Citation
Zephyr Village at Winter Park : a proposed recreational facility

Material Information

Title:
Zephyr Village at Winter Park : a proposed recreational facility
Creator:
Yang, An
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of interior design)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Interior design

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright An Yang. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
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ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
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AN YANG
Master's Thesis in Interior Design College of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver
May 1983
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My thanks should go to many people who helped me in the process of the research and design development of this thesis project.
My special thanks go to my advisors, Christopher Nims, Interim Director of Interior Design; and to Lucinda A. Castellano, Planning Coordinator of Winter Park Recreational Association; and particularly to Alan Ford project architect of Zephyr Village at Muchow, Haller & Larson Architects.
An Yang May 1983 Denver, Colorado


CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND SITE ANALYSIS PROBLEM STATEMENT
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FUNCTION
PROGRAM
CODE REQUIREMENTS
REFERENCES
APPENDICES
The Problem 1 Methodology/Procedure 2 Scopes and Limitations 4
Project History 5
Philosophy 7
Facts 8 Locational Maps 9
Physical Factors 11
Human Factors 13
Economic Factors 15
Issues 16 Design Goals 19
General 20 Activity Spaces 22 Phasing 25
Function/Objectives 26 Function/Facts 28 Function/Concepts 35 Function/Needs 37
Program Summary 41
Detailed Space Requirements 43
Building Code 93
94


INTRODUCTION


THE PROBLEM
In "The Normalization Principle, and Some Major Implications to Architectural-Environmental Design," (Barrier-Free Environment), Wolf Wolfensberger indicated that the misperceptions of the disabled person as someone who behaves in a primitive, uncontrolled fashion, and is not capable of making meaningful choices, often leads to planned environments characterized as being "abuse-resistant", permitting users minimal control and presenting frustration to the disabled.
Michael J. Bednar, editor of Barrier-Free Environment, pointed out: "The built-environment as TT exists today communicates to the disabled messages of deviancy, incompetence and inferiority."
Designing a recreational facility for the disabled involves a study of the specific needs of the disabled, the needs of human-beings in general, and the necessary functions of the facility. I have chosen this project as my thesis design with the anticipation that my research into the user needs and the impact of the physical functions of such facilities will be of some positive contribution to the professional knowledge needed for designing similar facilities in the future.
1


METHODOLOGY/PROCEDURE
Activities involved in the programming and solution of the design problem will include the following:
A. ANALYSIS
- Information collecting and abstraction
* Evaluation of current program to capture and retain its best features.
' Factual data about the needs of the future program to determine the spatial needs and the relationships.
* Observation and behavioral mapping of the use of space during the various functions to determine behavioral patterns.
* Interview with various users - disabled, participants, staff and program committee - to identify the functional and aesthetic needs.
* Evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of other human service facilities for the disabled to generate appropriate design inputs.
* Literature survey of professional journals, books, research reports and interviews of persons related to the design of the facility to translate random input of wants and needs of users into design related concepts.
The aforementioned background information will be used to provide statements relating directly to programming and the final design solution.
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3
- Determination of factors affecting the problem Certain assumptions affecting the design include:
* Physical
* Social
’ Psychological
* Recreational
* Educational
* Economic
' And others
B. PROGRAMMING
C. DESIGN SOLUTION


SCOPES AND LIMITATIONS
The design is to be done within the framework established by the architects, with a given site, functions and codes. My design will include the interior space planning of the first phase and the ultimate phase of the activity center. As an interior designer of the Zephyr Village Project, I will evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed schematic design, and suggest modifications where pertinent and desirable while capturing and enhancing the original architectural features. However, certain specific design areas outlined in this program (such as detailed architectural, mechanical and lighting design) will not be dealt with at the level of my design development presentation.
4


BACKGROUND


PROJECT HISTORY
The Winter Park Handicap Recreation Program (hereinafter referred to as the Handicap Recreation Program), now the largest skiing program for disabled persons in the world, began in 1970 with a group of 25 disabled youngsters from Children's Hospital in Denver, Colorado. The Handicap Recreation Program offered specialized ski instruction and equipment adapted to the abilities of each participant. It was demonstrated that exposure to the public and socialization in a normalized setting had a beneficial impact on both the children and the non-handicapped skiing public.
Since 1977, a summer mountain recreation program has been conducted for individuals from group homes, institutions, and community programs whose severity of physical and mental disabilities prohibits involvement in the skiing activities.
Activities are tailor-made to provide sensory experiences appropriate for each disability. Over a ten week period, individuals participate in activities such as river rafting, horseback riding, sailing, hiking and camping. To balance this active recreation, creative arts and other activities are offered such as fishing, chairlift rides and singing.
Because of the severity of disabilities, involvement in such sports is more passive and experiential than in the skiing activites; however, the physical and emotional benefits are profound.
The Director of the Handicap Recreation Program, Hal O'Leary, believed then as now that the true potential of a disabled person is unlocked by minimizing physical obstacles and fostering participation in an atmosphere of love and acceptance.
Based on this philosophy, the Handicap Recreation Program
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has grown tremendously in twelve years of operation; last year 11,586 lessons were given to persons with over 35 disabilities.
The tremendous popularity of the Handicap Recreation Program and demand by handicapped persons for year-round adventure and recreation has given impetus to the concept of a large independent facility for the program. In October, 1981, Winter Park Sports and Learning Center received a $200,000 grant from the Rehabilitation Services Administration and numerous smaller grants to commence planning of the facility to be called Zephyr Village.
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PHILOSOPHY
The philosophy of the Handicap Recreation Program is that the single disability of any individual has minimal importance compared to his or her many abilities. With specialized equipment and recreational instruction, disability need never mask the true potential of each person, in recreation or in life. The ultimate goal is to give each disabled person the tools to be independent in recreation with family and friends by providing training, information, acceptance and challenge. Each instructor strives to heighten feelings of success and enjoyment and to have these carry over to normalized recreation in the home environment.
The Handicap Recreation Program operates on the knowledge, gained over many years, that disabled persons want to set their own limits and that, by and large, they want to recreate in a non-segregated atmosphere. Relaxed integration occurs on the ski slopes which cannot be achieved in more structured social settings. At lunch tables, in lift lines and on the slopes, people can see the carefree smiles of skiers, disabled and able-bodied, sharing the same experiences.
The program is also unique in its seven day-a-week availability and convenience to the Denver area and airport. The full-time staff of the program is supplemented by volunteers and interns, who expand the part-time staff to over 550 persons. Approximately 60,000 volunteer hours are donated each year.
Some interns and volunteers are disabled themselves or have a family member or friend with a disability. Many have professional concerns as physical therapists or special educators in the full development of disabled persons.
7


SITE ANALYSIS


FACTS
Zephyr Village is sited in a linear section of the Forest Service land bounded by the wetlands to the north and the existing access road to the south. This location was chosen due to its relative flatness (5% grade), good southern exposure, adjacency to site amenities (wetlands and views) and proximity to future housing. Sloping from the southeast to the northwest the site permits grade access of the south while elevating the building above the wetlands, to the north where snow typically accumulates to a depth of seven to ten feet. To minimize tree removal, the existing road will be utilized for vehicular access and expanded to accommodate two way traffic. Traffic volume should be relatively low permitting up to 100 parking spaces in the ultimate phase to be located along the access road utilizing it as a drive. This will serve to further reduce the impact of the automobile on the site. Grades along the length of the road will be modified so as not to exceed a 3% slope allowing barrier-free access to and from the parking area. Employee parking (40 spaces ultimate phase) along with service access for building support functions are located on the east end of the facility. Both employee parking and user parking will be phased in a linear fashion to compliment and satisfy the needs of the buildings' expansion. A central loop drive provides for equipment van access, bus loading and unloading, and passenger drop-off/pick-up at the main entry. The pedestrian approach to Zephyr Village is protected from the main road and drop off to the primary entry.
8




10
ZEPHYR VILLAGE SITE MAP


PROBLEM STATEMENT


PHYSICAL FACTORS
Since the beginning of the Handicap Recreation Program, the activities have been housed in spaces at the base facilities of the Winter Park Ski Area. Only spaces for research and development, equipment fitting and offices were provided. It has proven impossible to keep pace with the spatial needs of the program, due to large expansion from year to year. In October, 1981, Winter Park Sports and Learning Center contracted the architectural firm Muchow, Haller & Larson Architects to design the new facility - Zephyr Village.
Located in Grand County, in the mountains 68 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado, Zephyr Village will provide year-round adventure sports, outdoor recreation and creative arts for disabled persons, their families and the general public.
Some physical environmental factors to be considered are:
- Normalized recreational environment
The facility is planned to be a hub of year-round activities occurring both in the facility and on the surrounding land. As a central core of activity, the facility should promote a normalized recreational atmosphere in order to invite interaction with the community and offer the possibility of recreation in the Grand County area.
- Subtle and functional barrier-free design
The philosophy of the existing Handicap Recreation Program suggests that the new facility should offer housing and recreation to disabled and non-disabled alike in order to maintain the atmosphere of relaxed social integration found at the ski area and within the community. From this need emerged the notion that all necessary barrier-free design
11


must be accomplished in a subtle manner consistent with a resort environment.
- Construction-phasing compatible with program growth
Since the funds for the facility can not be raised at one time, it makes the phasing of the project construction a necessity. Therefore, construction phasing must be compatibel with program growth, activity groupings and fund-raising limitations to allow further growth and change.
12


HUMAN FACTORS
While emphasizing the needs of disabled persons for specialized training and adapted equipment, Zephyr Village will provide adventure sports and creative arts to all persons, both disabled and non-disabled, in order to maintain the atmosphere of relaxed social integration as well as to promote interaction with the general public.
For disabled participants, Zephyr Village shall promote utilization of its facilities for the broadest possible spectrum of users. The disabled groups can be characterized as:
- Wheelchair users
- Ambulatory weaknesses
- Ambulatory amputations
- Visually impaired
- All others
Human environmental factors to be considered are:
- Physical
- Recreational
- Social
- Educational
The general user needs are:
- Participants: Food
Medical (Emergency)
Informational
Recreational
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Soci al
Staffing:
Personal space Work space Housing Food
Training Conf erence
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ECONOMIC FACTORS
It is planned that funding for construction will be derived from sources which may include individuals, foundations, private developers and other sources. Operational funding will be secured through program fees, lease revenues, endowment funds, individuals, private foundations, and the federal government.
A $3.5 million budget goal has been established for the first phase of development. The second phase of facility construction will be an on-going phase tied to the availability of funds. The cost for the entire second phase is projected to be approximately $2.5 million.
Some economic factors to be considered are:
- Energy efficiency
- Maximum utilization of facility at all stages
- Competitive in cost and quality with area market
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ISSUES
Issues addressed in the process of design include:
- Physical
The design should respond to the following functions:
A subtle barrier-free facility which enables the needs of participants to be met without creating a contrived environment.
' Design must consider multi-function spaces which are flexible and expandable.
’ Construction phasing must be compatible with program growth, activity groupings, and fundraising limitations.
Informational areas should be close to users upon arrival.
' Organizational structure will be dynamic and administrative spaces must be loosely structured to allow for growth and change.
' Accessible and decentralized housing should be designed to meet the needs of users and families, and housing should be close to the Village activity center.
* Design should enhance the interaction between users and the beautiful features such as waterways, vegetation and wildlife habitats.
' Energy cost should be minimized to the greatest extent.
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Social
One of the main goals of the Handicap Recreation Program is to create a normalized recreational setting for the participants. According to Wolf Wolfensberger, the principle of normalization is a systematic formulation of how to maximize the likelihood that people who have been socially defined as deviant (devalued) become socially valued or revalued. Therefore, it is of great importance to establish socialization among participants, and the following functions need to be given consideration:
* Social encounters within the Village should be maximized through the design of certain areas for mixed traffic flow.
* Integration between participants and the general public should be encouraged.
' Individual and small group settings are essential to create an intimate interpersonal environment.
* Circulation must be direct and functional
but should promote social encounters and
interaction among the users.
Psychological
The design should respond to the following functions:
" The interaction between handicapped users,
staff, families and other social contacts
should create a pleasant atmosphere.
* The facility should not communicate to the disabled messages of deviancy, incompetence or inferiority.
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It is important that the initial contact with the facility evoke a positive response.
The facility should appear as an inviting, active and friendly place during the day and a quiet, intimate place at night.
Scale, color, texture and lighting should be sensitively and carefully utilized to evoke feelings of warmth and intimacy.
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DESIGN GOALS
The major design goals of Zephyr Village are:
- To provide a normalized recreational environment for the broadest possible spectrum of user groups.
- To create a barrier-free facility to meet the physical and social needs of users.
- To promote vibrant interrelationships between participants, families and staff within the Village.
- To allow the flexibility required for growth and change.
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DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


GENERAL
With the premise that access to Zephyr Village is to be available to all who wish to use it, the complex is designed to provide a village/resort like image in its natural setting. Characteristics of the site and the size of the facility require that a certain amount of level change take place. By accommodating these levels changes in gradual increments the building functions harmoniously with both the site conditions and the needs of its users. Within the architectural solution, the interior street and plaza recreate those elements found in a village and articulate them by means of salient roof lines, defined clusters, and social spaces on the exterior. A variety of colors, textures, wal planes, and materials are used to reinforce the village/resort imagery.
The basic architectural concept for Zephyr Village is to develop an interior "street" and two public nodes; "plazas," located at intermediate points along the street. The street concept serves as an organizing element for the various functions and as a means of achieving the desired phasing for the project. The gabled roof form enclosing the street incorporates natural daylighting and passive solar heating by means of a translucent material which runs continuous the full length of the street providing an even diffused light. At points where the street jogs clear, glazing is used at the gabled ends to highlight the area with direct daylighting. Going from east to west, floor elevations along the street step down at three points in gradual increments of two and a half feet each. The level changes are handled by both stairs and ramps maximizing accessibility.
Phase One consists of developing the plaza area as a core within the plan. The adjoining streets expand out from the plaza in a linear fashion according to the availability of funding. With this concept, the flexibility of phasing modules is maximized. Many of the interior spaces will also become flexible in order to accommodate expan-
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sion and changing program needs to be discussed in more detail later. (See Phase One versus completed Phasing plan.)
The main entry is located off of the large plaza space providing the users with an immediate vital active entry environment. Views of the wetlands, major social support spaces (store, cafe eating, bar, etc.) and information orientation become an integral part of the main entry.
The plaza acts as a transition space, public gathering area and a multi-use activity area. Expanding on the concept of the street, the plaza provides a hierarchial order to the size and character of the social spaces; with the rather intimate spaces occurring along the length of the street with the more open public activities at the plaza. In order to integrate user support functions with the plaza and street, activities such as cafe eating spill out into the plaza and street area which not only provides overflow seating for cafe eating but also will maximize the openness of the cafe eating to the public zone.
Outdoor decks are an integral part of the design concept and provide a functional extension of the various activity areas. They are distributed throughout the facility as required. Along the wetlands, the continuous deck provides an exterior circulation corridor in addition to access down to the wetlands. The large variety of deck locations provides excellent sun exposure for different areas of the building throughout the year. Adjacent to cafe eating, the deck is extended far out into the wetlands to provide additional outdoor activity space and permit direct sun on to these areas.
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ACTIVITY SPACES
General administrative functions (Director, Conference, etc.) and information services (reception, kioski, etc.) are located immediately adjacent to the entry. Facility and program information will be handled out of the reception area along with housing and reservation services.
User related administrative functions (instructors work area, equipment fitting, etc.) occur directly across the plaza area from general administration. Due to its function, it is located at the northeast end of the facility. Large group gathering, having a strong proximity requirement to the instructors' work area, equipment fitting, street and plaza is located within this grouping while still maintaining access to the loop drive for bus loading and unloading.
Cafe eating, along with the primary entry, being the major activity generator and anchor for the interior street and the large plaza, provides a public gathering and social area adjacent to the main entrance plaza. Phase Two expansion of cafe eating will extend out into the wetlands revealing views of the Winter Park Ski area. The large deck area, adjacent to cafe eating, will accommodate additional seating during the summer months and provide access to the wetlands. Cafe eating will also function as a banquet area with the added potential of being divided into smaller banquet rooms. During the first phase, the bar will be located in the eating area. In subsequent phases, as the demand for seating in cafe eating increases, the bar will be relocated adjacent to the store and plaza, maintaining its proximity to the deck and plaza.
Generalized user activities such as the art grouping, store, daycare, billiards, etc., are centralized within the facility for easy access from both the primary and secondary entries. This cluster exemplifies the adaptive use concept of the phasing with functions expanding and
22


relocated during the phasing process. For example, the first phase performance is located within this grouping keeping an adjacency to the major plaza. It will accommodate dance, ping pong and small theater. Basketball and volleyball would occur in the ultimate phase plan when performance is relocated across from the pool. Upon relocation of performance daycare, photo, etc., would be
established in its place while other adjacent activities such as the store will expand as required. The store throughout phasing remains a focal point of social contact and is located in such a manner as to act as a hub for the plaza and user areas.
Daycare, also a second phase activity, is oriented to
the main entry for ease of dropping off and picking up
children. Multi-purpose art is arranged so that pedestrians walking along the street have views into the work area, while the workers themselves have close proximity to the street for use as an "outdoor" work space. Public lockers and showers for weight training and art are located in the adjacent restroom. The smaller plaza area acts as a secondary entry for future phase construction, a lobby space for pool and performance activities, and a public access point to the deck area thus providing a logical security separation location.
Locker rooms in the sports grouping are situated to provide access to both the pool and performance area. The pool office, centralized and adjacent to the pool entry, functions as a ticket, information, and observation area. The locker room enclosures will have their own roof form creating the image of a building within a building as a development of the street concept, and reinforcing the imagery of the exterior brought to the interior.
The pool is surrounded with large areas of windows on three walls to create a light open ambience and to relate the interior activites to its natural surroundings. The adjacent deck area has good southern exposure and views of the Mary Jane and Winter Park ski areas. The deck at this point is approximately ten feet above grade,
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permitting on-grade service access for the pool mechanical and storage areas which are located below the pool. The performance area, more accurately a multi-function space, will primarily be used for sports activities dictating that it be located within this grouping. For non-theater use the area would be open to the street providing interaction of the public and activity zone. The floor of performance is two and one half feet below that of the street. This is done to maintain the necessary clearances for basketball and volleyball while maintaining a lower exterior profile.
Mechanical and electrical rooms for the facility are located as required below the main floor level along the length of the building. Access is by means of stair at either end of the building and from the underside of the deck for the mechanical rooms in the center portion of the building.
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PHASING
A primary requirement of Zephyr Village was a plan which afforded the flexibility to construct the facility in two or more phases. Due to the unpredictability of construction funding and program demand, design alternatives were sought which would permit new sections to be constructed without interruption of activities in the remainder of the facility.
The Zephyr Village structural system of 20 foot bays combined with the linear interior street provides maximum phasing flexibility. Disruption of the existing facility can be minimized with such a structural organization.
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FUNCTION


FUNCTION/OBJECTIVES
- The environment and planned facility shall facilitate the utilization of the broadest possible spectrum of user groups.
- A normalized recreational environment is a primary design consideration in recognition that the needs of the users are best met in a resort atmosphere that promotes interaction with the general public.
- To increase the size of the recreational facility through a phased growth plan relating to availability of space and revenue.
- The interaction between handicap users, staff, families and other social contacts create a positive environment.
- The facility shall highly focus on one to one personal involvement.
- The facility shall encourage family participation in the recreational process.
- The essential physical and social needs of users must be met by the facility.
- The program will be composed of a well-balanced and complementary group of rigorous activities as well as passive, more social activities for individuals, groups and families on a year-round basis.
- To provide spaces that are visually and physically definable between program staff and users to avoid interferance.
- The facility shall provide appropriate energy conservation techniques, since operational costs
26


should be minimized.
To develop and disseminate new teaching methods, procedures and equipment modifications.
Phasing of construction should allow for maximum utilization of the facility at all stages.
Facility design should reflect the fact that necessary funding will be obtained over several years.
Facility design should promote a vibrant interrelationship among people in meeting the essential physical, recreational, social and educational needs of its users.
Design of the facility shall compliment the natural setting. Materials used shall enhance the natural character of the site.
Pedestrian circulation shall resolve mobility limitations of users in a subtle manner.
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FUNCTION/FACTS
FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF USER GROUPS
A. Wheel Chair User - Nonambulatory person with mobility limitations due to muscular, skeletal or joint impairments, may require individual to use a wheel chair or other specially designed equipment for upper or lower extremities and may require activity modification.
B. Ambulatory Weakness - Physical disabilities due to muscular, skeletal or joint impairments may necessitate use of crutches, braces, prosthetics or other special equipment. Activity modification may be required.
C. Ambulatory - Amputation - Amputation of one or more upper or lower extremities may necessitate use of crutches, braces, prosthetics or other equipment and may require activity modification.
D. Visually Impaired - Visual activity impaired or totally nonexistent by defect, disease or injury. Blind person may use guide dog or cane for assistance and balance. Activity modification may be required.
E. All Others - Physically, mentally or emotionally impaired individuals who may require assistive devices but may not require any activity modifications because of manner of conducting activity.
User Groups: Three categories of persons with disabilities will be served by the facility:
1) Highly Independent - Would use facility as resource providing specialized services while engaging in integrated recreation.
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2) Non-Independent - Would use facility to a greater extent in normalizing social and recreational life.
3) Segregated or Severely Disabled - Would use facility as the primary resource for social and recreational participation.
USER GROUP PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS
A. Highly Independent - Someone with highly developed emotional, social and recreational skills, seeking entirely normalized recreation. This user would use facility as a resource for specialized instruction and adaptive equipment.
B. Non-Independent - Someone with inability to engage in normalized recreation by virtue of lack of recreational, emotional and social skills, perhaps because of recent nature of disability. This person's use of the facility would be to use it as a point of social contact and development of recreational skills.
C. Segregated - Persons who may never be able to be normalized completely in recreation or social activities because of severity of disability. This user would utilize facility for the majority of social, recreational and emotional needs.
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FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM
PARTICIPANTS
The participants' main contact is with instructors and volunteers. As indicated by the adjacent diagram, administrative and clerical contact is secondary.
30


FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM
INSTRUCTORS
The instructors' primary responsibility is to the participants. Interaction with secretarial is clerical in nature with schedules, forms, etc., which are required before starting activities.
31


FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM
ADMINISTRATIVE
The adjacent diagram indicates the working relationships of the administration. The proximity of the various functions to each other are indicated by arrows.
32
administrative area
4
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33
USER FUNCTION - SKI PROGRAM
The adjacent diagram illustrates the direct line to activity, once the initial process is completed, or in the case of participants who are well acquainted with the program. The participants will require an on-going need for adaptive equipment.
regular participant process
I


34
USER FUNCTION - SKI PROGRAM
Initial introduction of participants to the program requires a process of evaluation, scheduling and adaptive equipment fitting. The adjacent diagram indicates the sequence in this process.
oooo


FUNCTION/CONCEPTS
- Social encounters within the Village can be promoted through centralization of social and cultural functions in the plazas and through the design of certain areas for mixed flow of traffic that promote social encounters.
- Priority should be given to creation of a subtle barrier-free facility which enables the need of users to be met without creating a contrived environment .
- Construction phasing must be compatible with program growth, activity groupings and fund raising limitations.
- Design must consider multi-function spaces which are expandable, versatile or convertible to other uses.
- Organizational structure will be dynamic (evolving with growth) and administrative spaces must be loosely structured to accommodate growth and change.
- Individual and small group settings are essential to create an intimate interpersonal environment.
- Circulation between highly used activity areas where large groups utilize space frequently, should be designed very simple and separate in order to reduce confusion.
- Administrative areas not directly related to user contact should be more remote and deemphasized.
- Informational areas should be proximate to users upon arrival.
35


Facility should be able to be utilized research and demonstration site.
as a
Various areas in initial phases should be designed as multi-functional.


FUNCTION/NEEDS
GENERAL USER NEEDS
- Food
- Medical (Emergency)
- Informational
- Recreational
- Social
GENERAL STAFFING NEEDS
- Personal Space
- Work Space
- Food
- Training/Conference
37


FUNCTIONAL GROUPINGS
la. administrative
lb. instructional
2. user support
3. social
4. arts
5. performance
6. sports
7. building support
30


OVERALL PROXIMITY DIAGRAM
The adjacent diagram shows different areas in their proportional and organizational relationships. It doesn't represent a floor plan, but should be considered only as a proximity and adjacency requirement of the overall functions.
1. deliveries/workroom
2. storage/supply room
3. closet
4. conference rooms
5. first-aid clinic
6. directors' area
7. clerical/secretarial
8. instructors' work area
9. staff changing/restrooms
10. staff quiet area
11. storage room
12. main waiting area
13. information/orientation housing reservation
14. store/supplies/sundries
15. day care
16. public restrooms
17. bi11iards/video games
18. 1ibrary/quiet area
19. equipment storage
20. equipment fitting
21. large group gathering
22. user coat storage
23. cafe/banquet
24. r&d shop
25. research & development
26. performance
27. art
28. ceramics
29. photography
30. fabric design
31. weight training
32. swimming/scuba
33. lockers/showers
34. caretaker
35. mechanical
36. janitorial
37. building security
38. vestibules
39. delivery
40. building storage
39


40
PHASING DIAGRAM
1. deli veri es/workroom
2. storage/supply room
3. closet
4. conference rooms
5. first-aid clinic
6. directors' office
7. clerical/secretarial
8. instructors' work area
9. staff changing/restrooms
10. staff quiet area
11. storage room
12. main waiting area
13. information
14. store/sundries
15. day care
16. public rest rooms
17. bi11iards/video games
18. library
19. equipment storage
20. equipment fitting
21. large group gathering
22. user coat storage
23. cafe/banquet
24. r&d shop
25. research & development
26. performance
27. art
28. ceramics
29. photography
30. fabric
31. weight training
32. swimming
33. lockers/showers
34. caretaker
35. mechanical
36. telephone/electrical equipment
37. janitorial supplies
38. building security


PROGRAM


PROGRAM SUMMARY
Zephyr Village, recreational center for disabled persons, will be constructed in the basin of what is called the "Jim Creek" area. The site provides ideal site amenities (such as vegetation, wetlands, wildlife and views) in relation to the philosophy of the facility.
When completed, the new facility will attract handicapped participants as well as people from the community with exciting programs rather than simply with an attractive facility emphasizing administrative space. Therefore, the general functions of the facility will involve the space planning of administrative, instructional, user support, social, arts, performance, sports and building support.
Spaces/activities to be included in the facility are:
First phase - Administrative
reception, waiting, clerical, instructor work area, etc.
- Cafeteria and banquet
- Large organizational space
- Equipment fitting and storage
- General multi-purpose performance weight training, lockers, etc.
- Multi-purpose arts
- Building support
The total square footage of the first phase is approximately 37,000 square feet.
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Second phase - Performing arts center
drama, dance, yoga, music, singing, table tennis, etc.
- Smaller user areas
day care center, sundries store, billiards, video game room, library, fabric arts, sculpting, painting, ceramics, photography, etc.
- Swimming pool lockers, restrooms, etc.
The total square footage of the ultimate phase will be approximately 65,000 square feet.
42


DETAILED SPACE REQUIREMENTS
The following section illustrates the specific needs of individual program spaces based on: activity characteristics, proximity to specific areas, number of users anticipated using space, time of use, anticipated change of use, square footage, furniture and equipment, noise control requirement, visual needs and other special requirements .
All the spaces are divided into the following groupings:
- Administrative grouping
- User support grouping
- Social grouping
- Art grouping
- Sport grouping
- Building support grouping
43


44
Deliveries/Work Room Administrative Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Room used for supplies storage, for mailing, processing literature, work area for clerical tasks, binding, general deliveries to other administrative spaces.
Proximity: To parking area, to clerical area. Adjacent to administrative storage room.
People: Capacity for three at one time.
Time: 8:00 to 5:00 normally.
Change: Likely with growth.
Furniture and Equipment: 36" deep cont. work surface, built-in storage, stool seating, office equipment, copy machine, word processor, scheduling panel, etc.
Sound: Moderate control required.
Visual: No special requirement.
Special: Lower work counter section for wheel chair user; equipment to be placed for wheel chair users; even lighting as well as task lighting important. High ventilation requirement.


Storage/Supplies
Administrative Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Storage for supplies (clerical).
Proximity: Storage for supplies near administrative clerical area; staff belongings in changing area.
People: Clerical storage supplies for thirty people; coat closet storage for twenty people.
Time of Use: Continuous.
Change: Changing in size with growth.
Furniture and Equipment: Adjustable shelving for supplies with doors built-in; coat closet, rod-shelves with doors built-in.
Sound: No special requirement.
Visual: No special requirement.
45


Coat Storage
Administrative Grouping
Activity
Characteristics:
Proximity:
People:
Time:
Change:
Equipment:
Sound:
Visual:
Storage for wraps, personal belongings.
Centralized and/or distributed through out administrative area for staff use.
Storage for twenty persons.
Continuous.
Likely.
Rod shelves with built-in doors.
No special requirement.
No special requirement.
46


47
Conference Rooms Administrative Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Rooms will be used both for public as well as in-house group or one-to-one conference. Spaces need to be provided for small groups as well as large groups. Large groups need A/V equipment. Area would also be used by research and development, sales, etc.
Proximity: One large group room needs to be close to administrative directors' offices. Small conference rooms shall be near administrative area as well as near activity areas.
People: Large group up to thirty-six people, or three groups of twelve each.
Time: Varies.
Change: Growth may require more areas for conference.
Furniture and Equipment: Large Group Conference: Sectional conference table, chairs, shelving, projection screen, A/V room, display wall or board, coffee area. Small Group Conference: Conference (sectional) table, chairs, shelving.
Sound: Acoustical privacy is a must for all conference rooms.
Visual: Flexibility of privacy required. Smaller conference areas should be strategically placed with views to nature.


Special:
48
Barrier-free access. High ceiling may be advantageous.


First Aid/Clinic Administrative Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Room is used for evaluation of questionable disabilities of users in order to determine their extent of participation in various activities. Physical and psychological evaluation of users is conducted by director. Room also used for treatment of minor on-site accidents, maintenance medicine, etc.
Proximity: Near receptionist, main waiting, and director's office. Remote from public access.
People: Usually two with an occasional maximum of three.
Time: Unpredictable.
Change: Non-anticipated.
Furniture and Equipment: Chair, sink, desk, files for records, couch, examination table, storage cabinet/tools, plants.
Sound: Acoustically treated with privacy as main factor.
Visual: View to exterior with control preferred.
Special: Depending on equipment, special electrical and mechanical requirements may exist.


Directors' Offices
Administrative Grouping
Activity
Characteristics:
Proximity:
People:
Time of Use: Change:
Furniture and Equipment:
Work to be accomplished in this area would partially include:
A. Program director
B. User counseling
C. Staff instruction, conferring
D. Public relations/fund raising
E. Staff evaluation and training
F. Staffing needs assessment
G. Program coordination
H. R and D coordination
I. Bookkeeping, accounting, reports, budget, record keeping
Access indirectly to small waiting area, access to information, recreation hub and clerical area. Access to conference center and instruction work area - indirect access to activity areas. Communication with all administrative personnel and activity areas.
Undetermined.
Flexible schedules.
Space need to be determined as program develops in order to incorporate the appropriate structure, therefore, this area will need to accommodate great flexibility in order to provide both change of function as well as privacy.
Based on the above, furniture and furnishings need to be identified both as an open plan as well as closed indi-
50


Sound:
vidual office potential. Equipment may include desks, executive chairs, side chairs, small conference tables and chairs, credenzas, storage and filing systems.
Area must be controlled physically as well as acoustically in order to enhance concentration.
51


Cleri cal/Secretari al Administrative Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Transcribing dictation and general dictation; general copying of materials; assisting receptionist in user orientation.
Proximity: To administrative offices, copy machines, word processor, office files, conference rooms, delivery area.
People: Four to five persons.
Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. normal working hours.
Change: Moderate.
Furniture and Equipment: Typing desks, file drawers, typewriters, calculators, telephones, book shelves, dictaphones.
Sound: Moderate control.
Visual: No special requirement.
Special: None.
52


Instructors' Work Area
Administrative Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Permanent, part-time, internship and volunteer staff members performing directly on a one-to-one basis with users in evaluating and assisting users in equipping for specific activity. Providing the physical as well as psychological assistance to perform a desired activity. This area and activity requires organization equipment such as files. Instructor and intern will share stations at the ratio of two interns for each instructor. High activity area for instructor activity coordination, record keeping and preparation area prior to activity participation. Participant evaluation.
Proximity: Adjacent to exterior, to where program records and program schedules are kept.
People: Ten to fifteen people including instructors and/or coordinators.
Time: Intermittent - 8:00 to 5:00 normal.
Change: This area has the potential for growth throughout phasing and program growth.
Furniture and Equipment: Carrels (work stations), work surface, lamps, personnel files, pencil drawers, book shelves.
Sound: Each work station requires privacy in order to foster concentration. This room must maintain acoustical privacy


54
Visual: Special:
from other areas.
No supervision of other area required. None.


55
Staff Changing and Restrooms Administrative Grouping
Activities: As instructors prepare for activities at beginning of day and when returning, they need to change clothing and remove special equipment in conjunction with clean-up and personal hygiene.
Activity Characteristics: Private personal hygiene, make-up, clean-up.
Proximity: To personal locker area, activity areas, employee entry prior to work area.
People: Four persons at one time male/female.
Time: Anytime during the day.
Change: Moderately likely.
Furniture and Equipment: Totally Accessible Bathrooms: Men: 2 w.c., 2 urinals, 2 sinks, benches, changing and 12 lockers, mirrors. Women: 3 w.c., 2 sinks, mirrors, benches, changing and 12 lockers.
Sound: Moderate control required.
Visual: No special requirement needed.
Special: Accessible, non-skid floor surface, space for wheel chairs, turning radius, space under sinks, height of switches, good lighting, full length mirrors, coat hooks, easy open doors with lever hardware.


56
Staff Quiet Area Administrative Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Area devoted to staff members in need of personal time. Refreshment and light cooking possible. Adjacent quiet area for personal reflection, reading, conversation or listening to music and observing the natural surroundings.
Proximity: To staff changing and restrooms, area needs to be visually and acoustically isolated from administrative areas and activity areas.
People: Six persons.
Time: Anytime throughout the day.
Change: Moderate.
Furniture and Equipment: Coffee Area: Refrigerator, soft drink vending machine, coffee maker, sink, disposal, cabinets for supplies, micro-wave, hot plate, hood/fan. Quiet Area: Coffee table, magazine rack, book sfieTves, club chairs (4), 1-2 seater choach, planting, music.
Sound: Must be quiet.
Visual: Privacy from program but must have view to exterior site amenities or view of natural beauty.


Storage
Administrative Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Miscellaneous storage for administrative staff.
Proximity: Central location in administrative area. Adjacent to delivery work room.
People: No special requirement.
Time: Continuous.
Change: Likely.
Furniture and Equipment: Adjustable shelving.
Sound: No special requirement.
Visual: No special requirement.


E>8
Main Waiting/Lobby User Support Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Orientation and reception to facility. Interior hub of social interaction -information, housing reservations, program scheduling and display area - occasional function as interior amphitheater - transition area between entry and activity areas - terraced nature area provides sensory expression of the spirit of recreational center. Also used for additional large group gathering, conference area, expansion of eating area, volunteer work area, etc.
Proximity: Location in facility should be adjacent to main entry, main activity areas, information orientation.
People: Around 100 persons.
Time of Use: Continuous.
Change: Function is unlikely to change.
Furniture and Equipment: Information/orientation area landscape equipment.
Sound: Acoustical treatment must be incorporated into landscape design.
Visual: Sunlit area, high ceiling with view to exterior. Interior terraced area will provide contact to exterior environment through selective use of vegetation, terraced rock garden and waterfalls.


Informati on/Ori entati on User Support Grouping
Activity
Characteristics:
Proximity:
People:
Time of Use:
Change:
Furniture and Equipment:
Sound:
Visual:
Reception as well as public relations activities occur here. Central communications area is located at this point in addition to seating and waiting area for participants and general public -control area for information dispersal to persons entering facility for the first time providing general orientation to facility, housing information and program scheduling.
Centrally located adjacent to entry and main waiting.
Three to 35 persons.
Continuous but maximum use between 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m.
No functional change anticipated with growth - possible change in capacity.
Possibly audiovisual display - kiosk display providing information regarding activity scheduling, housing information, reception, typing desk, switchboard, telephone, dictaphone, publication storage, scheduling information.
Possibly audiovisual.
Kiosk, possibly audiovisual.
59


Store-Supplies Sundries User Group Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Small shopping area for purchase of sundries and convenience food.
Proximity: Located near main entry with access from large group area and to exterior for delivery pruposes.
People: Thirty persons maximum, three staff maximum.
Time of Use: Continuous - primarily 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Change: Not anticipated.
Furniture and Equipment: Vertical and horizontal shelves, counter, vertical and horizontal freezers, cash register, safe.
60


Day Care
User Support Group
Activity
Characteristics: Will include play area - waiting area - sleeping accommodations - kitchen and bathroom provisions and small office. For use of Zephyr Village participants and staff. Day care use only.
Proximity: Adjacent to activity areas and outdoor play area.
People: Two to fifteen persons.
Time of Use: Daytime: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m..
Furniture and Equipment: Bedding for seven children with divider curtains, seating for waiting area, office furniture - play equipment -two water closets - one lavatory each restroom.
Sound: Acoustical attention required.
Visual: View to natural landscape.
61


Public Restrooms User Support Grouping
Proximity: Distributed throughout the facility.
People: Fifty.
Time of Use: Continuous.
Change: Likely with growth.
Furniture and Equipment: Males: 7 water closets, 6 urinals, 9 1avatories. Females: 11 water closets, 9 lavatories. TT drinking fountains.
Sound: Acoustically isolated.
Visual: Location should be apparent but visually screened.
Special: Barrier-free; natural or mechanical ventilation required.
62


Billiards/Video Grames User Support Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Billiard and video games activity space with seating for players and spectators. Storage room for table covers, etc.
Proximity: Adjacent to general multi-purpose area.
People: Fifteen persons.
Time of Use: Continuous.
Change: Unlikely.
Furniture and Equipment: One coin operated billiard table, video games, storage rack for cue sticks, change machine.
Sound: No special requirements.
Visual: Harsh shadows must be avoided.
Special: Tables should not be moved once they are set up. Billiard table should accommodate wheel chairs.
63


64
Library/Quiet Area User Support Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Area devoted to user refreshments, reading, reflection, conversation.
Proximity: Convenient to user areas but visually and acoustically segregated.
People: One to ten persons.
Time of Use: Continuous.
Change: Moderate.
Furniture and Equipment: Seating, mazazine rack, stereo, book shelves.
Sound: Acoustically isolated.
Visual: Privacy from activities.
Special: Some direct sunlight desirable.


Equipment Storage
User Support Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Storage of two vans and equipment for all activities providing ready access to fitting area.
Proximity: Should be located adjacent to fitting area, large group gathering and vehicular drive.
People: Three to four staff, 50 users maximum.
Time of Use: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Change: Changing in size with growth.
Furniture and Equipment: Bin storage for equipment: hiking, camping, climbing, rafting. Shelving for skates, boots, vertical storage for bicycles, rafts, canoes, kayaks; three work benches.
Sound: No special requirement.
Visual: No special requirement.
65


Equipment Fitting
User Support Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Equipment checking, fitting and adaptation - demonstration of equipment use hub of action for recreational activities.
Proximity: Adjacent to exterior, equipment storage, vehicular area - centrally located within activity areas.
People: Three to four staff, 50 users maximum.
Time of Use: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Change: Changing in size with growth.
Furniture and Equipment: Fitting and seating benches.
66


Equipment Fitting
User Support Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Equipment checking, fitting and adaptation - demonstration of equipment use hub of action for recreational activities.
Proximity: Adjacent to exterior, equipment storage, vehicular area - centrally located within activity areas.
People: Three to four staff, 50 users maximum.
Time of Use: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Change: Changing in size with growth.
Furniture and Equipment: Fitting and seating benches.
66


Equipment Fitting
User Support Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Equipment checking, fitting and adaptation - demonstration of equipment use hub of action for recreational activities.
Proximity: Adjacent to exterior, equipment storage, vehicular area - centrally located within activity areas.
People: Three to four staff, 50 users maximum.
Time of Use: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Change: Changing in size with growth.
Furniture and Equipment: Fitting and seating benches.
66


Equipment Fitting
User Support Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Equipment checking, fitting and adaptation - demonstration of equipment use hub of action for recreational activities.
Proximity: Adjacent to exterior, equipment storage, vehicular area - centrally located within activity areas.
People: Three to four staff, 50 users maximum.
Time of Use: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Change: Changing in size with growth.
Furniture and Equipment: Fitting and seating benches.
66


Equipment Fitting
User Support Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Equipment checking, fitting and adaptation - demonstration of equipment use hub of action for recreational activities.
Proximity: Adjacent to exterior, equipment storage, vehicular area - centrally located within activity areas.
People: Three to four staff, 50 users maximum.
Time of Use: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Change: Changing in size with growth.
Furniture and Equipment: Fitting and seating benches.
66


Large Group Gathering User Support Grouping
Activity
Characteristics:
Proximity:
People:
Time of Use:
Change:
Furniture and Equipment:
Sound:
Visual:
Centralization of large groups upon arrival, at meal time and for departure. Area for organization, orientation, paperwork, sack lunches, etc. Will permit organization of large groups and dispersal into smaller units without overloading remainder of facility. Volunteer organization should take place here as well. Can double as multi-purpose area.
Must have direct vehicular access and access to equipment fitting area, adjacent to general multi-purpose room.
Groups of approximately fifty people. Volunteers of same number.
8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., intervals
throughout the day.
Not likely.
Removable seating and tables, bin compartments on walls for storage of personal items.
No special requirement.
No special requirement.
67


Research and Development
User Support Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Permanent and intern staff of from two to three members will be working on a one-to-one basis with users to adapt, design, and fabricate prosthetic and sports related equipment. The research and development office will contain the drafting equipment with minimal storage to accommodate research projects and adequate work space with hand tool storage to facilitate testing and fitting. The adjacent equipment storage will be used by the research and development group. Considering the aspect of the research and development projects, privacy and pleasant atmosphere is required.
Proximity: Access to equipment storage is of primary importance. Toilet facilities and administrative areas should be easily accessible.
People: Two to three staff and intern members with one individual being attended at a time.
Time of Use: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. normal office hours with shop access at all times.
Change: Due to the specialized nature of the associated equipment storage, the research and development offices should be phased together.
Furniture and Equipment: Two drafting tables with stools. One
68


Sound:
Visual:
Special:
drawing file cabinet with layout counter. Two desk work stations with file cabinet and chair. One testing/fitting table with small tool storage.
The nature of the research and development activites requires acoustical privacy.
The research and development office will be visually screened from the adjacent shop areas with pleasant views to the exterior.
Adequate task lighting will be provided.
69


User Coat Storage User Support Grouping
Activity
Characteristics:
Proximity:
People:
Time of Use:
Change:
Furniture and Equipment:
Sound:
Visual:
User coat storage distributed through out the facility.
Located in user areas.
Storage for up to fifty people - approx imately 24 lineal feet.
Continuous.
Changing in size with growth.
Coat rods.
No special requirement.
No special requirement.
70


Cafe - Eating/Drinking Social Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Food service for 75-100 people offering cold and hot food, buffet, grill, sandwich and occasional gourmet service. Bar for beer, wine and some mixed drinks. Outside terrace with umbrellaed tables for summer use. Restroom for staff and users. Warm up capacity for 100-200 people.
Proximity: Adjacent to assembly/banquet area, exterior for delivery, restrooms and main waiting area. Location next to sunny terrace and central plaza for warm weather.
People: 75-200 persons.
Time of Use: Continuous - day and evening.
Change: Should afford flexibility of partitioning segments of space.
Furniture and Equipment: Kitchen: Dry storage, trash receptacles, dishwasher, freezer, cooking, delivery, food warming, oven, hood-fan. Bar: Freezer, beverage and glass stor-age, height adjustable counter, seating, cash register. Seating: Mix of removable tables and permanent booth seating. Waste dispensers, chair storage, busing stations.
Sound: Sound insulation in areas such as bar where more intimate atmosphere is desired.
71


Visual:
Special:
Cafeteria service and busing areas should be screened from main dining area. Design should permit use of natural sunlight during day, dim incandescent lighting during evening creating warmth and comfort. Bar should be an independent focal point, "oasis" setting. Decor should be non-institutional. Interior of cafe should have a focal point terrace and large central plaza where social activities may be observed.
Ambiance should be non-institutional and relaxed, affording both privacy and easy social interaction flowing from cafe to interior street, to central plaza. Quality of food and decor are significant factors.
72


Sculpture and Painting Art Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Area for instruction in and participation in sculpting and painting.
Proximity: Within art grouping.
People: Ten persons.
Time of Use: Varies through day and evening.
Change: Likely.
Furniture and Equipment: Storage for painting materials and to hang canvas and easels; small mixing and clean-up counter with sink; portable platform, flexible lighting for "staging area."
Sound: No special requirement.
Visual: Controlled natural lighting preferable with supplemental diffused incandescent lighting for night class.
Special: Display area in orientation space for photography and arts and crafts.
73


Ceramics Art Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Instruction and participation in crafts.
Proximity: Within art grouping.
People: Six persons.
Time of Use: Scheduled instruction and evening use.
Change: Likely.
Furniture and Equipment: Electric and standard wheels; full height drying racks, built-in upper and lower casework for clay storage, etc.
Sound: No special requirement.
Visual: Natural, indirect light.
Special: Adjustable heights possible, locate kiln adjacent to outdoor, screened work area.
74


Photography Art Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Space for developing black and white and color printing of participant's photographs from classes and independent activity.
Proximity: Within art grouping - with display area open to interior street.
People: Twelve persons.
Time of Use: Continuous; scheduled classes.
Change: Not significant.
Furniture and Equipment: Printing - washing/inspection photo sink with three enlargers on counter with timer, etc., photographic sink, contact printer with counter, miscellaneous equipment. Developing - photographic sink, work counter, dry counter, miscellaneous equipment. Print finishing room - photo sink with drainboard, drum-type print washer, print dryer, work counter with storage and paper cutter/dry mount/spotting easel. Storage and mixing room - service sink, work counter with storage, open storage shelving, refrigerator. Color and print room - two enlargers with counter in light-tight room, work counter with 12 x 12 sink, print finishing facilities can be shared with black and white.
75


Sound: Visual: Special:
No special requirement.
Additional space for light trap doors.
Special chemical resistant plumbing and mixing valves must be provided. All surfaces must be easy to maintain. Security of equipment and materials must be provided for.
76


Fabrics Art Grouping
Activity
Characteristics:
Proximity:
People:
Time of Use: Change:
This activity will provide instructional as well as individual sessions, providing fundamental understanding of weaving, fabric design and leather craft techniques. The instructional process will include a clear understanding of techniques as well as design styles for students. The space will be used as a group activity in the instruction setting or as an individual work area based on individual initiative. Area should promote quiet, passive and creative interaction with students and instructors. The work area will provide all the tools and environmental qualities compatible with a studio setting for weaving, fabric design, sewing and leather craft. Individual work tables will be shared by each of the activities. Sewing machines and table looms will be stored vertically in the main storage area. Portable partitions will provide capacity to segregate area.
Immediate access to interior street preferred.
A maximum of twelve students as an instructional grouping.
Based on activity scheduling for instructional grouping.
Likely with growth.
77


Furniture and Equipment: Portable partitions Table looms, semiportable Work stations Permanent floor looms Warping boards Bobbin winders, adjacent to warping board Layout tables Spinning wheel Service sink for dyeing, hot and cold water Leather work table with rubber top Industrial sewing machine stands with motor and head storage Storage lockers
Sound: Should be acoustically isolated.
Visual: Natural daylight, "outdoor" work area desirable.
Special: Barrier-free problems for circulation and table heights need to be addressed.
78


Weight Training Sports Grouping
Activity
Characteristics:
Proximity:
People:
Time of Use:
Change:
Furniture and Equipment:
Sound:
Visual:
Co-educational gymnasium and weight training area for general physical conditioning and training specific muscle groups.
In sports grouping adjacent to swimming pool and shared restrooms.
Twenty persons.
Continuous through day and evening.
Not likely in function.
Stationary weights, free weights, stationary bikes, sit-up boards, balance beam, individual and 4x8 mats, punching bag, trampoline (demountable), equipment storage, wall mounted adjustable weights.
Acoustical noise control, piped-in music (no special).
No special requirement.
79


Performance Performance Grouping
Activity
Characteristics:
' SINGING - This activity will be performed as an organized activity, such as choir, and can utilize the interior amphitheater in the smaller plaza.
’ TABLE TENNIS - Occasional informal use of activity as well as periodic championships. This activity will occur on participant's initiative as well as when area is not in use for other activities. Flooring should be slightly resilient - walls should be dark for background - good, even lighting and ventilation - portable tables with adjacent storage.
' YOGA - This passive activity will occur typically as an instructional group activity. The space requirements are minimal. A dense floor mat and acoustical privacy are the most salient needs. Adequate ventilation should be incorporated.
' THEATER - This activity can be flexible and should be considered as such. Within that scope of operation, the function can range between a few persons to large groups. Portable platforms need to be provided for various activities. Seating needs to be portable with adequate storage adjacent to activity area with potential for theater in the round. Special adaptive lighting system controlled by one station with dimming potential in four central lighting control panels. Props can possibly be manufactured in shop areas and transported to this area. The area will be mostly
80
MULTI-FUNCTION music/singing/theater/yoga


Proximity:
People:
Time of Use: Change:
Furniture and Equipment:
a practice area and performing area for simple sketches. If large group productions occur other areas such as banquet areas can be used. Areas should accommodate occasional movie projection. ' VOLLEYBALL - Occasional informal and instructional use of activity as well as periodic championships. Flooring should be slightly resilient - good, even lighting - walls and ceilings should be medium dark and be designed to reduce reverberation time. Minimum recommended ceiling height of 24 feet.
BASKETBALL - Regulation half-court basketball - requirements similar to volleyball with a minimum recommended ceiling height of 20 feet.
Area should be adjacent to public restrooms and locker area, centrally located for easy accessibility. Parking proximity is important. Drinking fountains should be located nearby. Public viewing into performance area.
Varies.
Varies.
The area has to have the flexibility to adapt to changing curriculum requirements.
MUSIC - seating for a maximum of 100 persons with storage area for music stands and sheet music.
DANCE - flexible platform for live music.
’ SINGING - same as music.
TABLE TENNIS - three 9' x 5' portable
nirrored surfaces rfith rails
r
large open floor area
movable partition
L_____
nirrored surfaces vith rails
MULTI-FUNCTION
dance


Sound:
tables with adjacent storage for tables, paddles and balls.
* YOGA - 8' x 16' floor mats in folding 2' sections.
* THEATER - portable stage, lighting and seating for 100 people.
‘ VOLLEYBALL - nets, balls and possibly roll down portable court.
* BASKETBALL - portable or ceiling backstop.
Acoustical treatment as required for music and theater - sound attenuation required for active sports.
82
MULTI-FUNCTION table tennis


Swi inmi ng/Scuba Sports Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Integration/normalization of pool potential, accessible swimming pool, scuba, diving area, spectator area, lounge area, pool office with ability for visual control of pool area. Waiting area for users.
Proximity: Adjacent to shared lockers, toilet, weight training, public entry area.
People: Twenty-five persons.
Time of Use: Continuous throughout day and scheduled classes.
Change: Not significant.
Furniture and Equipment: Changing areas, ramping, separate area for diving, second area for aquatic training, flotation devices, scuba tanks, masks and fins, equipment storage, infra-red heaters, cold plunge, whirlpool.
Sound: Noise control.
Vi sual: Natural and incandescent artificial lighting, public viewing area into pool area, sky lighting, glare control critical.
Special: Stair risers and perimeter pool banding to be of salient color for visibility. Extensive ventilation, maintenance and equipment storage, pool area, showering.


84
Accessible steps and ramp into pool area with rails, niches for wheel chair storage, humidity control at pool area for window condensation. Life saving station. Special mechanical system for pool area. Walls and floors should be of an impermeable material.
Pool Depths:
20% 1-2 feet deep
60% 4 feet deep 10% Up to 8 feet deep 10% Diving depth
Provision of rope hooks for sectioning of pool as per program requirements.


Shared Restrooms Sports Grouping
Activity Characteristics: Toilet, showers, and locker area for men and women, equipment checkout, separate changing rooms for privacy assistance by opposite sex.
Proximity: Adjacent to weight training area, swimming and basketball.
People: Twenty persons in each area.
Time of Use: Continuous.
Change: Possible with growth.
Furniture and Equipment: Shower facilities, toilets, sinks, lockers, mirrors, blow dryer, towel room, handrails.
Sound: Acoustically isolated.
Visual: Visual privacy of locker area from general circulation.
Special: Flooring exterior to be non-slip.
85


Full Text

PAGE 1

ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY >-<( 1--a.. _. 0 w <( 1LL z ....J 1- 0 w Cl) 0 > a_ 0 :c c.. a.. w <( N

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AN YANG --------; -1--f ! t a e u ue 1 ... .. . . -... 1 ..••. .J Master's Thesis in Interior Design College of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver ) May 1983

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My thanks should go to many people who he 1 ped me in the process of the research and design deve 1 opment of this thesis project. My special thanks go to my advisors, Christopher Nims, Interim Director of Interior Design; and to Lucinda A. Castellano, Planning Coordinator of Winter Park Recreational Association; and particularly to Alan Ford project architect of Zephyr Village at Muchow, Haller & Larson Architects. An Yang May 1983 Denver, Colorado \ )

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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION The Problem 1 Methodology/Procedure 2 Scopes and Limitations 4 BACKGROUND Project History 5 Philosophy 7 SITE ANALYSIS Facts 8 Locational Maps 9 PROBLEM STATEMENT Physical Factors 11 Human Factors 13 Economic Factors 15 Issues 16 Design Goals 19 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS General 20 Activity Spaces 22 Phasing 25 FUNCTION Function/Objectives 26 Function/Facts 28 Function/Concepts 35 Function/Needs 37 PROGRAM Program Surrmary 41 Detailed Space Requirements 43 CODE REQUIREMENTS Building Code 93 REFERENCES 94 APPENDICES

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INTRODUCTION

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THE PROBLEM In "The Normalization Principle, and Some Major Implications to Architectural-Environmental Design," (BarrierFree Environment), Wo 1 f Wo lfensberger indicated that the mi spercepti ons of the di sab 1 ed person as someone who behaves in a primitive, uncontrolled fashion, and is not capable of making meaningful choices, often leads to p 1 an ned environments characterized as being "abuse-res is tant", permitting users minimal control and presenting frustration to the disabled. Mi chae 1 J. Bednar, editor of Barrier-Free Environment, pointed out: "The built-environment as it exists today communicates to the disabled messages of deviancy, incompetence and inferiority." Designing a recreational facility for the disabled involves a study of the specific needs of the disabled, the needs of human-beings in genera 1, and the necessary functions of the faci 1 ity. I have chosen this project as my thesis design with the anticipation that my research into the user needs and the impact of the physical functions of such facilities will be of some positive contribution to the professional knowledge needed for designing similar facilities in the future.

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METHODOLOGY/PROCEDURE Activities involved in the programming and solution of the design problem will include the following: A. ANALYSIS Information collecting and abstraction Eva 1 uat ion of current program to capture and retain its best features. • Factual data about the needs of the future program to determine the spatial needs and the relationships. Observation and behavioral mapping of the use of space during the various functions to determine behavioral patterns. Interview with various users disabled, participants, staff and program committee to identify the functional and aesthetic needs. • Evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of other human service facilities for the disabled to generate appropriate design inputs. • Literature survey o professional journals, books, research reports and interviews of persons related to the design of the facility to trans 1 ate random input of wants and needs of users into design related concepts. The aforementioned background information wi 11 be used to provide statements relating directly to programming and the final design solution. 2

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3 Determination of factors affecting the problem Certain assumptions affecting the design include: • Physical • Social • Psychological • Recreational • Educational • Economic • And others B. PROGRAMMING C. DESIGN SOLUTION

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SCOPES AND LIMITATIONS The design is to be done within the framework established by the architects, with a given site, functions and codes. My . design wi 11 inc 1 ude the interior space p 1 anni ng of the first phase and the ultimate phase of the activity center. As an interior designer of the Zephyr Village Project, I wi 11 eva 1 uate the strengths and v1eaknesses of the proposed schematic design, and suggest modifications where pertinent and desirable while capturing and enhancing the original architectural features. However, certain specific design areas out 1 i ned in this program (such as detailed architectural, mechanical and lighting design) will not be dealt with at the level of my design development presentation. 4

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BACKGROUND

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PROJECT HISTORY The Winter Park Handicap Recreation Program (hereinafter referred to as the Handicap Recreation Program), now the largest skiing program for disabled persons in the world, began in 1970 with a group of 25 disa bled youngsters from Children's Hospital in Denver, Colorado. The Handicap Recreation Program offered specialized ski instruction and equipment adapted to the abilities of each participant. It was demonstrated that exposure to the pub 1 i c and socialization in a normalized setting had a beneficial impact on both the children and the non-handicapped skiing public. Since 1977, a summer mountain recreation program has been conducted for individuals from group homes, institutions, and community programs whose severity of physical and mental disabilities prohibits involvement in the skiing activities. Activities are tai 1 or-made to pro vi de sensory experiences ate for each di sabi 1 i ty. Over a ten week period, individuals participate in activities such as river rafting, horseback riding, sailing, hiking and camping. To balance this active recreation, .creative arts and other activities are offered such as fishing, chairlift rides and singing. Because of the severity of disabilities, i nvo 1 vement in such sports is more passive and experiential than in the skiing activites; however, the physical and emotional benefits are profound. The Director of the Handicap Recreation Program, Hal 0' Leary, be 1 i eved then as now that the true potentia 1 of a disabled person is unlocked by minimizing physical obstacles and fostering participation in an atmosphere of love and acceptance. Based on this philosophy, the Handicap Recreation Program 5

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has grown tremendously in twelve years of operation; last year 11,586 lessons were given to persons with over 35 disabilities. The tremendous popularity of the Handicap Recreation Pro gram and demand by handicapped persons for year-round adventure and recreation has given impetus to the concept of a large independent facility for the program. In Octo ber, 1981, Winter Park Sports and Learning Center received a $200,000 grant from the Rehabilitation Services Administration and numerous smaller grants to commence planning of the facility to be called Zephyr Village. 6

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PHILOSOPHY The phi 1 osophy of the Handicap Recreation Program is that the single disability of any individual has minimal importance compared to his or her many abilities. With specialized equipment and recreational instruction, disability need never mask the true potential of each person, in recreation or in life. The ultimate goal is to give each disabled person the tools to be independent in recreation with family and friends by providing training, information, acceptance and challenge. Each instructor strives to heighten feelings of success and enjoyment and to have these carry over to norma 1 i zed recreation in the home environment. The Handicap Recreation Program operates on the knowledge, gained over many years, that di sab 1 ed persons want to set their own 1 i mits and that, by and 1 arge, they want to recreate in a non-segregated atmosphere. Relaxed integration occurs on the ski slopes which cannot be achieved in more structured social settings. At lunch tables, in lift lines and on the slopes, people can see the carefree smiles of skiers, disabled and able-bodied, sharing the same experiences. The program is also unique in its seven day-a-week avfil abi 1 i ty and convenience to the Denver area and airport. The full-time staff of the program is supp 1 emented by vo 1 unteers and interns, who expand the part-time staff to over 550 persons. Approximately 60,000 volunteer hours are donated each year. Some interns and vo 1 unteers are di sab 1 ed themse 1 ves or have a family member or friend with a di sabi 1 ity. Many have professional concerns as physical therapists or special educators in the full development of disabled persons. 7

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SITE ANALYSIS

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FACTS Zephyr Village is sited in a linear section of the Forest Service land bounded by the wet 1 ands to the north and the existing access road to the south. This location was chosen due to its relative flatness (5% grade), good southern exposure, adjacency to site amenities (wetlands and views) and proximity to future housing. S 1 oping from the southeast to the northwest the site permits grade access of the south while elevating the building above the wetlands, to the north where snow typically accumulates to a depth of seven to ten feet. To minimize tree removal, the existing road will be utilized for vehicular access and expanded to accommodate two way traffic. Traffic volume should be relatively low permitting up to 100 parking spaces in the ultimate phase to be located along the access road utilizing it as a drive. This will serve to further reduce the impact of the automobi 1 e on the site. Grades along the length of the road will be modified so as not to exceed a 3% s 1 ope a 11 owing barrier-free access to and from the parking area. Employee parking (40 spaces ultimate phase) along with service access for building support functions are 1 ocated on the east end of the facility. Both employee parking and user parking will be phased in a linear fashion to compliment and satisfy the needs of the buildings' expansion. 1\ central loop drive provides for equipment van access, bus loading and unloading, and passenger drop-off/pick-up at the main entry. The pedestrian approach , o Zephyr Vi 11 age is protected from the main road and drop off to the primary entry. 8

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REGIONAL MAP Mary Jane ski area Winter Park ski area Moffat Tunnel Zephyr Village site 9 town of scale 1" = 1 mile

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ZEPHYR VILLAGE SITE MAP ----_: ________ _ parce 1 I to Winter Park Denver Waterboard siphon city land parcel H 1 0 U.S. Forest Service land U.S. Forest Service land

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PROBLEM STATEMENT

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PHYSICAL FACTORS Since the beginning of the Handicap Recreation Program, the activities have been housed in spaces at the base facilities of the Winter Park Ski Area. Only spdces for research and deve 1 opment. equipment fitting and offices were provided. It has proven impossible to keep pace with the spatial needs of the program, due to large expansion f rom year to year. In October. 1981, Winter Park Sports and learning Center contracted the architectural firm Muchow, Haller & Larson Architects to design the new facility -Zephyr Village. Located in Grand County, in the mountains 68 miles north west of Denver, Co 1 or ado, Zephyr Vi 11 age wi 11 pro vi de year round adventure sports, outdoor recreation and creative arts for disabled persons, their families and the general public. Some physical environmental factors to be considered are: Normalized recreational environment The facility is planned to be a hub of year-round activities occurring both in the facility and on the surrounding 1 and. As a centra 1 core of act ivity, the facility should promote a normalized recreational atmosphere in order to invite interaction with the community and offer the possibility of recreation in the Grand County area. Subtle and functional barrier-free design The philosophy of the existing Handicap Recreation Program suggests that the new facility should offer housing and recreation to disabled and non-disabled alike in order to maintain the atmosphere of relaxed social integration found at the ski area and within the community. From th i s need emerged the notion that a 11 necessary barrier-free design 11

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must be accomplished in a subtle manner consistent with a resort environment. Construction-phasing compatible with program growth Since the funds for the facility can not be raised at one time, it makes the phasing of the project construction a necessity. Therefore, construction phasing must be compatibel with program growth, activity groupings and fund -raising limitations to allow further growth and change. 12

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HUMAN FACTORS While emphasizing the needs of disabled persons for spe ci a 1 i zed training and adapted equipment, Zephyr Vi 11 age will pro vi de adventure sports and creative arts to all persons, both disabled and non-disabled, in order to maintain the atmosphere of relaxed social integration as well as t o promote interaction with the general public. For disabled participants, Zephyr Village shall promote utilization of its facilities for the broadest possible spectrum of users. The disabled groups can be characterized as: -Wheelchair users Ambulatory weaknesses Ambulatory amputations Visually impair e d -All others Human environmental factors to be considered are: Physical Recreational Social Educational The general user needs are: Participants: Food Medical (Emergency) Informational Recreational 13

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-Staffing: Socia 1 Personal space space Housing Food Training Confe rence 14

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ECONOMIC FACTORS It is planned that funding for construction will be derived from sources which may include individuals, foundations, private developers and other sources. Operational funding will be secured through program fees, lease reve nues, endowment funds, individuals, private foundations, and the federal government. A $3.5 mi 11 ion budget goa 1 has been estab 1 i shed for the first phase of deve 1 opment. The second phase of facility construction will be an on-going phase tied to the availability of funds. The cost for the entire second phase is projected to be approximately $2.5 million. Some economic factors to be considered are: -Energy efficiency -Maximum utilization of facility at all stages Competitive in cost and quality with area market 15

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ISSUES Issues addressed in the process of design include: Physical The design should respond to the following functions: • A subt 1 e barrier-free faci 1 ity which enab 1 es the needs of participants to be met without creating a contrived environment. • Design must consider multi-function spaces which are flexible and expandable. • Construction phasing must be compatible with program growth, activity groupings, and fundraising limitations. Informational areas should be close to users upon arrival. Organization a 1 structure wi 11 be dynamic and administrative spaces must be loosely structured to allow for growth and change. Accessible and decentralized housing should be designed to meet the needs of users and families, and housing should be close to the Village activity center. • Design should enhance the interaction between users and the beautiful features such as waterways, vegetation and wildlife habitats. • Energy_ cost should be minimized to the greatest extent. 16

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Social One of the main goals of the Handicap Recreation Program is to create a normalized recreational setting for the participants. According to Wolf Wolfensberger, the principle of normalization is a systematic formulation of how to maximize the likelihood that people who have been socially de fined as deviant (devalued) become socially valued or revalued. Therefore, it is of great importance to establish socialization among participants, and the following functions need to be given consideration: Social encounters within the Villagr-: should be maximized through the design of certain areas for mixed traffic flow. Integration between participants and the general public should be encouraged. • Individual and small group settings are essential to create an intimate interpersonal environment. • Circulation must be direct but should promote social interaction among the users. Psychological and functional encounters and The design should respond to the fo 11 owing functions: • The interaction between handicapped users, staff, families and other social contacts should create a pleasant atmosphere. • The facility should not communicate to the disabled messages of deviancy, incompetence or inferiority. 17

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• It is important that the initial contact with the facility evoke a positive response . • The facility should appear as an inviting, active and friendly p 1 ace during the day and a quiet, intimate place at night. • Scale, color, texture and lighting should be sensitively and carefully utilized to evoke feelings of warmth and intimacy. 18

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DESIGN GOALS The major design goals of Zephyr Village are: -To provide a normalized recreational environment for the broadest possible spectrum of user groups. -To create a barrier-free facility to meet the physical and social needs of users. -To promote vibrant interrelationships between participants, families and staff within the Village. -To allow the flexibility required for growth and change. 19

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DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

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GENERAL With the premise that access to Zephyr Vi 11 age is to be available to all who wish to use it, the complex is designed to provide a village/resort like image in its natural setting. Characteristics of the site and the size of the facility require that a certain amount of level change take p 1 ace. By accommodating these 1 eve 1 s changes in gradual increments the building functions harmoniously with both the site conditions and the needs of its users. Within the architectural solution, the interior street and p 1 aza recreate those e 1 ements found in a vi 11 age and articulate them by means of salient roof lines, defined clusters, and soC'ial spaces on the exterior. A variety of co 1 ors, textures, wa 1 p 1 anes, and materia 1 s are used to rei nfm ce the vi 11 age/resort imagery. The basic architectural concept for Zephyr Village is to deve lop an interior "street" and hto public nodes; "plazas," located at intermediate points along the street. The street concept serves as an organizing e 1 ement for the various functions and as a means of achieving the desired phasing for the project. The gabled roof form enclosing the street incorporates natural daylighting and passive solar heating by means of a translucent material wh ich runs continuous the full length of the street providing an even diffused l ight. At points where the street jogs clear, glazing is used at the gabled ends to highlight the area with direct daylighting. Going from east to west, floor elevations along the street step down at three points in gradual increments of two and a half feet each. The 1 eve 1 changes are handled by both stairs and ramps maximizing accessibility. Phase One consists of developing the plaza area as a core within the p 1 an. The adjo i ni ng streets expand out from the plaza in a linear fashion according to the availability of funding. With this concept, the flexibility of phasing modules is maximized. Many of the interior spaces will also become flexible in order to accommodate expan20

PAGE 30

sion and changing program needs to be discussed in more detail 1 ater. (See Phase One versus comp 1 eted Phasing p 1 an. ) The main entry is 1 ocated off of the 1 arge p 1 aza space providing the users with an irrmediate vital active entry environment. Views of the wetlands, major social support spaces (store, cafe eating, bar, etc.) and information orientation become an integral part of the main entry. The plaza acts as a transition space, public gathering area and a multi-use activity area. Expanding on the concept of the street, the plaza provides a hierarchial order to the size and character of the soci a 1 spaces; \tith the rather intimate spaces occurring along the length of the street with the more open public activities at the plaza. In order to integrate user support functions with the plaza and street, activities such as cafe eating spill out into the plaza and street area which not only provides overflow seating for cafe eating but also will maximize the openness of the cafe eating to the public zone. Outdoor decks are an integral part of the design concept and provide a functional extension of the various activity areas. They are distributed throughout the faci 1 i ty as required. Along the wetlands, the continuous deck provides an exterior circulation corridor in addition to actess down to the wetlands. The large variety of deck locations pro vi des exce 11 ent sun exposure for different' areas of the building throughout the year. Adjacent to cafe eating, the deck is extended far out into the wetlands to provide additional outdoor activity space and permit direct sun on to these areas. 21

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ACTIVITY SPACES General administrative functions (Director, Conference, etc.) and information services (reception, kioski, etc.) are located immediately adjacent to the entry. Facility and program information will be handled out of the reception area along with housing and reservation services. User re 1 a ted admi ni strati ve functions (instructors work area, equipment fitting, etc.) occur directly across the plaza area from g eneral administration. Due to its function, it is located at the northeast end of the facility. Large group gathering, having a strong proximity requirement to the instructors' work area, equipment fitting, street and p 1 aza is 1 ocated within this grouping whi 1 e still maintaining access to the loop drive for bus loading and unloading. Cafe eating, along with the primary entry, being the major activity generator and anchor for the interior street and the large plaza, provides a public gathering and social area adjacent to the main entrance plaza. Phase Two expansion of cafe eating wi 11 extend out into the wetlands revealing views of the Winter Park Ski area. The large deck area, adjacent to cafe eating, will accommodate additional seating during the summer months and provide access to the wetlands. Cafe eating will also function as a banquet area with the added potential of being divided into smaller banquet rooms. During the first phase, the bar wi 11 be 1 ocated in the eating area. In subsequent phases, as the demand for seating in cafe eating increases, the bar wi 11 be re 1 ocated adjacent to the store and plaza, maintaining its proximity to the deck and plaza. Generalized user activities such as the art grouping, store, daycare, bi 11 i ards, etc., are centra 1 i zed within the faci 1 ity for easy access from both the primary and secondary entries. This cluster exemplifies the adaptive use concept of the phasing with functions expanding and 22

PAGE 32

relocated during the phasing process. For example, the fi phase performance is 1 ocated within this grouping keeping an adjacency to the major plaza. It will accommodate dance, ping pong and sma 11 theater. Basketba 11 and vo 11 eyba 11 wou 1 d occur in the u 1t i mate phase p 1 an when performance is re 1 ocated across from the poo 1. Upon relocation of performance daycare, photo, etc., would be established in its place while other adjacent activities such as the store wi 11 expand as required. The store throughout phasing remains a focal point of social contact and is 1 ocated in such a manner as to act as a hub for the plaza and user areas. Daycare, also a second phase activity, is oriented to the main entry for ease of dropping off and picking up children. Multi-purpose art is arranged so that ans walking along the street have views into the work area, while the workers themselves have close proximity to the street for use as an "outdoor" work space. Public lockers and showers for weight training and art are located in the adjacent restroom. The smaller plaza area acts as a secondary entry for future phase construction, a lobby space for pool and performance activities, and a pub 1 i c access point to the deck area thus pro vi ding a logical security separation location. Locker rooms in the sports grouping are situated to provi de access to both the poo 1 and performance area. The pool office, centralized and adjacent to the pool entry, functions as a ticket, information, and observation area. The locker room enclosures will have their own roof form creating the image of a building within a building as a deve 1 opment of the street concept, and reinforcing the imagery of the exterior brought to the interior. The poo 1 is surrounded with 1 arge areas of windows on three walls to create a light open ambience and to relate the interior activites to its natural surroundings. The adjacent deck area has good southern exposure and views of the Jane and Winter Park ski areas. The deck at this point is approximately ten feet above grade, 23

PAGE 33

permitting on-grade service access for the pool mechanical and storage areas which are 1 ocated be 1 ow the poo 1 . The performance area, more accurately a multi-function space, will primarily be used for sports activities dictating that it be located within this grouping. For non-theater use the area would be open to the street providing interaction of the public and activity zone. The floor of per formance is two and one ha 1 f feet be 1 ow that of the street. This is done to maintain the necessary clearances for basketball and volleyball while maintaining a lower exterior profile. Mechanical and electrical rooms for the facility are 1 ocated as required be 1 ow the main fl oar 1 eve 1 a 1 ong the length of the building. Access is by means of stair at either end of the building and from the underside of the deck for the mechanical rooms in the center portion of the building. 24

PAGE 34

PHASING A primary requirement of Zephyr Village was a plan which afforded the flexibility to construct the facility in two or more phases. Due to the unpredictability of construction funding and program demand, design alternatives were sought which \'lould permit new sections to be constructed without interrupti on of activities in the remainder of the facility. The Zephyr Village structural system of 20 foot bays combined with the linear interior street provides maximum phasing flexibility. Disruption of the existing facility can be minimized with such a structural organization. 25

PAGE 35

FUNCTION

PAGE 36

FUNCTION/OBJECTIVES -The environment and planned facility shall facilitate the utilization of the broadest possible spec trum of user groups. -A normalized recreational environment is a primary design consideration in recognition that the needs of the users are best met in a resort that promotes interaction with the general public. -To increase the size of the recreational facility through a phased growth plan relating to availability of space and revenue. -The interaction between handicap users, families and other social contacts create tive environment. staff, a posi-The facility shall highly focus on one to one per sonal involvement. -The facility shall encourage family participation in the recreational process. The essential physical and social needs of users must be met by the facility. The program wi 11 be composed of a we 11-ba 1 anced and complementary group of rigorous activities as well as passive, more social activities for i ndi vi dua 1 s, groups and fami 1 i es on a year-round basis. -To provide spaces that are visually and physically definable between program staff and users to avoid interferance. The facility shall provide appropriate energy con servation techniques, s i nee operati anal costs 26

PAGE 37

should be minimized. -To deve 1 op and dis semi nate new teaching methods, procedures and equipment modifications. Phasing of construction should allow for maximum utilization of the facility at all stages. -Facility design should reflect the fact that necessary funding will be obtai ned over sever a 1 years. Faci 1 ity design should promote a vi brant interrelationship among people in meeting the essential physical, recreational, social and educational needs of its users. -Design of the facility shall compliment the natural setting. Materia 1 s used shall enhance the natura 1 character of the site. Pedestrian circulation shall resolve mobility limitations of users in a subtle manner. 27

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FUNCTION/FACTS FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF USER GROUPS A. Whee 1 Chair User Nonambu 1 a tory person with mobility limitations due to muscular, skeletal or joint impairments, may require individual to use a wheel chair or other specially designed equipment for upper or lower extremities and may require activity modification. B. Ambulatory Weakness Physical disabilities due to muscular, skeletal or joint impairments may necessi t ate use of crutches, braces, prosthetics or other special equipment. Activity modification may be required. C. Ambulatory Amputation Amputation of one or more upper or lower extremities may necessitate use of crutches, braces, prosthetics or other equipment and may require activity modification. D. Visually Impaired Visual activity impaired or totally nonexistent by defect, disease or injury. Blind person may use guide dog or cane for assistance and balance. Activity modification may be required. E. All Others Physically, mentally or emotionally impaired individuals who may require assistive de vices but may not require any activity modifications because of manner of conducting activity. User Groups: Three categories of persons with disabilities will be served by the facility: l) Highly Independent -Would use facility as resource providing specialized services while engaging in integrated recreation. 28

PAGE 39

2) Non-Independent Would use facility to a greater extent in normalizing social and recreational life. 3) Segregated or Severely Disabled l4ould use facility as the primary resource for social and recreational participation. USER GROUP PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS A. Highly Independent Someone with highly developed emotional, social and recreational skills, seeking entirely normalized recreation. This user would use facility as a resource for specialized instruction and adaptive equipm ent. B. Non-Independent Someone with inability to engage in normalized recreation by virtue of lack of recreational, emotional and social skills, perhaps because of recent nature of disability. This person's use of the facility would be to use it as a point of soci a 1 contact and deve 1 opment of recreation a 1 skills. C. Segregated Persons who may never be ab 1 e to be normalized completely in recreation or social activities because of severity of di sabi 1 ity. This user would utilize facility for the majority of social, recreational and emotional needs. 29

PAGE 40

FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM PARTICIPANTS The participants• main contact is with instructors and volunteers. As indicated by the adjacent diagram, administrative and clerical contact is secondary. strongest f= an weakest 30

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FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM INSTRUCTORS The instructors• primary responsibility is to the participants. Interaction with secretarial is clerical in nature with sche dules, forms, etc., which are required before starting activities. 31

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FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE The adjacent diagram indicates the working relationships of the administration. The proximity of the various functions to each other are indicated by arrows. 32

PAGE 43

USER FUNCTION SKI PROGRAM The adjacent diagram illustrates the direct to activity, once the initial process 1s completed, or in the case of participants who are well acquainted with the program. The participants will require an on-going need for adaptive equipment. \ \ \ \ ...v \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ 0 \ \ \ \ I regular participant process l ____ , \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ 33

PAGE 44

USER FUNCTION SKI PROGRAM Initial introduction of participants to the program requires a process of evaluation, scheduling and adaptive equipment fitting. The adjacent diagram indicates the sequence in this process. 34 0 volunteers instructors participants

PAGE 45

FUNCTION/CONCEPTS -Socia 1 encounters within the Vi 11 age can be promoted through centralization of social and cultural functions in the plazas and through the design of certain areas for mixed flow of traffic that promote social encounters. -Priority should be given to creation of a subtle barrier-free facility which enables the need of users to be met without creating a contrived environment. -Construction phasing must be compatible with program growth, activity groupings and fund raising limitations. Design must consider multi-function spaces which are expandable, versatile or convertible to other uses. Organizational structure will be dynamic (evolving with growth) and administrative spaces must be 1 oose ly structured to accommodate growth and change. Individual and small group settings are essential to create an intimate interpersonal environment. Circulation between highly used activity areas where large groups utilize space frequently, should be d esigned very simple and separate in order to reduce confusion. -Administrative areas not directly related to user contact should be more remote and deemphasized. Informational areas should be proximat e to users upon arrival. 35

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-Facility should be able to be utilized as a research and demonstration site. Various areas in initial phases should be designed as multi-functional. 36

PAGE 47

FUNCTION/NEEDS GENERAL USER NEEDS -Food Medical (Emergency) Informational Recreational Socia 1 GENERAL STAFFING NEEDS Personal Space -Work Space -Food Training/Conference 37

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3 8 FUNCTIONAL GROUPINGS 1 a. adm i ni strati ve lb . instructional 2. user support 3. social 4. arts 5. performance 6 7 6. sports { 7. building support 3 2 lb 0 la

PAGE 49

OVERALL PROXIMITY DIAGRAM The adjacent diagram shows different areas in their proportional and organizational relationships. It doesn't represent a floor plan, but should be considered only as a proximity and adjacency requirement of the overall functions. 1. deliveries/workroom 21. large group gathering 2. storage/supply room 22. user coat storage 3. closet 23. cafe/banquet 4. conference rooms 24. r&d shop 5. first-aid clinic 25. research & development 6. directors' area 26. performance 7. clerical/secretarial 27. art 8. instructors' work area 28. ceramics 9. staff changing/restrooms 29. photography 10. staff quiet area 30. fabric design 11. storage room 31. weight training 12. main waiting area 32. swimming/scuba 13. information/orientation 33. lockers/showers housing reservation 14. store/supplies/sundries 34. caretaker 15. day care 35. mechanical 16. public restrooms 36. janitorial 17. billiards/video games 37. building security 18. library/quiet area 38. vestibules 19. equipment storage 39. delivery 20. equipment fitting 40. building storage 31 0 32 -=--3.;..;;3_, 15 Q QQQQO QCJQ _26Qo2 w .. Q 29 2 QQ O,QGJQ O!}GlGJ LE1.L0 ( 5 )OLJ 39 0 4 Q 7 6 GJQ[J[JJ GJGJ

PAGE 50

40 PHASING DIAGRAM 1. deliveries/workroom phase 1 2. storage/supply room 3. closet 4. conference rooms 5. first-aid clinic Q remainder 6. directors' office 7. clerical/secretarial 8. instructors' work area 9. staff changing/restrooms 10. staff quiet area 11. storage room 12. main waiting area 1 3. information 14. store/sundries 15. day care 16. public rest rooms 17. billiards/video games 18. library 19. equipment storage 20. equipment fitting 21. large group gathering 22. user coat storage 23. cafe/banquet 24. r&d shop 25. research & development 26. performance 27. art 28. ceramics 29. photography 30. fabric 31. weight training 32. swimming 33. lockers/showers 34. caretaker 15 35. mechanical 36. telephone/electrical equipment 39. vestibules 37. janitorial supplies 38. building security 40. de 1 i very 41. building storage

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PROGRAM

PAGE 52

PROGRAM SUMMARY Zephyr Village, recreational center for disabled persons, will be constructed in the basin of what is called the "Jim Creek" area. The site provides ideal site amenities (such as vegetation, wetlands, wildlife and views) in relation to the philosophy of the facility. When completed, the new facility will attract handicapped participants as well as people from the community with exciting programs rather than simply with an attractive facility emphasizing administrative space. Therefore, the general functions of the facility will involve the space planning of administrative, instructional, user support, social, arts, performance; sports and building support. Spaces/activities to be included in the facility are: First phase Administrative reception, waiting, clerical, instructor work area, etc. Cafeteria and banquet Large organizational space Equipment fitting and storage General multi-purpose performance weight training, lockers, etc. Multi-purpose arts Building support The total square footage of the first phase is approximately 37,000 square feet. 41

PAGE 53

Second phase Performing arts center drama, dance, yoga, music, singing, table tennis, etc. -Smaller user areas day care center, sundries store, billiards, video game room, library, fabric arts, sculpting, painting, ceramics, photography, etc. Swimming pool lockers, restrooms, etc. The tot a 1 square footage of the ultimate phase wi 11 be approximately 65,000 square feet. 42

PAGE 54

DETAILED SPACE REQUIREMENTS The following section illustrates the specific needs of individual program spaces based on: activity characteristics, proximity to specific areas, number of users anticipated using space, time of use, anticipated change of use, square footage, furniture and equipment, noise control requirement, visual needs and other special requirements. All the spaces are divided into the following groupings: Administrative grouping User support grouping Social grouping Art grouping Sport grouping Building support grouping 43

PAGE 55

Deliveries/Work Room Administrative Grouping Activity Characteristics: Room used for supplies storage, for mailing, processing literature, work area for clerical tasks, binding, gener al deliveries to other administrative spaces. Proximity: People: Time: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Special: To parking area, to clerical area. Adja cent to administrative storage room. Capacity for three at one time. 8:00 to 5:00 normally. Likely with growth. 36" deep cont. work surface, built-in storage, stool seating, office equip ment, copy machine, word processor, scheduling panel, etc. Moderate control required. No special requirement. Lower work counter section for wheel chair user; equipment to be placed for wheel chair users; even lighting as we 11 as task 1 i ght i ng i rnportant. High ventilation requirement. 44

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Storage/Supplies Administrative Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Storage for supplies (clerical). Storage for supplies near administrative clerical area; staff belongings in changing area. Clerical storage supplies for thirty people; coat closet storage for twenty people. Continuous. Changing in size with growth. Adjustable shelving for supplies with doors built-in; coat closet, rod-shelves with doors built-in. No special requirement. No special requirement. 45

PAGE 57

Coat Storage Administrative Grouping Activity Characteristics: Storage for wraps, personal belongings. Proximity: Centralized and/or distributed through out administrative area for staff use. People: Storage for twenty persons. Time: Continuous. Change: Likely. Equipment: Rod shelves with built-in doors. Sound: No special requirement. Visual: No special requirement. 46

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Conference Rooms Administrative Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Rooms wi 11 be used both for pub 1 i c as well as in-house group or oneto-one conference. Spaces need to be provided for sma 11 groups as we 11 as 1 arge groups. Large groups need A/V equipment. Area would also be used by research and development, sales, etc. One 1 arge group room needs to to administrative directors• Small conference rooms shall administrative area as well activity areas. be close offices. be near as near Large group up to thirty-six people, or three groups of twelve each. Varies. Growth may require more areas for con ference. Large Group Conference: Section a 1 con ference table, chairs, shelving, projection screen, A/V room, display wall or board, coffee area. Small Group Conference: Conference (sectional) table, chairs, shelving. Acoustical privacy is a must for all conference rooms. Flexibility of privacy required. Smaller conference areas should be strategically placed with views to nature. 47

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Special: Barrier-free access. High ceiling may be advantageous. 48

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First Aid/Clinic Administrative Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Special: Room is used for evaluation of question able disabilities of users in order to determine their extent of participation in various activities. Physical and psychological evaluation of users is conducted by director. Room also used for treatment of minor on-site accidents, maintenance medicine, etc. Near receptionist, director•s office. access. main waiting, and Remote from public Usually two with an occasional maximum of three. Unpredictable. Non-anticipated. Chair, sink, desk, files for records, couch, examination table, storage cabinet/tools, plants. Acoustically treated with privacy as main factor. View to exterior with control preferred. Depending on equipment, special electrica 1 and mechani ca 1 requirements may exist. 4 9

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Directors' Offices Administrative Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Work to be accomp 1 i shed in this area would partially include: A. Program director B. User counseling C. Staff instruction, conferring D. Public relations/fund raising E. Staff evaluation and training F. Staffing needs assessment G. Program coordination H. R and D coordination I. Bookkeeping, accounting, reports, budget, record keeping Access indirectly to small waiting area, access to information, recreation hub and clerical area. Access to conference center and instruction work area -indi rect access to activity areas. Com munication with all administrative personnel and activity areas. Undetermined. Flexible schedules. Space need to be determined as program develops in order to incorporate the appropriate structure, therefore, this area will need to accommodate great flexibility in order to provide both change of function as well as privacy. Based on the above, furniture and furnishings need to be identified both as an open plan as well as closed indi50

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Sound: vidual office potential. Equipment may include desks, executive chairs, side chairs, sma 11 conference tab 1 es and chairs, credenzas, storage and filing systems. Area must be controlled physically as well as acoustically in order to enhance concentration. 51

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Clerical/Secretarial Administrative Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Special: Transcribing dictation and general dictation; general copying of materials; assisting receptionist in user orientation. To administrative offices, copy machines, word processor, office files, conference rooms, delivery area. Four to five persons. 8:00a.m. to 5:00p.m. normal working hours. Typing desks, file drawers, typewriters, calculators, telephones, book shelves, dictaphones. Moderate control. No special requirement. None. 52

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Instructors' Work Area Administrative Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Permanent, part-time, internship and volunteer staff members performing directly on a one-to-one basis with users in evaluating and assisting users in equipping for specific activity. Providing the physical as well as psychological assistance to perform a desired activity. This area and activity requires organization equipment such as files. Instructor and intern will share stations at the ratio of two interns for each instructor. High activity area for instructor activity coordination, record keeping and pre paration area prior to activity participation. Participant evaluation. Adjacent to exterior, to where program records and program schedules are kept. Ten to fifteen people including instructors and/or coordinators. Intermittent8:00 to 5:00 normal. This area has the potentia 1 for growth throughout phasing and program growth. Carrels (work stations), work surface, 1 amps, personne 1 fi 1 es, penci 1 drawers, book shelves. Each work station requires privacy in order to foster concentration. This room must maintain acoustical privacy 53

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Visual: Special: from other areas. No supervision of other area required. None. 54

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Staff Changing and Restrooms Administrative Grouping Activities: Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Special: As instructors prepare for activities at beginning of day and when returning, they need to change clothing and remove special equipment in conjunction with clean -up and personal hygiene. Private personal clean-up. hygiene, make-up, To personal locker area, activity areas, employee entry prior to work area. Four persons at one time male/female. Anytime during the day. Moderately likely. Totally Accessible Bathrooms: Men: 2 w.c., 2 urinals, 2 sinks, oenches, changing and 12 lockers, mirrors. Women: 3 w.c., 2 sinks, mirrors, benches, changing and 12 lockers. Moderate control required. No special requirement needed. Accessible, non-skid floor surface, space for wheel chairs, turning radius, space under sinks, height of switches, good 1 i ght i ng, fu 11 1 ength . mirrors, coat hooks, easy open doors with 1 ever hardware. 55

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Staff Quiet Area Administrative Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Area devoted to staff members in need of personal time. Refreshment and light cooking possible. Adjacent quiet area for personal reflection, reading, con versation or listening to music and observing the natural surroundings. To staff changing and rest rooms, area needs to be visually and acoustically i so 1 a ted from admi ni strati ve areas and activity areas. Six persons. Anytime throughout the day. Moderate. Coffee Area: Refrigerator, soft drink vending machine, coffee maker, sink, disposal, cabinets for supplies, microwave, hot plate, hood/fan. Quiet Area: Coffee table, magazine rack, book shelves, club chairs (4), 1-2 seater choach, planting, music. Must be quiet. Privacy from program but must have view to exterior site amenities or view of natural beauty. 56

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Storage Administrative Grouping Activity Characteristics: Miscellaneous storage for administrative staff. Proximity: Central location in administrative area. Adjacent to delivery work room. People: No special requirement. Time: Continuous. Change: Likely. Furniture and Equipment: Adjustable shelving. Sound: No special requirement. Visual: No special requirement . 57

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Main Waiting/Lobby User Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Orientation and reception to facility. Interior hub of social interaction information, housing reservations, program scheduling and display area occa sional function as interior amphitheater transition area between entry and activity areas -terraced nature area pro vi des sensory expression of the spirit of recreational center. Also used for additional large group gather ing, conference area, expansion of eating area, volunteer work area, etc. Location in facility should be adjacent to main entry, main activity areas, information orientation. Around 100 persons. Continuous. Function is unlikely to change. Information/orientation area landscape equipment. Acoustical treatment must be incorporated into landscape design. Sunlit area, high ceiling with view to exterior. Interior terraced area wi 11 pro vi de contact to exterior en vironment through selective use of vegetation, terraced rock garden and waterfalls. 58

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Information/Orientation User Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Reception as well as public relations activities occur here. Central communications area is 1 ocated at this point in addition to seating and waiting area for participants and general public contro 1 area for information di spersa 1 to persons entering facility for the first time providing general orientation to facility, housing information and program scheduling. Centrally located adjacent to entry and main waiting. Three to 35 persons. Continuous but maximum use between 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. No functional change anticipated with growth possible change in capacity. Possibly audiovisual display kiosk display providing information regarding activity scheduling, housing information, reception, typing desk, switch board, telephone, dictaphone, publication storage, scheduling information. Possibly audiovisual. Kiosk, possibly audiovisual. 59

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Store-Supplies Sundries User Group Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Small shopping area for purchase of sundries and convenience food. Located near main entry with access from 1 arge group area and to exterior for delivery pruposes. Thirty persons maximum. maximum, three staff Continuous 5:00 p.m. primarily 8:00 a.m. to Not anticipated. Vertical and horizontal shelves, counter, vertical and horizontal freezers, cash register, safe. 60

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Day Care User Support Group Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time of Use: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Wi 11 inc lllde play area waiting area sleeping accommodations kitchen and bathroom provisions and small office. For use of Zephyr Village participants and staff. Day care use only. Adjacent to activity areas and outdoor play area. Two to fifteen persons. Daytime: 8 :00a.m. to 5:00p.m .. Bedding for seven children with divider curtains, seating for waiting area, office furniture play equipment two water c 1 osets -one 1 avatory each restroom. Acoustical attention required. View to natural landscape. 61

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Public Restrooms User Support Grouping Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Special: Distributed throughout the facility. Fifty. Continuous. Likely with growth. Ma 1 es: 7 water c 1 osets, 6 uri na 1 s, 9 lavatories. Females: 11 water closets, 9 lavatories. 11 drinking fountains. Acoustically isolated. Location should be apparent but visually screened. Barrier-free; natural or mechanical ventilation required. 62

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Billiards/Video Grames User Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Billiard and video games activity space with seating for. p 1 ayers and spectators. Storage room for table covers, etc. Proximity: Adjacent to general multi-purpose area. People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Special: Fifteen persons. Continuous. Unlikely. One coin operated billiard table, video games, storage rack for cue sticks, change machine. No special requirements. Harsh shadows must be avoided. Tab 1 es shou 1 d not be moved once they are set up. Billiard table should accommodate wheel chairs. 63

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Library/Quiet Area User Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Area devoted to user refreshments, reading, reflection, conversation. Proximity: Convenient to user areas but visually and acoustically segregated. People: One to ten persons. Time of Use: Continuous. Change: Moderate. Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Special: Seating, mazazine rack, stereo, book shelves. Acoustically isolated. Privacy from activities. Some direct sunlight desirable. 64

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Equipment Storage User Support Grouping Activity Characteri sties: Storage of two vans and equipment for all activities providing ready access to fitting area. Proximity: Should be 1 ocated adjacent to fitting area, large group gathering and vehicu lar drive. People: Three to four staff, 50 users maximum. Time of Use: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Change: Changing in size with growth. Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: equipment: rafting. vertical Bin storage for camping, climbing, for skates, boots, for bicycles, rafts, three work benches. canoes, No special requirement. No special requirement. hiking, Shelving storage kayaks; 65

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Equipment Fitting User Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Equipment checking, fitting and adaptation demonstration of equipment use hub of action for recreational activities. Proximity: Adjacent to exterior, equipment storage, vehicular area -centrally located with in activity areas. People: Three to four staff, 50 users maximum. Time of Use: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Change: Changing in size with growth. Furniture and Equipment: Fitting and seating benches. 66

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Equipment Fitting User Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Equipment checking, fitting and adaptation demonstration of equipment use hub of action for recreational activities. Proximity: Adjacent to exterior, equipment storage, vehicular area -centrally located with in activity areas. People: Three to four staff, 50 users maximum. Time of Use: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Change: Changing in size with growth. Furniture and Equipment: Fitting and seating benches. 66

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Equipment Fitting User Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Equipment checking, fitting and adaptation demonstration of equipment use hub of action for recreational activities. Proximity: Adjacent to exterior, equipment storage, vehicular area centrally located with in activity areas. People: Three to four staff, 50 users maximum. Time of Use: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Change: Changing in size with growth. Furniture and Equipment: Fitting and seating benches. 66

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Equipment Fitting User Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Equipment checking, fitting and adaptation demonstration of equipment use hub of action for recreational activities. Proximity: Adjacent to exterior, equipment storage, vehicular area centrally located with in activity areas. People: Three to four staff, 50 users maximum. Time of Use: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Change: Changing in size with growth. Furniture and Equipment: Fitting and seating benches. 66

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Equipment Fitting User Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Equipment checking, fitting and adaptation demonstration of equipment use hub of action for recreational activities. Adjacent to exterior, equipment storage, vehicular area -centrally located with in activity areas. Three to four staff, 50 users maximum. 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Changing in size with growth. Fitting and seating benches. 66

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Large Group Gathering User Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Centralization of large groups upon arrival, at meal time and for departure. Area for organization, orientation, paperwork, sack 1 unches, etc. Will permit organization of large groups and dispersal into smaller units without overloading remainder of facility. Volunteer organization should take p 1 ace here as we 11 . Can doub 1 e as multi-purpose area. Proximity: Must have direct vehicular access and access to equipment fitting area, adja cent to general multi-purpose room. People: Groups of approximately fifty people. Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Volunteers of same number. 8:30a.m. to 4:30p.m., intervals throughout the day. Not likely. Removable seating and tables, bin compartments on wa 11 s for storage of per sonal items. No special requirement. No special requirement. 67

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Research and Development User Support Grouping Activity Characteri sties: Permanent and intern staff of from two to three members wi 11 be working on a one-to-one basis with users to adapt, design, and fabricate prosthetic and sports re 1 a ted equipment. The research and development office will contain the drafting equipment with minimal storage to accommodate research projects and adequate work space with hand too 1 storage to facilitate testing and fitting. The adjacent equipment storage will be used by the research and devel opment group. Considering the aspect of the research and development projects, privacy and pleasant atmosphere is required. Proximity: Access to equipment storage is of primary importance. Toilet faci 1 i ties and administrative areas should be easily accessible. People: Two to three staff and intern members with one individual being attended at a time. Time of Use: 8:00 a.m. to 5 :00 p.m. normal office hours with shop access at all times. Change: Due to the specialized nature of the associated equipment storage, the research and development offices should be phased together. Furniture and Equipment: Two drafting tables with stools. One 68

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Sound: Visual: Special: drawing fi 1 e cabinet with 1 ayout courlter. Two desk work stations with fi 1 e cabinet and chair. One testing/fitting table with small tool storage. The nature of the research and development acti vites requires acoustical privacy. The research and wi 11 be visually adjacent shop areas to the exterior. development office screened from the with pleasant views Adequate task lighting will be provided. 69

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User Coat Storage User Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: User coat storage distributed through out the facility. Located in user areas. Storage for up to fifty people approx imately 24 lineal feet. Continuous. Changing in size with growth. Coat rods. No special requirement. No special requirement. 70

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Cafe Eating/Drinking Social Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Food service for 75-100 people offering cold and hot food, buffet, gri 11, sandwich and occasional gourmet service. Bar for beer, wine and some mixed drinks. Outside terrace with umbrellaed tables for summer use. Restroom for staff and users. Warm up capacity for 100-200 people. Adjacent to assembly/banquet area, exterior for delivery, restrooms and main waiting area. Location next to sunny terrace and central plaza for warm weather. 75-200 persons. Continuous day and evening. Should afford flexibility of partitioning segments of space. Kitchen: Dry storage, trash receptacles, dishwasher, freezer, cooking, de 1 i very, food warming, oven, hood-fan. Bar: Freezer, beverage and glass storage, height adjustable counter, seating, cash register. Seating: Mix of removable tables and permanent booth seating. Waste dispensers, chair storage, busing stations. Sound i nsu 1 at ion in areas such as bar where more intimate atmosphere is desired. 71

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Visual: Special: Cafeteria service and busing areas should be screened from main dining area. Design should permit use of natural sunlight during day, dim incandescent lighting during evening creating warmth and comfort. Bar should be an independent focal point, "oasis" setting. Decor should be non-institutional. Interior of cafe should have a foca 1 point terrace and large central plaza where social activities may be observed. Ambiance should be non-institutional and relaxed, affording both privacy and easy soci a 1 interaction flowing from cafe to interior street, to central plaza. Quality of food and decor are significant factors. 72

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Sculpture and Painting Art Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Special: Area for instruction in and participation in sculpting and painting. Within art grouping. Ten persons. Varies through day and evening. Likely. Storage for painting materials and to hang canvas and easels; small mixing and clean-up counter with sink; portable platform, flexible lighting for "staging area." No special requirement. Controlled natural lighting preferable with supplemental diffused incandescent lighting for night class. Display area in orientation space for photography and arts and crafts. 73

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Ceramics Art Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Special: Instruction and participation in crafts. Within art grouping. Six persons. Scheduled instruction and evening use. Likely. Electric and standard wheels; full height drying racks, built-in upper and lower casework for clay storage, etc. No special requirement. Natural, indirect light. Adjustable heights possible, locate kiln adjacent to outdoor, screened work area. 74

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Photography Art Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Space for developing black and white and color printing of participant's photographs from c 1 asses and i ndepen dent activity. Within art grouping with display area open to interior street. Twelve persons. Continuous; scheduled classes. Not significant. Printing washing/inspection photo sink with three enlargers on counter with timer, etc., photographic sink, contact printer with counter, miscel laneous equipment. Developing photographic sink, work counter, dry counter, miscellaneous equipment. Print finishing room photo sink with drainboard, drum-type print washer, print dryer, work counter with storage and paper cutter/dry mount/spotting easel. Storage and mixing room service sink, work counter with storage, open storage she 1 vi ng, refrigerator. Co 1 or and print room -two en 1 argers with counter in 1 i ght -tight room, work counter with 12 x 12 sink, print finishing facilities can be shared with black and white. 75

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Sound: Visual: Special: No special requirement. Additional space for light trap doors. Special chemical resistant and mixing valves must be A 11 surfaces must be easy to Security of equipment and must be provided for. plumbing provided. maintain. materi a 1 s 76

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Fabrics Art Grouping Activity Characteristics: This activity will provide instructional as well as individual sessions, pro viding fundamental understanding of weaving, fabric design and leather craft techniques. The instructional process will inc 1 ude a c 1 ear understanding of techniques as well as design styles for students. The space wi 11 be used as a group activity in the instruction setting or as an i ndi vi dua 1 work area based on individual initiative. Area should promote quiet, passive and creative interaction with students and instructors. The work area wi 11 pro vi de a 11 the too 1 s and en vi ronmenta 1 qualities compatible with a studio setting for weaving, fabric design, sewing and 1 eat her craft. I ndi vi dua 1 work tab 1 es wi 11 be shared by each of the activities. Sewing machines and table looms will be stored vertically in the main storage area. Portable partitions will provide capacity to segregate area. Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Immediate access to interior street preferred. A maximum of twelve students as an instructional grouping. Based on activity scheduling for instructional grouping. Likely with growth. 77

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Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Special: Portable partitions Table looms, semiportable Work stations Permanent floor looms Warping boards Bobbin adjacent to warping board Layout tables Spinning wheel Service sink for dyeing, hot and cold water Leather work table with rubber top Industrial sewing machine stands with motor and head storage Storage lockers Should be acoustically isolated. Natura 1 daylight, "outdoor" work area desirable. Barrier-free problems for circulation and table heights need to be addressed. 78

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Weight Training Sports Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Co-educational gymnasium and weight training area . for genera 1 physi ca 1 conditioning and training specific muscle groups. In sports grouping adjacent to swimming pool and shared restrooms. Twenty persons. Continuous through day and evening. Not likely in function. Stationary weights, free weights, stationary bikes, sit-up boards, balance beam, i ndi vi dua 1 and 4 x 8 mats, punching bag, trampo 1 i ne ( demountab 1 e), equipment storage, wall mounted adjustable weights. Acoustical noise control, music (no special). No special requirement. piped-in 79

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Performance Performance Grouping Activity Characteristics: SINGING This activity will be performed as an organized activity, such as choir, and can uti 1 i ze the interior amphitheater in the smaller plaza. TABLE TENNIS Occasional informal use of activity as well as periodic championships. This activity will occur on participant's initiative as well as when area is not in use for other activities. Flooring should be slightly resilient walls should be dark for background good, even lighting and ventilation -portable tables with adjacent storage. YOGA This passive activity will occur typically as an instructional group activity. The space requirements are minimal. A dense floor mat and acoustical privacy are the most salient needs. Adequate ventilation should be incorporated. THEATER This activity can be flexible and should be considered as such. Within that scope of operation, the function can range between a few persons to large groups. Portable platforms need to be provided for various activities. Seating needs to be portable with adequate storage adjacent to activity area with potentia 1 for theater in the round. Special adaptive lighting system controlled by one station with dimming potential in four central lighting control panels. Props can possibly be manufactured in shop areas and transported to this area. The area will be mostly movable partition music/singing/theater! I I -__ yoga I / I .. / 80 , I I I : portable 1 stage 1 .... ... , I r I I I floor mats D I I fllake-u I I I I MULTI-FUNCTION music/singing/theater/yoga

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Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: a practice area and performing area for simple sketches. If large group productions occur other areas such as banquet areas can be used. Areas should accommodate occasional movie projection. VOLLEYBALL Occasional informal and instructional use of activity as well as periodic championships. Flooring should be slightly resilient -good, even lighting walls and ceilings should be medium dark and be designed to reduce reverberation time. Minimum recommended ceiling height of 24 feet. . BASKETBALL Regulation half-court basketball requirements similar to vo 11 eyba 11 with a m i n i mum recommended ceiling height of 20 feet. Area should be adjacent to public restrooms and locker area, centrally located for easy accessibility. Parking prox imity is important. Drinking fountains should be located nearby. Public viewing into performance area. Varies. Varies. The area has to have the flexibility to adapt to changing curriculum requirements. MUSIC seating for a maximum of 100 persons with storage area for music stands and sheet music. DANCE -flexible platform for live music. SINGING -same as music . . TABLE TENNIS -three 9' x 5' portable irrored surfaces ith rai 1 s ( large open floor area 81 movable partition t-j------L + irrored surfaces ith rails I MULTI -FUNCTION dance

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Sound: tables with adjacent storage for tables, paddles and balls. • YOGA -8' x 16' floor mats in folding 2' sections. THEATER -portable stage, lighting and seating for 100 people. VOLLEYBALL nets, balls and possibly roll down portable court. BASKETBALL -portable or ceiling back stop. Acoustical treatment as required for music and theater -sound attenuation required for active sports. tables MULTI -FUNCTION table tennis 82 seating L __ .,.

PAGE 98

Swii1J11ing/Scuba Sports Gr oupi ng Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Special: Integration/normalization of pool potential, accessible swirmning pool, scuba, diving area, spectator area, lounge area, poo 1 office with abi 1 ity for visual control of pool area. Waiting area for users. Adjacent to shared lockers, toilet, weight training, public entry area. Twenty-five persons. Continuous throughout day and scheduled classes. Not significant. Changing areas, ramping, separate area for diving, second area for aquatic training, flotation devices, scuba tanks, masks and fins, equipment storage, infra-red heaters, cold plunge, whirlpool. Noise control. Natural and incandescent artificial lighting, public viewing area into pool area, sky lighting, glare control critical. Stair risers and perimeter pool banding to be of salient color for visibility. Extensive ventilation, maintenance and equipment storage, pool area, showering. 83

PAGE 99

Accessible steps and ramp into pool area with rails, niches for wheel chair storage, humidity contra 1 at poo 1 area for window condensation. Life saving station. Special mechanical system for pool area. Walls and floors should be of an impermeable material. Pool Depths: 20% 1-2 feet deep 60% 4 feet deep 10% Up to 8 feet deep 10% Diving depth Provision of rope hooks for sectioning of pool as per program requirements. 84 \\ I \1'--l /

PAGE 100

Shared Restrooms Sports Grouping Activity Characteristics: Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Special: Toilet, showers, and locker area for men and women, equipment checkout, separate changing rooms for privacy assistance by opposite sex. Adjacent to weight training area, swimming and basketball. Twenty persons in each area. Continuous. Possible with growth. Shower facilities, toilets, 1 ockers, mirrors, b 1 ow dryer, room, handrails. Acoustically isolated. sinks, towel Vi sua 1 privacy of 1 ocker area from general circulation. Flooring exterior to be non-slip. 85 ""' kl p 0 0 ./) c::P I

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Caretaker's Quarters Building Support Grouping Activity Characteri sties: Living accommodations for caretaker and farni ly. Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: To building support area. Physically detached from 1 arger activity areas within building. One to four persons. Continuous. Unlikely. Barrier-free kitchen and bathroom fixtures. Living and bedroom furniture required. Residential furnishings. Moderate control required. Views to exterior. 86

PAGE 102

Telephone/Electrical Communications Building Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Area for housing, telephone, electrical, building communications equipment. Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Centralization possible. Not applicable. Continuous. Likely with growth. and Contingent upon design. No requirement. No requirement. fragmentation 87

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Janitorial Shop/Supply Building Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Provides an office and work area for genera 1 repairs of bui 1 ding re 1 a ted equipment and a storage area for bulk cleaning supplies and equipment. Proximity: People: Time of Use: Change: Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Adjacent delivery tributed qui red. to building storage and area. Satellite stations disthroughout facility as re-Four persons. Continuous. Likely with growth. Work bench, storage shelves, shop equip ment, desk chairs, files, maintenance equipment, utility sinks. Acoustical isolation of shop area as required. No special requirements. 88

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Security/Building Office Building Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Support area for maintaining building security. Proximity: Adjacent to main entry. People: One person. Time of Use: Continuous. Change: None. Furniture and Equipment: Sound: Visual: Office furniture and files for one person. No special requirement. View to main lobby area. 89

PAGE 105

Vestibules/lobby Building Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Weather lock at main entry points to facility including adjacent lobby area. Proximity: Contingent upon design. People: Varies. Time of Use: Continuous. Change: With growth. Furniture and Equipment: Contingent upon design. Sound: No special requirement. Visual: No special requirement. Special: Special barrier-free requirements. 90

PAGE 106

Delivery Building Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Work and temporary storage area for deliveries, van deliveries for facility. Proximity: Adjacent to vehicular circulation and building storage. People: Four persons. Time of Use: Continuous. Change: Likely with growth. Furniture and Equipment: As required. Sound: Moderate control required. Visual: No requirement. 91

PAGE 107

Building Storage Building Support Grouping Activity Characteristics: Long and short term storage for building equipment and supplies. Proximity: Adjacent to delivery and janitori a 1 supply/shop. Time of Use: Continuous. Change: With building growth. Furniture and Equipment: Wall shelving. Sound: No special requirement. Visual: No speci a 1 requirement. 92

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CODE REQUIREMENTS

PAGE 109

BUILDING CODE Zephyr Village is designed in accordance with the Uniform Building Code, 1982 Edition. Occupancy Groups are A3, B2 and Il for the Daycare area. Type of construction is Type 4 Heavy Timber. The project falls under the requirements of the covered mall classification of the 1982 Uni form Building Code Appendix Chapter 7 and shall comply with all the provisions of this chapter. No fire separation is required between A3 and 82 or between 82 and A3 and the enc 1 osed street. A one hour separat ion is recommended between the secondary p 1 aza and the pool/performance area. A two hour separation is a 1 so required between Daycare and a 11 other 82 occupancies. Automatic sprinklers, stand pipes and a smoke control system wi 11 be provided for fire protection. The smoke contro 1 system wi 11 be designed to maintain the street as a means of egress during a fire. Maximum distances to any exterior door or passageway wi 11 not exceed 200 feet. Exits are arranged so that it is possi b 1 e to go in either direction from any point in a corridor. 93

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REFERENCES

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1. Adams, Daniel, Rullman. Games, Sports and Exercises for the Physically Handicapped, (1978). 2. Adaptive Environments Center. Environments For A 11 Children, (National Center For A Barrier-Free Environment, November, 1980). 3. Altman, Irving. The Environment and Social Behavior, (Brooke and Cole, 1975 . 4. American Nat ional Standards Institute, Inc. Specifications For Making Buildings And Facilities Accessible To And Usable By Physically Handicapped People, (ANSI, Al17.1-1980). 5. Bednar, Mi chae 1 J., EdHor. Barrier-Free En vi ronments, (Huchinson & Ross, Inc., 1977). 6. Goldsmith, Selwyn. Designing For The Disabled, (RIBA Publications, Limited, 1976). 7. Kleeman, Walter B. The Challenge Of Interior Design, (CBI Publishing Company, Inc. , 1981). 8. Oscar. Design Guidelines For Creating Defensible Space, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1976). 9. Raschko, Bettyann Boetticher. Housing Interiors for the Disabled and Elderly, (Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1982) . 10. The Uniform Building Code, 1982. 11 . Woodson, Wes 1 ey E. Human Factors Design Handbook, (McGraw -Hill Book Company, 1981). 94

PAGE 112

APPENDICES

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General Construction Foundation Following recommedcrions o f J he preliminary soils investigation the foundation will be reinforced concret e footings and grade beams. It is likely building area de-watering wi II be necessary. Controlled comfX1cted fi II wi II be required for support of footings and floor slabs where topographic elevations are below final floor elevations. Structure Considering site, building function end construction economy, glued laminated wood beams, trusses and decking hove been selected for framing the roof. structure. Reinforced concrete _:_u_Eport the roof members. The floor will be a cast in place Exterior Wells Typical well construction excluding the street, will consist of an exterior acrylic based textured well coating over 3/4" polystyrene attached to 4" metal studs. The sh.Jds wiH be filled with batt insulation and finished wit h sheet rock on the interior. Wind ows are double and by operable and location of shutters. Exterior street walls are similar in construction but finished with wood shake shingles. Flat Roofs EPDM ballasted roofing system over approximately 3" of rigid insulation. Positive drainage is is obtained by sloping the structure 1 /8" per foot to internal roof drains. Gabled Roofs Wood shake shingles over standard cold roof consrruction. Rafters are to be filled with 10" of batt insulation and finished with wood decking on th e interior.

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Mechanical Design and Construction Criteria The design for the Zephyr Village will be based on plans prepared by the Architect, Standards issued by 'llinter Par k Recreation Association, Local S t a r t:, and N ational Codes. The plumbing systems will include hot and cold domestic water with sanitary waste and vent. Portions of the domestic hot water load wi II be met by a solar domestic hot water system. An additional solar system will be utilized for heating the swimming Fool. The heating and ventilation systems will be designed t o meet t h e heat loss of a building with rigid polymeric insulation in the walls and roof and double glazed windows. Elevation: 9270 ft. Summer, Outdoor 76, 58 wb Indoor 75 Winter, Outdoor -22 Indoor 75F Only in the swimming pool will relative humidity be a design condition. HVAC Systems Mall Tenant and Office Areas The mechanical systems will provide ventilation and heating to all major areas of the building. The storage and boiler rooms will be heated only. Electrical rooms and toilet rooms will be exhausted. Those rooms on outside walls will be p ro vided with heating. The mec hanical equipment will be sized for future building additions to the office area • The heat generating system will be comprised of a single cast iron gas boiler for the mall, tenant and office space. Boiler water will be circulated around the perimeter of the building in baseboard heating elements. The baseboard will be zoned to allow for future additions. Boiler water will also be piped to a heating coil in the ventilation system. Air, heated by the coil will be used to offset the roof load in interior spaces. The cooling will be primarily by cool outside air. Evaporative cooling will be used, in desigated areas, only when the cooling lood can not be met by outside air. Air distribution for building ventilation will be c omprised of 3 constant volume fans located below the first floor level in 2 separate fan rooms. Separat e fan room$, Separate supply and exhaust are required for the mall and tenant areas for creation of a smoke barrier.

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HVAC Systems Pool and Spectator Areas The mechanical s y s tem s for the pool and spectat or area will be se parate a nd ir:c!c:p0iident of the Moll tenant and office areas. The heat generating system will be comprised of a sinlge cost iron gas boiler. Boiler water will be circulated H1ro ugh heating cci Is in Hand V one for each space. Boiler water will also be circulated to cabinet heaters in locker and storage rooms. Cooling loads will be met by an outside air economizer control on the H & V units. Air distribution will be by separate fan systems for the pool and spectator areas. Each system will be constant volume, the p:>OI in addition t o the supply fan will have an exhaust fan to conlrol the h umidity level in the space. The pool suppl y and exhaust fan systems will be equipped with a heat reclaim system. Domestic water and pool heating will be comprised of a solar system with con ventional, 100% bock-up. The solar system will utilize flat plate collectors filled wit h a partial solution of glycol to prevent freezing. The bock-up system will be a cost iron gas fired boiler with heat exchanger. The flat plate collector system should b e approximately 320 square feet to serve the domestic water system and a separate system approximately 1800 square feet is required for the swimming pool. Control Sequence Boilers and Pumps The boilers and heating pumps will run continuously below 65 F outside air temperature. Baseboard Zone controlling several perimeter spaces each will modulate a valve in the supply line on demand to rnointoin its setting. Heating and Ventilating Units A thermostat located in on interior space shall control the heating coil in t h e ventilation system. The ventilation system shall run continuously w hen the building is occupied and be off at night. The air handling systems are as follows: Area H & V system Swimming Pool' Gym Corridor Tenant Area Tenant Area CFM 12,000 6,000 16,000 18,500 18,500

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ZEPHYR V ILLAGF. 1. GENERAL A . Electrical wor k basically consist s of providing lighting, panelboards, feeders, conductors, conduit, receptacles, relepl1one facilities, fire alarm public address system, intrusion alarm system, emergency power s ystem and primar y and secondary distribution s ystem. B. The National Electrical Code, latest isst1e, will be followed in sizing all con ductors, conduits and other applicable features for interior design . 2. INTERIOR A. Lighting system consists of fluorescent t ype, in general, for all interior spaces, and will operate f rom 277 volt branch circui ts. Fixtures are of t he lay-in recessed t y pe with acr ylic diffuser lenses, equippe d lamp a nd ballast compartmen t ventilation provisions to limLt fixture heat contribution to occupied space, '.o.'hich will yield economies in design of air quantities for air conditioning. Exit lighting i s provided and ligh ting for exitways along with exit lights nre supplied from the emer gency power system. Also, min imum lighting in large work areas is supplied from t he emergency powe r system . . Parking lot and exterior areas are illuminated by metal halide lt1mi naires installed on metal poles with integral photoelectric contro l on each pole. Lighting level will be as b y t he 198 2 I .E.S. standards. All fluorescent ballasts and lam p s will be of t he energy saving type, incandescent lamps will be of the e xtended service t ype. B. The complete interio r electrical systems include the following materinl and equipment. (1) Conductors: TW or THW . (2) Fittings for e l ectric metallic tubing: Rai ntigh t or concrete-tight where required. (3 ) Clock Outlets: Recessed, with ha n ger. T (4) Wall Receptacle: Duplex lSA, 125V. Special-use outlets where required. (S) Weatherproof Receptacles, with gasket ed cover. -1-

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(6) Device plates on finish ed wjlJ. be I vo ry-finishc<:l steel excep t cl1rome-platcd brass or s tCJ.inless '--:ill be used for toilet roo ms, food preparation ant: ::r eas. (7) Wall Switches: 20 ampere. (8) Electrical Distribution: Powe r distribution for this facility will be obtained from the secondary side of the pad-mounted transformer and will be 4 R0/277 volts, 3 0, 4 W . This voltage will be utilized for all lighting except incandescent, mechanical equipmen t anrl certain kitchen equipment. Dry type transformers will be strategically located throughout this facilit y to provide 208Y/ l20 volts, 3 0, 4 W for convenience outlets, incandescent lighting a nd certain kitchen and small mechanical equipment. (9) Switchboard: Main switchboard will be of the free standing switch and fuse type. Ground fault protection will. be provided at the main switch and at the large feeder switches only. (10) Pauelboards: (a) Subdistribution: Circuit breaker type 277/480 volts, 3 0, 4 W and/or volts, 3 0, 4 W. ( h ) Lighting 277/480 Volt Panels: Circuit breaker type. (c) 120/208 Vol t Panels: Circuit breaker type. (11) Fuses: Cartridge dual element, tiQe Jag, current limiting. (12) Motor Control. (13) Motor Disconnect. (14) Exit Lights. (15) Ground Rods: Copper. (16) Transformers. (17) Conduit: (a) Flexible Steel. (b) Zinc-coated Rigid Steel. (c) Rigid Al uminum. (d) PVC, Schedule 40 heavywall. (18) Conduit Coatings: (a) Plastic. -2-

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(b) Epoxy Resin. (c) Coal Tar Primer anJ Enamel . (19) Tubing: Electrical Hetallic Tubing (EHT) . (20) Telephone Panels, Outlet s and Raceway will provided in accordance with the telephone company requirements. (21) An automatic fire alarm system will be provided con sisting of the following components: (a) Transmitter. (b) Power Supply. (r) Detectors. (d) Control Unit. (c) Manual Alarm Stations. (f) Audible-Signal Units. (22) Security System: The securit y system will b e limited to supervised door entry which, in terms, will be tied to the police station. Perimeter security lighting will be provided. (23) T V System: Provisions will be made to accommodate public television as well as cable TV. (24) Emergency Power System: Emergency power system will provide for a diesel engine-generator system, with automatic starting and ] oad transfer capability. Unit will provide required backup for general exit lighting t o provide safe egress for occupants, for the fire alarm system, and other systems deemed necessary. (25) Ground fault protection is provided on the main breakers as well as the large feeder breaker in the main switchboard. 3. EXTERIOR ELECTRICAL A. The distribution system consists of a new 13,20 0 volt, J phase, undergrdl1nd extension, through a du c t .mel manho ] c system, from the present primary distribution system. Duct bank includes one spare duct. Metering of e]ectrical power for the facility will be provided at the main switchboard. -3-

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B. The c omplete exterior system shall include the following material and P-qnipment. (1) Transformers. (a) Three-phase, outdoor power type. (b) Pad-mounted. -4-

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LIGHTING Lighting level will be as recommended b y the 1982 I . E . S . standards. All fluorescent ballasts anrl lnmps will be of energy savi n g type, incRndescent lamps tvill be of tile extended service t ype. Outdoor security lighting -v1ill be provided and will include the parking areas. FIRE ALAR!-! S YSTEH An automatic fir e alarm system will be provided co:tsist i ng of s m ok e /heat detector, pulJ stations and horns with strob e ligh t . An automatic tie will be provided to the fire department. C m lNUNICATION SYSTEM A public system will b e provided; Rddition a l sound systems will be provided in different function areas o f this facility. SECURITY The security system will be limited t o supervised door entry which, in terms, will he tied to the police station. Perimeter scc11ri t y lighting will be provided. T V SYSTEH Provision will be made to accommodate public televisio n as well as c able TV.

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n i cal Des i yn 1\nd Construe t i un Criteria T t1 e des i y n f o r I P p h y r V i l l a 9 e 1 i 1 1 be b a s e d on p i , 1• . ; • 1 , , ct red D y t 11 e ;,rcllitect, StanuJ r ds 1ssu ed Dy Par k Recreation Assoc.1ation, Local State, and Nation a 1 Codes. plumbiny systems will include t10t and cold d UiileStlC \'lat e r v1ith sanitary v1aste and vent. Portions of U1e uomestic hot w ater load 1vill ;;1et by a solar domestic hot '.'later system. A n additional solar system 1ill De utilized for heatiny the swimming pool. The heating and vent i 1 at ion systems w i 11 be des i yned to meet the he a t 1 oss o f a Duiluir1 g with rigid polymeric insulation in the v1alis and roof and double glazed vii ndOivS. The building Vlil 1 be designed to meet tt1e code requirements of a Covered Moll. Tt1ere will be automatic sprinklers throughout tt1e building. Also , required fo r fire protection 1vi 11 be stand pipes and a s m oke control system. The building vlill be divided into t1-10 spaces-tenant and mall. The mall and tenant s pace will each have a separate sprinkler system . Tt1e smoke control system vlill be uesigned to maintain tt1e Mall as a means of e gress during a t i re. Tt1e design conditions to be useu in the calculation ot eyuqJment capocities ue as to 11 O lvS : Elevation: Yc70 tt. Summer, Outdoo r lo, s e lltJ !11 duur 7 5 O ut(J OlH' lnd
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H1e cooling v1ill be primarily Dy cool outsice air. Evaporative cooling be use rJ, in designated areas, onl y 1t1en the cooling l oad can n o t bernet li_" outstcle air. Air distribution for Llulld ing ventilation will t ) e compris ed ot 3 cor1stant volurne fans located bel ow the t irs t fl oar l eve 1 in separate fan rooms . Sepdrute supply and exhaust systems are required for the mall an d tenant areas for creation of a smoke barrier. HVI\C Systems Pool And Spectator Areas The mechanical systems tor t h e pool and S!Jectator area will be s eparate and independent of the Mall tenant and o ttice areas. The heat generating system v1ill be comprised of a single cast iron ga s boiler. Boiler water will be circulated ttlru heating coils in Hand V units, one for eact1 space. Boiler v1ater will also be circulated to cabinet heaters in locker and storage rooms. Cooling loads vlill be met by an outside economizer control on the H & V units. Air distribution 1 vill be by separate tan systems for t he pool and spectator areas. Each system will be constant volume, the p ool in addition to the supply fan will have an exhaust tan to control the humidity level in the s pace. The pool supply and ext1aust tan systems l'lill be equipped with a t1eat reclaim system . Oornestic anc l poo l v1ill b e comprised of a solar system with conventional, 100% bac k -up. The solar s ystem 1vill utilize flat plate c ollectors tille d with a partial solution ot g l yc ol to prevent freezing. T h e bac k -up s ystern will be a cast iron yas tired boiler vlit h heat exchanser. Control Sequence Hoilers and Pumps The b o i 1 e r s an o hea t i n g pumps w i 1 1 run con t i n u o us 1 y be I o 1 ti :> oF o ll t s i de a i r ternperature. l3aseboa rd Lorte tt1er mostats controlling several peritneter s puce s eact1 1v1ll m odulate a valvt! in the supply line on demand to maintain its setting. Heating and Ventilating Units A U1ermosta t located in an interio r Sf.lace shall c ontrol tr1e twating coil in the ventilation system. The VPntilatio n sy stern shall run c ontinuously when the Dulluin g is ano be ott at niyl1t.

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ELECTRICAL DESIGN ZEPIIYR VILLAGE GENERAL T l1e design for this f acility shall consist of a complete power distribution system; emergency distribution; indoor an d outdoo r lighting including controls; fire alarm s ystem; communication system a n d commercial TV systems. ELECTRICAL SERVICE Electrical power for tl1is project will be obtained frrm the presrnt 15 KV distribution system an
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LIGHTIN G Lighting level will he as recommended by the 1982 T.E.S. standards. All fluorescent ballasts anrl lamps will be of energy s av i ng t ype, incandescent lamps will be of tl1e extended service type. Outdoor security lighting w i l l be provided and will include the parking areas. FIRE ALARI-1 SYSTGt 1\n automatic fire alarm s ystem wi.ll b e provided consisting of smoke/heat cletector, pull s t ations a ntl horns with strobe light. An automatic tie \-Till be provided to the fire department. COMMlJNICATlON SYSTHI A public addressing system will be provided; additional sound systems will he provided in different function areas of this SECURITY SYSTEN The security svstem will be limited to supervised door entry which, in terms, wiJl tied to the police station. Perimeter security lightint; \vill be provided. TV SYSTHl Provision will be made to accommodate public television ns well a s cable TV.

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--------I ' 11d ZtlrYr VILL('Or:-

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TI'UIJJ:) b" Zt IHYr

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N NAIIUNA l. S T..\ NIH IUJ A II less than 20 decibel s w i th a frequency nl' higher than 1500 liz. i\n vcrha l atlrHlttnce mcnt o i the n ou r numbe r a t which 3 car stllps u r whic h a car pas ses may he substituted fur the audible sig n :tl. 4 . 10.14* Emergency Cmnmunic :ttions.lfpro vided, t:mergcn..:y two-way t.:l>t nnwni..:atio n sys t ems h.:tween th.:: elev ato r Jnd : 1 . p oi nt outside the h oist way shall comply wit h ANSI .-\I 7 .1 ' l7S and _.\I 7 .13 I f a t wo way Clllllllll!n ication system s hall he :t rll:tximutn uf 54 in ( 1370 mm) f rom th: llutH u f the car. It s h :tll he i dcnl ilt •'" hv r ai'cd •If wmJH,J an,J with 4 .30 :1nd lo cat.:d : t dj:H : cnt to thL ,kvicr. I f t hl sv' tl 'lll U S L S a hand s et , then th e of the curd from the p a nel to the handset shall he at kast 2 9 i n (735 mm ). 4.11 * PI:Jtfonn Lifts 4 .11. 1 Location . I'!Jtfnrm !tits may h e u s l'd as a part uf an mute i f n ' ' k win d''"'' ttll' : td! :K ce-;stl' k s pace shall C'if< : d h,.,,,,..:n the f.tcc PI t h e door and the stop (see F ig. 24(a), {b), (c), and (d)). Ope ning s more than 24 in (610 mm) in depth shall comply with 4 . 2 . 1 and 4.3.3 (see Fig. 24(e)) . -U 3.6 \1aneuvering Clearances at Doors. Mini mum mane uverin g clearances for doors that are not :tut,,nutic shall be as shown in Fig. 25. The floor or gro und within the required clearances shall be level anJ -:lea r . Entr y doors to acute care hospital bedrOlllllS fl,r s hall be from the requ i re rn.:nt f n r :tt the l atch side of th e door (sec di"x" in Fig. 2)) i f door is at least -14 in ( 111111) wid:: . 4 .13.7 Two Doors in Series. The minimum space betwe e n two hinged ur doors in series shall be in (I mm) plus the width of any door swinging into the s pace . On ors i n series shall swing either i n th e same direction or away from the s pace between the dll \lfS (s ec Fig. 2 6 ) . 4 .13.X* Thresholds at Doorways . Thresholds at d oorwa y s sh31l rwt ex ce ed 3 / 4 in (I C) mm) in he ight for exterior slid ing Joors or 1 / 2 in ( 13 mm) for other types of do ors. Raised thresholds and floor level at JoClrways shall be beveled with a slo pe n o greate r than I : 2 (se e 4 . 5 . 2 ) . 4 .13. 9* Uoor llardware . Handles , pulls, latches , lock s, and other operating devices on accessible doors sh all a shape that is easy to gr:1sp with one : 1nd doc s no t require right grasping, tight pinching, or tw isting 11f the wri s t to o perar.:. Levero perated me chani s m s , push-type mechanisms, and ha ndles ar c :JCCcptahlc desig ns . \Vhcn sliding doors are lully llJ'<.:II , ' 'Jlt!rating harJw:tr C s hall he exposed and usable f ro m b•ltlt side s . In Jwl'!ling units, only doors at a.:cc s,i hlc to the unit i tself shall comply wit h t he requi rem ents of this paragraph. Doors to h:11ar J uus h :tvc lt:tr dw a rl' t:omplying with -+. : < u _ 4 .1.1.1 0* Door Closers . If :1 door has a closer, then the s weep perillll of the c los e r s hall b e adjusted so that f rom :m o pen p nsitio n o f 70 degrees , the door will tJke at lnst J s ec u nds to move to a po i nt 3 in (75 mm ) frotn t he l:ttdt, to r he l eading edge of the do or. -1.13.11" Ooor Opening Force. T he maximum forcL for pushing o r pullin g op.: n a door shall be as t"ollo ws: (I) Fire d(1ors s hal l have t he minimum opening f c ,rce a llow able hy the ap pr opri:.tt e administrative a uthori t y. (2) Other dnnrs: (:t) exterior hinged donrs: 8 . 5 lbf(37. 8 N) (h l interior hinged d o ors: 5 lhf(22. 2 N) (c) sliJing or ( ,1!ding doors: 5 lhi (22.2 N) These f1Hces Jo n •ll to th e f orce required tore

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32mln 115 (a) Detail (c) Sliding Door (d) Folding Door Fis. 24 AMERJCAN NATIONAL STANDARD AI 17.1-1980 :--I / (b) Hinged Door ( e ) I I Maximum Doorway Depth Oesr Doorway Width and Depth tract latch bolts or disengage other devices that may hold the door in a cioseti position. Aatomadc Doon and Jlower.Aailuci Ooon. If an automatic door is used, then it shall comply with American National Standard for Power Operated Doors, ANSI A!S6.10-1979. Slowly opening, low-powered, automatic doors shall be considered a type of custom design installation as described in paragraph 1. 1.1 o f ANSI Al56. 101 9 7 9 . Such doors s hall not open to back check faster than 3 s ef:onds and s hall r equire no more than 1 5 1bf(66 . 6 N) to stop door movement. I f a power assisted door i s used, i ts door-open ing t e rce shall .:o m pl y with-+. 13.11 and i ts d u s i n g shJJI ..:unt"orm t o che r equi rements i n S ec tion 10 o t A NSI ..\156.10-197 0 . 4.14 4.14.1 Minimum Numb. A reasonab l e number, but aLways at least one, o f p rincipal entrances t o a . builc:ii.q or facility shall be part of an accessible route and shall comply with 4.3 . Such entrances shall be con nected by an accessible route to public: tr:1r.sportation stops, to accessible parking and passenger l oading zones , and t o public streets o r sidewaik3 ( see 4. 3. 2(1)). They s hall .also be connected by an ac c ess i ble route t o a il access i b l e s paces or elements w ith i n t he build i ng or f ac ility. 4.14 . 2 Service Entr:mces . A s ervice entrance s hall not b e t he s o l e a c c e s sible entrance u n l e s s i t i s t he o n iy
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Pull Side ---. . . : ; 0 ; X 1 24mi n \ r . 610 : l : c 4i; .:; ::> • I 1t 0;; :t) : i : ; s:-:p! (a ) I I X Push Side I I r-,;: ! v '<:jf : : ilin:::i'f:lri;illi%ZIMI NOTF : x = 12 in (305 mrnfifdour ha 5 both a cln'< ' r arlt! latrh. Front :\!'proac:hes -D n urs l'ull Side r >-I X : . -. ; : :;; :; . . • . -.: .:i::':J ,, I I 1 . \ . : Ill f\) Is 11.1111 llllllllllll /1\ J ! \' Ill! Ill II 1 11111); . \..: 1 2 Ill ( 1!11111 lllllllll\tllll tl \ 5-1 rrr I I 3 7fr rnrrr ) . X Pull Side t24 min_ 510 ' -r-: .................... . c:l . E i o ...._ COl::;! ,..-'<:j', -1 ::::; :::::;=:;,:;,j4:ai• =ZJ>= J . y = 5-l rn rt.\.,11 111111 1 flllfllllllllllll dt111r !I;., 1.: 11.1\l,:f. (h) (c ) L1tcil <;ide 25 Pmh Side 370 I __.., ____ ,,, ........... ,_ c l . E i., >-N j> . <•-{i;:: ;g '4 \"j )' = 4 R in ( 122 0 mm) rnmimum if door b"t h . r latdl :rnd cluarances :11 Doors • \ r I i i i . I J ' I

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NATIONAL STANDARD All7.1-1980 . . . . . . Cl:ifl : : .l !====r 1t,onm t -r-: : e . . ....i.l ' ... (d) (e) Front Approach Slldinl Doors Sllde Side Approach Sliding Doors . r (f) Latch Side Approach Sliding Doors NOTE: All cioon in alcQves shail comply with the cleuanca for front approaches. FiJ. 25 M1Deuverin1 Oeannces at .Doors (Continued) --.. / ........... / "' I \ I L--...... \ -.J Fig. :!6 Two Hinged in Series

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• (1420 mm) (see Ag. 30(a)) or 66 in (1675 mm) (see A g. JO(b )) shall have wall-mounted water closets. If the depth of toilet stalls is increased at least 3 in (7S mm), then a floor-mounted water closet may be used. AI rangements shown for stalls may be reversed to allow either a left or a right-hand approach. 4.17.4 Toe Oeuac:es. In standard stalls, the front partition and at least one side partition shall provide a toe clearance of at least 9 in (230 mm) above the floor. If the depth of the stall is greater than 60 in (1525 mm), then the toe clearance is not required. 4.17 .5• Doon. Toilet stall doors shall comply with 4.13. 4.17.6 Grab Bars. Grab bars complying with the length and positioning shown in Fig. 30(a), (b), (c) , and (d) shall be provided. Grab bars may be mounted by any desired method as long as they have a grippiq surface at the locations shown and do not obstruct the required clear floor area. Grab bars shall comply with4.26. 4.18 Urinlb 4.18.1 General. Accessible urinals shall comply with 4.18. : 4.18.2 Height. Urinals shall be stall-type or wall hung with an elongated rim at a maximum of 17 in (430 mm) above the floor. 4.18.3 aeu Floor Spaca.. A clear floor space 30 in by 48 in (760. mm by 1220 mm) shall be provided in front of urinals to allow forward approach. Titi.s clear space shall adjoin or overlap an accessible route and shall comply with 4.2.4. 4.18.4 Flush Conaoia. Flush controls shall be hand operated, shall comply with 4.27 .4, and shall be mounted no more than 44 in ( 1120 mm) above the floor. 4.19 Lavatories and Mirrors 4.19;1 General. The requirements of 4.19 shall apply to lavatory flXtures, vanities, md built-in lava tories. 4.19.2 Height and Cearances. Lavatories shall be mounted with a clearance of at least 29 in (735 mm) from the floor to the bottom of the apron. Knee and toe clearances shall comply with Fig. 31. 4.19 .3 Oear Floor Space. A clear floor space 30 in by 48 in ( 760 mm by 1220 mm) complying with 4.2.4 shall be provided in front of a lavatory to allow a for ward approach. Such clear floor space shall adjoin or overlap an accessible route and shall extend a maxi mum of 1 9 in (48 5 mm) underneath the lavatory ( see Fig. 32). U 9 A Exposed Pipes and Surfaces. Hot water : md plpt: s unJ.:r b vatones ,hall h e Insulated v r u t h er AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD All7.l-1980 Fia. 31 Lavatory aeanmc:es : eleer 0 ::r:______i ..................... . Fig. 32 Clear Floor Space at Lavatories wise covered. There shall be no sharp or abrasive sur faces under lavatories. 4.19 .5 Faucets. Faucets shall comply with 4.27 .4. Lever-operated, push-type, and electronically con trailed mechanisms are exam pies of acceptable de signs. Self-closing valves are allowed if the faucet re mains open for at least 10 seconds. 4.19.6• . .\iirrors shall be mounted with the bottom edge no higher man 4-0 in ( 1015 mm) f rom t he r1oor ( see F i g . 31 ). Bathrubs -+.:0.1 GeneraL . -\ccessible b athtubs shail com ply with .1.:0. F o r b:Hhtub s i n adaptable d weiling u nits, s ee -U-+. 5A. 39

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c r E i 0 C"y------, I I I l ev 1 _____ j clear: lloor : space: ----.... ...................... .... . 60min _ _ ., I I c l I E : O I"' ..... i -: I (:1) ,... f:JI+ ie I -----, I I I __ ll!d clear floor space ........ ............. ......... With in Tuh SY\!BOL K! . Y • Shnwcr Ct'n 1 -,.c : >--. I I lav: ( h) I 15 I r JflO I c lea r floor space <} Dr:.1in \\'1tli St::lt :.It lkad ,,fT uh Fig .. H Cll'ar Floor :Jt R.1thtuhs 4.:20 .:2 Floor Sp:1ce. C'le:.tr flt Hlr in fro lil t , , f hath t ubs s hall he a-; ir; -''. 4 . 20 . 3 Se :Jt. ;\n in-tuh sc a t n r : 1 s cat at tilL hL ;,,I of th e tub ht: pmvi ueu as s linwn rn 3 . ' .rnd 34. The s tru c turJ I strell:_!th n r 'c:lh : r nJ t he i r : t l Ltc:h mcnls s hall com ply with _ _ l s,a h he rnountt:d and s hall llht lW!l in F ig. 3-l. Shower ! ! nit. i\ >iruwn 'prav llllll \ \ :th :r h11so: at lo:as t c>rJ-i1r (I ) 25-tnn l ) 1"11)! th:ll c:rn hl' l t >L'd :rs 4 0 J fixed shnw n hc:1J o r J hanJ-helu sho wer shall be provi ded . Enclosures . If provi ded, enclosures t'l'r bathtut">s s l .. t!l not o bstru.:t control s o r tran sfer froorn whee!c:h:1irs nntn h:Jthtuh s eJts or into tuhs . h ll 'lnsures , ,n shall n o t have tracks mounted "n their rims. ShnwcrStalls .t .I* Gencr:JI. At:--essi hlc shower stalls comply wit h 4 .21. For s llllwe r s tall s in dwelling lllli!S, So?O: t.3.\.55. 1 . 2 Size anJ Cle:Jranccs. st:tl! ,i7 . e and I f

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• 24mlrt 610 foot back AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD A117.ll980 head (a) With Seat in Tub 24mn 810 4 " 1220 12 control area foot (b) With Seat at Head of Tub Fig. 34 Grnb Bars at Bathtubs clear floor space shall comply with Fig. 35(a) or (b). The shower stall in Fig. 35(a) shall be 36 in by 36 in (915 nun by 915 mm) . li;e shower stall in Fig. 3S(b) will fit into the space required for a bathtub. 4.21.3 Seat. A seat shall be provided in shower stalls 36 in by 36 in (915 mm by 915 mm) and shail be as shown in Fig. 36. The seat shaH be mounted 17 in to 19 in ( 430 mm to 485 mm) from the bathroom floor and shall extend the full depth of the stail. The seat shall be on the wall opposite the controls. The structural strength of seats and their attachments s hall comply with -+.26.3. 4 .11 .-+ Gr::1b Bars. GrJb b:m complying w1ch -+ . .26 ) hall h e provided JS sho wn 1 n F ig. 3 7. -+. 21.5 Controls. F:Ju..:.:cs .tntl .>ther .;, l!Hrcls ..:o m plying with 4 .27 . 4 shall be located as shown in Fig. 37. In shower stalls 36 in by 36 in (915 mm by 915 mm), all faucet!, md the shower unit shall be mounted on the side wail opposite the seat. 4.21.6 Shower Unit. A shower spray unit with a hose at least 60-in (1525-mm) long that c:m be used as a tixed shower head or as a hand-held showoc. . shall be provided. 4.21.7 Curbs. If provided. curbs i n shower stalls 36 in by 36 i n (915 mm by 915 mm) shall be no high ::r t han 4 in ( I 00 mm). Shower stalls that a re .3 0 in by 6 0 i n (760 mm by I 5 25 mm) sh all not have ..:urbs. 4 . 21.3 Shower Enclosures. If provided,
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,., ..,_ J 36 I 9 1 5 iback -.,;__......__ ( a ) .\1•-in hy .\(>-ill ('!! "-nllll
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'" ........ (a) AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD All7.1-1980 \. control wall controf ar .. 36-in by 36-in (91 5-mm by 91 5-mm) Stall (b) eontrof ar .. side 30-in by 60-in (760-mm by 1 525-mm) Stall Fil. 37 Gab Bus at Shower Stalls 4.22 Toilec Rooms 4.22.1 Mia.innun Number. If toilet fac:ilities are pro vided, a reasonable number, but always at le:ut one, of toilet rooms shall comply with 4.22. Accessible toilet rooms shall be on an accessible route. 4.22.2 Doon. All doors to accessible toilet rooms shall comply with 4.13. Doors shall not swing into the clear floor space required for any fiXture. 4 . 22.3 Oesr F1oor Space. The accessible ilxtures lnd controls required i n 4.22.4, 4.22.5 , 4 .22.6, lnd .1.2:: . ., s hall be on Jn accessible An unobstruc ted t urning space complying with .1.2.3 ' hJII be prortded w i th t n :1n Jccessib l e The cle:u rloor spaces at fiXtures and controls, the accessible route, and the turning space may overlap. 4.22.4 Watu aosea. If toilet stalls are provided, then a reasonable number, but always at least one, shall comply with 4 . 17: its water closet shaJ.lcompiy with 4.16 . If water closets are not in stalls, them a reasonable number, but always at least one , of water closets shall comply with 4.16. Urinals. If urinals are provided, a reasonable number, but always Jt ! east one, s hail comply with 4 . 18. 4 . ::::.6 l....avatories Jnd If l avator ies and m i rrors Jre provtded , J r easonab l e number, b ut Jlways lt le:1st t )ne or" e:ch, wtth 4.19 . .13

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4.22.7 Controls and Dispensers. If Ctlfltrols. dis pensers, r eceptacles, or other eq uipment is proviJcd, at leilst one of ca<.:h s hall be on an a..:cc,s ihlc rout e anJ ; hall comply with 4.23 l.lathroom s, llathing Facilitie s . and Shower Rooms 4 .23. 1 Minimum Number. I f bath ro oms. bath facilities, or shower r ooms arc prov iJcd, a rcasnnahlc number, but always a t least nne, sh:.tll comply with 4 .23 and sha l l he on a n acc essible r outt.'. F o r ad: qlt : 1bk hathrnnms i n : 1rcessihle Jwt•llin!! unit s, Sl't' -1.3-l.:'. 4.23 . 2 Door.; . D•HHS to h;1thr oo u1S s hall comply with -t.l 3 . Doors sh;tllnot swinf! int•l the ilo•lr s pace required for :1ny 11xture. -L!3J Cleur Floor Space . The accessible fixtures and wntr ols rcq uireu i n -1. 2.\A,-1 .23. 5 , -1. 23.6. -1.23. 7 , 4 .23.K, anu -l.:J.'J sh;dl be o n an accessible route . An unobstructed turning spa..:e comp l y ing with 4 . 2 . 3 shall be: p r ovided within an access i ble h:1thwnrn . The clea r tloo r s pace s at fixtures and cont roh, the a..:ccssihl.:: route. and the turning s pace may overbp. 4 . 23.4 Water Clos ets. If : oi lct stall s : 1re provickd. the n a rcason: 1 hle number, hut alw:1ys : 1 t ont:, shall comply with 4.17: its water dCt s hall ..:o mply with -l. l ( l _ lfwatcr ..:Insets :1rt: no t in , t ;tlls. then a tc':t !llllllher . hut at ka'it •HIJhk numh.:r, hut :II w ays at kast une t)f ..::1ch . shall clltnpl\ with 4 . I q. 4.1 3. 7 Controb :Jnd DispCIISt'r.;, II c'•llltr•ll\, disr..:c..: ptacles, or utlic r equip ment is pr o vtclcd. at leas t one of c :1ch shall he on :111 ruut..: and shall cnmply with 4.27 . 4 .13.8 Bathing and Show er l f tubs nr showe r s are provideu. t hen :Jt least tll1•: acussihk t uh that complies with n r at !cast one :tcCt.'S >ibk s hower that complies with 4.21 shall be prov i u.:d. 4.23 . 9"' Medicine Cabinet s . If medicine c abinets are provided, at least one shall he lncat..:d wit h :1 u sabl e shelf no higher than -14 in ( 1120 111111) the floor space. The floo r spa..:e s hall t:ll !llply with 4.2.4. 4.24 Sinks 4 . 24.1 If accessible sinks arc pruvidnl. they shall comply wit h 4.2-l. Sinks in 'alli by a perStll\ using a wheelchai r shall be provided at Jc:,essihlc s t fa..:il i t ies. 4.25J Height. A ccessible sto rage sp:1ces shall be with i n at leJst one ,)r the reach r:lllges specified in -1.2.5 and 4.2.6 . Clothes rt1ds shall be a maximum of 5-l in ( 1:170 m ml frn m the iloo r (see Fig . 38). -1.25.-l l brdwarc for accessible storage f :1l'ilities sh:tlll o mply with -1. 27.-l. T ouch latches and t : >hapeJ pulls :trc a..:..:..-ptahlc. --1 . .!6 Grab !lar s, and Tub and S hower Seats 4 .26.1• Cener.tl. All handrails, grab bars, and tub anJ shower St.:JtS shall CClmply with -1.26. 4.26.::!• Size and Sp.1cing of GrJb B.1rs :md Hand r:lils . Thl' o r wiuth o f the gripping surfaces of a handr:til ur gnb b:1r sh:1!1 be l-1 / 4 in to l-1 / 2 in (3 2 mm t u n11n ). or the sh:1 pe provide an equivalent gripping If handrails or grab bars :tre mounted adj:t<.:t.'nt t0 J wall, the space between the ll':dl and th.:: handrai l or grab bar shall be 1-1/ 2 i n (.\R mm) (see Fig . :;• )(a) . (h). and (c)). Handrails may b e loc:Jted in :J re<.:ess if tht: re..:ess is a maxim um of 3-in (75-mm) deep :111d extends at l eJst 1 8 in (455 mm) Jbtwc tht: tup of the r:Jil (sec Fig. 30(d)). -t. 26.3 Structur:l! S trength . T he structural strength o f grab hars. tul1 shower fasteners, and moun tin g devi.:es sha l l nH'et the iol!owing specifica ions: (I) Bend stress in a grah har o r seat i nduced by the bendi ng momet: l ['r,ll11 tht: :1pplicat ion I i !I i l , i l ! I ' I I I :I

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD All7.H980 r Fit-38 Ston11 Sheives and Oosea of 250 lbf ( 1112 N) shall be less than the allowable stress for the material of the grab bar or seat. (2) Shear stress indw:ed in a grab bar or seat by the application of 250 lbf ( 1112 N) shall be less than the allowable shear stress for the material of the grab bar or seat. lf the connection between the grab bar or seat and iu mounting bracket or other mppon is con sidered to be fully restrained, then direct and torsional shear stresses stW1 be totaled for the combined shear stress, which shall not exceed the allowable shear stress . (3) Shear force indw:ed in a fastener or mounting device from the application of 2.50 lbf ( 1112 N) shall be less than the allowable latera! load of either the fastener or mounting device or the supporting struc ture, whichever is the smaller allowable load. ( 4) Tensile force induced in a fastener by a direct tension force of 2.50 lbf ( 1112 N) pius the muimum moment from the appiication of 2.50 lbf ( 1112 N) shall be less than the allowable withdrawal load between the fastener and the supporting structure. ( 5) Grab bars shall not rotate within their rittings. 4 .16.4 Eliminating Hazards. A handrail or grab bar and any wall or other surface to i t shall be free of any shlirp or lbrasive elements . Edges sh:1l1 have l minimum radius of 1 / 8 in (3.:::! mm). L27 Contro4s and Oper.uing . \fech:1nisms Gc!ner.li. Cuntrl)is :wd u per:Hing med1Jn i sms i;1 J c cess1ble s paces. 1..:c.;ss1ble . . ;r JS part of ag:emble elements (for example, light switche!, dispenser controls) shall comply with 4.27. 4 . 27.2 aeu Clear floor space comply ing with 4.2.4 that allows a forward or a parallel ap preach by a penon using a wheelchair shall be pro vided at controls, dispensen, receptacles, and other operable equipment. 4.27.3 Hept. The highest operable part of all con trois, dispensen. receptacles , and other opeyable equip ment shall be placed within at least one of the reac:h ranges specified in 4.2.5 and 4.2.6. Except where the use of special equipment dictates otherwise , electrical and communications 3}'Stem receptacles on walls shall be mounted no less than 1 S in (380 mm) above the floor. 4.27.4 Opendon. Controls and operating mechanismuhall be operable with one hand and sh.all not require tf3ht grasping, pinching, or twisting. of the wrist. The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 5 lbf (22.:! N). 4.28 Alanna 4 . 28.1 Genera!. !f emergency warning systems are provided. they shall include both audible alarms com plying with 4 . 23 . 2 and visual al:lrms complying with 4 .:8. 3 . !n tJcilit ies with sleeping Jccommodat i ons. the 5 leeping :Iccommodations s hall have Jn auxiliary visual 1 i:1rm ...:omplymg w1th ..J..23 ..+. -+.2S . .::'" \udible . \.!arms . I f ?r o vtded . :1udib!e emer-.,!Jrms ,!nil ?md :.Jc: , . • ill!H.i r the

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{a) rh, E 1111 COl Ill ,...., ( c ) ( d ) Fig. 39 Siu nnd Sp acin g of and G r ab l brs : ! I : . . ; : t' I • ! . ; " I! : . : I ' I : ' ,. ! ' i .

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3/4.2 1/4. 3/4 3/4-2 , .. " (a) Plan of Tactile Warning Surface NOTE: Grooves may oniy be tUed indoors. (b) Sections of Tactile Surfaces Fit-40 Strips and Grooves Uled as Tactile WamiDp on Waikint Surfaces prevailing equivalent sound level in the room or space by at leut 1 S decibels or exceeds any maximum sound level with a duration of 30 seconds by S decibeis.. whichever il1ouder. Sound lewis for aLarm signals shall not exceed 120 decibels. 4.28.3• Visui A1umL If provided, electrically powered internally illuminated emergency exit signs shall flash as a v1sual aiarm in conjunction with audible emergency alarms. The flashing frequency of v1sual alarm device3 !hall be l ess than 5 Hz. I f such alarms use electricity from the building 3S a power source , then they shall be inst:illed on the same system JS the au di b l e em ergency :llarms. 4 .2SA• Auxiliary Alarms . A cces sible sleep i ng lC > h all h ave a visua l .1larm .:o nn e .;ted t o . the building emergency alann or shall h ave a standard 11 0-volt electric:ai recepucle into which such an alarm be connected. Instructions for use of the au.xiliary alann or connection shall be provided. 4.29 Tactile Wuninp 4.29 .l Gena. If t actile warningS are r equired, they s hall comply with 4.2 9 . . . , 4 .29.2• Tactile Waminp on Surfaces. T ac t ile warning textures on walking surfaces sh all c onsist o f exposed aggr egate concre t e , rubber, o r plasti c c ushioned surfaces. r aised strips , o r g rooves . Tex tures shJtl c ontrJs t with t hJ t o f t he s urroun ding surr ace . stnps o r grooves ;hJJI compiy •.vi t h F i g. J.Q . ;1uy ':-e 'J;cJ inJu
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Appendix .-\ ppcndi\ i< .1 p.trl ., f ,\rnnil-.111 NJii v nal Sl : tndard Sp, dtiCJiions for M a king Building' and .-\co ' " . tnd l' ,,,hk "y 1'1"''" .til\ ll.tndt, :q'P''J 1 \ .. p k . .-\ NS I t\ I I 7 . 1-19 8(1, but i s included for inform a rifln purp\'"1.!" .J Addition:ll ltlform:ltion 11,,\ ,\ppt'tidlx , .,ltll :1ins a , lditi < nul int'll1111:tlilll1 tl1.1t s ltuuld ltt:lp tiJ,• 1 < 1 tit, lll111111111111 ,1r s tan dar,l l1'i t'tl[ whi ch additll>ti:illll.llc'rial .IJll'l ':1r, in tlt1' \pj' c ' lldix haw ht'<.:tl lllllit::lll'd :,v .111 : 1 ' l '''' 'k. .-\llowance' and Krad1 lbng''' A4. 2 . 1 1\' ht'llchair l'a":J!!l ' Width I I l f\,i /lltr, llt• ' lltl t, ,, 11'/i,,/, ltiltn. \1,"1 w iJ,ckh:lir lhl'r' 11,.,d : 1 \ i i 1 1 1 I .'r.IJ 111111i ,!,.11 w idt h fm d!l'. tiJ, :1dd1 tllltilll . . Ill inc h 1 Ji kL'W : I\' llllL'IIJ•c:r '""'I' ,IIIIIL' l L 'III. T!im. :t milllllllllll ck:lf W i dtiJ ,>I I ' I' 111!11) 11111 J'fllV1d.: aJCI\'CI'L' f . \l'ill'll .Ill or : 1 rt:str i cl l llll i11 a '' Ill• If<' 111.111 ( h 1 0 -flllll) ! Jt: ! ! .llh. ( 'lut<.:h IIJ'S,Il(ll'll J ,,\\'11 at J w ide arc :J hazar d 111 11:1rrn w l':t,s:ll!.'ll'.ll'' wh ere the\ not h e st:l'll hv p,d ,stli:il l ' . Th u s . t h e .ih-ill (I) 15-mm) wtdth prllvid c s : : S:1tcty : dillll':llk'C hnth lllr the dio;:1hlnl pn>PII : !11d f ,,r
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APPENDIX Fis. A2 Space Needed for Smooth UTum in a Wheelchair ca. L 2J: I -. .. :-IOTE : Footrests e:ot te n d further f o r very large p eople. Fig . . -\3 Dimensions o f .-\Julr-Sized Wheeichairs ) I

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APPENDI X A 4 . 3 t\ ccessihl e te A4J. I Ceneral I I) T ral' e l fJisronccs . \1a n y Jll'•lJ•k c :111 move at onl y ver y ,J.,w r.,, m:JIIY. 1 r:J wlin!! 200ft (A I m) coul d t:1ke ah1111t Tli1s Sllllle s a r ate nf ahnut I . 5 (-1SS 1111 k \ 'l'l g roun d . It also assUJllt:S tiJ:JI tile 1 r:lv, k r WPtdd lll''''l' cont i nu ou s l y . l lmvcve r , t>n trips o\' l'r 100 It 1301111. disahfe J Jll'llpfl• :Jre :IJ11 to rCSl frcqt iL'ntl y . wiJi, f l S Ub \l: llll ialfy th , i r ll ljl f{,,IIJI!' Jl<'rt<>w a nd ing can g r c:Jtly incrc:1sr a Jisahkd p..:1;"n's tt l the elements. (2) Sirn. Level, i n dire.:t ruJJtes m th us<' with ru11 niii!L s l o pe s lower th a n I .:a11 sollll'limes prt>vi dc 111urc convenience tha n dir..:c t wilh 111axinllllll allowahk llr with r a 1nps. : \ -LUO Egr ess. In IJuildin!;S wiJer<' handi.::t ppctl p eo ple ar < ' r t:gularly < ' lllpi •>VL' d .If• ' roitlrnts , an Clllergcnt:y Jllallag<'llll'll t pf:111 f111 tlJt 'll t'\;1(1 1 :1 lion also plays an C\Scn!J: d r ole in f11e :\-1.4 l' rot r u din!! Ohj n : t ' : \-1.4 . 1 c;, . , ll' r:JI. d•')!' :1r, !r: lln t.l 111 n .. •>J!n l!e and avoid li.JI :Jrds . IJ,.,, . e ,n. 111"'' P<'llf'k Willi " ' ' ,re i lllp.!iflllCJJt S t•f Vi<;itln u-;, till.' fll< hillg 11r ju,r ahow the: ground :Jt :1 I" IIIII • H JI\Jlk <>lie :.h11uldL'r an d tht: h:111Llk <>r p i p '" : 1 p•ll!ll the 111l1l'r \IHHiltlcr. 111, !1111,!1 lt 'chniqll<' I\ u s..:d primar ilv art." lllid, til<' t..:chniquc u,,., J p rintJril\ in ,:,rr:11n h:nii <'.J. (IIIII r oii ed . and i'a111dia r cnvnoi!Jtll'lll' . C': JII<' t l ' •'r . . I I<' ol . tcn I rained In the'''' ' " iccllll!ljl lt::>. l' o t ent i ally uht< 't:ts :tiL' """ 1t' tlin fall witl1111 till ' J ctet:ti<• n 11!' c:1tl ,., 1 ,,.,. l. Visu: dly i11tp:11r..:d people w:dh.JII!:!, :tn ,,hj<'Ct can J.::r.::.:r an ll\ 't:i11 :1ng ir its l11w.:,t ,urr;,,..: i ' Ill• highe r 2 7 111 lll!ll) . W!J,Jr ll':dh-111).! pr11jL'CI int! "hJn:t s. th ey C:t!IJWt t k ,,r .. v,r!l:lll!:!' S i n c e propL'I c::Jn<.: :111J ;!Uilk d"!:! t,, iiiJi t pl<'' kl' < ' P P<'"J'It: f rom r!tt: l'.ig.: 111 J p:1tl1 11r ln>lll w : d!, , : 1 \ li::h t nverhang o l 111• lllf,• \',fill h :J\'L' dtf! J t'll l!\ JJI,!IJII.III'Iil;.: i•.Ji.lll-c' , !il
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r -' Slip resistance is based on the frictional force necessary to keep a shoe heel or crutch tip from slipping on a walking surface under the conditions of use likely to be found on the surface. Although it is known that the static coefficient of friction is the basis of sUp resistance, there is not as yet a generally accepted method to evaluate the slip resistance of walking sur faces. Cross slopes on walks and ground or floor surfaces can cause considerable difficulty in propelling a wheel chair in a straight line. A4.5 .J Carpet. Much more needs to be done in developing both quantitative and qualitative criteria for carpeting. However, certain functional character istics are well established. When both carpet and pad ding are used, it is desirable to have minimum move ment (preferably none) between the floor and the pad and the pad and the carpet, which would allow the carpet to hump or warp. In heavily trafficked areas a thick, soft (plush) pad or cushion, particularly in combination with long carpet pile, makes it difficult for individuals in wheelchairs and those with other ambulatory disabilities tb get about. nus shoullii not preclude their use in specific areas where traffic is light. Firm carpeting can be achieved through proper selection and combination of pad and carpet, some times with the elimination of the pad or cushion, and with proper installation. A4.6 Parkint and Passenger Loadint Zones A4 .6.J Parkint Spaces. High-top vans, which dis abled people or transportation services often use, require higher clearances in parking garages than auto mobiles. A4.6.4 Signap. Signs designating parking places for disabled people can be seen from a drivers seat if the signs are mounted high enough above the ground and located at the front of a parking space. A4.8 Ramps A4.8.1 Genera!. Ramps are essential for wheel chair users if elevators or lifts are not available to con nect different levels. However, some people who use walking aids have difficulty with ramps and prefer stairs. A4.8.2 Slope and Rise. The ability to manage an incline is related to both its slope and its length. Wheel chair users with disabilities affecting arms or with low stamina have serious difficulty using i nclines . Jmbulatory people and most people who use wheel chairs can manage a slope of 1 : 16. people cannot manage a slope of 1 : 12 for 30 it (9 m 1. people who have Jiffi culty negotiating very t ong ramps at ;eiJt1vely 'h:1ilow slopes can manage v ery short ramps .lt ;ceeoer ':upes. APPENDIX A4.8.5 H.and.rails. The requirements for stair and ramp handrails in this standard are for adults. When children are principal users in a building or facility, a second set of handrails at an appropriate hei3h,t can as sist them and aid in preventing accidents. A4.1 0 Eievaton A4.10.6 Door Protective and Reo9enin1 Dmce. The required door reopening device wouid hold the door open for 20 seconds if the doorway remains un obstructed. After 20 seconds, the door may begin tG close. However, if designed in accordance with ANSI Al7.1-t978, the door closing movement couid still be stopped if a person or object exerts sufficient force at any point on the door edge. A4.10 . 7 Door and Signal Tuning for Hall Cails. This paragraph allows variation in the location of call buttons, advance time for warning signals. and the door holding period used to meet the time requirement. A4.10.12 Car Controls. Industry-wide standardiza tion of elevator control panel design would make ail elevators significantly more convenient for use by pea pie with severe visual impairments. In many cases, i t will be possible to locate the high est control on elevator panels within 48 in ( 1210 mm) from the floor. A4.10.13 C.U Position Indicators. A special button may be provided that wouid activate the audible signal within the given elevator only for the desired trip, rather than maintaining the audible signal in constant operation. A4.10.14 EmerJency Communications. A device that requires no handset is easier to use by people who have difficulty reaching. A4.11 P!atform Lifts. Platform lifts include porch lifts and other devices used for vertical transportation of people in wheelchairs. At the present time, generally recognized safety standards for such lifts have not been developed. Care should be taken in selecting and installing lifts to ensure that they are free from hazards to users or to other i ndividuals who may be in the vicinity where they are being operated. A4.13 Doors A4. 13.8 Thresholds at Doorways. and surface height changes in doorways are particularly inconvenient for wheelchair. users who also have low stamina or restrictions in arm movement, because com plex maneuvering i s required to g et over the l evel change while operating the door. ..\4.13.9 Door Hardware. Some disabled p ersons must push a door wHh t heir .:hair o r .. vaiker t o J pen 1 t .. \ppli.:d kick plates .1n Joors .v1th -:!osers -:an

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APPENDIX reduce required hy :thuse fro m whee lch airs canes. To he cffc<:tivc, tl1cv should cover the d, , o r width, les s i n (51 rnm), up to a h\!ig ht of 16 in (-105 rnrn) from its bottom ed!,:e he centered a..:ross the top . A4 .13.1 0 Door Closers. ( 'h>scrs with delaye d ac tion fc:ttures give a person more time to m:tneuvcr through do,lrways. The y particularly useful o n fre quently used interio r doors such as to toilet room s. A4 .13 .II Door Opening Foree. A It hough most pen pic with disahilitit.:s c3n exert least 5 N), hoth pushing :1nd pulling fro m a st:l!in n ary position, a few people with severe disJhilities cannot exert even 3 lbf (13 . 3 N). AI though so me pt.:t)ple c:mnot manage the allowable forces in this standard and many othe r s have difficulty, door close r s must have certai n mini mum closing force s t o ..:los e dtHHs satisfactorily. hHccs for pushin g o r pulling do ors npc n ar.: mea s ured with a push-pull scale under the f,,Iluwing r.:onditi•'ns: (I) flingcd Doors : Force applied pt.:rpendi..:ul:ir to the door at the door opener or 30 in ( 7(,() rnm l t'rurn the hinged side , whidtevn i s fartil.: r from the hince. (2) Sliding o r Folding /)o n n : h>rcl! :1pplitd p.tr:illt-1 to the do o r at th e "''"r pull !lr latch . (3) . -fpplicarinn of F o rc e: Apply (,Hl'C gradu.Jilv s that the applied force docs not cxcrcd tile of the door. In bu ildings , air-press ure dillerenti:Jis may requ ire a tnc ldification of this spccirlcatllllt in ,, r ,fl'r tu meet the functio n : d intent. A4 .13 .I 2 Door.; and Door.i. Slidi n g autonuric dtHliS d11 11111 IIL't'd ):!Uard r:1ils and arc m ore for whedch: . tir :11td vis ually impaired people to usc. II' \lllwly autornati..: doors can he reactuatcd before their cy cle is completed, they will he more l:llllVt'nicnt ill busy doorways. r\4 .16 WnterOosets A4. 16.3 Height. l'r eierenccs !"or toilet s c3t vary considerably arJlLlng disabled pt:opk. scar may be :Ill advJntage to Sll flll! amhui:Jro r y ahled people hut a r,)f wheckhair users and others. Toilet sears 1 S i n hi!!h s eem to bc1tinn on the left side L1f the tank (facing the tank). Tanks C:lll be obtaincdfY special order with wntrols mnunted on the right side. If administrative autl10rities require flush c o ntrols for flush valves to be locJted in a pos ition that contlicts with the location nf the rea r grab bar, then thJt bar may be split or shifted toward the wide side of the toilet area. i\4.17 ToiletStalls :\4 . 1 7.5 Door.; . To make it easier for wheelchair users to ..:lose toilet stall doors, doors can b e provided wirh closers, spring hinges, o r a pull bar mounted on the i nside s urface of the door nea r the hinge side. Lwatories :1nd Mirrors .6 \lirrors. If mirrors are t o he used by both pcopk and wheelchair u sers, then they must ht.: at least 7-t-in (I RXf1-mm) high at their topmost edge . A single t'ullleng t h m i rror ..:an all pt'llp le, children. .-\4.21 Shower Stalls A-t.21.! Grnenl. Shower that are 36-in by (
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-) 18 I ....... -.eo 455 tr:ansfer swinp RemOYes :anni'C.'!t, footi'C.'!t our of the w:ay, .sets Moves wbeelch:lir out of the way, ch:lnges position (some people fold chair or pivot it 90" to the toilet). br:aites. 1 2 (a) Diagonal Approach 3 APPENDIX 4 Positions on toilet. releases br:alce. Takes tr:ansfcr pmitiolt, remo!11 UJn1'est, sets br:alca. Tr:anafen. Positions on toilet. (b) Side Approach Fig. AS Wheeichair Tr:msien . , .

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APJ' LNIJ I X leverage and stability i n m a i ntaining h:iiJIH.:e t>r f,>r lifti ng. The m :1ximu m g r ab har cleara nce pf 1-1/ 2 in ')! mm) required in t his s tan ltt:h dcviCL'' musr hr l tll:tll'd : 1nd ••ri,t!l,d so rhar thcv wil l spread ' il!n:ds . nul rl'th-.:ri .ur a spac:e nr r:tise rhc I)Yer:tll lcv,•i ,ltarplv. rite :dl\llllllt :111d type of ii!!ltl lll'CCSSar v I U w:d.;,• a p<.'rsnn f r om a '"'" H I in a I"•H"ll will l':t rv d.:pt:nd ing o n a llllll!her nt l:tcl"'' t n, l11di11!.! lilt:'"'-' : nul \:n n ti[!ttr :ll!PIIllf rite r'"''" d i ,l:utct' h,rw, •c-t: ;:nurc, an d lite P<.'f' •'ll. wlictht'r itdtlliii\S . (',rf.tl!"l .:u r rl'n 1ly :rva il.d•k : t r.: 'l''c:i , i,:dh a l;mlls for tk:il l '•:t•pk. l!t' :rl !'''"l'k 111.!1 " " ' 1\et:d .JCCC\SihiJil\' fC;!IIII L ' ' t dd :d:u he with 1'1,11:1 1 .d:nnh tlr connect i nns . .-\-1.29 Taetilt> A-L29 . 2 Tactile on Walking Surf:tc ,., _ W a rninl!s lllt>r<" 1lun ""'" p:h"L' ( 24 11: ''' -l:-i tn (r>ill lllllltn I 22fl '"'"'' i n .. r .t lt:tt:lr,l ;ill"-." : 1 h l i tld pCrSun It> f 'c'rLL'iVl' !he ' 11211:11. wiil1 01\l' List S tt'Jl . :IIIli ''"P iw(,>f<' t 'lic•'llllfL t ing tltc lt: tt.u d. 1\"pk '"'' """',;'"'''I\ I l ih ll:dh a tc:xtu r ed ' ttrl:k , willt rllc'il ,:!Ill' hcr"t>!L. rlt, l tk lt"..:l i1 w11h t heir kt• t . . \ t 2'lJ );" rile-'" ll:tnrdoll\ .-\rc:t, . r_,,_.llk f,: 1, ,11,1 , ,._,.1 '""!1 _ ,,, . '"'r " l ' ,-' ' certain that the signals will h e touched , A-t .29 .5 Tac tile Warnings at Hazardous Vehicular Areas . Curh s on sid e walks serve J S c u s tomary ta ct i le rues f or I h e edge of a s t r eet. T h e abrupt c hange in level i s c:asi ly p.:rt.:c i veJ by can e o r foot. A 4 .29 . 6 T:-tctile Warning s at Reflecting Pools. Other hazards be s ide s r etlec ting pc1nls may require similar pr o tection. r\4.29 . 7 Stand : 1rdization. T oo many tactile warn i ngs or lack t > f stantla rdiz:ttitln weake n s their useful ne ss. Tac:t ile s ignals ca11 also he v i sual s ignal s t o guide since Ul>).!S t:Jil he t rained to rcspo,pd to a large ,,f v i sual cu e s. r\4 .JO Sign age A-L30.1 Genernl. In huiiJ ing co mplexes where tln d ing lt>t.:atinns indepemkntly on a routine basis may he : t neces sity ! for cx.11nple, college campu ses) , tactile llr prcreconkd instruc t ions can he ver y helpful to visuallv impai red pt'<>ple. Sever:Ji maps and :wdito ry ilhlrttctitlllS h:tVt' !we n dcveloped tested fo r The r y p e of map < H i11structio ns u scd mu:;r he hast'd f the viewing distance, clt:tr:tctcr ratiu L>f titf t he dt:tuctl'r, the contrast uf .:olo r betwee n c"it:tr:IL"IL'r :1lln the intcnJeJ viewing di d: tli<.:L'. ,-\ scv , rcl v nearSt;!lllt' d p e rso n m:ry h ave to be l t lt!L"It , lc>scr lu.d!\ . lch i , v,d ritrDugl! th e us.: nt' lil!ltt ••r ,1.111L"h ' '"a dark \4 . 30.-t R:ti'l'd o r lndt:tHeJ Character.; or S y mhok "'1!"' w irh ,j,-,,rip lll.l ' \ll,lll'r ials Jh\llll ruhlic !ttt!lt!.n!!' !llc>nuliiLtll\. """ , , hj,c:ts nf cultural i nter c ',r,:lll ht r :ll-;, , ! '" tll, .,,,.d J.:IIL'TS. ll<>wev.:r : :1 sit:hted

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) : ) guide or audio-tape device is often a more effective way to present such information. Raised dlaracters are easier to feel at small sizes and are not suscept ible to maintmance problems as are indented char acters, which can fill with dirt, cleaning compoUnds, and the like. Braille characters can be used in addition to stan dud alphabet characters and numbers. P1.acing braille characters to the left of standard characters makes them more convenient to read. Standard dot sizing and spacing as used in braille publications are accept able. Raised borders around raised characters can make them confusing to re3d uniess the border is set far away from the characters. A4.31 Telephones A4.31.3 Mountiq Height. In localities where the dial-tonefJJ'st system is in operation, calls can be. placed at a coin telephone through the operator with out insening coins. The operator button is located at a height of 46 in ( 1170 mm) if the coin slot of the tele phone is at 54 in (1370 mm). A gmer:aily available public telephone with slot mounted lower on the equipment would allow universal installation of telephones at a height of 48 in ( 1220 mm) or less to ail operable parts. A4.31.S Equipment for Hearint lmpaired People. Other aids for people with hearing impairmmts are telephones, teleprinter, and other telephonic devices that can be used to transmit printed messages through telephone lines to a teletype printer or television monitor. A4.32 Tables, and Woric Surfaces A4.32.4 Height of Woric Surfaces. Different types of work require different work surface heights for com fen and optimal performance. light detailed work such as writing requires a work surface close to elbow height for a standing person. Heavy manual work such as rolling dough requires a work surface height about 10 in (2SS mm) below elbow height for a standing person. The principle of a high work surface for light detailed work and a low work surface for heavv manual work also applies for seated persons: however, .the limiting condition for seated manual work is clearance under the work surface. Table AI shows convenient work surface heights for seated persons. The gre3t variety of heights for comfort and optimal performance indicates a need for alterna tives or a compromise in height if both people who stand and people who sit will be using the same counter area. A4.33 Asssembly Are:u .\4.33.:! Size oi Wheelchair Locations. Sp:11:es brge