilled as well as the new ones I instigated along the way. In general, I was pleased with the end result.
As a wise man told me, "There are many possibilities; yours is but one."
-39-


THE
DESIGN


t
T
THE VXSTX2
A USTAUtANT/VCTTNC FLACI TVtSfi 0(504 • MAY 11M CM WMCOHAM
SITE PLAN V.3o'


NORTH ELEVATION
EAST ELEVATION
BULT N 1905 BY T>f CITY Of DtNVUL - MOfTHTT UtNOWN
Y>€ SOLS TO
A *£STAU*ANT/MttTtC PlXd 7>€S6 DESIGN • MAY 19M CN WNKELHAKE
ORIGINAL DRAWINGS W*i-o-




NORTH ELEVATION
EAST ELEVATION
SOUTH ELEVATION
WEST ELEVATION
yA- ELEVATIONS V#- V-o"
THE SCXSTCI
A tESlAUtANT/MEETNC PLACE THE SB DESIGN - MAY 1964 GN WINKEIHAKE
4


TRANSVERSE SECTION AT EXISTING BUILDING
LONCITUDINAl SECTION
TRANSVERSE SECTION AT NEW ADDITION



FOUNDATION/BASEMENT PLAN ROOF PLAN W-i'-tf
tv» sot STa
a uSTAUUNt/MunNC a ThCSJS OUCN - MAY 1M4 CM WMICOHAKE


Append^


Chen and Associates
Consulting Engineers Soil and Foundation Engineering 1240 W. Bayaud Avenue 733-5465
Denver, Colorado 80223
July 7, 1966
Subject: Proposed Park Lane Project:
*f00 Block South Marion Parkway Denver, Colorado
Job No. 2036
Mr. H. W. Hewson P. 0. Box 12035 El Paso, Texas
Dear Mr. Hewson
Further to our report of June 30> 1966, regarding the subject project.
The elevation of the basement of the demolished Park Lane Hotel is 121.98 feet. This elevation refers to the bench mark at the rim of the manhole on East Virginia Avenue, elevation 130.98 feet.
If we can be of further service, please call.
FHC/bjc
Joseph T. Wilson, Denver " " " Alamosa
Very truly yours, CHEN AND ASSOCIATES
Fu Hua Chen, P. E.
cc:


TABLE OF CONTENTS
SCOPE
SUBSOIL CONDITIONS
PROPOSED STRUCTURE
POSSIBLE FOUNDATION TYPES
Drill Pier Foundation:
Raft Foundation
WATER TABLE CONDITIONS
MISCELLANEOUS
FIG. 1 - TEST HOLE LOCATION PU\N FIG. 2 - LOGS OF EXPLORATORY HOLES FIG. 3 - LEGEND S- NOTES
FIGS, k Sr 5 - SWELL-CONSOLIDATION TEST RESULTS TABLE I - SUMMARY OF LABORATORY TEST RESULTS


SCOPE
This report covers a preliminary soil and foundation investigation for the proposed Park Lane Project to be located In the 400 Block on South Marion Parkway, Denver, Colorado. The report presents the general subsoil conditions, possible foundation types, range of soil pressures and water table conditions.
SUBSOIL CONDITIONS
Subsoil conditions for the two test holes drilled, are fairly
uniform. Generally, they consist of about 20 feet of sandy clays, stiff
clays and weathered claystone, overlying claystone and sandstone bedrock.
The lower bedrock consists of a combination of claystone and sandstone.
The hardness of the material increases with depth. Below elevation 100.0',
%
bedrock Is hard and is capable In supporting the proposed structure. The claystone possesses moderate swelling potential and will settle about 5% under a pressure of 50,000 psf. Taking into consideration the disturbance of the sample, the actual settlement will probably be less than 2%. These are indicated in the Swell-Consolidation Curves, Figs. 4 and 5-
In Test Hole No. 1, no water was foundaat the time of our Investigation, however, water table rose to 11^ to 14 feet below existing ground surface 2 days after drilling.
PROPOSED STRUCTURE
*"45 *1 *'%
We understand that the proposed tower structure will be forty-five


- 2 -
1
stories high with 1 or 2 story basement. Total load of the building Will be on the order of 160,000 kips and average load on the order of 10 kips per square foot.
POSSIBLE FOUNDATION TYPES
Two possible types of foundation are feasible for the proposed building. These are as follows:
Drill Pier Foundation:
In this case, each column will be supported by a single pier. The piers should be drilled at least 10 feet Into bedrock, designed for maximum end pressure on the order of 40,000 psf to 50,000 psf, and skin friction on the order of 4,000 psf to 5,000 psf, for the portion of pier in bedrock. For 54-inch diameter piers, the total
v
•••■- .
â– v.
. 'r
■ ■ V' ’"v"-1
load carrying capacity will be on the order of 1,500 kips. A greater
1 --£ ' r -••'-•'a1 •: I 1 '
. ** •••• ri
pier carrying capacity can be obtained by drilling the pier deeper
into bedrock. Raft Foundation:
If deep basement is contemplated, then it would be possible to place the entire structure on the upper bedrock with a raft foundation. Such raft foundation can be designed for maximum soil pressure on the order of 15,000 psf. The feasibility of this foundation alternative will depend on our final investigation as to the degree of hardness and the depth of bedrock.


- 3 -
WATER TABLE CONDITIONS
Present water table Is at depth 11^- to 14 feet below existing ground surface. Based on our experience In the area, we do not believe that water table will rise more than 3 feet above present measurement under normal conditions. If deep basement Is contemplated, we believe it is possible to lower the water table by the installation of an effective sub-surface drainage system. Basement floor slab placed at depth 20 feet below existing ground surface, Is to our opinion, feasible.
MISCELLANEOUS
We are not able to determine all the pertinent details on the design and construction^of the foundation system from our preliminary investigation. In our final investigation, we will be able to accurately recommend the most desirable foundation types, settlemen predictions, the allowable soil pressures at various depths, as well as the resistance of the bedrock against lateral pressure. *
•> CHEN AND ASSOCIATES
• v
Fu Hua Chen, P. E.
FHC/bjc
cc: Joseph T. Wilson, Denver
" " Alamosa
'f


SOUTH MARION STREET
East Dakota Avenue
Hole 2
ft.
le l
8.M. at Rim of Manhole Elevation =130*98*
East Virginia Avenue
TEST HOLE LOCATION PLAN
=* 100*
Scale 1"
SOUTH LAFAVETTE STREET


ELEVATION - FEET

13Q—I
i2or
i to__z!
80__i'
70 _â–¡
Hole I
El=TJ£7o8'
4/12
27/12
WO20.9
0D-105.0
27/6
UC-18.4
90-103.8
27/3
V05-9
30/1
Hole 2 El=135.48'
/
LOGS OF EXPLORATORY HOLES
Fiq. 2


LEGEND:
Topsoil, sandy clays, Lawn
"”7\
\i A
Sand (SC), clayey, brown, moist, loose.
0
A Clay (CL), sandy, brown, moist, medium stiff.

Clay (CL), weathered Claystone, Firm*

Bedrock, sandstone, claystone, brown, moist, very hard.
Bedrock, claystone, grey to blue, moist, hard to very hard.
Undisturbed drive sample. The symbol k/]2 Indicates that k ' blows of a \k0 lb hammer falling JO Inches were required to drive the sampler 12 inches.
-V.
Water table measured 2 days after drilling.
NOTES:
(1) Test Holes were drilled on June 28, 1966.
(2) All elevations refer to B.M. at rim of manhole on Virginia — St. as shown In Fig. 1. Elevation =130.98*
LEGEND & NOTES
Fig. 3


Compression - Percent Compression - Percent
FI


1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
I
0
1
2
i <*•
CHEN AND ASSOCIATES
i.o
10
k • t
100
applied pressure
Swell-Consolidation Test Results
*r
V
-in. ,

* *-
Fig. 5


JOB NO.
CHEN AND ASSOCIATES TABLE I
SUMMARY OF LABORATORY TEST RESULTS
HOLE DEPTH (FEET) NATURAL MOISTURE (V.) NATURAL DRY DENSITY (PCF) ATTERBERG LIMITS UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (PSF) TRIAXIAL SHEAR TESTS SOIL TYPE
LIQUID LIMIT (%) PLASTICITY INDEX (%) DEVIATOR STRESS (PSF) CONFINING PRESSURE (PSF)
1 2*4.0 20.9 105.0 CLAYS TONE
3*4.0 18.*4 109.8 1 1
*4*4.0 5.9 SANDSTONE-c1 ays tone
r
2 28^0 21 .7 10*4.0 n A V
*
















' "♦»


UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING Graduate Divisions 1100 Fourteenth Street Denver, Colorado 80202 (303) 629-2755
D. Stafford Woolard
RULES OF THUMB FOR DENVER SCHEMATIC DESIGN
Skin Dominated Buildings
From Balcomb D. (1980) "Passive Design Handbook" Vol.II U.S. Department of Energy
Solar Collection Area
"A solar collection area of 12% to 25% of the floor area can be expected to reduce the annual heating load of a building in Denver by 27%-43% or if R9 night insulation is used by 47% to 74%."
These values can be adjusted depending on the design standards.
Thermal Storage Mass * 2
"A thermal storage mass of 0.6 x SSF pounds of water or 3 x SSF pounds of masonry is recommended for each square foot of south glazing, where SSF is the desired solar savings (%). This assumes that the mass is in direct sun all day as, for example, in a water wail. In direct gain situations this is adequate thermal storage provided 1) the mass is in the direct gain space or encloses the direct gain space
2) the mass is not insulated from the space 3) the mass has an exposed surface area equal to at least 3x- glazed area. If masonry is used it is not effective beyond a depth of 4"-6" measured from the surface. If the mass is located completely out of the sun in back rooms, then about four times as much mass is needed."
Orientation
"The orientation of the solar glazing should lie between 20® east and 32® west of true south." For Denver true north is 13.5® west of magnetic north.


ANNUAL METHOD
Fixed:
Then:
(also known as LCR method)
1. Base temperature (degree days),
2. Orientation (due south),
3. Tilt (reference design),
4. Ground reflectance (0.3), and
5. Shading (none).
^annual
SSF
annual
= function of LCR and passive system type, _ Slim of (SSF^^ » DP) sum of (DD)
This can be tabulated for any city because DD and S are known (see table).
Procedure: 1. Calculate NLC,
2. Calculate LCR = NLC/Ap,
3. Look up SSF, and
4. Calculate auxiliary,
aux = (1 - SSF) x (NLC) x (DDyear).
Example for Denver, Colorado, Commercial Building, 3000 ft2 Rwal1 = 25
^ceiling = 33
Rfloor = 25 (over crawl space)
Infiltration = 0.5 air changes per hour (ACH)
Solar Elements
Sunspace 390 ft2
Direct gain (night insulated) 100 ft^
See worksheet.
5


40 ft
EXAMPLE BUILDING


NET LOAD COEFFICENT and ANNUAL LCR METHOD WORKSHEET
DATE
Ufll/l? »v JPS


NET LOAD COEFFICIENT. NLC BUILDING
Fill in the Blanks
ELEMENT WALLS FORMULA : UAW » aw/Rw :UA - Ar/R. ?0oo and Perform Arithmetic / 25
ROOF m 3000 / 53
E. W, N WINDOWS :UAn- Vun l UA| * Aj/R j : UAp-4.1 Pp/(Rp ♦ 5) a /CO x .35
FLOOR a 3000 /
PERMETER m 4.1 x n +s)
BASEMENT ;UAh - 10.7 Ph/(HK ♦ 8) at 10.7 x /C + 8)
INFLTRATtON : UA. *0j018V x ADR x ACH m o.oiB x 27300 * 0.25 * 0.3
LOAD.
UA
1L
10
$5
Ji5
P&i faitxc)
, %3> /t/w D,
LOAD COLLECTOR RATIO. LCR LCR
NLC/A^ tZ&O /
Btu/*F • day • ft2
WEIGHTED AVERAGE, SSF
REFERENCE
DESIGN
550/
,— {:* ■MmAmjl (('‘projected fcM djLUA-\v*~)
A APERTURE L FRACTION
\AREA of a„
376
'P
.7
.P6&L
/00
.2
Sum
no
5Z5
Btu/ F • h
NLC
■ 24 x Sum * Btu/*F • day
83F FOR EACH REFERENCE DESIGN
0.6ST
0.30
PRODUCT OF SSF x FRACTION
030
TOTAL Ap
AUXILIARY HEAT. Qaux
430
SUM '
ssf » 0-32
Qaux-(1-SSF)
*NLC * DD s( 1 - 6.32- |tf J26&0 )<( ^0f£ ) x |o“6 m _
. MBtu/year
"*» (0,000 Sfo-jSt1


Values of the load collector ratio (LCR) required to achieve different levels r of SSF for the reference designs. The base temperature used is 65 °F.
OENVER, COLORADO 6016 DO
SSF -.10 .20 .30 .40 .50 .60 .70 .80 .90
WW A1 729 93 44 26 17 12 9 6 4
WW A2 262 106 61 40 28 20 15 11 7
WW A3 224 108 66 45 32 24 18 13 9
WW A4 207 109 69 48 35 26 19 14 9
WW A5 198 110 72 51 37 28 21 15 10
WW A6 193 111 73 52 38 29 22 16 11
WW B1 206 77 42 27 19 13 9 7 4
WW 82 207 112 72 51 37 28 21 15 10
WW 83 242 137 90 64 47 35 27 20 13
WW B4 216 132 91 66 49 38 29 21 15
WW BS 200 125 87 64 48 37 28 21 14
WW Cl 258 146 96 68 50 38 28 21 14
WW C2 224 133 89 64 48 36 27 20 14
WW C3 233 152 108 80 61 47 36 27 19
WW C4 211 137 97 72 55 42 33 24 17
TW A1 631 90 43 26 17 12 8 6 4
TW A2 267 96 54 35 24 17 13 9 6
TW A3 219 96 57 38 27 20 14 10 7
TW A4 188 92 56 38 28 20 15 11 7
TW B1 364 86 44 27 18 13 9 7 4
TW B2 217 88 50 33 23 17 12 9 6
TW B3 191 85 51 34 24 18 13 9 6
TW B4 176 78 47 31 22 16 12 9 6
TW Cl 246 78 42 27 19 13 10 7 5
TW C2 192 76 43 28 20 14 11 8 5
TW C3 183 71 40 26 19 13 10 7 5
TW C4 191 63 35 22 16 11 8 6 4
TW 01 151 60 34 22 15 11 8 6 4
TW 02 220 106 65 44 32 24 17 13 9
TW 03 225 116 74 51 37 27 20 15 10
TW D4 219 123 81 57 42 32 24 18 12
TW 05 206 119 80 57 42 32 24 18 12
TW El 262 136 86 60 43 32 24 17 12
TW E2 239 130 84 59 43 32 24 18 12
TW E3 255 154 104 75 56 43 32 24 17
TW E4 228 139 95 69 52 39 30 22 15
TW FI 295 78 40 25 17 12 9 6 4
TW F2 192 81 47 31 22 16 12 8 6
TW F3 161 79 48 33 24 17 13 9 6
TW F4 134 71 45 31 23 17 13 9 6
TW G1 188 68 38 24 17 12 9 6 4
TW G2 141 67 41 28 20 14 11 8 5
TW G3 120 61 38 26 19 14 11 8 5
TW G4 97 51 32 22 16 12 9 7 4
TW HI 124 55 33 22 16 11 8 6 4
TW H2 97 49 31 21 15 11 8 6 4
TW H3 81 42 25 18 13 10 7 5 4
TW H4 63 32 20 14 10 7 5 4 3
TW 11 117 50 29 19 13 9 7 5 3
TW 12 169 89 56 39 29 21 16 12 8
TW 13 180 98 63 44 32 24 18 13 9
TW 14 183 107 72 51 38 29 22 16 11
TW 15 178 107 73 53 39 30 23 17 12
TW J1 218 120 78 55 40 30 22 16 11
TW J2 198 113 75 53 39 30 22 16 11
TW J3 214 134 93 68 51 39 30 22 15
TW J4 197 123 86 63 48 36 28 21 14
OG A1 150 66 37 21 10 • «»
OG A2 172 80 49 33 23 15 10 6
DG A3 216 103 65 46 34 25 19 13 7
DG B1 149 68 40 27 18 11
OG B2 177 83 52 36 27 20 14 9 4
Ofi. Ji „ 220 105 67 47 28 22 16 10
CE 3 ; i86 85 52 36 (26) 19 13 6
DENVER , COLORADO. / f ' . CONTINUED
SSF -.10 .20 .30 .40 .50 V .60 .70) .80 .90
DG C2 209 99 62 44 33 25" —Tf 13 8
DG C3 253 121 77 55 42 33 26 20 14
SS A1 444 140 74 46 31 22 16 11 7
SS A2 413 180 105 70 49 35 26 18 12
SS A3 419 125 64 39 26 18 13 9 6
SS A4 416 177 102 67 47 34 24 17 11
SS AS 714 139 67 40 26 18 13 9 5
SS A6 410 178 104 69 48 35 25 18 12
SS A7 782 115 52 30 19 13 9 6 4
SS A8 416 173 99 65 45 32 23 16 11
SS B1 303 106 57 36 25 18 13 9 6
SS B2 322 145 86 57 40 29 21 15 10
SS B3 276 96 51 32 22 15 11 8 5
SS 84 314 140 83 55 39 28 20 15 10
SS B5 380 93 47 28 19 13 9 6 4
SS 86 304 139 83 55 39 28 21 15 10
SS B7 331 78 38 23 15 10 7 5 3
SS B8 294 132 78 52 36 26 19 14 9
SS Cl 199 93 56 37 27 19 14 10 7
SS C2 216 115 73 51 37 28 21 15 10
SS C3 203 74 41 27 18 13 10 7 5
Si £4 213 103 63 43 31 23 17 12 8
.SS 01) 415 168 96 62 43 30 . / 22 15 10
sr 152 370 197 125 86 62 46 «>34 24 16
SS D3 511 159 83 52 35 25 17 12 8
SS 04 378 192 120 82 59 43 32 23 15
SS El 307 130 75 49 34 24 17 12 8
SS E2 303 160 101 70 50 37 27 20 13
SS E3 362 111 58 36 24 17 12 8 5
SS E4 310 150 92 62 44 32 24 17 11
Solar, weather and degree-day table.
HS-horizontal solar radiation Btu/ft2-day
VS-incident solar on south vertical TA-average ambient temperature, °F DX-degree-days to base X
DENVER, COLORADO HS VS TA D50 D55 ELEV 5331 LAT 39.7 D60 065 D70 KT LD
JAN 840 1465 30 623 778 933 1088 1243 .64 61
FEB 1127 1577 33 482 622 762 902 1042 .64 53
MAR 1530 1503 37 406 559 713 868 1023 .64 42
APR 1879 1227 48 130 240 379 525 675 .62 30
MAY 2135 1061 57 18 63 143 253 406 .62 21
JUN 2351 1037 66 1 5 23 80 158 .65 16
JUL 2273 1053 73 0 0 0 0 50 .64 18
AUG 2044 1188 72 0 0 0 0 69 .64 26
SEP 1727 1491 63 3 14 51 120 232 .66 38
OCT 1300 1657 52 63 143 261 408 559 .67 50
NOV 883 1441 39 324 469 618 768 918 .62 59
DEC 732 1323 33 540 695 849 1004 1159 .61 63
YR 1570 1334 50 2592 3588 4733 6016 7535 .64
From: Passive Solar Design Handbook, Volume III
8


NET LOAD COEFFICENT and ANNUAL LCR METHOD WORKSHEET
NET LOAD COEFFICIENT. NLC
FORMULA
DATE.
BY.
BUIDING ELEMENT
WALLS C > s 1
ROOF c > 1
E. W. N WINDOWS c > 3 1
FLOOR :UAf-J
PERWETER c > *0 1
BASEMENT :UAb-
ttfLTRATlON :UA,-o
LOAD COLLECTOR RATIO. LCR
LCR -NLC/A^ -
WEIGHTED AVERAGE. SSF
REFERENCE DESIGN
TOTAL A„ ■
AUXILIARY HEAT. Q,u*
Fill In the Blanka and Perform Arithmetic
LOAD.
UA
,/n,
./
X
. /.
- 4.1 x .
- tar >
/(.
/(.
; UAj â–  OX) 16V * AOR X ACH - 0.018 X
♦ 6)
. ♦ 8) _ X____
Sum
NLC - 24 x Sum
Btu/ F • h Btu/*F »cUy
Btu/*F *dey • ft2
PROJECTED
APERTURE
AREA
FRACTION OF An
8SF FOR EACH REFERENCE OESION
PRODUCT OF SSF x FRACTION
°*ux * (1 “ SSFVNLC *DDs(1
SUM '
.)•(
.)•(
.) x 10"® -
SSF â– 
. MBtu/year


VENTED TROMBE WALL SYSTEMS
Therm*! Nominal
Storage Capacity* Wall Thickness** pck Designation (Btu/ftZF) (In.» Glazings Surface Insulation
A1 IS 6 30 2 normal no
A2 22.S 9 30 2 normal no
A3 30 12 30 2 normal no
A4 45 18 30 2 normal no
81 IS 6 15 2 normal no
B2 22.5 9 15 2 normal no
B3 30 12 15 2 normal no
64 45 18 IS 2 normal no
Cl 15 6 7.5 2 normal no
C2 22.5 9 7.5 2 normal no
CJ 30 12 7.5 2 normal no
f 4 45 18 7.5 2 normal no
01 30 12 30 1 normal no
D2 30 12 30 3 normal no
03 30 12 30 1 normal yes
D4 30 12 30 2 normal yes
05 30 12 30 3 normal yes
FI 30 12 30 1 selective no
F2 30 1? 30 2 selective no
E3 30 12 30 1 selective yes
E4 30 12 30 2 selective yes
♦per unit of projected are*
**for the particular case of pc • 30 Btu/ft3 F
UNVENTEO TROMBE WALL SYSTEMS
Designation Thermal Storage Capacity* (8 til/ft ZF) Nominal Wall Thickness** (in.) pck (Btu?/h ft4 F2) No. of Glazings Wall Surface Night Insulatl
FI 15 6 30 2 normal no
F2 22.5 9 30 2 normal no
F3 30 12 30 2 normal no
F4 45 18 30 2 normal no
61 IS 6 15 2 normal no
G2 22.5 9 15 2 normal no
G3 30 12 15 2 normal no
G4 45 18 IS 2 normal no
HI 15 6 7.5 2 normal no
H2 22.5 9 7.5 2 normal no
H3 30 12 7.5 2 normal no
H4 45 18 7.5 2 normal no
11 30 12 30 1 normal no
12 30 1? 30 3 normal no
13 30 12 30 1 normal yes
14 30 12 30 2 normal yes
15 30 12 30 3 normal yes
J1 30 12 30 1 selective no
J2 30 12 30 2 selective no
J3 30 12 30 1 selective yes
J4 30 12 30 2 selective yes
per unit of projected area
for the particular case of pc • 30 Btu/ft3 F


SUNSPACE SYSTEMS (all ire double glazed)
Tilt
Oeslgnatl on Type (degrees
A1 ittached 50
A2 attached 50
A3 attached 50
A4 ittached 50
A5 ittached 50
A6 ittached 50
A7 attached 50
A8 attached 50
B1 attached 90/30
B2 attached 90/30
B3 attached 90/30
B4 attached 90/30
B5 attached 90/30
Bfi attached 90/30
B7 ittached 90/30
BB attached 90/30
Cl semi-enclosed 90
C2 semi-enclosed 90
C 3 semi-enclosed 90
C4 semi-enclosed 90
D1 semi-enclosed 50
D2 semi-enclosed 50
03 semi-enclosed 50
04 semi-enclosed 50
El semi-enclosed 90/30
E2 semi-enclosed 90/30
E 3 semi-enclosed 90/30
E4 serai-enclosed 90/30
Coamon Night
Wall End Walls Insulation
masonry opaque no
masonry opaque yes
masonry glazed no
masonry glazed yes
Insulated opaque no
Insulated opaque yes
Insulated glazed no
Insulated glazed yes
masonry opaque no
masonry opaque yes
masonry glazed no
masonry glazed yes
Insulated opaque no
Insulated opaque yes
Insulated glazed no
Insulated glazed yes
masonry cofTirwn no
masonry common yes
Insulated common no
1nsulated common yes
masonry common no f.
masonry cofunon yes *
Insulated corrmon no
(nsulated common yes
masonry cofmon no
masonry common yes
Insulated coircnon no
Insulated common yes
SUNSPACE GEOMETRIES
Scal-anclosed ul


REFERENCE DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS
Masonry properties
thermal conductivity, direct gain and sunspace
density
specific heat
infrared emittance of normal surface infrared emittance of selective surface
Solar absorptances water wal 1
masonry, Trombe wall
direct gain and sunspace sunspace: water containers
lightweight conmon wall other lightweight surfaces
Glazing properties transmission characterisecs orientation index of refraction extinction coefficient thickness of each pane air gap between panes infrared emittance
Control range room temperature sunspace temperature internal heat generation
Thermocirculation vents (when used)
vent area/projected area (sum of both upper and lower vents) height between vents reverse flex
Night insulation (when used) thermal resistance in place, solar time
Solar radiation assumptions shadi ng
ground diffuse reflectance lightweight absorption fraction
1.0 Btu/h ft F 150 lb/ft3 0.2 Btu/lb F 0.9 0.1
0.95
0.95
0.8
0.9
0.7
0.3
di ffuse due south 1.526 0.5 in*1 1/8 in 1/2 in 0.9
65 F to 75 F 45 F to 95 F 0
0.06 8 ft none
P9
5:30 pm to 7:30 am
none
0.3
0.2
Other sunspace characteristics
opaque wall thermal resistance R20
(both insulated wall and end walls, 1f any) infiltration, ACH 0.5
masonry wall thickness (masonry wall cases) 12 in.
water container heat capacity (insulated wall cases) 62.4 Btu/F-ft3
(per square foot of projected area)
12


BIBLIOGRAPHY
1) Alexander, Christopher, "A Pattern Language,"
Oxford University, 1979.
2) An Achitectural Record Book, "Motels, Hotels, Restaurants and Bars," F. W. Dodge Corp, N.Y. 1960 (728.5A673).
3) Atkin, W. and Adler, J., "Interiors Book of Restaurants," Whitney Library of Design, N.Y., 1960.
4) Chen and Associates, Soil Analysis, 400 Block Marion, Denver, 1966.
5) Chiara, J. and Callender, J., "Time-Saver Standards," McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1980.
6) Davis, Ben, "The Traditional English Pub," Architectural Press, London, 1981 (NE7850 G66 D3).
7) Denver Building Codes, 1979.
8) Denver Zoning Codes, 1982.
9) Doelle, Leslie, "Environmental Acoustics," McGraw-
Hill, N.Y., 1972.
10) Mikellides, Byron, "Architecture for People," Holt,
Rinehart and Winston, N.Y., 1980 (720.103A673).
11) Mueller, Chinooks, Thesis of 1982.
12) N0AA, Climatological Report, 1982.
13) Palmer, M., "Architects' Guide to Programming," McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1982.
14) Washington Park Profile, July 1982, "No Restaurants in Washington Park Yet," page 13, and May 1982, "Park Problems," pages 1 and 4.
15) U.S. Government Census Report, 1980.


Personal References:
1) Paul Cashman of the Washington Park Profile, Denver, Colorado (778-8021).
2) Joe Ciancio of the Denver Parks Department.
3) Nick Heis and Jerry Paisley of the Design Engineering Department for the City of Denver (575-3=lS5).
*S\b\
4) Shelly Gorman of the Community Recreation Center, Denver, Colorado (777-9876).


Full Text

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A U R L THE A RESTAURANT/ MEETING PLACE An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for The Degree of Master of Architecture G. N. Wi l'fkelhake / Spring 1984 A URARlA LIBRARY

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The Thesis of G. N. Winkelhake is approved. Principal Advisor University of Colorado at Denver May 4, 1984

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Dedicated to my Grandmother Meyer-Mueller, a German-American, to whom education is a privilege and freedom is precious.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION HUMAN FACTORS I. Background PHYSICAL FACTORS I. II. I I I. IV. v. VI. VII. Site Analysis a. Park Site Plan b. Site Plan/Topography Soil Conditions Summary The Existing Building Projected Uses of the Space Space Requirements-Break Down Recommended Space Calculations Special Considerations EXTERNAL FACTORS I. II. I I I. Denver Building Code Denver Zoning Ordinance Climatological Summary C O NCLUSION APPENDIX Soil Analysis Report Energy Efficiency Sheets THE DESIGN BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 6 10 13 14 15 16 18 19 21 25 27 28 29 33

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INTRODUCTION The Solstice, a restaurant/meeting place, will be a project that will incorporate an existing building presently owned by the City of Denver, Colorado. It is located in Washington Park and is known to the area as the "Bath House." The site is in the park proper, on the north end of Smith Lake. The proposed square footage for the facility is 10141. Last spring the City made public its intention of leasing the existing building located on the northwest corner of Washington Park, bounded by Downing Street and Virginia Avenue. It was proposed at the time that the building be renovated and adapted towards restaurant use. The community response at the time was positive, primarily due to the fact that the Washington Park area has only a minimal number of restaurants, all of which often are too small in size to accommodate the demand. The area has been in transition from the older population who inhabited the area for many years to the young professionals whose needs and ambitions have been restructuring the area towards a more centralized neighborhood. There is concern that in having a restaurant in the park there would be a conflict of activities. However, it is also generally felt that the combination of activities could be achieved, given a sensitivity to design and social context to the park and the surrounding residents. -1-

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If the park is to be for the people who live in the area, as well as the city, then it should support their social needs as well as athletic. It is an asset to the neighborhood community, within a metropolitan area, to have a social gathering place such as the park. However it is essential that functions within the park be contiguous, forming an interwoven relationship among the activities. Further, the Bath House has strong symbolic meaning to the park and the area residents. It is representative of an early Denver; a reminder of the past and a perspective for today. However, it has been only minimally maintained and is falling victim to dilapidation. My thesis is to bring these factors together, maintaining the social and contextural relationships of the people, the park and the Bath House. In short, the area needs to have a place for its residents to gather and socialize, and, of equal importance, is the need to maintain the Bath House's symbolic expression to the park. The social and psychological needs can be brought together in an area of the community which is a focal point both recreationally and historically. In not fulfilling these needs the area will gradually begin to lose the community continuity so highly valued. The users must be allowed to experience a continuity of activities. If this is not accomplished the integrity of the park will be at odds and the facility will suffer due to -2-

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non-use. However, if the facility maintains the exchange of exterior to interior, and integrates the design elements there will be a strong tie between the facility and the park. Therefore, the facility must become an integral element of the park and co-exist with the present activities and uses. The strongest constraint to the project will be the parking required by code. Further, it will have to be handled as off street parking due to residents' objections to congested streets. A large majority of the residents in the area are pedestrian oriented, however, the senior citizens of the area are automobile-oriented and usually drive to the park. The design for the parking will need to be handled as an integrated element. I propose that it not be close to the facility but, rather, more in proximity to the entrance of the park, in an effort to keep vehicular circulation restricted and contained. In not doing so, conflicts will occur between vehicles and pedestrians, as demonstrated in the past. It is my intention to relate and interface the restaurant with the park's social and recreational activities, thus, complimenting both. -3-

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The Washington Park Area E . MAPLE

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28.02 28.03 ALAMEDA 0
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I. BACKGROUND When the City of Denver made public its intentions of leasing the Bath House in Washington Park, the Denver Parks Department was approached with t h e proposal of a restaurant on the lake. Mr. P. Galavan, of the department, was definitely interested in serious p roposals towards this type of use. He did add, however, that such an unprecedented use of city property would require close consultations with the existing neighborhood groups. Further, the Mayor's Cabinet would have to press judgment on such an arrangement. The City's primary concern is that the building has been falling into dilapidation and could fall victim to vandalism, unoccupied. The community response has been a positive one, primarily due to the fact that the Washington Park area has only a minimal number of restaurants, all of which are often too small in size to accommodate the demand. The problems which common l y arise from the deficiency of space are: unusually long waiting times for a table; frustrated service people during unmanageable peak hours; and the uncomfortable feelings by the patron of being rushed to eat and leave. The Washington Park area has been in transition for many years. The older population who inhabited the area and maintained its stability are now selling their homes to young professionals. The restructuring of the area is aiming towards the needs and ambitions of the new residents -6-

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while still maintaining its well established stability. The 1980 U.S. Census indicates that the area's median age is 30, having a median income of $14,552. In an effort to maintain the given stability, four neighborhood groups were organized to overlook the problems and formulate solutions in conjunction with the City. However, since May of 1982, the primary concerns for the area have been with the activities in the park. Of these concerns, the neighborhood groups feel that heavy vehicular traffic, particularly "cruising," is hazardous to the pedestrians, joggers and bicyclists. Further, they feel that there is too much congestion on the side streets and have already confronted the city for funds to create a parking lot. Taking this into account, I feel the only rational way to handle the parking issue will be to provide off-street parking. In addition, it should be handled sensitively in order to respond effectively to the neighborhood groups' desires, as well as to the park's integrity. Washington Park was acquired in 1898, having 155 acres of land defined by Smith Lake on the north end and Grasmere Lake on the south. The park provides a healthy environment for family activities, sports activities and individual recreation. Unlike many parks in Denver, Washington Park is a heavily used, well kept, and immensely appreciated park. The community recreation center, built by -7-

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the City of Denver in 1975, is located on the east side of the park. The fire station, also built in 1975, defines the northeast corner of the park and Smith Lake is defined with the Bath Hous e to the north a n d the Pavillion House on the south, both built in 1905-1906. Structures designed for human activities have always existed in the park and functioned in peaceful accord. Further, it is the organized activities which bring many of the neighborhood residents to the park. In short, it is the park which has become the area's focal point, the center of the neighborhood community. There are concerns of having a restaurant in the park in respect to the possible conflict of activities. However, it has also been expressed that a restaurant could provide a meeting place for people, a place where small g atherings and informal conferences could occur. Paul Cashman of the Washington Park Profile, a local newspaper, expressed great enthusiasm towards providing the residents with a fresh new concept: ''restaurant on the lake. " He generally felt that such a project would be well accepted, as well as being a welcome addition to the area. It is my belief that it is essential for pre-existing functions not to be infringed upon by new uses but rather to achieve an interwoven relationship between all functions. Further, the Bath House is a structure familiar to everyone in the area, carrying a special symbolism. Therefore, 8 -

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designing a restaurant/meeting place in the park incorporating the already existing Bath House would create a new facility which everyone would recognize and feel comfortable with, while providing a place for informal gatheringsi a place where people can make new friends, meet old friend s or just go to and be in the park. The architectural context of the surrounding neighborhood is basically brick bungalow style homes, interfaced with some colonial and gothic style residences. Because of the younger residents moving into the area there has been a high degree of renovation and adaptive work occurring. The desire to preserve the old is very strong and prevalent in the area, as well as the integration of passive solar systems and new articulations of the old. In general, the area is an interesting culmination of eclectic influences. -9-

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I. SITE ANALYSIS The site is at the northwest end of Washington Park in Denver, Colorado. It is bounded by Downing Street to the west and Virginia Avenue to the north, with Downing being a major thoroughfare to the greater metropolitan area. The south end of the site is bounded by Smith Lake, which has an elevation of 130.0' at the edge; the remainder of the site has an elevation of approximately 134.6'. The existing building on the site is located approx-imately 50'-0" from the lake edge at the shortest distance, and is encircled by mature deciduous trees. Access to the site is at the intersection of Virginia Avenue and Marion Street, and is a direct access to the park as a whole. The road into the p ark is 20'-0" wide, and presently is one way. There is a well designed bi-level parking lot adjacent to the existing building with 15 spaces. The structures which follow the perimeter of the park include high density housing, single family housing and a fire station. The solar access to the south is excellent and will never be obstructed, due to the lake. The winds come in from the north and west, both of which are unobstructed on the site. Recommendations in regards to the site are: 1) maintain the sidewalk around the lake, as this provides a quiet, directional continuity for the park users. -10-

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2) maintain the trees as much as physically possible, not excluding the possibility of integrating them into the structure. 3) use the access approach presently existing, and place the vehicular parking as close in proximity as possible to the access. The existing lot should be used as a prototype element, as well as integrated into the overall design. 4) use energy efficient design, taking advantage of the solar access. 5) maintain the basic spirit and beauty existing in the park. -11-

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-14-

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II. SOIL CONDITIONS SUMMARY Report by Chen and Associates The soil analysis I obtained was used for the proposed Park Lane project, now the Marion Towers located at the 400 Block of South Marion. This is across the street from the Park site, and was generally felt by Dave Adams of Chen and Associates to be a very accurate report. The subsoil conditions are fairly uniform, consisting of approximately 20 feet of sandy clays, stiff clays and weathered claystone, overlaying claystone and sandstone bedrock. The hardness of the subsoils increases with depth. Below the elevation of 100.0', the bedrock is hard and capable of supporting a large structure. The claystone possesses moderate swelling potential and will settle about 5% under a pressure of 50,000 PSI. The water table is approximately 11.5' 14.0' below the existing ground surface. It is believed that the water table will not rise more than 3'0" above the present measurement under normal conditions. Refer to the Appendix for the complete report. -15-

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III. THE EXISTING BUILDING The "Bath House" was built in 1902 by an unknown architect. It is a one story structure having 4 ,375 gross square feet, and a partial basement having 655 gross square feet, designated as the boiler room. The facade was originally metal lathe and cement, having the wood detailing painted brown. The green clapboard was applied over the original facade by the City to maintain the structure. The foundation is concrete spread footing with 3 / 4 of it back filled with dirt. The other 1/4 is the boiler room, located on the east end of the building. The dimensions are 34'6 " x 19'-0" and at one time accommodated coal storage and three boilers. The floor is concrete slab and accessible from both the exterior and interior. There are two staircases which flank each other, being separated by the structure. The interior has three large spaces divided by two bearing w alls. Each bearing wall has a fireplace flanking the major entrance, located on the north facade. There are two southern entrances, as well, facing the lake. The fenestration is symmetrical on all four facades. The windows are wood framed, double hung measuring 3'-0" x 5'-0". The structure is sound, according t o the city engineer, however the electrical and mechanical will need to be replaced. There has been no known flooding, due to its -16-

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location to the lake, and is connected to all city infrastructure services. An addition or reconstruction of this building is feasible, having only minimal restrictionsi the more crucial of them being the maintenance of the structure's symbolism. This can be achieved by means of preserving a specific facade and incorporating it into a new structure, or restoring the whole building and designing an addition. Both possibilities will need to be explored. -17-

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IV. THE PROJECTED USES OF THE SPACES The facility is to project the image of a meeting place where peope can eat, talk or just get together as well as facilitate informal conferences. The meeting room should be an informal area with access to the park and dining area. It should be a place where people can meet for an indefinite amount of time and be comfortable. There will be a winejbeer bar. It is hoped that it can be reminiscent of a pub. The two conference rooms should be expandable and have good quality acoustics and lighting. Standard confer-ence room equipment will be provided for both areas. A small coffee counter will be provided. It is hoped that small classes, box lunch conferences and comm unity oriented meetings will be able to convene in the conference areas. The entry should be able to handle a minimum of ten people gathering and provide casual seating for those waiting. The facility should maintain a warm and friendly personality, having an intergration of intimat e and general spaces. -18-

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V. SPACE REQUIREMENTS; BREAK DOWN Kitchen Cook Area (includes short orders) .... . Food Prep (includes Pantry) .......... . Dishwashing and potjpan area ......... . Canned food storage .................. . Refrigerated storage (7x12) .......... . Clean supplies closet (4x8) .......... . Janitor closet ....................... . Garbage area ......................... . Recei vingjDeli very ................... . Dry storage .......................... . Circulation 10% ...................... . TOTAL Operational Spaces 350 350 200 180 84 32 32 50 75 100 140 ----------Employee dress room................... 160 Employee restroom..................... 168 Employee lunchroom.................... 180 Office... ............................. 144 TOTAL 652 Dining Room Saladjbread bar ...................... . Waitress station ..................... . Dining area .......................... . TOTAL Meeting/ Bar Room (60 people) Winejbeer bar ........................ . Wine room ............. ............... . Seating area ......................... . TOTAL -19160 150 2,402 2,712 ---------240 144 1,200 1,584 ----------

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Conference Areas 2 Conference rooms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520 Closetjcounter..... .. .. .. . . . . .. .. . ... . 48 Service Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 TOTAL 646 General Areas Entry ................................ . Restroorns ............................ . Coats/telephones ..................... . Cashier ( 3. 5x5) ...................... . Gallery .............................. . Patio ................................ . Gathering Area ....................... . TOTAL 350 309 75 32.5 400 400 240 1,806.5 -------------SUB TOTAL 8,941.5 ft2 Circulation of Public Spaces (15%) 490 Mechanical/Electrical (5% Gross area) 600 TOTAL 1090 Total square footage 10,031.5 ft2 -20-

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VI. RECOMMENDED SPACE CALCULATIONS (Time Saver Standards -2nd edition) Dining Area 18 ft2 per x 140 people = 2520 ft2 Booths/Seats: 41-011 long; 51-611 wide Counters: 24" wide; maximum length 16'-0" Passage between chairs: minimum of 18" including chair area Table spacing: 41 -0" 51 -0" apart Service Stations Based on ratios of: central 1:50; Small 1:30. Kitchen 1 central station (8x12) = 128 ft2 3 small stations (4x5) = 60 ft2 Is based on an estimated maximum number of meals served per hour. (150 person)(.20 capacity) = 30 Breakfast: 360 (51011) = 1800ft2 Lunch: 288 (51011) = 1440 ft2 Dinner: 252 (51 O") 1260 ft2 1800 + 1440 +1260 7 3 = 1500 Receiving and Storage Restrooms Based on occupancy 140 7 2 = 70 ft2 Ratio 1:1 1 water closet per 30 2 water closets, 1 lavatory room (women) 2 urinals; 1 lavatory per 2 water closets (men) 1 handicap per sex -21-

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Main Restroom: Women: 3 WC; 2 Lav 17'0" x 8'8" = 147'7" Men: 2 WC; 2 Urin; 2 Lav 18'6" x 8'8" = 160'8" Employee Restroom: Women: 111-611 X 7 = 80.5 Men: 121-611 X 7 87.5 Note: The above square footage does not include plumbing walls. Conference Area Room 1: Handicap grab bars must be on side walls at a distance of 33" 36" A.F.F. 19 ft per x 10 people 190 ft2 Room 2: 19 ft2 per x 15 people = 285 ft2 Because of the informal use intended, expandibility is needed. -22 -

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c:::J n J-:3SO'f'J C#O .1-1 tfvr t l ( 9al.....,. \} .. rn . ri """/:3'1,. J r .L.. m " r_ \. I z •::J'-:1'-v' ;,i ,-) J.!"7 j < {i\ / o';..> E dOO,d : . ' t:.. Ul ;jO -;;10?;? .OW '

PAGE 26

t?)>..R/ 1-1 E:.E.T. .... .:J_ a CoA-r=::.f 1li.Pribt-J 0

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VII. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS Parking Parking will be a very critical issue in regards to the park. Code will require 50 parking spaces which is a significant number. However, the area has a pedestrian predisposition, therefore bicycle racks will also need to be provided. Energy Efficiency This will need to be an important factor to the overall efficiency of the building. The kitchen will generate a tremendous amount of heat, yet the remainder of the building will need to be heated. There may be a way to recycle the already heated air from the kitchen and redistribute it. Equally important will be taking advantage of the south exposure. Refer to Appendix; Energy Efficieny and How to Calculate. Acoustics and Lighting Both should be considered upon the individual functions of the areas. It will be necessary, particularly in the conference areas to consider wall finishes such as "soundsoak," and well planned lighting layouts. Good daylight planning throughout the building should also be addressed. -25-

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Views The dining area and meeting room should have good views of the park and should attempt to create an exchange between the exterior/interior. -26-

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I. DENVER BUILDING CODE; 1979 Occupancy Classification: B-3; An assembly building without a stage and an occupant load of less than 300. Special pro-visions are: Occupancies located in a basement or above the first story will be at least 1 hour fire resistive construction Required Occupancy Separation: None. Construction Type: IV; one hour fire resistive construe-tion. Structural framework includes steel, reinforced con-crete or masonry. Fire Zone Designation: Fire Zone 2 having a setback of 10 feet. Structural Frame Fire Rating: 1 hour Protection of Openings: Exterior walls to be 3 / 4 hour fire resistive when located less than the set back distances. Parapets: Not required when walls which terminate at roofs having a a 2 hour fire resistive construction walls of buildings 20 feet or less in height walls of buildings where the slope is 4:12 or greater Crawl Space: Access minimum is 30 inches, measured clear-ance is between the structure and the ground. Allowable Square Footage Per Floor Based On Occupancy: 10,200 ft2 unsprinkled Allowable Height Based On Occupancy: 2 stories unsprinkled Exterior Bearing/Non Bearing Walls: 2 hours Interior Partition Fire Rating: 1 hour -27-

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Floor Assembly: 1 hour; noncombustible materials, however wood flooring may be applied over a concrete slab Roof Fire Rating: 1 hour Ceiling Fire Rating: 1 hour Exit Requirements: Doors to Exit Enclosures self closing having hour fire rating 100 in2 of glazing Doors to Furnace/Boiler Rooms self closing having 1 hour fire rating no glazing Stairs and Landings: 1 hour, constructed of noncombustible material a minimum width of 44 inches a maximum of 12 feet vertically handrails having a maximum projection of inches, and a maximum height of 34 inches, minimum of 30 inches. Ramps: To have a slope no greater than 1:12, and landings every 5 foot rise (required by law for handicap design) This is a survey of Chapter 5, 17 and 21. Refer to Chapter 21-33 for further information/confirmation of the final design. -28-

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II. DENVER ZONING ORDINANCESi 1982 Zoning Classifictions: Site: OPEN USE DISTRICT: Allows airports, recreational u s e s , parks, cemeteries, reservoirs and other open uses including a limited number of public and semi-public activities housed in buildings. Setback requirements apply to the location of buildings. (0-1) Building: NEIGHBORHOOD BUSINESS DISTRICT: This district provides the retailing of commodities classed as "convenience goods," and the furnishing of certain personal services, to satisfy the daily and weekly household or personal needs of the residents of surrounding residential neighborhoods. The volume of pedestrian traffic in proportion to automobile traffic entering the district is much higher than in other retail business districts. This district is located on collector streets, is characteristically small, is almost always entirely surrounded by residential districts and is located at a convenient walking distance from the surrounding residential districts it is designed to serve. The regulations are designed to permit development of the enumerated functions, limited by standards designed to protect the abutting and surrounding resi--29-

PAGE 32

dential districts. To these ends, the regulations establish standards comparable to the standards for low-density residential districts, resulting in similar building bulk and retaining the relatively low concentration of vehicular traffic as compared to other retail business districts. Building height is controlled by bulk standards and open space requirements. Building floor area cannot exceed the site area. (B-2) Minimum Building Square Footage: 15,000 ft2 Minimum Setbacks: Front setback not less than 10 feet from front lot line Rear setback not less than 20 feet from rear lot line Side setback not less than 10 feet each side line Requirement for Retaining Walls: Not exceeding 48 inches in height Off Street Parking Requirement: To provide 1 space for each 200 ft2 of gross floor area Off Street Loading Requirement: To provide 1 loading space for 15,000 ft2 of gross floor area. The loading area minimum is 10 feet wide and 26 feet long. -30-

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III. CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY (NOAA; 1978. Department of Commerce) Denver enjoys a mild, sunny, semi-arid climate resulting in low relative humidity and low average precipi-tation. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration. The good climate results from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. The temperature means range between 64F to 30F with extreme means of 104F to -30F. Late summer offers the highest temperatures, generally around 90F and midwin-ter the lowest temperatures, around l4F. The precipitation norm is 15.5 inches annually. The seasonal contributions are: Spring5.7 inches Summer -4.96 inches Fall -3.1 inches Winter-1.7 inches in fluid measurement. The wind speed is on the average of 8 mph, however Denver's location in respect to the mountains often enter-tains chinook wind both in the spring and fall with resultant wind speeds of 50 mph and gusts in excess of 65 mph. The wind design factor required by code for structural design is 80 mph. -31 -

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Denver has a latitude of 39.0'N with sun angles of 30 in the winter and 70 in the summer. The heating degree days in Denver average 5673 and cooling days of 631. -32-

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CONCLUSION: follows: I initially began w ith three primary objectives as 1) To provide a place for the neighborhood residents to gather and socialize 2) To maintain the symbolism of the "Bath House" as an expression of the past in the park, and 3) To maintain an interior/exterior exchange in an effort to create a strong tie between both the building and the park. It was these three objectives which would relate and interface the restaurant with the park's social and recreational activities. Du ring the design process each specific issue being addressed generated additional objectives. cal. The site objectives were initially the most criti-They i ncluded: 1) maintaining the walk around the lake and p roviding a continuous directionality 2) utilizing the existing parking and approach, and 3) maintaining the basic spirit and beauty of the park. To fulfill the site objectives I dealt with the parking issue first, committing myself to the use of the existing lot. The lot had been designed in very wide semicircular patterns and layered back, having the inside semi--33-

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circle 3'-0" higher than the outside. I reworked the lots by shortening the width from 45'-0" down to 35'-0", an adequate dimension to facilitate two-way traffic and restripped the layers to 9'-0" spaces. In order to provide a pedestrian drop-off, I lost spaces which I regained by adding one space to each end of each semicircle. In an effort to complete the outside parking edge, I added a 5'-0" wide flagstone walk which extends the entire distance of parking (entrance to entrance). To maintain the walk around the lake, I carried the pedestrian route across the water 120'-0" by means of a boardwalk. It was to become a quiet expression into the water connecting the park uses with another element wh ich had in the past only been experience from the lake edge. Towards the middle of the design process the entrance had moved from its traditional north side to the west side where space was tight. This happened in response to still more issues: 1) The north seldom thawed completely during the winter, and 2) There had been d ifficulty in all the previous concepts of creating a strong connection to the parking and general access approach. In doing this, two additional issues were addressed a s well. First, the north side which i s on view a s one enters the park and the one facade which I felt should be s a ved for -34 -

PAGE 37

its symbolism. So as I began working with the space planning I realized I could take the existing dormer and make a modern expression of the element utilizing the front porch. I lowered and widened the roof line of the dormer and then brought it forward 7'-0" (the width of the porch) and extended it down to the ground. This not only gave a new expression to the north facade but also utilized the existing porch as a floor for the back bar. The fenestration on this side would be determined by the existing building and would set the tone for the addition. The existing building has fenestrations which are 3'-0"x6'-0", being spaced by a 4'-0" section of wall. This in turn facilitated the use of three windows 3'-011 wide and was continued on the new addition. The height of each window was determined then by the variations of the wall height. Mullions were added to all the windows, adding character and dimension; however, the mullion count was held the same for all windows, allowing varied glass pane sizes. The second issue addressed in moving the entry was the tightness of space on the west facade (the end of the existing building). In accomodating the entry it became apparent that with the previous cut back of the parking I had created 15'-0" of space from the building edge. So I pro-ceeded to incorporate a traditional 1905 porch area with benches and monumental covered steps. Due to the handicap codes I then realized I need a 37'-011 ramp which had to be more than a "tack on" element. the structure's form. -35 -It too had to integrate into

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This was dealt with in a most sensitive way, considering the point of entry. The approach is exactly the same input as the ambulatory individual beginning to the right of the stairs. The upper railing line becomes unaffected, due to the ramping behind the planter box up to the point of entry into the building. Usually the building steps south towards the lake, creating the weighing of balance for the entry. The service road was placed tightly along the north facade, running east and west. Place 2'-0" off the brick service road is a foot flagstone sitting wall. This is intended to serve, first, as a base to the existing building which sits on a 3'-0" exposed foundation and, second, as a sitting wall towards the open space where activities have always existed. During the space planning it became evident that I would have to step out and off of the 3'-0" foundation. To achieve this I held the existing floor line true, through the connection arcade 20'-0" where it steps 1'-10" to the pavillion dining and again steps 1'-10" on each side, unfolding towards the lake and views. Further, the south facade was decided upon early for the addition, being the side which had never originally been completed. A basic objective applied to the space planning was one of flexibility. This was achieved by leaving most of the spaces open, delineating them with varied flooring materials and level changes. -36 -

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However, the conference areas required walls. I could still maintain my flexibility with the use of large pocket doors off the gallery as well as off the dining waiting area. In doing so, the entire facility can be opened up for large crowds brought to the park by sports events. The structural system proposed is glulam, a system which should be congenial to the existing post and beam construction. The mechanical system would be a zone and run under the building. Further, with the use of double hung windows the normal load on an air conditioning system could be cut subtantially. In relation to this concept, the kit-chen has been located on the northeast corner, a cooler area. The kitchen also has double hung windo ws which I anticipate releasing the immediate heat generated by cooking activities and allowing a more efficient use of the air conditioning system. The hood flues were dealt with in a fairly simple fashion by aligning the hooded equipment together and near the existing outside chimney to the south. Behind the chimney would be a "cut out" to accomodate the flues, which would not be visible on any of the elevations and yet not deliberately hidden. The new foundation be piers/grade beam due to the soils. The space planning in summary provides views to all the public spaces. To the north is located the bar area which overlooks an open green space and trees. The confer--37-

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ence areas look out onto the lake to the south and the mountains to the west. The dining opens up to the lake on the south and mountains to the west. This offered an efficient economic base in relation to the real estate's potential and value. In conclusion, I realized towards the middle of the process that what I was creating had to be more than a building -it had to be an object as well -something usually appealing as well as functional. The greatest difficulty was finding a venacular which was new, yet compatible with the existing, if not complimentary. I held on to three distinct elements from the existing building and worked with them. 1) The horizontal element is very strong, being emphasized over and under the windows as well as at the facia line. I continued the horizontal across the top of the windows and at the facia. 2 ) The fenestration size is 3'x6' and I held on to the width and 3) the roof form was prominent not only on this building but on the boat house it faces across the lake. I held on to the roof form existing, using it over points of entry and on the arcade. The roof form o ver t h e pavillion is that of the boat house (hipped). In addition, I p l a yed with the neg ative and p ositiv e forms of the boat hous e in creating the pavillion facade. The boat house columns are out while the windows drop back behind. So I brought the pav i llion window s out a n d dropped the columns back. It was my hope that this coul d bring visual playfullness a n d variety -38-

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to the park users when both buildings are viewed simultaneously. I feel that my design has been successful in its attempt as well as potential feasibility. The initial objectives I began with I fulfilled as well as the new ones I instigated along the way. In general, I was pleased with the end result. As a wise man told me, "There are many possibilities; yours is but one." -39-

PAGE 42

.....

PAGE 43

SITE PLAN 1": 30 '

PAGE 44

NORTH ELEVATION FLOOR PLAN EAST ELEVATION lll.I.T N 1905 BY Ttt: OTY Of IJlloMa • JIICHllCT LHNOWN ORIGINAL DRAWINGS YB"=1'-o' WST HEVATIO ,... SCilS1l:l A lfSl N.AAHT /..nlNC rlJIC1 1KSIS (l(5l()j MAY 19M

PAGE 45

t'M l A Vl'f -POS10 SI9U oY\1 !)NJ.j)W/ J.NVW'1'I illl v JJUSlOS IHJ. -ICitt IIIO.l JIO "''**"" , . ........... ........ IM,.." • ._.. aDO.I I'WUIIW l l ....0, ....... , , --____ , . .._ . ........ , . --....,..,.,... .... .-.

PAGE 46

....-::..-<:=: -S$ ;<. -= <:>' ---:X [25; i '
PAGE 47

TRANMRSE SECTION AT EXISTING BUILDING LONGITUDINAL SECTION TRANSVERSE SECTION AT NEW ADDITION TYPICAL WALL SECTION BUILDING SECTIONS WALL SECTION Ys' ' -o 1!2 • = 1o' THf SOtST10 A USlAL.aANltMEITN:; PI.AO THESIS DISIGN • MAY 19&4 _ 04 WNIDW:

PAGE 48

ltMmliNM t() H61 AWl 10510 S19U. DVW ::HJJll'j / lNVYlV!SJI V OlSlOSM .4 I II II II fl r--J ' II :--p.n !-'> ,... ... ..'" .. .,,.r ([) II ;.;:J ' c; ; 1\ rll} i w q ij q Ill IJ ,0-,l: ,11/L NVld :1 NVld NYld NYld NOllYONnQJ ....... .... . . ..... -...... ,... ...... u '::. ...... .... w t ...... ..... "' -w 0) I J &t,U .... u I I -!HlOOI OVJ1WI :HliXI I I I I r::. . ,)j I I I I I -I -<0

PAGE 49

Appendix

PAGE 50

, . CHEN AND ASSOCIATES • , Consulting Engineers Soil and Foundation Engineering 1240 VV. Bayaud Avenue . 733-5465 Denver, Colorado 80223 July 7, 1966 • ... . . . . ."'\_. Subject: Proposed Park Lane Project: Mr. H. W. Hewson P. 0. Box 12035 El Paso, Texas Dear Mr. Hewson 400 Block South Marion Parkway Denver, Colorado Job No. 2036 Further to our report of June 30, 1966, regarding the subject project. . ....... : • 1 6 . :The elevation of the basement of the demolished Park Lane Hotel Is 121.98 feet. This elevation refers to the bench mark at the rim of the manhole on East Virginia Avenue, elevation 130.98 feet. If we can be of further service, please call. Very truly yours, CHEN AND ASSOCIATES FHC/bj c cc: Joseph T. Wilson, Denver " 11 11 Alamosa _ , -.:.r

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TABLE OF CONTENTS SCOPE SUBSOIL CONDITIONS-PROPOSED STRUCTURE .' POSSIBLE FOUNDATION TYPES Drill Pier Foundation: Raft Foundation WATER TABLE CONDITIONS MISCELLANEOUS FIG. TEsr HOLE LOCATION PLAN FIG. 2 LOGS OF EXPLORATORY HOLES • FIG. 3 LEGEND & NOTES : . . . FIGS. 4 & 5 SWELL-CONSOLIDATION TEST RESULTS TABLE I SUMMARY OF LABORATORY TEST RESULTS 2 2 2 3 ;.

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1 SCOPE This report covers a preliminary soil and foundation lnvestl-gation for the proposed Park lane Project to be located in the 400 Block on South Marion Parkway, Denver, Colorado. The report presents the general subsoil conditions, possible foundation types, range of soil pressures and water table conditions. SUBSOIL CONDITIONS Subsoil conditi ons for the two test holes drilled, are fairl y uni form. Generally, they consist of about 20 feet of sandy clays, stiff clays and weathered claystone, overlying claystone and sandstone bedrock. The lower bedrock consists of a combination of claystone and sandstone. The hardness of the material increases with depth. Below elevation 100.01 , . ' • bedrock Is hard and is capable fn supporting the proposed structure. The claystone possesses moderate swelling potential and will settle about under a pressure of 50 , 000 psf. Taking into consideration the disturbance -of the sample, the actual settlement will probably be loss than 2%. These are indicated in the Swell-Consolidation Curves, Figs. 4 and 5. In Test Hole No. 1, no water was foundaat the time of our lnvesti-gatlon, however, water rose to 11! to 14 feet below existing ground .... --.. :..;. ... . .. ... ,.... , . .; ' surface 2 days after drilling. . PROPOSED STRUCTURE We understand that the proposed tower structure will b e forty-five .... . ..... •. .. ... . ;..1;.!: . ;( : ,, f.. . . ..._ ..... . .. • .. . t:.. , • r l'

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-.. -2 -stories high with 1 or 2 story basement. Total load of the building will be on the order of 160,000 kips and average load on the order of 10 kips per square foot. POSSIBLE FOUNDATION TYPES Two possible types of foundation are feasible for the proposed These are as follows: Prill Pier Foundat i on: In this case, each column wilt be supported by a single pier. The piers should be drilled at least 10 feet Into bedrock, designed for maximum end pressure on the order of 4o,OOO psf to 50 , 000 psf, • • • _ .. 1 and skin on the order of 4,000 psf to psf,-for the ... . , .... ;;.. • , --' . < '! .... . ::. ( >,;;-:,<'lt . . , .. :",.:. ... ; :.-,.r . . . , portion of pier in be.drock. For 54-Inch diameter. the total load carrying capacity will be on . _the order of 1 , 500 kips. :;_A _greater .: • " .. :'!".• ' w'"'--:...:--,..•: '> , :ot-''.', •' • ..... .. • ... pier carrying capacity can be obtained by drilling the pier deeper 1 .. into bedrock. . if Raft Foundation: If deep basement is contemplated, then it would be possible to place the entire structure on the upper bedrock with a raft found-ation. Such raft foundation can be designed for maximum soil pressure on the order of 15,000 psf. The feasibility of this foundation alternative will depend on our final investigation as to the degree of hardness and the depth of bedrock.

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3 -WATER TABLE CONDITIONS Present water table ls at depth 11t to 14 feet below existing ground surface. Based on our experience fn the area, we do not believe that water table will rise more than 3 feet above present measurement under normal conditions. If deep basement is contemplated, we bel leve It is possible to lower the water table by the installation of an effective sub-surface system. Basement floor slab placed at depth 20 feet below existing ground surface, Is to our opinion, feasible. MISCELLANEOUS We are not able to determine all the pertinent details on the design and the foundation system from our preliminary • investigation. In our final investigation, we recomnend the most desirable foundation types, the allowable soi 1 pressures at various depths, of the bedrock against pressure. -I I d ,. ,. ./' : :., -' .....-/'\( i -. l -". ,, '.' ..... .' ' : ' ' •• ' : .! . • \ r ; \..,.. ' \ \l . ' ' ' , , FHC/bj c . ..... .... cc: Joseph T. Wilson , Denver 11 11 A 1 amos a ... wi 11 be able to acc:u rate 1 y settlemen predictions, as we 11 as the resistance CHEN AND ASSOCIATES > /. -;?__/} c:."7"'t:/ --pFu Hua Chen, P. E •

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... LIJ I.IJ a:: ... V) z • 0 a:: X ... :::> 0 V) East Dakota Avenue • l Hole 2 .:.J . -. ... LU LU := "' I.IJ t: I I < 5 .X t-5 vt l,le 1 , . I _j B.M. at Rim of Manhole Elevation Dl)0.98' E ast VIrginia Avenue TEST HOLE LOCATION PLAN Scale 111 = 1001 r r ..... --.. --. --. .. 0-. #• F lg. 1

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t4 13 --12. ... UJ UJ LA. 111 ' z 0 ... < 1QJ > UJ -' UJ . 8 -1 Hole l E1=1J4.oa• 4/12 %7/12 WC:z20.9 00.0 27/3 WC=5.! 30/1 I Hole 2 El=135.48• 15/12 24/6 wc.-21.7 LOGS Of EXPLORATORY HOLES ' 140 --130 120. ---110. ,. . . ,_ & . l , . ; •.. C . . • • ' : . -\ I -i too :.: ... 90-80 70 Fiq. 2

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.. , lEGEND: Topsoil, sandy clays, Lawn . "\ :-r#O Sand (SC), clayey, brown, moist, loose • . •. -Clay (CL), sandy, brown, moist, medium stiff • Clay (CL), WM-tiiered Claystone, Firm-. Bedrock, sandstone, claystone, browh, moist, very hard. Bedrock, claystone, grey to blue, moistt hard to very hard. . _,.... .......... ' . .. p-. ---. -.. ---Undisturbed 4rtve sample. The symbOl fndleates that blows of a \40 lb hanmer falling 30 .Jiaeh.s were required .. to drive the sample.r 12 inches. ;. Water table measured 2 days after NOTES: (1) Test Holes were drilled on June 28, 1966. (2) All eleva.tlons refer to B.M. at rim of manhole on VIrginia St. as shown In Fig. 1. Elevation 2130.981 LEGEND & NOTES Fig. 3

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. . -0 . . .... c: Cl u 1.. Cl a.. 2 c: 0 en 3 en a> 1.. c. 4 .. . u 5 6 -;. . .... ,., ..... . ., -. Ty ica 0.1 : c: Q,l 0 u 1.. a> a.. "'' c: 0 en en 2 Cl 'c. 3 u ' 4 Ty ica 0 . 1 ...... ... ' . -< I r I I . T I I I _.iNoturol Dry Unit Weight : pcf ' Moisture Content S . 3 percent -r--.. t--.. > ' .; . . ,. 1\ I . I I O\ I !\ 1 I \) I I .. • -... ... .: . . .--"" .. -."'-: ., . . . • . • .;\ . ' .... '• . He 44 s le rom le 1 c:t pth -0" I 1.0 10 100 APPL.Ie:D kaf I I I I I I I I I I 1 , I I Natural Dry Unit Weight • pcf Natural Mo i sturt Content • .J/. 7 percent ""' ""' l o r". f\Si f\ v p n urcie I • tons t:an pr p n du t p II I ! I I I , I s E t1 I I I : lfrorr Ho < jpth 1 . 0 10 .. k•f Swell-Consolidation Test Results I 28 -QII 100 . ' --) .,.J( . .,.'rj:,. . .. . , , . . ..... , . 1• . . _ _ .. . . . . . .:; .:;. -. Fig. 4

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. . c 0 VI c 10 a. X LIJ Ct"l 0 c r--0 "' VI .. I.. c.. E 2 0 u 3 4 ' 5 6 7 8 9 Tyf ica S< c: 0.1 0 "' c: ltl c.. X LIJ 0 c: -:---0 "' ttl .. ,_ a. 2 u Tn ica Sc 0 . 1 CHEN AND ASSOCIATES I I Natural Dry Unit Weight • /0 1 /J pcf Natural Mo isture Content • percent >< exp 0 1 n IE r consta It p es ur e
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HOLE DEPTH (FEET) I 24.0 34.0 44.0 2 28.0 ........ ' ...__ _ _ CHEN AND ASSOCIATES TABLE I SUMMARY OF LABORATORY TEST RESULTS NATURAL NATURAL DRY ATTERBERG LIMITS UNCONFINED TRIAXIAL SHEAR TESTS MOISTURE DENSITY Ll QUID PLASTICITY COMPRESSIVE DEVIATOR CONFINING (Ofe) (PCF) LIMIT INDEX STRENGTH STRESS PRESSURE (%) (%) (PS F) (P SF) (PSF) 20.9 105.0 18. 4 109.8 5.9 . 21 . 7 lo4.o . ' ' JOB NO. ------,;-SOIL TYPE CLAYSTONE II SANDSTONE-cla1stone _f' __ LA.YS..Ifihl . _4oo,

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UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING Graduate Divisions 1100 Fourteenth Street Denver , Colorado 80202 (303) 629-2755 D. Stafford Woolard RULES OF THUMB FOR DENVER SCHEMA TIC DESIGN Skin Domina ted Buildings From Balcomb D. (1980) "Passive Design Handbook" Vol.II U.S. Department of Energy Solar Collection Area "A solar collection area of 12% to 25% of the floor area can be expected to reduce the annual heating load of a building in Denver by 27%-43% or if R9 night insu lation is used by 47% to 74%." These values can be adjusted depending on the design standards. Thermal Storage Mass "A thermal storage mass of 0.6 x SSF pounds of water or 3 x SSF pounds of masonry is recommended for each square foot of south glazing, where SSF is the desired solar savings (%). This assumes that the mass is in direct sun all day as, for example, in a water wall. In direct gain situations this is adequate thermal storage provided 1) the mass is in the direct gain space or encloses the direct gain space 2) the mass is not insula ted from the space 3) the mass has an exposed surface area equal to at least 3xg lazed area. If masonry is used it is not effective be yond a depth of 4"-6" measured f rom the surface. If the mass is located completely out of the sun in back rooms, then about four times as much mass is needed." Orientation "The orientati on of the solar glazing should lie between 200 east and 320 west of true south." For Denver true north is 13.50 west of magnetic north.

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ANNUAL METHOD (also known as LCR method) Fixed: 1. Base temperature (degree days), 2. Orientatio n (due south), 3. Tilt (reference design), 4. Ground reflectance (0.3), and 5. Shading (none). Then: SSFannual = function of LCR and passive system type, sum of (SSFmonthly x DO) SSF annual .. -------:--sum of (DO) This can be tabulated for any city because DO and S are known (see table). Procedure: 1. Calculate NLC, 2. Calculate LCR = NLC/Ap, 3. Look up SSF, and 4. Calculate auxiliary, aux = (1 SSF) x {NLC) x (DDyear> Example for Denver, Colorado, Commercial Building, 3000 ft2 Rwall Rceil i ng Rfl. oor = 25 = 33 = 25 (over crawl space) Infiltration = 0.5 air changes per hour (ACH) Solar Elements Sun space Direct gain (night insulated) See worksheet. 390 ft2 100 ft2 5

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EXAMPLE BUILDING I -.---.:: 0 ..., -------------__; "' 102 ft. t N I ------------------..... , ,_._..,; . • •. , .. .. • . . .... •... :.,•

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NET LOAD COEFFICENT and ANNUAL LCR METHOD WORKSHEET DATE /1/rWz NET LOAD COEFFICIENT, NLC BUilDING ELEMENT WALLS FORMULA ROOF : UA, • A,JR, Fill In the Blanks and Perform Arithmetic .. I zs • 3t\:?t? 1 !53 E. W, N WINDOWS: UA0 • A0•U0 /CV X • 5"5' FLOOR : UAt • At/At .. $a::J(J I z.5' PERIMETER : UAp • 4.1 P p/(Rp -t 5) • 4 . 1 x I ( + 5) BASEMENT : UAb • 10.7 Pb/(Rb +8) • 10.7 x I( -t 8) LOAD, UA • _1..:....;0;:__ • • 55 tzo ---.. __ _ INFLTRATION : UA1 • 0.018V x ADA x ACH • 0.018 x 11?{KJ x $ x " • /70 Sum • 5Z5' NLC • 24 x Sum • /2tao 1 <63. . LOAD COLLECTOR RATIO, LCR LCRo:NLC/A • I #tJ • Btu/.F•day•f12 p . WEIGHTED AVERAGE, SSF v • Btu/•F • h Btu/•F •day REFERENCE \(\ FRACTION DESIGN AREA OF Ap SSF FOR EACH REFERENCE DESIGN PRODUCT OF SSF x FRACTION .1 /?6C.I lOt> . 2 TOTAL Ap • _4q....;;.....;:.....'L:J __ SUM • _ ___; __ EJ .. l) ... 5(} AUXILIARY HEAT, 0 aux 0 aux • ( 1 SSF)•NLC • DD :C 1 " t 2.. )o( JUa&J )'( ) x 10-e • 21 tJ,./0 SSF• MBtu/year

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Values of the load collector ratio (LCR) required to achieve different 1 eve 1 s .;J. of SSF for the reference designs. The base temperature used is 65 F. / . / rY --S' '"1. I / f 0'"' , " DENVER, COLORADO &016 DO DENVER, -----,,:..._ . . CONTINUED SSF •.10 .20 .30 .40 .50 .&o .70 .so .90 SSF •.10 .20 .30 .40 .so .so .90 WW A1 729 93 44 26 17 12 9 6 4 DG C2 209 99 62 44 33 13 8 ww A2 262 106 61 40 28 20 15 11 7 DG C3 253 121 77 55 42 33 . 25 20 14 WW A3 224 108 66 45 32 24 18 13 9 SS A1 444 140 74 46 31 22 16 11 7 WW A4 207 109 69 48 35 26 19 14 9 ss A2 413 180 105 70 49 35 25 18 12 WW AS 198 110 72 51 37 28 21 15 10 ss A3 419 125 64 39 26 18 13 9 6 WW A6 193 111 73 52 38 29 22 16 11 SSM 416 177 102 67 47 34 24 17 11 liW 81 206 77 42 27 19 13 9 7 4 SS AS 714 139 67 40 26 18 13 9 5 ww 82 207 112 72 51 37 28 21 15 10 SS Ali 410 178 104 69 48 35 25 18 12 ww 83 242 137 90 64 47 35 27 20 13 SS A7 782 115 52 30 19 13 9 6 4 ' ww 84 216 132 91 &6 49 38 29 21 15 ss A8 416 173 99 liS 45 32 23 16 11 ww 85 200 125 87 64 48 37 28 21 14 SS 81 303 106 57 36 25 18 13 9 6 WW C1 258 146 96 68 50 38 28 21 14 ss 82 322 145 86 57 40 29 21 15 10 WW C2 224 133 89 64 48 36 27 20 14 ss 83 276 96 51 32 22 15 11 8 5 WW C3 233 152 108 80 61 47 36 27 19 ss 84 314 140 83 55 39 28 20 15 10 WW C4 211 137 97 72 55 42 33 24 17 ss 85 380 93 47 28 19 13 9 6 4 TW A1 631 90 43 26 17 12 8 6 4 ss 86 304 139 83 55 39 28 21 15 10 TWA2 267 96 54 35 24 17 13 9 6 ss 87 331 78 38 23 15 10 7 5 3 TW A3 219 96 57 38 27 20 14 10 7 ss 88 294 132 78. 52 36 26 19 14 9 TW A4 188 92 56 38 28 20 15 11 7 SS C1 199 93 56 37 27 19 14 10 7 TW 81 364 86 44 27 18 13 9 1 4 SS C2 216 115 73 51 37 28 21 15 10 TW 82 217 88 50 33 23 17 12 9 6 SS C3 203 74 41 27 18 13 10 7 5 TW 83 191 85 51 34 24 18 13 9 6 213 103 63 43 31 23 17 12 8 TW 84 176 78 47 31 22 16 12 9 6 415 168 96 62 43 30i(, 22 15 10 TW C1 246 78 42 27 19 13 10 7 5 s 2 370 197 125 86 62 46 34 24 16 TW C2 192 76 43 28 20 14 11 8 5 ss D3 511 159 83 52 35 25 17 12 8 TW C3 183 71 40 26 19 13 10 7 5 ss D4 378 192 120 82 59 43 32 23 15 TW C4 191 63 35 22 16 11 8 6 4 ss El 307 130 75 49 34 24 17 12 8 TW D1 151 60 34 22 15 11 8 6 4 SS E2 303 160 101 70 50 37 27 20 13 TW D2 220 106 65 44 32 24 17 13 9 SS E3 362 111 58 36 24 17 12 8 5 TW D3 225 116 74 51 37 27 20 15 10 SS E4 310 150 92 62 44 32 24 17 11 TW D4 219 123 81 57 42 32 24 18 12 TW D5 206 119 80 57 42 32 24 18 12 TWU 262 136 86 60 43 32 24 17 12 Solar, weather and degree-day table. TW E2 239 130 84 59 43 32 24 18 12 TW E3 255 154 104 75 56 43 32 24 17 TW E4 228 139 95 69 52 39 30 22 15 HS-horizontal solar radiation TW Fl 295 78 40 25 17 12 9 6 4 Btu/ft2-day TW F2 192 81 47 31 22 16 12 8 6 VS-incident solar on south vertical TW F3 161 79 48 33 24 17 13 9 6 TW F4 134 11 45 31 23 17 13 9 6 TA-average ambient temperature, F TW G1 188 68 38 24 17 12 9 6 4 OX-degree-days to base X TW G2 141 67 41 28 20 14 11 8 5 TW G3 120 &1 38 26 19 14 11 8 5 DENVER, COLORADO TW G4 97 51 32 22 16 12 9 7 4 ELEV 5331 LAT 39.7 TW HI 124 55 33 22 16 11 8 6 4 HS VS TA DSO DSS 060 065 D70 KT LD TW HZ 97 49 31 21 15 11 8 6 4 JAN 840 1465 30 623 778 933 1088 1243 .64 61 TW H3 81 42 26 18 13 10 7 5 4 FEB 1127 1577 33 482 622 762 902 1042 .64 53 TW H4 63 32 20 14 10 7 5 4 3 MAR 1530 1503 37 406 559 713 868 1023 .64 42 TW I1 117 50 29 19 13 9 7 5 3 APR 1879 1227 48 130 240 379 525 675 .62 30 TW 12 169 89 56 39 29 21 15 12 8 MAY 2135 1061 57 18 63 143 253 406 .62 21 TW 13 180 98 53 44 32 24 18 13 9 JUN 2351 1037 66 1 5 23 80 158 .65 16 TW 14 183 107 72 51 38 29 22 16 11 JUL 2273 1053 73 0 0 0 0 so .64 18 TW IS 178 107 73 53 39 30 23 17 12 Aur. 2044 1188 72 0 0 0 0 69 .64 26 TW Jl 218 120 78 55 40 30 22 16 11 SEP 1727 1491 63 3 14 51 120 232 .66 38 TW JZ 198 113 75 53 39 30 22 16 11 OCT 1300 1657 52 63 143 261 408 559 .67 50 TW J3 214 134 93 68 51 '39 30 22 15 NOV 883 1441 39 324 469 618 768 918 .62 59 TW J4 197 123 86 63 48 36 28 21 14 DEC 732 1323 33 540 695 849 100 4 1159 .61 63 DG Al 150 &6 37 21 10 YR 1570 1334 50 2592 3588 4733 6016 7535 .64 OG A2 172 80 49 33 23 15 10 6 DG A3 216 103 65 46 34 25 19 13 7 DG Bl 149 68 40 27 18 11 From: Passive Solar Design Handbook, DG 82 177 83 52 36 27 20 14 9 4 @220 105 67 47 28 22 16 10 Volume III 186 85 52 36 19 13 6 8

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NET LOAD COEFFICENT and ANNUAL LCR METHOD WORKSHEET DATE ___ _ BY _______________ _ NET LOAD COEFFICIENT, NLC BUl..OING Fill In the Blanka LOAD, ELEMENT FORMULA and Perform Arithmetic UA WALLS ROOF : UAw • "wiRw : UA,• A,IR, E, W, N WINDOWS: UA0 • An•Un FLOOR : UA1 • AtiRI PERt.CETEA : UAp • 4.1 P P/(RP + 6) BASEMENT : UAb • 10.7 Pb/(Ab + 8) ---. , I ----X I • •.1x ----/( • 10.7 • -----/( INFLTRATION :U"1.018V •ADR IIACH. 0.018. • LOAD COLLECTOR RATIO, LCR LCR • NLC/Ap • ---I ____ • ----Btui•F • day • H 2 WEIGHTED AVERAGE, SSF REFERENCE DESIGN PROJECTED APERTURE AREA TOTAL Ap ----AUX I LIARY HEAT, 0 aux FRACTION OF Ap • -• + 15) -+ 8) • • Sum • ----Btu/•F • h NLC • 24 x &.n • ---Btu/•F • day 8SF FOR EACH REFERENCE DEStGH PRODUCT OF SSF x FRACTION SSF • -------Oaux • (1SSF)•NLC•DD:(1 -______ )•( ____ )-( ____ ) x 10-e • ----MBtu/year

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...... 0 VENTD TRot18E WALL SYSTEMS Des I gnat ton Al A2 Al A4 81 82 83 84 Cl C2 CJ t:4 D1 D2 Dl 04 05 [1 f2 [3 [4 Thennal Nolll nal Storage Wall Thickness .. (Btu/ft2FI lin. ) 15 22.5 30 45 15 22.5 30 45 15 22. 5 30 45 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 6 9 12 18 6 9 12 18 6 9 12 18 12 12 12 12 1?. 12 17 12 12 pck IBtl/h ft4 F 2 l 30 30 30 30 15 H 15 15 7.5 7 . 5 7.5 7.5 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 •per unit of projected area *""for the partlcuhr cue of pc • 30 Btu/ft3 F No. of Glulngs z 2 z 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 ?. 3 2 1 2 Wall Surface Night lnsuhtlon norlllll no nul normal nonnal norNl normal nonnal normal nonnal nor111al normal normal nor1111l normal norlllll normal nor1111l selective selective selective selective no no no no no no no no no no no no no no yes yes yes no no yes yes UNVENTED TROHBE WALL SYSTEMS Designation Fl F2 F3 F4 Gl G2 G3 G4 Hl HZ Hl H4 11 17 13 14 15 Jl J2 Jl J4 Thennal Nominal Storage Wall Capacity* Thickness•• (Btu/ft2 F I I ln. l 15 22.5 30 45 15 22.5 30 4S 15 22. 5 30 45 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 6 9 12 18 6 9 12 18 li 9 1?. 18 12 1? 1? 12 12 12 12 12 12 *per unit of projected area pck (8tl/h ft4 F 2 1 30 30 30 30 15 15 15 15 7.5 7.S 7.S 7.5 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 .. for the part! cuhr case of pe • 30 Btu/ft3 f No. of Glulngs 2 2 2 2 2 ? 2 2 2 ?. ? 2 1 3 2 3 2 2 Wall Surface normal normal norml normal . normal normal normal normal normal normal normal normal normal normal normal nor111<1l select tve selective selective selective Night lnsulat ton no no no no no no no no no no no no no no yes yes yes no no yes YPS

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SliiSPAC GHTRI S SUNSPAI:E SYSTEMS !all are double ghzrd l Tfl t Connon Night Oeslsnatlon r de9rees l Wall End Walls Insulation Attlched IAI Al attached 50 NSOnry opaque no A2 attac hed 50 •asonry opaque yes Al athched 50 Nsonry glazed no A4 attached 50 •asonry glued yes AS attached 50 tnsuhted opaque no A6 attached 50 tnsuhted ofaque yes A7 atttched 50 tnsuhted g ued no A8 attached 50 Insulated glazed yes Bl attached 90!30 NSOnry opaque no 82 attached 90/30 •nonry opaque yes Attached Ill 83 attached 90/30 Nsonry glued no 84 attached 90/30 11asonry glued yes 85 attached 90/30 tnsuhted opaque no 8/i attached 90/30 insulated opaque yes ...... 87 lthched 90/30 tnsuh ted glued no ...... 88 athched 90/30 Insulated glazed yes Cl semi-enclosed 90 IIIISOnry common no C2 semi-enclosed 90 masonry corrmon yes Cl semi-enclosed 90 Insulated common no C4 semi-enc losed 90 Insulated cOITI11on yes a•--ri_V Seaol-enclosed ICI 01 seml-enclosell 50 IIIISOnry common no "4 02 sem1-enc 1 osed 50 111asonry corrmon yes OJ semi-enclosed 50 Insulated common no 04 seml-enc 1 osed 50 Insulated COITI11on yes E1 semi-enclosed 'l0/30 Nsonry common no [2 semienclosed 90/30 III&Sonry COITI110n yes [3 semi-enclosed 90/30 tnsuhted common no [4 se111t-enclosed 90/30 insulated COOillOn yes .. -t 11rr D---...._24. ___ Ull Ill

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REFEPENCE DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS Masonry properties thermal conduct1v 1ty, direct gain and sunspace density specifi c heat infrared emittance of normal surface i nfrared emittance of selective surface Solar absorptances water wall masonry, Trombe wall direct gain and sunspace sunspace : water conta i ners lightweight common wall other lightweight surfaces Glazing properties transm1ssion characteristics orientation index of refraction extinction coefficient thickness of each pane air gap between panes infrared emittance Control range room temperature sunspace temperature internal heat generation Thenmocirculat ion VP.nts (when used) vent area / projected area (sum of both upper and 1 ower vents) hPight between vents reverse flow N i ght i nsulation (wtien used) thermal in place, solar Solar radiation assumptinns sh ad1 ng ground diffuse reflectance 1 i gh twei gh t absorpt ion fracti nn Other sunstace characteristics opaque wal thermal res1stance (both insula ted wa 11 and end walls, ff any l infiltration, ACH masonry wall thickness (masonry wall cases) water container heat capacity (insulated wall c ases) (per square foot of projected area) 12 1 .0 Btu/h ft F 150 1b/ft3 0.2 Btu/lb F 0.9 0.1 0.95 0.95 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.3 diffuse due south 1 . 526 0.5 in-1 1/R in 1/2 in 0.9 65 F to 75 F 45 F to 95 F 0 0.06 8 ft none P9 5:30 pm to 7 :30 am none 0.3 0 . 2 R20 0.5 12 in. 62.4 Btu/F ft2

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) Alexander, Christopher, "A Pattern Language," Oxford University, 1979. 2) An Achitectural Record Book, "Motels, Hotels, Restaurants and Bars," F. W. Dodge Corp, N.Y. 1960 (728.5A673). 3) Atkin, W. and Adler, J., "Interiors Book of Restaurants," Whitney Library of Design, N.Y., 1960. 4) Chen and Associates, Soil Analysis, 400 Block Marion, Denver, 1966. 5) Chiara, J. and Callender, J., "Time-Saver Stan dards," McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1980. 6) Davis, Ben, "The Traditional English Pub," Architectural Press, London, 1981 (NE7850 G66 D3). 7) Denver Building Codes, 1979. 8) Denver Zoning Codes, 1982. 9) Doelle, Leslie, "Environmental Acoustics," McGrawHill, N.Y., 1972. 10) Mikellides, Byron, "Architecture for People," Holt, Rinehart and Winston, N.Y., 1980 (720.103A673). 11) Mueller, Chinooks, Thesis of 1982. 12) NOAA, Climatological Report, 1982. 13) Palmer, M., "Architects' Guide to Programming," McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1982. 14) Washington Park Profile, July 1982, "No Restaurants in Washington Park Yet," page 13, and May 1982, "Park Problems," pages 1 and 4. 15) U.S. Government Census Report, 1980.

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Personal References: 1) Paul Cashman of the Washington Park Profile, Denver, Colorado (778-8021). 2) Joe Ciancio of the Denver Parks Department. 3) Nick Heis and Jerry Paisley of the Design Engineering Department for the Cit y of Denver 4) Shelly Gorman of the Community Recreation Center, Denver, Colorado (777-9876).